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Full text of "Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College"

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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 



OF THE 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 



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BULLETIN 



OF THE 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 



AT 



HARVARD COLLEGE, IN CAMBRIDGE 



VOL. 101 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U. S. A. 
1948-1949 



The Cosmos Press, Inc. 
Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 









CONTENTS 



PAGE 

No. 1. — The Birds of Korea. By Oliver L. Austin, Jr. (Plate.) 

June, 1948 1 

No. 2. — New Guinean Reptiles and Amphibians in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology and United States 
National Museum. By Arthur Loveridge. September, 
1948 303 

No. 3. — The Effect of Light Intensity and Day Length on 
Reproduction in the English Sparrow. By George 
A. Bartholomew, Jr. (10 plates.) February, 1949 . . 431 

No. 4. — The Nearctic Members of the Genus Lycaeides 
Hubner (Lycaenidae, Lepidoptera). By V. Nabokov. 
(9 plates.) February, 1949 . . . 477 

No. 5. — The Placentation of the Pronghorned Antelope 
(Antiloeapra Americana). Bv George B. Wislocki and 
Don W. Fawcett. (3 plates.) March, 1949 . . . 543 



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Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
AT HARVARD COLLEGE 

Vol. 101, No. 1 



THE BIRDS OF KOREA 



By Oliver L. Austin, Jr. 



iUN 21 K 



_CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U. S. A. 
PRINTED FOR THE MUSEUM 

June, 1948 



PUBLICATIONS 
OF THE 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 
AT HARVARD COLLEGE 

The Bulletin and Memoirs are devoted to the publication of 
investigations by the Staff of the Museum or of reports by spec- 
ialists upon the Museum collections or explorations. 

Of the Bulletin, Vols. 1 to 101, No. 1 have appeared and of the 
Memoirs, Vols. 1 to 55. 

These publications are issued in numbers at irregular intervals. 
Each number of the Bulletin and of the Memoirs is sold separately. 
A price list of the publications of the Museum will be sent upon ap- 
plication to the Director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. 



Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 

AT HARVARD COLLEGE 

Vol. 101, No. 1 



THE BIRDS OF KOREA 



By Oliver L. Austin, Jr. 



(Plate) 



* Zooloov ** 

I 21 I 




CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U. S. A. 
PRINTED FOR THE MUSEUM 

June, 1948 



To American Military Government, in which I have been privileged 
to play a small part, and which has shown itself not unmindful of the 
needs of the natural sciences, as well as of the humanities and politics 
during and following the recent war, this work, accomplished with its 
help, is dedicated. 01iver L Austin, Jr. 



Zoolocy 




CONTENTS 

Page 

Plan of the Work 3 

Historical Sketch 6 

Systematic List of Species 28 

Family Gaviidae 28 

Colymbidae 29 

Diomediidae 31 

Procellariidae 32 

Hydrobatidae 33 

Pelecanidae 34 

Phalacrocoracidae 34 

Ardeidae 36 

Ciconiidae 44 

Threskiornithidae 47 

Anatidae 49 

Accipitridae 72 

Pandionidae 87 

Falconidae 88 

Tetraonidae 92 

Phasianidae 93 

Turnicidae 96 

Gruidae 97 

Rallidae 102 

Otidae 106 

Rostratulidae 107 

Haematopodidae ' 107 

Charadriidae 108 

Scolopacidae 114 

Recurvirostridae 130 

Phalaropodidae 130 

Glareolidae 131 

Laridae 131 

Alcidae • 136 

Pteroclididae 139 

Columbidae 139 

Cuculidae 142 

Strigidae 145 

Caprimulgidae 151 

Apodidae 152 

Alcedinidae 154 

Coraciidae 157 

Upupidae • • 157 

Picidae 158 



Pittidae 169 

Alaudidae • 170 

Hirundinidae * 174 

Campephagidae 177 

Oriolidae 178 

Corvidae 179 

Paradoxornithidae 187 

Paridae 189 

Sittidae 196 

Certhiidae 198 

Timaliidae 198 

Brachypodidae . 199 

Cinclidae 200 

Troglodytidae 200 

Turdidae 202 

Muscicapidae 225 

Prunellidae 231 

Motacillidae 232 

Bombycillidae 241 

Laniidae 242 

Sturnidae 246 

Zosteropidae 248 

Ploceidae 249 

Fringillidae 250 

Bibliography 273 




No. 1. — The Birds of Korea 1 
By Oliver L. Austin, Jr. 

PLAN OF THE WORK 2 

This report on the birds of Korea is based on ray own collecting and 
field experiences there between November, 1945 and May, 1946, on a 
review of all the literature available, and on specimens and other data, 
much of it unpublished, in museums and private collections in Korea, 
Japan, and the United States. 

The geographical boundaries of the area are roughly those of the 
Korean peninsula and its contiguous minor islands southward from 
the Manchurian border. Though Quelpart and Dagelet Islands be- 
long to Korea politically, I have eliminated them from consideration 
here, partly because I have no new material from either, but mainly 
because they are, with Tsushima (politically Japanese) distinct and 
individual zoogeographical entities, which should be considered 
separately rather than as a part of any other land unit. 

Standardization of Korean place names and the adoption of a 
uniform Romanized spelling for them has not, until recently, been 
attempted. At least two, and sometimes three or more names are 
currently in use for the country itself and for each geographical entity 
within it. Since the liberation, the trend in most instances has been 
to recognize the Korean pronunciations instead of the sometimes 
better known Japanese, Chinese, or other variants. As my guide 
here I have followed the names and spellings adopted by the U. S. 
Army Map Service in its 1945 maps and terrain handbooks. 

I have numbered only forms of specific rank. Where more than one 
subspecies of a single species occur within the territory, they are con- 
sidered together conspecifically instead of being numbered separately. 
Only those species are numbered for which specimens have been re- 
corded from the area by competent authority; records of species not 
based on specimens collected are considered hypothetical and are 

1 Published with the aid of a special gift from Mr. George R. Agassiz. 

2 With the author's absence in Japan, the editor gratefully acknowledges invaluble assistance 
from J. L. Peters, Curator of Birds. L.G. 



4 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

enclosed in square brackets. There are a number of species for which 
Korean specimens no longer exist. Some were destroyed by the Tokyo 
earthquake in 1921, and others by the ravages of the recent war. 
But wherever specimens have been referred to in ornithological litera- 
ture by reliable authors, the records are deemed valid, whether or 
not the specimens are now in existence. 

Complete references are given to the original descriptions of all 
species and subspecies occurring in Korea. While no attempt has been 
made to give a complete synonymy, I have tried to include all syn- 
onyms originally described from the area. 

For each species all the known specimen records are given, unless 
there are so many it would be pointless so to do, as in the cases of the 
Pheasant, the Magpie and the House Sparrow. Dates are given when 
known, and listed by provinces rather than by more exact collecting 
localities, which are frequently impossible to locate. The following 
abbreviations are used to denote the sources of the records, or the 
locations of the specimens if hitherto unrecorded : 

AMNH — American Museum of Natural History, New York; contains the 
Andrews collection as well as a few items from Korean collectors obtained 
by exchange. The birds in the Rothschild collection, also housed here, 
are referred to separately. 

Camp — Campbell, as recorded in his 1892 report. His specimens went origi- 
nally to the British Museum, where they doubtless still are. 

G&S — Giglioli and Salvadori's few records; specimens were deposited in the 
Florence Museum, Italy. 

Kur — Kuroda (Nagamichi) collection, Tokyo, as recorded in his own writings 
and in Yamashina's holograph list. Destroyed in 1945. 

LiWM — LiWong Museum at LiWong Palace Gardens, Seoul, Korea; data 
taken from Shimokoriyama's 1917 catalogue. 

MCZ — Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.; contains my 
own specimens, plus a considerable number obtained by purchase from 
Korean collectors and by exchange with the Japanese; also one of the 
finest Chinese collections extant. 

Mom — Momiyama collection, Tokyo, as gleaned from literature. This col- 
lection is still intact, but in bad condition, poorly stored, uncatalogued 
and largely inaccessible. Its early specimens were destroyed by the 1923 
earthquake. 

Roth — Rothschild collection, now in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. Contains Hall's birds, a few Korean items received 
from Owston, and perhaps a surprising number of other odds and ends 
which may some day come to light. Rich in comparative material from 
Ussuria, Amuria and northeastern Siberia. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA O 

SoM — Songdo Museum, Songdo, Kyonggi Do, Korea; data from Snyder's 
1937 catalogue; present status of specimens unknown. 

SSC — Collections of the Seoul First Higher Common School and the Seoul 
Scientific Society, Seoul, Korea; taken from Yamashina's holograph list, 
which supplies data missing from Mori's 1923 catalogue. A few of these 
specimens are still available in the Seoul Natural History Museum, but 
most of them were scattered beyond salvage from their school repositories 
by the American occupation troops in 1945. 

Tacz — Taczanowski's specimens, as recorded in his 1888 and 1889 papers. 
A few of these birds are now in the Rothschild collection. 

Taka — Collection of Prince Taka-Tsukasa, Tokyo; from Yamashina's holo- 
graph notes. It contained most of the Korean material from the old 
Matsudaira collection, as well as Taka-Tsukasa's own Korean birds. 
It was destroyed in 1945. 

Uch — Uchida collection, in the Bird and Mammal Laboratories, Ministry 
of Agriculture and Forestry, Tokyo; data taken from the specimen labels 
and the card file in the laboratories. 

USNM — United States National Museum, Washington, D.C. Contains the 
Jouy collection, and a few more specimens obtained later from Korean 
collectors. 

Won — Hong Koo Won collection, formerly at Anju, Pyongan Namdo, Korea, 
present status unknown; data from Yamashina's unique copy of Won's 
1934 Check-List, in which Won has inserted all the missing dates for his 
own specimens. 

Yam — Yamashina collection, Tokyo; data culled from his various writings 
and checked against his museum catalogue, which contains a number of 
unpublished records. 

I have estimated the local status of each species from the available 
evidence. If a bird is not of regular occurrence, and hence not an in- 
tegral part of the Korean avifauna, it is called a straggler. All others 
are grouped in the usual categories of summer resident, winter visitor, 
spring and/or autumn transient. Relative abundance is always diffi- 
cult to judge, and, being largely a matter of individual opinion, is al- 
ways open to criticism and correction. I have used loosely the terms 
abundant, common, not uncommon, uncommon, and rare, in the 
hope of achieving as fair and impartial an estimate as possible. 

I have considered as summer residents those species which occur 
regularly in the territory in June, July and August, whether or not there 
is evidence of nesting. In most cases the summer resident doubtless 
breeds in the area, but mere presence during the nesting season is not 
proof of breeding, and many forms have been assumed so to do by 
previous authors which future investigation may prove do not. 



6 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Hence, while the use of this category implies that a bird breeds in 
Korea, I have tried in each such case to indicate what, if any, nesting 
proof is available. In many instances it is appallingly meagre. 

The literature is written in seven languages, Japanese, English, 
French, German, Italian, Swedish and Dutch, by far the greatest part 
of it in Japanese. I have given all quotations from tongues other than 
English in translation instead of the original, for obvious reasons. At 
times an exact rendition into English of the foreign idiom, particularly 
the Japanese, is impossible. In most cases a free translation is employed 
to give as nearly as possible the meaning rather than the exact wording 
of the original. Quotations in the text are referred to the bibliography 
by year and page of the author. There are a few instances where in- 
dividuals have published more than one paper in a given year. Lack 
of unit references in such cases should not engender much difficulty for 
those who wish to consult the original sources. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH 

Korea, even more than Japan, was terra incognita to occidental 
naturalists until Perry opened up the Orient by his visit to Yokohama 
in 1853. The first mention of Korea in ornithological literature dates 
back to the only bird collection to come out of Japan in the first half of 
the nineteenth century. Dr. Philipp F. von Siebold, a physician in 
the employ of the Dutch East India Company, lived at Nagasaki from 
1823 to 1830, and sent home from there to the Ley den Museum in 
Holland, zoological material which later became the basis of his famous 
"Fauna Japonica." Siebold's Japanese birds were studied by Dr. C. J. 
Temminck, who in 1835 included a number of them in his elephantine 
"Nouveau Recueil de Planches Coloriees d'Oiseaux." In it he gave 
Korea as the type locality for three new species, the Slender-billed 
Shearwater and the Japanese Murrelet, "sur les cotes de la Coree et 
au Japon," and the Temminck's Robin, "sur les cotes de la presqu'ile 
de Coree (Korai)." Later, in 1850, in the Aves volume of Siebold's 
"Fauna Japonica," which he wrote with Dr. Schlegel, Temminck 
added a fourth new species, the Pitta, which "avait ete apporte vivant 
de la Coree au Japon." 

It is likely that the material from which these four species were 
described came either from the northern Ryukyus, or from Quelpart 
or Tsushima Islands. None of them has proved subsequently to be 
of regular occurrence in Korea, which in Siebold's time was a name 
loosely applied to vague lands somewhere beyond Kyushu. Tern- 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA / 

rainck's Robin and the Slender-billed Shearwater have never been 
found on or near the Korean peninsula since then, the Japanese Mur- 
relet is a straggler collected but once on the southern coast, and the 
Pitta is a vagrant taken three times on islands off the west coast. 

It was not until several decades after Perry's visit to Japan that the 
Korean peninsula became better known to the western world. The 
Christian church seems to have made the first indelible occidental 
mark there, but business and science, both trailing closely on the heels 
of the first hardy missionaries, made much progress before the Jap- 
anese took the area over in the early course of their "Greater East 
Asia" program, and again shut out the rest of the world. The work 
on natural history during this period, roughly from 1870 to 1905, was 
done entirely by "foreigners," that is, occidentals, many of whom were 
in Korea for other purposes, and collected zoological specimens as an 
avocation. Nevertheless, they laid the foundation, and a good one, for 
future work. 

The first authentic reference to Korea in ornithological literature 
was made in 1870, when the veteran English ornithologist, Robert 
Swinhoe, published in the Ibis his "List of Birds Collected by Mr. 
Cuthbert Collingwood during a Cruise in the China and Japan Seas, 
with notes." Despite its imposing title, the paper is only four pages 
long, and its sole references to Korea are the statements that three 
common birds, the Redstart, Kinglet and Brambling, were collected 
on islands off the coast. 

Two years later, in 1872, Herr Otto Finsch printed in Vienna a 
longer paper under the similar title "Ueber eine Vogelsammlung aus 
den Kusternlandern der chinesisch-japanischen Meere." However, 
the expedition touched Korea only momentarily on one of the offshore 
islands, and but three birds were added to the list, the Scops Owl, 
Meadow Pipit, and Northern Phalarope. 

Canon H. B. Tristram, who worked so extensively on oriental 
avifaunas, wrote the first paper dealing solely with the birds of Korea, 
a short note in the 1885 Ibis entitled "On a Small Collection of Birds 
from Korea," which mentions just eight species, taken along the coast 
by the personnel of the British survey ship "Flying Fish." 

In 1887 appeared Giglioli and Salvador's "Brief Notes on the Fauna 
of Corea and the Adjoining Coasts of Manchuria," describing the 
material in the Royal Zoological Museum of Florence brought back 
by the Italian round-the-world expedition in the "Vettor Pisani." 
The expedition spent the first week of August, 1880, at Fusan, then 
sailed northward along the east coast, stopping for three days each 



8 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

at Broughton Bay and Wonsan, wintered north of the Korean boun- 
dary in southern Ussuriland, and then stopped again at Fusan on its 
return in February 1881. In Korea proper only fifteen species of 
birds were collected, none of them of particular interest or value. 

The first major collection of Korean birds was made by the first 
American ornithologist to work there, Pierre Louis Jouy, who arrived 
at Seoul in May, 1883, after two years of collecting in Japan for the 
U. S. National Museum. The Museum evidently did not have funds 
to finance Jouy's Korean trip. To make it possible, he managed to at- 
tach himself temporarily to the U. S. Legation in some vague and ob- 
scure capacity, and he was able to collect in the neighborhood of Seoul 
all that summer. By autumn he had procured a position with the 
Chinese Customs Service of Korea, and journeyed overland to Fusan 
in November to take over his new duties. He stayed there nearly 
three years, collecting whenever he had the opportunity. He left the 
country in July, 1886, stopping for a few days at Wonsan, where he 
added a few more items to his collection. 

Jouy's collection of over five hundred specimens went to the U. S. 
National Museum, where it lay unstudied for over two decades, while 
other men described from specimens collected later, a number of the 
new forms it contained. For Jouy had come home not only out of 
funds, but physically incapacitated. Financial troubles forced him 
to leave his priceless new Korean material to be attended to later, 
while he made a paid collecting trip to Mexico. Under such stress his 
health failed rapidly, and he died of tuberculosis in 1894, fighting a 
lingering illness which incapacitated him entirely during his last few 
years. That he was never able to work up his own material, and to 
put on paper for posterity an account of his Korean experiences and 
his personal observations of the country and its birds was tragedy 
not only for Jouy himself, but for the ornithological world as well. 

His collection was studied eventually by his friend A. H. Clark, who 
in 1907 described its nine still unrecognized new forms. Clark was 
able, most fittingly, to perpetuate Jouy's name by giving it to one of 
the most abundant and characteristic of the Korean birds, the eastern 
race of the Grey Heron. In 1910 Clark finally published a complete 
report on the 554 specimens in the collection, but, as Jouy had appar- 
ently kept his field notes in his head, there was nothing to write of 
them save what the mute skins themselves could tell. Clark did find 
one short completed manuscript of Jouy's, a revision of the Paradise 
Flycatchers, which he published for him posthumously in 1910. It 
contains the only first hand account of Korean birds in Jouy's own 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 9 

words extant, a tantalizing fragment of the wealth of material that 
was lost forever when he died. 

As Jouy was leaving Korea in 1886, a famous Polish field ornitholog- 
ist was entering it via Vladivostok. He came overland to Wonsan 
on the east coast in the spring of 1886, and then went on to Seoul, where 
he stayed until he retraced his steps in 1888. His first shipment of 
birdskins reached Europe in 1887, where his patron, M. L. Tac- 
zanowski, worked them up and published immediately. He catalogued 
107 species in his "Liste des Oiseaux recuellis en Coree par M. Jean 
Kalinowski," and the first of Jouy's previously collected types was 
lost to America by Taczanowski's description of the Korean Crested 
Lark. Another important contribution in this paper was the discovery 
in Korea of Tristram's Woodpecker, previously described from Tsush- 
ima, but which Taczanowski, thinking it new, named kalinowskii in 
honor of its collector. 

Kalinowski did not find ornithological work in Korea easy. Tac- 
zanowski tells of his difficulties in finding good collecting grounds, his 
tribulations from the lack of transportation facilities, and his troubles 
with the "brutal, inhospitable" people. He went through a terrific 
cholera epidemic in Seoul, during which the people died daily "by the 
hundreds." Conditions were so extreme that the cadavers could not 
be buried, but were carted out of the city and dumped in the surround- 
ing fields, "which made all the environs so horribly stinking it was 
impossible to venture out." But he managed to continue his work 
nevertheless, and when he left the country in 1888 he had not only 
added 72 species to the previous list, but had provided field notes and 
other valuable observations on these and other species, which Tac- 
zanowski incorporated in the supplemental paper in 1888. I cannot 
read these without regretting the lost details of Jouy's experiences. 

Korea received continual ornithological attention through the 
"mauve decade" of the 'eighties. As Kalinowski was leaving, an Eng- 
lishman, C. W. Campbell of Her Britannic Majesty's Consular Ser- 
vice arrived to carry on his official duties at Seoul and Inchon (Chemulpo 
in those days) throughout 1888 and 1889. As with so many colonial 
Englishmen, birds were his hobby and avocation, and he spent all his 
spare time afield. He collected specimens of 112 species, 17 of them 
new to the Korean list, which he published, together with his field 
notes, in 1892. And the types of two more common Korean birds, 
the Korean Crow-tit and the Manchurian Bushwarbler went to the 
British Museum while Jouy's identical material collected almost ten 
years earlier still lay unattended in Washington. 



10 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

With Campbell's departure there began a void in Korean ornithology 
that was to last over twenty years. Science and art alike suffer during 
periods of political unrest, and' thrive best only under stable economic 
conditions. The subsurface rumblings of internal strife were already 
being heard, and shortly after the turn of the century all serious work 
in natural history was halted while the Japanese took the country 
over, cutting off the peninsula again from the western world, culturally, 
physically and economically. 

Alan Owston was active in Yokohama from 1890 until his death in 
1915, sending out Japanese collectors to gather specimens in Japan and 
eastern Asia, most of which went to European museums. Some of 
these collectors passed through Korea and picked up a few odds and 
ends, which are now scattered throughout the world, though most of 
them are in the Rothschild collection. But it was not until after 
Owston's death that they spent any appreciable time there, and his 
own Korean material was only fragmentary. • 

During the score of years between 1890 and 1910 there was a little 
desultory collecting done by a few hardy and venturesome occidentals. 
In the winter of 1902-1903 Dr. William Lord Smith of Boston made a 
trip along the southwest coast, from Moppo southward, partly by 
junk and partly afoot, during which he collected a few birds. These 
eventually reached the National Museum and were incorporated in 
Clark's 1910 report on the Jouy collection. As the doctor's contribu- 
tion consisted of twelve skins without data, eight Pheasants, a Swan, 
a Goose, a Ruddy Sheldrake and a Spot-billed Duck, it is evident that 
his collecting was governed by gastronomic and sporting impulses 
rather than scientific. 

A short note in the 1904 Ibis announces that Robert Hall, the Aus- 
tralian ornithologist reached London safely with 401 birdskins col- 
lected in eastern Siberia in the Lena River area between June and 
August 1903. But nowhere in literature can I find any mention of the 
fact that Hall stopped off for two weeks at Wonsan en route from Mel- 
bourne to Vladivostok, and collected over two hundred birds there! 
In Lord Rothschild's private accession book, which contains the only 
original cataloguing ever given his mammoth collection, is the nota- 
tion, under date of 22 August 1903, "received 212 skins, Robert Hall 
Corean birds." While these are doubtless in New York, to find them 
all would require an exhaustive search through the entire collection, 
which unfortunately I did not have time to do. But I did find some 
fifty of them, of twelve species, all fairly common land birds. All 
are labelled "Wonsan," and their inclusive dates are from 27 April to 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 11 

11 May 1903. Hence we may deduce that Hall probably had to await 
connections at Wonsan for transportation to Vladivostok, and killed 
time meanwhile by collecting in the vicinity. From Rothschild's ac- 
cession date, Hall evidently forwarded his Korean birds to Tring be- 
fore going into Siberia. He reached Irkutsk 4 June 1903, and collected 
in Siberia until late August. He reported on his Siberian birds in the 
1904 Ibis, and Hartert notes (idem) in introductory remarks that the 
birds are all "in worn plumage and badly prepared," which is equally 
true of his Korean specimens that I have seen. But no mention of any 
sort was made of his collecting in Korea, or of the Wonsan birds 
themselves, which by then were presumably scattered throughout the 
Rothschild collection. It is unfortunate the collection was never 
catalogued as received, for there may be some additions to the Korean 
list in it, and certainly some valuable dates among the specimens I 
was unable to locate in the short time at my disposal. 

Malcolm Playfair Anderson, a globe-trotting American collector in 
the employ of the Duke of Bedford, first arrived in Korea in 1905 to 
gather zoological material for the British Museum. Information about 
him, and particularly about his two visits to Korea, is disappointingly 
scarce. One of the most complete accounts is an article in Japanese 
entitled "The Zoological Expeditions of the Duke of Bedford" by 
Professor Teizo Esaki, head of the Entomological Laboratory of 
Kyushu Imperial University. It lists (1936, 1508) Anderson's itinerary 
in southern Korea in 1905, which Esaki pieced together from Ander- 
son's insect data, and from information furnished him by Anderson's 
old Korean interpreter, Kim, but makes no mention of the second trip 
made in the autumn of 1906 to "a region sixty or seventy miles north- 
east of Seoul." Anderson himself wrote (1907, 146-147) the only pub- 
lished record of this trip, a brief, popular account which gives no es- 
sential details, and mentions by their generic names only a few of the 
species seen and collected. 

Anderson landed at Moppo in late September 1905, after several 
months of collecting on Quelpart Island. He worked through the 
autumn and early winter in almost all the southern provinces, going 
north only as far as Chungchong Pukto and Kyongsang Pukto. He 
left Fusan on 7 January 1906 for Manila, Philippine Islands, but 
shortly came north again later that spring to spend the summer work- 
ing in Sakhalin and the Kurils. On his way south at the end of the 
summer he engaged as an assistant a young Japanese collector named 
Hyojiro Orii, whom Alan Owston recommended to him. Orii tells 
me he and Anderson landed at Fusan together in September, 1906, 



12 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

and went directly to Seoul for their necessary collecting permits. 
From there they went to the Diamond Mountains in Kangwon Do, 
where they collected for several months, mostly in the vicinity of 
Kinka. They returned via Seoul to Fusan in December, collected 
on Tsushima Island for a month, and finally reached Nagasaki in 
March, where they packed and shipped their specimens to the British 
Museum before leaving for China. As Orii remembers it, they col- 
lected in Korea on this trip about 1400 specimens of birds and mam- 
mals, roughly half of each, the birds in series of five of each species, 
the small mammals in tens. 

Hence there are probably about a thousand Korean birds in the 
British Museum collected by Anderson on his two trips there. But 
while the mammals and insects he collected at the same time have 
been reported on in detail, the birds have not. They were evidently 
examined for possible new forms shortly after they arrived in England, 
as Ogilvie-Grant's immediate description of Sitta corea in 1906 at- 
tests, but apparently nothing else has been done with them since. The 
only other reference in literature to this wealth of material is the in- 
cidental listing of its series of seven Korean blue magpies in Hartert's 
1917 description of Cyanopica cyanvs inter posita. Anderson's father 
published an obituary of his son in the Condor (21, 1919, pp. 115-119), 
but there is no other mention of him or of his extensive collecting in 
contemporary literature. 

In 1912 Roy Chapman Andrews went to Korea for the American 
Museum of Natural History, to make a traverse of the northern border 
country, and particularly to visit Paekto San ("White-headed Moun- 
tain," the famous peak in Hamgyong Pukto). Though he concen- 
trated his collecting primarily on mammals and big game, he brought 
back 191 birdskins. A few of these, mainly waterfowl, were taken at 
Ulsan, Kyongsang Namdo, where he made his final preparations for 
the expedition, but the greater part of them are from the north. 
Reaching Hamgyong Pukto in early April, he went right through the 
high country, emerging in Pyongan Pukto in late June. His speci- 
mens are dated from 14 April in Hamgyong Pukto to 15 June on the 
Yalu River in Pyongan Pukto. They were identified, accessioned and 
catalogued immediately after they reached the museum, but they 
were never studied in detail, and no report on them has ever been 
made until now. In those days the American Museum of Natural 
History did not have sufficient Asiatic material to allow for adequate 
comparison, so Andrew's birds suffered the same fate as the Jouy col- 
lection twenty-five years earlier at the National Museum. Andrews' 



AUSTIN. - BIRDS OF KOREA 13 

was the first collection to be made in northern Korea, and it contains 
adequate material of half a dozen or more valid subspecies which were 
described subsequently either by Europeans from material taken later 
in nearby Ussuria, or by the Japanese from the birds Orii collected in 
Hamgyong Pukto almost twenty years later! As well as affording the 
only comparative material available to western scientists to judge 
the validity of forms described by the Japanese from that area, the 
collection also provides the only early spring dates for Hamgyong 
Pukto, for later collectors did not reach there until July. Probably 
the most interesting birds in the collection are two immature male 
Chinese Mergansers, of which less than thirty specimens are known. 

From 1906 to 1945 the Japanese ran Korea much their own way, 
ornithologically as well as politically and economically. The first 
decade was spent in "Japanizing" the country, and it was not until 
1909 that conditions became settled and quiet enough so that time and 
effort could be spent on such non-essentials as the study of natural 
history. In that year a few birds were collected as the nucleus of the 
LiWong Museum skin collection, which remains to this day still the 
best single collection of Korean birds. Various Japanese added to it 
during the next five years, but the major portion was gathered by 
Seichi Shimokoriyama between 1914 and 1917. 

The first Japanese to publish on Korean birds was the late Dr. 
Akira Iizuka. x\fter graduating from Tokyo University in 1897 at the 
age of 29, Iizuka joined its faculty in the zoology department, where 
he gave their first groundwork in biology to the present generation of 
leading Japanese ornithologists. He is remembered fondly today by 
Taka-Tsukasa, Kuroda, Yamashina and Uchida, all of whom were 
once his students. He spent several summer vacations in Korea, and 
wrote three minor papers on its birds, the first in 1912, the others in 
1914. He later became a distinguished zoologist, head of the Zoological 
Department of the Tokyo Scientific Museum, and the author of sev- 
eral textbooks on embryology and marine biology. His name heads 
the list of authors of the 1914 "Hand-List of the Birds of Korea," 
but it was an honorary authorship, meant to lend weight and author- 
ity, for the paper was almost entirely the work of Seichi Shimokori- 
yama, the junior author, who was one of his students. 

Shimokoriyama was born in 1883, and graduated from the Special 
Teacher's Training School attached to Tokyo University in 1904. He 
came to Korea in 1911, and in 1914 was an assistant technician work- 
ing in the LiWong Museum. His 1914 "Hand-List" was an unfor- 
tunate beginning. While its authors are Dr. Iizuka, Prince Taka- 



14 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Tsukasa, Marquis Kuroda and Seichi Shimokoriyama, we are as- 
sured by Won (1934) that it was the work of the latter, "assisted" 
by the other three. How much of it Iizuka did is questionable, and 
Taka-Tsukasa and Kuroda probably contributed no more than the 
names of a few specimens sent them for identification. Certain it is 
that neither of them saw a proof of the paper before its publication, 
for immediately after it appeared both these reputable ornithologists 
published apologies and corrected some of its more glaring errors. It is 
indeed a careless paper, merely an unannotated list, giving neither 
dates, localities nor authorities for the 309 species listed, which were 
reduced by the corrections to 295. 

Shimokoriyama was not discouraged by this reception of his paper. 
He collected industriously in 1915, 1916 and 1917, building up the 
LiWong Museum's skin collection. With the museum's preparateur, 
Naotaro Toda, he made trips to the northern and eastern provinces, 
and continued collecting in neighboring Kyonggi Do as well. In 
October, 1917, he published "A List of the Birds in the Seoul Mu- 
seum," an accurate catalogue of the 1900 specimens of 318 species and 
subspecies in the collection, with collecting data, plus a list of the 37 
species reported from Korea by others but missing from the Museum. 
He made a few minor errors, quite understandable under the circum- 
stances, for he had no comparative material, almost no reference 
books, and received but little assistance from the authorities in Japan 
to whom he had evidently sent some of his more puzzling specimens 
for identification. 

It is one of my chief regrets that I was unable to spend more time 
with this collection. The few short hours I was able to give to it (with 
my interpreter to help me read the labels) were in considerable dis- 
comfort, in the numbing, penetrating cold of the dark, gloomy, long- 
closed stone building in February. The building had to be opened 
especially for me, which took hours of palavering, searching for the 
keys, and fumbling with rusted locks that perversely refused to work. 
There was neither light to see by nor room to work, and I went through 
the drawers bundled in my heaviest parka, wearing wool gloves and 
fur ear-muffs, and I promised myself I'd come back to study it thor- 
oughly when the weather was warmer, which I was never able to do. 
But I did check many of the doubtful entries in Shimokoriyama's 
list, and in almost every case I found the authenticating material 
there, good, well-made skins, by the way, well preserved and cor- 
rectly identified and labelled. I also found three drawers full of nests 
and eggs which have never been reported, and made an inventory of 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 15 

them. Most of them were collected in 1910, and though some of the 
labelled identifications are questionable, not a few of the others com- 
prise for their species the only valid Korean breeding records. 

Shimokoriyama never received encouragement nor recognition of 
his ornithological work and ability. Though his paper is listed in later 
bibliographies, about the only Japanese acknowledgment of it is in 
Kuroda's 1918 paper, in which he brings his own 1917 list up to date 
by adding the seventeen LiWong species that he missed. The 1942 
Hand-List omits mention of many specimens it records from Korea. 
After 1917 Shimokoriyama did no more collecting and no more bird 
work himself, though he did encourage others. He gave himself over 
to other duties at the LiWong Palace Gardens, which contain a pub- 
lic park, a zoo, a horticultural section, and many historical and art 
exhibits. In 1928 he became a full technician (a position comparable 
to a full professorship in America) and head of the Gardens. 

The first Japanese of top-rank ornithological reputation and ability 
to work on Korean birds was Marquis Nagamichi Kuroda, ScD., 
Member of the House of Peers, Member of the Imperial Household, 
Honorary Fellow of the A.O.U., etc. Born in 1889, the son of a wealthy 
and ancient noble family, he graduated from Tokyo Imperial Uni- 
versity in 1915. Two years later he made a collecting trip to Korea 
and Manchuria. Landing at Fusan early in April, he worked rapidly 
up the west coast through Cholla and Chungchong provinces to Seoul, 
then went through the Pyongan provinces and on into Manchuria. He 
left Korea the 4th of May, having spent just one month there. How- 
ever, he collected intensively, bought specimens wherever he could, 
and had still others given to him by such men as Professor Mori and 
Yasukichi Kuroda. It was as one of these gifts that he procured the 
type specimen of his most famous discovery, Kuroda's Sheldrake, one 
of the great ornithological rarities. He published the results of his 
trip in December 1917, shortly after his return, in Japanese, and the 
Korean section of his "Birds of Korea and Manchuria" remains the 
only complete and thorough compilation of the contemporary or- 
nithological knowledge of the area ever done. It is interesting to note 
in retrospect that, while he had previously examined specimens from 
the LiWong collection, he evidently did not visit the Palace Gardens 
on this trip, for his book makes no mention of the 1915, 1916, and 1917 
additions to it. He and Shimokoriyama must have been close together 
going up the west coast that spring, judging from the dates of their 
specimens, yet while Shimokoriyama in his introduction gives credit 
and thanks to Kuroda for previous assistance, Kuroda never mentions 



16 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Shimokoriyama. Kuroda never returned to collect in Korea, but he 
kept up his contacts and his interest in the area, as frequent papers 
as late as 1940 attest. He continued to add Korean specimens to his 
collection, by purchase from Takahashi and others, until the war. 
All his possessions, except the two specimens of Pseudotadorna and a 
few other types, were burned in May 1945. 

The "Grand Old Man" of Korean natural history, and widely ac- 
credited as being the foremost local authority on all Korean fauna is 
Professor Tamezo Mori, who lived in Seoul from 1909 until the Ameri- 
can forces packed him back to Japan early in the autumn of 1945. 
Born in 1884, and a graduate of the Department of Science of Tokyo 
Imperial University in 1904, he was for many years science professor 
at the "Preparatory School," officially the "Keijo First Higher Com- 
mon School," a sort of "prep school" for Keijo (Seoul) University. 
His main interest was ichthyology, but he dabbled in all the fields of 
vertebrate and invertebrate zoology, and his complete bibliography 
covers a wide range of topics. His first paper, in 1916, a "List of Verte- 
brate Animals of Korea" contains a purely nominal catalogue of the 
306 species of birds previously recorded from the area. While he col- 
lected a few birds himself, most of his field work was done with fish 
and mammals. He supervised the gathering of the exhibition collec- 
tion formerly at the First Higher Common School, and, with some help 
from Kuroda, identified most of the specimens in this and the Natural 
History, or Seoul wScientific Society collection. He had as an assistant 
a Japanese collector, Eizo Takahashi, who collected widely all over 
Korea for a period of ten years or more, visiting Quelpart and Dagelet 
Islands, Pyongan Pukto, Hamgyong Pukto and Kangwon Uo, build- 
ing up a representative collection for the School and the Society, and 
selling his duplicates to Taka-Tsukasa, Kuroda, Momiyama and 
others in Japan. In 1923 Mori contributed the vertebrate section to 
"The Catalogue of Specimens at the Exhibition of Specimens of the 
Natural History of Korea," published by the Natural History Society, 
and listing 371 species of birds, with no data other than a single col- 
lecting locality for each species. Part of this material is still intact, 
an exhibition collection of poorly mounted, faded and bedraggled 
specimens on display at the Society Museum. But the greater part of 
it, which was at the First Higher Common and at other schools in 
Seoul, has been scattered and lost. The American forces took over 
most of the schools to use as barracks, and specimens and books and 
laboratory equipment were ruthlessly jammed into jumbled storage in 
cellars and bomb shelters to make room for cots and the army's im- 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA. 17 

pedimenta. I found remnants of what must have been this collection 
in odd caches all over the city, all of it in hopeless condition, without 
data or clue of ownership, deteriorating rapidly. 

