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Full text of "Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College"



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 



OF THE 



Museum of Comparative Zoology 



BULLETIN 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 



HARVARD COLLEGE, IN CAMBRIDGE. 



VOL. II. 
Nos. 1-5. 



CAMBRIDGE, MAS?., U. S. A. 
1870-1871. 

Reprinted with the permission of the original publisher 

KRAUS REPRINT CORPORATION 

New York 

1967 



Printed in U.S.A. 



CONTENTS. 



Pace 
No. 1. — On the Eared Seals (Otariadae), with detailed Descriptions of the 
North Pacific Species. By J. A. Allen. Together with an Account of 
the Habits of the Northern Fur Seal (Callorhinus ursinus). By Charles 
Bryant. (3 Plates) I 

I. Introduction ........... 1 

1. Re'sume of recent Contributions to the Natural History of the 

Otariadae .4 

2. On the Affinities, distinctive Characters, and Synonymy of the 

Family Otariadffi, with Remarks on sexual, age, and individual 

Variation, and a Conspectus of the Genera and Species, etc. 19 

Habits 36 

On the Genera and Species ....... 37 

Geographical Distribution ...... 42 

3. On the North Pacific Species of Otariadse .... 45 

II. On the Habits of the Northern Fur Seal (Callorhinus ursinus Gray), 
with a Description of the Pribyloff Group of Islands. By Captain 
Charles Bryant. "With Notes by J. A. Allen ... 89 

No. 2. — Preliminary Report on the Crustacea, dredged in the Gulf Stream 
in the Straits of Florida. By L. F. de Pourtai.es, Assist. U. S. Coast 
Survey. Part I. Brachyura, prepared by Dr. William Stimpson . 109 

No. 3. — On the Mammals and Winter Birds of Fast Florida, with an Ex- 
amination of certain assumed specific Characters in Birds, and a Sketch of 
the Bird Faunce of Eastern North America. By J. A. Allen. (5 Plates) 161 
Introduction . . . . , 161 

I. The topographical, climatic, and faunal Characteristics of East Florida 163 

II. List of the Mammals of East Florida, with Annotations . . . 16S 

III. On Individual and Geographical Variation among Birds, considered 
in Respect to its bearing upon the Value of certain assumed specific 
Characters 186 



IV CONTENTS. 

1. [ndividnal Variation ........ 187 

Individual Variation in general Size and in the relative Size 

of different Parts 197 

Variations in the Size and Form of the Bill, Wing, etc. re- 
sulting from Age 226 

General Remarks on Individual Variation . . . 228 

Climatic Variation 229 

Species, Varieties, and Geographical Races . . . 243 

IV. List of the Winter Birds of East Florida, with Annotations . . 250 

The Origin of the Domestic Turkey ...... 343 

V. On the Geographical Distribution of the Birds of Eastern North 
America, with special Reference to the Numbcrand Circumscription 
of the Ornithological Faunae . ....... 375 

1. Introductory Remarks ........ 375 

2. The Natural Provinces of the North American Temperate 

Ecu ion . 384 

3. The Ornithological Faunre of the Eastern Province of the 

North American Temperate Region ..... 3S7 

The Faunas of the Eastern province considered in Reference 

to the Distribution of Mammals and Reptiles . . . 404 

4. The Ornithological Districts of the North American Temperate 

Region 406 

5. On the Ornithological Range of the Species . . . 407 

General Remarks on the Distribution and Migration of the 
Birds of the Eastern Province ...... 418 

Appendix to Part V. List of Authorities . . . 426 

No. 4. — Directions for Dredging. Drawn up by L. F. de Pourtales, 
Assist. E T . S. Coast Survey ........ 451 

No 5. — Appendix to the Preliminary Report (Bulletin No. 9, Vol. I) on 
the Echini collected by L. F. de Pourtales. By Alexander Agassiz 455 



No. 1. — On the Eared Seals (Otariad.e), with detailed Descrip- 
tions of the North Pacific Species, by J. A. Allen. Together 
with an Account of the Habits of the Northern Fur Seal (Cal- 
lorhinus ursinus), by Charles Bryant. 

I. 

Introduction. 

The specimens on which the present essay is mainly based were 
collected by Captain Charles Bryant, at St. Paul's Island, one of the 
Pribyloff Group, situated near the coast of Alaska, and by him kindly 
presented to the Museum of Comparative Zoology. They consist of two 
perfect skins and two complete ligamentary skeletons of the Eumetopias 
Stelleri Peters, and six perfect skins, four complete ligamentary ski de- 
tons and two partial skeletons of Callorhinus ursinus Gray. The skins 
were sent preserved in salt, and arrived in excellent condition. The 
specimens of Callorhinus ursinus represent both sexes of this species 
and the young, both in skins and skeletons ; while the notes kindly fur- 
nished by Captain Bryant give a minute account of its habits. A 
summer's residence at the Pribyloff Islands, as government supervisor 
of the seal fisheries, has given Captain Bryant an opportunity of be- 
coming thoroughly familiar with the habits of these interesting animals, 
and the description lie has given of them shows that he made a good 
use of his opportunites. His notes, given in full, form part second of 
the present paper. In addition to the specimens collected by Captain 
Bryant, I am indebted to the Smithsonian Institution and the Chicago 
Academy of Sciences for the opportunity of examining skulls of Zalo- 
phus Gillespii and Otaria jubata. I have also in this connection to 
make acknowledgments to Dr. Theodore Gill of Washington for various 
suggestions and other acts of kindness. 

The only previous account of tiie Northern fur seal which lias any 
great importance is that given by Steller, nearly a century and a quar- 
ter ago, and the observations of Krasheninikoff, published a few years 
later in his History of Kamtcliatka. Krasheninikoff's account, how- 
ever, was doubtless wholly or mainly derived from Steller's note-. The 
remarkable accuracy of Steller's account, considering the time when it 

VOL. II. 1 



Z BULLETIN OF THE 

was written, is fully confirmed by Captain Bryant, who seems to have 
been the first naturalist who lias bad an opportunity of verifying Steller's 
observations. Tbe history of this species is now far more fully known 
than that of any of its congeners, and better in fact than the majority 
of our hest known mammals. A remarkable similarity of habits, how- 
ever, so far as known, seems to pervade the whole group of eared 
seals. — a similarity which in many respects extends also to the wal- 
rus and tbe sea elephant (Mixcrorhinus elephantinus). As matter of 
collateral interest, for comparison with the account given by Captain 
Bryant of the species so fully described by him, the principal notices of 
the habits of the other species of the family have been cited as foot- 
notes to Captain Bryant's article, and occasional abstracts are given 
of those most pertinent to the subject. 

Through the important labors of Messrs. Gray, Gill, and Peters 
our knowledge of the Otariadce has recently been greatly increased ; 
yet not a single species of the family has been hitherto very satisfac- 
torily known. Regarding the able essays of these gentlemen published 
in 1866 as representing the state of our knowledge of these animals 
five years since, their somewhat discrepant opinions respecting the 
number of known species, their distinctive characters, and their mutual 
affinities sufficiently indicate how imperfectly they were then known. 
A comparatively large number of specimens of the Olaria jubata has 
since been received at different scientific museums, which, with the 
facts obtained from persons who have recently been able to observe 
this species in its natural haunts, have served to render it, up to 
the present writing, the best known of any of the family. The 
number of specimens formerly possessed by naturalists having been 
very small, and the sex, age, and habitat of the individuals they repre- 
sented being generally but vaguely known, the unusually great differ- 
ences resulting from individual variation, as well as from sex and age, 
which recent developments prove to exist in these animals, remained 
for a long time unsuspected, and are even now, it would seem, not fully 
appreciated by the few naturalists who alone have given them special 
attention. Hence there has arisen in many cases an almost unparalleled 
complication of synonomy and an unusually large number of nominal 
species.* 

* The synonomy of Olaria jubata, for example, embraces no less than fifteen distinct 
speeiii • hi: 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 3 

The collection of skins and skeletons above mentioned of two 
of the North Pacific species which has recently been received at the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology throws much light not only upon 
these species but also upon several of the others. The investigation 
of this material has led the writer to an examination of the whole 
group, the results of which are herewith presented. 

Dr. J. E. Gray and others have recently made known the fact that 
great differences in the form of the skull in Otaria jitbata result from 
differences in age. Also the existence of remarkably great sexual 
difference in size has been long established ; whilst Professor Peters, 
of Berlin, has recently pointed out extraordinary variations in the den- 
tition of Zalophus Gillespil. The specimens of Callorhinus ursinm 
and Eumctopias SteUeri in the Museum of Comparative Zoology show 
that greater and more radical differences even in the osteological char- 
acters than those previously known are to be expected in all the species. 
The two adult male skulls of the Eumctopias SteUeri, for instance, dif- 
fer from each other so much in form that, if their habitat was not pre- 
cisely known and the evidence of their co-specific relationship unques- 
tionable, one might well be excused for regarding them as belonging to 
distinct species ; and the same is true of the two adult male skulls of Cal- 
lorhinus ursinus. These specimens also show that some of the characters 
that have been relied on most frequently as affording generic distinc- 
tion?, — as the form of the palatal surface of the intermaxillaries and of 
the hinder edge of the palatal bones, — vary so much, not only with age, 
but in specimens of the same age, that no given form of these parts 
can be regarded as affording even reliable specific characters. The great 
degree of asymmetry, especially in the skull, seen in these animals is 
sufficient to indicate clearly that an unusually great tendency to indi- 
vidual variation in these animals is to be naturally expected. Professor 
Peters has already referred to the presence of a supernumerary molar in 
one side of the upper jaw in two skulls of cared seals in the Leyden 
Museum, and another instance of the same abnormality is exhibited by 
one of the skulls of CaUorhinus ursinus previously referred to. Taken 
in connection with this tendency to variation, the interesting fact that 
the number of synonymes pertaining to the several species is in almost 
exact ratio to the number of specimens that naturalists have had for 
examination is readily explained. The incidental revision of the genera 
and species embraced in the present paper is based on these recent 
developments. 



4 BULLETIN OF THE 

The greatest number of species recognized by any writer during the 
last live years is fifteen ; but they have now been reduced, by general 
consent, to ten or eleven. These have been placed by Dr. Gray, in his 
later papers, in ten genera. In the present enumeration six species * 
are regarded as fully established, and two or three other species f are 
given as doubtful. All are referred to five genera. \ 

One of the most singular facts connected with the history of these 
animals is that they should have so long remained among the species 
least known to naturalists, when their commercial importance is such 
that their capture has given employment to thousauds of men and mil- 
lions of capital for more than a century. 

For many years, as is well known, hundreds of thousands of the 
skins of the Falkland Island fur seal, and hundreds of tons of the oil 
of other species, annually reached England ; yet specimens of either 
the fur seals, or of any of the other species that naturalists were able 
to obtain, were exceedingly few and imperfect. Add to this the fact 
that, in many cases, the localities whence these fragmentary and iso- 
lated specimens were received were frequently wholly unknown or but 
vaguely surmised, and we can well understand how it happened that 
only till within the last decade have naturalists been able to decide with 
certainty as to which of the species on their catalogues were to be refer- 
red the various fur seals of commerce. 

I. Resume of Recent Contribute 'ons to the Natural History of the 

Otariad^e. 

A brief statement of the present state of our knowledge of the Ota- 
riadce seems to be demanded in the present connection, inasmuch as 
since the publication of the last general synopsis of the subject our 
knowledge of the group has greatly increased, without the new facts 
having been given in a single summary. As a resume of the contri- 
butions to the literature concerning this group of animals which have 
appeared during the last two decades would necessarily give such a 
statement, and also at the same time a connected history of the recent 
changes in their nomenclature and classification, a synopsis of the 

* Eumeiopias Stelleri, Zahphus GiUespii, Z. cinereus (= lobaluo, Auct.), Otctria jubata, 
CM » himis ursii}us, Anii-< ephalus falklandicus. 
t Phvcarctos Hookeri, Arctocephalm au&tralis, A, antarcticus. 
I Eumetopias, Zahphus, Otaria, Cnllorhinvs, Arctocejihalus. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 5 

principal recent papers relating to the subject is accordingly here in- 
troduced. For references to earlier papers the reader is referred to 
the works cited in Dr. J. E. Gray's British Museum Catalogues of the 
Seals and Professor W. Peters's elaborate essay on these animals pub- 
lished in the Monatsberichte of the Berlin Academy for 18GG. 

The present notice of the literature of the Otariadce begins with 
Dr. Gray's " Catalogue of the Seals in the British Museum," pub- 
lished in '1850, in which valuable work two genera (Arctocephalus and 
Otaria) and eight species* are recognized. The next paper requiring 
mention is that of Dr. McBain.f describing, in 1858, a new species 
{Otaria Gillespii) from a skull from the Gulf of California. A fe^ 
months later Dr. Gray published some important notes relative to 
the Northern sea bear (Arctocephalus ursinus Auct.).:j: based on a skin 
and skull of an adult male from Behring's Straits, received at the 
British Museum by way of Amsterdam and St. Petersburg, under the 
name of Otaria leonina. This paper is accompanied by an excellent 
profile figure of the skull, which seems to be the only figure of the skull 
of this species that has been hitherto published. 

Two weeks later Dr. Gray communicated to the Zoological Society 
another paper on the Eared Seals, § in which the fur seal of the Cape 
of Good Hope was described anew from a specimen received by him 
from Paris, and of which he published a view in profile of the skull. 
He appends to this paper a synopsis of the genus Arctocephalus, in 
which he divides it into three unnamed sections, based on characters 
drawn from the skull. Short diagnoses are also given of the species, 
which he groups as follows : — 

"I. Arctocephalus ursinus; TT. A. Hookcri ; HI. A. Delalandii, 
A. nigrescens, A. lobatus, A. Gillespii." He also gives a profile fig- 
ure || of a ca^t of the skull described by Dr. McBain as Otaria Gil- 
lespii. 

Some months later the same indefatigable author published a paper 

* The<e are Arctocephalus ursinus, A. falklandicus, A cinereus,. A. lobatus, A. austra- 
lis, A. Hookeri, Otaria S'elleri, and 0. leonina. 

f Proe. Edinburgh Royal Phys. Soc., Vol. I, p. 422. 

| " On the Sea Bear of Forster, the Uisus marinu* of Steller, Arctocephalus ursinus of 
authors," Proe. London Zoid. Soc., 1859, pp 101, 100, PI. Ixviii. 

§ '• < >n the Eared Seal of the Cape of Good Hope ( Otaria Delalandii)," Ibid , pp. 
107-110, PI. lxix. 

II Ibid., PI. lxx. 



6 BULLETIN OF THE 

on the Sea Lion? of the Coast of California,* with a profile figure of an 
adult male skull of what he supposed to he a new species {Arctocepha- 
lus monteriensis), hut which proved to he identical with the Otaria 
Stefan of authors, as first suggested hy Dr. Gill. Another young skull 
was described and doubtfully referred to the same species, as was also 
the skin of a fur seal. The latter, however, is undoubtedly identical with 
the Northern fur seal (CaUorhinus ursiuus). In this paper he gives a 
new classification of the eared seals, in which he properly raised the first 
of the sections of his genus Arctocephalus, which he had previously in- 
stituted, to the rank of a genus {Callorhinus) . The second and third 
sections he seems to have reunited, for which he retained the name of 
Arctocephalus. His genus Arctocephalus, as now restricted, he again 
divided into four unnamed .sections. A valuable table of comparative 
measurements of the skulls of eight species is appended. 

Seven years from the date last given (1859) carries us to the ap- 
pearance of Dr. Gray's " Catalogue of the Seals and Whales," f pub- 
lished in 18GG, during which interval little or nothing of importance 
was published relating to the group in question. In this Catalogue all 
the species of his "Catalogue of Seals" of 1850 are retained; the 
synonymy is brought up to date, and the species he and others had 
described since the appearance of that Catalogue are added. These are 
the Otaria GlUespii McBain (= Zalophus Gillespii Gill, the Arcfo- 
cepkalus monteriensis Gray (= Eumetopias Stelleri Peters), and the 
Arctocephalus Californianus Gray (= CaUorkinus ursiuus, in part or 
wholly), making the whole number of species thirteen. Only one of 
the three species supposed to he new, however, proved to be so. 

The specific nomenclature is not changed from that adopted in his 
previous paper, so far as the species mentioned in that paper are con- 
cerned, and the introduction of one generic name is the only change 
from the generic nomenclature employed by him in 1850. Another 
new classification of the species of the genus Arctocephalus is given, in 
which the species are grouped in two primary sections and seven sub- 
sections, upon the* arbitrary basis of the differences in the form of the 
bony palate. No new material is described, and lint little new matter 
added, the Catalogue being essentially a compilation from his previously 

* " On the Sea Lions, or Lobos Marinos of the Spaniards, <>n the Coast of California," 
Ibid., p. 557. 
f " Catalogue of the Seals and Whales in the British Museum," 1866, pp. 44 -CO. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 7 

published papers, generally without any change in the language, and 
often embracing important typographical errors. In the Appendix, 
however, some interesting notes are added in respect to the manner in 
which the eared seals walk, and their attitudes when in a state of re- 
pose, he having had the opportunity of observing a living sea lion in 
the Cremorne Garden. 

Nearly coincident with the appearance of Gray's Catalogue of Seals 
and Whales was the publication of a " Prodrome of a Monograph of 
the Pinnipeds," by Dr. Theodore Gill,* of Washington. Tins im- 
portant paper presents to a great extent a new classification of the Pin- 
nipeds, and introduces numerous changes of nomenclature. The wal- 
rus, the eared seals, and the earless seals, for the first time for many 
years,! are again regarded as forming distinct families, as by Brookes, 
to which are applied respectively the names Rosmaridce, Otariadce, 
and Phocidce.% The name Otaria, of Peron, is restricted to the South- 
ern sea lion (Phoca jubata Schreber) ; Eumetopais is proposed as a 
generic name for the Northern sea lion (Leo marinus Steller, = Otaria 
califurniana Lesson, — Arctocephalus monteriensis Gray); Zalophus is 
proposed as a generic name for the Otaria Gillespii McBain, and 
Halarclus for a group for which the Arctocephalus Delalandii is named 
as the type ; Arctocephalus F. Cuvier is substituted for the generic 
name of Callorhinus, proposed by Gray for the Phoca ursina Linne. 
Brief diagnoses of these genera are given, and a species is indicated as 
the type of each. A list of the North American species is also added. 

While most of the changes introduced by Dr. Gill in his Prodrome 
are judicious ones, errors occur in respect to the names of the genera 
of the Otariadce. These were speedily pointed out by Dr.Gray§ in a 
short critique upon Dr. Gill's paper, in which Dr. Gray calls attention 
to the fact that the type of Arctocephalus F. Cuvier was not. as Gill 
assumed, Steller's sea bear, as is clearly shown by Cuvier's figure of 
the ?kull of his type of Arctocephalus. Hence Gray properly reinstated 
his name Callorhinus for the generic name of Steller's Ursus marinus. 
He does not state, however, to what F. Cuvier's figure refers, this, 

* Proc. Essex Institute. Vol. V, pp. 1-13. March, 1866. 
t See my remarks on the synonomy of Otariadce below. 
\ Catalogue of Brookes's Anat. and Zool. Museum, p. 36, 1828. 

§ " Observations on the ' Prodrome of a Monograph of the Pinnipedes,' by Theodore 
Gill," Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, 3d Series, Vol. XVII, pp. 444-447, June, 1866. 



8 BULLETIN OF TUE 

as suggested to me by Dr. Gill, being first pointed out by Professor 
Peters.* The type of Cuvier's genus Arctoceplmlus being in all prob- 
ability the Arctocephalus Delalaudii Gray, Halarctus of Gill, based 
on the same type, became, as Gray points out, a synonyme of Arcto- 
cephalus. 

jSYarly contemporaneously with Gray's above-mentioned critique 
appeared an able paper on the Otariadce by Professor W. Peters of 
Berlin.f In this essay Professor Peters reviews the whole family, and 
describes two species erroneously supposed by him to be new,$ and gave 
figures of their skulls. The species are all described as Olarice, but are 
arranged under seven named subgenera or sections.|| which appear in the 
main to be natural groups. The characters on which these divisions are 
based are drawn, not from the skull alone, but from all the available 
sources, the length of the ears, and the presence or absence of under- 
fur (" Unterwolle ") being for the first time made use of as distinctive 
characters in determining the lesser groups ; Gray and Gill in their 
classifications having, with slight exceptions, made use of only the 
characters furnished by the skull. The specimens of eared seals con- 
tained in the Berlin Museum are described with considerable minute- 
ness, and the synonymy of all the species quite fully and carefully 
presented. Professor Peters agrees with Gray (though at the time of 
writing he could not have seen his [Gray's] paper) in referring Hul- 
arctos to ArclocepJ«dns and in reinstating CaUorhinus. The names of 
all the other genera recognized by both Gill and Gray were adopted by 
him for the names of his sections, and to which he added two others 
(A)-cfo/j/toca and Pliocarctos). The arrangement of Professor Peters for 
the first time separated the hair seals from the fur seals, and to this 
extent at least an advancement was made towards a natural classi- 
fication. The fur and hair seals differ markedly from each other in 

* Monatb. d. k. P. Akad. z. Berlin, 1866, p. 271. 

t " [Jber die Ohrenrobben (Seelowen und Seebaren), Otarice, insbesondcre iibcr die 
in den Sammlungen zu Berlin befindlichen Arten," Monatsberichte der k. P. Akadamic 
y.n Berlin, 1866, pp. 2(51 -281, with three plates. 

J Olaria Godeffroyi and 0. Pkilippii. 

|| (1.) Otaria, containing 0. jubata. 0. leoninct, 0. Godeffroyi, and O. Byronia; (2.) 
Phocarcios, containing 0. Hbokeri and Ulloce ; (3.) Arctocephalus, containing O pusilla, 
0. cinerea, and 0. fnUdaitdica ; (A.) CaUorhinus, containing ursina; (5 ) Eumetopins, 
containing 0. SlelU ri ; > 6.) Zalophus, containing 0. Gillespii, and 0. lobala ; {'.) Avcto- 
phoat, containing 0. Philippii. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 9 

numerous other general features, as well as in the pelage, as will be 
more fully noticed hereafter. Fourteen species have been recognized, 
but three of them (0. leoriina, 0. Byronia, 0. falklandicd) he seems to 
have regarded as doubtfully distinct from others. He refers Gray's 
Arctocephalus Delalandii to the Phoca pusilla of Schreber, and (with a 
query, however) Gray's Arctocephalus nigrescens to the Otaria falk- 
landica of Shaw. 

In consequence of the publication of these papers of Dr. Gill and 
Professor Peters, Dr. Gray was led to a re-examination of the speci- 
mens of the Otariadce in the British Museum, and in September of the 
same year he published the results of his investigations.* In this 
paper he for the first time regards the Otarice as a family (though 
several other writers had done so previously), and speaks of certain 
features that indicate their superiority to the Phocidce. He adopts an 
entirely different generic class'ieatiou from that given by him a few 
months before, f both as to the number of genera and their mutual 
relations. The seven named sections of Otaria of Peters he admits to 
the rank of genera, with the limits ascribed to them by Peters. He 
adds also one " new genus " (DFeophoca), based on his Arctocephalus 
lobatus, which species Peters had referred to Gill's genus Zalophus. 
Gray had now eight genera and three subgenera.! Only ten species 
being recognized by him as valid, he has now but a single species to 
each of his generic and subgeneric subdivisions. Although the paper 
is a somewhat important one, containing as it does many valuable sug- 
gestions, no really new matter is described in it. 

Another paper on the Eared Seals by Peters § immediately followed 
this one of Gray. In the few months intervening since the publication 
of his previous e-say on this subject, Professor Peters had visited Eng- 
land and Holland, and examined the specimens contained in the prin- 
cipal museums of these countries, including among them the specimens 
in the Leyden Museum described and figured in the Fauna Japonica, 

* " Notes on the Skulls of the Sea Bears and Sea Lions (Otnrindce) in the British 
Museum," Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Series, Vol. XVIII. pp. 228 -237, September 
1866. 

f In his Catalogue of Seals and Whales. 

\ Arctocephalus is divided into Arctocephalus, containing A. Delalandii; Euotaria, con. 
taining A. nigrescens ; and Gypsopkoca, containing A. cinereus. 

§ A supplement to his previous " Abhandlungen iiber die Ohrenrobben, Olariiv.^ 
Monatsb. d. k. I'. Akad. z. Berlin, 1866, pp. 665-672, November, 1866. 
VOL. II. 2 



10 BULLETIN OF THE 

and those in the British Museum described and figured by Dr. Gray. A 
skull of Tschudi's Otaria Ullvce is figured, and many interesting facts 
are given respecting several of the species described by him in his pre- 
vious paper. A list of the species is added, and while all of those 
given by him a few months before are included in the enumeration, they 
are numbered in such a way as to indicate that his estimate of them 
had somewhat changed. The whole number is ten, but under No. 1 
he has " Nos. 1 a," " 1 b," and " 1 c," and under Xo. 9, " No. 9 a."* 
One is left somewhat in doubt, however, as to whether he regarded 
these species as synonymous respectively with Nos. 1 and 9, or as sub- 
species. Gray's Arctocephalus uigrcscens is now positively (previously 
with a query) referred to 0. falklandica Shaw, to which species also his 
own 0. Philippii is seemingly referred. Instead of dropping altogether 
his subgenus Arctophoca, based at first solely on his 0. Philippii, 
which he now appears to regard as a nominal species, he transfers 
his 0. falklandica from Arctocephalus to Arctophoca. The Otaria 
Stellcri of Schlegel is in this paper referred to 0. Gillcspii of McBain, 
instead of in part to the 0. cinerea of Peron, and in part to the 
Arctocephalus hiatus of Gray, as both he and Gray had previously re- 
ferred it. In addition to the determination of the character of Schlegel's 
0. Stelleri, the most important thing decided by this paper is the exact 
character of Tschudi's 0. Ulloce, of which Peters was able to figure 
and describe original specimens. 

In addition to the above-mentioned five papers published in 1866, — 
an important year in the history of the literature of the Otariadee, — 
Dr. Sclater states, in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of the 
same year,f that a "young living male sea bear (Otaria Hookeri), 
captured mar Cape Horn, in June, 1862, by a French sailor named 
Lecomte, had been added to the society's menagerie. This animal 
had been exhibited by its captor in Buenos Ayres, and in various 
parts of France and England, and is the one doubtless referred to by 
Cray in the Appendix to his Catalogue of Seals and Whales. 

At about the same time Dr. Burmeister t also gives a description 

* 0. jubata ox Forster and Blainville is given as " Xo. 1 " ; 0. Byronia Blainv., as 
•■ No. la"; 0. leonina F. Cuv. as " No 1 b," and 0. Godeffroyi Peters, as " No. 1 c"j 
" No. 9 " is 0. falklandica Shaw, while his 0. Philipjni forms his " No. 9 a." 

t Proceedings London Zool. Society, 1866, p. 80, January, 1S66. 

t Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Series, Vol. XVIII, p. 99, PI. ix, February, 1866. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 11 

and figure of a young skull of Arctocephalus falklandicus, and some 
interesting facts in respect to the distribution of the eared seals on 
the east coast of South America, where he says but two species 
exist. Under the improper name of A. falklandicus, he also refers 
to the specimen captured and exhibited by Lecomte. One is led by 
Burmeister's remarks to infer that he believed this specimen (and an- 
other which did not live to reach Europe) was captured in the Rio de 
la Plata. Later the death of this " sea bear " is announced in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society, and Dr. James Murie * reports the 
results of his investigations as to the cause of its decease. 

The next paper of moment on the Eared Seals appeared in February, 
1868, and is entitled '"Observations on Sea Bears (Otariadce), and 
especially on the Fur Seals and Hair Seals of the Falkland Islands 
and South America."! In this paper Dr. Gray refers briefly to the two 
papers of Professor Peters, and very properly remarks, as it seems to 
me, that Peters in his first essay "formed no less than five species 
from the skulls of the Southern sea lion (Otaria jubata), — 0. jubata, 
0. Byronia, 0. leonina, 0. Godeffroyi, and 0. Ulloa" lie reviews at 
some length the complicated synonomy of the Falkland Island eared 
seals, and raises his subgenera of Euotaria and Arctocephalus (pre- 
viously mentioned) to the rank of genera, and redescribes the Falkland 
Island and South American species. These are, (1) the Arctocephalus 
falklandicus Gray ex Shaw, (2) the Euotaria nigresceus Gray, and 
(3) P/tocarctos Hookeri Gray. Dr. Gray contends that Peters's O.falk- 
landica is not the O.falklandica of Shaw, but that it is the same as 
his Arctocephalus (or Euotaria) nigrescens. The Arctocephalus falk- 
landicus of BurmeisterJ he, as it seems to me, erroneously referred 
to his Phocarcfos Hookeri, doubtless from Dr. Burmei>ter having re- 
ferred Lecomte's specimen of the ; ' sea bear " already mentioned, 
which was really the 0. jubata, to the " 0. faUclandica." The de- 
scription of the ^kin by Dr. Burmeister, in Profes-or Peters's second 
essay,§ shows the animal to have been a. fur seal, the P. Hookeri being 
a hair seal. 

The young male sea lion (or sea bear, as it was also called), which 

* Proceedings London Zool. Society, 1S67, p. 213. 

t Ann. and Mag. Nut Hi-t., 4th Series, Vol. I pp. 99-110, February, 1 56 , 

J Ibid., 3d Series. Vol. XVIII, p. 99, February, | - 

§ Monatsb. d. k. P. Akad. d. Wi;senseh, z. Berlin, 1866, p. 670. 



12 BULLETIN OF THE 

lived for a time in the Zoological Garden, and which was figured by 
Dr. Sclater as O. Hoolceri* he says is identical with the O.jubuta, — 
an opinion subsequently shared by Dr. Sclater himself, t 

A few weeks later Dr. Gray published another p«per, on the Ota- 
riadce, entitled "Observations on the Fur Seals of the Antarctic Seas 
and the Cape of Good Hope, with Description of a ne\f Species"; J 
he having in the mean time received additional material. In this 
paper he remarks still further concerning the complicated synonomy 
of the Falkland Island fur seals, and respecting the habitat of the 
specimens of Weddell, described by Mr. R. Hamilton, § and the dif- 
ferences between these species and his A. cinereus of Australia and 
the fur seals of the Cape of Good Hope. He also describes what he 
regards as a new species, from two skins from the Cape of Good Hope, 
which species he calls Arctocephalus nivosus. These skins differ from 
those of his A. Delalandii, he says, in being so nearly destitute of 
under-fur, except just on the crown of the head, that he was convinced 
they could not be dressed as fur seals. || 

In "The [Cambridge, Eng.] Journal of Anatomy and Physiology " 
for November, 1868,1" Dr. McBain describes an imperfect skull of a 
female Otaria jubata from the Chincha Islands, which he calls "(9. Ul- 
loce?" suggesting for it, however, the name 0. Graii, in case it should 
prove to be new. In the same number of this journal Professor 
Turner** describes, as that of a new species (Arctocephalus schisthy- 
joeroes ft )< a skull with a peculiar conformation of the palatine bones, 
from Desolation Island, which Dr. Gray examined later and referred 
to his Euotaria nigrescens. 

In the Monatsbericht of the Berlin Academy for March of the same 

* Proc. Loud. Zobl Soc, 1866, p. 80. 

t Ibid., 1868, p. 190, loot-note, March, 1868. 

J Ann and Mag. Nat, Hist, 4th Series, Vol. I, pp. 215-210, March, 1868. 

4 Ibid., Vol II, p. 81, PI. iv. 1838. 

|| In this paper Gray repeat- a misstatement made by him in his last paper preceding 
this, viz. that the Eumetopias Stelleri, a true hair seal, is one of the few eared seals that 
"have a close, soft, elastic fur." See further remarks on this point beyond under E. 
Stelleri. 

\ Vol. Ill, p. 109-112. 

i ■• [bid., p. 113-117. 

ft In the •• Zoological Record" for 1863 Dr. Gunfher changes this name to scMsluperus. 
McBain's "0. Ulloce'i" he regards us a new species, for which he proposes the name 
of Arctocephalus Graii. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 13 

year a letter from Dr. Burmeister to Professor Peters * is published 
concerning the eared seals of the coast of the La Plata States. In this 
letter Dr. Burmeister restates his opinion | that only two species of 
these animals exist on the east coast of South America, one of which he 
regards as the Olaria leonina, and the other as the Otaria falklandica of 
Peters's first essay. Of the first of these he had examined a number of 
specimens, which he describes somewhat in detail, and remarks espe- 
cially upon the great variations presented by different specimens in con- 
sequence of differences in age, and also upon the great amount of purely 
individual variation they present.. He is consequently led to believe 
that the species described by Professor Peters in his first essay as 0. 
jubata, 0. Byronia, 0. leonina, and 0. Godeffroyi, form but a single spe- 
cies. These several nominal species he regards as based merely upon 
individual differences, and liot constituting even " permanent races or 
varieties." In the statement of this opinion he was anticipated by Dr. 
Gray, who, as previously stated, one month earlier referred not only 
these, but also the 0. Ulloce of Peters, to the 0. jubata. To the 
Otaria falklandica of Shaw Dr. Burmeister also refers the 0. nigre- 
scens Gray and the 0. Philippii Peters, as it seems to me with evident 
propriety. This short article contains highly important information 
respecting the South American eared seals. $ 

In the following month Captain C. C. Abbott § communicated to the 
London Zoological Society some interesting notes on the haunts, habits, 
and external features of Otaria jubata and Arctocephalus falklandicus, 
Among other things, he remarks that, in the hundreds of skins of the 
former (0. jubata) lie had seen, he " never saw on any of them any- 
thing approaching fur." Captain Abbott's notes are the more valuable 
from the fact that he has deposited skulls of both these species in the 

* Monatsb. d. k. P. Akad. Wissensch. z Berlin, 1S68, pp. 180-1S2. The same ac- 
count is substantially given in the Anal. Mus. Buen. Ayr. 1S68, p. 303; Act. Soc. 
Paleont., p. xxxix, and Zeitschr. ges. Naturw., XXXI, pp. 294-301. 

t See Ann. and Mag. Nut. Ili-t., 3d Series, Vol. XVIH, p. 99, 1866. 

I It is perhaps but proper to state in this connection that the specimens referred to by 
Dr. Burmeister in the above-mentioned paper were collected by Dr. G. A. Maack at Cabo 
Corricntes, near the southern extremity of Buenos Ayres (lat. 38° S.) They are the 
specimens referred to by Dr. Maack in his paper in " Der Zoologische Garten" (Jan. 
1870), and in his notes to the present paper. 

§ " On the Seals of the Falkland Islands," by Captain C. C. Abbott. Communicated, 
with notes by P. L. Sclater, M. D., etc., Proc. Lond. Zobl. Soc. 1868, pp. 189-182, March, 
1868. 



14 BULLETIN OF THE 

British Museum, so that it is well known to which species his re- 
marks refer. In a note to this paper Dr. Sclater observes : " I agree 
with Dr. Peters * in thinking it best to retain the name jubata for 
the Southern species, and to call the Northern one Stelleri. I con- 
sider O. leonina Cuv. to be probably the same as 0. jubata, as appears 
to be admitted by Dr. Peters in his last paper." f Dr. Sclater states 
that he was mistaken in referring the living specimen brought by Le- 
comte to the 0. Hookeri, and agrees with Peters \ and Gray in re- 
garding it as 0. jubata. 

At the first session of the Zoological Society of London, held in No- 
vember, 18G<S, Dr. Sclater § announced that a young female sea lion 
{Otaria jubata), from the Falkland Islands, had been received during 
the preceding August at the society's menagerie. ''This individual," he 
says, " was the only survivor of eight examples of this animal captured 
in various spots on the coast of the Falklands by Adolphe Alexandre 
Lecomte, || the society's keeper, who had been sent out there by the 
council of the society for the purpose of obtaining living specimens of 
it." The different localities at which M. Lecomte met with this species 
are mentioned in this communication, from which it appears that both 
this animal and "the fur seal of the Falklands (Otaria falUandica)" 
are far less numerous than formerly. The latter species was observed 
in considerable numbers at the Volunteer Rocks. 

M. Lecomte also brought home a considerable number of skins and 
skeletons of the sea lion, concerning which Dr. James Muriel! soon 
published an exceedingly interesting communication. Lecomte's collec- 
tion consisted of parts of fifteen individuals of the Otaria jubata, and of 
one of the Arctocephalus nigrescens Gray. The latter species, however, 
was represented by merely the "pectoral extremities" of an adult fe- 
male ; the.- former by the skull and skin of an "adult male,"** the skins 
and skeletons — the latter nearly complete — of four adult females, the 

* Monatsb. Berl. Ak. 1866, p. 670. 

t Ibid., p. 670. \ Ibid., 666. 

§ Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc, 1868, p. 627. 

|| Francois Lecomte, according to Dr. Murie. (Sec next foot-note.) 

H " Report on the Eared Seals, collected by the Society's Keeper, Francois Lecomte, 
in the Falkland Islands," by James Murie, M. I)., etc., Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc, Jan. 
1869, pp. 100- 109, PI. vii, and two woodcuts. 

** This specimen, according to Dr. Marie's measurements, was but little larger 
than the so-called adult female", and hence cannot have been adult. Respecting the 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 15 

skin and partial skeleton of a young male, skins of two very young 
males,* skins of two young females, together with a partial skeleton 
of one of them, and five aged male skulls. The skins were pre- 
served in salt, but the pelage of none of them was in perfect condition. 
The color of these skins is described in detail, and a few measure- 
ments are given of both the skins and skulls. The skulls are described 
only in general terms. The skull of a half-grown male is figured, as 
is also another skull of an adult female. Three figures of the animal 
(young male, adult female and young), showing its peculiar attitudes, 
also accompany the report. While the paper conveys highly important 
information in respect to these specimens, it is to be hoped that a far 
more detailed account of them will yet be given. Dr. Marie's paper 
also embraces valuable observations concerning the habits of these 
species, derived from M. Lecomte, who resided several months on the 
islands among them. 

Dr. Murie remarks that he cannot agree with Dr. Gray, " that Dr. 
Peters's figured skull of Otaria Philippii is most nearly allied to 0. 
Stelleri from California, inasmuch," he continues, "as I consider it noth- 
ing less than 0. Hookeri " ; both of these gentlemen evidently overlooked 
the fact that Dr. Peters states expressly that the 0. Philippii has a 
thick under-fur ("die dichte Unterwolle ist rostroth "), whereas both 
the 0. Stelleri and the 0. Hookeri are true hair seals. On the other 
hand, Dr. Murie says he unhesitatingly supports Dr. Gray in his criti- 
cism of Dr. Peters as regards the species of sea lions termed respec- 
tively 0. Byronia, ' 0. leonina, 0. Godeffroyi, and 0. Ulloce, as," he 
adds, " I am perfectly convinced they are but differently aged specimens 
of Forster's jubata." Dr. Murie further observes, and it seems to me 
justly, that the Arctocephalus nivosus Gray is " only a variety, seasonal, 
sexual, or of a different age" of a previously known species. 

In October, 18G9, Dr. Gray published some " Additional Notes on 
Sea Bears (Otariadce)" f based mainly on an examination of three 
skulls from Desolation Island, and one from the Cape of Good Hope, 
which had recently been sent him by Professor Turner of Edinburgh. 

comparative size of the sexes, see Captain C. C. Abbott's notes (Proc. Zool. Soc, 1868, 
p. 190) and Dr. Maack's remarks beyond. Also Burmeister's in the Monatsb. Akad. z. 
Berlin, 1868, p. 181; and D'Orbigny's in his Voyage dans l'Amdrique Meridionale, 
Tome II, p. 140, 1839. 

* About three months old, according to Sclater (Proc. Zool. Soc, 1868, p. 628). 

t Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th Series, Vol. IV, pp. 264-270. 



16 BULLETIN OF THE 

The skull from the Cape of Good Hope is (he one on which Professor 
Turner* had founded his Arctocephalus schisthyperoes. This skull Dr. 
Gray is induced to helieve is that of a half-grown Arctocephalus Dela- 
landii, presenting an individual abnormality in the form of the palatine 
bones. The three skulls from Desolation Island he refers to his Euotaria 
nigrcscens. In his remarks respecting them he speaks of certain differ- 
ences he had observed in the relative position of the hinder grinders in 
the Desolation Island skulls, and also in the form of the posterior nares. 
In this connection he also compares Euotaria nigrcscens with Arcto- 
cephalus Dclalandii, and says that the last upper molar teeth being 
" placed in front of the hinder edge of the front part of the zygomatic 
arch" in the former is, so far as the skull is concerned (on which his 
distinction of his groups is mainly based), all that distinguishes them. 
This difference, he says, is slight in the adult, but more marked in the 
young ; but '• even then," he adds, " the difference is more imaginary than 
real." We should hardly expect, after this admission, and his apparently 
appreciative remarks in the same paper on the notable differences he 
had observed in skulls he regards as specifically identical, that in his 
subjoined new synopsis of the "tribes and genera" of the Otariadfe he 
should place, as he has done, these two species in different genera! 
He remarks that he does not now regard the " form of the hinder 
opening of the nostrils, and the form of its front edge," a< constituting 
"a good character." The position of the grinders he regards as afford- 
ing reliable specific characters during youth, but that in maturity their 
form is so much altered by age, "and their position in different spe- 
cies so similar, that the distinction of the species becomes more diffi- 
cult." He finally briefly recapitulates the principal distinctive family 
characters of the Otariadce, and concludes the paper with a synopsis 
of its " genera and tribes." He having previously established as 
many genera as there are commonly recognized specie-,f no new genera 
could well be added. It is, nevertheless, a radically new classification, 
and one as arbitrary a could well be devised. The family is first 
divided into two primary groups, termed ''sections." The first section 
embraces a single "tribe," called Otariina, containing the single species 
Otaria jubata of the east and west coast of Southern South America. 

* See anten, p. 12. 

t See his papers on the Eared Seals in the Ann. and Mag. Nat Hist, for 18G0 and 
1868. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 17 

The other section is divided into four " tribes," which are named respec- 
tively, (1) Callorhinina, (2) Arclocephalina, (3) Zalopliina, and (4) 
Eumetopiina. The first embraces the single genus Gallorhinus ; the 
second, Phocarctos, Arctocephalus, Euotaria, and Gypsophoca ; the third, 
Zalophus and Neophoca ; the fourth, Eumetopias and Arctophoca, — ten 
genera in all. The short generic diagnoses given are drawn almost 
entirely from two exceedingly variable features of the skull, namely, the 
form and relative length of the palatal bones and the form and position 
of the teeth. The geographical distribution of the supposed genera is also 
indicated, in which the habitat of Zalophus is given as " South America," 
whereas it was founded solely on the Olaria Glllespii McBain of the 
North Pacific. Three alleged species are mentioned whose skulls, he 
says, are not known. These are, (1) Arctocephalus falklandicus, habitat, 
"New Georgia"; (2) A. nivosus, habitat, " Cape of Good Hope"; (3) 
" A. Forsteri Fischer " habitat, " New Zealand." The character of the 
latter I cannot satisfactorily determine. I have never seen an " Arcto- 
cephalus Forsteri Fischer " elsewhere mentioned ; the Otaria Fischeri 
Lesson and the Phoca Forsteri Fischer* have usually been referred to 
the A. falklandicus. Gray's A. Forsteri seems to be based, judging 
from his references, exclusively on the "sea bear" of Dr. J. R. Fors- 
ter.f whose habitat was the Cape of Good Hope, as Gray in another 
place specially states. But this species Gray in this paper regards 
as the same as the Phoca antarctica Thunberg % and Fischer, § which, 
he says, is the same as what he had called Arctocephalus Delalandii, 
the name of which species he now consequently changes to A. antarc- 
ticus. Although Forster regarded the New Zealand fur seal as the 
same as the one he saw at the Cape of Good Hope, Gray's A. 
Forsteri seems to refer, from the habitat given, only to the New 
Zealand animal. I can see no evidence, however, of the New Zealand 
fur seal being specifically different from the fur seal of South Australia 
{A. cinereus auct.). 

In this paper the dental formula of the eared seals is, for the first 
time correctly given by the author. || 

* Synop. Mam., p. 232. 

t Cook's Voyages, Vol. I, p. 174 ; Vol. II, p. 528. 

| Mem. de l'Acad. de St. Petersbourg, 3d Series, Tome III, p. 322, 1811. 
§ Synop. Mam., p. 242. 

|| For more than fifteen years, through some strange inadvertence, the dental 
formula of the molars of the eared seals was given in Dr. Gray's papers as " | — 4." 
VOL. II. 2 



18 BULLETIN OF THE 

In " Der Zoologische Garten " for January, 1870,+ Dr. G. A. Maack 
describes bis excursion to the Cabo Corrientes on the southern coast 
of Buenos Ayres (lat. 38° S.) for the purpose of obtaining specimens 
of the eared seals, and his difficulties in capturing them. He states 
that he met with both species {Arctocephalus falklandicus and Otaria 
jubata = 0. leonina Maack) there, of both of which he secured exam- 
ples. As these specimens had been previously described by Dr. Bur- 
meister (1. c), Dr. Maack's observations are mainly concerning the 
habits of the animals and the character of the locality. A figure of 
the O.jubata is also given, but through some mistake of the artist the 
limbs are improperly represented. The remarkable form of the nose, 
Dr. Maack informs me, correctly represents the specimen from which 
the figure was made. It differs greatly, however, in this respect from 
any other eared seal that has been figured or described, and may repre- 
sent but an individual or abnormal variation. 

In Mr. W. H. Dall's important work on Alaska f m ay be found 
valuable notes on the fur and other eared seals of the North Pacific, 
with a figure of the Callorhinus ursinus drawn from nature by Mr. Dall. 

In addition to the above-mentioned scientific papers, other interest- 
ing articles of a popular character have recently appeared, but some of 
the statements given in them are evidently not wholly reliable.}. 

In addition to the preceding summary of the more important of the 
recent contributions to our knowledge of the eared seals, the reader is 

This mistake occurs in three consecutive synopses of the group (Cat. of Seals in Brit. 
Mus ., 1850; Cat. Seals and Whales in Brit. Mus., 1866; Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d 
Series, XVIII, 1866, — in the last case corrected, however, in the general list of errata 
appended to the volume), and twice in each synopsis (in the diagnosis of this group, 
called by him Arclocephalina, and in that of the genus Arctocepknlus). The correct 
formula of the molars is, of course, | — « for a part of the species, and $ = ■£ for 
the others. In the diagnosis of Arctocephalus given in the " Catalogue of Seals and 
Whales " (p. 47), the molars are stated to be < ; | — 8 " ; the nlolars of thefrst, third, 
and seventh species described under this genus are really, however, | — |, and in the 
others fi — « 

t Vol. XI, pp. 1 - 8. 

t Alaska and its Resources, Boston, June, 1870. 

X One of the more important ones relative to the North Pacific species is a recent 
article in the "Old and New" Magazine (Vol. I, pp. 487-493, April, 1870), by Mr. 
0. Howes, Jr. In •Hutchin's "Scenes of Wonder and Curiosity in California" (p. 
187, figs. 1 and 2) are also a few interesting notes on the sea lions of the Farallone 
Islands. They contain, however, exaggerated statements, especially in respect to their 
size. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 19 

referred to three recent systematic synopses of the family for an expres- 
sion of the later opinions relative to the genera and higher groups of 
the three eminent zoologists who, within the last four years, have pub- 
lished special classifications of these animals, as no tabulated summary 
will properly represent them. These are Dr. Gill's " Prodrome," * 
Professor Peters's revision f of the genera and species, published in 
186G, and Dr. Gray's synopsis \ of the " tribes and genera," published 
in 1869. 

2. On the Affinities, Distinctive Characters, and Synonymy of the 
Family OtariaDjE, with Remarks on Sexual, Aye, and Individual 
Variation, and a Conspectus of the Genera and Sjjecies, etc. 

Family OTARIAD^l Brookes. 

Phocacea auriculata Peron, Voy. Terr, austr., II, 37, 1816. 

Otariada Brookes, Cat. Anat. and Zool. Mus., 36, 1828. 

" Otaride's Gervais, Hist. Nat. des Marnmiferes, II, 305." 

Otariidce Gill, Proc. Essex Institute, V, 7, 1866. 

Otariada Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Ser., XVIII, 228, 1866. 

Otariina Gray, Ann. of Phil., 1825. 

Arctocephalina Gray, Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist., I, 583, 1837. 

" Turner, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc., 1848, 88; Ann. and 

Mag. Nat. Hist., 1st Ser., Ill, 422, 1848. 
Otaria Peron, Voy. Terr, austr., II, 37, 1816. 

" Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1866, 261, 665. 

Distinctive Characters. — Body less attenuated than in the majority of 
the Phocidm ; more attenuated than in the Rosmarida>. Fore limbs fin- 
like, situated very far back. Hind limbs comparatively free ; hind feet 
directed forward when the animal is at rest, and serviceable for terres- 
trial locomotion. The digits terminate in long cartilaginous flaps, con- 
nected at the base by membranes. Bones of the upper and fore-arm 
and corresponding bones of the leg very short, exceedingly stout and 
heavy. The digits of the hand successively decrease in length from the 
first ; without nails, or with extremely rudimentary ones, situated at a 
distance from the edge of the hand. Outer digits of the hind limbs 
longer than the middle ones ; the latter sub-equal, and provided with well- 
developed nails ; the outer digits without nails or with very rudimentary 
ones, and much shorter and thicker than the inner digits. Pubic bones 

* Proc. Essex Institute, Vol. V, pp. 7, 10, 11. 

t Monatsb. d. k. P. Akad. z. Berlin, 1866, p. 670. 

t Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th Series, Vol. IV, p. 269. 



20 BULLETIN OF THE 

not anchylosed, and in the female considerably separated. Acetabula 
opposite the posterior end of the second sacral vertebra. Ears provided 
with a sub-cylindrical external conch. The skull has a well-developed 
orbital process and an alisphcnoid canal ; the mastoid process is strong 
and salient, distinct from the auditory bulla, -which is much smaller than 
in the Phocidce. Molars either | ~ § or f ~ f ; canines, ^ ^; incisors, 
f = | 5 whole number of teeth, fzzf = i|=:34, or J^ — J^=fg==36. 
Testes scrotal, situated as in the Suidce. 

Rank and Affinities. ■*- The seals were all referred by the earlier 
writers to the Linnasan genus Phoca. Buffon was the first naturalist 
who recognized the division of the seals made by seamen into eared 
seals and earless seals, accordingly as they possessed or were devoid of 
external ears. Later Peron,* in 1816, regarded these two groups as 
genera, and gave to the eared seals the name of Otaria, leaving the 
earless seals in Phoca. Finally these two groups were regarded by 
Brookes,f in 1828, as constituting two families, the walrus, in his 
system, forming a third. 

These groups have been generally recognized as natural, but their 
rank has been variously estimated by different authors. Turner { 
regarded the eared seals, the earless seals, and the walrus as to- 
gether constituting a single family, which he divided into three sub- 
families, — Arctocephalina, embracing Otaria and Arctocephalus ; 
Trichecina, embracing only the walrus; and Phocina, embracing all 
the earless seals. Pie observes, however, in referring to the classifica- 
tion of the Pinnipedia made by Gray in 1837, § that if the sub-families 
of the Phocina, proposed by that author, be entitled to that rank, 
" the walrus and the Arctocephaline group, which differ so decidedly 
from the other seals, would almost seem entitled to the rank of families." 

All writers, except Brookes and Gervais, previous to 18GG, seem to 
have regarded these three groups as constituting a single family. Gill, 
however, in his Prodrome, || considered them as distinct families, which 
view has since been adopted by Gray.H 

* Voy. Terr, aust., Vol. II, p. 37, 1816 
t Cat. of his Anatom. and Zoiil. Mas., p 36, 1828. 
J Proc. London Zool. Soc, p. 88, 1848. 
§ Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. I, p. 583. 

|| " Prodrome of a Monograph of the Pinnipedes," Proc. Essex Institute, Vol. V, 
p. 7, .Inly, 1866. 

T Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Ser., Vol. XVIII, p. 229, 1866. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 21 

Believing that they have a higher than a sub-family value, I adopt 
for the present the classification elaborated by Dr. Gill in his Pro- 
drome, which is, it seems to me, the most natural arrangement of the 
Pinnipedes that has been proposed. Gill's arrangement places the 
Otariadce between the Phocidce and the Rosmaridce. No serial ar- 
rangement of these groups can, I think, fully express their relative 
rank and mutual affinities. The Otariadce are evidently the highest, 
though they seem intermediate in general features between the earless 
seals and the walruses. Their affinities, as they appear to me, may 
be indicated as follows : — 

Otariadce. 
Rosmaridce. 

Phocidce. 

While the Rosmaridce are lower than the Otariadce, and the Phocidce 
are still lower than the Rosmaridce, the latter evidently do not con- 
nect the other two groups. 

The evidence of the superiority of the Otariadce over the Phocidce 
consists mainly in that modification of their general structure, and es- 
pecially of the pelvis and posterior extremities, by means of which they 
have freer use of their limbs, and are able to move on land witli 
considerable rapidity; the Phocidce, on the other hand, move with 
great difficulty when out of the water. But the higher rank of the 
former is also indicated by their semi-terrestrial habits, the scrotal po- 
sition of the testes, and in the nearer approach in general features 
to the terrestrial Carnivores, especially in the more posterior position 
of the acetabula. Most of these modifications are, however, nearly 
equally shared by the Rosmaridce, indicating likewise that their true 
station is above that of the majority of the Phocidce. 

Primary Subdivisions. — The members of the Otariadce form among 
themselves a closely connected group, as well as a well-defined one. 
But in general form, in size, in color and in the character of the pelage, 
two tolerably distinct divisions of the Otariadce may be recognized, 
which in a general way correspond with the sea bears* and sea lions 
of seamen, and the fur seals and hair seals of commerce. F. Cu- 
vierj was the first naturalist who recognized these divisions, he regard- 

* The term sea bear, however, has been sometimes applied indiscriminately to 

fur and hair seals, and even to the same animal by the same person, as in the case of 
the first living specimen of Otarla jabata, exhibited in England. 
t Mem. du Mus., Tome XI, p. 205 tt seq., 1824. 



22 BULLETIN OF THE 

ing them as constituting two genera. To the first of these genera, em- 
bracing the sea bears, founded in fact on one of the Southern ?ea bears, 
(? Ar otocephalus Delalandi Gray), he gave the name of Arctocephulus, 
and to the other, founded on the Southern sea lion (Otaria jubata 
Blainville), that of Platyrhynchus. These names indicate to some ex- 
tent the differences seen in the general form of the head, in the 
two groups. In the first, or sea bears, the muzzle is narrow and 
pointed ; in the other it is broad, and the aspect is more leonine. The 
name Platyrhynchus, however, is antedated by that of Otaria of Peron. 
Besides these differences in the shape of the head, the form of the 
body in the Arctocephaline species is more slender than in those of the 
other group. The hind feet, especially, are longer and slenderer, 
with relatively longer swimming-flaps at the end of the toes. Their 
size is smaller, and they differ in general color. The Arctocephaline 
species are also all provided with a dense, soft, thick under-fur, while 
the others are either entirely without under-fur, or possess it in too 
small a quantity to render the skins of any commercial value as furs.* 
These two groups are as well defined as the several sub-families of the 
Phocidce, and are co-ordinate with them. If the Otariadce constitute a 
group entitled to family rank, — and the so-called sub-families of the 
Phocidce have truly a sub-family value, — the Otariadce must be con- 
sidered as divisible into two sub-family groups, of which the hair seals 
constitute one and the fur seals the other. 

In respect to what names should be used for their designation, none 
seem in themselves more appropriate than those derived from the 
names of the leading genera of these groups, Otariince for the hair 
seals and Arctocephalince for the fur seals. These names, however, 
in a slightly altered form (Otariina and Arctocephalina), have been 
used on different occasions in widely different senses, especially by 
Gray ; the first for the whole group of eared seals, and afterwards the 
other in precisely the same sense. Later, both were again used simul- 

* I am aware of the alleged exceptions in the Otarys of Australia : the Zalqphtu 
lobatus Peters, a true hair seal, having, it is said, considerable under-fur when young. 
This is probably the case, to a greater or less extent, with the young of all the hair 
seals prior to the first moult. I feel sure, however, that it is quite different in char- 
acter from the soft, long, dense fur of the true fur seals. It may be added that the 
genus Zalrphus is in other respects, as in size and the general shape of the head, 
somewhat intermediate between the fur and hair seals, though its affinities are decid- 
edly with the latter. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 23 

taneously, as the names of different sub-divisions of the group, but Arc- 
tocephalina still embraced both hair and fur seals. Later still, the 
same author restricted Otariina, so that it embraced but a single species, 
while the other, also greatly restricted in its scope, embraced still both 
hair and fur seals. In view of this confusion, the name Trichophocince* 
is proposed for the hair seals, and Oulophocince | for the fur seals, in 
allusion to the different character of the pelage in the two groups. 

Hitherto, owing to the fact that our beat classifications of them have 
been based mainly on the number and position of the molar teeth, the 
hair and fur seals have been associated pell-mell and in almost every 
possible mode of combination. Formerly Arctocephulus was a hetero- 
geneous association of members of two widely different natural groups. 
Although of late the hair and fur seals have been usually placed in 
different genera, the genera of the one set have variously alternated 
in the systems of different authors, and in the different systems of the 
same author, with those of the other set. 

Comparison of the Skeleton of the Otariad^e with those 
of the Principal Types of the Phocid.e. 

The chief osteological differences which serve to distinguish the 
eared seals from the other types of the Pinnipedes, as the common 
Phoca, \ Cystophora, Monachus, Mucrorkinus, and Posmarus, § may be 
indicated as follows : — 

Comparison of the Otariad.e (Eumetopias) with Rosmarus. — 
The eared seals (of which Eumetopias is here taken as the type) differ 

* 0p<f = hair, and 4>u>xv = Phoca. 

•f ouAos = soft, <t>"\v = rhoca. 

t The materials mainly used in the following comparisons consist as follows: (1.) Of 
the eared seals, two complete ligamentary adult male skeletons cf Eumelopias Stelleri, 
and two adult male and two adult female complete ligamentary skeletons of Grflorkinus 
ursinta. (2.) Of the earless seals, a complete adult male ligamentary skeleton of Phoca 
vitvlina, and other partial skeletons of the same species; three complete ligamentary 
skeletons of Cystophora cristata, and two nearly complete disarticulated male skeletons 
of Macrorhinus elephantinus, besides partial skeletons of other species. (3.) Of the 
walrus, two complete ligamentary skeletons. Cuvier's figures of the skeleton of the 
"Phoque a ventre Wane " (Moimchus albiventer), Pander and D' Alton's of that of the 
Otaria jubata, and Schelgel's of that of Zahphus Gilleepii, have also been examined. 

§ Trichechtts, as has been pointed out by Petersl4md Gill, was originally based by 
Linne" (Syst. Nat., 10th Ed., 1758, I, 34) solely on the Manati ( T. Manatus), and must 
hence be retained for that animal. 



24 BULLETIN OF THE 

from liosmarus in the form of the skull, in the relative length of the 
cervical vertebrae, in the form of the scapula?, and in general propor- 
tions. In respect to the limbs, the principal difference consists in the 
relatively greater shortness of the foot in the walrus as compared with 
the other extremital segments (the femur and tibia posteriorly and the 
humerus and radius anteriorly), and the great divergence of the digits 
of the hind feet. 

A skeleton of an aged male Alaska walrus I find varies in length but 
a few centimetres from that of an aged male of E. Stdleri. The dorsal 
and lumbar vertebrae have the same length in both, but the cervical 
vertebne in the walrus are considerably shorter, and the caudal some- 
what longer, than they are in the other. A vast difference, however, 
is seen in the general form, the E. Stdleri being slender and the walrus 
exceedingly robust, the bulk of the body in the latter being nearly 
twice that of the former. This gives a greater length to the ribs of the 
walrus, and much larger centrums to its vertebrae ; but the develop- 
ment of most of the vertebral apophyses is nearly the same in both. 
The great thickness of the body also serves to increase the dispropor- 
tionate shortness of the neck, as well as to increase the relative size of 
the pelvis and the divergence of the ilia. The limbs also are hence 
necessarily longer in proportion to the length of "the body. The feet, 
however, are proportionally less developed than in the eared seals, and 
the whole form of the body indicates an animal of slow movements, 
especially in the water, and of rather sluggish habits. 

The scapula in the walrus is long and narrow, with its greatest 
breadth near the middle, and its spine or crest situated but little behind 
the median line. In Eumetopias the scapula is short and broad, with 
its greatest breadth at the upper border, and its spine quite near the 
posterior edge. These considerable differences seem to result neces- 
sarily from the correlation of the form of the scapula with the great 
depth of the body. 

The great differences which obtain in the skulls of these types, 
through the enormous development of the canines in the walrus, are too 
well known to require a detailed description. In the latter the skull is 
exceedingly massive throughout, but is especially developed anteriorly, 
to afford support to the immense tusks, while in Eumetopias it has the 
normal carnivore form. 

The bones of the walrus, it may be added, are lighter and softer than 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



25 



those of the eared seals, hut the}- are far less so than those of some of 
the earless seals, especially Macrorhinus, in which they are more porous 
than in some of the cetaceans. All the sternal segments in the walrus 
are much less ossified than in the Otariadce ; in the former the first 
and ninth are almost wholly cartilaginous, leaving but eight ossified. In 
Eumelopias all are ossified, the first being also developed anteriorly 
into a long bony point, and the ninth similarly developed posteriorly.* 

Hence the Olariadce differ from the walrus type not only in many de- 
tails of structure, but radically in the general form and proportions of 
the whole skeleton. 

Comparison with the Phoca vitulina. — The eared seals differ 
vastly from the earless seals, as represented by Phoca vitulina, in almost 
every feature. In addition to the well-marked differences of form ex- 
isting between nearly all the principal bones, there are remarkable 
regional variations which indicate a wide difference in the zoological 
rank of the two types. In the eared seals the length of the cervical 
and thoracic regions of the body, as compared with its whole length, is 
much greater than in Phoca, but in respect to the lumbar and pelvic 
regions the reverse of this obtains, these regions being most developed 
in the Phocidoe.\ In the eared seals (Eumetopias and Callurhinus, which 
represent the two leading types of the eared seals) the ratio of the length 
of the cervical vertebra? to the whole length of the spinal column is as 19 
to 100 ; in Phoca vitulina as 18 to 100. In the former, the ratio of the 
length of the dorsal vertebra to the whole length of the spinal column 
is as 44 to 100 ; in Phoca vitulina as 37 to 100. That of the lumbar to 



* See the detailed measurements of the skeletons of E. Slelleri and Cdlurhinus ursinus 
given beyond. 

f The following table gives the dimensions (in mm.) and the proportions of the differ- 
ent regions in E. Sttlleri, C. ursinus, P. vitulina, and the Alaska walrus. 





E Stel- 


C. ur- 


Ph. vitu- 


Rosma- 




leri. $ 


sinus. $ 


lina. $ 


rus. $ 


Length of the cervical vertebrae .... 


480 


400 


235 


330 


" dorsal " .... 


1.130 


V80 


4^0 


1,130 


" " lumbar " .... 


370 


270 


220 


370 


" " cau lal " .... 


520 


310 


370 


580 


" " spinal column .... 


2,500 


1,700 


1.305 


2,410 


" sternum .... 


840 


6.30 


270 


590 


Ratio of length of cervical vert, to spinal column, 


15-100 


23-H'O 


lS-100 


14-100 


" " dorsal " " " 


4-3-100 


44-100 


37-100 


47-lnO 


" " " lumbar '' " " 


15-100 


15.1-100 


17-100 


15.4-100 


" " " caudal " " 


21-100 


20-100 


2S-1O0 


24-100 


" " " sternum " " 


34-100 


36-100 


20.7-100 


24.5-100 



26 



BULLETIN OF THE 



the whole length is in the former as 15 to 100; in P. vitulina as 17 to 
100. The same proportion in respect to the caudal vertebrae is in the 
former as 20 to 100 ; in the latter as 28 to 100.* The relative length 
of the sternum to the spinal column is as 35 to 100 in the eared seals, 
and as 28 to 100 iu Phoca vitulina, indicating in the latter the relative 
shortness of the thorax as compared with the whole length of the animal, 
and hence its eminently cetacean form. 

In regard to the skull, Turner t showed many years since that the eared 
seals are distinguished from the others by important cranial differences. 
He compares them as follows : In the earless seals " there is no trace of a 
postorbital process, nor of an ali-sphenoid canal; the mastoid can scarcely 
be said to constitute a process ; it is swollen, and appears to form a por- 
tion of the auditory bulla, more or less connected with the tympanic por- 
tion, from which it is separated by a depressed groove running from the 
stylo-mastoid foramen backwards and a little inwards. The paroceipital 
process is never large in any of the family, but it is always distinctly de- 
veloped and salient backwards. The Arctocephaline group are distin- 
guished at once by their having a distinct postorbital process and an ali- 
sphenoid canal ; the mastoid projects as a strong process, and seems, as it 
were, to stand aloof from the auditory bulla." In Phoca and in other 
types of the Phocidce, the bulla is many times greater than in the Otari- 
adce, its increa.^ed size being doubtless compensatory for the absence of 
an external conch. In the latter the occipital and sagittal crests in old 
age attain an enormous development, which only a few of the higher 
forms of the Phocidce at all approach. 

Considerable differences are also found in the form of the different 
bones of the extremities of the two types. In the anterior extremities, 
these consist in the reduced size and structurally low form of the scapula 
in Phoca, *as compared with Eumetopias and CaUorhinus t (Figs. 12, 13, 

* In E. Slelleri as 15 to 100; in C. ursinus as 23 to 100; in the latter there being a 
greater development of the post sacral vertebra;. 

t Proc. Lond. Zoul. Soc., 1848, p. 84. 

J The general form of the scapula in these groups (including Rogmnrus and Macro- 
rhinus) is indicated by the following table: — 





Rosmarus. 


Eumetopias. 


CaUorhinus 


Phoca. 


Macrorhinus. 


Breadth 

Katio of breadth to length . 


420 
260 
6-10 


370 

405 

11-10 


215 

2SO 

13-10 


125 
110 
9-10 


S25 

215 

6.6-10 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



27 



and 16, Plate III). In the latter the acromion is developed almost as 
much as in the terrestrial carnivores, the crests are high, and the expan- 
sion of the blade very great. In Phoca the blade is small, expanded 
about equally anteriorly and posteriorly, the crest moderate, and the 
acromion process slightly developed. The greater tuberosity of the 
humerus, though large, does not rise above the base of the head of the 
humerus, whilst the lesser tuberosity rises as a sharp point to a greater 
height than the head of the humerus. In Eumetopias and Callorhinus 
these conditions are reversed, the lesser tuberosity being but slightly 
developed, whilst the greater is excessively so, rising to a greater height 
than the head of the humerus, aud extending downwards more than 
half the length of this bone, — much farther than in Phoca. Differences 
are also traceable in the form of the bones of the forearm, carpus, and 
metacarpus. In respect to the digits of the hand, they differ less in size 
and length in Phoca than they do in the Otariadce and in Posmarus. 

By far the most important differences, however, are found in the 
posterior organs of locomotion, — the pelvis and the hind limbs. The 
latter are relatively smaller in the Phocidce than in the Otariadce, and 
are very differently constructed and adapted to widely different uses, as 
indicated in the following comparison. 

In the Phocidce the hind limbs are In the Olariadoe the hind limbs are 
extended backwards in a line parallel somewhat free, and when in a natural 
with the body ; the legs are so en- position (on land) the feet are turned 
closed within the integuments of the forward, and serve to raise the body 
body that they have little or no mo- from the ground.* 
tion, and the feet are movable only 
in a relatively small degree, in an 
obliquely lateral direction. 

* It may be added that the foot is also relatively longer, as compared with the length 
of the leg, than in Phoca, as shown by the following table, whilst the differences in the 
size of the outer toes as compared with the middle ones is also greater. 





Eumetopias. 


Callorhinus. 


Romarus. 


Phoca. 


" " humerus .... 

" " hand 

Ratio of length of hand to that of radius 
Length of hind limb .... 

Ratio of length of foot to tibia 


1,045 
320 
275 
450 

16-10 

1,000 
200 
350 
450 

13-10 


705 
200 
205 
300 

15-10 
705 
135 
220 
&50 

16-10 


1,010 
3S0 
270 
3i0 

13-10 

1,040 
250 
370 
420 

11-10 


360 
120 
110 
130 

12-10 
600 
100 
210 
290 

14-10 



28 



BULLETIN OF THE 



In consequence of this peculiar They also (imperfectly) serve the 

structure the only purpose which purpose of walking; these animals 

these organs can subserve is that of being able to progress when out of 

swimming. On land progression is the water several miles an hour, and 

mainly accomplished by a wriggling to run for a short distance with nearly 

serpentine motion of the body, slight- the rapidity of a man.* 
ly assisted by the extremities. 

In the Phocidce the tarsal articula- In the Otariadce the foot when 

tion allows but a small amount of similarly at rest forms with the leg 

movement of the foot, which when an angle of at least 90°. 
naturally at rest forms but a slight 
angle with the leg. 

In the Phocidce no unusual sexual In the Otariadce (in Callorliinus and 

difference in the form of the pelvis is Eumetopias^ at least) there is an 

known to exist ; the principal differ- exceedingly great sexual variation in 

ence being that the pubic bones are the form of the pelvis. In the males 

united for a shorter distance in the it is narrow throughout, and seen from 

females than in the males. In the the front the sides are nearly paral- 

Phoca vitulina the pelvis, seen from lei for the greater part of its length, 

the front, presents a pyramidal out- the pubic bones abruptly converging 

line, with the apex pointing back- posteriorly, and the ilia diverging 

ward. Laterally and ventrally its moderately at their anterior ends, 

outlines are straight. The front outline is gently hollowed. 

The ilia are short and broad The ilia are elongated (twice as 

(length and breadth about equal), ex- long as broad), flattened posteriorly, 

panding anteriorly in a transverse with their dorsal and ventral borders 

line. Their crests are turned abrupt- parallel, and no lateral expansion or 

ly outward and recurved, their pos- recurvation of the crest, 
terior surfaces being concave. 

The pubic bones are straight, slen- The pubic bones are stout and sub- 
der, and subcylindrical ; posteriorly cylindrical, a little broader and thin- 
they become flattened and somewhat ner behind, approximating both an- 
expanded dorso-ventrally. In the teriorly and posteriorly. Barelymeefc- 
male they are appressed posteriorly ing (in the males) at the latter point, 
for one third their length, their point they form with each other a more or 
of widest divergence being at their less broad ellipse, which is only slight- 
anterior ends. In the females, how- ly open anteriorly in Callorkinus, but 
ever, they merely meet at the end, more widely in Eumetopias. They 

* See Captain Rryant's account, given below, of the habits of Callorkinus ursinus. 

t The pelvis of Callorliinus differs from that of Eumetopias somewhat in certain de- 
tails of its structure, as will be shown later in the comparison of these two species under 
C. ursinus. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



29 



much as in the males of the eared are not partially united as in Phoca, 
seals. but merely touch each other at their 

extremities, and arc most widely sep- 
arated at the middle. 
The ischia are dorsally arched, es- The ischia are considerably arched 
pecially their dorsal margins, which above, but otherwise have nearly the 
rise in a high angular point opposite same form and size as the pubic 
the posterior third of the thyroid bones. Their dorsal margins have 
foramen. Anteriorly they are sub- not the high angular prominence 
cylindrical, but posteriorly are flat- seen in Phoca. 
tened into broad thin blades, and 
unite with the corresponding parts of 
the pubic bones. 

The thyroid foramen is an irregular The form of the thyroid foramen is 
elongated ellipse, its pubic outline be- nearly the same as in Phoca. 
ing nearly straight. 

The ilio-pubic spine is prominent, The ilio-pubic spine is very large, 
but the iliac tuberosity is wholly ab- and the iliac tuberosity is not only 
sent. present, but is enormously developed. 

The middle of the acetabulum is The middle of the acetabulum is 
situated a little in front of the pos- situated but a little in front of the 
terior end of thejirst sacral vertebra, posterior end of the second sacral 
which is considerably anterior to its vertebra, — the length of the second 
position in the eared seals. sacral vertebra posterior to its posi- 

tion in Phoca. 
Four fifths of the length of the Only slightly more than one half 
innominate bone is posterior to the of the length of the innominate bone 
acetabulum, — in other words, the is behind the acetabulum. Hence 
proportion of the length of the ischio- the proportional length of the ischio- 
pubic part to the length of the ilia pubic portion to the ilium is nearly as 
is as three to one. one to one. 

The bones of the pelvis are all thin The bones of the pelvis are all 
and slender. thick and stout, especially the walls 

of the acetabula. The acetabula are 
themselves very much larger than in 
Phoca. 

In recapitulation it may be stated that the essential or most striking 
pelvic differences in the males between Phoca and Eumetopias and Cal- 
lorhinus consist in the abbreviated ilia, with their outwardly produced 
crests, the greater elongation of the pubic and ischiac bones, and the more 
anterior situation of the acetabula in Phoca as compared with the others. 



30 



BULLETIN OF THE 



In Phoca and the earless seals generally no great sexual differences 
in the structure of the pelvis appears to be known. From the great 
breadth of the pelvis between the pubic bones in the male, no modifica- 
tion of the male form of the pelvis would seem requisite in the female. 
In the eared sen Is, however, especially in Callorhinus, the pelvis is 
exceedingly narrow, especially anteriorly, in the males, and of small 
capacity. In the females it is hence necessarily entirely open in front, 
and the pubic bones and the ischia are reduced to a mere bony rim 
enclosing the very large thyroid foramen. The ventral borders of the 
innominate hones are also less produced. The more posterior position 
of the acetabula in the eared seals places the hind limbs in a position 
better fitting them to support the body, and hence for terrestrial locomo- 
tion. They are, in fact, placed but little anterior to their position in 
many of the true walking mammalia. 

The following table of comparative measurements indicates the differ- 
ence in proportions and form of the pelvic bones in Phoca, Macrorhinus, 
JSumetopias, Callorhinus, and Rosmarus : — 





Rosma- 


Eume- 


Callo- 


Callo- 


Phoca. 


Macro- 




rus. 


topias. 


rhinus. 


rhinus. 


rhinus. 




330 


350 


235 


? 

140 


$ 
190 


380 


Length of the os innominatum . . 


Breadth (externally) at iliac crests 


330 


160 


110 


975 


135 





" " at acetabula . 


195 


120 


55 


40 


67 





Length of ilium .... 


180 


150 


100, 


60 


50 


130 


Breadth (antero-posterior) of do. . 


90 


80 


45 


23 


57 





Length of ischium and os pubis . 


250 


200 


135 


70 


140 


260 


< Ircatest breadih of ischio-pubic bones 


160 


110 


70 


35 


73 


180 


Length of thyroid foramen 


150 


125 


65 


45 


87 


1 50 


Breadth " " 


65 


50 


28 


20 


25 


73 


Transverse diameter of the brim 




40 


15 


25 


40 





" " of the inferior outlet 




To 


28 


35 


25 





Ratio of length of ilium to ischium 


72-100 


75-100 


71.5-100 


86-100 


28-100 


50-100 



Owing mainly to the great elongation of the very thick neck in the 
Otariada, the fore limbs, as long since mentioned by Cuvier,* are ap- 
parently placed much farther back than in the Phocid<z.\ 

The neural spines in Phoca are but slightly developed, especially an- 
teriorly, whilst in Eumctopias and Callorhi)ins, as well as in Eos?narus, 
they are largely developed, especially those of the anterior dorsal verte- 

* Oss. foss., Vol. V, j). 216. 

t By actual measurement they are found to be but little anterior to the middle of the 
entire length of the animal. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 31 

brae, which in Phoca are the smallest. These features, with others of a 
similar character, especially the high crests of the skull in all the eared 
seals, show these animals to be possessed of relatively much greater 
muscular power than the common Phoca, and that they are not only 
fitted for greater activity on land, but that they must also possess su- 
perior powers of motion in the water. The most strongly developed 
features in the skeleton of the Phoca type are those that best serve its 
strictly aquatic mode of life, and the character of its whole structure, 
as previously mentioned, gives it a rank far below the Otariadce. 

Comparison with Macroriiinus, Cystophora, and MONACHUS. — 
In respect to size the Phoca vitulina and the Macrorhinus elephantinus 
represent the two extremes, not only of the Phocidce, but of the Pinni- 
pedes, the sea elephant in size far exceeding the walrus. Yet in general 
osteological features Macrorhinus is strikingly like Phoca. In the form 
of the pelvis and scapulae, however, it slightly approaches the Otariadce, 
and what is known of its habits indicates that it has greater powers of 
locomotion on land than the common Phoca. 

Cystophora differs in no important particular in the general skeleton 
from Phoca and Macrorhinus. Monachus, from Cuvier's* figure of its 
skeleton, much more nearly approaches the Otariadce, and is hence a 
higher form than either Macrorhinus, Phoca, or Cystophora. The greater 
development of the neural spines and the other apophyses, the strongly 
developed crests of the skull, the very broad strongly keeled scapula;, 
together with numerous other osteological features, indicate it to be an 
animal of great muscular power, whilst at the same time its compar- 
atively slender form, and especially the elongated form of the thorax, 
indicate that it has a much nearer affinity to the Otariadce than either 
Macrorhinus, Cystophora, or Phoca have. 

These four, forms — Monachus, Macrorhinus, Cystophora, and Phoca 
— represent four of the leading types of the Phocidce. Their relative 
rank is doubtless in the order given, Monachus being unmistakably 
the highest and most like the Otariadce. Stenorhynchus, it seems to me, 
is still lower than either of the above-mentioned genera. I should hence 
arrange the sub-families of the Phocidce in the following order, with Mona- 
chus as the highest genus of Phocince, which is the highest sub-family: — 
Phocinje. 
Cystophorix.k. 
Stenoriiyni.'iii.we. 
* Oss. foss.. Tome V, Plate XVII. 



32 BULLETIN OF THE 

Of the Sexual, Age, and Individual Variations. 

Sexual Differences. — "Whilst in the carnivores generally the sexual 
variations are considerable, especially in respect to size, they seem 
to never exist in greater degree than in the Otariadce. In all the 
species of this family in which the sexes are well known, — especially 
in Otaria jubata, Eumetopias Stelleri, Callorhinus ursinus, and Arcto- 
cephalus falklandicus, — it has been found that the weight of the adult 
females is rarely above one sixth' to one fourth that of the old males ; 
— a sexual disproportion in size rarely if at all elsewhere met with 
in mammals. Iu the Pinnipedes the nearest approach to it is in the 
sea elephant (Macrorhinus elephantinus), which in some of its habits, as 
previously mentioned, also approaches nearer to the eared seals than 
any other well-known species of the Phocidcc. 

The sexes differ also in color, the females being generally much 
lighter colored than the males. 

They also differ in the size of the teeth, especially of the canines, the 
females having relatively, as well as absolutely, much smaller teeth 
than the males. The form of the palatal surface of the maxillaries 
also varies in the two sexes in the females it being usually flatter or 
less depressed than in the males, and its lateral outlines straighten 
The females also lack the high crests of the skull possessed by the 
males, and have the processes of the bones less developed. 

One of the greatest sexual differences, however, is seen in the pelvis. 
In the female it is much smaller than it is in the male, and the pubic 
bones instead of meeting behind, as in the males (and also in the females 
in the P/iocidce), are widely separated, and with the i-chia are re- 
duced to a slender rim enclosing the large thyroid foramen; at least this 
is the ease in Callorhinus ursinus, and there seems to be no reason for 
believing that similar differences in the structure of the pelvis do not 
exist in the other species of the Otariadce.* 

* Respecting the sexual differences in the Otariajubata, Dr. G. A. Maack lias fur- 
nished me with the following note: — 

"The most striking feature in Olaria jvbata i< tin- great dissimilarity between the 

males and females, not only in res] t to size and general external features, but also in 

their osteological structure. It is a curious fact, that, whilst the male changes greatly 
with age in respect to its osteological characters, the female prssents in this respect a 
greater or less constancy of character. In color, however, tin' reverse obtains, — the 
males preserving a greater constancy in this respect, whilst the females vary exceed- 
ingly at different ages." 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 33 

Differences resulting from Age. — In color the young differ from the 
adult, us in most mammals, in being very much darker, especially pre- 
vious to the first moulting of the pelage. During the first few months 
the young of both sexes of the fur seals are black, whilst the old males 
are more or less brownish- or grayish-black, and the females cinereous. 
In the hair seals the young are dark reddish-brown, whilst the adult are 
pale yellowish- or grayish-brown. The first coat of hair in the young is 
somewhat different in character from that they have later, in both the 
fur and hair species. The latter, whilst quite devoid of fur in adult life, 
or possessing only an exceedingly sparse undercoat of crisp curled hair 
rather than fur, are said to have more or less "fur" when young. This 
is affirmed more especially of the Zalophus hiatus, but doubtless the 
young of all the hair seals have a softer coat than the adult. 

In respect to the form of the skull, the young greatly differ from the 
adult, as is sufficiently indicated by the figures of the young and adult 
skulls of Callorhinus ursinus given in Plates II and III, and described 
in detail in the account of that species, and as is also shown in the figures 
of young and adult skulls of Zalophus Gillespii given in the Fauna Japon- 
ica (Mamm., Plate XXII). It appears that the brain-case early reaches 
its full size, and changes later mainly through the thickening of its walls. 
The facial portion is more slowly developed, so that the proportions of 
the very young and the mature skull are widely different. As regards 
the general skeleton, my material does not allow me to speak. 

Individual Variation. — In order to determine what characters may 
be most useful in distinguishing genera and species, it is necessary to 
take into account the individual variation to which the different parts 
are subject, as well as the differences resulting from sex and age. For- 
merly, when but few specimens of any species of the Otariadce were 
known, it was natural to suppose that any characters based on the adult 
form of the skull or of its different bones might be regarded as afford- 
ing reliable specific and generic characters. As more material was 
acquired, it became evident that these parts in the present group were 
unusual! v variable, and hence to a great degree unreliable as the foun- 
dation for specific or even generic diagnoses. The general form of the 
skull, the depression of the bony palate, the posterior extension of the 
palatines and their posterior outline, and also the situation of the last" 
molar relative to the anterior edge of the zygomatic foramen, and the 
number and form of the molars, have been generally taken as the basis 
vol. II. 3 



34 BULLETIN OF THE 

of generic divisions. All these parts, however, have recently heen found 
to vary greatly, not only with age and sex, but in specimens of the same 
age and sex. The form of the hinder edge of the palatines, as to 
whether it be convex, truncate, or emarginate, has been especially 
relied on for the distinction of both species and genera, yet the spe- 
cimens before me show that in the same species, in skulls of equal age 
and of the same sex, the posterior border of the palatines may be either 
truncate or deeply emarginate. 

The situation and form of the molars also vary in a similar way, as 
does also the depression of the palate. The general form of the skull 
varies greatly in adults of the same sex, as shown by specimens of adult 
males of each of the three North Pacific species now before me; so 
much so, indeed, as to materially alter the relative proportions of the 
different regions. The form of the frontal region, or third segment of 
the skull, is especially liable to great variation, as indicated by the two 
male skulls of Callorhinus ursinus figured in Plate II (Figs. 1 and 2). 
Two skulls of the Zalophus Gillespii, received too late for illustration, 
show much greater differences in this respect than these do. They close- 
ly resemble in relative size and form the two adult male skulls of the 
same species figured in the Fauna Japonica (Mamm., PI. XXII, Figs. 
1 -4). In the figures of these skulls, as seen from above (Fig. 2 and 
3, 1. c, Fauna Japon.), these differences are very strikingly shown. 
Through the deep and abrupt postorbital constriction of the .skull, the 
latero-anterior angles of the brain-case are sometimes well developed, 
whilst in other specimens of the same species, age, and sex, through 
the less abruptness of this constriction, they are either but slightly 
prominent or obsolete. These differences give in one instance a quad- 
rate form to the brain-case, and in the other a triangular form. The 
length of the postorbital cylinder of the skull is also an exceedingly 
variable (dement, the difference amounting in some cases to nearly 
thirty per cent, and hence greatly changes the general form of the 
skull. 

The great degree of asymmetry exhibited by these animals may be 
also cited as evidence of an unusually great tendency to variation* 
Further evidence of the same tendency is seen in the somewhat frequent 
occurrence of supernumerary molars in the upper jaw, — instances of 
which will be presently cited. 

* See remarks on this point beyond, under Ettmetopias Stdleri. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 35 

The form and position of the molars in the same species is also far 
too variable to be of much taxonomic value, even in respect to genera,* 
although they form one of the principal elements on which has been 
based one of the latest generic revisions of the group.f 

The roots of the molars often vary considerably in the two sides of 
the jaw in the same specimen, and most markedly in different co- 
specific specimens of the same sex and age. In one of the males of C. 

* The details of the individual variation shown in numerous points by my specimens 
of the North Pacific species will be more fully given later. 

t In October, 1869, Dr. J. E. Gray published the following classification of the Ola- 
riadce, based, as will be seen, on a few eminently variable characters of the skull and 
teeth. That it should have been otherwise than palpably unnatural and arbitrary could 
hardly be expected. The alleged differences between the genera are very slight, and 
in some cases almost inappreciable, as for instance between Zalophus and Neophoca; 
the really important differences which sometimes exist between the different groups 
being unmentioned. 

" Section I. Palate produced behind to a line even with the condyles of the jaws. Grind- 
ers A — 6 Sea Lions. 
Tribe 1. Otariixa. 

1. Otaria. East and west coast of .South America. 

Section II. Palate only extended behiivl to a line even with the middle part of the zygomatic 
arch. Sea Beaks. 
Tribe 2. Callokiiinixa. Grinders 4~4 ; skull oblong; face broad, shorter than 
the orbit ; forehead arched. 

2. Callorhinus. Northwest coast of America. 

Tribe 3. Arctocephali.na. Grinders £ — | ; face of the skull shelving in front; 
the fifth and sixth grinders behind the front of the zygomatic arch. 

3. Phocaixtos. Grinders large, lobed, the six upper with two notches ou their 

hinder edge. South America. 

4. Arctocephalus. Grinders thick; crown conical. Africa. 

5. Euolaria. Grinders large, subcylindrical; crown conical; fiice broad. South 

America. 

6. Gypsophoca. Grinders moderate-sized, compressed, with a small, more or 

less distinct lobe on the front edge of the cingulum; face narrow, com- 
pressed. Australia. 
Tribe 4. Zalophina. Grinders 4 —1 large, thick, in a close, continuous series; 
the fifth upper in front of the back edge of the zygomatic arch. 

7. ZaUphus. Grinders large and thick, in a close uniform series. South 

America. [ ! ] 

8. Neophoca. Grinders krge, thick, all equal, in a continuous uniform series. 

Australia. 
Tribe 5. Eumetopiina. Grinders s — 4, more or less far apart; the hinder upper 
behind the hinder edge of the zygomatic arch, and separated from the 
other grinders by a concave space. 

9. Eumetopias. West coast of America. 

10. Arctophoca. West coast of South America." 



36 BULLETIN OF THE 

ursinus already mentioned, the fangs of several of the molars have a 
deep longitudinal groove on the outside, the fangs appearing to be 
formed of two connate roots, but in the corresponding molars of the 
other specimen there are no grooves, the fangs being wholly simple. 

Great variations in the form of the teeth and the bones of the skull 
have also been pointed out as existing in several species of the P/tocidce.* 
Naturalists are fast becoming aware of the fact that the bones of ani- 
mals generally are not so invariable in form and proportions as formerly 
supposed, and hence afford less reliable characters for the discrimination 
of species than has been generally believed.f Such facts evidently 
show that too high a value has been placed upon certain relatively 
slight differences in the form of the teeth and certain parts of the skull. 

Color is one of the features commonly much relied on for the dis- 
tinction of species among the higher vertebrates. In the case of the 
Otariadce, as also happens in other groups, this feature proves to be in 
no small degree unreliable. In respect to the hair seals, the three or 
four best known species (Eumetopias Stelleri, Zalophus Gillespii, Z. 
hiatus, and Otariajubata) eo closely resemble each other in color, and 
different individuals of the same species at the same time vary so much 
in this regard, that a description of the color of either of the species 
is almost equally applicable to all. This is equally the case in the 
fur seals, where sometimes specimens of such really widely distinct spe- 
cies as the Callorhinus ursinus and the Arctocephalus falklandicus seem 
hardly distinguishable in color.t 

Habits. 

In respect to general habits the eared seals seem to have much in 
common that distinguishes them from the Pliocidce, at least so far as the 
habits of the latter are known. All the species appear to assemble in 

especially an important paper by Dr. J. E. Gray, entitled " On the Variations 
in the Teeth of the Crested Seal, C !t stopliora cristata," etc., Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc., 1849, 
pp. 00-03. Also, by the same author, another entitled " Notes on Seals {Pliocidce) and 
tin- Changes in the Form of their Lower Jaw during Growth," Ann. and -Mag. Nat. 
Hist., 4th Series, Vol. IV, pp. 342 -346, November, 1869. 

i See " Mammalia of Massachusetts," Bulletin Mus. Comp. Zool., Vol. I, pp. 143- 
252, October, 1869. 

J In respect to a skin of C wsinvs from California, Dr. Gray has remarked: "The 
skin is so like that of Arctocephalm nigrescens [= falklandicus] that we were induced to 
regard it as a second specimen of that species before we received the skull." (Catalogue 
Of Seals and Whales, p. 52.) 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 37 

vast numbers at certain favorite places of resort, — usually isolated rocky 
islands, — for the purpose of reproduction, where they spend several 
weeks or months, when undisturbed, almost entirely on land. They being 
eminently polygamous, the old males select their stations and assemble 
around them a numerous harem, which they guard with the utmost 
jealousy. Numerous bloody combats ensue between the rival males for 
the possession of the females, or for favorite stations, and the roaring 
of the males it is said can be heard for many miles. One young, 
or at most two, are annually brought forth by each mature female, the 
period of gestation being about twelve months. Captain Bryant's 
account* of the habits of the northern fur seal renders unnecessary 
a detailed account of the habits of any of the species here, especially 
since the notes added to Captain Bryant's paper sufficiently indicate 
the similarity of habits which all the species seem to share during the 
important season of reproduction. 

One of the most striking features in their history is that at this period 
both sexes pass weeks, and even months, without food or without often 
visiting the water. Arriving at the breeding-grounds exceedingly fat 
and unwieldy, they seem to be sustained by the fat of their bodies, they 
finally leaving at the end of the breeding-season greatly emaciated. 

A similar fact has been long known in respect to the walrus, whose 
period of fasting, however, seems to be shorter than that of the eared seals. 

In respect to breeding habits, the sea elephant (Macrorhinus elephan- 
tinus) is the sole species of the earless seals which seems to quite 
closely resemble the Otariadce. They as.-emble in a similar manner at 
their breeding-grounds, and pass much of their time during the repro- 
ductive period on the land, and probably without taking food; but the 
accounts of travellers are on this point somewhat, contradictory. It 
does not appear, however, that they are to so great a degree polyga- 
mous. And they move on the land with great difficulty, and go but a 
short distance from the water. 

Of the Genera and Species. 
Of (lie Genera. — The genus Otaria was, as previously stated, pro- 
posed to embrace all the eared seal> as a group distinct from the earless 
seals, for which the name P/i oca was retained. But naturalists have 
found it necessary, as our knowledge of these animals has incre ised, to 
• S< - Part IF, beyond. 



38 BULLETIN OF THE 

greatly subdivide each of these groups. Olaria is now restricted to a 
single species; while the original Otaria (=Otariadce), as defined by 
IYron, has been separated into ten groups to which generic rank has 
been accorded ; none of them containing more than a single species. 

The first division of the Otarice was made by F. Cuvier* in 1825, 
who separated them into two genera, Platyrhynchus and At 'otocephalus, 
with the 0. jubata of recent systcmatists as the type of the former, and 
Arctocephulus Delalandii ' (antarctic us) as the type of the latter. Dr. 
Gray,t in 185 9, separated generically the Northern fur seal from Arc- 
tocephalus, under the name of Callorkinus. 

The next subdivision of the group was made by Dr. Gill, + in 18GG, 
who in his " Prodrome of a Monograph of the Pinnipedes," separated 
them into five genera. § These appear to be natural groups, of true 
generic rank, and properly restricted ; and, after a careful examination 
of the subject, and specimens of four of these five types, they appear 
to me to include all the natural genera of the family. As has been 
previously pointed out by Gray and Peters, || Dr. Gill, as he himself 
now freely admits, wrongly retained the name Arctocephulus for Gray's 
genus Callorkinus, and consequently substituted Ilalarctus for what had 
previously been regarded as Arctocephalus. Two of these genera 
(Eumetopias and Callorkinus) iuclude but a single known species each ; 
Otaria has possibly two, Zalophus two, and Arctocephalus, according to 
the views of different writers, three or four. 

Professor Peters, ^[ in 18GG, divided Olaria into seven sections or 
subgenera, he adding two (Phocarctos, type Otaria Hooheri, and Arcto- 
pkoca, type Otaria Philippii, a nominal species-, = Arctocephalus falh- 
landicus) to the number of divisions recognized by Gill. The principal 
character on which the latter (Arctophoca) was first founded proved to 
be an invalid one,** yet it was subsequently transferred by Peters, with 
a slight modification of its diagnosis, to the Arctocephalus falhlandicus. 

* Mem. dii Mus., Vol. XI, p. 205. f Proc. Lond. ZooL Soc, 1859, p. 359. 

| Proc. Essex Institute, Vol. V, p. 7. 

§ Otaria, type Phoca jubata Schreber; Arctocephalus, type Phnca ursina Linne; Eume- 
topias, type Otaria calijorniana Lesson, ■■ Arctocephalus monteriensis Gray; Zalophus, 
type Otaria GiUespii McBain; Halarctus, type Arctocephalus Delalandi Gray. 

|| See above, p. 7 of the " Resume." \\ Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1866, pp. 261, 665. 

** The number of molars of A. Philippii was supposed to be | ~| instead of f — £> 
u- in the other fur seals, but the skull figured and described by Peters as that of this 
species bad evidently lost the fifth (last but one) pair of molars, as shown by his figure 
of the skull. 1'eters himself afterwards referred his A. Philippii to the A. falhlandicus. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 39 

Dr. Gray, in his various papers published since the appearance of Pro- 
fessor Peters 's papers, has not only recognized as genera all the genera 
and subgenera previously proposed by Gill and Peters, including Arcto- 
phoca, with essentially Professor Peters's first diagnosis of it (including 
the dental formula !), but has added three others {Euolaria, Gypsopkoca, 
and Neophoca). Taking into account the nature of the diagnostic 
characters of his pseudo-genera given in his last synopsis of the family * 
his classification is too palpably arbitrary to require a detailed review. 

Of the Species. — For a long period the northern sea lions were by 
most writers regarded as specifically identical with the southern sea 
lions, and the northern sea bears with the southern sea bears. Peron 
in 1816 first called attention to the fact that the northern and southern 
sea lions and sea bears were distinct species. During the following 
twenty-five years many naturalists of high authority still regarded 
them as identical, whilst others considered them as distinct. In 1840 
they were for the last time seriously confounded ; but until within the 
last four years the two species of Zalophus, the one northern and the 
other southern, have been regarded as one. It is now generally be- 
lieved, however, that in no case is the same species found on both sides 
of the equator.! In Peron's time there were commonly believed to be 
but a single species of sea lion and a single species of sea bear. He 
however -affirmed that as many as twenty species of sea bears alone 
were confounded under that name. Since that time many nominal 
species have been described, — doubtless partly in consequence of 
Peron's remark, — until the number of distinct names applied to the 
different sea lions and sea bears exceeds fifty, while probably the num- 
ber of veritable species is not more than ten. This, in fact, is the num- 
ber now most commonly recognized. In consequence of the early con- 
founding of the northern with the southern species, an extraordinary 
complication of synonymy has resulted, several of the earlier names 
having been applied by different writers to several different species. 
The synonomy of some of these species hence embraces a list of ten 
to fifteen different and variously applied names. 

Of the hair seals, four apparently unquestionable species are now well 

* Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4U) Series, Vol. IV, p. 269. This synopsis has already 
been quoted in full on p. 35. 

t See further remarks on this point below, under the head of " Geographical Distri- 
bution." 



40 BULLETIN OF THE 

known, two of which (Enmetopias Stelleri and Zalophus Gillespii) are 
northern, and two {Otaria jubata and Zalophus lubatus*) are southern. 
A fifth species {Otaria Hbokeri), also southern, is likewise commonly 
recognized. But it appears to be known only from specimens in the 
British Museuimf collected many years since at the Falkland Islands, 
and does not seem to have been met with by recent collectors, either at 
the Falklands or elsewhere. It differs from the O.jubata, judging from 
the figures and the not wholly satisfactory descriptions we have of it, 
mainly in having the palatal bones less produced posteriorly; at least 
this is the difference that has been chiefly dwelt on as distinguishing the 
two, although certain differences in the color of the under-side of the 
body have also been mentioned. The skull figured by Gray is evidently 
that of a middle-aged or rather young animal. The form of the bony 
palate corresponds also with what is seen in middle-aged and young spe- 
cimens of other hair seals. Having seen apparently as great differ- 
ences in specimens of the northern species, unquestionably specifically 
identical, as exists between O.jubata and 0. Huoleri, I am led to ques- 
tion whether the specimens described as Otaria \_Phocarctos~] Ilooheri 
may not be an unusual state of Otaria jubata, the only hair seal now 
known to exist in the Falkland Islands; the difference resulting partly 
from age and partly from abnormal development. Not having seen spe- 
cimens of the 0. Hbokeri, I do not presume to assume it to be-referable 
to O.jubata ; my design by this reference is mainly to call attention to 
its somewhat doubtful character. 

Two genera of fur seals are also commonly recognized. One of these 
genera consists of the Callor//inus ursinus, or the fur seal of the North. 
The other genus embraces numerous nominal species, all but one of 
which have been referred by Peters, and also by Gray in his later 
papers, to three species, all of which have a southern distribution. 

* Peron, under the name Otaria cinerea (Voy. mix Terr, austr., Tome II, pp. 54, 77), 
undoubtedly referred to the so-called Zalophus lubatus of recent writers. Although his 
description is rather meagre, the size given, as well as the character of the hair, ami 
•• pei i'u'. the context (at p. 77), render it clear that he must have intended to indicate 
by this name the species mure fully described later by other writers. Pe'ron's name 
was at first used by Gray to designate what he has since called lob tins. Although 
there i> little reason to doubt that PeYon's earlier name of cinerea refers to this species, 
it is perhaps not advisable to substitute for a well-established name one of possibly 
doubtful application. 

t See Catalogues of the British Museum (Seals, 1850, p. 45; Seals and Whales, 1S66, 

p. 54; B !S of Mammalia, p. 110, etc.)- 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOULOGY. 41 

These are, Arctocephalus falldandicus, — one of the earliest described 
species of the family, — A. cinereus and A. antarcticus {= A. Dela- 
landi). A. falldandicus inhabits the shores and islands of Southern 
South America ; A. cinereus, the Australasian Seas ; and A. antarcticus, 
the southern coasts of Africa. These species hence have quite widely 
separated habitats, yet the alleged differences between them are slight, 
while in size, color, character of the pelage, and general conforma- 
tion, they possess many features in common. Their distinctness has at 
times been doubted, and it seems still to remain an open question wheth- 
er they form a single species or three. That the A. falldandicus and 
A. antarcticus hold a close relationship is generally admitted. The A. 
cinereus, or the Australian species, was believed, through certain dif- 
ferences in the fangs of the hinder molars, and the supposed less abund- 
ance of the under-fur, to be quite distinct from the others. Professor 
Peters, in his second paper, placed the A. cinereus and A. antarcticus in 
different subsections of his section Arctocephalus, characterizing them 
as follows: "a. mit sehr sparsamer Unterwolle " (referring to A. 
antarcticus = Olaria pusilla Peters), and "/3. mit reichlicherer Unter- 
wolle" (referring to A. cinereus). It is found, however, that the fur 
of the latter is equally rich with that of the other species.* 

The distribution of these alleged species presents nothing incompati- 
ble with the supposition of their identity. They inhabit islands one 
third as distant from the shores of the South American, African, and 
Australian continents as these islands are from each other. Other 
Pinuipedes, as the sea elephant, range over nearly the same area. 
Moreover, the distance is one of longitude merely, and the physical 
conditions of this wide area are hence nearly uniform. Until favored 
with the opportunity of comparing specimens from these several distant 
points, my opinion as to the identity or diversity of these species must 
remain unsettled. 

In respect to the synonomy of the eared seals, that of the northern 
species will be presently given in full, in connection with the descriptions 
of these species. To that of Otaria j ubata, given so fully by Dr. Gray 
in his first memoir on these animals, may be added, as clearly shown 
already by other writers, f the following recently recognized names: 

* Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Scries, Vol. XVIII, p. 257, 1SGG. 

t For references to the papers wherein the following-named synonymes occur, see the 
"Resume of the recent Contributions to the Natural History of the OUtl^tad<B, , ' anlea, 
pp. 4-19. 



42 BULLETIN OF THE 

Otarla Byronia, 0. leonina, 0. Godeffroyi and 0. Ulloce of Peters, to 
which should be added the "0. Ulloce V McBain (= 0. Graii Giin- 
ther), the 0. leonina Maack, and probably also the 0. Hooker i of Gray. 

To the synonomy of Arctocephalus falklandicus, given by Professor 
Peters, the 0. \_Arctophoca~] Philippii Peters and Gray. 

To that of the A. antarcticus — (=Otaria pusiUa Peters, = Arcto- 
cephalus Delalandi Gray) — given by Professor Peters and in Dr. 
Gray's above-cited catalogues, A. nivosus and A. schisthypero'es Turner 
(= A. schistuperus Giinther). 

To the synonymes of A. australis may doubtless be added the A. 
Forsteri Gray. 

Geographical Distribution. — As long since announced by Peron, 
the Pinnipedes have their habitats as definitely circumscribed as do 
the land mammalia. Previously, as already stated, the northern sea 
lions and sea bears were popularly regarded as specifically identical 
with the southern sea lions and sea bears; and even as late as 1840 
Nilsson entertained the error regarding their identity so universally 
made by the early writers. It has been found, however, that in only 
one instance can the species living north and south of the equator be 
regarded as referable to even the same genus. In this case the species 
living north of the equator (Zalophus Gillcspii) ranges the furthest to 
the southward of the northern species, while its congener living south 
of the equator ranges furthest to the north of any of the southern 
species. The habitat of no species, so far as certainly known, quite 
reaches the tropics.* 

The eared seals hence occupy two distinct areas, separated by the 
broad expanse of the tropical waters. Furthermore, and what is most 
singular in their distribution, none, as is well known, exi>t on the shores 
of the North Atlantic. South of the equator they occupy a broad cir- 
cumpolar belt, extending from near the tropics to the region of antarctic 
ice. Here also they reach their greatest numerical development in 
respect to the number of species; for while three species only are 
known from the northern waters, at least seven are commonly reckoned 
as inhabiting the southern waters. As previously remarked, however, 
this number is probably much too large. 

* There is a skull of Olariujvbata in the Anatomical Museum of Harvard University, 
labelled as having come from " Arica, Peru," but 1 thiuk it doubtful if it was collected 

at that point. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 43 

In respect to genera, the number existing in the northern and south- 
ern waters is equal ; there being two of hair seals and one of fur seals 
at the north, and the same number at the south. One genus, Zcdophus, 
is found both at the North and South. Eumetopias of the North may be 
regarded as represented at the South by Otaria; and Callorhinus of the 
North by Arctocephalus at the South. Callorhinus and Arctocephalus 
are undoubtedly representative groups ; but if we regard the latter as 
composed of three intimately related species instead of one, we shall have 
three species of fur seals at the South against one at the North. Za- 
lopkus is the most southern genus, its single species on each side of the 
equator nearly reaching the tropics, if not actually existing within them 
at Moluccas, as represented by Mr. Murray* in his map of the distri- 
bution of these animals. Another interesting fact is that on the coast of 
Asia the northern species of Zcdophus (Z. Gillespii) is well known to 
inhabit Japan, whilst the home of the southern species (Z. lobatus) in- 
cludes the shores of Australia and the neighboring islands ; so that the 
only two congeneric species of the eared seals distributed on opposite 
sides of the equator are those whose habitats most nearly approach each 
other. The distribution of the species is further indicated in the follow- 
ing conspectus, which is designed to give a concise view of the different 
groups of the eared seals, with their principal distinctive characters, 
affinities, and the geographical distribution of the species.f 

* Geographical Distribution of Mammals, Map XXVIII, 1S66. 

t The following observations respecting the distribution of the eared seals of the 
eastern coast of South America have been kindly communicated to me bv Dr. G. A. 
Maack, who in November and December, 1867, visited the coast of Buenos Ayres for 
the purpose of obtaining specimens of these animals: 

" The eared seals, of the eastern coast of South America, exist especially between the 
34th and 40th degrees of south latitude. North of the Rio de la Plata they occur at the 
Islas de los Lobos, near Maldonado. South of this river they occur in great numbers at 
the Cabo Corrientes, where they frequent the rocks at the base of the vertical and even 
overhanging cliffs (160 to 170 feet high) of these shores. I visited the latter locality 
during the months of November and December, 1867, where I had the opportunity of 
observing these animals alive. But as Professor Burmeister and myself have already 
published the scientific results of this excursions [see above pp. 13 and 18], but little 
requires to be added here. 

"As stated in my paper in ' Der Zoologische Garten ' (Jan., lS70),only two species of 
these animals exist on the eastern coast of South America: one, the Otaria jubata, 
from its having but a single kind of hair, is known to the natives as the Lobo marino con 
unopelo; and the other, Arctocephalus faMmdicus, from having both external hair and 
under-fur, is called the Lobo marino con dos pelos. Of both I obtained specimens. The 



44 BULLETIN OF THE 

Conspectus op the Genera and Species. 

Subfamily I. — TRICII0PII0CIN7E. 

Without under-fur. Size large and form robust. Ears short and broad. 
Molars either f = f = If or f = \ — \%. 

I. Genus Otabia Gill ex Per on. 
Palatines usually extending nearly to the pterygoid processes (sometimes 
reaching them and sometimes terminating considerably anterior to them) ; 
their posterior margin generally nearly straight. Molars £ ~ | = *§• 

1. Olaria jubata Blainv.* Habitat: Coasts and islands of South Amer- 
ica, from Chili, (Arica, Peru ?) on the west, and the Rio de la Plata 
southward to the Antarctic Islands. 

II. Genus Eumetopias Gill. 

Palatines much less produced posteriorly than in Otaria. Molars 

6 — 5 — 1 '1 
5 5 10" 

2. Eumetopias Slelleri Peters. Habitat : Coasts and islands of the 
North Pacific, from California and Southern Kamtchatka northward. 

III. Genus Zalopiius Gill. 

3.< Zalophus Gillespii Gill. Habitat : Coasts and islands of the North 
Pacific, from Lower California and Southern Japan northward. 

4. Zulophus lobalus Peters. Habitat: Australasian Seas, especially 
the shores of Australia and New Holland. 

Subfamily II. — OULOPIIOCIN.E. 

With thick under-fur. Size smaller; form more slender, and the ears, 
and the toe-flaps of the hinder limbs, much longer than in Trichophocince. 
Molars f-f=i|. 

IV. Genus Callorhinus Gray. 

5. CaUorhinus ursinus Gray. Habitat : The continental coasts and 
islands of the North Pacific, from California and Southern (V) Kamtchatka 
northward. 

male* anil females of Otaria jubata arc both abundant at the Cabo Corrientes, where in 
the month of I ember they bring forth their young; but of tin- Arctocepkalus I ob- 
served only in ili'-- The females of the latter are entirely unknown at this point, this 
species probably repairing to other localities to breed. One of the native gauchos in- 
formed me that, during the fifteen years he had been accustomed to kill them here, he 
had never met with a female." 
* Including Olaria Hvohcri Gray et auct. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 45 

V. Genus Arctocephalus F. Cuvier. 

6. Arctocephalus falklandicus Gray. Habitat: Coasts and islands of 
South America, from Chili on the west and the Rio de la Plata southward 
to the Antarctic Islands. 

? 7. Arctocephalus cinereus* Gray. Habitat: Southern shores of Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand and the islands to the southward. 

? 8. Arctocephalus antarcticus* Gray. Habitat: Southern coast of Africa 
and the adjoining islands. 



3. On the North Pacific Species of Otartad^e. 

Subfamily I. — TRICHOPHOCIX.E. 

Without under-fur. Size large and form robust. Ears short. Molars 
either | = | = if, or -|-|=i°- 

Genus Eumetopias Gill. 

Eumetopias Gill, Proc. Essex Institute, V, 7, 11. July, 1866. Type "Otaria 
californiana Lesson, = Arctocephalus monteriensis Gray." 

Molars |- ~ f = \% ; the upper hinder pair separated from the others 
by a considerable interval ; the last only double rooted. Postorbital 
processes quadrate. Palatine surface of the intermaxillaries flat, only 
slightly depressed, and greatly contracted posteriorly ; the palatals mod- 
erately produced, extending about three fourths of the distance from the 
anterior end of the zygomatic arch to the pterygoid process ; their pos- 
terior margin straight, or slightly or deeply emarginate ; rarely deeply so 
in old age. 

Eumetopias hence differs from Otaria, ns restricted by Gill, in hav- 
ing one pair less of upper molars,f a much less posterior extension of 
the palatine bones, and in having the posterior portion of the surface 
of the intermaxillaries less than one third, instead of more than one 
half, the width of the anterior portion, and but slightly instead of deeply 
depressed ; also in the form of the postorbital processes, which in 
Eumetopias are quadrate, while in Otaria they form an obtuse, nearly 
equilateral triangle, the apex of which points outward. In Otaria they 
are also more produced. In the general character of the pelage, in 
color, in proportions and size, there seems to be a close resemblance 

* Perhaps the A. cine7-etis and the A. antarcticus are to be referred to the A. falkland- 
icus, in which case the habitat of this species is the southern seas generally, 
t See the characters of Otaria given in the preceding " Conspectus," p. 43. 



46 BULLETIN OF THE 

between the single known species of Eumetopias (E. Stelleri) and the 
single known species of Otaria (0. jubata). 

Eumetopias differs from Zalophus through the presence of a wide 
space between the fourth and fifth pairs of upper molars, the less 
emargination of the posterior border of the palatine bones, the quad- 
rate instead of the triangular and posteriorly pointed form of the post- 
orbital processes, the less relative breadth of the posterior nares, and 
the larger size of the facial angle ; also through its much broader muz- 
zle, the less degree of the postorbital constriction of the skull, and its 
much less developed sagittal crest. It differs from Neophoca Gray, as 
nearly as can be determined from the published figures and defective 
descriptions, in nearly the same manner. 

Eumetopias Stelleri Peters. Steller's Sea Lion. 

Leo marinus Steller, Nov. Coram. Petrop., XI, 360, 1751. 

" Phoca jubata Schreber, Saugeth., 300, lxxxiii, 1775 (in part only; not P. 

jubata Forster)." 
Phoca jubata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 63, 1788 (in part). 

" " Pander and D'Alton, Skelete der Robben und Lamant., PI. 
Ill, Figs, d, e, f, 1826. 
Otaria jubata P£ron, Voyage Terr, austr., II, 40, 1816. 

" " Nilsson, Arch. f. Naturgesch., 1841, 329 (in part only}. 
Otaria Stelleri Lesson, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat., XIII, 420, 1828. 
Phoca Stelleri Fischer, Synop. Mam., 231, 1829. 
Otaria Stelleri J. Muller, Arch. f. Naturgesch., 1841, 330, 333. 

" " Gray, Cat Seals in Brit. Mus., 47, 1850. 

" " Sclater, Proc. ZooL.Soc, 1868, 190. 

" " Gray, Cat. Seals and Whales in Brit. Mus., 60, 1866. 

Otaria (Eumetopias) Stelleri Peters, Monatasb. Akad. Berlin, 1866, 274, 671. 
Eumetopias Stelleri Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Ser., XVIII, 233. 
Otaria cali forniana Lesson, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat., XIII, 420, 1828. 
Phoca califurniana Fischer, Synop. Mam., 231, 1829. 
Eumetopias californianus Gill, Proc. Essex Inst., V, 13, July, 1866. 
Arctocephalus monteriensis Gray, Proc. Zoiil. Soc., 1859, 360, PI. lxxii (in part).* 
Le Lion marin Buffon, Hist. Nat, Suppl., VI, 337, 1782 (in part). 
Leonine Seal Pennant, Arctic Zoology, I, 200 (in part). 

Color. — General color of the upper side of the body varying from pale 
yellowish brown to reddish brown ; much darker towards the tail, and not 

* Excluding the skin (and young skull?), here doubtfully referred to A. monteriensis, 
and afterwards described by the same author as A. californianus, in Cat. Seals and 
Whales, p. 51 (1866). 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 47 

unfrequently marked on the back and sides with irregular-shaped dark 
brown patches. The sides below the median line are reddish, shading 
above into the lighter color of the back, and below into the darker color 
of the lower surface. Lower side of the body dusky reddish-brown, darkest 
on the hinder portion of the abdomen. Limbs dark reddish-brown, ap- 
proaching black, especially externally. 

"While the general aspect of the color is as above indicated, the hairs 
individually greatly vary in color. While some are entirely pale yellow- 
ish, others are yellowish only at the tip, and dark below, and others are 
dark reddish-brown or nearly black throughout. The mixture of these 
two colors gives a brindled appearance on some parts of the body, and to 
a much greater extent in some specimens than in others. The relative 
proportion of the light and dark hairs determine the general color of the 
different regions of the body. 

The color appears to vary much in different individuals, not only with 
age and sex, but irrespective of sex and age. 

Hair. — The hair is of two kinds, the outer of which is straight, coarse, 
stiff, and flattened. Beneath this is an exceedingly sparse, very short, 
finer under-coat, so short and in such small quantity as to be detected only 
with difficulty. The hair is longest on the anterior half of the body, 
where it has an average length of 40 mm. ; it decreases in length pos- 
teriorly, and towards the tail has an average length of only 15 mm. It is 
still shorter on the abdomen, whilst on the limbs it is much more reduced, 
and disappears entirely towards the ends of the digits. The end of the 
nose, the soles and palms, the anal region, and the extra-digital cartilagi- 
nous flaps are naked and black. The whiskers are long, slender, and cylin- 
drical, white or brownish-white, and set in four or five rather indistinct 
rows. Some of the longest sometimes reach a length of 50 cent., or about 
twenty inches, with a maximum thickness of 2 mm. 

Size. — The length of full-grown males is about twelve or thirteen feet. 
According to Captain Bryant they frequently reach the latter size, and a 
weight of from fifteen to eighteen hundred pounds. The females, he ob- 
serves, are much more slender than the males, and do not attain to more 
than one fourth the weight of the latter. 

Ears. — The ears (Fig. 8, PI. I) are short and pointed, but much broader 
than those of the Northern fur seal (Fig. 13, PI. II), though of only half 
their length. 

Hind Limbs. — The hind feet (Fig. 7, PI. I, -^ nat. size) are broad 
and, gradually widening from the tarsus, reach their greatest breadth at 
the end of the toes. Their length is short as compared to their breadth, 
the distance between the ends of the outer toes when spread nearly equal- 
ling the whole length of the foot. The toes are terminated with strong 



48 



BULLETIN OF THE 



cartilaginous flaps, covered with a thick leathery naked membrane, which 
is deeply indented opposite the intervals between the toes, and serves to 
connect the rather diverging digits. The three middle toes are provided 
with long, well-developed nails ; the outer toes are without true nails, but 
in place of them are thickened, horny disks, which may be regarded as 
rudimentary nails, which an examination of the skeleton shows them to 
be. The outer toes are slightly shorter than the three middle ones, which 
are sub-equal. 

Fore Limbs. — The fore feet (Fig. 6, PI. I, fa nat. size) are large, tri- 
angular, and situated but a little in front of the middle of the body. 
They terminate in a thick, hard, membranous flap, which is slightly and 
somewhat irregularly indented on the inner side. The terminations of the 
digits are indicated by small circular horny disks or rudimentary nails. 

Measurements. — The following table of external measurements of two 
males, one very aged and the other mature, indicates the general propor- 
tions of the body. A part were taken from the moist skins before stuffing, 
and the others from the same skins mounted. 



Measurements of Two Skins of Eumetopias Stelleri. 





No. 2920. 


No. 23 


21. 




£ 10 years old. 


J 1 5 years old. 


Unmounted. 


Mounted. 


Unmounted. 


Mounted. 


Length of body 


2,750 


2,790 


2,896 


3,010 


" " tail . ... 


100 


100 





110 


Extent of outstretched fore limbs . . " 


2,362 











Length of hand ..... 


57.'. 


560 


C35 


620 


Breadth" " 


3.37 


335 





360 


Length " foot ..... 


559 


540 





610 


Breadth " " at tarsus 


2 Hi 


210 





230 


" " " " ends of the toe-flaps 


4^3 


4 15 





440 


Length of flaps of outer toe . 


200 


200 





220 


" " " " 'id toe . 


171) 


156 





210 


" " " " .'id toe 


152 


147 





190 


" " " " 4th toe . 


164 


150 





190 


" " " " inner toe . 


164 


150 





165 


Distance from end of nose to eye 


215 


190 





170 


" '" " " ear . 


368 


365 





380 


" between the eyes . 


190 


195 





210 


" " ears 


372 


370 





420 


Length of the ear .... 


37 


35 





35 


" " longest harhulc 


342 


342 








I)i-t between points of longest barbulcs 


SOU 


800 








Circumference of the body at fore limbs 





2, -.'5(1 





2,600 


" " " near the tail 





1,000 





1,020 


" " head at the cars 





1 000 





(ISO 


Length of body to end of hind limbs . . 






3,450 




3,790 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 49 

Skull — The skull (Figs. 3 and 4, woodcuts, pp. 57-58, and Figs. 1 -4, PL 
I) varies greatly in different individuals, not only in its general form, but 
in the shape of its different bones. The occipital and median crests are 
doubtless not much developed before the fifth or sixth year. The bones 
thicken greatly after the animal attains maturity, and the palate becomes 
more flattened. In the adult male the brain-box may be described as 
subquadrate, narrower anteriorly, where the skull is abruptly contracted. 
The greatest diameter of the skull is at the posterior end of the zygoma, 
and is equal to three fifths of its length. The post-orbital processes are 
strongly developed and quadrate ; the forehead is flat, and the facial pro- 
file is either abruptly or gradually declined ; the muzzle is broad, equal 
in breadth in front to the distance between the orbits. The palatal sur- 
face of the intermaxillaries is flat, or slightly depressed anteriorly, and very 
slightly contracted posteriorly. Laterally the intermaxillaries reach nearly 
to the end of the palatals. The latter are much contracted posteriorly, 
and terminate quite far in front of the hamuli pterygoidii. Both the 
anterior and posterior nares are a little narrower than high. The nasals 
are widest anteriorly. The last (fifth) pair of upper molars is placed 
far behind the fourth pair, the space between them being about equal 
to that occupied by two molars. The males in old age have exceed- 
ingly high occipital and sagittal crests, most developed posteriorly ; an 
teriorly they diverge and terminate in the hinder edge of the postorbital 
processes. 