Mori's sixteen other bird papers are mostly of a minor nature, short 
notes on field trips, or adding rare stragglers to the Korean list. He 
described the Korean Black-game as a fancied new race, since dis- 
allowed, and collaborated with Nagamichi Kuroda on three papers 
describing new Korean subspecies of a grouse, a nuthatch and two 
woodpeckers, in which his contribution seems to have been the mate- 
rial, and Kuroda's the description. His final paper, however, in 1939 
on the need for conservation of birds in Korea, shows his appreciation 
of the situation, and his knowledge of the local fauna. If, in the decades 
to come, any Koreans make worth-while contributions in the field 
of natural history, it will most likely be one or more of his erstwhile 
students, in whom he kindled the latent spark. 

Marquis Yoshimaro Yamashina, Sc.D., Member of the House of 
Peers, MBOU, MBOC, Life Associate of the A.O.U., etc., is the fore- 
most Japanese authority on the systematics of Korean birds. He sent 
his collector, Hyojiro Orii to Korea in 1929, and received from him a 
veritable stream of specimens. Orii collected through the northern 
provinces from April to November 1929, and in Cholla Namdo and on 
Quelpart Island from December to the following February. In that 
time he sent his patron 1940 specimens of 279 forms. Yamashina pub- 
lished Japanese descriptions of the half dozen new subspecies among 
them in short papers during the next two years, and in 1932 wrote in 
English a complete report on Orii's collecting. Meanwhile he was 
working on his "Natural History of the Japanese Birds," a major 
work which compares well with modern American and English treatises 
of a similar nature, and in which appear various odds and ends of 
previously unpublished Korean material. Later Orii collected ex- 
tensively in Manchuria, and Yamashina was able, in the light of this 
new material, to revise many of his original conclusions on the racial 
affinities of the Korean birds. Yamashina himself made but one short 
trip to Korea, for one month in the summer of 1936. He tells me he 
went to observe rather than to collect, and visited Seoul, Wonsan, and 
the Diamond Mountains. Nevertheless, he brought back some 200 
birdskins, and a number of nests and eggs which have not, until now, 
been reported in literature. 

Yamashina's collector, Hyojiro Orii, who has doubtless collected 
more Korean birds than any other single person, has had an interesting 
career. He learned his trade under the tutelage of Alan Owston's 



18 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

taxidermists in Yokohama in 1904, while still in his teens. He first 
visited Korea, it will be remembered, in 1906 as assistant to Malcolm 
Anderson, who improved his technique considerably. After leaving 
Anderson's employ in 1907, he collected for Owston for several years, 
mostly in China, until Owston failed in business and left him stranded 
in Yunnan, an uncomfortable experience which caused him to forsake 
collecting indefinitely, for the less hazardous pursuit of farming in 
Hokkaido. Marquis Kuroda finally prevailed on him to go back into 
the field, and in 1921 and 1922 he made the collections on which 
Kuroda based his "Birds of the Ryukyus." From 1923 until the start 
of the war he collected solely for Marquis Yamashina, and during that 
time covered most of the (then) extensive Japanese Empire, collecting 
in Formosa, Manchuria, Sakhalin, the Kurils, Micronesia and all the 
lesser Japanese Islands as well as in Korea. With the advent of the 
war he retired to his small farm in Hokkaido, where he is still living, 
tilling his ground and carving pipes in his leisure time, remarkably 
sturdy and hearty for his sixty-odd years. 

Viscount Matsudaira bought many Korean specimens for his private 
collection between 1915 and 1920. Most of them came from the speci- 
men-dealer's shop in Yokohama established by one of Alan Owston's 
Japanese assistants after Owston's death. They were evidently col- 
lected by Owston-trained bird-skinners, mostly from 1915 to 1918, and, 
while good skins, they were carelessly labelled. When Matsudaira suf- 
fered financial reverses in 1925, and was forced to dispose of his col- 
lections, Prince Taka-Tsukasa bought most of his bird skins, and they 
are listed here as part of the Taka-Tsukasa collection. A few of the old 
Matsudaira skins are still to be found in other places. There are some 
in the Yamashina and Uchida collections, and I have even encountered 
a few in New York and Cambridge. 

Prince Taka-Tsukasa, after acquiring the Matsudaira collection, 
bought more Korean material, principally from Eizo Takahashi, who 
collected for him (as well as for Mori, Kuroda and Momiyama) in 
central Korea from 1924 to 1928. He also purchased skins from Hong 
Koo Won and a few others. All Taka-Tsukasa's collections were 
destroyed, together with his museum, his home, his library and his 
aviaries, by the fire-raids in the spring of 1945. 

Tokutaro Momiyama also obtained a little Korean material, which 
is extant, though badly stored and in poor condition. His original 
collection, which contained only a few Korean birds, was destroyed 
by the Tokyo earthquake. After 1923 he built it up again, buying 
mostly from Takahashi, and a few specimens from Won and others as 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 19 

well. He never visited Korea himself, but he deals with Korean birds 
summarily in thirteen of his papers. He described fourteen fancied new 
forms from Korea alone, none of which is recognizable, and most of 
which, to their credit be it said, were invalidated by other Japanese. 
As N. Kuroda (1932, 384) wrote, "All Japanese ornithologists regret 
very much that the forms described as new by Mr. Momiyama, over 
100, are mostly the result of much unwarranted splitting, the great 
majority of them not being recognizable as different, their names, with 
very few exceptions, therefore becoming synonyms." 

The Bird and Mammal Laboratories of the Ministry of Agriculture 
and Forestry, under the directorship of Dr. Seinosuke Uchida, re- 
ceived over six hundred Korean birds in the flesh from Hideo Hashi- 
moto, a Japanese light-house keeper, between 1924 and 1936. Three- 
quarters of these birds were received in too decomposed condition to 
preserve, but they were all identified by Dr. Uchida and catalogued. 
The remainder are still in the Uchida collection, where I have ex- 
amined them. They are mostly casualties which struck a light- 
house in migration, and come from Shichihatsu and Take Islands near 
Moppo, and Hachibi Island near Inchon. 

Only fragmentary reports have ever been published on the Korean 
material in the Matsudaira, Taka-Tsukasa and Uchida collections, 
though the specimens themselves have been the basis of many form- 
erly doubtful status reports in the Hand-List of Japanese Birds. 

This check-list, which has appeared at ten year intervals since 1922, 
catalogues the avifauna of all the possessions of the old Empire. The 
most authoritative compilation available, it all too frequently makes 
cryptic, dogmatic statements for which no substantiation can be found. 
It was the habit of the committee, when compiling a revision, to gather 
together in one of the Tokyo museums, and each to contribute casually 
to the new volume any new information he may have had in the way 
of records or specimens. No concerted effort was ever made to check 
the validity of old records, errors from some of which have been per- 
petuated since the first edition, and no references are given as to the 
sources of information. While, theoretically at least, such a Hand- 
List should be based on information already in literature, some of its 
substantiating material was never published, but rested in collections 
which have since been destroyed, and can never again be checked. 

Lesser contributions to the knowledge of Korean birds have been 
made by several other Japanese, chief of whom was Yasukichi Kuroda, 
(no relative, but an acquaintance of Nagamichi's) who was at one 
time an assistant engineer in the Central Industrial Experiment Sta- 



20 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

tion at Seoul. Fond of hunting, ornithology was his hobby and avoca- 
tion, and he became a member of the Ornithological Society of Japan. 
His early papers leave much to be desired, those in 1918 and 1919 being 
marred by the use of loose and unidentifiable common names, and 
containing many sight records of questionable accuracy. His last 
two papers, however, one on quail and the other on cranes, are real 
additions to the knowledge of these species' habits in Korea. 

Hideo Hashimoto, the light-keeper who sent so many light-house- 
killed birds to the Uchida collection in Tokyo, kept records of the 
birds he saw at his lonely island posts, and made observations on the 
local breeding species as well. Most of his nesting data were published 
for him by Ishizawa and Kobayashi, but the sight records he mailed 
to the Bird and Mammal Laboratories eventually appeared under his 
own name in the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry's annual "Re- 
ports on Birds and Animals," an obscure publication where they have 
been largely overlooked. While some of his sight identifications of dif- 
ficult species are doubtful and have to be disregarded, the lists still 
contain many dependable migration dates, and much other information 
of value. 

Yujiro Yoshida, an assistant technician of the General Government 
in Seoul, is known best for his detailed and interesting paper, published 
in 1932, on falconry in Korea. This medieval sport of kings is still 
practiced in the northern and eastern mountain districts, where it has 
persisted, unchanged, since feudal times. Pheasants provide an abun- 
dant and fitting quarry, and rabbits and doves are also hunted in this 
manner. The Goshawk is the species most frequently trained, though 
the rarer Peregrine is preferred when obtainable. 

One more interesting oriental personality has left his mark on Korean 
ornithology. Among the sixty million Koreans, only one of them has 
made any attempt to do serious bird work, to contribute to the know- 
ledge of the avifauna of his country and to publish his findings. This 
is Hong Koo Won. (The Korean pronunciation of his name is Won, 
Hong Koo, which by the Japanese reading of the characters is Gen, 
Kohkiu. On his own specimen labels he writes it Konkyu Gen.) 
W 7 on's work is very difficult to evaluate for, despite its obvious wealth 
of material, it is frequently maddening in its omissions, its ambiguity 
and its questionable veracity. But one must remember that Won was 
severely handicapped by the social system in which he lived, by the 
Japanese policy of keeping all Koreans in subordinate positions. When 
one considers the difficulties he overcame, the lack of instruction, as- 
sistance, encouragement and funds, one is fgrced to admire his ambi- 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 21 

tion and perseverance and to acknowledge his accomplishments as 
outstanding among his people. 

Won was born in 1888, graduated from the Suwon Agricultural and 
Forestry College in 1910, and became a teacher in the Korean schools. 
He started collecting birds in 1920 while teaching at the Songdo 
Higher Common School, to use as natural history lecture material. 
He was evidently encouraged and helped by Mr. L. H. Snyder, the 
American principal of the school, who later arranged for Won and 
other students to sell specimens to several American museums, not- 
ably the Museum of Comparative Zoology and the U. S. National 
Museum. He also received some assistance from Shimokoriyama and 
Mori, who loaned him books and allowed him to study the LiWong and 
Seoul School collections, rare privileges indeed to be accorded a Korean 
in those days. 

At first Won collected in nearby Kyonggi Do, but as his interest 
grew, and he found he could help his finances by selling his duplicates 
to Tokyo collectors, he began to use his summer vacations for collect- 
ing trips farther afield. He went to the Diamond Mountains in 
Kangwon Do, and to Dagelet and Quelpart Islands, and spent a 
month in the summer of 1929 with Orii in the mountains of Hamgyong 
Pukto. About this time he transferred to the Anju Agricultural School 
in Pyongan Namdo, where he continued to collect assiduously, and 
from where in 1932 he published the first of his ten papers. He had 
picked up three stragglers new to Korea, the Swallow Plover, the Pitta 
and the Little Owl, each of which was reported in at least one paper, 
and sometimes in two or more. For the 25th anniversary celebration 
of his alma mater in that year he wrote his first "List of Korean Birds," 
a tabulation of the species and subspecies in his collection, without 
data other than locality. 

The following year he was able to go to Japan to study at the Kago- 
shima Imperial College of Agriculture and Forestry. Before leaving 
there he revised and amended his previous list, and in 1934 published 
in the college bulletin the most recent "Hand-List of Korean Birds." 
This paper is more fully annotated, and brief notes are added on the 
status of each species, which unfortunately are not substantiated by 
any evidence, and in some cases are not at all trustworthy. Most an- 
noying is his omission of the collecting dates, even of his own speci- 
mens, which would have been most useful. 

Won seems to have been fired by a patriotic ambition (lamentably 
universal among enthusiasts of every nationality including the Ameri- 
can) to compile as large a list of species and subspecies as possible, 



22 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

without regard for any comprehension of the modus operandi or raison 
d'etre of its component parts. By this time his own collection had 
reached 258 species, and he lists for Korea, including Dagelet and Quel- 
part Islands, the staggering total of 416 species and subspecies. The 
number of forms he dogmatically states breed in Korea exceeds those 
that actually do, and as he makes other similar misstatements with no 
attempt at proof, it is difficult to know when to believe his more 
probable assumptions. The Japanese, though guilty to a lesser degree 
of the same negligence, solved the problem by not believing him at all, 
and by disregarding any of his records unless verified by Yamashina, 
Kuroda, Mori, or some other less impeachable authority. However, 
his writings contain a great deal of dependable and useful information, 
and I have tried to evaluate his data accordingly. 

When he returned from Japan in the middle nineteen-thirties, Won 
went again to his old position at Anju. He published several short 
papers, including one on the "Urgent Need for Bird Protection in 
Korea" (1935) which pleads for the following reforms: 

1 . Revision of the hunting regulations to give protection to song and 
insectivorous species as well as game birds. 

2. Regulation of commercial traffic in protected species. 

3. Establishing a "Bird Investigation Institute" under direct control 
of the government, to study the food habits of all birds and animals. 

4. Training the regular police to enforce the game laws. 

5. Education of children in the schools to inculcate in them early in 
life a love and appreciation of birds. 

With this last point in mind, he had previously attempted to estab- 
lish a set of common Korean names for the birds, similar to the Japa- 
nese (which they in turn had copied from the American example). 
In his 1932 paper he gives for each species a Korean name written in 
the Korean phonetic alphabet. I have omitted them with much re- 
gret only because, on translation, I found them too clumsy and care- 
lessly manufactured to be practical or usable. The Korean language 
contains native names for perhaps a score of common species, those 
distinctive birds that every peasant recognizes, such as the sparrow, 
the wren, the hawk, the duck and the crow. For those without such 
a name, Won supplied one by translating into Korean the available 
Japanese, and occasionally the scientific appellation, thus including 
the bad features of both. 

I had hoped to meet Won and to see his collection, but during my 
stay in Korea both were at Anju which, being north of 38°, was in the 
Russian zone, and hence inaccessible to Americans. I met several of 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 



23 



his students, however, and for a time we had on our staff at Suwon 
an entomologist who knew him well and had even collected birds with 
him at Songdo. With one or two brilliant exceptions (such as Bok 
Sung Cho, present head of the Natural History Museum in Seoul, and 
Ho Jik Kim, director of the branch Agricultural Experiment Station 
at Sosa) I found the Korean scientists not only lacking in knowledge 
and ability, but regrettably ignorant of any conception of the meaning 
of truth. To the oriental mind truth is the convenient thing, the 
polite thing, the honorable thing, not the accurate fact, and the Korean 
carries this conception of it from his daily living into his scientific 
work. He tells you first what he believes it will do him the most good 
to tell you, and secondly what he thinks it will please you most to hear, 
regardless of the veracity or accuracy of his facts. And to me, that is 
the only explanation of the, shall we say inconsistencies, in Won's 
writings. 

"Foreigners" were not entirely inactive during the Japanese regime. 
D. J. Gumming, a Canadian missionary, for many years head of the 
Chungil Mission High School in Kwangju, Cholla Namdo, was strictly 
an amateur ornithologist, and did no collecting, but he was interested 
enough in birds to make himself well acquainted with the more com- 
mon species he observed about him. In 1931 he delivered in English 
to the Korean Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in Seoul, a lecture 
on his bird observations, which was published in 1933, with additions, 
by the Society. His apologia in his introduction is interesting: "I 
know of at least three men in the country, one Korean and two Jap- 
anese, who are much better fitted both from position and experience to 
tell about the birds of the land. I refer to Mr. Wun [Won] of the natural 
history department of the Songdo Boys' School, Dr. Mori of the Keijo 
Imperial University, and Mr. Simogoriyama [Shimokoriyama], Direc- 
tor of the Prince Yi [Li Wong] Museum and Zoological Gardens. I 
wish to acknowledge to them a great debt for their interest and help in 
my studies and were it not for the barriers of language would insist 
that they be the ones asked for this paper." Despite its amateur 
nature, the book contains many new and original data. I have quoted 
from it freely. 

Mr. L. H. Snyder, the American principal of the Songdo High School, 
who evidently did so much to help Won get his start, published a cata- 
logue of the school collection in 1937. It is a rare little pamphlet, 
printed in Seoul and, as it was designed only for local use, given a very 
limited distribution. While its scientific names and dates are in Eng- 
lish, the Japanese common names are in Kata-kana, and the localities 



24 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

are given only by their Chinese characters. This collection was 
started by Won, and many of the data are duplicated in his prior 
lists, but other students and instructors contributed to it after Won's 
departure from Songdo. It contains no series, and very few duplicates, 
most of them having been sold in Japan and America to help finance 
the school's bird work. 

Snyder and his students also collected some nests and eggs, of which 
no mention has ever been made. He sent some fine sets of raptor eggs, 
a number of which are the only Korean breeding records for their re- 
spective species, to Colonel L. R. Wolfe, USA, who has kindly furnished 
me a list of them and their data. He also shipped to Mr. Herbert 
Brandt of Cleveland an unknown quantity of avian material, of which 
I learned only recently, too late to investigate further for possible in- 
clusion here. 

During this period, from 1925 to 1940, a number of Korean bird- 
skins reached American from other sources. There are a few birds in 
the Harvard collections furnished by the Chosen Christian College at 
Seoul. Kuroda, Yamashina, Momiyama and other Japanese exchanged 
some of their Korean material with American curators, and I was de- 
lighted to find scattered among the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
cases, more than a few skins bearing the names of Orii, Takahashi or 
Won on their labels, acquired in this manner. 

The experienced Swedish collector and naturalist, Sten Bergman', 
visited northern Korea in 1935 and 1936, collecting mostly in Hamg- 
yong Pukto. He published a popular account in English of his experi- 
ences, which contains a regrettably small percentage of the wealth of 
ornithological information he must have amassed, and two papers in 
Swedish that are not available to me. The specimens he collected are 
presumably in Sweden. 

My own advent into the Korean scene was quite fortuitous, and the 
furthest thing from my mind until a week before 1 arrived there. 
After two years of service in the South Pacific, the U. S. Navy gave 
me a short course in Military Government, and then loaned me, with a 
number of other naval officers of varied talents, to the Army for the 
invasion and occupation of Japan. Under Army auspices we were 
given an intensive course in the Japanese language, culture, customs 
and geography, which we had barely completed when the Japanese 
capitulated and made invasion unnecessary. Late in October, 1945, I 
found myself in Tokyo, assigned to agriculture. But the particular 
draft of officers with which I arrived was suddenly reassigned and 
shipped oft' to Korea, where we were to learn about Koreans, and about 
Korean culture, customs and geography, "the hard way". 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 25 

My duties in Korea were to assist in the rehabilitation of the 
Korean agricultural experiment stations, with headquarters at the 
Central Agricultural Experiment Station at Suwon, thirty miles south 
of Seoul, in the heart of the coastal rice-producing belt, in central 
Kyonggi Do. While this province, as the political, social, cultural and 
economic center of Korea, has received more attention ornithologically 
than all the other provinces combined, it is one of the poorest collect- 
ing grounds in Korea, miserably over-populated and with but scant 
cover. Nevertheless, it offers a wide range of varied terrain, from the 
coastal marshes and extensive cultivated paddies in the lowlands, to 
the occasional patches of woodland on the hillsides, and the barren 
rocky mountain tops. Suwon offered compensating advantages as a 
base of operations, such as better living conditions than the average 
in Korea, comparatively comfortable quarters, transportation facili- 
ties, and, best of all, one of the best scientific libraries in Korea. 

I remained at Suwon, and, when not otherwise engaged, collected 
birds throughout the winter. There I shared quarters, "ten-in-one" 
rations, jeep, house-boy, and various assorted responsibilities and 
headaches with Major Victor I. Schember, AUS, who was in charge 
of the Station, and who deserves a special commendation for never 
once complaining during our six crowded months together, of the bird 
carcasses constantly at his elbow. I also wish to thank Major General 
Archer L. Lerch, and my immediate superior, Colonel Richard Martin, 
who gave me the assignment and made possible the gathering of the 
material for this study. 

I collected in the Seoul-Suwon area of Kyonggi Do 492 specimens of 
90 species of birds, and made field notes on several score more species 
as well that I was unable to collect. These specimens are all in the Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology, and are so listed in the systematic 
portion of the work. 

I was fortunate in having at Suwon the voluntary assistance of 
Mr. Shoju Kurozawa, a Japanese who had been head of the office 
staff of the Experiment Station, and who had been retained temporar- 
ily by Military Government to help indoctrinate the Koreans into the 
intricacies of office management. Kurozawa San spent the winter 
improving his English by making translations for me of every Japanese 
paper on Korean ornithology we were able to locate in the excellent 
libraries at our Station and the Forestry College in Suwon, and in the 
libraries of the LiWong Museum and the Chosen Natural History 
Society in Seoul as well. 

I left Korea as suddenly and as unexpectedly as I had arrived there, 
not an uncommon experience in the military services. I received orders 



26 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

late in April to report to Tokyo for reassignment, and left Suwon May 
3rd for Japan. I spent only a week in Tokyo, making arrangements for 
future work there, and had no time to check on the Korean material 
in Japan. I returned home to Cape Cod for discharge, and spent my 
terminal leave unearthing Korean specimens in American museums, 
reviewing the non-Japanese literature, and writing a preliminary draft 
of this book. 

I returned to Japan in September, 1946, as a War Department Ci- 
vilian, in charge of the Wildlife Branch of the Natural Resources 
Section of GHQ in Tokyo. One of my first actions, after getting settled, 
was to find my old translator, Shoju Kurozawa, who had finally been 
repatriated. He came to work for me in Tokyo in November, and has 
been indispensable ever since, not only in duties connected with the 
official work of the Wildlife Branch, but in helping me run down items 
in the Japanese literature we had been unable to find in Korea, and in 
translating them for me. His knowledge of place-names in Korea has 
been particularly valuable. 

Checking the Japanese bibliography for accuracy and completeness 
would have been impossible without the gracious and willing assistance 
of my Japanese ornithological friends. They helped me find many 
obscure items, some in languages other than Japanese, that I had 
missed. Thanks to them, the bibliography is just about as thorough 
as combined efforts can make it. Very few of the Japanese papers have 
ever been available to occidental ornithologists, or understandable 
when procurable. Hence I regard the review I have been able to make 
of them and include herein, as one of the most important single features 
of my work on Korea. 

I am particularly indebted to Marquis Yamashina for his help and 
cooperation. He gave me free access to his museum, which was for- 
tunately undamaged during the war. Though his home and most of the 
other buildings surrounding it were utterly demolished, the museum 
building was miraculously spared, and it now houses the most com- 
plete and the most valuable and useful reference material in Japan. 
The library contains, in addition to its wealth of Japanese works, 
practically all the important ornithological publications of America 
and Europe, and includes many rarities in occidental languages as 
well as in Japanese. 

Yamashina had intended for many years to write a complete work 
on Korean birds, which was side-tracked partly by the war, and partly 
by his work on avian cytology. With this in mind he had gathered 
much unpublished Korean material, in holograph manuscript form, 
which he most generously made available to me, including a unique 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 27 

copy of Won's "Handlist of Korean Birds" in which Won himself, 
at Yamashina's request, has inserted all the missing data for the speci- 
mens of his own collecting. Yamashina had also sent an assistant to 
Seoul, to procure the data on the specimens in the Seoul School and 
Scientific Society collections, missing from the published reports. 
Kuroda's and Taka-Tsukasa's secretaries had compiled for him holo- 
graph lists, with complete data, of ail the Korean specimens in those 
two great collections, before they were destroyed. 

Yamashina spent much time helping me to seek out other little- 
known and obscure source material, and to find and verify references. 
He went over his own specimens with me, interpreting and sub- 
stantiating his views on Korean systematics. He has read much of the 
manuscript, and made constructive criticisms, corrections and sugges- 
tions. 

Dr. Hachisuka, Marquis Kuroda and Prince Taka-Tsukasa have 
also read portions of the manuscript, made suggestions and correc- 
tions, and helped me to understand the Japanese ornithological point 
of view. Hachisuka checked all the English translations of Japanese I 
have quoted for accuracy of meaning and interpretation, a laborious 
task. Kuroda and Taka-Tsukasa supplied from their recollections 
many interesting historical details concerning their own, the Matsu- 
daira and the Owston collections. Dr. Uchida unearthed for me all 
the Korean material in his collection at the Bird and Mammal Labora- 
tories. To all my friends in Japan I acknowledge my indebtedness, and 
offer my thanks for their help, given whole-heartedly and unhesitat- 
ingly, frequently at considerable personal sacrifice and discomfort 
under, to them, the most trying of conditions. 

On the American side, I owe a particular debt of gratitude to Mr. 
James Lee Peters, who assisted me in the short time I had at my 
disposal in Cambridge to complete a rapid comparison and evaluation 
of my own collection. I shall always be grateful to him for his generos- 
ity with both his time and his advice. His fine judgment smoothed 
out many a difficult systematic snarl in short order, and I have been 
happy to follow his suggestions. I also wish to thank Dr. Herbert 
Friedmann of the U. S. National Museum for furnishing a list of the 
Korean material acquired there since Jouy's day, and for examining 
for me some of Jouy's material. At the American Museum of Natural 
History in New York, Dr. John T. Zimmer gave me access to the 
Rothschild records as well as the collections, and Dr. James Chapin 
also gave me much valuable assistance and advice. 

Tokyo, Japan, 
10_ April 1947. 



28 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 



SYSTEMATIC LIST OF SPECIES 1 

GAVIIDAE 

1. Gavia stellata (Pontoppidan) 

Colymbus Stellatus Pontoppidan, Danske Atlas, 1, 1763, p. 621. (Denmark.) 
English: Red-throated Loon. 
Japanese: Abi (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 17 Nov. 1914 (SSC). 

Pyongan Namdo — 22 May, 18 Nov. 1932 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 25 April 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 10 Nov. 1911 (LiWM). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 8 March 1885 (2)(USNM); 6 Apr. 1917 (2)(Kur). 

The Red-throated Loon is a not uncommon winter visitor along the 
Korean coastline. It frequents the fresh water lakes more than the 
other species do, and when these freeze over, retires to the open waters 
of the tidal bays and estuaries. It never occurs in any numbers, but 
scattered individuals can usually be found in suitable locations from 
early November until April. Kuroda (1918, 496) observed it in Fusan 
Harbor 5 April, near Moppo 13 April, and in Wonsan Harbor 26 April. 
Won (1934, 109) considered it common. 

A single Red-throated Loon in grey winter plumage came to the 
lake in Suwon 2 March 1946, shortly after the ice thawed, and re- 
mained for almost three weeks. I saw it daily until it departed 22 
March. Another, an adult in full spring plumage, dropped in momen- 
tarily in transit on 7 April. 



2. Gavia arctica viridigularis Dwight 

Gavia viridigularis Dwight, Auk, 35, 1918, p. 198. (Gichega, northeastern 
Siberia.) 

English: Black-throated Loon. 
Japanese: O-hamu (autochthonous.) 

The Hand-List of Japanese Birds (1942) lists both this race and 
G. a. pacificus as occurring in Korea, but I can find no records referable 
to the latter form, and the Siberian race is the one logically to expect. 

1 An outline map of Korea, showing the provinces, will be found as a plate at the end. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 29 

This form is a rare winter visitor, though perhaps of more regular 
occurrence than the record indicates. There are only two specimens 
known from Korea, one in the LiWong Museum taken at Inchon, 
Kyonggi Do in December 1910, and one in the Seoul School Collection 
taken in Hamgyong Namdo, 20 November 1914. 



3. Gavia adamsii (G. R. Gray) 

Colymbus adamsii G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1859, p. 167. (Alaska.) 
English: White-billed Loon. 
Japanese: Hashijiro abi (white-billed loon.) 

There is but a single record of this species for Korea, a female in 
the LiWong Museum taken in Kangwon Do 7 April 1914. It should 
be a more regular winter visitor to the northeast coast than the record 

suggests. 

COLYMBIDAE 

4. Colymbus ruficollis poggei Reichenow 

Colymbus nigricans poggei Reichenow, Journ. f. Orn., 50, 1902, p. 125. (Pro- 
vince of Chihli, China.) 

English: Chinese Little Grebe. 
Japanese: Kaitsuburi (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 15 Oct. 1912 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto — Sept. (Kur). 

Kangwon Do — 1 Dec. 1914 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do - 1 Nov. 1914 (LiWM); 20 Oct. (2), 3 Dec. 1927 (Taka); 

24 Sept. 1929 (Won); 24 Oct. 1929 (SoM). 
Cholla Pukto — 31 Dec. 1911 (LiWM). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 21 Dec. 1914 (3) (LiWM); late Dec. 1922 (Kur). 

This is the resident small grebe of Korea. It probably breeds there 
(though we have no proof thereof), and winters from Kyonggi Do 
southward, staying as long as there is open fresh water. Y. Kuroda 
and Miyakoda (1919) give its season in Kyonggi Do as April through 
October, but a better estimate is March through November. Yoshida 
(1923) saw it in Pyongan Pukto 22 July 1923, the only summer record. 



30 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

There were five Little Grebes in Suwon Lake when I arrived there 
7 December 1945, but they left before the ice formed a few days later. 
The first spring arrivals were three on 11 March 1946, and scattered 
individuals were present from then until I left in May, usually playing 
around the reed beds at the head of the pond. The largest number 
together at one time was eight on 5 April. 



5. CoLymbus auritus Linne 

Colymbus auritus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 135. (Sweden.) 
English: Slavonian Grebe. 
Japanese: Mimi kaitsuburi (eared grebe.) 

While further intensive field work may show this species to be of 
more regular occurrence, for the present it must be considered at best 
a rare transient or winter visitor. There are only two records, a male 
in the LiWong Museum taken in Kyonggi Do 8 November 1914, and 
a female in the Yamashina collection taken by Orii in Hamgyong 
Pukto 6 October 1929. 



6. Colymbus nigricollis nigricollis (C. L. Brehm) 

Podiceps nigricollis C. L. Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., 1831, p. 963. 
(Germany.) 

English: Black-necked Grebe. 

Japanese: Hajiro kaitsuburi (white-winged grebe.) 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 26 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 

Kangwon Do — 7, 8 April 1917 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do - 8, 23 Nov. 1914 (LiWM); 5 Dec. 1929 (Taka). 

Cholla Namdo — Dec. (Kur). 

Kyongsang Namdo— 10 Dec. 1883, 7 Dec. 1884 (USNM). 

The black-necked Grebe is an uncommon spring and autumn 
transient along both coasts. A few may winter in the extreme south. 
I did not encounter it, and the only mention of the species in literature 
other than the specimen records quoted above is Kuroda's (1917, 2) 
sight record in Wonsan, Hamgyong Namdo, 26 April 1917. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 31 

7. Colymbus cristatus cristatus Linne 

Colymbus cristatus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 135. (Sweden.) 
English: Great Crested Grebe. 
Japanese: Kammuri kaitsuburi (crowned grebe.) 

Specimen records : 

Kangwon Do — 23 Nov. 1909, 14 Nov. 1914 (LiWM) ; April (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do — Nov., Dec. 1916 (SSC). 

Cholla Namdo — 3 Feb. 1915 (SSC). 
Kyongsang Namdo — March 1911 (SSC). 

This grebe is an uncommon spring and autumn transient along the 
east coast, perhaps wintering off the south coast. Kuroda (1917, 496) 
saw one in "non-breeding plumage on the Naktung River, April 6" 
1917, Kyongsang Namdo. 

8. Colymbus griseigena holbollii (Reinhardt) 

Podiceps Holbollii Reinhardt, Vidensk. Medd. naturhist. Foren. Kjobenhavn, 
1853, p. 76. (Greenland.) 

English: Red-necked Grebe. 

Japanese : Aka-eri kaitsuburi (red-naped grebe.) 

Specimen records: 

Kangwon Do — 9 April 1914 (LiWM) . 
Cholla Namdo — 3 Feb. 1915 (SSC). 
Korea —1910 (LiWM). 

This species is undoubtedly an uncommon but regular spring and 
autumn transient, despite the paucity of records. I saw two in spring 
plumage on the lake at Suwon 26 February 1946. While I could not 
get near enough to collect them, I was able to observe them at slightly 
over a hundred yards under excellent lighting conditions leisurely 
enough through my glasses to make identification positive. 



DIOMEDEIDAE 

9. Diomedea albatrus Pallas 

Diomedea albatrus Pallas, Spic. Zool., 1, fasc. 5, 1769, p. 28. (Off Kamchatka.) 
English: Steller's Albatross. 
Japanese: Ahodori (fool bird.) 



32 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Steller's Albatross is now virtually extinct, thanks to constant 
persecution by the Japanese on its main breeding grounds onTorishima. 
The common albatross of the waters off' Korea today is D. nigripes, 
for which there are no Korean records whatever. D. albatrus was 
formerly a common visitor to coastal Korea, but as it seldom came 
within the outer islands it was seldom collected. The only speci- 
men that might be attributed to Korea is one taken in Korea Straits 
off Fusan by Jouy 2 June 1885, and recorded by Clark (1910, 149). 
However, Kuroda (1923, 214) quotes a Japanese light-house keeper 
who was stationed at various places along the west coast as saying 
that while albatrosses [sp.?] were seen only occasionally at Chilbal 
Island in Cholla Namdo, there were very many of them on Sin Island 
near Yongampo in Pyongan Pukto on the Manchurian boundary. 
No mention is made of the species' former breeding there, though it is 
implied. 

PROCELLARIIDAE 

10. Puffinus leucomelas (Temminck) 

Procelltiria leucomelas Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 99, 1835, pi. 587. (Seas of 
Japan and Nagasaki Bay.) 

English: Streaked Shearwater. 

Japanese: O-mizunagidori (large calm-water bird.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto - 9 July 1917 (4) (LiWM); 10 June 1917 (SSC). 

Pyongan Namdo — 4 June 1932 (Won). 

Cholla Pukto — 17 July 1916 (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo - 21 June 1922 (Kur); 18 Mar. 1930, 15 Mar. 1931 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 18 May 1884 (USNM). 

This is the common shearwater of the waters surrounding Korea. 
It breeds on at least three islands off the west coast, Nishi (west) 
Island near (hinnampo, Hwanghae Do, Shichihatsu Island, southwest 
of Moppo, Cholla Namdo, and on islands (name unknown) off Kunsan, 
Cholla Pukto. 

Kuroda (1923, 312) was told by the light-keeper at Nishi Island, 
who collected an adult and two eggs for him there 21 June 1922, that 
they arrive "From the last of March on, and lay eggs from late June 
to early July. They lay a single egg. The young leave the nest in 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 33 

mid-October, and leave the island the end of October. At Chilbal 
Island, Cholla Namdo, there are many shearwaters and no black-tailed 
gulls, but here (Nishi) the gulls are many and the shearwaters few." 

The LiWong Museum has fifteen eggs collected 17 June 1916 with 
the adult listed above off Kunsan, Cholla Pukto. In the Yamashina 
Museum are two eggs, undated, from Shichihatsu Island. 

Hashimoto (1931, 1932) says they arrive at Shichihatsu in mid- 
March, start to lay in mid-June, the young hatch in mid-August, and 
leave the nest from mid-October to early December. He found dead 
young in the nests after heavy rains 28 October 1930. Kobayashi and 
Ishizawa (1938, 218) add, on information received from Hashimoto, 
that the Streaked Shearwater digs a burrow 30 cm to 250 cm long, 
10 cm to 25 cm in diameter at the entrance. The single egg is laid in 
June or July; both sexes incubate; the incubation period averages 54 
days; the young remain in the nest 66 days after hatching. 

Puffinus tenuiroslris tenuiroslris (Temminck) 
English: Slender-billed Shearwater. 
Japanese: Hashiboso mizunagadori (thin-billed calm-water bird). 

While the "shores of Korea" is given as part of the type-locality of this 
species (Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 99, 1835, pi. 587) there is no record of a speci- 
men taken anywhere in or near Korea. The bird breeds in the southern hemi- 
sphere, and is common enough as a summer visitor to off-shore waters near 
Japan. So, while it doubtless occurs within the territory under consideration, 
it must be considered as hypothetical until a specimen record is available.] 



HYDROBATIDAE 

11. OCEANODROMA MONORHIS MONORHIS (Swinhoe) 

Thalassidroma monorhis Swinhoe, Ibis, 1867, p. 386. (near Amoy, China.) 
English: Swinhoe's Fork-tailed Petrel. 
Japanese: Hime kuro umitsubame (Princess black sea-swallow.) 

Specimen records: 

Cholla Namdo — 20 June 1929, 5 June 1931 (Uch). 

Despite the paucity of specimen records, this species is doubtless 
not uncommon off the south and west coasts of Korea. It breeds on 
Shichihatsu and Nishi Islands in Cholla Namdo, according to Koba- 



34 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

yashi and Ishizawa (1938, 214), and there are eggs from there in the 
Kobayashi collection. Hashimoto (1931) observed their arrival at 
Shichihatsu 6 May 1929, 23 May 1930, and 2 June 1931, and says 
they began laying 12 July 1931, the young hatched 26 August, and 
left the nest 5 October 1931. Kobayashi and Ishizawa (idem) add 
further information received from Hashimoto, "Some birds used the 
old holes of Puffinus leucomelas, whilst some dig a hole about 20 cm 
to 1 meter deep under or between the rocks or close to the roots of 
grass or shrubs. The innermost part of the hole is lined with a few 
dead grasses and feathers, whilst some have no lining at all. . . . One 
egg forms the clutch. Incubation commences immediately after laying 
and both the female and the male take turns. . . . The incubation 
period in five cases is forty -one days on an average." 

PELECANIDAE 

12. Pelecanus crispus Bruch 

Pelecanus crispus Bruch, Isis, 1832, col. 1109. (Dalmatia.) 
English: Dalmatian Pelican. 

Japanese: Garancho (autochthonous, also means a Buddhist 
temple.) 

The Dalmatian Pelican is a straggler to Korea, taken only once, at 
Inchon, Kyonggi Do, on 3 November 1914 (Kuroda, 1916, 189). The 
specimen is in the LiWong Museum. 

PHALACROCORACIDAE 

13. Phalacrocorax carbo hanedae Kuroda 

Phalacrocorax carbo hanedae Kuroda, Tori, 4, 1925, 348 and col. pi of head. 
(Haneda, near Tokyo, Honshu, Japan.) 

English: Japanese Cormorant. 
Japanese: Kawa u (River cormorant.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 16 August 1880 (G & S). 

Kangwon Do — April (Kur) . 

Kyonggi Do — Jan. (Kur); May 1909, 29 Nov. 1914 (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo — 22 Feb. 1914 (SSC). 

Korea —Feb. 1912 (Taka). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 35 

The Japanese Cormorant is of uncertain status in Korea. Won 
(1934, 107) claims to have collected it in Pyongan Pukto and calls 
it common, but fails to list a specimen or date of collection. It may 
be a fairly regular visitor during migration, and it is not impossible 
that there is a breeding colony of the species, as yet undiscovered, 
somewhere within the territory. The bird is easily confused with 
Temminck's Cormorant, with which it sometimes associates elsewhere 
and which is common in Korea. Sight records for the latter may in 
some cases refer to this less common species. 

14. Phalacrocorax capillatus (Temminck and Schlegel) 

Carbo capillatus Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Fauna Japonica, Aves, 
1850, pi. 83. (Japan.) 

English: Temminck's Cormorant. 
Japanese: Umi u (sea cormorant.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 29 Aug. 1917 (LiWM); 2, 20 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto — 5 June 1917 (LiWM). 
Kangwon Do — 18 Dec. 1926 (2) (Taka). 

Kyonggi Do — 13 Nov. 2 Dec. 1910 (LiWM); 21 Oct. 1921, 21 Aug. 1933 

(Uch); July, August 1883 (USNM); 29 Aug. 1928 (Won). 
Cholla Namdo — undated (SSC). 

This is the common cormorant of Korea, usually observed in spring 
and autumn migrations off the coast. A few winter among the southern 
islands. 

Mori (1939, 9) says it breeds in the sea-bird colony at Rando (Egg 
Island) close to the Manchurian border on the northeast coast, but the 
1942 Japanese Handlist either overlooks or else discredits the record, 
though Mori elaborates it by saying the species lays from three to five 
eggs per clutch late in May. Mori also says the species occurs on 
Yobdo, a sea-bird island off Pyongan Pukto, and intimates that it 
breeds there, too. 

Kobayashi (1931, 73) saw five off Fusan 15 March 1931. Hashimoto 
(1937) observed small flocks of from 8 to 15 birds off Hachibi Island, 
Kyonggi Do, 18 October 1933, 9 October 1934, 20 April and 3 No- 
vember 1936. The first one I saw on the lake at Suwon appeared 
6 April 1946, followed the next day by a flock of nine which spent 
most of the day washing and preening out in the center. Two more 
single birds came there, one on April 12th, and the last on the 15th. 



36 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

15. Phalacrocorax pelagicus pelagicus Pallas 

Phalacrocorax pelagicus Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, 1811, p. 303. (East 
Kamchatka and the Aleutian Islands.) 

English: Pelagic Cormorant. 
Japanese: Hime u (princess cormorant.) 

The Pelagic Cormorant is an uncommon transient visitor. Kuroda 
had the only west coast specimen, taken in Kyonggi Do 15 December 
1924. There are four records from the east coast, all from Kangwon 
Do, one in the Seoul School Collection collected 1 December 1914, and 
three in the LiWong Museum, one on 1 April, the others taken 30 April 
1914. Several winter records from Quelpart Island suggest that the 
species may winter more or less frequently along the southern Korean 
coast. It doubtless occurs more regularly than the specimen records 
indicate. 



ARDEIDAE 

16. Ardea cinerea jouyi Clark 

Ardea cinerea jouyi Clark, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 468. (Seoul, 
Korea.) 

English: Jouy's Grey Heron. 
Japanese: Ao sagi (blue heron.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto - 24, 29 Sept. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 4 Nov. 1919 (SSC). 

Pyongan Pukto — 15 June 1912 (4) (AMNH); 7 June 1917 (LiWM); 9, 20 

Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 30 July 1932 (Won); 3 Aug. 1932 (SSC). 

Kangwon Do — 16 Aug. 1880 (G & S). 

Kyonggi Do —4 July 1883 (USNM); May 1909 (3), 20 June 1915 

(LiWM); 18, 20, 22 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 7 March, 8 Apr., 
8 July, 9 Sept, 1927 (Taka); 29 May 1928 (SoM); 19 
May 1928, 15 Oct. 1929 (Won); 15 Oct. 1929 (SSC); 
1 March, 5, 15 April 1946 (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo — 13 Apr. 1917 (2) (Kur); 23 Jan. 1930 (Yam). 

The Grey Heron is an abundant summer resident in the plains areas. 
Next to the magpies, crows and House Sparrows, it is the most 
noticeable, obvious bird in the Korean ricelands. During the warmer 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 37 

months one or more are always somewhere in sight standing sentinel- 
like in the paddies. Almost every village has its lone big tree sup- 
porting from three to thirty nests. The natives do not bother them 
(because the nests are so inaccessible) and the birds become quite tame. 

In view of its abundance in Kyonggi Do today, it is interesting to 
note that Kalinowski found it rather uncommon ("assez rare") there 
in 1887. He noted (Taczanowski, 1888, 468) that it "nests in the 
colonies of white herons", which implies that in those days the species 
had not yet branched out to occupy lone-tree sites in the villages as 
it does so extensively today. It still nests among the white herons as 
it did sixty years ago, wherever there is a heronry, but by dint of 
expanding its nesting sites, it has apparently increased in abundance 
during the last half century. 

The species is essentially a summer resident, and most of them 
migrate out of the country every autumn, but a few hardy stragglers 
winter from Kyonggi Do southward every year. Kalinowski {loc. cit.) 
speaks of seeing one in February. I saw my first one near Seoul 2 
December 1945, and later found three more wintering in the open 
paddies between Suwon and Inchon throughout January and February. 

The advance guard of spring migrants began to drift into the Suwon 
area late in February. A definite wave appeared 11 March, and three 
days later I found fifteen perched for the first time on a nesting tree. 
They kept on increasing during the rest of the month. By the first of 
April the population seemed to have reached its normal saturation 
point and nesting was well under way, every nesting site occupied to 
capacity, the birds busily carrying sticks, repairing the old nests. 

There is a lag in nesting dates as one progresses northward. Kuroda 
(1917, 498) collected seven eggs from four nests on pine trees in a 
river delta in Cholla Namdo 13 April 1917. A set of Kyonggi Do eggs 
in the LiWong Museum is dated 23 April 1910. Kobayashi (1932) 
notes from Hwanghae Do that on 25 March "they have suddenly in- 
creased very much and begun to build their nests." I observed similar 
activities in Suwon, a scant hundred miles southward, about ten days 
earlier. 



17. Ardea purpurea manilensis Meyen 

Ardea purpurea var. manilensis Meyen, Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol., 
16, suppl., 1834, p. 102. (Philippines.) 

English: Eastern Purple Heron. 
Japanese: Murasaki sagi (purple heron.) 



38 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Shulpin has named a northern race, (Phoyx purpurea ussuriana, 
Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. URSS., 28, 1928, p. 399) of this heron 
which is said to breed at the mouth of the Lefa River in southern 
Ussuriland and has been observed on migration in spring in the Possiet 
Bay region. Meise recognizes this form tentatively and also records 
a breeding colony from Tzitzikar [-Tsitsihar?], Manchuria on the basis 
of a letter from Lukaschkin. Meise is unable to confirm the color 
characters claimed by Shulpin and his recognition was based chiefly 
on very slightly larger size. The 1942 Japanese Handlist synonymizes 
ussuriana with manilensis with the comment "older adult". 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 24 Sept. 1929 (5 im.) (Yam); 1 Oct. 1929 (im. (MCZ). 
Pyongan Namdo —20 May 1917 (SSC); 25 May 1926 (Taka); 7 Oct. 1931 

(Won). 
Kangwon Do — 10 Nov. 1914 (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do — Oct. (Kur); Nov. 1909 (LiWM). 

Korea —Oct. 1917 (Taka). 

The Purple Heron reaches northern Korea occasionally in spring, 
and quite regularly as an uncommon autumn visitor. Possibly some 
of the latter are post-breeding wanderers from more southern breeding 
stations. The M.C.Z. specimen listed above has a wing of 362 mm. 
and is no larger than breeding birds from southern China. 



18. BUTORIDES STRIATUS AMURENSIS (Schreilk) 

Ardea (Butorides) virescens var. amurensis Schrenk, Reise Amur Lande, 1, 
pt. 2 1860 p. 441. (Amurland.) 
English: Amur Green Heron. 

Japanese: Sasa goi (sasa is bamboo-grass, goi the fifth imperial 
rank.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 26 May 1917 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 17 Apr. 1911, 8 June 1909, 20 June 1915, 12 July 1917 

(LiWM); 4, 20 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 5 June 1913, 20 June 
1929 (SSC); 9 Sept. 1927 (Taka); 20 June 1927, 24 
Sept. 1929 (Won). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 10 June 1936 (SSC). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 39 

The Green Heron is an uncommon summer resident in Korea. Its 
rarity may be judged by the fact that neither Jouy, Kalinowski, 
Campbell nor Orii found it. Yet Gumming (1933, 50) writes it is 
"found as a summer resident over most of Korea, nesting near the 
valleys where it may find frogs and minnows and other food in the 
rice fields." Kuroda (1918, 499) says "the species is rare near Seoul." 
Won (1934, 103) says it breeds but is rare. Yamashina (1941, 963) 
lists no specimens but ventures "it breeds in Korea." The 1942 
Japanese Handlist merely lists the species as occurring, not breeding, 
in Korea. Judging by the collection dates of the Korean specimens, 
and from the species' known breeding range in adjoining nearby areas, 
it should breed in Korea, but as yet we have no evidence to that effect. 

19. Bubulcus ibis coromandus (Boddaert) 

Cancroma Coromanda Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 54. (Coromandel.) 
English: Indian Cattle Egret. 
Japanese: Shojo sagi (orang-utang heron.) 

This species is only a straggler in Korea. Three specimens are 
known; one in the LiWong Museum labelled "Korea" was probably 
taken prior to 1910 from its accession number; a mounted bird in the 
Seoul School Collection was shot in Kyonggi Do 14 July 1910; Kuroda 
(1917, 5) lists another as taken "outside the east gate of Seoul, May." 

20. Casmerodius albus (Linne) 

Ardea alba Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 144. (Europe.) 
Ardea modesta J. E. Gray, Zool. Misc., 1831, p. 19. (India.) 

English : Great White Egret. 

Japanese: Dai sagi (great heron.) 

The 1942 Handlist of Japanese Birds gives both races as occurring 
in Korea; the larger, Siberian-breeding C. a. albus as a wintering bird 
in the south and a migrant elsewhere, and the smaller C. a. modestus 
as the local breeding form, which is born out by the following: 

Specimen records : 

Casmerodius albus albus (wing over 410 mm.) 
Kangwon Do — 7 April 1916 (SSC) . 

Kyonggi Do —March, 25 Nov. 1912, 20 Dec. 1914 (LiWM); May 

1917 (2) (Kur); 15 Oct. 1928 (Won). 



40 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Chungchong Namdo — 20 April 1930 (Taka). 
Cholla Namdo —31 January 1930 (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo — undated (2) (Kur). 

Casmerodius albus modestus (wing under 390 mm.) 
Hamgyong Namdo — 17 August 1885 (G & S). 
Pyongan Pukto — 19 June 1917 (LiWM); 22 Apr. 1929 (4) (Yam); 18 

May 1933 (Won). 
KyonggiDo —July 1886 (Tacz); May (Kur); 5 May 1914 (SSC); 

28 March, 4, 8, 8 April 1946 (MCZ). 

Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) give the species' occurrence in the 
Seoul area as from February to early November. The first one ap- 
peared at Suwon 12 March 1946, after which more arrived daily the 
remainder of the month. The wing lengths of the four I collected are 
370, 370, 382 and 365 respectively, placing them all well within the 
modestus range. 

I neither observed nor collected albus, but I found modestus a 
common summer resident in Kyonggi Do, second in numbers only to 
the Grey Heron. Near its rookeries it is far more abundant than the 
latter in the surrounding paddies where both feed. The Egret tends 
to nest in huge colonies, whereas the Grey Heron is spread evenly in 
smaller colonies, all over the plains area. The center of distribution 
for all the white herons in the Suwon area is a large rookery in the 
King's Forest, just south of the air field. When I first visited it on 
8 April I found several thousand pairs carrying nesting material and 
going through their courtship display. The nests were all high up on 
large trees, from 50 to 150 feet above the ground. The main rookery 
covered five or six acres, hardly a tree within which did not support 
from one to a score of nests. 

There is a large colony on a mountain-side in Yonbaek county, 
Hwanghae Do, where they have been undisturbed by the native 
villagers for a number of years, and of which Professor Mori (1939, 8) 
writes "White herons were not common there formerly, but now over 
ten thousand of them can be found in June and July. The eastern 
slope of Mt. Tomi becomes as white as if snow-covered when they 
gather there. More than twenty nests can be found on some trees." 



21. Egretta garzetta garzetta (Linne) 

Ardea Garzetta Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 237. (Oriente, ex Brisson.) 
English: Snowy Egret, Little Egret. 
Japanese: Ko sagi (little Heron.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 41 

This species is a straggler in Korea, the only definite record being 
a female I collected at Suwon 30 March 1946. Kuroda's note (1918, 
498) "it is said that dorsal plumes of [this] species were once procured 
by a native in the northern part of Corea" is probably referable to 
Egretta eulophotes (Swinhoe). 

22. Egretta eulophotes (Swinhoe) 

Herodias eulophotes Swinhoe, Ibis, 1860, p. 64. (Amoy, China.) 
English : Chinese Egret. 
Japanese: Karashira sagi (Chinese white heron.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 12 June 1917 (SSC); 5, 30 June 1917 (LiWM); 

2 July 1918 (Kur); 30 April 1929 (Yam). 
Kyongsang Pukto — 25 April 1886 (USNM). 

The Chinese Egret seems to be a locally common summer resident 
in northern Korea. Its superficial similarity to two other species has 
led to some confusion in literature. The two LiWong specimens were 
misidentified and listed by Shimokoriyama (1917, 4) as Reef Herons, 
Demigretta sacra, for which there are no Korean records. Won (1934, 
103), though he refers to earlier Pyongang Pukto specimens, never 
collected it himself and was unaware of Mori's findings (see below). 
He evidently did not know the bird, though it seems to be not un- 
common in an area supposedly familiar to him. On the other hand, he 
collected in Pyongan Pukto 21 August 1932 a heron which he identified 
as the Plumed Egret, Mesophoyx intermedia, a species he had collected 
previously in Kyonggi Do, and which he says is common and breeds 
at Yonghung in Hamgyong Namdo. This does not agree with the 
findings of others for that species, and is apparently ignored by the 
Japanese Handlist. While their identity is doubtful, and impossible 
to determine without further evidence, Won's Pyongan Pukto speci- 
men and his Hamgyong Namdo breeding reference are very likely 
attributable to the Chinese Egret. 

Mori (1939, 11) gives the following account of the breeding of this 
species on Yobdo (Yob Island), a solitary islet off the northwest coast 
of Pyongan Pukto: ''Black-tailed Gulls are most numerous [there], 
followed in numbers by Chinese Egrets, Horn-billed Puffins and 
Cormorants. . . . The rookery is deserving of special attention be- 
cause the Chinese Egret breeds there. This is a white heron which 



42 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

does not breed in Japan. Women are very fond of eating its eggs, 
for it is believed it makes their skin beautiful. Many of them [referring 
to the birds again] live on the northwest coast of Korea and breed 
there. They build their nests in a shrub with dry grass. In the middle 
and last of May they lay from three to five eggs." 

[Demigretta sacra (Gmelin) 

English: Reef Heron. 

Japanese: Kuro sagi (black heron). 

While it is possible this species has occurred in Korea as a straggler, there is 
no unquestionable specimen record. The two LiWong specimens listed by 
Shimokoriyama (1917, 4) were misidentified Egreita eulopholes from Pyongan 
Pukto. Kuroda had a specimen which (holograph list) was "bought in a stuffing 
shop in Seoul" without data. The LiWong Museum has three specimens from 
Quelpart Island, properly identified and listed. Jouy collected it at Tsushima, 
and Orii found it at Quelpart. Yamashina (1941, 949) sums up the case as 
follows: "it is doubtful if this bird occurs in Korea. Kuroda's and Momiyama's 
specimens say 'collected in Korea' but the locality is not certain. It is com- 
mon on Quelpart."] 



23. Mesophoyx intermedia intermedia (Wagler) 

Ardea intermedia Wagler, Isis von Oken, 22, 1829, col. 659. (Java.) 
English: Plumed Egret. 
Japanese: Chu sagi (middle-sized heron.) 

Specimen records: 

Kyonggi Do — undated, 19 April 1917 (Kur); 19 June 1912 (SSC); Aug. 1928 

(SoM); 2 Oct. 1929 (Won); 30 April 1930 (Taka). 
Korea — 1909 (LiWM). 

Though this heron breeds near by in China and Japan, it is of 
uncertain status in Korea. Kuroda's statement (1918, 497) that it 
"is a common summer resident in the middle parts of Corea" is neither 
substantiated nor corroborated by any other investigator. Won's 
comment (1934, 103) that it is common and breeds at Yonghung in 
Hamgyong Namdo, as well as the identity of his Pyongan Namdo 
specimen (see under Egretta eulophotes) is seriously open to question. 
From the evidence at hand, the species can be considered as little 
more than a straggler, though later investigations may show localized 
breeding colonies in central Korea. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 43 

24. Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax (Linne) 

Ardea Nycticorax Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 142. (southern Europe.) 

English: Night Heron. 

Japanese: Goisagi (sagi means heron; goi is the fifth imperial 
rank, but is used loosely for herons and bitterns. 
A Japanese legend says the night-heron was raised 
to the peerage by a feudal emperor in gratitude for 
decorating a new artificial pond on his palace grounds 
with its presence.) 

The Night Heron is a rare straggler, of which there are only three 
records for Korea. Mori (1929, 107) reports a specimen taken at 
Kyongsong, Hamgyong Pukto in 1925. Two birds taken in Cholla 
Namdo 28 May 1926 and 1 June 1928 were sent in the flesh to the 
Bird and Mammal Laboratories of the Ministry of Agriculture and 
Forestry in Tokyo. They were identified by Uchida, but were too 
decomposed when received to be preserved. 



25. Ixobrychus sinensis sinensis (Gmelin) 

Ardea sinensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 642. (China.) 
English: Least Bittern. 
Japanese: Yoshi goi (marsh-reed bittern.) 

There are three records for this straggler in Korea. Taczanowski 
(1888, 458) reports a female Kalinowski collected near Inchon 29 May 
1888. Taka-Tsukasa had one from Kyonggi Do, 20 Sept. 1926. A 
specimen taken in Cholla Namdo 27 May 1925 is in the Uchida 
collection at the Bird and Mammal Laboratories of the Ministry of 
Agriculture and Forestry, Tokyo. 



26. Ixobrychus eurhythmus (Swinhoe) 

Ardetta eurhythmus Swinhoe, Ibis, 1873, p. 74, pi. 2. (Amoy, Shanghai.) 
English: Shrenk's Little Bittern. 
Japanese: O yoshi goi (large marsh-reed bittern.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 24 May 1912 (AMNH); 7 July 1934 (SSC). 

Pyongan Pukto —26 May 1917 (4) (LiWM); May-June 1917 (3) (Kur); 

17 May 1917 (SSC); 19, 20 June 1917 (Taka); Jan. 1929 

(SoM); 20-24 May 1929 (6) (Yam). 



44 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Pyongan Namdo — 29 Aug. 1933 (Won). 
Kyonggi Do — 30 Apr. 1930 (2) (Taka). 

Cholla Namdo — 28 Sept, 1928 (Uch). 

This bittern is evidently a fairly common summer resident in the 
northern provinces. Won (1934, 104) says it is common and that it 
breeds there. The 1942 Japanese Hand-List also lists it as breeding 
in Korea, though there is no more evidence of its nesting than the 
collecting dates and the fact that it is known to breed in both China 
and Japan. 

27. Botaurus stellaris stellaris (Linne) 

Ardea stellaris Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 144. (Europe.) 
English: Bittern. 
Japanese: Sankano goi (house-in-the-mountains bittern.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Namdo — 10 Apr. 1932 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do — 12 Oct. 1913 (LiWM); 20 May 1918, 26 Apr. 1929 (SSC); 

20 Sept. 1925, Nov. (Kur); 15 Oct., 20 Nov., 25 Dec. 1926 

(Taka); Nov. 1934 (SoM). 
Cholla Namdo — 26 March 1913 (LiWM). 

From the record, the Bittern appears to be an irregular visitor to 
Korea. Won (1934, 104) calls it rare, but Yamashina (1941, 997) 
says it is "not rare in migration season and winter." 



CICONIIDAE 

28. Ciconia ciconia boyciana Swinhoe 

Ciconia boyciana Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1873, p 513. (Yokohama.) 
English: Japanese Stork. 
Japanese: Konotori (autochthonous, but means "this bird".) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — Sept. 1889 (Camp). 

Hwanghao Do - 6 Jan. 1917 (SSC); 15 Nov. 1923 (Kur); 15 Dec. 1926, 

17 March 1927 (Taka); 20 March 1929 (Won). 
Kangwon Do — 15 Jan. 1919 (Taka); Apr. 1931 (Sendai Mus.). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 45 

Kyonggi Do — 21 Feb. 1889 (Camp);Feb. 1909, 20 Feb. 1913 (LiWM); 

undated (SoM); Feb. 1936 (USNM). 
Chungchong Namdo — 28 Dec. 1918 (Taka); Dec. 1924 (Kur). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 3, 15, 21 Dec. 1883 (USNM). 

The Japanese Stork is a locally common resident in Korea, par- 
ticularly in Hwanghae Do. A few winter. The numerous sight records 
in literature are quite acceptable, for the bird cannot be mistaken for 
anything else. It is well known in Korea, and considered a good-luck 
omen. Campbell (1892, 244) says it "is not uncommon. It is by no 
means shy, and is easily approached and killed in the rice-fields." 
Yoshida (1923, 316) observed it at Ongjin, Hwanghae Do, 12 July, 
the only summer record. Y. Kuroda (1919, 148) saw a flock of eight 
birds near Goryndo railroad station (between Seoul and Inchon) 3 
March 1918. 

Kobayashi (1932, 70) writes from Hwanghae Do, 25 March, "There 
are two places here where storks nest. One of them is now under 
construction, but in the other they have already laid their eggs." At 
the same place the previous year (1931, 75) he first saw two on 19 
March, of which he says "I found a stork feeding and, following it, 
found its nest as I expected on a 'Yachimado' tree, fifty feet from the 
ground. The nest proper, built entirely of dead branches, I estimated 
as ten feet in diameter. Two eggs were being incubated. The Koreans 
say they nest at this same place every year, and as they are a good 
omen, are well protected." From another village he wrote a week 
later, 26 March, "Storks had been nesting on a pine tree near a 
dwelling for more than ten years, but this year they moved their nest 
to a nearby chestnut as the peasant had destroyed the old nest. I 
could not understand his action and asked him 'why did you destroy 
the nest regardless of the Korean belief that it is a good omen?' He 
replied 'the storks carry snakes as food for their baby birds and drop 
the bones under the tree. My child was injured by stepping on them'." 

Professor Mori (1939, 8) notes "While very few Japanese Storks 
are now found in Japan proper, they may still be found in many 
places in Korea, though greatly decreased. Quite a few of them nest 
in Yonan and Haeju counties in Hwanghae Do. They do not build 
their nests congregated in tight colonies. The individual nests are at 
least several 'cho' [119 yards] apart. They are usually scattered at 
the rate of one nest to one village. . . . 

"Usually the nests are built about ten meters high on a big tree, 
zelcora, ginko, ash or pine, over three or four meters in circumference. 
The nests are about two meters in diameter, fifty centimeters deep, 



46 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

and flat, sphere-shaped. The fnaterial of the nests consists of various 
dead branches; thick down and dry grass is laid in the center. 

"As people protect the nest as a good omen, many nests can be 
found near dwellings in Hwanghae Do. Mr. Cho Nak Chun, an old 
man 76 this year, living at Hansadong, Yonbaek county, finding a 
Japanese Stork more than ten years ago, the first migrant to that 
locality, persuaded the people of the village not to molest it, and has 
protected the birds ever since. Now the nests have increased to three, 
and some of the birds stay there in winter. Usually the stork migrates 
south in autumn. . . . 

"The stork lays about five eggs to the clutch in March, and they 
hatch in April. The baby chicks are most appealing when they are 
waiting for their parents, opening their big mouths for food. The 
parents and chicks live together in the nest until summer. When 
autumn comes most of them pay no more attention to the nest and 
it becomes ruined. Most of them migrate to a warm district when 
winter approaches. They feed on fish, shellfish, insects and other 
animal-like food." 

He recommends protecting stork breeding grounds at eight specified 
localities in Hwanghae Do, six in Yonbaek county and two in Haeju 
county. 

29. Ciconia nigra (Linne) 

Ardea nigra Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 142. (northern Europe.) 
English : Black Stork. 
Japanese: Nabeko (autochthonous, but means "pot stork".) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto - 17 Sept. 1917 (LiWM); 25 Aug. 1920 (.SSC). 
Kyonggi Do - 20 Oct., 30 Dec. 1910, 20 Oct. 1914 (LiWM). 

Chungchong Pukto — 21 Oct. 1928 (Y.Kur). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 3 Jan. 1909 (Taka). 

The Black Stork is a rare summer resident in Korea, known to breed 
only in Kyongsang Pukto. Professor Mori (1938, 127-129) tells of a 
trip he made in late March, 1939, to Andong, Kyongsang Pukto to 
investigate a reported nesting of the species near there. After an 
arduous, all-day trip from Andong, climbing over two mountain passes, 
he finally reached "the isolated mountain village of Kashodo, a hamlet 
of less than ten houses. A small plain opens around this village, in 
the midst of which towers an odd-looking mountain called 'Kozan.' 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 



47 



The Rakuto River flows in front of the village, and on the opposite 
bank on the side of a cliff, some thirty meters from the ground, we 
observed a nest built with twigs in the crevices of the rocks, similar 
to but smaller than that of the Japanese Stork. . . . 

"There seems to be a difference in habit between the Black Stork 
and the Japanese Stork. The former builds its nest in crevices of cliffs 
and perches chiefly on high rocks. The latter, on the other hand, 
builds its nests on the tops of large trees, and in Korea close to human 
habitation, and perches on trees instead of rocks. 

"Unfortunately we were unable to approach the nests since they 
were half way up the cliff. We observed a Black Stork flying ma- 
jestically in the sky . . . and waited for it to come down, but un- 
fortunately it perched on a rock on the very top of the jagged cliff. 
We tried to take a picture of it at close range, but it would not let us 
approach it. According to the local people, they stay near their nests 
all year round in warm years, but in cold years fly south during winter. 
They search for food in ones or in twos in the shallows of the Rakuto 
river or in the rice fields, hunting fish or frogs. They lay and hatch 
their eggs in May or June." 

He revised these statements slightly when he published his con- 
servation booklet the next year. Speaking of the same place he writes 
(1939, 8) "The local people call this bird 'hyun hak' (black crane) and 
the cliff where they nest 'hak so tae' (crane-nest plateau). They say 
the birds sometimes stay there all year round, and lay five eggs, more 
or less, in March and April. The Black Cranes have evidently lived 
there since feudal days, for the famous Confucian scholar, Li Taege 
(1501-1570) wrote a poem about the birds when he visited this spot 
about four hundred years ago." 

THRESKIORNITHIDAE 

30. Nipponia nippon (Temminck) 

Ibis nippon Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 93, 1835, pi. 551. (Japan.) 
English: Japanese Crested Ibis. 

Japanese: Toki (autochthonous, but the Chinese characters mean 
vermilion heron.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto  — Sept. (Kur). 

Hamgyong Namdo —Dec, Jan. 1887-1888 (4) (Tacz); 1,3 Apr. 1929 (Kur). 



48 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Pyongan Pukto — Feb. 1930 (Sendai Mus). 

Hwanghae Do — Nov., Dec. 1911 (Kur); 7 Dec. 1913 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do — Dec, Jan. 1889 (Camp); May, Nov. 1909, 25 Oct, 1913, 

30 Nov. 1910 (LiWM); Dec. 1913 (Taka); Jan. 1921 

(Kur); 1 Oct. 1923 (SoM). 
Chungchong Pukto — 19 Nov. 1910 (LiWM). 
Chungchong Namdo— Jan. 1928 (SSC). 
Cholla Pukto — 21 Dec. 1911 (LiWM). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 17 Dec. 1883 (USNM). 
Korea — 19 Oct, 1912, Feb. 1914 (Taka). 

The Crested Ibis is a locally common transient or winter visitor, 
much rarer today than formerly. Taczanowski (1888, 468) wrote "one 
begins to find it winter and spring fifty kilometers north of Seoul, 
commonest around Wonsan where one encounters flocks of about fifty 
individuals. In summer one does not see it in Korea." Campbell 
(1892, 244) found it "common in winter and spring. I once saw as 
many as a dozen perched in a grove of pines, but I usually observed 
it in dry rice paddies. It is a stupid, unsuspicious bird, and falls an 
easy prey to the gun", which perhaps partially explains its scarcity 
today. 

Since the nineteenth century there have been few such reports. 
Shimokoriyama (1913, 113) in the autumn of 1911, somewhere on the 
Chungchong Namdo-Cholla Pukto boundary, encountered a flock of 
several thousand roosting in pine trees near a pond, evidently his first 
and only such experience. He collected several of them. Won (1934, 
103) claims to have collected it in Pyongan Namdo and Kyonggi Do, 
but supplies no further data. Hashimoto (1937) saw a flock of twenty 
birds fly by Hachibi Island, Kyonggi Do 2 April 1934, and a single 
bird in the same place 16 May 1936. Yamashina (1941, 905) lists three 
Korean specimens, two white and one grey phase, and comments 
"small flocks can be encountered in many localities, but breeding 
places not yet found." 

31. Platalea leucorodia major Temminck and Schlegel 

Platalea major Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna Japonica, Aves, 
1849, p. 119, pi. 75. (Japan.) 

English: Japanese Spoonbill. 
Japanese: Hera sagi (spatula heron.) 

This spoonbill is a straggler to Korea, known only from one definite 
record. Yamashina (1941, 896) has an immature male in his collection 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 49 

taken in Kyongsang Namdo 13 February 1937. The only other 
reference to the species in literature is Kuroda's note (1918, 499) 
under Platalea minor that "it is said that P. leucorodia occurs in S. 
Corea." 

32. Platalea minor Temminck and Schlegel 

Platalea minor Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna Japonica, Aves, 
1849, p. 120, pi. 76. (Japan.) 
English: Black-faced Spoonbill. 
Japanese: Kurotsura herasagi (black-faced spatula-heron.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — Jan. 1910 (Yam). 

PyonganPukto —5 June, 3 July 1917 (LiWM); 23 Apr. 1929 (Yam); 

7 Oct. 1931 (SoM); 17 June 1933 (Won). 
Pyongan Namdo — 14 May 1917 (SSC); 10 Dec. 1929 (Taka); 15 Oct. 1931 

(Won). 
Kyonggi Do — 18 Oct. 1914 (LiWM). 

Cholla Pukto — 27 March 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 7 Dec. 1884 (USNM). 

The Black-faced Spoonbill is a locally common summer resident, 
arriving in March and departing in November. It breeds on small 
off-shore islets in Cholla Pukto, and probably in coastal Pyongan Do. 
Kuroda (1918, 499) obtained six eggs collected at Ito, Cholla Pukto, 
22 July 1917, and there are several more eggs in the LiWong Museum 
from a small island off the coast of Cholla Pukto 17 July 1916. Won 
(1934, 102) calls it common and breeding. 



ANATIDAE 

33. Cygnus cygnus cygnus (Linne) 

Anas cygnus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 122. (Sweden.) 
English: Whooping Swan. 
Japanese: O hakucho (large swan.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 7 Nov. 1914 (SSC). 
Pyongan Pukto — 5 Apr. 1934 (Won). 



50 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Hwanghae Do — early Apr. 1921 (Kur). 

Kyonggi Do — March 1910 (LiWM). 

Cholla Pukto — 19 Nov. 1910 (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo — Dec. 1902 (USNM); 23 Feb. 1927 (Taka). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 16 June 1912 (AMNH). 

This species is a transient and winter visitor to Korea, not as 
common as Bewick's Swan by my observations on the west coast, but 
said by Mori (1939, 9) to be the most abundant of the swans on the 
east coast. Campbell (1892, 245) says "In mild seasons I have noticed 
that a number of these swans pass the winter in a bend of the Han 
River, about three miles south of Seoul." Taczanowski (1888, 460) 
quotes Kalinowski's observation that it is "the most common in 
winter", but whether he means of the swans or the seasons is unclear. 

In the several flocks of swans I encountered during March near 
Suwon, I was able positively to identify only a few Whoopers among 
the Bewicks. While there seemed usually to be a few markedly larger 
individuals in the groups, I could seldom approach close enough to 
distinguish the bill character, and the greater part of them appeared 
to be bewickii, as is the only one I collected. 

34. Cygnus bewickii jankowskii Alpheraky 

Cygnus bewickii jankowskii Alpheraky, Priroda i Okhota, Sept. 1904, p. 10. 
(Ussuri.) 

English: Eastern Bewick's Swan. 
Japanese: Hakucho (autochthonous, but means white bird.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 11 Jan. 1919 (Taka). 

Kangwon Do — Dec. (Kur); 22 Nov. 1914 (SSC); Dec. 1928 (SoM). 

Hwanghae Do — Oct. 1928 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —April 1909, 10 Nov. 1914 (LiWM); 19 March 1046 

(MCZ). 
Cholla Namdo — Nov. 1918 (Taka). 
Kyongsang Namdo — Feb. (G & S). 

Bewick's Swan is a common transient and not uncommon winter 
visitor to Korea. Y. Ku»oda and Miyakoda (1919, 150) say it occurs 
in the Seoul region from mid-October to mid-December and from 
mid-February through late April, "most numerous from late March 
to early April". I encountered the first flock near Suwon on 1 March 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 51 

1946, an impressive array of 250 birds feeding in an open brackish 
inlet. I found smaller flocks throughout March at the heads of the 
bays, the last being eight on 31 March. 

Mori (1939, 9) gives the following account: "Swans are seldom 
seen in Japan nowadays, but in Korea great flocks, though decreased 
compared to olden times, still migrate to several localities, such as 
Ongjin and Changyon Kuns, Hwanghae Do, and Chaho, Hamgyong 
Namdo. They move further south in colder seasons. The ponds in 
Changryong and Hyopchon Kuns, Kyongsang Namdo, and the sea- 
coast of Chindo Kun, Cholla Namdo, are their wintering grounds. 

"In Hyopchon and Changryong the people say that a heavy mi- 
gration of these birds is an augury of a good crop, so the birds are 
well protected there. We can frequently see flocks of several hundred 
birds at ponds in these districts. Most of them are Whooper Swans, 
with Bewicks and Mute Swans with them. They feed on water plants, 
shoots of weeds, fish, shellfish, aquatic insects in the ponds or at the 
seacoast. The ponds in Hyopchon and Changryong Kuns are pro- 
tected by law." 

35. Cygnus olor (Gmelin) 

Anas Olor Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 502. (Russia.) 
English: Mute Swan. 
Japanese: Kobu hakucho (wen swan.) 