The lower jaw is massive and strong. Its coronoid processes are greatly 
developed, as are the tuberosities at the angles of the rami, and a second 
tuberosity on the lower inner edge of each ramus (see Figs. 9-11, 
PI. III). 

It should be added that the above description of the skull refers ex- 
clusively to the male. Having no skulls of the female, I am unable to 
state definitely how the sexes differ in respect to the form of the skull. 
Judging, however, from the sexual variations seen in Callorhinus ur sinus, 
Otaria jubata, and other species of the Olariadce, the skull of the female 
would be not only very much smaller, but it would lack almost totally the 
high occipital and sagittal crests exhibited by the male, and have all the 
processes for the attachment of muscles less developed. The teeth, es- 
pecially the canines, are relatively much smaller, as is also the lower jaw. 
In other words, the female skull would doubtless closely resemble the skull 
of a yearling male. The annexed table of measurements indicates still 
further the general form of the male skull and the relative proportions of 
its different regions. 



50 



BULLETIN OF THE 



Measurements of the Skull. 



Length 

Breadth 

Dist. from ant edge of intermaxillary to hamuli pterygoids 
" " " " to last molar (left side) 

" " " " " (right side) 

" " " " to ant. edge of zygm. arch 

" "- " " post. " " 

" " " " to auditory orifice 

Length of left palatine bone (inner edge) 
" " " " " (outer edge) 

" " right " " (inner edge) 

" " " " " (outer edge) 

Breadth of right palatine anteriorly .... 

left " " .... 

" right " posteriorly .... 

left " " .... 

Distance from edge of palatals to ptyg. process 

" " " last molar to post, edge of palatals 

(left side) 

Depression of palate below alveoli of canines 

" " " " 2d and 3d molars . 

" " " " 4th molar . 

Length of the nasals (outer edge) 

" " " (inner edge) .... 

Breadth of nasals (anteriorly) 

" " " (posteriorly) 

" of the skull at the canines 

" " " postorbital processes . 

" " " paroccipital " 

" " anterior nares (vertical) 

" " " (transverse) . •?. 

" " posterior nares (vertical) 

" (transverse) 

Length of zygomatic foramen 

Breadth " ...... 

Diameter of foramen magnum (transverse) 

" " " " (anteroposterior) 

Greatest height of skull (paroc. proc. to top of occip. crest) 
Distance from lower edge of condyles " 
Height of skull from hamuli pteryg. to top of sagittal crest 

Length of sagittal crest 

Greatest height of skull 

Length of lower jaw ....... 

Breadth of the lower jaw at the condyles 
" " " last molar 

" " " in front .... 

" • " condyle 

Height of lower jaw at the coronoid process 

" at symphysis 



No. 2920. 


No. 2921. 


Middle aged. 


Very old. 


$ 


8 


374 


385 


220 


246 


243 


247 


160 


160 


160 


150 


140 


140 


246 


250 


290 


300 


50 


64 


55 


68 


45 


63 


49 


63 


16 


19 


19 


21 


12 


16 


13 


18 


48 


46 


32 


42 


19 


17 


41 


38 


18 


20 


60 


64 


47 


48 


32 


38 


45 


44 


95 


110 


120 


130 


200 


235 


54 


54 


48 


55 


32 


42 


30 


36 


116 


120 


80 


80 


30 


33 


33 


36 


145 


165 


132 


140 


150 


160 


80 


180 


38 


35 


270 


280 


185 


210 


100 


110 


65 


65 


60 


60 


85 


95 


65 


75 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY, 



51 



Teeth. — Last upper molar is double-rooted, and its crown directed back- 
wards. All the other molars are single-rooted, with a slight median longi- 
tudinal groove on the outside. Their crowns are irregularly conical, 
pointed, and jut out over their contracted necks ; inner side of the crowns 
hollowed. Surface of the crowns roughened with minute, longitudinal 
grooves and ridges. The upper molars have no trace of the supplemental 
points to the crowns seen in many species of this family. The lower 
molars, particularly the third and fourth, have very slight accessory cusps. 
Necks of the molars uniform in size with the upper part of the fangs. 
Fangs of the molars gradually tapering, those of the first and second 
upper much curved inwards ; that of the third less so ; that of the fourth 
straight ; the two fangs of the fifth are directed abruptly forward, the 
posterior one much the smaller. Canines of both jaws very large, the 
upper, however, much the larger; the lower more curved. Of the six 
incisors- of the upper jaw, those of the outer pair are much larger than 
the middle ones, two thirds as long as the canines, and much like them in 
form. The middle ones have their antero-posterior diameter nearly twiee 
their lateral diameter, and their crowns are divided transversely. The 
fangs of the inner pair are slightly bifid. Of the four lower incisors the 
outer are much the longer. Figures 5-5 e (one half natural size), Plate I, 
shows the form of the teeth, and the subjoined table their size.* 

Measurements of the Teeth. 
A. — Teeth of the Upper Jaw. 



a 


Molars. 


1) 

a 

i 
o 


Incisors. 


5th. 


4th. 


3d. 


2d. 


1st. 


Outer. 


Middle. 


Inner. 


Total length . 
Length of the crown 

" " neck f 

" " root X 
Antero posterior diameter $ 
Lateral diameter § 


27 
9 

6 
12 

11.5 

6.5 


33 
13 

6 
14 
13 

9 


36 
13 
6 
15 
13 
10 


37 
13 
6 
18 
13 
10 


40 
11 
6 
23 
11.5 
8.5 


84 

34 

6 

24 
20 


63 
23 

7 

15 
12 


29 
5 

7 

7 
5 


25 
4 

7 

6 
4 



* These figures and dimensions (the latter given in millimetres) are taken from the 
younger or middle-aged specimen, in which the dentition was perfect and normal. In 
old age many of the teeth are usually broken, and a portion of them often entirely 
wanting, through loss from accident. As the lower canines could not be removed with- 
out removing a portion of the jaw, they have not been figured nor fully measured. 

t The distance from the crown to the alveolus^ _ 

\ The portion of the tooth inserted in the jaw. - 

§ At the base of the crown. 



52 



BULLETIN OF THE 
B — Teeth of the Lower Jaw, 





Molars. 


o 
c 

'3 


Incisors. 


6th. 


4th. 

42 
12 

5 
25 
13 

9 


3d. 

42 
14 
5 
23 
15 
10 


2d. 


1st. 

30 
10 
5 
15 
10.5 
8.5 


Outer. 


Iuner. 


Total length .... 
Length of the crown 

" " neck* . 

" " roott . 
Anteroposterior diameter t • 
Lateral diameter \ 


28 

10 

5 

13 

9 
G 


39 
12 

5 

22 

12.5 

9 


35 

7 

26 
17 


31 

8 

4 

9 


25 
5 
4 

16 
6 
5 



Skeleton. — Vertebral formula: Cervical vertebra?, 7; dorsal, 15; lum- 
bar, 5; caudal (including the four sacral), variable; probable average, 16. 

Ten of the fifteen ribs articulate with the sternum ; their sternal por- 
tions are entirely cartilaginous. Their osseous portions evidently increase 
much in length after middle age. The apophyses of the vertebra} are 
well developed. Of the neural spines of the dorsal vertebras, the first, 
secondhand third are sub-equal, 130 mm. long; they gradually shorten 
posteriorly, the last having a length of only 75 mm. 

The sternum is normally composed of nine osseous thick and broad 
segments, the first and last very long, the eighth shortest. Between the 
eighth and ninth a shorter cartilaginous one is sometimes intercalated (as 
in specimen No. 2920). 

The pelvis (already fully described on pages 27- 29) is well developed. 
The ilia are very long and narrow antero-posteriorly. The pubic bones 
are unanchylosed, they being merely approximate at their posterior ex- 
tremities. Probably in the females (as in Callorhinus ursinus), they are 
widely separated, and the whole pelvis much smaller than in the males 
and differently shaped. 

The humeri, as in the other Pinnipedes, are short and thick, with the 
greater tuberosity enormously developed. The bones of the fore-arm are 
also very -large and strong, with all their processes greatly developed; in 
length they but slightly exceed the humerus. The length of neither of the 
segments of the arm quite equals the length of the bones of the first digit 
(including its metacarpal bone) of the hand. The first digit of the hand 
is the longest, twice as long as the fifth, and very thick anil strong. 

The bones of the hinder limbs are also short and thick, especially the 
femur, which is scarcely more than one third as long as the tibia. The 
latter in length about equals the foot. The relative length of the digits 

* The distance from the crown to the alveolus, 
t The portion inserted in the jaw. 
J At the base of the crown. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



53 



is as follows, the longest being mentioned first: 5th, 1st, 2d, 3d, and 
4th. The third and fourth are of equal length, and but little shorter than 
the second. In fespect to size, the tarsal and phalangeal bones of the fifth 
digit are nearly twice as large as those of the first, whilst those of the first 
are about twice the size of those of either of the other three. As pre- 
viously noticed, the three middle digits of the foot are supplied with long 
narrow nails ; the first and fifth with rudimentary ones, scarcely visible in 
the skin but quite distinct in the skeleton. 



Measurements of the Bones of the Hand (metacarpal and phalangeal). 





Middle-aged Specimen. 


Very old Specimen. 


1st 2d 


3d 


4th 


5th 


1st 


2d 


3d 


4th 


5th 




digit, digit. 


digit. 


digit. 


digit. 


digit. 


digit. 


digit. 


digit. 


digit. 


Length of metacarpal and 




















phalanges . 


352 310 


240 


200 


177 


357 


320 


250 


205 


185 


Length of metacarpal bone 


152 110 


85 


80 


80 


160 


110 


90 


80 


85 


" " 1st phalanx . 


140 95 


70 


55 


65 


140 


95 


70 


60 


65 


" " 2d " . 


60 ' 80 


60 


45 


20 


57 


80 


65 


45 


18 


" " 3d 


25 


25 


20 


12 





35 


25 


20 


17 



Measurements of the Bones of the Foot {metatarsal and phalangeal). 





Middle-aged Specimen. 


Very old Specimen. 


1st 


2d 


3d 


4th 


5th 


1st 


2d 


3d 


4th 


5th 




digit. 


digit. 


digit. 




digit. 


digit. 


digit. 


digit 


digit. 


digit. 


digit. 


Length of metatarsal and 












phalanges . 


310 


290 


290 


305 


328 


320 


317 


327 


350 


350 


Length of metatnrsal bone 


120 


95 


95 


110 


130 


145 


110 


110 


120 


130 


" " 1st phalanx . 


140 


90 


90 


90 


93 


130 


100 


105 


105 


110 


" " 2d " . 


50 


75 


75 


80 


70 


45 


80 


85 


95 


75 


" "3d 





30 


30 


25 


35 





27 


27 


30 


35 


" " nail 





40 


40 


37 








50 


55 


50 






The hyoid bone is greatly developed. Each ramus consists of five 
segments, its two rami being connected together by a transverse segment 
articulating with the juncture of the fourth and fifth segments. All the 
parts of the hyoid bone are very thick, especially the transverse and an- 
terior . segments ; relatively much more so than in Callnrhinm. In the 
common Phoca the hyoid bone is reduced almost to a bony filament. 
The length of the hyoid bone in the present species is 270 mm.; of the 
transverse segment, G5 mm. ; circumference of the transverse segment, 45 
mm. ; of the segment at the thickest part, 95. 



54 



BULLETIN OF THE 
Measurements of the Skeleton. 





-6 


2 




© o 


— o 




<N M 


&> M 




<J> U 


o >-. 




CM ". 


CM ". 










J? <=> 


6 o 




^~ 


^ - 




2,750 


2,935 


Whole length of skeleton (including skull) . 


Length of skull 


374 


385 


" " cervical vertebrae 


500 


540 


" " dorsal " 


1,051) 


1,090 


" " lumbar " ...... 


340 


400 


" " caudal " ...... 


440 


520 


" " first rib ........ 


260 


224 


" " " osseous portion ..... 


130 


140 


" " " cartilaginous portion .... 


130 


100 


" " second rib 


345 


295 


" osseous portion ..... 


175 


185 


" " " cartilaginous portion 


170 


120 


" " third rib ....... . 


410 


410 


" " " osseous portion ..... 


231) 


270 


" cartilaginous portion .... 


180 


140 


" " fourth rib 


470 


470 


" " " osseous portion ..... 


280 


330 


" cartilaginous portion 


190 


140 


" fifth rib 


535 


5 50 


" " " osseous portion ..... 


320 


370 


" " " cartilaginous portion .... 


215 


160 


" " sixth rib . 


580 


590 


" " " osseous portion ..... 


360 


420 


" " " cartilaginous portion 


220 


170 


" " seventh rib ....... 


640 


620 


" osseous portion .... 


400 


440 


" " " cartilaginous portion 


240 


ISO 


" " eighth rib ...... . 


670 


670 


" " " osseous portion 


420 


480 


" " " cartilaginous portion 


250 


190 


" " ninth rib 


710 


685 


" " osseous portion .... 


420 


485 


" " " cartilaginous portion .... 


290 


200 


" " tenth rib 


750 


745 


" " " osseous portion ..... 


420 


4^5 


" " " cartilaginous portion 


330 


260 


" " eleventh rib, osseous portion only 


430 


510 


" " twelfth rib " " " . . . 


490 


500 


" " thirteenth rib " " " ... 


450 


470 


" " fourteenth rib " " " 


410 


460 


" " fifteenth rib " " " ... 


340 


350 


" " sternum (ossified portion) .... 


7(10 


840 


" " " 1st segment ..... 


130 


1st) 


2d 


70 


90 


" " 3d 


70 


85 


" 4th 


65 


so 


" " " 5th " 


63 


85 


" 6th 


60 


75 


7th 


60 


73 


8th 


55 


65 


9th " 


70 


77 


" " " supernum. cartilag. seg.(bet. 8th and 9th) 


30 


— 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



55 



Length of scapula . 

Breadth of " .... 

Greatest height of its spine . 

Length of humerus .... 
Circumference of its head . 
Least circumference of the humerus 
Length of radius . 

" " ulna .... 
Longest diameter of upper end of ulna 
Length of carpus .... 
" " metacarpus and 1st digit 

" 2d " 

" " " " 3d " 

« « « 4 t h '• 

" 5[h « 

" " femur 
Circumference of neck 
Length of tibia 
" " fibula 
" " tarsus 
" " metatarsus and 1st iiigit 

" 2d " 

" " " " 3d " 

<< 4t h " 

" 5th " 

" " innominate bone 
Greatest width of the pelvis anteriorly 
Length of ilium .... 

" " ischio-pubic bones 

" " thyroid foramen 

" " os penis . 
Width of hand at base of digits 

" " foot " " . 



£2 



830 
350 

45 
300 
300 
170 
260 
510 
100 

80 
350 
310 
240 
200 
170 
170 
125 
320 
310 
140 
310 
290 
290 
305 
227 
320 
140 
140 
140 

170 
160 
130 



© m 



370 
380 
52 
285 
290 
180 
SCO 
310 
130 
80 
360 
320 
250 
2,050 
1 ,850 
220 
ISO 
340 
330 
160 
270 
290 
270 
285 
310 
360 
160 
160 
200 
200 
170 

140 



The os penis (Fig. 13, Plate III) is 170 mm. long, slightly arched, 
somewhat flattened above, especially posteriorly, sharply convex below, 
and abruptly expanded and squarely truncate at the end. Its circumfer- 
ence at the base is 72 mm.; just behind the terminal expansion, 32 mm.; 
and the terminal expansion itself, G5 mm. 

The above table gives the principal measurements of the bones of 
the skeleton. Measurements of both specimens are given, as in previous 
tables, for the purpose of illustrating the variations that occur in the rela- 
tive size of different parts after maturity is attained, and also for the pur- 
pose of illustrating individual variation, which in some particulars these 
specimens exhibit in a marked degree. The ribs, it will be observed, dif- 
fer but slightly in total length in the two; not nearly so much as would be 
expected from the much greater bulk of the body of the older specimen. 
It will be noticed that the principal differences in the ribs consist in the 



56 BULLETIN OF THE 

relative length of the bony to the. cartilaginous portions, in the older the 
ossified portion being much longei and the cartilaginous much shorter than 
in the other. An irregularity will be also observed in respect to the ster- 
nal segments, the younger specimen having a supernumerary cartilagi- 
nous one between the 8th and 9th normal ones. 

Age and Sexual Variations. — In regard to the present species my ma- 
terial does not furnish many facts in respect to these points, since the two 
males contained in Captain Bryant's collection constitute at present my 
only resources. These examples, he writes me, were selected " as average 
specimens of full-grown males, but in the selection," he says, " we were 
governed somewhat by the desire to have skins perfectly haired, many of 
the animals being chafed by the rocks, even to having sores." " I should 
estimate," he further adds, "the age of one of them to be nine or ten 
years, that of the other fifteen." These specimens, however, differ consid- 
erably from each other in color, size, and proportions. Some of these dif- 
ferences are clearly due to age, but others equally great cannot be thus 
explained. These specimens show that the body increases greatly in bulk, 
and the bones in size and density, after the animal has reached its adult 
length. The crests of the skull are almost wholly developed after this 
period, and in great measure also the spines or ridges of the scapulae. 
The processes for the attachment of the muscles also increase, as do the 
vertebral or osseous portions of the ribs. The teeth also change greatly 
in size and form after maturity is attained. They not only increase in size, 
especially the canines, but become much worn and misshapen by long use. 
In old specimens a greater or less proportion of the teeth are said to be either 
entirely wanting or broken, as is the case in the older of the two specimens 
before me.* Respecting the younger stages I am without data, as well as 
in respect to sexual variation. In these points the present species dot's 
not probably differ much from Callorhinus ursinus, adult females and the 
young of which are described further on. It is well known, however, that 
the females are much smaller than the males ; as already suggested, they 
doubtless" also lack the greatly developed sagittal and occipital crests of 
the males, as do the females of C. ursinus and Otaria jubata. 

Individual Variation. — The present specimens, though only two in 
number and of different ages, indicate that the species under consideration 
is subject to a great amount of individual variation. This variation is strik- 
ingly shown in the skull, as seen in tin' following woodcuts (pp. 57-58). 
After allowing for the differences age would make, as in the smaller size of 
the sagittal crest, the rounded outline of the front edges of the inter- 
maxillaries, the smaller size of the postorbital processes, the greater dis- 
tinctness of the sutures, and perhaps the more sloping outline of the fore- 

* See Eig. 3, Plate I. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 
Fig. 1.* Fig. 2.t 



57 





head in the younger (Figs. 1 and 4), there is left a radical difference in 
the general form of the two skulls, which must have increased as the 
younger animal advanced in years. In length the two skulls vary only about 
a tenth of an inch; the younger, however, is considerably the narrower and 
much deeper, especially posteriorly, while its facial angle is much less. 
The direction of the latero-occipital crests, the form and projection of 
the occipital condyles, and especially their situation relative to the par- 
occipital processes, are exceedingly different in the two skulls, as clearly 
shown in Figs. 3 and 4, — as different as might be expected to occur in 

Fig. 3.J 




* Fig. 1, anterior portion of trie skull of No. 2920 (left side), showing the form of tho 
nasals the zygomatic and postorbital processes, and the posterior outline of the inter- 
maxillaries, soon from above. 

t Fig. 2, same of No. 2921. t Fig. 3, skull of No. 2921, seen in profile. 



58 



BULLETIN OF THE 



quite distinct species. In the anterior portion of the skull the differences 
are nearly as great as in the posterior portion. In the older skull the 
ratio of the height of the skull at the base of the second molar to its 
height at the base of the fourth is as 81 to 100; the corresponding ratio 

Fig. 4.* 




in the younger skull is as 74 to 100. It may be added that the same ratio 
in Dr. Gray's figure of the skull of Zalophus Gillespii\ is as 70 to 100, 
showing that the younger skull in this character more resembles the Z. Gil- 
lespii, — which different writers have spoken of as remarkable for the great 
declination of the face, — than it does the older skull of the same species. 
There are also great differences in the relative length and shape of the 
nasal bones, and in the form of the posterior outline of the intermaxillaries 
(Figs. 1 and 2). In the younger specimen they extend further back than 
in the older, further even than the end of the nasals, while in the older the 
nasals extend beyond the intermaxillaries. 

In respect, to the posterior aspect of the skull (Figs. 2 and 4, Plate I), 
the differences are no less great. The height of the occipital bone is about 
fifteen per cent greater in the young skull (Fig. 2, PL I), which would be 
much increased by age through the further development of the supraoc- 
cipital crest. The breadth of the occiput above is equal in the two; below 
it is fifteen per cent greater in the older (Fig. 4, PI. I). 

In the lower surface of the skull (Figs. 1 and 3, Plate I) other consider- 
able differences are observable, and of such a nature that they cannot be 
dec! as resulting from age. In the older skull, as previously remarked, 
the bones are in general much thicker than in the younger; but in re- 

* Fig. 4, skull of No. 2920, same view. 

t l'i'oc. London Zoi 1. Society, lbu'J, PI. LXX. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 59 

spect to the hamuli pterygoidei, the younger skull has these processes 
longer and stouter than they are in the older. The posterior nares are 
narrower and higher in the younger, — a difference correlating with the 
general differences in form of the skull in the two specimens, the nares in 
the younger being relatively narrow and high as compared with those of 
the other. The comparative measurements of these skulls already given 
(p. 49) show definitely the amount of these differences. The palatine 
surface of the intermaxillaries is less depressed in the older skull. 

In respect to other portions of the skeleton, considerable differences 
other than those obviously resulting from age are met with. The smaller 
and younger specimen, which has a girth in the mounted skin (as it 
doubtless had in life) one fourth greater than the other, has ribs as long 
as the other. The number of segments in the sternum varies in the two, 
through the intercalation in the younger specimen of a short cartilaginous 
one between the eighth and ninth, to which the ninth pair of ribs is at- 
tached, instead of both the eighth and ninth pairs being attached to the 
eighth segment, as is usually the case. 

In color, contrary to what would result from age, the younger specimen 
is much the lighter. 

Asymmetry. — A small amount of asymmetry has now come to be recog- 
nized as normally occurring in many groups of mammals, from which even 
the highest are not free. It is most marked, however, in the lower types, 
and especially in the cetaceans, where it is usually too great to escape the 
notice of the mo;t cursory observer. The eared seals also exhibit an un- 
usually great degree of asymmetry. This absence of symmetry doubtless 
indicates a tendency to a greater than the ordinary degree of individual vari- 
ation. In the skull of the older specimen of Eumetopias now before me, 
the asymmetry is very striking, the preponderance of size being on the left 
side of the skull, which is not only broader, but appreciably longer. Be- 
sides the asymmetry of size, there is an asymmetry in the position of the 
different parts, those on one side being in advance of their homologues on 
the other side.* The following measurements indicate the extent of the 
asymmetry in size, the measurements being taken from the (homologically) 
median line outwards at four different points : — 



Right side, .... 
Lett side 


48 
53 


57 
63 


34 
39 


111 
113 



* This one-sidedness is still more strikingly seen in the above-mentioned female skull 
of Otariajubnta, especially in regard to the size and position of the postorbital processes. 

Dr. G. A. Maack informs me that in the specimens of the 0. jubeda collected by him 
on the coast of Buenos Ayres the asymmetry was astonishingly great. On the contrary, 
he found no asymmetry in the skull of the ArctocejAalus falklandicus. 



60 BULLETIN OF THE 

The palatine bones seem to be particularly liable to vary in length and 
form on the two sides of the same skull, as does also the position of the 
last molar tooth. On the left side the distance between the fourth and 
fifth molars in the older skull is 3."> mm., on the right side 26 mm. 

In the younger skull the left side is also just appreciably more devel- 
oped than the right. In the older individual the asymmetry is readily 
traceable throughout the skeleton, in the hind feet especially, the one 
being much larger than the other. 

General Remarks. — The northern sea lion was first described by 
Steller in 1751, who, under the name of Leo marinas, gave a somewhat 
detailed account of its habits and its geographical range, so far as known 
to him. His description of the animal, however, is quite unsatisfactory. 
Steller's Leo marinus, in size, general form and color, closely resembles 
the southern sea lion (Otariajubata), with which Steller's animal was 
confounded by Pennant, Buffon and nearly all subsequent writers for 
nearly a century. Peron, in 1816, first distinctly affirmed the northern 
and southern sea lions to be specifically distinct. Lesson, in 1828, gave 
it the specific name it now bears, in hpnor of Steller, its first describer. 
The following year Fischer, on the authority of Lesson, also recognized 
its distinctness from the southern species. Nilsson, in 1840, in his cel- 
ebrated monograph of the seals, reunited them. Midler, however, in an 
appendix to Dr. W. Peters's transition of Nilsson's essay, published in 
the Archiv fur Naturgeschichte for 1841, separated it again, and pointed 
out some of the differences in the skulls that serve to distinguish the 
two species. Gray, in his Catalogue of the Seals published in 1850, 
also regarded it as distinct. But one is led to infer that he had not yet 
seen specimens of it, and that he rested his belief in the existence of 
such a species mainly on Steller's account of it, as he himself expressly 
states in his later papers. The ^kull received subsequently at the Brit- 
ish Museum from Monterey, California, and figured and described by 
Gray as a new species, under the name of Arctocephalus monteriensis, 
proved, however, to be of this species, as first affirmed by Dr. Gill, and 
later by Professor Peters and Gray himself. With the exception of the 
figures of an imperfect skull of Steller's sea lion from Kamtchatka, given 
by Pander and D' Alton in 1826, Dr. Gray's excellent figure (a view 
in profile) is the only one of its skull hitherto published. The only 
specimens of the animal extant, up to a recent date, in the European 
museums, seem to have consisted of the two skulls and a stuffed skin in 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 61 

the Berlin Museum mentioned by Peters, and the skull in the British 
Museum figured and described by Gray. 

With the Monterey skull above mentioned, Dr. Gray received another 
very young skull, and the skin of a fur seal, both of which were said 
to have belonged to one animal, and which he hesitatingly referred 
to his Arctocephalus monteriensis.* Later, however, he regarded them 
as representing a new species,! which he called Arctocephalus califor- 
nianus. Still later he again seems to refer them to his Eumetopias 
Stelleri \ (=. Arctocephalus monteriensis Gray, of earlier date). Con- 
cerning this skin he remarked at one time as follows: "If the skin 
sent last year by Mr. Taylor to Mr. Gurney, and by that gentleman 
presented to the Museum, is the young of this species \_A. monteriensis'], 
the young animal is blackish, silvered by the short white tips to the 
short black hairs ; those on the nape and hinder parts of the body with 
longer white tips, making those parts whiter and more silvery. The 
under-fur is very abundant, reaching nearly to the end of the hair. 
The end of the nose and sides of the face are whitish. The whiskers 
are elongated, rigid, smooth, and white. The hind feet are elongate, 
with rather long flaps to the toes. The skull is small for the size of 
the skin, and I should have doubted its belonging to the skin if it were 
not accompanied by the following label : ' Skull of the fur seal I sent 
last year. It is very imperfect, from my forgetting where I had put it; 
but it must do until accident throws another in the way; the other 
bones were lo~t. — A. S. T.' " § 

As Dr. Gray seems to have finally become settled in his opinion 
that this skin is identical with his A. monteriensis, afterwards called by 
him Eumetopias Stelleri, this may account for the statement (already 
referred to in my " Resume,") recently made by him || and subse- 
quently reiterated,^" that the Eumetopias Stelleri is a species in which 
" the fur is very dense, standing nearly erect from the skin, forming a 
very soft, elastic coat, as in 0. falklandica and 0. Stelleri, which," he 
erroneously says, "are the only seals that have a close, soft, elastic 
fur." From his description of this young skull it is apparently reler- 

* Proc. Loud. Zool. Soc, 1S59, p. 358. 

t Cat. Seals and Whales, 1866. p. 49. 

J Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Series, 1866, Vol. XVilI, p. 233. 

§ Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc, 1859, p. 358. 

I! Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th Series, 1866, Vol. I, p. 101. 

1 Ibid., p. 215. 



G2 BULLETIN OF THE 

able to E. Stelleri ; but the skin is unquestionably that of the Callor- 
hinus ursinus. Nothing can be more sure than that it cannot belong 
to the E. Stelleri, which is completely destitute of soft fur, as proved 
by the specimens before me, and the description given by Professor 
Peters of the one in the Berlin Museum. 

Lesson gave the name Otaria californiana to a supposed species of 
eared seal based solely on the " Jeune lion marin de la Californie " of 
Choris.* The figure given by Choris is too poorly drawn to be recog- 
nizable as that of one species of eared seal rather than of another. 
The following is the only allusion Choris makes to this animal in his 
text : " Les rochers, dans le voisinage de la baie San-Francisco sont 
ordinairement couverts de lions marins. PI. XI." From the locality, 
which is the only possible guide, it was doubtless the E. Stelleri, but it 
may have been the Zalophus Gillespii. Dr. Gill in his " Prodrome," 
adopted provisionally Lesson's name {californiana) for the present spe- 
cies, but at the same time suggested its probable identity with the so- 
called Otaria Stelleri of Miiller. Peters, a few months later, confirmed 
Gill's suggestion, since which time the name Stelleri has been univer- 
sally adopted for the larger northern hair seal. The Otaria Stelleri of 
Schlegel, f formerly supposed by Gray % and also by Peters § to in- 
clude both the Australian eared seals (viz. Arctocephalus cinereus and 
Zalophus lobatus), has finally been referred by the latter, after an ex- 
amination of the original specimens in the Leyden Museum, to the 
Zalophus Gillespii.\\ I am now convinced of the correctness of this 
determination, though for a time I suspected the skull of the young 
female figured in Fauna Japonica (PI. XXII, Figs. 5 and 6) to belong 
to some species of fur seal. It certainly differs greatly in proportions, 
as well as in dentition, from the other skulls figured in this work (same 
plate), and called 0. Stelleri. 

The northern sea lion having become generally recognized as specifi- 
cally distinct from the sea lion of the southern seas, Dr. Gill, in 1866, 
separated the two generically. This had indeed already been done prac- 
tically by Dr. Gray, inasmuch as he placed his A. monteriensis (=0. 

* Voyage Pittoresque, PI. XI, of the chapter entitled " Port San-Francisco et se9 
habitants." (The date of this work is 1822.) 
t Fauna Japonica, Mam. marine, p. 10. 

\ Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Series, 1866, Vol. XVni, p. 229. 
§ Monatsberichte Akad. Berlin, 1866, pp. 272, 276. 
|| Ibid., p. 669. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 63 

Stelleri auct.) in the genus Arctocephalus, and the southern sea lion in 
Otaria, with which he nominally associated the 0. Stelleri. He failed, 
however, to recognize the identity of his A. monteriensis with the 0. 
Stelleri, and hence the entire generic diversity of the northern and 
southern sea lions seems to have escaped his observation. The latter 
fact was first pointed out by Dr. Gill in his " Prodrome," as above 
stated. 

Comparison with Otaria jubata. — Having only male specimens of 
the Eumetopias Stelleri, and only skulls of the female of Otaria jubata, 
I am unable to make a detailed comparison of these two strictly geo- 
graphically representative species. The following measurements of a 
female 0. jubata, taken from the animal itself (at Cabo Corrientes, 
Buenos Ayres), by Dr. G. A. Maack, are here introduced for future 
reference, since they are more detailed than any hitherto published : — 

" Measurements of Otaria jubata (adult). 

" Total length to end of tail 1,750 mm. 

" " « " " outstretched hind limbs . . 2,070 " 

Greatest circumference of the body .... 1,050 " 

Circumference of the body in front of fore limbs . 970 " 

" " " hind limbs . . 860 " 

" of the neck 620 " 

Length of left fore fin 700 " 

" « palm 500 " 

" " hind fin (sole) 430 " 

" The general color is brown ; iris, coffee-brown ; barbules, dark yellow." 

Of the large collection of skins and skeletons of the Otaria jubata 
received by the London Zoological Society in 1868, we as yet have no 
very detailed account. The measurements of one of the adult females 
given by Dr. Murie * are as follows : " Greatest length of skin, includ- 
ing hind extremities, 80 1 inches [2,045 mm.] ; from muzzle to end of 
tail, 66| inches [1,702 mm.]; tip to tip of fore limbs outspread, 58 
inches [1,473 mm.]" It hence agrees very nearly in size with that 
measured by Dr. Maack. 

The measurements of a male specimen of O. jubata — belonging to 
the same collection as the female — given by Dr. Murie, indicate 
that it was not nearly full grown. The few reliable facts we have in 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 102. 



G4 BULLETIN OF THE 

respect to the size of the male are sufficient to show that in this respect, 
as well as in general external features, the O.jubata differs markedly in 
no way from the Eumetopias Stelleri, although they differ widely in the 
form of the skull and in dentition. 

Geographical Distribution. — According to Steller, this species ex- 
isted in his time along nearly the whole eastern coast of Kamtchatka 
and southwards to the Kurile Islands. He also met with it on Behring's 
Island and on the American coast. Both Captain Bryant and Mr. Dall 
report it as abundant at the Pribyloff Islands, and it has been received 
by Dr. Gray, and also, as Dr. Gill informs me, at the Smithsonian In- 
stitution, from California. The sea lions of the Farallone Islands and 
other parts of the California coast, especially those that have of late 
attracted so much attention in the harbor of San Francisco, are proba- 
bly the present species. The E. Stel/eri hence doubtless ranges along 
the American coast, in greater or less abundance, from California to 
Behring's Strait, and down the Asiatic coast to the Kurile Islands. 

Habits. — The habits of this species have not yet been minutely 
described. Steller gave a very full account of those of the sea bear 
(Cattorkinus ursinus), and remarked that, with some few exceptions 
(which lie specifies), those of the sea lion closely resemble those of that 
animal. Captain Bryant has also been far more minute in his account 
of the sea bear; but in the subjoined notes respecting the sea lion he 
presents interesting information regarding the latter species. The 
Plates of Choris (Nos. XI V r and XV of the chapter on the Aleutian 
Islands) doubtless give a very good idea of the appearance of these 
animals and the sea bears when assembled on the land. lb' has also 
contributed a few interesting facts concerning their habits. The follow- 
ing are tin' remarks of Captain Bryant: — 

"The sea lion visits St. Paul's Island in considerable numbers to 
rear its young. It is one of the largest of the seal family, the male 
frequently measuring thirteen feet in length, ami weighing from fifteen 
to eighteen hundred pounds. It- habits are the same as those of the 
fur seal. When roused to anger it has a very- marked resemblance, 
through the form of its bead and neck, to the animal from which it is 
named, and its voice, when roaring, can be heard to a great distance. 
Its body is thickly covered with fine, short, dark [?] In-own hair, without 
any fur. It- skin is of considerable value as an article of commerce in 
the territory, it being used in making all kinds of boats, from a one-man 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 65 

canoe to a lighter of twenty tons' burden. The natives of all the Aleu- 
tian Islands and of the coast as far east as Sitka, beside those of many 
ports on the mainland to the north, rely on this island for a supply of 
the skins of this animal. The rookery is on the northeast end of the 
island, and the animals have to be driven ten or eleven miles to the vil- 
lage to bring their skins to the drying-frames. It sometimes requires 
five days to make the journey, as at frequent intervals they have to be 
allowed to rest. It is a somewhat dangerous animal, and the men fre- 
quently get seriously hurt by it in driving and killing it. They are 
driven together in the same manner as the fur seals are ; and while 
impeding each other by treading upon each other's flippers the small 
ones are killed with lances, but the larger ones have to be shot. 

" This animal is the most completely consumed of any on the island. 
Their flesh is preferred to that of the seal for drying for winter use. 
After the skins are taken off (two thousand of which are required 
annually to supply the trading-po.«ts of the territory), they are spread 
in piles of twenty-five each, with the flesh side down, and left to heat 
until the hair is loo-ened ; it is then scraped off, and the skins are 
stretched on frames to dry. The blubber is removed from the carcass 
for fuel or oil, and the flesh is cut in strips and dried for winter 
use. The linings of their throats are saved and tanned for making 
the legs of boots and shoes, and the skin of the flippers is u>ed for 
the soles. Their stomachs are turned, cleaned, and dried, and are used 
to put the oil in when boiled out. The intestines are dressed and 
sewed together into water-proof frocks, which are worn while hunting 
and fishing in the boats. The sinews of the back are dried and 
stripped to make the thread with which to sew together the intes- 
tines, and to fasten the skins to the canoe-frames. The natives receive 
thirty-five cents apiece for the .-kins when ready for shipment. But 
these skins are not so much valued by the trader for the profit he 
makes on their sale, as for the advantage it gives him in bargaining 
with the hunters, since by buying these they are able to secure a 
right to the purchase of the hunter's furs on his return, the natives 
always considering such contracts binding." 

Choris, in his description of the '"lies S. -Georges et S.-PauFs," thus 
speaks of the sea lions that he met with on these islands fifty years 
ago: — 

" Le rivage etait couvert de troupes innombrables de lions marins. 

VOL. II. 5 



G6 BULLETIN OF THE 

L'odeur qu'ils repandent est insupportable. Ces animaux etaient alors 
dans lc temps du rut. L'on voyait de tous cotes les males se battre 
entre eux pour s'enlever les uns aux autres les femelles. Chaque 
male en rassemble de dix a vingt, se montre jaloux, ne soutfre aucun 
autre male, et attaque ceux qui tentent de s'approcher ; il les tue par 
ses morsurea ou s'en fait tuer. Dans le premier cas, il s'empare des 
femelles da vaincu. Nous avons trouve plusieurs males etendus morts 
sur la plage, des seules blessures qu'ils avaient reeues dans les combats. 
Quelques femelles avaient deja des petits. Les Aleoutes en prirent plu- 
sieurs douzaines pour nous. L'animal n'est pas dangereux ; il fuit 
a l'approcbe de l'homme, excepte depuis la mi-mai jusqu'a la mi-juin, 
qui est le plus fort temps du rut, et oil les femelles mettent bas leur 
petits ; alors il ne se laisse pas approcber et il attaque meme." 

" Ces animaux sont aussi tres-conmums au port de San-Francisco, 
sur la tote de Californie, oil on les voit en nombre prodigieux sur les 
rochers de la baie. Cette espece m'a paru sedistinguer de ceux qui fre- 
quentent les iles Aleoutiennes; elle a le corps plus fluet et plus allonge, 
et la tete plus fine: quant a la couleur, elle passe fortement au brun, 
tandis que ceux des iles Aleoutiennes sont d'une couleur plus grise, 
ont le corps plus rond, les mouvements plus diffieiles, la tete plus 
grosse et plus epaisse ; la couleur du poil des moustaches plus noiratre 
que celui des iles Aleoutiennes. 

" On trouve les lions marins depuis L 3(V' mc jusqu'au GO " 16 parallele 
nord, dans les iles et sur le continent d'Amerique." 

"On v [l'ile Saint-Georges] tue une grande quantite de lions marins; 
mais seulement des males, a cause de leur grandeur; on se sert de 
leur peau pour recouvrir les canots, et des intestins pour faire le 
kamleyki, especes de blouses que Ton endosse par dessus les autrs 
veteinents lorsqu'il pleut pour ne pas se mouiller. La chair, que Ton 

fait secher, est dure ; c'est une bonne nourriture pour l'hiver Les 

jeunes sont tres-tendres et ont le gout de poisson." * 

The following careful description of their movements on land has 
been communicated to me by Mr. Theodore Lyman, who has recently 
observed the sea lions on the " Seal Rocks" near San Francisco: — 

" These rocks," he says, " are beset with hundreds of these animals, — 
some still, some moving, some on the land, and some in the water. As 

* Voyage Pittorcsque autour du Monde, Chapter " lies Aleoutiennes," p. 12 - 14. 



BULLETIN OF THE 67 

they approach to effect a landing, the head only appears decid< <\\y 
above water. This is their familiar element, and they swim with 
great speed and ease, quite unmindful of the heavy surf and of the 
breakers on the ledges. In landing, they are apt to take advantage of 
a heavy wave, which helps them to get the forward flippers on terra 
jirma. As the wave retreats, they begin to struggle up the steep 
rocks, twisting the body from side to side, with a clumsy worm-like 
motion, and thus alternately work their flippers into positions where 
they may force the body a little onward. At such times they have a 
general appearance of sprawling over the ground. It is quite astonish- 
ing to see how they will go up surfaces having even a greater inclina- 
tion than 45°, and where a man would have to creep with much exer- 
tion. When the surface is nearly horizontal, they go faster, and often 
proceed by gathering their hind-quarters under them, raising themselves 
on the edges of their fore-limbs and then giving a push, whereby they 
make a sort of tumble forwards. In their onward path they are ac- 
companied by the loud barking of all the seals they pass; and these 
cries may be heard a great distance. Having arrived at a good bask- 
ng-place, they stretch themselves out in various attitudes, — often on 
the side, sometimes nearly on the back, but commonly on the belly, 
with the flippers somewhat extended. They seem much oppressed 
with their own weight (which is usually supported by the water), and 
it seemed an. exertion for them even to raise the head, though it is 
often kept up for a long time. They play among themselves contin- 
ually by rolling on each other and feigning to bite. Often, too, they 
will amuse themselves by pushing off those that are trying to land. 
All this is done in a very cumbrous manner, and is accompanied by 
incessant barking. As they issue from the water, their fur is dark 
and shining ; but, as it dries, it becomes of a yellowish brown. Then 
they appear to feel either too dry or too hot, for they move to the 
nearest point from which they may tumble into the sea. I saw many 
roll off a ledge at lea-t twenty feet high, and fall, like so many huge 
brown sacks, into the water, dashing up showers of spray." 

From the accounts given by various observers, the sea lions evi- 
dently move with much less facility on land than do the fur seals. 
Captain Bryant states that the fur seals may be driven at the rate of a 
mile and a half per hour, whde he asserts that the sea lions can be 
driven with safety only about two miles a day. 



68 MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 

Genus Zalopiius Gill. 

Zulophus Gill, Proc. Essex Institute, 18GG, V, 7, 11. Type Otaria GiL 

lespii McBain. 
Zulophus Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 18G6, 275, 671. 
Neophoca Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Series, 18GG, XVIII, 231. 

Type Arctocephalus lobutus Gray. 

Size medium. Molars approximated, last under the hinder edge of the 
zygomatic process. Muzzle narrow. Superior profile, from the postor- 
bital process anteriorly, gently declined. Bony palate moderately con- 
tracted posteriorly, and but slightly depressed. Hinder edge of the 
palatals deeply concave. Pterygoid hooks slender. Posterior nares 
broader than high ; anterior higher than broad. Postorbital cylinder 
narrow and elongate. The postorbital constriction of the skull is deep 
and abrupt, giving a quadrate or subquadrate form to the brain-box, which 
varies to triangular through the varying degree of prominence of its latero- 
anterior angles. The postorbital processes arc triangular, developed 
latero-posteriorly into a rather slender point. The sagittal crest forms a 
remarkably high, thin bony plate, unparalleled in its great development 
in any other genus of the family. The general form of the skull is rather 
narrow, much more so than in Eumetopias, and nearly as much so as in 
Arctocephalus ; the breadth to length being as GO to 100. 

Zulophus, so far as the skull is concerned, is the most distinct generic 
form of the family Otariadce, it being thoroughly distinct from all the 
others. It differs from Otaria in having one less pair of upper 
molars, in the less depression of the bony palate, the less extension 
posteriorly of the palatines, the much narrower muzzle, the much less 
abrupt declination of the facial profile, its much higher sagittal crest, 
and in its narrower and more elongated form. 

Zalophus differs from Eumetopias, as already pointed out, in hav- 
ing all the upper molars closely approximated, in the concave out- 
line of the posterior border of the palatines, and otherwise much as it 
differs from Otaria. 

Zulophus differs from Callorhinus in its less number of upper 
molars, its high sagittal crest, and in the more declined profile of the 
face. It differs in a nearly similar manner from Arctocephalus, but 
more resembles this genus in the general form and proportions of the 
skull than any other. But in the nature of its pelage, and in other ex- 
ternal features, it is radically distinct from the whole group of fur seals, 
as it is also in its high sagittal crest. 



BULLETIN OF THE 69 

Zalophus Gillespii Gill. Gillkspik's IIaik Seal. 

Otarta Gillespii McBain, Proc. Edinb. Roy. Phys. Soc, I, 422, 1858. 

Arctocep/utlus Gillespii Gray, Proc. Loud. ZooT. Soc, 1859, 110,360, PI. 
lxx ; Cat. Seals and Whales, 1866, p. 55. 

Zalophus Gillespii Gill, Proc. Essex Inst., V, 13, 1866. 

Otarin (Zdloplius) Gillespu Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1866,275, 671. 

Zalophus Gillespii Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Series, 1866, 
XVI II, 231. 

Otana Stelleri Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Mam. marin, 10, PI. xxi, 
(animal), PI. xxil,Figs. 1-4, and 5-6 (skulls), 
PI. xxin, Figs. 1 -9 (skeleton and teeth), 1842. 

" Olaria japonica Schlegel, MS." Peters. 

Color. — In color, as well as in general form, this species is similar to 
E. Stelleri, but in size it is much smaller. Being without skins of this 
species, I borrow the following from Schlegel's description in the Fauna 
Japonica. In describing Japan specimens (under the name Otarin Stelleri) 
he says the tints of the upper parts are "d'un gris jaunatre, un pen nuance 
de noir sur le dos et sur la tete. Sur les parties inferieures et sur les ex- 
tremites, la teinte generale dont nous parlons, passe insensiblement au 
brun-roux ; mais cette couleur est tres-peu marquee sur le dessous du cou, 
tandis qu'elle devient tres-foneee vers l'extremite des pieds, qui sont d'un 
brun-roux noir assez profond." " Les poils," he adds, " sont en general 
courts, puisqu'ils nc portent guere que trois a quatre lignes en longueur 
sur le cou ou sur le dos, un peu raides et assez touffus. lis sont, sur les 
parties superieures, bruns a la base et noirs au milieu, mais leur pointe 
offre toujours des couleurs plus claires, qui fbrment les teintes generates de 
1'animal." The specimen above described he states is a female, and re- 
marks that another female he possessed differs from it in color only in 
being generally darker or more deeply colored. 

Size. — The mounted skin of an adult male preserved in the Museum 
of the Pays-Bas, he says, is "six pieds et deux ponces en longueur totale, 
mesure depuis le nez jusqu'a 1'extremite de la queue." It differs from a 
female specimen, he says, only in being larger and darker colored and in 
having the hairs longer. 

The only specimens of this species I have been ab'e to examine are two 
skulls, one of which was kindly loaned me by (he Chicago Academy of 
Sciences, and the other by the Smithsonian Institution. The former belongs 
to a mounted skeleton, collected, as Dr. Stimpson informs me, In Professor 
W. P. Trowbridge, formerly Lieutenant of United States Engineers some- 
where between Puget Sound and San Francisco. The skeleton, without the 
atlas and skull, Dr. Stimpson writes me, measures six fee.1 ; adding the 
length of the latter gives a little less than seven feet as the whole length of 



70 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



tin- skeleton. Tin- sex of neither of* these specimens was recorded, but there 
seems to be little doubt of their being both males. Both axe very old indi- 
viduals. They differ considerably in size, however, as will be seen by the 
accompanying table of measurements, the Chicago Academy specimen 
being the larger. 

Measurements of the Skull. 





330 


(Jt 




290 




180 


170 


Dist. from ant. edge of intermaxillaries to hamuli pterygoidei 


1!)0 


180 


" " " " '• last molar 


100 


97 


«• ■« " " " front edge of orbit 


95 


90 


" << " " " post. " " 


160 


150 


" " " " " auditory orifice . 


245 


220 


Length of left palatine bone (inner edge) 


35 


34 


" " right " " " .... 





36 


Breadth of left " " (anteriorly) 


21 


19 


" right " " " . 





18 


Dist. from post, edge of palatals to end of hamuli pteryg. 


55 


48 


" " last molar to end of hamuli pteryg. 


90 


80 


Depression of palate below alveoli of canines . 


10 


07 


" " " " 3d molar 


09 


08 


" " " " last molar . 





10 


Length of the nasals (outer edge) 


61 


56 


" (inner edge) ..... 


49 


38 


Breadth of both nasals together (anteriorly) 


30 


27 


" " " " (posteriorly) . 


2S 


20 


" of the skull at the canines ..... 


70 


60 


" " " " postoibital process 


83 


66 


" " " middle of the orbits . 


145 


130 


" " " maxillary condyles 


190 


170 


" " " paroccipital process . 


165 


163 


Diameter " anterior narcs (vertical) .... 


32 


30 


" " " " (transverse) .... 


34 


29 


" posterior nares (vertical) .... 


30 


23 


" " (transverse) .... 


2H 


26 


Length of the zygomatic foramen ..... 


117 


82 


Breadth " " " 


65 


55 


Diameter of foramen magnum (antcro-postcrior) 


24 


25 


(laterally) . . . . . 


25 


23 


Height of the skull (end of parae. proc. to top of occip. crest) 


150 


120 


" " (occip. condyle to top of occip. crest) . 


130 


97 


" (end of ham. pteryg. to top of sag. crest) 


140 


125 


Length of sagittal crest . 


157 


145 


Greatest height of crest ....... 


38 


29 


Length of the lower jaw ....... 


240 


200 


Breadth posteriorly 


170 


155 


" at last moiar 


75 


75 


" posterior ('dire of symphysis .... 


53 


64 


" of each condyle 


55 


47 


Height of lower jaw at coronoid process .... 


90 


75 


" " " symphysis 


45 


37 



* Received from the Chicago Academy of Sciences. 

t Received from the Smithsonian Institution (S. I. No. 261). 



BULLETIN OF THE 71 

According to Peters, the length of the skull of 0. Gillespii is 295 mm. ; 
of one of the skulls of 0. japonica (Schlegel MS. = 0. Stelleri of the Fauna 
Japonica) is 270 mm. and of the other 310 mm., which would indicate 
an animal f about three fourths the size of E. Stelleri. 

If we can assume that the California " lion marin " of Choris * is this 
species, which we can hardly do with certainty, it differs from the E. 
Slelleri in being browner and smaller, with a more delicately shaped head 
and uarker mustaches. The latter, however, are variable in color, in other 
species, in specimens specifically the same. 

Individual Variation. — The two male skulls of Zalo/ihus Gillespii before 
me differ from each other very remarkably in various points. Besides 
the general difference in size indicated in the above table of measure- 
ments, there are other and more radical differences in proportions and form. 
In the specimen received from the Chicago Academy, the general form is 
much more elongated than in the other, especially the facial portion of the 
skull and the postorbital cylinder. The nasals are especially longer, and 
the expanded interorbital space shorter, with the postorbital processes 
much more heavily developed. The brain-box, seen from above, through 
the gradually sloping postorbital constriction, is triangular, whilst in the 
other, through the abruptness of the postorbital constriction, it is quadrate. 
Hence in the latter the brain-box has distinct latero- anterior angles, whilst 
in the other the lateral walls of the brain-box gradually and regularly con- 
verge anteriorly. The differences in these respects are far greater than 
exist between the two male skulls of Callorhinus ursinus represented in 
Plate II. The following proportions indicate the extent of the difl'eiences 
seen in the form of the postorbital cylinder. 

The diameter of this part, at its point of greatest constriction, in the 
specimen received from the Smithsonian Institution is 23 mm. ; do. of 
the specimen received from the Chicago Academy of Sciences, 35 mm. 
The length of the postorbital cylinder in the first is 43 mm. ; in the lat- 
ter, 69 mm., or nearh/ one and a half times longer than in the other; 
whilst the difference in the whole length of the skull in the two speci- 
mens is less than one seventh of the length of the smaller specimen. 
Species, and even genera, have been based on differences of less impor- 
tance than these. 

General Remarks. — Schlegel, in the work above cited, gave the first 
and thus far the fullest account we possess of this species. lie also 
gave figures of several skulls, of a skeleton, and of a middle-aged female. 
He failed, however, to distinguish this species from the Z. hbatus and 
the Eumetopias Stelleri, but confounded the three under the name Otana 

* Voyage Pittoresque (lies Ale"ontiennes, p. 13). 



72 MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 

Stelleri. He also omitted to state distinctly the localities at which the 
specimens figured were obtained, though they were doubtless from Japan. 

As already remarked under Eumelopias Stelleri, naturalists for a long 
time referred the specimens figured by Schlegel under the name Otaria 
Stelleri to two widely distinct species, namely, 0. lobata {Zalophus 
lobatus) and 0. cinerea (Arctocephalus cinereus). It was only four 
years since that Professor Peters, after examining the specimens fig- 
ured in the Fauna Japonica, was able to determine the real character 
of Schlegel's 0. Stelleri, which he found referable to the 0. Gillespii 
McBain. As previously stated, I see no reason to question the correct- 
ness of this identification. The skull represented in Figures 5 and G, 
Plate XXII, is said to be that of a young female ; the great propor- 
tional differences apparent between this and the other specimens figured 
are only such as might result from age. 

The references to this species are very few. The first, aside from 
Schlegel's above-cited work, is the description of a skull from Cal- 
ifornia by McBain, in which the animal in question was first indi- 
dicated as a distinct species. This skull was described in 1858, and 
was the basis of McBain's species 0. Gillespii. In the following year 
Dr. Gray published a figure of a cast of this skull, and re-described the 
species from the cast, under the generic name of Arctocephalus. Dr. 
Gill having seen other skulls, and noticing the striking differences ex- 
isting between this and the other forms, in his " Prodrome" he proposed 
for this species the generic name of Zalophus. 

The only species with which Zalophus Gillespii seems to be at all 
closely related is its congener the Z. lobatus, with which, as stated 
above, it was supposed by Schlegel to be identical, and to which it was 
in part or wholly referred by later writers. The two are of nearly the 
same size, and seem to have, in general, similar external features. Ac- 
cording to Peters and Gray they differ, however, in the form of the 
teeth and in respect to some of the features of the skull. 

Distribution and Habits. — The only localities from which this 
species is at present certainly known, are California and Japan, but 
it doubtless inhabits the intermediate shores of the Pacific. Mr. W. II. 
Dall informs me, however, that lie is confident that there is only one 
species of " eared sea lion in Behring's Sea." He affirms most posi- 
tively that " there is no Zalophus there, or at San Francisco," the spe- 
cies frequenting the rocks in the harbor of that name being the Eu- 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. T3 

metopias Stelleri. Captain Bryant writes me that he feels quite sure 
two species of sea lions inhabit the coast of California and the other 
Pacific States, but he has not yet had an opportunity of carefully ex- 
amining them. The three specimens from the west coast of the United 
States alreaily in collections, — that described by Dr. McBain, the one 
in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, and that in the Museum 
of the Chicago Academy, — sufficiently establish its occurrence on the 
California coast. There seems to be nothing known, or at least on 
record, concerning its habits. 

Subfamily II. — OULOPHOCTN^E. 

AVith thick under-fur ; size smaller, form slenderer, and the ears rela- 
tively much longer than in Trichophocinat. Digital swimming flaps of the 
hind feet very long. Molars § ~ § = \%.* 

Genus Callorhinus Gray. 

Callorhinus Gray, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc, 1859, 359. Type " Arctocephalus 

ursinus Gray," = Phoca ursina Linne. 
Arctocephalus Gill, Proc. Essex Inst., V, 7, 1866. Same type; not Arctoceph- 
alus F. Cuvier. 

Facial portion of the skull broad and greatly produced. Otherwise essen- 
tially the same as in Arctocephalus. 

Callorhinus and Arctocephalus are sufficiently distinguished from the 
hair seals by the character of the pelage, as well as by the other char- 
acters given above in the diagnoses of the two groups of hair and 
fur seals. Callorhinus differs apparently from Arctocephalus mainly, 
if not almost solely, in the greater prominence of the facial portion of 
the skull. Between these two groups there are not such radical differ- 
ences in the form of the skull as are met with in the several genera of 
the hair seals, by means of which Otaria, Eumetopias, and Zalophus are 
so trenchantly separated from each other. Callorhinus and Arctoceph- 
alus, though closely allied forms, are probably generically separable. 

Callorhinus ursinus Gray. Northern Sea Bear. 
Ursus mannus Steller, Nov. Comm. Academ. Petrop., 11,331, PI. XV, 1751. 
Phoca ursina Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 37, 1758. (From Steller.) 
"Phoca ursina Schreher, Saugeth., Ill, 289, 1758. (From Steller.)" 
Phoca ursina Shaw, Gen. Zool., I, 265, PI. LXII, 1800. 
Fischer, Synop. Mam., 231, 1829. 
" " Pallas, Zoog. Posso-Asiat, I, 102, 1831. 

* For a more extended comparison of Oulophociiue with TrichophocincB, see above, 
pp. 21-23. 



■i BULLETIN OF THE 

Phoca nigra Pallas, Zoog. Rosso-Asiat., I, 107. (Young.) 
Otaria ursina Peuox, Voy. Terr. Austr., II, 41, 1816. 
" " Desmarest, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., XXV, 595, 1817. 

" " Desmarest, Mam., I, 249, 1820. 

" " Gray, Griffith's An. Kingd., V, 182, 1827. 

" Nilsson, Archiv f. Naturgesch. 1841 (in part). 
" " J. Muller, Ibid., 333. 

" " A. Wagner, Ibid, 1849, 39. 

Otaria Kraschenninikowii Lesson, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat., XIII, 419, 1826. 
Otaria Fubricii Lesson, Ibid , 420. 

Otaria (Callorhinus) ursinus Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, I860, 373, G72. 
Arctocephalus ursinus Gray, Cat. Phoeidrc, 41, 1850; not A. ursinus F. Cuv., 
or only in part. 
" " Gray, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc., 1859, 103, 107, PL lxxiii, 

skull. 
" Gill, Proe. Essex Inst., V, 13, 1866. 
Callorhinus ursinus Gray, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc., 1859, 359. 
" Gray, Cat. Seals and Whales, 44, 1866. 
" " Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d Ser., XVIII, 234, 

1866. 
Arctocephalus monteriensis Gray', Proe. Lond. Zool. Soc, 1857, 360 (in part). 
Arctocephalus californianus Gray, Cat. Seals and Whales, 51, 18C6 (in part). 
Sea Cat, Kraschenninikow, Hist. Karnt, 306, 1704. 

Ours Marin, Buffon, Hist. Nat., Suppl., VI, 336, PI. xlvii, 1782 (in part). 
Ursine Seal, Pennant, Hist. Quad., I, 526, 531, 1792 (in part). 

Color — (Male.) General color above, except over the shoulder 
nearly black, varying in different individuals of equal age from nearly 
pure black to rufo-grayish black. Over the shoulders the color is quite 
gray. The sides of the nose and the lips are brownish, as is a consid- 
erable space behind the angle of the mouth, and a small spot behind the 
ear. The neck in front is more or less gray. The breast and the axilla; 
are brownish-orange. The limbs are reddish-brown, especially near their 
junction with the body, as is also the abdomen. The hairs individually 
vary considerably in color, some being entirely black nearly to their base, 
and others entirely light yellowish-brown; others are dark in the middle 
and lighter at each end. The naked skin of the hind limbs, the nose, ami 
the anal region is black. 

(Female.) The general color of the female is much lighter than that 
of the male. Above it is nearly uniformly gray, varying to darker or 
lighter in different individuals and with age. The color about the 
mouth is brownish, varying to rufous, of which color are the axilhe, the 
breast, and the abdomen. The sides an' brownish-gray. At the base all 
the hairs are usually brownish, like the under-fur, with a broad subter- 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 75 

minal bar of black, and tipped for a greater or less distance with gray. 
The variation in different individuals in the general color results from the 
varying extent of the gray at the ends of the hairs. 

{Young.) The general color of the upper surface of the body in the 
young, previous to the first moult, is uniformly glossy black. The region 
around the mouth is yellowish-brown. The neck in front is grayish-black. 
The axilla? are pale yellowish-brown; a somewhat darker .-hade of the 
same color extends posteriorly and inward towards the median line of the 
belly, uniting on the anterior portion of the abdomen. The greater part 
of the lower surface, however, is dusky brownish-gray, the rest being 
black, but less intensely so than the back. Specimens of equal age vary 
much in color, one of the young specimens corresponding nearly with the 
above description, while the other is much darker. 

On the head and sides of the neck a portion of the hairs are found, on 
close inspection, to be obscurely tipped with gray. After the first moult 
the pelage becomes gradually lighter, through the extension of the gray 
at the tips of the hairs, especially in the females, the two sexes 1 cing at first 
alike. Contrary to what has been asserted, the young are provided from 
birth with a long thick coat of silky under-fur, of a lighter color than the 
under fur of the adults 

The Hair. — The double pelage consists of an outer covering of long, 
flattened, moderately coarse hair, beneath which is a dense coat of long 
fine silky fur, which reaches on most parts of the body nearly to the ends 
of the hairs. The hairs are thicker towards the ends than at the base, 
but their clavate form is most distinctly seen in the first pelage of the 
young. In length the hair varies greatly on the different parts of the 
body. It is longest on the top of the head, especially in the males, which 
have a well-marked crest. The hair is much longer on the anterior half 
of the body than on the posterior half, it being longest on the hinder part 
of the neck, where in the males it is very coarse. On the crown the hair 
has a length of 42 mm.; on the hinder part of the neck it reaches a 
length of 50 to CO mm. From this point posteriorly it gradually shortens, 
and near the tail has a length of only 20 mm. It is still shorter on the 
limbs, the upper side of the digits of the hind limbs being but slightly 
covered, while the anterior limbs are quite naked as far as the carpus. 
The males have, much longer hair than the females, in which it is much 
longer than in Eumetojiias StellerL* 

* From the descriptions of most writers it would seem that the Utaria jubala is pro- 
vided with a conspicuous mane, but in the few accurate descriptions in which the 
length of the longest hairs is given, the so-called "flowing mane," — which refers only 
to the greater length of the hairs on the neck and shoulders as compared with the other 
regions of the body, — does not appear to be any more truly a mane than in Lumetu- 



7G BULLETIN OF THE 

The whiskers arc cylindrical, long, slender, and tapering, and vary with 
age in length and color. In the young they arc black; later they are 
li<dit colored at the base, and dusky at the ends. In mature specimens 

they arc cither entirely white, or white at the base and brownish-white 
towards the tips. 

Size. — The length of a full-grown male, according to the present speci- 
mens (see the table of measurements on page 77), is between seven and 
eight feet; and of a full-grown female, about four feet. Captain Bryant 
states* that the males attain mature size at about the sixth year, when 
their total length is from seven to eight feet, their girth six to seven 
feet, and their weight, when in full flesh, from five to .-even hundred 
pounds. The females, he says, are full grown at. four years old, when they 
measure four feet in length, two and a half in girth, and weigh eighty to one 
hundred pounds. The yearlings, he says, weigh from thirty to forty pounds. 

Ears. — The ears (Fig. 12, PI. II, one half nat. size) are long, narrow, 
and pointcd.f being absolutely longer than those of the E. Slelleri, though 
the latter animal is two or three times the larger. 

Fore Limbs. — The hands (Fig. 11, PI. II, -^th nat. size) are long and 
narrow, with a broad cartilaginous (lap extending beyond the digits, 
which has a nearly even border. Both surfaces are naked the whole 
length ; not covered above with short hair, as in Eumelopias and Otaria. 
The nails are rudimentary, their position being indicated by small circular 
hornv disks, as in all the other eared seals. 

Hind Limbs. — The feet (Fig. 12, PI. II, ^th nat. size) are very long, 
nearly half their length being formed by the cartilaginous (laps that pro- 
ject beyond the ends of the toes. They widen much less from the tarsus 
to the cud- of the toes than these parts do in E. Stelleri, and the length 
of the toe-flaps is relatively many times greater than in the fitter species. 
The toes of the posterior extremities are of nearly equal length. The 
outer are slightly shorter than the three middle ones. The nails of the 
outer toes are rudimentary and scarcely visible; — those of the middle 
toes are strong and well-developed. 

pias Slelltri, Qdlurhinm ursinus, Arctocephalus (imrctta. or A. falklattdicus. All the sea 
bears and sea lions, according to authors, have the hair much longer on the anterior 
than on the posterior half of the body: and in the hair seals i f is not longer than in 

the fur seal-. The resemblance t<> the mane of the lion, with which in several species 
this longer hair has been compared, is doubtless partly imaginary and partly due to the 
loose skin on the neck and shoulders being thrown into thick folds when these animals 
erect the head. I have not, however, seen the distinct crest formed by the long hairs 
on the crown of the male of C ursinm mentioned as occurring in the other species, 
unless it is alluded to in the specific name coromtta, given by Blainville to a South 
American specimen of fur seal. It is certainly not posse 1 by the E. SttUeri. 

* See beyond, p. 95. 

t They are accidentally represented too broad in the figure. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



77 





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78 BULLETIN OF THE 

Measurements. — The preceding table of external measurements indi- 
cates the general size of the adult males and females, and the young at 
thirty-five days old. In some respects the dimensions are only approxi- 
mately correct, being taken from mounted specimens ; in the main, how- 
ever, they are sufficiently accurate. A few measurements taken from the 
soft skin are also given ; the making of a complete series of measurements 
of the skins before t£3fey were mounted was accidentally omitted. In ad- 
dition to the six specimens of Captain Bryant's collection, I am indebted 
to Mr. W. II. Dall for measurements of a male and a female, taken by him * 
from the animals immediately after they were killed. The female (said by 
Mr. Dall to be six years old) is evidently adult, but the male, from its 
but little larger size, seems not to have been fully grown. In the last 
column of the table a few measurements are given of a male specimen of 
the A rctocephalus falklandicus, taken by Dr. G. A. Maack, from a fresh 
specimen collected by him at Cabo Corrientes, Buenos Ayres. This speci- 
men appears also to have not been fully grown. 

Skull.] — In adult specimens the breadth of the skull is a little more 
than half its length, the point of greatest breadth being at the posterior 
end of the zygomatic arch. The muzzle or facial portion is broad and 
high, or greatly produced, much more so even than in Eumelopias. The 
postorbital processes vary from sub-quadrate to sub-triangular, sometimes 
produced posteriorly into a latero-posteriorly diverging point, as in Zalo- 
phtis. The postorbital cylinder is broad and moderately elongated. The 
postorbital constriction is well marked, giving a prominently quadrate 
form to the brain-case, the latero-anterior angles of which vary somewhat 
in their sharpness in different specimens. The sagittal and occipital 
crests are well developed in the old males, nearly as much as in Eumeto- 
pias, as are also the mastoid processes. The palatine bones terminate 
midway between the last molar teeth and the pterygoid hamuli ; their 
posterior outline is either slightly concave, or deeply and abruptly so. 
The palatal surface is flat, but slightly depressed posteriorly, and but 
moderately so anteriorly. The zygomatic foramens are broad, nearly 
triangular, and truncate posteriorly. The posterior and anterior nares 
are of nearly equal size in the males, with their transverse and vertical 
diameters equal ; in the females the posterior nares are depressed, their 
transverse diameter being greater than the vertical. The nasal bones are 
much broader in front than behind. 

The lower jaw is strongly developed, but relatively less massive than 



* At St. George's Island, Alaska, August, 1868. 

t See Figs. 1-4, PI. II (males); Figs. 1-4, PL HI (females); and Figs. 5, 6, 7, PI. II, 
and Fig. 9, PL 111 (young). 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



79 



in Eume/opias. The coronoid processes are high and pointed, but much 
more developed in the males than in the females. The rainial tuberosities 
are greatly produced, especially the hinder one (see Figs. 8-10, PI. II). 

Measurements of the Skull. 



Length 

Breadth 

Dist. from ant. edge of intermax. to end of ham. pteryg 

" " " last molar 

" " auditory opening 

" " edge of max. condyle 

" palato-max suture to end of ham. pteryg. 

Length of left palatine bone 
Breadth of left palatine bone opposite last molar 
Length of left nasal bone .... 
Breadth of lefc nasal bone (anteriorly) 

" " " (posteriorly) 

Breadth of skull at canines .... 

" " " postorbital processes 

" " " paroccipital " 

" posterior nares (vertical) 

" " " (transverse) 

" anterior nares (vertical) 

" " " (transverse) 

Length of zygomatic foramen 
Breadth of " " 

Greatest height of skull ( mast. proc. to top of occip. crest) 
Height of skull at hamulus ptcrygoideus . 
Length of postorbital cylinder 

" brain-case ..... 

" the lower jaw .... 

Breadth of lower jaw at its condvles 

" " " last molar 

" " " symphysis 

Height " " coronoid process 

" " " symphysis 



*c 



245 275 
145 155 
140 165 
88 97 
180,205 
153 165 





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185 200 
115 117 
120 124 

63 75 
135 145 
120 135 

58| 58 
25 25 
10 10 
33 
11 
6 

34 33 
42 40 
91 95 
15 13 
20! 21 1 

— 23 

— 23 | 

64 68 

40 41 

75 76 

— 75! 
29 30 
80 76| 

120 1261 
90| 93 
33 1 35 
24 24| 

35 37 
23| 21 



O* 



137 



20 



Teeth. — The molars are closely set in a continuous row. The ca- 
nines (Fig. 7 c and 7 c', PI. II, upper canines) are large and sharply 
pointed, the lower slightly curved. The outer upper incisors (Figs. 6 a and 
7 a, PI. II) are much larger than the others, but relatively smaller than in 
Eumetopias. The middle incisors are flattened antero-posteriorly, and in 
youth and middle age have their crowns transversely divided (Figs. 6 a and 
7 a, PI II, upper incisors seen from the side). The lower incisors (Fig. 6 d, 
PL II) are similarly divided and are quite small. The crowns of the mo- 



80 BULLETIN OF THE 

lars are sharply conical, with no accessory cusp, or occasional)- exceedingly 
slight ones. All the molars are simple rooted in the specimens I have heen 
able to examine. Some of them have deep median grooves either on the 
inside or outside of the fangs, or on both sides, which seem to indicate that 
the fangs are made up of two connate roots. The distinctness of these 
grooves varies in different specimens (compare Figs. 6 b with 7 c, PI. II) 
and in the corresponding teeth of the two sides of the mouth in the same 
specimen. Hence it is not improbable that specimens may be found in 
which the grooves of the fangs may be entirely obsolete, or so deep as to 
nearly or quite divide the fang into two distinct roots. The roots of the 
molars are very short, and but partially fill their alveoli ; hence when the 
periosteum is removed they fit so loosely that they require to be cemented 
in with wax or other substance to prevent their constantly falling out 
whenever the skull is handled. The canines and the incisors have much 
longer roots, which more nearly fill their sockets. The roots of the molars' 
are comparatively much shorter and thicker than in Eumetopias, and 
club-shaped, whereas in the latter they are slender and tapering. They 
are a little shorter than in Zalophus Gillespii, which has also short-rooted, 
loosely fitting teeth.* 

Skeleton. — Vertebral formula : Cervical vertebrae, 7; dorsal, 15; lumbar, 
5; caudal (including the 4 sacral), 13 to 14 in the males, and 14 to 15 in 
the females. 

The skeleton in its general features resembles that of Eumetopias Stel- 
leri, already described. The bones of C ursinus are, however, all slen- 
derer, or smaller in proportion to their length, than in that species, the 
general form of the body being more elongated. The scapulas are shorter 
and broader than in E. Slelleri, the proportion of breadth to length being 
in the one as 11 to 10 and in the other as 13 tu 10. The pelvis is more 
contracted opposite the acetabula in C. ursinus tha i in E. Stelleri, and 
the last segment of the sternum is also longer and narrower. The differ- 
ences in the «kull of the two forms have already K'en pointed out in the 
generic comparisons. In proportions, the principal difference, aside from 
that already mentioned as existing in the form of the scapula, consists in 
the longer neck and longer hind feet in the C. ursinus ; the ratio of the 
length of the cervical vertebras to the whole length of the skeleton being 
as 15 to 100 in E. Stelleri, and as 23 to 100 in C. ursinus; and the ratio of 
the length of the foot to the tibia being in the former as 13 to 10, and in 
the other as 10 to 10. The following measurements indicate the length 
of the principal bones, and of the different vertebral regions. 

* Figures of the teeth of this species are given in the Fauna Japonica, Mammals, 
PI. XXIII, Figs. 4-9. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 
Measurements of the Skeleton. 



81 





Adult $ 


Adult cT 


Adult 9 


Adult 9 




No. 2922. 


No. 2923. 


No. 2925 


No. 2924. 


Whole length of skeleton (including skull) . 


2,040 


1,840 


1,370 


1,215 


Length of skull 


275 


245 


200 


185 


" " cervical vertebrae .... 


430 


360 


200 


172 


" " dorsal " ... 


770 


680 


520 


470 


" " lumbar " ... 


270 


245 


185 


173 


'• " sacral " ... 


160 


145 


105 


95 


" " caudal " .... 


140 


145 


160 


120 


" " first rib 


212 


178 


120 


110 


" " " osseous portion 


112 


105 


55 


55 


" " " cartilaginous portion . 


100 


73 


65 


55 


" " third rib ..... 


395 


370 


205 


175 


" " " osseous portion . 


265 


210 


140 


115 


" " " cartilaginous portion 


130 


90 


65 


60 


" " sixth rib 


465 


400 


323 


265 


" " " osseous portion 


350 


295 


230 


190 


" " " cartilaginous portion . 


115 


105 


93 


75 


" " tenth rib 


590 


— 


405 


335 


" " " osseous portion . 


360 


340 


265 


215 


" " " cartilaginous portion 


230 


— 


140 


120 


" " twelfth rib, osseous portion only 


345 


320 


210 


200 


" " fifteenth rib " " " 


210 


205 


150 


130 


" " sternum 


640 


590 


385 


370 


" " " 1st segment 


135 


127 


76 


73 


" " " 2d " 


68 


54 


37 


34 


" 3d . ' . 


65 


57 


39 


36 


" " " 4th " 


65 


55 


40 


36 


" " " 5th " 


60 


57 


40 


37 


6th 


58 


55 


40 


36 


" " " 7th 


63 


57 


43 


40 


8th " 


115 


110 


70 


70 


" " scapula 


250 


217 


140 


120 


Breadth of " 


295 


285 


170 


160 


Greatest height of its spine . 


35 


27 


14 


12 


Length of humerus ..... 


220 


220 


130 


130 


" " radius 


205 


195 


128 


128 


" " ulna ..... 


243 


223 


160 


157 


" " carpus 


55 


55 


35 


35 


Breadth" " 


100 


80 


60 


55 


Length of 1st digit* and its metacarpal bone 


250 


250 


180 


177 


" 2d " 


245 


235 


178 


— 


«3d " 


215 


195 


155 


— 


" 4th " 


170 


150 


125 


— 


" 5th " 


127 


115 


100 


— 


" " femur 


150 


135 


82 


85 


" " tibia 


250 


225 


167 


157 


" " fibula 


230 


210 


145 


150 


" " tarsus 


87 


84 


57 


60 


Breadth" " . . . . 


67 


65 


40 


37 


Length of 1st digit! and its metatarsal bone 


270 


260 


200 


— 


" 2d " 


265 


260 


— 


— 


" 3d " 


265 


260 


— 


— 


" 4 tn " " « « 


264 


255 


— 


— 


" 5th " " " " 


290 


280 


— 


— 



Fore limb. 



t Hind limb. 



82 



BULLETIN OF THE 





Adult $ 


Adult $ 
No. 2923 


Adult 9 


Adult 9 




No. 2922. 


No. 2925. 


No. 2924. 


Length of innominate bone 


234 


210 


145 


140 


Greatest (external) width of pelvis anteriorly 


115 


110 


70 


75 


Width of posterior end of pubie bones 


17 


14 


30 


25 


Length of ilium ..... 


100 


95 


60 


60 


" " ischio pubic bones 


134 


110 


75 


73 


" " thyroid foramen 


67 


63 


45 


45 


Breadth" " ... 


34 


25 


20 


20 



Sexual Differences. — The sexes differ in color, as already stated, in 
the females being much lighter than the males, or grayer. In respect 
to the skeleton they differ extraordinarily in the form of the pelvis, as 
already described,* all the parts of which in the female are greatly reduced 
in size, and instead of the pubic bones meeting each other posteriorly, 
as they do in the males, they are widely separated. The innominate 
bones are also much further apart in the females, and the bones forming 
the front edge of the pelvis are less developed, so that the pelvis in the 
female is entirely open in front. In consequence of the remarkable nar- 
rowness of the pelvis in the male, the form of this portion of the skeleton 
is necessarily varied in the female, to permit of the passage of the fetus 
in parturition. As already remarked, no such sexual differences are seen 
in the Phocidce. 

In respect to other parts of the skeleton, the absence of the great de- 
velopment of the sagittal and occipital crests seen in the males has already 
been noticed. The bones of all parts of the skull are much smaller and 
weaker, especially the lower jaw and the teeth. The attachments for the 
muscles are correspondingly less developed throughout the skeleton. The 
most striking sexual difference, however, is that of size; the weight of 
the full-grown females, according to Captain Bryant, being less than ONK 
sixth that of the full-grown males. 

Differences resulting from Age. — The differences in color between the 
young and the adult consist, as already stated, in the young of both sexes 
during the first three or four months of their lives being glossy black, and 
gradually afterwards acquiring the color characteristic respectively of the 
adult males and females. In respect to the differences in the skeleton 
that distinguish the young, I can only speak of the skull. In regard to 
this a most striking difference is seen in the relative' development of 
its different regions, as compared with the adult of either sex. The 
two young skulls before me, said to be from specimens thirty-five days 

* In the comparison of the skeleton of the eared seals with that of Phoca ritulma 
(above, p. 25 et seq.). 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 83 

old, arc both females, but at this age the sexes probably differ but 
little in osteological features, especially in those of the skull. In thcso 
specimens the anterior or facial portion of the skull is but little developed 
in comparison with the size of the brain-case. The muzzle is not only 
excessively short (see Figs. 5-7, PI. II), but the orbital space is small, 
and the postorbital cylinder is reduced almost to zero, the postorbital 
processes being close to the brain-case. The zygomatic arch is hence very 
short ; the zygomatic foramen is as broad as long, instead of being nearly 
twice as long as broad, as in the adult. On the other hand, the brain-case 
is exceedingly large, the greatest breadth of the skull being at the middle 
of the brain-case instead of at the posterior end of the zygomatic arch. 
As will be seen by the table of measurements of the skull already given, 
the brain-case is nearly as large as in the adults, and the bones being 
thinner, it must have a capacity about as great as that of the skulls of 
the adult males and females, there being, in respect to this point, but 
slight difference in the sexes. As the young advance in age, the anterior 
portion of the skull, or that part in advance of the brain-case, greatly 
elongates, especially the postorbital cylinder, and increases also in 
breadth, the skull in a great measure losing the triangular form and the 
narrow peaked muzzle characteristic of the young. The postorbital pro- 
cesses also greatly change their form as they further develop, as shown 
in the figures of Plate II. 

The limbs are also relatively much larger than in the adult, as men- 
tioned by Quoy and Gaimard in respect to the Arctocephalus cinereus of 
Australia,* which enables them to move on land with greater facility 
than the adult, as the above-mentioned authors have stated to be the 
case in the Australian species. 

It is not true, however, that the young of C. ursinus are devoid of under- 
fill", as has been by some writers incorrectly stated.f 

Individual Variation. — The two males were both not only full-grown, 
but quite advanced in age, though in all probability the crests of even the 
older skull (Xo. 2922) would have been still further developed. The other 
male (No. 2923) was somewhat younger, but already had the sagittal crest 

* Voyage de 1' Astrolabe, Zoologie, Tom. I, p. 89. 

f It may be added that .the young specimens above described had not fully shed their 
milk teeth. The incisors appear to have been renewed, but both the first and second 
sets of canines were still present (as shown in Fig. 5, PI. Ill, natural size), the permanent 
ones being in front of the others. The three pre-molars of the first set have been re- 
placed by the permanent ones, the first and second of which are already quite large. 
The hinder or true molars are in one of the specimens but just in sight, and doubtless- 
had not cut through the gum. In the other specimen they are a little more advanced. 
The middle one is quite prominent; the first is much smaller, while the last or third true 
molar is far behind either of the others in development. 



84 BULLETIN OF THE 

considerably produced ; tlie teeth, however, -were but moderately worn, the 
incisors still retaining the groove dividing the surface of the crowns. In 
the younger male skull the posterior outline of the palatines is but slightly 
concave, whereas in the other it is deeply and abruptly emarginate in the 
middle, — as deeply so as in the young (one month old) skulls ; — showing 
that differences in this respect do not necessarily depend upon differences 
in age. They also differ in the form of the postorbital processes, in the 
younger they having nearly the same form as in Eumeiopias, whereas in 
the older nearly that seen in Zulophus. The postorbital cylinder is also 
much shorter in the younger, though these two skulls do not present 
nearly the great difference in this respect exhibited by the two very old 
male skulls of Zalophus already described. Another difference is seen in 
the parieto-maxillary suture. In the younger specimen it is nearly 
straight and directed forwards, the nasals extending considerably beyond 
it. In the other it curves at first moderately backwards, and then ab- 
ruptly in the same direction ; the mamillaries extending in this case 
slightly beyond the nasals, instead of ending considerably in front of the 
end of the latter. The nasals themselves are much narrower in the 
younger specimen, especially anteriorly, and hence have very different 
forms in the two specimens. 

In respect to the teeth, it may be added that the older skull has seven 
upper molars on one side and six on the other, the normal number being 
six on each side. The form of the molar teeth, especially of the fangs, 
differ markedly in the two skulls; those of the younger having the longi- 
tudinal grooves of the fangs of nearly all the teeth almost wholly obsolete, 
while in the other specimen the roots of nearly all the molars are more or 
less strongly grooved. 

Of the two female skulls one is very aged,* as shown by the closed su- 
tures and the greatly worn and defective teeth. The younger, however, 
is also quite advanced in years. Differences of a similar character to those 
seen in the males also occur between these, but they are less marked. 

There are also considerable variations in color. Not only is one of the 
young females much darker below and about the face than the other, but one 

* Respecting the ag;e of these specimens of fur seals, Captain Bryant has responded 
to my inquiries as follows: "The grown females (the mothers of the pups) were aver- 
age specimens. The only means I had of determining their age was by the evidences 
afforded by dissection. These were that the oiler female had given birth to -even 
young, and the other to five, which would make their ages respectively ten and eight 
years. The two grown males were also selected as average specimens in size and color. 
Judging from their general appearance and color, 1 estimated them to be ten years old. 
The two pups were thirty-five days old, and in that time had doubled their size from 
birth. They were both females." 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 85 

of the old females is much darker than the other, while similar variations 
are seen in the males. 

General Remarks. — The northern sea bear ( Callorhinus ursinus) 
was first made known by Steller in 1751, under the name of Ursus 
marinus. On his visit to Kamtchatka and its neighboring islands, in 
1742, he met with these animals in great numbers at Behring's Island, 
where he spent several weeks among them, and carefully studied their 
habits and anatomy. On his return to St. Petersburg he published a 
detailed and accurate description of them in his valuable essay entitled 
De Bestiis Marinis, in the Transactions of the St. Petersburg Academy 
for the year 1749.* This valuable memoir has furnished nearly all the 
information concerning the northern sea bears we have hitherto had. 
Steller's account, occupying twenty-eight quarto pages, gave not only 
a detailed description of its anatomy, with an extensive table of meas- 
urements, but also of its remarkable habits, and figures of the animals. 
His description of its habits has been largely quoted by Buffon and 
Pennant, and by Hamilton, in his history of the "Marine Amphibia." f 
Kraschenninikow, in his History of Kamtchatka, \ under the name of 
the "sea cat," also gave a lengthy account of its habits, apparently 
mainly from Steller's notes ; but it embraces a few particulars not given 
in the De Bestiis 3farinis. Buffon, followed by Pennant, and most 
general writers for half a century, confounded the northern sea bear 
with the southern sea bear, they combining the history of the two as 
that of one species. When specimens of both the northern and south- 
ern fur seals had been compared in Europe, their specific distinctness 
became fully recognized, and in 1859 they were even genetically sepa- 
rated by Dr. J. E. Gray, since which time they have been generally 
recognized as belonging to different genera. In color, size, and the 
character of the pelage they are undoubtedly closely related, as they 
seem to be also in habits, but they differ greatly in the form of the 
facial portion of the skull, and hence in physiognomy, through the much 
greater breadth of the muzzle in the northern species, and its abruptly 
rising and convex nose. 

* Novi Commcntaria2 Acidemias Petropolitanre, Vol. XI, pp 331-359, pi. xv. 1751. 
t Naturalist's Library, Mammalia, Vol. Vlh, 1839. 

| History of Kamtchatka (English edition), translated from the Russian by James 
Grieve, M. D., pp. 120- 130, 1764. 



80 BULLETIN OF THE 

Steller's figures were the only original ones of this species that had 
been published up to a recent date, which, with modifications, have 
been frequently copied. Those given by Hamilton (Plate XXI of 
his work above cited) are among the best, and are quite accurate in 
general form, hut erroneous in details, especially in respect to the feet. 
Choris, in 1822, gave a plate purporting to represent a group of 
sea bears, as they appear when assembled on the rocks at their breed- 
ing-places. Though douhtless giving a good idea of their attitudes at 
such times, as the other plate in his chapter on the Aleutian Islands, 
purporting to represent the sea lions, does of those animals ; but they 
are not sufficiently detailed to be of further value. Mr. Dall, in his 
book on "Alaska and its Resources" (previously cited), has published 
a figure from nature of this species, which, while doubtless generally 
correct, gives a somewhat erroneous impression in regard to the charac- 
ter of the hind feet, since the upper surface is represented as being 
strongly ridged and furrowed, the ridges extending to the ends of the 
flaps, which are really flat.* 

The first and only specimen of the skull hitherto figured is that of 
a male, represented in profile, published by Dr. Gray in the Proceed- 
ings of the Zoological Society for 1859 (Plate LXVIII). 

As already remarked, the sea bears of the North were for a long 
time confounded with the southern sea bears, they collectively bearing 
the name of either Phoca or Olaria vrsina. This name was originally, 
however, applied by Schreber and Linne to the Ursus marinus of 
Steller, to which animal the name nrsina is hence exclusively applicable. 

Forster and Cook, and other voyagers, subsequently described the 
southern sea bears, so far as respects their general habits, size, and 
abundance. Most of these writers seem to have regarded these ani- 
mals as the same as the northern sea bear, and, as already stated, 

* It is remarkable how few correct figures have been published of the eared seals, 
even those in scientific works being palpably erroneous, and contradictory of the char- 
acters given in the descriptions accompanying them. In nearly all cases the feet are- 
represented as covered with hair, as in the common seals, and similarly provided with 
well-developed nails on both the fore and hind limbs. In this respect even the figures 
given by Quoy and Gaimard, in the Zoology of the Voyage de VAstrolabe, are faulty, 
not corresponding at all in this regard with the accompanying descriptions of the ani- 
mals. The figures of the Otnria jitbnta, published in the Proceedings of the London 
;ical Society (1666, p. 80, woodcut; 1869, PI. VII) seem to be those most nearly 
approaching accuracy. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 87 

naturalists for a long time generally confounded them. Peron, in 1816, 
first claimed that they were distinct, but no specimens seem to have 
readied European museums till some years later. Dr. Gray, writing 
in 1859, remarks as follows: " I had not been able to see a specimen 
of this species in any of the museums which I examined on the Con- 
tinent or in England, or to find a skull of the genus [Arctocephalus] 
from the North Pacific Ocean, yet I felt so assured, from Steller's 
description and the geographical position, that it must be distinct from 
the eared fur seals from the Antarctic Ocean and Australia, with which 
it had usually been confounded, that in my ' Catalogue of Seals in the 
Collection of the British Museum' [1850] I regarded it as a distinct 
species, under the name of Arctocephalus ursinus, giving an abridgment 
of Steller's description as its specific character." "The British Mu- 
seum," he adds, " has just received, under the name Otaria leonina, 
from Amsterdam, a specimen [skull and skin] of the sea bear from 
Behring's Straits, which was obtained from St. Petersburg" * ; which 
is the specimen already spoken of as figured by Dr. Gray. From the 
great differences existing between this skull and those of the southern 
sea bears, Dr. Gray separated the northern species from the genus 
Arctocephalus, under the name Callorhinus.^ 

Although there were two skulls of Steller's sea bear in the Berlin 
Museum as early as 1841,+ and three skeletons of the same species in 
the Museum of Munich in 18-19, § Dr. Gray seems to have been the 
first naturalist who was able to compare this animal with its southern 
relatives, and hence to positively decide its affinities. 

Misled by a label accompanying specimens of eared seals received 
at the British Museum from California, a skin of the Callorhinus ursi- 
nus was doubtfully described by this author, in the paper in which the 
name Callorhinus was proposed, as that of his Arctocephalus monterien- 
sis, which is a hair seal. This skin was accompanied by a young skull, 
purporting, by the label it bore, to belong to it, but Dr. Gray observes 
that otherwise he should have thought it too small to have belonged 
to the same animal. Seven years later, || however, he described the 

* Proc. London Zool. Soc, 1859, p. 102. 

t Ibid., p. 359. 

X Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, etc , 1841, p. 334. 

§ Ibid., 1849, p. 39. 

|| Cat. Seals and Whales, 1S66, p. 51. 



88 BULLETIN OF THE 

skull as that of a new species (Arctocephalus calif ornianus), still asso- 
ciating with it, however, the skiu of the Gallorhinus ursinus. The 
skull lie subsequently considered as that of a young A. monteriensis 
(= Eametupias Stelleri); and referring his A. californianus to that 
species, he was consequently led into the double error of regarding the 
Eumetopias Stelleri as a fur seal (as already explained under that 
species and elsewhere in the present paper), and of excluding the 
CaUor/n'uus ursinus from the list of fur seals. 

Geographical Distribution. — The northern fur seal seems to be 
nowhere so numerous at present as at the St. Paul's and St. George's 
Islands, off the coast of Alaska. They seem to still occur, however, 
in considerable numbers at a few of the islands to the northward and 
westward, especially at St. Matthew's and Behring's Islands. They 
appear never to have landed on the Asiatic shores to any great extent, 
and I have found no report of their occurrence to the southward of the 
Kuriles on that coast. On the American side they were formerly 
numerous from Sitka to the southern coast of California. At Point 
Conception, Captain Bryant informs me, large numbers were formerly 
taken, but that they are now rare on the California coast, and are 
only seen there in the winter season. " The present year,'' he writes 
me,* " unusually large numbers have been seen off the coasts of 
Oregon, Washington Territory, and British Columbia, and many .skins 
have been taken and brought to San Francisco. They were mostly 
of very young seals, none appearing to be over a year old. Formerly 
in March and April the natives of Puget Sound took large numbers 
of pregnant females, but no place- where they have resorted to lured 
seem to he known off this coast. Neither can I ascertain that any 
rookeries of the hair seals, or sea lions, are known to exist here ; 
but I think it probable that both species occupy the rocky ledges off 
the shore, which are rarely visited by boats." 

The northern fur seals seem to require a moderately cool and hu- 
mid climate, since they do not readily bear the heat of the sun. These 
condition- apparently existing in an eminent degree at the Pribyloff 
Islands, these islands, as Captain Bryant remarks beyond, are eminently 
suited to the wants of these animal-, which, according to his computa- 
tion, resort there in summer to the number of more than a million. 

* Under date of Jum i i. 1870, from the United States revenue cutter " Lincoln," en 
route fur the Seal Islands of Alaska. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 89 

At Behring's and the Pribyloff Islands the fur seals are reported to 
make their appearance from the southward late in spring, and that they 
only resort to these islands for the purposes of reproduction, and leave 
them early in the autumn. Their haunts at other seasons seem not to 
be well known, but it is evident that their winter quarters must be to 
the southward of these islands. That there is a southward migration 
of these animals in winter is evident from their reported greater fre- 
quency at that season on the Pacific coast of the United States. 

Habits. — The very full account of the habits of this species, con- 
tained in the following communication of Captain Bryant, together with 
the accompanying notes, require nothing to be added on this point in 
the present connection. 

II. 

On the Habits of the Northern Fur Seal (Callorhtnus ursinus 
Gray~), with a Description of the Pribyloff Group of Islands. 
By Captain Charles Bryant, with Notes by J. A. Allen. 

Description of the Pribyloff Group of Islands. 

Discovery. — The group of several small islands, known as the 
Pribyloff Group, were discovered under the following circumstances. 
Captain Pribyloff, who in 1781 took charge of the Russian trading 
factory at Ounalaska, observed during his voyages among the islands 
to the westward of Ounalaska numbers of fur seals going north in 
spring and returning in autumn. Believing that there must be un- 
known land to the northward to which these animals resorted, he fitted 
out an expedition for the purpose of discovering it, and in June, 1785, 
while cruising for that purpose, discovered an island. He took pos- 
session of this island, colonized it, and called it St. George's, from the 
vessel in which the discovery was made. On a clear day, during the 
following year, these colonists saw another island to the northward ot 
the first, and visiting it in their canoes, proceeded to occupy it. The 
island was called St. Paul's, from its discovery being made on St. 
Paul's day. 

St. Pauls Island. — St. Paul's Island, of which I append an outline 
sketch (Fig. 5) is nearly triangular, and sixteen miles in length. Its 
northern side is a little concave. Its greatest breadth is four miles, at 



90 



BULLETIN OF THE 
Fig. 6. 




Diagram of St. Paul's Island : a, harbor and native village ; b, sea-lion rookery 

a point one third its length from the west end. From this point a nar- 
row peninsula, half a mile wide and two and a half miles long, extends 
in a southwest direction from the main island. The island is of vol- 
canic origin, and consists of a cluster of flattened cones. The central 
cones of the island have an elevation of from two to three hundred 
feet, and a diameter of from half a mile to one mile and a half. Those 
on the outside, which form the shore line, are much smaller, they being 
only from one eighth to half a mile in diameter, and from fifty to sixty 
feet in height. Their bases touch those of the central higher cones. 
Between the chains of cones are narrow valleys, raised but little above 
the sea level. The border cones are composed entirely of clinkstone, 
and their surfaces appear to have undergone no change other than that 
resulting from the original Assuring, and the subsequent action of frost. 
Where these cones extend into the water they form rounded points 
with gently sloping shores. There is a belt of loose rocks, varying 
from five to forty rods in width, between the base of the outer cones 
and the water. The coves formed between these points have shores 
of loose lava sand. 

The peninsula is formed by two of these cones, one of which is one 
half and the other two and a half miles distant from the main island, 
with which they have been recently connected by the deposition of 
loose sand thrown up by the action of the waves. The connecting 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 91 

necks of land thus formed have a height of only six or eight feet above 
the tide level. 

The cones of the peninsula differ from those of the main island in 
being elongated instead of circular, and in having their surfaces covered 
with a layer of pitchstones, several inches in thickness, above the 
clinkstones. 

On the cone in the centre of the peninsula there is a bed of vol- 
canic ashes and cinders, which shows by its loose mixed condition that 
it fell there after the elevation and cooling of the rock above water. 
Opposite the junction of the peninsula with the main island is a cliff, 
facing the southeast, sixty feet high. Its composition of alternate 
layers of cinders and ashes indicates that it was deposited under water, 
and subsequently elevated to its present positiop. This cliff has been 
worn into by the waves, and portions of it continually falling down 
furnish material for the increase of the sand belt, along the southeast 
shore of the island. A seam or stratum two feet in thickness, com- 
posed mainly of volcanic ashes, and containing lumps of calcined sea 
mud and petrified shells, extends the whole length of the cliff, parallel 
with its surface curves, and situated at about midway its height. These 
shells differ from any now found on the island. 

The distance from the point where the peninsula joins the island to 
the west end of the island is about eight miles, and the general trend 
of the shore is northwest. The peninsula itself extends two miles and 
a half in a southwesterly direction, with a reef continuing to the west- 
ward a mile farther. Within the angle formed by these two shores is 
an open harbor, with anchorage of from nine to thirteen fathoms of 
water, half a mile to three miles off shore. 

A vessel lying here is sheltered from winds blowing from any 
xiortherly point between northwest and east ; with the wind more to 
the southward, a heavy swell rolls over the reef, making it very rough. 
At the head of the cove is located the trading-post of the former Rus- 
sian company and the native village. This portion of the island is 
undergoing great changes, from the filling in of sand from deep water. 
At no very remote period there existed a spacious harbor within the 
-ove now filled with sand ; and there are people living on the island 
who remember when the peninsula itself was an island. In this cove last 
year a vessel drawing six feet of water lay and swung at her anchor 
where it is now dry at low tide. The sand is brought up by the action of 



92 BULLETIN OF THE 

the tides from deep water, and being thrown on the shores soon becomes 
dry and light, and is blown by the high winds into the valleys and over 
the slopes of the hills, tilling up the cracks in the rocks. The climate 
being moist, the soil thus thrown up is rapidly overspread with a luxu- 
riant growth of grass, conspicuous among which is the redtop and other 
common grasses of the New England States ; at a lower level on the 
made land a grass grows which, when young, resembles oats, but later 
it heads out like rye, and bears a small black seed which resembles the 
latter grain when shrunken in ripening. These grass-heads in winter 
furnish rich forage for the cattle and other stock living on the island. 
Among the profusion of wild flowers are the dandelion, buttercup, wild 
pea and bean, yarrow, wormwood, and other weeds ; also the cow-pars- 
nip or wild celery. The latter the natives consider a great luxury, 
they eating the seed stalks when green and tender with great relish. 

The northeast point of the island is formed by a cone two miles in 
diameter and a hundred feet in height. It was once two and a half 
miles distant from the main island, but is now connected with it. The 
action of the tide ebbing and flowing has formed bars of sand on the 
two outer sides ; they thus have extended until they have united the 
two islands, enclosing between them a long narrow lake. This lake is 
now rapidly filling with sand, and being only a mile loug it has become 
quite fresh by the annual melting of snow in it. 

The southeast shore of the island has also a belt of sand, which is in 
many places half a mile wide, and is constantly increasing. In many 
places the sand is drifted to the height of fifty feet, which shows that 
at some period of the year the island is subject to very high winds. 

On one of the largest cones near the centre of the island is the rim 
of an extinct volcano, with a crater thirty rods in diameter. This 
rises to a height of two hundred feet above the surrounding plain of 
clinkstones. Its walls are of red tufa, much crumbled and broken, the 
debris of which fills the opening in the centre. 

Around its base an; several fissures communicating with dark caves. 
Three fourths of a mile west i> a still larger crater, but of less eleva- 
tion. The surface of this portion of the island is covered with broken 
clink-tones, and is either entirely bare of vegetation or only covered 
with mov. 

Otter Island. — Four miles southwest, and in line with the peninsula, 
is a small rocky island, half a mile in its longest diameter, one fourth of 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



93 



a mile wide, and about forty feet high, with a sloping shore on one side. 
It is a part of a cone which has been broken off on three sides, and the 
other part submerged. This is called Otter Island, and has on it a 
small fur seal rookery, yielding three thousand skins annually. 

Mosrovia, or Walrus Island. — East-southeast from the east end of 
St. Paul's Island, eight miles distant, is a rock rising on all sides to a 
height of thirty-five feet, half a mile long by one eighth wide. It has 
around its base at the water line several ledges or shelves, on which the 
walruses come to lie after feeding on the banks east of the island. 
These animals frequent the island during the summer in large num- 
bers, and are killed by the natives for their ivory. On the island is 
also a small sea lion rookery. It is also the breeding-place of immense 
flocks of sea-fowl, and the natives of St. Paul hence visit it in the lay- 
ing season for the purpose of obtaining eggs. 

St. George's Island. — This island lies forty miles to the southeast 
of St. Paul's, and is nearly triangular in form (Fig. 6) ; its greatest 

Fig. 6. 




Diagram of St. George's Island : a, principal seal rookery ; 6, harbor and settlement. 

length is twelve miles in an east and west direction. The greatest 
width of the island, which is near its centre, is four miles. Its north- 
ern shore has an indentation near its centre of three fourths of a 
mile in depth, with a bank in front. Within this cove vessels may 
anchor in ten fathoms of water, one half a mile off shore. It is at this 
point that the settlement is situated. The southeast and southwest 
sides are very irregular, with indentations on each side where vessels 
may anchor in from ten to sixteen fathoms, one fourth of a mile from 



94 BULLETIN OF THE 

shore, but with poor holding-ground, and no shelter except when the 
wind is from the land. 

This island is of similar origin to St. Paul's, but differs from it in 
outline. A mountain ridge nearly one thousand feet high traverses 
the southeast part of the island parallel to the shore, and forms a per- 
pendicular sea front, from two to six hundred feet high. West of the 
ridge the island is intersected by a valley three miles wide, descending 
gradually on either side to the shores, where it terminates in low broken 
cliffs. To the westward of the valley the surface rises again rapidly, 
and ends in a narrow perpendicular headland six or seven hundred 
feet high. 

The whole appearance of the island indicates that it was originally 
much larger than it is at present, and that the outer portion has been 
broken off and submerged, leaving the sides perpendicular. It is only 
on the sloping shores near the middle of the island that the seals can 
obtain a footing. On all the other sides the surf breaks against the 
base of the cliffs. Broken clinkstones cover most of the surface of the 
island, upon the lower parts of which a thin soil of decayed vegetable 
matter has accumulated. Owing to the springy, oozy nature of the 
ground, the houses are all built above-ground, and not partially below 
the surface as on St. Paul's. The island has one hundred and sixty 
Aleutian inhabitants, similar to those of St. Paul's. 

The island of St. George is estimated to yield one half as many 
seals as St. Paul's, but owing to the poor anchorage and the difficulty 
of loading the vessels with the skins, the seals have been less disturbed. 

The Climate. — No record of the temperature at these islands had 
been kept previous to my arrival. My observations at St. Paul's give 
the mean temperature of June as 48° F. ; of July, 51°; a part of 
August, 60° These are the three warmest months of 1 the year. I 
was told that the mercury froze twice during the previous winter. 

Snow falls on these islands from October to April, but except in 
sheltered spots it does not attain any great depth, blowing off as fast as 
it falls. 

From the middle of March to the latter part of May the great body 
of floating ice comes down from the north, and passes by the east end of 
the island to the southwest. At this time the weather is very severe, 
this being the most stormy period of the year. This body of ice seldom 
extends as far south as .St. George's, forty miles distant. During my 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 95 

residence at St. Paul's there was very little fog on the island, though it 
could be seen resting on the water ten or fifteen miles off shore, form- 
ing clouds which obscured the sun during the greater part of the time. 
The climate is not favorable to agriculture, but there is at least a thou- 
sand acres of first-class grazing land along the southeast shore and in 
the vicinity of the village. 

Last year a horse and four neat cattle were brought to the island. 
Directions had been given to prepare hay for them, but owing to the 
dampness of the atmosphere it was not done, so that when the cattle 
were landed there were only such supplies of food for them as the 
island naturally afforded. They therefore had to subsist on the dry 
grass of the flats, on which they wintered in good condition, the cows 
giving a good supply of milk. The wild rye-heads proved nutritious 
food, of which the supply was abundant. The horse also came through 
in excellent condition, though having no grain. Goats and sheep have 
been added to the stock on the island during the past season. They 
have all bred and are doing well. I have been thus minute in these 
details, because I have often heard it asserted that these islands are bar- 
ren rocks, without vegetation. 

The Habits of the Fur Seal. 

The fur seals resort to the Pribyloff Islands during the summer 
months for the sole purpose of reproduction. Those sharing in these 
duties necessarily remain on or near the shore until the joung are able 
to take to the water. During this considerable period the old seals are 
not known to take any food. In order to speak intelligibly of the 
duties of the several classes of seals at this important season, it is 
necessary at this point to describe the animals. 

The male fur seal does not attain mature size until about the sixth 
year. He then measures in total length from seven to eight feet, and 
six to seven in girth. His color is then dark brown, with gray over- 
hair on the neck and shoulders. When in full flesh his weight varies 
from five to seven hundred pounds. These and no others occupy the 
rookeries (or breeding-grounds) with the females. 

A full-grown female measures four feet in length and two and a half 
around the body, and differs from the male in form by having a some- 
what longer head, shorter neck, and a greater fulness of body poste- 
riorly. She usually weighs from eighty to a hundred pounds. Her 



96 BULLETIN OF THE 

color when she first leaves the water is a dark steel-mixed on the hack, 
the sides and breast being white ; but she gradually changes somewhat, 
and in eight or ten days after landing becomes dark brown on the back, 
and bright orange on the breast, sides, and throat. Hence it is easy to 
distinguish those that have just arrived from those that have been sev- 
eral days on the shore. The female breeds the third year, and is full- 
grown at four years. 

The yearlings weigh from forty to fifty pounds, and are dark brown 
with a lighter shade on the throat and breast. The ages of those 
between one and six years old are easily distinguished by the differ- 
ences in size and state of development of the animal-. The repro- 
ductive organs of the male are fully developed the fourth year, and 
it is mainly by males of this age that the fertilization of the females is 
effected. Copulation, described more fully later, usually takes place in 
the water. 

The breeding-rookeries, which are frequented exclusively by the old 
males and females with their pups, occupy the belt of loose rocks along 
the shores between the high-water line and the base of the cliffs or 
uplands, and vary in width from five to forty rods. The sand beaches 
are used only as temporary resting-places, and for play-grounds by the 
younger seals ; these beaches being neutral ground, where the old and 
infirm or the wounded may lay undisturbed. 

The old male appears to return each year to the same rock so long 
as he is able to maintain his position. The native chiefs affirm that 
one seal, known by his having lost one of his flippers, came seventeen 
successive years to the same rock.* 

Those under six years are never allowed by the old ones on these 
places. They usually swim in the water along shore all day, and at 
night go on the upland above the rookeries and spread themselves 
out, like flocks of sheep, to re.-t. 

* Dr. Newberry states (United States Pnrifie, Railroad Surveys and Explorations, 
Vol. VI, Zoology, p. 50, 1857) that Dr. William 0. Ayres of San Francisco presented a 
skull of a " sea lion" to the California Academy of Science, obtained by him during a 
visit to the Farallone Islands in June, is.",:., concerning which he mad.' the following 
remarks, which tend to corroborate Captain Bryant's opinion that the seals return year 
after year to the snnc breeding-grounds. Dr. Ayres observes: " The specimen is of in- 
terest as illustrating, in one particular, the habits of these animals. The left zygomatic 
arch has been perforated by a bullet, and the lower part of the left inferior maxillary 
bone by another; both these injuries having been received so long since that the action 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 07 

Wherever a long continuous shore line is occupied as a breeding- 
rookery, neutral passages are set apart at convenient distances through 
which the younger seals may pass from the water to the Lip'uiiil and 
return unmolested. Often a continuous line moving in single file may 
be seen for hours together going from the water to the upland, or the 
reverse, as the case may he. When suddenly disturbed while sleeping 
on the upland by an attempt of an animal to cross the rookery at any 
other place, a general engagement ensues, which often results in the 
death or serious crippling of the combatants. After the females have 
arrived at the rookeries, many of them, as well as their pups, are tram- 
pled to death in these struggles. 

Constant care is also necessary lest thoughtless persons incautiously 
approach the breeding-grounds, as the stampede of the. seals that would 
result therefrom always destroys many of the young. 

The old males are denominated by the natives Seacutch (married 
seals). These welcome the females on their arrival, and watch over and 
protect them and their }'Oung until the latter are large enough to be 
left to the care of their mothers and the younger males. 

Those under six years old are not able to maintain a place on the 
rookery, or to keep a harem, and these are denominated HoUuschuck 
(bachelors). These two classes of males, with the full-grown females 
termed Mothu (mothers), form the three classes that participate in the 
duties of reproduction. 

By the first to the middle of April the snow has melted from the 
shore and the drift ice from the north has all passed. Soon after this 
period, a few old veteran male seals make their appearance in the water 
near the island, and after two or three days' reconnoissance venture on to 
the shore and examine the rookeries, carefully smelling them. If the 
examination is satisfactory, after a day or two a few climb the slopes 
and lay with their heads erect listening. At this time, if the wind blows 
from the village towards the rookeries, all fires are extinguished and 

of the absorbents lias almost smoothed the splintered edges of the bones. Inside of the 
wound of the zygoma was found the piece of lead which had caused it, and which was 
at once recognized, from certain peculiarities of form, as one which had been fired, 
without fatal effect, at a sea lion, on the same rocks, in the summer of 1854. We have 
thus a demonstration," Dr Ayres continues. " that these huge seals return, in some 
instances at least, year after year, to the same localities. They leave the Farallones in 
November and return in May, being absent about six months. How far they migrate 
during that interval we have at present no means of determining." — j. a. a. 
VOL. II. 7 



98 BULLETIN OF THE 

all unnecessary noises avoided. These scouts then depart and in a few 
days after small numbers of male seals of all ages begin to arrive. The 
old patriarchs soon take their places on the rookeries and prevent the 
younger males from landing. They thus compel them to either stay in 
the water or go to the upland above. 

In locating, each old male reserves a little more than a square rod of 
space to himself. For this proceeding they evidently have two reasons. 
First, from the constant liability to surprise from their rear, which is 
their weakest point, they require room enough to make one leap in 
turnin"- before being able to defend themselves or to attack their ene- 
mies. Their eyes being adapted to seeing in the water, their vision is 
feeble when they are out of that element. Consequently they have to 
rely mainly on the senses of hearing and smell for warning of danger ; 
hence while dozing on the rocks every movement or sound in their 
vicinity keeps them constantly turning towards the direction from 
which it proceeds. A second reason is that each requires that amount 
of space for the reception of his ten or fifteen wives.* 

Male seals continue to arrive in small numbers daily, a few of which 
are yearlings ; those two, three, four, and five years old arrive in about 
equal proportions. Those older than this are more numerous than the 
younger, each one of which fights his way to his old place on the rook- 
ery,! or, taking a new one, prepares to contend for it in case the owner 
comes to take it. As they acknowledge no right but that of might, the 
later comer has to select again. The growling and fighting are con- 
stant, so that day and night the aggregated sound is like that of an 
approaching railway train. 

About the 15th of June the males have all assembled, the ground 
being then fully occupied by them, as they lay waiting for the females 
to come. These appear in small numbers at first, but increase as the 
season advances till the middle of July, when the rookeries are all full, 
the females often overlapping each other. 

* Steller gives the number of females to each male as eight to fifteen or even fifty. 
(" Mares polygami sunt, unus ssepi 8, 15, ad 50 fcemollas habet, quas anxie semula- 
bundus custodit, et vel alio tantillium appropinquante, in furorem agitur.") Several of 
the carle" <cul<. as well as all the species of eared seals, are well known to be polyga- 
mous. The seraglios of the male sea elephant, whoso habits are better known than 
those of any other of the group, are said to embrace frequently from fifteen to twenty 
females. — j. a. a. 

f Steller remarks that the males sometimes become so attached to their stations that 
they prefer death to the loss of them. — J. a. a. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 99 

Many of the females on their arrival appear desirous of returning to 
some particular male, and frequently climb the outlying rocks to over- 
look the rookeries, calling out and listening as if for a familiar voice. 
Then changing to another place they do the same again, until some 
"bachelor" seal swimming in the water approaches and drives her on 
shore, often compelling her to land against her will. Here comes in the 
duty of the " bachelor " seals. They swim all day along the shore es- 
corting and driving the females on to the rocks as fast as they arrive. 
As soon as a female reaches the shore, the nearest male goes down to 
meet her, making meanwhile a noise like the clucking of a hen to her 
chickens. He bows to her and coaxes her until he gets between her 
and the water so that she cannot escape him. Then his manner changes, 
and with a harsh growl he drives her to a place in his harem. This 
continues until the lower row of harems is nearly full. Then the males 
higher up select the time when their more fortunate neighbors are off 
their guard to steal their wives. This they do by taking them in their 
mouths and lifting them over the heads of the other females, and careful- 
ly placing them in their own harem, carrying them as cats do their kit- 
tens. Those still higher up pursue the same method until the whole 
space is occupied. Frequently a struggle ensues between two males for 
possession of the same female, and both seizing her at once pull her in 
two or terribly lacerate her with their teeth. When the space is all 
filled, the old male walks around complaisantly reviewing his family, 
scolding those who crowd or disturb the others, and fiercely driving off 
all intruders. This surveillance always keeps him actively occupied. 

In two or three days after landing, the females give birth to one pup 
each,* weighing about six pounds. It is entirely black, and remains of 
this color the whole season. The young are quite vigorous, even at 
birth, nursing very soon after they are born. The mother manifests a 
strong attachment for her own young, and distinguishes its cry among 
thousands. The voice of the female is like the bleating of a sheep, and 
the cry of the pup resembles that of a lamb.f 

* A single young at a birth seems to be the general rule in this family; ea<es where 
two are produced seeming to be, so far as known, exceptional. The period of gestation 
is stated by different authors as being nine to twelve months, varying in the differing 
species, from twelve in the fur seals to nine or ten in the hair seals. — j. a. a. 

t By several different writers the voice of the male is compared to the roaring of the 
lion ; that of the female to the bleating of a sheep ; and that of the young to the cry of a 
lamb, not only in the case of the present species, but also of their southern allies. 



100 BULLETIN OF THE 

In a few days after the birth of the young the female is ready for 
intercourse with the male. She now becomes solicitous of liis atten- 
tions, and extends herself on the rocks before him. Owing to the 
position of the genital organs, however, coition on land seems to be not 
the natural method, and only rarely, perhaps in three cases out of ten, 
is the attempt to copulate under such circumstances effectual. In the 
mean time the four and five year old males are in attendance along the 
shore. When their jealous lord is off" his guard, or encased in driving 
away a rival, the females slip into the water, when an attentive "bach- 
elor" seal follows her to a distance from shore. Then, breast to breast, 
they embrace each other, turning alternately for each other to breathe, 
the act of copulation sometimes continuing from five to eight minutes.* 

"When the female again returns to the shore she is treated with in- 



Kraschennimkow, apparently quoting from Steller, thus quaintly describes their voice 
as heard under different circumstances. " When this animal lies upon the shore and 
diverts himself, hi> losing is like that of a cow ; when he fights he growls like a bear ; 
when he has conquered his enemy he chirps like a cricket." — Hist, of Kamtsck., p. 228. 
Mr. Dall observes that they have "a kind of piping whistle which they use when tired 
or hot." — j. A. a. 

* Other accounts somewhat vary from this. Steller's remarks on this point areas 
follows: " Concubitum exercent more hominum ita ut mas incubus foemella succuba 
sit. prseeipue autem circa vesperam veneris exercitiis inhiant: horam antea tarn mas 
quam foemella in mare se recipiunt, una placide natant, dein una reuertunter, fcemella 
supina in dorso jacet, mas vero e mari superueuit, anterioribus pedibus innixus, maximo 
feruore libidinem exercet, et sub hoe lusu fcemellamita premitet pondere su'oin arenam 
demergit, ut nihil nisi caput cmineat, ipse vero pedibus anterioribus adeo in arenam 
endit, ut tandem toto ventre fcemellam premat et contingat. Locum eligunt ipsum 
litns arenosum, qua undis huncdum alluitur, adeo intentiet obliuiosisui ipsius sunt, ut 
plusquam per quadrantem horau scortanti abstarem, antequam me obsernai'et, nee obse- 
ruasset, nisi mum colapham impegissem, ex quo adeo iratus maximo fremiti! me laces- 
siuit, ut aegre me surriperem, ille vero nihilominus me eminus vidente, quod cceperat, 
absoluit opus per integrm quadrantem horse." 

Mi-. W. II. Dall. in August, 1S68, spent some time at St. George's Island, and in some 

valuable notes on the natural history of this island, which he has kindly placed at my 

disposal, 1 find tin' following remarks, which, it will be seen, are quite confirmatory of 

: "They [the females] sleep in the water, lying on their sides, with the 

two flippers [of the upper side] out of the water, and receive tin- male ill the same 

times nanain in copula for upwards of an hour." While these 

statements arc doubtless quite true, at least in numerous instances, the more favorable 

unit! for observation Captain Bryant has had, leave little reason to suppose he 

ition, been deceived in the matter. 

I have been thus lengthy in these comments from the fact that tlii- mode of coitus 
■ Ijccii no,- r among the lower mammalia. — j. a. \. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 101 

difference by all the males. She now roams at will about the rookery, 
whereas before she was not allowed to go to the relief of her young 
when in distress and crying for her. By the middle of August the 
young are all born, and the females are again pregnant. The old males 
having occupied their stations constantly for four months, without food, 
now resign their charge to the younger males, and go to some distance 
from shore to feed. 

The fact of their remaining without food seems so contrary to nature, 
that it seems to me proper to state some of the evidences of it. Having 
been assured by the natives that such was the fact, I deemed it of suffi- 
cient importance to test it by all the means available. Accordingly I 
took special pains to examine daily a large extent of the rookery and 
note carefully the results of my observations. The rocks on the rookery 
are worn smooth and washed clean by the spring tides, and any discharge 
of excrement could not fail to be detected. I found, in a few instances, 
where newly arrived seals had made a single discharge of red-colored 
excrement, but nothing was seen afterwards to show that such discharges 
were continued, or any evidence that the animals had partaken of food. 
They never left the rocks, except when compelled by the heat of the 
sun to seek the water to cool themselves. They are then absent from 
the land for but a short time. I also examined the stomachs of sever- 
al hundred young ones, killed by the natives for eating, and always 
without finding any traces of food in them. The same was true of the 
few nursing females killed for dissection.* On their arrival in the 



* Steller states that, in the numerous specimens he dissected, he always found the 
stomachs empty, and remarks that they take no food during the several weeks they 
remain on land. Mr. Dall confirms the same statement in respect to the present species, 
and Captains Cook, Weddel, and others, who have had opportunities of observing the 
different southern species, affirm the same fact in respect to the latter. Lord Shuldham 
long since stated that the walrus had the same habit, though its annual fast seems some- 
what shorter than those of the eared seals. In the London Philosophical Transactions 
for the year 1775 (p. 249), in briefly describing the droves of walruses that at that time 
frequented the Magdalen and other islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, he says that 
they crawl upon the land in great numbers, at convenient landing-places, " and some- 
times remain for fourteen days together without food, when the weather is fair; but on 
the approach of rain they immediately retreat to the water with great precipitation." 

This singular phenomenon of a protracted annual fast during the period of parturition 
and the nursing of the young — the season when most mammals require the most ample 
sustenance — seems not wholly confined to the walruses and the eared seals. So far as 
known, however, it is limited to the Pinnipedes; and, excepting in the case of a single 



102 BULLETIN OF THE 

spring they are very fat and unwieldy, but when they leave, after their 
four months' fast, they are very thin, being reduced to one half their 
former weight. 