The Mute Swan is an uncommon winter visitor to Korea. Mori 
(1939, 9) mentions it as the least common of the swans in Kyongsang 
Namdo (see under Cygnus bewickii). Taka-Tsukasa and Hachisuka 
(1925, 906) say it "is found rarely in Corea", and note that there are 
no records for it elsewhere in the old empire. There are only three 
certain Korean records. Kalinowski collected a young female at 
Wonsan 27 February 1888, of which Taczanowski comments (1888, 
458) "our voyageur saw only immature birds in this country (Ham- 
gyong Namdo) in winter; the adults go farther south, but return 
toward the 20th of February". Kuroda (1917, 15) reports one from 
Moppo, Cholla Namdo in January. There was a specimen in the Seoul 
School Collection taken 13 December 1918 in Chungchong Namdo. 



36. Chen hyperborea (Pallas) 

Anser hyperboreus Pallas, Spic. Zool., fasc. 6, 1769, p. 31. (northeast Siberia.) 
English: Snow Goose. 
Japanese: Haku gan (white goose.) 



52 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Snow Goose is a straggler to Korea. The lone Korean record, 
published by Kuroda (1918, 290), is a bird taken in Cholla Namdo in 
January, 1917. The specimen was formerly in the Momiyama col- 
lection, but was destroyed by the 1923 earthquake. 



37. Anser albifrons albifrons (Scopoli) 

Branta albifrons Scopoli, Annus I, Hist. Nat., 1769, p 69. (northern Italy?) 
English: White-fronted Goose. 
Japanese: Magan (true goose.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 4-15 Apr. 1929 (3) (Yam). 

Hwanghae Do — March (Kur); 25 Oct. 1930 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do — March, May 1909, Feb. 1910 (LiWM); 15 Oct. 1925 

(SoM); 13 Feb. 1918 (SSC). 
Chungchong Namdo — 3 Jan. 1913 (SSC); 16 Dec. 1926 (3) (Taka). 
Cholla Pukto — Jan. 1 929 (Kur) . 

Cholla Namdo — 13 Dec. 1929 — 10 Feb. 1930 (4) (Yam); 29 Jan 1927 

(3) (Taka). 
Kyongsang Namdo — Feb. (G & S); 12 Nov. 1883, 13 Mar. 1885 (USNM); 

2 Feb. 1929 (Kur). 

The White-fronted Goose is a common transient and winter visitor in 
Korea, not quite so plentiful, however, as the Bean Goose. Y. Kuroda 
and Miyakoda (1919, 150) give its Seoul seasons as "late February to 
early April; October and November", commenting that it "migrates 
early" in comparison with the other species, which was most certainly 
true in my own experience. 

I saw my first geese near Suwon 23 February 1946, a flock of 60 
composed entirely of albifrons, and the species was most plentiful 
during the first ten days of March. Soon thereafter its place in the 
flocks was rapidly assumed by the Bean Goose, and I observed none 
after 20 March, when there was one gaggle of 40 birds in a group by 
themselves among a mass of some 1500 individuals of other species. 



38. Anser erythropus (Linne) 

Anas erythropus Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 123. (Sweden.) 
English : Lesser White-fronted Goose. 
Japanese: Karigane (reaping goose.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 53 

Straggler. The only Korean record for this species is Kuroda's note 
(1918, 504) that "Mr. Yasukichi Kuroda has shot two birds from a 
group of this species at Dasenjo, Keki Distr. [Kyonggi Do], early in 
April, 1917". However, he notes sixteen years later (1934, 283) that 
these specimens are "no longer in existence." 

39. Anser fabalis (Latham) 

Anas Fabalis Latham, Gen. Syn. Suppl., 1, 1787, p. 297. (Great Britain.) 
Melanonyx arvensis sibiricus Alpheraky, Geese Europe and Asia, 1905, p. 104, 

pi. 10, 23. (East Siberia.) 
Anser segetum var. serrirostris Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871, p. 417. 
(near Amoy, China.) 

English: Bean Goose. 

Japanese: Hishikui (eater of water-chestnuts.) 

Authorities still disagree on the racial arrangements within this 
plastic species, and the matter will never be settled satisfactorily until 
there is adequate comparative breeding material at hand for study. 
To attempt to throw further light on the question with material 
collected on the wintering grounds or in migration is futile. The 
Japanese have assigned various Bean Geese collected in Korea to 
almost every race that has been described. But aberrant individuals 
occur in every group of birds, and the recognition of the occurrence 
of a race within so variable a species on the basis of one or two lone 
specimens is rather questionable. 

The Korean Bean Geese seem to fall into two races, a larger, longer- 
billed form, Anser fabalis sibiricus, and a smaller, thicker-billed form, 
Anser fabalis serrirostris, both breeding in Siberia, the former more 
northerly and easterly. There are many intermediates impossible to 
assign to either race. I collected a male 17 March 1946 which is 
definitely serrirostris, and measured three more in the field which were 
shot for the table, two of which were also serrirostris, and the third 
just as positively sibiricus. As the collection dates show no apparent 
distinction in times of occurrence of the various subspecies, the 
following specimen records are given without racial separation. 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 20 Sept., 12 Oct. 1929 (5) (Yam). 

Hwanghae Do —20 March 1914 (SSC); 30 Mar. 1927 (2) (Taka); 25 

Oct. 1930 (Won). 
Kangwon Do —30 Sept., 1 Oct 1914 (LiWM). 



54 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Kyonggi Do — Mar. 1909, Jan. 1911, Feb. 1915 (LiWM); 14 Jan. 1913 

(Kur); 15 Mar. 1929 (SoM); 28 Mar. 1927 (6) (Taka); 
18 Mar. 1932 (USNM); 18 Feb., 15 Mar. 1929, 20 
Mar. 1932 (Won); Dec. 1935 (2) (Uch); 17 Mar. 1946 
(MCZ). 

Chungchong Namdo — 20 Jan. 1914 (LiWM); 22 Nov. 1917 (Kur). 

Cholla Namdo — Dec. (Kur); undated (SSC); 12 Feb. 1930 (Yam). 

The Bean Goose is a common transient and winter visitor to Korea, 
the most abundant of all the geese. Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919, 
150) give its season near Seoul as March through mid- April, October 
and November. I observed the first one 3 March, and the main flight 
began to come through a week later. On 17 March I encountered a 
flock of about 1500 birds, and the movement continued the rest of the 
month. My notes contain references to many flocks of from 100 to 
200 birds, both in brackish waters near the shore, on the flats at low 
tide, at the heads of the inlets, and inland on the rice paddies and in 
the fresh water lakes. Frequently two sizes of birds could be seen 
together, each seemingly keeping in a knot by itself, but the sub- 
specific identification of the various gaggles by sight in the field is 
virtually impossible. 



40. Cygnopsis cygnoid (Linne) 

Anas Cygnoid Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 122. (Asia.) 
English: Swan Goose. 
Japanese: Sakatsura gan (inverted-faced goose.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 29 Sept. 1929 (2) (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 7, 10 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —21 March 1933 (SSC); 19, 21 March 1932 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — March (Kur) . 

Kyonggi Do — 15 Mar., Apr. 1914 (LiWM); 26 Mar. 1927 (Taka). 

Cholla Namdo — undated (SSC); 20 Dec. 1926 (2) (Taka). 

The Swan Goose is a common transient, more plentiful in spring 
than in autumn, but never as abundant as the Bean Goose or the 
White-fronted Goose. Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919, 150) give its 
season near Seoul as mid-March through April, and October and 
November, adding "this bird migrates later than other geese. When 
these are common, the others have decreased. We took three birds in 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 55 

mid-April 1913. They were eating carrots. We saw none later." 
Kuroda (1918, 504) "observed a group of some ten birds of this Goose 
near Riugan-po [Pyongan Pukto] May 3." He also notes (idem) "It 
is said that the species breeds on the Shinto Island in the mouth of 
the Yalu River [Pyongan Pukto]", but this rumor is unverified by 
either Won or Orii, both of whom worked subsequently in that area. 
I observed the first arrivals 17 March 1946, a small group of eight 
which kept to themselves at the edge of a flock of several hundred of 
the other two species, near Suwon. They became comparatively more 
common toward the end of the goose flight, and I last saw the species 
1 April. 

41. Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence) 

Anser nigricans Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 4, 1846, p. 171, pi. 12. 
(Egg Harbor, New Jersey, U.S.A.) 

English: Black Brant. 

Japanese: Koku gan (black goose.) 

Specimen records : 

Pyongan Namdo — 24 Mar. 1910 (LiWM). 

Chungchong Namdo— 15 Jan. 1915 (SSC). 

Cholla Namdo —Dec. (Kur) ; undated (SSC); 11 Jan. 1930 (2) (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo —24 Dec. 1914 (LiWM); 12 Feb. 1912 (AMNH). 

Korea — 10 Feb. 1921 (Uch, ex Matsudaira). 

The specimen records above are the only information at hand on 
the occurrence of this species in Korea. It is probably best regarded 
as an uncommon winter visitor. 



42. Casarca ferruginea (Pallas) 

Anas f err uginea Pallas, in Vroeg's Cat., 1764, Adumbr., p. 5. (No type locality 
given, = Tartary.) 

English: Ruddy Sheldrake. 

Japanese: Aka tsukushigamo (red sheldrake.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 23 Dec. 1924 (Kur). 
Hamgyong Namdo — 2 Mar. 1919 (Taka). 
Hwanghae Do — 20 Jan, 1912 (Taka). 



56 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

KyonggiDo —Dec. 1887 (Tacz); Feb. May 1909, 5 Mar. 1911 

(LiWM); 5 Nov. 1922, 18 Nov. 1929 (SoM); 1 Feb. 
1926 (2) (Kur); 10 Dec. 1927 (Taka); 5 Mar. 1931 
(Won); 30 Jan. 1935(USNM); 15 Jan. 1946 (MCZ). 

Chungchong Namdo — 5 Jan. 1913 (SSC); 28 Dec. 1926 (Taka). 

Cholla Pukto — Jan. 1929 (Kur). 

Cholla Namdo — Dec. 1902 (USNM). 

The Ruddy Sheldrake is a common winter visitor, most abundant 
along the east and south coasts. Taczanowski (1888, 468) says "small 
numbers in winter, spring and autumn, absent in summer; very 
numerous in spring in the rice fields of south Korea." Y. Kuroda and 
Miyakoda (1919, 150) give its season in Kyonggi Do as November 
through April. 

I encountered the species constantly near Suwon from 3 January 
through February and March, usually at the heads of the inlets, or 
gathered in small flocks in dry rice paddies near salt water, slowly 
foraging in the stubble. I saw a flock of 60 on 20 March, and the last 
was a pair 24 March 1946. I shot two on a frozen paddy about five 
miles from the head of salt water, 15 January. 



43. Tadorna tadorna (Linne) 

Anas tadorna Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 122. (Sweden.) 
English : Sheldrake. 

Japanese: Tsukushi gamo (duck from Tsukushi, an ancient 
prefecture in northern Kyushu.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 17 April 1929 (2) (Yam); 18 Oct. 1931 (SSC). 

Hwanghae Do — March 1911 (Taka). 

Kyonggi Do — 15 Oct. 1911, 28 Nov. 1914, 30 Nov. 1910 (LiWM); 

11 Nov. 1917 (2) (Kur); 16 Dec 1927 (Taka). 
Chungchong Namdo — 20 Feb. 1914 (SSC). 
Cholla Namdo — Dec. (Kur); undated (SSC); 20 Dec. 1926 (Taka). 

The Sheldrake is an uncommon transient visitor. I failed to find it, 
and none of the early writers mention it. Kuroda (1917, 12) says 
"many in early April" in Cholla Namdo, but Won (1934, 105) never 
collected it and calls it rare. Cumming (1933, 52) says it is usually 
found in small flocks and that it is "a large showy duck shy enough 
to be very difficult of approach but rather heavy in flight." 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 57 

44. PSEUDOTADORNA CRISTATA Kuroda 

Pseudotadorna crislata Kuroda, Tori, 1, 1917, p 1, f. 1. (Naktung River, 
near Fusan, Korea.) 

English: Kuroda's Sheldrake. 

Japanese: Kammuri tsukushigamo (crested sheldrake.) 

A footnote in the Hand-List of Japanese Birds thus summarizes the 
status of this rarity: "Formerly believed to be common, 3 specimens 
(lcf 2 9 9 ) are known. About 120 years old drawing and description 
prove occurrence of this duck near Hakodate, cf. Kuroda, Tori, 10 
(50), pp. 739-741, figs. 135, 136, 1940." 

The first known specimen was a female, taken near Vladivostok in 
April, 1877, by Lt. Fr. Irminger, and at last reports was in the Copen- 
hagen Museum (cf. Taka-Tsukasa, 1925, 358). This specimen was 
described in 1890 by Sclater as a possible hybrid between the Ruddy 
Sheldrake and the Falcated Teal. 

The second specimen, also a female, taken near Fusan, December 
(3?), 1916, was the type of Kuroda's original description. 

Third and last is the only male, which was taken (with a female 
which was given to a friend of the collector) at the mouth of the 
Kun-Kiang River in Cholla Pukto by Mr. S. Nakamura of Seoul. 
The date Mr. Nakamura collected his pair is rather indefinite, but he 
told Kuroda that he shot them toward the end of November or early 
in December in either 1913 or 1914. What became of the other bird 
"given to a friend of the collector" is not known. 

The last two specimens were fortunately among the few items to be 
saved when the entire Kuroda collection was destroyed in May, 1945 
by the B-29 fire-raids. 

The question as to whether or not this is a valid species, perhaps 
once common but now approaching extinction (a parallel case is that 
of the Labrador Duck), or just a rare hybrid, can be settled only by 
the success or failure of reproducing it by hybridizing all the possible 
parents experimentally, as Hartert advocated (Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 
45, 1924, p. 48). 



45. Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos Linne 

Anas platyrhynchos Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 125. (Sweden.) 
English: Mallard. 
Japanese: Magamo (true duck.) 



58 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 8, 12 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —20 March 1932 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do —Jan. (Kur); 17 Dec. 1926 (4) (Taka). 

KyonggiDo —Nov. 1909 (LiWM); 2 Apr. 1912 (SSC); March 1916, 

Feb. 1917, Jan. 1922 (Kur); 20 Mar. 1922 (2) (Taka); 

30 Mar. 1928 (SoM); 3, 12 Mar. 1946 (MCZ). 
Cholla Namdo — 12, 12, 21 Feb. 1927 (Taka). 

The Mallard is a common spring and autumn transient throughout 
Korea. It is not uncommon in winter in the southern portions wherever 
there is open water. Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919, 149) give its 
season near Seoul as late February through April, October and No- 
vember. Taczanowski's note (1888, 460) that it "nests in small 
numbers" has been disregarded by subsequent authorities as unveri- 
fied, and perhaps referable to the Spot-billed Duck. 

There were Mallards on the lake at Suwon until it froze over in 
mid-December 1945. I saw eight there 12 December. I encountered 
scattered individuals in January and February, usually on or near salt 
water, but the flight began the end of February. Through March the 
species was abundant, the commonest of all the ducks. They were 
also the last ducks to remain in numbers at the end of the waterfowl 
flight. I saw 500 in one raft on 1 April, and my last note for the species 
is of a flock of fifteen on the lake at Suwon 16 April. 

46. Anas poecilorhyncha zonorhyncha Swinhoe 

Anas zonorhyncha Swinhoe, Ibis, 1866, p 394. (Ningpo, China.) 
English: Spot-billed Duck. 
Japanese: Karu gamo (light, not heavy, duck.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 9 Oct. 1915 (SSC); 10 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 6 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 4 Nov. 1931 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — March (Kur). 

Kangwon Do — 25 June (2 downy yg.), 13 July 1929 (Yam). 

KyonggiDo — 3 May 1887 (Tacz);Oct.,Nov. 1909, 3 Apr. 1911 (LiWM); 

8, 23, 23 Nov. 1927 (Taka); 11 Oct. 1930 (Won); 29 Sept. 

1930 (SoM); 18 June 1933, 15 July 1934 (downy yg.) 

(Uch); 1 Mar. 1946 (MCZ). 
Cholla Pukto — 1 Jan. 1912 (LiWM). 
Cholla Namdo — 21 Jan. 1927 (Taka); 27 Dec. 1929 (Yam). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 59 

The Spot-billed Duck is the resident duck of Korea. It breeds 
throughout the northern two-thirds and moves southward in winter, 
staying in the southern areas as long as there is open fresh water. 
Taczanowski comments (1888, 458) "small numbers in general, in 
spring and autumn, mostly one sees it in pairs; in spring this duck 
appears before the other species." It is never very numerous, and 
does not congregate in large flocks like the Mallard, Pintail and the 
various teals. A group of fifty was the largest single unit I observed. 
The bird reminded me of the Black Duck of eastern North America, 
its Nearctic homologue. It acts just the way the "spring blacks" do 
on Cape Cod, pairing off and feeding in doubles away from the other 
waterfowl in lonely lakes and paddies. 

The first arrivals were a pair which dropped into Suwon lake soon 
after the ice departed, 26 February 1946. After that small knots of 
them could be found wherever there were waterfowl during the spring 
flight. They were common in numbers after the main flights of other 
species had passed. I saw twenty in the pond 12 April and thirty at 
the shore 20 April. There were two pairs still around Suwon lake when 
I left in early May. 

The species' breeding in Korea is well attested by the downy young 
Orii collected in Kangwon Do. Yoshida (1923) says that many breed 
at Ongjin, Hwanghae Do, and tells of collecting a young of the year 
there 3 July 1922. Kuroda (1934, 4091) writes "it seems probable 
that this duck breeds at many localities in the Korean peninsula." 
Hashimoto (1937) found three nests on Hachibi Island, Kyonggi Do 
24 May 1933, one of which hatched on 18 June 1933. He watched 
another pair breeding there the following year, which laid eight eggs 
between 8 and 21 June. He followed the incubation, noting that the 
parents covered the eggs when leaving the nest. They hatched suc- 
cessfully 16 July, after an incubation period of 24 days. 

47. Anas querquedula Linne 

Anas Querquedula Linne, Syst Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 126. (Sweden.) 
English : Garganey. 
Japanese: Shima aji (striped mackerel.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 17, 20 April 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 15 April 1932 (Won). 
Kangwon Do — 17 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 



60 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Kyonggi Do —Mar. 1913 (LiWM); April (Kur); 15 May 1919 (SSC); 

25 Sept. 1927 (3) (Taka); Nov. 1934 (SoM). 

The Garganey is an uncommon, but evidently a regular transient 
visitor. Won (1934, 106) considers it rare. I saw the bird only twice. 
I found one feeding with other dipping ducks in the flooded rice 
paddies on 17 March during the height of the waterfowl flight, and 
two more at the head of Suwon Lake 22 March 1946. 



48. Anas crecca crecca Linne 

Anas Crecca Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 126. (Sweden.) 
English: Eurasian Teal. 
Japanese: Ko gamo (little duck.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 26 Sept. 1917 (LiWM); 16 Sept. 1929 (Yam, now MCZ). 

Hamgyong Namdo — Sept. (Kur). 

Pyongan Pukto — 11, 21 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 25 March 1932 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — 24 April 1917 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do —March 1889 (Camp); April, Oct. 1909 (LiWM); 25 

April (Kur); 9-25 Oct. 1927 (4) (Taka); 8 Apr. 1930 
(Won); Apr. 1932 (2) (SoM); 8 Jan., 3 Mar. 1946 
(MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo — Nov. 1918 (3) (Kur); 12 Feb. 1927 (5) (Taka). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 23 Jan. 1886 (USNM); Dec. 1922 (5) (Kur). 

This is the commonest of the teals in Korea, numerous during spring 
and autumn flights, and not uncommon during the winter. A flock of 
twenty remained in Suwon lake until it froze in mid-December, and 
stayed in the vicinity afterward in nearby salt water, coming fre- 
quently through January to the open ripples below the dam for fresh 
water. Their numbers increased as the waterfowl flight commenced 
the end of February, and I estimated 700 in one flock 9 March. The 
big flocks left by 25 March, but I saw scattered small groups as late 
as 3 April. 

Y. Kuroda (1918) saw a flock of twenty in Kangwon Do 8 Sep- 
tember, but gives its usual fall arrival as late September, becoming 
common by late October. Its spring flight he gives as from late 
February through April. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 61 

49. Anas Formosa Georgi 

Anas formosa Georgi, Bemerk. Reise Russ. Reich, 1, 1775, p. 168. (Lake 
Baikal.) 

English: Spectacled Teal. 
Japanese: Tomoe gamo (swirl duck, from the facial markings.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 11 Nov. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 23, 25 Mar. 1932 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — March (Kur). 

Kangwon Do — 26, 29 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 10 Oct. 1912, 22 Mar. 1936 (SSC); 28 Mar. 1929 (Won); 

25 Oct. 1926, 7-18 March (4), 9 Sept., 3 Oct. (4) 1927 

(Taka); 12 March 1946 (MCZ). 
Cholla Pukto —31 Dec. 1911 (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo — 12 Feb. 1927 (Taka). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 18, 24 Jan. 1886 (USNM); Jan. 1928 (Kur); 31 Dec. 

1922 (Taka). 

The little Spectacled Teal is a common spring and autumn transient 
in Korea. Its migration is more pronounced than that of the Eurasian 
Teal, for it arrives later, departs earlier, and while present occurs in 
flocks which are sometimes immense. I watched one line go over on 
14 March that I hesitated to estimate. It was at least two miles in 
length and must have contained well over ten thousand birds. Y. 
Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919, 149) give its Seoul dates as October, 
and March and April, also adding "most numerous every year around 
March 16, occasionally flying in lines three miles or more long." 

I saw the first of them at Suwon 26 February 1946; the major part 
of the flight went through from 5 to 20 March, the last of them 23 
March. 



50. Anas falcata Georgi 

Anas falcata Georgi, Bemerk. Reise Russ. Reich, 1, 1775, p. 167. (Asiatic 
Russia.) 

English: Falcated Teal. 

Japanese: Yoshi gamo (marsh-reed duck.) 

Specimen records: 
Hamgyong Pukto — 29 Apr. 1912 (2) (AMNH); 24 Sept. 1929 (Yam). 



62 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Pyongan Pukto — 22 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do — 10 Mar. 1912 (2) (LiWM); 15 March, 9 Oct. 1927, 21 

Jan. 1928 (Taka);14 March 1929, 5 March 1934 (SoM). 
Cholla Namdo — Dec. (Kur); 20 Feb. 1913 (SSC). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 10 Dec. 1884 (USNM); 20 Jan. 1912 (3) (AMNH); 

Dec. 1922 (Kur). 

The Falcated Teal is not an uncommon migrant in Korea, but not 
nearly so abundant as the Eurasian and Spectacled Teals. It usually 
occurs in small flocks, mixed in with the rafts of other waterfowl. I 
observed five on 9 March, the first I saw. Sundry similar small knots 
were to be found for the next two weeks wherever ducks were common, 
and the last was another flock of five that visited Suwon Lake 25 
March 1946. 



51. Anas acuta acuta Linne 

Anas acuta Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 128. (Sweden.) 
English: Pintail. 
Japanese: Onaga gamo (long-tailed duck.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Namdo — 20, 27, 29 March 1932 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do - 10 Feb., Mar., 25 Oct. 1913 (LiWM); 20 May 1919, 9 

Oct. 1929 (SSC); 2 March (4), 20 Oct., 15 Nov., 10 Dec. 

1927, 7 Nov. 1926 (2) (Taka); Feb. 1933 (SoM); 3 

March 1946 (MCZ). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 3 March 1915 (LiWM). 

The Pintail is a common migrant, second in abundance only to the 
Mallard among the dipping ducks. The forerunners of the flight ap- 
peared near Suwon in late February, and by 5 March the species was 
abundant in the flooded paddies at the head of the inlet. Their 
numbers did not begin to dwindle until 20 March. I saw the last of 
them 25 March. 

My observations do not coincide with those of Y. Kuroda and 
Miyakoda (1919, 149) who give the dates of October and early No- 
vember, and late March and April. They say "the migration of this 
bird follows the Red-breasted Merganser", which was not borne out 
by my experiences. I found Pintails and Mallards the backbone (so 
to speak) of the migration the second and third weeks of March, while 
the Mergansers remained considerably later. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 63 

52. Mareca penelope (Linne) 

Anas Penelope Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 126. (Sweden.) 
English: Widgeon. 
Japanese: Hidori gamo (redbird ? duck.) 

Specimen records : 

Pyongan Pukto — 22 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 21 Mar. 1933 (Won). 
Kangwon Do — April (Kur); 3 Mar. 1916 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do — 22 Oct. 1913 (LiWM); 17 Nov. 1926 (Taka); 2 Oct. 1929 
(SoM); 12 Mar. 1946 (MCZ). 

I found the Wigeon a far more abundant migrant than the literature 
or the specimen records indicate. The vanguard appeared the first of 
March, and the main flight went through from the 5th to the 15th at 
the shore with the other waterfowl. I shot five there between the 10th 
and the 15th of March, and counted 250 in one flock on the 12th. The 
rear echelons lingered considerably later. There were forty on the lake 
at Suwon the 21st, twenty on the 22nd and six on the 25th of March. 
I saw four stragglers there 12 April, and a late flight of thirty at the 
shore 20 April 1946. 

[Mareca americana (Gmelin) 

English : Baldpate . 

Japanese: Amerika hidori (American widgeon.) 

The 1942 Hand-List erroneously gives this species as occurring in Korea on 
the basis of Cumming (1933, 83), who in turn made the original error of copy- 
ing it as a Korean bird from the 1932 Hand-List, where it is shown only as a 
straggler to Honshu.] 



53. Chaulelasmus streperus (Linne) 

Anas strepera Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 125. (Sweden.) 
English: Gadwall. 
Japanese: Oka yoshigamo (upland teal.) 

Specimen records : 

Pyongan Namdo — 21 March 1933 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do — Dec. 1916 (LiWM); undated (SSC). 



64 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Gadwall is a rare transient. Korea is not a portion of its regular 
migration route, but in view of the species' general distribution it 
should occur more frequently than the record indicates. I failed to find 
it among the hordes of waterfowl I observed. Won (1934, 105) calls it 
common, but inasmuch as he calls the Wigeon rare, which I found 
common, his field identification in this case may be questioned. 

54. Spatula clypeata (Linne) 

Anas clypeata Linne\ Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 124. (Sweden.) 
English : Shoveler. 
Japanese: Hashi-biro gamo (broad-billed duck.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 26 Sept, 1917 (LiWM); 12, 23 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 3 May 1917 (Kur); 23 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —30 Apr. 1932 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do — Oct., Nov. 1909, Mar., 2 Nov. 1913 (LiWM); April 1917 

(Kur); 20 Feb. 1919 (SSC); 25 Apr. 1926 (Taka); 28 

Mar. 1929, 20 Mar. 1934 (SoM). 

The Shoveller is a not uncommon migrant in Korea, lingering 
slightly later in spring than the main waterfowl flight. Y. Kuroda and 
Miyakoda (1919,149) give its dates as late March and April, late 
October and November. The first I found were three on 10 March, and 
three more on 12 March. I saw a flock of twenty-three on 17 March, 
and then none until 26 April when three dropped into Suwon Lake. 
It frequents the shallow paddies more than the other species do, and is 
found in areas usually preferred by the waders. 

55. Aix galericulata (Linne) 

Anas galericulata Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 128. (China.) 
English: Mandarin Duck. 
Japanese: Hoshidori (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 16 Apr., 23 May 1912 (13) (AMNH). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 17 Sept. 1912 (SSC); 26 Mar. 1914 (LiWM); 20 Jan. 

1927 (Taka). 
Pyongan Pukto — 5-14 Apr. 1929 (4) (Yam). 
Kangwon Do — Sept. 1887 (Camp); Dec. 1915 (Kur). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 65 

Kyonggi Do —July, Nov. 1909, 24 Mar., June 1910, 2 Mar. 1911 

(LiWM); 23 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 11 Oct. (5), 20 Nov., 
20 Dec. 1927 (Taka); 4 Feb., 14 Aug., 24 Sept 1929 
(Won); Aug. 1930 (SoM); 7 Apr. 1930 (USNM). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 9 Jan. 1917 (Kur). 

The Mandarin Duck is a not uncommon transient in Korea. Y. 
Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919,149) say it passes Seoul in April, late 
October and November. Won (1934, 106) on the other hand, claims it 
migrates earlier than the other ducks in the autumn. His statement that 
it nests in Pyongan Namdo has not been credited by subsequent 
authors, for there is no breeding evidence. 

This species is a bird of the woodlands, fond of fresh water and tree 
cover, similar in habits and habitat to the congeneric American Wood 
Duck. It is seldom found in the open waters of the inlets or large rice 
paddies with the other migrating waterfowl, but prefers woodland lakes 
and streams. Campbell (1892, 245) says of the specimen he took in the 
Diamond Mountains in September 1889, that his "attention was 
drawn to it by its curious behavior for a duck ... it was on the top of a 
haystack." I saw it only at the King's Forest south of Suwon, where I 
flushed five from a sheltered pond on 6 April. I saw another pair at the 
same place 20 April, but was unable to collect them. They were all 
very shy and wild. 

56. Aythya ferina (Linne) 

Anasferina Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 126. (Sweden.) 
English: Pochard. 
Japanese: Hoshi hajiro (star, white-feather.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Namdo — 5 Jan. 1914 (SSC). 
Hwanghae Do — Jan. (Kur). 
Kangwon Do — 25 Oct. 1926 (Taka). 

Kyonggi Do — Sept. 1909 (LiWM); 20 Apr. 1926 (Taka); 5 Nov. 1927 

(Won). 

The Pochard is a rare visitor to Korea, perhaps of more regular 
occurrence however, than the scant records indicate. Won (1934, 106) 
calls it rare, and Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda's (1919, 149) listing of the 
species in Seoul for March and April, October and November, is rather 
doubtful. I saw the bird but once, a lone male near Suwon on 9 March 
1946, in company with a flock of scaup. 



66 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

57. Aythya fuligula (Linne) 

Anas fuligula Linne\ Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 128. (Sweden.) 
English: Tufted Duck. 
Japanese: Kinkuro hajiro (golden-black scaup.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 14 Oct., 12 Nov. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — Nov. (Kur); 22 Nov. 1914 (SSC). 

Hwanghae Do —20 Mar. 1914, 3 Apr. 1916 (LiWM); 11 Nov. 1930, 10 

Apr. 1932 (Won). 
Kangwon Do — 4 Apr. 1914 (2) (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do —Nov. 1909, 21 Oct. 1912 (LiWM); 5 Oct. 1922 (3), 18 

Nov. 1929 (2) (SoM); 7 Nov. 1926, 23 Mar. 1927 (4) 

(Taka); 6 Feb., 29 Dec. 1928 (Won); 20 Mar. 1932 

(USNM). 

The Tufted Duck is a common winter visitor in Korea. It occupies 
the ecological niche taken by the Lesser Scaup in North America, and 
prefers the more sheltered inland coastal waters to the outer bays 
where the Greater Scaup is more common. Campbell (1892, 245) com- 
ments it is "rarely absent from the Han or Seoul River during the 
winter." Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919, 149) give its season as 
October and November, and March and April, but I observed it com- 
monly during January and February in the same general area. It 
showed a marked increase in numbers during the March waterfowl 
flight, and pairs lingered in the shallow inland ponds well into April, 
my latest date being 15 April 1946. 



58. Aythya baeri (Radde) 

Anas (Fuligula) Baeri Radde, Reisen Sud von Ost-Siberien, 2, 1863, p. 376, 
pi. 15. (Southeast Siberia.) 

English: Baer's Pochard, Siberian White-eyed Duck. 
Japanese: Aka hajiro (red scaup.) 

This comparatively little-known species has occurred twice in Korea. 
The LiWong Museum has an immature bird collected on the Han River 
near Seoul 18 October 1912. The other specimen was taken 29 Decem- 
ber 1916 in Hwanghae Do, and is now in the Seoul Natural History 
Museum. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 67 

59. Aythya marila mariloides (Vigors) 

Fuligula Mariloides Vigors, Zool. Beechey's Voy. 'Blossom,' 1839, p. 31. 
(No type locality — Behring Sea.) 

English: Greater Scaup Duck. 
Japanese: Suzu gamo (bell duck.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 12 Nov. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — Nov., 26 Apr. 1917 (5) (Kur). 

Kyonggi Do — Nov. 1909 (LiWM); 24 May 1919 (SSC); 9 Dec. 1934 

(USNM). 
Cholla Namdo — 11, 13 Apr. 1917 (4) (Kur). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 20, 25 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

This species is a common winter visitor along the coasts from 
Kyonggi Do southward. Kuroda (1917, 5) "met flocks of 20-40 at 
Moppo [Cholla Namdo, 1 1 April] and at Wonsan [Hamgyong Namdo, 
26 April], and comments (1918, 501) "very common in harbours and 
on rivers." Won (1934, 106) never collected it, strangely enough, and 
calls it rare. 

I observed small flocks in Inchon Harbor whenever I went there, 
which was at almost fortnightly intervals from November to March, 
and found them at the heads of the inlets near Suwon throughout 
March and into April. I never saw them in the big rafts so frequently 
seen off New England, but usually in smaller flocks of from ten to one 
hundred birds. 

60. BUCEPHALA CLANGULA CLANGULA (Linne) 

Anas Clangula Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 125. (Sweden.) 
English : Golden-eye. 
Japanese: Hojiro gamo (white-cheeked duck.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo —2 Dec. 1887 (Tacz); 3 Nov. 1914 (SSC); 26 Apr. 1917 

(Kur). 
Kyonggi Do — Feb. (2), Mar. 1909, 20 Oct., 20 Dec. 1912, 31 Oct. 1914 

(LiWM); Apr. 1932 (2) (SoM). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 8 Dec. 1883 (USNM); 28 Feb. 1918 (Taka). 

The Golden-eye is a common winter visitor, frequenting the harbors 
and inlets along the coast. Taczanowski (1888, 468) says "quite com- 



68 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

mon in spring and winter on the sea, but scarcer on the rivers." Won 
(1934, 107) calls it rare, but perhaps did not know the bird. Kuroda 
1917, 9, suppl.) saw a flock of twenty in Wonsan harbor, Hamgyong 
Namdo, "none in sexual plumage", 26 April 1917. 

I observed it frequently in Inchon Harbor during December and 
January. There were six in the lake at Suwon during December before 
it froze over, and two dropped into holes in the ice that opened tem- 
porarily during a January thaw. There were a score or more in Inchon 
harbor 20 February. A pair in the lake at Suwon 20 March 1946 were 
the last I saw. 



61. Clangula hyemalis (Linne) 

Anas hyemalis Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 126. (Sweden.) 
English : Long-tailed Duck, Old Squaw. 
Japanese: Kori gamo (ice duck.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 2 Jan. 1917 (2) (Mom). 

Hamgyong Namdo — undated (SSC); 26 Apr. 1917 (2) (Kur); 15 Nov. 1926 

(2) (Taka). 
Pyongan Namdo — 26 June 1931 (Won). 
Kangwon Do — 7, 8 Apr. 1914 (3) (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 23 Nov. 1914 (LiWM); late Mar. 1917 (Kur). 

This species is a fairly common winter visitor along the east coast, 
but rare along the south and west shores. Kuroda (1917, suppl.) 
collected two at Wonsan 26 April 1917 and adds "another flock of 
about 20 was seen at Wonsan, almost all of them (except one) in sum- 
mer plumage. I think there may be a few in southern Korea. The bird 
seems rare in central Korea." He states elsewhere (1918, 500) "in the 
harbour of Genzan [Wonsan] it is very abundant." Won (1934, 107), 
however, knowing only the west coast, calls it rare. 



62. Histrionicus histrionicus pacificus Brooks 

Histrionicus histrionicus pacificus Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, 1915, 
p. 393. (Cape Shipunski, Kamchatka.) 

English: Pacific Harlequin Duck. 

Japanese: Shinori gamo (early morning duck.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 69 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 24 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — Nov. (Kur); 3 Dec. 1914 (8SC); 2 Jan. 1927 (Taka). 

Kangwon Do — 20 Jan. 1913, 1 Apr. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 27 Nov. 1910 (LiWM). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 14 Mar., 14 Dec. 1886 (USNM); 26 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

The Harlequin is not an uncommon winter visitor along the east 
coast, and comes as far south as Fusan. But it seldom visits the 
Korean shores of the Yellow Sea. 



63. Melanitta nigra Americana (Swainson) 

Oidemia americana Swainson, in Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Bor. Am., 
2, 1831 (1832), p. 450. (Hudson Bay.) 

English: American Black Scoter. 
Japanese: Kuro gamo (black duck.) 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 24 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — Dec. 1887 (Tacz); 16 Nov. 1914 (SSC). 

Kangwon Do — Dec. (Kur). 

Hwanghae Do — 22 Feb. 1916 (5) (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — Oct. 1920 (SoM); 25 Feb. 1930 (Taka). 

While the Black Scoter is not an uncommon winter visitor along the 
northeast coast, it is comparatively rare on the western side of Korea. 
Taczanowski (1888, 461) says "only found in winter on the sea near 
Wonsan". Won (1934, 107) considers it rare. Y. Kuroda and Miya- 
koda (1919, 149) say it occurs near Seoul in March and April, October 
and November, which is difficult to believe in the absence of specimens 
or other corroborative evidence to back their claims. 



64. Melanitta fusca stejnegeri (Ridgway) 

Oidemia stejnegeri Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, p. 112. (Kamchatka 
to Japan.) 

English : Easter Velvet Scoter. 

Japanese: Birodo kinkuro (velvet golden-black.) 



70 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 24 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 
Hamgyong Namdo — 26 Apr. 1917 (3) (Kur). 
Hwanghae Do —22 Feb. 1916 (2) (LiWM). 

Kangwon Do — 8, 23 Dec. 1914 (LiWM); 1 Dec. 1914 (SSC); Dec. (Kur). 

KyonggiDo —23 Dec. 1911 (LiWM); 10 Dec. 1927 (Taka); 20 Feb. 

1932 (SoM). 

As with the other sea ducks, this scoter is a winter visitor, more com- 
mon on the east coast than on the west. Kuroda (1918, 500) says it 
occurs "in abundance" on the Bay of Wonsan, Hamgyong Namdo, 
but Won (1934, 107) found it rare on the coasts of Pyongan Namdo 
and Hwanghae Do. 

65. Mergellus albellus (Linne) 

Mergus albellus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 129. (Smyrna ) 
English : Smew. 
Japanese: Miko aisa (son-of-god merganser.) 

Specimen records : 

Pyongan Pukto —9-15 Apr. 1929 (5) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 25 Mar. 1932, 25 Mar. 1933 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — Mar. (Kur). 

Kyonggi Do —Nov. 1909, 24 Mar., Apr. 1910, 17 Dec. 1911, 2, 9 Mar. 

1913 (LiWM); Dec. 1913 (Kur); 20 Mar. 1913 (SSC); 

7 Mar.-12 Apr. 1927 (5) (Taka); Mar. 1933, 25 Mar. 1934 

(SoM). 

This distinctive little white merganser is a common transient, and a 
few winter in the southern parts of Korea. Taczanowski (1888, 460) 
says that it winters. Won (1934, 107) calls it common. 

I found it more a bird of the fresh waters than maritime. There were 
two in the pond at Suwon 12 December 1945, and I did not encounter 
the species again until 11 March 1946, when three appeared out in the 
center of the lake. Small numbers appeared there during the next few 
weeks, climaxed by a flock of twenty on 21 March. I saw the last of 
them 25 March. 

66. Mergus merganser orientalis Gould 

Mergus Orientalis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1845, p. 1. (Amoy, China.) 
English : Goosander. 
Japanese: Kawa aisa (river merganser.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 71 

(The Hand-List of Japanese Birds (1942, 131) includes the European 
form, M.rn. merganser, on the basis of a single specimen, collected by 
Orii in Hamgyong Pukto, so identified by Yamashina (1932, 247) 
because of its slightly larger measurements. I consider this identifica- 
tion questionable.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — Nov. (Kur); 19 Jan. 1915 (SSC); 28 Nov. 1929 (Yam); 

15 Oct., 20 Nov. 1926 (Taka). 
Pyongan Pukto — 5 Jan. 1931 (Won). 
Hwanghae Do -Dec. 1924, 21 Mar. 1925, 1 Dec. 1930 (SoM); 15 Nov. 

1926 (Taka); 25 Mar. 1933 (Won). 
Kyonggi Do — 24 Mar. (2), Nov. (2) 1909, Dec. 1910, Feb. 1913 

(LiWM); 18, 23, 24 Jan. 1928 (Taka). 
Cholla Namdo — 29 Jan. 1927 (2) (Taka); 18 Dec. 1929 (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo — late Dec. 1922 (Kur). 

The Goosander is a common spring and autumn transient through- 
out Korea and a winter visitor in the southern parts. It is not as com- 
mon as the Red-breasted Merganser. I encountered it only during the 
waterfowl flight in March, and then not abundantly. I saw two on 14 
March, and a flock of eight on 25 March. 



67. Mergus squamatus Gould 

Mergus squamatus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1854, p. 184. (China.) 
English: Chinese Merganser. 
Japanese: Korai aisa (merganser of old Korea.) 

This rare and little-known species has occurred a number of times in 
Korea. The Taka-Tsukasa collection contained one taken at Seoul, 
Kyonggi Do, 20 November 1927. A juvenal male in the LiWong 
Museum was 'procured' in the Seoul market, and identified by Dela- 
cour and Hackisuka (Tori, 1928, 503). Two young males in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History were collected by Andrews in Ham- 
gyong Pukto 16 April 1912. 

68. Mergus serrator Linne 

Mergus serrator Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 129. (Sweden.) 
English: Red-breasted Merganser. 
Japanese: Umi aisa (sea merganser.) 



72 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 26 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 

Kangwon Do — Apr. 1914 (2) (LiWM); Mar. (Kur); 17 Apr. 1916 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do — Nov. 1909, Nov. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyongsang Namdo — Dec. 1922 (Taka). 

This is the commonest of the mergansers in Korea. It winters ajong 
the coasts and in the coastal bays and rivers, and, while never abun- 
dant, appears in migration in considerably greater numbers than the 
Goosander or the Smew. 

Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919, 149) give its Seoul periods as Feb- 
ruary and March, October and November, adding "this bird is the 
earliest arrival among spring water birds, sometimes in flocks of several 
hundred birds." Kuroda (1918, 499) saw it "in abundance on the 
Naktung River [Kyongsang Namdo] April 6" but found "not many" 
on 26 April in Hamgyong Namdo. Y. Kuroda (1918, 20) gives its 
arrival as early March, and observed it in Hamgyong Pukto between 
13 and 23 December. Won (1934, 107), surprisingly, never collected it, 
and calls it rare. 

I found it wintering commonly in the larger open waters. There were 
three in the Han River 1 December, and two in Suwon Lake 12 Decem- 
ber. The first perceptible increase in numbers during the spring flight 
was 15 March. Flocks of from fifteen to thirty birds visited Suwon 
Lake between March 18th and 25th, and my last record is for a pair 
seen there 5 April 1946. 



ACCIPITRIDAE 

69. Pernis apivorus orientalis Taczanowski 

Pernis apivorus orientalis Taczanowski, Fauna Orn. Sib. -Orient., pt. 1, 1891, 
p. 50 (In Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb. (7), 39,) (Eastern Siberia.) 
Pernis apivorus neglectus Kuroda, Bds. Java, 2, 1936, p. 533. (Formosa.) 

English: Honey Buzzard. 

Japanese: Hachi kuma (honey bear.) 

The Hand-List of Japanese Birds (1942, 112) assigns the known 
Korean specimens to neglectus, which was described from specimens 
taken on the wintering grounds. I have no material available to deter- 
mine the validity of the race, which cannot be done until breeding speci- 
mens are collected and the nesting ground delineated. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 73 

Specimen records : 
Kyonggi Do — 17 Oct. 1915 (LiWM); 5 Nov. 1922 (Kur); 20 Feb. 1930 (Taka). 

The Honey Buzzard is a rare transient visitor. The three specimens 
above are the only ones known from Korea. Kalinowski (Taczanowski, 
1888, 459) claims he observed it "during August and in autumn near 
Seoul." Mori wrote to Yamashina (1941, 812) that it had not yet been 
found breeding in Korea, but he thought it might. As the species 
breeds across southern Siberia to Honshu and Hokkaido, and winters 
southward to Formosa, southern China and India, it should occur more 
frequently in Korea, at least on migration (if not during a possible 
breeding season in the northern mountains) than the records indicate. 

70. Milvus migrans lineatus (J. E. Gray) 

Haliaetus lineatus J. E. Gray, in Hardwicke, Illustr. Indian Zool., 1, pt. 8, 
1831, p. 1, pi. 18. (China.) 

English: Black-eared Kite. 
Japanese: Tobi (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 18 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Namdo — Oct. 1908 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 19 June 1883 (USNM); Nov., Dec. 1887 (Tacz); March 

1909 (LiWM); 7 Oct. 1914 (SSC); 20 Oct. 1930 (Won). 
Cholla Namdo — 12 Jan., 19 Feb. 1930 (Yam); 25 Nov 1926, 20 Jan. 

1927 (Taka). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 13, 30 Apr. 1884 (5) (USNM). 

The Black-eared Kite is a common spring and autumn transient in 
coastal Korea, and a not uncommon winter resident in the southern 
part. It is seldom observed far from salt water, and is most frequently 
seen scavenging over the tidal flats in the harbors. Taczanowski 
(1888, 461) says it is "very common at all seasons of the year." Both 
Campbell and Cumming mention it as common in Seoul. Yoshida 
(1923, 315) claims to have seen it in Hwanghae Do in mid- July, and 
Y. Kuroda (1935, 87) gives another sight record for Chunchong Pukto 
25 May 1931. Won (1934, 101) says he collected it in "many locali- 
ties", that it is common and breeds, and Kobayashi and Ishizawa 
(1934, 105) include Korea in its breeding range. However, there is no 
evidence that the species breeds in Korea, nor does the 1942 Japanese 
Hand-List consider that it does so. 



74 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

I observed it commonly at Inchon harbor in late November 1945, 
and saw a single bird flying over the marshes near Seoul 1 December. 
I next observed it near Suwon 25 April 1946. 

71. Accipiter gentilis schvedowi (Menzbier) 

Astur palumbarius Schvedowi Menzbier, Orn. Geogr., Eur. Russl. (in M£m. 
Sci. Univ. Imp. Moscou, Hist. Nat.), 1882, p. 439. (Transbaicalia.) 
English: Goshawk. 
Japanese: O-taka (big hawk.) 

The Hand-List of Japanese Birds (1942, 109) assigns to A.g.albidus 
a single specimen from Kangwon Do, 19 Dec. 1919, in the Kuroda col- 
lection. It is unfortunate that the specimen can no longer be examined, 
for this well-marked, albinistic form, known hitherto only from Kam- 
chatka, is still of controversial status. All the other Korean specimens 
I have seen are typical schvedowi. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — Aug. (Kur). 

Pyongan Namdo — Nov. 1931, 29 Jan. 1936 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 24 Oct. 1911 (LiWM); 19 Dec. 1919 (Kur). 

Kyonggi Do —25 Dec. 1911, 28 Nov. 1914 (LiWM); 1918 (SSC); 25 

Sept. 1926, 3 Dec. 1927, 21 Jan. 1928 (Taka); 20 Jan. 

1946 (MCZ). 

The Goshawk is an uncommon winter visitor in Korea. I have been 
unable to verify Kuroda's August record (1917, 73) which was taken 
from unspecified sources other than his own collection. If valid, it 
must have been a straggler, possibly a wounded or a sexually undevel- 
oped bird, unable to make the northward trek in springtime. 



72. Accipiter soloensis (Horsfield) 

Falco Soloensis Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, 1821, p. 137. (Java.) 
English: Chinese Goshawk. 
Japanese: Akahara daka (red -bellied hawk.) 

Specimen records : 

Kyonggi Do — 24, 26 Aug. 1883 (USNM); May, June 1887 (3) (Tacz); 

May, June, 12 June (2) 1909, June 1910 (2) (LiWM); 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 75 

20 Aug. 1911, June 1913 (Kur); 24 May 1912 (SSC); 
May 1926, 25 June 1927 (SoM); 11 July 1927 (Taka); 
1 July 1929 (Won); May 1933 (Brandt). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 5, 14 Aug. 1927 (Taka). 

The Chinese Goshawk is an uncommon summer resident in central 
Korea. Taczanowski (1888, 461) found it "quite rare, nests and leaves 
the country for the winter. It feeds principally on large beetles and 
especially on longicorns which it takes either on the wing or off the 
branches." Won (1934, 100) asserts he collected it in Pyongan Namdo 
as well as in Kyonggi Do, but lists no data for such a specimen in 
the holograph list he sent Yamashina. He also says it is rare, and 
"breeds deep in the mountains". Col. L. R. Wolfe, U.S.A. writes me 
"I have a set of five eggs received from Snyder with the complete nest 
and skin of the parent bird, collected near Seoul in May 1933. I traded 
the skin to Mr. Herbert Brandt of Cleveland. It is probably still in his 
collection." 

73. Accipiter nisus nisosimilis (Tickell) 

Falco Nisosimilis Tickell, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 2, 1883, p. 571. (Marcha, 
Borabhum, India.) 

English: Asiatic Sparrow Hawk. 
Japanese: Hai taka (ashy hawk.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 24 Aug., 10 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 25 Dec. 1914 (LiWM); 2 Jan. 1927 (Taka). 

Pyongan Pukto — 10 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 16 Jan., 28 May 1932, 31 Oct. 1933 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 21 Mar. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 17, 20 Nov. 1883, 24 Dec. 1934 (USNM); Dec, Jan., 

Feb., Mar. 1887 (Tacz); Feb., Mar., 13 May, Dec. 

1909, 25 Apr. 1913 (LiWM); 1 May 1912 (Kur); 2 Dec. 

1918, 21 Jan. 1919, 20 Sept., 23, Nov. 1926, 15 Oct. 

1927, 15 Jan. 1930 (Taka); Mar. 1929 (SSC); 10 May 

1929 (SoM); 19, 29 Nov. 1928, 10 Feb. 1929, 30 Jan. 

1931 (Won); 24 Dec. 1934, 27 Jan., 26 Mar., 2 Apr. 

1946 (MCZ). 
Chungchong Namdo — 31 Jan. 1915 (SSC). 
Cholla Namdo — 8 Jan. 1927 (Taka); 26 Oct, 1928 (Uch); 11 Dec. 1929, 

20 Feb. 1930 (Yam). 
Kyongsang Namdo —14 Dec. 1883, 30 Nov. 1884 (USNM); 9 Feb. 1912 

(AMNH). 



76 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

This species is a common transient and winter resident, and perhaps 
a summer resident in the north. When its movements are better known 
it will probably be found to breed in the central and northern highlands, 
and to move southward and to the plains lands in winter. The Japan- 
ese consider it a resident species, and both Yamashina (1941, 854) and 
the Japanese Hand-List (1942, 110) say it breeds in Korea. Won 
(1934, 101) says it is common and that it ''breeds deep in the moun- 
tains", which in itself is suspicious, and Taczanowski (1888, 462) says 
"resident and quite common at all seasons." But there is no evidence, 
other than the collecting dates, of the species' breeding in Korea. 

74. Acctpiter virgatus gularis (Temminck and Schlegel) 

Astur (Nisus) gularis Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna Jap., Aves, 
1844, p. 5, pi. 2. (Japan.) 

English: Japanese Sparrow Hawk. 
Japanese: Tsumi (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 6 Sept, 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 20 Sept. 1912 (SSC). 

Pyongan Pukto — 29 Sept. 1915 (SSC); 14 May 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 9 Jan. 1931 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do — 13 Oct. 1917 (LiWM); Feb., 30 Aug. (Kur); 23 Nov. 

1926 (Taka); July 1927 (SoM). 
Cholla Namdo - 5 Oct, 1926, 10 May 1931 (2) (Uch); 29 Jan. 1927 (Taka). 

This species is a not uncommon summer resident, and occurs rarely 
in winter. Won (1934, 101) considers it rare, dimming (1931, 48) 
notes "these birds are used in falconry to catch small birds" but his 
identification may well refer to the preceding species. Yoshida (1932, 
343) lists none of the small hawks as being used in Korean falconry. 

There is a nest and set of eggs in the Li Wong Museum labelled 
"tsumi taka, Kyonggi Do, 23 May 1910". Col. L. R. Wolfe, U.S.A. 
writes me of this species, "Snyder sent me four sets of eggs, all collected 
near Seoul in May, 1933. Open nests in small pines." 

75. Buteo rufinus hemilasius Temminck and Schlegel 

Buteo hemilasius Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna Jap., Aves, 1844, 
p. 18, pi. 7. (Japan.) 

English: Upland Buzzard. 
Japanese: O-nosuri (large buzzard.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 



Specimen records : 



77 



Pyongan Namdo —28 Dec. 1926 (Taka). 

Kyonggi Do —Jan. 1888 (Tacz); Dec. 1888 (Camp.); 1912 (SSC); un- 
dated (SoM); 24 Mar. 1910, 15 Dec, Feb. 1911, 4 Nov. 
1914 (LiWM); Jan. 1917 (Kur); 18 Oct, 1918, 25 Oct. 
1926, 8 Jan., 14 Dec. 1927 (Taka); 12 Dec. 1934 (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo — 17 Jan.-17 Feb. 1930 (3) (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 7 Jan., 18 Feb., 3 Mar. 1884 (USNM); 24 Dec. 1914 

(LiWM). 

The Upland Buzzard is, from the specimen record, a not uncommon 
winter visitor in Korea from Kyonggi Do southward. I never was able 
to identify it positively among the hawks I saw afield, and I found the 
Japanese Buzzard the common wintering Buteo in the Suwon-Seoul 
area. However, Won (1934, 100) considers it common, and even states 
it "breeds, deep in the mountains." Yamashina (1941, 776) says with 
more logic "it migrates to Korea in winter; not rare from October to 
March, but does not breed there." 

76. Buteo buteo burmanicus Hume 

Buteo burmanicus Hume, Stray Feath., 3, 1875, p. 30, in text, (Upper Burma.) 
English: Japanese Buzzard. 
Japanese: Nosuri (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Namdo — 26 Dec. 1926 (Mom); 27 Oct, 1932, 24 Nov. 1935, 10 

Jan. 1939 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 26-28 Nov. 1929 (3) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do — Mar. 1887, 15 Jan. 1888 (Tacz); Dec. 1888 (Camp); 

undated (SoM); Sept. 1910, 15 Jan., 3 Dec. 1911, 27 
Jan. 1912, 25 Oct. 1914 (LiWM); 23 Jan. 1917, 5 Oct, 
1922 (3), 26 Dec. 1926 (Mom); Feb. 1917, 20 Jan. 1926 
(Kur); 18, 18, 24 Nov., 23, 26 Dec, 1926 (Taka); 9 
Jan. 1930 (SSC); 23 Mar. 1930 (Won); 10, 17, 30 
Jan. 1946 (MCZ). 

Chungchong Namdo — 15 Jan. 1915 (SSC). 

Cholla Namdo — 29 Jan.- 19 Feb. 1929 (3) (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo -18 Feb. 1884 (USNM); 14 Feb. 1912 (AMNH); 23 

Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

The Japanese Buzzard is a common winter resident. Taczanowski 
(1888, 461) found it "only in winter." Won (1934, 100) calls it common 



78 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

and breeding. Yamashina (1941, 700) says "migratory on the continent 
. . . Breeding range extends to Korea." The 1942 Hand-List makes no 
mention of its breeding in Korea, and indeed, there is no evidence that 
it does so. 

I found it the common winter Buteo in the Suwon-Seoul area, where 
it hunts line-backed mice (Apodymys) over the rice-paddies, and is 
fond of sitting on telegraph poles, which make fine vantage points. 
I collected three adult females from such perches with a carbine during 
January, and I kept seeing them through February, after which they 
became scarcer, and finally disappeared by mid-March. 



77. Buteo lagopus kamtschatkensis Dementiev 

Archibuteo pallidas Menzbier, Orn. Turkestan, 1, 1888, p. 163. (Siberia, 

Turkestan, Kamchatka, Ussuri.) Not Buteo pallidas Lesson, 1831. 
Buteo lagopus kamtschatkensis Dementiev, Orn. Monatsb., 39, 1931, p. 54. 
(Mouth of the Kichtchik River, Kamchatka.) 

English: Siberian Rough-legged Buzzard. 
Japanese: Ke-ashi nosuri (wooly-legged buzzard.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Namdo — 21 Oct. 1938 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — 12 Nov. 1918 (Taka). 

Kyonggi Do - 1912 (SSC); 12 Jan. 1918 (Kur); 3 Jan. 1926, 8 Dec. 

1927 (Taka); 20 Feb. 1929 (Won). 
Cholla Namdo — Dec. 1915 (SSC). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 6 Feb. 1918 (Kur). 

The Rough-legged Buzzard is an uncommon winter visitor to Korea. 



78. Butastur indicus (Gmelin) 

Falco indicus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 264. (Java.) 
English: Grey-faced Buzzard-eagle. 
Japanese: Sashiba (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Hwanghae Do — 12 Sept. 1908 (Taka). 

Kyonggi Do —June, July 1909, Feb. 10 (LiWM); Dec. 1914 (SSC); 

2 Sept, 1932 (Won); 6, 6, 13, 18 Apr. 1946 (MCZ). 
Kyongsang Namdo— 14 Feb. 1912 (AMNH). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 79 

This bird is a not uncommon spring and autumn transient and an 
occasional winter resident. I found it fairly common while in passage 
between 5 and 20 April 1946. Yamashina (1914, 818) says it is "not 
known to breed in Korea, but I think they probably do", a conclusion 
not shared by anyone else on record, though it breeds in nearby 
Ussuriland. 

79. Spizaetus nipalensis orientalis Temminck and Schlegel 

Spizaetos orientalis Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna Jap., Aves, 
1844, p. 7, 1845, pi. 3. (Japan.) 

English: Japanese Hawk-eagle. 
Japanese : Kuma taka (bear hawk.) 

The 1942 Japanese Hand-List uses japonensis (Falco japonensis 
Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 257) as the specific name of this 
hawk-eagle, but there is no doubt that Gmelin's name is misemployed. 
Falco japonensis is based solely on the Japanese Eagle of Latham 
(Syn., 1, pt. 1, p. 33, no. 7b). Referring to Latham for some of the 
details not given by Gmelin we find that the bird flew on board a ship 
off the coast of Japan, and the description of the markings and color on 
the inner webs of the primaries, coupled with the size of the bird (17 
inches) can leave no doubt that the name actually refers to some form 
of Falco peregrinns, probably an immature female. 

Specimen records: 

Kangwon Do — Jan. 1914 (LiWM); Feb. 1925 (Kur); Sept. 1934 (SSC). 

This species is evidently a straggler to Korea, straying occasionally 
to the eastern coast from the Japanese islands. 

80. Aquila chrysaetos japonica Severtzov 

Aquila fulva japonica Severtzov, Nouv. M£m. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 15, 
livr. 5, 1888, p. 182. (Japan.) 

English: Japanese Golden Eagle. 
Japanese: Inu washi (dog eagle.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Namdo — 18 Nov. 1912 (Taka). 
Hwanghae Do — 22 Jan. 1919 (Taka). 



80 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Kangwon Do — 25 Jan. 1911 (LiWM); 2 Dec. 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do — Mar. 1909, Feb. 1910, Jan. 1915 (LiWM); 18 Jan. 1918, 

Sept. 1928 (SSC); Jan. 1925 (2) (Kur); 22 Oct. 1926 
(2) (Taka); Mar. 1927 (SoM); 10 Feb. 1933 (USNM); 
undated (Wolfe). 

Chungchong Namdo — 10 Nov. 1929 (Won). 

Korea — 10 Sept. 1907 (Sapporo Mus). 

The Golden Eagle is an uncommon resident in Korea. It nests in 
small numbers, but is more plentiful as a late autumn and early spring 
transient, or as a winter visitor. 

Colonel L. R. Wolfe, U.S.A., writes me, "I have two sets of eggs of 
the Golden Eagle from Korea in my collection, both received from Mr. 
Snyder. The first set of two eggs, one of which was broken, was taken 
on a ledge in the Chui Ma Mountains, 20 miles southeast of Seoul, and 
measures 79.1 x 59 mm. The second, a single egg nearly as large as the 
first and with more markings, was taken from a nest on a cliff at Kum 
Chum, Hwanghae Do, 4 April 1937. Snyder also sent me one or two 
Golden Eagle skins from near Seoul." Adachi (1941, 66) says the 
species nests on the cliffs at Paekto San in Hamgyong Pukto. 

I saw a small flight of Golden Eagles near the shore west of Suwon 
in March 1946. A single bird on March 14th was followed by three 
more on the 17th, soaring over the tide flats. They did not approach 
me, nearer than a quarter mile, but the light conditions were excel- 
lent, and they could have been nothing else but Golden Eagles. 



81. Aquila heliaca ricketti Swann and Wetmore 

Aquila heliaca ricketti Swann and Wetmore, Monogr. Bds. Prey, 2, 1931, pt. 10, 
p. 42. (Foochow, China.) 

English: Chinese Imperial Eagle. 

Japanese: Katashiro washi (white-shouldered eagle.) 

Specimen records: 

Hwanghae Do — 21 Feb. 1916 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 1913 (Kur). 

Chungchong Namdo — 1912; Dec. 1934 (SSC). 

Cholla Namdo —5 May 1916 (SSC); 21 Feb. 1927 (Taka). 

This eagle was perhaps once of fairly regular occurrence in Korea as 
a rare migrant or winter visitor. Today it can hardly be regarded as 
more than a straggler. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 81 

82. Aquila clanga Pallas 

Aquila Clanga Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 1, 1811, p. 351. (Russia and 
Siberia.) 

English: Great Spotted Eagle. 

Japanese: Karafuto washi (Sakhalin eagle.) 

Specimen records : 

Kyonggi Do — Mar. 1909, Feb. 1910 (LiWM); Feb. 1915, 21 Jan. 1918 (SSC); 
Dec. 1924 (Kur); 16 Mar. 1934 (SoM). 

This eagle is also of uncertain status in Korea, perhaps occurring 
rarely but regularly on migration, but more likely as a straggler. 



83. Halleetus albicilla (Linne) 

Falco Albicilla Linn£, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 89. (Sweden.) 
English: White-tailed Sea Eagle. 
Japanese: Ojiro washi (white-tailed eagle.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo —undated (Tacz); 5 Dec. 1912 (Uch); Dec. 1916 (Taka). 

Kangwon Do — 18, 21 Dec. 1918, 24 Mar. 1927 (Taka). 

Kyonggi Do — Dec, Mar. (3) 1909, 18 Jan. 1914 (LiWM); undated (2) 

(Tacz); undated (SoM). 
Cholla Namdo — Dec. (Kur); Feb. 1920, 30 Jan., 19 Feb. 1927 (Taka). 

Kyongsang Namdo — Nov. 1884 (USNM); 20 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

The White-tailed Sea Eagle is an uncommon winter visitor to coastal 
Korea. I saw three near Suwon on 11 March 1946, soaring over the 
salt marshes at the head of an inlet. They were quite shy, and while 
they did not alight nor come within carbine range, I had an excellent 
view of them with my binoculars. They were well-marked adults in 
full plumage, with square white tails. 



84. Hali^eetus pelagicus (Pallas) 

Aquila pelagica Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 1, 1811, p. 343 and pi. (Islands 

between Kamchatka and America.) 
Haliaeetus niger Heude, Naturaliste, 1887 p. 95,. (Mer de Tartarie, = Korea.) 

(Type formerly in Nat. Hist. Mus., Warsaw.) 



82 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Haliaeetus branickii Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1888, p. 451, fig. 1. 
(Korea.) (Synonym of niger.) 

English: Steller's Sea Eagle. 
Japanese: O-washi (large eagle.) 

From the scant evidence available, niger appears to be a dark sub- 
species of pelagicus, breeding in eastern continental Asia southwest of 
the breeding range of jjclagicus, certainly in Korea, and probably in 
Ussuria and Dauria as well. 

There has been much speculation on the systematic status of niger. 
Delacour and Hachisuka (1928) examined the LiWong specimens and 
pronounced them melanistic individuals of pelagicus. While the Hand- 
List of Japanese Birds (1942, 111) catalogues it subspecifically, it 
footnotes "it appears that niger may be a melanistic form of -pelagicus, 
but we have only limited specimens at our disposal to settle this 
question." 

Some authorities still accord it specific rank, but, while niger is 
apparently characterized by a broader, heavier bill and a shorter 
tarsus, as well as by the lack of white plumage on the head, neck, 
shoulders and thighs of the adults, the differences in color and measure- 
ments between it and pelagicus are not sufficient alone to establish it 
as specifically. distinct, especially as so few specimens have been exam- 
ined. Likewise, this dark bird is limited in its distribution to Korea 
and the adjacent portions of Ussuria and Dauria. (A specimen from 
Ussuria, formerly in the Leningrad Museum, is the only definite record 
for it outside Korea, though Jankowski (Lavauden, 1912, 4) claims to 
have seen one in Sidemi, near Vladivostok, and Dybowski may have 
seen two more on the beach at Onon, Dauria.) As all the Korean breed- 
ing records for the species are referable to niger, there is nothing to 
suggest that the two forms may breed in the same territory. 

Both melanism and dichromatism occur frequently in the Falconi- 
formes, and sometimes a dark, juvenal-type plumage is retained in 
adults occupying a well-defined geographical range. (Haliseetus 
leucogaster sanfordi from the Solomons is a closely allied example.) 
This seems to be the case in niger, which assumes the white tail char- 
acteristic of the adult of the species comparatively late in life (at the 
age of five or six years in captive specimens), and never develops the 
white forehead, shoulders and thighs of pelagicus. 

Specimen records: 

Haliaeetus ■pelagicus pelagicus: 

Hamgyohg Namdo — Jan. 1917 (Kur); 1912, and Feb. 1917 (SSC). 
Kangwon Do — 14 Feb. 1918 (Kur). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 83 

Kyonggi Do —3 Feb. 1915 (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo — 24 Dec. 1929 (Yam). 

Haliseetus pelagicus niger: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 28 Feb. 1888 (Tacz); 7 Jan. 1927 (Taka). 

Pyongan Namdo — 24 Mar. 1910 (LiWM). 

Kangwon Do — Apr. 1913 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do —20 Nov. 1911 (LiWM); 11 Jan. 1921 (Kur); 29 Jan. 

1929 (2) (Taka). 
Chungchong Namdo — undated (SSC). 

In addition to these museum records, there have been a number of 
other specimens of niger, originally kept in aviaries, for which there are 
no accurate collecting data. All were taken in "Korea", and most of 
them seem to have been collected as nestlings. Heude's type of niger 
was sent alive to Shanghai from "Mer-de-tartaris" (Korea), and was 
kept for some time in the Zikawei zoo. Another specimen in the 
Zikawei museum (Courtois, 1912, 6) was taken from a nest in Korea 
in 1884, and caged in Shanghai until its death in 1908. A specimen in the 
Marseille Museum (Lavauden, 1912, 1) died in the Marseille zoo in 
1897, still in ju venal plumage at the age of three, and three "Korean 
Black Eagles" formerly in the London, Hamburg and Berlin zoos 
respectively (c/. Lavauden, 1912, Bolau, 1892, and P.Z.S. London 
1893, 613), were similarly without data. In his aviary at Atami, 
Japan, Dr. M. Hachisuka kept for ten years a specimen Shimokori- 
yama sent him from Korea in 1928. The Koreans who brought it in 
had cruelly clipped its talons, more likely to use as medicine than to 
make the bird less dangerous to handle. It was in juvenal plumage 
when received, developed its white tail at the age of five, and showed no 
more white on its plumage during the remaining five years Hachisuka 
kept it before giving it to Hagenbeck, who presumably took it alive to 
Germany. Hachisuka likewise has photographs of a fine adult niger 
taken in 1928 in the LiWong Zoo. When this bird died in Seoul several 
years later, Shimokoriyama sent it to Hachisuka in the flesh, but it 
arrived in Japan too decomposed to preserve. 

Thus, counting the Ussuria specimen formerly in Leningrad, there 
have been eighteen specimens attributed to niger. Eight of these 
eventually reached Europe, Heude's and Taczanowski's types, the 
Marseille, Hamburg, Berlin, London and Leningrad specimens, and 
the Hagenbeck bird. How many of these are still in existence is 
unknown, probably not more than half of them. The remaining ten 
never left the Orient, but only the three LiWong Museum specimens 
definitely still exist. The Seoul School collection bird was lost during 



84 bulletin: museum of compakative zoology 

the occupation, Taka-Tsukasa's three and Kuroda's single specimens 
were destroyed in 1945, and nothing has been heard from Zikawei 
since the war. 

H.p.pelagicus is an uncommon winter visitor to Korea, while H.p. 
niger is an uncommon resident, spoken of by Kuroda, Mori and others 
as being slightly more common than pelagicus, which the specimen 
record verifies. Kalinowski took the type of branickii at "Tsempion" 
(Hamgyong Namdo?) on his return from Seoul to Vladivostok, 28 
February 1888, and Taczanowski (1888, 455) speaks of his seeing six 
or seven more such eagles on the trip, all dark ones. None of the large 
raptors are as common today in Korea as they seem to have been in 
Kalinowski's time. 



85. Aegypius monachus (Linne) 

Vultur Monachus Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 122. (Arabia.) 
Vullur chincou Daudin, Traite d'Orn., 2, 1800, p. 12. (A captivity specimen 
from China, ex Levaillant, Ois. d'Afr., pi. xii.) 

English: Cinereous Vulture. 

Japanese: Hage washi (bald eagle.) 

The Japanese regard the Asiatic birds as separable from the Euro- 
pean, and assign the Korean specimen to Aegypius monachus chincou. 
As I have seen insufficient material, I prefer to follow the judgment of 
Hartert, Peters, and Swann and Wetmore, all of whom consider them 
inseparable. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 8 Aug. 1929 (Yam); 25 Nov. 1928 (SSC). 

Kangwon Do — 15 Dec. 1918 (Taka). 

KyonggiDo —1912 (SSC). 

Chungchong Namdo — Jan. 1913 (LiWM). 

Cholla Pukto — 29 Jan. 1912 (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo — Nov., Dec. 1912 (Kur). 

This species is a rare visitor to Korea, but of too frequent occurrence 
to be regarded as a straggler. Yamashina (1941, 873) thinks, in view of 
the bird Orii took in August at Paekto San, "I think some of them live 
there permanently." He also (idem) mentions a Chungchong Pukto 
specimen of which I cannot find the original source, and a Kyongsang 
Namdo record, which is probably based on Clark (1911, 156) who says 
"Mr. Jouy's collections contain the tail of a bird of this species which 
was secured in Korea." 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 85 

On 27 January 1946 I watched a large, dark raptor soaring along 
with a wind current a good thousand feet above Suwon, on motionless 
wings. It seemed to be bare-headed, but I could not be sure of its 
identity, before it disappeared over the distant hills and never reap- 
peared to give me a better view. 

86. Gypaetus barbatus aureus (Hablizl) 

Vullur aureus Hablizl, Neue Nord. Beytr., 4, 1783, p. 64. (Prov. of Gilan, 
Iran.) 

English: Bearded Vulture. 
Japanese: Hige washi (bearded eagle.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 1912 (SSC). 

Kangwon Do — 21 Dec. 1916 (SSC); 6 Jan. 1918 (Kur). 

The Bearded Vulture is a straggler in Korea, known only from the 
three records above. The collection of the first Kangwon Do specimen 
is reported by both Kuroda (1917A, 95) and Mori (1917, 41). The other 
two records, the Hamgyong Namdo bird in the Seoul Nat. Hist. 
Society collection, and the later Kangwon Do skin in the Kuroda 
collection, are taken from Yamashina's holograph lists. 



87. Circus cyaneus cyaneus (Linne) 

Falco cyaneus Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 126. (Europe.) 
English: Hen Harrier. 
Japanese: Hai-iro chuhi (grey harrier.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 7 Nov. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 15 Dec. 1912 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Namdo — 25 Dec. 1931 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — Dec. (Kur). 

KyonggiDo —Dec. 1887 (Tacz); Oct. 1889 (Camp); 13 Feb. 1909, 

Feb., Dec. 1910, 15 Jan., 2 Mar. 1911 (LiWM); 20 Dec. 

1913 (SSC); 13 Feb. 1928 (Taka). 
Cholla Namdo — 6 Mar. 1927 (Taka). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 3, 30 Jan. 1884, 2 Feb. 1886 (USNM); 22, 23 Dec. 1914 

(3) (LiWM). 



86 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Hen Harrier is a not uncommon winter visitor. Taczanowski 
(1888, 461) considered it a "quite common resident", but Campbell 
(1892, 244) saw it only "in autumn, winter and spring." Won (1934, 
101) claims it "breeds on high mountains, migrates to the plains in 
winter", which might be so, but Yamashina (1941, 835) states "breed- 
ing there not known." 

Judging from the specimen record, the bird arrives in the northern 
provinces in November, moves down to central and southern Korea in 
December, remains sporadically in the area through January and 
February, and departs for the north again sometime in March. I saw 
two on 7 December 1945 at Suwon, the only ones I encountered during 
my stay. 



88. Circus melanoleucus (Pennant) 

Falco melanoleucus Pennant, Indian Zool., 1769, p. 2, pi. 2. (Ceylon.) 
English: Pied Harrier. 
Japanese: Madara chuhi (spotted harrier.) 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 25 July-29 Aug. (1 ad., 3 juvs.), 15 Sept. 1929 (Yam); 

28 July 1929 (Won). 
Kangwon Do — June 1909 (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do —30 Apr. 1914 (2) (LiWM); 2 May 1920 (SSC); 19 Sept. 