The female has four teats, two on each side, equidistant, and in line 
between the fore and hind flippers. Their milk is of a yellowish color, 
composed of water and caseine, very insipid, and containing no sugar. 
The pups nurse but seldom, and when separated from the mother for 
thirty-six hours and returned to her again, they seem in no haste to do 
so, and in some cases did not for several hours afterwards. 

About the 20th of July the great body of the previous year's pups 
arrive and occupy the slopes with the younger class of males, and they 
continue to be mixed together during the remainder of the season. The 
two-years-old females, which pair with the young males in the water 
near the island, also now associate with the other females. 

The pups are five weeks old when the old females go off to feed; 
they go with the mothers to the upland, but keep by themselves. The 
pups born on the lower edge of the rookery, where the surf breaks over 
them occasionally, learn to swim early, but the larger portion of them 
do not take to the water until later, and many have to be forced in by 
the parent.* Once in, however, they soon love to sport in it. The 
young are taught to swim by the old males on their return from 
feeding. 

By the last of October the seals begin to leave the islands in small 
companies, the males going last and by themselves. In November the 

member, the sea elephant ( Macrorhinus elephantinus ), to the two above-named fami- 
lies. By some of the old writers the sea elephant was said to feed sparingly, at this 
time, on the grasses and sea-weeds that grew in the vicinity of its breeding-places, out 
the weight of the evidence in respect to this point seems to indicate that this species 
fasts similarly to the eared seals and walruses, during the period it resorts to the land to 
bring forth its young. Regarding the period of abstinence of the sea elephants and its 
effect upon the animals, Weddel observes as follows: "The circumstance of these 
animals living on shore for a period not less than two months, apparently without taking 
food of any description, may certainly be considered a remarkable phenomenon in 
natural economy. That they live by absorption is evident; that is, by consuming the 
substance of their own bodies; because, when they come first on shore they are ex- 
cessively fat, and when they return to the sea they are very lean" ( Voyage toicards 
the South Pole, p. 136). 

It may be that other species of the earless seals undergo similar fasts, but if so I have 
■ en ii rd of the fact. — j. a. a. 

* A dislik ' fear of the water on the part of the young of other species of fur and 

hair seals has been reported by other observers. — J. a. a. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 103 

young seals (as I was informed by the natives, my own observations 
ending in August) stop to rest a few days on the Aleutian Islands, and 
at Ounalaska the natives obtain several hundred skins annually.* 

* The following remark?, quoted from Captain Weddel's " Voyage towards the South 
Pole" (p. 137, August, 1827), show how closely the southern fur seal (Ar otocephalus 
falklandicus) resembles the northern fur seal in habits and general economy: — 

" Nothing in this class of animals [the seals], and more particularly in the fur seal of 
Shetland, is more astonishing than the disproportion in the size of the male and female. 
A large grown male, from the tip of the nose to the extremity of the tail, is six feet nine 
inches, whilst the female is not more than three feet and a half. This class of males is 
not, however, the most numerous; but being physically the most powerful, they keep 
possession of the females, to the exclusion of the younger branches; hence, at the time 
of parturition, the males may be computed to be as one to twenty [females], which shows 
this to be, perhaps, the most polygamous of large animals. 

" They are in their nature completely gregarious; but they flock together and assem- 
ble on the coast at different periods and in distinct classes. The males of the largest 
size go on shore about the middle of November to wait the arrival of the females, which 
of necessity must soon follow, for the purpose of bringing forth their young. These, in 
the early part of December, begin to land ; and they are no sooner out of the water than 
they are taken possession of by the males, who have many serious battles with each 
other in procuring their respective seraglios; and by a peculiar instinct they carefully 
protect the females under their charge during the whole period of gestation. 

" By the end of December, all the female seals have accomplished the purpose of 
their landing. The time of gestation may be considered twelve months, and they seldom 
have more than one at a time, which they suckle and rear apparently with great affec- 
tion. Ey the middle of February the young are able to take to the water; and after 
being taught to sicim by the mother, they abandon them on shore, where they remain 
till their coats of fur and hair ai - e completed. During the latter end of February, what 
are called the dog-seals go on shore: these are the young seals of the two preceding 
years, and such males as, from their want of age and strength, are not allowed to attend 
the pregnant females. These young seals come on shore for the purpose of renewing 
their annual coats, which being done by the end of April, they take to the water, and 
scarcely any are seen on shore again till the end of June, when some young males come 
up and go off alternately. They continue to do this for six or seven week«, and the 
shores are then abandoned till the end of August, when a herd of small, young seals of 
both sexes come on shore for about five or six weeks; soon after they retire to the 
water. The large male seals take up their places on shore, as has been before described, 
which completes the intercourse all classes have with the shore during the whole year. 

" The young are at first black ; in a few weeks they become gray, and soon after 

obtain their coat of hair and fur I have estimated the female seal to be. in 

general, at its full growth-wifhin four years, but possibly the male seal is much lo 
very likely five or six years; and some which I have contrasted with others of the same 
size could not, from their very old appearance, be less than thirty year- " 

[For further information in respect to the habits of the Pinnipedes in general, the 
reader is referred to Dr. Robert Hamilton's " Natural History of the Amphibious Car- 
nivora," etc. (1839), which forms the eighth volume of the Mammalia of Jardine's " Nat- 



104 BULLETIN OF THE 

Manner of Killing the Seals. — It will be recollected that I have de- 
scribed the younger seals as spreading out on the slopes above the 
rookeries to rest at night. A party of men approach these places armed 
with clubs of hard wood, and quietly creep between the seals and the 
shore. "When ready the men start up with a shout at a given signal, and 
drive the seals inland in a body. When at a sufficient distance from 
the rookery, they halt to screen the flock of as many as possible that 
are too old for killing, only those that are two and three years old yield- 
ing prime skins ; the fur of those older is too coarse to be market- 
able. The screening is done by driving the seals slowly forward in a 
curve ; the older, sullenly holding back, force the more timid forward, 
when the men opening their ranks let them pass through and return 
to the shore. The remainder of the flock is then driven to the killing- 
ground, though still containing many too old to be of value. 

It is necessary to drive the flock some distance from the breeding- 
ground, as the. smell of the blood and the carcasses disturbs the seals. 
Another object is to make the seal carry his own skin to the salt-house, 
and it is hence sometimes necessary to drive them six or seven miles. 
The driving has to be conducted with great care, as the violent exer- 
tion causes the* seals to heat rapidly, and if heated beyond a certain 
degree the fur is loosened and the skin becomes valueless. In a cool 
day they may be driven one mile and a half per hour with safety. 
They travel by lifting themselves from the ground on their fore legs, 
and hitching their body after them with a kind of sideways, loping gal- 
lop. When arrived at the killing-ground a few boys are employed to 
keep them from straggling, and they are thus left to rest and cool. 
Then a small number, from seventy to one hundred, are separated from 
the flock, surrounded and driven on each other, so that they confine 
themselves by treading on each other's flippers. Those desired for 
killing are then easily selected and quickly killed by a light blow on 
the nose from a hard wooden club. When these are killed, those left 
as unfit are allowed to go to the nearest water, whence they imme- 
diately return to the place from which they were driven. This 
operation is repeated until the whole flock is disposed of, providing 
there is time to skin and take care of them all before putrefaction 

uralist's Library," — an excellent compilation from previous authors. The more impor- 
tant of the recent papers treating of the habits and other characters of the cared seals 
have already been cited in the historical " Resume" of the present paper. — J. A. A.] 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 105 

would begin. The work of skinning is performed by all the men on 
the island, and every one participating in it is allowed to .share in the 
proceeds. 

As the seals are not wholly at rest until the females arrive, great care 
is necessary in selecting the time and place from which to drive. These 
points are determined by a head man, who assumes the whole control 
of this part of the business. In the month of May only the small 
number required by the natives for food are driven. In June, when 
the seals are more numerous, they are driven and killed for their skins, 
although the percentage of prime skins is at this time very small, often 
not twenty per cent of the whole flock driven. About the middle of 
July the females go off into the water, and there is a period of general 
rest among all the seals, during which time the natives desist entirely 
from killing for from ten to fourteen days. At the close of this period 
the great body of yearling seals arrive. These, mixing with the younger 
class of males, spread over the uplands and greatly increase the pro- 
portion of prime skins, but also greatly increase the difficulty of killing 
properly. Up to this time, there having been no females with the 
seals driven up for killing, it was only necessary to distinguish ages; 
this the difference in size enables them to do very easily. Now, how- 
ever, nearly one half are females, and the slight difference between these 
and the younger males renders it necessary for the head man to see 
every seal killed, and only a strong interest in the preservation of the 
stock can insure the proper care. September and October are consid- 
ered the best months for taking the seals. 

Besides the skin, each seal will yield one gallon and a half of oil, and 
the linings of all the, throats are saved and salted as an article of trade 
to other ports in the Territory, these being used by the natives for mak- 
ing water-proof frocks to wear in their skin canoes when hunting the 
sea otter or fishing. These parts have no very great commercial 
value, though they are considered by the natives as indispensable to 
them. 

It will be seen by the foregoing description of the habits of the fur 
seal, that the conditions necessary for their preservation and increase 
are very simple. The first is that they be not unnecessarily disturbed 
during the period of their arrival on the island. Second, that care be 
taken in killing to kill only males, and to reserve enough of these for 
breeding purposes. If these precautions are taken, they increase faster 



106 BULLETIN OF THE 

than if left to themselves ; for when the number of males is in excess, 
the continual fighting on the rookeries destroys many of both females 
and young, which get trampled to death.* 

Mode of Curing the Skins. — The skins are all taken to the salt- 
houses and are salted in kenches or square bins, the skins being spread 
down flesh side up, and a quantity of loose salt profusely scattered over 
them. They remain thus packed for thirty or forty days, when they 
are taken from the bins ; the loose salt is removed, and the skins are 
folded together, the flesh side in, and sprinkled as they are folded with 
a small quantity of clean salt. They are then ready for shipment, only 
requiring a small additional quantity of salt whenever removed. 

Number of Seals frequenting the Island. — There are at least twelve 
miles of shore lme on the island of St. Paul's occupied by the seals 
as breeding-grounds, with an average width of fifteen rods. There be- 
ing about twenty seals to the square rod, gives one million one hundred 
and fifty-two thousand as the whole number' of breeding males and fe- 
males. Deducting one tenth for males leaves one million thirty-seven 
thousand and eight hundred breeding females. Allowing one half of the 
present year's pups to be females, this will add half a million of breeding 
females to the rookeries of 1872, in addition to those now there, while 
the young of last year and the year before are also to be added. This 
estimate does not include the males under six years of age, these not 

* The almost total extermination at some points of some of the various seals formerly 
extensively hunted for their skins or their oil on the islands and coast of Southern South 
America is well known. Weddel states (in his "Voyage," already cited) that the 
number of fur seals taken off the Shetland Islands, during the years 1821 and 1822, may 
be computed at 320,000. li This valuable animal," he adds, " might, by a law similar to 
that which restrains fishermen in the size of the mesh of their net, have been spared to 
render annually 100,000 furs for many years to come. This would have followed from 
not killing the mothers till the young were able to take to the water; and even then only 
those which appeared to be old, together with a proportion of the males, thereby dimin- 
ishing their total number, but in slow progression. ' This system is [183fl] practised at 
the river of Plata. The island of Lobos, in the mouth of that river, contains a quantity 
of seals, and is farmed by the Governor of Monte Video, under certain restrictions, that 
the hunters shall not take them but at stated periods, in order to prevent the animals 
from being exterminated. The system of extermination was practised, however, at 
Shetland; for whenever a seal reached the beach, of whatever denomination, he was 
immediately killed and his skin taken, and by this means, at the end of the second year 
the animals became nearly extinct ; the young losing their mothers when only three 
or four days old, of course all died, which, at the lowest calculation, exceeded 100,000." 

J. A. A. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 107 

bein" - allowed on the rookeries by the older males, nor the yearlings. 
If we now add those frequenting St. George's Island, which number 
half as many, and make a very liberal discount for those that may be 
destroyed before reaching maturity, the number is still enormous. It 
will also be seen that the great importance of the seal fishery is not to 
be calculated from the basis of its present yield, since each year adds 
to its extent, as with proper care the number can be increased until 
both islands are fully occupied by these valuable animals* 

Peculiar situation of the Pribylqff Island. — These islands are situ- 
ated immediately between the northern edge of the great warm oceanic 
current, — which, passing into Behring's Sea west of the Aleutian 
Islands and flowing east through Ounimak Straits, enters the Gulf 
of Alaska at that point, — and the edge of the rotary cold current 
which flows from the Gulf of Anadir east through Norton Sound, 
returning westward to this point again. These currents furnish the 
necessary climatic conditions of a cool uniform temperature and hu- 
mid atmosphere necessary to these animals, while their position is just 
far enough south to escape being visited by the polar bears floating on 
the ice, as is not the case with the island of St. Matthew's, the nearest 
land on the north. There are no other islands possessing these ad- 
vantages in an equal degree. Behring's and Copper Islands, further 
westward, in Russian waters, approach it nearest. 

Prices paid for the Skins at the Islands, and their Value in Eu- 
rope. — The Russian company allowed the natives the value of ten 
cents per skin. This was the pay they received for the labor of kill- 
ing, curing the skins, and delivering them alongside the vessel ready for 
shipment, the company finding salt and magazines in which to salt 
them. 

The parties who took advantage of the interval between the transfer 
of the Territory and the enacting and enforcement of the law of the 
27th of July, 1868, to kill and purchase of the natives, paid twenty- 
seven cents per skin, and had they been allowed to trade the present 

* It may be added that the United States government has already taken measures to 
prevent an undue decrease of the fur seals of the Pribyloff Islands, in the amendment 
to the bill for the preservation of the fur-bearing animals of Alaska, which was passed 
by Congress early in July of the present year, and that private parties have interested 
themselves in the preservation of the sea lions that frequent portions of the California 
coast. — j. a. a. 



108 BULLETIN OF THE 

year would have bidden forty cents apiece for tliem. To this is to be 
added the cost of salt, buildings, and the expense of the agency on 
shore. Their market value was at that time five dollars, so that, after 
a liberal allowance for incidental expenses, the profit must be very 
large. 

Previous to 1 8GG these skins were worth only three dollars each, 
but owing to recent improvements in their manufacture they have 
become fashionable for ladies' wear, and soon after the transfer of the 
Territory to the United States the price rose to seven dollars. At this 
time the Russians had one hundred thousand on hand, which were for- 
warded to London, the only market for seal-skins in the raw state, and 
the only place where they are dressed. The different parties who sealed 
on the islands in the summer following the purchase took two hundred 
thousand, which so overstocked the market that they are now worth 
only three or four dollars. 

The agents of the Russian Fur Company aimed to control this branch 
of the fur trade in Europe by regulating the supply. To do this they 
sent orders a year in advance to have such a number killed as in their 
judgment the market might need, always keeping at the same time one 
year's supply on hand. At the time of the sale of the Territory the 
annual yield was estimated at eighty thousand skins. The opinion of 
the men who have the special care of the seals is that it has reached 
one hundred thousand, and that the killing yearly of this number will 
in no way cheek their increase. As I have elsewhere explained, to 
kill a proper number of males annually tends to a general increase in 
the whole number of seals. 

Use of the Flesh by the Natives. — The flesh of the seal constitutes 
the principal food of the inhabitants they killing from time to time 
such numbers as are necessary for that purpose. Before the; seals 
leave in autumn a number are killed sufficient for their winter's 
supply. Tie- carcasses are allowed to freeze, and in this state they 
keep them until the return of the. seals in the spring. The flesh of 
the yearling seal is somewhat darker than beef; it is juicy and tender, 
but lacks the sweetness and flavor of beef, and is less firm and nutri- 
tious. In highly seasoned dishes it is relished by nearly all who partake 
of it. The soldiers on the island preferred it to salt rations. Alive 
weeks' old pup roasted is esteemed a great luxury. The sea lion 
also constitutes a part of the natural food of the natives. 

Cambridge, August, 1870. 



Plate I. 

Eumetopias Stelleki Peters. 

[The figures are all one third natural size, when not otherwise stated.] 

Fig. 1. Skull, seen from below, of a middle-aged $ (spec. No. 2920). 
" 2. Posterior view of the same skull. 

« 3. Skull, seen from below, of a very old $ (spec. No. 2921). 
" 4. Posterior view of the same skull. 

« 5. Teeth (one half nat. sire) of the middle-aged skull; 5a, upper 
incisors seen from the side; bb, lower incisors, same view; be, 
upper molars, seen from the side; bd, same view of lower molars. 
(The canines are not figured.) 
« 6 View of upper surface of the right anterior extremity. (The more 
heavily shaded portion indicates the termination of the hair- 
covered part. One twentieth natural size.) 
« 7. View of the upper surface of one of the posterior extremities. 

(one twentieth natural size). 
" 8. Ear (one half natural siz<*.). 



Bull.M.CZ.Vol.lI.No.l. 



Plate I. 




I'.jiucttri'.cni.sfo/Hr from nature. 



.// ■'',:', fo Jiosro 



EUMETOPIAS STELLERl (Pe/ers) 



Plate II. 

Callorhinus ursinus Gray. 

[The figures are all one third natural size, when not otherwise stated.] 

Fig. 1. Upper view of skull of an old <J (spec. No. 2922). 
Lower view of the same skull. 

Upper view of another skull of an old <J (spec. No. 2923). 
Lower view of same skull. 
Inside of the left ramus of the lower jaw. 
View of the same from below. 
View of the same from above. 

Skull of a young 9 (thirty-five days old) seen in profile. 
The same seen from above (nasals wanting). 
The same seen from below. 

Anterior extremity seen from above (one twentieth natural size). 
Posterior extremity seen from above (one twentieth natural size). 
Ear (one half natural length, but relatively too broad). 



" 2. 


" 3. 


" 4. 


" 5. 


" 6, 


" 7. 


« 8. 


" 9, 


" 10. 


" 11. 


" 12. 


" 13, 



Bull. MX. 7.. Vol !' Mo. 3 




f.ftor/j,/ w,oVm/< ft 



X/'ll •////.' //'//' rtj fjnstoit 

CALLORHINUS URSINU5. (Gray.) 



Plate III. 

Callorhinus ursinus Gray. 
[The figures are all one third natural size, when not otherwise stated.] 

Fig. 1. Skull of 9 seen in profile (specimen No. 2924). 

" 2. The same seen from above. 

'• 3. The same seen from below. 

" 4. Underside, in part, of the skull of another 9 (spec. No. 2925), 
showing the teeth and the posterior outline of the palatine bones 
(natural size). 

" 5. Anterior part of the skull of young 9 (thirty-five days old), show- 
ing the dentition (natural size). 

" 6. Teeth (one half nat. size) of an old $ (spec. No. 2926) ; 6a, upper 
incisors seen from the side ; 6b, same teeth seen from the oppo- 
site side ; 6c, upper molars seen from the outside ; 6a*, same seen 
from the inside ; 6e, lower molars seen from the inside; 6/, same 
seen from the outside ; 6a, lower incisors seen from the side. 

" 7. Teeth (one half nat. size) of another old <J (spec. No. 2922) ; 
7a, incisors seen from the side ; 76, same teeth seen from the 
opposite side ; 7c and 7c', upper canines ; 7 a*, upper molars 
seen from the outside ; 7e, same teeth seen from the inside ; If, 
lower molars, seen from the outside ; 7a, same teeth seen from 
the outside. 

" 8. Scapula of a male (spec. No. 2923).' 

Eumetopias Stelleri Peters. 

Fig. 9. Inner side of the right ramus of the lower jaw 

" 10. Same seen from above. 

" 11. Same seen from below. 

" 12. Scapula of the middle-aged g. 

" 13. Scapula of the very old g. 

" 14. Os penis, seen from the side. 

" 15. Muzzle of £ (one tenth natural size). 

Phoca vitulina Linn. 
Fig. 16. Scapula. 



Bull.M.C.Z.Vol.U.No.l 



Plate III 



6 f 



6 a 



^IH HX\ IU» " 




P.Roetter. on stone from nature 



XewEng Lith Co. Boston 



1 &.E.STELLERI, 



9 15. C.URSJNUS 



I (-; ~Vi\ir\r\ irrTTir i xt a 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 109 

No. 2. — Preliminary Report on the Crustacea dredged in the 
Gulf Stream in the Straits of Florida, by L. F. de Pourtales, 
Assist. U. S. Coast Survey. Part I. Brachyura. Prepared 
by Dr. William Stimpson. 

(Communicated by the Superintendent of the U. S. Coast Survey.) 

The Crustacea collected by M. Pourtales are very numerous iti 
species, and among them there is an unusually large proportion of new 
forms; so that their investigation has occupied more time than was 
anticipated. To avoid delay in publishing a portion at least of the 
results, it is thought best to give at once that part of the work which 
has been done thus far, reserving the completion for a second part, in 
which the general considerations derived from the entire study will aLo 
be given. 

To preserve accuracy in the statements of localities and depths, and 
to insure the correction of any errors which may have occurred, all the 
details on the labels of each species are given below, arranged in the 
order of depihs of water. 

MAIOIDEA. 

Family MAIIDAE. 

Subfamily LEPTOPINAE. 

The group typified by the genus Leptopus Lamarck (Egeria Latr.) should 
be separated from the Inachinae of Dana on account of the broad and 
somewhat heart-shaped meros-joint of the external maxillipeds, which in 
Inachus is simply ovate and elongated, with the palpus articulated at the 
small extremity. 

Pyromaia nov. sen. 

Carapax somewhat pyriform, convex : rostrum simple, slender, of moder- 
ate length, acute; transorbital breadth small; praeorbital spine short, 
almost erect ; postorbital tooth rather large, pointing forwards. Meros- 
joint of the external maxillipeds short and broad, deeply and broadly 
notched for the reception of the palpus, and with the inner lobe stronglv 
projecting and the outer lobe angular. Ambulatory feet long; those of 
the first pair t' ree times as long as the post-frontal portion of the carapax 

This genus approaches nearest to Micrnrhynchus Bell, but <lifiers in 
its more elongated and pyriform carapax, larger rostrum, and prominent, 
angular external lobe of the meros-joint of the outer maxillipeds. From 
Lepfoptis it differs in its simple rostrum. 



110 BULLETIN OF THE 

Pyromaia cuspidata nov. sp. 

Body and feet naked. Carapax granulated, with the regions well 
defined, tumid, and armed with short spines. Rostrum trigonal, with the 
three edges (the superior and two lateral) armed with minute spines. 
Basal joint of external antennae with a slender spine in front, and a 
smaller one beneath; the latter pointing directly downward. Chelipeds 
with the meros-joint spinous below and with a spine at the summit ; carpus 
with one spine on the outer side at the articulation of the hand; hand 
inconspicuously spinulose, fingers longer than the palm, not gaping, 
serrated, and acuminate. Ambulatory feet with cylindrical joints; in the 
adult female smooth and naked ; in the young male sparsely and incon- 
spicuously hairy; dactyli two thirds as long as the penult joint, and flat- 
tened toward the extremities. 

The dimensions of the largest specimen, a female, are as follows: 
Length of the carapax, 1.2 inch; greatest breadth, 94 inch; proportion 
of breadth to length, 1 : l."28. Length of ambulatory feet of the first pair. 
3.05 inch. 

This species lives in deep water, with a range of from 82 to 125 fathoms, 
as shown by the following table of localities, etc., taken from the notes of 
the expedition. 

Off Sand Key, May 11,1 868. 

Off Alligator Reef, May 8,1809. 
Off the Samboes, May 9,1868. 
Off the Samboes, May 9,1868. 
S. W. of Sand Key, February 17, 1869. Cast No. 2. 125 " 

Subfamily ITSINAE. 
Pisa antilocapra nov. sp. 
Carapax subovate, rather narrow, pubescent, and spinous, with a strong, 
acute spine on the hepatic region, seven to ten smaller, subequal ones on 
the branchial, and four, forming a rhomb, on the intestinal region. A few 
sharp tubercles on the cardiac and gastric regions. Rostrum horizontal, 
equalling in length more than one third the post-frontal length of the 
carapax; horns diverging from the basal third, rather slender, acute, and 
straight, or slightly curved inward near the extremities. Prseorbital spine 
slender, less than one third as long as the rostrum. On the superior mar- 
gin of the orbit there are two spiniform teeth between the base of the 
praeorbital spine and the external angle, which is also acute. Spine of the 
basal joint of the external antenna? much smaller than the prseorbital 
spine. Feet pubescent, with the. meros-joint s sparsely Bpinose above. 
Dactyli of the ambulatory feet unarmed on the inferior edge. 



Cast No. 5. 


82 : 


fathoms. 


Cast No. 6. 


88 


" 


Cast No. 6. 


93 


It 


Cast No. 1. 


121 


it 



MUSEUM OF COMFARATTVE ZOOLOGY. Ill 

Dimensions of a male : Total length of carapax, 1.22 ; breadth, exclud- 
ing the spines, 0.65; length of ambulatory foot of the first pair, 1.30 
inch. 

It is a more elongated species than any of the three Pisae described by 
Desbonne and Schramm, which are the only ones as yet indicated as in- 
habiting the West Indian seas, if, indeed, these species truly belong to 
the genus. 

The specimens occurred at the following localities and depths: — 

OffCarysfort Reef, March 31, 1869. Cast No. 1. 52 fathoms. 
Off Carysfort Reef, March 31, 1869. Cast No. 5. 60 

Off Alligator Reef, May 8, 1869. Cast No. 10. 118 

Pisa praelonga nov. sp. 

Carapax long and narrow, the width across the branchial regions being 
very little greater than that between the orbits. It is sparsely hairy, and 
armed with a few very small spines on the sides. Surface beneath the 
hairs smooth. Rostrum large, as long as one third the post-frontal length 
of the carapax ; horns slender, acute, divergent. Prseorbital spine slender, 
acute. Orbit large, with one sharp tooth on the upper margin, near the 
base of the post-'orbital tooth. Basal joint of external antenna? with a 
spine in front (smaller than the praeorbital spine), and another on the 
o 'ter side near the base. 

Dimensions of a male : Length of carapax, rostrum included, 0.39 ; length 
to the base of horns of rostrum, 0.30; breadth, 0.19 inch. 

It differs from all species of the genus hitherto known in the narrowness 
of the carapax. 

Off Alligator Reef, May 8, 1869. Cast No. 10. 118 fathoms. 
Off Tennessee Reef, May 7, 1869. Cast No. 7. 124 " 

Milnia bicornuta Stm. 

Pisa bicornuta Latreille, Encyc. Meth., X, 141. 

Pericera bicorna II. Mii.ne-Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust., I, 337. 

Pisa bicorna Gibbes, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1850, p. 170. 

Pericera birornis Saussure, Crust. Nouv. du Mexique et des Antilles, p. 12; 

pi. i, fig. 3. 
Milnia bicornuta Stimpson, Notes on North American Crustacea, p. 52. 

Smith, Trans. Connecticut Acad, of Arts and Sciences, II, 1. 

Found at low-water mark at the Tortugas, and dredged at Key West 
in 2 to 5 fathoms. 

The generic name Milnia is preoccupied, having been used by Haime 
for an Echinoid, but it seems scarcely necessary to change it. 



112 BULLETIN OF THE 

Subfamily PERICERINAE. 
Milne-Edwards, Dana, and authors generally, speak of the eyes of 
Pericera as being non-retractile, having probably studied the genus by 
means of dried specimens only. In fact, however, the eyes in this group 
are more perfectly retractile than in any other Crustacea ; so much so 
that they may be entirely concealed in their orbits, which form a capa- 
cious cavity with a small, round external orifice. In this cavity the pe- 
duncle of the eye, the inner half of which is not indurated, becomes bent 
to a right angle when retracted. 

Pericera trispinosa 11. M.-Emv. 
Pisa trispinosa Latreille, Encye. Meth., X, 142. 
Pericera trispinosa H. M. -Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust., I, 336 Guerin, 

Iconog. du Regne Anim., Crust, pi. viii, fig. 3. Gihbes, Proc. Am. 

Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1850, p. 172. 

Dredged at Key West in from 2 to 5 fathoms, and found at the Tortugas 
at low-water mark. 

Pericera camptocera nov. sp. 

Allied to P. triapinom, but differs as follows : The carapax is narrower 
and more sparsely pubescent. The tour tubercles at the summit of the 
gastric region are more prominent, forming erect spines. The posterior 
spine and the lateral spines are longer and more curved. The rostrum is 
longer, and its horns are regularly divergent from the base. The orbital 
tubes are more protuberant, and the praeoeular and postocular teeth 
longer. The movable part of the antenna? is both longer and stouter. 
Finally the carpal joint of the ambulatory feet is narrower and not tuber- 
culated. 

Measurements of a male : Total length of carapax, 0.92 ; length of ros- 
trum, from base of orbital tubes, 0.25; breadth, between the tips of the 
lateral spines, 0.70; between the bases of these spines, 0.48 inch. 

One male and one female specimen were taken near Key West in from 
2 to 5 fathoms. 

Pericera eutheca nov. sp. 

Carapax subtrapezoidal, constricted anteriorly behind the orhits, and 
broadly rounded behind. Frontal and hepatic regions concave; gastric, 
cardiac, intestinal, and branchial regions moderately prominent and each 
bearing a slender spine. Rostrum very small, forming about one sixth the 
length of the carapax, nearly horizontal, and consisting of two slender, 
acute, parallel horns. Orbits very strongly prominent, projecting forward 
and outward far beyond the anterolateral margins, ((inning sheaths longer 
than the rostrum, and each occupying nearly one third the intcrorbital 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 113 

width of the carapax. The distance between their extremities equals 
four fifths of the greatest width of the carapax. The extremity of the 
orbital sheath is armed with two spines, one before and one behind the 
eye. The spine of the basal joint of the external antennas is rather small 
and slender, and abdut one third as long as the rostrum. The ambulatory 
feet are very slender. 

The measurements of a female specimen are : Total length of carapax, 
0.90 ; breadth, excluding the spines, 0.G5 ; length of first pair of ambula 
tory feet, 0.75 inch. 

It may be distinguished from all the species hitherto known by the 
great size and prominence of the orbital sheaths. 

Off French Reef, April 3, 1869. Cast No. 1. 15 fathoms. 
West of Tortugas, Jan. 1(3, 1869. Cast No. 9. 37 fathoms. 

Pericera septemspinosa nov. sp. 

Carapax oblong, strongly convex, pubescent ; antero-lateral and postero- 
lateral sides concave. Dorsal surface armed with seven prominent spines, 
one on the gastric, one on the cardiac, one on the intestinal, and two on 
each branchial region. Rostrum about one fourth as long as the post-frontal 
portion of the carapax, detlexed ; horns snbtriangular, acute, diverging, 
curved, pointing outward. Orbits projecting, with a prominent, acute 
prasocular and postocular spine. On the suborbital and subhepatic region 
there are three spines, the posterior one of which is longest. There is a 
small, slender, acute spine on the basal joint of the antenna?. Feet un- 
armed. The pubescence of the body adheres strongly to rough objects 
brought in contact with it, and notably to that of other specimens of the 
same crab. 

Measurements of a male: Length of carapax, 0.33 : breadth, excluding 
the spines, 0.25 inch. 

It differs from P. eutheca in its broader rostrum and less prominent 
orbital sheaths; also in the spines on the subhepatic region, etc 
West of Tortugas, January 16, 1869 Cast No. 4. 36 fathoms. 

Pericera cornuta H. M.-Edw. 

Cancer cornuta Herbst, Naturg. d. Krahhen u. Krebse, pi. lix, fig. 6. 

Maia taunts Lamarck, Animaux sans Vert., V, 242. 

Pericera cornuta II. Milne-Edwards, Hist. Nat des. Crust., I, 335 ; pi. xiv 
bis, fig. 5. Illust. Cuv. Rcgne Anim., pi. xxx, fig. 1. Gibbes, Proc 
Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1850, p 172. Stimpson, Notes on N. American 
Crust., p. 55. 

A young example, one inch long, of this well-known species, occurred in 
rather dee]) water. It had previously been found only about low-water 

VOL. II. 8 



114 BULLETIN OF THE 

mark. In the young, the horns of the rostrum are more divergent than in 
the adult, and the anterior branchial spine is smaller. The feet are pro- 
vided with a few long, thick hairs not found in the adult. 

Off the Quicksands, January 23, 1809. Cast No. 1. 34 fathoms. 

Tiarinia setirostris nov. sp. 

Carapax narrow, with perpendicular sides. The greatest breadth, 
which is at the posterior fourth of the post-frontal length, is only one 
fourth greater than the transorbital breadth. The upper surface is naked, 
and bears a few small tubercles, of which three, in a median line on the 
posterior half of the carapax, are larger than the others. The posterior 
tubercle, on the intestinal region, is spiniform and curved upward. Sides 
of the carapax somewhat setose. Rostrum half as long as the post-frontal 
part of the carapax, with the horns slightly gaping near the base, but con- 
tiguous for the remainder of their length, very slender, setiform, and setose. 
External antennae as long as the rostrum ; basal joint concave, without 
any spine at the antero-external angle ; flagellum long, hair-like. Cheli- 
peds in the male large, longer than the carapax including the rostrum ; 
hand somewhat compressed, granulated above ; fingers very short, widely 
gaping. Ambulatory feet long, slender, and smooth ; those of the first 
pair nearly as long as the chelipeds. 

Dimensions of a male specimen : Length of carapax, 0.82 ; breadth, 
0.35 inch. 

This species differs much from the typical Tiariniac in the great length, 
slenderness, and smoothness of its ambulatory feet, and future investiga- 
tions, on more abundant materials, than those at present available, may 
prove it to be generically distinct; in which case I would propose for it 
the name Leptopisa. 

The Tiariniae hitherto described all belong to the Indo-Paeific fauna, 
living chiefly in the southern part of the Japanese Archipelago, in the 
seas of Sulu and the Philippines, Nicobar, etc. Of these species our 
Florida form approaches nearest to T. anrjusta Dana, which it resembles 
in the narrowness of the carapax, but from which it is at once distinguished 
"by the less tuberculated carapax and slender feet. 

It was taken at the following points : — 

Key West, 2 to 5 fathoms. 

Near the Tortngas, 9 fathoms. 

On the Fishing Ranks, S. W. of Loggerhead Key. 

Subfamily NAXIINAE. 

The characters of the orbital region in Chorinus are so different from 
those of Naxia and its allies as to forbid its being placed in the same sub- 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 115 

family with the latter group, for which the name Naxiinae is here proposed. 
The deep notch on the upper side of the orbit is here a constant char- 
acter. 

Scyra umbonata nov. sp. 

Carapax triangular, with six large flat-topped protuberances on the 
nppcr surface ; one on the posterior part of the gastric region, one on the 
cardiac, and two on each branchial region- On the outer side of the 
branchial region there is also an acute triangular tooth, pointing forward 
and outward, and of similar character and nearly as large as the other 
protuberances just described. They aie all not only flattened, but some- 
what expanded at the top. Their summits are naked, but the deep chan- 
nels between them are pubescent. Besides the above there are on the 
carapax three small tubercles on the gastric and a strong erect tooth on 
each hepatic region. The gastric and the sides of the branchial regions 
are hairy. The rostrum is rather longer than the interorbital width of 
the carapax ; it is hairy above, and is neither flattened nor expanded. The 
movable part of the external antennae has cylindrical joints. The meros- 
joint of the external maxillipeds is not notched for the reception of the 
palpus. Abdomen and sternum pubescent. Sternum of the male with 
deep excavations between the segments, the excavations being broader 
than the i-idges separating them. 

Dimensions of a male : Length of carapax, 0.94 ; breadth, measured 
between the tips of the branchial teeth, 0.72 inch. 

The species of Scyra heretofore known are but two in number, and in- 
habit waters of moderate depth on the shores of the North Pacific Ocean, 
one on the coast of California and Oregon, the other on that of Japan. The 
present species was placed in the genus with some doubt, on account of 
tin' character of the rostrum, the external antennae, and the outer maxilli- 
peds which, as may be noticed by the description, differ somewhat from 
those of' the type, S. acutifrons. The resemblance in all other essential 
characters is, however, very great ; and in the present state of our knowl- 
edge, the Florida species ought not to be separated as the type of a distinct 
genus. 

It is an inhabitant of deep water, as follows : — 

Off Sand Key, May 11, 1868. Cast No. 15. 143 fathoms. 

Subfamily OTHONIINAE. 

The Othoniinae are characterized by great orbito-frontal breadth, a 
small, short rostrum, an extremely short epistome, and gaping external 
maxillipeds. The orbits are tubular like those of the Pericerinae but are 
directed forwards instead of outwards. 



116 BULLETIN OF THE 

Othonia aculeata Stm. 
Hi/as aculeala Gibbes, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1850, p. 171. 
Othonia aculeata Sti.mpson, Notes on N. American Crust., p. .3. 
Othonia Lherminieri Desbonne et Schramm, Crust, de la Guadeloupe, p. 20. 
The specimens in the collection are all young, and occurred as fol- 
lows : — 

At Key West, 2 to 5 fathoms. 

At the Tortugas, 5 to 6 fathoms. 

Off the Tortugas, January 29, 1868, in 13 fathoms. 

Subfamily MITHRAC1NAE. 

Mithrax hispidus H. M.-Edw. 

Cancer hispidus Herbst, Naturg. d. Krabben u. Krehse, pi. xviii, fig. 100. 

Maia spinicincta Lamarck, Anim. sans Vert., V, 241. 

Mithrax spinicinctus Desmakkst, Consid. sur les Crust., p. 150; pi. xxiii, 

figs. 1,2. 
Mtthrax hispidus H. Mi lne-Ed wards, Hist. Nat. des Crust., I, .522. Gibbks, 

Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1850, p. 172. Stimpson, Notes on N. 

American Crust., p. 60. Smith, Trans. Connecticut Acad, of Arts and 

Sciences, II, 2, 32. 
This well-known species occurred at Key West, in from 2 to 5 fathoms. 

Mithrax pleuracanthus nov. sp. 

This is closely allied to J/, hispidus, but is a smaller species, with a 
somewhat narrower carapax. The protuberances of the carapax, and the 
teeth or spines of the orbits and the basal joint of the antenna;, are 
sharper and more prominent, and there are small tubercles on the intes- 
tinal, branchial, and hepatic regions which do not occur in .1/. hispidus. 
The minute punctures of the surface are less apparent than in that 
species. 

The dimensions of a male; specimen are : Length of the carapax, 0.57 ; 
breadth, 0.55 inch; proportion of length to breadth, 1 : 0.965. 

This sjieeies ean scarcely lie I be .1/. affinis of Desbonne and Schramm 
(Crust de la Guadeloupe, ]>. 10), the description of which applies to it in 
most respects, for those authors state that the front, rostrum, and orbits 
are like those of Mithraculus sculptus. 

Tt occurred at Key West in from 2 to 5 fathoms, and at the Tortugas in 
5 to 6 fathoms. There is in the Smithsonian Collection a specimen taken 
at St. Thomas by A. II. Riise, Esq. 

Mithrax acuticornis nov. sp. 
Carapax much longer than broad, and tuberculated, sparsely on the 
gastric region but more closely posteriorly and at the sides, the tubercles 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 117 

becoming spiniform toward the margins, which arc armed with true spines 
curving forward at their tips. Rostrum half as long as the interorbital 
width, and consisting of two rather slender, acute horns. Basal joinl of 
the external antennae armed with two spines, the anterior one of which is 
slender, curved, and two thirds as long as the rostrum. The margin of 
the orbit is armed with six spiniform teeth, not including those of the 
antenna] joint. The feet are strongly spinose above, but the hands are 
unarmed. The color in wet specimens, and probably in life, is a bright 
deep red. 

Dimensions of a male : Length of carapax, o.7;j ; breadth, 0.55 inch ; pro- 
portion, 1 : <».7o3. 

This species approaches Sckizophrys in the shape of it- carapax, which 
is much more oblong than in other species of the genus in which I have 
placed it: but the rostrum i- simply two-horned, and the orbit- are similar 
to those of the typical forms of Mithrax. 

Off the Quicksands, January 23, 1869. Cast No. 1. 34 fathoms. 
West of the Tortugas, January 16, 1869. Cast No. 8. 37 
West of the Tortugas, January 10, 1869. Cast No. 12. 42 " 

Mithrax Holderi now sp. 

This species resembles .1/. acuticornis in the characters of the front, but 
the carapax is broader and more strongly and closely tuberculated, the 
tubercles occupying nearly the whole upper surface, causing it to resemble 
that of Tinr'ini<i cornirjera. There i- a small spine on the hepatic region 
and one at the lateral extremit.3 of the branchial region. The anterior 
spine of the basal joint of the antenna 1 is nearly as long as the rostrum, 
and there is another -p ne, very small, at the insertion of the movable 
part nt' the antenna. The ambulatory feet are flattened above, giving the 
joint- a somewhat trigonal form, and both margins of their upper surface 
are spinulose ami ciliated. 

Dimensions of a male : Length of the carapax, 0.55 ; breadth. 0.48 inch; 
proportion, 1 : 0.872. 

This species occurred at the Tortugas in 7 fathoms It is named in 
compliment to Dr. .1. B. Holder, who found it, also at the Tortugas, and I 
believe at low-watei mark, several years ago. Dr. Holder's specimen is in 
the' Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Mithraeulus sculpms Stm. 
Maia sculpta Lam \i:< k, Anim. sans Vert, V, 242. 
Mithrax sculptus II. Milne-Edwards, Ili-t. Nat des Crust., I, 322. Gibbes, 

Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1850, p. 172. Desbonne et Schramm, Crust. 

i|e la Guadeloupe, p. 9. 
Mithraeulus sculptus Stimfsox, Notes on N. American Crust., p. 58. 



118 BULLETIN OF THE 

Key West, 2 to 5 fathoms. 

Tortugas, 5 to 6 " 

\ Off the Samboes, 123 

This well-known species is (bund throughout the West Indian seas, and 
is very abundant on the reefs at and abov.e low-water mark. I have 
queried the depth 123 fathoms, fearing that some accidental transposition 
of labels has taken place, as the Milhracuh are eminently littoral in their 
habits, and the specimen so labelled is a full-grown male, similar in all 
respects to those found on the shores. 

Mithraculus ruber nov. sp. 

Carapax subtriangular, one fifth broader than long. Surface naked. 
polished, and uneven, luit with the protuberances less numerous and 
smaller than in M. sculptus and .1/. coronatus. These protuberances are 
also rounded, and not elongated as in the allied species, and some of 
them are sparsely tuberculatcd. Antero-lateral margin armed with three 
teeth, besides the angle of the orbit, the posterior tooth being sharp, spini- 
fbrm, and curving forward, the other two teeth tuberculiform ; the middle 
tooth is composed of two tubercles, and there is a small tubercle between 
it and the posterior tooth. Behind the posterior tooth there is a small 
sharp tubercle on the postero-lateral margin. The meros-joinl of the outer 
maxillipeds is slightly sinuous in front, showing a faint indication of a 
notch. Chelipeds rather lofig and slender; meros armed above with six 
small, conical, equal tubercles; carpus and hand smooth. Ambulator) 
feel cylindrical, densely short-hairy above (hairs simple); they are also 
spinulose above, the spines being scattered in two rows. Color of the 
carapax chestnut red, with some bluish posteriorly. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of the carapax. 0.48 ; breadth, 0.60 inch; 
proportion, 1 : 1 .25. 

It differs from M.sculpfus, M. cinctimanus, ami M. minutus in its broader 
carapax, etc., and from .1/. coronatus in its spinifbrm lateral tooth and in 
the character of the surface of the carapax. 

Found on the reef at Cruz del Padre, Cuba. 

Mithraculus coronatus Stm. 
Cancer coronatus Ili.i.msi , Naturg. d. Krabben und Krebse, I. 184; pi. xi, 

ti-. 6 I 

Mithraculus coronatus White, Brit. Mas. Cat. Crust., p. 7 Cpartim). Stimp- 
son, Notes mi N. American Crust., p. 58. Smith, Trans. Conn. Acad, of 
Arts and Sciences, II, 2. 
It is somewhal doubtful whether this is really the Cancer coronatus of 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 119 

Herbs! He refers to Seba, |>1 xxii, fig. 6. Seba's fig. 22 of pi. xix is a 
better representation of the species under consideration. 

Littoral on the reef at Eastern Dry Rocks. 
Reef at Cruz del Padre, Cuba. 
Key West, in 2 to 5 fathoms 

Family TYCHIDAE. 

Subfamily TYCHINAE. 

Tyche einarginata White. 
Tyche einarginata White, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, First 

Series, Vol XX. p. 206. 
Platyrinchwi Iritnbercuhitus Desbonxe et Schramm, Crust, de la Guadeloupe 

p. :i ; pi. iii, ligs. T and 8. 

The curious genus Tyche is so little known that a short description of 
the crab under consideration may not be out of place here. The carapax 
is flattened and partly concave above, and has laniinilbnn expansions in 
front and behind. The frontal region is very broad, the transorbital width 
nearly equalling that across the branchial regions. The hepatic region is 
concave. Rostrum rather long, forked from the base ; horns widely diver- 
pent. Prajorbital spines very long, and somewhat divergent, thus, with 
the rostrum, giving the entire front a tour-horned form. External antenna' 
concealed beneath the rostrum. Eyes long but reaching scarcely beyond 
the edge of the expanded orbit. d margin, which is entire, without nop h or 

oolll. 

The external maxillipeds are very remarkable in form, the exognath 
having a hook-shaped process at the base, which nveTaps the base of the 
ischiuin-joinl of the endognath. The meros-joint of the endognath has ;l . 
posterior lobe which projects fir into the anterior extremity of the ischium. 

This crab was found by the expedition at Key West in 2 to ."> fathoms, 
and al the Tortugas in 7 fathoms. 

Family EURYPODIIDAE. 

Among tin 1 general characters of this family, the existence of a distinct 
orbital arch over the base of the eye, and of a postocular spine, seem to be 
the most important. 

Subfamily COLLODIjSTAE. 

'I his name is proposed for a group nfgi nera of Eurypodiidae character- 
ized by the extreme shortness of the rostrum, which group is. as far as 
known, peculiar to the tropical parts of the American sea-, and occurs on 
both sides of the continent. 



120 BULLETIN OF THE 

Collodes trispinosus nov. sp. 

Carapax ovate-triangular, hah - )', and everywhere covered with small 
granulated tubercles, except on the front and the anterior portion of the 
gastric region. There is an erect, capitate spine on the gastric, one on the 
cardiac region, and one of equal size on the basal joint of the abdomen. 
Rostrum with two minute horns. Four minute spines on the basal joint 
of the antennae, the anterior one of which is placed nearly on a level 
with the horns of the rostrum. Ambulatory feet long, and provided with 
long stiff hairs ; hairs of the penult joint below straight and above hook- 
like and often serrated on the inner side near the tip. Dactyli of the am- 
bulatory feet about as long as the penult joint. 

In the male of this species the carapax is somewhat more elongated and 
depressed than in the female ; the hands are of moderate size only, and 
much curved inward ; fingers nearly as long as palm and gaping, with a 
tooth inside on the middle of the thumb. Abdomen of the male elongate 
triangular ; intromittent organs nearly straight, simple, reaching nearly to 
the extremity of the abdomen. 

All the specimens examined were covered with a thick coating of mud, 
held by the setae. 

The dimensions of a female specimen are : Length of the carapax, 0.41 ; 
breadth, 0.32 inch. 

The only species hitherto known of this genus is the C. granosus of the 
west coast of North America, described by me in " Notes on North Ameri- 
can Crustacea," page 66 (Annals of the New York Lyceum of Natural 
History, Vol. VII, p. 194), from which the species under consideration 
differs in its more elongated carapax, which is more completely covered 
with granulated tubercles, and in the somewhat greater length of (he 
rostral horns and the spines on the basal joint of the antennae. It is 
proper to state that of C. granosus only a single (female) specimen is as 
yet known. 

The species occurred as follows : — 

Off the Quicksands, January 23, 1869. Cast No. 1. 34 fathoms. 
OffCarysfort Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 8. 35 
Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 1860. Cast No. 7. 40 
Off French Reef, April 3, 1869. Cast No. 4. 50 

Collodes nudus nov. sp 
Allied to C. granosus and C. trispinosus, having three spines on the back 
similar in shape and position to those of those species. It differs from 
them, however, in its naked carapax and feet, and in the less numer- 
ous and prominent granulated tubercles of the dorsal surface. The carapax 
is also much broader anteriorly. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 121 

The ambulatory feet of the second pair are rather longer than those of 
the first pair. The dactyli of the ambulatory feet are armed with spines 
along the inner edge. 

The dimensions of the single specimen found, a male, are as follows : 
Length of carapax, 0.24 ; breadth, 0.18 ; length of ambulatory foot of the 
first pair, 0.45 inch. 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, I860. Cast No. 7. 40 fathoms. 

Arachnopsis nov. <;en. 

Carapax oblong, narrow, and somewhat truncated in front. Rostrum short, 
bifid. Orbital arch high, protuberant. Postocular spine long, and separated 
from the orbital arch by a dee]), narrow fissure. Eye long, considerably 
overreaching the tip of the postocular spine, but capable of being drawn 
back beneath it. Basal joint of the external antenna? with a small, sharp 
spine at the extremity, pointing obliquely tin-ward and outward, between 
which and the rostrum the movable part of the antenna is exposed, and 
with a spinulous crest on the inferior surface extending back to the angle 
of the buccal area. Meros-joint of the external maxillipeds broader than 
long, and with sharply prominent external and internal anterior angles. 
Ambulatory feet long, filiform; those of the second pair longest ; dactyli 
straight, acute, and nearly as long as the penult joint. 

This genus differs from Collodes in its filiform ambulatory feet and long 
eye peduncles. 

Arachnopsis filipes nov. sp. 

Body armed above with three erect, slender, blunt spines, one on the 
gastric re : "n, one on the cardiac region, and one on the basal joint of the 
abdomen. Abdominal spine, small ; cardiae and gastric spines equal and 
about as long as the distance between the orbital arches. Carapax convex 
anteriorly, and flattened posteriorly. Surface of carapax smooth and 
glossy, naked, except for a few hairs on the anterior part of the bran- 
chial, the sides of the gastric, and the frontal region. Beneath, the sub- 
hepatic and pterygostomian regions are armed with spiniform granules. 
Chelipeds in the male as long as the carapax and much curved ; edges 
of meros and carpus spinulose; hand nearly smooth ; fingers as long as the 
palm. Ambulatory feet spinulose along the lower edges of all the joints, 
except the dactyli; those of the second pair more than twice as long as 
the carapax. Sternum, abdomen, and external maxillipeds tuberculated. 

Dimensions of a male : Length of carapax, 0.25 ; breadth, 0.18 ; length 
of ambulatory foot of first pair. 0.5 inch. 

Off Conch Reef, May 11, 1869. Cast No. 2. 34 fathoms. 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 18(59. Cast No. 7. 40 

Off French Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 2. 45 " 



122 BULLETIN OF THE 

Batrachonotus nov. gen. 

Carapax triangular, broadly expanded behind : surface rough with gran- 
ulations : gastric, cardiac, and branchial regions strongly protuberanl ; cer- 
vical depressions deep and broad, giving the carapax a superior outline 
mucb like thai of a frog's back. Rostrum very short, not extending beyond 
the walls of the antennulary fossa?, rounded in outline, and slightly emargi- 
nated at the middle. Basal joint of the external antenna? with a small 
tooth or spine on the (inter margin, but none at the anterior extremity. 
No spine on the orbital arch. Post-ocular spine minute. Meros-joint of 
the external maxillipeds broad, with prominent external and internal 
anterior angles. Ambulatory feet simple; those of the fust pair dispro- 
portionately long, nearly twice as long as those of the second pair; those 
of the posterior pairs very short. Dactyli of ambulatory feet rather long. 
Abdomen very narrow at base. 

It differs from the other genera of Collodinae, among other characters, in 
the want of a terminal spine on the basal joint of tin- antenna', and in its 
very long anterior and short posterior ambulatory feet. 

Batrachonotus fragosus nov. sp. 

The following description i> licit of a male. Body and feet naked. On 
each of the protuberant regions of the carapax there are one or two large 
and many smaller rounded tubercles or granules. A strong tubercle on 
the basal joint of the abdomi n. A sharp tubercle on the subhepatic, and 
one on the pterygostomian region. Sternum regularly granulated. Cheli- 
peds as long as the carapax. and sparsely granulated within; ischium with 
an erect spine at the summit; hand unarmed: fingers toothed and slightly 
gaping. Ambulatory feet of the firsl pair about three times as Ion-- as the 
carapax. 

Color of the body in the alcoholic specimen whitish, or pale flesh-color, 
variegated with purplish. 

Of this species we find in the collection only one specimen, a male, the 
dimensions of which are: Length of the carapax, 0.2S; breadth, 0.245; 
length of ambulatory feel of the first pan-, 0.80 inch. 

The specimen was taken in X. I. at. 24° 36' 10", \V. Lou-. *:)° 2' 20", on 
the 22d of January, L868. Cast Xo. 3. Depth 16 fathoms. 

Euprognatka nov. gen. 

Carapax pyriform. Rostrum short, trifid, the median horn being the 
interantennular spine, which point- foi ward and downward at a much lower 
level than that of the other two horns, which are minute and divergent. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 123 

B;isal joint of the external antennae armed at the anterior extremity with 
a slender spine reaching forward as far as do the rostral horns; movable 
part nt' tlif antennae exposed from its insertion. An ered spine on the 
orbital arch. Eye large; peduncle short. Post-ocular spine reaching be- 
yond the extremity of the eye. Meros-joinl of the external maxillipeds 
somewhat L-shaped, strongly produced beyond the insertion of the palpus 
in fronl and at the postero-interior angle. Feet long and slender. Penult 
joint of the ambulatory feet of the first pair more than twice as long as the 
dactyli, and three times as long as the antepenult i> >in t . 

This genus differs from all the other genera of Collodinae in its interan- 
tenular spine and the spine on the orbital arch, and especiallyin the shape 
of the meros-joint of the external maxillipeds. 



Euprognatha rastellifera nov. sp. 

The following description is that of a male. Carapax naked, with the 
regions well denned, and minutely and irregularly granulated. There is a 
single, erect, blunt, almost capitate spine on the gastric, the cardiac, and 
each branchial region making four in all, and there are a few smaller 
spines on the sides of the branchial, and on the hepatic and pterygosto- 
inian regions. There is also a small spine on the basal joint of the abdo- 
men. The intcrantennular spine projects somewhat beyond the other 
tbnr spines of the front, which reach to the same vertical plane. The 
chelipeds are large, nearly twice as long as the carapax: hand swollen: 
fingers not gaping. Ambulatory feel of the first pair nearly one third 
longer than the chelipeds. The ambulatory feet are naked (except in 
bearing a few minute curled seta- above), and rough with minute spines. 
The sternum is regularly granulated, except on the concave portion be- 
tween the chelipeds. 

Dimensions: Length of carapax, 0.32; breadth, 0.23; length of ambula- 
tory foot of the first pair, 0.7U inch. 

This crab is an inhabitant of deep water, ranging from 80 to 138 fathoms, 
and occurred in considerable abundance, as follows: — 

Off the Samboes, May 9. ' No. 5. 80 fathoms. 

Off Alligator Reef, May 8, 1869. Cast No. 6. 88 

Off Sand Key, May 16, 1868. Cast No. 2. 120 " 

Off the Samboes, May 9, 1868. Cast No. 12. 123 

S. W. of Sand Key, February 17, 1869. Cast No. 2. 125 " 

Off Boca Grande, February 15, 1869. Cast No. 5. 1l>."> 

Off Sand Key, May 11, 1868. Cast No. II. 128 " 

S W. of Sand Kev, February 17. I HG9. Cast No. 3. 138 " 



124 BULLETIN OF THE 

Subfamily AMATHIINAE. 

The only species of this group hitherto known is the Amatkia Rissoana 
of the Mediterranean Sea. Two species are now added, as lbllows : — 

Amathia hystrix nov. sp. 

This species lias a close resemblance to .1. Rissoana, but differs in having 
four instead of three spines on the gastric region. 

The dimensions of a male specimen are as follow? : Length of carapax, 
including the rostrum, L.23; excluding rostrum, 0.7] ; breadth, including 
lateral spines, 0.5)5; excluding these .-pines, U 4<S inch. 

Off Sand Key, May 11, 1869. Cast No. ltl. 138 fathoms. 

Amathia modesta nov. sp. 

Carapax armed with twelve spines shorter than in the other species of 
the genus, the two on the gastric region being in fact only spiniforin tuber- 
cles. The lateral and posterior spines are longest, that on the outer ex- 
tremity of the branchial region equalling in length one fifth the width of 
the carapax. Rostrum nearly as long as the post-frontal part of the 
earapax; horns rather stout, divergent, and curving outward at the tips. 
The spine before the eye is small, and that behind still smaller. No trace 
of a spine at the anterior angles of the buccal area. Feet somewhat 
shorter than in the oilier two species, and with no trace of a spine at the 
summit of the meros-joint. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carapax. rostrum and posterior spine 
included, 0.84 ; from base of rostral horns to tip of posterior spine, 0.54 ; 
breadth of earapax, including spines. 0.50; excluding spines, 0.36 ; length 
of ambulatory foot of the first pair, 0.95 inch. 

Taken off Sand Key in 120 fathoms. 

s, BFAMH.Y ANOMALOPINAE. 

This group is indicated for the reception of the genus Anomalopus, now 
for the first time described, with a single species. The crab differs from all 
other Maioids in its elongated, subcylindrical carapax, and in the character 
of its ambulatory feet ; those of the posterior pair being larger than those 
of the penult pair. The orbital arch is less distinct than in other Eury- 
podiidae, and the post-ocular spine much smaller. 

Anomalopus nov. gen, 

Carapax verv much elongated, almost subcylindrical; rostrum very long, 
slender, bifid. Eyes without orbits ; prajorbital spine small, acute ; post- 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 12o 

ocular spine minute. External antenna' exposed from above; basal joint 
narrow. Antennulary fossa 1 lame. Epistoine two thirds as long as it is 
broad. Meros-joint of the external maxillipeds without any notch at the 
interior angle when.' the palpus is inserted; external angle sharply prom- 
inent. Chelipeds in the female shorter than the carapax. Ambulatory 
feel of the first pair very long, twice as long as the carapax, with the 
dactylus nearly straight, and three fourths as long as the penult joint. 
Ambulatory feet of the posterior two pairs shorter and stouter than those 
of the anterior two. and with prehensile extremities; those of the penult 
pair shorter than those of the last pair. 

Anomalopus furcillatus nov. sp. 

Carapax minutely pubescent, unarmed except in front, regions scarcely 
defined. Rostrum equalling in length two thirds that of the post-frontal 
pari of the carapax, forked in the terminal half of its length; horns but 
slightly divergent. External antenna' much shorter than the rostrum; 
flagellum as long as the two joints preceding it taken together. Anten- 
liuhc reaching to the extremity of the peduncle of the antenna'. Cheli- 
peds with a small spine on the outer side of the carpus; hand very small; 
fingers half as long as the palm and much gaping. 

Dimensions of a female; Length of carapax 0.67; breadth, 0.25; 
length of ambulatory foot of the first pair, 1.50; of the third pair, 0.48 ; 
of the fourth pair. 0.82 inch. 

Of this species I find hut one specimen in the collection, a female, which 
wa- taken at the depth of 123 fathoms off "The Samboes." 

Family LEPTOPODIIDAE. 
This family is characterized by an entire want of orbits and of a true 
post-ocular spine, and by the great length of the feet. 

Subfamily LEPTOPODIIXAE. 

Leptopodia sagittaria Leach. 

Cancer Sagittarius Fabrii us, Em. Svst., II, -142. 

Inachus Sagittarius Fabricius, Suppl. Ent Syst., p. 359. 

Cancer sc-ticornis Herbst, Naturg. d. Krabben a. Krehse, III, pi. lv, fig. 2. 

Leptopodia sagittaria Leach, Zool. Misc., II. pi. lxvii. Latreille, Encyc. 
Meth. pi. ecxcix, fi--. 1. Des.ua rest, Consid. snr !es Crust., pi. xvi, 
li--. _'. Guerih, Iconographie da Rcgne Anim., Crust., pi \i, fig. 4. 
II. Milne-Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust., I, 276 ; pi. xv, fig. 14. 1! lust. 
Cuv. Regne Anim., Crust., pi. xxxvi. Gibbes, I'roc. Am. Assoc, 1850, 
p. 169. Desboxne et Schramm, Crust, de la Guadeloupe, p. 1. 



12»> BULLETIN OK IIIK 

This crab, which has hitherto been found in shallow waters, bul never, 
as far as 1 am aware, above low-water mark, occurred to the expedition at 
the following points and depths : — 

South of the Tortugas, January 15, 1869. Cast No. 3. 17 fathoms. 

Off Conch Reef, May 11, 1869. Cast No. 1. •■!() 

Santarem Channel, at the edge of Bahama Bank. CastNo-. ;s."> " 

Off French Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 2. 45 " 

Subfamily ACHAEINAE. 

Podoehela maci'odera Stm. 
Podochela macrodera StiiMpson, Notes on N. American Crust., p. 68. 

Found at Key West, in from 2 to 5 fathoms 

Podochela gracilipes nov. sp. 

Closely allied to P. macrodera, but differs in its narrower body, longer 
and more acute rostrum, and longer and much more slender feet. The 
dactylus of the first pair of ambulatory feet is exceedingly slender and 
longer than in either of the two specie? hitherto known, being more than 
one third as long as the penult joint. The process of the penult joint in 
the other ambulatory feet is almost entirely obsolete. 

Dimensions of a female: Length ofcarapax, 0.35; breadth, 0.24 inch. 

Only female specimens occur in the collection. 

West of Tortugas, January 16, 1867. Cast No. 5. 36 fathoms. 

Off Pacific Reef, May 13, 1869. Cast No. 2. 49 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 31, 1869. CastNo I. 52 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 5. 60 

Podonema nov. gen. 
The species of this genus I formerly included under Podochela (Notes 
on X. American Crust., p. 69), but the study of several species which have 

since become known to me has led me to consider it distinct in the h 1- 

shaped rostrum, and in the existence of lamelliform ridges on the ptery- 
gostomian regions, defining the afferent channels, hike Podochela, tins 
genus has a concave posterior margin of the carapax. 

Podonema Riisei Sim. 
/'"- Stimpsox, Notes on N. American Crust., p 69 

A female specimen of this species was taken in 13 liithoms, off" the Tor- 
tugas. 

Podonema lamelligera nov. sp. 

The following description is that of a female, the only specimen as yet 



MUSEUM OK COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 127 

found. Carapax similar to thai of P. Riinei, except that there is a spini- 
form tubercle, curving backward at tin- tip, on the gastric region, and that 
the rostrum is smaller and more pointed. The two marginal lamellae of 
the basal joint of the external antenna' are strongly prominent, joining 
each other in Iron t, and curving outward at the posterior extremity On 
the ischiiun-joint of the external maxillipeds there is a smooth longitu- 
dinal channel, defined exteriorly by a ciliated r i < I l^ < ■ . On either side of 
the buccai area there ace four laminiform crests ; one at the antero-exterior 
angle of the area, one on the hepatic, ami two on the pterygostomian 
region. The sternum, where not covered by the abdomen, ami the bases 
ot'all the feet, are ornamented with cavities, the surface of each joint being 
concave and surrounded l>\ a raminiform expansion. 

Dimensions of the female specimen: Length of carapax, 0.44 ; breadth, 
o.:;r inch. 

It was taken at the depth of 21 fathoms, oil Tennessee Reef, on the 7th 
of May, 1869. 

Podonema hypoglypha now sp. 

The following description is that of a male. Gastric, cardiac, and 
branchial protuberances low and rounded. Rostrum slightly curved up- 
ward, and triangular in outline when seen from in front and below, but 
with the lateral expansions well developed The basal joint of the ex- 
ternal antenna> is greatly elongated, and the laminiform expansions of the 
margins slight. Hepatic tooth and pterygostomian ridges moderately 
developed. Sternum with deep and broad channels separating the seg- 
ments, which have each a corresponding flattened ridge as broad as the 
channel. 

Dimensions of a male specimen : Length of carapax, 0.63 : breadth, 
0.48 inch. 

It differs from P. Riisei in the shape of the rostrum, and from both 
Riitei and lamelligera in the elongated basal joint of the external an- 
tennae. 

No female specimen occurs in the collection. 
Key Wot, in 4 to 5 fathoms. 
8. W. of Loggerhead Key, in 9 fathoms. 

Family AC'AXTIIOXYCIIIDAE. 
In this group the eye i< short, in some genera scarcely movable, and in 
others somewhat retractile, or rather capable of being moved in a horizon T 
tal plane. There are no true orbits, but in many genera the eye lies 
beneath the expanded orbital margin of the carapax. which has frequently 
two teeth, one before and one behind the position of the eye. The eye 



l'J8 BULLETIN OF THE 

is, however, never concealed by these expansions. The carapax is gen 
erally flattened, angular, and naked, instead of subpyriform and spinous 
as in tlic majority of Maioids The feel arc usually short. 

It is necessary to reject the name Periceridae, which was applied to this 
group by Dana, forin the genus Pericera the eyes are completely retractile, 
as stated on a previous page. The genus Acanthonyx seems tin' most 
typical of the group, and from this is taken the name adopted above. 

Si bfamily EPIALTINAE. 

Epialtus longirostris Stm. 
Epialtus longirostris Stimpson, Notes on \. American Crust., p. 71. 
Found at Key West in from 2 to ."> fathoms. 

Epialtus affinis Stm. 
Epialtus affinis Stimcson, Notes on N American Crust., ]>. 3. 
Found on the Reef at Cruz del Padre, Cuba. 

Mocosoa nov. gen. 

Carapax subpentagonal, tumid: rostrum subtriangular, entire, obtuse, 
excavated below ; eyes large, immovable. External antennae concealed 
beneath the rostrum and not reaching to its tip; basal joint triangular, 
unarmed in front. External maxillipeds very broad : meros-joint particu- 
larly short ami broad, with the outer angle much projecting outward, and 
the inner one a right angle, not at all notched lor the reception of the 
palpus. 

This genus differs from Epialtus m its immovable eyes, which resemble 
those of Hue.nia. From Huenia it differs in the character of the rostrum. 
The name adopted for the genus is that of one of the Florida Caciques 
encountered by I V SotO in his inarch. 

Mocosoa erebripunctata nov. sp. 

Upper surface of carapax everywhere uniformly punctate, the minute 
pits being equal in size and wider than the interspaces. Carapax naked 
and protuberant, there being two prominences between the eyes three on 
the gastric region, one large one on the cardiac, and three on each bran- 
chial region. Of the three branchial protuberances one is situated at the 
middle of the region, and two on the outer margin, the posterior one 
being smallest and bearing a minute blunt -pine. Feel short and armed 
with a few short, hliuit spines chiefly on the meros-joint. 

Body <>f a strawberry color: upper surface of carapax iridescent. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 129 

Of this species there is but one specimen in the collection, an immature 
female, the dimensions of which are: Length of carapax, 0.20 ; breadth, 

0.17 inch. 

It was taken in 15 fathoms, off French Reef, April 3, 1869. 

Family PARTHENOPIDAE. 

Subfamily PARTHEN< >PINAE. 

Lambrus crenulatus Sauss. 

Lambrus crenulatus Dr. Saossure, Crust. Nouv. du Mexique et des Antilles, 
p. 13 ; pi. i, fig 4. Stimpson, Notes on N. American Crust., p. 73. Des- 
boxxe et Schramm, Crust, de la Guadeloupe, p. 21. 

This species is remarkable for its depressed torm and the excavation of 
the pSerygostomian and subhepatic regions, which excavation extends to 
the infero-exterior margin of the orbit, forming, when the chelipeds are 
retracted, covered afferent passages, the external apertures of which are 
seen between the base of the finger of the cheliped and the margin of the 
orbit. Tins arrangement would indicate that the crab habitually conceals 
itself in the sand, with the rostrum, eyes, and afferent apertures only ex- 
posed. 

Lambrus laciniatus De Ilaan exhibits the same features in a less marked 
degree, and the two species, with three or four similar forms, comprise a 
group which future studies may prove to he distinct from the triangular 
Lambri, and for which the name Platylambrus would be appropriate. 

Lambrus crenulatus was taken near the Tortugas in from 5 to 7 fathoms, 
and off Loggerhead Key in 13 fathoms. 

Lambrus Pourtalesii now sp. 

Carapax considerably broader than long, with a median row of four 
spiniform tubercles, of which one is placed upon the gastric and three on 
the cardiac region. In front of the tubercle on the gastric region there 
are two much smaller ones in a transverse line. The oblique ridge on the 
branchial region is armed with three unequal tubercles, and a strong, 
spiniform, laciniated tooth, with a smaller tooth at its base, at the margin of 
the carapax. There are a few small, scattering tubercles on the other parts 
the carapax, particularly in the hollows between the branchial and cardiac 
regions. The depressions between the branchial, hepatic, and gastric re- 
gions are moderately deep The general surface is pitted and granulated, 
having a carious appearance. There is a small prominent tooth on the 
hepatic region. Antero-lateral margin, behind the cervical sulcus, with 

VOL. II. 9 



loO BULLETIN OF THE 

nine small, slender, laciniated teeth, progressively diminishing in size for 
wards; posterior tooth only one third the size of the large branchial spine 
or tooth, which is the largest on the margin of the carapax. There is a 
prominent tubercle at the summit of the branchial region. Rostrum of 
moderate size, pointing obliquely downward and forward, and bearing a 
tooth on each side near the base, and a smaller one near the tip. At the 
basal tooth tin- rostrum is abruptly contracted more than one half in 
width. Chelipeds rather Ion:;: margins armed with laciniated teeth; 
meros convex, with the upper surface granulated and tuberculated, the 
largest tubercles, those along the middle, being subspiniform ; carpus with 
live large and several small spiniform tubei'cles above and on the outer 
side. Upper surface of hand with only two or three tubercles about 
the middle; teeth of the margins larger and more triangular than those 
of tin- margins of the meros; those of the inner broader than those of 
the outer margin, particularly those toward the fingers, which are not, like 
those toward the carpus, separated by intervals; inner margin with eight 
large and three small teeth; outer one with four large and six small teeth. 
Lower surface of hand punctate, with a regular median row of tubercles. 
Ambulatory feet somewhat compressed ; meros-joint spinulose on both 
upper and lower edge. The ridges of the abdomen, sternum, and outer 
maxillipeds are tuberculated. 

Dimensions of a male : Length of carapax, <->.47; breadth, lateral teeth 
included, 0.52 inch ; proportion of length to breadth, 1 : 1.106; length of 
meros-joint of chelipeds, 0.37 inch. 

Off Conch Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 1. 40 fathoms. 

Off French Reef, March 21, 1869. CastNo. 2. 45 

Off American Shoal, May 6, 1868. Cast No. 9. too 

Off Conch Reef, May 11, 1869. Cast No. 6. 117 " 

Lambrus fraterculus nov. sp. 

Nearly allied to L. Pourtalesii, but differing as follows: The carapax is 
narrower, the proportion of length to breadth being 1 : 1.04 even in the 
female, while in the male it is longer than broad. The depressions between 
the branchial and the gastric and hepatic regions are much deeper. In 
the female the tubercles of the carapax and the teeth of the margins are 
less spiniform and generally smaller; the tubercles of the branchial and 
gastric region? are indeed sometimes obsolete or nearly so. In the only 
male specimen at hand the median tubercle of the gastric and that of the 
cardiac region are much taller than in L. Pourtalesii. The rostrum is also 
longer than in that species, with the narrowed extremity much more 
slender, and the basal teeth more prominent : there is also a small slender 



MUSEUM 'OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 131 

spine placed beneath and outside <>f this basal tooth. The chelipeds are 
shorter, and the lower surface of the hand is always ornamented with 
several rows of granulated tubercles. The daetyli <>t' the ambulatory feel 
arc covered with a dense velvet-like pubescence, except at the tips. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of earapax, 0.47 ; breadth, 0.45 inch. 
Of a female, length of earapax, 0.5 1 ; breadth, 0.5G ; length of meros-joinl 
of cheliped, i».."> 1 inch. 

Off Sand Key, May 11, 1868. Cast No. 2. 26 fathoms. 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 8 •">:> 

West of Tcrtugas, January 16. 1869. Cast No. 4. .'if. 

Off Conch Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 1 40 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. :>. 60 

West of Tortugas, January 16, 1869. Cast No. 13. 68 

Lambrus agonus nov. sp. 

Carapax broader than long, of rounded form, without angles at the sides. 
Depressions between the regions rather shallow. Surface above every- 
where minutely tuberculated and granulated. The larger tubercles are 
somewhat spiniform, and are arranged as follows : Five on the gastric 
region, of which four arc placed in a transverse line across the middle, 
and one, larger than the others, on the median line behind them; three 
in a longitudinal row on the cardiac region ; one each side of the intes- 
tinal, far apart ; five on each branchial, and one on the hepatic region. 
From the central cardiac, and from each hepatic tubercle, proceeds on each 
side a row of granules, forming a V. Antero-lateral margin behind the 
hepatic region armed with six very small teeth, beneath and behind the 
posterior one of which there i- a short tooth-like crest. The rostrum, 
though smaller in size, resembles that of L. Pourtah ni in having a slender 
extremity, but instead of two denticles near the tiji.it has two or three 
denticles near the basal teeth. There arc two prominent teeth on the 
outer side of the orbit, and a minute spine at the summit of the eve. On 
the sternum, near the base of the chelipeds, there is a conical tubercle on 
each side. Tooth of tin- basal joint of the cheliped acutely triangular. 
On the second joint of the abdomen there is a sharply prominent, bluntly 
triangular transverse crest, and a tooth on each side ; and on the penult 
joint there is a crest like that of the second joint, hut smaller. 

The chelipeds are very long and slender; upper surface minutely sca- 
brous, and with an irregular row of tooth-like tubercles which is median on 
the ineros and carpus, bnl approaches the outer margin in the hand. 
Edges of the meros and carpus with numerous small irregular teeth. On 
the inner (superior) edge of the haul there are nineteen teeth, increasing 



132 BULLETIN OF THE 

somewhat regularly in size to a point near the anterior extremity, where 
they gradually diminish again. < >n the outer edge of the hand there are 
four or five large and about eleven small teeth alternating by threes with 
the larger ones. The fingers are white in color, and not so much bent 
downwards as is usual in the genus. Ambulatory feet long, slender, 

naked, and unarmed, or will ly obscure indications of teeth on the 

ineros-joint. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carapax, 0.45 ; breadth, 0.50 ; propor- 
tion, 1 : 1.11 ; length of ineros-joint of cheliped, 0.55 inch. 

In a male specimen of what is probably a variety of this species, dredged 
off Conch Reef, the hands arc shorter than in the typical form, and the 
rostrum is not narrowed toward the extremity, and is devoid of marginal 
teeth. These differences are certainly important ones, but the specimen 
accords so well with the type in all other characters that I can scarcely 
believe it to he distinct. 

The species lias some resemblance to /.. mediterraneus Roux, hut differs 
in the smaller and less numerous marginal teeth of the carapax, and in the 
unarmed ambulatory feet. 

Off the Marquesas, February 10, 1869. Cast No. 3. 40 fathoms. 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 7. 40 

Off Conch Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 1. 40 

Off Conch Reef, May 11, 1869. Cast No. 3. 49 

Solenolambrus nov. gen. 

This name is proposed for a well-defined group of Parthenopidae, allied 
to Lambrus, of which I have before me three species, the only ones as yet 
known, all of which ate new to science. 

The carapax is pentagonal, and more or less broader than long. The 
posterior side of the pentagon is much the shortest, and the other four 
sides are about equal. The margin is acute on all sides, forming a slight 
crest. The upper surface is naked, -lossy, strongly convex, and bears 
four protuberances, one gastric, one cardiac, and two branchial. The gas- 
tric and cardiac protuberances are more or less triangularly pyramidal, and 
the branchial protuberance i^ armed with an acute ridge, running obliquely 
to the postero-lateral margin of the carapax. The frontal region is slightly 
convex, and there is no protuberance on the orbital region. 'I he rostrum 
is short and blunt, or faintly tridentate. The orbits are round, with the 
upper margin entire and smooth. The basal joint of the external antenna' 
is about as long a- the next joint ; it may he either longer or shorter. 
The epistome is concave. From the antero-external angle of the buccal 
area a sharp, elevated, crenulated ridge extends to the outer base of the 
cheliped, separating the concave pterygostomian from the subhepatic 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 133 

region, which is also concave and channel like. When retracted, the 
extremity of tluj hand of the cheliped covers the pterygostomian region, 
forming the afferenl passage. The external maxillipeds fit accurately 
the buccal area, and closely against each other within, and the exognath 
is concave, forming part of the wall of the afferent channel, which is denned 
within l>v a slight elevated ridge on the outer side of the ischium of the 
endognath; the meros-joint has a prominent antero-external angle, and its 
surface is concave toward the antero-interior angle, and there is no notch 
for the insertion of the palpus, which, except at its origin, is concealed be- 
neath the other joints of the endognath. The chelipeds resemble those of 
Lambrus, except that the fingers are very small, and the dactylus is gener- 
ally at right angles with the palm when retracted. The terminal joints 
of the ambulatory feet are acuminate. The third, fourth, and fifth joints 
of tin' male abdomen are soldered together. 

This genus differs from Parthenope and Lambrus in its naked, polished 
carapax, in the distinct definition of the afferent channels, and in the want 
of a notch in the meros-joint of the external maxillipeds tor the reception 
of the palpus. As far as known, it is peculiar to the tropical portions of 
the American seas, species being found on both the east and the wesl 
coasts of the continent. 

Solenolambrus typicus nov. sp. 
Carapax one eighth broader than long; posterior side considerably pro- 
duced. Surface punctate. Protuberances of the gastric and cardiac 
regions triangularly pyramidal, and acute, with the ridges forming the 
angles crenulated; one of the ridges, the posterior. i> in the median line 
of the carapax, and the other two diverge from each other in front. The 
cardiac pyramid is symmetrical, each of its triangular sides being equal; 
while the gastric protuberance is not symmetical, the posterior ridge being 
a short, steep slope, and the two anterior ridges being long, and enclosing 
a gradual, somewhat convex slope toward the trout. The ridge of the 
branchial region is also crenulated, and is bent at the middle at an obtuse 
angle, almost a right angle. In the male each of the protuberances of the 
carapax is surmounted by an acute spine, while in the female the apical 
angles are not thus acute. The margin of the carapax is more or less dis- 
tinctly crenulated, especially the antero-lateral margin, at the outer or 
posterior end of which there are three small out distinct teeth. The 
antero-lateral margin is concave anteriorly and convex posteriorly. The 
posterior margin is straight, with the lateral angles sharply defined, and 
even spinifbrm in the male. Eyes rather large, with a minute tubercle on 
the anterior side of the extremity. Basal joint of the external antennae 
somewhat longer than the next joint. 



134 BULLETIN OF THE 

Epistome of moderate Length. On t lie subhepatic region, near tne afferent 
ridge, and parallel to it. there is a slighl supplementary ridge. External 
maxillipeds naked : ischium with the outer ridge tuberculated, and a few 
tubercles on the surface near the extremity ; external angle of meros very 
strongly prominent. On the sternum between the bases of the chelipeds 
there arc two small tubercles, one on either side of the median line. 
Chelipeds long, naked, with the exception of some inconspicuous setae 
on the crest nt' the hand ; meros with denticulated margins, and with the 
surface smooth and glossy above, except at the inner or posterior extremity, 
where there are three or four small tubercles, and at the outer extremity, 
where there is a granulated protuberance; carpus with five denticulated 
crests ; hand trigonous, with ten strong, regular, equal teeth on the superior 
crest, twelve small, granulated teeth on the outer margin, and fifteen teeth, 
increasing regularly in size toward the extremity, on the lower margin; 
upper surface of the hand with two rows of tubercles and two or three 
scattered ones between the rows : lower surface with three rows of tuber- 
cles, those of the middle row minute and obsolescent toward the extremity : 
inner surface glabrous at the middle, and with a row of tubercles close 
to cither margin, and a few scattered ones near the fingers. All the 
tubercles of the surfaces of the hand are ornamented with granules, from 
two to live in number. Fingers very small and slender, one fifth as long 
as the palm; dactylus when retracted placed almost at a right angle with 
the palm. Ambulatory feet compressed, naked, polished, with a lamini- 
form crest above; the meros of the posterior pair having a crest below 
also, which has a lobe-like expansion at the inner extremity. Abdomen 
tuberculated on the sides; that of tin- male not narrowed at the third 
joint and very little tapering. 

Dimensions of a female specimen : Length of carapax, 0.45 : breadth, 
0.50 inch: proportion, 1 : 1.1 I: length of meros-joint of cheliped, 0.41; 
length of hand, 0.50 inch. 

Off the Samboes, May '.), 1868. Cast No. 5. BO fathoms. 
Off Alligator Reef, May 8, 1869. Cast No. 6. 88 
Off Alligator Reef, May 8, 1869. Cast No B. IK) 

Solenolamb us tencllus nov. sp. 

This species i- much smaller than the preceding, and more delicate and 
fragile in appearance. The carapax i- but little shorter than broad, and 
about equally produced in front ami behind beyond the line of the 

lateral angles. Surface rather c 'sch punctate. Protuberances of the 

carapax much less prominent than in the other species : those of the gas- 
tric and cardiac regions obtusely rounded, without angular ridges ; ridge 
of branchial region sufficiently well marked near the postero-lateral margin, 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 135 

but almost obsolete anteriorly. Margins of carapax crenulated, the teeth 
being most distinct on the flattened, expanded, and broadly rounded lateral 
angle, where they are about six in number, not crenulated, and but little 
projecting, being denned chiefly by the impressed lines on the marginal 

limb. On the hepatic region there are two or three denticulated teeth. 
Posterolateral margin slightly concave. Posterior margin convex; its 
lateral angles obtuse. Rostrum rather prominent and faintly tridentate at 
the extremity ; median tooth smallest and most prominent. External 
angle of orbit not prominent. Eye large, with a very minute tubercle at 
the summit. In the external antennae the basal joint is about equal to 
the next in length. Subhepatic region less eoncave than in >'. typicus, 
and without any supplementary ridge. External maxillipeds and afferent 
channels nearly as in S. typicus, but with the ridges less strongly tubercu- 
lated, and with the outer angle of the meros-joint less acutely prominent. 
Sternum between the bases of the chelipeds convex on either side, but 
not tuKerculated. Chelipeds very long and slender; edges denticulated. 
hut with the surface between them smooth and polished: meros with 
about thirteen denticles on either edge, the third denticle from the outer 
extremity being larger than the others; hand with twelve sharp, forward- 
curving teeth on the superior edge, the terminal tooth above the finger 
being spiniform and considerably longer than the others; outer edge of 
hand with about eleven obtuse, equal, less prominent, minutely crenulated 
teeth; inner edge with nineteen or twenty very minute teeth Ambula- 
tory feet naked and compressed, but without laminiform crests; meros- 
joint of the posterior pair slightly expanded below near the base. In the 
male the sternum and abdomen are smooth and glabrous; abdomen broad 
at the base and narrower at the third joint. 

Dimensions of a male ; Length of the carapax, 0.25 ; breadth, 0.27 inch; 
proportion, 1:1.08; length of meros-joint of cheliped, 0.29; length of 
hand, 0.32 inch. 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 8. 35 fathoms 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 7. 40 

Off Conch Reef, March 21, 1869. fast No. I. 40 

Off French Reef, March 21, 1869. Ca-t No. 2. 45 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 6. 48 

Off Conch Reef, May 11, 1869. Cast No. 3. 49 

Mesorhoea nov. gen. 

Tins genus bears an almost exact resemblance to Solenolambnt? in the 
form and armature of the carapax, the character of the feet, and that of 
the pterygostomian and hepatic channels, except that the latter are 
deeper. It differs, however, in the very important point that the affe- 



136 BULLETIN OF THE 

rent channels meet at the middle of the endostome, which has there a 
triangular projection, and a deep notch in its vertical, laminiform wall. 
The meros-joint of the external maxillipeds is acutely produced forward 

at its internal angle, and behind it the palpus is entirely concealed. The 
epistome is very short. The eyes are small, and may be retracted into 
their deep sockets so as to be almost entirely concealed The basal joint 
of the external antennae is somewhat shorter than the next joint. 

The remarkable form of the endostome and external maxillipeds in this 
genus indicates an approach to the oxystomatous crabs, to which the Par- 
thenopidae show, indeed, considerable resemblance in other respects. 

Mesorhoea sexpinosa nov. sp. 

Carapax one fifth broader than long, and about equally produced in 
front and behind beyond the line of the lateral angles. Surface punc- 
tate and inconspicuously pubescent. Protuberances of the gastric, car- 
diac, and branchial regions strongly angular, each surmounted by a 
three-sided spihe, the spine of the branchial region being situated on the 
posterolateral margin, of which it forms a projection. The angles or 
ridges are more or less crenulated. The lateral edges of the gastric 
protuberance are continued forward nearly to the front, becoming parallel 
shortly after diverging from the spine. The cardiac spine is more slender 
than the others, and its posterior edge is nearly vertical. The branchial 
ridge is nearly straight. Between the protuberances and ridges the sur- 
face is more or less regularly concave, the sides of the protuberances being 
not swollen. The rostrum is short. The margins of the carapax are sub 
laminiform and almost entire, the normal crenulation being indicated only 
by faint impressed lines on the limb. Microscopic n tches may, however, 
be detected on the antero-lateral margin, which is slightly convex toward 
the lateral angle. Postero-lateral margin concave. Posterior margin about 
half as long as the postero-lateral, convex at the middle, and terminating 
on either side in a slight tooth. Afferent channels deep, separated from 
the subhepatic channels by a very thin and sharp, prominent, ciliated 
lamina, and defined on the inner side by tin' ciliated outer edge of the 
ischium of the external maxillipeds. From the anterior angle of the 
buccal area ;i short ridge extends to the middle of the inner tooth of 
the orbit, which ridge separates the concavity of the epistome from that of 
the subhepatic region. Meros-joint of the external maxillipeds with two 
tubercles on the surface, one towards the postero-exterior angle, the 
other close to the antero-exterior angle; anterior margin of the joint, 
deeply concave or notched. Chelipeds short, pubescent, especially on the 
toothed edges; surface between the edges smooth; on the basal joint 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. loT 

below there is a strong, triangular, pyramidal spine, nearly as large as 

the dorsal spines of the carapax ; margins of the meros crenulated with 
six or seven small teeth on either edge; carpus flattened above, with two 
strong, crenulated crests, the outer one of which bears a larger, spini- 
form tooth at the middle : hand with an elevated, nine-toothed superior crest 
and eleven-toothed outer margin; fingers very small; dactylus at right 
angles with palm Ambulatory feet much compressed ; antepenult and 
penult joints with a laminiform crest above; meros-joint of the posterior 
pair with a slight crest below. Abdomen glabrous. 

Of this species there is but one specimen — a female — in the collec- 
tion; in which the length of the carapax is 0.32 ; the breadth, 0.39 inch. 
The length of the hand is 0.28 inch. 

The specimen was taken in 11 fathoms, lour miles southwest of Logger- 
head Key. 

Subfamily CRYPTOPODILNAE. 

Cryptopodia concava now sp. 

Carapax subpentagonal, greatly expanded posteriorly, the posterior 
margin, which is nearly straight, equalling the entire width : lateral 
margins short ; antero-lateral margins slightly convex. Rostrum trian- 
gular. Tlie gastric region is protuberant, and from its summit a sharp, 
crenulated ridge or raised line passes on either side to the postero-lateral 
angle, enclosing a concave, triangular space. The surface between this 
ridge and the antero-lateral margin is also concave. The entire upper 
surface of the carapax, the ridges excepted, is smooth and shining. The 
margins are crenulated with small teeth, the furrows separating which 
extend for some little distance inward, giving the indentations the appear- 
ance of being much deeper than they really are. The teeth themselves 
are minutely granulated. External maxillipeds smooth, glabrous ; meros- 
joint triangular, with the external angle very acutely projecting, and the 
internal angle without a notch for the insertion of the palpus, the first 
joint of which is indurated, with a projecting tooth at its extremity. 

Chelipeds flattened as in C. fornicata, but with the meros-joint nar- 
rower, the carpus smaller, and the hand convex below ; fingers slender. 
curved. Ambulatory feet crested; crest of meros spinulosc above and 
below. Transverse crest of sternum bilobed, each lobe beino- three- 
toothed, and in the same line with a tooth on the basal joint of the 
cheliped, which belongs also to this crest, which forms the margin of the 
concave and perpendicular front of the sternum. 

The dimensions of the only specimen found — a young female — arc as 
follows: Length of carapax, 0.32; breadth, 0.43; proportion, 1 ; 1.34; 



138 BULLETIN OF THE 

length of meros-joint of cheliped, 0.22 ; length of hand, 0.26 ; breadth of 
hand, 0.12 inch. 

The specimen was taken off Conch Reef in 34 fathoms. 



CANCROIDEA. 

Family CANCRIDAE. 

Subfamily XAXTIIINAE. 

Actaea nodosa Stm. 
Actaea nodosa Stimpson, Notes on N. American Crust., p. 75. Desbonne 
et Schramm, Crust, de la Guadeloupe, p. 25. 

Dredged January 16, 1869, west of the Tortugas, in 35 and 3 7 fathoms. 

Actaea setigera Stm. 

Xantho setiger II. Milne-Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust., I, 390. 
Actaea setigera Stimpson, Notes on N.American Crust., p. 51. A.Milne- 
Edwards, Nouv. Arch, du Museum d'llist. Nat., 1, 271 ; pi. xviii, tig. 2. 

Found on the Reef at Cruz del Padre, Cuba. 

Carpoporus nov. gen. 

Carapax subhexagonal, nearly as long as broad; antero-lateral margin 
armed with three small teeth (in a line which conducts beneath the orbit 
anteriorly), and drawn in posteriorly, the greatest breadth of the carapax 
being at the middle tooth; postero-lateral shorter than the posterior mar- 
gin; facial region very broad; front prominent. Orbit circular, without 
teeth below, except two or three minute spinitbrm denticles on the 
margin ; fissures of outer and inferior margins obsolete. Basal joint of 
the external antenna' narrowing forwards, reaching the front, ami passing 
well into the hiatus of the orbit, nearly as in Euxanthus , movable part 
of the antennae very small. . Chelipeds, when retracted, having a large 
hole between the carpus and hand above for the passage of water to the 
afferent branchial apertures. Third, fourth, and fifth joints of the 
abdomen in tin- male soldered together; terminal joint as broad as long. 

This genus differs from Xantho in its external antenna' ; front Euxan- 
thus in the narrowness of the carapax ; from Polycremnus in its five- 
jointed male abdomen; and from Halitnede and Merfaeus in the want of 
conspicuous fissures and teeth on the margin of the orbit. 

It is very peculiar in the perforation of the retracted chelipeds, recall- 
ing a similar perforation of the chelipeds of Echinocerus foraminatus, in 
which, however, it occurs between the carpus and meros. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 139 

Carpoporus papulosus nov. sp. 

Carapax naked above, areolated; areolets protuberant, somewhat wart- 
like, and granulated ; gastric and fiontal regions very prominent. Lateral 
teeth small, spiniform ; their interstices armed with denticles, two or 
three in number. Front strongly projecting at the middle, ami bilobed; 
margin of lobe concave. Peduncle of the eye granulated, and with a few 
minute spines at the summit. Orbit with tin- margin minutely crenulated 
with granules, with a slight fissure near the middle of the superior margin, 
ami with two spiniform teeth below neat- the outer side. Quter maxilli- 
peds armed in front ami along the inner edges with small hut strongly 
prominent tubercles. Tin- carpus ami hand of the chelipeds are sculp- 
tured externally with granulated protuberances, which on the hand are 
arranged in four or five longitudinal rows; hand serrated above with 
four teeth ; fingers short, less than halt the length of the palm. Ambu- 
latory feet hairy below : penult and antepenult joints armed above with 
two rows of short, stout spines. 

Dimensions of n male: Length of carapax, 0.25 ; breadth, 0.31 inch; 
proportion, 1 : 1.21. 

S. XV. ot the Tortugas, January 18, 1869. Cast Xo. 1. 25 fathoms. 
Off Carysfort Reef, "March 31, 1869. Cast No. 1. 52 

Micropanope nov. pen. 

The generic group now for the first time described is nearly allied to 
Panopi us, and also shows some resemblance to Pilumnus. As in the 
latter genus, the species are among the smallest fit' Cancroid forms, and 
live in deep or moderately deep water. A< far as I am aware they are 
never truly littoral like the Panopei. Species of the genus occur in the 
warmer seas of both sides of the American continent. 

The carapax is rather narrow, with the antero-lateral margin short and 
the front broad. As in Panopt us, there are five teeth on the antero-lateral 
margin, but the second tooth i- coalesced with the scarcely prominent 
angle of the orbit, and the posterior tooth i- minute; so that only two of 
the teeth are prominent, arming the carapax at its antero-lateral angle. 
The external hiatus of the orbit is reduced t i a simple emargination. 
The basal joint of the external antenna* is short, hut meets a process from 
the front. The endostome is usually marked on either side by a slight 
ridge, which does not, however, extend to the anterior margin. The hind 
in the chelipeds is larjrc. with rather long fingers, bent to an angle with 
the palm, so that the lower margin of the hand is rather deeply con- 
cave. 



140 BULLETIN OF THE 

Micropanope sculptipes nov. sp. 

Carapax naked, distinctly areolated ; anterior and antero-lateral areolets 
somewhat roughened infront with small, sharp, tooth-like tubercles. An- 
tero-lateral teeth sharp and denticulated ; the posterior one nearly obsolete. 
Frontal lobes little projecting, but with a convex outline; margin minutely 
crenulated, and defined by a slight furrow following it above. A small 
tubercle on the subhepatic region beneath the second antero-lateral tooth. 
Chelipeds granulated above ; carpus with a sharp tooth and denticulated 
margin within, and with the granules arranged in reticulating lines; hand 
with a double denticulated crest, and with tin' minute granules of the 
outei surface showing a tendency to arrangement in rows ; these granules 
become obsolete toward the base of the thumb or propodal finger. 
Ambulatory feet armed with minute spines above, which form two rows on 
the carpal joint. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carapax, 0.13 ; breadth, 0.17 inch; 
proportion, 1 : 1.30. 

It was taken at the following localities and depths : — 

Off the Marquesas, February 10, 1869. Cast No. — . L 5 fathoms. 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 8.35 

West of the Tortugas, January 16, 1869. Cast No. 6.35 

West of the Tortugas, January Hi, 1869. Cast No. 12. 42 

OffFrenchReef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 2.45 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 5.60 

West of the Tortugas, January 10, 1869. Cast No. 13. 68 

Chlorodius dispar nov. >\>. 

Carapax transversely oval, very broad, convex, smooth, polished, sparsely 
punctate in front, and scarcely at all areolated, the only depressions at all 
conspicuous being those at the antero-lateral corners of the gastric region, 
partly defining the protogastric lobes. Antero-lateral margin almost 
entire, the posterior two of the live normal teeth only being distinguisha- 
ble. Orbits entire, above and below. Front straight, slightly notched, 
hut not at all prominent at the middle; margin furrowed. Chelipeds 
very unequal, tin- right one in both specimens under observation being 
much larger than the other: they are naked, smooth, and polished; 
fingers a little more than half as Ion- a- the palm, scarcely gaping, and 
but little excavated at the tips. Ambulatory feet compressed, hairj 
above. 

Colors: Caranax, dark brown: chelipeds, dark reddish; fingers, black; 
greater hand with one or two white .-pot- on the outer side between the 
bases of the fingers. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 141 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carapax, 0.18 ; breadth, 0.26 inch; 
proportion, 1 : 1.44. 

This species approaches somewhat C. levissimus Dana, of the Sandwich 
Islands, but differs from that and all other known species in its smooth, 
oval, convex carapax and the obsolescence of the anterolateral teeth. 

Found on the reef at Cruz del Padre, Cuba; two specimens, a male and 
a female. 

Family ERIPHIIDAE. 

Subfamily OZINAE. 

Pilumnus aeuleatus II. M.-Edw. 

Cancer acuh at us Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Son, Philad., I, 449. 

Pilumnus aeuleatus II. Milne-Edwards, in Gueein, Iconog. du R'egne 

Anim., Crust., pi. iii, tig. 2; and Ilist. Nat. ties Crust., I, 420. Gibbes, 

Proc. Am. Assoc Adv. Sci., 1850, p. 177. 
A young specimen of this species was collected at the Tortugas. I find 
no note of the depth of water at which it was taken. 

Pilumnus caribaeus Desb. et Schr. 

Pilumnus caribaeus Desbonne et Schramm, Crust, de la Guadaloupe, p. 32. 

The specimens which I have referred to the above species differ from P. 
aeuleatus in having the anterior spine of the three principal ones of the 
anterolateral margin bifid, and in the shorter and more numerous spines 
of the frontal margin. 

Found on the reef at Cruz del Padre, Cuba, and at Key West in from 
2 to 5 fathoms. 

Pilumnus noridanus nov. sp. 

This species belongs to the same group with P. arvhatus, and bears a 
close resemblance to it. It differs in its narrower carapax, which is 
covered with a dense, short pubescence, with a few longer hairs, a trans- 
verse series of which, across the frontal region, forms a somewdiat con- 
spicuous feature. Below the ciliated line, the frontal region is naked, 
and its margin is unarmed : its lobes are not strongly and evenly project- 
ing as in aeuleatus, hut are most prominent within, near the median sinus. 
The orbits are unarmed above, but have eight or ten spiniform teeth on 
the margin below, which teeth are far shorter than in aeuleatus. The 
subhepatic tooth or tubercle is small and inconspicuous, and the surface of 
the subhepatic region is not perceptibly granulated. There are no spines 
on the hepatic region above. In the chelipeds the entire outer surface of 
the greater hand is tuberculated. The ambulatory feet are armed with 
spines as in acuh at us. 



l-i'2 BULLETIN OF THE 

Dimensions of a female specimen: Length of carapax, 0.22 ; breadth, 
0.30 inch ; proportion, 1 : 1.3&. 

Found at tlic Tortugas. 

Pilumnus lacteus nov. sp. 

Closely allied to /'. gemmaius Stm. (Notes on North American Crus- 
tacea, p. 86), and like that specie- covered with a whitish or cream-colored, 
velvet-like pubescence. It differs in the mure spiniform shape of the 
antero-lateral teeth of the carapax, in the less numerous tubercles on the 
carapax and chelipeds, in the want of tubercles on the superior margin oi 
the orbit, and in the smooth, glabrous outer surface of the hands, which i< 
li'iht red in color. The lobes of the front also are more triangular and 
pointed. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carapax, 0.31; breadth, 0.44 inch; 
proportion, 1 : 1.42. 

Found on the reef at Cruz del Padre, Cuba, and at Key West in from 
■_' to 5 tii thorns. 

Pilumnus Agassizii nov. sp. 

Carapax convex, and with the anterior two thirds deeply areolatcd; 
areolets protuberant. Surface pubescent everywhere, except on the 
anterior and antero-lateral areolets, which are naked and thickly granu- 
lated. The depressions between the protuberant areolets are broad, 
occupying fully as much space as the areolets themselves. Tun of the 
areolets form the lobes of the front, which are as large and prominent as 
the epigastric lobes, or even larger. The frontal surface i> vertical, and 
not much projecting, hut the lobes are deeply separated from each other 
and from the orbits. Orbital region protuberant and granulated : margin 
not toothed, but crenulated with granules, and marked by two fissures 
above and two less conspicuous ones below. The antero lateral margin 
behind the orbit is armed with three triangular, acute, equal teeth of mod- 
erate size. Subhepatic tooth distinct. Chelipeds stout, short, and thick : 
carpus covered above with granulated tubercles which are confluent ex- 
teriorly, forming transverse ridges; hand covered above and on the outer 
side with small but prominent maminillary tubercles, having their apices 
pointing forwards. Ambulatory feel pubescent and hairy; penult and 
antepenult joint- armed with minute spine- above. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carapax, 0.65 ; breadth, 0.83 inch; 
proportion, 1 : 1.28. 

This species has some little resemblance to P. gemrnatus, bul the pro- 
tuberances of the carapax are densel) granulated instead of sparsely 
tuberculated. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 14o 

It was taken in from 5 to 7 fatTioms between East and Middle Keys, 
Tortugas, and East of die Tortugas in 13 fathoms. 

Pilumnus nudifrons nov. sp. 

Body and feet everywhere puhescenl above, except on the frontal and 
orbital regions. Carapax about seven eighths as Long as broad, much 
narrowed posteriorly, convex ; regions slightly defined and not protuber- 
ant; surface beneath the pubescence punctate and sparsely roughened 
with scattered tubercles variable in size, and most numerous on the gastric 
and hepatic regions. Frontal and orbital regions continuous, without any 
teeth or spines, forming a prominent, wide, naked, minutely granulated 
anterior border to the carapax, made more distinct by a channel-like 
depression which separates it from the rest of the surface. On this 
border there are no sinuses at the junction of the front and orbits, and 
tlie median emargination of the straight or slightly convex frontal outline 
is very slight. At the outer angle of the orbit the border i~ continued tor 
a short distance posteriorly, on the antero-lateral margin. Bej'ond this 
the antero-lateral margin is nearly parallel to the axis of the body, and 
armed with three small triangular teeth. Orbital margin below entire, 
and smooth, without fissures or teeth, with the exception of the usual 
large tooth forming the inner angle. The subhepatic tooth is distinct. 
forming part of an irregularly denticulated or granulated ridge, which 
extends from the posterior extremity of the anterior border of the cara- 
pax to the anterior angle of the buccal area. The basal joint of the 
external antennas is small, and the space between it and the frontal pro- 
jection is almost equal to its own length. Chelipeds very short and stout, 
armed above and on the outer side with roughened tubercles like those 
of the carapax. On the superior margin of the hand there are three 
strongly projecting teeth. 

Dimensions of a female specimen: Leilgth of the carapax. 0.41; 
breadth, 0.49 inch; proportion, 1 : 1.1!'."). 

Only two specimens of this species were taken, both females. They 
occurred at the depth- of 111 and 125 fathoms, oif Sombrero Key. 

Pilumnus granulimanus nov sp. 

This is a small species, in which the carapax i> rather short and broad, 
naked, areolated and granulated in trout, and smooth posteriorly. The 
granulation is especially conspicuous on the hepatic regions. Antero- 
lateral niacin minutely denticulated, and armed with four small, equal, 
acute, triangular teeth, besi les the angle of the orbit At the penult 
tooth a short granulated ridge extends inwards on the surface of the 



144 BULLETIN OF THE 

carapax. The antero-latcral margin in these characters resembles that 
of Xantho and Panopeus rather than that of the ordinary Pilumni. The 
subhepatic region is granulated, and bears a minute tooth beneath 
tht' interval between the angle of the orbit and the next marginal tooth. 
Orbit with a distinct notch beneath the outer angle ; margins otherwise 
entire, above and below. Front somewhat detlexed, very little projecting; 
margin unarmed and profoundly notched at the middle. The basal joint of 
the external antenna' talis considerably short of reaching the front. There 
is no ridge on the endostome. Feet setose ; greater ebeliped less setose 
than the rest; carpus and hand covered externally and above with small, 
subequal granules, regularly crowded, and diminishing in size below ■ 
carpus with two minute, sharp teeth at the inner angle. Ambulatory 
feet with a few minute, short spines along the superior edge. Color 
yellowish, marbled with red. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carapax, 0.18 inch; breadth, 0.25 
inch; proportion, 1 : 1.38. 

A male and a female of this species were found on the reef at Cruz del 
Padre, Cuba. 

Melybia nov. gen. 

Carapax broad, subquadrate ; front rather depressed, very broad ; 
anterolateral margin short, only one third as long as the postero-lateral, 
and armed with three or four teeth. Basal joint of the external antenna? 
occupying the hiatus of the orbit, firmly soldered, and reaching a process 
of the front. External maxillipeds very narrow, widely gaping ; exognath 
half the width of the endognath. Feet all spinulose ; chelipeds rather 
large, even in the female ; ambulatory feet long, slender, and compressed. 

This genus is closely allied to Melia, but differs therefrom in its broader 
carapax, three-toothed antero-lateral margin, firmly soldered basal-joint 
of the external anteiiu:e, broader exognath of the external maxillipeds, 
and spinulose feet. It has somewhat the appearance of a Thalamita. 

Melybia thalamita nov. sp. 
Carapax somewhat convex, slightly pubescent; surface nearly smooth 
and even; regions faintly defined. Antero-lateral margin three-toothed 
(the little-prominent angle of the orbit not included) ; teeth spiniform, 
pointing tin-ward, the anterior one longest, the posterior one minute. 
Front bilobed; margin of the lobes nearly straight. Orbit with two 
fissures above, and one below near the outer side; margins smooth or 
minutely crenulated. Subhepatic region minutely granulated. In the 
chelipeds the meros-joint is spinulose along the upper 'edge, and armed 
with two slender spines on the inner edge; carpus with tour or five spines 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 1-15 

on the upper side, the spine at itB summit being the longest one on the 
chelipeds; hand oblong, with two longitudinal rows of spines on the 
upper edge ; fingers two thirds as long as the palm. Ambulatory feet 
sparsely hairy ; meros armed with spines along the upper edge, and with 
one spine below near the extremity ; dactyli nearly as long as the penult 
joint. 

Dimensions of a female specimen : Length of carapax, 0.25 ; breadth, 
0.36 inch ; proportion, 1 : 1.44. 

In a variety (?) of the species, dredged, as stated below, in 42 fathoms, 
the carapax and feet are naked. 

Off French Reef, April 3, 1869. Cast No. 1. 15 fathoms. 

West of the Tortugas, January 16, 1869. Cast No. 7. 35 

West of the Tortugas, January 16, 1869. Cast No. 8. 37 

West of the Tortugas, January 16, 1869. Cast No. 12. 42 " 

Subfamily ERIPHILNAE. 

Eriphia gonagra H. M.-Edw. 

Cancer gonagra Fabr., Ent. Syst., II, p. 460. Suppl. Ent. Syst., p. 337. 
Eriphia gonagra H. Milne-Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust., I, 426, pi. xvi, 

figs. 16 and 17. Gibbes, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1850, p. 177. 

Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., Crust., I, 250. Stimpson, Notes on North 

American Crust., p. 89. Smith, Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts and Sciences, 

II, 7. 
Dredged at Key West, in from two to five fathoms. 

Domeeia hispida Soul. 

Domecia hispida Souletet, Voyage au Pole Sud., pi. vi, figs. 3, 7. Stimpson, 
Notes on N. American Crust., p. 90. 

Of this species I find three lots of specimens, labelled as follows : — 

Florida Reefs, in shallow water. 
Reef at Eastern Dry Rocks, littoral. 
Reef at Cruz del Padre, Cuba. 

Family PORTUNIDAE. 

Subfamily PORTUNINAE. 

Bathynectee nov. gen. 
Very near Portunus,* but differing in its antero-lateral teeth, which are 
not like those of a saw, but are somewhat spiniform, and separated by 

* By Portunus the typical forms are meant, P. puber, corrugatug, etc. P. holsatu* 
(mai-moreus) should be separated genencally; it is quite distinct in its external max- 
VOL. II. 10 



146 BULLETIN OF THE 

considerable intervals. The front, also, has no median tooth, and the 
hiatus of the orbit is widely open, not being filled by the basal-joint of the 
external antennae, •which is narrow, and firmly soldered anteriorly to the 
process of the front. The meros-joinl of the external maxillipeds is as 
broad as long, and does not projed anteriorly, but fits accurately to the 
anterior edge of the buccal area. The ambulatory feet are very slender; 
those of the first pair much shorter than those oi the second ; second and 
third pairs very long, the third longest; fourth pair two thirds as long as 
third. 

Bathynectes longispina nov. sp. 
The following description is that of a male : Body naked : feet also 
naked, except the posterior ones, which are ciliated, as usual. Carapax 
subhexagonal, with a granulated and uneven surface. A well-defined 
ridge crosses the middle, connecting the lateral spines: while a shorter 
ridge crosses the cardiac, and another, interrupted at the middle, the 
gastric region. Antero-lateral margin armed with five sharp, spinifonn 
teeth, including the angle of the orbit : the posterior tooth or spine being 

three time- a- long as tl tilers, ami more than one third as long as the 

width of the carapax, excluding the spines; first (anterior) two teeth 
broader and less spiniform than the others; third and fourth teeth very 
acute and a little longer than the distance between their bases. Front 
prominent, four-toothed; the middle two teeth being smaller than, and 
projecting a little beyond, the two lateral ones. Or! it with two open 
fissures above and one below; besides which, below, there is a Minis 
beneath the outer angle, and a broader one, with a denticulated margin, 
next the inner tooth. From the base of this inner tooth of the orbit 
a small projecting lobe crosses the bottom of the hiatus of the orbit and 
reaches the basal joint of the antenna. This joint is oblong in form, and 
bear-; a crest or carina along the outer side, terminating anteriorly in 

a slight tooth. Flagellum of the outer antennas re than half as long as 

the carapax. Chelipcds one half longer than the carapax ; meros with a 
long -pine on the inner edge, and a short one on the -uperior edge, both 
distant from the anterior extremity of the joint about one third its length ; 
carpus with a very long spine at the inner angle, which spine is itself 
armed with two or three small teeth on the anterior edge, and with three 

illipeds, the meros-joinf of which is elongated, projecting considerably beyond the 
buccal margin; and the basal joint of the external nntennoe i- slightly movable; 

tlio carapax 1- naked; there is no elevated lit n the surface of the terminal and 

penult joints of the posterior pair of ambulatory feet, and tlio first joint of the abdo- 
men is almost entii led beneath the carapax. For P. hulsulus ami it.- allies 
the name Liocarcinus i- proposed. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 147 

other spines, and several spinuliform tubercles on the supero-exterior sur- 
face. Hand costate, there being three ridges on the outer, two on the 
upper, and one on the inner side; of the superior ridges, the outer one is 
armed with five spines, and the inner one is denticulated, with a long 
spine at the summit anteriorly : fingers nearly as long as the palm, and 
strongly toothed within, the teeth being four or five in number on each 
Ambulatory feet of the third pair two and a half times as long as the 
carapax. Colors: Body greenish ; ambulatory feet white. 

Dimensions: Length of carapax, 0.58; breadth, including the lateral 
spines, 1. 10; excluding the spines, 0.68 inch; proportion of length to 
latter breadth, 1 : 1.17; length of third pair of ambulatory lie:, 1.45 inch. 

Oft' Sand Key, May 1.'). 1868. Cast No. -. 100 fathoms. 

Off Key West, April 21, 1869. Cast No. 5. 120 

Off American Shoal, May 8, 1808. Cast No. 3. 150 

Bathynectes brevispina nov. sp. 

This species greatly resembles the typical form in color and most other 
characters, but differs in the following important particulars : The carapax 
is more convex, and the transverse ridges are less prominent The antero- 
lateral teeth are much smaller and shorter, the second, third, and fourth 
teeth being only half as long as the distance between their bases, and the 
posterior tooth (lateral spine) equalling in length only one seventh the 
wi Ith of the carapax, excluding the spines. 

The dimensions of the only specimen in the collection — a female — 
are: Length of carapax, 1.96; breadth, including the lateral spines, 2.95; 
excluding the spines, 2.-lo ; proportion of length to latter breadth, 1 : 1.22. 

The specimen was taken in 107 fathoms, off the Marquesas, February 
11. 18G9. 

It was at first regarded as a large female of B. longispina, but the differ- 
ences between the two firms are so much greater than is usual between 
the sexes in Portunidae, that I have preferred to consider them dis- 
tinct, until the question can be decided by the acquisition of additional 
materials. 

Subfamily LUPIN AE. 

Neptunus Sayi Stm. 
I.iijm pelagica Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., I, 97 (1817). 
Lupa Sayi Gibbes, Pioc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1850, p. 178. Dana, U. S. 

Expl. Exped., Crust., I, 273, pi. xvi, fig. 8. 
V Sayi Stimpson, Notes on N. American Crustacea (18G0), p. 92. A. 

Milne-Edwards, Arch, du Mas, N, 317, pi. xxix, fig. 2. 
Found on Gulf weed, January 1<S, 18G9. 



148 BULLETIN OF THE 

Callinectes ornatus Ordway. 
CaUinectes ornatus Ordway, Monograpli of the genus Callinectes (1861), p. 6. 

Found al Key West in from •_' to •"» fathoms. 

The Callinectes ornatus of Smith (Trans. Conn. Acad, of Arts and 
Sci. II, 8) is probably not the same as that of Ordway, as the Brazilian 
specimens are described as having the carapax deeply areolated, which is 
not the case in specimens from the Florida coast. 

Acheloiis Ordwayi Stm. 
Acheloiis Ordwayi Stimpson, Notes on N. American Crustacea (1SG0), p. 90. 

Smith, Trans. Conn. Acad, of Arts and Sciences, II, 9. 
Neptunus Ordwayi A. Milne-Edwards, Arch, du .Museum d'Hist. Nat., X, 
Add. 

The carapax is everywhere granulated above, except on certain spaces 
about the middle. The depressed pubescent areas on the male abdomen 
are characteristic. 

For the differences between this species and A. spinimanus and A. 
cruentatus, see the excellent description of Smith, referred to in the 
synonymy. 

Dredged in from 5 to 7 fathoms between Fast and Middle Keys, 
Tortugas. 

Acheloiis spiniearpus nov. sp. 

Carapax convex, and rendered uneven by granulated ridges and protu- 
berances similar to those seen in all species of Acheloiis, hut which are 
generally much less prominent than in the species tinder consideration. 
The branchial ridge (that extending inward from the lateral spine) is 
sinuous and strongly convex forward. The lateral spine is long, equalling 
in length two thirds that of the entire antero-lateral margin. The eight 
smaller teeth of the anterolateral margin vary somewhat in si/e, the 
second, fourth, and sixth, counting from the front, being smaller than the 
others. Front moderately prominent, projecting slightly beyond the 
level of the outer angles of the orbit; teeth sharp, triangular, rather 
deeply cut. and about equal in size, hut the median ones are more promi- 
nent than the outer ones. The postero-latural angles of the carapax are 
armed with a slight tooth. In the chelipeds, the meros-joint is armed 
in front with lour or five spines (usually four on one side and five on the 
other) ami with one spine at the outer extremity. The inner spine of 
the carpus is xrry long, two thirds as long as the palm of the hand. The 
outer .-pine of the carpus i- short. There is only one spine on the 
superior margin of the hand. There is no spine on the meros-joint of the 
posterior pair of ambulator) feet, bul the margins of this joint are den- 
til date. 1 both above and below, most strongl) so toward the extremities. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 149 

The abdomen of the male is naked, smooth, and polished, and the ster- 
num is granulated. 

Dimensions of an adult male: Length of earapax, 0.37; breadth, in- 
cluding spines, 0.84 : excluding spines, 0.50 inch: proportion of length to 
latter breadth, l : 1.35. In a young male the length of the earapax is 
0.25; breadth, including spines, 0.55; excluding spines, 0.34 inch. 

This species is easily recognized among mosl of its congeners by its 
lime; carpal spines. From .!. Ordwayi and A. tumidtdus it is distin- 
guished by the great length of the lateral spines. 

Oil' the Tortugas, January 4, 1868. Cast No. I. 13 fathoms 

Off Carysfort Reef, March "21, 1869. Cast No. 7. 40 

Off Conch Reef, May 11, 1SG9. Cast No. 3. 4'.i 

Off Alligator Reef, May 8, 1869. Cast No. 3. 53 

Off Pacific Reef, May 13, 18G9. Cast No. 3. 60 

Lat 31° 31', Long. 79° 41', May 25, 1868. Cast No. l. 74 

Off American Shoal, May s, IS68. Cast No. 3. 150 

Achelous tumidulus nov. sp. 

Carapax rather narrow, only one fourth broader than long, rather more 
convex than is usual in the genus, and somewhat protuberant about the 
middle and posteriorly. Posterior tooth of the antero-lateral margin 
(lateral spine) of moderate length, about as long as the space occupied by 
the three teeth next in trout of it. Front prominent, projectile: much 
beyond the level of the outer angles of the orbits, convex ; teeth rounded, 
the two middle ones being smaller and most prominent, and separated 
from the lateral ones by a rather broad, shallow sinus. Xo notch on the 
orbital margin above the insertion of the external antenna'. Meros-joint 
of the outer maxillipeds longer than broad. Chelipeds rather short; 
meros armed with three large and one small spine on the front edge; 
spine of the outer extremity of the posterior edge of the meros almosl 
obsolete. Inner spine of the carpus long, reaching to the middle of the 
palm of the hand. There is only one spine on the superior margin of the 
hand. On the meros-joint of the posterior p-ur of ambulatory feet there 
is a denticulated extero-inferior margin, but no spine. The abdomen of 
the maie is smooth and polished. 

Dimensions of a, male: Length of earapax, 0.20: breadth, including the 
lateral -pine-. 0.31 ; excluding the spines, 0.25 inch; proportion of length 
to latter breadth. I : 1.25. 

This differs from most other American species heretofore described in 
the narrowness of the carapax and the prominence of the front. From .I. 
Ordicayi it differs in the frontal teeth, which are not deeply cut. 

West of Tortupas, January 16, 1869. Cast No. 8. 37 fathoms. 
Off Conch Reef, March 21, 1869 Cast No. 1 10 



150 BULLETIN OF THE 

Aeheloiis spinimanus De IIaan. 
Partunus spinimanus Latr ei lle, Encyc. Me'th., X. 188. 
Lupa spinimana Leach, in Desmarest, Considerat. sur les Crustace's, p. 98. 

II. Milne-Edwards, Hist Nut. dcs Crust., I, 452. 
Aeheloiis spinimanus De Haan, Fauna Japonica, Crust., p. 8. A. Milne- 

I'.i'\\ lrds, Arch, ilu Museum d'Hist. Nat., X, 341, pi. xxxii. Smith, 

Trans. Conn. Acad, of Arts ami Sciences, II, 9. 

Taken in shallow water mi the Florida coast. 

Aeheloiis depressifrons Stm. 
Amphitrite depressifrons Stimpson, Notes on N. American Crustacea (1859), 

p. 12. 

Aeheloiis depressifrons Stimpson, Notes on X. American Crustacea (I860), p. 95. 
A. Milne-Edwards, Arch, du Muse'um d'Hist. Nat., X, .'342. 

Key Wot. in from two to five fathoms. 

Two miles south of Rebecca Shoal, in ten fathoms. 

OCYPODOIDEA. 

Family CAECINOPLACIDAE. 

In this family the base of the abdomen covers the entire width of the 
posterior extremity of the sternum. 

Si bfamily EURYPLACINAE. 

The genus Euryplax is the type of a group which differs from the usual 
forms of Carcinoplacidae (as Pseudorltombila, Eucrate, Pilumnoplax, and 
Tleteroplax) in having the verges lodged in covered or closed canals, and 
in having the anterior corners of the posterior segment of the sternum ex- 
posed instead of being covered by the abdomen. The first joint of the 
abdomen is narrow ami very little developed. The eyes are long ami the 
antennae are excluded from the orbit by the internal suborbital lobe. 

Euryplax nitida Stm. 
Euryplax nitida Stimpson, Notes on X. American Crust., p. 14. Smith, Trans. 
Conn. Acad, of Arts ami Sciences, II. 162. 

The female, now for the first time described, differs remarkably from 
tin- male in its narrower and more convex carapax, in which the broadest 
part is al the second antero-lateral tooth. The outer angle of the orbit is 
very prominent, forming the largest tooth of the anterolateral margin, 
the posterior tooth of which is the smallest; just the opposite of what 
occurs in the male. There is no pit on the meros joint of the chelipeds. 
This pit would, therefore, appear to be a sexual character, belonging to tin; 
male. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 1")1 

In a young female specimen, probably of this species, w liieli was dredged 
in forty-nine fathoms, and is less than two tenths of ;in inch in length, the 
posterior tooth of the antero-lateral margin is obsolete. The same thing 
occurs in a, young male of about the same size from St. Thomas. In this 
young male tin- pits are already present on the meros of the chelipeds, 
but tlic shape of the carapax is like that of the female, and the internal sub- 
orbital lobe is much less developed than in the adult. 

Key West. -2 in r, fathoms. 

Off Elbow Reef, March 21, i860. Cast No. :;. 49 fathoms. 

Subfamily EUCRATOPSINAE. 

In this group the vergal canals arc closed, ami the last joint of the 
sternum in the male i- exposed at the anterior corners, as in the Eurypla- 
cinae ; hut the first joint oT the abdomen is well developed, ami is much 
broader thin the second, reaching to the coxa; of the posterior feet, which 
the second joint docs not. The third joint of the abdomen is much wider 
than the second, but falls-considerably short of the margins of the sternum. 
The third, fourth, and fifth joints are soldered together. Except in the 
passage of the verges through the sternum, the typical genus of this group 
(Eucratopsis) dithers little from Panop< us. 

Panoplax now gen. 

This genus resembles Panopt us in general appearance. The carapax is 
somewhat depressed, and much broader than long. Antero-lateral margin 
short, with three teeth (not including the angle of the orbit, which is not 
prominent), and a slight emargination indicating the fifth, or posterior 
tooth, which, being placed within as well as behind the prominent fourth 
tooth, belongs more properly to the postero-lateral margin. Facial region 
narrow: eye- short; orbit rather small, with a slight hiatus beneath the 
outer angle. Antenna' and outer maxillipeds as in Pa opt is. Ambula- 
tory feet compressed : dactyli but little longer than the penult joint. 

It is very closely allied to Etta tlopsis Smith ( Enrralt Dana), but differs 
in its broader and more depressed carapax. deflexed front, more elongated 
bands, etc. 

Panoplax depressa nov. sp. 

Carapax faintly arcolatcd, and smooth and naked above. Third and 
fourth antero-lateral teeth triangular, acute, and about equal in size, the 
third, however, being somewhat broader. Second antero-lateral tooth half 
as large as the third. Front deflexed, in a curve ; lobes broadly convex, 
smooth. There is a slight, straight, acute transverse ridge crossing the 
frontal region just above the margin. Chelipeds rather large; carpus 



152 BULLETIN OF THE 

with a small spine at the inner angle; hand eonrpressed, smooth. Ambu- 
latory feet pubescent, the dactyli in particular being covered with short 
hairs on all sides. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carapax, 0.28 ; greatest breadth, at 
tips ut' the fourth antero-lateral teeth, 0. (3 inch ; proportion, 1 : 1,54 ; length 
of ambulatory feel of the second pair, 0.60 inch. 

Dredged between East ami Middle Keys, Tortugas, in from 5 to 7 
fathoms. 

LEUCOSOIDEA. 

Family CALAPPIDAE. 

Subfamily CALAPPINAE. 

Cyelois Balguerii Stm. 

Afursia Balguerii Desp,onxi: et Schramm, Crust, de la Guadeloupe, p. 52. pi. iv, 
fig. -jo. 

The specimens agree in all respects with -the description and figure 
quoted, except in the proportions of the carapax, which is narrower than in 
the (juadaloupu specimens, being full} as long as broad. 

Key West, 2 to 5 fathoms. 

Between East and Middle Keys, Tortugas, 5 to 7 fathoms. 

Off Orange Key, Bahamas, April 1, 1869. Cast No. 2. 9 fathoms. 

Off die Tortugas, March 4, 1868. Cast No. - 13 

Off Pacific Reef, May 13, 1869. Cast No. 1. 30 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 8. .35 

Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast X... 7. 40 

Off French Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 2. 45 

Acantkocarpus uov. ecu. 
Body regularly ovale, strongly convex in its antero-posterior dorsal out- 
line. Carapax as broad as long, broadest in front. Antero-lateral con- 
tinuous with the postero-lateral margin; the latter armed with a strong 
tooth at about the middle. Pronto-orbital region very broad, occupying 
more than half the width of the carapax. Eyes large. External maxilli- 
peds not reaching to the anterior extremity of the buccal area; ischium 
truncate in front, without projecting at the inner angle, which, like the 

outer one, is a right angle; meros shorter and br ler than the ischium, 

and narrowed in Iron!, with the palpus attached at the autero-interior 

: exognatlt reach in« to the tip of the meros. Chelipeds with a great 
spine on the carpus placed in a horizontal plane and pointing outward in a 
direction exactly transverse to the axis of the body. The ambulatory 

II I, . lender dad \ li, as in ( 'alapjm and Mursia. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. I ■'>'■'> 

This genus differs from Calappa in the want of lateral expansions of the 
carapax, and from Mursia in the want of lateral spines. From all the 
genera of the family hitherto described it differs in its ureal facial width. 

Acanthocarpus Alexandri nov. sp 

Carapax regularly convex, with uneven surface, the protuberances 
being arranged obscurely in five longitudinal rows anteriorly, the middle 
ones of which form centrally and posteriorly three conspicuous ridges, 
the lateral ridges terminating in the teeth of the postero-lateral margin. 
The surface is uniformly, but not thickly, covered with minute, equal 
granules, the interspaces between which are wider than the granules 
themselves. The posterior margin is regularly arcuate, and hears a slight- 
ly prominent tooth at the middle, and a slight wave in the outline on 
either side. The lateral margin is unarmed, except by two or three slight 
tuberculiform teeth near the orbit. The' orbits are large, without fissures, 
except the inner superior one. which is itself nearly obsolete ; orbital mar- 
gin ciliated. The front, is of moderate width, a little convex, lint not 
toothed, and is separated from the orbit by irs lateral angle -imply, and 
not by any notch. The spine on the carpus of the cheliped is nearly half 
as long as the carapax; and above it, on the same joint, there is another 
spine, stouter, but only one fourth as long as the first. Both these spines 
are granulated. The hand is provided with a seven-toothed crest above, 
and another, oblique, six-toothed crest on the outer surface, extending from 
the base of the daetylus to the postero-inferior angle. On the latter crest 
the posterior tooth i> largest, and firms by itself a short crest, separated 
from the other teeth by a, considerable interval. Between the upper and 
lower crests of the hand there are four or live tubercles scattered upon the 
surface. Ambulatory feet naked, unarmed, with smooth polished surface. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carapax, 0.31 inch; breadth the same. 
(Jti'the Quicksands, January -j:i, 1869. Cast No. i'. 74 fathoms. 

Calappa marmorata Faisr. 
Cancer marmoratusFwRicivs, Ent. Syst., II, 450 (17;n). 
<'mtr<_r flammeus Herust, Nattirg. d. Krabben unci Krcbse, II, 161; pi. \I, 

tig. 2. 
Calappa marmorata Farricus, Suppl. fait. Syst., p. 346. II. Milne-Edwakos, 

Ili-t. Xat. des Crust., II, 104. Dkshonxe et Schramm, Crust. de la 

Guadeloupe, p. 51. 

Found at Key West, in from 2 to 5 fathoms. 

Calappa galloides Stm. 
Calappa galloides Stimpson, Notes on V American Crustacea, p. 25. 
Found at Key West, in 1 to 5 ['alliums. 



154 BULLETIN OF THE 

Family MATUTIDAE. 

Tin' Matutidae may conveniently be dividefl into two subfamilies, Ma- 
tutinae and Hepatinae. Tlie latter gi p differs from the former in hav- 
ing a broader carapax, a narrow facial region, and short orbits and eyes. 

Subfamily HEPATINAE. 

Osachila nov. gen. 

This genus is allied to Hepatus in all essential characters, but differs 
considerably in the shape of the carapax, which is nearly as long as broad, 
and lias the front much produced, so much so as to form a true rostrum in 
one species. The carapax i- also more or less depressed and expanded at 
i he -ides, and its surface is verj une\ en, Inn ing six chief protuberances. 

Species of this genus are found in the seas of both sides of Tropical 
America. The name is that of a Florida. Cacique. 

Osachila tuberosa nov. sp. 
Carapax somewhat octagonal, very slightly broader than long; surface 
very uneven, deeply pitted on the protuberances, and finely, densely punc- 
tate on tin' depressed parts. Three of the protuberances are on the 
gastric region and correspond to the metagastric and nrogastric lobes, 
the protuberance of the latter being much the smallest, and continued an- 
teriorly in the form of a slight ridge in the furrow between the metagastric 
lobes, reach in-, with the furrow.-, nearly to the frontal region. The cardiac 
protuberance is rounded and smaller than tin- metagastric ones. Themeso- 
branchial lobes are strongly protuberant and larger than the metagastric, 
and there is a small, elongated, longitudinal protuberance between them 
and the. cardiac protuberance. The front is projecting, and bilobed, with 
the lobes verv obtuse and separated h\ a deep tin row. No protuberance on 
the concave hepatic region. Antero-lateral margin straight or slightly con 

cave anterior!} , but quickly curving backward and bee ing parallel to the 

axis of the body in the greater, posterior part oi its length; it is armed 
with numerous small irregular teeth, and i> pitted above like the protuber- 
ant parts of the carapax ; and the posterior tooth, which forms part of the 
branchial protuberance, is larger than the others. Postero-lateral margin 
nearly straight, obtuse, rugose, and armed with two or three tuberculi- 

torm teeth, of which one. separated fr the post* rior extremity of the 

carapax by a concavity, is the largest. Posterior extremity of the carapax 
narrow, with a rugose and much-thickened margin concealing the base of 
the alrdomen. Beneath, the entire surface of the carapax, maxillipeds, 
sternum, abdomen, and of the base? of (he feet, is densely covered with 
rather large pits, giving it a vcrmiculated or reticulated appearance. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 155 

Ohelipeds father stout; outer surface strongly rugose with punctate 
tubercles and juts; hand with four teeth on the superior crest. Ambula- 
tory feet (except dactyli) naked, compressed, and crested above and lie- 
low; crest ofmeros-joint with a row of pits along the posterior side, giving 
it a plicated appearance; last three joints with another crest on the pos- 
tero-superior surface; dactyli stout, densely pubescent below. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carapax, 0.56; breadth, 0.59 inch; 
proport ion, 1 : 1.05 !. 

West of Tortillas, January 16, 1869. Cast No. 4. 36 fathoms. 

Off Conch Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 1. 40 

Off French Reef, March 21, L869. Cast No. 2. 45 

Off Carysfort Reef, .March 21, 1869. Cast No. 5. 60 

West of Tortugas, -January 16, 1869. Cast No. 13. 68 

Family LKUCOSIDAE. 

Subfamily ILLIINAE. 

Xo attempt has yet, 1 believe, been made to separate the Leucosidae 
into subfamilies. The existence of the group which I have here named 
Iliinae seem- to be sufficiently well indicated by tangible characters, such 
as the long, slender chelipeds, and the two-notched extremity of the 
pterygostomian channel. 

Iliacantha nov. gen. 

Closely allied to Ilia, but having three -pines (one median) at the pos- 
terior extremity of the carapax, instead of tour tuberculiform teeth. From 
Persephona, Myra, and other allied genera of Leucosidae, it differs in the 
peculiar conformation of the hands, which are twisted, so that the fingers 
open in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. 

The pterygostomian channels at their anterior extremities project con- 
siderably beyond the orbits. The abdomen in a young male, the only 
specimen of that sex 1 have seen, is seven-jointed, none ^\' the joints be- 
ing soldered together. 

The species of Ilia, the nearest ally of this new L r euu<. are confined t< 
the Mediterranean Sea. 

Iliacantha subglobosa nov. sp. 
Carapax subglobose, smoothly and evenly convex, and unarmed, except 
a' the posterior extremity, where there are three spines, similar in position 
to those of the species of Myra ami Persephona, the middle one being long 
(equalling in length one seventh that of the carapax) and curved upward, 
and the lateral ones flattened, triangular. The hepatic region is consider- 
ably swollen, hut entirely unarmed, and is hounded posteriorly byadepres- 



15G BULLETIN OF THE 

sion indicating the outer extremity of the cervical sulcus, which is entirely 
obsolete in its median portion. The margin of the carapax is distinct ami 

somewhat acute on the hepatic region, and on the anterior part of the 
branchial, as far as a slight angular projection, posterior to which it 
ceases to be denned. Surface of the carapax minutel) granulated. Chel- 
ipeils in the female two and a hah' times as long as the carapax, excluding 
the spine, ami minutely granulated ; meros more sharply granulated than 
carpus ami hand; fingers very slender, much longer than the palm, ami 
armed within with needle-like teeth. Ambulatory feet very slender ami 
smooth, those of the first pair reaching to the middle of the palm of the 
chelipeds ; meros-joint as long as the terminal three joints taken together. 

The above description is that, of a female. In the male the carapax is 
less smoothly rounded above, the regions being faintly indicated, and the 
intestinal region protuberant above the base of the posterior spine. 

Dimensions of a sterile female: Length of carapax, including the poste- 
rior spine, 0.63 ; breadth, 0.52; length ofcheliped, 1.38 inch. 

Off Carysfort Iteef, March 21, 18(59. Cast No. 7. 40 fathoms. 
Off French licet', March 21, 18(59. Cast No. 2. 45 
Oil' Pacific beef, May 13, 1869. Cast No. :i. do 

Iliacantha sparsa nov ^]>. 

Carapax oval; intestinal and hepatic regions only defined; surface 
sparsely granulated; granules scattered, sharply projecting, almost like short 
capitate spines; surface between the granules punctate, or, as near the 
margins, covered with smaller granules. Postero-lateral margin less con- 
vex than in /. subglobosa. Posterior spines large; lateral ones similar in 
shape to and more than one half as large as the middle .-pine. A spine on 
the hepatic region half as large as the lateral posterior ones. Depression 
between the frontal and gastric region very deep, giving great prominence 
to the facial projection; median sinus of front very deep: frontal tee.h 
much projecting. External maxillipeds larger, more produced in front, 
ami more coarsely granulated than in the preceding specie-: granules 
prominent, like those of the back of the carapax. 

Dimensions of a sterile female: Length of carapax, posterior spine 
included, 0.30 ; breadth, 0.25 inch. 

It is easily distinguished from /. subr/lobosa by it- hepatic spine. 

\V. i ,,f the Tortu»as, January !»'>, 1869. Cast No. 1. 30 fathoms. 

Myropsis nov. gen. 
This rronus differs from Mijra, to which it is nearly allied, in its more 
globular form, in having five instead of three posterior spines, in the want 
of the median and hepatic ridges, and in having the outer margin of the 



MUSKUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. L57 

exognath of the outer maxillipcds straight instead of curved. From Ilia 
and Iliacantha ii differs in its chelipeds, the fingers of which open in a 
horizontal plane. From Persephona it differs, among other characters, in 
the basal joint of the antcnnulas, which is indurated and crested. The 
anterior extremity of the pterygostomian channel does not reach beyond 
the orbits. All the joints of the male abdomen are soldered together, ex- 
cept the terminal one. 

The species of Myra, the nearest ally of the new genus, are all, as far as 
known, inhabitants of the Kasl Indian and Australian seas. 

Myropsis quinquespinosa nov. sp. 

Body and chelipeds everywhere granulated, above and below. Carapax 
subglobular, regularly and evenly convex, as in Iliacantha subglobosa ; in- 
testinal and cardiac regions only defined, and defined by rather deep 
furrows on either side ; hepatic region not swollen ; cervical sulcus obso- 
lete; granules of the surface equal in size and distributed with great 
regularity, being distant from each other by a space equal in width to two 
or three times their diameter. Lateral margins of carapax regularly 
arched. Of the five posterior spines, the median one is situated on the 
intestinal region; the intermediate ones are but little smaller than the 
median one, and are placed at a lower level, occupying the postero-1 
angles of the carapax : the outer ones, placed on the branchial region over 
the insertion of the posterior feet, are small, only one third as long as the 
median spine. There is also a small spine at the middle of the lateral 
margin, and one on the hepatic region. The frontal teeth are obtuse, and 
not very prominent. Chelipeds cylindrical ; meros more than two thirds 
as long as the carapax, and covered with granules as large as those of the 
carapax, but densely crowded : granules of hand smaller, but also densely 
crowded : fingers longer than the palm, and armed within with very 
minute and acute teeth varying in size. Ambulatory feel naked (except 
the dactyli), cylindrical, and parth microscopically granulated; those of 
the first pair one sixth longer than the carapax. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carapax, spines included, 0.72; 
breadth, 0.5.S ; length ofcheliped, 1.2.") inch. 

Off Tennessee Reef, May 7, ISG'J. Cast No. I. 21 fathoms. 
May 11, 1SH8. Cast No. 5. 82 

Callidaetylus nov. -m. 
Carapax rounded, ncarl\ as broad as long, regularly convex, except 
if. i: I he anterior margins: hepalie i rell defined, protuberant, and 

toothed: posterior extremity armed with threi spines, as in Pcrsej 
etc. Fi\ nt short : basal joint of (be ante inula 1 not indurated. Orbit 



158 BULLETIN OF THE 

longitudinal, with three very distinel fissures on the outer side, which ex- 
tend to the base of the orbital tube. Pterygostomian channel much nar- 
rower than in Myra, strongly tridentate in front, and extending beyond 
the orbit. External maxillipeds sharply granulated ; exognath with a con- 
vex outer margin, bul much less dilated than in Myra; meros-joint of 
endognath with a concave outer surface. Chelipeds of moderate length ; 
hand much longer than the meros ; palm short, pyriform, much swollen 
within toward the base, and somewhat twisted, though less so than in Ilia, 
so that the fingers move in an oblique plane ; fingers much longer than the 
palm, very thin and delicate, laminate, curving upward and inward toward 
the tips, serrated on the outer edge, and armed within with numerous 
needle-shaped teeth. Ambulatory feel naked (except the dactyli of the 
posterior pair, which are sparsely pilose) ; penult joint compressed, with a 
laminiform crest above and below; dactyli lanceolate, those of the first 
three pairs three-edged, those of the posterior pair two-edged and shorter 
and broader than the others. 

in the female there is a deep, smooth channel on the outer maxillipeds, 
in the median line, between and on the ischium joints, defined on cither 
siik' by a strong ciliated ridge. This channel does not exist in the male, 
and has doubtless something to do with the flow of the water which bathes 
the eggs or young in the abdominal cavity. 

In the male, all the joints of the abdomen, except the terminal one, are 
soldered together. 

The genus resembles Myrodes somewhat in the character of the fingers, 
but differs from it as well as from Myra and the allied genera in the want 
of an indurated crest on the basal joint of the antennuhe, and in the char- 
acter of the dactyli of the ambulatory feet, from Peisephona, etc. it (lif- 
ters in the convex outer margin of the exognath of the outer maxillipeds. 

Oallidactylus asper nov. sp. 
The following is a description of an adult female. Carapax con- 
vex in the middle and posteriorly, hut somewhat depressed toward the 
anterior margins. The sulci separating the gastric, cardiac, and intesti- 
nal from the branchial regions are easily traceable, as well as that between 
the cardiac and the gastric; but there is none between the cardiac and 
the intestinal regions. The hepatic region is surrounded by rather pro- 
found depressions, and on its posterior pari there is a strong tooth-like pro- 
tuberance, occupying about one third its area. The upper surface of the 
carapax i ornamented with scattered, prominent granules, or short, capi- 
tate spiimles. which become less prominent posteriorly and disappear alto- 
gether near the posterior extremity, where the surface i> covered, with 
smaller and more, crowded and depressed granules. On the lateral parts 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. L59 

of the branchial region the two kinds of granules arc found together. In 
the median line there arc three or four shorl blunl spines on the posterior 
part of the gastric and the cardiac regions, the posterior one of which is 
rather remote from the others, and much larger than they, nearly as 
large as the median posterior spine. There is a strong, triangular tooth, 
pointing forward, on the subhepatic region, and a smaller tooth at the an- 
terior extremity of the branchial region on the antero-latera! margin. On 
the postero-lateral margin there is also a small tooth, or short spine. The 
three posterior spines occupy the usual position (as in PersepJiona, Myra, 
etc.), and are short. The outer maxillipeds arc granulated, like the upper 
surface of the carapax, and somewhat setose, the setae arising between the 
granules. The fourth, fifth, and sixth joints of the abdomen are soldered 
together; the surface is smooth and glossy about the middle, hut there is 
a transverse tuberculated ridge on the fourth joint, and the sixth joint is 
sparsely granulated. 

Of the male sex I have lmt one half-grown example. The carapax is 
rather broader and more depressed than in the female, and the granules 
are smaller, less numerous, and more scattered. The posterior spines are 
longer. The. sternum and abdomen are evenly covered with minute, de- 
pressed, crowded granules. 

Dimensions of a female specimen: Length of carapax, spine included, 
o.7!>: breadth. 0.61; length of meros-joint of cheliped, 0.42; length of 
hand, 0.65 inch. In the young male the length of the carapax is 0.311 ; 
breadth. 0.65 inch. 

Lat. 24° X. Long., S3° W., January 22, 1868. Cast No. 3. 16 fathoms. 
Off Carysfort Reef, March 21, 1869. Cast No. 8. 35 

West of Tortugas 3 January 16, 1869. Cast No S. 37 " 

Subfamily EBALIINAE. 

The genera Ebalia, Nursia, Lithartia, Oreophorim, Spelaeophorus, etc., 
appear to form a natural group, to which the name Ebaliinae may be 
applied. 

Lithadia cadaverosa no v. sp. 
The following description is that of a female, no males having occurred : 
Carapax broad, somewhat octagonal in shape, very little produced poste- 
riorly, and very strongly convex ; the branchial regions being more swollen 
than in any of the Other known species of the genus, am) occupying by far 
the greater portion of the carapax These regions and the other protu- 
berant parts of the carapax are more or less covered with depressed, often 
confluent granules, arranged in lines or groups with depressed spaces in- 
tervening, giving to the surface an eroded or vermiculated appearance. 



160 BULLETIN OF THE 

Tl xcavations between the regions are very deep, but those surround- 
ing the cardiac region are broader and less abrupt than in other species 
of the genus; those surrounding the hepatic region and lying in fronl of 
the branchial arc very narrow. In one of the two specimens then' are 
several small, round, isolated tubercles in the depression between the 
cardiac and gastric regions; while in the other this space, as well as the 
entire gastric and part of the branchial region, is evenly covered with flat, 
translucent granules, giving the surface a finely reticulated appearance. 
The hepatic region is narrow, with a granulated ridge extending inward a 
slmrt distance from the antero-lateral margin, which is here defined by a 
similar ridge. Behind the hepatic region, and separated from it l>y a deep 
transverse sinus below, there are on the margin two strong, triangular 
teeth pointing downward mi the antero-lateral part of the branchial region. 
The posterior of these two teeth corresponds to the anterior lateral tooth 
of other species of the genus, but the tooth in fronl of it is the larger; the 
surface of both is flattened. The posterior lateral tooth of the branchial 
region is blunt. The intestinal region is broad, and the two marginal 
lobes are thickened, but very little projecting, and not at all dentiform. 
On the inferior surface of the branchial region there are one or two rows 
of -mall tubercles. The front is thick, the epistome and suborbital region 
ample, and the external maxillipeds bent nearly to a right angle in front, 
so that the anterior portion of the facial region is large and lies in a verti- 
cal plane. The frontal mar-in is slightly concave, hut not notched. The 
chelipeds are rugose, with angular, granulated protuberances; meros not 
at all flattened, hut nearly as thick as it is broad. Ambulatory feet armed 
above with short, thick spines, as in L. Cumingii ; dactyli and penult 
joints somewhat setose. Color, bluish-white, with flake-white ridges and 
tubercle-: frontal portion ami feet, flesh-colored; a tew blood-red spots on 
the abdomen and about the bases of the feet, particularly of the chelipeds. 

Dimensions of the larger female: Length of carapax, 0.26; breadth, 
0.30 inch 

This crab is well protected by its general appearance, and with its feet 
retracted would scarcely be taken for a living object- It differs from L. 
cariosa in it- broader and more convex carapax, and in the much less 
prominent lobes of the intestinal region. 

West of Tortujras, January 16, I860 Cast No. 7. •'?:> fathoms. 
Off Concli Reef, March 21, I860. Cast No. 1. 40 

A. AM M \ Ol SCIKNCES, ('no VGO, 111.., 
December 1st, 1870. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 1G1 

No. 3. — On the Mammals and Winter Birds of East Florida, 
with an Examination of certain assumed Specific Characters 
in Birds, and a Sketch of the Bird-Fauna; of Eastern North 
America. By J. A. Allen. 

Introduction. 

The present paper embraces five more or less distinct parts. The 
first consists of introductory remarks respecting the topographical, 
climatic, and faunal features of that part of the peninsula of Florida 
usually known as East Florida. The second is an annotated li.~t of 
the mammals of this region. The third is devoted to a consideration 
of individual, seasonal, age and geographical variation among birds, 
with reference to certain characters commonly assumed to be specific. 
The fourth contains a list of the winter birds of East Florida, with 
field and revisionary notes. The fifth is given to an examination of 
the geographical distribution of the birds and mammals (more particu- 
larly of the birds) of Eastern North America, in which is considered 
the number of the natural faunae of this region, their distinctive fea- 
tures and their boundaries. 

The enumeration of the mammals and birds, forming Parts II and 
IV, is based partly on my own observations and' partly on notes 
kindly furnished me by Messrs. C. J. Maynard and G. A. Boardman. 
These observations may be considered as equivalent collectively to the 
labors of a single observer constantly in the field for at least four or 
five winters. 

My own observations were made during a three months' exploration 
of the country bordering the St. John's River, between Jacksonville 
and Enterprise, in the winter of 1868 and I860, under the auspices of 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology. The greater part of January 
was passed at Jacksonville, where I also spent the last week of March. 
Five weeks were also passed in the vicinity of Enterprise, and the bal- 
ance of the time at various intermediate points. 

Mr. Maynard's explorations were made during the same winter, 
mainly in portions of the country unvisitcd by myself, a large part 
of his collection coming from the Upper St. John's and Indian Rivers. 
lie also spent several weeks at Dummitt's, twenty miles south of 
New Smyrna. During most of December and January he collected 

VOL. II. 11 



162 BULLETIN OF THE 

in the vicinity of Jacksonville, at which point one of his assistants, 
Mr. Charles Thurston, remained during April and a portion of May, 
collecting, among other tilings, the later arriving birds. Nearly all the 
birds ami mammals collected by these gentlemen, and by Mr. J. F. Le- 
Baron, a third member of Mr. Maynard's party, have been added to 
the collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and are accom- 
panied by measurements carefully taken before skinning. 

Mr. Boardman's observations were continued through three suc- 
cessive winters, during which he spent considerable lime at the follow- 
ing points : St. Augustine and Fernandina on the coast, Jacksonville, 
Green-Cove-Springs and Enterprise on the St. John's River. Al- 
though the numerous specimens he collected at these and intermediate 
points were presented by him to the Smithsonian Institution, I am 
indebted to him for an annotated manuscript list of the species he met 
with. I am also indebted to the Rev. Thomas Marcy, who accompa- 
nied me on my Florida trip, for valuable assistance in collecting, and to 
Mr. J. E. Brundage for similar aid. 

Having made use of the reports of previous visitors on the faunae of 
this region, the following lists are believed to embrace all the species 
of mammals thus far known from East Florida, and all the birds regu- 
larly present in winter, of nearly all of which I have examined speci- 
mens from Florida. A few other birds not included in my list doubt- 
less occasionally visit this region from the North, and others may lin- 
ger here which usually pass the winter further south. In order to 
increase the value of the bird li>t as a fatinal record, those species 
known to be resident throughout the year have been indicated by 
an asterisk (*), and those known only as winter visitors by an obelisk 
(f). The date of the first appearance of the strictly spring visitors is 
also noted, so far as such arrivals were observed. 

The specimens on which the investigations detailed in Part III are 
based, as well as tin' revisionary notes of Parts II and IV, are mainly 
those of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, which embrace, among 
Others, nearly a thousand specimens of birds from Florida.* 

The topics discussed in Part III, namely, individual and climatic 
variation, necessarily involve the question of the nature of species, 
as well as the validity of various diagnostic characters. Many details 

* I have also made use of measurements, taken by Mr. Wm. Brewster and Mr. C. J. 
M;iyiiurd, of hundreds of specimens not in the collection of the Museum. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 163 

in reference to these variations arc given in this part, but a lame pro- 
portion are recorded in the general and revisionary notes of Part IV. 
The conclusions arrived at, it may be here premised, are mainly the fol- 
lowing: (i.) That the majority of nominal species originate in two 
principal sources of error; namely, (a) an imperfect knowledge of the 
extent and character of individual variation, and (b) of geographical 
variation. ('-.) That this imperfect knowledge is mainly due to the 
neglect of zoologists to study with sufficient care the common species 
of their respective countries, whence has arisen a faulty method of in- 
vestigation and erroneous ideas respecting species and specific charac- 
ter-. (3.) Instead of the method at present pursued by a large school of 
descriptive naturalists — the analytic, or the search for differences — 
being the proper one, that synthesis should be duly combined with analy- 
sis, and that general principles should be sought as well as new forms, 
or so-called "new species" and '-new genera." (4.) It is claimed that 
nothing is to be gained by giving binomial names to climatic or other 
form-, in cases where, however considerable the differences between them 
may be, a complete transition from the one to the other can be traced 
in specimens from intermediate localities, notwithstanding the plea 
sometimes urged that their use affords " convenient handles to facts." 

In accordance with such views a partial revision of the species of 
certain groups is incidentally attempted in Part IV, more especially 
of the Icteridcc, the raptorial birds, and the genera Pants, Tardus, Pas- 
serculus, etc. 

Part I. 

The Topographical, Climatic, and Faunal Characteristics of East 

Florida. 

No part of the Florida Peninsula, as is well known, is much ele- 
vated above the level of the sea, the greater, port ion being extremely 
low and lame areas swampy. The surface is slightly undulating, but 
tin; higher ridges randy attain a height of more than lifiy or seventy- 
five feet, and the highest eminence is less than two hundred. A large 
part of Northern Florida, including what is usually termed Fa-t and 
West Florida, is covered with open pine forests, constituting the so- 
called " pine barrens." These barrens frequently rise into dry knolls, 
but they likewise embrace considerable tract- that are so low as to be 
more or less submerged during a portion of the year, especially in wet 



1G4 BULLETIN OF THE 

seasons; they are nlso interspersed with cypress swamps of varying 
extent. Such swamps usually bonier the St. John's on its upper 
course, sometimes extending back from the river for several miles. 
Other portions of the low grounds support ;i mixed foresl of live-oak, 
water-oak, elm, bitter-nut hickory, maple, laurel, sweet gum, etc., with 
a more or less dense undergrowth, Mich forests forming the so-called 
" hummocks." Some portions of these forests are swampy ; others are 
dry, and slightly elevated. The saw and dwarf palmettos (Subal serru- 
lata R. & S. and S. Adansonii Guerns.) frequently render the former 
difficult to penetrate, and extensive groves of the cabbage palm (Cha- 
mcerops palmetto Michx. ; Sabal palmetto R. & S.) here and there oc- 
cupy the banks of the streams. At intervals in the pine barrens exten- 
sive thickets of low trees and thickly growing shrubs are met with, 
which are exceedingly difficult to enter, and are appropriately termed 
" scrubs." Each of these kinds of country, as would be naturally ex- 
pected, forms the favorite haunt of certain species of birds and mam- 
mals, the grassy or open pineries being frequented by some that 
rarely v i-i t the swamps and hummocks, and the hitler by others that 
rarely visit the open pineries. The extensive savannas which occur 
along the upper portion of the St. John's River and elsewhere form the 
favorite haunts of numerous wading birds ; and the numerous lakes are 
congenial to the swimming bird-. 

East Florida hence differs but little in its general character from the 
lower portions of Georgia and the low land- ol the coast ol South Carolina. 
The tree-, especially of the hummock- and swampy forests, arc usually 
covered with the pendant Tillandsia vsnoides, or " Spanish moss," and 
the abundance of epiphytic orchids and other plant.-, as well as the palms, 
clearly indicates the subtropical and peculiar character of the climate. 

From the great extent in latitude of the Florida peninsula — from 
2.3° to 3F, or about four hundred miles — considerable differences 
necessarily exist between the fauna and flora of the northern and south- 
ern portions. Although the change in these features from the north 
southward i- more or less gradual, it seems to be appreciably greater 
near Lake George than elsewhere. At this point so well-marked a 
change occurs in the vegetation as to attract the attention ol unscien- 
tific observers, and a corresponding change in the fauna is readily 
traced. Above bake George the general aspect of both the flora and 
fauna is decidedly more southern than it is below the lake. The 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 165 

boundary between the Floridian and Louisianian fauna? and florae, it 
would hence seem, may be properly regarded as passing near this 
point, the portion of the State to the southward being alone properly 
Floridian, the northern resembling more the Louisianian type.* 

As already observed, Florida, from its excessively marshy charac- 
ter, is pre-eminently suited to the wants of the grallatorial birds. Im- 
mense numbers of the heron tribe hence make it their permanent 
home, while it is the favorite winter resort of numerous species of Gral- 
he that pass the breeding season far to the northward. Ibises and 
egretts abound in its swamps and savannas, forming at all times, by 
their numbers and showy plumage, a characteristic feature of the fauna. 
In winter the abundance of snipe and other species of Grallce and 
ducks render it at that season a sportsman's paradise. Florida hence 
attracts great numbers of sportsmen in winter, through whose reckless 
and often wanton waste of life the water-fowl, especially of late years, 
are annually decimated. 

The summer bird fauna of Florida is probably not better represented 
in species than that of the temperate parts of the continent generally ; 
but this State being the winter resort of numerous species of spar- 
rows and warblers, and of those smaller land birds generally that pass 
the summer in much higher latitudes, its winter bird fauna, as compared 
with that of the Northern States, is extremely rich. In New England 
the number of species of birds that can be regarded as " common " in 
winter does not exceed fifteen,! but in Florida at that season at least 
five times that number can be so regarded. This, however, accords 
with a general law of distribution in respect to the relative number of 
species found at different points in latitude from the arctic zone south- 
ward, the number increasing in proportion to the decrease of the lati- 
tude, or with the increa-e of the mean temperature. In winter, through 
the southward migration of many species, the minimum number of 
species which in summer is characteristic of the arctic zone is carried 
down nearly to the Northern States, there being a marked decrease 
from summer to winter as far south as the warm temperate or sub- 
tropic belt ; within the tropics, on the contrary, the number of species 
is far greater in winter than in summer, through the temporary influx 
of species from colder regions. 

* For a further definition of the Floridian bird fauna, as distinguished from the Louis- 
ianian, see beyond, Part V. 
t See American Naturalist, Vol. I, p. 47, March, 1867. 



1G6 BULLETIN OF THE 

In consequence ot the subtropical character of the climate of Florida 
certain peculiarities occur in respect to the development of vegetation at 
the vernal period, and in the time of breeding of the resident birds, that 
seem in this connection worthy of record. The mildness of the winter 
climate is such that the verdure of the forests is to a greater or less 
degree perennial, severe frosts being of rare occurrence. Some of 
the early flowering trees, such as the maples, ashes, and elms, begin to 
bloom and to gradually unfold their leaves early in January. Although 
the forest trees in general put forth their leaves in February, and a few 
have acquired their full summer dress by the 1st of March, their de- 
velopment is slow and irregular. I observed peach-trees in flower at 
the same locality (Jacksonville) in January and in April ; and the flow- 
ering period of some of the forest trees is nearly as protracted. The 
development of vegetation is hence as great during a single week in 
May, in New England, as during any four weeks in February and 
March, in Florida. 

A similar irregularity is observed in respect to the pairing and breed- 
ing of the resident birds. Some of the rapacious species, as the fish- 
hawk and the white-headed eagle, commence incubation in January, and, 
as I have been informed, occasionally in December ; other members of 
the same species delay breeding till February or March. The great 
blue heron and the egretts nest in February, as do also the courlans, 
several of die hawks, the sandhill crane, the wood-duck and the blue- 
bird ; the mocking-bird and other resident soug-birds, in March and 
April. 

In the Northern States the vivacity of the birds during the pairing 
season is as much greater than it is in Florida as is the rapidity of the 
development in vegetation. In spring at the North the woods, the 
fields, and the hedgerows are ever vocal with bird music ; but in Flor- 
ida no such outburst of song marks the arrival of the vernal season. 
The brown thrush, the blue-bird, the cat-bird, the towhee, and the 
various kinds of sparrows that are common in the breeding season to 
both New England and Florida, seem to lose at the latter locality the 
vivacity which characterizes them at the North, their attempts at song 
being listless and feeble. The songs of some are also much abbre- 
viated, and so differen! from what they are at the North as to be some- 
times scarcely recognizable as proceeding from the same species. 
Even the mocking-bird sings far less than in the Middle States, and 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 167 

with much less power. Such at least is the general fact as indicated 
by my own limited experience in Florida, which accords, I find, with 
that of various other observers. 

In recounting the faunal peculiarities of Florida it is necessary to 
allude further to a few facts that will be more fully presented in the 
following chapters, namely, the differences which distinguish the Florida 
representatives of species that have a wide distribution to the northward 
from the northern ones. It has for some time been well known that a 
difference in size in birds and mammals usually accompanies differences 
of locality in respect to latitude and elevation. Other differences, how- 
ever, are found to accompany these with considerable uniformity ; namely, 
a relative increase in the length or general size of the bill, and an in- 
crease in the intensity of the general color of the plumage.* Florida 
birds, in short, usually differ considerably in these respects from their 
New England cospecific representatives ; so much so, indeed, that in 
many cases the majority of ornithologists would probably regard the 
two forms as distinct species, though few of them have as yet been 
specifically separated. 

Hence not only do birds of the same species living at distant points 
differ considerably in size, color, and other features, but also in their 
habits, notes, and songs. With the decrease in size to the southward 
there seems to be a corresponding decrease in vivacity, — a fact which 
accords with the general law of the distribution of the higher forms of 
life in the temperate latitudes. Although a few structurally high types 
are, from certain peculiarities of their conformation, necessarily tropical, 
the highest races of men, whether considered physically, intellectually, 
or morally, are inhabitants of a medium climate, and gradually decline 
in rank both to the northward and southward from this favored re- 
gion, animal and vegetable life reaching, as a whole, its highest 
manifestation in the temperate latitudes. The excessive variety of 
forms within the tropics mainly results from the addition of those 
of comparatively low or medium grades, only a few of the exclusively 
tropical forms being of absolutely high rank. Generally, too, the forms 
to be properly regarded as temperate are represented in the tropics by 
only their lower members, while, conversely, many of the higher types 
of the tropics are really cosmopolitan. 

* See Annual Report of the Mus. Comp. Zool., 1669, p. 16. 



1()8 BULLETIN OF THE 

Part II. 

List of the Mammals of East Florida, with Annotations. 

FELIDJE. 

1. Felis concolor Linn€. Panther. 

Not very unfrequent in the more unsettled parts of the State. I 

saw several hunter's skins of it at Jaeksonville, said to have been taken 

up the river. 

2. Lynx rufus Rafinesque. Bay Lynx. 

Abundant. Especially numerous on the Upper St. John's and In- 
dian Rivers, according to Mr. Maynard and others. 

CANID^. 

3. Canis lupus Linne. Gray Wolf. 

Canis lupus Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 58, 1767. — Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

I, 154, October, 1869 
Canis Iiijiik, occidentalis Rich., Fauna Bor. Amor., I, 60, 1829. 
Canis occidentalis et var. Bairi>, Mam. X. Anier., 104, 111, 113, 1857. 

Not numerous. They were described to me as being very dark col- 
ored, or black.* This account tends to confirm the statement of Au- 
dubon and Bachman in respect to this point. f After citing the 
comparative frequency of this form of the common wolf in Kentucky, 
and in several of the Southern Atlantic and Gulf States, as compared 
with its occurrence in regions more to the northward and westward, 
they observe : '" The varieties with more or less of black continue to 
increase, as we proceed farther to the south ; and in Florida the pre- 
vailing color of the wolves is black." } 

4. Vulpes virginianus Richardson. Gray Fox. 
Canis virginianus Erxl., Syst. Keg. Aiiiin., 567, 1 777. — " Sciireber, Si'uigcth., 

Ill, 361, pi. xcii, 1778." 
Canis cinereo-argentatus Kr.xi.., Syst. Reg. Anim., 567, 1778. — " ScHREBER, 

Saugeth., 360, pi. xcii." — Godman, Am. Nat. Hist., I, 280, 1826. 
Canis griseus Bodd., Elcnchus Anim,, I, 77, 1784. 

* Since writing the above, II ed a letter from Mr. G. A. Boardman, ofMill- 

town, Me., in which he i of the Florida wolves. 

t Quad. X. Amer., Vol. II, p. 130. 

t Respecting tin- distribution of the different color races of the common wolf in North 
America, see my paper on the Mammals of Massachusetts, Bulletin Mus. Comp. Zool., 
Vol. I, p. 156, 1869. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 109 

Canis [Vulpes] virginianus Rich., Faun. Bor. Am., I, 96, 1S29. 

Vtdpes virginianus Dekay, New York Fauna, I, 45, pi. vii, fig. 2, 1842. — 

Am. & Bach., Quad. N. Am., T, 162, pi. xxi, 1849. 
Vidpes ( Urocyon) virginianus Baird, Mam. X. Am., 138, 1857. 

Common. 

MUSTELID^J. 

5. Putorius lutreolus Cuvier. Mink. 

Mustda lutreola Linn., Syst Nat., 66, 1766. 

Putorius lutreolus Crv., Reg. Anim., I, 14S, 1817. — Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. 

Zoiil., I, 175, October, 1869. 
Putorius vison Gapper, Zool. Journ., V, 202, 1830. 
Putorius nigrescens Aud. & Bach., Quad. N. Am., Ill, 104, pi. cxxiv, 1853. 

"Not common." — Boardman. I did not meet with it. It is well 
known to be common, however, in the adjoining States. Audubon and 
Bachman speak of it as being very numerous in the rice-fields of South 

Carolina 

6. Lutra canadensis Sabine. Otter. 

Abundant. Its fur, however, is of little value, compared with that 
of northern specimens, and the animal is hence not much hunted. 

7. Mephitis mephitica Baird. Common Skunk. 

Viverra mephitica Shaw, Mus. Lever., 172, 1792. — Ibid., Gen, Zool., I, 390, 

1809. 
Mephitis chinga Tiedem., Zool., 362, 1S08. 
Mustela (Mephitis) americana Desm., Marnm., I, 1S6, 1820. 
Mustela varians Gray, Charlesw. Mag. Nat Hist., I, 581, 1837. 
" Mustela mesomelas Licht., Darst. Saugeth., I, fig. 2." — Geoff. St. Hil., Vov. 

de la Venus, Zool., I, 133, 1855. — Max. zu Wied, Archiv fur Natorgesch., 

XXVII, 218, 1861. — Baird, Mam. X. Am., 199, 1S57. 
Mephitis macroura Aud. & Bach., Quad. N. Am., Ill, 11, 1853. 
Mephitis mephitica Baird, Mam. X. Amer., 195, 1857. — Allen, Bull. Mus. 

Com. Zool., I, 178, October, 1869. 
Mephitis occidentalis Baird, Mam. N. Amer., 194, 1857. 

Common on the Lower St. John's, but, according to Mr. Maynard, 
quite unknown on the Indian River. 

8. Mephitis bieolor Gray. Little Striped Skunk. 
Mephitis bieolor Gray, Charlesw. Mag. Xat. Hist., I, 5S1, 1837. — Baird, 

Mam. X. Amer., 196, 1857. 
Mephitis zorilla Liciit., Abhand. Ak.id. Wiss. Berlin, for 1836, 281, 1838. — 

Aud. & Bach., Quad. X. Amer., Ill, 276, 1854. 
Mephitis interrupta Licht., Abhand. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, for 1836, 283, 1833. 



170 BULLETIN OF THE 

This beautiful little animal was obtained by Mr. C. J. Maynard at 
Captain Dummitt's, where it was said to be common in the scrub. Mr. 
May n aid says they arc domesticated and used there as cats, the odor 
glands being removed when the animals are young; they become very 
tame and are quite efficient in destroying the mice {Hvsperomys sp.) 
that infest the houses. I am not aware that this animal has been 
reported before from any point east of tin: Mississippi River. It has 
been recently ascertained to extend northward in the interior as far as 
Central Iowa.* 

(JRSIDJE. 

9. Procyon lotor Storr. Raccoon. 
Ursus Jolor Linne, Syst. Nat., 48, 1758. 
Procyon lotor Baird, Mam. N. Amer., 209, 1857. — Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. 

ZooL, I, 181, October, 1869. 
Procyon Hernandezii Wagler, Isis, XXIV, 514, 1831. — Baird, Mam. N. 

Amer., 212, 1857. — Ibid., U. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., II, Mam., 22, 1859. 

Exceedingly numerous. 

10. UrSUS arctOS Linne. Common Bear. 
U rsn! . arcfos Linne, Syst. Nat, CO, 1706. — Cuvier, Reg. Anim., I. 142, 1817. 

Blainvii.t.e. — Middendorff, Sibirische Reise, II, ii. 1854. — Gray, 

Proo. London Zool. Sue, 1864, 682. — Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, I, 

184. October, 186'.). 
Ursus americnmis Pallas, Spicelcgia ZooL, XIV, 6, 1780. — Gmelin, Syst. 

Nat., I, lni, 1788. — Richardson, Faun. Bor. Amer., I, 14, 1829. — Aud. 

& Ba< h., Quad. X. Amer., III. 187, 1853. — Max. zu Wild & Mayer, 

Verhandl. Akad. der Naturf., XXVI, i, 33, 1857. — Baird, Mam. X. Amer., 

225, 1857. 
Ursus [Euarctos) americanus Cray, l'roe. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1864, 602. 
Ursus horribilis Ord, "Guthrie's Geo-., 2d Amer. ed.. II, 201, 200, 1815." — 

Say, Long's Exped., II, 53, 1823.— Baird, Mam. X. Amer. 210. 
Ursus horribilis, var. horriaceus, Baird, U. S. & Mex. Bound. Survey, Rep., II, 

Mam., 24, 1859. 
Ursus cinereus Desm., Mam., I, 164, 1820. 
Ursus (Dam's) cinereus Gray, Proc. Loud Zool. Soc, 1864. 690. 
Ursus ferox Rn hardson, Faun. Bor. Amer.. I, 24, 1S20. — Max. zu Wied, 

Reise in das innerc Nord Amer.. I, 4SS, is:;'.).— M w. /r Wild & Mayer, 

Verliandl. Akad. der Natnrforsch., XXVI, 30. 
Ursus cinnamomeus Baird, U. S. & Mex. Bound. Survey Rep., II, Mam., 29. 

* See H. \V. Parker, in Amor. Nat , Vol. IV, 370, August, 1870. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 171 

Numerous and often troublesome, occasionally destroying swine, of 
which they are exceedingly fond. Judging from their tracks in the 
swamps, they must not only be exceedingly numerous, but some of 
them of enormous size. The several .--kins seen by me were all in- 
tensely black.* 

CERVIDJE. 

11. Cariacus virginianus Gray. Virginia Deer. 
Cervus virginianus Bodd.ert, Elcnch. Animal., I, 136, 1784. — Gmelin. 

SCHREBER, DESMEREST, Al'D. & BaCII., BaIRD, &C. 

Cariacus virginianus Gray, Cat. of Bones in Brit. Mus., 266, 1862. 

Abundant almost everywhere. Not so numerous along the Lower 
St. John's as in the more unsettled districts further south. As re- 
marked by Professor Baird, the Florida deer are considerably smaller 
than those of the Northern States ; so much so that it is a fact of 
common observation. 

MANATIDJ3. 
12. Triekechus manatus Limit?. Manatee. 

Trichechus manatus Lixxe, Syst. Nat., I, 34, 1758. 

"Manatus australis Tilesius, Jahrb. der Naturg., I, 23." — Gtat, Cat. Seals 

and Whales, 358, 1866. — Murray, Geo-. Distr. Mam., 202, 1SC6. 
Manatus amer' anus Desm., Mam., 507, 1822. 
Manatus lalirostris JIari.ax, Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Ill, 390, pi. xii, fig. 

1-3, 1824. — Ibid., Faun. Anier., 277, 1825. 

I learn from Mr. Maynard that the manatee is still quite common.in 
Indian River, where they are often caught in nets. They come into 
the river at niglit to feed on the mangrove bushes. Mr. Maynard did 
not meet with them in Mosquito Lagoon, which he traversed nearly its 
whole length, and he thinks they do not occur there. 

The manatees of America and Africa seem to be very closely allied, and 
to number at most but two species. Those of the same species also appear 
to be exceedingly variable in their osteological characters. Dr. J. E. Gray, 

* In my recent paper in this Bulletin, cited above, I have discussed the mutual re- 
lationship of the numerous supposed species of lan.l bears <>f the northern hemisphere. 
The close affinity between the hears of Northwestern America and Northeastern Asia 
is especially noticed; but at that time I was nut aware that Temminck, in the Fauna 
Japonica, had referred the large land bear of Japan to the U. fa-ox of authors, or to 
the so-called "grizzly bear" of Western America. Tliis indicates the very close affinity, 
in this author's opinion, of the Japan and American bears. 



172 BULLETIN OF THE 

in a valuable paper entitled " On the Species of Manatee? (Manatus), and 
on the Difficulty of distinguishing such Species by Osteological Characters,"* 
states thai he finds the African and American species are distinguished by 
only a single character, — the absence of the nasal bones in the African 
species. Concerning the individual variation in the skulls of the two species, 
lie oh crves as follows : " When Cuvier had a skull of the American and one 
of the African Manatee, he gaveeighl characters by which the African skull 
could be known from the American. Now we have a series of skulls of each 
kind, we find that not one of these characters will separate the skulls of the 
two countries from one another. Indeed, the skulls of each kind are so 
variable that, after having them laid out before me for two or three days, 
studying them every now and then, and inducing two proficients in the study 
of bones, and in observing minute characters, to give me their assistance, we 
came to the conclusion that we believed there was no character, common to 
all the skulls of each kind, which could he used to separate them. As a 
proof of the difficulty of so doing, I may state that there was one skull in the 
series which had been long in the collection, and had been received without 
any habitat, and neither of the three could decide to which of the series this 
skull should he referred; and it was not until I accidentally observed the 
character, derived from the absence of the nasal bones in the African kind, 
that this question could be settled." 

Having myself been struck with the variability of osteological as well 
as external characters in individuals of the same species, in both birds and 
mammals, — a matter to which I have already often called attention, and the 
consideration of which occupies a considerable portion of Part III of the 
lire-cut paper, ■ — I can hardly refrain, in this connection, from citing further 
the judicious remarks of Dr. Gray on this point. "The examination," he 
savs, '• of a lame series of skulls of the hears (I'rsus) and Paradoxuri, shows 
how difficult it is to distinguish species by the study of the >kulls alone. 
Thus, when we have, a series of skulls of hears from different localities, which, 
from their external form and habits, are known to be distinct species, it is 
easy to shy which is the skull of U. thibetanus, U. syriacus, U. arctos, U. 
us, and / '. ami ricanus, when we have the habitat marked on each ; but 
the true test of the power of distinguishing the one from the other is to 
determine to what species a skull belongs, of which we have no information 
as to its origin ; and we have several skulls in the British Museum under 
then- circumstances, and I cannot, with the best assistance at my command, 
determine to which species they ought to be referred. And it is the same 
with the Pciradoxuri." " If this is the case with the skulls," he continues, 
" bow must the difficulty of distinguishing species with certainty be increased 
when we have only fossil bones, which are generally more or less imperfect, 
* Anc and Mag. Xat. Hist., 3d Ser., Vol. XV, pp. 130- 139, 1865. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 173 

to examine and compare, or of which only a limited number of example? are 
to be obtained and compared ? They [tin* skullsjvary in most genera much 
more than was expected, before series of the skulls of each species were 
collected and compared." 

These observation- by Dr. Gray arc fully confirmed by my own studies; 
and I hence believe that, as the number of specimens of different species 
increases in our museums, many species now believed to be valid will be 
found to rest merely on individual characters. 

VESPERTILIONID^. 

13. Lasiurus noveboracensis Gray. Red Bat. 
I i no horacensis Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 135, 1717. 

Vespertilio lasiurus Gmel., Syst. Nat., 1788. 
Vespertilio rubellus Pal. de Beaut., Cat. Peale's Mus., 1796. 
? Vespertilio cinereus Pal.de Beauv., Ibid. 
? Vespertilio pruinosus Say, Long's Exped., G7, 1S23. — Rich., Faun. Bor. 

Am., I, 1, 1829. 
Taphozous rufus Harlan, Faun. Amcr.. 23, 1S25. 
Lasiurus* ruf us Gray, List Mam. Brit. Mus., 32, 1842. 
Lasiurus noveboracensis Tomes, Proc. Lond. Zoiil. Soc, 1837, 34. 
? Lasiurus pruinosus Tomes, Ibid, 37. 
Lasiurus noveboracensis II. Allen, Mon. N. Am. Bats, 15, 1SG4. — J. A. Allen, 

Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoiil., I, 207, 1SG9. 
? Lasiurus cinereus II. Allen, Mon. N. Am. Bats, 21. 

Common. All of the several specimens obtained, both by myself 
and Mr. Maynard, are of a deep cherry red, with but a slight skirting 
of ash, and are uniformly much darker or deeper colored than any I 

have seen from the Northern States. All examined (nine specimens) 
were males. 

14. Scotophilus fuscus II. Allen. Carolina Bat. 

Vespertilio fuscus Pal. de Beauv , Car. Peale's Mus., 14, 179G. — LeConte, 

Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., VII, 437, Is.")."). 
Vespertilio carolinensis Geoff St. IIil., Ann. du Mus., VIII, 193, 1806, pi. 

xlvii, rig. 7.— Harlan, North Am. Jour. Geol. & Nat. Sci., I, 218, 1831 — 

LeConte, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., VII, 437. 
I rtibo arcuatus Say, Long's Expcd., 167, 1823. 
I is Raf., Amcr. Month. Mag., 445, 1S18. 

Vespertilio ursinus Temm., Mam., II, 234, 1835. 
- iophilus fuscus II. Allen, Mon. N. Am. Bats, 31, 1SG4. 
Scotophilus carolinensis II. Allen, Ibid., 28. 

Common. Several specimens taken. 



174 BULLETIN OF THE 

1") Scotophilus georgianus II Allen. Georgia Bat. 

Scotophilia georgianus H.Allen, Mon. N. Am. Bats, 33, 1864, nee. si/n. — 
J. A. Allen, Bull. Mus. Com]). Zool., No. 8, 1809. 

This species doubtless occurs in Florida, at least in the northern 
part, since the capture of specimens at different localities in Georgia 
and at New Orleans is on record.* 

16. TsTycticejus crepuseularis H. Allen. 
Vespertilio crepuseularis LeConte, McMurtrie's Cuv. An. King., I, 432, 1831. 

Ibid., Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., VII, 438, 1855. 
Nycticejus crepuseularis 11. Allen, Mon. N. Am. Bats, 12, 1864. 

A specimen collected by Mr. Maynard at Jacksonville, in January, 
but afterwards lost, I refer from his measurements and description of it 
to this species. There is also a specimen (Xo. 7-il) in the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, collected in Florida by Mr. Chas. Belknap. 

17. Corynorhinus inacrotis H.Allen. Big-eared Bat. 

Phcotm macrotis LeConte, McMurtrie's Cuv. An. King., I, 431, 1831. 

Plecotis 1 1 I v< ( Iooper, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., IV, 12, 1837. 

Synotus macrotis II. Allen, Mon. N. Am. Bats, G3, 1864. 

Corynorhinus macrotis II. Allen, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., XVII, 173, Aug. 

A specimen of this species from Micanopy, Florida, collected by Dr. 
Bean, is cited by Dr. Allen | This Southern species ranges northward 
along the coast nearly or quite to the Middle States, it being compara- 
tively common, according to authors, in South Carolina. 

NOCTILIONID^. 

18. Nyctinomus nasutus Tomes. 

Molossus nasutus Spix, Sim. ct Vesp. Bras., 60, pi. xxxv, fig. 7, 1823. 
Nyctinomus nasutus Tomes, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc, 1861, 68. — II. Allen, 
Mon. N Am Bats, 7, 1867. 

This widely distributed southern species should unquestionably he 
included among the mammals of Florida. Tt has been reported from 
Texas, Louisiana, South Carolina, and the West Indie-. $ as well as from 
South America, as far south even as Buenos Ayres.§ Specimens in 

* Dr. II. Allen, Monograph of North American Bats, p. 38. 

t Ibid., p. 55. 

t Ibid., p. 10. 

§ Tomes, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc, 1861, p. 68. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. ' 175 

the Museum of Comparative Zoology from ITayti, collected by Mr. P. R, 
1'lik-r. have been identified by Dr. Harrison Allen as of this species. 

19. Megadermatidse Sp. ? 
A large species of bat was noticed by both Mr. Maynard and my- 
self, but as it always flew very high, neither of us obtained it. It 
was very much larger than any other species yet described from the 
United States, and is doubtless a AVest Indian form ; probably a spe- 
cies of Mefjadermatidee. 

SORECID.E. 

20. Blarina brevicauda Baird. Mole SnfcE-w. 
Sori '■ brevicaudus Say, Long's Expcd , I, 164, 1862-63. 
Soi;ex parvus Say, Ibid., 164. 

Sfirex taipoides Gapper, Zool Journ., V, 20S, pi. viii, 1830. 
Sorex car.olinensis Bach., Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., VII, 366, pi. x.wi, 

tig. 3, 1837. 
Sorex cinereits Bach., Ibid., 373, fig. 3. 
Surex Dekoyi Bach., Ibid., 377, fig. 4. 

rira (Blarina) talpoides Gray, Proc Lend. Zool. Soc, V, 124, 1837. 
Blarina brevicauda Baird, Mam. N. Am., 42, pi. xxx, fig 6, 1 S 3 " . — Allex, 

Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., I, 212. October, 1 -< l. 
Blarina taljmides Baird, Mam. X. Am., 37. pi. xxx, fig 5. 
Blarina carolinensis Baird, Ibid., 45, pi. xxx, fig. 8. 
Blarina cinerea Baird, Ibid., 4S, pi. xxx, tigs. 9 and 10, young. 
Blarina erilipes Baird, Ibid., 51, pi. xxviii, young. 
Blarina Berlandieri Baird, Ibid., 53, pi. xxviii, young. 

A single specimen of Blarina from Indian River, Florida, collected 
by Mr. G. Wurdemann, is mentioned under '•Blarina cinerea" by Pro- 
fessor Baird, as having been received at the Smithsonian Institution.* 
While it may be of a species distinct from B. brevicauda, it seems more 
probable that it is the young of that species, as 1 have elsewhere stated. t 
Sorex cinereus of Bachman,J which Professor Baird cites as a synonyme 
of his Blarina cinerea, Dr. Baehman subsequently regarded as the 
young of his S. carolinensis,^ which is the same as B. talpoides et bre- 
vicauda of* recent writers. 

* North American Mammals, p. 50 

t Bull. Mus. Com. Zool., Vol. I. No. 8, p. 212. 

I Journ. Phil Acad. Nat. Sri.. Vol. VII. 1837, p 373, nl. xxiii, fig. 3. 

^'Quadrupeds vf North America, Vol. Ill, p. 344. 



170 BULLETIN OF THE 

TALPID.E. 

21. Scalops aquaticus Fischer. Shrew Mole. 
Several specimens of this species from Indian River and Jacksonville, 
Florida, are mentioned by Professor Baird in his list of the specimens 
of this species in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, in his 
Report on North American Mammals. Mr. Boardman has also 
informed me that it is not uncommon there. 

SCIURIDJE. 

22. Sciurus niger Linne. Southern Fox Squirrel. 

Sciurus niger JjINNE, Syst. Nat., I, 64, 1758. 
Sciurus vulpinus Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 147, 1788 
Sciurus vulpinus <t syn. Baird, Main. N. Am., 246, 1857. 

Common. Confined chiefly to the pine woods. Extremely variable 
in general color, the variations in this respect ranging from pale 
yellowish gray to black. The specific name niger of Linne is the one 
which has unquestionably the priority, as observed by Professor Baird, 
and its applying only to a single stage of coloration, inasmuch as it is 
a common one, does not seem to be sufficient reason for rejecting it, 
since it is as applicable as any name referring to its color can be, and 
is not likely to seriously mislead.* 

23. Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin. Gray Squirrel. 

Sciurus carolinensis G.mel., Syst. Nat., L, 143, 1788. — Baird, Mam. N. Am., 

256, 1857. 
" Sciurus anereus Schreber, Saugeth., IV, 766, pi. ccxiii, 1792." 
Sciurus niger Godman, Am. Nat. Hist., II, 133, 1826. 
Sciurus leucotis Gapper, Zool. Journ., V, 2(>G, \>\. xxi, 1830. 

Exceedingly abundant, and generally very tame. Two of my party 
shut a dozen one evening in less than half an hour at Ilawkinsville. 
Tiny are considerably smaller than at the North, and also diner some- 
what in color from northern specimens, the gray being more suffused 
with brownish than in the gray northern type. 

The fifty or sixty specimens carefully examined were quite uniform 
in color and generally so in size. The yellowish-brown patch on the 
back usually presenl in the gray type of this species was of greater 
extent and Less distinctly defined than in northern examples. No 

* See Baird, W.rtli American Mammals, p. 218. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



177 



dusky or black varieties were noticed, nor could I learn that they ex- 
isted here. Their voice is not so heavy as that of the northern animal, 
hut in no other respects than in those above mentioned do they differ 
from it. Professor Baird has quite fully described the gradual transi- 
tion from the common gray to the glossy black type of coloration seen 
at the North, where the dark varieties are most common.* 

Measurements of Florida Specimens. 



245.". 
2454 

•j 4.').-; 

2040 
2041 



,2054 
2055 
2056 
2057 
2058 
2059 
20(56 
206" 



206S 



203 ' 

JIM, J 

24J7 * 

351 i 

352 ■ 

221 , 

222 / 

365 " 

366 . 

367 i 

368 ? 

369 J 
37() / 
377 f 
378 

379 • 

380 . 

381 I 
3S2 f 

384 ' 

385 -• 

386 . 

387 ' 

388 ' 

389 -' 

390 ' 

391 ■ 

392 " 

393 ' 

394 • 

395 ' 

396 ' 

397 ' 

398 ' 
3 . i 

4HU ' 



- z o "a 



Hi »0 



Jacksonv'l Jan. 12 CJ.Maynard 20. 

Ki " 18 

12 " 17. 

25 J. A. Allen 19 

25 " 20 

Dummitt's Mar. 16 CJ.Maynard 20. 

'• 18 " lis 

Welaka Feb. 6 J.A.Allen 21. 



Ilawl.iiisv'I Mar. 12 



2.50 

2.40 
.45 



2.4H 
2 42 
2 33 
2 50 
2.45 
2.35 
2.45 
2.30 
2 35 
2.45 
2 50 
2.35 
2.40 
2 35 
2.40 
2.40 
2.38 
2 40 
2.50 
2.40 
2.40 
2.50 
2 411 



9.00 8.00 

9.00 7.75 
8.45 7.50 
9.50 7.:o 

10 50 7.50 
9 50 8 15 
10.20 8 00 
in no 8 25 
10.00 S 75 
lo.i 8.40 

9.1 'i 7.50 
9.15 7 60 

10.15 9.60 
9.50 8 00 
9 25 8.00 
s 25 !».75 
9.25 - 
8.75 7.60 
8.90 7. so 
9 00 7.60 
9.50 6.75 
8.50 8.0U 
9 ii' 3.50 

10 00 8.00 
8.75 8.00 
9.00 8.00 
9.25 7.65 
9 on 7 50 
9.15 7.85 
9.25 8.1 
9.00 7.90 
9. 75 -.15 
9.00 7.7.". 
8.75 7.95 

10.15 7.S5 
8.90 7.35 



I LOO 2.00 



1 .35 
1.45 



1.60 
1.35 



10.45 
10.25 
[0.00 
10.00 
10.50 
10.56 
11.00 - 
11.50 — 

9.00 — 
in on — 

9.85 — 
11.35 — 
in '(■ 1 ;,n 

9.25 l.to 
11 on 1.35 

9.75 1.40 
lo.oo 1.50 
10.60 1.50 
10.00 1.50 

9.00 1.40 

10.00 1.40 

10 75 1.45 
10 50 1.45 
11.00 1.42 
10 25 1.45 
9.75 1.40 
9.50 1.45 
10. 1011.45 
10.75 1.45 
10.50 1.50 
10.25 1.55 

lo.: :. i 40 

9.60 155 
lo.Ti 1.65 
10.10 1.60 



2.45 

2.35 
2 45 



2.56 
2.40 



2.15 
2 23 

2. 'J 2 
2.20 
2.25 
2 05 

2.25 

■i 20 
2.15 

2 jo 

2.:; 7 

2.25 
2.22 
2.30 
2.32 

2.22 

2 LO 

2.40 

2 3( ' 

1 LO 

2.45 

2 15 



* N. Am. Main., p. 259. See further on this point my remarks on this species in 
No. " of the first volume of this Bulletin, already cited. 
VOL. II. 12 



178 BULLETIN OF THE 

24. Geomys pineti Rqfinesque. " Salamander." 
Geomys pinelis Raf., Amer. Month. Mag., II, 45, 1817. 
Pseudosloma Jloriduna Acd. & Bach., Quad. N. Am., Ill, 242, pi. cl, fig. 1, 1853. 

Common, but mainly confined to the drier portions of the pine woods. 
The five specimens collected by me differ very much in size, and 
considerably in color, some of them being plumbeous and others brown- 
ish-plumbeous ; in other words, some are much darker than others. 
The difference in size appears to be mainly due to age. This species 
extends southwards at least as far as Lake Harney, and at some locali- 
ties is particularly numerous, the little hillocks of earth it throws 
up sometimes nearly covering the ground. 

MURIDiE. 
25. Mus decumanus Pallas. Brown Rat. 
Abundant at Jacksonville, but not observed by any of my party on 
the Upper St. John's, nor by Mr. Maynard on Indian River. 

Although no other species of Mus was observed, it is not improba- 
ble that the common mou>e (M. musculus) occurs in the vicinity of the 
towns. It was not found on the Upper St. John's (to which locality it 
probably has not yet extended), where the common house mice are a 
species of Hesperomys, as are also the house mice on Indian River, 
according to Mr. Maynard. Neither was any species of Reithrodon 
obtained. The R. humilis, which occurs in Georgia and South Caro- 
lina, is certainly to be expected in Northern Horida; but it has not 
yet to my knowledge been reported from there. 

26. Hesperomys leucopus Wagner. White-footed Mouse. 

Mus sylvaticus, var. Erxl., Syst. Re?. An., I, 300, 1775. 

Mus leucopus Desm., Mam., II, 307, 1822. — Aud. & Bach., Quad. N. Am., 

I, 300, pi. xlvi, 1849. 
Mus agrarius Godman, Am. Nat. Hist., II, 18:20. 
Mus noveboracensis Selys-Longcii., Etude Micromam., G7, 1839. 
Mus Emmonsii Dekay, Emmon's Rep. Quad. Mass., 01, 1840. 
Cricdus myoides Gapper, Zool. Journ., 1830, 204. 
Hesperomys polionotus Wagner, Wicgm, Arch., 1843, ii, 52. 
f Hesperomys cognatus I.i < 'onte, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., VI, 442, 1852. 
Hesperomys leucopus LeConte, Ibid., 413. — Baird, .Mam. N.Am., 459, 1857. 

— Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1, 227, October, 18G9. 
Hesperomys myoides I5.vir.ii, Main. N. Am., 472. 
Hesperomys indianus Max. zl Wild., Arch, fiir Naturg., XXVIII, i, 1 1 1, 1862. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 179 

A mouse provisionally referred to this species was abundant, espe- 
cially at certain localities. At my first camp, about twenty-five miles 
above Jacksonville (near Hibernia), an Hcsperomys and the wood rat 
(Neotoma fioridand) were excessively numerous. At eveuing they 
began scampering over the leaves, their little footsteps being •heard 
in every direction ; at times they approached so near the camp-fire as 
to be distinctly seen. They ascended the bushes, and could be heard 
on the lower branches of the trees. Some of my party being unac- 
customed to such manifestations of nocturnal life, were at first filled 
with app:"ehension as to the character of their visitors, and could 
scarcely be convinced that the place was not infested with poisonous 
snakes or other dangerous animals. Depending upon my traps for 
specimens, which unfortunately for me the mice avoided, I secured but 
two or three examples of the Hesperomys so abundant here. These, 
with several others obtained by me elsewhere, as also others obtained 
on Indian River by Mr. Maynard, including both young and adult, 
are undistinguishable from the common II. leucopus of the North, the 
young being deep plumbeous. 

I observed at this place a fact in respect to the habits of the Hes- 
peromys I had not previously noticed nor seen pointed out, though it 
was noticed in all the parts of Florida I visited. I refer to its habit of 
cutting off the branches and main stems of the young saplings. I at 
first supposed this work to be that of the wood-boring larvae of some 
coleopterous insect, so nearly did the "pruning" resemble that of the 
so-called " oak-pruners " (Cerambycidoe sp.). A closer examination, 
however, showed that, instead of the twigs being smoothly cut, as by a 
boring insect working from within outwards and severing the bark 
last, the cutting was begun from without, and that a considerable por- 
tion of wood had been gnawed away, both the cut surfaces being 
highest at the middle. Marks of the teeth of these little gnawers 
were also generally clearly distinguishable. No traces of boring by 
insect larvae could be detected near the severed point. The branches 
thus cut are generally of about the size of one's finger, and are usually 
the main stem of a young sapling. Various species of trees are thus- 
mutilated ; but as they are usually destitute of fruit, the purpose of 
these animals in this work is not apparent. It is a habit that may be 
common to the Hespi >mys of the North, but I have never seen it 
referred to. These little animals being a hundred-fold more numerous 



180 BULLETIN OF THE 

in East Florida than they generally are in the Northern States, their 
work would here be of course much more noticeable. 

27. Hesperomys auroolus Wagner. Golden Mouse. 

Afcieola Nutta/li Harlan, Month. Amer. Journ. Gcol &. Nat. Sri., I, 440, 
1342. — Iisid., Med. & Plus. Researches, 55, pi. , 1835. 

Mus (Calomys) aareolus Aud. & Bach., Jouin. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., VIII, 
302, 1842. — Aud. & Bach., Quad. N. Am., II, 305, pi. xcv, 1851. 

Hesperomys aureolas Wagner, Wieg. Archiv, 1 S43, ii, 51. 

Hesperomys Nuttalli Baird, .Mam. N. Am., 467, 1857. 

A single specimen which I refer to this so-called species was obtained 
by Mr. Maynard at Dummitt's. While this example is of the size and gen- 
eral proportions of H. It ucopus, it is markedly different in color, being of a 
bright golden yellow above, which color reaches on the outside of the legs 
to the feet : the under surface has also a yellowish wash. It also differs in 
the texture of its fur, which is remarkably soft and fine. It is a little lighter 
colored than Audubon and Bachman's description and figure of //. am i olus 
represent that animal to be, but the distribution of the colors is the same, 
the specimen in question being not orange, but bright yellowish-cinnamon. 
It is, however, much nearer this than to Dr. Harlan's Arvicola Nuttalli. 
The latter does not differ very appreciably, judging from Dv. Harlan's 
very unsatisfactory description and his wretched figure of it, which 
was evidently made from a badly stuffed skin. Mr. Maynard believes 
the specimen referred to above to be a young animal, and states that it 
was so regarded by the people in whose house it was caught. He further 
informs me that he captured another of the same color, but very much 
larger, which was lost. This he regards as merely the adult of the same 
species. His measurements show the latter to have agreed in size and 
proportions with the so-called H. gassy pinus. The texture of the fur <4' 
the small specimen above referred to agrees with that of the plumbeous, 
immature stage of //. leucopus. This form, whether a valid species or 
not,* is now known to occur in Southeastern Pennsylvania, Southern 
Illinois, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Missouri, and at several intermediate 
points. 

28. Hesperomys gossypinus LeConte. Cotton Mouse. 

Hesperomys gossypinus LeConte, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sei., VI, 411, 1853, 
— Baird, Mam. N. Am., 469, 1857. 

* This and the following species arc only provisionally adopt See a previous 
number of this Bulletin (Vol. I., No. 8, p. 227) for a fuller expression of my \ 
to the number of North American species of this group, and their mutual affinities. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 181 

Several specimens were obtained, corresponding in size and color 
with what LeConte and Baird have described under this name. It is 
apparently common. As I have previously stated elsewhere,* these Flor- 
ida specimens have well-developed cheek-pouches. 

The specimens in question arc rather larger than any examples of 77. 
leucopus I have seen from the Northern States, they agreeing very well in 
measurements with the two specimens cited by Professor Baird. j The 
large size of these specimens, conjoined -with their southern habitat, would 
seem at first to clearly indicate their being distinct from II. leucopus, as 
they are at least one third larger than the average size of the latter at the 
North. Professor Baird in speaking of this species observes : " There is 
every reason to consider this mouse as specifically distinct from II. leuco- 
pus of the North; although skins, when much stretched (as Nos. 1105, 
1112. from Middleboro', Massachusetts), of the latter, may measure as 
much as those recorded here, yet they are certainly actually smaller, as 
shown by the feet, which never attain anything of the length of .45 for the 
anterior and .90 for the posterior." But he is " hardly satisfied," he adds, 
" that this animal is different from the smaller 27. leucopus, as the differ- 
ence in size is no greater than is to be seen in a series of Hesperomys from 
more northern localities. The tail is duskier beneath than in 77. cognatus, 
and the sides more rusty ; otherwise I can realize only the larger size. 
Should both [77. cognatus and II. gossypinus'] prove to be the same, the 
name 77. gossypinus must of course take precedence."' 

As already observed, the prevailing form of the Hesperomys of East 
Florida is not essentially different from a large proportion of the 77. 
leucopus of the North, either in measurements, proportions, or color, 
although it is unmistakably referable to the so-called 77. cognatus, which 
has been supposed to replace in the Southern Atlantic and Gulf States the 
77. leucopus of the nmre northern ones. If, as I have elsewhere suggested 
(Joe. cit.), as Professor Baird admits may be, and as the facts seem to indi- 
cate, 77. gossypinus is inseparable from 77. cognatus, and the latter being 
most unquestionably referable to II. leucopus, it would seem that 77. gos- 
sypinus must also be referred to the II. leucopus. 

Respecting the variations in this species and the affinities of the 77. 
gossypinus, Audubon and Bachman observe as follows: " That a species so 
widely distributed and subject to so many variations in size, length of 
tail, and color, should have been often described under different names is 
not surprising. We have ourselves often been in a state of doubt on 
obtaining some striking variety. The name Hypudccus gossypinus of our 

* Bulletin Mus. Comp. Zobl., Vol. I, No. 8, p. 229, 1869. 
t Mam. X. Am., p. 469. 



182 BULLETIN OF THE 

friend Major LeConte (sec Appendix to McMurtrie's translation of Cuv. 
An. Kingd., Vol. I, p. 431) was intended for this species, as it is found in 
the Southern States. We were for several years disposed to regard it as 
distinct, and have, not without much hesitation, and after an examination 
of many hundred specimens, been induced to set it down as a variety 
only." These authors also remark that they are considerably larger in 
the Carolines than in the Eastern States.* 

29. Hesperomys palustris Wagner. Rice-field Mouse. 

Mvspalustris Harlan, Am. Journ. Sci., XXXI, 386, 1837. 

" Hesperomys palustris Wagner, Supplem. Schreb. Saugeth., Ill, 543, 1843." 

Hesperomys {Oryzomys) palustris Baird, Mam N Am:, 482, 1857. 

Arvicola oryzvtora Aud. & Bach., Quad. N. Am., Ill, 214, pi. cxliv, fig. 3, 1857. 

No specimens of this species were obtained by either Mr. Maynard 
or myself. Its habitat is usually given as South Carolina and Georgia, 
but Audubon and Bach man state : " The late Dr. Leitner brought us a 
specimen obtained in the Everglades of Florida." | It in all probabil- 
ity occurs also in East Florida. The above-mentioned authors give it as 
somewhat common in the salt-marshes near Savannah and Charleston. 
Professor Baird has received it from Columbus and St. Simon's Island, 
Georgia, and Society Hill, South Carolina. 

"0. Neotoma floridana Say <j- 0>d. Wood Rat. 

Mas floridanus Ord, Lull. Soc. Plnlom., 1818, 181. — Say, Long's Exped., 

I, 54, 1823. 
Arvicola Jlondana Harlan, Faun. Amer., 141, 1825. 
Neotoma floridana Say & Ord, Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., IV, ii, 352, 

1825.— Baird, Mam. N. Am., 487, 1857. 

I found this species very abundant on the Lower St. John's, espe- 
cially around Jacksonville and Hihernia, but I did not meet with it 
above Lake George. The old residents about Ilawkinsville seemed 
•wholly unacquainted with it. Mr. Maynard also failed to meet with it 
on Indian River. It hence appears probable that it may not occur 
very frequently in the southern part of the peninsula. Professor Baird, 
however, lias recorded a specimen from "Indian River, Fla.," collected 
by Dr. Wurdemann. 

The present usual northward range of this species does not appear 
to extend beyond North Carolina ; but Professor Baird, writing in 1837, X 

* Quad. N. Amer., Vol. I, pp. 301, 305. \ Mum. X. Am., p. 489. 

t Ibid., Vol. Ill, p. 216. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 183 

remarks : " A few specimens of unusually large size were captured 
some years ago by J. G. Bell, near Piermont, on the Hudson River, 
but I have not heard of any in intermediate localities [New York and 
Society Hill, South Carolina]." Mi-. George Gibbes states that he 
"caught a specimen, many years ago, in Massachusetts."* Audu- 
bon ami Bachman remark that specimens of it have been obtained in 
North Carolina, and that they had "observed a few nests in the valleys 
of the Virginia mountains," and that they had " somewhere heard it 
stated that one or two had been captured as far to the north as Mary- 
land." f 

31. Sigmodon hispidus Say $• Ord. Cotton Eat. 
Arvicola hispidus Godman, Am. Nat. Hist., II, 68, 1826. 
Arvicola hortensts Harlan, Faun. Am., 138, 1825. 
Arvicola ferrugineus Harlan*, Am. Journ. Sci., X, 285, 1826. 
Sigmodon hispidum Say & Ord, Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., IV, ii, 354, pi. x, 

figs. 5-8, 1825. — Baird, N. Am. Mam., 503, 1857. 
Sigmodon Berlandien Baird, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., VII, 333, 1855. 

Ibid., N. Am. Mam., 50-1. 

Abundant throughout the country along the St. John's River, 
and also on Indian River, whence Mr. Maynard brought fifteen speci- 
mens. They are quite a pest to the farmers, who often successfully 
resort to poison to reduce their numbers. By scattering grain poi- 
soned with strychnine about their fields they are able to destroy hun- 
dreds with slight trouble. Different specimens vary considerably in 
color, from gray through yellowish-brown to rufous. The so-called 
Sigmodon Berlandieri, from Texas and New Mexico, seems undistin- 
guishable from S. hispidus. 

In its general economy, the cotton rat represents the Arvicola? of the 
North, especially A. riparius. 

Concerning .S\ Berlandieri, Professor Baird remarks : " This species is 
readily distinguishable from .S'. Imp'ulus by the much lighter color above, 
where it is grayish-yellow brown instead of distinct reddish-brown ; the 
tail is considerably longer and covered by finer annuli. The toes are 
shorter, and the metatarsus shorter, while the feet are nearly the same 
length. The claws, however, are much weaker." The tail in this species 
is said to be " equal to or longer than the trunk " ; the " color above gray- 
ish-yellow brown, lined with black "; while 5. hispidus is said to have the 

* Xat. Hist. Wash. Terr., Zool., p. 12S, 1SG0. 
t Quad. X. Am., Vol. I, p. 36. 



1S4 BULLETIN OF THE 

tail " less than the trunk," and "the color above reddish brown, lined with 
very dark brown." The specimens from Florida examined by me are 
mainly of the gray type, and hence like S. Berlandieri, but some were de- 
cidedly rufous, or like S. hispidus. In "Mammals of North America,' 
measurements of specimens of the so-called X. Berlandieri are given, and 
of" twelve of S. hispidus. In the latter the length of the tail to the length 
of the trunk is as 69 to 100 ; in the former (.S'. Berlandieri) as G3 to 100 ! 
It hence appears from Professor Baird's own measurements that the X. 
Berlandieri is far from having the tail relatively the longer. The other 
distinctions are based on too few specimens to have much value, since indi- 
vidual variations of the same character are common. 

32. Arvicola pinetorum LeConte. Pine Mouse. 

Psammomys pinetorum. LeCoxte, Ann. N. Y. Lyceum Nat. Hist., Ill, 132, pi. ii, 

1820. 
Arvicola scalopsoides Add. & Bach., Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., VIII, 299, 

1 842. 
Arvicola pinetorum. Aud. & Bach., Quad. N. Am., II, 216, pi. lxxx, 1851. 
Arvicola [Pitymys) pinetorum Baird, N. Am. Mam., 544, 1857. 
Included on the authority of Audubon and Bachman, who state that 
they had received it from Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia. 
Professor Baird also cites specimens from Georgia and Louisiana. 
This is the most southern of the Arvicolce, and the only one, except 
A. austerus, whose habitat includes the Gulf States. 

LEPORIDJE. 

33. Lepus sylvaticus Bach. Gray Rabbit. 
Lepus amcricanus Desm., Mam., II, 351, 1822. — ILuilan, Faun. Amer., 193, 

L825. 
Lcjhi* sylvaticus Bach., Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., VII, 1837. — Waterh., 

Nat. Hist. Mam., II, 116, 1S48.— Aun. & Bach., Quad. N. Am., I, 173, 

pi. xxii, 1849. — Baird, Mam. N. Am., 597, 1857. 

Abundant. Mr. Maynard obtained a specimen but a few weeks old, 
at Dummitt's, as early as the lGth of February 

34. Lepus palustris Bachman. Marsh Rabbit. 
Lepus palustris Ba< ii , Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., VII, 194, 336, pi. xv, xvi, 
1837; Ibid., VIII, 79, 1 8 39. — Aun. & Bach., Quad. N. Am., I, 151, 
pi. xviii, 1849. — I5.\iki>, Mam. X. Am., 615, ls.">7. — Coues, Proc. Bust. 
Sue. Nat. [list., XIII, 86, 1869. 
Common, especially on the Lower St. John's.* 

my <>f this species a paper by Dr. Elliott Coues, Proceed. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. lli^t., Vol. XIII, pp. tO - 101, June, 1669. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 185 

DIDELPHIDJE. 

35. Didelphys virginiana Shaw. Opossum. 

Didelphys viryiniana Shaw, Gen.Zo.il., I, 473, pi. cvii, 1800. — Desmar est, 
Harlan, Temjiinck, Waterhouse, Baird, and most other authors. 

? " Didelphys marsupialis Schreb., Saugeth., Ill, pi. cxlv, 1778." 

Didelphys califomica Bennett, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc, I, 40, 1833. — Also 
Wagxer, Waterhouse, Aid. & Bach, (from Bennett). — Baird, Mam. 
N. Am., 233, 1857. — Baird, U. S. & Mex. Bound. Surv. Rep., II, Zool., 
32, 1859. 

Didelphys breviceps Bennett, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc, I, 40, 1833. — Water- 
house, Nat. Hist. .Mam , I, 477, 1846 (from Bennett '<.). — Aid. & Bai ii., 
Quad. X. Am.; Ill, 330, 1S51 (from Bennett). 

Didelphys pruinosus Wagner, Wiegmann's Archiv, 1842, 358. — Water- 
house, Nat. Hist. Mam., I, 477, 1846, (from Wagner). 

Abundant. 

This species is quite variable in its color-markings, and remarkably so 
in many other features, especially in the length and size of the nose, and 
in the size and proportions of the skull, even in specimens from the same 
locality.* Slight and quite inconstant differences also occur between ex- 
amples from the Southern States, Texas, Mexico, and California. It 
would, in fact, be quite unusual if specimens of any species ranging so 
widely should not be found to differ somewhat at localities so widely sepa- 
rated. Two supposed species of North American Didelphys described 
by Mr. Bennett, as cited above, have been quoted by numerous other 
authors, and by them currently adopted, without apparently an exam- 
ination of their merits. Professor Baird. rejecting one of them, has en- 
deavored to separate the opossums occurring west of the Mississippi valley 
from those living farther eastward, designating the western one as D. cali- 
fomica. The distinctions claimed are somewhat similar to those urged as 
distinguishing the so-called Procyon Hernandezii of the western half of 
the continent from the /'. hilar of the Atlantic States. They are equally 
slight and unsatisfactory, and at most mark but a geographical race, so 
intimately allied to and intergrading with the better-known eastern form 
that the point at which the one supplants the other is thus far undeter- 
mined. The Didelphys breviceps of Bennett was founded on a single 
specimen from California, which differed from the so-called D. califomica 
only in having a relatively shorter head. 

* Since writing the above I have been incidentally informed by Dr. Cones that, in 
preparing his memoir on the anatomy of Didelphys viryiniana (now publishing in the 
Mem. of the Bost. Sue. Nat. Ili-t., Vol. 11, l't. I), he had occasion to examine a large 
number of specimen-, ami that he found the variation in size and proportions to 
amount to nearly twenty per cent. 



186 BULLETIN OF THE 



Part III. 

On Individual and Geographical Variation among Birds, considered 

in respect to its bearing upon the J'alue of certain assumed Specific 

Ch evaders. 

A systematic investigation of the extent and character of individual 
variation in birds seems not to have hitherto been attempted; in fact, 
few collections exist that furnish the material necessary to such a 
work. In occasional instances considerable differences between indi- 
viduals of the same species, other than those that result from age and 
sex, have, however, already been pointed out, but these instances seem 
to have been generally, but improperly, regarded as exceptional cases. 

The collection of birds in the Museum of Comparative Zoology now 
offers unusual facilities for a general investigation of this subject, most 
of the common species of Eastern North America being each repre- 
sented by fifty to one hundred and fifty or more specimens. The 
greater part of them having been collected in Southern New England, 
and a large proportion in Eastern Massachusetts, they are the more 
valuable for this purpose, from their having been collected essentially 
from the same locality. The examination of this material has disclosed 
a hitherto unsuspected range of purely individual differentiation in 
every species thus far studied. At the same time regard has been 
had to the more obscure seasonal variations in color, and to the gen- 
eral differences that dfpend upon age, including such as result from 
senility as well as from immaturity. Local or geographical variations 
have likewise been carefully considered, with results that a short time 
since were unsuspected. These several lines of investigation have 
shown that in many instances what have been regarded as reliable char- 
acteristics of species have in not a few eases really little or no value; 
that the importance of many diagnostic features has been too highly 
estimated, and that consequently a careful revision of our published 
fauna' will be necessary for the elimination of the merely nominal 
species. In the following pages many of the data which have led to 
these conclusions will be presented. 

Individual variation not only affects color and size, but the propor- 
tions of different part-, as the relative size ami form of the wings, tail, 
bill, toes, and tarsi, including the skeleton as well as the external organs; 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 187 

of the soft parts no account can as yet be given. Geographical varia- 
tion has an equally universal range, but is most strikingly exhibited in 
the color, in size, and in the form of the bill. Individual variation will 
be first considered, and subsequently geographical variation. In each 
case each prominent phase of variation will be more or less fully de- 
scribed. 

1. Individual Variation. 

Individual Variation in Color. — In birds of whatever age, two lines 
of variation from the average or medium type of coloration are readily 
distinguishable, the variation depending essentially on differences in the 
depth or intensity of the general tint. On the one hand, individual 
variation in color results from a greater than the average amount of 
coloring matter in the integuments ; on the other hand, from an amount 
less thau the average amount. The difference in this respect between 
the extremes of a series of fifty or one hundred specimens of any spe- 
cies, collected in course at a single locality, and nearly at the same 
season of the year, is often as great as occurs between truly distinct 
species. But the difference is here solely one of intensity of color, 
while in allied species there is almost always an appreciable variation 
in the style of coloration. In individual variation the differences usually 
extend alike to all parts of the integuments ; that is, if the plumage 
of the upper surface of the body is brighter or paler than usual, 
the same difference extends to the plumage of the lower surface of the 
body, and also to the bill and the feet. This is noticeable not only in 
species that have the color in uniform masses, differing in tint on differ- 
ent regions of the body, as in the robin (Tardus migratoriw), the blue- 
bird (Sialiasialis), the Maryland yellow-throat (Geotlth/pis trichas), the 
mocking-bird (Mimus polyglotti/s), and species generally of that type 
of coloration, but also in spotted bird*, as in the various spotted species 
of Fringillidce, Tardus, Dendrozca, etc., where the plumage on certain 
regions of the body is marked with numerous streaks and .-pots differing 
from the ground color, in which case the intensity of the color of the 
markings correllates in its variations with that of the ground color. 
Closely allied species, on the contrary, usually vary more or less, 
not only in respect to the ground color, but also to a greater or less 
degree in the style of the markings. In illustration of this point the 
familiar group of the small, spotted-breasted wood-thru -lies of Eastern 



188 BULLETIN OF THE 

North America — the group Hylocichla of Professor Baird — may be 
taken. Three of these species {Tardus fuscescens, T. Swainsoni, and 
T. Pallasi) are so closely related that for many years they were vari- 
ously confounded with each other by almost all who wrote of them, 
one of them not being clearly recognized as distinct from the others till 
thus established by Dr. T. M. Brewer,* in 184 1, and also at about the 
same time by Mr. J. P. Giraud.f each apparently independently of the 
other. Yet they are so distinct that there seems to be not the slightest 
excuse for again confounding them. While they all agree so closely in 
general size, in form, and in proportions, that a series of detailed meas- 
urements of many specimens of each species gives in the average no 
constant differences in any of these particulars, each differs from the 
other radically and constantly in style of coloration, and somewhat in 
general tints, in habitat, nidification, habits and song. Two of these 
species (T. fuscescens and T. Swainsoni) agree in the style of the colora- 
tion of the dorsal surface, but differ so much in the color of this part, that 
this character alone is always sufficient to separate them, while a still 
wider difference is seen in the color and markings of the ventral surface, 
a glance at this part of T. fuscescens being sufficient to invariably dis- 
tinguish it from either of its above-named allies. The third species (T. 
Pallasi) differs markedly from both the other two in the style of color- 
ation of the dorsal surface, the rump and tail being conspicuously dif- 
ferent in color from the anterior part of the body, whilst the others 
exhibit no contrast of color between these regions. But the under sur- 
face of T. Swainsoni is so like that of T. Pallasi that frequently speci- 
mens cannot readily be referred to the one species rather than to the 
other from a view of this surface alone. This group serves as a fair 
general illustration of the kind of variation in color usually seen in 
closely allied species, but there occur occasional exceptions, where a 
difference in the relative proportions of different parts, or a wide differ- 
ence in size, is the prominent specific distinction, the smaller species, so 
far as color is concerned, being a diminutive representative of the larger. 
Taking the present group of Hylocichla (for reasons that will appear 
hereafter]) as a group illustrative also of individual variation, it is found 
that the differences in color in different individuals of either species 

* Proc. Boston Soc. Nat Hist, Vol. I, p. 191, July, 1844. 

t Bird of Long 1 land, p. 91, 1843-44. 

X See the remarks on these species in Tart IV. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 189 

results from the amount of rufous pervading the plumage. Individuals 
of Tardus Swainsoni of the rufous or bright-colored type have the dorsal 
surface of a uniform brownish-olivaceous tint, and the sides of the head 
and breast strongly suffused with yellowish-brown, which tint is also 
traceable throughout the lower plumage, in the brighter color of the 
basal brownish band on the inside of the wing-, and in the color of the 
mouth and base of the bill. In other individuals the upper plumage 
is of a dark olivaceous tint, without any trace of brownish, the sides 
of the head, neck, and breast being ashen, with often no appreciable 
tinge of ferruginous ; specimens of this type thus differing widely in 
general aspect from those of the other. Between these extremes, of 
which examples are not unfrequent, nor confined to any particular 
locality or season of the year, there is every degree of intergradation, 
specimens intermediate between the two being by far the most fre- 
quent, and constituting the average or common form. 

Turdus Pallasi and Tv.rdus fuscescens present precisely similar vari- 
ations. They are also seen in Turdus mustelinus, in Turdus migrato- 
rius, in Siulia sialis, in Seiurus noveboracensi's, in many species of Dcn- 
drceca, sparrows, and other species which I have especially investigated 
in reference to this point, embracing examples of all the leading families 
of birds. The ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), as is well known, 
varies in the color of the upper parts from reddish-brown to gray ; the 
great horned owl (Bubo rirginianus) from dusky through numerous 
shades of rufous and fulvous to nearly white, the fulvous suffusion so 
commonly present in this species varying from ferruginous on the one 
extreme to its complete obsolescence on the other. In such common 
and thoroughly known species as the robin, blue-bird, etc., the true 
character of these variations is recognized, but in groups where the 
species are not well known, and especially in specimens from partially 
explored regions, they are frequently regarded as of specific value, and 
the addition of numerous nominal species is the result. 

Besides the variation in the depth of color already noticed, birds hav- 
ing the plumage varied with streaks and spots differ exceedingly in 
different individuals of the same species in respect to the size, shape, and 
number of these marks, and in the general aspect of the plumage result- 
ing from such variations. Generally, as already stated, such differences 
correllate with the variations in the intensity of the ground color, the 
darker or more deeply colored birds being usually those with the mark- 



100 BULLETIN OF THE 

ings largest and brightest. A wide range of variation in this respect is 
seen in all birds which have the breast and lower plumage marked with 
dark streaks and spots on a lighter ground, or that have the whole plu- 
mage streaked. In the common song sparrow (Mcluspiza melodia), the 
fox-colored sparrow (Passerella iliaca), the swamp sparrow {Mclospiza 
palustris), the black and white creeper (Mniotilta varia), the water wag- 
tail (Seiurus noveboracensis), in Tardus fuscescens and its allies, etc., 
the difference in the size of the streaks is often very considerable. In 
the song sparrow they vary to such an extent that in some cases* they 
are reduced to narrow lines ; in others so enlarged as to cover the 
greater part of the breast and sides of the body, sometimes uniting on 
the middle of the breast into a nearly continuous patch. Variation in 
this respect is equally great in the fox-colored sparrow and in the grass 
finch (Pooccetes gramineus). Massachusetts specimens of the savanna 
sparrow {Passerculus savanna auct.) also present variations exactly par- 
allel with those of the song sparrow. Yet these differences, with other 
variations to be hereafter mentioned,! have been regarded, as in the 
case of Passerculus savanna, as of specific value. Similar variations in 
the Ilijlocichla group are very marked, as in Turdus (Hylociclda) fus- 
cescens especially. In some specimens of this species the colors are on 
all parts not only very pale, but the markings on the breast are reduced 
to indistinct narrow lines ; in others, in which the general color of the 
plumage is darker, the markings on the breast are dark, broad, and 
triangular. Two specimens taken in Cambridge the same day (early 
in May), both of which are males, exhibit these extremes. Average 
male specimens of the black and white creeper (Mniotilta varia), in 
which the plumage is varied with longitudinal black and white streaks, 
have the black streaks about a third broader than the white ones ; 
but other specimens occur in which the white ones are equal to and 
even broader than the black ones ; others have the black streaks so 
much broader than they usually are, — the white ones of course being 
proportionally reduced, — that the general aspect of the plumage at a 
short distance is nearly black. The difference between these two 
extremes is strikingly great. Yet similar variations, scarcely less in 
degree, occur in nearly all of the striped-breasted warblers. 

In birds which have 'lie ground color of certain areas of the body 

* Perfectly mature specimens only are here referred to. 
| See the remarks on the genus Passerculus in Part IV. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 191 

black spotted with white, as in some of the woodpeckers (Picus villosus 
and P. pubescens, for example), the white markings vary in size most 
notably, and sometimes in number. The wliite markings so common 
on the wings and tails of birds, as the bars formed by the white tips of 
the greater wing coverts, the wliite patch occasionally present at the 
base of the primary quills, or the white band crossing them, and the 
white patch near the end of the outer tail feathers, are also extremely 
liable to variation in respect to their extent and the number of feathers 
to which, in the same species, these markings extend. Variation in the 
tail markings is particularly common, as may be seen by comparing 
numerous specimens of almost any species of Dendrceca, Junco, Pipilo, 
of Mimus polyglottus, Chordeiles popetue, etc. In the latter species the 
white patch on the wing does not ordinarily encroach upon the outer 
vane of the first primary, and rarely upon its shaft, but in several spe- 
cimens before me it covers not only the shaft of the first primary, but 
extends completely across its outer vane ! The black subterminal bar 
on the upper surface of the tail of the ruflfed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) 
ordinarily crosses all but the middle pair of feathers, on which there is 
usually no trace of this bar; in many specimens, however, it is barely 
traceable on them, and in others it is as distinct and perfect on the 
middle pair as on the others.* 

The Parula americana presents also remarkable examples of indi- 
vidual color variation. The colors of the males are usually much 
brighter than those of the females, but cases are frequent where the sex 
cannot" be determined by the color of the plumage. Adult males also 
vary greatly in the style of coloration. They are generally bright 
yellow anteriorly below, with a broad band of dusky reddish-brown 
across the breast, varying in tint from nearly pure chestnut to dusky 
reddish-brown, and even black, and also greatly in extent. In some, 
however, this band is partially obsolete, in which case the whole plu- 
mage is generally paler than in average specimens. More rarely large, 
brightly colored males are taken, even in New England, with the whole 
breast bright yellow, the brownish pectoral band being entirely absent. 
This condition, however, seems to be more frequent in specimens of 
Parula collected in Mexico, and Central and Northern South America, 
which on this account have been regarded as distinct from the Parula 
of the North ; yet all the conditions of color seen in specimens from 

* See remarks on color variations in other species in Part IV. 



192 BULLETIN OF THE 

the North are also common to those from the South, and vice 
versa. 

In species in which the (Vmale usually differs from the male in being 
paler colored, the' pattern of coloration being the same in both sexes, 
females occur more or less frequently which arc as brightly colored as 
the brightest males, and males that are paler than the generality of the 
females. 

Variation in Color depending on Season. — A word in this connection 
seems necessary concerning some of the more obscure variations de- 
pending upon season and age, since it is sometimes difficult to avoid 
confounding these differences with those resulting from individual vari- 
ation. In many species there is a marked change in the color of the 
plumage without a change of the plumage itself. No experienced col- 
lector can have failed to notice the much brighter and livelier tints 
the plumage of mo?t song birds presents immediately after the autum- 
nal moult, in species in which there is no marked seasonal change 
of color, in comparison with the faded appearance they exhibit to- 
wards the close of the breeding season. This brighter autumnal tint 
is particularly marked in the Vireos, the different species of Em- 
pidonax, Sayomis, Contopus, and in some of the Sylvicolidee, and 
is clearly traceable in hundreds of other species. But almost as 
great a difference is seen when specimens of any species taken in 
spring, on its first arrival at its breeding station, are compared with 
those collected several weeks later, or just before the autumnal renewal 
of the plumage. In this case the variation results in part from an ac- 
tual lading of the color, and in part from the wearing of the edges of 
the feathers. Seasonal differences of this character are often only read- 
ily appreciable to the experienced eye, and the failure to recognize 
the cause of these differences has led in many instances to their being 
regarded as of specific value. Especially noteworthy instances of such 
mistakes will be noticed later. Collectors, and even naturalists, gen- 
erally place little value on failed or dull-colored specimens, so that or- 
dinarily in collections of our native birds only fine-looking specimens 
are preserved. But travellers and explorer- of new localities are often 
compelled to content themselves with any representative they may be 
able to get, so that the " closet " or exclusively "museum naturalist" 
has not usually the material necessary to furnish him with a clew to the 
cause of these variations. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 193 

Generally, aside from the paler tints of late-collected birds, as com- 
pared with those taken early in the season, there is a total absence of 
the grayish, yellowish, brownish, or rufous suffusions (the particular 
tint varying of course in different species) that tinges the feathers early 
in the season. The general aspect of the plumage at the two pe- 
riods in question is thus essentially different. The common chickadee 
(Parus atricapillus) will illustrate this point, in which the brownish 
tint so conspicuous on the lateral portions of the ventral plumage in au- 
tumn and winter is gradually lost as spring approaches, and in summer 
is almost entirely wanting, especially in nesting females, which at this 
season have the plumage generally much more worn than the males. 
The savanna sparrow will also illustrate the differences resulting simply 
from the fading of the color during the breeding season. In spring 
both sexes have a greenish-yellow, superciliary stripe, varying more or 
less in intensity in different specimens, but rarely or never of the pale 
soiled-whitish so frequently met with late in the breeding season. In 
the large series of specimens before me collected at that season in Mas- 
sachusetts, few if any have this stripe so bright as average spring spe- 
cimens have it, in many it having faded to soiled white. Scores of sim- 
ilar cases might be cited, but the above are sufficient for illustration. 

Variations in Color depending upon Age. — So well known are many 
of the variations depending upon age, that it seems necessary to advert 
to only a few of the lesser known phases. In many species there is no 
marked difference between old and young birds, after the moulting of 
the first or nestling plumage, which usually occurs in the oscine groups 
in a few weeks after they leave the nest. But even in these, in many 
cases, sufficient marks of immaturity remain for a time to enable any 
one acquainted with such features to recognize birds of one or two years 
of age from those that are older. Yearling birds of this group are often 
recognizable by their having more or less well-defined bars across the 
wings, formed of light-colored, hastate, or drop-shaped spots on the ends 
of the greater wing-coverts and inner secondaries, which in many 
genera are peculiar to yearling birds, though in other respects, so far as 
the plumage is concerned, they are not distinguishable from adults, — 
a difference which in some instances has been considered specific. 
Similar marks are also seen in older birds, in species that do not obtain 
their adult colors till later in life. 



194 BULLETIN OF THE 

Yearling and two-year-old birds are also often distinguishable from 
older ones by the presence, after the spring moult, of a greater than the 
ordinary amount of ferruginous, ashy, or yellowish edging to t lie feath- 
ers, such as is often seen in the winter plumage of adult birds. In 
some eases such a bordering to the clothing feathers, especially those 
of the back, is often strictly distinctive of young birds, and is, more- 
over, a feature of common occurrence. 

Generally speaking, several years elapse before the purity of the 
colors and the definiteness of outline of the markings characteristic of 
maturity is fully obtained, especially in highly colored species. In 
birds of variegated colors the contrasts of color become for a time more 
and more decided with each moult, and the markings better and better 
defined, especially in respect to the white bars of the wings and the 
spots on the tail common to a large number of species. The latter 
markings usually gradually increase in extent for a considerable period. 
A good illustration of this is seen in many of the gulls, particularly in 
the genus Larus. In L. argentatus the following gradual change with 
age occurs in the white markings on the tips of the primaries. At first, 
as ornithologists are aware, the plumage of this species is uniformly 
dusky, the adult colors not being acquired before the second year, and 
apparently frequently not before the third, there being in the breeding 
season usually a large proportion of individuals in the brown plumage.* 
But there are wide ditferences in the intensity of the color in different 
individuals in this stage of plumage, some being but slightly du>ky and 
others extremely dark, — differences that probably result mainly from 
differences in age, the darker birds being probably yearling birds and the 
lighter ones two years old, though part of the difference is doubtless due 
to individual differentiation. In this stage the wings and tail are of 
nearly the same uniform dusky tint as the general plumage. In what 
may be considered as the second stage, the general color is somewhat 
lighter, the tail much lighter, and the primaries much darker, with a 
distinct paler apical margin. At a third stage the tail becomes white, 
the dorsal plumage begins to assume the blue tint characteristic of ma- 
turity, the primaries change from dull blackish brown to black, and a 
small white spot appears near the end of the inner vane of the first 

* Generally the largo parties that spend the summer on the coast of Massachusetts, 
where none of these birds now breed, consist almost wholly of birds in the brown stage 
of plumage. See American Naturalist, Vol. Ill, p. 640, 1870. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 195 

primary, separated from the -white at the extreme tip by a broad space 
of black. A subsequent gradual increase occurs in the purity of the 
colors and in the extent and form of the wing markings. The complete 
series of the changes in the latter is as fullows : At first, as previously 
remarked, the primaries are dull brownish black, a little darker than the 
general plumage, with their extreme apical margins lighter. At the 
next stage the three inner primaries have become much lighter, and 
the light border to all broader and whiter. Later the three inner pri- 
maries and the distal portions of most of the others become wholly ashy 
white, and the outer portion of the other primaries much blacker. The 
subapical dark portion of the wing now embraces only the seven outer 
primaries, and is of a triangular form, the first primary forming the base 
of the triangle. The black on the outer vane of the first primary 
reaches nearly to the base of the outer vane of the second, and is more 
and more restricted on the others, till on the sixth (or, more rarely, on 
the seventh) it forms only a narrow bar near the tip. In other words, the 
black, if present on the seventh primary, exists as a narrow transverse 
subapical bar, which bar increases in distal extension on the sixth, 
fifth, fourth, third, and second, to the first, and embraces the whole 
outer vane of the first primary. The basal outline of the black 
area being an oblique one, a much larger portion of the outer than of 
the inner vane of each feather is embraced in the black space. All the 
primaries are now terminated with a narrow white border, the first pri- 
mary having also an oval white spot on the inner vane, near the end of 
the feather. Subsequently this spot enlarges so as to embrace a part of 
both vanes, the white at the tip of the feather also meantime increasing 
somewhat in extent, and the two being separated by a broad bar of black. 
Coincident with this increase in the amount of white on the first primary, 
a small white spot appears on the inner vane of the second primary. 
Subsequent increase in the extent of these white markings goes on until 
the white area on the second primary extends to both vanes, and the 
two white spots on the first primary are separated by only a narrow 
bar of black. Later still this bar becomes broken, through the partial 
union of the two white' spots, and finally becomes entirely obsolete, 
leaving the first primary with a single continuous white apical area, an 
inch and a half to two inches in length. It is probable that not all 
individuals reach this final stage, though most doubtless do in old age. 
A large series of specimens of mature birds usually exhibit the gradual 



196 BULLETIN OF THE 

change above described, and indicate the inconstancy of these markings 
and their unreliability as specific characters. Often, as is well known, 
these markings in the gulls differ considerably in the two wings of the 
same bird. 

Although the L. argenlatus has been taken as a general illustra- 
tion, the same variations with age, or in different individuals, are 
exhibited by most species of the genus Larus. Generally they 
are admitted to have no value as specific characters, even by those 
who in the case of L. argentatus have accorded to them this impor- 
tance. 

In some of the species of Janco and Pipilo, in Mimus, in numerous 
species of Dendrceca, in Panda, Mniutilta, etc., there is a similar in- 
crease with age in the extent of the white markings on the tail, some- 
times three and sometimes four pairs of feathers being spotted or 
terminated with white in different specimens of the same species. In 
short, these variations occur in so many species that they may be looked 
upon as indicating a general law of variation in color depending upon 
age, namely, an increase in the purity or intensity of the general color, 
and an increase in the size of the wing and tail markings, for a time, 
witl i age. 

After complete maturity is attained there is, however, unquestionable 
evidence of a decline in color, which in many cases, and especially in 
bright-colored species, is quite marked. So general is such a decline 
in other groups of the animal kingdom that a citation of evidence on 
this point seems wholly needless. Yet in birds, in numerous instances, 
it is scarcely appreciable, and doubtless is in most species too slight to 
be readily traced. This obscurity may result, however, more from an 
absence of favorable conditions for such a decline to be recognized 
than from its real absence. It can hardly be doubted, in fact, that a 
share of the color variation seen in mature birds is attributable to this 
cause. It is well known that young mammals in their first pelage are, 
as a general rule, much darker colored than the adults of the same spe- 
cies. At a later period the color fades more slowly, but in old 
age the hair often beconi"- more or less gray, the blanching being in 
some cases very marked. Nearly all birds are also darker in their nest- 
ling and immature stages of plumage than alter they arrive at maturity, 
especially if in the adult stage the plumage is light colored ; and it is 
more than probable, and in some cases certain, that the decline in color 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 197 

continues in a slight degree through life. The change of Falco candi- 
cans from du-ky when young to nearly white when fully mature may 
be hardly referable wholly to the blanching of age ; but the gradual 
obsolescence of the dusky mottliugsof the snowy owl {Nyctea m'rea), a3 
it advances in age, seems strictly parallel to the blanching of the gray 
colt to a white horse. Hence a second law of variation in color in old 
age, namely, that of smile decline. 

Individual Variation in General Size and in the Relative 
Size of Different Parts. 

Individual Variation in General Size and Form. — Measurements 
of scores of specimens of birds of the same species and sex, collected at 
the same locality and season, show the existence of a large range of 
individual variation, both in size and in general proportions; the varia- 
tion extending to every external part of the body, and implying a 
corresponding variation in the internal anatomy. In birds size has 
usually been regarded, from its comparative constancy in the same 
species, as an important specific character. But from the fact that 
specimens of closely allied species often differ but little from each other 
in this respect, it has been justly looked upon as being in some cases 
more or less unreliable ; but from the great importance commonly 
attached to it, it is evident that such instances are usually regarded as 
exceptional. Individual variation in this respect having been formerly 
regarded as too slight to have any significance, the size of a single speci- 
men has usually been given as that of the species to which it belonged ; 
hence subsequent variations from it discovered in other specimens of the 
same species has sometimes led to the recognition of the latter as 
specifically distinct. E-pecially has this .been the case when a differ- 
ence in size has been associated with a wide difference of locality. The 
facts in the case, however, show that a variation of fifteen to twenty per 
cent in general size, and an equal degree of variation in the relative 
size of different parts, may be ordinarily expected among specimens of 
the same species and sex, taken at the same locality, while in some 
cases the variation is even greater than this. Table A (p. 198) shows 
to some extent the general variation in size, but it does not always 
give, nor even generally, the extreme differences in the size of similar 
parts, as the wing, tail, etc., since those averaging the largest or 



198 



BULLETIN OF THE 



smallest for the four measurements given are orten not those having 
the longest or the shortest wing, tail, or tarsus, or which measure the 
most or the least in length or alar extent. The extremes of variation 
in the size of the wing and tail is given in Tables B, C, and D. * 



Table A. — Variation in General Size. 



A' ■'- . 












O >, S J5 




»» »S 


. 


w — — = 




= '§ ~ '*• 




gN ° 


_ 


SS44 G9i 


•• 


1520 — 




250 


r 


t; ig 


i 


8330 337 •■ 


8634 5 


621 ■ 


641 ' 


5 1 i ■" 


451 C 


4J74 Mil f 


43:3 - f 


19J0 1411 o" 


164 I 


4819 5 f 


4701 317 f 


5093 - 


89 


5088 8 


711 ' 


713 J 


46241407 ' 


4926 L50 • 


106 - 


55 • 


1456 — ( 


2378 - i* 


4371 


437*3 372 f 


8S7 ■ 


5111 -- 


1 (32 ' 


_ / 


78 i ' 


4852 653 ' 


94 i 


10485 91 i ' 


10461 932 ' 


992 


4009 — id 


10151 - 


d 



Turdus S.vainsoni 
Tardus Swainsoni 
Turdus Pall isi 
Turdus I'.illasi 
Tardus fuscescens 
Turdus fuscescens 
Dendroe a striata 
Dondroaca striata 
Da id penns) Ivanica 
I) i 1 penusy Ivanica 
Spizella pusilla 
Spizi Hi pusilla 
S lyornis fuscus 
S i) ornis fuscus 
Sayornis fuscus 
Pas: erculus savanna 
Passcrculus savanna 
Passcrculus savanna 
1' isserculus savanna 
Vireo oiivaceus 
Vireo oiivaceus 
Uhrysomitris tristis 
Chrysomitris tristis 
Melospiz i melodia 
Melospizi melodia 
Sialia sialis 
Si ilia sialis 
M niotilla v iria 
Mniotiila varia 
Cot) le riparia 
( lot) le rip iria 
Passerellu ili ica 
Passerclla iii ica 
[ctei us Baltimore 
Icterus Baltimore 
Sterna liirundo 
Sterna liirundo 
Sterna arctica 
Sterna arctica [thus 
Pipiloerythrophthal- 
l'i pilo erythropli thai. 



Locality. 



Belmont, Mass. 
Springfield, " 
Newton, " 
Newton, " 
Newton, " 
Watertown, " 
Newton, " 
Newton, " 
Newton, " 
Newton, " 
New ton, " 
Walt ham, " 
Newton, " 
Waltham, " 
Newton, " 
Newton, " 
Ipswich, " 
Ipswich, " 
Ipswich, " 
Waltham, " 
Waltham, " 
Newton, " 
Newton, " 
Newton, " 
Newton, " 
Worthingt'n," 
Watervide, Me. 
Newton, Mass. 
Waltham, " 
[pswich, " 
Ipswich, " 
Springfield, " 
Newton, " 
Newton, " 
Newton, " 
Muskeget Isl 
Muskegetlsl 
Muskegel 1-1. 
Muskegetlsl. 
Milton. Mass 
Cambridge, " 



Mav 27, 
May 11, 
Apr. 25, 
May 25, 
May 5, 
Ma) 20, 

Mav 27, 
May 27, 
\I ly 20, 
Mav 20, 
Jul) 22, 
Sept.19, 
Sept 30, 
Mar. 28, 
Oct. 9, 
Apr. 5, 
June] f, 
JunelT, 
JunclT, 
Maj 30, 

Mav 30, 
Sept.28, 
Mar 2 i, 
Mar 12, 
Nov. -11, 
Inly-, 
Apr 15, 
Apr 20, 
Mav 6, 

.Ilinel7. 

,lunel7. 
Mar. 22, 
Mar 27, 
June 6, 
May 27, 
June29, 
June2 i. 
July 2, 
Julv 2, 



Collected by 



'68 C .1 Mavnard 
•62 J. A Allen 
>,- C J Maynard 
68 C.J. Maynard 
68 C.J Maynard 
68 C J.Maj nard 
68|C .I.May nard 
'68 < '..I.May nard 
68 C .1 Maynard 
63 C .1 Maynard 
'68 C . I. Maynard 
: 67 C J Maynard 
.st' J .Maynard 
'68 C J Mavnard 
'69 C .1. Maynard 
UN U .1 Mavnard 
'68 .1. A Allen 
'68 J. A. Allen 
68 .1. A Allen 

68 C J. Maynard 

'68 CJ M iv nard 
68 .1 Maynard 
'63 C .1 Maynard 
68 C .1 M lynard 
'67 C.J .M lynard 
'63 C.II Hamlin 
'64 W. II Niles 
us c .1 Maynard 

18'C.J Mavnard 
'68 J. \ Allen 
■67 d A Allen 
US .1. A Allen 
Ms C .1 Mavnard 
US C .1 Mavnard 
'68 C.J Mavnard 
'68 .1. A Allen 
T,S ,1 A Allen 
'68 .1. A A Ten 
lis .1 A. Allen 

- II C Daring 

- L. Agassiz 



7.70 12.65 
6.62 U.4U 
7 3i 12.83 

7."" 10 64 
7.81 13.70 

7.IIU 11.115 
5 17 s 75 

5.71 9 3 
5.40 825 
5 00 7 51 

on. i - ;;_ 

5.06 7.62 

7 50 11.40 
7 25 L2.6 
6.51 10.32 
5 85 o 73 
5.83 7.75 
5.35 7.75 
5.75 it. 75 
6.55 lo or, 
6.25 ss 

5 35 0.40 
5.00 8.60 
75 Hi:, 
tin. i 8.25 

6 50 11.10 
7on L2.25 
540 9.00 
5.3D 3.25 
5.45 11 oo 
5 ■-'. 1 ' 5? 
7.50 11.65 
6.80 lo so 
son 12.25 

7 3-11 15 

15 50 31.S5 
14 90 29 30 

16 1- 32 15 
14.40 29.00 

s 55 12.25 
7.50 l" -J" 



4 20 
3 80 

3 8 i 
3.00 

4 16 
3.58 
•j 8 ' 
310 
2.01 
2 35 

2 02 
•2 00 
360 

3 82 
3 20 



3oo 
2.83 
3 33 

2 1.7 
10,1 

355 

1.70 

2 00 

2.07 

1 75 

2.. ,o 
- '12 

3.00 
2.20 
2.85 



3.00 2 26 

2 so 2 lo 
2 51 L.95 

2 78 2.0.7 

3 1-2 16 

3 22 2.10 
3.002.00 
2.65 1 85 
2.652.80 
2.35 2.68 

3 75 2.45 

4 102.60 
3 00J2 17 
2.-; 2.05 

IT, 2.1o 

3.75 1 86 
3-65 2 

3 40 2 50 
1 on:; lo 

3.56 2.55 
11.30 7.00 
10 io 5 50 
ll.iio 7.50 
L0.70 ''.30 

3.57 3.85 
3.34 3.60 

I 



As a large proportion of the specimens mentioned in some of the fol- 
lowing tallies (most of Tables A to G) were taken during the season 
of their migration, they may have originated at widely different locali- 
ties, and thus the differences indicated may lie in some measure due 
to geographical causes. In other cases, however, all the specimens 

* The measurements pven j n this pnper were all taken eiihcr from fresh specimens 
by the collector, or by myself from specimens preserved in spirits. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 199 

were taken in the breeding season ; while in still other instances 
(Tables II to P) the species were purposely chosen from among 
such as find their northern limit of distribution near the locality where 
all were taken. Of ten species of the latter class, twenty perfect male 
specimens have been carefully measured,* the measurements embra- 
cing a series of eighteen to twenty distinct parts; uuder such circum- 
stances the variation in general size, in length, in alar extent, in the 
length of the folded wing, the tail, the tarsus, the head, the bill, etc., etc., 
commonly ranged from twelve to eighteen per cent. 