1927 (Taka). 

The Pied Harrier is an uncommon summer resident in the northern 
half of Korea. It is a mainland form whose breeding range probably 
extends into the northern highlands from Manchuria, as suggested by 
Orii's collection of three juvenals in the northeastern mountains. 
Won (1934, 101) says it breeds at Paekto San. It seems to enter and 
leave the country via the Shantung peninsula or Manchuria, as it sel- 
dom strays south of Kyonggi Do. 



89. Circus aeruginosus spilonotus Kaup 

Circus spilonotus Kaup, Isis, 1847, col. 953. (eastern Siberia.) 
English: Eastern Marsh Harrier. 
Japanese: Chuhi (autochthonous.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 87 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 13 Sept.-12 Oct. 1929 (3) (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto — 21 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

KyonggiDo —1 Nov. 1914, 1 Oct. 1916 (LiWM); 7 Jan. 1913, 20 

Oct. 1921 (SSC); 21 Nov. 1926, 10 Dec. 1927 (Taka). 
Chungchong Namdo — Oct. 1915 (LiWM). 
Cholla Namdo —Feb. (Kur). 

This species is an uncommon spring and autumn transient, and 
perhaps a summer resident along the northern border, where it is 
evidently more common during migrations. There is very little in 
literature about the bird in Korea, but the 1942 Japanese Hand-List 
says it "breeds in Hamgyong Pukto", perhaps (though doubtfully, as 
it makes the same statement in the 1932 edition) based on Won's 
statement (1934, 100) that it "breeds in the table land and migrates 
to the plains in winter." Won never collected it, and (idem) calls it 
rare. 



PANDIONIDAE 

90. Pandion halletus hali^etus (Linne) 

Falco Halisetus Linne\ Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 91. (Europe.) 
English: Osprey. 
Japanese: Misago (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 2,25 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 
Hamgyong Namdo — 25 Oct. 1911, 15 Oct. 1912 (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do — Sept. 1889 (Camp); undated (SSC). 

Korea —Oct. 1917 (Taka). 

The Osprey is a rare visitor to Korea, and the fact that all the speci- 
mens on record were autumn-killed indicates they probably reached the 
country as post-nuptial wanderers from the nearest known breeding 
area in southern China. Campbell (1892, 244) says "... not often 
seen in Korea. In addition to the specimen obtained I saw one other 
hovering over the Yongheung River (at that time frequented by sal- 
mon) in September, 1889." Taczanowski (1888, 459) "saw only solitary 
examples, in spring and rarely in autumn." 



88 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

FALCONIDAE 

91. Falco cherrug milvipes Jerdon 

Falco milvipes Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 240. (Umballa, India.) 
English: Hodgson's Saker Falcon. 
Japanese: Wakisugi hayabusa (Stripe-sided falcon.) 

This continental species is a rare straggler in Korea, known only 
from the single specimen reported by Taczanowski (1887, 598), taken 
by Kalinowski 6 January 1887, presumably in Kyonggi Do, for 
Kalinowski was in Seoul at that time. Taczanowski comments later 
(1888, 461) on the bird "Resident but rare; its rarity is enhanced by the 
natives who use it for hunting, which applies also to the Peregrine 
Falcon and the Goshawk." 

92. Falco peregrinus leucogenys Brehm 

Falco leucogenys Brehm, Naumannia, 1854, pp. 51, 60. (Germany.) 
English: Siberian Peregrine Falcon. 
Japanese: Hayabusa (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 30 Sept. 1929 (2) (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo —24 Mar. 1909, 15 Oct. 1912 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Namdo — Mar. 1909 (LiWM); 24 July 1932, 23 July 1935 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — Mar. 1915 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do - 15 Jan., 13 Feb., 5 Mar. 1914 (LiWM); undated (SSC); 

June 1917 (Kur). 
Chungchong Pukto — Apr. 1917 (Kur). 
Kyongsang Pukto — mid-April (Kur). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 28 Aug. 1884 (USNM); 23 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

The Peregrine Falcon is an uncommon, irregular visitor to Korea, 
most common in early spring. Taczanowski (1888, 459) says "seden- 
tary, commonest in winter." Won (1936, 312) assigned one of his 
Pyongan Namdo specimens to F. p. peali, but his judgement has been 
disallowed by subsequent authors, together with his statement (1934, 
99) that the species is "common, breeds on high mountains." The two 
immature birds which Orii collected in Hamgyong Pukto possibly came 
south from breeding grounds farther north. Kobayashi and Ishizawa 
(1940, 233) figure "a clutch of 4 fresh eggs in South Corea 26 March 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 89 

. . . laid directly on the bare rock on a sea-side cliff without making a 
nest," on which Yamashina comments (1941, 312) "Imperfect investi- 
gation of their breeding; eggs reported from south Korea, but those I 
saw labelled 'Saishu' were of doubtful parentage." The 1942 Hand- 
List follows his judgment and lists the species as occurring, not breed- 
ing in Korea. 

93. Falco subbuteo subbuteo Linne 

Falco subbuteo Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 89. (Sweden.) 
English: Hobby. 
Japanese: Chigo hayabusa (little child falcon.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 24 May 1912 (AMNH); 13 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 
Pyongan Pukto — 26 May 1917 (LiWM); 11-28 May 1929 (4) (Yam). 
Kangwon Do —21 Oct. 1911, 1 Oct. 1914 (3) (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do —Nov. 1909, 27 Sept. 1914 (LiWM); 5 Oct. 1920 (SSC); 

10, 25 Oct. 1925, 3 Oct., 11 Nov. 1927 (Taka). 

The Hobby is a not uncommon spring and autumn transient, more 
common in the north nearer the mainland flight lane than it is in the 
southern provinces, for which there are no specimen records. Taczan- 
owski says (1888, 461) "encountered rarely in spring and autumn 
between Seoul and Inchon." Won never collected it, and calls it rare. 
Yamashina, on the basis of Orii's experiences (1941, 726) says "many 
can be seen in spring." 



94. Falco columbarius insignis (Clark) 

Aesalon regulus insignis Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 470. (Fusan, 
Korea.) 

English: Asiatic Merlin. 

Japanese: Kochogenbo (small kestrel.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 18 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 9 Nov. 1930, 10 Nov. 1933, 12 Dec. 1935 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —Dec, Feb. 1887 (Tacz); 1 Oct. 1888 (Camp); Mar. 

1910 (LiWM); 7 Oct. 1914 (SSC); 18 Mar. 1917 (Kur); 

3 Feb., 12 Dec. 1918, 15 Sept. 1926, 18 Jan. 1928 



90 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

(Taka); 23 Nov. 1929 (Won); 15 Feb. 1934 (SoM); 

6 Apr. 1946 (MCZ). 
Chungchong Namdo — Dec. 1910 (LiWM). 
Cholla Namdo — 2 Dec. 1927 (Uch); 22 Jan. 1930 (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo —12 Mar., 23 Nov. 1884 (USNM); 14 Dec. 1914 

(LiWM). 

The Merlin Is an early spring and late autumn transient. It is not 
uncommon, and a few occasionally winter in the southern provinces. 
Taczanowski (1888, 461) says "rare and seen only in winter." Won 
(1934, 100) claims it is common and that it breeds, in which he is mis- 
taken. I collected the only one I saw, an adult male, at the beginning 
of the hawk flight at Suwon, on 6 April 1946. 

95. Falco vespertinus amurensis Radde 

Falco vespertinus var. amurensis Radde, Reisen sud von O.-Sibir., 2, 1863, 
p. 102, pi. 1, f. 2a, 2b. (Amur.) 

English: Eastern Red-footed Falcon. 

Japanese: Aka ashi chogenbo (red-footed kestrel.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 6 Sept.-ll Oct. 1929 (3) (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto — 19 June 1917 (LiWM); June 1917 (Kur). 
Kyonggi Do — 20 Oct. 1921 (SSC). 

This falcon is an uncommon transient, perhaps a summer resident 
in the extreme north. Won (1934, 100) calls it rare. Yamashina (1941, 
737) nicely sums its probable status, "collected in Pyongan Pukto and 
Hamgyong Pukto on migration. Many breed in eastern Manchuria, 
so perhaps it may eventually be found to breed in northern Korea." 



96. Falco tinnunculus interstinctus Horsfield 

Falco interstinctus Horsfield, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839 (1840), p. 154. 

(Assam.) 
Cerchneis perpallida Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 470. (Fusan, 
Korea.) (Aberrant, cf. Peters, 1931, 298.) 
English: Kestrel. 
Japanese: Chogenbo (autochthonous.) 

The subspecific status of the eastern Asiatic Kestrels needs further 
clarification, which is not possible until more breeding-ground material 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 91 

is available. I believe the northeastern Siberian bird will prove 
separable from tinnunculus of northern Europe and western Siberia as 
being paler, and perhaps slightly larger. The name perpallida is avail- 
able for it, being prior to Swann's dorriesi from Amurland. My four 
winter birds, and most of the Korean migrants are referable to the 
southern race, interstinctus. The 1942 Japanese Hand-List, however, 
assigns Clark's type of perpallida, taken at Fusan, Kyongsang Namdo 
6 April 1884, and Orii's single Hamgyong Pukto specimen, taken 21 
October 1929, to the northern race, which it calls F. t. timiunculus, 
synonymizing thereunder both perpallida and dorriesi. It will prob- 
ably be proved eventually that two races of Kestrel occur in Korea, the 
larger, paler northern bird as an uncommon spring and autumn 
transient, and the smaller, darker, southern subspecies as the common 
wintering form. But until more material is available to clarify the situ- 
ation, I prefer to consider the questionable specimens as possible aber- 
rant individuals, and to refer them provisionally to interstinctus. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 21 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 23 Oct. 1932 (SSC); 13 Nov. 1931, 29 Nov. 1935 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 29 Nov., 24 Dec. 1929 (3) (Yam). 

KyonggiDo —23 Sept. 1883 (USNM); Jan., Mar., June, July 1887 

(Tacz); Mar., Nov. 1909, 25 Apr. 1913, 10 Oct. 1914 
(LiWM); 18 Mar., May 1917, 17 May 1919 (Kur); 
3 Feb. 1918, 5 Oct. 1926 (2), 15 Mar., 8, 10 Dec. 1927, 
27 June 1930 (Taka); 9 Nov. 1929, 29 Dec. 1930 (Won); 
10 Jan. 1933 (Uch); Mar. 1934 (SoM); 6, 27, 29 Jan., 
14 Mar. 1946 (MCZ). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 6 Apr. 1884 (USNM); 14, 25 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

The Kestrel is a common migrant throughout, and a common winter 
resident in the south and central portions of Korea. Taczanowski 
(1888, 461) considered it "resident, the commonest of the diurnal 
raptorines." I found it the common small hawk of the Suwon area 
from December until early April. While it is frequently seen coursing 
at random over the open paddies and uplands, and occasionally pur- 
suing small passerines in the woodlands, its favorite method of hunt- 
ing is to hover on quivering wings over the rice-straw stacks, pouncing 
suddenly on the first venturesome harvest-mouse careless enough to 
show itself. As the hawk flight materialized in April, the Kestrels 
quickly disappeared, moving northward with the vanguard. 



92 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

TETRAONIDAE 

97. Lyrurus tetrix ussuriensis (Kohts) 

Tetrao tetrix var. ussuriensis Kohts, in Lorenz, Birkhiihner Russland, 1911, 

p. 3. (Ussuri Region.) 
Lyrurus tetrix koreensis Mori, Tori, 6, 1929, p. 100 (English text p. 107), 
pi. 2 (lettered coreensis). (Korea.) Synonym. 
English: Ussurian Black Grouse. 
Japanese: Kuro raicho (black thunder-bird.) 

Mori (1929, 100) described koreensis from a single male collected in 
northern Korea in 1927, but other specimens from the same locality 
are not separable from those of Ussuri. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —25 May 1912 (AMNH); 24 Oct. 1927 (SSC); 10 May 

1929, 21 Jan. 1930 (Won); 10 Aug. 1929 (MCZ); 11, 26 
Aug. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — Winter, 1932 (Mori). 

The Black Grouse is limited in Korea to the northwest highlands in 
Hamgyong Pukto and northern Hamgyong Namdo, where it is resi- 
dent, and probably not uncommon. Won (1934, 117) says it is com- 
mon on the east side of Paekto San. 

98. Tetrastes bonasia amurensis Riley 

Tetrastes bonasia amurensis Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 29, 1916, p. 17. 

(Siberia, from Ussuriland to Manchuria.) 
Tetrastes bonasia coreensis Kuroda and Mori, Auk, 39, 1922, p. 365. (Kangwon 

Do, Korea.) Synonym. 

English: Amur Hazel Grouse. 

Japanese: Chosen Yezoraicho (Korean Hokkaido-thunder-bird.) 

The authors of coreensis note in their original description that one of 
their Kangwon Do specimens is indistinguishable in its diagnostic 
characters from a specimen from Amuria. I find the Korean speci- 
mens in the Museum of Comparative Zoology and the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History to be inseparable from a series of Amuria and 
north Manchuria birds. The breast character is due to age and feather- 
wear, and the head character is neither unique nor constant. In fact 
two north Manchuria skins have greyer heads than any of the Korean 
specimens. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 93 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —15, 30 Apr. 1912 (AMNH); 14, 15 Aug. 1917 (4) 

(LiWM); 25 Aug., 1 Sept, 1929 (Yam); 10 Aug. 1929 
(Won); Feb. 1927 (Kur). 

Hamgyong Namdo — Nov., Dec. 1887 (3) (Tacz); 1, 2 Nov. 1931 (Won); Jan. 

1928 (SoM). 

Pyongan Pukto — 24 Mar. 1910 (LiWM). 

Hwanghae Do — 18 Nov.-23 Dec. 1926 (6) (Taka). 

Kangwon Do —20 Mar. 1917 (LiWM); 3 Nov. 1914, 1 May 1934 (2) 

(Kur); Jan. 1921, 28 Mar. 1928 (SSC); 6, 9 July 1929 
(Yam); Dec, May 1934 (USNM); 10 Jan. (2), May (4) 
1934 (MCZ). 

Kyonggi Do — 11 Nov. 1888 (Camp). 

The Hazel Grouse is a locally common resident in the forested 
mountain areas from Kangwon Do northward. Taczanowski (1888, 
467) wrote "resident and fairly common between Seoul and Wonsan, 
not encountered north of Wonsan, absent in the south of the peninsula." 
Campbell (1892, 248) says it "sometimes appears in the market at 
Seoul, but not in any great numbers. I found it resident in the forests 
south of Paiketo San where it appeared to be plentiful." 

Y. Kuroda wrote (1935, 518) about his experiences with the species 
near Hoeryang, Kangwon Do on 1 May 1934, ". . . in a valley full 
of large boulders and thriving deciduous trees. It had snowed April 
28th, and three or four inches of snow still remained on the north side 
of the mountain, but the south slope was warm and delightful. The 
birds seem to feed in the morning, assembling in the lowlands. In the 
afternoons they gather in higher places, most of them perching on 
trees. ... In the season of bitterest cold they travel around the 
mountainside in flocks of twenty to thirty birds. It was now breeding 
season, and most of them were found alone. I heard the male singing 
often. When approached they fly up into a tree, tail stretched out and 
crest erect. They can be shot very easily. I could not find a nest, but 
a female I collected contained an egg ready to be laid the next day." 

PHASIANIDAE 

99. Coturnix coturnix japonica Temminck and Schlegel 

Coturnix vulgaris japonica Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna Jap., 
Aves, 1849, p. 103, pi. 61. (Japan.) 

English: Japanese Quail. 
Japanese: Uzura (autochthonous.) 



94 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 15, 18 Aug., 22 Sept., 22 Oct, 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 4, 11 May 1929 (Yam); 28 Dec. 1927 (Won). 

Pyongan Namdo - 12 May 1917 (LiWM); 21 Nov. 1932 (SSC). 

Kangwon Do — 3, 8 Oct. 1914 (LiWM). 

KyonggiDo -11 Nov. 1883 (USNM); Mar. 1909 (2), Dec. 1910 

(LiWM); 20 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 23 Nov. 1923 (2), 24 
Oct. 1926 (2), 26 Sept.-6 Oct. 1927 (8) (Taka); 20 Dec. 
1929 (SSC); 4 Mar. 1929 (Won); 5 Dec. 1945 (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo — 22 Oct. 1928, 30 Aug. 1929 (Uch); 17 Jan. 1930 (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 21 Nov. 1885 (USNM). 

The Japanese Quail is a not uncommon summer resident in the five 
northern provinces. It is a common autumn transient throughout 
Korea, and some winter in the southern half of the peninsula. Tac- 
zanowski (1888, 467) found it "very abundant between Seoul and 
Wonsan in winter, rarer farther north." Won (1934, 118) collected 
it in "many localities, also at the foot of Paekto San; common, breeds." 
Yoshida (1923, 317) observed it in the northwestern provinces in mid- 
July. Kobayashi (1932, 71) shot several in Hwanghae Do, 23 March, 
1931. 

Yasukichi Kuroda has written extensively about this species, which 
he was very fond of hunting. He gives (1928) the shooting season as 
from September to February; the best shooting near Seoul is in late 
September and early October; farther south it is better from mid- 
October to November; in coastal Hwanghae Do it is best in Novem- 
ber. He notes late nesting [perhaps early arrival of young migrants] 
in Kyonggi Do, saying "we often find young birds, unable to fly, with 
soft yellow bills, in the brush near Seoul from the last of August to 
early October." He describes {idem) the various Korean methods of 
hunting: first by falconry, which is not so successful with quail as with 
pheasants; next by clap nets at dawn, which yields from thirty to 
forty birds per day; and finally the "Kangwon Do method," where 
boys build little funnels of straw which they set in the fields. The 
quail creep into them to sleep at night, and the boys go round and kill 
them with sticks as they lie. He saved many crop and stomach contents 
of birds he shot, and gives lengthy and detailed analyses of them. 

In his last paper (1937, 313-319) he gives an account of the autumn 
migration near Chongjiu, Chungchong Pukto: "Quails are not seen 
before the early part of September; their arrival seems to coincide with 
the ripening of Eriochloa villosa Kunth, and the number increases as 
time goes by. They are seen in step-patterned paddy-field areas where 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 95 

they wait for the water to dry up, and in dry rice fields and bean 
patches. They do not flock together. They are most numerous be- 
tween the 24th and 25th of October and the first ten days of Novem- 
ber, the period when the rice is harvested. By the middle of Novem- 
ber, the crops from the paddy-fields having been stored away, the 
birds are left without any 'base of operations,' thus, while a few re- 
main along the foot-paths between the fields, a portion gather in the 
willow fields along the river, and the majority move on to the valley 
areas in the hills. They are seldom seen in December, the greater por- 
tion having migrated south; only a few spend the winter there, and 
are seen rarely in the barley fields around the end of April or the first 
part of May. These wintering birds are mostly females; males have 
not yet been observed in winter and spring. They feed chiefly on larvae 
of the white butterfly. Only a very small number migrates northward ; 
they seem to go around the middle of March. Northward migration is 
not observed between May and the end of September." 

100. Phasianus colchicus Linne 

Phasianus torquatus pallasi Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, 13, 1903, p. 43, 
new name of P. t. mongolicus "Pallas" Rothschild, not of Brandt, (lower 
Sidemi River.) 
Phasianus karpowi Buturlin, Orn. Monatsb., 12, 1904, p. 3. (Te4in, southern 
Manchuria.) 

English: Ring-necked Pheasant. 
Japanese: Korai kiji (Korean pheasant.) 

Much has been written by the Japanese on the racial differentiation 
of the pheasants in Korea, the two most thorough papers being those 
of Morikawa (1925) and of Mori (1925). The former had a tremendous 
series (2113!) of birds from Manchuria and northern Korea, but not 
being a biologist, his deductions were considerably at variance with the 
evidence, which N. Kuroda took pains to set right in a corrective sum- 
mary in letter form published in "Tori" following Morikawa's article. 
Mori's summation, however, is excellent, and hard to improve upon, 
though the 1942 Hand-List restricts his southern boundary of the 
range of pallasi. From what I have seen of the material, I am inclined 
to agree entirely with Mori, whose thesis is as follows: 

The only difference between the pheasants ranging from Quelpart 
Island to Manchuria is in coloration. A large series of measurements 
and weights shows only individual variation. (Mori measured length 
and width of bill, length of tail, wing and tarsus, and width of neck- 



96 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

ring both anteriorly and posteriorly.) The differences between the 
two extremes are mainly that the northern form, pallasi, is a lighter- 
colored, paler bird, "not nearly so beautiful as the Korean kiji"! There 
are minor color characters, such as in the width of the neck-ring, the 
shade of the light stripe over the eye, and the white spot in the dark 
neck feathers, but none of them is definitive except in large series. He 
limits pure pallasi to Hamgyong Pukto, northern Hamgyong Namdo, 
and northern Pyongan Pukto. Pure karpoivi he shows as from Quel- 
part Island north roughly to the 37th parallel, southern Kyonggi Do 
and Kangwon Do. The intervening territory is occupied by an inter- 
grade bird. The more recent revisions have done little to change this 
judgement of the case, except to limit pallasi to northern Hamgyong 
Pukto, and to consider the bulk of Korea to be occupied by karpowi. 

The list of specimens on record is omitted as being too lengthy and 
of no particular value. There are birds in all collections, from every 
province, for almost every month of the year. 

The Ring-necked Pheasant is a common resident throughout Korea, 
remarkably able to hold its own and to thrive in so desolate a land, in 
fierce competition with other animals, the worst of which is man. I 
found it common in my section, and had no trouble in locating a covey 
whenever I craved a change in diet from army rations. Shot-gun shells 
were so scarce, however, that I seldom wasted them on pheasants. I 
hoarded my precious supply to use on species needed for the collec- 
tion, and shot all my 'eating pheasants' with a carbine. This is not 
at all difficult, for in winter the birds often feed quietly in the open 
fields, and I have killed as many as six in a two hour drive along the 
back roads in a jeep. Even in the dead of winter, after the Koreans 
had swept the ground surface clean of all cover, every pheasant was 
fat and plump, with a crop full of various seeds. 

There is a set of eggs in the LiWong Museum, taken in Kyonggi Do, 
1 June 1910. Kuroda (1925, 15) writes "It breeds usually in May in 
central Korea. The eight eggs from a clutch obtained at Issan [Kyonggi 
Do] 24 V 1919 measure 40.5-43.5 mm. by 32.5-34 mm." 

TURNICIDAE 

101. TlIRNIX TANKI BLANFORDII Blytll 

Turnix blanfordii Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 32, 1863, p. 80 (Burma and 
Arrakan.) 

English: Burmese Button Quail, Hemipode. 
Japanese: Chosen mifu uzura (Korean three-spotted quail.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 97 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 23, 24 May 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 2 Sept. 1932 (Won); 26 Sept. 1932 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do — 8 Nov. 1914 (LiWM); Nov. 1923 (2) (Kur); 27 Oct. 1930 

(Won). 
Cholla Namdo — 29 Sept. 1928, 4 Oct. 1931 (Uch). 
Korea — 22 Nov. 1919 (MCZ). 

This species is an uncommon summer resident in northern Korea, 
and, from the record, an uncommon transient elsewhere in Korea. It 
is perhaps more common, especially in migration, than the record in- 
dicates. The following account is taken from Taka-Tsukasa's un- 
published manuscript: 

"Dr. T. Mori has written me that Blanford's Hemipode migrates 
from Manchuria, but that its numbers vary considerably from year to 
year, and it is more numerous in northern Korea. A few come to cen- 
tral and southern Korea along with the flocks of Quail, but never in 
flocks of its own kind. Mr. H. K. Won says it is generally seen in 
Korea at the foot of mountains bordering fields, or on grassy plains. 
It breeds in northern Korea. Won writes (in litt.) he found an un- 
fledged juvenal near Anjiu [Pyongan Namdo] 2 September 1932, but 
never found the nest itself until 10 September 1935, when he collected 
a complete clutch in the forest there. The next year he found a nest 
and eggs near Anjiu 15 June 1936, which is now in the Yamashina 
collection. He also found young chicks on Paekto-San in August." 



GRUIDAE 

102. Grits grus lilfordi Sharpe 

Grus lilfordi Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 23, 1894, p. 250 (in key), p. 252. 
(No type locality = eastern Siberia.) 

English: Eastern Common Crane. 
Japanese: Kuro tsuru (black crane.) 

Specimen records: 

Kangwon Do — 10 Nov. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do —Jan. 1917 (Kur); 5 Feb. 1916 (SSC). 

Chungchong Do — Apr. 1932 (Yam). 

Korea — 1 Jan. 1918 (Taka). 



98 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

This is the rarest of the cranes in Korea. It was formerly of regular 
occurrence as a winter visitor, though never as abundant as the other 
three species. Today it is hardly more than a straggler. Y. Kuroda 
(1937, 307) says "In the past a few scores of black cranes could be ob- 
served occasionally, mixed in with the flocks of white-naped cranes, 
but we see very few of them today." 



103. Grus monacha Temminck 

Grus monacha Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 94, 1835, pi. 555. (Hokkaido and 
Korea.) 

English: Hooded Crane, White-headed Crane. 
Japanese: Nabe tsuru (pot (?) crane.) 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 4 Jan. 1911 (2) (LiWM); 23 Nov. 1913 (Kur); 2 Dec. 

1913 (Taka). 
Pyongan Namdo — 8 Apr. 1932 (Won). 
Kyonggi Do —March 1909, Apr. 1910 (LiWM); 24 Dec. 1940 (2) 

(MCZ). 
Chungchong Namdo — 12 Feb. 1914 (SSC). 
Cholla Namdo —7, 13, 17 Feb. 1915 (LiWM); 9, 19, 20 Jan. 1927 

(Taka); Jan. (Kur); 15 Jan.-ll Feb. 1930 (5) (Yam). 
Kyongsang Pukto — Dec. 1900 (MCZ). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 11 Dec. 1883 (USNM). 

The Hooded Crane is a not uncommon winter visitor in Korea, usu- 
ally arriving in late November or early December, and departing in 
March. Y. Kuroda (1937, 308) says it "arrives in its greatest numbers 
a month behind the white-naped crane . . . and in heading north it 
is ahead of the rest and seems to start ... in February." In Hwang- 
hae Do, Kobayashi (1931, 75) saw two on 21 March and his latest one 
on 26 March. 

I saw a pair near Suwon 12 January 1946, but the flight did not start 
to move through until 10 P'ebruary when a flock of about two hundred 
appeared, the largest I saw. Smaller bunches were seen off and on 
through the rest of February, usually from five to twenty-five birds, 
and the last of them were three groups of about fifty birds each with 
an immense congregation of White-naped Cranes on 10 March. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 99 

104. Grits japonensis (P. L. S. Miiller) 

Ardea (Grus) Japonensis P. L. S. Miiller, Natursyst., Suppl., 1776, p. 110. 
(Japan.) 

English : Manchurian Crane, Japanese Crane. 
Japanese: Tancho (red top.) 

A crane taken at Kapung, Kyonggi Do, 21 February 1917 and pur- 
chased by Mori (1917, 43) for the Seoul School collection (c/. Kuroda 
1917, 24 and 191 7 A, 95) was identified by him as Grus nigricollis 
Przevalski. This form is accorded specific rank by Peters (1934, 151) 
as a resident of high central Asia, recorded in winter from Yunnan and 
Tonkin. The Korean specimen, from the written description, seems to 
be a melanistic japonensis. Delacour and Hachisuka (1928, 504) ex- 
amined it on their trip to Seoul and pronounced it a probable hybrid 
between G. japonensis and G. vipio. The 1942 Hand-List omits nigri- 
collis. 

Specimen records: 

Hwanghae Do — 2 Jan. 1916 (LiWM); 3 Jan. 1917 (SSC); Mar. 1925, 1 

Nov. 1930 (Won); 5 Jan., 25 Feb., 10 Mar. 1927 
(Taka); Mar. 1930, 1 Dec. 1930 (SoM). 

Kangwon Do —Apr. 1931 (Sendai Mus.); Apr. 1931 (2) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do — undated (2) (Tacz); Jan., Feb. 1909 (LiWM); 25 Mar. 

1929 (2), 21 Jan. 1946 (MCZ). 

Chungchong Namdo — 31 Dec. 1916 (LiWM); 26 Dec. 1926, 10 Jan. 1927 

(Taka). 

Cholla Namdo — undated (1942 Hand-List from 1922 H.L.). 

Kyongsang Namdo — undated (1942 Hand-List from 1922 H. L.). 

The Japanese Crane is a common winter visitor, the second most 
abundant of the cranes in Korea. Campbell (1892, 247) writes "The 
first icy wind brings the Manchurian Crane down in small numbers 
from the north . . . generally in October. Later on large flocks may 
be seen. . . . During the winter many are snared for export to China 
and Japan, where they are held in high esteem as birds of ornament." 

As with the other species, it was formerly more abundant than it is 
now. Taczanowski (1888, 468) considered it in his day the most 
abundant of the cranes, and wrote "Common in winter from the Rus- 
sian frontier to Seoul, rare farther south." Y. Kuroda (1937, 307) says 
that now [in Chungchong Pukto] "they can be found only in two or 
three extremely limited areas in flocks of twos or threes . . . However 
they are constantly attacked by poachers and are almost at the point 
of extermination." He gives their arrival there as early December, 



100 buttetin: museum of comparative zoology 

coincidental with the Hooded Cranes, about a month later than the 
White-naped. 

The species winters haphazardly in central Korea, seeking sheltered 
locations where there is food and open water. Mori (1939, 5) notes 
"Many Japanese Cranes are found in winter in the coastal hot-spring 
districts in Hwanghae Do." It does not seem to visit the southernmost 
provinces as frequently as do the other two common species, but re- 
mains in the plains areas of the west coast from Hwanghae Do to 
Chungchong Namdo. 

Though I had heard of its presence earlier, I saw my first "Tancho" 
near Suwon 10 January 1946, and collected the second bird I encount- 
ered 12 January 1946. From 25 January on it became fairly common 
in the vicinity, and scattered pairs, trios and small flocks up to a dozen 
individuals could be found frequenting the larger paddies and open 
salt marshes. I saw thirty in one flock 10 February, and they in- 
creased markedly in numbers the middle of the month. They started 
to dwindle in early March as the other two species became more com- 
mon, but though outnumbered, the big white birds were always highly 
noticeable whenever present in the mixed flocks. I saw 22 on 10 
March, and the last were a flock of eight which I observed alone on 
the 14th and again on 17 March. Kobayashi (1932, 70) observing the 
flight closely in Hwanghae Do, saw the last of them, a flock of 80, 
leave 21 March 1932. Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) give a late 
record for a flock of 50 observed in Kyonggi Do 4 April. 

105. Grus vipio Pallas 

Grus Vipio Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, 1811, p. 111. (Transbaicalia.) 
English: White-naped Crane. 
Japanese: Manazuru (true-named crane.) 

Specimen records: 

Hwanghae Do — Dec. 1916 (Taka); 20 Mar. 1929 (SSC); 20 Mar. 1929 

(SoM). 
Kyonggi Do —Mar. 1888 (2) (Tacz); Jan. (2), Mar. 1909 (LiWM); 

1916 (Kur); 21 Jan., 25, 28 Feb. 1919 (Taka); Mar. 

1936 (USNM); 10 Mar. 1940 (MCZ). 
Chungchong Pukto —15 Dec. 1910 (LiWM); 1 Mar. 1914 (SSC); 6 Mar. 

1935 (2) (Kur). 
Chungchong Namdo — 3, 4 Jan. 1927 (5) (Taka). 

Cholla Namdo — undated (SSC); 29 Jan. 1930 (Yam); Jan. 1938 (Kur). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 6 Dec. 1883, 8 June 1884 (USNM). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 101 

The White-naped Crane is a common winter visitor, the most abun- 
dant of the wintering cranes in Korea. From all accounts it, too, in 
common with the other species, has suffered considerable decimation 
in the last few decades with the encroachment of civilization, particu- 
larly from firearms, on its wintering grounds. 

Y. Kuroda (1937, 307-312) writes ". . . up to the latter part of the 
Taisho era [circa 1925] flocks of two or three thousand were common, 
but since then the number has decreased yearly, and today flocks of 
only several hundred are to be seen in restricted areas. The first flocks 
arrive in Hoengsong and Wonju [southwestern Kangwon Do] from the 
latter part of October to the first part of November. They head south 
from Yoju [southeastern Kyonggi Do], entering Chongiu [Chungchong 
Pukto], and the vanguard is seen between 10 and 15 November, right 
after the rice harvesting. . . . Most of them remain in this area and 
by the middle of December the number is increased successively by 
the arrival of later groups. By the end of December the number is at 
its peak, sometimes totalling over a thousand. However, when the 
freezing season sets in they again start moving south, though several 
hundred of the late arrivals remain behind. . . . 

"The areas where the cranes stay must have an abundance of clear 
rivers and sand plains of coarse granitic material. The topography 
must consist of a cultivated plain with an adjoining belt of low hills 
running in all directions or a well-drained basin surrounded by hill- 
ocks. For feeding grounds the birds prefer dry areas with high 
humidity to spots with pools of water. Since the size of the ideal areas 
is determined to a large extent by the amount of snow, the number of 
birds present is greatly affected by the amount of snowfall. . . . 

"In Chinchon [northeast Chungchong Pukto] are several places 
particularly suited to accommodate large flocks, and flocks of several 
thousand in this area are not uncommon. This district covers several 
ri [2.44 miles] consisting of a broad plain with many clear rivers and 
feeding grounds, as well as a belt of low, rolling hills ten meters high 
running in all directions. . . . Since the layout is so ideal, the birds 
when tired of eating, sleep together in the plains, and if the weather 
becomes very bad with high gales, they take shelter in the hills and 
hunt for food there. During the freezing season they congregate in 
small groups on the sunny side of the hills in search of edible grass 
roots by the paths between the melting ricefields. The paths are built 
on hilly ground, and since the pine growth there is low, it is easy for 
them to see intruders. . . . 

"They subsist largely on unhulled rice from November to early 



102 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

January, and live chiefly on grass roots after that, although, depending 
on the year, they eat sprouting barley in the latter part of February." 

Professor Mori (1939, 5, 6) writes "At first they stay in great flocks 
in Hwanghae Do. When it becomes cold they divide into smaller 
flocks and retire to such hot-spring districts as Yonbaek and Ongjin 
in Hwanghae Do. Most of the White-naped and Hooded Cranes move 
southward to Chungchong Pukto and Chungchong Namdo in Decem- 
ber, where they gather in sunny ponds in the plains where it is only 
partially frozen over. Many of the White-naped Cranes stay there 
until the end of February. 

"A part of the White-naped and Hooded Cranes go yet farther south 
to Cholla Namdo and winter there, while others migrate to Kagoshima 
and Yamaguchi provinces in Japan. . . . When cranes were more 
numerous hunting was permitted in Cholla Namdo to avoid damage 
to the barley, wheat and purple clover fields. Several hundred were 
killed annually in Haenam Kun where they were most numerous every 
year. . . . We cannot express with pen and ink the magnificent sight 
of cranes circling in a flock leisurely against a blue sky." 

The White-naped Cranes arrived in Suwon a little later than the 
others, the first I observed being two on 7 February. But they soon 
outnumbered the Japanese Cranes, and the largest groups were seen 
during the first ten days of March. On 10 March I encountered one 
flock of well over 500 birds, evidently migrating in a body, for they all 
disappeared shortly afterward, and I saw the last few stragglers on 17 
March. Kobayashi (1934, 4087) found it abundant in Hwanghae Do 
11 March, and noted its departure 19 March. 

RALLIDAE 

106. Rallus aquaticus indicus Blyth 

Rallus indicus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 18 (2), 1849, p. 820. (India.) 
English: Eastern Water Rail. 
Japanese: Kuina (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Kyonggi Do — 6 Nov. 1914, 22 Oct. 1916 (LiWM); undated (SSC); 28 Oct. 
1930 (SoM); 25 Nov. 1926, 12 May 1930 (3) (Taka). 

Very little is known about the status of the Water Rail in Korea. 
From the specimen record it appears to be a rare transient. But it is a 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 



103 



shy and secretive bird, and its distribution in surrounding areas, breed- 
ing in Japan, Amuria, Ussuria and eastern China and wintering to 
southeastern China, suggests it should be of more regular occurrence 
and greater abundance in Korea. 

107. PORZANA PUSILLA PUSILLA (Pallas) 

Rallus pusillus Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 700. 
(Dauria.) 

English: Eastern Baillon's Crake. 
Japanese: Hime kuina (princess rail.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 26 Sept. 1917 (LiWM); 16 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto — 26 May 1917 (LiWM); 30 May 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 13 May 1933 (Won). 
Kyonggi Do —29 May 1887 (Tacz); 20 Oct. 1912 (SSC); Oct. (Kur); 

10 Oct. 1913, 13 May 1917 (2) (LiWM); 19, 19, 29 Apr. 

1927 (Taka). 