In respect to the differences in the general form of the body, two 
leading styles of variation from the average form may be recognized in 
nearly all species, namely, a relatively robust form, in which the stout- 
ness extends to all parts, and a relatively slender form, in which the 
slenderness is equally general. Variations of this general and sym- 
metrical character are remarkable only for their extent, since in such 
cases there are no marked discrepancies between the relative size of 
different parts. Contrary, however, to our usual notions of exact sym- 
metry in animals, the unsymmetrical variations are by far the most 
frequent and important. 

Variation in the Relative Size of Different Parts. — In specimens 
of average size of any given species, considerable differences exist 
in the relative size of different parts. In individuals of the aver- 
age alar extent of their species, for example, the length of the folded 
wing may vary very considerably, in consequence of a difference in the 
length of the primary quills as compared to the length of the bones of 
the wing. The length of the folded wing or the alar extent may vary 
with reference to the whole length of the specimen, in consequence of 
differences in the relative length of the tail, the neck, or the body. The 
tarsus also varies independently of variation in the general size, as do 
also the toes to the tarsi, relatively short toes being found to accom- 
pany tarsi of ordinary length, and, conversely, long toes short tarsi.f 
The wing varies in its form in consequence of the different relative 
development of the primary and secondary quills. \ The tail varies in 
respect to its form, especially in regard to the degree of its emargination 
or graduation, and, in some groups, in respect to the number of its 
feathers. The bill also varies greatly in size and form. The variations 
in these various parts will be considered separately and in detail. 

* See below, Tables H to P, pp. 210-219. J See Table E, p. 204. 

f Seo Table F, p. 205. 



200 BULLETIN Of iHE 

Variation in the Length of the Folded Wing and the Tail. — The 
measurements given in the following table (Table B) sufficiently illus- 
trate the variation in the length of the folded wing in fully mature speci- 
mens of the same sex and species, while Table C indicates the 
variation in the length of the tail, in specimens of a similar char- 
acter. All the specimens, with a few exceptions, were taken within 
a few miles of Cambridge ; the others are mainly also from Eastern 
Massachusetts, a few * being from a single locality in Florida. The 
series from which these extremes are taken embrace ordinarily not 
more than twenty-five or thirty specimens ; with larger suites the 
differences would in many cases doubtless be much increased. The 
largest and smallest only are taken, between which, however, there 
is every gradation. The difference between these extremes is indicated, 
and also the percentage of the variation, based on the average of the 
two extremes. The amount of the variation in the length of the folded 
wing ranges, as will be seen from the table, from twelve to twenty-one 
per cent of the average length. In the tail the amount of variation in 
respect to length ranges from fourteen to twenty-three per cent. The 
different species vary considerably in respect to the amount of variation 
each presents, some being much more variable than others. It should 
be stated, however, that as a general rule the widest extremes, or the 
highest percentages of variation, occur in those species of which the 
greatest number of specimens has been examined. It will also be noticed 
that the tail usually varies more than the wings. In species with a 
relatively long tail the percentage of variation in the length of this 
member is found to be greater than in those species in which it is of 
medium length or short, as would have been naturally expected. In 
several cases the greater differences occur between females, but this 
may be a mere coincidence. 

In this connection it may be added that the variation proves to be 
much less between specimens of the same species and sex when taken 
at a single locality in the breeding season than when taken during the 
period of migration. In many instances specimens of the same species 
may be obtained at one locality which shall represent the whole range 
of its geographical variation, as well as- its individual variation, as in 
the case of those species which breed far to the North, but migrate in 
winter to the tropics, being thus but transient visitors to the temperate 
portions of the United States. 

* Those of Mimus pc'iyglottus, Cardinalis virdnianus, Picus borealis. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



201 



Table B. — Individual Variation in the Length of the Folded Wing. 



JM C. 7. No. 
10596 


Orig No. 


Sex 




folded Wing 


Difference. 


I'd' ..-lit of 

Variation. 


25 1 


9 


.Minius polvglottus 


4.75 i 




17.0 





2-185 


9 


Minius polyglottus 


4.00 ( 




10710 


1987 
1993 


d 
d 


Card in al is virginianus 
Cardinalis virginianus 


3.85 / 
3.30 \ 


.55 


14.6 





316 


d 


Passerculus savanna 


2.95 I 


.40 


14.5 





820 


d 


Passerculus savanna 


2.55 j 


8830 


367 


d 


Turtlus fuseescens 


4.16 ) 


.61 


15.S 


883-1 


556 


d 


Turdus fuscesceus 


3.55 J 


4821 


148 


d 


Savornis fuscus 


3.87 | 


.67 


19.0 


4819 


5 


d 


Sayornis fuscus 


3.20 j 


DO.") 7 


618 


d 


Geothlypis trichas 


2.56 I 


.50 


21.0 


5020 


703 


d 


Geothlypis trichas 


2 06 j 


4648 


1389 


d 


( Carpodacus purpureus 


3.70 / 


.GO 


17.6 


4655 


751 


d 


Carpodacus purpureus 


3 10 S 


9G96 
1421 





d 
d 


Pipilo erythrojdithalmus 
Pipilo ervthrophthalinus 


3.68 / 
3 1'7 j 


.51 


14.6 


■ 


170 


d 


Junco hvcmahs 


3.20 | 


.45 


180 


4910 


140 


d 


Junco hyemalis 


2 75 } 


1563 





i 


Tvrannus carol inensis 


4.85 j 


.68 


15.0 


1 0025 





1 


Tv ran mis carolinensis 


4 17 \ 


10014 





i 


Galeoscoptes carolinensis 


3 85 ^ 


.60 


17.0 


2734 





1 


Galcosco]»tcs carolinensis 


3.25 \ 


786 
1334 





d 
d 


Icterus Baltimore 
Icterus Baltimore 


4.00 ) 
3 42 \ 


.58 


16.0 



Table C. — Individual Variation in the Length of the Tail. 



M C. Z No 


Orig No 


Sex 




Tail 


Difference. 


Percent of 

Vai i:itinn. 


10592 


2474 
2372 


Minius polycrlottus 
Mimas polyglottus 


5.15 ) 
4 20 i 


,95 


20.5 





1955 


.f 


Cardinalis virginianus 


4 30 ) 


.90 


23.4 





24H0 


d 


Cardinalis virjjnianus 


3 40 j 





317 


d 


Passereulus savanna 


2.26 ) 


.41 


19.5 


5086 


846 


d 


Passcrculus savanna 


1.85 [ 






8830 


528 


d 


Turdus f'uscescens 


3 00 I 


.45 


14.4 


8835 


556 


d 


Turdus fuscescens 


2 55 j 








V 


Parus atiicapillus 
Parus atricapillus 


2.63 1 
2 15 j 


.48 


20.0 


9056 


454 


d 


Geothlypis trichas 


2.L5 / 


.45 


23.4 


5020 


703 


d 


Geothlvpis trichas 


1 ,70 J 


4651 


1071 


9 


Carpodacus purpureus 


2.57 I 


59 


22.5 


4653 


1371 


V 


Carpodacus purpureus 


2.05 J 




4614 

4727 


1330 

415 


d 

d 


Pipilo ervthrophthalmus 
Pipilo ervthrophthalinus 


4 00 / 
3.29 [ 


.71 


19.5 





160 


d 


Junco hvenialis 


2.78 / 


.38 


15.0 


4 017 


201 


* 


Junco hyemalis 


2.40 \ 


10646 


1972 


y 


Picns horealis 


3.75 ( 


.50 


14.0 


10633 


41 


V 


Pious borealis 


3.25 ( 


1317 





/ 


Tyrannus carolinensis 


2.93 ) 


.61 


19.0 


1568 





? 


Tyrannus carolinensis 


3.54 S 


2734 
10014 





i 


( raleoscoptes carolinensis 
Galeoscoptes carolinensis 


3.35 ) 
410 ) 


.75 


20.0 


1334 





d 


Icterus Baltimore 


2.70 ) 


.40 


13.8 


2289 





:' 


Icterus Baltimore 


3.10 j 



202 



BULLETIN OF THE 



Variation in the Relative Length of the Wings and Tail. — Table D 
illustrates the irregularity of the variation in the wings and the tail. The 
first column of measurements gives the length of the folded wing, and 



Table D. — Individual Variation in the relative Length of the 
Folded Wing and Tail. 















DifF. betw'n 


Amount 


M. C. Z. 

No. 


Original 
No. 


Sex. 




Wing. 
4.35 


Tail. 


Wing and 
Tail. 


of 
Variation. 





2429 


c? 


Mimus polyglottus 


4.35 


.00' 






105'JO 


2342 


9 


Mimus polyglottus 


3.25 


4.35 


+ 1.00 









2560 


9 


Mimus polyglottus 


4 15 


4.35 


+ .25 









2614 


d 


Mimus polyglottus 


4.40 


4 90 


4- .50 




1.20 





2340 


i 


Mimus polyglottus 


4.40 


4. 50 


-4- .10 









2478 


9 


Mimus polyglottus 


4.40 


4.20 


— .20 









2374 


d 


Mimus polyglottus 


4 30 


4.16 


— .14 






8881 


441 


d 


Gateoscoptes carolinensis 


3 60 


3.60 


.00 , 









1376 


9 


Galcoscoptes carolinensis 


3.70 


3 60 


— .10 ! 




.45 


8879 


412 


" 


Gateoscoptes carolinensis 


3.75 


4.10 


+ .35 ) 






8841 


495 


d 


Turdus fuscescens 


4.00 


3.00 


1.00 . 






8832 


332 


d 


Turdus fuscescens 


4.10 


4.00 


.10 




1.15 


8835 


581 


•" 


Turdus fuscescens 


4. 1 5 


2 90 


1.25 ) 






8821 


374 


d 


Seiurus aurocapillus 


3.0O 


2.00 


1.00 




.66 





423 


d 


Seiurus aurocapillus 


3.00 


2 66 


1.66 




8851 


322 


9 


Turdus Pall as i 


3.50 


2 60 


.90 




.67 





301 


d 


Turdus Pallasi 


3.43 


3 17 


.23 




4301 


514 


d 


Dendrceca aestiva 


2.85 


1.80 


1.05 




.58 





362 


d 


Dendroeca asstiva 


2 45 


1.98 


.47 




5053 


707 


d 


Dendroeca striata 


2.85 


2.00 


.85 









1341 


d 


Dendrceca striata 


3.00 


1.75 


1.25 




.79 


5062 


734 


f 


Dendroeca striata 


2.45 


1.93 


.46 







741 


9 


Dendroeca striata 


2.80 


1.80 


1 00 






5041 


665 


d 


Setophaga ruticilla 


2.60 


2.10 


— .50 




.57 





698 


d 


Setophaga ruticilla 


2.43 


2.50 


-+- .07 







693 


9 


Regulus satrapa 


2.20 


1.52 


.68 




.49 





50 


9 


Regulus satrapa 


1.94 


1.75 


.19 




4808 


711 


d 


Contopus virens 


3 35 


2.36 


.99 




.54 


4994 


1116 


d 


Contopus virens 


3.15 


2.70 


.45 




10645 


1924 


d 


Picus l)ore;ilis 


4.80 


3.32 


1.48 




.48 


10616 


1972 


9 


Picus borealis 


4.75 


3.75 


1.00 




4587 


323 


d 


Agelafus phceniceus 


4.85 


340 


1 .45 




.67 


4589 


214 


d 


Agelseus phceniceus 


4.60 


3.82 


.78 




4654 


1069 


d 


( Jnrpodacus purpureus 


3 85 


2 00 


1.35 




.64 


4655 


286 


d 


Carpodacus purpureus 


3.03 


2.32 


.71 




- 


288 


d 


Poocaetes gramineus 


3 55 


2.41 


1.14 




.54 





846 


9 


Poocaetes gramineus 


3.10 


2.50 


.60 







881 


d 


Passerculus savanna 


2.75 


1 85 


.90 




.41 





127 


d 


Passerculus savanna 


2.74 


2.25 


.49 







115 


d 


Passerella iliaca 


3 75 


2.65 


1.10 




.78 





55 


9 


Passer lia iliaca 


332 


3.00 


.32 







177 


d 


Melospiza melodia 


235 


2.68 


+ .33 




.53 





2363 


' 


Mclospiz i melodia 


2 60 


2.40 


— .20 







2369 


d 


Cardinalis virginianus 


3 60 


3 40 


— .20 




.70 






d 
d 
d 
d 
d 


Cardioalis virginianus 
Dolichonyx oryzivora 
Dolichonyx oryzivora 
Ilodvuicles ludoviciana 
Hedymcles ludoviciana 


3.60 
3.75 


4.10 
2.78 
2.72 
2.93 
2.95 


-H .50 

.96 

1.28 

1.27 

.88 




2293 

5711 

10107 

1 9787 










4 (III 




.32 




4.20 

3.83 










.39 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 203 

the second the length of the tail, of the same specimens ; the third 
column shows the difference in length between the tail and the win", 
and the fourth column the amount of the difference between the two 
extremes. In Mimus polyglottus the tail is usually one fourth to one 
half an inch longer than the wing; but in many specimens the wings 
and tail are equal, and in a small proportion the tail is shorter than the 
wing. In the seven specimens of this species cited in the table, the 
variation ranges from the tail being one fifth of an inch shorter than 
the folded wing to one inch longer. In the three specimens which 
agree in the length of the tail (4.35 in.), the variation in the 
length of the folded wing ranges from 3.25 in. to 4.25 in., or is nearly 
twenty-seven (2G.85) per cent. The larger specimen, however, is a 
male, while the others are females ; but between the two females the 
difference is over twenty-four (24.3) per cent. Similar differences 
have been met with in various other species, but it has not been deemed 
necessary to cite a larger list of examples. 

Variation in the Form of the Wing. — By the form of the wing is 
meant its general outline when expanded, which is mainly deter- 
mined by the relative length of the remiges. The form of the wing, 
and especially the relative length of the different primary remiges, 
has direct relation to the power of flight. In strong, swift-flying 
birds, the outer primaries are the longest, giving a narrow pointed form 
to the expanded wing, as in the swifts, the swallows, in Chordeiles, in 
the Slernince and in most of the Procellaridce. In birds of medium 
powers of flight, as in most of the true finches (Coccothranstince) and 
Tardince, the Tyrannidce, the Sylvicolidce, etc., etc., the third, fourth, 
and fifth primaries are the longest, the wing being less pointed and 
broader. In species with low power of flight, as the Troglodytidce, 
several genera of sparrows, the grouse, etc., the outer primaries are still 
more reduced, the wing is much more rounded and shorter, and the 
power of flight is in each case correspondingly less. In birds of the 
first class, which live almost wholly on the wing, little variation is seen 
in the relative length of the primaries. In those of the second and third 
classes, slight variations affect in less degree the particular habits of 
life, so that among the latter would be naturally expected the greatest 
range of individual variation. 

Correlating with the variation in the form of the wing, as determined 
by the relative length of the outer primaries to the length of the inner 



204 



BULLETIN OF THE 



primaries are similar variations in the relative length of the inner secon- 
daries as compared with the outer secondaries. Relatively short inner 
secondaries (generally improperly called " tertiaries ") hence ac- 
company long primaries, and, conversely, long inner secondaries, 
short outer primaries. The particular form of the wing in any group 
depending upon the relative development of these several elements, 
they hence afford excellent generic characters ; but while thus impor- 
tant, they are subject to a considerable range of individual variation. 
The form of the wing being readily determined by measurements, 
and easily expressed mathematically, the amount of the variation i3 
easily measured and tabulated. In the following table (Table E) the 
extent and character of this variation is to some degree illustrated. In 
the first column of measurements is given the length of the folded wing; 
in the second the extent of the longest primary beyond the outer (or 
shortest) secondary, and in the third the extent of the longest pri- 
mary beyond the inner (or longest) secondary. The fourth column 
gives the amount of variation in each specimen cited. 

Table E. — Variation in the Form of the Wing. 



M. C. Z No. 


Sex. 

d 


Species. 


Length of 
the Wing 


Ext. ofPr. 
beyond 

Onicr Sec 


Ext. of Pr. 
beyond 

Inner Sec. 


Amount of 
Variation. 


2119 


Icterus Baltimore 


3.75 


.77 


.90 


.13 


2290 


d 


Icterus Baltimore 


3 83 


.67 


.81 


.14 


1333 


d 


Icterus Baltimore 


3.64 


.57 


1.06 


.49 


1567 


• 


Icterus Baltimore 


3. SO 


.56 


.92 


.36 


2964 


t 


Icterus Baltimore 


3.85 


.77 


1.07 


.30 


2299 


d 


Icterus Baltimore 


3 85 


.87 


1.12 


.25 


2296 


d 


Dolichonyx oryzivora 


3.80 


.98 


1.42 


.44 


5741 


d 


Dolichonyx oryzivora 


4.00 


1.20 


1.40 


.20 


119 


d 


Dolichonyx oryzivora 


3.82 


.78 


1 .23 


.45 


9854 


d 


Dolichonyx oryzivora 


3 53 


.98 


1.14 


.16 


284 


7 


Tyrannus carolincnsis 


4.30 


.85 


1.15 


.30 


113 


i 


Tyrannus carolincnsis 


4. GO 


.90 


1.45 


.55 


1317 


■2 


Tyrannus carolinensis 


4.25 


.76 


1.10 


.34 


4008 


1 


Tyrannus carolincnsis 


4 60 


1 .35 


1 62 


.27 


10107 


d 


Heclymelcs ludoviciana 


4.20 


.90 


1 .05 


.15 


590 


d 


Hedymelcs ludoviciana 


■leu 


.'.10 


1.25 


.35 


99 ;:> 


■ 


Hedymelcs ludoviciana 


4.00 


.60 


1.06 


.40 


1 156 


d 


Sialia sialis 


3.75 


1.00 


1.10 


.10 


1945 


d 


Sialia sialis 


3.90 


1.03 


1.10 


.07 


338 


d 


Si ilia sialis 


4 <i7 


1 .30 


1.30 


.00 




d 


Sialia sialis 


4 i 15 


1 25 


1.40 


.15 


10292 


d 


Si.ilin sialis 


3.90 


.95 


1 15 


.20 


256 


1 


( raleoscoptes carolinensis 


3.37 


.55 


.50 


—.05 


1790 


1 


( raleoscopi -s c irolinensis 


3.75 


.55 


.70 


+ .15 


5358 


7 


Galeoscoptes carolincnsis 


3.:,.') 


.35 


.57 


-(-.22 


Km! t 


f 


Galeoscoptes carolincnsis 


3 -:, 


.70 


.75 


+ .05 


■m;\ 


t 


Galeoscoptes carolinensis 


::.7:. 


.07 


.70 


+ .03 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 205 

Variation in the relative Length of the Primary Quills. — From the 
great stress laid upon the relative length of the outer primaries by de- 
scriptive ornithologists in determining genera and species, one would be 
led to expect but a slight amount of variation in this respect in speci- 
mens of the same species. On the contrary, however, it is soon found, 
on giving special attention to this character, that a considerable amount 
of individual variation in this regard really exists. That the wing 
formula, so generally introduced of late years into specific diagnoses, is 
in a great degree unreliable as a specific character, is sufficiently shown 
by the subjoined table (Table F, p. 20G) of the relative proportions of 
the primaries. The comparison, extended in the table to only a few 
species has been carried to scores of others with similar results. 

In general, in species of the Oscines which have the second primary 
usually the longest, it is sometimes the first and sometimes the third 
that is the longest. In those which have the third ordinarily the longest, 
the second and third, the third and the fourth, or the second, third, and 
fourth are frequently equal. In those in which the first (or the second 
when the first is very short) is intermediate to the second and fourth 
or to the third and fifth, it may be equal to or longer than the second or 
third, or only equal to the fourth or fifth. 

Variation in the Form of the Tail, and in the Number of the 
Rectrices. — Individual variation in the form of the tail is often quite 
marked. In species with the tail deeply forked, different specimens 
vary considerably in respect to the depth of the fork. Those with the tail 
rounded and much graduated differ greatly in respect to the amount the 
middle feathers exceed the outer ones in length. In species with a nor- 
mally nearly even tail, the tail is sometimes distinctly emarginate, and 
sometimes as distinctly rounded in different specimens of the same species. 

In regard to the number of rectrices, in those groups in which the 
number exceeds twelve, as in the Rasores, the Lamellirostres, etc., the 
number is frequently variable. The rectrices of the common ruffed 
grouse (Bonasa umhellus) are usually eighteen in number, but an ex- 
amination of numerous specimens shows that the number varies from 
sixteen to twenty. The usual number in Tetrao canadensis is sixteen, 
but the number varies from fourteen to eighteen. In Cupidonia 
cupido, and in other species of grouse, similar variations also occur. 
They are also frequent in the Anserina*. In Bernicla canadensis, 
for example, the usual number of rectrices is eighteen, but the number 



206 



BULLETIN OF THE 



Table F. — Variation in the relative Length of the Primaries. 



M. C Z. 

No 


Species. 


to 

c 
o 
►3 


- a 
■■■^ 

3 
4 


c 5 

— to 

•a = . 

CO « 

2 


— tL 

— _ 

5~ 
5 


o£ 

— uj 

6 
6 


5 -3 






= 5 

— £ 


3-289 

67G4 


Tardus iiisccsceus 
Tardus f'uscescens 


4 
3 


7 
7 




8837 


Turclus fuscescens 


i\ 


2 


5 


6 


7 


8 








8843 
5197 


Turdus Pallasi 
Turdus Pallasi 


4 

4 


3 

5 


5 
3 


6 
6 


2 
2 


7 
7 








8205 


Turclus Pallasi 


4 


3 


5 


II 


7 


8 








8206 


Turdus Pallasi 


4 


',) 


6 


2 


7 


8 








10698 
10699 


Myiarcbus crinitus 
Myiarchus crinitus 


3 
3 


4 
2 


2 
4 


5 

5 


6 
C 


1 
1 


7 

- 






8166 


Myiarchus crinitus 


4 


3 


2 


5 


6 


!) 


8 






10700 


Myiarchus crinitus 


:i 


2 


5 


6 


1 


7 


8 






10701 


Myiarchus crinitus 


3 


4 , 
2) 


5 


6 


1 


7 


8 






12420 
4612 


Tyrannus carolinensis 
Tyrannus carolinensis 


2 

2 


3 
3 


1 
4 


4 
1 


5 
5 


6 
6 








6457 


Tyrannus carolinensis 


o 


3 


1) 


5 


6 


7 








4816 
6665 
693S 


Contopus borcalis 
Contopus l)orealis 
Sayornis fuscus 


2 
2 
3 


1 
3 

4 


3 
1 
2 


4 
4 
5 


5 
5 
6 


C 
6 
1 


7 






6932 


Sayornis fuscus 


J) 


II 


6 


1 


7 


8 


9 






5364 
5248 


Lophophanes bicolor 
Lophophanes bicolor 


4 
5 

il 

6' 

o 

3 


5 

4 


6 
6 


3 

7 


7 
3 


8 
8 


9 

9 


2 

2 


1 
1 





Lophophanes bicolor 


7 


3 


8 


9 


2 


I 






5080 
5176 


Dendroeca coronata 
Dcndrceca coronata 


3 
2 


1 

4 


4 
1 


5 
5 


6 
6 








P«78 


Dendrceca coronata 


3 


I) 


1 


5 


6 


7 








3412 


Dcndrceca coronata 


I) 


4 


1 


5 


6 


7 








10533 


Dcndrceca coronata 


1) 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 








5056 
5057 


Dcndra'ca striata 
Dendroeca striata 


4 1 

2 

1 


1 
2 


3 
3 


4 
4 


5 
5 


6 
6 








3390 


Dendrceca striata 


2 


51 


4 


5 


6 


7 








6675 
10958 
10963 
10960 


Dendroeca striata 
Pinicola enucleator 
Binicola enucleator 

Pinicola enucleator 


2 
3 
3 
3 


3 
4 
2 
2 


1 
2 
4 
1 


4 
5 
1 
4 


5 
1 

5 
5 


6 
6 

6 
6 


7 
7 
7 






10962 


Pinicola enucleator 


l\ 


4 


1 


5 


6 


7 


8 






8114 


Pinicola enucleator 


3 


i\ 


1 


5 


6 


7 


8 






4843 
4633 

4844 


Ampelis ccdrorum 
Ampelis cedrorum 
Ampelis cedrorum 


2 
1 
2 


3 
2 

1 


1 
3 
3 


4 

4 
4 


5 
5 
5 











MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



207 



varies from fourteen to twenty. Specimens with sixteen are tolerably 
frequent. Yet one of the principal characters urged as separating the 
B. Hutchinsii from the B. canadensis is the possession of two more 
feathers in the tail by the latter tlian the so-called B. Hutchinsii is 
assumed to have. In Bernicla brenta the usual number is sixteen, 
but in different specimens they vary from fourteen to eighteen. A 
greater, or less amount of variation in the number of the feathers of 
the tail is more or less common to numerous other species of the duck 
tribe. An odd number is even quite frequent, one half of the tail hav- 
ing normally one more feather than the other. 

Variation in the Relative Length of the Tarsus and Toes. — A com- 
mon feature in modern generic and specific diagnoses is a statement of 
the ratio the length of the tarsus bears to the length of the middle toe 
or to the hallux, and the relative length of the hallux to the outer or 
inner toe, as though we had here constant structural proportions. The 
following table (Table G) shows that such is not the case, the varia- 



Table G. — Relative Length of Tarsi and Toes. 



M. C. Z. No. 


Sex. 


Species. 


Tarsus. 
1.08 


Middle 
Toe. 


Outer 
Toe. 

. . 7 


Hallux. 


5853 


i 


Galcoscoptes carolinensis 


1.04 


.75 


2273 


i 


Galcoscoptes carolinensis 


1.15 


.98 


.70 


.70 


10356 


i 


Galcoscoptes carolinensis 


1.00 


1.00 


' .70 


.73 


5S57 


7 


Galcoscoptes carolinensis 


1.18 


1.08 


.70 


.75 


2229 


? 


Galcoscoptes carolinensis 


1.07 


.93 


.68 


.67 


5605 


c? 


Sialia sialis 


.77 


.77 


.57 


.58 


1456 


d 


Sialia sialis 


.74 


.84 


.62 


.65 


5766 


d 


Sialia sialis 


.83 


.80 


.56 


.60 


1 SS3 


d 


Sialia sialis 


.80 


.91 


.77 


.65 


1946 


d 


Sialia sialis 


.80 


.84 


.77 


.61 


1881 


d 


Sialia sialis 


.77 


.85 


.56 


.72 


1771 


d 


Pipilo erythrophthalmus 


.98 


.95 


.73 


.80 


1399 


d 


Pipilo erythrophthalmus 


1.05 


1.05 


.80 


.78 


350 


d 


Pipilo erythrophthalmus 


1 .05 


1.12 


.76 


.84 


1476 


d 


Pipilo erythrophthalmus 


1.10 


1.03 


.75 


.78 


2985 


d 


Pipilo erythrophthalmus 


1.13 


1.00 


.80 


.80 


9854 


d 


Dolichonyx orvzivora 


.98 


I 1.17 


.83 


.82 


5585 


^ 


Dolichonyx orvzivora 


1.15 


1.27 


.98 


.93 


9894 


d 


1 )olichonyx orvzivora 


1.00 


1.00 


.83 


.81 


10219 


d 


Dolichonyx orvzivora 


1.03 


1.25 


.98 


.76 


2320 


d 


Icterus Baltimore 


.S3 


.68 


.88 


.72 


9793 


d 


Icterus Baltimore 


1.02 


.85 


.70 


.70 


1567 


d 


Icterus Baltimore 


.97 


1.00 


.75 


.80 


10025 


■2 


Ty ran mis en rolinensis 


.67 


.73 


.53 


.54 


10027 


1 


Tyrannus carolinensis 


.80 


.85 


.55 


.61 


10028 


1 


Tyrannns carolinensis 


.70 


.87 


.53 


.57 


5546 


1 


Tyrannus carolinensis 


.70 


.80 


.60 


.60 



208 BULLETIN OF THE 

tion being as great between different specimens of tlie same specie3 
as between different species of the same genus, and even of differ- 
ent genera. The variation in the length of the toes is often due to 
an increase or a decrease in the length of the nail, but by no means 
rarely to variations in the length of the phalanges themselves. As 
already stated, and as appears from the table, toes of less than the 
average length accompany tarsi of the average or of more than the 
average length, and toes of more than the average length accompany 
tarsi of medium or less than the medium length. In compiling the above 
table the specimens mentioned have been selected in each case from 
a series of only twenty specimens of the species to which they respec- 
tively belong, and represent the longest and shortest tarsus, middle toe, 
outer toe, and hind toe met with in each series, and also the greatest and 
least amount of difference in these several elements. They are all 
taken from Tables H to Q (see pp. 210-219), which serve to show 
the usual range of variation, in respect to size and proportions, in ten 
species.* 

Individual Variation in other Parts. — In addition to the instances 
already mentioned, individual variation of a similar character and equal 
extent occurs in the relative size of other parts. The length of the bill, 
for instance, is often compared to the length of the head, or to that of 
the tarsus in specific diagnoses. Table G 1 (see next page) serves to 
show the individual variation in respect to the proportion of length to 
alar extent ordinarily met with in specimens of the same species. 

To show more fully, however, the exact nature and extent of what 
may be considered as purely individual variation, tables of detailed 
measurements of about twenty specimens of each of a number of 
species are herewith appended (Tables II to Q). Care has been 
taken to not only select specimens of the same sex, collected at the 
same locality, and as nearly as possible at the same season, but also 
such species as find their northern limit so near the locality at 
which they were taken as to obviate. the complication of individual 
witli geographical variation, which would result if the range of the 
spcci.s extended far to the northward of tin 1 , locality in question. 
In general, the specimens are all from Eastern Massachusetts, and 

* Icterus Baltimore, Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Sialia sialis, 
,; co tes carolinensis, Pyranga rubra, Geothlypis trichas, Harporhynchus rufus, 
Tyraunus carolinensis, Hedymeles ludoviciana. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



209 



Table G l — Individual Variation in the Proportion of Length to 
Alar Extent. 



M. C. Z. No. 


Orig. No. 


Sex. 


Species. 






5056 


668 


9 


Dendrceea striata 


5.45 


9.70 





777 


? 


Dendroeca striata 


5.50 


8.68 


5087 


848 


d 


Passerculus savanna 


5.50 


9.13 





981 


d 


Passerculus savanna 


5.83 


7.75 








d 


Passerculus savanna 


6.00 


8.27 





1987 


d 


Cardinalis virginianus 


9.00 


11.50 





2394 


9 


Cardinalis virginianus 


800 


11.75 


9901 





cf 


Dolichonyx oryzivorua 


6.65 


1 1 .50 


2295 





d 


Dolichonyx oryzivorus 


7.50 


11.50 





2340 


i 


Mimas polyglottus 


960 


14 25 





2374 


9 


Mimas polyglottus 


9 .75 


14.00 





2371 


? 


Miinus polyglottus 


9.80 


13 00 


5757 







Turdus Swuinsoni 


7.25 


12.15 


2930 





i 


Turdus Swainsoni 


7.75 


11.20 


1829 





•2 


Turdus Swainsoni 


6.90 


11.20 


307 





■2 


Turdus Swainsoni 


7.24 


11.00 


9691 





■2 


Turdus Pallasi 


700 


10 50 


145 





■2 


Turdus Pallasi 


7.00 


11 40 


5756 





? 


Turdus Pallasi 


7.38 


11.05 





314 


d 


Turdus Pallasi 


7.38 


12.33 





363 


d 


Turdus Pallasi 


7.23 


11.94 





26 


d 


Turdus Pallasi 


680 


11.28 





367 


d 


Turdus fuscescens 


7.81 


13.70 





495 


d 


Turdus fuscescens 


7.87 


11.91 





551 


d 


Turdus fuscescens 


7.00 


11.95 





112 


d 


Parus atricapillus 


5.50 


8.12 


4946 


268 


9 


Pnrus atricapillus 


5 00 


8.60 


11714 


114 


9 


Parus atricapillus 


5 75 


7.88 


95 





cf 


Agelaeus plia-niceus 


9.00 


15.10 


93 





d 


Age! reus phceniceus 


9 20 


14.40 


5723 





d 


Agelssus phceniceus 


845 


14.45 



from within a short distance of Cambridge. A very few are from 
Southern Maine and from the Connecticut valley at Springfield ; 
but the general faunal character of all these localities is essentially 
the same.* 

In addition to the measurements given in these tables, several others 
are sometimes taken by collectors, as the relative posterior extent of the 
outstretched feet and the wing, as compared with the tail. As they are, 
however, among the most variable of proportions, and are likewise 
among the most difficult measurements to take with accuracy, they have 
been here neglected. 

* In consequence of the small size of these pages, it has been found impracticable to 
Include the names of the localities, the date of collecting, and the name of the collector 
in the tables, as would have been desirable. 
VOL. II. 14 



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220 BULLETIN OF THE 

Individual Variation in the Size and Form of the Bill. — That con- 
siderable variation occurs in the size and shape of the bill, in specimens 
of the same sex and species living together at the same locality, is evident 
from a glance at some of the preceding tables of measurements. The 
variation in this organ is further illustrated in the accompanying plates 
(Plates IV- VIII), in which are given figures of the bills of several 
specimens of each of a number of species. Much greater differences 
are here shown to exist in cospecific specimens of the same sex 
and from the same locality than occur between those supposed to 
be distinct, of which comparative figures of the bills have been pub- 
lished with a view of demonstrating their specific diversity. In only a 
few groups in fact, and mainly in the long-billed Grallce, is the bill 
generally admitted to be too variable to afford an important basis for 
the discrimination of species. 

The principal points of variation in the form of the bill eonsi.-t in 
variations in its general size, without corresponding variations in the 
general size of the individual, and in the details of its form in regard to 
thickness and length. There are also other variations in respect to the 
emargination or dentation of the terminal portion, especially in the vast 
group of the insectivorous species, and in the "festooning" of the bill 
in many of the hawks.* In respect to the size of the bill, it is a note- 
worthy fact that birds specifically and sexually identical vary in such a 
way that specimens much below the average size possess bills above 
the average size for their respective species, and, conversely, that 
specimens above the average size have bills much smaller than the 
average for their respective species, the general proportions of the 
bill in each case being essentially the same. In such cases, with 
the increase or decrease in length, there are corresponding differ- 
ences in the thickness of the bill, both in the vertical and trans- 
verse directions. In other cases with the increase in length there 
is no corresponding increase in thickness, such a differentiation thus 
resulting in a relatively attenuated form of the bill. In other cases 
the bill is shortened without a corresponding decrease in its thick- 
ness, from which results a short, thick, or robust bill. The variation 
in thickness is again sometimes relatively greater in the vertical 

* In respect to this point, see. Dr. Henry Bryant's paper on " Variations in the Plu- 
mage in Buleo borealis auct. and B. Hwlani Aud.V" (Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
Vol. VIII, p. 107 et $eq., Ifc6l, where the variation in this feature is especially noticed. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 221 

than in the transverse direction, and sometimes the reverse, thus 
giving in some cases a deep, narrow bill, and in others a broad, de- 
pressed bill. In the latter case the differences are especially important, 
as will be more fully shown later. In regard to the tooth-like inden- 
tation near the tip of the bill in so many of the insectivorous birds, it is 
found that in some species which usually have it strongly developed, 
specimens occasionally occur with the indentation nearly or quite obso- 
lete. Again in other cases where this feature is usually but slightly 
developed, some specimens have the notch at the tip of the bill exceed- 
ingly prominent. Similar variations occur in regard to the develop- 
ment of the so-called " festoon " of the upper mandible in the hawks, 
as Dr. Bryant has already sufficiently shown. 

The greatest range of individual differentiation in any given organ 
occurs, as would be naturally expected, in those species which have that 
organ more than ordinarily developed, and also in species of a low 
grade of structure. In the long-billed Grallce both these conditions 
exist, and it is in such genera as Numenius, Gambetta, Limosa, Scolo- 
pax, Philohela, and Gallinago, that the maximum of bill variation is 
seen. It is less marked in the song-birds, though in many members of 
this group the variation is by no means small. In the typical wood- 
peckers, on the other hand, which have the bill especially adapted to a 
peculiar function, that of digging into wood, the variation is scarcely 
appreciable, since any considerable variation from its usual form would 
seriou-dy impair its efficiency. In the semi-frugivorous and terrestrial 
Picidcc, however, we again meet with the usual range of variation. 

In the accompanying plates illustrative of variation in the bill, 
representatives from the higher types of the Oscines have mainly been 
chosen, several representatives from widely different families having 
been selected. Plate IV, figures 1 and la, 2 and 2a, give a view of 
the bills of two specimens of the common king-bird [Tyrannus caro- 
linensis), from Eastern Massachusetts, which differ from each other as 
much as the bills of different genera sometimes do. One of them, as 
will be seen, is so much narrower and deeper than the other as to give 
very different proportions and outlines. The skulls of these two speci- 
mens vary in the same manner as do the bills, the one having ;i broad, 
flat skull, and the other a narrow, high one. Two specimens of M>/iar- 
chus crinitus, one of which is from South Carolina and the other from 
Western New York, differ as much from each other, and in nearly the 



222 BULLETIN OF THE 

same way, as do those of (he king-bird. Similar and nearly as great 
variations occur also between different specimens of Contopus borealis, 
C. virens, Empidonax minimus, E. jiaviventris, Sayorius fuscus, and 
in several species of (he South American Tyrannida. But between 
these (wo extremes are found in other specimens nearly every possible 
degree of gradation. 

Figures 3 and oa to figures 7 and la (same plate) represent different 
forms of the bill in Troglodytesaedon. Between these specimens there 
are great differences both in respect to absolute size and to general 
form, greater than would be deemed necessary by most ornithologists 
for the differentiation of species. These examples are all from Florida, 
and essentially from the same locality. Other specimens in the Muse- 
um come between these extremes in such a way as to show the incon- 
stancy of all these forms. The variation in color, which is considerable 
in this species, does not accord with the variation in the bill, specimens 
exhibiting the extremes of color as often having the bills alike as other- 
wise, and, conversely, those with bills alike differ widely in color. 

Figures 8 and 8a to 11 and 11a (same plate) indicate the varia- 
bility of the bill, especially in respect to length, in Massachusetts 
specimens of Seiurus noveboracensis. The first corresponds essentially 
with, and unquestionably is, an example of the so-called Seiurus ludo- 
vicianus, which, in all probability, is but the darker colored, longer- 
billed southern form of S. noveboracensis. This species varies also 
remarkably in color, but the variation in color, as in the case of Tro- 
glodytes aedon, and as is commonly the case in other species, does not 
accord with the variation in the bill, some of the long-billed specimens 
being in color almost undi-tinguishable from some of the short-billed 
ones, while some of those with medium bills present the extreme 
degrees of variation in respect to color. 

Figures 12 and 12a to14 and 14a (same plate) represent the bills 
of three, male specimens of Mniotilta varia from the vicinity of Cam- 
bridge, which present as great differences as modern ornithologists 
would ordinarily deem sufficient, if the specimens had come from 
Mexico instead of from Massachusetts, to warrant their recognition as 
types of three distinct species. The correspondingly great variations in 
color in this species have already been adverted to (p. 190). The 
bill, however, in specimens presenting extreme forms of color variation, 
unfortunately for ultra-divisionists, may be either of the ordinary form 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 223 

or of either of the forms figured, or of any intermediate form, as exem- 
plified by the specimens of this species in the collection of the Museum. 
Figure 15 and 15a and 16 and IGa (same plate) are accurate repre- 
sentations of the bills of two Massachusetts males of Dendrceca striata. 
The differences between these specimens, though so great, are not 
greater than occur in different cospecific examples of several other 
species of this genus contained in the Museum. 

Massachusetts specimens of Certhi a familiar is differ even more in the 
form of the bill than do the specimens above figured of either Troglody- 
tes a'edon or Mniotilta varia. They also present a similar range of color 
variation in the plumage, and one equally at variance with the variation 
in the bill. 

Figures 19 and 19a, 20 and 20a (same plate), show how widely 
two Florida specimens (both males) of Pyranga cestiva vary in respect 
to the size of the bill, the specimens in question differing but little in 
general size. If these figures are compared with the figures recently 
published of the bills of certain supposed species of Pyranga'* they will 
be found to vary more than some of the latter do, and indicate how un- 
satisfactory the nature of species must be when based mainly upon dif- 
ferences in the bill. Other cospe'cific specimens of Pyranga in the 
Museum exhibit great difference in the size, form, and position of the 
tooth-like processes of the upper mandible, and in the color of the bill, 
— differences that have been regarded as specific characters. The 
color of the bill in many species of birds, in fact, varies greatly in speci- 
mens of the same species taken at the same season, and generally in 
those taken at different seasons ; yet it is a character that has been re- 
lied upon for the distinction of species. 

Figures 1 and la, 2 and 2a, 4 and 4a, and 5 and 5a, Plate V, illus- 
trate variations in the bill in Massachusetts representatives of .2EgiotJtns 
linarius. Figures 3 and 3a, and 5 and oa, are drawn from specimens from 
Arctic America, the first being an original specimen of the jE. fuscescens 
Coues ex auct., and the other a similar specimen of the JE. exilipes Coues. 
Figures 7 and la to 10 and 10a, inclusive (same plate), represent varia- 
tions of the bill in male specimens of Chrysomitris tristis, a species allied 
to JE. linarius. It will be seen that the two series are nearly parallel in 
respect to the amount and character of the variations in the bill. 
Figures 11 and 11a and 12 and 12a indicate similar variations in an- 

* Proceed. Phil. Acad. Xat. Sci., June, 1869, pp. 130-133. 



224 BULLETIN OF THE 

other allied species, the Chrysomitris pinus, and figures 13 and 13a 
to 1j and 15a, inclusive (same plate) similar variations in another 
species (Curviroslra americana), of the same sub-family. In the latter 
case the specimens are also all males, and all from the vicinity of Cam- 
bridge, they having been killed in fact from the same flock. In the 
jEgiotkus group numerous so-called " species " have been described by 
different writers, six or seven of which were recognized by Dr. 
Coues a few years since in his monograph of that genus.* A consid- 
erable number of these species have been generally looked upon as 
equivocal, and the exact number in the group and their distinctive 
characteristics have been a matter of much uncertainty. Recently the 
writer above referred to has again revised the group,f and arrives at 
the conclusion that if more than one species exists, all the forms pre- 
viously recognized by him as species are valid species. I can readily 
grant this alternative, being fully convinced that the genus consists of 
but a single known species, which has a circumpolar distribution. The 
alleged specific distinctions have consisted in differences in general 
size, in the relative size of the bill, the length of the tarsus, wing, and 
tail, and in color. Some of these differences are doubtless climatic and 
local, while others may be due to age, but the greater part I believe to 
be to a great degree purely individual, inasmuch as they are paralleled 
in allied species, whose standing has not been and cannot reasonably be 
questioned. But the special consideration of the variations presented 
by the JEtjiotla and similar groups will be reserved till after the facts 
relating to geographical variation have been presented, since they can 
then be move appropriately discussed. 

Figures 1G and IGa to 18 and 18<7, inclusive (Flate V), represent 
the bills of three male specimens of Pusserculus savanna, from different 
localities on the Atlantic coast. The specimen represented in figures 
18 and 18c?, has the bill of minimum size, being in bulk less than half 
that of the one represented in figures 17 and 17a. \ Figure 17, it will 
be observed, corresponds nearly with the so-called P. sandwichensis § of 

* A Monograph of the genus JEgiolhus, etc., Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. XII, p. 

1. Vol. XV, p. 4", 1SG3. 
j On variations in the plumage of the jEgiotki, Ibid., Vol. XXI, p. — , 1869. 
J Other specimens received from Grinnell, Iowa, from Professor II. \V. Parker, since 
the above was written, have lulls still smaller than any of those here figured. 
§ ISaird's Birds of N. Amer., p. 444, 1858. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 225 

the Pacific coast, and figure 17 with the so-called Passerculus alaudi- 
nus* also of the Pacific coast. 

Plate VI, although designed more especially to illustrate local varia- 
tion, indicates to some extent the individual variation existing in Age- 
Iceus phoenkeus. Figures 1 and la represent the average type of the 
hill in this species in Massachusetts, and figures 3 and 3a, and 4 and 
4a, unusually long and unusually short forms of the bill found at the 
same locality. Figures 2 and 2a, 5 and 5a, and 6 and Ga, represent a 
similar series from the St. John's River, Florida. All the specimens of 
the two series are adult males. 

Plate VII represents similar variations of the bill in Quiscahi* 
purpureus. Figures 1 and la, 3 and 3a, 4 and 4a, and G andfGa, 
represent the average and the extreme types of the bill met with in 
Massachusetts males. The latter also represents an inflexed type of 
bill, a modification seen in many species, it being especially common in 
the Quiscali and other genera having the bill of a similar form. It is 
unmistakably an individual peculiarity, evidently depending mainly 
upon age, and resulting from the upper mandible outgrowing and over- 
hanging the lower. In Quiscalus purpureus such specimens are more 
or less frequent at probably all localities, they having been received at 
the Museum from Maine, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Florida, and 
Illinois, and I have seen them from the "West Indies. It often gives 
rise to the name inflexirostris, which is found so frequently a synonyme.f 
The figures of the bills of four females of Sturnella ludoviciana (Plate 
VIII), from Florida, indicate the character of the bill variation ex- 
hibited by different individuals of this species at the same locality, 
independently of any variation attributable to sex. Figures o and oa, 
and G and Go (same plate) show that like variations occur in Colaptes 
auratus, the figures being drawn from two Massachusetts females. 

Similar comparisons, with similar results, might be made with scores 
of other species, but the above illustrations will doubtless suffice to show 
that individual variation in the form of the bill is not only great, but 
that it exists in groups having a high grade of structure. Other groups 
might have been chosen in which the individual variation in the form 
of the bill, as already stated, is far greater than in the instances above 

* Bonaparte, Comptes Rendu?, Vol. XXXVII, p. 918, 1853. 

t Concerning Quiscalus i/ijltxirostris Swuiuson, see below (Part IV), under Q. pur- 
pureus. 

VOL. II. 15 



226 BULLETIN OF THE 

cited. The Grallce have already been referred to as presenting re- 
markable examples of bill variation. In some of the Anatidce, how- 
ever, it is scarcely less, whilst it is especially great among many of the 
Longipennes. Hence some authors evidently attach too high impor- 
tance to the exact form of the bill in these groups. 

All the illustrations referred to above have been drawn, with one or 
two exceptions, from fully adult specimens. One of these is a speci- 
men of Passerculus savanna (Plate V, fig. 18), which is a bird of the 
year, killed in Labrador in Augu.-t, before it had quite completed its 
first moult. Another is the smallest billed specimen of Chrysomitris 
trisfis (Plate V, fig. 10), which is also evidently a bird of the year. The 
other is an autumnal specimen of Dendrceca striata (Plate IV, fig. 
15). They all, however, would be ordinarily considered as adult in 
size. 

Variations in the Size and Form of the Bill, Wing, etc., 
resulting from age. 

In the foregoing remarks on the variations in general size, in propor- 
tions, and in the form of different parts, exclusive reference has been 
had to adult specimens. It is easy, however, to confound difference 
depending upon age with those strictly resulting from individual differ- 
entiation. The form of the bill is especially subject to variation 
by age in specimens that upon casual inspection would seem to be 
full-grown In long-billed birds the bill increases in length for several 
months after the bird is full-fledged, and even after it has once 
moulted. In short- and thick-billed birds, the bill increases considerably 
in thickness as well as in length after the individual seems to have 
acquired its adult size and proportions. As a general rule, then, " birds 
of the year " possess a relatively shorter and thicker bill than those 
fully adult, or three or four years of age. In old age an abnormal 
elongation of the upper mandible occasionally occurs, especially in 
species in which the tip of the upper mandible is decurved and projects 
slightly beyond the lower, as in Corvus, Quiscahts, Vireo, Tta-dus, 
Larus, etc. Since, however, great differences occur in the form of the 
bill in specimens of the same age, in birds of the year as well as in those 
unquestionably adult, it is sometimes difficult to determine how much 
of the difference in certain cases is to be considered as due to age and 
how much to individual variation. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 227 

The wing also varies considerably in form with age. In many of the 
song-birds, at least, and also in the raptorial birds, the wing becomes 
more pointed with the second and third moultings of the remiges. 
Birds of the first year hence have, even after the flight feathers are 
fully grown, a shorter and more rounded fore-wing, as a general rule, 
than birds of two or three years of age. These differences of course 
result from variations in the relative length of the primaries, the outer 
primaries being the last to acquire their ultimate proportions, as they 
are also the last primaries to be renewed in the annual moult. A 
similar change with age occurs in the form of the inner point of the 
wing, or that formed by the inner secondaries. These, like the pri- 
maries, are subject to a gradual increase in length for a time with each 
moult, they likewise being the latest of the secondaries to acquire their 
mature size, as they are also the last of the secondaries changed in 
each normal moult. Thus, through the gradual elongation of the outer 
primaries and the inner secondaries, a slight change is produced in the 
general form of the wing. It is, however, only slight, and since some 
young birds have as pointed wings as any of the same species which 
are fully adult, and some adult birds have wings as much rounded as 
the full-grown young, the rule is subject to many exceptions. The 
sexes of the same species also often differ similarly with the young and 
old in respect to the form of the wing. This is more especially the 
case in those species in which the female is much smaller and much 
duller colored than the male, the structural inferiority of the female to 
the male being thus evident in various features. 

"While the wing may be regarded, as already stated, as generally 
smaller and more rounded in the younger individuals, it not unfre- 
quently happens that the specimens having the greatest alar extent are 
immature birds. This has been particularly noticed in the eagles and 
hawks, as well as in some of the gulls, in which it is so frequent as to 
have attracted the attention of numerous observers.* The feathers of the 
wings and tail are not only longer, but they are also broader, and hence 
in the expanded wing present a greater resisting surface to the air. 
Two explanations of this fact present themselves. First, in the cases 
referx-ed to, the birds may have been born at a very northern locality, 
whence only the younger birds ever descend so far south. Second, the 
greater lack of power in the muscles of flight in the young birds, as 

* See American Naturalist, Vol. Ill, 1S69, p. 617. 



228 BULLETIN OF THE 

compared with those fully mature, may he counterbalanced by a rela- 
tively larger supporting surface in the wings and tail. Whatever the 
explanation may be, the facts seem to be unquestionably as above 
stated. 

Other variations in the plumage and in other characters depending 
upon age, but which are liable to be confounded with individual differ- 
entiation, might be cited, but none seem to be of sufficient importance 
to require a special description. 

General Remarks on Individual Variation. 

After the preceding remarks on this* subject, I should perhaps state 
expressly what I regard to be the bearing of the facts above discussed, 
otherwise I might be understood as in a great measure discarding 
the majority of the characters used in the diagnoses of species and 
genera. Nothing, however, is further from my purpose. What I urge 
is simply this : that the extent of purely individual variation is far 
greater than has usually been recognized, and that as a result numerous 
strictly nominal species have found their place in our systems, from 
naturalists having mistaken these differences for true specific characters. 
Individual variation, however, is so complicated with geographical 
variation, that the general bearings of the whole subject will be deferred 
till the end of the discussion of the latter topic. 

As regards the general cause of individual differences in animals, it 
is too evidently constitutional to allow of any other hypothesis, and akin 
to that seen in domestic animals, and which in man gives to each indi- 
vidual his unlikeness in temperament and physical structure to all other 
men. While individuality is so patent and so universal in the human 
species, and scarcely less so in domesticated animals, it is one of the 
most surprising facts in zoology that so many naturalists should have 
entertained the idea that there is an almost total absence of it in feral 
animals, and that the description of a single specimen will suffice for 
that of its species. Practically, however, this has been the fact, and 
eminently so with that large class of " species hunters," who have not 
inaptly been characterized as "closet naturalists"; for to this class 
and not to the field naturalists are we mainly indebted for the long 
lists of synonymes that form so vexatious a burden to zoological 
science. 

Certain secondary causes that share in producing individual variation 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 229 

are doubtless more or less obscurely traceable. Among these are cer- 
tain circumstances attending the time of hatching, as well as, of course, 
the vigor of the parent. Not unfrequently the first attempts of birds to 
rear their brood, are unsuccessful, from their eggs or young bein<* de- 
stroyed by their enemies. Persisting, however, in their efforts, it is late 
in the season before their brood is fledged, several sets of eggs or young 
having been previously destroyed. The birds of such broods are found 
to be smaller and paler colored than those hatched earlier in the 
season. In cases where several broods are reared each year, as a 
general rule the birds of the earlier brood seem in all respects the most 
perfect and vigorous. Various other causes operating during their 
infancy doubtless more or less affect their general size, their propor- 
tions, and colors when mature. Food has doubtless much to do with 
variation in color, though but few facts bearing upon this point have 
been yet recorded. Professor Agassiz informs me, however, that many 
years since, in Switzerland, he raised many Pyrrhula vulgaris, and 
found that by feeding them on the seeds of hemp the red on the breast 
changed to black. The well-known fact that certain brightly colored 
birds, as the purple finch (Carpodacus purpureus) and the crossbills 
(Curvirostra), change, when kept in cages, from bright red to dull 
olive with their first moult, and never again, or at least so long as kept 
in confinement, regain their original color, shows how susceptible the 
color of birds is to the influences of food and artificial conditions of life. 

Climatic Variation. 

Climatic variation involves as completely all parts of the animal as 
does individual variation. It is more marked, however, in some features 
than in others. The three most prominent phases of climatic variation 
in birds are the following : variation in general size, variation in the 
size ;md form of the bill, variation in color. 

Climatic Variation in Size. — Variation in the size of individuals of 
the same species with differences in the latitude and altitude of their 
respective places of birth is a fact already so well known as to be quite 
generally recognized ; hence any demonstration of such a variation is 
in the present connection unnecessary. A few tables of comparative 
measurements of New England and Florida specimens given in Part IV 
serve to illustrate its general character and extent. Similiar illustrations 
are abundantly afforded by the tables of measurements published in Pro- 



230 BULLETIN OF THE 

fessor Baird's Birds of North America,* in the text of which work fre- 
quent reference is made to the differences in size between northern and 
southern specimens of the same species. The same author also subse- 
quently called attention to the subject, and explicitly announced a general 
law of geographical variation in size ; namely, a gradual decrease in size 
in individuals of the same species with the decrease in the latitude and 
altitude of their birth-places.t 

In some species, and throughout some entire families, climatic varia- 
tion is more marked than in others ; generally, however, it is very 
appreciable, and amounts, in respect to size, not unfrequently to from 
twelve to twenty per cent J of the average dimensions of the species. 

Climatic Variation in the Bill. — The climatic variation in the size of 
the bill is, in general, inverse to that of the general size of the individual. 
In some species, as in the Sittce and the typical members of the Picidce, 
I have as yet been unable to trace an independent variation in the size 
of the bill to that of the body ; but in many species there is not only a 
marked relative increase in the size of the bill to the southward, but, in 
some, an absolute increase, especially in its length. 

* Pacific Railroad Explorations and Surveys, Vol. IX, Birds. By Professor S. F. 
Baird, with the co-operation of Mr. John Cassin and Mr. George N. Lawrence. 1858. Sub- 
sequently republished under the title of " The Birds of North America," with an Atlas 
of one. hundred plates. 

t Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. XI, p. 300, November, 1859. Also in Am. Journ. 
Sci. and Arts, 2d Ser., Vol. XLT, p. 190, March, 1866. 

\ Variation in size with differences in habitat is by no means confined to birds. In 
mammals it .is well known to be as great, if not greater, than among birds. In some 
wide-ranging species of mammals there appears to be a double decadence in size, — a 
diminution to the northward, in those non-migratory species whose habitats extend into 
the arctic regions, as well as a diminution to the southwards of the point where in gen-, 
eral the maximum of size is attained, — as I have elsewhere had occasion to remark. 
(Bull. Mus. Comp. Zotil., Vol. I, p. 199.) But in these exceptional cases of a decline 
in size to the northward, the cause of such a decline must result from climatic 
conditions the i-everse of those producing the decline at the southward, — from the 
excessive rigor of the arctic climate instead of from the enervating influence of 
warm temperate and sub-tropical latitudes. 

In the case of reptiles, the larger representatives of a given species are generally found 
at the North, as has also been observed to be the case with the edible marine and fluviatile 
fishes. (I am credibly informed that this is markedly the case with the codfish and the 
halibut.) In some groups of Crustacea and mollusca-the same fact has been repeatedly 
observed;' but in insects, as in plants, the increase in size is generally to the southward, 
as is especially noticeable in the diurnal Lepidoptera. In plants, however, the increase 
is a purely vegetative one, the northern representatives of a given species being gener- 
ally far the most prolific, in proportion to the size of the plant, utar the northern 
limit of their respective habitats. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOULOGY - . 231 

An increase in the length of the bill is most frequent in long-billed 
species, while in short-billed ones the increase is in general size, without 
material change in its proportions. With the increased length and 
slenderness of the bill there is in many cases also a tendency to greater 
curvature. 

An increase in the length of the bill is quite marked in the genera 
Quiscalus, Agelceus, Geothlypis, Troglodytes, Seiurus, Harporhynchus, 
Galeoscoptes, etc. Quiscalus purpureus and Agelceus phamiceus afford 
good illustrations of geographical variation in the size and shape of the 
bill. Notwithstanding that the northern specimens are the larger, the 
southern ones have, in the average, bills as long, though slenderer, than 
the northern, and occasionally even longer. These differences are shown 
to some extent in Plates VI and VII, where the figures of the bills 
of Massachusetts and Florida specimens of these species are given side 
by side. In Plate VI, figures 1 and la represent the bill of an average 
Massachusetts male A. phozniceus, and figures 2 and 2a the bill of an 
average Florida male of the same species. The latter, while much less 
thick, is fully as long as the former. Figures 4 and 4a represent the 
shortest bill of a considerable series of Massachusetts specimens, and 
figures 6 and Go the shortest or thickest bill of a similar series of Florida 
specimens. Figures 3 and 3a give the longest bill of the Massachusetts 
series, and figures 5 and ba the longest of the Florida series, the speci- 
mens being in each case adult males. Plate VII, figures 3 and 3a rep- 
resent the bill in average Massachusetts males of Quiscalus purpureus, 
and figures 2 and 2a that of average Florida specimens, while figures 1 
and la, and I and 4a, show respectively the longest and the shortest bills 
of a considerable series of Massachusetts specimens. Figures 5 and ba 
are from a New Jersey specimen, and figures 6 and 6a from a Florida 
specimen, the latter showing an inflection of the upper mandible more 
or less frequent in the various species of Quiscalus. The figures, as in 
the previous plate, were all drawn from adult males. Jn each of these 
species the average difference in the bills of Florida and Massachusetts 
birds is as great as is frequently considered to be sufficient to constitute 
specific differentiation, and between the extremes, especially of A. phoz- 
niceus, even subgeneric. Yet specimens from intermediate localities 
resent such a gradual and complete transition between the two forms 
as to render their specific identity unquestionable. 

A similar difference between Massachusetts and Florida examples, 



232 BULLETIN OF THE 

with a gradual transition from the one to the other, through specimens 
from intermediate localities, is seen in Troglodytes aedon, Geotklypis 
triclias, and Seiurus noveboracensis. In Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Orlyx 
virginianus, Corvus americamts, and Cyunura cristata the bill is appre- 
ciably larger in the Florida than in the northern form. In Corvus 
americanus this difference was long since noticed by Professor Baird, 
the larger bill of South Florida specimens having led him to recog- 
nize a variety floridanus of this species, based chiefly on this difference.* 
The same author has also referred to the larger size of the bill in 
Florida specimens of Ortyx virginianus.^ 

In some species individual variation is so great that it is unsafe to 
draw conclusions respecting geographical variation from the examina- 
tion of a small number of specimens. This is notably the case in 
Sturnella ludoviciana, in which the bill varies greatly in size and form, 
as does the bird in general bulk, at all localities. In the average, how- 
ever, Florida specimens of this species seem to have a relatively longer 
and slenderer bill than those from the Northern States. 

As already noticed, variation in the bill is not equally marked in all 
species, but it occurs in too many to admit of the supposition that the 
numerous cases wherein it is clearly marked are exceptional, or that it 
does not follow a general law of geographical variation. The observa- 
tions above detailed are based on specimens collected on the Atlantic 
coast, from New England southward to Florida, and refer exclusively 
to species breeding within that range. But specimens of species which 
breed entirely to the northward of this range, collected during their 
semi-annual migrations, corroborate the law already staled, namely, 
an increase in the size of the bill to the southward in specimens of the 
same species from different breeding stations. In the Anatidce and 
TringcE, which breed far to the northward and pass the winter in lower 
latitudes, it is noticeable that, while those which arrive first in the fall, 
and those which return north latest in the spring, are smaller than 
those that arrive later and depart earlier, they have, nevertheless, 
relatively larger bills. This has been especially noticed in species of 
Fulix, Bernicla, Actodromas, and Macrorhamphus. Professor Baird 
has also referred to the larger size of the bill of the southern repre- 
sentatives of Lagopus ulbus as compared with those from further north, 

* Birds of North America, p. 568, 1858, 

t Am. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 2d Ser., Vol. XLI, p. 191, 1866. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 233 

" those from Eastern Labrador and Newfoundland," he says, appear- 
in^ " to have decidedly broader, stouter, and more convex bills than those 
from the Hudson's Bay and more northern countries."* In the writings 
of various authors on the birds of Southern Mexico, Central America, 
Southern Asia, and Northern Africa, frequent mention is incidentally 
made of the larger size of the bills of southern representatives of north- 
ward ranging species. Although such statements record what have 
been apparently regarded as only isolated facts, their frequency indicates 
that the increase in the size of the bill to the southward is not confined 
to the birds of Eastern North America, nor exclusively to those of 
temperate and sub-tropical countries, but that it is a general geograph- 
ical law, similar to that of the variation with locality in the general bulk 
of the individual. 

Geographical Variation in Color. — Geographical variation in color 
in birds may be regarded as of two kinds, which may be termed, from 
their different geographical relations, latitudinal variation and longi- 
tudinal variation. The first is coincident with differences in latitude, 
and the second with differences in longitude. Both are due, however, 
to climatic peculiarities, and are hence, strictly speaking, climatic. The 
latitudinal is perhaps at present the best known, and will be first con- 
sidered. 

(a) Latitudinal Variation. — ■ In those species of North American 
birds whose breeding range extends over a wide range of latitude, the 
southern-born specimens are, as a general rule, appreciably darker or 
brighter, or more intensely colored, than northern-born ones of the 
same species ; in many instances the difference being so great as to im- 
press even the casual observer. Dark colored birds, like the Quiscali, 
Agelceus phceniceus, etc., become blacker towards the southern limit of 
their respective habitats, where tho.-e with metalic reflections have the 
iridescence more intense and of a darker hue, greenish and bronzy re- 
flections changing to purple. The slaty, ferruginous, and olive tints, and 
the various shades of red and yellow of others, become also far more 
intense. In species barred transversely with dark and light colors, the 
dark bands, as a general rule, become broader, and the light ones 
narrower. Those with white spots on a black ground have the spots 
reduced in size and number, the smaller ones becoming ob-olete. 
White bars on the wings and terminal white spots on the tail feathers 
* Birds of X. Amer., p. 634. 



234 BULLETIN OF THE 

are also of less extent in southern specimens. There hence results, as 
already observed, a generally darker aspect in the plumage of the 
southern representatives of wide-ranging species ; the bill and the feet 
also usually sharing in the general accession of coloring matter in the 
integuments. The difference in color between the extremely northern 
and the extremely southern representatives of a given species is often 
so great that, taken in connection with other differences, as in general 
size and in the size and form of the bill, the two extremes might be 
excusably taken for distinct species, especially if viewed aside from the 
connecting series between the two types formed by specimens from suc- 
cessively intermediate- points, which beyond question show their specific 
identity. 

As in the case of climatic variation in the bill and in general size, 
the variation in color differs greatly in degree in different species. 
Climatic difference in color is particularly striking in Agelceas pharni- 
ceus. In the males the black is greatly intensified and more lustrous 
at the South, and the red on the shoulders becomes equally heightened. 
Instead of the light red shoulder-patch, bordered externally with 
whitish or pale yellowish-whitish, seen in Massachusetts specimens, the 
shoulder-patch in the Florida males is of a brilliant dark red, with a 
rich cream-colored or orange-yellow border. "While the differences in 
the bills of the two types might in extreme cases be taken as indicative 
of different sub-genera, the difference in color is as great as occurs 
between the northeastern type of A. phce?iiceus, and either the so-called 
A. tricolor or A. gubernator of the Pacific slope, or between any of these 
ititer se. Quiscalus purpureus also affords a similar example of climatic 
variation, as well in color as in the bill and general size. In the males 
the change in general tint is in the black becoming more intense at the 
South, and the iridescence being dark purple or bluish instead of bronzy 
or greenish. The change in the females is as great as that in the 
males. At the North their plumage is nearly lustreless brownish-black, 
but at the South it becomes nearly as black as that of the northern 
males, and has considerable iridescence, so that the northern collector, 
judging from color alone, would at first be likely to mistake the south- 
ern females for males. 

In Ortgx virginianus, through the increased breadth of the transverse 
bars of hlack at the South, on the dorsal as well as on the ventral sur- 
face, the general aspect of the plumage is very much darker in Florid? 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 235 

specimens than in New England ones. In Sturnella ludoviciana the 
yellow of the ventral surface in Florida specimens is far more intense 
than it is in northern ones ; the slate color of Guleoscopies carulinensis 
is correspondingly darker, and the ferruginous of Harporhynchus ruf us is 
much redder. In Centurus carolinus not only are the black transverse 
bars on the back broader and darker, but the red on the head and 
abdomen becomes more extended and lustrous. In Picus pubescens 
the white spots on the wings become smaller and fewer, with a greater 
tendency to black streaks on the sides of the breast, a variation in the 
direction of P. Gairdneri and P. Harrisi, as will be noticed at length 
in the remarks on P. pubescens and P. villosus in Part IV. Similar 
differences occur between northern and southern specimens of Picus 
borealis, which are so great as to have led Mr. Cassin to regard the 
southern type as specifically distinct from the northern. Similar differ- 
ences to those above described occur between northern and southern 
specimens of Thryothorus ludovicianus, Troglodytes a'edon, Geotldypis 
trichas, Colaptes auraius, Buteo lineatus, and various other species, as 
will be described more in detail in Part IV. 

The climatic variation in respect to the relative size of the white 
spaces on the rectrices and primary remiges may be illustrated by a 
single example. In northern specimens of Pipilo erythrophihalmus the 
terminal white spots of the tail feathers are found on the four outer 
feathers of each side ; but in Florida-born ones they occur on only the 
three outer feathers on each side ; and are correspondingly reduced in 
length. The white area on the tail of Florida specimens hence has 
only about the extent that would be presented in northern specimens if 
the outer pair of feathers were removed. The extent of the white 
space at the base of the primaries is correspondingly reduced in size in 
the southern type. 

Extending the examination to northern species, it is found that simi- 
lar color differences with the latitude of the birthplace are of frequent 
occurrence. In Bernicla brenta and Bernicla canadensis the smaller 
southern-born birds are, as a general rule, considerably darker than the 
larger northern-born ones. The same is true of Fulix marila and 
Bucephala americana, the so-called Bucephala ulandica being the 
larger northern type of B. americana, in which the white markings on 
the wings and head occupy a somewhat larger area. It is altogether 
probable also that the so-called Anser frontalis holds a similar relation 



236 BULLETIN OF THE 

to A. Gambeli (= A albifrons ?), and the Anser cceruhscens to the A. 
hyperboreus, though by some the former has been regarded as the young 
of the later. In Larus argentatus the southern specimens are not only 
smaller, with the " mantle " somewhat darker, but as a general rule the 
white spots at the tips of the first and second primary quills are more 
restricted. 

The changing of the pelage to white in winter in certain northern 
mammals, and of the plumage in certain birds, as the ptarmigans, cor- 
relates perfectly with these geographical differences in color; and since 
in some species of mammals only the northern representatives change 
to white in winter, while the southern ones are of the same color 
throughout the year, this seasonal change seems evidently to come 
under the above-stated general law of geographical or climatic color 
variation, namely, a gradual increase in color to the southward in 
individuals of the same species. 

A comparison of Florida birds with "West India specimens of the 
same species shows that the difference between them in color (and, it 
may be added, in size and other general features) are generally not 
greater, and in some cases jfar less, especially between Cape Florida and 
Cuba specimens, than obtains between Florida and Massachusetts 
examples, and that it is of precisely the same character. West Indian 
specimens of course differ more from Massachusetts examples of the 
same species than the latter do from others from East Florida, yet by 
means of the South Florida specimens, which differ but slightly from 
the Cuba type, a gradual transition is evident from the extreme northern 
to the extreme southern forms. Of late many Jamaican, Porto Rican, 
and Cuban forms have been regarded, by many writers, as specifically 
distinct from their representatives in the Northern States, and in many 
cases they might well be so regarded, were there not a succession of 
intermediate forms connecting them, — a fact which seems to have 
been hitherto overlooked. The earlier writers considered the Ortyx, 
the Slurnella, the Strix, the Circus, several of the Buteos, etc., of the 
West Indies as specifically identical with the Ortyx virginianus, 
Sturnella ludoviciana, Strix Jlammea, Circus hudsoniiis, Bntco bore- 
alis, etc., of the United States, and doubtless justly, notwithstanding 
that the comparison of specimens reveals certain relatively slight 
but constant differences in color and size, and to some extent in 
other features. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 237 

(b) Longitudinal Variation. — In comparing the birds of the Atlantic 
States with specimens specifically identical from the interior of the 
continent, one is soon struck with the brighter colors of the latter, and 
especially with a tendency, in many species, to more ferruginous tints, 
and to melanism in others. In comparing again the birds of the Mis- 
sissippi valley with those of the Pacific slope, especially that portion 
north of the fortieth parallel, a similar difference is also noticeable, the 
extremes of color variation in truly continental species being met with 
(especially to the northward of this parallel) at the Atlantic seaboard 
on the one hand, and the Pacific on the other, between which there is a 
gradual and, with an exception soon to be noticed, a uniform increase in 
intensity of color to the westward. This tendency to more ferruginous 
and melanic colors to the westward is especially marked in Falco pere- 
grinus* Accipiter fuscus, Circus hudsonius, Buteo lineatus, Buteo 
borealis, Archibuteo lagopus, Hypotriorchis columbarius, Olus vulgaris, 
and other species of Strigidce, Tetrao canadensis, Bonasa umbellus, 
Bernicla canadensis, Bernicla brenta, Larus argentalus, Par us atrt- 
capillus, Carpodacus purpureus, etc., etc. The western representatives 
of Melospiza melodia, Passerella iliaca, Jlvico hyemalis, Pipilo ery- 
throphtkalmus, Parus hudsonicus, etc., differ mainly from their Eastern 
congeners in their more ferruginous or darker colors, according to the 
species. 

While the general tendency from the East westward is thus to darker 
or deeper colors in specimens of the same species, and in representative 
species of the same genus, the rule is not without exceptions, nor is the 
transition quite uninterrupted. On the arid sterile plains the repre- 
sentatives of not a few, and probably of most, species are much lighter 
colored than their relatives either to the eastward or to the westward. 
Also at the southward on the Pacific slope there is not the tendency to 
deeper colors seen farther to the northward, specimens from North- 
western Texas, New Mexico, much of the Colorado basin and Lower 
California, being lighter than others of the same species from Northern 
California, Oregon, and Washington, an explanation of which will be 
suggested later.f 

In comparing again the European representatives of cireumpolar 
species with their representatives in Eastern North America, a difference 

* For the synonymy and other remarks on these species, see Part IV. 
f See below, p. 239 et seq. 



238 BULLETIN OF THE 

similar to, but hardly so great as, that between the Atlantic and Pacific 
coast examples of indentical species is likewise seen, the American 
being in general several shades darker than the European. In certain 
cases there is also a difference in the markings, as in some of the hawks, 
in which in the European the transverse bars are broader and better 
defined, and the longitudinal ones less so than in the American. This 
is illustrated in Astur palumbarius and A, alricapiUus, in Acci'piter 
nisits and Ac. fuscus, etc. In many instances the only tangible differ- 
ences between so-called representative American and European species 
consists in the darker, brighter, or intenser color of the American, the 
differences being oftentimes less than that between specimens of the same 
species from the Atlantic States and the Mississippi valley, or between 
those from the Mississippi valley and the Pacific coast. Not unfre- 
quently, however, are American and European specimens so nearly 
alike, even of species that have rarely been considered as identical, that 
without a knowledge of the locality whence they came it would be 
impossible to confidently refer them to the one species rather than to 
the other. 

There are also indications of various local differences in color in speci- 
mens specifically identical within the larger areas above considered, 
and which are in a measure exceptional to the general law of a west- 
ward increase in color. The data at hand are at present too few either 
to limit these exceptional areas or to indicate to what extent they are 
exceptional. They appear, however, to be coincident with peculiar 
climatic conditions, the exact nature and extent of which are likewise 
imperfectly known.* 

Variation in the Length of the Tail and in other Characters. — At 
certain localities, and more especially to the southward, there are well- 
known instances of an increase in the length of the tail, without an ap- 
preciable modification of other parts. Marked examples of this are 
seen in Icteria virens, Harporhynchus rufus, and Mi/nus polyglottus, 
as has h^en pointed out by Professor Baird and other writers,! each of 
which species has a western long-tailed variety. The Quiscalus 
macrura is also little else than a long-tailed variety of Q. major. A 
tendency is seen to this variation in Geothlypis trichas at the southward, 

* See on this point below, p. 239 et seq. 

t See especially Prof. Baird in Amer. Joum. of Science and Arts, 2d Series, VoL 
XLI, p. 191. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 239 

while it seems to be a marked characteristic of many of the birds of 
Lower California. The tendency in southern forms to an elongation of 
the tail seems, however, less general than the southward decrease iu size 
and the increase in color, or the tendency to an elongation of the bill. 

Among other local variations may be mentioned the white instead of 
a red iris in the South Florida representatives of Pipilo erythroph- 
thalmus ; the yellow instead of a black bill in the magpies of the coast of 
California ; the white basal half of the feathers of the neck of the raven 
of Southwestern Texas and Mexico, by which it is chiefly distinguished 
from the common species ; the greater continuation anteriorly of the 
superciliary stripe in the western forms of Zonotriclda leucophrys, 
by which alone it is distinguishable from the eastern form ; the white 
frontlet of one of the western forms of the Parus atricapillus group, 
etc. There appears frequently to be also a locally greater development 
of the foot in western and southern forms of wide-ranging species, 
and occasionally an exceptional increase in general size under identical 
isothermes. 

Causes of Climatic Variation. — The facts respecting climatic varia- 
tion are at present too imperfectly known to be fully explained. There 
are, however, certain peculiarities of climatic variation, especially in 
color, coincident with certain meteorological peculiarities of the regions 
where they occur, that demand attention. The increase in color to the 
southward, especially the tendency to darker tints above shown to be so 
general, coincides with the increase in the intensity of the solar rays to 
the southward, and in the humidity of the climate. The southward 
increase in depth of color and in iridescence in birds specifically identi- 
cal coincides also with the general increase in brilliancy of color in 
birds, taken as a whole, in the lower latitudes (as well as in insects 
and animals generally), the maximum being reached in the tropics. 

The longitudinal variation, or the westward increase in color, seems 
to be also coincident with the increased humidity to the westward, the 
darker representatives of any species occurring where the annual rain- 
fall is greatest, and the palest where it is least. This coincidence is 
clearly illustrated in the birds of the United States, where the darkest 
representatives of a species, as a general rule, (indeed without exception 
so far as known to me,) come from regions of maximum annual rain- 
fall, and the palest from those of minimum annual rain-fall. In the 
Northeastern States the amount of rain is only one half to two thirds 



240 BULLETIN OF THE 

what it is in the Northwestern States, while on the Great Plains it is 
less than one half what it is in the Northeastern States. In the lower 
part of the Mississippi basin and in the Southeastern States it is much 
greater than to the northward under the same meridians. Within the 
tropics, in America and Asia at least, the humidity, as well as the 
intensity of the solar rays, reaches the maximum, as does the in- 
tensity of color in both birds and other animals. In Europe, as is 
well known, the birds from near the Scandinavian coast, where 
the annual rain-fall reaches forty inches, are darker than in Central 
Europe, where the yearly rain-fall is only half this amount. So 
much darker, in fact, are the Scandinavian forms, that by some 
writers they have been regarded as specifically distinct from their 
representatives in Southern Germany, the Scandinavian forms of 
circumpolar species being as dark as their Eastern North American 
allies. There is again a striking parallelism between the relative 
humidity of Western Europe and Eastern North America, and the 
relative depth of color in the representatives of circumpolar species 
living in these two countries, the rain-fall of the latter region being 
double that of the former, and the birds of darker and livelier colors. 
As already intimated, this coincidence is not confined to the birds of 
these different regions, the same correlation of livelier, brighter, deeper 
tints with increased humidity being also exhibited by the mammals 
of these various districts, the Europeo-North American species being 
higher colored, as a general rule, in Eastern North America than 
in Europe, as the western forms of the continentally distributed Ameri- 
can species are often higher colored than the eastern. 

It is a most striking fact that the birds, and even the mammals and 
reptiles, of the almost rainless districts of Lower California, the Gila 
and Colorado deserts, are almost all so much paler in color than their 
relatives of the better-watered neighboring districts, that many of them 
have been described as distinct species, and the others referred to as 
strongly marked varieties, they all being characterfzed to a greater or 
less degree by a faded or bleached aspect. The birds and mammals of 
the arid plains of the middle region of the continent exhibit also the 
Same bleached appearance, but in a somewhat less degree. 

I had long suspected that hygrometric conditions had much to do 
with local variations in color in individuals of the same species, but I 
was not a little surprised when I came to compare the known areas 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 241 

most prolific of dark and light local forms witl rain-fall charts, — which 
may be assumed as indicating relatively the liygrometric conditions of 
different regions, — to find the distribution of the light-colored races so 
strictly coincident with the regions of minimum mean annual rail-fall, 
and the dark forms with those of maximum mean annual rain-fall, as 
seems to be the case.» 

Humidity has hence apparently far more to do with climatic varia- 
tion in color than solar intensity, though the latter has undoubtedly 
an influence upon color. The occurrence of a light-colored race 
of Arvicola riparius on Muskeget Island and the sandy sea-beaches 
of the coast of Massachusetts shows clearly that the intense light 
caused by reflection from a sandy surface tends to the diminution 
rather than to an increase of color in animals, and even plants, 
since the foliage of the latter in arid districts so commonly assumes 
a dull grayish tint. The capture on Muskeget Island last season 
(July, 1870), by Messrs. Maynard and Brewster, of two pairs of 
the short-eared owl (Olus brachyotus) with the color of the plu- 
mage so pale as at first to suggest their being albinos, is additional 
evidence of the bleaching effect of strong light upon the colors of ani- 
mals. Such facts render it doubtful whether the increased intensity of 
the light in the tropics has really much to do with the brighter colors 
of tropical birds and insects, and suggest that humidity alone may be 
the principal agent in producing this accession of color. 

In regard to the cause of other climatic variations, certain other 
facts are naturally recalled. In the remarks on. the climatic and faunal 
peculiarities of East Florida,* attention was called to the less degree of 
vivacity and energy exhibited by the southern as compared with the 
northern members of the same species, and the general higher physio- 
logical development of essentially extra-tropical species in the temperate 
portions of their habitats. Is it hence improbable that the southward 
deterioration in size seen in such species is directly related to the ener- 
vating influence of increased heat ? And why is it that so large a pro- 
portion of the birds pre-eminently singing-birds are found in temperate 
latitudes ? 

In the increased size of the bill and tail to the southward, especially 
of the former, we have a fact somewhat parallel to what is not unfre- 
quently seen in mammals. The ears, for example, of the arctic repre- 

* See above, p. 166. 
VOL. II. 16 



242 BULLETIN OF THE 

sentatives of species ranging to warm-temperate latitudes are smaller 
at the northward than at the southward, as is seen in the native dogs, 
the foxes, and the wolves, and in the arctic races of man. The ex- 
planation generally given of this seems possibly applicable to the beaks 
of birds, namely, a greater activity in the circulation of the blood in 
the peripheral parts of the body in the temperate latitudes. 

Species, Varieties, and Geographical Races. 

The foregoing remarks on individual and geographical or climatic 
variation necessitates a brief consideration of the character of species, 
varieties, and races, and the propriety of appl \ ing binomials to such 
forms as can be clearly shown to be connected by intergrading links 
with others previously known. As preparatory to what follows, it 
seems proper to refer briefly to the origin of the excessive synonymy 
with which our descriptive ornithological works are burdened. 

Ornithological synonymes may be arranged, as regards their origin, 
under four primary heads, namely: (1) Those arising from the de- 
scription of immature and adult birds of the same species for different 
species, (2) from authors mistaking sexual for specific differences, (3) 
individual variation for specific differentiation, and (4) climatic differ- 
entiation for specific. A fifth source of error, and one which has given 
rise to a large class of synonymes, results from a combination of the 
causes indicated under (3) and (4). 

Synonymes arising from the first two causes mainly preceded the 
others in regard to the relative frequency of their occurrence, especially 
so far as regards the birds of this continent. During the previous 
century, and the first two decades of the present, our birds were mainly 
described by European naturalists, who had no acquaintance with them 
in life, and whose resources often consisted of single and imperfect 
specimens received from chance travellers, without any indication of 
their sex or age. Later they were studied by resident naturalists, by 
whom the mistakes of their predecessors in this respect were to a great 
extent corrected. The laws of sexual and age variation becoming grad- 
ually known, errors from this source were soon far less frequent than in 
earlier times. When at a comparatively recent date critical compari- 
sons were made of specimens from distant localities before regarded as 
specifically identical, it was found that occasionally distinct species had 
been confounded. Such results led in the end to undue importance 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 243 

being attached to trivial differences, so that assumed species were fre- 
quently based solely on either individual or climatic variation, but 
oftener on both combined. 

As the rage for describing new species increased, differences seemed 
alone to be sought ; and so long as a given species was usually deemed 
sufficiently represented, even by the best ornithologists of the day, by 
a single pair,* the subject of individual and climatic variation was neces- 
sarily almost wholly neglected, the custom of many naturalists being to 
describe species from single specimens, as though all the representatives 
of a species were cast after an unvarying pattern. As the number of 
specimens of well-known species increased in our large museums, it was 
soon seen that some of the supposed most reliable diagnostic features 
were subject to considerable variation. The collections brought 
together from various parts of the continent by the Pacific Railroad 
surveying parties and from other sources, and the reports published 
thereon, formed the beginning of a new era in the history of the orni- 
thology of North America, and in ornithological science. The facts thus 
disclosed in respect to geographical range, and individual and climatic 
variation, opened new fields of inquiry. Old theories and blind adher- 
ence to authorities, however, still impeded progress and led to frequent 
inconsistencies, which only time and further investigations could correct. 
Hence has gradually dawned the fact of the existence of a range of 
individual variation previously unsuspected, and of general laws of 
climatic variation, the full scope of which, as bearing upon the character 
of species, is yet to be determined. 

Nearly half a century since it was discovered that the North 
American representatives of what were then commonly regarded as 
circumpolar species could not in all cases longer be regarded as identical 
with the European. Further comparisons showed that in most cases 
of the supposed circumpolar distribution of species, specimens from the 
Old "World and the New could be more or less readily distinguished, 
yet the differences were in most cases slight, more or less inconstant, 
and not unfrequently due more to differences in the latitude whence the 
specimens came than to other causes. Yet a precedent for specific 

* Not many years since amateur ornithologists were kindly informed, by ono of the 
leaders in the science of ornithology, that his collection of the birds of a certain country, 
numbering over two thousand species, required for their convenient storage a space 
equal to only about one hundred cubic feet, the specimens averaging less than two to a 
species 1 



244 BULLETIN OF THE 

separation in such cases having been established by recognized author- 
ities, it was followed till all the land-birds and a large proportion of 
the water-birds of the two continents were separated, in many cases, it 
would appear, on purely theoretical or geographical grounds.* When 
the comparison was carried to specimens of continentally di-tributed 
species from distant localities, differences between these were also de- 
tected, and the theory of specific diversity assumed, till the Pacific 
representatives of such species were separated from the Atlantic ones, 
and in like manner the southern from the northern, and those of 
particular areas, as insular, peninsular, and interior basins, from the 
others. In some cases such separations were of course properly made, 
but a high percentage of such forms are now found to intergrade through 
specimens from the intermediate localities. 

Not a few of the species of our faunal lists have been based on, and 
are still only known from, single specimens, and often on differences 
manifestly within the range of individual variation ; others represent 
local races, which only appear distinct when extremes alone are consid- 
ered, the intermediate stages being unknown or ignored. The increase of 
synonymes from this fruitful source appears to have not yet culminated, 
a large proportion of the "new species" now annually described being 
but slight local differentiations of previously known specific forms, from 
which they often differ only in being a little smaller, a little darker or 
brighter colored, and in the individual peculiarities of the single specimens 
on which some of them are based. In many cases this process of ultra 
subdivision has furnished stepping-stones to later generalizations ; in too 
many other cases it has been in its results only unmitigatedly injurious. 

So large a proportion of the commonly recognized species are virtu- 
ally nominal, or rest on a false basis, it is not surprising that in the 
reaction consequent upon, a fuller knowledge of the birds of this conti- 
nent, which has already commenced, the reality of species should be to 
some extent ignored. Whether, however, species are considered as 
entities or only as arbitrary inventions, convenience demands some 
established definition of them. 

* Audubon, writing in 1838 (Orn. Biog., Vol. IV, p. 608), refers to the Prince of 
Musignano (by whom a large part of the circumpolar and cosmopolitan specie* were 
separated into numerous assumed species) as *' having altered his notions so far as to 
seem desirous of proving that the same species of birds cannot exisfc on both the con- 
tinents"; and there seems to have, been good reason for the remark, only instead of 
proving them distinct, he in most cases merely assumed them to bo so. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 245 

Not a few naturalists have hence adopted the test of intergradation, 
which seems a reasonable and an unobjectionable one. The question of 
species and of specific synonymy is thus simplified to this: that when- 
ever two forms which have both received names are found to intergrade, 
the more recent name shall become a synonyme of the older. Some, 
however, still urge that every recognizable form, however closely 
allied to others, and even intergrading, should be recognized by a 
binomial epithet, and that whether we call them species, or varieties, 
or races, or simply forms, that such names are none the less convenient 
expressions for certain facts. It seems to me, however, that there are 
insuperable objections to this course ; for however distinct the extreme 
geographical forms of a species may be, a vast proportion of its repre- 
sentatives are intermediate to them, and could never be but doubt- 
fully referred to the one rather than to the other. Ordinarily, for 
instance, in the birds of the Atlantic slope, the representatives of a 
given species at the extreme north of its breeding range almost always 
differ very tangibly from its representatives at the extreme southern 
limit, sometimes more, sometimes less, according to the species. Those 
living only a little to the northward of the middle region differ less from 
the extreme southern type than the extreme northern type does, and those 
a little to the southward of the middle region differ still less from the 
southern type, and are qviite distinguishable from the extreme northern 
form. In other words, in species ranging from Southern Labrador or 
Northern New England to Florida, of which there are numerous un- 
questioned instances, specimens from Southern New England differ 
somewhat from the more northern ones ; those from Southern New Eng- 
land from those of Southern New Jersey and Eastern Maryland, and 
these latter from those of Georgia and Florida. It hence depends en- 
tirely upon individual predilection whether two, three, or four " species " 
or " binomial forms " shall be recognized ; and in either case there is 
the same difficulty in disposing of the intermediate types. Again, speci- 
mens from the Mississippi valley differ more or less from their relatives 
from the Atlantic coast, the central plains, and the Pacific slope. Here 
again similar difficulties are encountered. Hence it is necessary to 
decide between recognizing a single binomial form, with a considerable 
but definite range of climatic variation, or three, or six, or nine, or even 
more, which cannot be rigidly defined, and between each of which will 
always be found a greater or less proportion of intermediate types, 



246 BULLETIN OF THE 

doubtfully referable to one of the binomial forms rather than to another. 
Another important objection may be urged against giving binomial 
names to intergrading forms. In faunal and nominal lists of the 
species of a large or continental area, scarcely distinguishable forms 
take equal rank with the most distinct congeneric species. For in- 
stance, in a list of the birds of North America, Tardus Alicia and 
Tardus Swainsoni, Tardus Auduboni and Tardus Pullasi, stand side 
by side with Tardus mustelinas and Tardus fascescens, though in the 
former cases Tardus Alicice and T. Auduboni are founded at best on 
slight, and in the one case on inconstant individual or local differences, 
while in the latter no two congeneric species need be more distinct. In 
the one case only experts can distinguish the forms, and frequently they 
only by an actual comparison of specimens, and then too frequently but 
doubtfully, while in the other case a casual observer need not mistake 
them. The names alone give no clew to their real character, and are 
hence in a great measure meaningless when separated from the most ex- 
plicit diagnoses, and whose affinities can frequently only be settled by the 
arbitrary criterion of locality. But it is urged that cognizance should 
in some way be taken of these differences ; and " How can they be better 
recognized," it may be asked, " than in the way proposed ?" 

As already shown, and as I trust a large proportion of ornithologists 
are willing to admit, these local forms occur in accordance with recog- 
nizable laws of climatic variation, similar variations with locality occur- 
ring, to a greater or less extent, in all species having nearly the same 
geographical range. Eventually, then, will not the recognition of these 
laws be sufficient, and should not a statement of the tendencies to varia- 
tion with locality, and the degree to which it is developed, be embraced in 
the specific diagnosis of each species as a part of its specific description ? 
Is not this, in fact, actually essential to the proper characterization of a 
species ? The average characters being give*n, a line or two would 
suffice for a statement of its variations, both geographical and individual. 
Then only in one case where now there are hundreds would there be 
instances of doubtful identification. Till within a very recent period, 
perhaps, no other course could have been pursued than that of giving 
binomial names to each apparently distinct form, however slightly it 
may have differed from others previously known. In many cases, 
indeed, the differences between strictly intergrading geographical forms 
are very great, — greater, indeed, if they were not thus serially con- 



MUSEUM GF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 2-17 

neet'ed, (han would be deemed necessary for specific separation ; and so 
long as the extr raes only were known, no one could have regarded them 
otherwise than as well-defined species. But the time has already come, 
it seems to me, for a different and a more philosophic method, and that 
to furl her increase synonymy by giving new names to slightly different 
local forms of the same species is worse than useless. 

It is important, in this connection, to observe that the species occur- 
ring at any point on the Atlantic coast, or on the Pacific coast, or in 
the Mississippi valley, or on the Great Plains, in short, at any re- 
stricted locality, have, as compared with each other, with scarcely an 
exception, an unequivocal character ; they are based on differences that 
place them beyond controversy. It is not so, however, when we com- 
pare the species of distant localities with each other, whether the 
localities differ in latitude or longitude. In such cases we constantly 
meet with controverted species. At the South are species admitted 
as doubtfully di.-tmct from others found farther north; at the West, 
those holding the same relation to others of the East ; while at in- 
termediate points either both the disputed forms occur with greater 
or less frequency, or there is a gradual transition of the one into 
the other, neither form being typically represented. This is evi- 
dently what should be expected to occur, if what has been said above 
in respect to climatic variation be correct, and is evident^ a suggestive 
and important fact. Is the theory of hybridization, so often appealed to 
in such cases, necessary to explain these facts ? and is it, in fact, true ? 
By uniting the intergrading forms, the number of species occurrin"- at 
any >ingle locality is not essentially reduced, but such a union would 
considerably reduce the total number recognized, as well as the num- 
ber usually assigned to the several continents, as at present not a few 
fire repeatedly counted. 

The many facts bearing upon individual and geographical variation, 
presented in the foregoing pages form but an imperfect exposition of 
the subject. They are, nevertheless, eminently suggestive of interesting 
results, and the conclusions above deduced I can but believe will be 
only the more fully confirmed by further research. Additional details 
are given in the general remarks embraced in Part IV, where various 
fact- merely hinted at above are more fully presented, and an appli- 
cation is made in many cases of the pinciples deducible from them. 

As previously stated, individual and geographical variations are in 



248 BULLETIN OF TOE 

some cases difficult to distinguish. They can he satisfactorily investigated 
only from extensive suites of specimens taken from the same locality 
in the breeding season, and sufficiently extensive suites of this character 
arc, with rare exception-, still wanting. In specimens taken during 
migration it is difficult to determine what share of the variation is due 
to birthplace and what to individuality. Whilst, however, the varia- 
tions noticed cannot be always traced with certainty to their origin, 
their bearing upon the general subject of variation within specific limits 
is in no way vitiated. In considering hypothetical species, it is fre- 
quently clearly evident that they are based in part upon slight and 
tolerably constant climatic differences, and in part and sometimes wholly 
upon the individual peculiarities of the single specimen upon which the 
original description of the species was based ; in part, too, upon seasonal 
differences, and upon characters of immaturity. It seems to me that in 
the numerous clo-ely allied species of the ^.Egiutltus group, to cite a case 
in point, some are based in part upon one and in part upon other of 
these differences of a single circumpolar species. As already shown, 
the bill in different specimens oF ^E. Unarms varies greatly in size, yet 
an examination of a considerable series of specimens of several of its 
allies shows an amount of variation in the bill closely approximate to 
that seen in the specimens of the various assumed species of uEgiothus. 
Much of the variation in color seen in the flocks of JEgiothi that visit 
the Northern States in winter is due to age, yet it has been taken as 
characteristic of different species. These birds only visiting us in 
winter, those inhabiting widely distant localities in the breeding season 
are probably then more or less associated. The light-colored specimens 
are doubtless in part old or fully mature birds, or inhabitants in summer 
of more northern districts than the browner or more fulvous ones, a 
large portion of which, however, an; unquestionably young birds. The 
short-hilled ones have also relatively longer seta; at the base of the 
bill, which, by concealing a large portion of it, give it the appearance 
of being shorter than it really is. Analogy would lead us to infer that 
those with the shorter and more heavily clothed bills have a more 
northern habitat than the others. 

The persistency with which nominal species when characterized by 
" authorities " are retained in our literature is not a little remarkable. 
If specimens from the original localities cannot lie found to exactly tit 
the descriptions, the diagnosis is slightly amended to suit examples that 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 249 

somewhat approach them, and the name retained. In other cases 
the species i- retained without its character being questioned, the name 
and the original description being copied by succeeding writers, till the 
species becomes traditionally accepted without its claims to recognition 
having been critically examined. 

Another noteworthy coincidence in regard to nominal species is the 
fact of their most frequent occurrence in obscurely known groups, which 
obscurity usually results from the difficulty of obtaining specimens of 
the forms in question, — either from the remoteness of their habitat, 
their scarcity, or the peculiarities of their habits, — or from preconceived 
notions of the intimate relationship of the species of such groups. 



Since the above was put in type. I have for the first time met with 
some important and timely remarks by an eminent English botanist 
concerning variation within specific limits in plants, which are so 
apropos to what has been said above in regard to individual and 
climatic variation in birds, and contains, moreover, such judicious 
strictures on various practices indulged in by botanist-, and of which 
zoologists are equally guilty, that a short abstract of them forms a fit- 
ting conclusion to the present paper. Says Dr. J. D. Hooker, in the 
introductory essay to his " Flora Nova>Zelandia3 " (Part I, pp. xii, xiii, 
xv, 1853) : — - 

" Some naturalists consider every minute character, if only tolerably 
constant or even prevalent, as of specific value ; they consider two or 
more doubtful species to be distinct till they have been proved to be one ; 
they limit the ranges of distribution, and regard plants from widely severed 
localities as almost necessarily distinct ; they do not allow for the effects 
of local peculiarities in temperature, humidity, soil, or exposure, except 
they can absolutely trace the cause to the effect ; and they hence attach 
great importance to habit, stature, color, hairiness, period of flowering, etc. 
These views, whether acknowledged or not, are practically carried out in 
many of the local floras of Europe, and by some of the most acute ami ob- 
servant botanists of the day; and it is difficult to overestimate the amount 
of synonomy and confusion which they have introduced into some of the 
commonest and most variable of plants J n working up incom- 
plete floras especially,! believe it to be of the utmost importance to regard 
dubious species as varieties, to take enlarged views of the range i f 
variation in species, and to weigh characters not only per sc\ but with 



250 BULLETIN OF TILE 

reference to those which prevail in the order to which the species under 
consideration belong; and to resist steadily the temptation to multiply 
names ; for it is practically very difficult to expunge a species founded on 
an error of judgment or observation. The state of the British flora proves 
not only this, but further, that one such error leads to many more of the 
like kind; students are led to overestimate inconstant characters, to take 
a narrow view of the importance and end of botany, and to throw away 
time upon profitless discussions about the differences between infinitely 
variable firms of plants, of whose identity really learned botanists have no 
doubt whatever. There is, further, an inherent tendency in every one 
occupied with specialties to exaggerate the value of his materials and 

labors 

" To the amateur these questions are perhaps of very trilling impor- 
tance, but they are of great moment to the naturalist who regards accu- 
rately defined floras as the means of investigating the great phenomena 
of vegetation ; he has to seek the truth amid errors of observation and 
judgment, and the resulting chaos of synonomy which has been accumu- 
lated by thoughtless aspirants to the questionable honor of being the first 
to name a species. The time, however, has happily passed when it was 
considered to be an honor to be the namcr of a plant ; the botanist who 
has the true interests of science at heart not only feels that the thrusting 
of an uncalled-for synonvme into the nomenclature of science is an ex- 
posure of his own ignorance and deserves censure, but that a wider range 
of knowledge and a greater depth of study are required to prove those 
dissimilar forms to be identical, which any superficial observer can sep- 
arate by words an 1 a name." 

The above remarks are as strictly applicable to zoology and zoologists 
as they have ever been to botany and to botanists. The present state of 
ornithology, and the tendency the majority of ornithologists have to 
multiply species on improper grounds, find here a fitting rebuke. 

Part IV. 

List of the Winter Birds of East Florida, with Annotations.* 

TURDID.S3. 

it Turdus migratorius Linn€. "Romx. 

Seen daily, sometimes in considerable flocks, till about the first of 

March, after which time few were observed. It was shot by me at 

* An asterisk (*) prefixed to the name of a species indicates that it is a constant 

resident; an obelisk (t), that it is a winter visitor. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 251 

Jacksonville, April 1st, but according to general report it does not 
breed in the State. 

In this species the females are commonly supposed to be paler colored 
than the males, which is undoubtedly usually the case, but specimens as 
brightly colored as any I ever saw proved on dissection to be fannies, 
and other specimens as palely colored as any I ever met with have like- 
wise proved on dissection to be males. This shows the importance of 
determining the sex in all cases by dissection, and not from external 
appearances. It also indicates a wide range of variation in color in 
the present species, as great as is seen between typical representatives of 
the so-called Turdus Swainsoni and T. Alicice, and which is, moreover, 
of the same character, namely, simply a variation in intensity. 

2.1 Turdus Swainsoni Cubanis. Olive backed Thrush. 

Turdus minor Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, S17, 1788; in part only. — Vieillot, 
Ois. Am. Sept, II, 7, pi. lxiii, 1807; in part only. — Bonaparte, Geog. 
and Comp. List, 1838. 

Turdus solitarius Wilson, Am. Orn., V, pi- xiii, fig. 2 : not the text. 

Turdus nanus Audubon, Birds of Amer., Ill, pi. cxlvii,* not the text. — » 
Samuels, Am. Nat., II, 218, 1868 

Turdus olicaceus Giraud, Birds of Long Island, 92, 1843-44. Not the T. 
olicaceus of Linne' 

Turdus Swainsonil Cabanis, " in Tschudi's Fauna Peruana, 188, 1844 - 46." — 
Baird, Birds >» T Am., 216, 1858. — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 2, 1862.— 
Allen, Proc. Essex Inst., IV, 56 864. —Baird, Rev. Am. Birds, I, 19, 
1864. — Allen, Mem. Post. Soc. Nat. Hist, I, 514, 1868. — Ridgway, 
Proc. Phil Acad. Nat. Sci., XXI, 128, 1869. 

Turdus Alicia Baird, Birds N. Am., 217, 1858. — Coues and Prentiss, 
Smithsonian Pep., 1861, 405. — Coues, Proc Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., XIV, 
217, 1861— Baird, Rev. Am. Birds, I, 21, 1864. —Ridgway, Proc. Phil. 
Acad. Nat. Sci., XXI, 128, 1869. 

Merula Wi/sonh Swainson, Faun. Bor. Am., I, 182, 1831. 

Merula olivacea Brewer, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., I, 191, 1844. 

Rare. Given on the authority of Mr. Boardman, who writes me he 
obtained one specimen at Enterprise, February 18th, and another at 
St. Augustine, in the same month. The greater part pass the winter 
farther south. 

* The plates in :l Birds of America" are. too poorly colored, as is well known, to be 
recognizable representations of the species whose names they bear, including all those 
representing wood-thrushes, they having but little resemblance to those of the folio 
edition. The figures of " Tun/us nanus,'' Turdus solitarius. and Turc/ns mustelinus, 
might all pass for the Turdus Swainsoni, so far as the color of the dorsal surface is con- 
cerned. 



252 BULLETIN OF THE 

In my " Catalogue of the Birds of Massachusetts,"* published in 1864, 
I first advanced the opinion that the so-called Tun/us Alicia- Baird was 
the paler form of T. Swainsoni. To this view other writers have taken 
exception. Professor Baird, in his " Review of American Birds " (p. 21), 
summarily disposes of the matter by presuming that I had not seen what he 
called T. Alicice. In 18G8, in my " Notes on the Birds of Iowa, Illinois," 
etc.,t I again reviewed the subject, having in the mean time examined 
some twenty specimens sent out by the Smithsonian Institution to different 
scientific institutions, labelled respectively, " Turdus Alicia," " Tardus 
Ahem?" "Turdus Alicice? hybrid?" "Turdus Swainsoni" "Turdus 
Swainsoni ?" " Tardus Swainsoni f hybrid ? " Alter having examined these 
authentic specimens of the bird in question, and also large numbers of Mas- 
sachusetts examples of what I called Turdus Swainsoni, — among which 
are a considerable number that correspond in every particular respectively 
with the typical, authentic specimens of" Turdus Swainsoni" and " Turdus 
Alicice " of Baird, the larger number, however, being intermediate in char- 
acter between them, and agreeing with specimens sent out from the Smith- 
sonian Institution as "T. Swainsoni f" "Turdus Alicice ? " "Tardus Alicia; ? 
hybrid?" etc, — I state in this paper that the opinion I had previously 
expressed in respect to Turdus Swainsoni and Turdus Alicice was fully 
confirmed. In this paper I discussed at some length the variations pre- 
sented, not only by this species, but by Turdus Pullasi and Turdus fus- 
cescens, and the character of their supposed allies, T. Auduboni, T. nanus, 
and T. uslulatus, and their supposed respective habitats. I gave also some 
details in respect to the variations in general size, form of the bill, propor- 
tions of the primary quills of the wing, etc., as well as in color, and con- 
cluded that Turdus Alicia was based on simply individual variation in 
color, the other differences, as of size, form of bill, etc., supposed at first to 
characterize it, being rarely coincident with the variations in color, they 
occurring as frequently in the one type of coloration as in the other. 
Turdus nanus and Tardus uslldatus I also deemed to hold the same 
relation-hip to 7'. Pullasi and 7'. fuscescens that 7'. Alicia dues to T. 
Swainsoni. Though described as exclusively western, I stated I had found 
specimens in .Massachusetts that accorded with them in every particular. 
After having given the subject still further attention, I am but the more 
fully confirmed in these opinions. 

Dr. Coues, thus far one of the most strenuous advocates of the validity 
of these nominal species, in a somewhat recent paper of his, X after stating 

* Proceedings of the Essex Institute, Vol. IV, p. r>G. 
tnoirs of the Bost. Soc. Nat. l!i-t., Vol. I, p. 507. 
J "A List of the Buds of New England," Proceedings Essex Institute, Vol. V, p. 267, 
1868. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



253 



that he had shown the T. Alicia; to he " a very common eastern bird, hav- 
ing a range of habitat as extensive as, and nearly identical with, that of 
T. Swainsoni," says, in referring to my earlier remarks on this subject, 
that they " illustrate very fully the well-known seasonal and other varia- 
tions to which T. Sicainsoni and T. fuscescens are subject," and adds that 
I appear to have been " autoptically unacquainted " with T. Alicia: at the 
time of writing them. In respect to this supposition of Dr. Cones, I will 
merely add that one of the numerous specimens considered by me to typi- 
cally represent the supposed T. Alicice has been sent to the Smithsonian 
Institution, and pronounced by Professor Baird himself to "typically 
represent the T. Alicice." 

The measurements given below of this species and the two following 
indicate the average size and the usual range of variation in this respect 
in these species as represented in the Atlantic States. These measure- 
ments embrace twenty-four specimens of Tun/us Sicainsoni, nearly fifty of 
T. Pallasi, and about forty of T. fuscescens, nearly all of which are from 
New England, and by far the greater part from Eastern Massachusetts. 

The following is the range of variation in the series of twenty-four 
specimens of T. Sicainsoni: Length, C.C2 to 7.75; alar extent, 10.75 to 
12.C5 ; wing, 3.47 to 4.30 ; tail, 2.40 to 3.40 (4.00 ?) ; tarsus, 1.02 to 1.27. 
The average dimensions are as follows: Length, 7.17 ; alar extent, 11.65; 
wing, 3. 80; tail, 2.88; tarsus, 1.15. 



Measurements of Neiv England Specimens of Turdus Swainsoni. 



6 

si 


Z £ 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 




"P. 


ti 


j 


1 


o 


2£ § . w 












? 


£• 


H 


(*=; 


~ 










< 








2S77 




Ppringfiel 1, Mass. 


May 11. '63 


J. A. Allen 


6.75 


11 |.n 


3 1'.' 


2.78 


1 12 


__ 


— ' — 


" 


May 14, -63 


" 


6 62 


11 4n 


3 80 


2.83 


1.11 





is _ 


11 l! 


May 2,, '''I 


" 


6.75 





:: 92 


2.78 


1 in 





19 


d 


" " 


May 27, v.l 


" 


t; 98 





4.30 


3.40 


1 ' 2 


2930 






" ■< 


Ma\ 25, 63 


" 


7 60 


12 :.n 


4 12 


! 


1 20 





37 


— 


" " 


May 25, '63 


" 


7 ii.; 


1140 


• •' 


2 86 


1.13 


2940 




— 


" " 


.May 29 


" 


7 L0 


12.00 


4.00 




1.13 





44 


cf 


" " 


May 29, '63 


" 


7.25 


L2.00 


too 


2.9:. 


I In 




— 




" " 


May 14, '63 


ii 


7.15 


11.10 




2 71' 


1. 5 


1829 


29 


— 


" " 


May 3d, "62 


" 


6 90 


11.20 






1 2 


1830 


23 


— 


U II 


May 30, '62 


" 


7.75 


12.20 


3.95 




1 17 


1831 


1 


— 


II 11 


May 30, '62 


" 


7.35 


11.50 




2.73 


1.10 


2! ■■ II 




— 


11 U 


May 25, '63 


" 


7 7"> 


12.20 




:: >7 


1.17 


2940 





— 


11 11 


May 29, '63 


" 


: ■■> 


11.37 




2-7 1.11 







— 


Concord, " 





II Mann 


7 2-'. 


12 15 


1.10 


2.95 1.10 


8844 


64fi 


d 


Belmont, " 


May 27, '68 


C. .1 . Maynard 


7.76 


12.65 


1.2.i 


4.00 


— 


1999 


1326 - 


ii ii 


Sept. 21, '68 


•■ 


7.7" 





1 1 


3 07 


1 20 





17 


9 


Watertown, " 


Oct. _', ! 69 


Win. Brewster 


7.12 


12.00 


3.94 




1 l 1 


_ — 


213 


V 


" •' 


May 'J I '69 


" 


7.12 





i i 


2 K7 1.27 


282 


— 




Maiden, " 





D. IIi<:'_'iiis 


7 1" 


lUii 




2 1- LOS 


307 




— 


Norway, Maine 





A. E. Verrill 


7 24 


11 i ii 


3.47 


2.73 1.14 


308 
5963 












7 llll 


lu.7.-, 
11 lo 


.: 18 
:; ;i 


2 10 1 12 

2 08 I 3 








Upton, " 





J. G Rich 


7:;i 


1520 


— 




GlenHou?e,W. Mts. 





S. 11. Scudder 


7.00 


1 1 ;,• i 


3.84 





254 BULLETIN OF THE 

3.t Turdus Pallasi Cabanis. Hermit Thrush. 

Tardus solitarius Wilson, Am. Orn., V, 95, 1812. Not the figure (pi. xliii, 2), 
which is of T. Stvainsoni. Not T. solitarius Linne. — Bonaparte, Geog. 
and Comp. List, 17, 1838. — Audubon, Synop., 91, 1839 — Ibid., Birds 
of Amcr., Ill, 29, pi. cxlvi, 1841. 

Turdus minor Bonaparte, Obs. on Wilson's Nomenclature, Journ. Phil. 
Acad., IV, 33, 1S24. — Nuttall, Man. Am. Orn.. I, 346, 1830. — Audubon, 
Orn. Biog., I, 303, pi. lviii, 1831. — Ibid., V, 445, 1839. — Gambel, Proe, 
Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Ill, 113, 1846. — Giraud, Birds of Long Island, 90, 
1843-44. 

Turdus Pallasi Cabanis, Wiegm. Archiv, I, 205, 1847. — Baird, Birds N. 
Am., 212, 1858. — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 2, 1862. — Baird, Review 
Am. Birds, Part I, 14, 1864. —Allen, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., I, 514, 
1868.— Ridgway, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., XXI, 128, 1869. 

Turdus nanus Audubon, Orn. Biog., V, 201, pi. ccccxix, 1839 (T. minor on 
the plate). — Ibid., Birds of Am., Ill, 32, 1841. — Baird, Birds N. Am., 
213, 1858. — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 2, 1862. — Baird, Rev. Am. 
Birds, I, 15, 1864.— Ridgway, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., XXI, 129, 
1869. — Cooper and Baird, Orn. Cal., I, 4, 1870. 

Turdus Audubunii Baird, Rev. Am. Birds, I, 16, 1864. — Ridgway, Proc. 
Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., XXI, 129, 1869. 

Merula solitaria Swainson, Faun. Bor. Amcr., II, 184, pi. xxxvii, 1831. — 
Brewer, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., I, 191, 1844. 

Merula silens Swainson, Faun. Bor. Amcr., II, 186, 1831. — Sclater, Cat. 
Am. Birds, 2, 1862. 

Common. Last seen about March 25th. 

As already observed in the remarks under Turdus Sicainsoni, I regard 
the Turdus yianus of authors as identical with T. Pallasi. The assumed 
differences arc slight and inconstant, and seem to be principally individual 
variation ill color. Although of late supposed to be exclusively western, 
representing 0I1 the Pacific slope the T. Pallasi of the Atlantic and Central 
States, Audubon's original specimen came from Pennsylvania, though lie 
subsequently received it from the valley of the Columbia River. In his 
"Synopsis" he gives its habitat as "Columbia River. Accidental in the 
United States." His description of its color is identical with that he gives 
of T. Pallasi (T. solitarius And.), even the words used being almost 
entirely tin; same throughout each description. In size, however, he 
gives T. nan its as being one inch less in length and one inch less in extent 
than 7'. Pallasi. Since Professor Baird, in 1858, recognized the T. nanus 
as a valid species and its habitat as " Pacific coast of North America to the 
Rocky Mountains," and restricted the 7'. Pallasi to "Eastern North Am- 
erica to the Mississippi River," the validity of T. nanus has been gener- 
ally accepted. Professor Baird himself, however, speaks of it in this work 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 255 

as though it was in his opinion doubtfully distinct, and observes that, " if 
really distinct, is so closely allied to T. Pallasi as to render a separa- 
tion of the two exceedingly difficult." The T. Pallasi was formerly 
recognized as inhabiting California by good authorities. Dr. Ganibel, in 
his " Remarks on the Birds of Upper California," etc.,* after stating that 
'•the dwarf thrush of Audubon was founded upon specimens from the 
Atlantic States, and no doubt upon the true hermit thrush," remarks : 
"An examination of specimens of the T. minor [=T. Pallasi] from the 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America shows no difference in 
any way, except that perhaps the western one is somewhat smaller, yet 
the difference is scarcely appreciable. From the measurement of many 
western specimens I found its length to be 6^ inches, and the extent of 
wings 10^ inches; the tail, wings, and relative length of quills the same as 
in our eastern one, and, in fact, I think it can in no possible way be dis- 
tinguished as specifically different." California specimens, however, seem 
to average a little smaller than New England ones, so that the T. nanus 
seems best entitled to recognition of any of the several disputed forms of 
this group. 

The habits of T. nanus, as described by Dr. Cooper, are exactly like 
those of the T. Pallasi of the East, except in regard to the situation of its 
nest, Jus account of its nest and eggs according exactly icith those of T. 
Swainsoni, and not at all with those of T. Pallasi, its nearest ally.f 

The Tardus Auduboni of Baird, of the Rocky Mountains, I have already 
also referred to T. Pallasi, from average specimens of which it differs 
only in being slightly larger. My reasons for this opinion have been given 
with sufficient detail elsewhere. % 

It is difficult to reconcile the account given by Wilson, § and corrobo- 
rated by Audubon, || of the breeding habits of this species with what is 
now known of the distribution in the breeding season of this group (sub- 
genus Hylociclda) of thrushes. The account given by these authors of the 
situation and structure of the nest is applicable to only T. Swainsoni, 
which, as well as the T. Pallasi, is not known to breed so far south by 
several hundred miles as the localities they give. The only species which 
may probably breed there is the T. fuscescens ; but this species does not 
nest on trees. To determine to which species of thrush these authors refer 

* Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. Ill, p. 14, October, 1844. Also Journal Phil. Acad. 
Nat. Sci., 2d Series, Vol. I, p. 41, 1847. 

t According to Professor A. E. Verrill, the T. PaUasi nests on the ground, and lays 
" bright-blue " eggs. Proc. Essex Inst, Vol. Ill, p. 145. 

J Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, Vol. I, p. 012. 

$ Am. Orn., Vol. V, p. 91. 

|| Orn. Biog., Vol. I, p. 303: Bird; of America, Vol. Ill, p. 30 



25G 



BULLETIN OF THE 



as breeding in this manner on the Lower Mississippi would solve an in- 
teresting problem. 

The following table will indicate tin' average size of Turdus Pallasi in 
the Atlantic States. The extremes in size of forty-six specimens are as 
follows : Length, G.50 and 7.G5 ; alar extent, 10.00 and 12.25 ; wing, 3.30 
and 3.90 ; tail, 2.-17 and 3.17 ; tarsus, 1.12 and 1.33. The average dimen- 
sions of these specimens are as follows : Length, 7.04 ; alar extent, 11.17 ; 
wing, 3.7D; tail, 2.72; tarsus, 1.15. 

Measurements of Specimens o/ Turdus Pallast. 



M. C. Z. No. 

Collectors 
Number. 




Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


J3 

"to 
c 

>3 


a 
H 

03 
< 


ti 


'rt 

H 


3 
u 
H 


9835 — 




Milltown, Maine 


June — , '64 


O. A. Boardman 


6.98 





3.50 


2 68 


1.17 


4071 — 





" 


June — , '65 


J. G. Rich 


6.88 


10.00 


3.48 


2.67 


116 


1990 — 

1991 — 




Norway, " 




A. E. Verrill 


6.90 


10.50 


3 3 i 


2.51 


1 is 








7 00 


10.60 




" 65 1 17 




<< i< 





S. I. Smith 


725 


11.55 


y.7U 


2.93 120 


5311 - 

312 — 

■■ill — 










6.S0 


In 95 


3.45 


■_• 7- 1 12 




ii ii 




ii 


7 15 


11 50 


:; 70 


2 02 1.15 




ii i( 





" 


7. -'52 


11.00 


;; 59 


2.98 1 17 


1897 — 




Waterville, " 


Apr. 20, '62 


C. E. Hamlin 


7.20 


10.77 




2.93 1.07 


mi:; — 







Apr. 14, "62 


" 


6.80 


10.75 


3.49 


2.65i 1 18 


4-j;j") — 





1C tt 


Oct. 21, "63 


" 


6 90 


10.25 


3.37 


2.60! 1.18 


42;, l _ 





ii n 


Oct. 24, : 63 


" 


6 80 


10.75 


3.57 


2.93 - 


575 1 — 
;, , 55 — 
1060 
2584 — 




Concord, M I i. 




II Mann 


7 50 
7.15 
7.25 

.; s i 


11.82 


3.83 


2.95 1-93 






10.15 


3.45 


2.57 
2 ''i 


1.14 




ti ii 




(( 


11 02 


3 77 


1 18 




Woburn, " 


. 


J. G. Shut" 


10.25 




2 57 


1.17 


2832 — 




Springfield, " 


May s, '>;■; 


J. A. Allen 


7.25 


10.70 


3.52 


2.83 1 20 


9690 1002 - 




Oct. 17, '63 


" 


7.10 


11.20 


357 


2.70 1.13 


9391 L021 ! — 


u ii 


Oct. 29,63 


" 


7.00 


Li 


:;47 


2 71 1 18 


4.1 • 


Watertown, " 


Dec. 1 i, 39 


ffm. Brewster 


700 


11.63 


3 63 


2 63 133 





.1 ii 


Nov. 6, '69 


" 


6 -7 


11.19 


301 


2 52 


1 .20 





a ti 


.Nov. 1 


a 


7.12 


11 12 


3.74 


2 5S 


1.27 





Belmont, " 


Nov. 22, -69 


" 


7.12 


11.50 


3 30 


2 71 


1 20 


3tt d 


Cambridge, " 


Apr. 16, 70 


" 


7.23 


11.94 


3 71 


2.S5 


129 





Waltham, " 


• 


u 


7.20 


11.12 


3 74 


2 58 


1.27 


'.1 . 


ii ii 


X IV. 1, '69 


'• 


7.06 


1137 


3 72 




1.25 


62 i 


Watertown " 


Oct. 26, ! 69 


• ' 




10.50 


3 50 


237 


115 


283 , 


.i ii 


Nov. 22, '69 


« 


6.56 


11.00 


3.50 


2 ;,s 


1.16 


— :r, ; , 


ii ii 


Apr, li I, '70 


•• 


6.75 


L1.30 


3 45 


2 50 


1.17 


8845 


Newton, " 


Oct. 12, '67 


C. J. Maynard 


6.83 


11.00 


332 


2.65 


— 


— - 13 i 


ii ii 


Oct. 12, '67 


'I 


7.00 


1" 77 


3.37 


2.47 


— 


8848 250 i 


ii ii 


Apr. IS, '68 


■| 


7 21 


11 32 




2 80 


— 


8852 322 i 


ii a 


Apr. 2.",, - 6S 


«« 




11.00 




2.60 


— 


8847 338 


? 


• I n 


May 5, '68 


" 


fn'i 


11 30 


3.50 


2.73 


— 


21 


■• 


ii ii 


Oct. 19 '68 


• • 


7.0U 


11 17 




2.75 


— 


14 


{ 


ii ii 


Oct. 16, '68 


•' 


7.00 


1 1 43 


3.50 


2.71 


— 




n i; 


Oct. 16, '63 


ii 


6.80 


11.28 


3 57 


2 75 


— 


38-J 1 


ii ic 


Apr. 25, '70 


■' 


7.60 


1 1 75 




317 ■ 


— ; 


ii .1 


Apr. 25, '70 


,; 


7 38 




2. S3 — 




• i a 


Apr. 28, '70 


" 


7.45 


11.83 




2.90 


— 


5120 — 


i 


Jacksonville, Fla. 


Jan. 21, 'OS 


J. A. Allen 


7.40 


12.25 


3 85 


— 


— 


51 15 - 






Jan. 25. 'tis 


" 


7.UO 


11 60 


3 60 


— 


— 


5143 - 




ii ii 


Jan. 25, 'OS 


" 


6.75 


11 lo 


3 15 


— 


— 


5147 - 


■> 


ii ii 


Jan. 25, '68 


" 


7.oo 


1 1 51 1 


3.60 


— 


— 


51 <; 




Hibemia, " 


Feb. :;. '68 


" 


7 65 


11 S7 


;; 85 


— 


— 


532 I - 


? 


Enterprise, " 


Mar. l. '68 




6.75 


10.90 


3 40 







4.t Turdus fuscescens Stephens. Wilson's Thrush. 

mustelinus Wilson, Am. Orn., V, 98, pi. xliii, 1812. (Not T.muste- 
Units Gmelin.) 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 257 

Turdus fuscescens Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zoo]., X, i, 182, 1817. — G. R. 
Gray, Gen. Birds, 1S49. — Baiud, Birds X. Am., 2U, 1858. — Sclater, 
Cat. Am. Binls, 2, 1862. — Bated, Rev. Am. Birds, I, 17, 1864. — Allen, 
Mem. Bost. Soc*. Nat. Hist., 1,514, 1S68. — Ridgway, Proc. Phil. Acad. 
Nat. Sci., XXI, 127, 1869. 

Tualas Wilsonii Bonaparte, (>bs. on Wilson's Nomenclature. — Ndttall, 
Man. Am. Orn., I, 349, 1832. —Audubon, Urn. Biog., II, 362, pi. clxvi, 
1834. Ibid., V, 446. — Giracd, Birds L. Island, 89, 1843-44. 

Turdus usiulatus Nuttall, Man. Am. Orn., I, (2d ed.) 400, 1840. — Baird, 
Birds N. Am., 215, 1858. — Ibid., Rev. Am. Birds, I, 18, 1804. —Ridg- 
way, Proc. Phil. Aead. Nat. !Sci., XXI, 127, 1S69. — Cooper &. Baird, 
Orn Cal., I, 5, 1870. 

Mervla minor Swainson, Faun. Bor. Am.. II, 179, pi. xxxvi, 1831. 

Morula Wilsonii Brewer, Proc. Bost. Soc. Xat. Hist., I, 191, 1844. 

Not common, the greater part passing the winter in the tropics. A 
few specimens were taken by Mr. Boardman at Green Cove Springs, 
February 20th and 22d. I did not meet with it. 

The considerable variation in color exhibited by different specimens of 
this species have perhaps been already sufficiently adverted to. It may be 
added that some of the brightest colored specimens of this species proved 
on tlissection to be females, as well, also, as some of the palest. As in T. 
migratorius, T. Swainsoni, etc., these variations in color do not depend 
entirely upon sex, age, nor season. The latter, however, doubtless has 
much to do with it, as has also age, as already explained; * but the varia- 
tion is in the main strictly the result of individual differentiation. 

Dr. Cooper says f that in habits this species is the " exact counterpart 
of T. nanus," the resemblance extending to the situation and structure of 
the nest, and also to the color of the eggs. In this connection it may be 
remarked that it is not a little remarkable that the eggs and nests of both 
the so-called T. ustulatus and T. nanus should so exactly coincide with 
those of T. Swainsoni (which breeds where the other species are said to), 
when the birds themselves are scarcely distinguishable respectively from 
T. fuscescens and T. Pallasi, both of which nest on the ground and lay 
unspotted eggs, while T. Swainsoni nests in trees and lays spotted eggs. 
The nests and eggs I have seen purporting to be those of T. ustulatus and 
T. nanus (and also of T. Alicia;) were so closely like those of T. Swainsoni, 
— not differing more from those of this species than those of the same 
species usually differ, — as to at once raise the suspicion in my mind that 
they might all be really those of T. Swainsoni, and that they may have 
been in some accidental way wrongly identified by the collector. 

* In Part III, pp. 193 et seq. 
t Ornithology of California, Vol. I, p. 5. 
vol. ir. 17 



258 



BULLETIN OF THE 



In the following table are given the measurements of forty specimens, 
some twenty-five of which were taken in Massachusetts during the breed- 
ing season. The extremes of the series arc as follows : Length, 6.95 and 
7.87; alar extent, 11.05 and 12.70; wing, 3.55 and 4.16; tail, 2.63 and 
3.02; tarsus, 1.06 and 1.18. The average dimensions are as follows: 
Length, 7.38; alar extent, 11.83; wing, 3.82; tail, 2.88; tarsus, 1.13. 

Measurements of Specimens of Turdus fuscesckn'S. 



6 














+, 








S5 


2.2 

5 = 


x 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


to 


a 

X 




i 


3 


O 


— 3 


co 














S 


a! 


<< 

2272 


- s. 










J 


1125 


3 90 


2 87 


H 

1.10 






Wateryille, Maine 


June 2, '02 


C. E. Hamlin 


7.12 


2275 


— 





" " 


June 5, ; 62 




7 39 


11'.- 1 


3 79 2 84 


1.18 


2270 


— 





" " 


June 2, 02 


" 


7.53 


11 73 


3.86 2.ss 


1.06 


2277 


— 





" " 


June 2, '62 


" 


7.40 


12.(10 


3 83 2 s7 


1.13 


9607 


- 


- 


Canton, St. Law- 1 
renee Co , N. Y. J 


June — , "60 


J. S Foley 


7.3i> 


1140 


3.72 292 


1.12 


9608 


— 





" 


June—, "60 


« 


7.50 


1175 


3 93 3 00 


1.10 


9609 


— 





" 


June—, "60 


ti 


7 50 





3 92 : 2 93 


1.18 


10382 


— 





" 


June—, "60 


it 


7.30 


1143 


3.77 2 97 


1.13 


10383 


— 





" 


June—, "60 


" 


6 95 


11.05 


3 55 2 63 


1.09 


10384 








" 


June-, '60 


" 


7,4.-, 


1175 


3 69| 2.80 


1 12 


10385 


— 





" 


June—, "Bit 


ii 


7.12 


11.75 


3.68 2.67 


111 


883 I 


367 


r 


Newton, Mass. 


May 5, "68 


C. J. Maynard 


7.81 


12.7(1 


4.16! 3.00 





B831 


382 


d 


" " 


May 6, "68 


" 


7.75 


12.55 


4 10 1 3.00 


— 


8841 


495 


• 


" " 


May 15, : 68 


" 


7.87 


1191 


400 3.00 





s.s32 


528 r 


" " 


May 10, "68 


" 


7 7ii 


12.45 


4.00 3.00 


— 


■--::.: 


538 


' 


Way land, " 


May is, 'lis 


i< 


735 


11.91 


3 91 2 73 


— 


8834 


550 


■• 


Weston, " 


May 20, '68 


'' 


7. mi 


11.95 


3 55 2 55 





8835 


581 


' 


Newton, " 


May 22, "68 


" 


741 


12 5(1 


4 15 2 90 





8337 


611 


t 


a i< 


May 2f,. "68 


" 


7.50 


12 45 


3.80; 2.90 





8838 


683 / 


" " 


May 28. "68 


" 


7.5H 


12.30 


4.15| 317 





8839 


692 ■ 


" " 


May 28, 68 


" 


7.45 


12.16 


3 76 2.85 





8338 


610 -J 


" " 


May 2;-,, '68 


" 


7 30 


11 33 


3.55 2 60 





8840 


768 5 


" " 


June 5, '68 


" 


7.51) 


12 15 


3 mi 2.89 


_ 


2876,2876 - 


Springfield, " 


June 11, '02 


J. A. Allen 


7.0(i 


11 7(1 


3 75 '1 so 


1.17 


1740 174!» — 


" " 


June 14, '62 


" 


7 mi 


1 1 35 


3 63 2.65 


1.10 


1828 1828 


2 


" " 


May 29, "62 


" 


7 5' i 


11.50 


3 99 2.86 


1.08 


1832 1832 


3 


" " 


May 29, "62 


" 


7.50 


11.55 


3 7:i 2.80 


1.12 


-ins 


— 


Newton, " 


May 18, "70 


Wm. Brewster 


7.50 


12ii(i 


3 74 2 74 


1.14 


2873 2873 


— 


Springfield " 


May 12, '63 


J. A. Alien 


7 75 


12.40 


3.98 3.02 


1.08 


2876 2876 


— 


i. ti 


May 14, '63 


" 


7.12 


11.30 


;: ,:: 29] 


1.12 


2937 2937 


— 


" " 


May 29, '63 


" 


7.45 


11 so 


3.65 2.7s 1.12 


2938 2938 


— 


" " 


\i..\ 29, '63 


" 


7 65 


11 511 


3.86 "00 


1 15 


1131 — 


— 


Maiden, " 


May 22, '62 


" 


7.15 


11.87 


3 75 2 93 


1.14 


1432 — 


— 


" " 


May 22, "62 


" 


7 52 


11 80 


393 300 


1 15 


281 i — 








D. Higgius 


7.35 

7.25 


11.75 
11 90 


3 70 2.89 

:; 18 2 73 


1.10 

1.15 


281 — 





ii 





143 — 


— 


" " 


June — , T,l 


" 


7.30 


11 72 


3.72 2.83 112 


1H 


— 


— 


" " 


JllIH , 1)1 


" 


7.25 


11.75 


3.78 2.70 l 15 


I!:", 


— 


— 


" " 


June — , 'Hi 


" 


7.IKI 


11 40 


3.03 2 68 1 11 


146 - 

1 






June — , '61 




7-45 


1175 


3 oo 2.80 1.12 



5.* Harporhynchus rufus Calianis. Brown Thrush. 
Very abundant. The specimens examined were smaller and much 
brighter colored than any I have seen from the Northern States. 
Commences nesting the last week in March. 

6.* Galeoseoptes carolinensis Cabanis. Cat-Bird. 
Abundant. Smaller and darker colored than at the North. Some 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 259 

evidently remain and breed. Audubon states that none breed so far 
south as South Carolina, and that few remain so far north as Florida 
in winter; but Dr. Coues, in his ''Synopsis of the Birds of South Caro- 
lina,"* gives it as abundant and resident in that State. 

7* Mimus polyglottus Boie. Mockixg-Bird. 

Common. Contrary to my anticipations, I failed to hear this bird 
sing during my three months' stay in Florida, except in a few' instances 
near Jacksonville early in April, at which time they were nesting, 
although everywhere more or less common. It was more frequent 
along the borders of the forest and about clumps of bushes in the pine 
barrens than in the hummocks. It differed from its relatives, the 
brown thrush and cat-bird, in avoiding the denser thickets, which are 
the favorite resorts of the latter. The resemblance of the mocking-bird 
to the loggerhead shrike, in mode of flight and general appearance, 
which must strike every observer, has been properly referred to by Dr. 
Coues. f 

Different specimens of the mocking-bird from Florida differ consider- 
ably from each other in intensity of color, some being much darker 
than others, and in the extent of the white on the outer tail feathers, and 
also in the length, thickness, and curvature of the bill. Some have the 
commissure but slightly curved and the tip of the bill moderately de- 
pressed ; others have the commissure much arched and the tip much 
decurved. Several specimens before me from Cape Florida are smaller 
than those from the St. John's River, with longer, slenderer, and more 
curved bills. There seems to be as much difference between specimens 
from South Florida and the Middle States, as between the numerous so- 
called species of the West Indies, which, many of them at least, are 
scarcely more than local forms of the original or first-described M. poly- 
glottus. 

The following measurements of forty-four Florida specimens of this 
species indicates its usual range of variation in size and proportions. The 
extremes of this series are as follows : Length, 9.25 and 11.00 ; alar ex- 
tent, 13.00 and 14.75; wing, 4.00 and 4.75; tail, 4.10 and 5.15. The 
average dimensions are as follows : Length, 9.01 ; alar extent, 13.69 ; wing, 
4.28; tail, 4.87. 

* Proc. Bost. Soc. Xat. Hist., Vol. XII, p. 113. 

t " Synopsis of the Birds of South Carolina," Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. XII, 
p. 113, October, 1868. 



260 



BULLETIN OF THE 



Measurements of Florida Specimens of Mimtts POLYGLOTTTJS. 



1 o 


6 










• 


a 






N 


13 

a 


M 


Locality 


Date. 


Collector. 


1j 


w 




'3 


6 


!§P 


DQ 








►3 




P 


H 


a 


o 












< 






5118 




^ 


Jacksonville, Fla 


Jan. 19, '68 


J. A. Alleu 


9 75 


14 00 


4.60 




5124 


j< 


" " 


Jan 21, '68 


" 




14 35 


4 50 




5350 


cf 


Enterprise, " 


Nov. 4, '69 


" 


1 ) 


14 15 


4 25 









Hawkinsville, " 


Mar 15, '69 


10.60 


14 75 


4 50 




5415 


• 


" " 


Mar. 15, : 6i 


" 


9 85 


1400 


4 40 









ii ii 


Mar 14, '69 


'' 


9.85 


14-00 


1 in 




5355 


9 

1955 9 

2407 r 
2614 ,■ 
2341 d 


" " 


Mar 10, '6S 


" 


10.12 


1300 


4 26 




5185 


Ilibernia, " 


Jan. 30, '69 


" 


10.30 


14.15 


i 30 




UioSH 


Jacksonville, " 


Dec. 31, '68 


C. J. Maynard 


10.00 


13 00 


4(15 


4.65 





" " 


Jan. HI, '69 


" 


10.20 


14.00 


i 50 


4.70 




Dummitt's, " 


Mar. 2, '69 


" 


11.00 


11 65 


4 50 


4.60 





" " 


Mar 13, '69 


" 


10. 15 


11 00 


1 to 


4.90 


10589 


" " 


Feb. 16, '69 


" 


9.75 


13.50 


4.25 


4.75 





" " 


Feb. 24, ''lit 


" 


9 25 


11 00 


I 35 


4.35 





" " 


Mar, 13, '09 


" 


10 20 


14-00 


4 4D 


4.75 




2374 ■ 

2370 ■; 


" " 


Mar 13, '69 


" 


ll.SII 


14 00 


i 30 


4.10 





" " 


Feb. 17, '69 


" 


9.50 


13 25 


4.25 


4.40 


10592 


2372 r 


" " 


Feb. IT, '69 


" 


9.75 


13.75 


4.20 


4.50 





2528 •■ 


" " 


Mar. 5, '69 


" 


10 30 


14. no 


4 45 


4.95 





2171 • 


" " 


Feb. 16, '69 


" 


10.15 


11 :n 


4 60 


5.15 


10595 


2486 -- 


" " 


Feb. 16, '69 


" 


10.00 


13.00 


4.00 


1 38 


10596 


2518 


9 


" " Mar. 2, '69 


" 


9 75 


13 50 


4.75 


4 50 





2428 


9 


" " Mar. 2, '69 


" 


10.00 


13 50 


4 ."i 1 1 


4.45 





242!) 


1 


Mar. 2, '69 


L0.00 


13 50 


4 35 


4 35 





2478 


j 


" Mar. 11, 69 


" 


1050 


13.50 


1 L8 


4. 75 




2419 


,• 


Mar. 11, 69 


" 


10.00 


13 35 


4.25 


4.75 


10590 2340 


9 


" " Mar. 13, '69 


" 


i 


1 1 35 


4.40 


4.50 


10594 234 I 


( ' 


" " Mar. 16, '69 


" 


9 75 


13 60 


4.25 


4 35 


10597 25 19 


9 


" " Mar. 11, 69 


" 


10 


13.00 


400 


4. 17 


2507 




Mar 11, '6S 


" 


9.60 


1 : 


4 10 


4.60 


10587 2339 


5 


" " Feb. L0, '69 


" 


9.40 


13.50 


1 05 


4.20 




2 


,: " Feb. 17, '69 


" 


9.75 


13.50 


3 1" 


1 50 




s 


Mar. 13, '69 


" 


9.50 


13.25 


4 2( i 


i a 


2560 


2 


Mar. 8, "69 


" 


9 50 


13.20 


4.15 




10593 2375 


,' 


Feb. 17, '69 


" 


9 so 


13.00 


4 10 


4.60 


247S 


? 


" " Feb. 16, '69 


" 


9.50 


13 50 


1 10 


4.20 


24S5 


V 


Feb. 16, VJ 




10.00 


13.00 


4.00 





SAXICOLIDJE. 

8* Sialia sialis Haldemann.* Blue-Bird. 
Common. In this species the smaller size of the Florida specimens, 
as compared with those from Massachusetts, is very marked, as is also the 
greater intensity of color. 

SYLVIADJE. 
9.1 Regulus calendula Lichtenstein. Rcbt-crowned Kinglet. 
Abundant. One of the most numerous of the winter birds. Chiefly 
confined to the swamps and hummocks. 

lO.t Regulus satrapa Lichtenstein. Golden-crested Kinglet. 
Not common. A single pair was collected by Mr. Maynard at 
Jacksonville in January. 



* Sialia sialis Haldemann, Trego's Geography of Pennsylvania, p. 77. 1843. 
-Baird, Birds of X. Am., 222, 1S58. Sec American Naturalist, Vol. Ill, p. 159, 1869. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 261 

11.* Polioptila cserulea Sclaler. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. 
Common. Generally seen in the same situations as It. calendula. 

VKRTDM. 

12.* Lophophanes bicolor Bonaparte. Crested Titmouse. 
Common. 
13.* Parus atricapillus Linne. Black-capped Titmouse. Chickadee. 
Parus atricapillus Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 341, 1766. — Wilson, Am. Orn., I, 

137, 1808. — Bonaparte, Obs. Nom. Wils. Orn., Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. 

Sci., IV, 254, 1825.— Rich. & Swain., Faun. Bor. Am., II, 226, 1831.— 

Audubon, Birds Am., II, 146, pi. cxxvi, 1841. — Cassin, 111. Birds Cal. 

I, 17, 1853. — Baird, Birds N. Am., 390, 1858. — Sclatek, Cat. Am. 

Birds, 13, 1862. —Baird, Rev. Am. Birds, I, 80, 1864. 
Parus palustris Nuttall, Man. Orn., 241, 1832. 
Parus carolinensis Audubon, Orn. Biog., II, 341, 1837 ; V, 474, pi. clx, 1839. — 

Audubon, Birds Am., II, 152, pi. cxxvii, 1841. — Cassin, 111. Birds Cal., I, 

17, 1853. — Baird, Birds N. Am., 392, 1858. — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 

14, 1862. — Baird, Rev. Am. Birds, I, 81, 1864. 
Parus septentrionalis Harris, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., II, 300, 1845. — 

Cassin, 111. Birds Cal., I, 17, 80, pi. xiv, 18"53. — Baird, Birds N. Am., 

389. — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 14. — Baird, Rev. Am. Birds, I, 82. 
Parus meridionalis Sclater, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc, 1856, 293. — Baird, Birds 

N. Am., 392. — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 14. — Baird, Rev. Am. Birds, 

1,81. 
Parus occidental^ Baird, Birds N. Am., 391, 1858. — Sclater, Cat. Am. 

Birds, 14, 1862. — Baird, Rev. Am. Birds, I, 81, 1864. 
Po:cila atricapilla Bonap., Consp. Av., 230, 1850. 
Pacila carolinensis Bonap., Ibid. 

Seen by Mr. Marcy at Jacksonville, where also specimens of it were 
collected by Mr. Maynard. Not observed by any of us up the river. 
Audubon speaks of having found it abundant in the Floridas in the 
winter of 1831 and 1832, and "breeding in the swamps as early as the 
middle of February." * 

The common titmouse (P. atricapillus), although not more subject to 
geographical variation than many other birds, is one of the species in 
which such differences were first detected, though not recognized at the 
time as such. Audubon, in 1833, upon returning to Charleston, South 
Carolina, from a visit to the Eastern States, the British Provinces, and 
Labrador, noticed a considerable difference in size between the examples 
of this bird he met with at the North, and those of the lowlands of the 

* Birds of America, Vol. II, p. 153. 



202 BULLETIN OF THE 

Carolinas. Though no other difference was appreciable, he and his friend 
Bachinan thought this was sufficient to warrant the description of the 
southern form as specifically distinct from the northern. He accordingly 
thus separated them in the second volume of his " Ornithological Biog- 
raphy." But if the black-capped titmice of the Carolinas, the lower 
parts of Virginia, Maryland, and Southern New Jersey are distinct from 
those of Massachusetts, on precisely the same grounds are those of Mas- 
sachusetts distinct from those of Northern Maine. Even the titmice 
of Massachusetts are not just the same in winter that they are in 
summer, those which breed here doubtless mainly going south in winter, 
while their place is filled by others that spend the summer more to the 
northward. This at least is what the slight average difference in size 
between summer and winter specimens seems to indicate. But the Caro- 
lina titmouse (P. carolinensis) has been recognized as valid by most 
subsequent writers, and in accordance with the principle upon which this 
supposed species was admitted, several others have been added by other 
authors. 

The titmice from the middle, elevated regions of the continent, in 
accordance with a general law of geographical variation among both birds 
and mammals, are a little larger than those of either the Mississippi 
valley or the Pacific coast, and have also, apparently, a relatively slightly 
longer tail and paler colors, — variations which occur in a number of other 
birds that have a similar distribution. The titmice of this region form 
the Parus septentrionalis of authors. Specimens labelled " Parus septen- 
trionalis," collected near Chicago, have been received at the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology from the Chicago Academy. They do not differ, 
however, from numerous others collected in Massachusetts, though the 
true P. septentrionalis, or the black-capped titmice of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, does have a slightly longer tail than those from the other parts of the 
continent. 

Those which occur on the Pacific slope of the continent, though forming 
the P. occidentulis of authors, are admittedly the same in size and general 
appearance as the P. atricapillus of the Atlantic States, Ibis species having 
been introduced to the world with the following suggestive remarks: 
"It is rather a hazardous undertaking to add another to the list of North 
American black-capped and throated titmice; but if we have three good 
species now, instead of one, then the present is equally entitled to specific 
distinction with carolinensis and septentrionalis." 

The P. meridionalis was first made known from a single specimen from 
Mexico, and of which very tew specimens seem to have been recognized as 
belonging to it. The original type certainly recalls only a worn summer 
specimen of the common titmouse, though its darker color may be due to 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 263 

its southern habitat. Towards the end of the breeding season specimens 
of P. atricapillus, more especially females, have the plumage, particularly 
that of the lower surface of the body, much darker than in fall and winter, 
simply from the wearing off of the rufous and ashy extremities of the 
leathers, July specimens generally differing much in color from winter ones. 

In respect to P. carolinensis, as already observed, the only difference 
urged as distinguishing it from P. atricapillus is that of its smaller size. 
Yet this difference is so slight that it is admitted that if P. carolinensis and 
P. atricapillus were " separated by a wide interval of locality, it might be a 
question whether it [P. carolinensis'] might not be a variety. As, how- 
ever," it is urged, " both are found together in the Middle States, and pre- 
serving together their characteristics, there will be little risk in considering 
them distinct." Since the larger birds are, in the main, either northern 
or occupy the elevated regions of the Alleghanies, the two forms must 
necessarily be found associated together, especially in winter, through their 
migrations. Unfortunately, in the work where this group has been most 
elaborately considered,* but two examples of each are cited, with a state- 
ment of their measurements ; the two of P. atricapillus being from Carlisle, 
Pennsylvania, and the two of P. carolinensis from Washington, D. C. 
From the annexed table of measurements of P. atricapillus from Massachu- 
setts and Maine, it will be seen that a few are small enough to be regarded 
as belonging to the P. carolinensis. There is, also, a larger amount 
of seasonal difference in the color and general character of the plumage 
than has been either admitted or suspected, as well as in size. No one 
who has previously written on this group appears yet to have compared 
many specimens of these supposed two species, or to have examined a 
sufficiently large number of either to become aware of the wide differences 
that exist between specimens from the same locality. 

Variations similar to those assumed to specifically distinguish P. caro- 
linensis from P. atricapillus occur in P. hudsonicus between sj:>eeimens from 
localities quite distant in latitude. Dr. Bryant has already called attention 
to such differences in the P. hudsonicus, and at the same time proposed 
for the southern "variety" the name of "P. hudsonicus var. littoralis." 
Concerning this variety and the general subject in question, he remarks 
as follows : " The specimens of Paras hudsonicus from Yarmouth [Nova 
Scotia] and those from the Hudson Bay territory present as great, if not 
greater, differences in size than exist between P. carolinensis and P. atri- 
capillus, and in color, between P. septentrionalis and P. atricapillus. I am 
inclined myself to consider P. atricapillus, septentrionalis, meridionalis, and 
occidentalis as varieties of on" species; but, if they are considered as 
specifically distinct, there can be little question of the propriety of 

* Baird's Birds of North America. 



264 



BULLETIN OF THE 



separating the Yarmouth bird from those found in the Hudson Bay ter- 
ritory." * 

In the following table of measurement-! of twenty-seven specimens, all 
taken within ten miles of Cambridge, and all but two in December and 
January, the extremes of size are as follows : Length, 4.70 and 5.75, both 
specimens being females ; alar extent, 7.50 and 8.60, both specimens being 
also females; wing, 2.33 and 2.63, also both females; tail, 2.15 (female) 
and 2.G7 (male) ; tarsus, .G2 (male) and 7 7 (female). The average size 
of these specimens is as follows: Length, 5.38 ; alar extent, 8.3 7 ; wing, 
2.4 7; tail, 2 50; tarsus, .70. The females average a little smaller than 
the males, but the difference is only slight. 

The largest specimen of the group of black-capped and black-throated 
titmice cited by Professor Bairdf measures as follows: Length, 5.75; 
alar extent, 8.37; wing, 2.75; tail, 2.86 (Parus septentrionalis, from the 
Black Hills, Neb., Sm. Inst. No. 8827). A specimen of the P. carolinensis, 
cited by the same author, measures as follows : Length, 4.62 ; alar extent, 
7.00 ; wing, 2.50 ; tarsus, .60 (Sm. Inst. No. 706, from Washington, D. C). 
So far as the length of the wing and tail are concerned, specimens are fre- 



Measurements of Massachusetts Specimens of Parus atricapillus. 



Z. No. 

jetor's 
mber. 


a! 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


if 


a 

X 

W 


si 

a 


'5 


3 


O =3 

OZ 

S » 
11703 52 


Ji 








hH 


< 
8.12 


2_ 62 


Eh 

2.07 


e3 

EH 

.75 


-' 


Cambridge, Mass. 


Dec. 10, '69 


AVm. Brewster 


5.38 


L1704 86 


1 


" " 


Dec. 14, '69 


" 


5.25 


812 


2.55 


2.37 


.75 


11705 87 


- 


" " 


Dec. 14, "69 


" 


5.00 


7.88 


2.02 


2 50 


.02 


11708 96 


i 


" " 


Dec. 14, '69 


" 


5.00 


7.50 


2.44 


2 311 


.75 


11707 'M 


..< 


" " 


Deo. 17, V.I 


" 


5.06 


7.S7 


2.50 


2.50 


_ 


99 


d 


" " 


Dec. 17, '69 


" 


5.12 


8.12 


2.55 


2 13 


.72 


104 


f 


" " 


Dec. 20, '69 


" 


5.25 


8.00 


2.55 


2.50 


.70 


11711 103 


--" 


" " 


Dec. 20, '69 


" 


5.06 


8.00 


2.02 


2 43 


.75 


11710 1"1 


•• 


" " 


Dec. 20, "69 


" 


512 


8.06 


2.55 


2.43 


.75 


153 


• 


" " 


Jan. 7, '70 


" 


4 94 


7.80 


2.43 


2 25 


.69 


112 


• 


" " 


Dec. 24, '09 


" 


5 50 


8 12 


2.62 




.69 


206 


5 


" " 


Jan. 20, '70 


" 


5 10 


8.21 


2.58 


2.55 


.70 


11706 88 




" " 


Dec. L4, '69 


" 


1 94 


7 50 


2.43 


2.31 


— 


95 


5 


" " 


Dec. 17, "69 


" 


5.1 ii i 


8.00 


2.50 2 37 


.75 


11709 97 


5 


" ' 


Dec. 17, '69 


" 


5.06 


7 83 


' 2 13 2 12 


. — 


11712 105 


5 


" " 


!).■<■. 20, '69 


" 


5.19 


7-75 


2.5ii 2-25 


.07 


100 


5 


" " 


Dec. 20, '69 


" 




8.12 


2.56 2.50 


.75 


11713 114 


5 


" " 


Dec. 24, '69 


" 


5.75 


7.88 


2:," 2 3:: 


.63 


101 


, 


Watertown, " 


Jan. 7. '70 


" 


5.45 


8.00 


2 .'3 264 


.69 


163 


5 


" " 


Jan. 7, 70 


" 


4.94 


7-5n 




.69 


179 


5 


Belmont, " 


Jan. 13, '70 


" 


1 84 


7.55 


2.35 2.15 


• 77 


205 


5 


" " 


Jan. 20, '70 


" 


5 11 


8.17 


2.54 2.42 


.70 


239 




ii ii 


Jan 20, '70 


" 




7.52 


2.35 2.30 


.67 


203 


5 


Arlington, " 


Jan. 20, '70 


4 70 


7 75 


2 15 2.40 


.68 


4946 268 


5 


Newton, " 


Apr. 21, '68 


C. J. Maynard 5.00 


8.60 


2.58 2.30 


— 


5011 1216 


,' 


u it 


Sept. S, '68 


" 




7 85 




.65 


4945 209 


■ 




Apr. 21, - 09 




5.00 


8.00 


2.41 2.35 





* Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.. Vol. IX, p. 368, April, 1865. 
t Birds of North America, p. 39u. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 2G5 

quently taken in Massachusetts (and of which I have measurements before 
me) that are considerably smaller than this one from Washington, or 
than any given in the above table. 

SITTIDJE. 
14.* Sitta carolinensis Gmdin. White-breasted Nuthatch. 
Common ; especially in the pineries. 

15.* Sitta pusilla Latham. Brown-headed Nuthatch. 
Common in the pineries ; rarely seen elsewhere. 

TROGLODYTID^. 

16* Troglodytes aedon VieSlot. Common "Wren. 

Tng'odyies aedon Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., II, 52, pi. cvii, 1807. — Bona- 
parte, Richardson & Swainson, Audubon. — Baird, Birds N. Am., 
367, 1858. — Ibid., Rev. Am. Birds, I, 138, 1864. — Maynard, Naturalist's 
Guide, Part II, p. 95, 1870. 

Troglodytes fulvus, Nuttall, Man. Am. Orn., I, 422, 1832. 

Troglodytes amerieanus Audubon, Orn. Biog., II, 452, pi. elxxix, 1834. — 
Baird, Birds N. Am., 368. —Ibid., Rev. Am. Birds, I, 141. 

Troglodytes Parkmani Audubon, Orn. Biog., V, 310, 1839. — P t;d, Birds N. 
Am., 367. — Ibid., Rev. Am. Birds, I, 140. 

Troglodytes sylvestris Gambel, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Ill, 113, 1864. 

Sylvia domestica Wilson, Am. Orn., I, 129, pi. viii, fig. 3, 1808. 

Abundant, occurring everywhere. It keeps so closely concealed that 
it is difficult to shoot, except when on the wing. Both this and the 
Carolina wren are exceedingly quick in their movements, and if they 
are watching the collector when he is about to shoot at them, they are 
pretty sure to dodge the charge ; although he finds the bushes and 
foliage where the bird sat riddled by the shot, he usually searches in 
vain for the specimen he is sure he ought to have killed. When ap- 
proached in old grassy fields or pine openings, they will allow one to 
almost tread on them before attempting to get away, and then, instead 
of taking to wing, often seek to escape by running off like a mouse 
beneath the grass. The term " house " wren, usually applied to this 
bird, is decidedly a misnomer, since it frequents the fields the thickets, 
and even the forest, as much as the vicinity of houses. In the wilds of 
Florida, where human habitations are few, there is nothing whatever in 



266 



BULLETIN OF THE 



The " wood wren," Troglodytes americanus of Audubon, I am sure is 
only the brighter colored ibrm of T. aedon ; in size or proportions there 
is nothing, though the contrary has been claimed, to distinguish them. 
Specimens equally large and equally small occur in each state of plu- 
mage, in which the same general range of variation in proportions is pre- 
sented. There is also an intergradation in color, and no observable 
difference in habits. Both forms were common in Florida ; both also 
occur in New England, whence Audubon obtained the first specimen of 
his supposed new species. Audubon admits that it " can hardly be dis- 
tinguished in description " from the house wren. The large size assumed 
by him as characterizing it maybe readily accounted lor by the fact of his 
obtaining his first specimens at Eastport in Maine, which is the extreme 
northern limit of the habitat of this species. 

The. following measurements of fifteen Florida specimens indicates the 
usual range of variation in respect to size and proportions found in speci- 
mens from the same locality. The extremes of this series are as follows : 
Length, 4.30 and 5.10, both specimens being females ; alar extent, G.10 
and 6.95, both specimens being males ; wing, 1.90 and 2.44 ; tail, 1.30 and 
2.40 ; tarsus, .50 and .G8 ; bill, .4 7 and .GO (.80?). The differences between 
these extremes, it will be noticed, are very great, considering the small size 
of the bird. The average dimensions are as follows : Length, 4.89 ; alar 
extent, G.G1 ; wing, 2.05 ; tail, 1.80; tarsus, .52. 

Measurements of Florida Specimens of Troglodytes aedon. 



6 
















^i 










a 


■u u 












■ 


a 










N 


o 0> 

- 3 


& 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


"S 


* 

W 




3 


s 


a 


O 


— 3 


Vl 
















H 


C3 


S 


S3 


5* 












»3 


6.60 


2 44 


2.40 


.50 


.47 


10681 


1900 


6 


Jacksonville 


Jan. 


1/69 


C. J. Maynard 


4.70 





1942 


i" 


*' 


Jan. 


1, '69 


" 


5.00 


6 50 


2.00 


1.70 


.57 


.50 





19 Hi 


:•' 


11 


Jan. 


3, '69 


" 


5.00 


6.75 


2.05 


1.75 


.65 


.50 


10682 


1967 


<$ 


" 


Jan. 


3, '69 


" 


4.75 


6 75 


2.05 


1 95 


.55 


.52 





L968 


■ 


" 


Jan. 


3, : 69 


" 


4.50 


6.50 


2.05 


1.65 


.61 


50 




2790 


■- 


•' 


Mar. 


20, '69 


" 


5.65 


6.95 


2.00 


1.64 


.54 


.51 





2576 


d 


r"iniiM' , t's 


Mar. 


In, '69 


" 


5. mi 


6. nil 


2.10 


2.00 


.62 


.50 





4 


■■ 


Jacksonville 


Mar. 


29, '69 


" 


4.60 


6.10 


2 00 


1 so 


.61 


.60 





2033 




" 


Jan. 


5, '69 


" 


5.70 


6.75 


2.1(1 


1.75 


.tin 


.80 





1979 


y 


" 






" 


4.3d 


6 50 


2 0(1 


1.3H 


.60 


.56 





2588 


,' 


Dnmmitt's 


Mar. 


11. '69 


" 


6.00 


6.7(1 


L.90 


1.70 


.65 


.50 


5178 





— 


Hibernia 


Jan. 


20, "''.'.i 


J. A. Allen 


5.20 


6.75 


2.03 


1.70 


,65 


.60 


5179 





— 


" 


Jan. 


2ii, '69 


" 


4.75 


6.50 


2. mi 


1.65 


.67 


.55 








— 


Hawkinsville 


Mar. 


in, '69 


" 


5.00 


6.50 


2.00 









6361 


~~ 






Mar. 


In, '69 




4.87 


6.75 


•J Oil 


— 


.68 


— 



17* Thryothorus ludovicianus Bonaparte. Carolina Wren. 
Common. Rarely seen outside of thickets. 

In few species is the difference in color between northern and southern 
specimens greater than in this. Florida specimens have the reddish-brown 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 267 

of the dorsal surface many shades deeper than Maryland ones, and the 
under surface strongly rufous. The tail and wings, besides bein<>- much 
darker, have the dark bars black, they being deep black on the tail, and 
consequently far more conspicuous. The crissum, however, is lighter than 
in the Maryland specimens, with the black bars broader. The Florida 
specimens have also a much longer bill, they closely agreeing in every par- 
ticular with the so-called Thryothorus Berlandieri of Northeastern Mexico 
the Florida specimens even possessing the interrupted black bars on the 
sides of the body said to occasionally characterize that species as distin- 
guished from the T. ludovicianus. The differences between Florida and 
Maryland specimens of T. ludovicianus in the length of the bilL as well 
as in color, are very striking. They are paralleled, however, in Harpo- 
rhynchus rufus and in other species. The T. Berlandieri hence appears to 
be only the smaller, darker form of T. ludovicianus, — the Mexican homo- 
logue of the Florida representatives of this species. 

The Thryothorus Bewickii, from what is known of its range, doubt- 
less occurs as a resident bird in Florida, but is probably rare there, as 
it generally is elsewhere. 

lS.t Anorthoura hy emails Rennie. Winter Wren. 
Rare. — Board/nan. 

19-t Cistothorus stellaris Cabanis. Short-billed Marsh Wren. 

Rare. Enterprise, February. — Boardman. 

The Telmatodytes palustris doubtless also occurs as a winter resident. 

MOTACILLID^I. 

20.t Anthus ludovicianus Lichtenstein. Titlark. 
Common. Several were usually seen in company, but along the 
river I saw no large flocks. According to Mr. Maynard, however, they 
occurred in large flocks in the " old fields " away from the river. 

SYLVICOLID^J. 

21. t Mniotilta varia Vieillot. Black and White Creeper. 
Not uncommon throughout the winter, but much more numerous in 
March. 
22.t Parula americana Bonaparte. Blue Yellow-backed Warbler. 

Occasional during the winter months, but very numerous after the 
1st of March, soon after which time they were in full song. 



268 BULLETIN OF THE 

23.t Helminthophaga celata Baird. Orange-crowned Warbler. 
" Enterprise, loth of February. Rare." — Boardman. 

24.* Dendrceca pinus Baird. Pine Warbler. 
Abundant. Is much on the ground at this season, as it sometimes is 
at the north in spring ; on the whole, however, it is much less ter- 
restrial in its habits than is D. palmarum. In full song in February. 

25.t Dendrceca palmarum Baird. Yellow Redpoll Warbler. 
Extremely abundant. Probably the most numerous of the winter 
birds in East Florida, where it is more or less common in all situations. 
Exceedingly terrestrial in its habits, being generally seen hopping 
along the ground or fallen timber. At the 1st of April they had con- 
siderably decreased in numbers, but many were at that time observed 
at Jacksonville. 

There is some indication that the males and females, and possibly the 
adult and young-, frequent separate districts at this season. When at 
Jacksonville in January I saw only males ; on the Upper St. John's, in 
February and March, only females or immature males ; but these were in 
excessive abundance, as were also the males at the earlier date around 
Jacksonville. Is it not probable that the old males either do not go quite 
so for south as the females and immature males, or that the species was 
already on its way north ? As is well known, the males in the species of 
this family, as probably in most other birds, precede the females in their 
journey northward. 

26. t Dendrceca coronata Gray. Yellow-crowned Warbler. 
More or less common till the 1st of April, and probably some re- 
mained still later. During the last half of March they began to moult, 
but at the end of the month a large part were still in winter dress. 
The same remarks in respect to moulting apply also to D. palmarum. 

27.* Dendrceca dominica Baird. Yellow-throated Warbler. 
Seen at Jacksonville in January, but much more abundantly up the 
river in February and March. March 5th I found them in great 
numbers in the cypress and maple swamps near Lake Munroe, at 
which time the spring migration had commenced. 

28.* Dendrceca discolor Baird. Prairie Warbler. 
Abundant at Jacksonville, April 1st, and occasionally seen at earlier 
dates. This specie- is undoubtedly resident in Florida the whole year. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 269 

29.t Seiurus aurocapillus Swainson. Golden-crowned "Wagtail. 
Not common. A few were seen in February, as well as later. 

30. t Seiurus noveboracensis NuttaU. "Water Wagtail. 
Rare. Found at Dummitt's by Mr. Maynard in Februrary. 

31.* Geothlypis triehas Cabanis. Maryland Yellow-throat. 

Abundant. Though somewhat brighter colored throughout, they dif- 
fer mainly from the northern type in the greater breadth of the black 
facial band. There is but little difference in general size, that is, so far 
as I have had an opportunity of observing ; occasionally a Florida 
example has a bill considerably longer than the average in northern 
examples, but this does not appear to be a very constant difference 
between the southern and northern specimens. It would probably be 
more marked in specimens from South Florida. 

Other species of this family were seen in March that are not to be 
reckoned as winter residents. Amonsr them are the following : Den- 
drceca maculosa, D. virens, and D. pennsylvanica, Euthhjpis cana- 
densis, Setophaga ruticilla, and Hehninthophagg. ruJicapiUa, all of which 
began to appear on the Upper St. John's, near Enterprise, about the 
middle of March, and most of them were also seen later at lower points 
on the river. Helmitherus vermivorus and H. Swainsoni were taken at 
St. Augustine, by Mr. L. L. Thaxter, in April. 

HIRUNDINID.E. 

32.t Tachycineta bicolor Cabanis. "White-bellied Swallow. 
More or less numerous, but observed at irregular intervals. Large 
flocks were seen near the St. John's River in January. It probably 
does not breed in Florida. 

33.t Cotyle riparia Boie. Bank Swallow. 
Not observed by either Boardman, Maynard, or myself prior to the 
last of March, but Mr. Audubon saw it in immense flocks " in winter," 
first at St. Augustine, and afterwards in other parts of the State.* 

The Stelgidopteryx, serripennis was seen about Jacksonville the first 
week in April, and specimens of it were obtained. Several pairs were 
seen flying about some bluffs a few miles below the town, apparently 
with the intention of selecting breeding-places. 

* Birds of America, Vol. I, p. 187. 



270 BULLETIN OF THE 

VIREONID^l. 
34.t Lanivireo solitarius Baird. Solitary Vireo. 
Rather common. In full song early in March. 

35.* Vireo noveboracensis Bonaparte. White-eyed Vireo. 
Common. In full sons in March. 

36.t Vireosylvia olivacea Bonaparte. Red-eted Vireo. 

u A few all winter." — Boardman. Common after the 1st of March, 
on the Middle St. John's. 

The Yellow-throated Vireo, Lanivireo Jiavifrons, was quite common 
early in March, and is undoubtedly a winter resident in South Florida. 

AMPELID-EJ. 

37.t Ampelis cedrorum Baird. Cedar Bird. 
Common. Perhaps resident. 

LANIID-B3. 

38.* Collurio ludovicianus Baird. Loggerhead Shrike. 

Lanius ludovicianus Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 184, 1766. — Bonaparte, Nuttall, 

Audubon. — Gambel, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Ill, 200, 1847. 
Lanius garrulus Bartram, Travels, 289, 1791 (no description). 
? Lanius ardosiaceus Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., I, 81, pi. li, 1807. — Bonaparte, 

Obs. on Wils. Nomenc, Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., III. 358, 1824. 
Lanius carolinensis Wilson, Am. Orn., Ill, 57, pi. xxii, fig. 5, 1811. 
Lanius excubitoroides Swainson, Faun. Bor. Am., II, pi. xxxiv, 1831. 
Lanius elegans Swainson, Ibid., 122. — Nuttall, Man. Am. Orn., I, 2d ed., 

287, 1840. — Gambel, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., I, 261, 1843. 
Lanius mexicanus Brehm, Cab. Journ. fur Orn., II, 145, 1854. — Sclater, 

Catal. Am. Birds, 46, 1861. 
Collurio ludovicianus Baird, Birds of N. Am., 325, 1858. — Allen, Amer. 

Nat., III. 579, 1869. —Baird, Rev. Am. Birds, I, 443, 1866. 
Collurio excubitoroides Baird, Birds N. Am., 337. — Baird, Rev. Am. Birds, 

I, 445. — Cooper & Baird, Orn. Cal., I, 138, 1870. 
Collurio elegans Baird, Birds N. Am., 328. — Baird, Rev. Am. Birds, I, 444. 

Cooper & Baird, Orn. Cal., I, 140, 1870. 

Not very numerous. 

I have already referred to the questionable distinctness of the so-called 
C. excubitoroides from the present species.* Further examination of the 

* See a series of articles in the ''American Naturalist," entitled " Notes on some of 
the Rarer Birds of Massachusetts," Vol. Ill, 1869. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 271 

subject has only confirmed me in the opinion that they are not distinct, 
and that in all probability the C. elegans of California should also be re- 
ferred to the C. ludovicianus.* 

TANAGRID-2E. 

The Pyranga (estiva became common on the Lower St. John's 
April 1st to 5th, but was not observed previously. P. rubra was not 
seen at all. 

A considerable number of specimens of this species (P. cestiua) in the 
Museum, from the Atlantic States, present great differences in the size of 
the bill in respect to vertical and lateral thickness, as well as in the posi- 
tion and distinctness of the " tooth " of the bill, and in the curvature 
of the commissure, as indicated by the accompanying figures (Plata IV, 
figs. 19, 20). They also vary greatly in intensity of color, both of the bill 
and plumage, as do different specimens of P. rubra from Massachusetts. 
Hence species based solely on such distinctions should be accepted, if at 
all, with great hesitancy, f 

FRINGILLID^l. 
39.t Chrysomitris tristis Bonaparte. Yellow Bird. 
Common throughout the winter, and as numerous the first week in 
April as earlier. 

I am sure I heard the notes of the Pine Finch {Chrysomitris pinus), 
but as I obtained no specimens of it and do not find it reported by 
others, I do not include it in the present list. It is not improbable 
that this species and the Purple Finch (Carpodacus purpureas) are 
occasional winter visitors. 

* Since writing the above I have met with the following observations on this group, 
made by Dr. Gambel, in his " Remarks on the Birds observed in Upper California " 
(Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. Ill, p. 200, 1S47): "In the shrikes we are presented 
with a group of birds closely allied to each other, and undergoing such changes in 
plumage as renders them difficult to discriminate. Although examined with great care 
by Swainson in the Fauna Boreali-Americana, yet he appears to have laid too much 
Stress upon characters subject to great variation, as sue, relative length of quills, and 

color The relative length of quills in the snrikes i» an uncertain character, and 

differs very much according to age. In the young of this species the second quill is 
generally much shorter than the sixth, but in the adult equals and may even exceed the 
sixth in length; the proportion of 'he third, fourth and fifth to each other is also exceed- 
ingly various, and indeed m each wing of the same bird it is very common to find the 
proportions of the quills differing very materially. This I have found to be the case in 
the European and botb American , v eeies [iniluno ludovicianus and C. borealis)." 

t See some remarks on the" Uniformly red >pecies of Pyranga," m Proceed. Phil. 
Aead. Nat. Sciences, p. 127. June, l&G'J. 



272 BULLETIN OF THE 

40.t PasserculllS savanna Bonaparte. Savanna Sparrow. 

Emheriza sandwichensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 875, 1788. 

Emberiza arctica Latham, Ind. Orn., I, 414, 1790. 

Emheriza chrysops Pallas, Zool. Rosso-Asiat., II, 45, pi. xlviii, fig. 2, 1811. 

Fringilla savanna Wilson, Am. Urn., Ill, 55, pi. xxii, fig. 2, 1811. 

Passerculus savanna Bonaparte, Geog. ami Comp. List., 3.3, 1838. — Baird, 

Birds N. Am., 442, 1858. — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 112, 1862. 
Passerculus alaudinus Bonaparte, Compte Rendu, XXXVII, 918, 1853. — 

Baird, Birds X Am., 446, 1858. — Sclatek, Cat. Am. Birds, 112, 1862. — 

Coues, Proc Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., XVIII, 84, 1866. — CouES,Proc. Essex 

Inst., V, 281, 1868.— Cooper & Baird, Orn. Cal., I, 181, 1870. 
Passerculus ant/unus Bonaparte, Compte Rendu, XXXVII, 919, 1853. — 

Baird, Birds N. Am., 445, 1858. — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 112, 1862. — 

Cooper & Baird, I, 18.3. 
Passerculus sandwichensis Baird, Birds N. Am., 444, 1858. — Sclater, Cat. 

Am. Birds, 112, 1862. — Cooper & Baird, Orn. Cal., I, 180. 

Abundant, especially on the savannas, where it was the principal 
sparrow seen. 

This species, like all the sparrows, varies considerably in color with the 
season of the year. Fall specimens, and especially the young of the year, 
have the yellow superciliary stripe very indistinctly defined, it being in 
numerous cases entirely obsolete. The general plumage is also much 
browner, with the streaks on the dorsal surface suffused and obscured with 
ferruginous, and those below, as in fall specimens of Melospiza melodia, 
bordered with the same tint. Different individuals also vary considerably 
in the breeding season, some being much grayer above than others ; the 
superciliary line varies from bright yellow to grayish white, with the yellow 
either entirely wanting or limited to a slight wash on the part anterior to 
the eve. This graver plumage and faded condition of the superciliary 
stripe is more especially seen towards the end of the breeding season. 
The spots below also vary so much in size as to give very different aspects 
to the plumage of the lower surface of the body in different specimens. In 
some they form little more than a narrow line along the middle of the 
feathers of the breast and sides of the body ; ill others they are quite 
broad, occupying relatively a much larger surface ; occasionally, also, they 
are aggregated on the lower part of the breast, forming a large conspicuous 
patch, as distinct as is ever seen in Melospiza melodia. The general size. 
of the bird also varies considerably, as is indicated in the accompanying 
table of measurements, and the bill i- subjeel to very marked variations in 
respect to length, size, thickness, and slenderness, as substantiated by a 
series of nearly one hundred specimens now before me, including some 
thirty specimens taken at Ipswich, Massachusetts, in the breeding season. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 273 

These specimens are separable to some extent into several series, which 
may be based either upon difference in general size, the character of the 
bill, or upon coloration; but these several kinds of variation fail to cor- 
roborate each other. If separated upon differences in size, the two or 
more series thus separated embrace every combination of the other dif- 
ferences ; and similar incongruities result when the separation is made 
upon differences in coloration or other characters. Yet the Massachusetts 
specimens present among themselves differences as well marked and of the 
same character as is assumed to distinguish several of the so-called species 
from the Pacific coast, that have been proposed and adopted by different 
authors. 

Alexander Wilson was the first naturalist who gave any adequate de- 
scription of the species in question, though the Emberiza sandwichensis of 
Gnielin unmistakably refers to this bird, and this name having been given 
long before that of Wilson, should, in accordance with the rule of priority, 
supplant Wilson's more euphonious and familiar one of savanna. The first 
supposed species recognized by modern writers after the well-known one of 
Wilson was the P. alaudinus, described by Bonaparte in 1853, in his notes 
on the Delattre collection,* from a specimen from California. He says it 
is not easily distinguished from P. savanna, but differs from it in being 
smaller, with the bill shorter and slenderer, and in wanting the yellow 
superciliary line.f Professor Baird redescribed it in his Birds of North 
America in similar language, and cites under it five specimens, which came 
respectively from Brownsville, Texas; Tamaulipas. Mexico; Petaluma, 
Cal.. and Shoalwater Bay. AY. T. lie remarks respecting it as follows: 
"This species, if really distinct from P. sacanna, differs in the rather 
smaller size, although the difference is not great, and in the considerably 
paler colors. The superciliary stripe shows a very faint trace of yellow, 
especially anteriorly near the bill. In some specimens, as 4342, there is 
none at all." Bonaparte, in his paper just cited, added another " new 
species" from Kodiak, Alaska, which he called Passercidus anthinus, and 
described as follows: " Passercidus anthinus, Bp., ex Kadiak, Am. Ross. 
Simillimus pr&cedenli, sed rostro eliam graciliore et capite jlavo induto ; 
subtus alho-rufttcens matjis maculatus." He says it is still smaller and has 
the bill slenderer even than the other, and that it appears to live farther 
noi-th. Professor Baird al~<> redescribes this species, and is much more 
explicit in his account of it. He says : " Similar to P. savanna, but 

smaller Breast and upper part of belly thickly spotted with sharply 

defined sagittate brown spots, exhibiting a tendency to aggregation on the 

* Compte Rendu, Tome XXXVII, p. 918. 

t " Passerculus alaudinus, Bp., ex Wils., mais plus petite sans jaune aux sourcils et 
a bee plus court et plus effileV' 
VOL. II. 18 



274 BULLETIN OF THE 

middle of the belly," etc. He adds : " This species is the smallest of its 
group, and differs from all in the much greater amount of spotting on the 
under parts. The streaks, indeed, extend over the whole breast and upper 
part of the abdomen, instead of being mainly confined to the jugulum." It 
differs, he says, from P. alaudinus "in the strong shade of yellow on the 
head, the much darker tints above, and the thick crowding of larger and 
better defined spots beneath, with a faint tinge of reddish." lie refers to 
it three specimens from San Francisco, Benicia, and Petaluma, California. 

In 1858 Professor Baird added still another species of Passerculus to 
those previously recognized, through the redescription of the original type 
of this group, the Emberiza sandwichensis of Gmelin, based upon La- 
tham's Sandwich Bunting * and Pennant's Unalaska Bunting.f The name 
Sandwich, as Professor Baird has remarked, refers not to the Sandwich 
Islands, but to Sandwich Sound, on the northern coast. To this species 
Baird judiciously refers the Emberiza arctica of Latham J and Vigors, § 
and the E. chrysops of Pallas. || Professor Baird's description of it is as 
follows : " Almost exactly like P. savanna, but half an inch larger, with 
much larger bill. Length, 6.12 ; wing, 3.00 ; tail, 2.55. Habitat, north- 
western coast, from the Columbia River to Kussian America." He also 
further observes : " This species is extremely similar to the P. savanna, and 
is only distinguishable by its greater size and more western locality. The 
tail feathers also are rather more acutely pointed. There is also a greenish- 
yellow shade on the top and sides of the head, brighter than is seen in P. 
savanna. The bill is considerably larger and longer, measuring .51 of an 
inch above instead of .44." To this is referred one specimen from " Rus- 
sian America," one from Fort Steilacoom, W. T., and three from Shoal- 
water Bay, W. T., three of which measure as is indicated in the above- 
quoted description, and the other nearly three fourths of an inch less. 

In respect to size, then, it appears that the so-called P. sandwichensis is 
the larger, the P. savanna the next in size, P. alaudinus the third, ami /'. 
anthinus the smallest. So, at least, it is claimed ; but from the measure- 
ments published in Birds of North America, a female of P. savanna from 
Carlisle, Pa. (No. 780), is, with one exception (No. 4340, from Browns- 
ville, Texas), the smallest of the specimens of this genus of which meas- 
urements are there given ; two others from Pennsylvania are below the 
average of A alaudinus. No. 10,203, from Russian America, referred to 
P. sandwichensis, is scarcely larger than an average P. sava?ina. The 

* Latham's Synopsis, Vol. II, p. 202, 1783. 

t Pennant's Arctic Zoology, Vol. II, Species No. 229, pp. 320, 368. 

X Indian Ornithology, Vol. I, p. 414, 1790. 

§ Zoology of the Blossom, p. 20, 1839. 

|| Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, Vol. II, p. 45, pi. xlviii, fig. 1, 1811. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 275 

accompanying series of measurements shows that specimens occur in 
Massachusetts as large and as small as any specimens of the genus of 
which measurements are given by Professor Baird. 

In respect to the geographical distribution of these different supposed 
species, it will be observed that of the three West Coast species, the larger, 
P. sandwichensis, is northern, and the others, P. alaudinus and P. anthi- 
nus, southern, which perfectly explains the difference in size that occurs 
between them.* In respect to P. alaudinus and P. anthinus, one is only 
the paler colored and the other the brighter colored form of the common 
savanna sparrow as represented in the Pacific States ; the three supposed 
species together forming a series similar to what is seen when a large 
number of specimens of this bird from the Atlantic States are compared. 
In other words, the characters whereon these species are based are evi- 
dently only individual differences. The P. alaudinus is the form with 
narrow streaks and generally paler tints, or that having a minimum inten- 
sity of color ; the P. anthinus is that with the brighter tints, or with the 
maximum intensity of color, the greater breadth of the streaks, and the 
rufous suffusion below correlating with the generally brighter tints. Aside 
from this normal range of variation referred to at length in Part III 
as obtaining in all species, there i« that of season to be taken into 
account, as the fading of the superciliary stripe and the grayer aspect of 
the plumage above towards the end of the breeding season, through the 
natural wearing and bleaching of the plumage, f and also the rufous suf- 
fusion and greater amount of color characteristic of the renewed plumage 
in fall. It will be noticed that authors report the occurrence of all the 
western species either actually at or near the -same points^ while P. 
savanna was not until recently supposed to occur on the Pacific slope of the 
continent. § But one of the others have been announced from the plains 
as far east as Nebraska, || and from Brownsville, Texas.^f 

In respect to the habits of these supposed species, there is nothing 
attributed to the western one that is not equally applicable to the eastern 
bird. Dr. Coues, it is true, says that in Southern California P. anthinus 
seemed confined to the moist salt grass and sedgy weeds of the sea-shore 

* Since the above was written, Mr. Dall has given, not only P. savanna and P. sand- 
mchensis, but also P. alaudinus and P. anthinus in his list of the birds of Alaska. (See 
Trans. Chicago Acad. Sciences, Vol. I, pp. 283, '284.) 

t See Part III, p. 193. 

J See Professor Baird, " Birds of North America," Dr. Coues, " Notes on the Birds of 
Arizona Territory," and Cooper's Ornithology of California. 

§ It has recently been reported by Mr. Dall as common in Alaska. 

|| P. alaudinus, Sclater's Catalogue of American Birds, p. 112. 

^ P. alaudinus, Baird, in Birds of North America, p. 446. 



276 BULLETIN OF THE 

itself. " When with difficulty it was flushed, its flight was," he remarks, 
" very rapid and irregular ; and it would alight again almost immediately, 
and run with great celerity among the roots of the thick grasses. It was 
then exceedingly difficult to procure." * All of which is quite true of 
P. savanna when frequenting the salt marshes, which form its most favor- 
ite resort in Massachusetts. " I', alaudinus" he says, "was common two 
or three miles away from the coast, but on the sea-shore itself I never 
found one mixing with P. ant/anus ; it is a bush-and-weed rather than 
a grass species." P. saccuuia also frequents similar localities. Mr. 
Dall, under P. antJiinus, has also accurately indicated the habits of the 
eastern Passerculus. Under P. savanna, however, he mentions a fact 
in respect to the breeding habits of this species I have never before seen 
mentioned as characterizing any of the Passerculi, namely, its nesting in 
bushes. I have met with many nests of the eastern savanna sparrow, and 
have always found them placed on the ground, usually in a tuft of grass. 

To recur again to the series in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
I may add that while some of the Ipswich specimens, taken late in June, 
have a decidedly yellow superciliary stripe, none have it so bright as it is 
usually in spring specimens ; in a considerable proportion it is very pale, 
and in Nos. 4700, 10GC8, etc., it is grayish-white, with no perceptible trace 
of yellow. No. 5099, and some others, have the spots on the breast and 
sides very narrow, occupying but a small share of the surface ; on the 
other hand, in No. 5088, as also in several others of the series, the spots 
are so broad as to occupy more space than the enclosing white portion. 
In other specimens, taken at a different season of the year, the "rufous 
tinge" surrounding the spots referred to in the above-quoted description 
of P. anthinus is very marked. There is likewise great difference in the 
color of the upper surface, in different specimens. In some the black cen- 
tral spots of the interscapularies are so broad as to give to the dorsal aspect 
a very dark tint; in others, taken the same day at the same locality, they 
are so restricted that the general aspect of this surface is gray. The bills 
of the different specimens vary as much in length and robustness as they 
are represented to do in the two extremes in this respect in the western 
bird. Some of the long-billed ones have the bill slender: others have it 
thick and stout. Occasionally one has the upper mandible projecting 
considerably beyond the lower, but only in cases where it is abnormally 
developed. A specimen from Fort Bridger, Utah (No. 11115 of the 
Smithsonian Catalogue), in the Museum, labelled Passerculus alaudinus 
at the Smithsonian Institution, is of this character, the upper mandible 
being very much abnormally developed and decurved, and projecting 
much beyond the lower. 

* Ibis, July, 1S66, 268. 



MUSEUM <">F COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 277 

In short, while not denying that there maybe a slight average difference 
between eastern and western specimens, as I know there is between those 
of the Central Plains and those of the Atlantic States, I cannot allow that 
it is at all sufficient to substantiate a specific difference. On the contrary, 
I am confident that the above-named supposed species of the Pacific 
States are based chiefly on individual variation perfectly parallel with 
that seen in a large series of specimens from the Atlantic. States. No 
one, in fact, seems to have felt very confident that any of them were 
distinct from the eastern P. savanna. Dr. Coues has even repeatedly 
expressed his belief that Passeixulus alaudinus is not permanently dis- 
tinct from that species. " In a large series of the latter," he says, '• shot 
about Washington, I have found fully as great differences as I have ever 
detected in comparing the eastern with the western forms." * 

Dr. Cooper also refers as follows to the close resemblance of the P. 
alaudinus to the P. sayulwichensis. He says, " I think it very doubt- 
ful whether these specimens (which measure larger than the dimensions 
given by Baird, though otherwise agreeing) are anything more than a 
southern form of P. sandwichensis, though collected near San Diego. 
.... Baird considers it almost identical with P. sacanna of the east, 
and says that P. sand/vichensis differs from that species in its larger 
size. Spring specimens have the superciliary stripe more decidedly yel- 
low, so that there only remains a more slender bill to distinguish this 
from P. savanna, and the larger size (characteristic of northern speci- 
mens generally), with darker hues, from P. sandwichensis." f Respecting 
P. anthinus Dr. Cooper remarks, " This species appears better marked, as 
compared with P. savanna, than the preceding [P. alaudinus and P. sand- 
wichensis], although I am not entirely satisfied that it is different." J 

The following measurements of twenty-six specimens (fourteen males 
and twelve females), all taken at Ipswich during June and July, 1868, and 
measured before skinning, indicates the range of individual variation pre- 
sented by this species. The extremes are as follows : Length, 5.20 and 
6.00, both males; alar extent, 7.61 and 9.75, both females; wing, 2.44 and 
2.95 ; tail, 1 .64 and 2.25 ; tarsus, .75 and .88. The average dimensions are : 
Length, 5.20 ; alar extent, 8.79 ; wing, 2.70; tail, 1.96 ; tarsus, .84. The 
following are the extremes of the series of measurements of the western 
Passerculi, given in Birds of North America : Length, 5.00 (P. alaudinus 
Tamaulipas, Mex.) and 6.12 (P. sandicichensis, Fort Steilacoom, \V. T.) ; 
alar extent, 8.50 and 9.37 (same specimens) ; wing, 2.50 and 2.95 (same 
specimens) ; tail, 2.00 and 2.57 (same specimens). It thus appears that 

* Ibis, July, 1866, p. 289. 

t Ornithology of California, Vol. I, p. 182. 

J Ibid., p. 183. 



278 



BULLETIN OF THE 



specimens taken in the breeding season in Massachusetts, overlap in two 
out of the four measurements given, all the so-called western species, 
while specimens taken in Massachusetts at other seasons, vary still more 
than the specimens cited in the following table. 

Measurements of Massachusetts Specimens of Passerctjlus savanna, 
taken in the Breeding Season. 



6 


m 














^ 












X 

o 


Locality. 


Date. 




Collector. 


a 


a 
w 


to 

c 


"3 


9 


6 
8 


s 5 

oz 


C/J 










►2 


< 


£ 


E-i 


03 


5083 


811 


ft 


Ipswich 


June 12, 


'68 


Allen & Maynard 


5.70 


8.32 


2 72 


2.07 







821 ' 


d 






June 13, 


: 68 




5.76 


9.25 


255 


2.00 


.85 


5086 


S40 


d 






June 14, 


•68 




5.65 


9.15 


2.75 


1.85 


.85 


5087 


848 


d 






June 14, 


68 




5.50 


9.13 


2.75 


2.07 


84 


5089 


852 


d 






June 15, 


•68 




5.40 


9.10 


2 65 


2.00 


.85 


5090 


853 


d 






June 15, 


'68 




5.70 


9.20 


2.08 


2.10 


.87 


5094 


854 


■' 






June 15, 


v,s 




5.70 


9.25 


2 04 


1.95 


.88 





855 


d 






June 15, 


'68 






9.15 


2.75 


185 


84 


5901 


S56 


d 






June 15, 


- 68 




1.40 


9.25 


2 60 


193 


.80 


5092 


857 


d 






June 15, 


'68 




5.20 


9.37 


2 95 


2.00 


— 


5092 


858 


d 






June 15, 


'68 




5.40 


9 25 


2.63 


2 06 


.83 


5096 


832 


d 






Juiih 17, 


'68 




6.76 


8 00 


2 90 


2 00 


— 


5098 


873 j 






June 17, 


os 




5.83 


7 75 


2.* 


2.10 








881 c 


r 






June 17, 


•68 




6.00 


827 


2.74 


2.25 





5082 


810 : 


> 






June 12, 


68 




5.42 


8.81 


271 


1.81 





5084 


819 \ 








June 13, 


•63 




5.75 


S-85 


2.57 


1.83 


.83 


5084 


847 ^ 








June 14, 


•68 




5.54 


8.55 


2.70 


1.90 


.80 


r.uss 


851 f , 








June 15, 


'68 




5.75 


9.75 


2.70 


2.05 


.75 


5094 


859' (, 








June 17, 


•68 




5.45 


8.90 


2-65 


2.05 


.85 


5095 


860 $ 


> 






June 17, 


■68 




5 25 


8.50 


2-44 


1.85 





5096 


862 








June 17, 


•68 




5,70 


8.90 


2.7i 


1.90 





6097 


878; ? 








June 17, 


'68 




5.75 


« 7.01 


2.60 


1.80 





5099 


877 : { 








June 17, 


'68 




5-75 


8.05 


2.75 


2.00 








890 ! <, 








June 17, 


'68 




5.35 


9.75 


2. 77 


1.95 





5100 


1006 5 








July 15, 


'68 


C. J. Maynard 


5.65 


795 


2^72 


2.00 


.87 




1158: $ 


> 






Aug 19, 


•68 




5.30 


8.50 


2.70 


1.64 


.85 



41.t Poocsetes gramineus Baird. Grass Finch. 
Abundant, especially in and about the old fields. The most numer- 
ous sparrow in East Florida in winter. 

42.t Junco hyemalis Sclater. Snow Bird. 
" Common in January." — Boardman. Not seen by either Mr. 
Maynard or myself. Probably of somewhat irregular occurrence so 
far south. 

43.t Spizella SOCialis Bonaparte. Chipping Sparrow. 
Common. A large proportion of those seen were young birds. 

44* Spizella pusilla Bonaparte. Field Sparrow. 
Common. More numerous than the preceding species (S. socialis). 
They appeared to be breeding at Jacksonville the first week in April. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 279 

The songs of the males were so different from those of the northern 
binl that the species was almost unrecognizable by me from its notes. 

45.t Zonotrichia albicollis Swainson. White-throated Sparrow. 
Generally more or less common. 

46. t Melospiza melodia Baird. Song Sparrow. 
Not numerous. At least comparatively few were seen. 

47.t Melospiza palustris Baird. Swamp Sparrow. 
Common, frequenting the hummocks and swamps. 

48.t Passerella iliaca Swainson. Fox-colored Sparrow. 
A single specimen was seen by Mr. G. A. Boardman at Enterprise. 
None were seen by Mr. Maynard or myself. 

49.t Ammodromus maritimus Swainson. Seaside Finch. 
" Abundant at Fernandina." — Boardman. 

50.t Ammodromus caudacutus Swainson. Sharp-tailed Finch. 

" Abundant, with the preceding." — Boardman. Although I have 
marked as winter visitors both these species of Ammodromus, they may 
be resident. 

51. t Coturniculus Henslowi Bonaparte. Henslow's Sparrow. 
Stated by Audubon to be abundant in winter on the grassy pine 
barrens of Florida.* 

52.* Peucsea aestivalis Baird. Pine-wood Sparrow. 

Fringilla aestivalis Lichtenstein, Verzeich. Doubleder Zool. Mus. der konigl. 

Univ. zu Berlin, 25, 1823. 
Fringilla Bachmani Audubon, Orn. Biog., II, 366, pi. clxv, 1834. 
Fringilla astiva Nuttall, Man. Orn., I, 2d ed., 568, 1846. 
Peucau Bachmani Audubon, Syn. Am. Birds, 112, 1839. 
Peuccea ccsti calls Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 132, 1850. 

Zonotrichia Cussinii Woodiiouse, Proe. Phil. Arad. Xat. Sci., 1852, 60. 
Peucoca Cussinii Baird, Birds N. Am., 485, 1858. 

Common, but confined to the pine woods. 

The twenty-two specimens, collected by Mr. Maynard's party and 
myself, now in the Museum, present considerable differences. Several 
are so different in color from most of the others as to almost have the 
appearance of being a different species, the general color of the upper 

* Birds of America, Vol. Ill, p. 76. 



280 



BULLETIN OF THE 



parts being rufous instead of gray. These are all females, the others 
being males. But the males differ greatly in color, few of our sparrows 
being more variable in this respect than the present species. 

The following measurements of twenty-two Florida specimens indicate 
quite a constancy in size, much greater than in color. The extremes of 
this scries are as follows: Length, 5.75 and 6.20; alar extent, 7. GO and 
8.30 ; wing, 2.17 and 2.55 ; tail, 2.25 and 2.G8. Average : Length, 5.88; 
alar extent, 8.99 ; wing, 2.40; tail, 2.49. 

Measurements of Florida Specimens of Peucjea aestivalis. 



6 ' 


•n 












^ 








55 

S3 


Sii 

■ r a 


y. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


A 

a 




m 


'3 


3 


d 
5377 


= 3 

oz 


d 








iS 


<! 


% 


EH 

2.50 


H 

.76 


5377 


Hawkinsville 


Mar. 13, '69 


J.A.Allen 


6.00 


8.20 


2.35 


5393 


5398 




" 


Mar. 15, '69 


" 


5.S5 


8.05 


liLS 


2.3(1 


.75 


5425 


5425 


? 


Jacksonville 


Apr. 2, '69 


" 


5.90 


8.00 


'J. in 


2.4(1 


.76 


54l6 


5426 


d 


" 


Apr. 2, 69 


" 


5.90 


8.30 


2.55 


2.50 


.70 


5427 


5427 


' 


" 


Apr. 2, '69 


" 


5.60 


7.85 


2.50 


2 25 


.76 


5428 


5428 


/ 


" 


Apr. 2, '69 


" 


5.80 


8.20 


2.40 


2.50 


74 


54-9 


5429 


'• 


" 


Apr. 2, '69 


" 


5.90 


7.85 


2.45 


2.47 


.76 


5430 


5430 


d 


" 


Apr. 2, '69 


" 


5.60 


7.S5 


2.40 


2 50 


68 


10 18 


18 


• 


" 


Apr. 3, '69 


C. Thurston 


5.80 


8.00 


•J 45 


250 


.70 


L0617 


21 


'• 


" 


Apr. 3, '69 


" 


5.90 


7 - 7;". 


2.17 


250 


.07 





24 


.-' 


" 


Apr. 5, '69 


" 


5. 75 


8.00 


2.45 


2.35 


.66 


10818 


27 


d 


" 


Apr. 6, '69 


" 


5.75 


8.00 


'J 51 1 


2.55 


.65 


10619 


28 


d 


" 


Apr. 6, ii ( ' 


" 


6.90 


8.00 


2 45 


2.65 


.62 


10620 


36 


? 


" 


Apr. 7, "69 


" 


5.90 


8.00 


2 25 


2 55 


.68 


L i t 


72 


J 


" 


Apr. 24, '69 


" 


6 00 


8.00 


2.40 


2.55 


.70 


I 6 3 


68 


d 


" 


Apr. 16, '69 


" 


6.00 


S.00 


2.40 


2.56 


.75 


10622 


67 


r 


" 


Apr. 16, "69 


" 


6.00 


8.00 


2.45 


2.50 


.74 


10625 


73 


d 


" 


Apr. 24, '69 


" 


6.20 


8.15 


2.40 


2.50 


.70 





651 


d 


" 


Apr. 15, '69 


" 


6.0(1 


8.00 


2.40 


2.53 


.72 


10621 


45 


- 


" 


Apr. is, '69 


" 


6.10 


8 m 


2.35 


2.60 


73 





37 


d 


" 


Apr. 7, : 69 


" 


5.90 


8.00 


2.45 


2.68 


.75 


10626 


2934 


d 




Apr. 13, '69 




5.85 


7.60 


2.25 


2.34 


.70 



53.* Cardinalis virginianus Bonaparte. Cardinal Bird. 
Exceedingly numerous. Their clear, musical, loud call-note was 
heard everywhere, this being the most noisy bird of the forest. 

None of the specimens I have seen from Florida are as large as those 
from the Middle States. The colors of the dinner are also somewhat 
brighter, especially in the females, in which the brownish-yellow of the 
lower parts is not only much deeper, but a large proportion have the breast 
and middle of the abdomen strongly tinged with bright, red, giving a very 
different appearance from northern females. 

The, following measurements of fifty-eight specimens shows the amount 
of variation in size in specimens from the same locality. The females, it 
will be seen, average a little smaller than the male-, but the sexual 
difference in this respect is not very great. The range of variation, 
which is much less in this species than in many, is as follows: In the 
males: Length, 7.75 to 9.10; alar extent, 11.00 to 11.78; wing, 3.50 to 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



281 



3.85 ; tail, 3.40 to 4.20 ; tarsus, .62 to .80. In the females : Length, 7.50 to 
8.75 ; alar extent, 10.70 to 11.75 ; wing, 3.25 to 3.85 ; tail, 3.40 to 4.10 ; 
tarsus, .62 to 75 Average size of the males : Length, 8.46 ; alar extent, 
11.43; wing, 3.63; tail, 3.87. Average of the females: Length, 8.27; 
alar extent, 11.27; wing, 3.53; tail, 3.77. 

Measurements of Florida Specimens of Cardinalis VIRGINIANUS. 



6 
e4 


i S 


* 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 




a 

w 


u> 


d 


d> 


° z 


i. 








>3 


u 


P 


h-i 


g 


y^ 












< 






5164 


5164 


9 


Hibernia 


Jan. 30, '69 


J. A Allen 


8.60 


11.45 


:; 35 


4.10 


5165 


5165 


cf 


" 


Jan. 30 


»69 


" 


8 45 


11 7d 


3.65 


3 83 


5163 


5166 


-• 


" 


Jan. 30 


"69 


" 


8.45 


1 1 :,i i 


3.60 


4 10 


5167 


5167 


7 


" 


Jan. 30 


'69 


" 


8.75 


1 1 :,i ' 


3 55 


3 95 


51S9 


5 ISt 


9 


" 


Feb. 3 


•69 


" 




1 1 .25 


3 50 


:; :<5 


5192 


5192 


cf 


" 


Feb. 3 


'69 


" 


8 75 


1 1 . 75 


;: 5 i 


4 Id 


5193 


5193 


9 


" 


Feb. 3 


'69 


" 


8.45 


11.35 


3.60 


3 83 


5230 


5230 




Volusia 


Feb. 12 


'69 


" 


815 


11.00 


3.30 


3.78 


5311 


5311 


cf 


Enterprise 


Mar, 1 


69 


" 


8.75 


11.60 


:; mi 


3 90 


5312 


5312 


? 


" 


Mar. 1 


•69 


" 


8.50 


11 35 


:; m 


3.78 


5347 


5347 


cf 


" 


Mar. 4 


'69 


•' 


9.10 


11.50 


:; 58 


4.15 








? 


Ilawkinsville 


Mar. 13 


'69 


" 


7-75 


10.70 


3 •_.-, 


— 








cf 


Jacksonville 


Mar 31 


'69 


" 


7. 75 


11.15 


3.55 


— 


5424 


5424 


cf 


" 


Apr. 2 


'69 


" 


8 50 


115H 


3.65 


3.90 








9 


" 


Apr. 2 


•69 


" 


S.55 


11.10 


:;i,r, 


— 





1955 


•' 


" 


Jan. 2 


'69 


C. J. Maynard 


9.00 


11.50 


3.65 


4 30 





1987 


cf 


" 


Jan. 5 


■on 


" 


9.00 


11.50 


3 85 


4.K5 


10706 


1988 


r 


" 


Jan. 5 


'69 


" 


S.50 


1151 


3 75 


4.20 


10707 


1989 


f 


" 


Jan. 5 


'69 


" 


8 50 


11.45 


3.75 


3 SO 





2003 


• 


" 


Jan. 10 


'69 


" 


8 05 


11.60 


3 75 


4.15 





2i)U 


1 


" 


Jan 7 


'69 


" 


8.00 


11.00 


3 75 


4.00 





24 >0 


i 


D urn mitt's 


Feb 24 


'69 


" 


S HI 1 


11.25 


3.50 


3.40 





241S 


cC 


" 


Feb. 22 


'69 


" 


8 75 


11 lu 


3.80 


3.90 





2531 


g 


" 


Feb 7 


■69 


" 


S 0(1 


11.00 


:; >;.", 


410 





2537 


-7 


" 


Feb. 9 


'69 


" 


S.70 


11.50 


:; 65 


4.00 





2447 


cf 


" 


Feb. 24 


•69 


" 


Mil) 


11.56 


3.60 


3 0(1 


10709 


2337 


cf 


" 


Feb 16 


- 69 


" 


8 50 


11 5H 


360 


3.80 





2328 


cf 


" 


Feb. 25 


•69 


" 


8 25 


1150 


3 50 


3.80 


10710 


233S 


cf 


" 


Feb. 16 


•69 


" 


8.50 


11.5(1 


3 60 


3.80 


10713 


2393 


<J 


" 


Feb. 16 


'69 


" 


s 5i i 


11.5H 


3.65 


3.65 





2324 


cf 


" 


Feb. 25 


Y,'» 


" 


8.60 


11,50 


3.60 







2389 


cC 


" 


Feb '.'5 


'69 


" 


S75 


11 is 


3.65 


3.00 





2368 


cf 


" 


Feb. 25 


■69 


" 


8.40 


11 5li 


3 60 


4 10 





23 55 


•" 


" 


Feb 17 


>69 


" 


8.00 


11 5(1 


Mill 


3.90 





2384 


-" 


" 


Feb. 17 


•69 


" 


8.50 


11.50 


3i;o 


:j 60 





2363 


(f 


" 


Feb. 17 


•69 


" 


8.50 


11 5m 


3 60 


4(1(1 





2538 


cf 


" 


Mar. 10 


•69 


" 


8 15 


11. IS 


3.60 


3 4(1 





2535 


cf 


" 


Mar. 4 


•69 


" 


S40 


11 00 


3 57 


3 95 





2459 


cf 


" 


Feb. 25 


'69 


" 


8 50 


11.50 


3. 75 


;; 95 





2008 


9 


Jacksonville 


Jan. 9 


•69 


" 


8.25 


1 1 25 


;; 35 


3S5 





2(142 


V 


'• 


Jan. 6 


"69 


" 


8 75 


11 21 


3 50 


:: 70 


— — 


23 1 


, 


" 


.Ian. 11 


'69 


" 


3 00 


11 hi' 


:; in 


3 K) 





2579 


9 


Dummitt's 


Mar. 10 


'69 


" 


7 75 


10.75 


3 in 


3 Ii.", 





2317 


s 


" 


Feb 24 


■611 


" 


7.5U 


11 ("i 


10 


:; 30 


- — 


2594 


9 


" 


Feb 11 


•69 


" 


8.50 


11 Id 


3.50 


3.9J 





2593 


9 


" 


Fell 11 


•on 


" 


3.50 


11.05 


;; 50 







2334 


9 


" 


Feb 21 


•60 


" 


8.75 


11 t^> 


3 67 


4iKI 





2415 


V 


" 


Feb. 20 


■69 


" 


SHU 


11.10 


3.50 


:; so 





2394 


9 


" 


Feb 16 


•69 


" 


8.00 


11 .75 






1(1716 


2324 


9 


" 


Feb 15 


'69 


'• 


8.50 


1 1 


3TH 


4 In 


___ 


2458 


9 


" 


Feb 25 


69 


" 


3 in 


11 15 


3 75 


3 or, 





23 ! I 


, 


" 


Feb. 17 


'69 


" 


S Tii i 


1 1 5' I 


3.60 


3 70 





2474 


, 


" 


Feb. 16 


'69 


" 


3.00 


1 1 25 


■i 15 


3 55 





2475 


9 


" 


Feb. 26 


'69 


" 


S.i HI 


1 1 i ii i 


3 i" 


3 75 


10117 


2489 


9 


" 


Mar 1 


'69 


" 


Ml", 


11 15 


3.64 


;; W 


10715 


21SS 


, 


" 


Mar 1 


■69 


" 


8.50 


11 20 


3.60 


■l.i m 


10714 


2427 


9 


" 


Mar 4 


'69 


'■ 


8 20 


1 1 25 


3 35 


360 





2043 


9 


Feb 11 


•09 


" 


850 


11 50 


3 75 


3.90 



282 BULLETIN OF THE 

54* Pipilo erythrophthalmus Vieillot. Chewix-k. 
Exceedingly numerous. 

Mr. C. J. Maynard detected an interesting local race or variety of this 
bird at Dummitt's. Besides having the irides yellowish-white instead of 
red, there is less white at the base of the primaries, less skirting the 
secondaries, and much less on the tail. The whole bird is also smaller. 
The white on the tail generally extends only to the three outer pairs of 
feathers ; in the common northern form it extends over the four outer 
pairs, and on the first is much more extended than in the Florida one. 
The tail of the common form, with the outer pair of feathers removed, 
would resemble, in respect to the distribution and extent of the white, that 
of the Florida bird. The song of this bird, as I heard it at Jacksonville 
in April, is quite different from that of the northern bird, it being ordinarily 
only about half as long, and uttered with much less spirit. As is well 
known, the song of the towhe, or chewink, at the north consists of two 
parts, nearly equal in length but otherwise quite different. In the Florida 
bird the last half is almost entirely omitted. According to Mr. Maynard, 
this variety is almost the only one occurring on Indian River, and of which 
he brought home some forty or more specimens. I found also one among 
half a dozen I shot at Jacksonville in January. In April, among a few 
towhes exposed in cages for sale in the market, were several of this kind. 
There is probably a large proportion of northern birds among the Pipilones 
of Northern Florida in winter, while probably in summer the majority are 
of the southern type above described, as are those of Middle and Southern 
Florida, doubtless, :it all seasons. 

Had this form been discovered ten, or even five years since, it would 
probably have been regarded by most ornithologists as entitled to specific 
rank, and not as a local race of P. erythrophthalmus, as it evidently is. 
Indeed, there are many species still on our lists that are far less entitled to 
rank as species than this, but which, though at first only provisionally 
adopted, have become traditionally established as valid species. 

The two tables of measurements of specimens of this species given 
below, with Table J (p. 212), show the difference in size that obtains be- 
tween Massachusetts and Florida specimens. The first table embraces 
twenty-nine specimens (nineteen males and ten females) of the white- 
eyed Florida type ; the second table embraces sixteen specimens (ten 
males and six females) of the common northern type from Eastern Massa- 
chusetts ; the measurements of twenty other Massachusetts males having 
been also already given in Table J, on p. 212. The following are the 
extremes of the two series. Northern type, males : Length, 7. .00 and 8.80; 
alar extent, 10.00 and 12.25; wing, 3.17 and 3.90; tail, 3.30 and 3.93; 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



283 



Measurements of Specimens of Pipilo erythrophthalmus from 
Indian River, Florida. 



6 

N 


<-> 3 

— 3 

°z 


1) 

ce 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector.- 


to 

□ 


a 
o 

"3 

w 

u 

3 


bio 


'3 

H 


3 
u 
a 
Eh 


10722 


2477 


cf 


Dummitt's 


Feb. 26, '69 


C.J. Maynard 


8.10 


10.25 


3.25 


360 


1.00 





2476 


cf 


" 


Feb. 26, '69 


" 


8.00 


10.50 


3.20 


3.65 


.95 





2531 


cf 


" 


Mar. 5, '69 


" 


8.00 


10.00 




3 60 


100 





2530 


' 


" 


Mar. 5, '69 


" 


7.20 


10.10 


3.00 


3.65 


.90 





2529 


rf 


" 


Mar. 6, '69 


" 


8.30 


10.20 


3.25 


3.70 


1.00 





2559 


g 


" 


Mar 7, '69 


" 


7.90 


9.85 


3.42 


3.50 


1.02 


10729 


2669 


cf 


" 


Mar. 12, '69 


" 


8.20 


11.00 


3.45 


3.57 


1.01 





2592 


cf 


" 


Mar. 11, '69 


" 


8.50 


11.00 


3.50 


3.60 


.87 





2417 


cf 


<l 


Feb. 22, '69 


" 


8.00 


10.00 


3 05 


3.70 


.95 





2416 


cf 


" 


Feb. 22, '69 


" 


8.00 


10.25 


325 


3.35 


— 





2394 


cf 


" 


Feb. 25, '69 


" 


8.00 


10.10 


3 10 


3 50 


.95 





2426 


cf 


" 


Feb. 20, '69 


" 


7.78 


10.0(1 


300 


325 


.90 





2514 


cf 


" 


Mar. 2, '69 


" 


7.70 


9.50 


280 


3.40 


.80 





2512 


1 


" 


Mar. 2, '69 


" 


7.25 


10.25 


3.10 


3.70 


.80 


10724 


2511 


c? 


" 


Feb. 20, '69 


" 


7.75 


10^0 


3.20 


3.50 


1.09 


10721 


2395 


cf 


" 


Feb 18, '69 


" 


7.40 


10.00 


2.92 


3.90 


— 


10729 


2668 


cf 


" 


Feb 22, '69 


" 


7.40 


lo7f, 


3.00 


3.45 


.95 





2044 


cf 


" 


Feb. 17, '69 


" 


8.50 


11.30 


3.00 


3 50 


.95 


10728 


2516 


c? 


" 


Mar. 2, '69 


" 


8.00 


10.25 


3 05 


3 45 


.90 





2481 




" 


Feb. 24, '69 


" 


7.50 


U A< 


300 


3.60 


.90 





2483 


5 


" 


Feb. 20, '69 


" 


7-50 


9.50 


3.00 


3.54 


.90 





2590 


\ 


" 


Mar. 11, '69 


" 


7.65 


10.05 


3.00 


3 75 


.92 





2593 


2 


" 


Mar. 11, '69 


" 


8.20 


10 10 


305 


3 58 


1.00 





2591 


? 


" 


Mar. 11, '69 


" 


790 


9.95 


3.03 


360 


.92 





2578 


5 


" 


Mar. 10, '69 


" 


740 


9.75 


3.00 


3.80 


.95 


10727 


2515 


V 


" 


Mar. 2, '69 


" 


7.50 


9.75 


3.10 


3.05 


.95 


10725 


2513 


$ 


" 


Mar. 2, '69 


" 


7.35 


10.50 


3 35 


3.10 


.85 





2445 


? 


" 


Feb. 18, '69 


" 


8.05 


10 53 


350 


3.45 


.95 


10726 


2514 


5 




Mar. 2, '69 




7.50 


9 50 


3 90 


3.05 


95 



Measurements of Specimens of PinLO erythrophthalmus from 
Eastern Massachusetts. 



6 
si 




a> 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


J3 
to 


c 
w 




-j 


3 


^5 


~ 3 










1-3 


u 

a 

< 
12 35 


3.30 









3^4 


rf 


Newton 


May 6, '68 


C. J . Maynard 


8.30 


3.60 


_ 





414 


rf 


Weston 


May 9. '68 


" 


8.25 


11.00 


3 35 


3 64 


— 





415 


,-f 


■' 


May 9, '68 


" 


8 20 


11.30 


3 45 


3 49 


— 





430 


-f 


Newton 


May 11, '68 


" 


825 


11.00 


365 


3.76 


— 





439 


rf 


Walt ham 


May 13, '68 


•' 


8 45 


11 30 


3.51 


3 Bo 


— 





639 


rf 


•' 


May 18, '68 


" 


8. as 


11.23 


.•', 46 


3.55 


— 





1008 cf 


Weston 


July 10, '68 


" 


8.50 


11.00 


341 


3 46 


— 


4616 


1329; <t 


Newton 


Sept. 21, '68 


" 


8 80 


11.(15 


3 42 


370 


1 10 





1330; cf 


" 


Sept 21, '68 


" 


8 51 


1141 


3 51 


4 00 


100 


4615 


1295 cf 


" 


Sept. 17, '68 


" 


8 50 


1 1 51 I 


3. 55 


3 75 


1.00 


4725 


496 V 


'• 


May 15, '68 


" 


7.60 


10 45 


331 


3 35 


— 


4726 


527 V 


Waltham 


May 16, '68 


" 


8 25 


11.76 


335 


3.60 


— 





-,j 


" 


May 16, '68 


" 


826 


10 55 


355 


365 


— 


4724 


555 V 


Weston. 


May 2o, 68 


" 


8 00 


10.56 


3 25 


3 36 


— 


4617 


1028 9 


Newton 


.hi lv 22, '68 


8.50 


11 00 


341 


3 52 ] lo 


4613 


1328 ? 


■' 


Sept 21, '68 i 


845 


1100 


335 


3 65 1 05 



tarsus, .98 and 1.13. Southern type, males : Length, 7.20 and 8.50 ; alar 
extent, 9.50 and 11.30; wing, 2.80 and 3.50 ; tail, 3.25 and 3.90 ; tarsus, 



284 BULLETIN OF TOE 

.80 and 1.09. The females in both cases average a little smaller than the 
males. The average dimensions of thirty northern males are as follows : 
Length, 8.19 ; alar extent, 11.32 ; wing, 3.43 ; tail, 3.66 ; tarsus, 1.06. Of 
nineteen southern males: Length, 7.88; alar extent, 9.88; wing, 3.13; 
tail, 3.56 ; tarsus, .94. The measurements given in the two preceding 
tables were all taken by Mr. Maynard from fresh, specimens. 

Other species of Fringillidce that from their general distribution one 
naturally expects to meet with in East Florida in winter, but which, so 
far as I can learn, have not yet been met with there, are the Yellow- 
winged Sparrow ( Coturntculus passerinus), Black-throated Bunting 
(Euspiza americana), Indigo Bird (Cyanospiza cyanea), and the Non- 
pariel (0. ciris). Specimens of the latter, collected at Cape Florida in 
winter, have been received at the Museum, and it was taken in April 
at Jacksonville and St. Augustine by Mr. Thurston and Mr. L. L. 
Thaxter. 

ICTERID.3S. 
55. t Molothrus pecoris Swainson. Cow Blackbird. 

Not numerous. Sometimes seen in small parties by themselves, but 
more frequently associating with the red-wings and grackles. 

56* Agelseus phoeniceus I icillot. Red-winged Blackbird. 
Abundant. Apparently chiefly Florida born birds seen, especially 
in February and March. The sexes were usually in separate flocks. 

The differences in respect to size and color between Florida and New 
England specimens usually seen in individuals of the same species, from 
these localities are very marked in the present species, especially in re- 
spect to color. In no group, in fact, is it generally more so than in the 
Icteriilii . 

In the Florida red-wings the general form is slenderer and more deli- 
cate, the bill relatively longer and more pointed, and the general color 
more intense and lustrous. The difference is particularly marked in the 
shoulder-patch, in which tlie red of its anterior portion is darker, approach- 
ing bright orange, and the posterior part, which in the northern bird is 
usually pale cream-color, whitish, or even nearly pure white, is orange- 
yellow, — very nearly as in the .1. gubernaior of the Pacific States. The 
difference in color, si/e, and especially in the form of the bill, is much 
greater than the differences existing between many currently received 
Species of North American birds, and it is surprising that the two forms 
have not Keen specifically separated. I can only account for it on the sup- 
position that specimens from Florida and the Gulf States have not fallen 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 285 

into the hands of the assiduous species hunters. As remarked in Part III 
(p. 234), Florida and New England specimens are as different from each 
other as are the so-called Agelceus phceniceus of the Northeastern States, 
the A. tricolor and the A. gubernalor from each other. 

Specimens of A. phceniceus from Louisiana I find correspond very nearly 
in every respect with the specimens from Florida. I have also before me 
one specimen from Maine with the shoulder-patch as highly colored, and 
with nearly as long a bill as is found in the specimens from Florida. 

Plate VI shows the average form of the bill in Florida and Massachu- 
setts specimens, and the annexed table of measurements the difference in 
general size. They also illustrate individual variation. 

The following measurements of seventy specimens of this species from 
Massachusetts (forty males and thirty females), eighteen specimens from 
South Carolina and Florida (eleven males and seven females), and thirteen 
specimens from California (four males and nine females), exhibit, besides 
the average size and the individual variation at the same locality (espe- 
cially in the case of those from Massachusetts), several interesting facts in 
respect to geographical variation. While the northern specimens (see the 
summary of these measurements given below) are somewhat larger than 
the southern ones, the latter have the longer head (including the bill), and 
also the longer bill. The height and width of the bill at the base re- 
maining essentially the same in both, the southern ones have the bill 
relatively more attenuated. The difference in this respect is more strik- 
ing than the measurements given seem to indicate. The California 
specimens closely resemble those from Florida, not only in respect to size, 
but in regard to the size and form of the bill, and also in respect to color ; 
these, as well as the Florida ones, belonging to the southern tvpe. As 
previously remarked, they bear a much closer resemblance to the Florida 
form in every respect than to that found in New England.* 

The individual variation in this species seems to be very great everv- 
where, the variation in specimens of the same sex from the same locality 
being fully fifteen per cent of the average size at that locality. 
* The affinities of Agelaus gubernator and A. tricolor witli A. phce?iieetis are acknowl- 
edged to be exceedingly close. Professor Baird cites, in his Birds of North America, 
one specimen of the A. phceniceus from San Jo«e, California, and five from Fort Steila- 
coom, W. T. He also cites specimens of A. gubernator from Petaluma and San Fran- 
cisco, Cal.; hut Dr. Cooper regards this species as "limited to the interior of the State" 
(California), while those found along the coast, he say?, clearly resemble the eastern 
bird. (Ornithology of California, Vol. I, p. 264.) From the close res .already 

alluded to, of both the A. gubernator and .4. tricolor to A. phceniceus, and their occur- 
rence mainly in the hot valleys of California and the region more to the south- 
ward, I can scarcely doubt that these forms, especially A. gubernator, are the southern 
smaller, brighter colored, more attenuated billed western homologues of the similar 
eastern form from Florida and the Gulf States. 



286 



BULLETIN OF THE 



Measurements of Northern Specimens of Ageljeus pikeniceus. 



6 
6 


* ii 


M 

•-■ 
OQ 


Locality. 






Collector. 


5 

S 
(J 


c 


ti 
c 

is 


'3 


•a 

S 

K 


Bill. 


Date. 


a 


a 


1 


T3 


1274 
9577 


<S Z 


7 








< 




3~82 
3.88 


L82 

I 77 


3 

.87 


~.45 
46 


^37 

.40 


Vassalboro', Me. 
Waterville, " 




Mr Becker 
C. E. Hamlin 


9 4014.90,4.65 

9 45 H.75 4.82 





June 20, '64 


'.87 


391 


— 


•' 


Maiden, Mass. 


1859 


D. Higgius 


9.35 14.75 4.67 


3 75 


1 70 


•86 .47 


.40 


96 - 


cf 


ii ii 




' 


" 


9.15 U -35 4.55 


3.50 


1.75 


.80 .50 


.37 


392 - 


d 


ii ii 




' 


n 


9 20 '4 75 4.70 3.66 


1.82 


.89 .47 


38 


92 — 


' 


ii ii 




1 


" 


9.25 11 50 4.75'3.82 


1.80 


•92 50 


.40 


93' — 


d 


it ii 




' 


" 


9.2014.40 150 3.45 


1 S5 


.88 .45 


40 


94 - 


d 


ii it 




' 


" 


9.00 14.25 4.60 355 


176 


.90 .50 


.38 


95 - 


■' 


ii ii 




' 


" 


9.O0 L5 10 4653.65 


1.83 


95 .50 


.40 




<■ 


it ii 




' 


" 


9.0014.65 4.65 3 35 


1 SL 


84 45 


.37 


394 - 


{ 


ii ii 




' 


" 


8.40 14.10 4.50,3.40 


1.60 


• 75 46 


.40 


5727 - 


d 


Concord, " 




' 


II. Mann 


8 58 13 95 4 50 3.46 


1.78 


.92 4S 


.40 


5723 - 


' 


ii ii 




' 


" 


8 45 


1445 4.55 3 35 


1 75 


90 43 


45 


5724 - 


< 


u ii 




1 


" 


8.40 


14 25 4.43 3.12 


1.80 


.84 .45 


3S 


5729 - 


r 


ii ii 




' 


" 


9.60 


14 51 4.54 3.33 


1.K2 


.85 .47 


.39 


5726 


— 


cf 


ti ii 






" 


9.26 


14.95 4.75 3.75 


1.80 


.87 


.44 


38 


5720 


— 


•' 


ii u 




' 


" 


9 05 


15.00 4.86 3.86 


184 


.88 


.44 


.37 


5721 


— 


d 


u ii 




' 


" 


9.70 


14.88 40^0 so 


1 77 


.92 .46 


.40 


5722 


— 


d 


u ii 




' 


" 


9 00 


14.50l4.65 3.65 


1.71 


83 .43 


38 


5725; - 


d 


ii ii 




" 


" 


9.85 


14 25 4 7:;:; 76 


185 


.93 


.43 


.35 


5728 - 


? 


ii ii 




' 


" 


9 25 


14.50 4. r,o 3.81 


1.78 


.88 


.44 


.33 


5732 


— 


'• 


ii ii 


" 


" 


9 58 


14.62 


4 74 3 85 


1.83 


.91 


■is 


.38 


Monti 


— 


'• 


Ipswich, " 


June 14,'68 


J. A. Allen 


9.15 


14.50 


4.70 3.78 


1.79 


92 


44 


.40 


1674 


— 


f 


Springfield, " 


June 26, '62 




9.00 


14.00 


4.59 3.42 


1.62 


87 


45 


.40 


1675 


— 


1 


i. ii 


June 26,'62 


" 


9-25 


151 1 


4 82 3.73 


1.84 


.93 


46 


43 


L782 


— 


•'■ 




July 12, '62 


" 


9 50 


1 1 51 


4 62 3 65 


1-91 


.97 


.45 


37 


1781 j - 


-" 




July 12, '62 


" 


9 00 


14.61 


4.50 3.38 


ISO 


.86 


.43 


.40 


626 


— 


c? 


Auburndale, " 


Mar. 23, '57 


S. Tenney 


9 62 


1535 


4.87 3.77 


1.85 


.91 


.43 


40 


1022 




•" \\ enham, " 


May —,'61 


J. Bartlett 


9 25 


15.00 


4.67 3.55 


1.84 


.89 


.48 


43 





114 


Newton, " 


Mar. 13/68 


('. J. Maynard 


8 75 


14.83 


4.70 3.53 


— 


— 


— 


— 





180 cf! " 


Mar. 28 ,'68 


" 


9 :;> 


15.00 


4 75 3.60 





— 


— 


— 





214 - " 


Apr. Ll,'68 




SOI 


14 85 


4.60 3.52 


— 


— 


— 


— 





251 Weston, 


Apr. 18/68 




9.52 


1500 


4.82 3 80 





— 


— 


— 





302 f Newton, 


Apr. 23/68 




9.00 


15.00 


4.66 3.65 


— 


— 


— 


— 





323 •• 


Apr. 25, '68 


" 


9 00 


15.0014 85 8 40 


— 


— 


— 


— 





352 ■• Weston, '■ 


May 1/68 


" 


9 16 


15 lo 


1 hi:;. 70 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.'J71 d Newton'. " 


May 5/68 


;; 


9.00 


15.00 


5.00 3.S0 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 351c? 1 " 


May 1/68 




9.50 


15 25 


4 92 3.85 


— 


— 


— 


— 


! 417icf ; Weston, " 


May 9/68 


" 


9 50 


15 15 


4.90 3.77 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3047 


•' Newton, " 


Mar. 23/70 


" 


9.50 


15.00 


I 60 3 56 


— 


— 


— 


— 


9843 — 


f Milltown, Me. 





G.A.Boardman 


8.00 


12.50 


3.95 3.05 


157 


73 


.38 


32 


9844 — 







« 


800 


12 50 


I 08 :; 10 


1 54 


.79 


.40 


.30 


399 - 


J Maiden, Mass. 


1853 


D. Higgins 


7 50 


11.75 


3.60 2.70 


1 48 


.72 


.42 


33 


396 


V 


u ii 


•' 


" 


7.75 12 30 


3 90 3.06 


1 60 


.82 


.43 


35 


97 - 


* 


u ii 




' 


" 


7:::, 11.75 


3 63 2 so 


155 


• 70 


.40 


.37 


402! — 


9 


ii ti 




' 


" 


8 55 13 55 


4.26 3.15 


It;.; 


.75 


M 


.41 


398 - 


t 


ii ii 




' 


" 


8 05 L3.50 


4.16 3 10 


[.67 


77 


.43 


36 


98 - 


. 


ii ii 




' 


" 


7 75 L2.10 


:: 71 2.97 


158 


72 


.37 


33 




I 


it it 




« 


" 


7.42 11 55 


:;s7 2 7:; 


1 02 


.73 


.37 


35 


397 — 


5 


it ii 




' 


" 


7 51 1 1 1 25 


3.70 2.98 


1 58 


76 


84 


33 


395 - 


V 


" " 




' 


" 


7 40 12.50 


1.11 2 68 


150 


70 


.38 


.38 


99 - 


9 


ii ti 




1 


" 


7 45 11.50 


3.75 2.90 


1.55 


75 


.42 


43 


5730 - 


$! Concord, " 





11 Mann 


7.75 12-50 


3 80 3.02 


1 .54 


.70 


.40 


.33 


1 ..ii 


9 


Springfield, " 


July 15/62 


J. A. Allen 


7 50 12.00 


3.73 2.90 


1.68 


79 


.40 


;;t 




( 


it ii 


June 26/62 


" 


7.65 11.75 


3.07 2.82 


1 54 


.70 


:;s 


.37 


1672 - 


2 


ii ii 


June 26/62 


" 


7.85 11 82|3.75 2.89 


l 60 


.75 


.40 


.38 


1673 - 


i 


u ii 


June 26, '62 


" 


7.75 12 003.77 2.85 


157 


.78 


.38 


37 


1679 - 


1 


" 


June26.'62 


" 


8.00 12 25:: 79 3.00 


1 :,:, 


74 


.39 


36 




? 


it ii 


June26, ? 62 


" 


soo 12 10 ■". 85 2.93 


1 53 


.78 


38 


— 


— 


5 


Weston, " 




C. J. Maynard 


7 7:; 12.61 3.95 2 05 


— 


— 


— 


— 


E 


[pswich, " 


June 15/68 


" 


7.45 13.60 A 00 3 05 


— 


— 


— 


— 


sol * Essex. 


June 17/68 


" 


8.00 1235 1.00! 


— 


— 


-- 


— 


893 i " 


June 17/68 


" 


7.75 12 51 3.90 2-90 


— 


— 


— 


— 


loo:i > Walt ham, " 


Aug. —,'68 


" 


7 15 12.37 380 2 75 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— M7r, y; 


Aug. —,'68 


" 


7.67 12 30 3.85 2.85 





— 


— 


— 


,10961$' " 


Aug. —,'68 


" 


7.5o 12403.95 2.72 


— 


— 


— 


— 







. Newton, " 


Aug. —,'68 


ii 


7 7', 1280 3.71 2 so 


— 


— 


— 


— 





vw 


W althain, " 


Aug. —,'68 


" 


7 50 12.00 3.85 2.65 


— 


— 


— 


— 





1099 


Weston, " 


Aug. —,"68 


" 


7 50 12.10367 2 so 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2830 V Newton, 


June 8/69 


" 


7.50 12.00 4.00 2.90 


- 


— 


— 


— 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



287 



Measurements of Southern Specimens Oj 


f Ageljeus phceniceus. 


6 4 


o 

S5 


>< 


Locality. 


Date.. 


Collector. 




i i i 


■6 

s 


Bill. 


j 


j 




E 
4126 


o 


•' 








►3 


=5 \* '- 


a 


o 


.45 


37 


Charleston, S. 0. 




L. Agassiz 


9.55 14 75 4 75 3.65 190 


1.00 




4127 


— 


•' 


" " 





*' 


B 80 14.30 4 50 3.551.74 


.87 


.47 


.40 


412* 


— 


•' 


" " 





" 


9.45 14.50 4.60 3 72 1.80 


.90 


.50 


.40 


4129 


— 


• 


" " 





'• 


9.05 13.50 4.37 3.45 1.73 


.85 


.43 


.42 


4125 


— 


-• 


" " 





" 


9.05 14.12 4.42 3 35 1.94 


.95 


.46 


.35 








-? 


HiwkinsviHe.Fla. 
Jacksonville, " 


Mar. 15, '69 


J. A Allen 


825 13 60 4.34 — 











1928 d" 


Dec. 31, "69 


C. J. May nard 9 10 14 90 4 75 3. 58 













1056 i 1929 cC 


" " 


Dec. 31, '69 


" 


9.20 14 ^o 4.80 390 


— 


— 





— 


10561 2018 rt" 


" " 


Dec. Sl,'69 


" 


8.80 14 15 4.55 3 58 


— 








— 


10574 2552 rf 


Dummitt's, " 


Mar. 8,'69 


" 


950 14.20 4.75 3.90 


— 











10573 2450 <f 


" " 


Feb. 24, '69 


" 


8.50 14.00 4 75 3 45 


— 











5153 — 


? 


Hibernia, " 


Jan. 30,'69 


J. A. Allen 


7 65 12.60 3.85 3.05 














5154 — 


T 


" " 


.Ian. 30,'69 


" 


7.85 12 5H3.90 3 07 














5155 — 




" " 


Jan. 30,'69 


" 


7.80 12.85 — 3 20 














4141 - 




" " 


Jan. 3D, '69 


" 


8.0012.25 3 80 3 05 










5209 — 


9 


Welaka, " 


Feb. 8, '69 


" 


765 12 50 3 75 2 SO 














5208 — 


1 


M cc 


Feb. 8, '69 


" 


7.50 11 85 3 63 2 75 








_ 





5210 — 


* 


" " 


Feb. 8, "69 


" 













Measurements of California Specimens of Ageljeus PHCenicetji 





>< 

CO 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


A 

c 


W 


ho 

a 


'3 


3 
u 


ta 


TT 




Winter '59 -'60 




|J 


< 






fr* 


5S*5 


San Francisco, Cal. 


A. Agassiz 


8.50 


14.93 


4.83 


3.50 


1.63 


5884 


<-r 


" " 


Winter '59 -'60 




8.75 


15 05 


4 95 


335 


1.74 


666 


■• 


" " 


Winter '59 -'60 




860 


14 55 


4.47 


3o9 


1.90 


2188 


rT 


GulfofGeorgia,W.T. 


Sept. — , '60 




8.71 


13.50 


4.45 


3.26 


1.75 




9 


Sau Francisco, Cal. 


Winter '59 -'60 




758 


12 80 


4.03 


2 73 


1.63 


5893 


i 


" " 


Winter '59- '60 




7.55 


12.35 


3.05 


247 


1.46 


5887 


i 


" " 


Winter '59 -'60 




7.81 


12 30 


4.25 


3.86 


154 




V 


" " 


Winter '59 - '6 ) 




7 50 


12.75 


3 04 


2.47 


1.56 


58S6 


i 


" " 


Winter '59 -'60 


T. G. Cary 


7.82 


12.77 


4o4 


2.62 


1.56 


20,o 


? 


" " 


Winter '59 - '60 




8.29 


1327 


4 32 


3.00 


1.62 


20.4 


y 


" " 


Winter '59 - '60 




8.18 


13.25 


3.85 


2.95 


167 


2078 


i 


" " 


Winter '59 -'6') 




8.50 


13.00 


4.15 


310 


165 


5888 


I 


" 


Winter '59 -'60 


A. Agassiz 


7.25 


12.25 


390 


3.71 


1.50 



Summary of the above Measurements of Specimens of Ageljeus 
phceniceus. 



Locality. 




"S| 




to 




to 

c 






c 


2 








co 






< 


£ 


H 


~T79* 


3 

rj 
J38* 




£ 




' 


40 


Aver. 


9.16 


14.71 


4 69 


3.63 


.46* 


.39* 




9 


28 


Aver. 


7-53 


1224 


3.86 


2 93 


1.571 


.75t 


.395t 


.357+ 


South Carolina | 


li 


11 


Aver. 


9.02 


14.41 


4.62 


361 


1.83 


.91* 


.46+ 


.391 


and Florida | 


9 


i 


Aver. 


773 


12 44 


3.83 


2.99 


— 









California I 


d 


7 


Aver. 


864 


14.52 


4.67 


3.30 


1.75 











9 


9 


Aver. 


7.83 


12.70 


4.00 


2.99 


157 


— 








[ 


rf 


40 


Max. 


9.&5 


15 35 


5.00 


3 90 


1.94* 


,97* 


.50* 


.45* 


Massachusetts -j 




40 


Min. 


8.40 


13 95 


4.43 


3.12 


1.60* 


.75* 


.43* 


.33* 


9 


'28 


Max. 


8 55 


13 55 


4.26 


3 15 


1.681 


.82t 


lit 




I 


9 


28 


Min. 


7.35 


11.25 


3.63 


265 


1.48t 


.70t 


37t 


.301 


1 


ft 


11 


Mux. 


9.55 


14 90 


4 B0 


390 


1.94 J 


1.00J 


50J 




South Carolina ! 


'• 


11 


Min. 


8.25 


13.60 


4 34 


335 


1.74J 


.85+ 


.43; 


.35; 


and Florida 1 




7 


Max. 


8.00 


12.85 


390 


3 20 











1 


§ 


i 


Min. 


7 50 


11.85 


3.63 


2.75 
















rf 


t 


Max. 


875 


15.05 


4.95 


3.50 


190 











California < 


f 


7 


Min. 


8.50 


13 50 


4.45 


309 


1.63 


_ 










9 


Max. 


8.50 


13.27 


4 32 


3.86 


1.67 











I 


* 


9 


Min. 


7 25 


12 25 


3.85 


2 17 


146 


— 


- 


- 



29 specimens. 



t 19 specimens. 



t 5 specimens. 



288 BULLETIN OF THE 

57* Sturnella ludoviciana Svoainson. Meadow Lark. 

Alauda magna Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 167, 1758. — Wilson, Am. Orn., Ill, 20, 

p!. xix, 1811. 
Slurnus ludovicianus Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 290, 1766. — Bonap., Joum. Phil. 

Acad. Nat. Sri., IV, 180, 1824. — Nuttall, Man. Orn., I, 147, 1832. 

— Audcison, Orn. Biog., II, 216, 1834. 
Sturnus collaris Wagleh, Syst. Avium, I, 1827. 
Sturnella ludoviciana Swainson, Faun. Bor. Am., II, 282, 1831. — Bonap., 

Geog. and Comp. List, 1838. — Audubon, Synop. Am. Birds, 148, 1839. — 

Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 192, 1851. — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 139, 1862.— 

Cassin, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1866, 23. 
Sturnella magna Swainson, Phil. Mag., I, 436, 1827. — Baird, Birds N. Am., 

535, 1858. —Allen, Mem. JBost. Soc. Nat. Hist., I, 496, 1868. 
Sturnella collaris Vieillot, Analyse, 1816. 
Sturnd/a hippocrcpis Wagler, Isis, 1832, 281. — Lawrence, Ann. N. York 

Lyceum N. Hist., VII, 266, 1860. — Sclater, Ibis, 1861, 79. — Cassin, 

Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1866, 24. 
Sturnella neglecta Audubon, Birds of Am., VII, 339, pi. cccclxxxvii, 1843. — 

Baird, Birds of N. Am., 537, 1858. — Cassin, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 

1866, 23. 
Sturnella mexicana Sclater, Ibis, 1861, 79. — Cassin, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. 

Sci., 1866, 24. 
Sturnella meridionalis Sclater, Ibis, 1861, 79. — Cassin, Proc. Phil. Acad. 

Nat. Sci., 1866, 24. 

Abundant. Found chiefly in the moister parts of the pineries. 

Somewhat smaller than in the Northern States, but in most eases with 
longer and larger bills, brighter colors, and a quite different song. The 
latter somewhat resembles that of the western meadow lark, but is still as 
distinct from it in its general character as it is from that of the New Eng- 
land bird. The present species has a wide geographical range, throughout 
the greater part of which it is resident. The Alleghanian fauna forms its 
northern limit, from which it mostly retires during winter. To the south- 
ward it extends to Cuba and the other larger West India Islands, through- 
out most of Central America, and to the elevated parts of Northern South 
America. It ranges westward over the elevated arid plains of the middle 
of the continent to the Pacific As might be expected, it is not quite uni- 
form in its characters at all points. The main differences, however, 
consist merely in the lighter color of those from the plains, and the 
smaller size of those from the south. The former constitute the S!itni</!a 
neglecta of Audubon and most other writers since his time. In Cuba it is 
the S. hippocrepis of Wagler and others, and tin? Mexican and (iuatemalan 
tlji'in i- the S. mexicana of Sclater, and the South American form the S 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 289 

meridional^ of the same author. Yet the distinctions between them are 
trivial, all of these so-called species having been generally looked upon as 
doubtfully distinct from the S. ludoviciana of the United States, especially 
the three last named. The S. collaris of Vieillot has very generally been 
referred by subsequent writers to the 5. ludoviciana. The main distinctive 
feature of the S. neglecta has been its song, — a very doubtful basis on 
which to found a species. The Florida specimens are intermediate in size 
and other characters between the Cuban and New England represent- 
atives of this species. As already remarked, the song of the Florida birds 
is as widely different from that of the New England bird as the song of 
the latter is from that of the western ones. Concerning the affinities of 5. 
neglecta I have already remarked.* Concerning those of the other sup- 
posed species, I may well borrow the appropriate remarks of the late Mr. 
Cassin, who observes in respect to them, in his " Study of the Icteridce"] 
as follows : — 

" This bird [Slamella ludoviciana'] is nearly related to the next four 
species of this genus [S. neglecta, S. hippocrepis, S. mexicana, S. meridio- 
nalis], equally in structure and in colors, and it would be difficult to de- 
scribe by positive characters either species of this group, so as to insure 
recognition absolutely, or without comparative characters being given. 
.... No other genus or sub-genus of this family presents so many species 
of such uniformity of structure and similarity of color, and there are, as- 
suredly, few such in the kingdom of birds." Under S. neglecta he further 
remarks in respect to the transition that is so apparent between it and S 
ludoviciana : "In the central regions of North America it is possible that 
a hybrid race between the two species may be produced, to be referred 
•with about equal propriety to either." S. hippocrepis, he says, is very 
nearly related to 5. mexicana, " and can scarcely be distinguished from it 
by any characters which seem to be reliable." He thinks it to be some- 
what more distinct, however, from 5. neglecta. Mr. Lawrence had pre- 
viously remarked that the S. hippocrepis is somewhat smaller than S. 
ludoviciana of the United States, and that he " thinks it is specifically 
distinct " ; although he adds, " it would be difficult to point out any re- 
liable differences in coloration, especially of the upper plumage, as in- 
dividuals even of the same species are very variable.''^ He says, further, 
that specimens of it from Jalapa, Mexico, differ " only in the pectoral band 
appearing broader in the Mexican bird, and the tertials much shorter 
than the primaries, but this last may not be a reliable character." In the 

* See Memoirs of the Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. I, p. 494, 1868. 
t Proceedings of the Phil. Acad. Nat. Sciences, 1866, p. 23. 
t Annals of New York Lyceum of Nat. Hist., Vol. VII, 266, 1860. 
VOL. II. 19 



290 



BULLETIN OF THE 



following year, however, Mr. Sclater separated the Mexican bird from 
those of Cuba and the United States, under the name 5. mexicana, and 
also the South American under the name 5. meridionalis. Mr. Cassin 
says of the latter : " Very nearly related to the preceding (S. hippocrepis), 
if distinct, and I give it, at present, as a species provisionally only. ..... 

The. colors of the upper parts seem to be less clearly defined, and of a 
slightly different style and pattern from the preceding, and it may bear 
about the same relation to that species (S. hippocrepis) that S. neglecta does 
to <S\ ludoviciana. Such relation I hold to be rather probable from the 
specimens now at hand." 

Having given the views of the describers of these several "species," I 
may add that I have seen examples of each, and do not question that they 
should all be referred to one. As is evident from the above-quoted re- 
marks, these different species gradually pass into each other, — the S. 
magna into the S. neglecla, the S. neglecta into the S. mexicana, and 
the 6'. mexicana into the S. hippocrepis, which is their exact geographical 
relation. 

In regard to the Florida specimens, as compared with New England 
ones, the most striking differences consist in their smaller size and 
much brighter colors, especially of the ventral surface. 

The following tables of measurements indicate the individual and sexual 
differences in size, and also the difference in size between specimens from 
the Northern States and from Florida. 

Measurements of Northern Specimens o/* Sturnella ludoviciana. 