This crake is a late spring and early autumn transient in Korea, and 
perhaps a summer resident in the northern half. Won (1934, 117) says 
it breeds there, but there is no evidence to that effect. Though it 
breeds in Honshu and Hokkaido as well as in northern China and 
Amurland, the 1942 Japanese Hand-List does not consider it as a 
breeding species in Korea. 



108. Porzana fusca erythrothorax (Temminck and Schlegel) 

Gallinula erythrothorax Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold, Fauna Jap., Aves, 
1849, p. 121, pi. 78. (Japan.) 

English : Japanese Ruddy Crake. 
Japamese: Hi kuina (red crake.) 

Specimen records : 

Kangwon Do — 13 July 1929 (Yam). 
Cholla Namdo — 27 Oct. 1924 (Uch). 

As the presence in Korea of the Japanese Ruddy Crake is known only 
from the two records above, it is probably not of regular occurrence, 
and must be regarded as a straggler. 



104 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

109. PORZANA PAYKULLII (Ljungh) 

Rallus Paykullii Ljungh, Kungl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. nya Handl., 34, 1813, 
p. 258, pi. 5. (Borneo and Java.) 

English: Siberian Ruddy Crake. 

Japanese: Korai hi kuina (Korean red crake.) 



Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto —31 May 1917 (LiWM); 26 May 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 16 Sept., 26 Oct. 1932 (Won). 
Kangwon Do — undated (Hand-List 1942). 
Hwanghae Do — Aug. 1927 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —20 May 1910 (LiWM); 31 May 1913 (SSC); July 1917, 
Oct. (Kur); 20 Nov. 1929 (Taka). 

This species is a not uncommon late spring and early autumn 
transient, and perhaps a summer resident from Kyonggi Do north- 
ward. Taczanowski (1888, 459) says it is "rare in winter in the rice 
lands." Mori (1917, 74) collected it during his trip along the northwest 
coast in the spring of 1917. Won (1934, 117) says it is common and 
breeds, in which the 1942 Hand-List does not concur. 



110. PORZANA NOVEBORACENSIS EXQUISITA Swinhoe 

Porzana exquisita Swinhoe, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 12, 1873, p. 376. 
(Cheefoo, China.) 

English: Swinhoe's Crake. 

Japanese: Shima kuina (striped crake.) 



Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — no data (Hand-List 1942). 

Kyonggi Do —6 Nov. 1914 (LiWM); 5 Oct. 1913, 23 Oct. 1927 (SSC); 
Oct. (Kur); 29 Apr. 1930 (2) (Taka); 28 Oct. 1930 (SoM). 

This species is an uncommon transient in Korea. Mori (1917, 74) 
took one on the northwest coast in the spring of 1917 which may be the 
source of the 1942 Japanese Hand-List's Pyongan Pukto record. There 
is no other mention of it in Korean literature, but as it is known to 
breed in southern L'ssuriland, it may eventually prove to be a summer 
resident in northern Korea as well. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 105 

111. Gallinula chloropus indica Blyth 

Gallinula chloropus? var. indicus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 11, 1842, p. 887. 
(Calcutta.) 

English: Indian Water-hen, Moorhen. 
Japanese: Ban (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Kyonggi Do — 5 May 1916 (LiWM); 19 Apr. 1927 (Taka). 

Kyongsang Namdo — April 1923 (Kur). 

The Indian Moorhen is known in Korea only from the three scat- 
tered records above. As there is no other mention of the species in 
Korean literature, it can be regarded only as a straggler. However, 
perhaps because it nests commonly in Japan and elsewhere in neigh- 
boring eastern Asia, the 1942 Hand-List regards it as breeding in 
Korea. 

112. Gallicrex cinerea (Gmelin) 

Fulica cinerea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 702. (China.) 
English: Kora, Water-cock. 
Japanese: Tsuru kuina (crane crake.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 16 July 1894 (Kur., ex Owston). 

Pyongan Pukto — 19 June 1917 (2) (LiWM); 31 May, 3 June 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 22 Oct. 1932, 13 May 1933 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 25-29 June 1929 (3) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do — June, July 1909 (4), Aug. 1910, 12 Oct. 1914, 20 June, 

5 July 1915 (LiWM); 23 May 1913, 15 July 1928 
(SSC); Sept. 1916 (Kur); 25 Apr. 1918, 14 Nov. 1926, 
30 June, 9, 24 July 1927 (Taka); 20, 21 June, 28 Oct. 
1929 (SoM); 20, 25 June 1927, 20, 22 June, 5, 7 July 
1929 (Won). 

Chungchong Namdo — 3 June 1894 (Kur., ex Owston). 

Cholla Namdo — 14 Oct. 1931 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 28 June 1885 (USNM). 

The Water-cock is a common summer resident, arriving in late 
April, and departing in early November. Taczanowski (1888, 468) 
says it "nests in small numbers in the rice fields, leaves the country for 
winter." Won (1934, 117) also calls it common and breeding. He col- 



106 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

lected five eggs 10 July 1938 in Pyongan Namdo, which are now in the 
Yamashina collection. Kobayashi and Ishizawa (1933, 51) figure a 
clutch of four eggs collected in Kyonggi Do 19 July, which were for- 
merly in the Kuroda collection. 

113. Fulica atra atra Linne 

Fulica atra Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 152. (Sweden.) 
English : Coot. 
Japanese: O-ban (large water-hen.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 15, 20 Sept. 1929 (Yam). 
Hamgyong Namdo — Oct. (Kur); 3 Nov. 1913 (SSC). 
Pyongan Namdo — 29 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 17 Oct. 1934 (Won). 
Kangwon Do — 29 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do -Oct. 1909, June 1910, 26 Oct, 1912 (LiWM); undated, 

1920 (SoM); 23 Nov. 1926, 23 Apr. 1930 (Taka). 

The coot is a not uncommon summer resident. The lack of records 
from the southern provinces suggests it enters the peninsula from the 
mainland and migrates back the same way. Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda 
(1919, 148) give its Seoul residence as from early June to early Octo- 
ber, adding "it nests in the marshes and sings in August in the pad- 
dies." Yoshida (1923, 315) observed it in Hwanghae Do and Pyongan 
Pukto from 11 to 21 July. The 1942 Hand-List gives it as breeding, 
but there is no concrete proof, other than the collecting dates. 



OTIDAE 

114. Otis tarda dybowskii Taczanowski 

Otis Dybowskii Taczanowski, Journ. f. Orn., 22, 1874, p. 331. (Dauria.) 
English: Siberian Bustard. 
Japanese: No-gan (field, or upland goose.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Namdo — 27 Feb. 1887 (Tacz). 
Pyongan Pukto — 1 Apr. 1921 (Kur). 

Pyongan Namdo - Mar. 1909 (2) (LiWM); 12 Jan. 1939 (Won). 
Hwanghae Do — Jan. (Kur); 29 Dec. 1916 (SSC); 12 Jan., 20 Mar. 1927 

(Taka). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 107 

Kangwon Do — 20 Dec. 1926 (Taka). 

Kyonggi Do — 13 Jan. 1889 (Camp); Feb. 1910 (LiWM); 10 May 1928 

(SSC); 9 Jan. 1928 (Taka); 1929 (SoM). 
Chungchong Pukto— 13 Dec. 1911 (LiWM); 2 Jan. 1928 (2) (Kur)- 
Kyongsang Namdo — 16, 24 Dec. 1883, 6, 10 Jan. 1884 (USNM); Jan. 1922 

(Kur). 

The Bustard was formerly a common, but is now a rare winter 
visitor. Taczanowski (1888, 456) found it "common all winter from 
Seoul to the Manchurian border; around the capitol one can sometimes 
see bands of up to a hundred individuals; south of Seoul it is rare; in 
summer one never sees it." Campbell (1892, 246) adds "I have shot 
numbers of this bird during the winters of 1887, 1888 and 1889. In 
1887 it was much more plentiful, probably because the winter was 
severe . . . flocks of thirty or forty were quite common. Its arrival in 
Seoul varied, according to the severity or mildness of the season, from 
October to December, and I have seen it in the open fields between 
Chemulpo and Seoul as late as the end of March . . . [it] is extremely 
timid and difficult to approach." Jouy took a good series near Fusan. 

The bird has become increasingly scarcer since the start of the 
Japanese tenure. Won (1934, 116) considers it rare. I never heard of 
it being seen by either Americans or Koreans during the winter I spent 
there. 

ROSTRATULIDAE 

115. ROSTRATULA BENGHALENSIS BENGHALENSIS (Linne) 

Rallus benghalensis Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 153. (Asia.) 
English: Painted Snipe. 
Japanese: Tama shigi (ball snipe.) 

The only record for this straggler in Korea is that of Taczanowski's 
(1888, 458), "a female beginning to change plumage was killed near 
Seoul 6 September [1887?], and is the only example; found in a rice 
paddy." 

HAEMATOPOUIDAE 

116. Haematopus ostralegus osculans Swinhoe 

Haematopus osculans Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871, p. 405. (north 
China.) 

English: Eastern Oystercatcher. 
Japanese: Miyakodori (metropolis bird.) 



108 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 18 Apr. 1912, 1 July 1917 (Taka). 

Pyongan Pukto — 5, 12 June 1917 (4) (LiWM); 1 July 1917, 18 Mar. 1927 

(4) (Taka); 23 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — June 1917 (2) (Taka). 
Hwanghae Do — Mar. 1912 (Kur)"; 13 June 1917 (SSC). 

KyonggiDo —6 Sept. 1883 (USNM); June 1910, 25 Mar. 1911 

(LiWM). 
Cholla Namdo — 24 Mar. 1910 (LiWM); 13 Apr. 1917, Dec. 1927 (Kur); 

20, 21 Dec. 1926 (Taka); 7, 15 Feb. 1930 (Yam). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 8 Nov. 1885 (USNM). 

The Oystercatcher is a not uncommon summer resident along the 
west coast of Korea. A few winter at the southern tip in Cholla Namdo, 
Taczanowski (1888, 459) says "rare in spring near Seoul." Campbell 
(1892, 246) on the contrary called it "plentiful in spring and summer 
along the Han River." Kuroda found it breeding 13 April 1917 at the 
mouth of the Yezanko River near Moppo where "two eggs of this 
bird were collected by me on the gravelly ground of a small and low 
delta . . ." (1918, 513). Won (1934, 114) says it is uncommon, but 
breeds on islands off Pyongan Namdo. 

I first saw a pair feeding on the tide flats near Suwon 12 March 1946. 
They were very wild, and I was never able to get within shot-gun 
range of them, though I observed them in the same locality repeatedly 
during the next six weeks. 

CHARADRIIDAE 

117. Vanellus vanellus (Linne) 

Tringa Vanellus Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 148. (Sweden.) 
English : Lapwing. 
Japanese: Tageri (paddy lapwing.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 13 Oct., 1 Nov. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo - 23 Mar., 12 Apr. 1932, 30 Apr. 1934 (Won). 

KyonggiDo —Nov. 1911, 25 Oct. 1912 (LiWM); Apr. (Kur); 10 

Jan. 1927 (SSC); 5 Jan. 1926, 5 Jan., 16 Oct, 1927 
(Taka); 24 Oct. 1930 (SoM); 15 Nov. 1928, 31 Oct. 
1930 (Won). 

Chungchong Namdo — 29 Dec. 1911 (LiWM); 21 Dec. 1926 (Taka). 

Kyongsang Namdo —24 Dec. 1914 (3) (LiWM). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 109 

The Lapwing is an uncommon spring and autumn transient in 
Korea. Taczanowski (1887) reports a March specimen from 'Dultoni,' 
presumably in Kyonggi Do, and (1888, 468) calls it "rare during the 
two migration periods." Campbell says (1892, 246) "I have not found 
the Lapwing numerous in Korea." Won (1934, 114) on the other hand, 
calls it common. 



118. Microsarcops cinerea (Blyth) 

Plurianus cinereus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 11, 1842, p. 587. (Calcutta, 
India.) 

English: Grey-headed Lapwing. 
Japanese: Keri (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records : 

Kyonggi Do — 27 Sept. 1887 (Tacz); 17 Mar. 1889 (Camp); 22 May 

1919 (SSC); 30 Apr., 23 Nov. 1914 (LiWM). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 19 Apr. 1884 (USNM). 

This species is a rare spring and autumn transient. Taczanowski 
(1888, 457) says "in summer a few, absent in winter." Y. Kuroda and 
Miyakoda (1919, 147) give its season near Seoul as late March and 
April, October and November. It is perhaps worth noting that there is 
no record of the species' occurrence in Korea since 1919. 



119. Squatarola squatarola (Linne) 

Tringa Squatarola Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 149. (Sweden.) 
English: Grey Plover. 

Japanese: Daizen (autochthonous; also means a large serving 
tray.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 26 Sept. 1917 (2) (LiWM); 17, 26 Sept. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 15 Aug. 1880 (G & S); Sept. (Kur). 

Pyongan Pukto — 4 Sept. 1912 (SSC); 15, 29 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —27 Sept. 1887 (Tacz); 22 Oct. 1911, 17 Oct. 1912, 18 

Oct. 1914 (LiWM); 19 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 15 Oct. 1923 
(SoM); 24 May, 10 Oct. 1927 (Taka); 10 Oct. 1927, 20 
Sept., 30 Oct. 1930 (Won). 



110 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Grey Plover is a not uncommon migrant in spring and autumn. 
Taczanowski (1888, 456) writes "one sees a few during both migra- 
tions." Kobayashi (1931) gives an early arrival date of ten observed in 
Hwanghae Do, 19 March 1931. Won (1934, 113) calls it common. 

120. Pluvialis dominica fulva (Gmelin) 

Charadrius fulvus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 687. (Tahiti.) 
English: Eastern Golden Plover. 
Japanese: Munaguro (black-breast.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto —19 Aug. (2), 27, 28 Sept, 1917 (LiWM); 17, 18 Sept. 

1929 (Yam). 
Hamgyong Namdo — 11 Sept. 1912 (SSC); Sept, (Kur). 
Pyongan Pukto — 14 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 
Kyonggi Do — 23 Sept. 1883 (USNM) ; 25 Sept, 1887 (Tacz); Oct. 1909 

(LiWM); 10 Oct, 1924, 2 Oct. 1929 (SoM); 4 Oct., 9 

Nov. 1927 (Taka); 5 May 1928, 18, 20 Sept. 1930 (Won) ; 

27 Apr. 1946 (3) (MCZ). 

The Golden Plover is a not uncommon spring and autumn transient. 
Taczanowski (1888, 456) calls it "quite common during migration," 
Kobayashi gives sight records of its arrival in Hwanghae Do on 23 
March (1931) and 24 March (1932). Won (1934, 119) calls it uncom- 
mon. I encountered a flock of 36 Golden Plover on freshly-ploughed 
ground at the Suwon airport 27 April 1946, from which I collected the 
three listed above. 

121. Charadrius dubius curonicus Gmelin 

Charadrius curonicus Gmelin, Syst, Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 692. (Kurland, 
Baltic.) 

English: Little Ringed Plover. 
Japanese: Ko-chidori (little plover.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 19, 25 Aug. 1917 (3) (LiWM). 
Hamgyong Namdo — 25 July 1883 (USNM). 

Pyongan Pukto - 12 June 1912 (AMNH); 6, 12 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo - 18 May 1917 (2) (LiWM); 29 Apr. 1917 (2) (Kur); 

25 Apr. 1931, 20 Apr. 1933 (Won). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 111 

Kangwon Do — 4 Apr. 1915 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do — 25 June, 18 Sept. 1883 (USNM); 25 Apr., May 1909 

(LiWM); 17, 22 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 10 Apr., 27 Sept. 
1929 (SoM); 3 Apr. (3), 24 Apr. 1927, 10 Apr. 1930 (2) 
(Taka); 9, 18 Sept. 1927, 28 Apr. 1928, 7, 9 July, 
20 Aug. 1929 (Won); 7 Apr. 1946 (2) (MCZ). 

Chungehong Namdo — 8, 9 Apr. 1917 (11) (Kur). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 25 Dec. 1884 (USNM); 25 May 1927 (Won). 

This species is a common summer resident, nesting along the rivers. 
Kuroda took an egg ready to be laid from a female he collected 29 
April 1917 in Pyongan Namdo. Mori (1927, 388) published a photo- 
graph of a nest with three eggs on the Han River 4 June 1927. 

I first noted them on a small stream through the rice paddies near 
Suwon 7 April 1946, and collected a courting pair, the female of which 
is a pure albino, a rarity among the Limicolae. From then until I 
left, the plaintive notes of this plover could always be heard at the 
head of the lake, where several pairs carried on their interminable, 
noisy courtship. 



122. Charadrius alexandrinus dealbatus (Swinhoe) 

Aegialites dealbatus Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, p. 138. (South 
coast of China, Formosa, Hainan.) 

English: Kentish Plover. 

Japanese: Shiro chidori (white plover.) 

The 1942 Hand-List recognizes the longer-billed western race, C. a. 
alexandrinus Linne, as a rare visitor to Korea, on the basis of two speci- 
mens collected by Kuroda and so identified by him. They were taken 
in each case with shorter-billed dealbatus respectively in Kyonggi Do 
19 April 1917 and in Pyongan Namdo 29 April 1917. Kuroda gives 
(1918, 512) their bill lengths as 16.5 and 18.5. 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 19 Aug. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto — 23 July 1927 (Taka). 

Pyongan Namdo — 18 May 1917 (2) (LiWM); 29 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 21 June 

1931 (Won). 
Kangwon Do — 29 Mar. (3), 24 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do — 1, 5 May 1909, 30 June 1913, 7 July 1915 (3) (LiWM); 

12 Apr. 1912 (SSC); 19 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 
Cholla Namdo — 7 Jan. 1927 (5) (Taka). 



112 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Kentish Plover is a not uncommon spring and autumn transient 
in Korea. A few may winter in the extreme southern portions. There 
are no other references to the species in literature for the area, and I 
did not encounter it. 



123. Charadrius placidus Gray and Gray 

Charadrius placidus J. E. and G. R. Gray, Cat. Mamm. Bds. etc. Nepal and 
Tibet in Brit. Mus., ed. 2, 1863, p. 70. (Nepal.) 

English: Long-billed Ringed Plover. 
Japanese: Ikaru chidori (grosbeak plover.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 7, 20 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Namdo - 22 Apr. 1931, 4 Aug. 1932, 24 Jan. 1936 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — 18 Mar. 1914 (3) (LiWM). 

Kangwon Do — 30 Nov., 4 Dec. 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do — 7 Oct. 1883 (USNM); Jan. 1887 (Tacz); 5 Mar. 1911 

(LiWM); 10, 15, 21 Sept. 1927, 20 Mar. 1930 (Taka); 

6 Sept, 1927 (Won); 2, 17 Oct. 1929 (SoM). 
Chungchong Namdo — 8 Apr. 1917 (2) (Kur). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 17 Mar. 1916 (SSC). 

This species seems to be a not uncommon spring and autumn trans- 
ient. Taczanowski (1888, 468) says it is "common in autumn and 
spring, rare in winter, absent in summer." Kuroda, however, in com- 
menting on the two he collected in Chungchong Namdo (1917, suppl.) 
says "I think this bird breeds here, but they were rare," a comment he 
omits from his 1918 English edition. Won (1934, 113) says it is com- 
mon and breeds. Other authorities, including Peters and the 1942 
Hand-List regard It as breeding in Korea, but there is no evidence 
beyond Won's single summer -collecting record to indicate even its 
presence there during the breeding season. 



124. Charadrius mongolus stegmanni Stresemann 

Charadrius mongolus stegmanni Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb., 48, 1940, p. 55. 
(Nom. nov. for C. m. litoralis Stegmann, preocc. Behring Island.) 
English: Mongolian Plover. 
Japanese: Medai. chidori (large eye plover.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 113 

The 1942 Hand-List includes C. m. mongolus in the Korean list on 
the authority of Stegmann (Orn. Monatsb., 1937, 26) who says both 
races occur in Ussuri and Korea on migration. However, the 
Japanese assign all the specimens they have examined to the north- 
eastern Siberian race, stegmann i. 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 26 Sept. 1917 (2) (LiWM); 17, 19 Sept. 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto — 8 May 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 18, 20 May 1917 (LiWM); 17 May 1917 (SSC). 
Kangwon Do — 25 Sept., 5 Oct. 1914 (5) (LiWM). 

KyonggiDo —2 June 1887 (2) (Tacz); 22 Oct. 1911 (LiWM); Apr. 

(Kur); 19 Oct. 1927, 2, 15 Oct. 1929, 26 Aug. 1930 (Won). 

The Mongolian Plover is a common spring and autumn transient. 
Taczanowski (1888, 456) says it is "rare in spring," but Won (1934, 
113) finds it common, as the specimen record indicates. The species 
had not appeared before my departure in early May. 



[Charadrius leschenaultii Lesson 

English: Geoffroy's Sand Plover. 

Japanese: O-medai chidori (large Mongolian plover). 

This species has appeared on all lists of Korean birds ever since it first was 
included in Iizuka's 1914 Hand-List. Kuroda (1917, 26) mentions a record for 
the "Han River, April," the source of which I have been unable to find. There 
is not a Korean specimen traceable in any collection today, or in any of the 
literature. The species is not known to breed east of western Mongolia, and is 
only a straggler to Japan.] 



125. EUPODA ASIATICA VEREDA (Gould) 

Charadrius veredus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1848, p. 38. (Northern 
Australia.) 

English: Eastern Dotterel. 
Japanese: O-chidori (large plover.) 

The Dotterel is a straggler to Korea, the only record being one 
purchased by Kuroda (1913, 419) in a Seoul "stuffing shop" which was 
purportedly taken in Korea in December 1911. 



114 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

SCOLOPACIDAE 

126. Numenius minutus Gould 

Numenius minutus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1840 (1841), p. 176. 
(New South Wales.) 

English: Least Whimbrel. 

Japanese: Ko shakushigi (little curlew.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 29, 30 May 1929 (Yam). 

Hwanghae Do — 26 Apr. 1917 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do — 28 Mar., 5 May 1928 (Won); 24 Apr. 1928 (SpM). 

From the specimen record, the Least Whimbrel is a rare spring trans- 
ient in Korea. 



127. Numenius phaeopus variegatus (Scopoli) 

Tantalus variegatus Scopoli, Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr., fasc. 2, 1786, p. 92. 
(No type locality = Luzon, ex Sonnerat.) 
English: Eastern Whimbrel. 
Japanese: Chu shakushigi (middle-sized curlew.) 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — Sept. (Kur). 

Pyongan Pukto — 3 May 1917 (Kur); 14 Apr., 2 May 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 13 May 1917 (LiWM). 

Hwanghae Do —29 Apr. 1917 (SSC); 1 May 1918 (Taka); 5-10 May 

1935 (7) (Won). 
Kyonggi Do —3 May 1887 (Tacz); June 1909, Apr. 1915 (LiWM); 4 

May 1928 (SoM); 15 Apr. 1927 (4) (Taka); 5, 10 May 

1928, 20 Oct. 1930 (Won). 

The Whimbrel is a not uncommon transient, seemingly more abun- 
dant in spring than in autumn. Taczanowski (1888, 465) found it 
"common in spring migration on the coast, and sometimes inland." 
Kobayashi (1933) observed the arrival of a flock of about one hundred 
in Hwanghae Do, 23 March 1932. Won (1934, 111) calls it common. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 115 

128. Numenius arquata orientalis C. L. Brehm 

Numenius orientalis C. L. Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., 1831, p. 610. 
(East Indies.) 

English: Indian Curlew. 

Japanese: Dai shakushigi (large curlew.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — Sept. (Kur). 

Hamgyong Namdo — Mar. 1910 (Taka). 

Pyongan Pukto — 3 May 1917 (Kur). 

Pyongan Namdo — 1 Oct. 1915 (SSC); 24 Oct. 1931 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do — 4 Sept. 1883 (USNM); Sept. 1909 (LiWM); undated 

(Kur); 21 Jan. 1928 (Taka); 15 Oct. 1929 (SoM); 8 

Oct. 1930 (Won). 
Cholla Namdo — 17 Jan., 14 Feb. 1930 (Yam). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 2 Nov. 1884 (USNM). 

The Indian Curlew is a not uncommon transient, not as common as 
the Australian Curlew, but more plentiful, especially in autumn, than 
the Whimbrel. Kobayashi (1932) gives its arrival dates in Hwanghae 
Do as 23 March 1931 and 25 March 1932, but his identification is to 
be questioned, as possibly referable to the next species. Won (1934, 
111) calls it common. 



129. Numenius madagascariensis (Linne) 

Scolopax madagascariensis Linng, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 242. (Mada- 
gascar, error = Macassar, Celebes.) 

English: Australian Curlew. 

Japanese: Horoku shigi (clay pan snipe.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Namdo — 17 Aug. 1880 (G & S); Nov. 1911 (Taka); 26 Apr. 1917 

(Kur). 
Pyongan Pukto — 14, 19 May 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 24 Oct. 1931 (Won). 
Hwanghae Do — Nov. 1911 (Uch); Nov. 1911 (2) (Kur). 

Kyonggi Do —8, 11 Sept. 1883 (USNM); Sept. 1909, Apr., 18 Oct. 

1914 (3), 15 Oct. 1915 (LiWM); 16 Oct. 1929 (SoM); 

25 Sept. 1930 (SSC). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 6 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 



116 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

This is the commonest of the curlews in Korea, a fairly common 
spring and autumn transient. Taczanowski (1888, 459) "met with in 
all seasons, rare in winter." Kuroda (1918, 513) says "This curlew is 
not uncommon in Corea on its spring and autumn migrations; it is 
there more common than the preceding form [arquata], as in Japan." 
Kobayashi (1932) notes its arrival in Hwanghae Do 24 March. 

I first encountered the species near Suwon 10 March 1948, and saw 
from two to five of them every time I visited the marshes at the head 
of the inlet through March. This was the only species of curlew I en- 
countered, and none I saw ever came within gunshot. I could never 
make out a light rump on any I observed. 



130. LlMOSA LIMOSA MELANUROIDES Gould 

Limosa Melanuroides Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1846, p. 84. (Port 
Essington, Australia.) 

English: Eastern Black-tailed Godwit. 
Japanese: Oguro shigi (black-tailed snipe.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 29 Aug. 1917 (LiWM); 13 Sept, 1929 (Yam). 

Hwanghae Do — 1 May 1918 (Taka). 

Kyonggi Do -6 Sept. 1889 (Camp); 15 Oct, 1917 (LiWM); 15 May 1919 

(SSC); 18, 20 Oct. 1927 (Taka); Dec. 1925, 25 Sept. 1931 
(SoM); 3 Oct. 1927, 25 Nov. 1930 (Won). 

The Black-tailed Godwit is an uncommon, irregular transient in 
Korea. 

131. Limosa lapponica (Linne) 

Limosa lapponica var. Novae-zealandiae Gray, Voy. Erebus & Terror, 1846, 

p. 13. (New Zealand.) 
Limosa lapponica menzbieri Portenko, Auk, 63, 1936, p. 195. (Indigirka delta.) 
English: Eastern Bar-tailed Godwit. 
Japanese: O-sorihashi shigi (large bent-billed snipe.) 

Perhaps some of the older specimens which have not been examined 
recently are referable to L. I. menzbieri, which, according to its known 
distribution elsewhere should occur more frequently in Korea, but 
Yamashina's series are the only ones that have been definitely so 
identified. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 117 

Specimen records : 

Limosa lapponica menzbieri: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 17 Sept, 1929 (5) (Yam). 
Limosa lapponica novac-zealandiae: 

Hamgyong Pukto — Sept. (Kur). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 3, 11 Sept. 1912 (SSC). 

Hwanghae Do — Nov. 1911 (Uch). 

Kangwon Do — 5 Apr. 1914 (2) (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 6 Sept. 1883 (3) (USNM); 22 Oct. 1887 (Tacz); Oct., 

Nov. 1909 (LiWM); 15 Apr. 1927 (3) (Taka); Oct. 
1927 (SoM). 

Cholla Namdo — 13 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 25 Oct., 8 Nov. 1885 (USNM). 

The Bar-tailed Godwit is a not uncommon transient. The only 
reference to it in literature beyond the specimen records for Korea is 
Taczanowski's (1888, 457) statement, "quite rare in autumn in the rice 
paddies." 

132. Tringa erythropus (Pallas) 

Scolopax erythropus Pallas, in Vroeg's Cat,, 1764, Adumbr., p. 6. (Holland.) 
English: Spotted or Dusky Redshank. 
Japanese: Tsuru shigi (crane snipe.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 10 Sept. 1917 (3) (LiWM); 29 Sept., 18 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 11 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —30 Apr. 1917 (3) (Kur). 

Hwanghae Do — 21 Mar. 1913 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do — 11 Mar. 1889 (Camp); Apr., 30 Oct. 1910^ 2 Apr. 1911, 

20 Mar. 1912, 20 May 1914 (LiWM); 15 Mar. 1928, 7 
Apr. 1930 (Won); 24 Mar. (5), 1 May 1946 (MCZ). 

Kyongsang Pukto — Mar. (Kur); Oct. 1927 (SoM). 

The Dusky Redshank is a common spring and autumn transient. 
Kuroda (1918, 514) speaks of "a flock of some twenty or thirty birds in 
a group ... all in the dark summer dress" in a paddy in Pyongan 
Namdo 30 April. I encountered the first forerunners of the spring 
flight, small numbers all in light plumage, in the paddies near Suwon 
15 March 1946. Ten days later their numbers started to increase, 
and throughout April flocks of several hundred individuals were not 
uncommon. No dark plumaged birds appeared until the end of April, 



118 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

but the flocks of early May were composed two-thirds of black-bellied 
adults. 

133. Tringa totanus eurhinus (Oberholser) 

Totanus totanus eurhinus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 22, 1900, p. 207. 
(Tso Moriri Lake, Ladak.) 

English: Eastern Redshank. 

Japanese: Aka ashi shigi (red legged snipe.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 17, 19 Sept. 1929 (Yam). 

Hwanghae Do — Apr. 1933 (SoM). 

KyonggiDo -19 Sept. 1887 (Tacz); 24 Sept. 1930 (Won); 29 Mar. 

1934 (SoM). 
Kyongsang Pukto — 15. Mar. 1916 (SSC). 

The Redshank is an uncommon, irregular transient in Korea, evi- 
dently straggling in occasionally from the westward during migrations. 



134. Tringa stagnatilis (Bechstein) 

Totanus stagnatilis Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb. Deutschl., 1803, p. 292, pi. 29. 
(Germany.) 

English: Marsh Sandpiper. 

Japanese: Ko ao ashi shigi (small green legged snipe.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 19 Aug. 1917 (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do — 5 Oct. 1923 (Kur). 

The Marsh Sandpiper is a straggler in Korea, known there only 
from the above two records. 



135. Tringa nebularia (Gunnerus) 

Scolopax nebularia Gunnerus, in Leem, Beskr. Finm. Lapper., 1767, p. 251. 
(District of Trondhjem, Norway.) 
English: Greenshank. 
Japanese: Ao ashi shigi (green legged snipe.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 119 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 19 Aug.-7 Sept. 1917 (5) (LiWM); 26, 27 Sept. 1917 
*(Taka); 29 Aug. 1920 (SSC); 16 Sept., 9 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 2, 14 May 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do - 6, 20 Sept. 1883 (USNM); 3 May 1887 (Tacz); 25 Apr. 

1917 (2) (Km); Nov. 1909 (2), 18 Oct. 1914 (3) (LiWM); 
12 Apr. (3), 9 Sept. (2) 1927 (Taka); 14 Oct. 1929 (3) 
(SoM); 19 Sept., 23 Oct. 1928, 11 Oct., 25 Nov. 1930 
(Won); 1 May 1946 (MCZ). 

The Greenshank is a common transient in the northern half of 
Korea, more plentiful in autumn than in spring. The absence of 
records south of Kyonggi Do is indicative of the continental nature of 
its migration route. Taczanowski (1888, 459) says "common . . . 
during the autumn flight, rare in spring in the rice fields." Campbell 
(1892, 246) lists it as collected, giving no data save "extremely com- 
mon in the rice fields in spring and autumn." Won (1934, 110) con- 
siders it uncommon. The only ones I saw were three in a flooded paddy 
near Suwon on 1 May 1946, my last day afield, of which I collected one. 



136. Tringa ocrophus Linne 

Tringa Ocrophus Linne\ Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 149. (Sweden.) 
English: Green Sandpiper. 
Japanese: Kusa shigi (Grass snipe.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 6 Sept. 1917 (LiWM); 1 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — Sept. (Kur). 

Hwanghae Do — 10 May 1917 (SSC). 

Kangwon Do — 8 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do —7 Oct. 1883 (2) (USNM); Sept., Oct. 1887 (3) (Tacz); 

19 Apr. 1911, 31 Oct. 1914 (LiWM); 30 Apr. (2), 26 Sept. 

(2), 5 Oct. 1927 (Taka); 30 Sept. 1922, 20 Apr. 1929 

(SoM); 16, 30 May, 17 Sept., 9 Oct. 1929 (Won); 17 

Apr. 1946 (2) (MCZ). 
Cholla Namdo — 27 Dec. 1929 (Yam). 

The Green Sandpiper is a common spring and autumn transient, 
found usually in small flocks in the wetter paddies, where it is fond of 
working along the narrow separating dykes. I found it common in the 
paddies near the Kings' Forest throughout the latter half of April. 



120 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

137. Tringa glareola Linne 

Tringa Glareola Linn6, Syst. Nat,, ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 149. (Sweden.) 
English: Wood Sandpiper. 
Japanese: Takabu shigi (hawk-patterned snipe.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 17 Aug.-7 Sept, 1917 (7) (LiWM); 28 Sept. 1917 (Taka); 

9 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 
Hamgyong Namdo— 12 Sept. 1920 (SSC). 

Pyongan Pukto — 26 May 1917 (LiWM); 24 Apr., 10 May 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 13 May 1917 (2) (LiWM); 25 May 1935 (Won). 
Hwanghae Do — 3 May (Kur). 
Kangwon Do — 29 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 
KyonggiDo —Sept., Oct. 1897 (2) (Tacz); May 1909, 17 Oct. 1914 

(LiWM); 28 Apr. (3), 2, 9 Sept, 1927, 16 May 1928 (2) 

(Taka); 4 May 1928 (SoM); 15, 19, 22 May 1928 (Won); 

25 Apr., 1 May 1946 (MCZ). 

This species is a common spring and autumn transient, found in 
small flocks in the flooded paddies. The absence of records from south- 
ern Korea is suggestive of a flight route across the China Sea from the 
latitude of Kyonggi Do. The spring flight seems to extend from mid- 
April through May. I saw the first arrivals in the Suwon area 20 April 
1946. 

138. Pseudototanus guttifer (Nordmann) 

Totanus guttifer Nordmann, in Erman's Reise, Naturh. Atlas, 1835, p. 17. 
(Okhotsk.) 

English: Nordmann's Greenshank. 
Japanese: Karafuto aoashi shigi (Sakhalin green legged snipe.) 

Nordmann's Greenshank is a straggler in Korea, known from one 
single record, a specimen in the Seoul School collection taken at Sinpo, 
Hamgyong Namdo, 13 September 1912. 



139. Xenus cinereus (Giildenstaedt) 

Scolopax cinerea Giildenstaedt, Novi Comm. Sci. Petropol., 19, 1774, p. 473, 
pi. 19. (Caspian Sea, Terek River.) 

English: Terek Sandpiper. 

Japanese: Sorihashi shigi (bent billed snipe.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 121 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 29 Aug. 1912 (SSC); 19 Aug. 1917 (LiWM). 
Pyongan Namdo — Sept. (Kur). 

Kyonggi Do — 18 Oct. 1914 (LiWM); Oct. 1927, 2 Oct. 1929 (SoM); 

20 Sept., 12 Oct 1929, 25 Sept., 10, 11 Oct. 1930 (Won). 
Cholla Namdo — 13 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 
Kyongsang Pukto — 11 Aug. 1880 (G & S). 

The Terek Sandpiper is an uncommon transient. Won (1934, 111) 
says "a few pass through on the coast in spring and autumn." Kuroda 
(1918, 514) saw two, of which he collected one, at the mouth of the 
Yezanko River in Cholla Namdo, 13 April 1917, and comments "This 
species is a rare bird in Corea, as in Japan." 



140. x\ctitis hypoleucos (Linne) 

Tringa hypoleucos Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 149. (Sweden.) 
English: Common Sandpiper. 
Japanese: Iso shigi (beach snipe.) 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 17-29 Aug. 1917 (8) (LiWM); 19 Sept. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 12 June 1912 (AMNH). 

Pyongan Namdo — Aug. (Kur); 22 Apr. 1931 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 11 Apr., 17 Sept. 1914 (3) (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 4 Sept. 1883 (USNM); Sept. 1887 (2) (Tacz); 5 July 1913 

(LiWM); 11 Sept. 1929 (SoM); 14 May 1928, 5, 9 Oct. 