4862 
4863 



362 

363 

3 14 
865 
366 

568 
569 

97ti4 
9765 
9766 
2646 

4n42 
41U2 



416 
lloO 
[134 
2696 
2698 
1700 
4045 

4D61 

2738 



Locality. 



Newton, 



Walt ham, 
Newton, 



Maiden, " 



Evanston, 111. 



Lawn Ridge, " 
Concord, Mass 



Collector. 



May 8, '68 

Aug. 6, "68 

Aug. 19, '68 

May 15, '69 

May 15, '69 

Aug. 6, '68 

Aug. 2, '69 

Aug. 2, '69 

May 15, 69 



C. J. Maynard 



D. Higgins 



0. Marcy 



K. Butler 
F. C. Brown 



1075 

in 'jo 

10.25 

in 75 
11.00 
10 20 
1100 
11.00 
0.75 
9.25 
9.58 
111.50 
10.35 

1 

10 75 

8.90 

9.50 

o 25 

75 

10.00 

9.60 

lit 25 

10.33 



w 
^< 

16.59 
16.30 

15 85 

Hi 75 

17.IKI 

16.30 

17 on 
16.00 

15.00 

13.50 
1400 
15.33 
15.65 
15 05 
15 50 
lino 
I ,.68 
13.92 
U 65 

15 50 
1475 
16.00 

15.65 



5.13 

■i us 
4.80 

,-, I I! , 

5 15 
■1 OS 
5.00 

4. MP 

4.55 
4.17 

4.:j5 
4.82 
4.83 
4.75 
4. st; 
4.35 
5.00 
4 15 
4.50 
4.74 
4.55 
4.77 
467 



3.50 
290 
2.92 
3 35 
3.35 
•i 0i p 
:!4ii 
3.35 
2.65 

•J .Ml 
290 
311 
313 
314 
3 30 
2.60 
3 05 
2 82 
310 
3.15 
2K4 
2.83 
3.08 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



291 



Measurements of Florida Specimens of Sturnella ludoviciaxa. 



s 


o 
J5 


M 


Locality. 


Date. 


1 £ 

Collector. |> 




in 

c 


"5 


o 

o 


oa 








1 — 


< 


4 50 


H 





203* 


d 
d 

f 


Jacksonville 


Jan. 


20, '69 


C.J. Maynard 9.55 


15.60 


2.85 





2817 


Duminitt's 


May 


15, '69 


" 


10 20 


1510 


4.50 


3 20 





2816 


" 


May 


15, '69 


" 


1 


1515 


4 60 


295 


6335 




■f 


Enterprise 


Mar. 


4, -69 


J. A. Allen 


9.75 


14 75 


4.50 


— 


633(5 





3 
d 


" 


Mar. 


4, '69 


" 


9.85 


15.20 


4 10 


2.89 


5337 




" 


Mar. 


4/69 


" 


9 70 


14.80 


4 45 




- 





Hawkins ville 


Mar. 


12, '69 


" 


9 75 


15.00 


450 


3.05 


5369 




f 


" 


Mar. 


12, '69 


" 


9.50 


14 75 


4.25 




537 1 





J 


" 


Mar. 


12, '69 


" 


10.00 


15 75 


4.50 


3.07 









Volusia 


Mar 


17, '69 


" 


8.75 


13 75 


4.05 


— 


5370 





i 


Hawkinsville 


Mar. 


12, '69 


" 


8.90 


14 15 


4.10 


2.65 


5372 





" 


Mar. 


12, '69 


" 


950 


14 65 


4.20 


2.90 


6125 





Q 


Jacksonville 


Jan. 




" 


8.75 


14.25 


4.20 


2 70 




2072 


? 


" 


Jan 


20, '69 G. J. Maynard 


8.75 


14.00 


4.40 


2 51 1 





2070 


? 


" 


Jan. 


20, '69 


" 


8.50 


13 55 


3.90 


2.55 





2070 


? 


" 


Jan. 


20, '69 


" 


8.75 


13 00 


4.00 


2.55 





2068 




" 


Jan. 


20, '69 


it 


9.25 


14 75 


4.50 


2 BO 





2069 




" 


Jan. 


20, "69 


" 


8.76 


14 25 


4 20 


2 40 





2071 


o 


" 


Jan. 


20, '69 


" 


9.00 


14.00 


430 


2 80 





2051 


? 


" 


Jan. 


20/69 


" 


9.50 


14.75 


4.66 


2.50 





2791 


9 


" 


Apr. 


15, '69 


" 


905 


14 00 


4 10 


2.S8 



The following is a tabulated summary of the two preceding tables : — 



No. of 
Speci- 




Locality. 




Length. 


Alar 
Extent. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


mens. 
















15 


d" 


Northern States 


Average 


10.43 


16.30 


4.91 


3 16 


8 


s 


" 


Average 


9.55 


14 43 


4 29 


2.82 


15 


d 


" 


Maximum 


11.00 


17.00 


5.15 


350 


15 


d 


" 


Minimum 


10.00 


15.05 


4 74 


2.83 


8 


V 


" 


Maximum 


9.75 


15-65 


4.55 


3.10 


8 


9 


" 


Minimum 


8.90 


1350 


4.15 


2.50 


9 


d 


Florida 


Average 


9.81 


15 70 


4.47 


2.85 


12 


? 


" 


Average 


8.93 


14 09 


4 22 


257 


9 


d 


" 


Maximum 


10.20 


15.75 


4.60 


3.20 


9 


d 


" 


Minimum 


9 50 


14.75 


4.25 


2.82 


12 


2 


" 


Maximum 


9.50 


14.75 


4 65 


2.90 


12 


¥ 


" 


Minimum 


8.50 


13.00 


3.90 


2.40 



58.t Scolecophagus ferrugineus Swainson. Rusty Grackle. 
Abundant. Occasionally met with in large flocks. 

59.* Quiscalus purpureus Cassin. Purple Grackle. 

Gracula quiscula Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 165, 1766. — Wilson-, Am. Orn., Ill, 

44, pi. xxi, fig. 4, 1811. 
Gracula barita Linne, Syst. Nat., 165, 1766. — Ord, Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. 

Sci., I, 253, 1818. 
Gracula purpurea Bartram, Travels, 289, 1791. (No description.) 
? riot us ludovicianus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 387, 1788. 
Quisaitus baritus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet., XXVIII, 487, 1819. — Baird, Birds 

North Amer., 556, pi. xxvii, 1858. — Cassin, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 

1866, 405. 
Quiscaius versicolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet., XXVIII 488, 1819. — Bonaparte, 

Swainson, Nuttall, Audubon, Baird. 



292 BULLETIN OF THE 

Quiscalus purpureus Cassin, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1866, 403. — Ridg- 

way, Ibid., 1869, 133. 
Quiscalus purpuratus Swain., Lardner's Cab. Cyclop., 299, 1838 (female). 
? Quiscalus Iwjubris Swain., Lardner's Cab. Cyclop., 299, 1838. — ? Cassin, 

Proc. Phil. Acad Nat. Sci., 1866, 408. 
Quiscalus inflexirostris Swain., Lardner's Cab. Cyclop., 300, 1838. — Cassin, 

Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1866, 407. 
Quiscalus crassirostris Swain., Lardner's Cab. Cyclop., 355, 1838. — Gosse, 

Birds of Jamaica, 217, 1847. 
Quiscalus aghtus Baird, Amcr. Journ. Sci. and Arts, XLI, 87, 1866. — Cassin, 

Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1866, 404. — Ridgway, Ibid., 1869, 135. 
Quiscalus aneus Ridgway, Ibid., 134. 
Quiscalus mexicanus Cassin, Ibid., 1866, 408. 
Quiscalus Gundlachii Cassin, Ibid., 406. 
Quiscalus brachypterus Cassin, Ibid., 406. 
Quiscalus niger Cassin, Ibid., 407. 
? Quiscalus rectirostns Cassin, Ibid., 409. 
Chalcophanes quiscalus Wagler, Syst. Avium, 1827. — Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 

197, 1851. 
Chalcophanes baritus Wagler, Syst. Avium, 1827. — Cabanis, Mus. Hein.,. 

197, 1851 

Very abundant everywhere. Flocks containing many hundreds were 
frequently met with. 

As already remarked in Part III, few species present such marked 
climatic variations as the present, or better illustrate the three prin- 
cipal laws of geographical variation already enumerated ; namely, a de- 
crease in general size from the north southward, and at the same time 
an increase in the length and slenderness of the 'bill, and an increase 
in the intensity and brilliancy of the color of the plumage. Far to the 
north, as in Labrador, the colder parts of Canada, and Northern New Eng- 
land, the bill is shortest and thickest, the size of the bird at its maximum, 
and the colors of the plumage least brilliant, with the metallic reflections 
of a light tint, tending to green rather than to blue. In Southern New 
Jersey the change from the northern type is already considerable ; even 
between summer specimens from Calais (Maine) and Eastern Massachu- 
setts there is an appreciable difference. In the lowlands of South Caro- 
lina and Georgia the divergence from the northern type is still greater, 
and it goes on rapidly increasing in Florida, especially in South Florida, 
the maximum of divergence from the northern type being attained in the 
West Indies. In East Florida, while the general size of the bird is less than 
in New England, the bill is considerably longer, much slenderer and much 
more decurved, as is shown by the accompanying figures (Plate VII). The 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 298 

change in color is equally marked. Not only do the reflections become much 
darker at the south, but form prismatic bars across the interscapularies and 
the feathers of the rump, especially in the South Atlantic States. In South 
Florida and the West Indies these prismatic bars, in some specimens at 
least, seem to lose their distinctness, evidently through the continued dark- 
ening or increased intensity of the general color. The difference in size 
between Florida and Massachusetts specimens is considerable, especi- 
ally between those from South Florida and Massachusetts. Those from 
the West Indies are still smaller ; and in comparing specimens of these 
with others from Northern New England, the* difference is so striking 
that it seems impossible at first to believe that both can belong to the 
same species, yet a gradual transition between the two, through the indi- 
viduals inhabiting the intermediate region, fully proves it. Even between- 
Florida and New England specimens the difference is so great that, were 
there no transition from one to the other, the two extremes might well 
be regarded as not only valid species, but as well-marked ones. Being fa- 
miliar with the so-called Quiscalus aglceus before visiting Florida, through 
specimens in the Museum of Comparative Zoology from Cape Florida, I 
had no doubt that it was a species distinct from the Q. purpureus. But 
a subsequent study of these birds in Florida, and an examination of speci- 
mens from various points between Florida and Northern Maine, and 
also from the West Indies, has forced me to the conclusions indicated in 
the above table of synonymes. 

The purple grackles of the Mississippi Valley have recently been- sep- 
arated as specifically distinct from those of the Atlantic States, under the 
name Q. ceneus, Q. purpureus being retained for the latter. The range of 
Q. purpureus is given as " Atlantic and Gulf? States, north to Nova 
Scotia, west to the Alleghanies." The New England type, however, is 
entirely referable to the Q. ceneus, as defined by its describer. The same 
writer also follows some of his predecessors in separating those of South 
Florida from the Q. purpureus, under the name of Q. aglceus. But Cape 
Florida specimens differ but little — being, in fact, scarcely distinguishable 
except in size — from those from the St. John's River. 

Mr. Cassin, in one of his latest papers,* took fhe ground that each of 
the larger West India Islands has a distinct species of this group, peculiar 
to itself. That these forms, many of them evidently difficult of recognition, 
should be distinct species is quite contrary to general principles. These 
islands are generally separated by a distance of rarely more than a hun- 
dred miles ; yet a near ally of these " species," the Q. purpureus (or Q. 
ceneus as recently restricted), is admitted to range from the Gulf of Mexico 

* " A Second Study of the Icteridae," Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat Sci., 1866, pp. 403 - 417. 



294 



BULLETIN OF THE 



to the arctic regions, so that those that breed farthest north make annu- 
ally a journey of fully a thousand miles to reach their breeding-grounds. 
As I have already observed, individuals of species possessing a very north- 
ern habitat usually present a great uniformity of character, while those of 
species ranging farther to the southward are more variable ; also that with- 
in the warm-temperate and tropical latitudes, islands but slightly separated 
from each other or the mainland, and peninsulas which, like Florida, are 
almost insular in their geographical relations, present each peculiar modi- 
fications of species ranging throughout not only all of them, but portions 
of the adjoining continents, which render the individuals from these differ- 
ent localities more or less readily distinguishable. This results partly, 
doubtless, from the isolation of these different districts, partly from the 
more sedentary habits of birds in warm countries, as compared with those 
of cold latitudes, and partly from the greater tendency to variation in 
species inhabiting tropical and sub-tropical countries. 

In the subjoined tables measurements are given of thirteen males and 
eight females from the Northern States, and of twenty-three males and seven 
females from Florida, of which the following is a tabulated summary : — 



No. of 
Speci- 


Sex. 


Locality. 




Length. 


Alar 


Wing. 


Tail. 


mens. 










17.73 






13 


d 


Northern States 


Average 


12.63 


5.66 


5.30 


S 


9 


" 


Average 


11.45 


15.76 


4.94 


4.49 


13 


<$ 


" 


Maximum 


13.50 


18.43 


6.05 


6.00 


13 


cj 


" 


Minimum 


12.00 


17.00 


5.20 


4.58 


8 


9 


" 


Maximum 


12.05 


16.30 


5.20 


4.85 


8 


9 


" 


Minimum 


10.90 


15.38 


4.60 


4.10 


23 


d" 


Florida 


Average 


12.19 


16.64 


5.42 


5.22 


7 


9 


" 


Average 


11.12 


14 si; 


4.75 


455 


23 


cT 


" 


Maximum 


13 00 


17.80 


5.75 


6.50 


23 




" 


Minimum 


11.00 


15.25 


5.00 


4.55 


7 


p 


" 


Maximum 


11.75 


1675 


6.00 


4.77 


7 


9 


" 


Minimum 


10.25 


13.75 


4.50 


4.45 



Measurements of Northern Specimens of QuisCALUS purpureus. 



1234 



9770 
2643 

1401 

1871 

1874 
2574 
L602 
1873 
9769 
07., 7 
9598 
2284 
2271 
2501 



187 
L86 
185 

3097 



Locality. 



Rod River, B. A. 
Water town, Mass. 



Ipswich, " 

Evanston, 111. 

Lawn Ridge, " 

Springfield, Mass 



Evanston, 111. 
Waterville, Me. 

Lynn, Ma.«s 



Date. 










Apr. 


3, 


'68 


Apr. 


3, 


68 


Apr. 


3, 


'68 


Mar. 


28, 


i;k 


Aug. 


28, 


•69 


July 


29, 


'62 


July 


29, 


'62 


July 


29, 


»62 


July 


12, 


! 62 


July 


29, 


62 






May 


3, 


"62 


June 


». 


'62 



Collector. 



S. H. Scudder 
C. J. Maynard 



0. Marcy 
K. Butler 



O. Marcy 
C. E. Hamlin 



12.50 

12.50 
12.45 
12 80 
12.80 
13.10 
12.40 
12.25 
12.50 
13.50 
12.48 
12.12 
12.77 
11 17 
10.90 
11 30 
11.48 
II 50 
11.40 
12.05 
1 1 50 



w 
17.50 
17.80 
18 25 
17.53 
18.10 
1800 
1775 
17.05 
17.25 
1843 
17. 25 
17.00 
17.50 
15. 7 5 
15 15 
15 38 
15 67 
16.00 
16.00 
16.30 
15.50 



5.65 
5.77 
5.85 
557 
5-86 
5.85 
5.62 
5.42 
560 
6.05 
550 
5.20 
5.68 
5.1 in 
4.75 
4.60 
4.95 
5.00 
4.98 
5.20 
6 05 



5.68 
5.20 
5 30 
6.43 
5.50 
560 
5.07 
4.87 
6.20 
6.00 
5.00 
4.58 
560 
4.37 
4.10 
4.25 
4 40 
4.65 
4.46 
4.85 
4.86 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



295 



Measurements of Florida Specimens of Quiscalus purpureus. 



"I 


Coll. 
No. 


X 

02 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


ti 

a 

A 
12.75 


si 

<x 
M 

1780 


si) 
5.65 


'3 

H 


5201 





d 


Weiaka 


Feb. 


6, "69 


J. A. Allen 


53i2 





• 


" 


Feb. 


6, '69 


" 


12.40 


16.87 


545 


5.00 


5204 





<■ 


Hawkinsville 


Feb. 


18, '69 


" 


12.80 


1715 


5.50 


5.37 


5251 





'■ 


" 


Feb. 


18, '69 


" 


1175 


17.00 


5.50 


4.87 


5266 





d 


" 


Feb. 


18, '69 


" 


1300 


17 60 


5-55 


5.40 


5267 





i 


" 


Feb. 


18, '69 


" 


11.50 


16 70 


5.50 


— 








f 


Enterprise 


Feb. 


21, 69 


12.85 


1'. -7 


— 





5345 





d 




Mar. 


5, '69 


" 


12.30 


17.38 


550 


5.25 


5346 





d 


" 


Mar. 


5, '69 


" 


12.37 


1660 


5.20 


525 


10604 


2583 


d 


Dumnritt's 


Mar. 


9, '69 


0. J. Maynard 


1240 


17.50 


5 55 


— 





2344 


d 


" 


Feb. 


26, -69 


" 


12 25 


17.50 


5.75 


550 


10602 


2469 


d 


'• 


Feb. 


25, 69 


" 


12.50 


17 30 


550 


555 





2470 


d 


" 


Feb. 


25, '69 


•' 


1250 


17(H) 


5.50 


5 00 


10603 


2471 


d 


" 


Feb. 


25, 69 


" 


1175 


16.75 


575 


5 55 


6S48 





■ 


Cape Florida 


Mar. 


31, '58 GWurdemann 


11.50 


1550 


5.50 


5.12 


6851 





d 


" 


Apr. 


10, 58 


" 


12.00 


16.25 


5.25 


6.00 


6852 





d 


;1 


Apr. 


22, - 58 


" 


11.75 


16.25 


5.75 


500 





10335* 


d 


" 


Mar. 


31 , '5S 


" 


1150 


16.00 


5.50 


— 





10336* 


d 


•' 


Apr. 


15, '58 


" 


11.50 


15 25 


5 00 








10.337* 


J 


" 


Apr. 


15, '58 


" 


12.00 


15.50 


5.00 








10340* 


f 


" 


Apr. 


22, 58 


" 


12.00 


16.50 


5.12 


— 





1034 1 * 


? 




Apr. 


9, '58 


" 


11.00 


1525 


5 25 








10342* 


3 


" 


May 


18, oS 


" 


11.75 


16.25 


5.00 








2342 




" 


Feb. 


26, "69 


" 


11.50 


15 50 


5.00 


477 





2344 


■ 


" 


Feb. 


26, '69 


" 


11.00 


1550 


5.00 


4.40 


10601 


2468 


( 


" 


Feb. 


26, "69 


" 


11.50 


16.00 


4.50 


4. CO 


5263 





; 


Hawkinsville 


Feb. 


18, '69 


J. A. Allen 


11.45 


15 25 


4.85 


4 55 


6853 





9 


Cape Florida 


Apr. 


22, '58 G.Wurdemaun 


11.00 


14 50 


4.50 


4.45 





10338* ? 




Apr. 


22, '58 i 


11 12 


14.50 


4.75 








10&39* ? 




Mar. 


31, '53 ! 


10.25 


13.75 


4 75 


— 



The specimens from Cape Florida are considerably smaller than those 
from the St. John's River ; but the same difference occurs in other species 
between specimens from these two localities. The Cape Florida specimens 
of Quiscalus purpureus differ from others from North Florida also in having 
a relatively longer, slenderer, and more decurved bill, but not appreci- 
ably in color. 

60.* Quiscalus major Vieillot. Boat-tailed Grackle. 
Abundant. Particularly numerous along the St. John's River. 
According to Dr. Bryant they breed about the first of April. He says 
that about Lake Monroe some of the birds, as late as the 6th of April, 
had not commenced laying, " though the majority had hatched, and the 
young of others were almost fledged." f He notes also their sandpiper- 
like habit of running along the fedge of the water. At Lake Dexter I 
observed great numbers of them walking on the floating aquatic plants. 

The females of this species present very singular variations in color. 
Of four specimens collected at Lake Dexter, in March, one is pale ashy- 



* Smith. Inst. No. Copied from Baird's Birds of North America, p. 557. 
t Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. VII, p. 9, January, 1859. 



296 



BULLETIN OF THE. 



brown. below, on the throat and breast nearly white, and dull dusky-brown 
above ; while another is deep reddish-brown below and proportionally 
darkc above, and the others are intermediate to these. 

Between the two extremes there is more difference than usually ob- 
tains between valid congeneric species. The series of twenty-four males, 
on the otber' hand, are quite uniform in color, there being only a slight 
difference in Us intensity and in the prevailing tint of the iridescence.* 

The average dimensions of the thirty-three specimens of which meas- 
urements are given below are as follows : 

Length (males): lb.51 ; alar extent, 22.48; wing, 7.19; tail, 7.00. 
Length (females) : ltf.95 ; alar extent, 17.94 ; wing, 5.67 ; tail, 5.11. 

The individual variation is as follows . 

Males, length, 15.50 to J6.80; alar extent, 21.10 to 23.50; wing, 6.25 to 
8.35 ; tail, 6.25 to 7.60. 

Females, length, 12.10 to 13.40 ; alar extent, 17.25 to 18.25; wing, 5.25 
to 5.95 ; tail, 4.75 to 5.60. 



Measurements of Florida 


Specimens of Q 


CISCALUS MAJOB 




M.CZ. 

No. 

"5272 


Coll. 
No. 


w 

17" 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


5 

a 
►J 


id 

<x 

w 


to 
□ 


'3 

E-t 


Blue Springs 


Feb. 


21, '69 


J A. Allen 


16.00 


22.15 


725 


6.80 


5252 





cf 


.Enterprise 


Mar. 


1,'69 


" 


16.25 


22.50 


715 


7 15 


5283 





cf 


»' 


Feb. 


22, '69 


" 


16 25 


21.75 


7.15 


7.10 


5332 





• 


" 


Mar. 


4, '69 


" 


15.50 


22.00 


6.85 


6.70 


5333 





• 


" 


Mar. 


4, '69 


" 


15 75 


22.30 


7.20 


6.85 


5334 





■ 
f 


" 


Mar 


4, '69 


" 


15 60 


2185 


7.00 


— 


6407 





Hawkinsville 


Mar. 


15, '69 


" 


16 00 


23 00 


7.00 


7.00 


5243 





" 


Feb. 


18, '69 


" 


15 75 


22.25 


7.30 


— 


5408 





" 


Mar. 


15, "69 


" 


16 50 


22 50 


7.30 


7.15 


6244 





cf 


" 


Feb. 


18, - 69 


" 


1730 


2350 


7.80 


— 


6409 





cf 


" 


Mar. 


15, '69 


" 


16 00 


22.75 


7 15 


7 00 


5410 





cf 


" 


Mar. 


15, '69 


" 


16 00 


22.75 


7 20 


6 90 


0411 





cf 


" 


Mar. 


15, '69 


" 


16 35 


22.50 


7.50 


— 







cf 


" 


Mar. 


15, '69 


" 


16 50 


23 25 


725 


7.40 





2408 


.<■ 


Dummitt's 


Feb. 


19, '69 


C.J. Maynard 


16 50 


23.00 


7 40 


7.10 


10607 


2405 


cf 


" 


Feb. 


19, '69 


" 


16.75 


23.50 


7.50 


7.25 




2406 


cf 


" 


Feb. 


19, '69 


" 


17 50 


23HO 


s :;5 


7.60 




2345 


<f 


" 


Mar. 


17, '69 


" 


16.00 


2110 


6 75 


6.60 


10610 


2585 


tj 


« 


Mar. 


9, '69 


" 


10.90 


23 00 


7.70 


7.50 




2409 


cf 


" 


Mar. 


9, '69 


" 


16.25 


22 00 


700 


7.20 





2586 


cf 


«' 


Mar. 


9, '69 


" 


16 75 


22.00 


7.00 


7.00 





2399 


cf 


• ' 


Mar. 


9, '69 


" 


15.75 


22.00 


6.90 


7.00 





2431 


/ 


•• 


Mar. 


9, '69 


" 


16.00 


22-25 


7.25 


6.75 





2404 


cf 


" 


Mar 


9, '69 


•' 


16.17 


20 75 


6.50 


6.50 





2345 


cf 


" 


Feb. 


16, '69 


" 


16.50 


22 30 


6.25 


625 


10609 


2563 


v 


" 


Mar. 


9, '69 


. " 


13.00 


1750 


5.85 


5.60 




2343 


v 


" 


Mar. 


9, '69 


" 


13.00 


1 * 2.5 


5.80 


500 





2464 


v 


" 


Mar. 


9, '69 


" 


13.00 


18.25 


5.95 


5.25 


5290 




V 


Enterprise 


Feb. 


25, '69 


J. A. Allen 


1340 


18.25 


5.85 


4.75 


5334 





V 


" 


Mar. 


4, 't;:i 


" 


12.75 


17.50 


5.50 


5.00 


6412 





v 


Lake Dexter 


Mar. 


23, '69 


" 


13 00 


18.05 


5 60 


620 


6413 





v 


<> 


Mar. 


23, '69 


" 


n io 


17 25 


5.25 


5.00 


5414 





5 


" 


Mar. 


23, '69 12 50 


17 60 


5.45 


— 



* For a very full biography of this species, see an article by Dr. Elliott Coues in the 
Ibis. Vol. VI, pp. 367-378, 1870. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 297 

The present species is hence not only remarkable for variation in size 
between specimens of the same sex, but espeeiallj' so for its sexual varia- 
tion in size, the sexual difference in this respect being greater than in 
any other species of insessorial bird with which I am acquainted, and it is 
rarely, if ever, exceeded in any group. 

CORVID^E. 

61.* Corvus americanus Audubon. Common Crow. 

Corvus corone Wilson, Am. Orn., IV, 79, pi. xxv, fig. 3, 1811. — Nuttall, 

Man. Orn., I, 209, 1832. 
Corvus americanus Audubon, Orn. Biog., II, 317, 1834. — Baikd, Birds N. 

Am., 566, 1858. 
Corvus americanus var. floridanus Baird, Ibid., 568, 1858. 
Corvus minimus Gundlach, Cabanis's Journal fur Ornithologie, IV, 97, 1856. 

Everywhere abundant. 

In the average, while the general size of Florida specimens is smaller 
than New England ones, the bill is somewhat larger. As is well known, 
the crow is exceedingly variable in the size and shape of its bill even 
in specimens collected from the same flock. There is, however, an ap- 
preciable average difference in the size of the bill, as in general size, 
between northern and southern examples. This was some time since 
observed by Professor Baird in comparing a single specimen from the 
southern point of the Florida peninsula with others from the Northern 
States, and so strongly was he impressed by it that he thought if his 
Florida specimen did not represent a distinct species, it did at least a dis- 
tinct variety, and as such he characterized it, calling it Corvus ameri- 
canus var. Jloridanus. He at the same time referred to the little crow of 
Cuba, described by Dr. Gundlach as Corvus minutus, to which he said.it 
was more nearly allied than either are to C. americanus. I have no 
examples of the latter, but from descriptions of it see no reason why it 
should be regarded as other than the extreme southern form of C. ameri- 
canus. 

62* Corvus OSSifragUS Wilson. Fish Crow. 
Abundant. Perhaps rather more numerous than the common crow. 

63* Cyanurus cristatus Stoainson. Blue Jay. 
Very abundant and unsuspicious. It frequents the towns, where it 
seems half domestic. 

The same difference occurs in this species between Florida and northern 
specimens in size and shape of bill as has been already pointed out in 



298 



BULLETIN OF THE 



respect to Corvus americanus, hut it is far less marked than in Agelceus 
phccniceus, Quiscalus purpureus, and Sturnella ludoviciana. The brilliancy 
of its colors seems not much greater than in New England specimens. 

The difference in size between northern and southern specimens is as 
follows : Average of eighteen Massachusetts specimens (eleven males and 
seven females): Length, 11.71; alar extent, 1G.87 ; wing, 5.13; tail, 
4.89. Average of eleven Florida specimens (proportion of males and 
females nearly the same as in the previous case): Length, 10.98; alar 
extent, 15.11; wing, 4.75; tail, 5.00. The maxima and minima of the 
eleven males from Massachusetts are as follows : Length, 12.25 and 11.35 ; 
alar extent, 17 50 and 16.30; wing, 5.50 and 5.00; tail, 5.65 and 4.25. 

Measuretnents of Specimens of Cyanura cristata. 



M.C.Z. 
No. 


Coll. 
No. 


to 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


to 

a 

3 


si 

■< * 


a 


a 
3 

H 





34" 


d 


Newton, Mass. 


Oct. 25, '67 


C. J Maynard 


1162 


T.6\30~ 


"ET32 


5 06 





90 


d 


" " 


Feb. 5, '68 


" 


11.35 


17.00 


5.00 


4.78 





94 


' 


" " 


Feb. 8, -68 


" 


12 00 


17.00 


500 


5.00 





93 


d 


" " 


Feb. 8, '68 


" 


11.55 


17.20 


5.25 


4.80 





— 


d 


" " 


Feb. 21, '68 


" 


12.00 


16.80 


5-00 


5.00 





687 


• 


" '• 


May 28, '08 


" 


12 16 


17 00 


5.45 


6.40 





1667 


•• 


" '• 





" 


12.25 


1725 


5.65 


565 


12393 


— 


d 


Springfield, " 


Feb 25, '70 


Irving Allen 


12.00 


17.20 


5.15 


5.15 


12392 


— 


■ 


" " 


Feb 25, "70 


" 


11.50 


17 00 


530 


5.10 


12338 


— 


d 


i. ii 


Feb. 25. "70 


" 


12.00 


17.00 


6.00 


4 25 


12385 





■ 


ii i< 


Feb. 25. "70 


" 


1200 


17.50 


5.50 


5.40 


12389 





? 


" " 


Feb. 25, '70 


" 


12.00 


17 00 


4.40 


4.45 


12392 







ii ii 


Feb. 25, 'TO 


" 


1100 


16 50 


4.33 


4 80 


12391 





p 


u ii 


Feb. 25, '70 


" 


1100 


17.00 


5 25 


4 75 


12386 





y 


ii ii 


Feb. 25, "70 


" 


11.50 


17 00 


5.50 


5-15 





33 





Newton, " 


Oct. 25, (17 


C J. Maynard 


11.40 


16.32 


530 


5 30 


4875 


688 


Q 


ii ii 


May 28, '68 


" 


11.62 


1653 


4 75 


4.77 





1685 


y 


ii ii 


Nov. 4, '68 


" 


11.75 


16 00 


5.20 


435 


10733 


1951 


■■ 


Jacksonville, Fla. 


Jan. 2, '69 


" 


11.15 


16.00 


5.00 


5.00 


10734 


1973 




" " 


Jan. 3, '69 


" 


11.00 


15 50 


4.80 


4 80 


10731 


1974 


§ 


i' u 


Jan. S, '69 


" 


1100 


14.75 


4.00 


4.80 


5522 


— 


■> 


Blue Springs, " 


Feb. 21, '69 


J A. Allen 


10.75 


1575 


4 20 


— 


5128 


— 


? 


Jacksonville, " 


Jan 21, '69 


" 


10 75 


15 50 


4 70 


5.12 


5190 





d 


Welaka, " 


Feb M, '69 


" 


10.70 


15(10 


510 


610 





— 


d 


Enterprise, " 


Mar 1, '69 


" 


1100 


15 75 


500 


— 








? 


ii ii 


Mar. 4, '69 


" 


10 70 


15.15 


•1 50 


— 


6348 





? 


" " 


Mar 4, '69 


" 


11.00 


16.00 


5.00 


5.05 


5162 





Hibernia, " 


Jan 30 "69 


" 


11.25 


15 75 


5.00 


5.15 


61113 


— 


i 


" " 


Jan. 3D, 'fVJ 


" 


11 50 


15 50 


5.00 


— 



64.* Cyanocitta floridana Bonaparte. Florida Jay. 

Corvus Jloridanus Bartram, Travels, 291, 1791. — Audubon, Orn. Biog., I, 

444, pi. lxxxvii, 1831. 
Garruhis Jloridanus Boxap., Am. Orn., II, 11, pi. ix, 1828. 
Garrulus cceruiescens Okd, Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., I, 347, 1818. 
Garrulus californicus Vigors, Zool. Beechey's Voyage, 21, pi. v, 1839. 
Cyanocitta floridana Bon ap., Consp Gen. Avium, 377, 1850. 
Cyanocitta superciliosa Strickland, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., XV, 260, 1845. 
Cyanocitta californica Strickland, Ibid., 342. 
Cyanocitta Woodliousei Baird, Birds N. Am., 585, 1858. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



299 



Numerous in the scrub, but does not appear to frequent the pine woods 
the hummocks or swamps. I saw none along the St. John's, except at 
Blue Springs, but they occur in numbers a few miles back from the river. 

On comparing a number of specimens of the so-called Cyanncilla cali- 
fornlca with numerous others from Florida, I find, as previous writers have 
observed, that the differences between them are very slight, and not 
so great as obtain between Florida and New England specimens of 
Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Agelceus phceniceus, and other species where there 
is no reason to question their specific identity. The so-called C. Wood- 
housei is described as, and is, intermediate in character between C. fiori- 
dana and C. californica. The habitat of C. Woodhousei is also interme- 
diate between those of the other two, but adjoins that of C. californica, to 
which it is most nearly allied. How great the interval is between the 
habitats of C. floridana and C. Woodhousei I have not been able to accu- 
rately determine. Bonaparte * reported the former as being found in Louis- 
iana and northward to Kentucky, and the latter occurs in Western Texas. 

In the following measurements of twelve specimens of this species (six 
males and six females) the extremes are as follows: Length, 11.00 and 
12.50 (both specimens being females) ; alar extent, 13.50 (female) and 
15.00 (male); wing, 4.00 and 4.75 (both specimens females); tail, 4.25 
and 5.35 (both specimens females). The average dimensions of these 
specimens are as follows: Length, 11.74; alar extent, 14.44; wing, 4.42; 
tail, 4.80. The females average slightly smaller than the males. 



Measurements of Florida Specimens of Cyanocitta floridana. 



M.C Z 

No. 


Coll. 
No. 

""2480 


02 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Length 


Alar 
Extent. 

~14.50 


Wing. 


Tail. 


10739 


^ - 


Dummitt's 


Feb. 22, '69 


C.J. Maynard 


1150 


4.30 


435 





2377 


rf 


" 


Feb. 22, '69 


•' 


12.00 


15.00 


4.45 


4.75 





2421 


rf 


" 


Feb. 15, '69 


" 


12 00 


15.00 


4.75 


5.00 


10738 


2326 


rC 


" 


Feb. 15, '69 


" 


12.00 


14 50 


4.50 


4.60 





2329 


7 


" 


Feb. 15, '69 


" 


11.50 


14.25 


4 50 


4.25 





2379 


r ! 


" 


Feb. 22, -69 


" 


11.50 


14.25 


4.50 


5.35 


10737 


2328 




" 


Feb. 15, - 69 


" 


12.50 


14.50 


4 75 


4.90 





2378 


§ 


" 


Feb. 16, '69 


" 


1150 


14.10 


4.30 


5.15 





2375 


V 


" 


Feb. 15, '69 


" 


1160 


14 40 


4.60 


4.25 


5271 





V 


" 


Feb. 21, "69 


J. A. Allen 


1100 


1350 


4.00 


5.35 


5272 





rf 


" 


Feb. 21, "69 


" 


12.00 


14.50 


4.30 


4.75 


5523 







" 


Feb. 21, '69 


" 


11.75 


14.80 


4.20 


— 



TYRANID.E. 
65.t Sayornis fuscus Baird. Pewee. 
Abundant all winter, and a few remain till into April. 
The king-bird (Tyrannus carolinensis), the great-crested flycatcher 
(Myiarchus crinitus), and the wood pewee (Contopus virens) became 

• Am. Orn., Vol. II, p. 60, 1828. 



300 BULLETIN OF THE 

common the last week in March, as also, according to Mr. Boardman, 
the least flycatcher (Empidonax minimus). 

Several specimens of the gray king-bird (Tyrannus dominicensis) 
were obtained by Mr. L. L. Thaxter at St. Augustine, about the first 
of May. 

ALCEDINID^I. 

66.* Ceryle alcyon Boie. Kingfisher. 
Abundant. As shy and distrustful here as in the more thickly 
settled parts of the country. Begins to breed very early. Mr. May- 
nard saw them forming their holes in the coquina rock, in the banks of 
the canal connecting Indian River with Mosquito Lagoon, the first week 
in February. 

CAPRIMULGID^I. 
67.* Antrostomus carolinensis Gould. Chuokwill's Widow. 
Abundant. Not observed till about the first of March, when its 
notes are usually first heard. Said by Audubon to be resident ; which 
statement is confirmed by the testimony of old residents of the State. 

68* AntrostOmUS VOCiferuS Bonaparte. Whippoorwill. 

Apparentlv not numerous in winter. I heard it once in February, 
and Mr. Maynard took it at Dummitt's in the same month. The in- 
habitants along the St. John's agree with Audubon that this species is 
also a winter resident. 

The night hawk ( Chordeiles popetue * Baird) was collected at Jack- 
sonville by Mr. Thurston as early as April 20th 

* C'iprimulgus virgininnus Brisson, Orn., II, 477 (in part). 

Caprimulgus popetue Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., I, 56, pi. Hv, 1807. 

Qtprimuhjus americanus Wilson, Am. Orn., V, 65, pi. cxl, 1812. 

Caprimulgus ( Cliordeiles) virgininnus .Swain., Faun. Ror. Am., II, 62, 1831. 

Chordeiles virginianus Bon., Geog. & Comp. List, 8, 1838. — Gosse, Birds of Ja- 
maica, 33, 1847. 

Chordeiles snpiti Bonap., Consp. Gen. Avium, I, 63, 1849. — Cassin, 111. N. Am. 
Birds, 238, 1855. 

Chordeiles brasilinnus Lawr., Ann. X. Y. Lyceum Nat. Hist., V, 114, 1851. 

Oiordeiles Henryi Cassin, 111. N. Am. Birds, 239. — Baihd, Birds N. Am., 153. 

Chordeiles Gundlachii Lawr.. Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., VI, 167, 1856. 

Chord, H, s texerisis Lawk., Ibid., 165. — Baird, Birds N. Am.. 154. 

Chordeiles minor Caranis. Journ. fur Orn., 5, 1856. 

Chordeiles popetue Baihd, Birds X. Am., 151. 
This widely distributed species presents only the usual variations in size and color 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



801 



CYPSELID^I. 

The chimney swift ( Chcetura pelasgia) arrives about the last week 
in March. It was common at Jacksonville, April 1st. 

TROCHILID^I. 

The ruby-throated humming-bird (Trochilus colubris) became com- 
mon about March 1st. Some probably spend the. winter in South 
Florida. 

V1C1DM. 

69* Campephilus principalis Gray. Ivory-bjt.led Woodpecker. 

Picus principalis Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 173, 1767. 
Campephilus principalis Gray, Genera of Birds, 1840. 

Campephilus Bairdii Cassin, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1863, 322. (West 
Indian form.) 

Rather rare ; at least far less numerous than most of the other 
species of woodpecker. 

With only Florida specimens of this species before me, I am unable to 
give comparisons between them and specimens from other localities. Ac- 
cording to the late Mr. Cassin, those found in Cuba differ from those of 
the Southern States, in being smaller, as would be expected, with very 
slight deviations in color-markings. He has, however, given to the Cuba 
race the name of Campephilus Bairdii, remarking that it appears to be 
" one of those singular insular species which have become well known to 
naturalists." 

Measurements of Florida Specimens of Campephilus principalis. 



M. C. Z. 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Length. 


Alar 
Extent. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


5221 
5222 
5229 
6354 
5399 


(J Volusia. 

d 

? 

cf ! Enterprise 

9 Hawkinsville 


Feb. 12, '69 
Feb. 12, '69 
Feb. 12, '69 
Mar 5, '69 
Mar. 15, '69 


J. A. Allen 


20.00 
19.50 
19.30 
19.25 
19.50 


32.25 
32 50 
31.50 
30.50 
31.50 


10.40 
10.25 
10.60 
9.70 
10.25 


690 
690 
6.85 
6.40 
6.75 



seen in other species of our birds. Yet these variations have in the present case been 
mistaken as indicating numerous species. The southern representatives of it are ap- 
preciably smaller than the northern, and have the white markings on the wings more 
restricted, — variations that have already been pointed out in this paper as occurring in 
numerous others similarly distributed. Those from the central arid region of the con- 
tinent are also Ughter in general color than those from the eastern or western portions; 
also a common color variation in other species. The latter type forms the so-called 
Chordeiles Henryi ; the southern ones have been variously characterized as C. sapid, 
C texensis, C. Gundlachii, etc., as indicated in the above-cited syuonymes. 



302 



BULLETIN OF THE 



70.* Hylotomus pileatus Buird. Pileated Woodpecker. 
Abundant. Much smaller than at the north, but not otherwise 
appreciably different. 

The average dimensions of fourteen Florida specimens (seven males and 
seven females) are as follows : — 

Males, length, 17.48 ; alar extent, 28.07 ; .wing, 9.21 ; tail, 6.82. 

Females, length, 16.44 ; alar extent, 26.80; wing, 8.98 ; tail, 6.54. 

The individual variation is as follows : — 

Males, length, 17.25 to 17.75; alar extent, 27.50 to 28.50; wing, 9.00 
to 9.50 ; tail, 6.20 to 6.75. 

Females, length, 15.50 to 16.80 ; alar extent, 26.00 to 27.75 ; wing, 8.50 
to 9.50 ; tail, 5.85 to 6.80. 

Measurements of Florida Specimens of Hylotomus pileatus. 



M.C.Z. 
No. 

— 5118 


Coll. 

No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Length. 


Alar 
Extent. 


Wing. 


Tail. 





d 


Hibernia 


Jan. 30T'69 


J. A. Allen 


17.75 


28.25 


9.2o 


6.65 


6203 





d 


Welaka 


Feb. 7, '69 


" 


17.25 


28.00 


900 


650 


5215 





d 


" 


Feb. 10, '69 


" 


1750 


28.50 


9.25 


6.75 








d 


Hawkinsville 


Mar. 10, '69 


" 


17.25 


27.50 


9.50 








1937 


d 


Jacksonville 


Dec. 31, '69 


C. J. Maynard 


17-75 


28.50 


9.50 


6.40 





2076 


d 


" 


Jan. — , '69 


" 


17.25 


27.75 


9.00 


6.20 





2543 


d 


Dummitt's 


Feb. 15, '69 


" 


17.60 


28.00 


9.00 


6.45 





2334 


2 


" 


Mar. 11, '69 


" 


15 50 


26 40 


8.70 


5.85 





2602 


2 


" 


Mar. 5, '69 


" 


16.60 


27.75 


9 00 


6.75 


5204 







Welaka 


Feb. 7. '69 


J. A. Allen 


16.75 


26 25 


8.50 


6 75 


5214 





§ 


" 


Feb. 10, '69 


" 


16.35 


26.75 


9.15 


6.60 


6216 








" 


Feb. 10, '69 


" 


16.30 


27.25 


9.00 


6 80 


6274 





§ 


Blue Springs 


Feb. 21, '69 


" 


16 75 


27 20 


9 50 


6.50 








2 


Hawkinsville! Mar. 10, '69 


" 


16.80 


26 00 


9.00 


— 



71.* Picus vill0SU8 Limit. Hairy Woodpecker. 
Picus villosus Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 175, 1767. — Forster, Philosoph. 
Transact., LXII, 383, 1772. — Wilson, Am. Orn., I, 150, pi. ix, fig. 3, 
1808. — Audubon, Orn. Biog., V, 164, pi. ccccxvii, 1837. (Northern form.) 
Picus leucomelanus Wagler, Syst. Av., No. 18, 1827. (Immature male.) 
Picus Auduboni Swainson, Faun. Bor. Am., II, 306, 1831. (Immature male.) 
— Trudeau, Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 404, 1837. (Immature male). — 
Audubon, Orn. Biog., V, 194, 1839. (Same as the last.) 
Picus Martince Audubon, Ibid., 181, pi. ccccxvii. (Very immature.) 
Picus Phillpsii Audubon, Ibid., 186, pi. ccccxvii. (Immature.) 
Picus Harrisii Audubon, Ibid., 191, same plate. (Northwestern form.) — 

Baird, Birds N. Am., 87. 
Picus septentrionalis Nuttall, Man. Orn., I (2d Ed.), 685, 1840. 
Picus rubricapillus Nuttall, Ibid., G84. (Immature male.) 
Picus Cuvieri Malherue, Mon. 1'icida;/ I, 85, pi. xxii, fig. 3. (Young fe- 
male.) 
Picus Jardinei Malherbe, Ibid., I, 85, pi. xxv, fig. 4, 5. — Cassin, Proc. 
Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1863", 201. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 303 

Not numerous in Florida in comparison with the other species of 
Picidce. 

The difference in size between northern and southern specimens of all the 
species of the Picidce is greater than obtains in most other families of birds. 
So great is it in Picus villosus and Picus pubescens that it was in these species 
that such variations were first noticed. This difference is well pointed out 
by Professor Baird in his work on the North American Birds, and fully de- 
monstrated in his table of measurements. On this ground he distinguished 
three varieties of P. villosus, — P. villosus major, occupying the northern 
and western portions of the continent; P. villosus medius, occupying the 
Middle States ; and P. villosus minor, occupying the Southern States. 
Audubon regarded the two former as distinct species. In addition to these 
variations in size, my Florida specimens indicate a well-marked variation 
in color between the northern and extreme southern races, the Florida 
specimens differing from New England ones in having the white mark- 
ings of relatively less extent, which gives to the plumage a considerably 
darker aspect. Through this variation there is an approach in the Florida 
examples of P. villosus to the so-called P. Harrisii of the Pacific coast and 
Rocky Mountain regions of the continent, and in the Florida examples of 
P. pubescens to the so-called P. Gairdneri, also of the middle and western 
regions of the continent. These, as is well known, differ respectively from 
P. villosus and P. pubescens almost solely in a general darker aspect, re- 
sulting simply from the relatively greater predominance of the black color 
of the plumage over the white markings in the western type ; there being 
no change whatever in the general style of coloration, though some of the 
smaller white spots seen in the eastern are entirely obsolete in the western 
type. Under Picus Gairdneri Professor Baird thus describes these varia- 
tions. " There is," he says, " the same series in specimens of Picus Gaird- 
neri that were indicated under P. Harrisii. Thus the most northern from 
Washington Territory and Oregon have the under parts more brown, 
with faint black streaks, the white spots above smaller and less numerous. 
In specimens from California and farther east the white is purer, the 
spots more conspicuous." " The almost perfect parallelism," he further 
observes, " with appreciable differences between the markings of the 
northwestern and southeastern varieties of Picus Harrisii and Gairdneri, 
and their relationship to P. villosus and pubescens, is a remarkable fact in 
American ornithology, and may possibly indicate the necessity either of 
dividing the dark ones into a Pacific and Rocky Mountain series, or of con- 
sidering all as variations of two species, a larger [P. villosus] and a smaller 
[P. pubescens], changing their character with longitudinal distribution." 
And he aptly adds, " Many other supposed species are involved in the 



30-1 BULLETIN OF THE 

same consideration." * Professor Bairri in his account of these species, ex- 
pressly refers to •California specimens that have less white on the wings 
than the one form and more white than the other, f This with the color 
differences existing between Florida specimens and New England ones, 
similar in character to these, though less in degree, seems to confirm the 
necessity alluded to by Professor Baird of regarding the small spotted 
woodpeckers in question as forming only two species, — the Picus villosus 
and Picus pubescens, — with parallel and remarkable geographical varia- 
tions. So great is the difference, however, between typical representatives 
of the two leading forms of each, that their discoverers, with too few speci- 
mens of each to enable them to detect the gradual passage of the one into 
the other, — a fact which now seems well substantiated, — were quite 
excusable in regarding them as distinct species. Several other sup- 
posed species, as indicated by the synonymes given above, and previously 
by other authors, have been based on phases of immaturity. The young 
of either sex often have the crown spotted with red or yellow, while the 
mature male alone has red on the head, and in which it is usually confined 
to a narrow occipital transverse band. In respect to the number, shape, 
position, and size of the white spots on the wings, however, there is al- 
ways considerable variation in specimens from the same locality, these 
variations being dependent upon neither sex nor age. 

Florida specimens of not only Picus pubescens and P. villosus, but of 
Centurus carolinus, Sitla carolinensis, and Si/la pusilla, often have the 
plumage of the lower surface of the body so much soiled and darkened by 
running over the blackened trees in recently burnt districts as to ma- 
terially alter their appearance, so that they might almost be taken for 
distinct species, as previously noted by Audubon. J 

72.* Picus pubescens Linne. Downy "Woodpecker. 
Picas pubescens Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 175, 1766. — Wilson, Audubon, Box a- 

PARTE, NoTTALL, BaIKD, CaSSIN, CtC 

Pints (Dendrocopus) pubescens Swainson, Faun. Bor. Am., II, 307, 1831. 
Picus (Dendroco/ms) mcdianus Swainson, Ibid., 308. (Described from New 
Jersey specimens). 

* Birds of North America, p. 91. 

t In accounting for these intermediate forms, Mr. Cassin adopts the very convenient 
but, as it seems to me, uncalled-for and incorrect theory of hybridity, so often resorted 
to in similar cases. Under Picus villosus, he says that J', villosus and P. Harrisii prob- 
ably associate in a region intermediate between the proper ranges of the two species, 
"and produce hybrids, which present difficulties to naturalists." Under Picus pu- 
bescens lie makes similar remarks in respect to P. pubescens and P. Liairdneri. Proc. 
Phil. Acad. Nat. Sri., 1863, pp. 200, 201. 

J Orn. Biog., Vol. II, p. 82. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



305 



Picus (Dendrocopus) meridionalis Swaixson, Ibid. (Southern race.) 

Picus Gairdneri Audubon, Orn. Biog., V, 317, 1839. (Northwestern form.) — 

Baird, Birds N. Am., 91, 1858. 
Picus meridionalis Nuttall, Man. Orn., I,(2d Ed.) 690, 1840. (Not of Swainson). 
Picus Lecontei Jones, Ann. N. York Lye. Nat. Hist., IV, 489, pi. xviii, 1848. 

(Three-toed specimen.) 
Picus Turati Maliierbe, Mon. Pic., I, 125, pi. xxix, fig. 5, 6. — Cassin, Proc. 

Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1863, 202. 

Common. Much more numerous than Picus villosus. 

The difference in size and color between northern and southern speci- 
mens has been sufficiently detailed under the previous species. 

73.* Picus borealis Vieillot. Red-cockaded Woodpecker. 

Picus borealis Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., II, 66, pi. exxii, 1807. — Cassin, 

Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1863, 203. 
Picus querulus Wilson, Am. Orn., II, 103, pi. xv, fig. 1, 1810. — Cassin, Proc. 

Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1863, 203. 

Common in the pineries. 

Mr. Cassin regards the Carolina and Georgia representatives of this 
species as specifically distinct from the Pennsylvania ones. He says that 
they are as distinct and as easily recognized as are Picks villosus and P. 
Harrisii, which he of course regards as valid species. He assigns Yieillot's 





Measurements of Florida Specimens of Picus 


BOREALIS. 




M. C. Z. 

No. 


Coll. 
No. 


y. 

CO 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


c 

(3 


< X 




'3 


10641 


1919 


9 


Jacksonville 


Dec. 31, '68 C. J. Maynard 


~ fT40 


14.20 


4.75 


3.52 


10642 


1920 


d 


" 


Dec. 31, '68 


" 


8.30 


14.20 


4.76 


362 


10043 


1921 


2 


" 


Dec. 31, "68 


" 


8.30 


14.80 


480 


3 56 





1922 


d 


" 


Dec. 31, "68 


" 


8.50 


14.50 


4.75 


3 69 


10644 


1923 


d 


" 


Dec. 31, '68 


" 


8.20 


14 45 


4.75 


3.39 





1924 


d 


" 


Dec. 31, '68 


" 


8.50 


15.00 


4 80 


3.32 


10645 


1925 


d 


" 


Dec. 31, '66 


" 


8 50 


14.75 


4.85 


3.60 





1971 


8 


" 


Jan. 3, '69 


" 


8.50 


15 00 


4.85 


3.50 


10646 


1972 


• 


" 


Jan. 3, '69 


" 


8.50 


14 30 


4.75 


3.75 


10631 


29 


■ 


" 


Apr. 11, '69 


" 


8.00 


14.75 


4.90 


3.45 


10632 


30 




" 


Apr. 6, '69 


" 


8.50 


15.00 


4.90 


335 


10633 


31 


, 


" 


Apr. 6, '69 


" 


8.30 


14 90 


4.85 


335 


10634 


41 


.•" 


" 


Apr. 7, '69 


" 


8.15 


1450 


4.70 


3-25 


10637 


47 


' 


" 


Apr. 8, '69 


" 


8.60 


15.15 


4.87 


3.40 


10638 


48 


-■ 


" 


Apr. 8, '69 


" 


8.50 


15.00 


4.95 


3.46 


1063y 


58 


i 


" 


Apr. 13, '69 


" 


8.50 


1410 


4.75 


3.59 





49 




" 


Apr. 8, '69 


" 


8,50 


14.15 


4.85 


3.49 


10640 


59 





" 


Apr. 12, '69 


•« 


8.50 


15.00 


4.80 


3.50 


10636 


44 


— 


" 


Apr. 7, '69 


ic 


8.30 


15.00 


4.80 


3.60 


10635 


43 


? 


" 


Apr. 7, '69 " 


8.35 


14.60 


460 


3.60 





32 


d 


" 


Apr. 3, '69 


'« 


830 


14.90 


4.85 


3.50 





42 


d 


" 


Apr. 7, '69 


" 


8.20 


14.70 


475 


329 


5116 


— 




" 


Jan. 19, '69 


J. A. Allen 


8.50 


15 20 


4 40 


330 


5137 


— 


d 


" 


Jan. 25, '69 


" 


8.33 


14.75 


4.57 


3.42 


6375 


— 


d 


Hawkinsville 


Mar. 12, '69 


" 


8.55 


14.55 


4.50 


3.40 


5393 


— 


d 


" 


Mar. 15, '69 


" 


8.50 


14.50 


4 45 


320 


5394 


— 


d 


" 


Mur. 15, '69 


" 


8.25 


14.50 


4.40 


315 


5414 


— 


i 


Volusia 


Mar. 25, '69 


" 


7.90 


14.60 


4.45 


3.25 



20 



306 BULLETIN OF THE 

name borealis to the Pennsylvania type, and Wilson's name querulus to 
the more southern form. In recognizing two species of red-eockaded wood- 
pecker in. the Atlantic States, Mr. Cassin differs from all previous writers. 
Having only Florida specimens, a series of twenty-two, before me, I cannot 
state from personal observation as to how they differ from northern ones. 
They appear, however, to be merely a little smaller and darker. 

The average size of the twenty-eight Florida specimens of which meas- 
urements are given in the foregoing table is as follows : Length, 8.34 ; 
alar extent, 14.46; wing, 4.71; tail, 3.41. 

74.t Sphyrapicus varius Baird. Yellow-bellied Woodpecker. 
Common. 

75* Centurus carolinus Bonaparte. Red-bellied Woodpecker. 

Picus carolinas Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 174, 1767. 

Picus griseus Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., II, 52, pi. cxvi, 1807. 

Centums carolinus Bonap., Geog. & Comp. List, 40, 1838. 

Abundant. The most numerous species of its family in Florida. 
Specimens in the Museum from Cape Florida, taken the 8th of May by 
Mr. G. Wurdemann, indicate it as resident throughout Florida, though 
considered by Audubon and others as only a winter visitant to this and 
the other Gulf States. 

The Florida specimens are all very much brighter colored than others 
before me from Maryland, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan, the Michigan 
specimens being the palest. Professor Baird has remarked, in regard to a 
specimen from Amelia Island, Florida,* that it was not only very much 
smaller than northern ones, but had the white transverse bands on the 
back much narrower, the black ones being three times the breadth of the 
white ones, instead of twice, as in the northern specimens. These differ- 
ences my large series from the St. John's River indicate as constant. A simi- 
lar increase, in the breadth of the black bands over the white ones in southern 
specimens as compared with northern ones, in species banded transversely, 
i< seen in numerous other species. It is well marked in Colaptes auratus 
(where the bands are dark and light brown), in Sphyrapicus i-nriu.<, and, as I 
shall show more fully subsequently, in Ortyx virginianus. The extent and 
intensity of the red on the abdomen and head, and especially its brilliancy 
on the head, is much greater in the Florida specimens of C. carolinus. In 
this respect there is also a well-marked difference between Cape Florida 
specimens and those from the St. John's River, the Cape Florida ones 
being much the brighter. These seem to accord in every particular with 
* Birds of North Amer., p. 109. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



307 



the so-called Cenlurus subelcgans of Lower California and Mexico. It is 
interesting to note that variations in color occur between the northern and 
southern representatives of Centurus Jlaviventris similar to tl\ose exhibited 
by northern and southern examples of C. carolinus. The southern forms 
of C. Jlaviventris were long since characterized by Wagler, Swainson, and 
Bonaparte as specifically distinct from the northern, under the names of C. 
elegans, C. santacruzi, etc., etc., which many authors still rank as species. 

76.* Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Swainson. Red-headed Wood- 
pecker. 
Rare in winter ; said to be common in summer. I saw two only, 
about March loth. Mr. Boardman also gives it as rare, while Mr. 
Maynard did not meet with it at all. Audubon speaks of its being 
very abundant in winter in Louisiana, and Dr. Coues gives it as resi- 
dent in South Carolina ; but it is certainly not common in winter in East 
Florida. 

77.* Colaptes auratus Swainson. Golden-winged Woodpecker. 
Abundant. 

Considerably smaller than at the north, with the colors much more in- 
tense, and the transverse black bars on the back relatively broader. The 
individual variations in this species, even at the same locality, are very 
considerable, especially in respect to the bill. Figures 5 and 6, Plate VIII, 
illustrate the variation in the form and size of the bill of two specimens 
from Massachusetts, both of which are females. 

The following summary of the subjoined tables indicates the difference 
in size between Massachusetts and Florida specimens, and the individual 
differentiation in the same respect at each locality. The sexes seem not 
to differ essentially in size. 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 


Sex. 


Locality. 




Length. 


Alar 
Extent. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


18 
11 
18 
18 
11 
11 


— 


Massachusetts. 

Florida 
Massachusetts. 

Florida. 


Average 

Average 

Maximum 

Minimum 

Maximum 

Minimum 


12.45 
11.66 
13.00 
12.00 
12.75 
10.60 


19.94 

18.82 

20.75 

19.00 

19.75 - 

17.60 


6 24 
6.84 
660 
6.00 
6.25 
6.60 


4.35 
4.40 
4.70 
4.00 
4.85 
4.10 



"While the Florida specimens are considerably smaller than the northern 
in three of the measurements, the tail is actually longer in the Florida 
birds, and hence relatively much longer. In most of the species of which 
comparative tables of measurements are given in the present paper, there 
is a decided tendency to an elongation of the tail at the southward, the 
tail decreasing less in length than the wing or the general size. 



308 



BULLETIN OF THE 



Measurements of Massachusetts Specimens of Colaptes auratus. 




M.CZ 

No. 


Coll. 

No. 


CO 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Length. 




c 


'3 

E-t 





2075 


? 


Jacksonville 


Jan. 


20, '69 


C. J.Maynard 


10.75 


18.50 


5.75 


4.55 





2074 


v 


" 


Jan. 


20, '69 


" 


11.00 


17.60 


550 


4.50 


10612 


2346 




Dummitt's 


Feb. 


16, '69 


" 


11.75 


19.50 


6.25 


4.10 


10014 


2601 


g 


" 


Mar. 


11, '69 


" 


12.00 


19 00 


5.90 


4 60 


10611 
10613 


2584 


o 


" 


Mar. 


9, '69 


" 


10.60 


1775 


5.70 


4.30 


2542 


V 


" 


Mar. 


6,'69 


" 


12 75 


19.10 


6.00 


4.85 


10610 


23S5 


rf 


" 


Mar. 


6, "69 


" 


12 00 


19.20 


6.00 


4.26 


5196 





i 


Welaka 


Keb. 


5, - 69 


J. A. Allen 


12 20 


19.10 


5.85 


4.30 


6321 





Enterprise 


Mar. 


1,"69 


" 


11.50 


18.75 


5.60 


4.15 








v 


Volusia 


Mar. 


25, "69 


" 


12.25 


19.75 


6.00 


— 








a 


" 


Mar. 


25, '69 


" 


11.50 


18.75 


5.65 


— 



Of the eight species of woodpecker mentioned above as occurring in 
Florida in winter, all but one or two {Melanerpes erythrocephalus 
and Campepkilus principalis) are numerously represented. Most of 
them are exceedingly abundant, the woodpeckers hence forming a con- 
spicuous element in the bird-fauna of East Florida. All of them are 
resident, according to Dr. Coues, in South Carolina. Audubon, how- 
ever, states that two of them ( Sphyrapicus varius, Centurus carolinus) 
do not breed south of Maryland, but Dr. Coues gives them as resident 
the whole year in South Carolina. 



PSITTACID-S3. 

78. Conuru8 carolinensis Bonaparte. Caiolina Parokeei-. 
Common. Hundreds are captured every winter on the Lower St. 
John's by professional bird-catchers and sent to the northern cities. 
Thousands of others are destroyed wantonly by sportsmen. Concerning 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



309 



this needless slaughter Mr. Boardman i„us writes : " The little parokeet 
must soon be exterminated. Some of our Enterprise party would 
sometimes shoot forty or fifty at a few discharges, for sport, as they 
hover about when any are shot until the whole flock is destroyed." 
From its habit of feeding upon the tender maize in autumn, it is some- 
times somewhat injurious to the farmer, and for this cause many are 
also killed. It is also more or less hunted as a game-bird. It is well 
known that the parokeet formerly inhabited large portions of the United 
States where it is now never seen, and the cause of its disappearance 
has been deemed a mystery. Such facts as these, however, seem to 
render clear what its ultimate fate must be in the United States, — ex- 
termination. 

I could learn nothing from the inhabitants in regard to the time, 
manner, or place of breeding of this species, even old residents pro- 
fessing total ignorance in regard to these points. 

The following table of measurements of specimens of this species serves 
to indicate its average size and proportions in Florida. In mature speci- 
mens the sexual difference in color and size is very slight. Neither sex 
acquires its adult colors before the second or third year. 

The average size of the nineteen specimens (six males and thirteen 
females) cited below is as follows: Length, 13.10; alar extent, 21.76; 
wing, 7.59. 

The extremes are as follows : — 

Length, 12.50 and 13.60 (both specimens females); alar extent, 21.10 
(female) and 22.50 (male) ; wing 7.00 and 7.85. These specimens seem 
to indicate a tolerable constancy in general size and proportions. 

Measurements of Florida Specimens of Conurus carolinensis. 



M. C Z. 

No. 


Sex. 
~d~ 


Locality. 
Welaka 


Date. 


Collector. 


Length. 
~TsW 


Alar 
Extent. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


5205 


Feb. 8, '69 


J. A. Allen 


~22~0(T 


7 70 


6.05 


5206 


d 


" 


Feb. 8, '69 


" 


1355 


2230 


7.85 


6.75 


5207 


? 


'< 


Feb. 8, "69 


" 


12.90 


2150 


7.45 


6.10 


5225 


9 


Volusia 


Feb. 12, '69 


" 


13.00 


21.75 


7.00 


5.80 


5226 


2 


" 


Feb. 12, "69 


" 


13 00 


21.60 


7.35 


5.80 


5227 


2 


" 


Feb 12, "69 


" 


13.00 


21.75 


7 30 


6.00 


5228 


9 


" 


Feb 12, "69 


" 


13 00 


21.50 


7 50 


6.00 


5291 


d 


Enterprise 


Feb 25, "69 


" 


1325 


21.50 


740 


— 


5295 


2 


" 


Feb. 25, '69 


" 


13 00 


22.45 


7-60 


6.00 


5293 


? 


" 


Feb. 25, '69 


" 


13.60 


22 00 


7.34 


6.60 


5297 


d 


" 


Feb. 25, '69 


" 


13.45 


22.00 


7.50 


— 





d 


Hawkinsville 


Mar. 13, '69 


" 


1325 


22.50 


7.75 


— 





d 


" 


Mar 13, '69 


" 


13.15 


21 25 


7.50 


— 





9 


" 


Mar 13, '69 


" 


12.50 


21 35 


7.30 


— 





? 


Orange Bluffs 


Mar. 24, "69 


" 


12.S5 


21 75 


7.40 


— 





? 


" 


Mar. 24, - 69 


" 


13.60 


22.30 


7.75 


— 





? 


" 


Mar 24, '69 


" 


1305 


21.10 


7.50 


— 





? 


" 


Mar. 24, '69 


" 


13.25 


21.30 


7 50 


— 





9 




Mar 2t, '69 


13.25 


21.50 


7.55 


— 



310 BULLETIN OF THE 

VULTUEID^J. 

79 * Cathartes aura Ittiger. Turkey Vulture. 
Vultur brasiliensis Brisson, Orn., I, 468, 17G0. 
Vultur aura Linne, Syst. Nat., I. 122, 1767. — Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., I, 25, 

pi. 2 bis, 1807. —Wilson, Am. Orn., IX, pi. lxiv, fig. 1, 1814. 
Cathartes aura Illiger, Prodromus, 283, 1811. — Bonaparte, Ann. N. Y. 

Lye. Nat. Hist., II, 23, 1828. — Audubon, Orn. Biog., II, 296, pl.clii, 1835. 

— Bonaparte, Gcog. and Comp. List, I, 1838. — D'Orbigny, Voy. dans 
l'Amer. Merid., IV, ill, 38, 1844. — Cassis, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nut. Sci., 
1849, 159. —Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., I, 9, 1850. 

Vultur jot a Molina, Saggio sul stor. nat. del Chile, 1782. 

Cathartes nificolUs Spix, Av. Spec. Nova:, 2, 1824. 

Vultur jota Molina, Sagg. sul stor. nat. del Chile, 235, 1782. — Gmelin, Syst. 

Nat., I, 347, 1788. 
Cathartes jota Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., I, 9, 1850. — Cassin, U. S. Nav. 

Astr. Exp., II. 172, 1855. 
Cathartes septentrionalis Pr. Maximilian, Rcise in das Nord-Amer., 1, 162, 1839. 
? Cathartes Burrovianus Cassin, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sciences, 1843, 212. 

— ? Cassin, Baud's Birds of N. Am., 6, 1858. 

Abundant. Collect in large companies about the dead alligators so 
numerous in the St. John's River. 

Both this species and the following ( Carthartes atratus) paid us fre- 
quent visits at our camps at Enterprise and Hawkinsville, and whenever 
we left them they did not fail to gather up and devour the carcasses of 
the birds and mammals thrown away by us after skinning. We found 
them, in fact, rather troublesome neighbors, since on more than one 
occasion they proceeded, in our absence, to investigate the character of 
the specimens we had left in the sun to dry, and in a manner so unsat- 
isfactory to ourselves that one of the party was frequently obliged to 
stay in camp to protect them while the others were away collecting. 

Both this and the following species were represented as breeding 
late in the season, and as frequenting the palmetto swamps as well 
as some of the islands above Enterprise for this purpose. 

The synonymy hero given of the present and following species indicates 
clearly tin- confusion which several continental European authors have in- 
troduced through their descriptions of these species, to which attention has 
been previously called by Mr. Cassin.* While a Vultur (or Cathartes) aura 
has been described by most authors who have written of the two species 
in question, the name aura has been applied sometimes to the one and 

• Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat Sci., 1849, 159. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 311 

sometimes to the other, but when given to the true aura of Linne", Vieillot, 
and Wilson, the atratus of Bartram and Wilson has been cited as a syno- 
nyme, and the true atratus described under a new name. The name jota 
has likewise been repeatedly applied to both species by different authors, 
and in some cases even by the same author, as has been also the name 
bra&iliensis. The description given by Linne in the twelfth edition of his 
Systema Naturae, under V. aura, clearly refers to the V. aura of Wilson, of 
which the V. jota of Molina and Gmelin are synonymes ; although some of 
Linne's synonymes may refer to the C. atratus of modern writers. Bona- 
parte, however, in both his Synopsis of the Birds of the United States and 
in his Geographical and Comparative List, strangely applied the name jota 
to the atratus of Wilson, in which he was for a time followed by other 
writers. By those who have regarded the South American representatives 
of C. aura as distinct from its North American ones, the name jota has 
latterly been applied to the supposed distinct South American representa- 
tive of the supposed true or northern C. aura. 

The distinctions between the so-called C. jota and C. aura seem, judg- 
ing from the published accounts, to be by no means clear. Mr. Cassin, in 
his report on the birds of Lieutenant Gilliss's Expedition, says the C jota 
" is apparently, or so far as can be ascertained from prepared specimens, 
a more slender bird, and loncjer in all its measurements. The last character 
is particularly applicable to its wings."* In his Illustrations of the birds 
of California and Texas, published the following year, he reverses this 
statement, and says : " The South American species [C.jota] is the smaller," 
and " is the more slender in all its members " ; and adds : " All the spe- 
cimens that we have seen have been of a more uniform clear black color." 
Having myself examined numerous specimens, both in Brazil and in Florida, 
I find the difference in the average exceedingly slight, and nearly as stated 
by Mr. Cassin in his later work ; that is, the Brazilian are slightly smaller, 
and have the plumage appreciably darker. 

Bonaparte, in his Conspectus, gives the jota of Molina as being simply 
smaller and with a shorter tail than aura of Linne. The differences are in- 
deed very slight; they are, moreover, strictly in accordance with the well- 
known general laws of variation between specimens of the same species from 
northern and southern localities, and by no means indicate a diversity of 
species. Because formerly not known to occur in some of the West India 
Islands, it was at one time supposed by some that the habitats of the two 
supposed species did not meet, or that there was a region in Central and 
Northern South America where neither existed. As I have elsewhere 
stated,f this is a mistake, both this species and the C. atratus ranging from 

* U. S Naval Astronomical Expedition, Vol. II, p. 173, 1855. 
t Memoirs Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. I, p. 500, 1S68. 



312 



BULLETIN OF THE 



the middle and northern portions of the United States nearly to the south- 
ern extremity of South America ; the C. aura also extending as much be- 
yond the southern limit of the C. alratus in South America as it does to 
the north of it in North America. 

The Cathartes Burrovianus of Cassin, described in 1843, from a single spe- 
cimen from Mexico, is referred by Bonaparte, in his Conspectus, to C. jota, 
or to what I regard as the typical form of C. aura, and evidently with good 
reason. It differs from C. aura only in being smaller. I am therefore 
disposed to regard it as based on an unusually small specimen of that spe- 
cies. Though Dr. Gambel supposed he had seen it with the other species 
in Lower California, but two specimens seem to have been known to Mr. 
Cassin, one of which was from an unknown locality. 

Measurements of Florida Specimens of Cartiiartes aura. 



M.CZ. 

No. 


Coll. 
No. 


a* 

C/J 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


to 

□ 




ti> 

.2 
22.50 


'5 
H 


5143 





■• 


Jacksonville 


Jan. 


25, 


'69 


J. A. Allen 


'11 'ill 


7 'J -Mi 


11.10 


5 ISO 





,-r 


Hibernia 


Feb. 


1, 


'69 


" 


27.50 


72.U0 


22.no 


11.75 


51S7 





rl 


" 








" 








21.00 


12.00 


10746 


2541 


? 


Dummitt's. 


Mar. 


11, 


'69 


C.J. MayuarU 


26.50 


6S.O0 


21 mi 


11.00 





2603 


? 


" 


War. 


11, 


•6!) 


" 





68.00 


20.00 


10.50 


1 


2433 


5 


" 


Mar. 


in 


'69 


" 


27.50 


72.00 


21.75 


11.25 



80.* Cathartes atratUS Swainson. Black Vulture. 

? Vultur brasiliensis aut mexicanus Ray, Synop. Meth. Avium, 10, 1713. 

Vultur atratus Bartram, Travels, 289, 17'Jl. 

Cathartes atratus Swainson, Faun. Bor. Am., II, 6, 1831. — Audubon, Synop- 
sis, 3, 1839. — Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., I, 9, 1850. — Cassin, Illust. 
Birds Cal., Texas, etc., 58, 1854. — Cassin, Gilliss's U. S. Nav. Astr. Exp., 
II, 173, 1855. 

Vultur jota Wilson, Am. Orn.,IX, 104, pi. lxxv, fig. 2, 1814. (Not of Molina; 
not of Gmclin.) 

Cathartes jota Bonaparte, Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., II. — Audubon, Orn. 
Bio?., II, 33, 1835.— Bonaparte, Gcog. and Comp. List, I, 1838. 

Vultur urubu Vikillot, Ois. Am. Sept., I, 53, pi. ii, 1807. 

CdHiartes urubu Lesson, Voy. autourdu Monde, 014. — D'Orbigny, Voy. dans 
1'Amer. Merit!., 1844. 

Cathartes <ntra Spix, Av. Spec. Novae, 2, 1824. 

Cathartes brasiliensis Bonap., Consp. Gen. Av., I, 9, 1850. 

Abundant. On the whole, probably about as numerous as the pre- 
ceding, but the two species occur in different proportions at different 
localities, and at different times at the same locality. None were seen 
about Jacksonville during the two weeks I spent there in January, and 
none were met with for some distance up the river. Above Lake 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 313 

George it was generally common, and sometimes outnumbered the 
other species, as it did often at Hawkinsville during my stay there. 
The younger birds appear to be generally not so highly colored as the 
fully mature, nor to have the naked skin of the head and neck so rugose 
and corrunculated as the older. The differences in these respects are 
very considerable between individuals of the same flock. 

A comparison of Florida specimens with Brazilian ones shows that the 
latter are slightly smaller than the former ; in color or other general fea- 
tures they do not appear to differ. Most writers have regarded the South 
American as identical with the North American, but Mr. Cassin,* appar- 
ently on the authority of Bonaparte,f says the South American bird " is 
the Vullur brasiliensis Kay," and that " it is considerably smaller, and other- 
wise quite distinct." But he only refers definitely to the difference in size. 
The year preceding the publication of these remarks, however, he gives 
C. atratus as inhabiting Chili. £ In speaking of the Chili specimen, he 
says : " A single specimen in mature plumage and excellent condition is 
exactly identical in size arid other characters with the common species 
[C. atratus^ of the southern parts of North America." He adds: "It is 
the only specimen presenting this similarity that we have ever seen from 
South America, and is larger and in other respects different from the allied 
Catliartes brasiliensis, which is an inhabitant also of that division of this 
continent." C. atratus, he says, is "not abundant in Chili, though repre- 
sented to be occasionally met with in the interior " ; these larger individuals 
referred to being doubtless the birds that inhabit the more elevated dis- 
tricts. Whatever Mr. Cassin's Cathartes brasiliensis may prove to be, it 
remains unquestionable that the C. atratus is a general inhabitant of South 
America, and that Bonaparte's brasiliensis is merely the southern type of 
this species. The exact parallelism of its range on the two continents as 
compared with that of C. aura has already been alluded to. 

The Paixtfd or Sacred Vulture ('• Vultur sacra"), § an apocryphal 
species described by Bartram || as inhabiting Florida, demands in this con- 
nection a passing notice. Though not identified by any succeeding author 
(by some, however, it has been referred to the king vulture, Sarcorham- 

* Must. Birds of Cal. and Texas, p. 58. 1856. 
t Conspectus Generum Avium, Tom I. p 9, I^'jO 
X V. S. Naval Astronomical Expedition, Vol. II, p. 173, 1855. 
§ Travel, in Florida, etc., p. 150, 1790. 

|| Vullur sacra Baktkam, Travel-, pp. 150, 289, 1791. — Vieillot. — Xcttall, Man. 
Orn. I, 42. 

SarcorhampliHs sneer Cassin, Must. Birds of Cal. and Texas, 59, 1S5C. 
See also Bonatakte, Conspectus Gen. Av., I, 9. 



314 BULLETIN OF THE 

phus papa), Bertram's account of it leads one to infer thatlie found itquite 
abundant. His description of it is given with satisfactory detail. He says 
it is " near the size of the turkey-buzzard, but his wings are much shorter, 
and consequently he falls greatly below that admirable bird in sail. I 
shall call this bird the painted vulture. The bill is long and straight al- 
most to the point, where it is hooked, or bent suddenly down, and sharp ; 
the head and neck bare of feathers nearly down to the stomach, where the 
fe?*.hers begin to cover the skin, and soon become long and of a soft text- 
ure, forming a ruff or tippet, in which the bird, by contracting his neck, 
can hide that as well as his head ; the bare skin on the neck appears loose 
and wrinkled, which is of a deep bright yellow color, intermixed with coral 
red ; the hinder part of the neck is nearly covered with short, stiff hair; 
and the skin of this part of the neck is of a dun-purple color, gradually be- 
coming red as it approaches the yellow of the sides and fore part. The 
crown of the head is red; there are lobed lappets of a reddish orange 
color, which lay on the base of the upper mandible. But what is singular, 
a large portion of the stomach hangs down on the breast of the bird, in 
the likeness of a sack or half wallet, and sceijis to be a duplicative of the 
craw, which is naked and of a reddish flesh color ; this is partly concealed 
by the feathers of the breast, unless when it is loaded with food (which is 
commonly, I believe, roasted reptiles), and then it appears prominent. 
The plumage of the bird is generally white or cream color, except the 
quill feathers of the wings, and two or three rows of the coverts, which are 
of a beautiful dark brown ; the tail, which is large and white, is tipped 
with this dark brown or black ; the legs and feet of a clear white ; the eye 
is encircled with a gold-colored iris; the pupil black. 

"The Creeks or Muscogulgees," he continues, " construe! their royal 
standard of the tail feathers of this bird, which is called by a name signi- 
fying the eagle's tail; this they carry with them when they go to battle, 
but then it is painted with a zone of red within the brown tips, and in 
peaceable negotiations it is displayed new, clean, and white; this standard 
is held most, sacred by them on all occasions, anil is constructed and orna- 
mented with great ingenuity. These birds seldom appear but when the 
deserts are set on fire (which happens almost every day throughout the 
year in some part or other, by the Indians, for the purpose of rousing up 
game, as also by the lightning)*, when they are seen at a distance soaring 
on the wing, gathering from every quarter, and gradually approaching the 
burnt plains, when they alight upon the ground yet smoking with hot em- 
bers; they gather up the roasted serpents frogs, and lizards, filling their 
sacks with them. At this time a person may shoot them with pleasure, 
they not being whTng to quit the feast, and indeed seem to brave all 
danger." 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 315 

Mr. Cassin * refers the species described as above by Bartram to the 
genus Sarcorhamphus (S. sacer Cassin = Vultur sacra Bartram), believing 
it to be a valid species, and remarks that its identification " may be consid- 
ered as one of the most important services to be performed in North Ameri- 
can ornithology." It is related, Mr. Cassin continues, <- to the king vulture 
(S. papa), but that species has a black tail, and in case of mistake or mis- 
print in Bartram's description, it may be presumed, at any rate, to relate 
to an occurrence of that species within the United States.f There is no 
more interesting nor more singular problem in North American ornithol- 
ogy." Two years later, in Baird's Birds of North America, Mr. Cassin 
again refers to the subject, and says that " recent information renders it 
probable that this [ Vultur sacra Bartram], or a species different from the 
vultures just described [Cathartes aura, C. alratus, C Burrocianus'}, is 
found about Lake Okechobee in Southern Florida, where it is called king 
buzzard. The verification of this statement by actual specimens would 
be one of the most important discoveries yet to be made in North Ameri- 
can ornithology." 

Although the description of Bartram's " Vultur sacra " accords more 
nearly with the Sarcoramphus papa than with any other known species, I 
cannot avoid the conclusion that it is in the main a purely mythical species, 
notwithstanding the high reputation for veracity generally accorded to Mr. 
Bartram. I mainly so regard it for the reason that Florida has of late 
been too often traversed by naturalists, and especially all the parts visited by 
Bartram, for a bird of so striking an appearance, and so numerous as Bar- 
tram represented his V. sacra to be, to remain undiscovered if such a 
species exists there. While it nearly accords with the 5. papa in size 
and general color, it is most radically different from this species, in the 
color of *the tail, and in having a " large portion of the stomach hanging 
down on the breast, in the likeness of a sack or half-wallet." In the latter 
feature it is structurally widely different from any known American bird. 
It is mentioned as though it was an abundant species on, at least, the 
upper portion of the St. John's River, inasmuch as he speaks of large 
flights of them. As to the feathers of its tail being used by the Creek In- 
dians for a royal standard, and to ■which feathers they give a " name signi- 
fying an eagle's tail," it seerns to me more probable that they were really 
feathers of the white-headed eagle {Halia'elus leucoccphalus), since it is 
well known that the tail feathers of that bird are very generally used 
for this and similar purposes by the Indian tribes of this continent, 
whereas the tail feathers of so foul a bird as the vulture must in all 

* Illustr. of Birds of Cuba and Texas, p. 59. 

t The S pnpa, a Central and South American species, appears to have not yet been 
seen north of Mexico. 



316 BULLETIN OF THE 

probability be too ill scented to suit even the unfastidious taste of an In- 
dian. As to Mr. Cassin's supposition that the word white in the descrip- 
tion of the tail should perhaps read Mack, the context wholly forbids its 
probability. If thus changed the passage referred to would read, " the 
tail which is rather large and black, is tipped with this dark brown or black ! " 
which makes simply an absurdity. Besides this, the tail is again men- 
tioned in the following paragraph as being painted by the Indians, when 
used in their war standards, etc., " with a zone of red within the brown 
tips," and afterwards as being " displayed new, clean, and while." As to 
the information referred to by Mr. Cassin as having been received by him 
respecting a " king buzzard " existing in Southern Florida, it may be re- 
marked that this is the name by which the caracara eagle (Polyborus tharus 
Cassin) is commonly known in Florida, and which is undoubtedly the bird 
of which, under the name of "king buzzard," Mr. Cassin had heard. 

On the whole, it seems evident that Bartram's account of the Vultur 
sacra is a confused mixture either of pure fiction and truth, with the former 
largely in preponderance, or of the characters of several different species. 
The description would seem to have been mainly drawn from an example 
of Sarcoramphus papa that he may have somewhere met with, but with 
which he combined certain features of this or other species which he had 
only observed at a distance, and that he thus misjudged their exact char- 
acter (as in respect to the strange external food-pouch) or else added them 
solely on popular, fabulous rumors. The flights of these birds, which 
he observed assembling over recently burned districts, I think must refer 
to the Polyborus tharu*, which is well known to have this habit, while the 
tail feathers he speaks of as used by the Indians in their councils were 
more probably either those of the Haliaetus leitcocephalus or Polyborus 
tharus than of any species of vulture, since a white-tailed American vul- 
ture, I believe, is a bird thus far unknown. If the "V. sacra," then, is to 
be regarded as anything else than a myth, it should in all probability be 
identified with the S. papa, as already stated, and as was done by Bona- 
parte in his Conspectus. 

FALCONIDJE. 

81 1 Faleo peregrinus LinnA. Duck Hawk. 
Fako prrrgrinus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, 272, 1788. — Wilson, Am. Orn., IX, 

120,1814. — Bonai'AUTE, Joum. Phil. Acad. Nat Sci., 1st Ser., I, 342, 

1824. — Audubon, Orn. Biog., I, 85, 1832, V, 365, pi xvi. — Nuttall, 

Man. Orn., I, 53, 1832. 
Fako anatum Bonaparte, Gcor. and Comp. List, I, 1838. — Cassin, Illust. 

Birds Cal. ami Texas, 86, 1853. — Cassin, Baud's Birds of N. Am., 7, 1858. 

— Allen, Proc. Essex Inst., IV, 153, 1865. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 317 

Falco nigriceps Cassin, Illust. Birds of Cal., 87, 1853. — Cassin, Baird's Birds 
ofN. Am., 1858. 

"One instance, St. Augustine, February, 18C8." Boardman. Mr. 
Maynard found it rather common near Dummitt's, where he observed 
its peculiar manner of capturing the ducks. Also well known to occur 
in winter in Cuba and other of the West India Islands. 

In 1838, Bonaparte, in his "Geographical and Comparative List," gave 
to the American peregrine or duck hawk the name Falco anatum. Pre- 
vious to this time all writers had considered it, and it seems to me justly, as 
identical with the European peregrine, or F. peregrinus, — an opinion still 
held by many eminent ornithologists. Until about this date the peregrine 
falcon was believed to have a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, but since 
then the Australian and other supposed species have been separated from 
it on grounds that it now seems should be reconsidered. Among these 
supposed species is the Falco nigriccps of Cassin, first described in 1858, 
from specimens received from California and Chili. These first specimens 
were smaller, with the rufous color of the under parts in the young of a 
stronger tint than in the so-called F. anatum, they more resembling the 
African, Australian, and especially the Indian type of F. peregrinus. Speci- 
mens since obtained from farther north, however, fully equal those from 
Eastern North America, and the slight differences found to really exist 
between them seem to be by no means ol specific value. 

Formerly a difference in breeding habits was supposed to obtain be- 
tween the American and European peregrines, the American peregrine 
being for a long time believed to breed in trees, whilst the European was 
well known to nest on cliffs. Recently, however, the American bird has 
been repeatedly found nesting in similar situations, but never yet in trees.* 

82. t Falco COlumbarius Linn€. Pigeon Hawk. 
Falco columbarius Wilson and subsequent American writers generally. 
Falco aisalon Swainson, Faun. Bor. Am., II, 35, pi. xxv, 1831. — Ncttall, 

Man. Orn., I, 60, 1832. 
Falco temerarius Audubon, Orn. Biog., I, 381, pi. lxxv, 1832. 

" Frequent." Boardman. 

* For an account of the breeding habits and nesting-places of the American bird in 
the Atlantic States, see the author's papers in Proc. Essex Inst., Vol. IV, pp. 153 - 161, 
and American Naturalist, Vol. Ill, p. 514. The past summer (1870) its eggs have been 
received by Mr. C. W. Bennett from Vermont. Prof. S. S. Haldeman was not only the 
first naturalist who made known the fact of its breeding on cliffs, but of its breeding in 
the United States. See Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. I, p. 54, July, 1841. 



318 BULLETIN OF TIIE 

Many of the earlier ornithological writers regarded, as is well known, a 
considerable proportion of the rapacious birds of North America as iden- 
tical with species inhabiting the Old World. More accurate comparisons 
of specimens from the two continents, however, eventually revealed ap- 
preciable differences between them, and one after another of those of the 
American continent were regarded as specifically distinct from their Old 
World relatives; and now there is not one of the diurnal species that has 
not been separated by one author or another. The owls of the two conti- 
nents, with two exceptions, have also been similarly separated. While in 
many of these cases there are appreciable differences that seem more or 
less constant, in the majority of instances there appears to be no just causo 
tor the separation. Especially is this the case in respect to Falco peregri- 
nus (as already observed), Falco candicans, Archibuteo lagopus, Aquila 
chrysaelos, Pandion halia'elus, Olus vulgaris, Brachyotus palustris, Nyctale 
Tengmalmi, and Strix jiammca, in all of which species the American birds 
have been specifically separated from the. European. Buteo borealis, 
Astur alricapillus, and Falco columbarius present stages of plumage that 
are scarcely distinguishable from certain stages of respectively Falco 
cesalon, Buteo vulgaris, and A slur palumbarius , and it is hence not strange 
that each of these European species have been described by many 
good authorities as occurring in the northern parts of North America. 
Certain styles of plumage presented by Falco columbarius, especially 
at northwestern localities, so strongly resemble common phases of F. 
cesalon, that one is readily puzzled to know whether to recognize the 
latter as also inhabiting North America, or whether, since these types 
imperceptibly grade into the so-called typical F. columbarius, all should 
not be regarded as forming a single species, since they differ essentially 
only in coloration, and never very widely. The specimens of F. asalon 
before me (all immature) mainly differ from average specimens of F. colum- 
barius of corresponding age in being less ferrugineous, the style of color- 
ing being the same in both. 

83* Falco sparverius Linn€. Sparrow Hawk. 
Falco sparverius Lixx£, Syst. Nat., 128, 17GC; and of subsequent Writers gen- 
erally. 
Fuku dominicrnsis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 285, 1788. 
Falco gracilis Suainsox, Lardncr's Cab. Cyc, 281, 1838. 
Falco cinnamominus Swainsox, Ibid., 281. 
Falco Isabel I inus SwAlNSON, Ibid., 281. 
Falco sparveroides Vigors, Zool. Journ., Ill, 4.'!G, 1827. 

Abundant. Breeds in March. As has been previously pointed out, 
though not observed by all writers, the sexes differ greatly in color, the 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 319 

adult females being banded transversely above, mucb as the young 

birds are. 

Florida specimens are considerably smaller than New England ones, the 
former being intermediate in size between the latter and the West Indian 
and South American representatives of this species, which have been re- 
garded as distinct species, and to which various names have been applied 
bv different writers. Audubon observes that he found this species in the 
Southern States, and more especially in Florida, so much smaller than the 
northern birds that he was at first inclined to consider them specifically 
distinct, but finally felt sure they were the same. The colors, as usual 
in other species, are generally brighter in the more southern exam- 
ples. Wide variations in the color of the plumage in this species have 
been long recognized, but, as Mr. Cassin has remarked, " they do not ap- 
pear to be constant, nor peculiar to any locality." * 

84 * Accipiter fuscus Bonaparte. Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

Falcofuscus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 280, 1783. 
Accipiter fuscus Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp List, 5, 1838. 
Astur fuscus Audubon, Syn., 18, 1839 
Falcodubius Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 281, 1788. 
Falcovelox Wilson, Am. Orn., V, 116, 1812. 
Falco pennsjjlvanicus Wilson, Ibid., VI, 13, 1812. 
Accipiter slriatus Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., I, 42, 1807. 
Accipiter frimjilloides Vigors, Zoul. Journ., Ill, 434, 1827. 
Accipiter pennsylvanicus Rich. & Swain., Faun. Bor. Am., II, 44, 1831. 
Nisus Maifini Lesson, Traite d'Ornithol., I, 58, 1831. 
Common. I was unable, however, to obtain specimens. 

In this species, as in the hawks generally, but more especially in the 
group to which the present species belongs, there are wide variations in 
color and size, not only with age and sex, but independently of either. 
One of the most interesting features in the specimens before me, in respect 
to these variations, is the much brighter color of the several western and 
southwestern examples in the collection of the Museum, as compared with 
New England ones. In one from Cheltenham, Missouri, the color of the 
lower parts is nearly uniformly red ; the transverse dark lines, which in 
adult eastern specimens usually occupy half the exposed surface of the 
feathers, and often more, being in this specimen almost obsolete. The 
tibial feathers are especially bright, while the tints are livelier throughout 
the plumage. Other specimens from Fort Steilacoom, received from the 
Smithsonian Institution, present nearly the same appearance. Although 
the western representatives of the present species yet await some enter- 
* Illust. Birds of California and Texas, etc., p. 93 



320 BULLETIN OF THE 

prising divisionist to give them a distinctive name, they are interesting 
as indicating a rufous western race, corresponding with the Accipiter 
mexicayius form of the A. Cooperi, the Falco nigripes form of the F pere- 
grinus, the Archibuteo ferrugineus form of the A. lagopus, and the west- 
ern rufous forms of Jiuleo borealis and Circus hudsonius.* 

Although the Accipiter fuscus has always been regarded as closely re- 
lated to the Accipiter nisus of the Old World, they have, with one or two 
exceptions,! been regarded by all authors as specifically distinct. The 
only distinctive difference between them, however, has been properly re- 
garded as a slight difference in color, which difference is merely one of 
tint, the style of coloration being precisely the same in both. In the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology are several specimens of A. nisus from 
Germany and Switzerland, which represent both the adult and the young. 
The brown transverse markings on the lower plumage of the mature A. 
nisus are rather darker and broader than in most New England specimens 
of .i. fuscus ; but they still more closely resemble average New England 
specimens than the latter do any specimens of A. fuscus I have seen from 
the western parts of the United States. The western form of A. fuscus, 
as already stated, is brighter colored or more rufous than the eastern, 
while the eastern differs similarly from the European, the latter being 
much duller colored than the eastern form of A. fuscus. So closely, how- 
ever, does one of the immature examples of A. nisus resemble several of 
the immature New England specimens of A. fuscus, that, if their origin 
was unknown, few ornithologists would probably consider them as other- 
wise than specifically identical ; especially if placed in a large series com- 
posed of both eastern and western specimens of the A. fuscus. As I have 
previously remarked, the transverse markings on the lower plumage in the 
adult stage are broader and more regular and distinct in A. nisus than in 
A. fuscus. This, it may be added, is also the only difference observable be- 
tween A. palumbarius and A. atricapillus. Such a coincidence of parallel 
differences between Accipiter nisus and Accipiter fuscus, and between 
Astur palumbarius and A. atricapillus, is a point of much interest to any 

* For further remarks concerning the rufous western races of several of these species 
see the following pages. 

t Prince Max zu Wied, in his " Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte von Brasilien," referred 
a hawk, probably of this species, of which he obtained a single immature mule in Fa-t- 
ern Brazil, to the Falco nisus Linn. Respecting this species lie observes: " Der Vogel 

dieser Beschreibung scheint von dem europaischen Sperbernicht abzuweichen 

t mir selbst in Braslien nicht vorgekommen, allein Freireifs hat mir 
ein Exemplar davon mitgetheilt, welches in derGegendvon Camamu, sudlich von Bahia, 
geschossen wurde. So viel ich von diesem einzigen Individuo urtheilan kann, so scheint 
<■- 1 lentisch mit dem europaichen Xisus zu seyn; denn sowohl seme Verhaltnisse als sein 
Gefieder stimmen vollkommen uberein." Vol. Ill, pp. 112, 114. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 321 

one Interested in geographical color variations in animals; the more so, 
perhaps, from the two latter species being so intimately related as to have 
been at one time generally regarded as identical. Yet so far as can be 
judged from a limited number of specimens, Astur palumbarius differs 
more from A. alricapillus than Accipiter nisus does from Accipiter fuscus, 
which latter species have never been considered as identical.* 

85.* Accipiter Cooperi Cassin. Cooper's Hawk. 

Falco Cooperi Boxap., Am. Orn., II, 1, 1828. 

Falco Stanlei/i Aldlbon, Orn. Biog., I, 186, 1831 (young). 

Astur Cooperi Bonap., Geog. and Comp. List, 5, 1838. 

Accipiter Cooperi Cassin, Must. Birds of Cal., etc., 96, 1854. 

Accipiter mericanus Swain., Faun. Bor. Am., II, 45, 1831. — Cassin, Baud's 

Birds N. Am, 17, 1858. 
Accipiter Gundlaclu Lawk., Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., VII, 252, 1860. 

Common. 

Mr. Cassin has very properly indicated the variations in sice and color 
commonly seen in this species in the following remarks: " Rather a diffi- 
cult species to the ornithologists, on account of the great variations in its 
colors, and in size also. It is, in fact, unusual to find two alike in a dozen 
specimens." t Its relationship to Accipiter Juscus is of course well under- 
stood, it holding a similar relationship to that species that Picus villosus 
does to Picus pubescens, the essential difference between them being mainly 
a great difference in size. But the specific distinctness of A. mexicanus 
from it is not so clear. Being without authentic specimens of A. mexi- 
canus, and having only New England specimens of A. Cooperi,% I cannot 
speak confidently respecting the character and affinities of the former. 
According to authors, however, it seems to differ from A. Cooperi in being 
somewhat smaller and more highly colored. It is also more southern in 
its distribution. Hence these variations, being in accordance with the 
general laws of geographical variation in size and color, do not necessarily 

* In this connection I wish to cite some interesting variations in color presented by 
Massachusetts and Maine specimens of Astur alricapillus. Ordinarily this species has 
each feather below centred with a longitudinal dark shaft-line, with several transverse 
broader but somewhat irregular dark ashy-brown bars on a lighter ground. Some 
specimens, however, as one from Maine, have the transverse bars so narrow and 
broken that the lower surface presents a nearly uniform, minutely mottled appear- 
ance. Another specimen (from Springfield, Muss.) represents the opposite ex- 
treme, it having the transverse bars broad, regular, and quite far apart, so that its 
resemblance to average specimens of Astur palumbarius is very close. The color in 
this specimen is much darker throughout than is usual in this species. 

t Illustrations of Birds of California, etc., p. 93, 1854. 

| Since the above was written, specimens have been received at the Museum from 
Jalapa, Mexico, from Sn. E. Montes-de-Oca. 



322 BULLETIN OF THE 

imply a diversity of species ; they only accord with what would naturally 
be expected to occur if A. mexicanus and A Cooperi were known to con- 
stitute but a single species.* 

Accip'tter Cooperi, as is well known, is not only closely allied in general 
structure to Buteo lincatus, but also in style of coloration in both the imma- 
ture and adult stages. It may be fair, then, to test the value of the dis- 
tinctive characters assigned to A. mexicanus by what obtains as geographi- 
cal variations in size and color in Buteo linealus Of this species I have 
fortunately a large number of specimens, including some from localities 
similarly separated to those whence A. Cooperi and A. mexicanus respec- 
tively come. In the case of Buteo linealus there is no reason whatever to 
doubt that my specimens from Florida and New England are specifically 
identical. Yet the Florida specimens are very much brighter colored, and 
very much smaller ; the difference in the length of the folded wing between 
two males, one of which is from Maine and the other from Florida, being 
two and one half incites, with corresponding differences in general measure- 
ments. This is relatively much greater than the difference in size between 
specimens of the so-called A. Cooperi and A. mexicanus. Similar varia- 
tions in color and size to those between A. Cooperi and A. mexicanus also 
occur between northeastern and southwestern specimens of A.fuscus, the 
latter, as already noted under A. fuscus, being smaller than the former, 
and very much brighter colored ; the difference in color between speci- 
mens from Maine and (he State of Missouri being greater than is repre- 
sented to occur between A. Cooperi and A. mexicanus, and of a parallel 
kind. In accordance with the evident inference that may be drawn from 
these facts, I provisionally include A. mexicanus among the synonymes of 
A. Cooperi. The A. Gundlachi of Cuba differs from the southern A. Coop- 
eri in the way southern birds usually differ from the northern ones of the 
same species,, that is, in being smaller and brighter colored, and in having 
the dark transverse bars on the under plumage increased in breadth at the 
expense of the alternating light ones. 

86.* Buteo borealis Bonaparte. Red-tailed Hawk. 

Falco borealis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 266, 178S. — Wilson, Am. On., VI, 
75, pi. lii, fig. 2, 1812.— Rich. & Swain., Faun. Bor. Am. II, 50, 1831.— 
Audubon, Om..Biog., I, 265, pi. II, 1832. 

Buteo borealis Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 3, 1838. — Gossi, Birds 
of Jamaica, II, 1847. — Lemiseye, Av.dc la Isla dc Cuba, 18,1850.— 
Cassin, Syn. N. A. Birds (Illust. Birds Cal. and Texas, etc.), 97, IS34.— 
Brewer, N. Am. Oology, 21, 1857. — Cassin, Baird's Birds of N. Am., 
25, 1858. — Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., VIII, 109, 1861.-- 
Allen, Memoirs Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., I, 499, 1868. 

* Bonaparte indeed long since cited A. mexicanus Swainson as a synonyme of A. 
Cooperi. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 323 

Falco kverianus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., T, 266, 1788. — Wilson, Am. On., VI, 

78, pi. lii, 1812. 
Falco jamaice.nsis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 266, 1788. 
Falco aquilinus Bartra.m, Travels, 290, 1791. 
Falco Harlani Audubon-, Am. Orn., I, 441, 1831. 
Accipiter rujicaudus Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., I, 47, 1807. 
Buteo ferrugineicaudus Vieillot, Ibid., 32. 
Buteo fulvus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., IV, 472, 1816. 
Buteo americanus Vieillot, Ibid., 477. 
Buteo vulgaris Rich. & Swain*., Faun. Bor. Am., II, 47, pi. xxvii, 1831. — 

Audubon, Syn., 5, 1839. 
Buteo but coides Nuttall, Man. Orn.. I, 100, 1832. 
Falco buteo Audubon, Orn. Biog., IV, 108, 1S38. 
Buteo Swainsoni Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 3, 1838. — Cassin, 

Ulust. Birds Cal. Texas, etc., 98, 1854. —Brewer, N.Am. Oology, 24, 

1857. — Cooper & Baird, Orn. Cal., I, 476, 1870. 
Buteo Harlani Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 3, 1838. — Cassin, Ulust. 

Birds Cal., Texas, etc., 101, 1854. — Cassin, Baird's Birds N. Am., 14.— 

? Bryant, Proc. Bost- Soc. Nat. Hist., VIII, 115, 1861.— Cooper & 

Baird, Orn. Cal., I, 473. 
Buteo montanus Nuttall, Man. Orn. I (2d ed.), 112, 1840. — Cassin, Baird's 

Birds N. Am., 26. — Coues, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1866, 43. — Cooper 

& Baird, Orn. Cal., I, 469. 
Buteo Bairdii Hoy., Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1853,451. — Cassin, Baird's 

Birds N. Am., 21. 
Buteo insignalus Cassin, Birds Cal. and Texas, 102, pi. xxi, 1854. — Cassin, 

Baird's Birds N. Am., 23. — Cooper & Baird, Orn. Cal., I, 474. 
Buteo calurus Cassin, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1855, 281. — Cassin, Baird's 

Birds N. Am., 22. — Cooper & Baird, Orn. Cal., I, 471. 

Not apparently uncommon, but far less numerous than the next 
species. 

The Buteoninaz, or the group of hawks to which the present and the 
two following species belong, is well known to embrace species more 
variable in color than those of any other section of the Falcoriidce, al- 
though all the members of this family are more or less remarkable for in- 
dividual and other variations of plumage. The present species, however, 
admitting for it the wide variation in this respect herein claimed, scarcely 
equals the immense range of color variation well known to characterize its 
near ally and representative in the Old World, the Buteo vulgaris auct. 
(Falco buteo Linne). Six specimens of this species in the Museum from 
Switzerland and Germany, received under the name Falco buteo, vary in 
color as follows : One is almost entirely black ; another is nearly black 
throughout, with obscure narrow transverse bands of ferruginous on the 
VOL. II. 21 



324 BULLETIN OF THE 

crissum and abdomen ; another is mainly black, but varied belov 
bars of pale rufous and blotches of white ; a fourth is also nearly black, *.. 
verv dark brown, but considerably more relieved with white below than 
the last ; a filth is mainly white below, with longitudinal stripes of dark 
brown, and so nearly resembles a common immature stage of the American 
Buteo borealis that if placed together the most discriminating observer 
could not tell. which specimen was the European or which the American 
one. The sixth is very light colored throughout, with only a few dusky 
longitudinal spots on the breast. This' specimen is also not readily dis- 
tinguishable from certain common phases of B. borealis. Another specimen 
of B. vulgaris, in the La Fresnaye collection in the Museum of the Boston 
Society of Natural History, is still lighter than this, being nearly uniform 
whitish below, and very light colored, almost white above. The latter 
specimen and the first-mentioned dark specimen present as great differences 
in color as two specimens of one species can well be conceived to exhibit. 
The variations presented by the American B. borealis have already been 
fully detailed by the late Dr. Henry Bryant, in his " Remarks on the Varia- 
tions of the Plumage of Buteo borealis auct., and B. Harlani Aud."* He 
observes that the variation in plumage of the species of Buteo, common in 
the Atlantic States, " are so slight that it is not to be wondered at that 
the first specimens from other parts of the country, presenting as they did 
such extraordinary variations in color, should have been described as dis- 
tinct species. At present, however," he continues, " the number of speci- 
mens known is so large that on careful examination i^seems to me necessary 
to adopt one of two conclusions, namely, either to increase the number of 
species indefinitely, or to reduce them to a much smaller number than are 
now supposed to exist. As the European buzzard, Buteo vulgaris, is well 
known to present the greatest variety of color, it seems to me more reason- 
able to adopt the last conclusion." f With the above opinions and 
remarks I in the main agree, but do not regard the variations presented by 
the Buteo borealis as by any means slight, even in the Atlantic States. 
Although instances of such excessive variation as are seen in the Central 
and Pacific States are apparently more rare in the Atlantic States, speci- 

* Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. VIII, p. 107, 1861. 

t In respect to the variety of color in the B. vulgaris, Dr. Bryant makes the following 
quotation from Nanmann's Natural History of the Birds of Germany (Vol. I, p. 347): 
" In the coloring of the feathers of the bird there prevails a most extraordinary differ- 
ence, and one which is not often seen in other birds of prey. From the darkest uniform 
blackish-brown to the purest white, we find all the shades, and also both colors mixed 
and spotted, in such various ways that the countless transitions cannot be described; 
this difference is independent of age and sex." Many other European writers, it may 
be added, have made similar remarks in respect to its astonishing range of variation in 
color. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 325 

mens from Massachusetts now before me vary as follows : Some are nearly 
unspotted beneath, others, sparsely spotted, have the spots mainly restrict- 
ed to the pectoral region ; others, in which the spots are equally few, 
have them mainly accumulated on the abdominal region, while still other? 
have them so numerous as to occupy the greater part of the lower surface, 
sometimes covering the abdomen in an almost unbroken broad band. 
They likewise vary in the amount of rufous tint in the plumage, in some 
it being very slight, while others are as strongly ferruginous as any of the 
California specimens (B. montanus) I have yet seen. 

The Buteo borealis was first described by Latham in his " General 
Synopsis of Birds,"* in 1781, under the names of "cream-colored buz- 
zard " and " American buzzard," the first name being applied to the 
young, f and the last to the adult stage of plumage. Pennant, in his 
" Arctic Zoology," % also redescribes the immature bird as the " Leverian 
falcon," and to these several descriptions of Latham and Pennant, Gmelin, 
in lus " Systema Naturas,'' gave respectively the names Falco jamaicensis, 
F. borealis, and F. Leverianus. Some twenty years later the Buteo borealis 
was redescribed by Vieillot, in his '• Histoire des Oiseaux de l'Amerlque 
Septentrionale," as Acc'qnter ruficaudus and Buteo ferruyineicaudus, both 
names evidently referring to the mature or nearly mature bird ; and again 
ten years later, in the " Nouvcau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle," as 
Buteo fulvus and B. americanus. Audubon, in 1831, figured and described 
a specimen from Louisiana under the name Falco Harlani. This speci- 
men, which was finally sent to the British Museum, has been regarded by 
Mr. G. 11. Gray and others as only a very dark-colored example of B. 
borealif.% In the same year Richardson and Swainson reported the Buteo 
vulgaris, in their " Fauna Boreali- Americana," as an inhabitant of North 
America, and of which they figure an immature male. As already re- 
marked, the B. vulgaris, in certain stages of plumage, is not readily distin- 
guishable from B. borealis, so that the mistake is a perfectly excusable one. 
This form, however, was for some time currently received by most writers 
as a species distinct from the B. borealis, ana to which the name B. Swain- 
sorii was given by Bonaparte. In 1832 Nuttall described a Buteo buteoiiles, 
which, though referred by Bonaparte to B. lineatus, and by Cassin to B. 
pennsylvanicus, seems to me to much more nearly agree with B. borealis. 
In 1840 the same writer described a B. montanus, which was subsequently 

* Vol. I, pp. 49, 50, Nos. 30 and 31. 

t Latham observes: "This beautiful specimen was sent to me from Jamaica by an 
intelligent friend and a good naturalist, who did not hint the least of its being a variety 
of the common buzzard [Buteo vulgaris auct.], which I should have otherwise sus- 
pected." 

J Vol. II, p. 206. No. 101. i Cat. of Birds in British Museum. 



326 BULLETIN OF THE 

referred by Bonaparte to his B. Swainsoni, but has since been recognized 
as a valid species by Cassin and other recent American authors. In 
1853 Mr. P. It. Hoy described a Buteo Bairdii, and in 1854 Mr. Cassin 
added B. insignatus, in 1855 B. calurus and B. oxypterus, and in 1856 B. 
Cooperi. In 1861 Dr. Bryant made a revision of the group, then contain- 
ing eight or nine species currently recognized by American ornithologists, 
and reduced the number of species to two, one of which he called B. 
borealis and the other B. Harlani; which latter, however, is not the 
Harlani of Cassin, and probably not the Harlani of Audubon. 

Dr. Bryant, in the above-cited paper, describes in detail the leading 
variations presented by our red-tailed hawks, and the character of the 
numerous supposed species of this group that had then been recently 
described. He having at his command all the specimens of this group con- 
tained in the Museums of the Philadelphia Academy and the Smithsonian 
Institution, including the original types of Mr. Cassin's species, as 
well as the specimens in his own collection, his opportunities lor investi- 
gating the subject were unusually favorable. The results of his exam- 
ination of this material may be briefly stated in his own words. He says 
that after examining this large series of specimens, he found " that of all 
those belonging to Harlani, insignatus, Swainsoni, Bairdii, oxypterus, 
borealis, montanus, calurus, and perhaps Cooperi," could be "easily reduced 
to two very distinct groups, each of which is distinguishable by definite 
external characters, and in which the variations of plumage, though 
apparently so great, if the extremes of the series only are taken into con- 
sideration, can, it seems to me, be arranged in a series, in which the 
connecting of the different members may be readily traced. Of these two 
groups, or rather species, one, which should be called B. borealis, as the 
first described, consists of that species, montanus, calurus, Harlani, and 
probably Cooperi, and is characterized by a very muscular body,* stronger 
and longer bill, longer and more powerful tarsi, and a more rounded wing, 
the fourth quill generally the longest, tin- fifth little if any shorter than 
the third, anil the first always longer than the eighth. The other species, 
to which Harlani?, insignatus, Swainsoni, Bairdii, and oxypterus belong, is 
distinguishable by a more slender body, shorter and weaker tarsi, and a 
more pointed wing, the third quill generally the longest, the fifth consid- 
erably shorter than the third, and the first always longer than the eighth." 

" On making the examinations which led to the conclusion above stated," 
he further observes, " I was struck by tin- small number of specimens in 
which all the feathers were equally developed, and when they were so, 
the variation in the proportions of the primaries, and of the wings and 

* Stuffed skin> evidently ruTord rather unsatisfactory data for the determination of 
the relative muscularity of the body. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 327 

tail, in specimens of the same variety, was much . greater than I had ex- 
pected to find"; a result* which indicates how unreliable such fea- 
tures are as specific distinctions, as I have already repeatedly remarked, 
and also, of course, the fallacy of the belief, so generally held, that they 
are really among the most trustworthy.* After detailing some of the in- 
stances of variation in this respect in the specimens in que.-tion, he makes 
the following remarks on variations in other characters : " The variation 
in the number and shape of the tarsal scales is considerable, as is usual in 
birds of this order. The development of the festoon of the lower edge 
of the upper mandible, one of the principal generic characters, f varies par- 
ticularly in B. montanus, the series of which is the largest, from a sharp, 
almost tooth-like process to an entire absence ofit."% 

Dr. Bryant described each of the so-called species of the later authors, 
and generally several authentic specimens of each, showing the variations 
of color they present. B. montanus is the so-called " western red-tail," 
replacing, it is supposed, B. borealis in the western half of the continent, 
and differing from it in the main only in being more rufous or brighter 
colored. Some specimens, however, from California and Oregon are not 
appreciably different from others from the Atlantic States, and among 
them is one received at the Museum from the Smithsonian Institution 
labelled " B. borealis." B. calurus differs from these in being much darker 
throughout, and especially below. It has, however, according to Dr. 
Bryant, two varieties, one of which is much darker than the other. The 
B. Harlani of Cassin, Dr. Bryant says, "resembles very closely the dark 
variety of calurus, with the exception of its tail, which resembles mon- 
tanus." Respecting the single known specimen of B. Coope.ri, he says 
there is nothing in its coloration M that would make the supposition of its 
being a variety of montanus improbable." The tail presents the greatest 
dissimilarity and "has very much the appearance it would have in a semi- 
adult of this species, if the color were partially washed out.' The tarsus, 
though long, he says is not longer than in some specimens of montanus ; 
but observes that the scutellation of the tarsus presents certain peculiar- 
ities not seen in the others, there being but two rows of lateral scales in- 
stead of three or four, and two more than the usual number of transverse 
scales. § In respect to these supposed species he then observes : " After 

* See the remarks on this point in Part III. 

t The italicizing is my own. 

\ On differences of this kind the several supposed species of the B. borealis group 
have been arranged in different subgenera .' 

§ Since writing the above I have learned from Professor Baird that he is inclined to 
regard this specimen as " only an Archibuteo ferrugineus without feathers on the tarsus; 
at any rate, hardly a species." It is hence omitted in Cooper and Bairds " Orni- 
thology of California," which has just appeared. 



328 BULLETIN OF THE 

carefully examining the birds described above, I do not see, if Buteo bo- 
rea/is, monlanus, and calurus are to be considered distinct species, that we 
can avoid increasing the number by separating from montanus two species, 
— one the dark Stcilacoom variety, and the other that from Cape St. 
Lucas (which, by the way, is the most distinct variety that I have seen) ; 
from calurus, one species, the ferruginous variety from Fort Tejon; and 
adding to this group one species based on the adult Harlani of the Acad- 
emy \_Harlani of Cassin, not of Audubon], making in all seven species 
of this group. I have not included in this list the youiig Harlani of the 
Academy, which differs as much from the adult as from any other speci- 
men of this group ; or Cooperi" etc. After next describing in detail 
Buteo Harlani (B. Harlani of Bryant, not B. Harlani of Cassin, nor of 
Audubon), and its several varieties, which form the " species" B. insigna- 
tus, Sioainsoni, and oxypterus of Cassin and the B. Bairdii of Hoy and 
Cassin, with several varieties under each, some of which lie clearly shows 
are connecting links to others, Dr. Bryant concludes his paper with the 
following summary : " Taking color, therefore as a sufficient ground for 
specific distinction, we find that we have in the red-tailed group seven 
species, and in the other nine, which, with the young Harlani of the 
Academy, Cooperi, fuliijinosus, albonolatus, lineatus, elegans, and pennsyl- 
vanicus, give a total of twenty-three species of this genus which are found 
in the United States." 

But Dr. Bryant by no means admits color in this group to be a specific 
characteristic, and, as I have already remarked, in reducing the number 
of species of the red-tailed hawks to two, he takes general size and the 
proportions of the primary quills of the wing as the basis of distinction. 
He has accordingly given a table of comparative measurements and pro- 
portions of the two species, in which he has arranged, as he says and 
doubtless supposed, the larger specimens under B. borealis, and the smaller 
under B. Harlani. Size and the proportions of the quills, however, it 
seems to me, arc equally ai-bitrary grounds for their separation, as an 
examination of his tables and descriptions evidently proves. It hap- 
pens that in the first, or B. borealis series, marly all the specimens 
are fully adult, as indicated by the tail being uniformly red, with a subter- 
minal black band, — a stage of plumage which characterizes only adult 
individuals. In the second, or B. Harlani series, but one specimen (which 
does not appear in the table of measurements), is described that is not 
evidently somewhat immature, while the greater part of them are quite 
so.* Respecting the so-called Buteo Bairdii, of which numerous speci- 
mens have been reported, some from quite eastern localities, Dr. Bryant 

* They have at least the tail numerously banded, a6 all immature B. borealis do have, 
and their general diagnosis is that of immature birds. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 329 

remarks that a single specimen in the Museum of the Philadelphia Acad- 
emy is the only one he had seen "presenting the least appearance of 
adult plumage." In regard to the size of the specimens of the two scries, 
adopting the length of the folded wing as the basis of comparison, — the 
besl clement in the tables available for comparison, in this respect, — the 
smallest and the largest specimens, measuring 370 and 438 millimetres re- 
spectively, occur in the B. borealis series. The average length of wing in 
twenty specimens of B. borealis is 409 millimetres, and in fourteen * speci- 
mens of B. Harlani Bryant, 405. The difference of 4 millimetres is an 
amount too trivial to be of account, as the addition of a single specimen to 
cither series might reverse the difference. Hence the impression possessed 
by Dr. Bryant of an average difference in size between the two series 
was evidently an erroneous one. 

There, hence remains but a single difference, that in respect to the form 
of the wing, or the relative length of the primaries, by which to distinguish 
the two series, which is at best one of doubtful value. My present opinion 
is that all the so-called species of these two groups may be safely referred 
to the original Buleo borealis, except the B. oxypterus, which should be un- 
doubtedly referred to the B. pennsylvanicus, 

87.* Buteo lineatus Jardine. Red-shocldered Hawk. 

Falco lineatus Gmelin, Syst. Nat, I, 268, 1788. — Wilson, Am. Orn., VI, 

86, pi. liii, fig. 3, 1812. — Audubon, Orn. Biog., I, 296, pi. lvi, 1832. 
Buteo lineatus Jardine, Am. Orn., I, 1832. — Audubon, Svn., 7, 1839. — 

Cassin, Baiid's Birds N. Am., 28, 1858. — Verrill, Proc. Essex Institute, 

III, 141, 1862. 
Falco hyemalis Gmelix, Syst. Nat., I, 274, 1788. — Wilson, Am. Orn., IV, 

73, 1812. — Nuttall, Man. Orn., I, 106, 1832. — Audubon, Orn. Biog., 

V, pi. lxxi, 1832 (young). 
Buteo Cooperi Allen, Amer. Nat., Ill, 518, 1869. 

Circus hyemalis Bonap., Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat Sci., 1st Ser , III, 305, It 
Butto elegans Cassin, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1855,281. — Cassin, Baird's 

Birds of N. Am 28, 1858. 

Very abundant. By far the most numerous species of the family. 

Generally smaller and much brighter colored than New England speci- 
mens. The dark line along the shaft of the feathers below, especially on 
the throat and breast, is very distinct, in this respect and in the bright 
colors greatly resembling the so-called Buleo elegans of Cassin. B. elegans, 

* The B oxypterus, referred to the B. Harlani by Bryant, is very much smaller than 
any other specimen in either series, and it seems to me has decided affinities, in its 
small size as in other features, with the B. pennsylvaniais, as stated by Mr. Cassin, 
and it is hence excluded in my computation of the average length of the folded wing. 



380 



BULLETIN OF THE 



however, has been generally considered as the western representative of 
B. linealus, but it differs from the latter only in being brighter colored, or 
in having the ferruginous of the under parts more intense. In this it 
resembles the western representatives of the B. borealis, Archibuleo lago- 
pus, Accipiter fuscus, Circus cyaneus, Falco peregrinus, and other species 
of this family, the western specimens of which are ordinarily more rufous 
than the eastern, though in only a part of them have the eastern and 
western races as yet been separated as distinct species. 

The considerable difference in size between specimens of this species 
from New England and Florida has led to the supposition that the former 
may be specifically distinct from the latter, or at least that they form well- 
marked varieties.* The following measurements, however, show that 
specimens occur in Florida, in winter at least, nearly as large as average- 
sized New England specimens. But these may have been merely 
winter visitors, since two of the, three specimens taken in February on 
the St. John's River are larger than any of the others, all of which were 
taken later in the season. Those taken by Dr. Wiirdemann at Cape 
Florida and Indian Key are also smaller than those from the St. John's 
River. 

Measurements of Florida Specimens of Buteo lineatus. 



M C.Z. 
No 




Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


.d 
to 


i- a 


to 

a 


'3 


til 














£ 


H 


5223 


~d 


Volusia 


Feb. 


12, '69 


J. A. Allen 


22 25 


^JL50~ 


13.00 


7.75 


£224 
Ti276 


d 


" 


Feb. 


12, '69 


" 


20.00 


39 50 


12 25 


7 50 


d 


Blue Springs 


Feb. 


21 ,''69 


" 


211.00 


42.00 


13.00 


8.40 


6310 


d 


Enterprise 


Mar. 


V69 


" 


17 65 


39.15 


12.25 


8.00 


6331 


d 


" 


Mar 


1,'69 


" 


17.75 


40.25 


12.30 


7.50 


5398 


d 


H.nvkinsville 


Mar. 


15, '69 


" 


18.00 


40 50 


12 85 


7.75 


10744 




Jacksonville 


Dec. 


31, '68 


C. J. Maynard 


19 20 


4150 


12.60 


8.50 


10743 


6 


" 


Jan. 


11/69 


" 


19.20 


40.05 


12.60 


8.50 


6899 


$ 


Cape Florida 


Apr. 


6, '58 


G. Wiirdemann 


15.75 


35.75 


1100 


6 75 


8fi30t 


d 


Indian Key 


Aug 


31, '57 


" 


17 50 


3700 


1120 


— 


6898 




" 


Aug. 


1,'58 


" 


15.50 


34.50 


10.50 


7.15 


8629t 





" 


Nov. 


10, '57 


" 


1775 


40.00 


12 00 


— 


8631t 


r 


" 


Aug. 


31, '57 


" 


17.50 


37 no 


11.10 


— 



88.t Buteo pennsylvanicus Bonaparte. Broad-winged Hawk. 

Falco pennsylvanicus Wilson, Am. Orn., VI, 22, 1812. 

Buteo pennsylvanicus Bonap., Geog. and Comp. List, 3, 1838. — Audubon, 

Syn., 6, 1839. — Cassin, Illust. Birds Cal., Texas, etc., 100, 1854. — Cassin, 

Baird's Birds N. Am., 29, 1858. 
Falco latissimus Wilson, Am. Orn., VII, 22, 1812. (Later published copies.)! 

* See Prof. A. E. Verrill in Proc. Essex Institute, Vol. Ill, p. 141.1S62. 

t Smithson. Inst., No. (Copied from f!t.o«>;n | n Baird's Birds of North America, 
p. 28.) 

J Concerning the names F. pennsylvanicus and F. latissimus given by Wilson to this 
6pecies, sec Air. Cassin's remarks, Illust. Birds of Cal., Texas, etc., p. 101. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 831 

Falco Wilsoni Bonap., Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Ill, 348, 1824. 
Sparvius platypterus Vieillot, Encyc. Meth., Ill, 1273, 1823. 
Buteo orypterus Cassin, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 282, 1855. — Cassin, 
Baud's Birds of N. Am., 31, 1858. 

" Common." — Boardman. Audubon, however, gives it as rare south 
of the Middle States, and it is uot mentioned by Dr. Coues in his list 
of the birds of South Carolina. There is, however, a specimen in the 
Museun of Comparative Zoology labelled as having been taken in 
Florida. 

As previously observed, it appears to me that the Buteo oxypterus of 
Cassin, described from a single specimen taken at Fort Filmore, New 
Mexico, corresponds more nearly with the young of this species than with 
any known stage or form of B. borealis. 

89* Circus cyaneus Bote. Marsh Hawk. 

Falco cyaneus Linn., Syst. Nat. I, 126, 1766. — Bonap., Am. Orn., II, 30. — 

Audubon, Orn. Biog., IV, 396, pi. ccclvi, 1838. 
Circus cyaneus Boie, Isis, 1822, 549. — Audubon, Synop., 19, 1839. — G. R. 

Gray, Gen. of Birds, I, p. 32. — Ibid., Cat. Brit. Birds, 17, 1863. 
Falco hudsonius Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 128, 1766. 
Falco uliginosus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 278, 1788. 
Circus uliyinosus Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., I, 37, 1807. 
Falco uliginosus Wilson, Am. Orn., VI, 67, pi. li, fig. 2, 1812. 
Buteo ( Circus) cyaneus ? var. ? americanus, Rich, and Swain., Faun. Bor. Am., 

II, 55, pi. xxix, 1831. 
Circus hudsonius Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., I, 36, 1 807. — Cassin, 111. Birds 

Cal., Texas, etc., 108, 1854 —Brewer, N. Am. Ool., 42, 1857. — Cassin, 

Baird's Birds N. Am, 38, 1858. 
Circus variegatns Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., I, 37, 1807. 
Strigiceps uliginosus Bonap., Geog. and Comp. List, 5, 1838. 
Strigiceps pygargus Bonap., Ibid. 

Common about the savannas. 

The present species has been considered by most writers as identical 
with the C. cyaneus of the Old World. It was first separated as a dis- 
tinct species by Bonaparte in 1838, in his Geographical and Comparative 
List. Mr. Cassin also regarding it as distinct, this opinion has been 
generally adopted by recent American ornithologists. They seem to be, 
however, quite identical. 

The same variation in color between eastern and western specimens is 
seen in this species that has been noted in others of this family, the young 
western ones especially being much brighter colored than the eastern. 



332 BULLETIN OF THE 

The great variation in plumage attending differences of age and sex in 
this species have given rise to numerous synonymes, of which twenty arc 
cited by Mr. G. R. Gray in his Catalogue of British Birds. 

90.* Pandion haliaetus Cuvier. Fish Hawk. Ospret. 

Falco haliaetus Linne, Faun. Suec, 22, 1735.— Wilson, Am. Orn., V. 13, pi. 
xxxvii, 1812. — Bonap., Ann. N. Y. Lye. N. Hist., II, 26, 1828. — Audubon, 
Orn. Biog.,1,415, pi. lxxxi, 1832. — Nuttall, Man. Am. Orn., I, 78, 1832. 

Pandion haliaetus Cov., Reg. An., 1,316, 1817. — Audubon, Synopsis, 12, 1839. 
— G. It. Gray, Cat. Brit. Birds, 5, 1863. — Pelzeln, Ornithol. Brasiliens, 
4, 1868.— Heuglin, Ornithol. Nordost-Afrika's, 54, 1869. 

Falco arundinaceus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, 263, 1788. 

Falco carolinensis Gmelin, Ibid. 

Pandion carolinensis Bonap., Geog. and Comp. List, 3, 1838. — Cassin, Illust. 
Birds Cal, Texas, etc., 112, 1854. — Brewer, N. Am. Ool., 53, 1857. — 
Cassin, Baird's Birds N. Am., 44, 1858. 

Falco cayanensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, 268, 1788. 

Anuila piscatrix Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., I, 29, 1807. 

Pandion flucialilis Savig., Descr. de l'Egypte, Hist. Nat., I, 96, 1809. 

Pandion americamis Vieillot, Gal. des Ois., I, 33, 1828. 

Pandion indicus Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 366, 1837. 

Abundant everywhere ; especially so around the lakes of the Upper 
St. John's. Commences nesting in January. At Lake Monroe I 
counted six iic:sts from a single point of view. Their nests were also 
frequent all along the river. They generally selecting a dead tree in 
which to build, and often those situated in cleared fields, their nests 
were conspicuous objects, and could usually be seen from a long dis- 
tance. Even these harmless birds do not fail to attract the fire of the 
numerous sportsmen who visit this region in winter, some of whom 
are ignorant enough to believe that when shooting them they are killing 
"bald eagles." 

Gmelin, in his " Systema Naturae," described the present species not only 
as Falco haliaetus, but he gave to it also the names F. carolinensis, F. arun- 
dinaceus, and F. cayanensis, apparently indicating under them, however, 
what he regarded as varieties rather than as distinct species. For many 
years, however, the common fish-hawk was generally regarded as having 
an almost cosmopolitan distribution. Bonaparte spoke of it in 182C, in his 
Synopsis of the Birds of the United States,* as follows : " Inhabits almost 
every part of the globe near waters; much more common in North Amer- 
ica than in Europe." Ten or twelve years later, however, he seems to 

* Annals of tho N. Y. Lyceum of Nat History, Vol. II, p. 26. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



333 



have changed this opinion, since in his Geographical and Comparative 
List of the Birds of Europe and the United States (to which paper, by 
the way, we are indebted for the separation of eight of the American 
species of raptorial birds previously considered identical with the Euro- 
pean,* embracing all thus separated up to the present time, except two t) 
he calls the American fish-hawk Pandion carolinensis, and gives its 
habitat as " America generally." Other authors have since separated 
the West Indian and South American as a tbird, the Asiatic as a fourth, 
and the Australian as still another. The numerous specimens in the 
Museum show that considerable variation obtains in color, size, and pro- 
portions among those recognized by authors as belonging to the P. caro- 
linensis, much greater differences in color — the main ground on which 
they have been separated from the European — being presented among 
the Florida specimens alone than obtains in the average between Bra- 
zilian and New England specimens, or American and European. Gen- 
erally the feathers of the breast are each centred with a broad longi- 
tudinal spot or stripe of brown, which spots sometimes cover the greater 
part of the breast ; but they are often simply narrow lines, and are not 
unfrequently entirely wanting. Sometimes these spots are uniform dark- 
brown, at others suffused or broadly margined with ferruginous, and are 
occasionally altogether of the latter color. In reuniting the American fish- 
hawk with the osprey of the Old World, I but adopt the view always held 
by a large number of ornithologists, though by all American authors they 
have for the last fifteen years been commonly considered as distinct. 

Measurements of Florida Specimens of Pandion haliaetus. 



M.C.Z. 

No. 




Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Length 


Alar 
Extent. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


5268 


rf 


Blue Springs 


Feb. 21, 


'69 


J. A. Allen 


21.75 


64.00 


19.50 


8.75 


5298 


rT 


Enterprise 


Feb. 25, 


'69 


" 


24.25 


68 75 


20.25 


10.00 


5331 1 


rT 


" 


Mar. 4, 


'69 


•' 


22.00 


63 50 


19.25 


9.00 


5356 


rf 


Hawkinsville 


Mar. 10, 


'69 


" 


20 75 


63.00 


18.75 


8.60 


5355 


9 


" 


Mar. 10, 


•69 


" 


'- 





20.25 


7.80 




9 


" 


Mar. 15, 


•69 


" 


24.25 


66.25 


19.00 








* 


" 


Mar. 15, 


'69 


" 


23.50 


68 50 


20.25 






91. Haliaetus leucocephalus Savigny. White-headed Eagle. 

Falco leucocephalus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 255, 1788. — Wilson, Am. Orn., 
IV, 89, pi. xxxvi, 1811. — Audubon, Orn. Biog., I, 58, pi. xxi, 1832; II, 
160; V, 354, pi. exxvi. 

* Pandion carolinensis from P. haliaetus, Butceles (or Archlbuteo ns now called) Sancti- 
Johannis from B. lagopus; Buteo Swainsoni from B. vulgaris; Falco anatumfrom F. pere- 
grinus ; Astur atricapillus from A. palumbarius ,- Strigiceps (Circus as now called) w/i- 
ginosus from S pygargus (cyaneus auct.); Otus americanvs (or " Wilsonianus ") from 0. 
vulgaris; Nyctale Richardsoni from N. Tengmalmi ; Strix pratincola from S. jlammea. 

f Aquila chrysaetos, Brachyotus paluslris. 



334 BULLETIN OF THE 

Haliaetus leucocephalus Savigny. — Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 3, 
1838. — Audubon, Synop., 10, 1839. — Cassin, Illust. Birds Cal., Texas, 
etc., Ill, 1854. — Cassin, Baird's Birds N. Am., 43, 1858 

Faico ossifiagus Wilson, Am. Orn., VII, 16, pi. lv, 1813. 

Aquila (Haliaetus) leucocephalus Kich. & Swain., Faun. Bor. Am., II, 15, 1832. 

Faico Washingtom Audubon, Orn. Biog., I, 58, pi. xi, 1831 (plate published 
1827). 

Faico Washingtomana Audubon, Loudon's Mag. N. Hist., I, 115, 1828. 

Haliaetus ]\ \ishingtoni Audubon, Synop., 10. 1839. — Cassin, Baird's Birds 
N. Am., 42, 1859. 

Common. Breeds in January and later. Very abundant on the 
Upper St. John's, and especially at Lake Monroe. Saw them repeat- 
edly dive and catch their own fish, though usually depending upon rob- 
bing the fish-hawks for them. The same fact has been reported by 
other observers,* although it was formerly supposed they never caught 
any fish themselves. 

The large specimen of an eagle taken by Audubon in Kentucky, and 
figured and described by him as Faico Washingtoni, seems not to have 
been preserved ; it is at least not known to be extant, and appears to have 
never been examined by any other naturalist. Audubon states that he 
altogether saw not " more than eight or nine " specimens, f and deemed it 
very rare. He does not appear, however, to have really examined but the 
one figured. Numerous local observers have reported it as occasional at 
different localities, and Mr. Cassin has doubtfully referred specimens to it 
taken in New Jersey. Nuttall believed the young were more or less 
common near Boston every winter, and considered it as " probably also 
indigenous to northern Europe, but confounded with the ordinary sea 
eagle." J But, as remarked by Mr. Cassin, " No specimen precisely 
corresponding to Mr. Audubon's bird has been obtained since its dis- 
covery, and it has latterly been looked upon by naturalists, especially 
in Europe, as an unusually large specimen of the white-headed eagle." § 
The important point of difference between Audubon's bird and other rep- 
resentatives of this genus consists in the scutellation of the tarsi, which 
are covered in front with broad transverse scales, instead of with a great 
number of small irregular ones, as in other sea eagles. This, Mr. Cassin 

* William Couper, Massachusetts Ploughman, August 26, 1S70. Charles H. Nau- 
man, on his own authority and that of Professor S. S. Hakleman, Ibid., September 24, 
1870. Henry Reeks, Can. Nat., Vol. V, No. 1, p. 43, 1870. 

t Loudon's Mag. of Nat. Hist., Vol. I, p. 116, April, 1828. 

I Mem. Am. Acad., 1st Ser., Vol. I, p. 92, 1831. 

§ Illustrations of Birds of California, Texas, etc., p. Ill, 1854. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 335 

has observed, is " a character quite unusual in any rapacious bird," * though 
I do not see that in this respect it differs essentially from Buteo linealus, 
B. pennsylcanicus, or Circus cj/aneus, etc. Its other main point of differ- 
ence from the H. leucocephalus is its greater size. Audubon described 
his bird as measuring " 3 feet 7 inches in length," "10 feet 2 inches " in 
extent of wings, and the folded wing "32 inches." In this series of 
measurements there is no discrepancy between the different dimensions 
given — the proportions being exactly the same as in H. leucocephalus — 
that might lead to the suspicion of a typographical or other accidental er- 
ror, as some writers, have suggested there maybe in respect to the alar 
extent. It is, then, either a valid species or a large individual of //. leu- 
cocephalus, or a large immature H. albicilla. Since known specimens of 
H. leucocephalus sometimes nearly approach the supposed //. Washing' 
toni in size, it seems not unreasonable, on the whole, to regard it as 
reallv a remarkably large example of //. leucocephalus in immature 
plumage. Audubon describes his bird as breeding within the United 
States, and hence it is hardly probable it coidd have been the arctic 
H. albicilla, which has never, so far as known to me, been observed 
60 far south at any season of the year. In reference to its fishing habits, 
supposed by Audubon to distinctively characterize it, it is now well known 
that the //. leucocephalus will occasionally capture its own fish, instead of 
depending wholly upon robbing the fish-hawk for them. 

Mr. Cassin further observes, f respecting the H. Washingioni, that he 
believes it to be more nearly related to his //. pelagica, which he describes 
as " the largest of eagles," than to any other. In the same connection he 
judiciously remarks respecting the numerous apocryphal species of eagles 
on record as follows : " But there is no end to the accounts of strange 
eagles given by travellers and naturalists. Some of them may have refer- 
ence to peculiar species which have in later times escaped attention, but 
the probability is they more frequently allude to accidental varieties, or 
that the authors describe from such reports as they had heard at second 
hand, or fell into error from insufficient personal observation." Many of 
these reports he alludes to in detail, including the reference by Captain 
Cook % to a " black eagle " with a " white breast " seen by.him at Kay's 
Island, on the northwest coast of America. A specimen of the //. leu- 
cocephalus in peculiar (probably albinic) plumage in the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, taken in Eastern Massachusetts, seems to indicate that 
the eagle of Captain Cook may have been but an unusual stage of colora- 
tion of the common white-hea'ed eagle. The Massachusetts specimen 

* Baird's Birds of X. America, p. 42. 
t Illust. Birds of Cal. and Texas, p. 36. 
*J Cook's Voyages, II, 352, 1784. 



336 BULLETIN OF THE 

above referred to has the general color of the under parts white, with 
most of the feathers centred with spots of dusky brown of varying size, 
but with a nearly uniform dusky brown patch on the middle of the breast. 
The interscapulars are also mainly white, and the general plumage above, 
except the wings, more or less varied with the same color. The tail below 
is mottled with irregularly shaped specks and spots of dusky or black on a 
white ground, and above with white on a nearly black ground, and tipped 
with dusky. The appearance of the under side of the bird at a distance 
vould be nearly uniform whitish. 

Mr. Cassin having stated repeatedly that his HaliaL'tus pelagicus (the 
Anuila pelagica Pallas*) is the largest and most powerful of all known 
>agles,f I was greatly surpised, in critically studying his description, to 
ind it in every respect evidently far inferior in size to Audubon's bird of 
Washington, and scarcely equalling the //. albicilla, as described by him- 
self; the folded wing, in fact, of his H. pelagicus is one inch shorter than 
the folded wing of his H. albicilla, four inches shorter than the wing of the 
//. Washingtoni, as measured by Audubon, and two inches shorter than the 
folded wing of several different Massachusetts specimens of //. leucocepha- 
lus! The length he gives of "a skin from Behring's Strait " — the only 
specimen, he says, at that time in America — is " about 3 feet 8 inches," 
which exceeds by one inch only the length of Audubon's II. Washingtoni, 
as given by Audubon, doubtless from the fresh bird. But the length given 
y Mr. Cassin for his i/. pelagicus is evidently too great, as, taken in eon- 
■ection with the other measurements of the same specimen given by Cas- 
in, if correct, it would indicate a bird of the most anomalous and im- 
probable proportions. Mr. Casein's erroneous conception of the gigantic 
size of his bird was doubtless formed from the length of his specimen, 
which if a flat or unfilled skin, as it probably was, must have measured 
several inches more than the natural length of the bird.J While I do not 
'n the least question the sincerity of Mr. Cassin's belief in the large size 
jf his bird, I have felt it proper to call the attention of future investiga- 

* Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, I, p. 343. 

t " The bird which is the subject of our present article is the largest and most power- 
ful of the eagles." — Illust. Birds Cat. and Texas, p. 32, first paragraph. "Even the 
famous condor of the Andes, the largest of vultures, scarcely exceeds him in size," 
etc. Ibid., p. 32, third paragraph. " The largest of all known eagles, and nearly re- 
lated to IJ. Washingtoni (Aud.). It differs from the hitter as described by Audubon in 
being generally larger," etc. Ibid., p. 38. "It is the largest of the eagles and ap- 
pears to be related to the species immediately succeeding" (77. Washingtoni). Ibid., 
p. 110. 

} Pallas says of his Aquila pehgica, which Cassin makes identical with his II. pela- 
gicus: •' Caudse 1' 1", lohgitudo alae composite 1", 11", 2'" "; which dimensions do 
not indicate a bird larger than avarage examples of B. leucocephalus or U. albialfa. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 337 

tors of this group to tins evident discrepancy of proportions in Mr. Cas- 
sin's description. An error in Mr. Cassin's figure also demands attention, 
which is doubtless due to an inadvertency of the artist. This consists in 
the scales on the front of the tarsus being arranged as Mr. Cassin says 
he never saw in any rapacious bird, namely, continued to the toes in 
broad, unbroken transverse plates, nearly as in Audubon's figure of the //. 
Washingtoni ! 

92.* Polyborus brasiliensis Audubon. Caracara Eagle. " King Buz- 
zard." 

Milvus brasiliensis Pay, Synop. Method. Av. et Pise, 17, No. 6, 1713. 

Circus brasiliensis Brisson, Ornithologie, I, 116, No. 31, 1760. 

Falco brasiliensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 262, 1788. 

Falco tharus Molina, Sagg. sul. Storni Nat. del Chile, 17S2. 

Polyborus tharus Cassin, Illust. Birds of Cal. and Texas, 113, 1856. — Cassin, 

Baird's Birds N. Am., 45, 1858. 
Polyborus vulgaris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet., V, 257, 1816. — Audubon, Orn. 

Biog., II, 350, pi. clxi (young). 
Polyborus brasiliensis Audubon, Synop., 4, 1839. — Bonap., Consp. Gen. Av., 

13, 1850. 

" Frequent at Enterprise, associating with the vultures." — Boardman. 

The swallow-tailed hawk (Nauclerus furcatus) became more or less 
common early in March. I also saw a specimen of the Mississippi kite 
(Ictinia ?nississippiensis) at Hawkinsville, March loth. 

STRIGID^J. 

93. Bubo virginianus Sivainson. Great-horned Owl. 

Strix virginiana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 287, 1788. — Wilson, Nuttall, Au- 
dubon. 

Strix (Bubo) virginiana Swainson, Faun. Bor. Am., II, 82, 183i. 

Bubo virginianus Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 6, 1838. — Audubon, 
Synop., 29, 1839 —Cassin, Illust. Birds Cal. and Texas, 177, 1854.— 
Cassin, Baird's Birds of N. Am., 1858. 

Strix bubo, var. magellanicus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 286, 1788 

Slrix pythaules Bartram, Travels, 289, 1791. 

Bubo ludovicianus Daudin, Traite' d'Orn., II, p. 210, 1800. 

Bubo pinicola Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., I, 51, 1807. 

Strix (Bubo) arctica Swainson, Faun. Bor. Am., II, 86, pi. xxx, 1831. 

Bubo sub-aixticus Hov, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., VI, 211, 1852. 

Not apparently numerous. Mr. Boardman states that he saw only a 
=ingle specimen, which was killed at Enterprise. I did not observe it 
VOL. it. 20 



338 BULLETIN OF THE 

above Lake George, and only heard its notes a few times below. Mr. 
Maynard gives it as rather common about Jacksonville, and says he 
frequently observed it elsewhere. 

Mr. Cassin has very properly remarked that different specimens of this 
widely distributed species vary materially in size and color, and states that 
after having examined a large number of specimens from many localities 
he believed that they were all of one species. lie thought, however, that 
four leading varieties, which he called allanticus, pacijicus, arclicus, and 
magellanicus, could be distinguished. I am not disposed to regard them, 
however, as by any means strictly geographical, since specimens have been 
taken recently in Massachusetts that typically represent each of them.* 
While there are doubtless more or less well-marked local forms of this 
species, as of all other widely distributed species, many of the differences 
on which the different varieties have been based are probably only indi- 
vidual. 

94.* Scops asio Bonaparte. Mottled Owl. 

Strix asio Linne, Syst. Nat, I, 132, 17G7. — Wilson, Am. Orn., V, 83, pi. 

xliii, fig. 1, 1812. — Audubon, Nuttall, etc. 
Scops asio Boxaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 6, 1838. — Cassin, Illust. 

Birds Cal. and Texas, 179, 1854. —Cassin, Baird's Birds N. Am., 51, 1858. 

— Allen, Amcr. Nat., IF, 327, 18G8. 
Strix no?via Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 289, 1788. — Wilson, Am. Orn., Ill, 16, pi. 

xix, fig. 1, 1812. 
Bul>o striatus Vieii.lot, Ois. Am. Sept., I, 54, pi. xxi, 1807. 
Ephialles choliba Lawrence, Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., VI, 4, 1854. 
Scops McCalli Cassin, Illust. Birds Cal. and Texas, 180, 1854. — Cassin, 

Baird's Birds N. Am., 52, 1858. 
Scops Kennicotti Elliot, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1867, 69. — Ibid., Illust. 

Birds N. Am., pi. xi. — Baird, Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., I, 311, pi. 

xxvii, 1869. 

Specimens were procured by Mr. Maynard, by whom, and also by 
Mr. Boardman, it is reported as not unfrequent. 

The remarkable differences in the color of the plumage this species 
presents has led many to suppose it embraced two well-marked species, 
the reil stage being recognized as one and the gray or mottled as another. 
Gmelin described the red stage as Strix asio (which is the same as the 
Strix asio of Linne", and the Scops caro'inensis of Brisson) and the gray 
6tage as Strix nmvia. Wilson redescribed these different stages as distinct 
species. Bonaparte was the first to regard them as identical, he believing 

♦ See Part III, p. 189. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 339 

the differences in plumage to be the result of age.* The red he believed 
to be the young bird, and the mottled the adult, which opinion was also 
entertained by Audubon. During the last thirty years, however, they have 
been by some authors again regarded as distinct species ; ■(• by others % 
the gray were regarded as the adult and the red as the young, while some 
have held the opinion that the difference in color was sexual. A general 
survey of the facts, either on record or known to me, show that the young 
birds are sometimes gray and sometimes red ; that red young have some- 
times red parents and sometimes gray ; that the female is sometimes red and 
sometimes gray ; and also that both sexes of a mated breeding pair of old 
birds are sometimes alike in color and sometimes different. Hence the 
opinion already advanced, § that this variation is dependent upon neither age 
nor sex, but is simply a case of irregular and somewhat remarkable individ- 
ual variation of a single species, seems a well-founded one. But these dif- 
ferent stages, though usually so different, are not always well marked, so that 
one is often at a loss to know whether to refer certain specimens to the red 
series or to the gray. In other words, specimens occur of every intermediate 
grade between the typically bright red stage and the typically gray stage. 
I have already given my reasons for referring the Scops McCalli of 
Cassin to the common S.asio, of which it is merely the somewhat smaller 
southern type. § It is also difficult to perceive wherein the Scops Kennicotti 
Elliot, known thus far from a single specimen, differs essentially from a 
common phase of S. asio.\\ 

* " Observations on the Nomenclature of Wilson's Ornithology," Journ. Phil. Acad. 
Nat. Sci., 1st Ser., Vol. Ill, p. 357, 1824. — " Synopsis of the Birds of the United States," 
Annals N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., Vol. II, p. 36, 1828. 

t Michner, Dr. Ezra, "A few Facts in Relation to the Identity of the Red and 
Mottled Owls," Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1st Ser., Vol. VII, p. 53, 1834. — Hoy, Dr. P. 
R., "Notes on the Ornithology of Wisconsin," Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. VI, p. 
306, 1853; Ibid., Transact. Wisconsin Agr. Soc, Vol. II (1852), p. 344, 1853. 

J Cabot, Dr. S., Jr., " Observations on the Plumage of the Red and Mottled Owls," 
Journ. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. II, p. 126, 1838. 

§ Allex, J. A., " Notes on the Red and Mottled Owls," American Naturalist, Vol. 
II, p. 327, 1868. 

|| Since the above was written two adult specimens of this species have been received 
at the Museum from Dallas, Texas, one of which is of the mottled and the other of the 
red type of plumage. The specimen in mottled plumage, besides being generally darker 
throughout than northern specimens, has also the dark markings broader and blacker. 
The specimen in red plumage has the red more intense than it is in specimens of the 
northern red type. Both the Texas specimens are a little smaller than average New 
England specimens. 

1 have seen no specimens as yet from Florida, but from Mr. Cassin having referred a 
specimen from Indian River, (Fla.,) provisionally to his Scops McCalli, they would seem 
to differ but little from Texas specimens, resembling them, as would be naturally ex- 
pected, more than northern ones. 



340 



BULLETIN OF THE 



95.* Syrnium nebulosum Gray. Barked Owl. 

Strix helmlosa Forster, Trans. London Philos. Soc, LXII, 386, 424, 1772. — 
Wilson, Am. On., IV, 61, pi. xxxiii, fig. 2, 1812. — Audubon, Orn. Biog., 
I, 242, pi. xlvi, 1832. 

Syrnium nabulosum Gould, Birds of Europe, I, pi. xlvi, 1832. — Audubon, 
Synop., 27, 1839. — Cassin, Illustr. Birds of Cal. and Texas, 184, 1654.— 
Brewer, N. Am. 061., I, 72, 1857. — Cassin, Band's Birds N. Am., 56, 
1858. 

Ulula nebulosa Bonap., Geog. and Comp. List, 1, 1838. — .donap., conspect. 
Gen. Av., I, 53, 1851. 

Strix chichictli Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 296, 1788. 

Strix acclamator Bartram, Travels, 289, 1791. 

Strix fernandica ShaW, Gen. Zoiil., VII, 263, 1809. 

Very abundant. The only species of owl at all common. Their 
ludicrous notes are heard at night everywhere, and not unfrequently 
during the day. At night they often startle the traveller by their 
Strange utterances from the trees over his head. 

The four Florida specimens of this species before me are several shades 
darker than New England specimens, one only of a considerable series of 
the latter being as dark as the lightest-colored Florida example. The 
Florida specimens are also a little smaller than the northern ones. 

Measurements of Florida Specimens of Syrnilm: nebulosum. 



M.C. Z. 

No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 
~~T. Marcy 
J. A. Allen 


Length. 


Alar 
Extent. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


6241 

5242 
6299 




Lake Dexter 

Enterprise 
Hawkin«ville 


Feb. 14, '69 
Feb. 14, '69 
F-b. 25, '69 
Mar. 15, "69 


20.00 
20.00 
19.50 
19.75 


45.75 

46.25 
45.75 
46.00 


14 00 
14.00 
13.00 
1325 


8 75 
8.75 
9.00 



96.* OtUS brachyotUS Boie. Short-eared Owl. 
Strix hrachyotus Gmelin, Syst. Nat, I, 2b3, 1788. — Forster, Trans. Lond. 

Phil. Soc., LXII, 384, 1772. — Wilson, Am. Orn., IV, 64, pi. xxxiii, fig. 3, 

1812. —Bonap., Ann. N. Y. Lye. N. Hist., II, 37, 1828. — Audubon, Orn. 

Biog., V, 373, pi. ccccxxxii, 1835. — Rich. & Swain., Faun. Bor. Am., I, 

75, 1831. 
Otus hrachyotus Boie, Isis, 1822, 549. —Audubon, Syn., 28, 1839. — Cassin, 

Illust. Birds Cal. and Texas, 182, 1854. — G. R. Gray, Gen. of Birds, I, 40. 

— Ibid., Cat. Brit Birds, 27, 1863. 
Otus palustris Brehm, Viig. Dcutschl., I, 124. 
Brachyotus palustris Bonap., Geog. and Comp. List, 7, 1838. 
Brachyotus Cassmi Brewer, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., V, 321, 1856. — 

Brewer, N. Am. 061., 1, 68, 1857. — Casbin, Baird's Birds N. Am., 54, 1858. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE. ZOOLOGY. 341 

" Quite common about marshes." — Boardman. 

Specimens of this bird from Europe, in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, are not appreciably different from others from various parts of 
the United States. Neither do the habits of the European bird appear to 
differ from those of the American, as some have supposed. Dr. Richard- 
son described its principal haunts in the Fur Countries as being " dense 
thickets of young pine-trees or dark entangled willow clumps, where it 
sits on a low branch, watching assiduously for mice." But it is now well 
known to more commonly frequent open fields and savannas, situations 
similar to those the European frequents. 

An interesting state of plumage of this owl is exhibited by two pairs 
taken on Muskeget Island, Massachusetts, about July 1, 1870, by Messrs. 
C. J. Maynard and William Brewster, in which the color is so light as to 
almost suggest their being albinos. They are many shades lighter than 
the specimens of this species are from the interior, and show clearly, when 
taken in connection with the light race of Arvicola riparius (Arvicola 
Breweri Baird), also occurring on this small sandy island, the effect of the 
combined influence of an absence of shade and the increased light caused 
by reflection from the light-colored sand. The influence of similar 
circumstances is seen on a large scale in the birds and mammals of the 
Colorado desert and the arid peninsula of Lower California, and in less 
degree on the open arid plains of the middle region of the continent. 

The long-eared owl, Otus vulgaris Fleming,* may be expected, 
from its known distribution, to also occur in Florida. 

97 * Strix flammea Limit. Barn Owl. 

Strix flummea Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 133, 1767. — "Wilson*, Nuttall, Audu- 
bon (Orn. Biog.), Bonaparte (Synop.). 

Strix pratincola Bonap., Geog. and Comp. List, 7, 1838. — Cassin, Brewer, 
and recent American authors. 

Strix americana Audubon, Synop., 25, 1839. 

Strix perlata Bonap., Consp. Gen. Av., I, 55, 1850. 

Strix /areata Temm., PI. Col., I, 432. 

A specimen was taken by Mr. Thaxter at St. Augustine. Mr. 

* Strix otus Linne, Faun. Suec, 24, 1761. 

Strix otus americana ct mexicana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 288, 1788 

Strix otus Wilson, Bonap. (Synop.), Nuttaix, Audubon (Orn. Biog.). 

Olus vulgaris Fleming, Brl ish Animals, 60, 1828. — Audubon, Synop., 28, 1839. 

G. R. Gray, Gen Birds, T, 40; Cat- Brit. Birds, 26, 1863. 

Otus Wilsonianui Lesson, Traite d'Orn., I, 110, 1831. — Cassin, Brewer, and re- 
cent American authors. 

Otus americanus Bonap., Geog and Cooip. List, 7, 1835. 



S42 BULLETIN OF THE 

Maynard informs me it was said to be common, and that at Dummitt's a 
hollow tree was shown him in which a pair of these birds had bred for 
several years. Audubon also speaks of it as being common in Florida. 

Respecting the numerous species of late recognized in the Slrix flam- 
mea group of owls, Mr. Cassin has, with great propriety, remarked that 
naturalists have " established species on very slender characters." 

As is well known, different specimens from near the same locality vary 
considerably in color and size, while specimens from different continents 
are frequently almost undistinguishable. From the considerable number 
of specimens I have seen from distant points, as Europe, the United 
States, South America, Southern Asia, the West Indies, Australia, and 
South Africa, I see no reason why the Slrix JIammea may not be regarded 
as having a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, which indeed seems to be 
the present opinion of several European ornithologists. Nearly the same 
variations in color appear to occur on each continent, the general color 
in specimens from near the same locality varying from yellowish rufous 
to pale fulvous, and the dusky spots from being large and conspicuous to 
nearly obsolete or entirely wanting. 

COLUMBJJXai. 
98.* Chamsepelia passerina Swainson. Ground Dove. 
Common, especially about cultivated grounds. 

99* Zensedura carolinensis Bonaparte. Mourning Dove. 

Columlm. carolinensis Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 286, 1766.— Gmelin, Wilson, Nut- 
tall, Audubon (Orn. Biog.). 

Columba marginata Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 286, 1766. 

Ectopistes margincllus Woodhouse, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. VI, 104, 
1852. 

Zenrcdura carolinensis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Avium, II, 84, 1854. 

Zenccdura marginellus Bonapakte, Ibid., 85. 

Abundant. Among its favorite resorts are the wild orange-groves, 
where it feeds on the seeds of the decaying fruit. Smaller than at the 
north, with the metallic tints much brighter and more bronzy. 

MELEAGRIDJE. 

100* Meleagris gallopavo Linne. Wild Turret. 
Meleagris galloparo Linne, Syst. Nat., 268, 1766. —Gmelin, Wilson, Bona- 
parte, Audubon, Nuttall, Baird, etc. 
Meleagris americana Bartram, Travels, 290, 1791. 
Meleagris syluestris Vieill , Nouv. Diet., IX, 447. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 343 

Mflcngris /era Vieiix., Gale'rie des Ois., II, 10, pi. x, 1324. 

Meleagris mexicana Gould, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc, 1856, 61. — Baird, Birds 

N. Am., 618, 1858. — Coopkr & Baird, Orn. Cab, I, 523, 1870. 
Oafhpnvo sjjlvestris, Nora Anc/liie Bay, Synopsis, 51, 1713. — LeConte, Proc 

Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., IX, 179, 1857. 

Common and even quite numerous in those sections where it is not 
too much hunted. Mr. Boardman informs me that very fat male birds 
often weigh twenty-five to twenty-eight pounds, but that the average 
weight of the males is eighteen to twenty pounds, and of the females 
6ix to ten pounds. 

The Origin of the Domestic Turkey. 

Although it had been for a long time previously vaguely conjectured 
that the domestic turkey did not originate from the common wild turkey of 
North America, it was not until about 1856 that it was fully asserted 
that such was not its origin. In a paper road before the Zoological So- 
ciety of London, in April, 185G, Mr. John Gould, the well-known English 
ornithologist, assigned this bird to the list of those domesticated animals 
whose origin had become involved in obscurity. He refers, however, to 
the fact of its known introduction into Europe from Mexico about 1524, 
and to the belief, shared by all naturalists from Linne up to that time, that 
the domesticated turkey r was derived from the wild turkey of North 
America. He also states that, " on account of the great differences which 
are met with among our domestic turkeys, and the circumstance that the 
wild turkeys recently imported from North America not readily associating 
or pairing with them," he had for some years entertained the opinion that 
the wild turkey of the United States was not the original of the domestic 
turkey. He also at this time described a single specimen of a turkey from 
Mexico as belonging to a species distinct from the wild turkey of the 
United States, to which he gave the name of Meleagris mexicana. It 
differed, however, but slightly from the northern bird, mainly in having 
more white on the upper tail coverts. Although he claimed that it 
was of larger size, his measurements indicate it to be only barely 
above the average, and considerably smaller than the larger speci- 
mens from the Northern States. In considering it as distinct from the 
common wild turkey, he seems to have been greatly influenced by the lo- 
cality whence his specimen came ; as he states that he hardly thinks it prob- 
able that the common turkey, " authors to the contrary, notwithstanding," 
ranges very far into Mexico, since it is found, he says, along the southern 
boundary of Canada, which is nearly two thousand miles from Mexico. 
He deems it unlikely that a bird inhabiting " the cold regions of Canada 



344 BULLETIN OF THE 

should also be indigenous to the hotter country of Mexico, ■whence," he 
adds, " and not from North America, the turkey was originally introduced 
into Europe " ; thus leaving it to be inferred that, in his opinion, the Mexi- 
can bird — bis new species — was the ancestor of the domestic turkey. 
The facts in respect to the distribution of the wild turkey are briefly 
these : It exists in Canada only in the warmer portions of that country, 
and thence southward uninterruptedly throughout the table-lands of 
Mexico. 

Dr. Henry Bryant, of Boston, in reviewing Mr. Gould's paper, a few 
months after its appearance, took exceptions to the views of that gentle- 
man, and in referring to the two principal statements made by Mr. Gould, 
namely, that the wild and domestic turkeys were structurally different, and 
refused to breed together, Dr. Bryant thus observes : " How far climate 
and other influences may have affected the domestic variety in England 
I do not yet know, but with us neither of these two statements is correct. 
If it were not for the difference in the plumage it would be impossible in 
many cases to distinguish the two birds ; and even with this aid it is some- 
times very difficult to decide with certainty when the specimen is a 

female The wild turkey breeds here with the tame variety quite 

as readily as could be expected ; wherever the wild turkeys are numerous, 
it is an ordinary occurrence for the tame hen to prefer the wild gobbler to 
the domestic ones. I have had in my own possession wild hens that bred 
with the tame gobblers, — a fact much stranger than that of the wild gob- 
bler breeding with the tame ben. But the most satisfactory proof of their 
specific identity is that the offspring of mixed blood is known to be har- 
dier and more prolific than the domestic variety, — a fact which cannot 
be reconciled with their specific diversity."* 

Dr. Bryant's facts, with those of previous writers, seem amply sufficient 
to settle the question as to the origin of the domestic turkey ; yet a few 
months later Major John EeConte, who probably at that time had not 
seen Dr. Bryant's remarks, published a paper entitled " Observa- 
tions on the Wild Turkey, or GaUopavo syloestris of Ilay."f In this 
paper he took the ground that the tame turkey could not possibly have 
been derived from the wild turkey of the United States. And, if what he 
states in support of his opinion as facts were such, they would go far 
towards rendering his position a tenable one, but in reality they are but 
baseless, dogmatic assumptions, which not only ran counter to the then 
generally received opinion, but were squarely opposed to unquestionable 
evidence already on record. Major LeConte's opinions, notwithstanding 

* Proc. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. VI, p. 158, March, 1857. 

t Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. IX, p. 179, September, 1857. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 345 

that they were based on groundless assumptions, as an investigation of 
the subject fully proves, have been so generally entertained by subsequent 
authors, who have accepted his statements without investigating the 
facts for themselves, that a careful revision of the subject is now 
required. Major LeConte observes : " Whoever has compared the wild 
turkey of the United States with the domestic animal of the same genus 
must have observed that there existed very striking differences between 
them." While asserting that "'these differences do not consist of slight and 
unimportant particularities, but in radical disagreements, which ought to 
remain unchangeable under all circumstances, and which form good spe- 
cific characteristics," his sole point of distinction consists "in the posses- 
sion by the tame bird of an enormous palear or dewlap," which he affirms, 
contrary to fact, is not possessed by the wild bird. * He refers also to 
the conviction that had long existed in his mind, that the two birds — the 
wild and domestic — "were really distinct species." "More than fifty 
years ago," he says, " when I first saw a wild turkey, I was led to con- 
clude that one never could have been produced from the other. I have 
mentioned this to many ornithologists, but no one would take the trouble 
to investigate the matter [!]," etc. It does not appear, however, that 
even with him this long-standing conviction had resulted from a thorough 
investigation of the subject, for he gives no detailed comparison of the two, 
and many of his statements are not simply erroneous, but diametrically 
opposed to facts previoudy well substantiated. He refers to the early in- 
troduction of the turkey into Europe, and to the fact that it was found by 
the first explorers of America in both the wild and domesticated state. 
He alludes also to Mr. Gould's above-cited paper, remarking respecting it 
that he was unable to determine whether Mr. Gould's supposed new Mexi- 
can species was the same as the M. gallopavo, or was the original of the 
domestic bird. He thought, however, that the Mexican was identical with 
the common wild bird. He then remarks : " I have before observed that 
the turkey was found domesticated among the nations of Central America. 
Now the bird which ice hare native among us has never been domesticated. 
All attempts to conquer its peculiar habits have failed, nolwi'hslanding what 
has been said and written on the subject to the contrary. I defy axy oxe 

TO SHOW A TURKEY, EVEN OF THE FIRST GEXERATIOX, PRODUCED 

from A pair hatched from A wild HEX.f We have every year 
in our market offered for sale birds of a very dark color, and in 
some degree resembling the wild species ; but in every instance, 
by the presence of the palear, the imposition can be detected at 

* It is usually, however, either entirely absent in the wild bird, or present only in a 
rudimentary state. 

t The italicizing in this extract is of course my own. 



346 BULLETIN OF THE 

first sight, and the cheat exposed. I have known the eggs found in 
the woods hatched hy a domestic hen, the chickens brought up carefully, 
and rendered so tame and familiar as to eat out of the hand, and to 
show considerable pleasure whenever persons with whom they were ac- 
quainted approached them. Yet they never would associate icith the domes- 
tic turkeys, studiously avoiding their company, and in little more than a year 
running oil' to the woods, and never again returning to the haunts of their 
infancy. / knoiv," he continues, "that I shall be contradicted in this 
statement, and many quotations from authors brought forward against me. I 
repeat, contrary to the assertions of many others, that no one has ever 

SUCCEEDED IX DOMESTICATING OUR WILD TURKEY. I Speak not Only 

from my own personal observations, but from the undivided testimony of 
many southern gentlemen. The turkey of our own poultry-yards, which, 
when young, is difficult to bring forward, it was thought might be obtained 
of a hardier race by a new domestication ; but every attempt has failed, 
nor can I find a single well-authenticated case of a mixed breed being 
obtained." One is certainly at a loss to know what the self-confident 
Major would call a well-authenticated case of a mixed breed of wild and 
tame turkeys, since he must have been familiar with Bonaparte's excellent 
account, derived mainly from notes furnished him by Mr. Audubon, of 
this bird given in the first volume of his continuation of Wilson's " Ameri- 
can Ornithology." In sneaking of the mixing of the wild and tame tur- 
keys, this author remarks as follows : " This crossing often occurs in coun- 
*ies where wild and tame turkeys are frequent ; it is well known that they 
,vill readily approach each other ; and such is the influence of slavery 
upon even the turkey, that the robust inhabitant of the forest will drive 
his degenerate kinsfolk from their own food and from their females, being 
generally welcomed by the latter and by their owners, who well know the 

advantage of such a connection Eggs of the wild turkey have been 

frequently taken from their nests and hatched under the tame hen ; the 
young preserve a portion of their uncivilized nature, and exhibit some 
knowledge of the difference between themselves and their foster-mother, 
roosting apart from the tame ones, and in other respects showing the force 
of hereditary disposition. The domesticated young, reared from the eggs 
of the wild turkey, are often employed as decoy birds to those in a state of 
nature." * 

Audubon, in his account of the Canada goose, also incidentally refers 
to the crossing of the wild and tame turkeys, in a manner tint leads 
US to suppose that it was to bis knowledge a matter of common oc- 
currence, lie says : " The crossing of the Canada goose with the com- 

* Nearly the same words are used by Audubon in his Ornithological Biography and 
in his Birds of America. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOULOGY. S47 

men domestic species has proved as advantageous as that of the wild with 
the tame turkey."* He also states, " My friend, Dr. Bachman, assures 
me that in a state of domestication the wild turkeys, though kept separate 
from tame individuals, lose the brilliancy of their plumage in the third 
generation, becoming plain brown, and having here and there white 
feathers intermixed " f 

The assertions of Major LeConte are so fully controverted by pre- 
viously recorded testimony that they might have been justly ignored, 
had they not received, as already observed, the sanction of eminent 
authorities, and thus have come to be more or less currently adopted. 
Among the first to give them support was Professor Baird, of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. This gentleman, in his work on the " Birds of North 
America," published less than two years subsequently to Major LeConte's 
paper, cites LeConte's opinions and statements, and partially indorses them, 
though he had not, he says, specimens at hand of the domestic bird for 
comparison with the wild one. To the data for their distinction adduced 
by Major LeConte, he adds a statement from Bonaparte in respect to the 
difference in color between the domestic and wild bird ; Bonaparte ob- 
serving that the wild bird never has the whitish tip to the tail which dis- 
tinguishes the domestic ones. Professor Baird also adds that the flesh of the 
two differs in color, that of the wild bird being " much dai-ker." He adds 
that, upon the whole, it is exceedingly probable that they are specifically 
distinct. " If the dewlap," he says, " be characteristic of a species at 
present only known in captivity, then, as Major LeConte remarks, it 
should bear the name of M. gallopavo, as based by Linnams essentially upon 
the description by Brisson of Gallopavo sylvestris, in which this dewlap is 
particularly mentioned. In this event our wild bird will be entitled to a 
new name," etc. Professor Baird concludes his remarks on this subject with 
the following ingenious theory, which has been to some extent accepted as 
a probably correct one. " In conclusion," he says, " I venture to suggest 
the following hypothesis, which, however, is not original with myself: 
That there are really three species of turkey, besides the M. ocellata, a 
fourth species from Central America, entirely different from the rest. 
That one of them, M. americana, is probably peculiar to the eastern half 
of North America ; another, HI. mexicana, belongs to Mexico, and extends 
along the table-lands to the Rocky Mountains, the Gila, and the Llano 
Estacado; and a third is the M. gallopavo, or domesticated bird. That it 
is not at all improbable that the last was originally indigenous to some 
one or more of the West Indian Islands, whence it was transplanted as 
tamed to Mexico, and from Mexico taken to Europe about a. d. 1520. 

* Birds of America, Vol. VI, p. 190. 
t Ibid., Vol. V, p. 55. 



348 BULLETIN OF THE 

Finally, that the wild turkeys were probably completely exterminated by 
the native?, as has been the case with equally large birds in other islands, 
as the dodo and solitaire.* Tins hypothesis," he continues, " will ex- 
plain the fact of our meeting nowhere at the present day any wild turkeys 
resembling the domestic one. f .... The entire subject is one of much 
interest, and deserves to be investigated thoroughly. It is quite possible 
that a careful examination of the external form and habits of the New 
Mexican bird may do much to throw full light on the whole question." 

It is not surprising that a theory presenting to the imagination so many 
attractive features, and indorsed by authority so eminent, should have 
been currently received, as has this, by those who have not had the oppor- 
tunity, nor perhaps the desire, to examine the subject for themselves. But, 
if I mistake not, it has also been accepted as at least a probably correct 
hypothesis by many ornithologists.^ I have, however, already adduced 
evidence from Bonaparte, Bachman, Audubon, and Bryant sufficient to 
show, not only the erroneous character of Major LeConte's fundamental 
proposition, to wit, that the wild turkey of the United States has never 
been and never can be .domesticated, but that such an hypothesis as the 
one above quoted is wholly uncalled for. As the whole question of the 
origin of the domestic turkey and its relationship to the wild turkey of the 
United States turns, however, upon the fact of the domesticability or non- 
domesticability of the common wild turkey, it may perhaps be proper to 
bring forward some recent testimony respecting this disputed point. 

I have myself always been more or less familiar with the domestic bird, 
and with the fact that breeds exist which closely resemble the wild bird, 
and which their owners claimed were one fourth, one half, or one eighth 

* Mr. Darwin, in referring to this gratuitous theory, refers to the fact of the de- 
terioration of the turkey within the tropics, and very properly to the " improbability of 
a bird having long ago become extinct in these large and luxuriant islands, or of its 
ever having been aboriginally an inhabitant of the lowlands of the tropics." (Animals 
and Plants under Domestication, Am. ed., Vol. I, p. 303, note.) 

t But does it explain the frequent occurrence of domestic ones so closely resembling 
the wild ones as to be quite undistinguishable from them? 

t Dr. Cooper, who considers the western wild turkey specifically distinct from the 
wild turkey of the cast, appears to believe that the domestic turkey originated from the 
wild turk,ey of Mexico. He says: " It is well known that at the period of the Spanish 
discovery the. native turkey was widely domesticated in Mexico, and was introduced 
thence first into Europe, and thence into North America. Furthermore, the native bird 
of Eastern North America does not occur in Mexico at all. The markings of the do- 
mestic turkey are sometimes exactly like those of the wild bird of Mexico, while they 
never assume the plumage of the wild Meleagris gallopavo of the north." (Orn. 
Cab, Vol. I, p. 523, 1870.) Dr. Cooper's last remark is unfortunately erroneous, since 
domestic birds do often occur, especially females, that cannot well be distinguished 
from wild northern birds. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 349 

wild blood, as the case might be, and which differed in habits in some re- 
spects from the common breeds. I have also been long conversant with 
the fact that in the Western States, and in those other parts of the coun- 
try where the turkey exists in its native state, that fhe eggs of the wild 
bird are frequently taken and hatched under the domesticated turkey, the 
young carefully raised and held at high prices, they being considered as 
highly valuable for the purpose of improving the domestic breeds. In a 
recent correspondence with Mr. D. Darwin Hughes, an able ornitholo- 
gist of Marshall, Michigan, I alluded to the fact that the domestication 
of the wild bird had been disputed, and requested him to give me any 
facts he might possess in reference to the subject. The facts given in the 
following extracts from his letters are fully co-roborated by other private 
testimony in my possession. 

Under date of October 25, 1869, he wrote me respecting the domes- 
tication of the wild bird as follows : " Here [Calhoun County, Michigan], 
where the wild bird is abundant, they mix freely with the tame ones, and 
it is a common thing to see large flocks of half-breeds ; I have owned them 
myself. They are fond of roaming and are apt to stray ; not to the woods 
exclusively, but also to other farms. I have known the pure wild bird, 
hatched from wild eggs and raised in the poultry-yard, to remain for years 
in the yard without being confined ; but this is not usual. One fine gob- 
bler, as beautiful a bird as I ever saw, was hatched from a wild eg£ and 
headed a flock of mixed turkeys in a barn-yard. He was tame, like the 
others, but easily distinguished by his wild plumage ; at night the flock 
roosted in the yard, but this bird could not brook so low a perch, and 
when the flock went to roost he invariably took wing and perched on an 
immense forest-tree one fourth of a mile away, where he spent the night ; 
but in the morning he always returned to the barn-yard. Such instances 
are not uncommon. The eggs are eagerly sought for for hatching, and in 
this manner, as I have belbre said, there is a liberal sprinkling of wild 
blood in domestic birds, where the wild birds are abundant. The eggs of 
the wild bird are found every year, and although I have offered at the 
rate of six to eight dollars per dozen for them, there is not one in my col- 
lection of eggs, which numbers over two hundred species, so eager are the 
finders of them to hatch them, the chicks selling for a large price." 

In another letter, dated November 5, 1869, Mr. Hughes wrote me 
further concerning this subject, in which he remarks as follows : " I have 
already said that the wild bird has been so domesticated as to reproduce 
its kind in the poultry-yard, and inquiries made since my last letter show 
that in the more northern counties of the State such cases are quite com- 
mon. I cannot agree with what is said in the ninth volume of the Pacific 
Railroad Reports (p. 617), that there is an appreciable difference in the 



350 BULLETIN OF THE 

color of the flesh of the wild and tame birds when cooked. There prob- 
ably is some difference in color, but so little that one must have very acute 
powers of observation to tell the difference when brought to the table 
roasted. There 'is a difference in the color of the head, caruncles, and 
dewlaps, as stated by Professor Baird, but with my present means of 
knowledge, having no fresh specimens before me, I will not undertake to 
describe the differences. One thing, however, should not be forgotten ; 
that we see the tame bird under all circumstances of passion, — in fear 
and when proudly strutting ; in short, under all the different emotions 
that turkeys are heirs to, while we rarely or never see the wild turkey 
under such varied circumstances, but only when they are terror-stricken 
or dead. The head and neck in the tame bird makes rapid and surprising 
changes in sympathy with its emotions, and it may be so, and probably is, 
with the wild." 

From the evidence that has now been given, it is sufficiently apparent 
that Major LeConte's two fundamental assumptions, — first, that the wild 
bird will not mix or breed with the domesticated ; and, second, that the wild 
bird never has been and cannot be domesticated, — upon which was 
erected an hypothesis to explain the origin of the domesticated bird by 
referring it to an extinct ancestor that probably inhabited some of the 
"West Indian Islands, are entirely groundless, and never had for their sup- 
port only the negative evidence afforded by the limited experience of 
Major LeConte and a few of his friends. 

Inasmuch as the domestic turkey was first introduced into Europe from 
Mexico, it may be well in this connection to inquire further into the rela- 
tionship of the so-called M. mexicana, or Mexican turkey, to the wild 
turkey of the eastern part of the United States. As already stated, the 
M. mexicana was originally described by Mr. Gould from a single specimen 
from Mexico. This specimen differs but slightly from the common wild 
turkey of the eastern part of the continent. But like many other merely 
nominal species, this " Mexican turkey" has been since generally recognized 
by writers on American ornithology, doubtless mainly because its describer 
was deemed too eminent a naturalist to be mistaken on such a point. Its 
habitat has been since extended to embrace half of that portion of the 
continent over which the wild turkey ranges, — the entire western half of 
the United States: yet the point at which the habitat of the eastern 
species ceases and that of the western begins, no one has yet ventured to 
attempt to definitely indicate. It is universally conceded to be exceed- 
ingly closely allied to the .1/. gallopavo, as the latter is now defined. 
Though admitted provisionally as a valid species by Professor Baird in 
his work already cited, he says that " whether these differences can be 
considered as establishing a second species for the United States is a 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 351 

question yet to be decided." Dr. Coues, however, in his " List of the 
Birds of Fort Whipple, Arizona," * says he thinks there can be no doubt 
respecting the propriety of separating the " western turkey from the com- 
mon species of the Eastern United States"; but he has given us no infor- 
mation as to how great the differences between them are, or in what they 
consist. As mentioned by Gould and by Baird, the Mexican bird differs 
from the eastern one only in being lighter colored, and in having, in 
correlation with the generally lighter color of the plumage, the terminal 
band of the tail, as also the tips of the tail coverts, whitish instead of pale 
brown, as the eastern bird usually has them. This, however, seems by no 
means necessarily a specific difference, it being only a slight geographical 
variation, not restricted to the turkey, but which runs through most spe- 
cies of both birds and mammals that have the same distribution ; the 
probable cause of which variation I have already adverted to in Part III. 
The common eastern turkey occasionally approaches much nearer to the 
so-called Mexican bird than appears to be generally supposed. According 
to some authors, the tip of the tail in M. gallopavo is never whitish, but 
" plain chestnut, lighter than the ground color " of the tail. Yet of five 
specimens in the Museum of Comparative Zoology from one of the West- 
ern States, probably either Ohio or Michigan, two correspond with the 
description of the assumed typical M. gallopavo, two very nearly as well 
with that of the so-called M. mexlcana, and one is intermediate between 
them. Three of them are decidedly lighter colored, and possess a lighter 
terminal band to the tail than they should to correspond with the true M. 
gallopavo as recently defined. I have, on the whole, no hesitancy in refer- 
ring the .1/. mexicana Gould to the M. gallopavo Linne. The unquestionable 
specific identity of the domestic turkey with the wild one of the Eastern 
United States, though originally derived from the Mexican bird, seems 
further to support this view. From the great constancy of the white on 
the tail and its coverts in the domestic turkey, it has been thought to more 
resemble the western bird, or the M. mexicana, than the eastern. I need, 
however, only to recall the testimony of Dr. Bachman, already given in 
discussing another point, to show that it has necessarily no such signifi- 
cance. It will be remembered that Dr. Bachman states that he had 
known the wild birds of the Atlantic States, when kept entirely by them- 
selves, to become more or less white under confinement in three genera- 
tions.f Instead of this being either a " reversion " or a distinctive specific 
feature, it can be regarded only as the result of a diminution of the color- 
ing matter through degeneracy, under the influences of domestication. 

* Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. XVIII, p. 93, 1866. Republished under the title 
of " Prodrome of a Work on the Ornithology of Arizona Territory." 

t Mr. Darwin mentions a similar fact as having happened iu England. (Animals and 
Plants under Domestication, Vol. I, p. 354). 



352 BULLETIN OF THE 

As the whole plumage becomes lighter, those portions that are naturally 
lightest are those we should expecl would soonest become white; and 
such is actually the case. Under domestication the turkey not only de- 
generates in size and hardiness, but is well known to soon lose much of 
the brilliancy of plumage that characterizes it in a state of nature. In a 
few generations it loses to a great extent its metallic tints, and becomes 
much lighter colored ; the terminal band of the tail, as well as its coverts, 
changes to white, and in succeeding generations the cream-colored and 
pure white birds often seen in our poultry-yards are gradually developed. 
The fact of the domestic turkey having been first introduced into 
Europe from Mexico, and into the United States from Europe, admits of 
easy explanation ; since the advanced state of civilization enjoyed by the 
native Mexicans had enabled them to domesticate the turkey, while their 
more degraded neighbors of the north had accomplished nothing of the 
kind. The turkey having been introduced into Europe nearly a century 
before the establishment of permanent settlements in the northern portions 
of the continent, it was, of course, as naturally introduced thence into this 
country as were our other domesticated animals. 

PERDICID^E. 
101* Ortyx virginianus Bonaparte. Qdail. 
Tetrao virginianus Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 277, 1766. 
Titrao marilandicus Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 277, 1766. 
Ortyx borealis STEPHENS, Shaw's Zoul., XI, 377, 1819. 
Perdix [Ortyx) virginiana Bonap., Obs. on Wils. Nomcn., Journ. Phil. Acad. 

Nat. Sri., 1st Scr., IV, 268, 1825. 
Ortyx virginianus Baird, Birds N. Am., 640, 1838. — March, "Notes on 

Birds of Jamaica," Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., XV, 303, 1863. 
Ortyx texanus Lawrence, Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., VI, 1, 1853. — Baird, 
Birds N. Amcr., 641, 1858. 
Abundant. 

The quails of Florida differ from those of the Northern States in being 
smaller, larger billed, and darker colored. While the difference in size is 
very appreciable, as is also that in respect to the size of the bill, — the bill 
being actually larger while there is a general decrease in the size of the 
individual, — the most marked dissimilarity is in the coloration, through 
tin' darker color of the Florida birds. In the latter the ground color 
above i- nitons instead of ashen, as in northern specimens, and the trans- 
verse black markings are broader. In average northern specimens the 
transverse black bars on the lower surface of (he body are scarcely half 
the breadth of the intervening white spaces; in the Florida specimens 
they are much mure than half, and in some cases nearly equal them. In 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



353 



general the proportion of black in the Florida fernales is the same as that 
in the northern males. There is a similar relative increase in the extent 
of the black markings on the wing coverts, scapulars, and interscapulars, 
and on the dorsal surface generally. The black bonier to the white throat- 
patch is also broader, and extends back on the sides of the head so as usu- 
ally to cover the auriculars, which in average northern specimens are dark 
rufous. The bill is also much darker, being generally jet black ; in 
Massachusetts specimens it is brownish black, with the tip decidedly 
lighter than the other parts. 

The so-called Texas quail (Ortyx texanus Lawr.) does not differ very 
greatly from either the Florida or the northern ones, it combining some 
of the essential characters of each, but more resembling Florida speci- 
mens than northern ones. Lawrence and Baird mention the ashen or 
decided gray hue on portions of the dorsal surface as distinguishing it 
from the 0. virginianus, which has these parts of a "dull pinkish red." 
" A dull pinkish red," however, is just the color of these parts in my 
Florida specimens ; but the Massachusetts specimens, on the contrary, are 
ashen, as already stated, and in this respect agree with the descriptions 
of the Texas form, and differ from the Florida ones in the same way that 
the Texas ones are said to do from those of the Atlantic coast of the 
Middle and Southern States. In both the Florida and Texas specimens 
there is a similar increase in the breadth of the black transverse mark- 
ings, Lawrence describing them as being twice as broad in the Texas 
specimens as in the northern ones. 

The Ortyx cubanensis of Cabanis appears scarcely to differ from the 
quails of Florida and Texas. D'Orbigny and Lembeye were hence doubt- 
less correct in believing the so-called Ortyx cubanensis to be identical with 
the 0. virginianus. 

The following summary of the subjoined tables shows the difference in 
size that obtains between northern and southern specimens, and also in 
the sexes. The largest Florida specimen, it will be seen, scarcely equals 
the smallest northern one, when those of the same sex are compared. 



No. of 
















Speci- 
mens. 


ax 


Locality. 




Length. 


Alar 

Extent. 

" 15.44 


Wing. 


Tail. 


7 


d 


Illinois 


Average 


10.18 


4.47 


2.82 


16 


d 


Florida 


Average 


9.4*3 


14 16 


4.22 


2.52 


6 


? 


Illinois 


Average 


9.83 


15.10 


4.36 


2 67 


10 


? 


Florida 


Average 


9.37 


14.02 


4 17 


2.54 


10 


? 


" 


Maximum 


10.00 


1450 


4.40 


2.77 


10 


s 


" 


Minimum 


9 00 


13 10 


3.35 


250 


16 


d 


" 


Maximum 


1000 


14 75 


4.50 


3.00 


16 


d 


" 


Minimum 


9.00 


13.80 


4.00 


2 30 


7 


d 


Illinois 


Maximum 


1050 


15.60 


4.60 


3 00 


7 


d 


" 


Minimum 


10.00 


15.00 


4.37 


2.55 


6 


9 


'< 


Maximum 


10.25 


15.50 


4 50 


2.85 


6 


? 


" 


Minimum 


9.50 


14.50 


4.25 


2.45 



23 



854 



BULLETIN OF TIIE 



Measurements of Florida Specimens of Ortyx virginianus. 



M.C.Z. 
No. 


Coll. 
No 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date 


1 "B 
Collector. g> 

1 ^ 


sg 

•< x 

w 


bo 


'3 


5151 





rf 


Ilibernia 


Jan. 30, '69 


J A. Alien 


9.25 


14 75 


4.15 


•2 40 


6152 





rf 


" 


Jan 30, "09 


" 


9 25 


14.10 


4.00 


2.i;o 


5183 





rf 


" 


Jau. 30, '69 


" 


9.00 


14 00 


4 00 


2.30 


5184 




rf 


" 


Jan. 30, '69 


" 


9 25 


14.25 


4.10 


260 


6337 




rf 


Enterprise 


Mar 4. "69 


" 


9 05 


14 50 


4.40 


240 


5336 




rf 


" 


Mar. 4, '69 


" 


9.C0 


1425 


4.15 


250 


10578 


1990 


rf 


Jacksonville 


Jan. 9, "69 


C. J. Maynard 


9.50 


13.80 


4.30 


2 80 


10579 


1990 


rf 


" 


Jan 9, '69 


" 


9 33 


14.15 


4.45 


2 53 


10580 


1991 


rf 


" 


Jan. 9, '09 


" 


9.30 


14.30 


4.00 


2 30 





2547 


rf 


Dummitt's 


Mar. 8, '69 


" 


10 00 


1408 


4.10 


2 65 





2546 


rf 


" 


Mar. 7, '09 


" 


9.30 


14.05 


4 25 


3.00 





2562 


rf 


" 


Mar. 9, '69 


" 


9.85 


13.80 


4.45 


2S4 


10583 


2472 


rf 


" 


Feb. 24, '69 


" 


9.50 


14 00 


4 25 


250 





2517 


rf 


" 


Mar. 4, '69 


" 


9 25 


14 00 


4 40 


2.70 





•.T.iil 


rf 


" 


Mar. 9, '69 


" 


9 70 


14.08 


4 25 


265 


10581 


2356 


rf 


" 


Feb. 16, '69 


" 


9 70 


14.50 


4 50 


270 


10582 


2456 


9 


" 


Feb. 24, '69 


" 


10 00 


14 50 


4.25 


2 55 





2795 


* 


" 


Feb. 16, '69 


" 


9.00 


13.75 


3 35 


2.70 





2G15 


r\ 


" 


Mar. S. '69 


" 


950 


14 20 


4 10 


2 57 





1993 


* 


Jacksonville 


Jan 9, '69 


" 


935 


14.10 


4 35 


2.70 





1994 


A 


" 


Jan. 9, '69 


" 


9.40 


13 10 


4 35 


2.65 





1995 


fS 


" 


Jan. 9, '69 


" 


9 50 


13.60 


4.40 


2.77 


61S2 





5 


Hibernia 


Jan. 30, '69 


J. A. Allen 


9.35 


14 25 


4.10 


2.30 


6338 





? 


Enterprise 


Mar. 4, '69 


" 


9 00 


14 00 


4 05 


2.33 


6351 





? 


" 


Mar. 5, '69 


" 


9.40 


14 50 


4.30 


2.45 


5352 





8 


" 


Mar. 5, '69 " 


9.25 


14^5 


4.15 


2.47 



Measurements of Northern Specimens of Orttx virginianus. 



m. c z 

No. 



13096 

10410 
10408 
10411 
13099 
i:;n'.<s 
13097 
13101 
10407 
10409 
10412 
10406 
13100 



Locality. 



Northern Illinois 



Date. 



Jan. 18 

Jan. 18 

Jan. 18 

Jan. 18 

Jan. 18 

Jan. 18 



4an. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



Length 



10 25 

10.(0 

10 00 

10 50 

10.25 

10 28 

10 00 

10.25 

9.50 

lo 00 

9 85 

9.50 

9.85 



Alar 
Extent. 



15 
15 
15 

15 

, 15 
15 

I 15 
15 
It 
14 
15 
15 
15 



Wing 



4 45 
4.60 
4 40 
4.50 
4.60 
4 50 
4 37 
4.45 
4.25 
4.50 
4 38 
450 
4 30 



2.72 
2.75 
2.85 

2 75 

3 00 
290 
2.55 
2 72 
2 73 
2.85 
2.4S 
2.45 
2.60 



CHARADRIID^. 
102.t Squartarola helvetica Cuvier. Black-bellied Plover. 

" Some remain on the shores of the Floridas in winter." — Audu- 
bon* 

103.t Charadrius virginicus Borck. Golden Plover. 
" St. Augustine ; rare." — Boardman. 

* Birds of America, Vol. V, p. 200. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 355 

104 * JEgialitis vociferus Cassin. Killdee Plover. 
Abundant. 

105* JEgialitis Wilsonius Cassin. Wilson's Plover. 
Not recently reported as found in Florida in the winter months. 
Audubon pbserves : " While in the Floridas, near St. Augustine, in the 
months of December and January, I found this species much more 
abundant than any other." * 

106.t JEgialitis semipalmatus Cabanis. Semx-palmated Plover. 
" Not uncommon at St. Augustine throughout the winter." — Board- 
man. 

107.t JEgialitis melodus Cabanis. Piping Plover. 
Observed at St. Augustine in the winter months by Mr. Boardman. 

H^MATOPODmSE. 

los.t Hsematopus palliatus Temminck. Oyster-Catcheb. 

Given by Mr. Boardman as rare in winter at St. Augustine. 

I09.t Strepsilas interpres llliger. Turnstone. 
" Rare at St. Augustine in winter." — Boardman. 

SCOLOPACID.5J. 

no* Philohela minor Gray. Woodcock. 
More or less common. Probably resident. 

111. (t?) Gallinago "Wilsoni Bonaparte. Snipe. 
Abundant Probably resident. Florida specimens are darker col- 
ored and have longer bills than northern ones. 

112.1 Calidris arenaria 'IlUger. Sanderling. 
" Common at St. Augustine." — Boardman. " Abundant on Indian 
River." — Maynard. 

113.t Pelidna americana Coues. Red-backed Sandpiper. 
" Common." — Maynard. Boardman. 

lU.t Ereunetes pusillus Cassin. Semi-palmated Sandpiper. 
" Common." — Maynard. 

* Ibid., p. 216. 



356 BULLETIN OF THE 

iis.t Actodromas minutilla Coues. Least Sandpiper. 
" Common." — Maynard. 

116.t Actodromas Bonaparte! Cassin. "White-rumped Sandpiper. 
"St. Augustine." — Audubon. 

117.* Symphemia semipalmata Harthub. "Willet. 
" Indian River to St. Augustine. Breeds in March." — Maynard. 

118.t Gambetta flavipes Bonaparte. Yellow-legs. 
Common. 

119.t Gambetta melanoleuca Bonaparte. Greater Yellow-legs. 
Common. 

120* Tringoides macularius Gray. Spotted Sandpiper. 
Common. 

121.* Limosa fedoa Ord. Marbled Godwit. 
Common. Reported to Mr. Maynard as common all the year near 
St. Augustine, but where it nested was unknown to his informants. 

I22.t Numenius hudsonicus Latham. Hudsonian Ccrlew. 

123.f Numenius borealis Latham. Esquimaux Curlew. 
I have no knowledge of the actual occurrence of these two species 
in East Florida, yet they apparently must occur as winter visitors. Dr. 
Coues gives them as winter visitors in his South Carolina list, and they 
are well known to range at this season southward into the tropics. 

124.t Numenius longirostris Wilson. Long-billed Cuklew. 
" Very abundant on the coast." — Boardman. 

Several other species of this family are well known to pass through 
East Florida in their migrations, and perhaps a few others are winter 
residents there. 

RECURVIROSTRIDiE. 

125.* Himantopus nigricollis Vieillot. Black-necked Stilt. 
Audubon says it is found in Florida in winter.* Mr. Boardman 
gives it as "quite common at Enterprise after the 15th of March." 

* Birds of America, Vol. VI, p. 85. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 357 

126.t Recur virostra americana Gmelin. Avoset. 
This species must occur in Florida as a winter visitor, but I have 
as yet seen no specimens that were collected there. 

GRUID^S. 

127.* Grus canadensis Temminck. Bbown Crane. 
Abundant. 

In 1853, in the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History,* 
Dr. Bryant discussed at length the question of the relationship of G 
americana Ord to the G. canadensis, and arrived at the conclusion that 
■while the young of the G. americana, or white whooping crane, might be 
brown like the mature G. canadensis, or sand-hill crane, that the two were 
distinct species ; and this conclusion ornithologists seem to have generally 
adopted. I saw none of the white birds in Florida, where the brown were 
very numerous. In Iowa I have seen both, but only at a distance. The 
account given by Dr. Bryant of the breeding of the sand-hill crane in 
Florida is very complete and interesting. According to this author the 
eggs, two in number, are laid from early in February till about the middle 
of April, f 

RALLIDiE. 

128.* Rallus elegans Audubon. Marsh Hair. 
Common. 

129* Rallus crepitans Gmelin. Clapper Rail. 

Common. 

130.t RaUus virginianus Linne". Virginia Rail. 

" Common along the St. John's River." — Boardman. 

I3i.t Porzana Carolina Vieillot. Carolina Rail. 
" Common." — Maynard. 

132. (t?) Porzana noveboracensis Cassin. Yellow Rail. 
" Common throughout the winter along the St. John's." — Boardman. 

I33.t Pulica americana Gmelin. Coot. 
Abundant. As numerous the 1st of April as during the winter. 

134.* Gallinula galeata Bonaparte. Florida Gallinule. 
Abundant. 

* Vol. IV, p. 303. 

t See also on this point the same Proceedings, Vol VU, p. H. 



858 BULLETIN OF THE 

135.* Gallinula martinica Latham. Purple Gallinule. 
Well known as a resident bird of Florida, but not observed by 
either Messrs. Maynard and Boardman or myself. 

ARDEID-E. 
136 * Demiegretta ludoviciana Baird. Louisiana Heron. 
Common. 

137 * Demiegretta Pealei Baird. Pe ale's Egret. 
Several specimens of this beautiful species were brought home by 
Mr. Maynard from Indian River, taken at Dummitt's. This is some- 
what farther north than any point from which it has been previously 
reported. 

138.* Garzetta caildidissima Bonaparte, kittle "White Heko*. 
Abundant. Breeds in February and March. 

139.* Herodias egretta Gray. White Heron. 

Abundant. Breeds early in the season. At a small heronry on an islet 
in Lake Dexter 1 found several nests containing nearly fledged young, 
March 23d. The nests, built eight to fifteen feet above the ground, were 
composed of a few sticks loosely put together. Often they were placed 
in the tops of bushes which were thickly overgrown with woody vines. 
The young, when shaken from the nest, climbed through the vines, 
using their bills as an organ of prehension, either seizing the branches 
between their mandibles or hooking their bills over them, and clung so 
closely that it was exceedingly difficult to dislodge them. 

This and the preceding species are greatly persecuted by the hun- 
ters, who sometimes destroy great numbers at their breeding places, 
so many of the birds being killed and the others so much alarmed, that 
large heronries are thus completely broken up. Some gunners make 
it their business to hunt them for their plumes. Some means should 
be devised, however, for the protection of these beautiful birds, as at 
their present rate of decrease their number will soon be greatly di- 
minished. 

140.* Ardea herodias LinnC. Great Blue Heron. 
Abundant. Breeds in the retired swamps, nesting in the highest 
cypres3-trees. It is rare that more than a .single nest is seen in one 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGT. 359 

tree, but often several pairs breed near eacb otber. Young, a third 
grown, were met with as early as the 12th of March. This species 
breeds while in immature plumage, young females being found mated 
with adult males, and vice versa. The only very appreciable external 
sexual difference is that of size, the males, as is generally the case in 
this* family, being much larger than the females. 

141.* Florida cserulea Baird. Small Blue Heron. 
Common. 

142.* Ardetta exilis Gray. Little Bittern. 
Not common. 

I43.t Botaurus lentiginosus Stephens. Bittern 
Very common at some localities. 

144.* Butorides virescens Bonaparte. Green Heron. 
Not uncommon. Smaller than northern specimens, the Florida 
examples being intermediate in size between those from New Eng- 
land and the West Indies, the latter of which are usually regarded as a 
distinct species, under the name of B. brunnescem. They also de- 
cidedly approach the West Indian type in coloration. 

145* Nycticorax griseus Gray. Night Heron. 

Ardea nycticorax Linne, Syst Nat., I, 235. — Wilson, Audubon, Nuttall, 
Bonaparte etc. 

Ardea grisea Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 239, 1766. 

Ardea Gardeni Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 644, 1788. 

Nycticorax europaus Steph., Gen. Zool., XI, 609, pi. xlvii. 

Nycticorax americana Bonap., Geog. and Comp. List, 48, 1838. 

Nycticorax Gardeni Jardine, Notes to Wilson's Orn. — Bonap., Conspectus 
Gen. Avium, II, 141, 1855. 

Nyctiardea Gardeni Baird, Birds N. Am., 678, 1858, and subsequent Ameri- 
can authors. 

I did not observe this species on the St. John's, but Mr. Maynard 
found it more or less common on Indian River and Mosquito Lagoon. 
Mr. Boardman gives it as "not rare." It is said to be resident the 
Whole year in Florida, by Audubon. 

Having compared specimens of the American night heron with others 
from various parts of the Old World, I see no jeason for considering them 
specifically distinct, though so considered by all American and some Euro- 
pean ornithologists. The differences between them are scarcely appreciable. 



860 BULLETIN OF TBE 

TANTALID^J. 

146* Tantalus loculator /''"" , ' "Wood Ibis. "Gannet." 

Common on the Upper St. John's. In March they were undergoing 
their spring moult, and were consequently in poor plumage. According 
to Dr. Bryant, who is the first and only writer, so far as I am aware, 
who has minutely described their eggs and breeding habits, incubation 
is generally commenced by the 1st of April. Dr. Bryant visited two of 
their breeding places, one of which was between New Smyrna and 
Enterprise, in a large cypress swamp on the southern border of Lake 
Ashby. He estimated that a thousand pairs were breeding there. 

There is a singular discrepancy in the accounts of authors in respect 
to the habits of this bird. Bartram mentions it as solitary in its 
habits, not associating in flocks. Audubon, always finding it in large 
flocks, calls attention to this remark of Mr. Bartram as being wholly 
erroneous, and regrets that his account had been so extensively copied 
by authors. Dr. Bryant fully corroborates Bartram's account, and 
censures Audubon for not remembering that birds vary in their habits 
at different times and places. He says he never saw it in flocks except 
at its breeding places, and that they usually went off and returned 
either singly or in pairs. I saw wood ibises more or less frequently on 
the Upper St. John's for four or five weeks, and only in two or three 
Instances singly or in pairs. I almost invariably saw them in flocks, 
both at their feeding grounds and flying in the air, they varying in 
number from a dozen to a hundred. While more or less gregarious at 
all times, they often doubtless also separate into pairs or wander singly. 

In East Florida the wood ibises are called " gannets." Under this 
name they were described to Audubon when he visited that country, 
and concerning which he remarks : " On asking the appearance of the 
Gannets, I was told they were large white birds, with wings black at 
the end, a long neck, and a large sharp bill. The description so far 
agreeing with that of the common gannet or solan goose, I proposed no 
questions respecting the legs or tail, but went off." On visiting the 
locality where they were said to occur, he was surprised to find the 
trees covered with wood ibises. He hence adds : " Now as the good 
people who gave the information spoke according to their knowledge, 
and agreeably to their custom of calling the ibises gannets, had I not 
gone to the pond, I might have written this day that gannets are found 



MUSEUM OF -COMPARATIVE: ZOOLOGY. 561 

in the interior of the woods in the Floridas, that they alight on trees, 
etc., which, if once published, would in all probability have gone down 
to future times through the medium of compilers." * Numbers of simi- 
lar errors have in fact crept into our natural-history literature, and 
after they have become well known as such to investigators, they are 
perpetuated for a generation or two by superficial compilers. The 
same may almost equally well be said in respect to nominal species. 

147.* Ibis alba VieMot. White Ibis. 

Abundant. Towards the end of February they were moulting and 
in very poor plumage. Most of the young still retained their brown 
dress, but in a large proportion the moulting was considerably advanced. 
Before the end of March it was completed, and April 1st I saw large 
flocks passing northward high in the air, apparently migrating. 

During the winter these birds have the peculiar habit, on the Upper 
St. John's, of daily flying up the river at evening and down again early 
ii» the morning. They usually fly very low, passing just over the tree- 
tops when cutting across a bend in the river, and at other times close 
to the water. They are hence in easy gun-shot range from the river or 
its banks, and, flying in dense flocks, afford fine sport to the numerous 
sportsmen camping along its banks, who make great havoc among them. 
They breed much later in the season than the herons. Dr. Bryant 
states that as late as the 20th of April they had not commenced laying, 
and that they fly up and down Indian River in the same manner as on 
the St. John's.f Mr. Maynard informs me he did not meet with this 
bird on Mosquito Lagoon. 

148. Ibis falcinellus Linn€. Glossy Ibis. 

Tantalus mexiranus Orp., Journ. Phil. Acad. Xat. Sci., I, 53, 1817. 

Ibis falcinellus Bonwp., Obs. on Noniencl. Wilson's Orn., Ibid., V, 70, 1825. — 

Ibid., Am. Orn., IV, 23, pi. xxiii, 1831. — Acdubon, Orn. Biog., IV, 608, 

pi. ccclxxxvii, 1838. 
Ibis Ordi Bonaf., Geog. and Comp. List, 1838. — Baird, Birds N. Amer., 

685, 1858. 

" Pine barrens between Lake Harney and Indian River, in the 
ponds, in flocks of twelve to twenty." J 

* Birds of America, Vol. VI, p. 68. 

t Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. VII, 15. 

t The above is a memorandum of the recent occurrence of this species in East 
Florida, obtained from Mr. Maynard, but whether given by him -on his own authority or 
on that of Mr. C. H. Nauman, I am at present uncertain. 



362 BULLETIN OF THE 

ABAMID^E. 

149.* Aramus giganteus Baird. Crying Bird. "Limpkin." 
This singular and stupid bird is at present more or less common about 
the grassy lakes and bayous from Lake Dexter southward. Now that 
Florida has become such a favorite winter resort for health-seekers, 
pleasure-seekers, and sportsmen, it will be surprising if it is not soon 
exterminated, as it seems to have almost no fear of man or the gun. 
They are generally seen in pairs, rarely, however, more than a few 
occupying the same vicinity ; and when one of a party of them is shot, 
the others, instead of seeking safety by flight, remain and salute the 
intruder with their singularly discordant cries. Their excellent flesh 
will tend to favor their rapid extermination. They build their nests in 
bushes along the river and its bayous, occasionally at a considerable 
height, but make no effort to conceal them. At Hawkinsville I found 
a newly built nest, containing a single egg, March 20th, and a few days 
later, at Lake Dexter, I met with young nearly full grown. Hen«e 
they must breed very early, and, perhaps, somewhat irregularly. Dr. 
Bryant gave the first detailed account of the habits of this bird,* to 
which there is little to be added. He says he found it more or less 
common on the St. John's from Lake George to Lake Harney, but 
most abundant on the Wikiva Creek, which empties into the St. John's 
about twenty-five miles below Enterprise. This account agrees with 
my own experience in respect to its distribution. I did not ascend the 
"VVikiva, but was informed that this bird was much more abundant there 
than on the St. John's. Dr. Bryant says that incubation usually com- 
mences in February, and that the number of eggs it lays is very large, 
sometimes numbering fifteen. Its popular name in Florida is " limp- 
kin." 

Possessing many features that ally them to the rails, they in other 
respects resemble the herons, and especially the ibises, besides having 
peculiar characters which mark them as a group distinct from either. 

ANATID^. 
150.t Anas boschas Linnif. Mallard. 
"Common all winter in very large flocks." — Boardman. Audubon 
speaks of their occurring in such numbers in portions of Florida, when 

* Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. Vn, p. 12. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 363 

he was there in 1831, as to darken the air, and the noise of their wings, 
when rising from the large submerged savannas, he compares to the 
rumbling of thunder. Mr. Maynard also found them in vast numbers 
in 1869 on Indian River. 

15l.t Anas obscura Linn€. Black Duck. 
" Quite common." — Maynard. 

152.t Daflla acuta Jenyns. Pintail Dcck. 
" St. John's River ; not common." — Boardman. Mr. Maynard says 
that on Indian River he found them in immense numbers, passing over 
in clouds for hours together. 

I53.t Nettie- n carolinensis Baird. Green-winged Teal. 
Abundant. 

154.t Querquedula cyanoptera Cassin. Red-breasted Teal. 
This species was found by Mr. Maynard in great numbers in the 
savannas of the upper part of Indian River, but unfortunately the 
specimens he obtained were lost. This, I believe, is the first time it 
has been reported from any of the Atlantic States. 

I55.t Querquedula discors Stephens. Blue-winged Teal. 
Abundant. 

156+ Spatula clypeata Bote. Shoveller. 
" Common." — Maynard. Boardman. 

I57.t Mareca americana Stephens. Baldpatb. 
" Common." — Boardman. 

158* Aix sponsa Boie. Wood Duck. 
Abundant. Breeds early. Saw young March 15th. 

159.t Fulix marila Baird. Scaup Duck. 

Anas marila Linne, Syst. Nat., I, 1766, 196. —Wilson, Am. Orn., VIII, 84, 

pi. lxix, 1814. 
Fuliijnla marila Aud., Birds of America, VII, 355, pi. ccccxcviii, 1843. 
Fidigula affinis Eyton, Mon. Anat, 157, 1838. 
Fulignla maritoides Vigors, Zoiil. Blossom, 31, 1839. 
Fuligula minor Giraud, Birds of Long Island, 323, 1844. — Bell, Proc. Phil. 

Acad. Nat. Sci.. I, 141, 1842. 
Fuhx marila et affinis Baird, Birds N. Amer., 791, 1858. 



864 BULLETIN OF THE 

Very abundant. By far the most numerous duck on the St. John's 
River. Quite common at Jacksonville as late as April 1st. 

The Fullx, or Fuligula, affinis auct. is evidently only the smaller, darker 
southern form of the F. marila auct. Most of the specimens collected in 
Florida were of the so-called F. ajims type. 

160.f Aythya americana Bonaparte. Red-head. 
Abundant in the marshes near St. Augustine, in 1831. — Audubon.* 
I find the A. vallisneria recorded in my notes made at Jacksonville. 

I saw none, however, myself, but it was reported by sportsmen to Dot 

unfrequently occur there. 

161.1 Bucephala albeola Baird. Butter-Ball. 
Observed in Florida by Audubon. f 

162.t Erismatura rubida Bonaparte. Ruddy Duck. 
More or less common on the Lower St. John's. Also observed by 
Audubon when he was on the plantation of General Hernandez, in 
East Florida, and " in immense flocks " about a hundred miles up the 
St. John's River, in February, 1832. J Also obtained by Mr. Maynard 
at Dummitt's. 

163.t Lophodytes CUCUllatus Reichenbach. Hooded Merganser. 
" Very abundant on the coast." — Boardman. " Numerous at Dum- 
mitt's." — Maynard. Occasional on the St. John's. 

Geese are currently reported by the inhabitants to occur in winter in 
North Florida, but I am unable to state what species. Probably Ber- 
nicla canadensis and B. brenta, and perhaps others, are at times more 
or less common, since they are well known to occasionally visit Cuba. 

PELECANID^J. 

164 * Pelecanus erythrorhynchus Gmelin. White Pelican. 
" Seen in large flocks near the mouth of the St. John's all winter." — 
Boardman. " Common on Indian River. Said to breed on an island 
near Dummitt's, and at Jupiter Inlet." — Maynard. 

165.* Pelecanus fuscus Linne". Brown Pelican. 
" Abundant on the coast in winter." — Boardman. 

* Birds of America, Vol. VI, p. 312. 

t Ibid., p. 370. J Riid., p, 325. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 865 

SULIDJE. 
166-t Sula bassana Brisson. Common Garnet. 
" Abundant on the coast." — Board/nan. 

167.* Sula fusca Linne'. Booby Gannet. 
A few were seen on the coast near St. Augustine by Mr. Boardman. 
Mr. Maynard also observed it at Cape Canaveral 

PHALACROCORACID-EI 

168.* Graculus floridanus Bonaparte. Florida Cormorant. 
Common on the St. John's, and, according to Mr. Boardman, abun- 
dant on the coast. 

PLOTID.E. 
169* Plotus anhinga Linne'. Snake Bird. Water Turkey. 
Abundant. Breeds in February and March, sometimes nesting in the 
tops of the highest trees, and sometimes quite low. Both sexes incubate. 

PROCELLARID.S3. 

I70.t Oceanites oceaniea Coues. Wilson's Stormy Petrel. 
"A few about the coast at Fernandina." — Boardman. 

171.t Puffinus major Fabricius. Greater Shearwater. 
" A few about the coast at Fernandina." — Boardman. 

LARID.^ 

172. t Larus argentatus Briinnich. Herring Gull. 

Common. Seen up the St. John's as far as Hibernia. 

On my voyage from New York to Augusta, Ga., on my way to 
Florida, small parties of these gulls, numbering usually six to twenty, 
were almost constantly hovering near the vessel. In the Bay of New 
York, as along the coast of New England, and doubtless along that of 
all the Atlantic States at this season, the birds in immature plumage 
far outnumbered the others ; but a hundred miles from land all the gulls 
of this species seen were old birds, which accords with observations of 
mine made on other winter voyages in the North Atlantic. It hence 
appears that the young birds are less venturesome than the adult, and 
keep mainly near the land. This accords also with the well-known 
fact that young birds, in migratory species, do not generally attain so 



366 BULLETIN OF THE 

high latitudes in the breeding season as the fully adult. It is also 
highly probable that, generally, the young birds of this family do not 
range quite so far southward in winter as the older. The mature herring 
gulls, so far as I had an opportunity of observing, far outnumbered 
the young ones along the Carolina coast and on the St. John's River. 

173.t Larus delawarensis Ord. Ring-billed Gull. 
" Not numerous." — Boardman. 

174* Chrcecocephalus atricilla Lawrence. Laughing Gull. 
Common along the coast and on the Lower St. John's. 

175.t ChrCBCOCephalus Philadelphia Lawrence. Bonaparte's Gull. 
With the preceding, and equally numerous. Also common, accord- 
ing to Mr. Maynard, on Indian River. 

176.t Gelochelidon anglica Bonaparte. Marsh Tern. 
Obtained by Mr. Maynard on Indian River. 

177.* Thalasseus regius Gambd. Royal Tern. 
"Abundant about the coast." — Boardman. Maynard. 

178. Sterna hirundo Linn€. Common Tern. 
" Common at Dummitt's." — Maynard. 

The following table of measurements of sixty-five specimens (forty-five 
males and twenty females) of this species, taken in the breeding season at 
Muskeget Island, Massachusetts, indicates the considerable range of indi- 
vidual differentiation that obtains in this species. Though so great, it does 
appear to be greater than occurs in Sterna macrura, of which I have the 
measurements of twenty-five specimens taken at the same locality and dur- 
ing the same excursion, nor is it probably greater than most of the terns 
and gulls present, as is evidently indicated by the great number of 
measurements of specimens of other species of the Laridm of our coast 
now before me. 

The average dimensions of the specimens cited in the subjoined table 
are as follows : — 

Males: Length, 14.51; alar extent, 30.72; wing, 10.47; tail, 5.80; cul- 
men, 1.40; tarsus, .78. Females: Length, 13.85 ; alar extent, 30.59 ; wing, 
10.57; tail, 5.74; culmen, 1.36; tarsus, .77. The extremes of the same 
are as follows : — 

Males : Length, 13.00 to 15 77 ; alar extent, 29.00 to 32.00; wing, 9.65 
to 11.70; tail, 5.00 (4.81?) to 7.00; bill (culmen), 1.28 to 1.55; tarsus, .70 
to .87. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



367 



Females: Length, 13.10 to 15.50 ; alar extent, 28.20 to 32.00 ; wing, 9.90 
to 11.50 ; tail, 5.20 (4.75?) to 6.11 ; bill (culmen), 1.25 to 1.55 ; tarsus .70 
to .90. 

Measurements of Massachusetts Specimens of Sterna hirundo, 
Taken in the Breeding Season. 



S3 

U ° 

.<5 


8* a 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


c 


£3 


si 

.n 


■3 
in 


S 


i 

u 


S 


Isli'd 








>3 


w 


^* 


6.90 


i.a: 


.73 


Ipswich 


1 June 16, '68 


Allen & Maynard 


14 00 


"30 50 


10.65 




8071 d 




June 16, '68 


" 


14.36 29.60 


10.11 


6 56 1.3S 


.70 


I047i 


905 \d 


Wellfleet 


June 26, '68 


" 


14 75 31.90 


10.5C 


6.50 1 3£ 


.80 


1047- 


906! d 




June 26, '68 


" 


1430' 31.70 


10.4f 


6.00: 1.41 


.76 


1047: 


907k 


" 


June 26, '68 


" 


14 nil 31 « 


10. 6C 


5.50; 1 3£ 


.74 


10481 


908: d 




June 26, '68 


" 


13 75; 31. oO 


10. 7E 


5.40 1.28 


.76 




911, d" 


Muskeget Isl. 


June 29, '68 


" 


14.75 30.50 


1051 


6 00, 1.3C 


.87 


10431 


913 d 


" 


June 29, '08 


" 


14.40 ! 293' 


10.1a 


0.0(1 l.r,l 


.80 


1048.3 


913; d 


" 


June 29, '68 


" 


14 801 29.30 


1040 


5.50 1 1 45 




1048b 


917 d" 


" 


June 29, '68 


" 


14 901 29.60 


10.40 


5.55i 1.36 


.85 





920 ? 


" 


June 29, '08 


" 


14 001 30.00 


11.00 


5.75 1.35 


.76 





923'd" 


" 


June 20, '68 


" 


14.00 1 30.50 


10 40 


5.55 140 


.77 


10480 




" 


June 29, '08 


" 


14.40; 29.80 


10.25 


5 45! 137 


.81 


10490 


926 d" 


" 


June 29, '68 


" 


14.501 30:25 


10.30 


5.40 1.35 


.80 





927 d 


" 


June 29, '68 


" 


14.00 ai.iM 


10.50 


600 


14' 


.75 


10491 


928 ? 


" 


June 29, '68 


" 


14 50! 30.80 


10.15 


5.60 


1.52 


.74 





910l d 


" 


June 29, '68 


" 


13 601 31.15 


10.25 


560 











94lj d 


" 


June 30, '68 


" 


14.50 31 65 


10.15 


6.10 





. 





942'cT 


" 


June 30, '68 


" 


14.50: 3150 


9.65 


690 











943, d 


" 


June 30, '68 


" 


14. 25; 30.25 


9.75 


5-00 











944 ! cf 


" 


June 30, '68 


" 


14.60 30.20 


10 80 


6.00 








10492 


945 -• 


" 


June 30, '68 


" 


14.10 30.50 


lo2 _ , 


5.50 











941 d 


" 


June 30, '63 


" 


15.50; 31.85 


11.30 


7.00 





80 





947 •• 


" 


June 31. '68 


" 


15.75! 31.50 


10.75 


6.00 





.v.. 





949 d 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


13.75; 29.90 


10 45 


5.85 





.79 





957 cf 


" 


July 2, ~m 


" 


15.65 32.00 


11 50 


5.95 


150 


.75 


10198 


935 ' 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


14.00 30.25 


1170 


5.00 


1.45 


•77 


10500 


963 ' 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


14.30; 31.27 


10.70 


5.01 1.33 


•77 


10501 




" 


July 2, : 68 


" 


14.26 31.00 


10.65 


5.61 1.30 


• 76 





939 d 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


L5.60 31 60 


lu 85 


6.7o 1.30 


.75 





970' d 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


14.281 30.80 


10.50 


5.40 135 


•81 





971; cf 


" 


July 2, '63 


" 


14 40: 31.60 


10.30 


5.70 1.40 


•75 





972; d 




July 2, '68 


" 


14.00 j 30.00 


9.80 


5.15 140 


.78 





973 d 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


15.00 31.00 


9.90 


5.80 1.50 


■75 


10503 


975! d" 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


15-20 30.50 


10.56 


5.S5 1 143 


• 85 







" 


July 2, '68 


" 


14.25 31.20 


10.25 


5-70 1.51 


•80 


10504 


979 d 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


15 25 31.00 10.00 


6 27 


145 


•81 





930! d 


" 


July 2, '68 


»' 


14.70 : 30.55 10.40 


5.45 


1.51 


•85 





981 d 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


14 55| 3100 


10.55 


5 55 


1.41 


• 75 







" 


July 2, '68 


" 


13.00; 29.00 


10.30 


4 81 


135 


•76 







" 


July 2, '08 


" 


15.00, 31 43 


10.80 


6 11 




•75 





99 ' 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


14 50' 31.50 


In;,. 




1 45 


.85 







" 


July 2, '68 


" 


15.77 30.00 


1050 




1 55 


•77 







" 


July 2, '68 


" 


L4.25 31 00 


10.65 


,". 75 




•70 







" 


July 2, '68 


" 


14.00 30.30 


10 35 




1.41 


•70 


10476 


904 i 


Wcllfleet 


June 20. '68 


" 




9.90 




• 7o 


10481 


912 V 


Muskeget Isl 


June 29. '68 


" 


14.20 :; 


10.00 


6.00 1.40 


• 70 


1 1484 


915 . 


l( 


June 29, '68 


" 


li;:, 30.75 10.55 


6.07 1 42 


•75 


1 1483 


914 i 


" 


Juue'io, 68 


" 


13.90 29.80 L0.05 


5.75 1.30 


•75 







" 


June 29, '68 


" 


13.60, 28. 50 lorn 


5.50 1 36 


• 74 





919 . 


" 


June 29. '68 


" 


13.50 28.20 10.30 


5 85 1 .25 


•75 





0-1 1 


" 


June 20, »68 


" 


25 10.25 


5.65 1.26 


• 71 


10487 


922 


" 


June 29, '68 


" 


13.55 30.55 10.63 


5.70 1 26 


•80 


10488 


924 I 


" 


June 29. '68 


" 


. 1.50 10.50 •". 


• 73 





948 . 


'■ 


June 30, '6S 


" 


14.50 31 7.'. 10.80 5.90 — 


.80 


10491 




" 


July 2, '68 


" 


.1 ,.80 128 


.80 


10495 




" 


July 2, '68 


■' 


13.60 32-00 11 50 5 75 130 


.80 







" 


July 2, '68 


" 


1550 31.75 U.25 


5.41 1 43 


•71 


10498 


985 9 


" 


July 2 '68 


" 


13.56, 30.00 1030 


5.14 1.30 


•74 





oTt , 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


15 25 32 00 1125 


6 11 134 







976 9 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


i.20 J" 26 5.55 1 31 


• 75 





97S ! 9 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


14.™ 31.80 10.70 5.45 1.55 


•80 


10504 


99719 


" 


July 2, '68 


" 


14.45' 31.70 10.45 6.46 141 


.80 


10505: 


999: 9 


" 


July 2, SS 


" 


14.35 30.50, 10.45, 560i 1.491 


.80 


1001 V 


July 2, '63 


14.40, 31.00! 10.65 5.85 1.401 .85 



368 BULLETIN OF THE 

179. Sterna macrura Neumann, Arctic Tern. 
"Common at Dummitt's." — Maynard. 

As already remarked under Sterna hirundo the individual variation in 
the present species is very great. The largest and smallest specimens in 
a series of twenty-five, taken at Muskeget Island in the breeding season 
measured as follows : — 

Largest {$) : Length, 16.00; alar extent, 32.75; wing, 11.75; tail, 6.00. 

Smallest (<?) : Length, 14.33 ; alar extent, 27.52 ; wing, 9.85 ; tail, 4.26. 

The maxima and minima of this series are as follows : — 

Length, 14.10 and 17.00; alar extent, 27.52 and 32.75; wing, 9.85 and 
11.84; tail, 4.26 and 8.25. 

"While the females average a very little smaller than the males, several 
of the females are very nearly as large as the largest males. 

The Sterna Forsteri may also occur as a winter resident, but I have 
at present no evidence of its occurrence there at this season. A specimen 
from the " St. John's River, Florida," collected by Dr. "Wurdemann, is 
■cited by Mr. Lawrence * and Dr. Coues f (Smithsonian collection No. 
4928), but no information is given as to when it was collected. 

180.* Rhynchops nigra Linn€. Black Skimmer. 
Abundant on the coast, occurring in large flocks. Not observed by 
me on the St. John's. 

COLYMBIDJE. 

181 .t Colymbus torquatus Brunnich. Loon. 

" A single specimen at Mandarin, on the Lower St. John's ; abun- 
dant off Fernandina harbor." — Maynard. 

The considerable number of specimens of this species in the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology show a wide range of individual variation. In a 
series of fifteen specimens from various localities in New England, but 
mainly from Massachusetts, the variation in the length of the folded 
wing amounts to twenty per cent of its average length in the whole se- 
ries ; in the length of the tarsus, to twenty-nine per cent ; in the length of 
the outer toe, to thirty per cent ; in the length of the head, to twenty- 
eight per cent ; and in the length of the culmen to twenty-three per cent. 

The form described some years since as Colymbus Adamsi seems to have 
been founded on very old specimens of the large northern race of C. tor- 

* Baird's Birds of North America, p. 863. 
t Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 547. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 369 

quatus, in which the color of the hill is unusually light, and the bill itself' 
unusually produced. 

182.t Podiceps cornutus Latham. Horned Grebe. 
"Not uncommon on the St. John's." — Boardman. 

183.t Podilymbus podiceps Lawrence. Carolina Grebe. 
Abundant on the St. John's. 

Resume of the preceding Tables of Measurements, with suvplemental 

Remarks. 

The following tables present a brief summary of the measurements 
given in Part IV. In the first table is given the average dimensions of 
thirty-two species, based on specimens collected, in each case, essentially 
from the same locality, and generally based on twenty or more speci- 
mens, the number varying in the different species from thirteen to 
sixty-five specimens. In all cases where the average sexual differ- 
ence in size is appreciable, the dimensions are given for each sex. 
In most cases very nearly all the specimens are from Eastern Massa- 
chusetts, a few being from different localities in Southern Maine, and 
a few from Northern Illinois. In a few species all the specimens cited 
are from Eastern Florida ; in a few other species part of the specimens 
are from Southern New England and a part from Eastern Florida ; 
but in these cases a separate average is made of those from each of 
the two localities. The number of the specimens on which the average 
is based is given in each instance. 

The second table shows the range of individual variation in size in 
the same species, based also on the same specimens. 

The third table shows the amount of geographical variation in size in 
specimens of the same species from northern and southern localities, 
these localities being generally Southern New England (Eastern Massa- 
chusetts in the main) and East Florida. Only seven species are cited, 
but I have traced about the same ratio of difference in a score or more 
of others, of which the measurements have not yet been published. 
Although the number of specimens compared from the two localities 
has in many of these cases been comparatively small, enough have 
been examined to show the general constancy of the variation in all 
the species which breed at both these localities. 

It should be added that the specimens on which the generalizations 

vol. ir. 24 



370 



BULLETIN OF THE 



given in Table Hi are based were not taken at the seasons likely to 
give the greatest differences, the northern specimens having been taken 
in summer and the southern ones in winter. Had summer Florida 
specimens been used instead of winter specimens, the differences would 
have been doubtless much greater, since in some eases, and especially 
in the cases of Agelceus phoeniceus and Quiscalus purpureus, the sum- 
mer home of a part at least of the Florida specimens must have been 
somewhat to the northward of Florida. 

I. Table showing the Average Dimensions of Thirty-two Species of 
American Birds, based on Measurements of Thirteen to Sixty-five 
Specimens of each Species. 



Species. 



Turdus Swainsoni . 
Turdua Pallasi . . . 
Turdus fuscescens . . . 
Ilarporhynchus rufus 
Mini us polyglottus . . . 
Galeoscoptes earoliuensis 

Sialia sialis 

Geothlypis triehas . . . 
Parus atricapillus . . 
Tyrannus carolinensia . . 
Pyranga rubra . . 
Troglodytes aedon . . 
Passerculus savanna 
Peucaaa aestivalis 

Cardinalis virginianu3 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus \ 

Hedymeles ludoviciana 
Icterus Baltimore 
Dolichonyx oryzivorus 

Agelajus phoeniceus j 



Sturnella ludoviciana . 



Quiscalus purpureus 

Quiscalus major . . 

Cyanura cristata 
Cyanocitta florMana 
Hylotomus pileatus 
Picus borealis . . 
Colaptes auratus 
Conurus carolinensig 

Oxtyx virginianus . 
Sterna hirundo . 



Locality. 



Massachusetts 
Florida . . . 



Massachusetts 

Florida . 



Illinois . . . 
Florida . . 
Illinois . . . 
Florida . . . 
Massachusetts 



Suuthem New England 



Florida 

Southern New England 



Eastern Massachusetts 
Southern New England 

Florida . .... 
Massachusetts . . . 
Florida 

Southern New England 

Florida 

Southern New England 



Northern States 
Florida . . . 
Northern States 
Florida . 
Northern States 
Florida 

Northern States 
Florida . . . 



"Sri 




J3 




Sex. 


a 


Z o. 


3 


24 ! - 


7.17 


46 1 — 


7.o4 


40 — 


7.38 


17 - 


11.29 


37 - 


9.91 


20 - 


8.60 




6.80 


20 S 


5.10 


27 — 


5 38 


20 — 


8.00 


13 - 


7.05 


15 — 


4.89 


26 — 


5.20 


22 - 


5.88 


32 ' d" 


8.46 


26 ; $ 


8 27 


30 d 


8.19 


19 ' d" 


7.ss 


17 


7-77 


20 


rT 


7 52 


20 


rT 


7-24 


40 


rT 


9.16 


28 


V 


7-53 


15 


rt 


10.43 


12 


d 




8 


V 


9 55 


9 


V 


8.96 


15 


rf 


10.43 


12 


r-T 


9.81 


8 




9 55 


9 


o 


8.96 


24 


rT 


16.51 


8 


9 


12.95 


18 




11 71 


11 







1?, 





11.74 


7 


? 


17.48 


7 


16 It 


28 






18 





12.45 


11 





11 66 


19 





13.10 


i 


rf 


lo 18 


16 r 


o 4-; 








o 37 


45 d" 


14.51 


20 1 9 


13.85 



Tf65 '~S\86 
11 17 3.07 
11 83 3-2 
13.09 4.15 
13.69 428 
11.16 3.53 



11.93 
693 
8.37 
13.77 
11.33 
t; oi 



11.27 

11 32 
9.88 

12 15 

11.67 

14.71 

12.24 

15 70 
14.43 



15.70 
11 13 
14.09 

22 18 
1704 

0.-7 
15 11 



3.94 
2.17 
2.47 
4 49 
3 76 
2.05 



5 7* 2.70 
8 99 2 in 
11.43 3.63 



3 53 
3 43 
3.13 
3 93 
3 71 
3.78 
1.69 

3 86 

4 91 
447 
I 29 



14.09 I 21 



1 91 
1 17 

4 •» 
7 19 
5.67 

5.13 

4 7.", 



14 44 4 41 
28 07 21 
26.80 8 98 
14.46 4.71 

1 B 82 5 8 1 

21 70 7 59 

15 44 4 47 
14.16 4 22 
15 10 4.36 
It 02 4 17 
30.72 10.47 
30.59 1057 





j 


— 


P 


3 




H 


ci 




EH 


2.88 


1 15 


2.72 


1.15 


2.88 


113 


5.00 


1.31 


4.87 


— 


3.76 


1.10 


2.55 


78 


2.00 


.77 


2.50 


.70 


3 30 


.73 


2 00 


.75 


1.80 


.52 


1.96 


.84 


2.49 


70 


3.87 


— 


3.77 


— 


3.30 


1.00 


3.56 


.94 


■■ s-< 


.86 


2 02 


.92 


2 07 


1.00 


:; ••:; 


— 


2 03 


— 


3 10, 


— 




— 




— 


2.57 


— 


3.16 


— 




— 


2 82 


— 


2 57 


— 


7on 


— 


5.11 


— 


1 89 


— 


5.00 


— 


4 SO 


— 


6.S2 


— 


6.54 


— 


3.41 


— 


4 85 


— 


4.40 


— 


2.82 





2 52 


— 


2.67 


— 


2.54 


— 


5-80 


.78 


5.74 


.77 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



371 



II. Table showing the Range of Individual Variation in Tldrty Species 
of American Birds, based on the Measurements of Thirteen to Sixty- 
five Specimens of each Species, collected at the same Locality. 



Species. 



Turdus Swainsoni . . j 

Turdus Pallasi ... J 

Turdus fuscescens . . j 

Harporhynchus rufus . j 
Galeoseoptes carolinensis ] 

Mimus polyglottus . . j 

Sialia sialis . . . j 

Geothlyms trichas . . j 

Pyratiga rubra . . . j 

Parus atricapillus . . j 

Troglodytes aedon . . j 

Passerculus savanna . j 

Peucaea aestivalis . . { 

Cardinalis virginianus . 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus .j 

( 

Hedymeles ludovicianus J 

Icterus Baltimore . . j 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus ! 

Agebeus phceniceus 
Sturnella ludoviciana 
Quiscalus purpureus 
Quiscalus major 

Cyanura cristata . 

Cyanocitta floridana . j 

Tyrannus carolinensis I 
Picus borealis . 



Locality. 



Southern New England 



Florida . . ... 

Southern New England 



Eastern Massachusetts 

Florida 

Eastern Massachusetts 
Florida 



Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 



Southern New England 

Florida 

Southern New England 



Massachusetts 



Florida . . . , 
Northern States 
Florida . 



Massachusetts 
Florida . . . 



Southern New England 
Florida . . . . 



Min. 

Max 

Min. 

Mix. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max 

Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max 

Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max 

Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min 

Max 

Min. 

Max. 

Min 

Max. 

Min 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min. 

Max. 

Min 

Max. 



— \ <* a 

tao i = v 
g <x 

6.62 10 75 

7 7," 12 65 
6.50 10.00 
7.05 12.25 

7.87 12.70 

10 55 12 55 
11.85 14.00 
7tt0 10.50 
9<)0 11.95 
9 27 13 00 
11.00 14 75 
6.10 11.10 
7.00 12.55 

5.63 7.50 
6.7510 65; 
7.30 11 75 
4 7-7 :■< I 
5.75 8.60 
4.30 <3 10 
5.10 6.95 
5.20 7.61 
6.00 '.'.7.". 
5.7-J 7.60 
6.20| 8.30 ! 
7.75 11.00 
9.10 11.78 

7 50 10.70! 
8.7511.75 
7.50 10.00 
8.80 12.25 
7.20 9.50 
8.50 11.30 
7.15 11.50 
8,30 12.90 
7.00 10.40 
8.00 12.00 
6.65 1100 
7.70 12.15 
8.40 13.95 
9 85 15.35 
7.35 11 25 
8.55 13.55 

10.00 15.05 

11 00 17.00 

8.50 13.00 

9 50 4 75 

L200 17 00 

13.50 18 43 

• 11.00 15.25 

13 00 17 80 

15.50 21.10 

16.80 23.50 

12.10 17 25 

L3 i I 18.25 

11 00 16.00 

12 2", 17.50 
10-70 14.75 
112-", 1600 
11 00 13.50 
12.50jl5.00 

7.0012 50 

8 65 14.80 
7 90 14.10 
8.60 15.20 



3 17 2.40 

4.30 3.40 

3.30, 2.4 

3 90 3.1 
3.55 2 63 

4 16 3.02 
3 8 I 4.50 
4.25 5.30 

3 25 335 
3.85 l l" 
4.00 4.10 

4 75 5 15 

3 85 2.33 
4.10 2 
1.95 1 

2 37 2.10 

3.57 2 55 

4 00 2a5 
233 2.15 
2.63 26 
1.90 130 
2 44 2.40 

2.44 1.64 
2.95 2 25 
2.17 2.25 

2 55 2.68 

3 50 3 40 
3.85 4.20 
3.25 3 40 
3.85 4.10 
3.17 3.30 
3 90 3 93 
2.80 3.25 
3.50 3.90 
3 83 2 70 
4.25 3.08 

3.45 2 70 
3.851 310 

3 53 2 45 

4 00 2.82 



4.43 
5.00 
4 26 
4 43 
4 74 
5.15 

3 90 

4 65 

5 2( ' 
6.05 
500 
5 75 



2 99 

3 90 
2.65 
315 
2.82 
3.58 
2.40 
2.90 

4 58 
6.00 
455 
5.50 



6 25 6 25 

8.35 7.60 

5.25 1 4.75 

5.95 5.60 

4.33 4.25 

5f,5 5.65 

4 on 4 80 

5.00 5.15 

4.00 4 2 _ , 

4 75 5. 3.5 

4.171 2.93 

4.85 3.54 

4.40 3.15 

4.95 1 3.'i 5 



1.02 

127 
1.12 
1.33 
106 
118 
120 
1.42 
105 
1.18 



.62 
80 
.62 
.75 
.98 

1.13 
.80 

1.09 



.83 
1.02 

.98 
1.15 



372 



BULLETIN OF THE 



Table II. (Continued.) 



Species. 



Colaptes auratuB 
Conurus carollnensis 

Ortyx rirginianus . 
Sterna hirundo . . 



Locality. 



Massachusetts 
Florida . . . 



Illinois . . . 
Florida . . 
Illinois . . 
Florida . . . 
Massachusetts 



Min. 
Max. 
Min. 
Max. 
Min. 
Max. 
Min. 
Max. 
Min. 
Max. 
Min. 
Max. 
Min. 
Max. 
Min. 
Max. 
Min. 
Max 




III. Table showing the Geographical Variation in Si2e in Seven 
Species of American Birds, between Specimens from Florida and 
the Northern States. 



Species. 



Pipilo erythrophthalmus 
Agelseus phceniceus 

Sturnella ludoviciana 

Quiscalus purpureus . . 

Cyanura cristata . . . 
Colaptes auratus . . . 

Ortyx virginianus . . 



Locality. 



Southern New England 

Florida 

Southern New England 
South Carolina & Florida 
Northern States . . 

Florida 

Northern States . . 

Florida 

Northern States . . 

Florida 

Northern States . . 

Florida 

Massachusetts . . . 
Florida .... 

Massachusetts . . . 

Florida 

Illinois . . . . 

Florida 

Illinois . . . 
Florida 







o g 


Sex. 


fc & 




03 




32 


r? 


26 


c? 


40 


<t 


11 


r? 


15 


r? 


12 


rf 


8 


V 


9 


V 


15 


rf 


12 


(T 


8 


V 


9 


? 


18 




11 


— 


18 


— 


11 


— 


7 


rf 


If, 


rf 


6 


V 


10 


V 



8.19 
788 
9.16 
9 02 

10 43 
9.81 
9.55 
8 96 

10.43 
9.81 
9.55 

8 96 
11.71 
10.98 
1245 
1166 
10 18 

9 46 
9 83 
9.37 



1132 

9.88 

14 71 
1441 
16.30 

15 70 
1443 
14.09 
1630 
15 70 
1443 

14 09 
16.87 
15.11 
19 94 
18.82 

15 44 
14 16 
15.10 
14.02 



ti. 








3 


£ 


is 


EH 


C3 

EH 


3.43 


3 36 


1.06 


3.13 


3 56 


.94 


469 


3.63 


— 


4 62 


3.61 





4 91 


3.16 


— 


4 47 


2.85 


— 


4.29 


2.82 


— 


4 22 


2.57 


— 


4.91 


3 16 


_ 


4 47 


2.85 


— 


i 4.29 


282 





4.22 


2 r.T 


— 


5.13 


4 89 


— 


475 


5.00 


— 


6.24 


4.35 


— 


r, si 


4 40 


— 


4.47 


2 82 


— 


4 22 


2.52 


— 


4.36 


267 


— 


4.17 


2.51 


— 



In the tables and remarks contained in the preceding pages many 
facts have been given bearing upon the subject of geographical varia- 
tion in birds, and especially in reference to the differences that al- 
most universally obtain between specimens of the same species from 
northern and southern localities. In addition to the smaller size of the 
southern specimens, — a fact which has been for some time quite gen- 
erally recognized, — attention has been called to the differences in color 
and in the form of the bill that seem almost equally constant and easy 
of recognition. In several species that range in the breeding season 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 373 

from Florida to Maine, a tendency to a relatively greater elongation of 
the tail in the Florida specimens has also been noticed, — a feature so 
well known to characterize a large proportion of the birds of Lower 
California, as pointed out some years since by Professor Baird, — but 
this variation is not so frequent as the differences in size, color, and in 
the length and form of the bill. As already remarked, the tail i3 not 
usually abbreviated proportionally to the general diminution in size in 
the southern or Florida forms of the birds of Eastern North America, 
and in some species it is actually longer than in the larger northern birds. 
As shown in the above tables, this is the case in Pipilo erythrophthal- 
mus, Cyanura a-istata, and Colaptes auratus, or in three species out of 
the seven cited in the last table. 

In numerous instances the southern forms of the birds enumerated 
in Part IV of this paper have already been specifically separated from 
their northern relatives ; and if the example of some previous writers 
was to be followed at least a dozen other similar species might still be 
added from among the birds of Florida. Some, indeed, might be re- 
ferred to the already separated West Indian and Mexican or Central 
American so-called species rather than to the northern type. As al- 
ready stated, I consider this almost universal similar variation of the 
southern representatives of species from their northern representatives 
to be the result of a law of gradual geographical differentiation, and 
that the interest of science is better subserved by simply recognizing 
these differences, and the law of geographical variation of which they 
are the result, than by giving to each newly discovered race a distinctive 
binomial name ; and the more especially since in numerous instances 
there is the most indubitable proof of the gradual and almost imper- 
ceptibly minute intergradation of the extreme northern and extreme 
southern types, even in cases where they are the most widely diverse. 

In conclusion, it may be stated that the differential diagnoses of the 
southern types, in cases where they have been specifically separated 
from the northern, and the comparisons of them made with the northern 
for the purpose of showing their specific distinctness, are in many 
cases admirable descriptions of the usual differences found to distinguish 
the Florida-born birds from their -co-specific representatives born in 
the Northern States. These differences are commonly solely the fol- 
lowing : In the southern types the size is smaller, the bill longer, and 
the colors generally darker ; the latter resulting from the greater pre- 



374 



BULLETIN OF THE 



dominance of the black in those in which portions of the plumage are 
mottled with this color, and the greater breadth of the dark transverse 
bars, and the correspondingly diminished breadth of the alternating 
lighter ones. To illustrate this point more fully, I herewith append a 
list of some of the so-called species of American birds that have been 
specifically separated by different authors from their northern repre- 
sentatives, but w