1929 (Won); 26 Apr. 1946 (2) (MCZ). 
Kyongsang Pukto — 17 Feb. 1916 (SSC). 

This species is a common spring and autumn transient. Won (1934 
110) says "many come in spring and autumn to the streams or rivers." 
Taczanowski (1888, 457) was partly in error when he wrote "small 
numbers in summer; nests near Seoul, particularly common in autumn, 
absent in winter," for the bird has never been known to breed in Korea. 
When it comes through in spring, however, it occurs in small numbers, 
usually in pairs, whereas it has already gathered together in flocks be- 
fore it arrives in autumn. I saw the first spring arrivals at Suwon 
20 April 1946. 



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141. Heteroscelus incanus brevipes (Vieillot) 

Totanus brevipes Vieillot, Nouv. Diet, Hist, Nat,, 6, 1816, p. 420. (Timor.) 
English : Asiatic Wandering Tattler. 
Japanese: Ki ashi shigi (yellow-legged snipe.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 31 Aug. 1917 (LiWM); Sept. (Kur); 4 Oct, 1929 (Yam). 
Hamgyong Namdo — 17 Aug. 1880 (G & S); 15 Sept, 1920 (SSC). 
Kyonggi Do — 27 Sept. 1887 (Tacz). 

Kyongsang Pukto — 11 Aug. 1880 (G & S). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 9 May 1886 (USNM). 

The Tattler is an uncommon transient on the east coast, and prac- 
tically unknown elsewhere in Korea. Aside from Taczanowski, who 
(1888, 457) says "a few in autumn," no other collector has ever found 
it on the western side of Korea. 



142. Arenaria interpres interpres (Linne) 

Tringa interpres Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 148. (Sweden.) 
English: Turnstone. 
Japanese: Kyojo shigi (city girl snipe.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 19 Aug. 1917 (LiWM); 19, 22 Sept. 1922 (Yam). 
Hamgyong Namdo — Sept (Kur). 
Kyonggi Do — undated (SSC). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 2 Aug. 1927 (Won). 

The Turnstone is a not uncommon transient, recorded only in its 
southward flight. Won (1934, 114) calls it common. The absence of 
spring records, and the paucity of autumn records as well, is doubtless 
due to the species' habit of staying on the outer beaches and offshore 
islands instead of coming into the paddies, where it could have been 
observed and collected more frequently. 



143. Capella solitaria japonica (Bonaparte) 

Spilura solitaria a japonica Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, 43, 
1856, p. 579. (Japan.) 

English: Eastern Solitary Snipe. 
Japanese: Ao shigi (green snipe.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 123 

Specimen records: 

Kyonggi Do — 25 Jan. 1911, 1 Dec. 1913, 15 Feb. 1914 (LiWM); 14 

Jan. 1921 (SSC); 20 Jan. 1928 (Taka); 10 Jan. 1929 
(Won). 

Chungchong Pukto — Nov. 1927 (Kur). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 18 Nov. 1884 (USNM). 

The Solitary Snipe is a rare transient, occurring only in late autumn, 
winter, or early spring. Kuroda (1917, 33) says "they may be found at 
Kwangnung, Kyonggi Do". Won (1934, 11) adds "they frequent the 
streams in the valleys." 

144. Capella stenura (Bonaparte) 

Scolopax stenura "Kuhl" Bonaparte, Ann. Stor. Nat. Bologna, 4, 1830, p. 335. 
(Sunda Islands.) 

English: Pintail Snipe. 

Japanese: Hario shigi (needle-tail snipe.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 19 Aug. 1917 (LiWM); 6 Aug. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 10, 11 May 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —22 Aug. 1933 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — 5 May 1917 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do —Aug., 8, 23 Sept. 1883 (USNM); Nov. 1887 (Tacz); 

Sept. 1909, 4 Oct. 1916 (LiWM); Apr. (Kur); 5 Apr. 1927 

(2) (Taka); 4 May 1928 (Won). 
Korea — June 1917 (Taka). 

The Pintail Snipe is a fairly common transient in Korea. Tacza- 
nowski (1888, 468) says it is "almost as common [as the Common 
Snipe] in autumn in the rice fields." Won (1934, 112) writes "common, 
passes through earlier than the Common Snipe. Migrates from mid- 
August, and has passed Anjiu [Pyongan Namdo] by mid-September." 

[Capella hardwickii (Gray) 

English: Latham's Snipe. 

Japanese: O-jishigi (large ground-snipe.) 

Yamashina's holograph list of the birds in the former Taka-Tsukasa collec- 
tion mentions two specimens of "O-jishigi" from Kyonggi Do taken 5 April 
1927. This list was prepared by Taka-Tsukasa's assistant, and the identifica- 
tion of the specimens, which can no longer be checked, is not certain. They were 



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overlooked by both the 1932 and 1942 Hand-Lists. There are no other 
Korean records for this species, which breeds only in northern Honshu and 
Hokkaido.] 

145. Capella megala (Swinhoe) 

Gallinago megala Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 363. (Peking, China.) 
English: Swinhoe's Snipe. 
Japanese: Chu ji-shigi (middle-sized ground-snipe.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 15 Aug. 1880 (G & S). 

Kyonggi Do —24 Aug. 1883 (USNM); 23 Apr. 1911 (LiWM); 1, 26 

Sept., 7 Oct. 1927 (Taka); 13 Apr. 1934 (MCZ). 

Swinhoe's Snipe is at best a rare transient in Korea. Were it not for 
its general distribution elsewhere nearby, it might be regarded as a 
straggler. In view of the specimen record, and the absence of any 
other comment in literature, Taczanowski's remark (1888, 459) that 
it is "rare in winter north of Wonsan" is difficult to interpret. 



146. Capella gallinago gallinago (Linne) 

Scolopax Gallinago Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 147. (Sweden.) 
English: Common Snipe. 
Japanese: Ta shigi (paddy snipe.) 



Hamgyong Pukto 
Pyongan Pukto 
Pyongan Namdo 
Hwanghae Do 
Kangwon Do 
Kyonggi Do 



Chungchong Namdo 
Cholla Namdo 



Specimen records: 

10-28 Sept. 1917 (6) (LiWM). 

12, 18 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

13 May 1917 (2) (LiWM); 17 Apr. 1931 (Won). 

15 Sept. 1932 (SSC). 

30 March, 24 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 

28 Sept, 1883, 9 May 1936 (USNM); Nov. 1887 (Tacz); 

Sept, 1909 (LiWM); 14 Mar., 6 Apr. (5), 25 Sept.- 

10 Oct, (5) 1927 (Taka); 1, 22 May 1928 (SoM); 5, 12 

May 1928, 5, 29 Apr. 1929 (Won); 28 Oct, 1929 (SSC); 

13 Apr. 1934 (AMNH). 

8 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 

23 Apr. 1931 (Uch). 



This Snipe is a common transient. Taczanowski (1888, 468) com- 
ments "very common in autumn in the rice fields, rare in spring, ab- 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 125 

sent in summer and winter." Campbell (1892, 246) notes it to be "al- 
ways much more plentiful on the east coast of Corea than on the west. 
In this my own observation is corroborated by the opinion of other 
European sportsmen." Won (1934, 111) calls it "abundant" and (1932, 
242) records a "not-unusual" hunter's bag of 55 "Ta shigi" shot 15 
October 1931. I encountered only one during my spring in Korea, a 
single bird which I flushed several times out of a swamp in the Kings' 
Forest near Suwon 8 April 1946. 



147. Scolopax rusticola rusticola Linne 

Scolopax rusticola Linn<§, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 146. (Sweden.) 
English : Woodcock. 
Japanese: Yama shigi (mountain snipe.) 



Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 9 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Kangwon Do — Apr. '(Kur). 

KyonggiDo —Apr. 1914 (LiWM); Dec. 1925 (Won); 9 Dec. 1945 

(MCZ). 
Chungchong Namdo — 9 Dec. 1914 (SSC). 
Cholla Namdo — 26 Oct. 1928 (Uch). 

The Woodcock is an uncommon early spring and late autumn tran- 
sient. Taczanowski (1888, 459) notes "a single one met with in 
autumn." W r on (1934, 111) says it is "rare, lives in the grass in the 
mountain forests." The single bird I collected 9 December 1945 I 
flushed from a small wooded brook at the edge of cultivated land in the 
hills of southern Kyonggi Do. 



148. Lymnocryptes minima (Briinnich) 

Scolopax minima Briinnich, Orn. Boreal., 1764, p. 49. (Christians 6.) 
English: Jack Snipe. 
Japanese: Ko-shigi (little snipe.) 

The Jacksnipe is a straggler to Korea, known there only from the 
single female specimen in the LiWong Museum, collected in Kyonggi 
Do 15 October 1916. 



126 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

149. Calidris canutus rogersi (Mathews) 

Canutus canutus rogersi Mathews, Bds. Austr., 3, 1913, pp. 270, 273, pi. 163. 
(Shanghai, China.) 

English : Eastern Knot. 

Japanese: Ko obashigi (small tail-feather snipe.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 3 Sept. 1912 (SSC). 
Hwanghae Do — 1 May 1917 (SSC). 
Kangwon Do — 30 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 
Cholla Namdo — 11 May 1931, 16 Aug. 1933 (Uch). 

The Knot is a rare transient visitor, though perhaps more plentiful 
on the unexplored outer beaches than the record indicates. 



150. Calidris tenuirostris (Horsfield) 

Totanus tenuirostris Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, pt. 1, 1821, p. 192. 
(Java.) 

English: Great Knot. 

Japanese: Oba shigi (tail-feather snipe.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 25 Aug. 1917 (LiWM); 19, 23 Sept, 1929 (Yam). 
Hwanghae Do — 3 May (Kur); 1912 (SSC). 

This species, like the preceding, is a rare transient visitor. 



151. Crocethia alba (Pallas) 

Trynga alba Pallas, in Vroeg's Cat., 1764, Adumbr., p. 7. (North Sea.) 
English: Sanderling. 
Japanese: Miyubi shigi (three-toed snipe.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 13 Sept, 1929 (Yam). 
Kangwon Do —24-30 Sept, 1914 (7) (LiWM). 

The Sanderling is an uncommon transient in Korea, known from the 
east coast only, where it should be more plentiful than the scant records 
suggest. 






AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 127 

152. Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (Linne) 

Platalea ■pygmea Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 140. (eastern Asia.) 
English: Spoon-billed Sandpiper. 
Japanese: Hera shigi (spatula snipe.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 10 Sept. 1921 (Kur). 

Kangwon Do — 24, 25 Sept. 1914 (LiWM); 21 Mar. 1916 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do — 7 Oct. 1917 (2) (Kur); 3 Feb. 1918 (Taka). 

Cholla Pukto — 2 Oct. 1917 (3) (Kur). 

Cholla Namdo — Mar. 1934 (4) (Kur). 

The Spoon-billed Sandpiper is an uncommon transient in Korea. 



153. Erolia ruficollis (Pallas) 

Trynga ruficollis Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 700. 
(southern Transbaikalia.) 
English: Little Stint. 
Japanese: Tonen (autochthonous, but also means "this year.") 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 20 Aug. 1912 (SSC); 19-25 Aug. 1917 (5) (LiWM); 

Sept. (Kur). 
Pyongan Pukto — 25 Apr., 13 May 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 13 May 1917 (3) (LiWM); 13 May 1919 (Taka). 
Kangwon Do — 17-25 Sept. 1914 (6) (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do —Nov. 1887 (4) (Tacz); 11 May, Sept. 1909 (LiWM); 19 

Apr. 1917 (Kur); 7, 18 Sept. 1927 (Taka); 18 Sept. 1927 

(SoM); 9 Oct. 1930 (Won). 

From the specimen record, the Little Stint is a not uncommon tran- 
sient. Won (1934, 111) however, calls it rare. 



154. Erolia minutilla subminuta (Middendorff) 

Tringa subminuta Middendorff, Reise Nord. und Ost. Siberien, 1, Th. 2, 1853, 
p. 222, pi. 19, f. 6. (Stanavoi Mountains.) 
English: Long-toed Stint. 
Japanese: Hibari shigi (lark snipe.) 



128 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 19-31 Aug. 1917 (5) (LiWM); Sept. (Kur). 
Pyongan Pukto —9, 19 May 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do - Sept, 1887 (Tacz); 10 Sept. 1919 (SSC); 10 May 1928, 16 

Oct, 1929 (SoM); 12, 28 May 1928 (Won). 

The Long-toed Stint is probably a not uncommon transient. Tac- 
zanowski (1888, 457) calls it "quite common during both migrations," 
and Won (1934, 111) considers it common. 

155. Erolia melanotos (Vieillot) 

Tringa melanotos Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist, Nat., 34, 1819, p. 462. (Paraguay.) 
English: Pectoral Sandpiper. 
Japanese: America uzura shigi (American quail snipe.) 

This Nearctic species is a straggler to Korea. Orii collected three 
in Hamgyong Pukto between 19 and 25 September 1929 "on migration 
with Siberian Pectoral Sandpipers," which Yamashina (1932, 249) 
identified. 

156. Erolia acuminata (Horsfield) 

Totanus acuminalus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, pt. 2, 1821, p. 192. 
(Java.) 

English: Siberian Pectoral Sandpiper. 
Japanese: Uzura shigi (quail snipe.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 19 Aug. 1917 (2) (LiWM). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 12 Sept. 1920 (SSC). 

Pyongan Pukto — 19, 25 May 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 13 May 1917 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do - May 1887 (Tacz); 11 May 1909, 21 May 1914 (LiWM); 

18-24 Apr. 1927 (6) (Taka); 10 May 1928 (SoM);20 

Sept. 1930 (Won). 

This species is probably a not uncommon transient. Taczanowski 
(1888, 457) says "two males killed at Inchon in May; they were the 
only ones encountered in the country." Won (1934, 111) calls it 
common. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 129 

157. Erolia alpina sakhalina (Vieillot) 

Scolopax sakhalina Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat,, 3, 1816, p. 359. (Russia = 
Island of Sakhalin.) 

English: Eastern Dunlin. 

Japanese: Hama shigi (sea-shore snipe.) 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 19, 25 Aug. 1917 (LiWM); 16, 19 Sept. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — Sept. 1920 (SSC). 

Pyongan Pukto — 3 May 1917 (Kur); 25 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 13 May 1917 (3) (LiWM); 13 May 1917 (Taka); 22 

Oct. 1932 (Won). 
Kangwon Do — 29 Oct. 1911, 29 Mar., 28, 30 Sept. 1914 (7) (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do —28 May, 7 Oct. (3) 1883 (USNM); Nov. 1887 (Tacz); 

Nov. 1909 (2), 17 Oct. 1911 (3), 18 Oct. 1914 (LiWM); 

24, 25 Apr., 10 Oct., 8 Nov. 1927 (Taka); 10 Nov. 1928, 

16 Oct. 1929; 25 Sept., 10 Oct. 1930 (Won); 14 Oct. 1929 

(3), Nov. 1930 (SoM). 
Cholla Namdo — 11-13 Apr. 1917 (10) (Kur); 3 Jan. 1930 (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 26 Oct. 1884 (USNM). 

The Dunlin is a common spring and autumn transient, perhaps the 
most abundant of the smaller sandpipers. A few winter in the southern 
provinces. 



158. Limicola falcinella sibirica Dresser 

Limicola sibirica Dresser, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1876, p. 674. (Siberia and 
China.) 

English: Eastern Broad-billed Sandpiper. 
Japanese: Kiriai (pair of gimlets.) 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 19 Aug. 1917 (2) (LiWM); Sept, (Kur); 6 Sept. 1920 
(SSC); 16 Sept. 1929 (Yam). 

This species is known in Korea only from the above records. Hence 
it can be regarded only as a rare transient in early autumn on the north- 
east coast. 



130 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

159. Philomachus pugnax (Linne) 

Tringa Pugnax Linn<5, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 148. (Sweden.) 
English: Ruff, Reeve. 
Japanese: Erimaki shigi (neck-cloth snipe.) 

The Ruff is a straggler to Korea, known only from the single speci- 
men taken 9 September 1913 at Sinpo, Hamgyong Namdo, and now in 
the Seoul Society of Natural History collection (cf. Kuroda, 1917, 30). 

RECUR VIROSTRIDAE 

160. Himantopus himantopus himantopus (Linne) 

Charadrius himantopus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 151. (southern 
Europe.) 

English: Black-winged Stilt. 
Japanese: Seitaka shigi (tall snipe.) 

The only record for this straggler in Korea is that of Mori's (1928, 
490). He identified and photographed a specimen in the collection of 
the Chinchon Common School, an adult male taken at Chinchon, 
Chungchong Pukto, in December 1925. 

161. Recurvirostra avosetta Linne 

Recurvirosira avosetta Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 151. (Italy.) 
English : Avocet. 
Japanese: Sorihashi seitaka shigi (bent-billed tall snipe.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 15 Oct, 1912 (2) (LiWM). 
Hwanghae Do — Oct. 1929 (SoM). 

Cholla Pukto — 4 Jan. 1914 (Kur). 

The Avocet is a straggler in Korea, known only from the above 
records. 

PHALAROPODIDAE 

162. Lobipes lobatus (Linne) 

Tringa lobata Linn£, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 148. (Hudson Bay.) 
English: Northern Phalarope. 
Japanese: Aka eri hire ashi shigi (red-necked fin-footed snipe.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 131 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 15-17 Sept. 1929 (5) (Yam). 
Korea — 1872 (Finsch). 

The Northern Phalarope is of casual occurrence in Korea. It is 
interesting that so rare a species should be one of the first of the birds 
reported from there, being one of the four species collected on islands 
off the coast in 1872 by Finsch. Until Orii collected the Hamgyong 
Pukto specimens, the only other mention of the species in literature 
was Kuroda's uncorroborated note (1917, 31) that it had been reported 
from Songjin, Hamgyong Pukto, in September. Being a pelagic bird, 
it may well be fairly common off the coast in migration, where nobody 
has ever collected or observed it. 



GLAREOLIDAE 

163. Glareola p'ratincola maldi varum Forster 

Glareola (Pratincola) Maldivarum J. R. Forster, Faunula Indica, ed. 2, 1795, 
p. 11. (near Maldive Islands.) 

The only record of this straggler in Korea is that of three specimens 
shot near Anju (Pyongan Namdo) 17 October 1931 by Won, who 
reported them twice (1932, 243) (1932, 3). 



LARIDAE 

164. Larus crassirostris Vieillot 

Larus crassirostris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 21, 1818, p. 508. (Naga- 
saki, Japan.) 

English: Black-tailed Gull. 
Japanese: Umi neko (sea cat.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 14 Aug. 1880 (G & S); 29 Aug. 1917 (2) (LiWM); Nov. 

(Kur). 
Hamgyong Namdo — 17 Aug. 1880 (G & S,); 26 Apr. 1917 (3) (Kur). 
Pyongan Pukto — 9 June, 1 July (7) 1917 (LiWM); 3 June 1918 (Taka); 

14 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 26 July 1932 (Won). 
Hwanghae Do — 15 May-21 June (5) (Kur). 

Kangwon Do — 23 Apr. (2), 23 Sept. (2) 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 15 Aug. 1915 (LiWM). 



132 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Black-tailed Gull is a common summer resident along the 
Korean coast. The following nesting data were sent Kuroda (1923, 311, 
312) by the lighthouse keeper at Nishi Island in Hwanghae Do, who 
collected for him two adults, three downy young, and six eggs between 
5 May and 21 June 1922. "The birds are very numerous during the 
nesting season, but are absent from September to March. They arrive 
at the rookery early in April, and lay their eggs from early May to 
early June. They nest in interstices between the rocks, and lay two to 
three eggs per clutch. The young leave the island the end of August." 

Yoshida (1923, 316) saw many at Yongampo Harbor in Pyongan 
Pukto 21 July 1923. It was reported to him by the inhabitants that 
"many thousands" breed at Sui-unto [perhaps Sin-to?], an island about 
seventeen miles from Yongampo, where the people go to collect the 
eggs for food. He was unable to visit the rookery to make certain of 
the species of gull which breeds there. 

Mori (1939, 9) reports the 'Umi neko' as formerly very common 
breeding on Yob-do, a solitary island off the west coast of Pyongan 
Pukto, but evidently somewhat south of Sin Island. Of this rookery, 
which is also famous as the breeding ground of the Chinese Egret, he 
says "Black-tailed Gulls are the most numerous of all the species. Up 
until a few years ago this island was covered with their eggs every 
breeding season. The village office sold the eggs, which were brought 
to Pyongyang by ship. The eggs sold well to the citizens, for they have 
a superstition that people who eat them on the Boys' Festival Day will 
not fall sick during the coming year." 

Mori adds (idem) that the Black -tailed Gull is also the most numer- 
ous of the species breeding on Ran Island, off the northeast coast of 
Hamgyong Pukto, where they "each lay two or three eggs, usually from 
the last of May to the beginning of June, making their nests of dry 
grass in the bushes on the west side of the island." 

165. Larus canus kamtschatschensis (Bonaparte) 

Gavina hinc Larus kamtschatschensis [sic] Bonaparte, Consp. Av. 2, 1857, p. 224. 
(In synonymy of Larus niveus Pallas, 1811, not Larus niveus Boddaert, 
1783.) 

English: Asiatic Common Gull. 

Japanese: Kamome (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — Nov. (Kur). 
Kangwon Do — 1 Dec. 1914 (SSC). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA loo 

Kyonggi Do — Oct, 1910, 15 Jan. 1911 (LiWM); 1 Nov. 1920 (SoM); 17 

Mar. 1946 (MCZ). 
Cholla Namdo — 19 Feb. 1930 (Yam). 

The Common Gull is a not uncommon winter resident along the 
coasts. I observed it most frequently at the heads of the inlets, where 
one could almost always see two or three at any time from January 
through March. 

166. Larus argentatus vegae Palmen 

Larus argentatus Briinn. var. Vegae Palmen, in Nordenskiold, Vega-Exped. 
Vetensk. Iakttag., 5, 1887, p. 370. (Northeastern Siberia.) 
English : Vega Herring Gull. 
Japanese: Seguro kamome (black-backed gull.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 16 Feb. 1888 (Tacz). 

Pyongan Pukto — 30 May, 5 June 1917 (LiWM); 10 June 1917 (SSC). 

Pyongan Namdo — 25 July 1932 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 30 Mar. 1914 (2) (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — Mar. 1911, 4 Oct. 1914 (LiWM); 19 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 

Cholla Namdo — 11 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 

The Herring Gull is a common winter resident in the southern half of 
Korea, and a common transient along the coasts in spring and autumn. 
I found it common at Inchon in November and December, noticeably 
scarcer in January and February, and again plentiful in March and 
April. 

167. Larus ridibundus sibiricus Buturlin 

Larus ridibundus sibiricus Buturlin, Orn. Mitt., 2, 1911, p. 66. (Kolyma 
Delta and Ussuriland.) 

English: Kamchatkan Black-headed Gull. 
Japanese: Yuri kamome (lily gull.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 15-27 Sept. 1929 (6) (Yam). 

Kyongsang Pukto — 23 Mar. 1916 (SSC); 25 Mar. 1927 (4) (Taka). 

This species is an uncommon transient on the eastern coast of Korea. 
While it winters commonly in Honshu, its breeding areas in eastern 



134 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Asia are poorly defined, and little is known of its migration. It should 
appear in eastern Korea with more regularity than the collecting record 
shows. 

168. Larus saundersi (Swinhoe) 

Chroicocephalus saundersi Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871, p. 273, pi. 22. 
(Amoy, China.) 

English: Saunders' Gull. 

Japanese: Tzuguro kamome (black-headed gull.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Namdo — 16 Feb. 1888 (Tacz). 
Pyongan Pukto — 14 May 1917 (SSC). 
Pyongan Namdo — 13 May 1917 (2) (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do — 18 Jan. 1928 (Taka). 

Cholla Namdo — 23 Feb. 1927 (Taka). 

Saunders' Gull is an uncommon, irregular visitor to Korea. It breeds 
on the fresh water lakes of Mongolia and northern China, and winters 
to the coast from Japan to Formosa. Hence it should be of more fre- 
quent occurrence in Korea. 

169. Chlidonias leucoptera (Temminck) 

Sterna leucoptera Temminck, Man. d'Orn., 1815, p. 483. (Mediterranean 

coast.) 
English: White-winged Black Tern. 

Japanese: Hajiro kurohara ajisashi (white-feathered, black-bellied 
tern.) 

The only Korean record for this straggler is that of Mori (1920, 252) 
who collected a male and two females at Suaseng, Kyonggi Do (north 
of Seoul) 24 May 1919. One of these was destroyed with the Kuroda 
collection, but the other two are still in the Seoul Society of Natural 
History collection. 

170. Sterna hirundo longipennis Nordmann 

Sterna longipennis Nordmann, in Erman's Verz. Thier. Pflanz., 1835, p. 17. 
(Mouth of the Kutchui River, Sea of Okhotsk.) 
English: Nordmann's Tern. 
Japanese: Ajisashi (mackerel stabber.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 135 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 25 Sept. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 12 Sept. 1912 (SSC). 

Pyongan Pukto — May 1927 (2) (SoM). 

Kyonggi Do - 11 Apr. 1913 (S£C); Apr. 1917 (Kur). 

Nordmann's Tern is apparently an uncommon spring and autumn 
transient. Won (1934, 115) calls it common. I did not see a single 
tern of any species during my stay in Korea. 

171. Sterna albifrons sinensis Gmelin 

Sterna sinensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 608. (China.) 
English : Asiatic Least Tern. 
Japanese: Ko-ajisashi (little mackerel-stabber.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Namdo — 21, 29 June 1931 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —May, June 1887-8 (8) (Tacz); 25 June 1883 (USNM); 

11 May 1909, 30 June 1913 (2), 5 July 1915 (LiWM); 

1 Apr. 1912 (SSC); 29 Apr. (3), 20 June 1927 (2) (Taka). 

The Least Tern is a not uncommon summer resident in coastal 
western Korea. Taczanowski (1888, 468) calls it "common in spring, 
rare in summer, gone in winter." Campbell (1892, 246) says "very 
common in the late spring and early summer." Kuroda (1917, 35) saw 
"a few" 29 April 1917 on the Taedong River [Pyongan Namdo]. Won 
(1934, 115) says it breeds in Pyongan Namdo, where it "lays four eggs 
on a sand bank." He sent Yamashina (unpublished ms.) a set of four 
eggs he collected there 21 June 1931. 

172. Thalasseus bergii cristatus (Stephens) 

Sterna cristata Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., 13, pt. 1, 1826, p. 146. (China.) 
English: Crested Tern. 
Japanese: O-ajisashi (large mackerel-stabber.) 

The Crested Tern is a straggler from the southward. The sole Kor- 
ean record is that of Kuroda (1918, 519) who says "I have a specimen 
. . . said to have come from an island about 72 miles north of Chemulpo, 
Keiki Distr., July 5, 1917" [probably one of the outer islands off south- 
ern Hwanghae Do, actually east-northeast of Inchon]. 



136 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

ALCIDAE 

173. Uria aalge inornata Salomonsen 

Uria aalge inornata Salomonsen, Ibis, 1932, p. 128. (St. Matthews Island, 
Bering Sea.) 

English : Bering Island Murre. 
Japanese: Umi garasu (sea crow.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 10 Mar. 1916 (SSC). 

Kangwon Do —30 Apr., 1 May 1914 (5) (LiWM); 28 Apr. (SSC); 1, 28 
Apr., 1 May 1914 (Kur); 8 Feb. 1915 (2) (Taka). 

This murre is resident on the eastern coast of Korea, and has bred 
on at least two islands there. How large these colonies are, and how far 
southward the birds move in winter are unknown. The specimens 
listed above from Kangwon Do were collected on the Kuk Islands, near 
Tongchon, in the northern part of the Province, whence presumably 
also came the six unlabelled eggs in the LiWong Museum. Mori 
(1939, 9) reports a large Colony at Ran Island, in northeastern Hamg- 
yong Pukto, where "several ten-thousands of Murres stay on the cliff 
on the east side, and numerous eggs are laid on the rocks with nothing 
of a nest. The color and marking of the eggs differ every one, none can 
be found alike. Usually the eggs are laid in the middle or last of June, 
each bird laying one egg." 



174. Cepphus carbo Pallas 

Cepphus Carbo Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, 1811, p. 350. (Kuriles.) 
English: Sooty Guillemot. 

Japanese: Keimafuri (autochthonous, but characters mean sea- 
dove.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 10 Mar. 1916, 10 May 1935 (SSC). 
Kangwon Do - 9 Apr.-l May 1914 (7) (LiWM); 28 Apr. 1914 (3) (Kur); 

28 Apr. (SSC); undated 1914 (Taka). 

The Sooty Guillemot is resident on the east coast, but very little is 
known of its abundance or its movements. The specimens listed above 
from Kangwon Do were collected on the Kuk Islands, in the northern 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 137 

part of the Province, where it probably breeds, though there is no posi- 
tive evidence to that effect. However, it does breed at Ran Island in 
northeastern Hamgyong Pukto, where Mori (1939, 9) reports it as the 
third most numerous species in the rookery, fewer in numbers than the 
Black-tailed Gulls and Bering Murres, but more numerous than the 
Ancient Murrelets and Temminck's Cormorants. Mori (idem) adds it 
''lays two eggs per clutch, usually about the middle of May." 

175. Brachyramphus marmoratus perdix (Pallas) 

Cepphus Perdix Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, 1811, p. 351, pi. 80. (Bering 
Sea and Sea of Okhotsk.) 

English: Partridge Auklet. 

Japanese: Madara umisuzume (spotted sea-sparrow.) 

Won (1934, 17) collected the one known Korean specimen of this 
straggler 13 June 1933, on the Taedon River, Pyongan Namdo. 

176. Synthliboramphus antiquus (Gmelin) 

Alca antiqua Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 554. (Bering Sea.) 
English: Ancient Murrelet. 
Japanese: Umi suzume (sea sparrow.) 

Specimen records: 

Hwanghae Do — 5 Mar. 1922 (Kur). 

Kangwon Do —24 Apr. 1914 (LiWM). 

Chungchong Namdo — 22 Feb. 1914 (SSC). 

Cholla Namdo — Dec. (SSC); 28 Apr., 18 Feb. (2), 13 Mar. 1931 (Uch); 

May 1932 (downy young) (Kur). 

The Ancient Murrelet is a summer resident on both east and west 
coasts, and winters on the south coast. Ishizawa (1933, 279) writes of 
its breeding in Cholla Namdo: "Shichihatsu is a small isolated isle 
composed of rocks with a thick growth of Car ex borgandi, a plant less 
than one meter high, and a few . . . small shrubs and nothing else. 
. . . This bird makes a slight hollow on the ground, lines it with a small 
quantity of dead grass and fallen leaves, and lays her eggs in it. ... 
One clutch contains two eggs . . . They lay in Korea from the middle 
of March to the middle of April . . . The second egg is laid from 2 to 12 
days after the first, a little less than six days apart on the average . . . 
The period of incubation is from 26 to 40 days, average 32 days, from 



138 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

17 examples. ... It is said the incubation is shared alternately by 
both male and female. Eggs are hatched on the same day or with the 
difference of one day; chicks are warmed for one or two days, leave the 
islet by night accompanying their parents and never return until the 
breeding season of the next year. Thus they all evacuate the islet by 
the end of May." There are two eggs in the Yamashina collection 
taken on Shichihatsu Island, Cholla Namdo, 24 March 1931. 

Kuroda (1923, 312) had two eggs and two adults taken at Nishi 
Island, Hwanghae Do, where it lays from mid-March to early April. 
He quotes the lighthouse keeper there: "These birds are more numerous 
at Chilbaldo Island, Cholla Namdo, where several hundred eggs may 
be collected in a day, but at Nishi Island there are only several hundred 
birds." He (the light-keeper) once made a feather bed from the Murre- 
lets at Chilbaldo. 

Mori (1939, 9) lists the Ancient Murrelet as between the Sooty 
Guillemot and the Cormorant in abundance on Ran Island in north- 
eastern Hamgyong Pukto, where it lays its two eggs late in April. 
Whether or not it nests at Kuk Island in Kangwon Do with the other 
alcids is not known, though it has been collected there. 



177. Synthliboramphus wumisuzume (Temminck) 

Uria wumisuzume Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 98, 1835, pi. 579. (Shores of 
Korea and to Japan.) 
English: Japanese Murrelet. 
Japanese: Kammuri umisuzume (crowned sea-sparrow.) 

This species, though endemic to Japan, is evidently only a straggler 
to Korea. Temminck's type material may have come from Tsushima. 
While the bird could be of more or less regular occurrence in winter off 
the south coast of Korea, the only record for the peninsula is that of 
Jouy (Clark, 1910), who collected two males in Kyongsang Namdo 
20 April 1884, now preserved in the U. S. National Museum. 



178. Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas) 

Alca monocerata Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 2, 1811, p. 362. (Cape St. Elias 
and Kodiak Island.) 

English: Hornbilled Puffin. 
Japanese: Utou (autochthonous.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 139 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 20 Apr., 10 May 1935 (SSC). 

Pyongan Pukto — 10 June 1917 (2) (LiWM); 10 June 1917 (SSC). 

Kangwon Do —30 Apr., 1 May 1914 (5) (LiWM); May 1916 (Taka); 

Apr. (Kur). 
Kyongsang Namdo — Jan. 1925 (Kur). 

The Hornbilled Puffin is a summer resident off the northeast and 
west coasts, but nothing is known of its abundance or its movements. 
There are several eggs in the LiWong collection, but they are without 
data, and as adults were collected for the museum on both coasts, there 
is no way of telling on which rookery they were taken. Mori (1939, 9) 
says it nests on Yob Island, near the Manchurian border in Pyongan 
Pukto, where it is more abundant than the Temminck's Cormorants, 
and less so than the Chinese Egrets. 



PTEROCLIDIDAE 

179. Syrrhaptes paradoxus (Pallas) 

Tetrao paradoxa Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 2, 1773, p. 712- 
(Southern part of the Tartarian Desert.) 

English: Pallas' Sand Grouse. 
Japanese: Sakei (sand-cock.) 

Pallas' Sand Grouse is a straggler which has occurred but once in 
Korea. Iizuka (1912, 103) reports the two specimens in the Seoul 
School Collection. They were shot "three ri [about seven miles] down 
the Han River from Seoul" by a local sportsman in March or April, 
1908, and were the only ones saved as specimens from a small flock of 
seven or eight, all of which were shot. 



COLUMBIDAE 

180. Columba livia rupestris Pallas 

Columba Oenas /3 rupestris Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 1, 181 1, p. 560. (Dauria.) 
Columba taczanowksii Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, 1893, p. 624. 
(southern Korea.) (synonym.) 

English: Blue Hill Pigeon. 

Japanese: Korai bato (pigeon of old Korea.) 



140 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 1-30 May 1912 (6) (AMNH); 14-29 Aug. 1917 (4) 

(LiWM); July (Kur). 
Hamgyong Namdo — Dec. 1912 (Kur). 
Pyongan Pukto - 1 June 1917 (SSC); 6, 7, 12 June 1917 (LiWM); 5 May 

1917 (Kur); 28 Dec. 1924 (SoM); 15, 18 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo -30 Apr. 1917 (4) (Kur); 28 Dec. 1924, 21 Oct, 1933 (Won). 
Hwanghae Do —24 Mar. 1914 (2) (LiWM); 5 Mar. 1927 (Taka). 
Kangwon Do — 26, 28 Sept. 1914 (3) (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do —Apr. 1887 (Tacz); 4 Jan. 1913 (LiWM); Feb. 1917 (2) 

(Taka); 5, 9 Mar. 1929, 28 Jan., 22 Mar. 1930 (Won); 

4 Mar. 1930 (SSC). 
Cholla Namdo — 11 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 
South Korea — 22 Nov. 1883 (USNM). 

This pigeon is a common summer resident; a few may winter occa- 
sionally. Taczanowski (1888, 467) calls it "resident and common, lives 
in large numbers in the palace grounds." Kuroda (1918, 521) says "I 
have found this bird most abundant on a cliff at the mouth of River 
Daidoko [Pyongan Namdo]". Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) saw it in Chung- 
chang Pukto 25 May 1931. Yamashina notes (1932) that a female 
killed by Orii in Pyongan Pukto 18 April 1929 had an egg in its oviduct 
with the shell all formed. There is a nest and eggs in the LrtYong col- 
lection labelled "Iwa Bato [rock dove], Kyonggi Do, 20 May 1910." 
I saw the first and only one of these birds I encountered on 2 May 1946 
the day before I left Korea. 

181. Streptopelia orientalis orientalis (Latham) 

Columba orientalis Latham, Index Orn., 2, 1790, p. 606. (China.) 
English: Eastern Turtle Dove. 
Japanese: Kiji bato (pheasant dove.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 27 Sept, 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto — 7, 19 June 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Namdo — 18 June, 12 Nov. 1932 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — 23 Dec. 1916 (SSC). 

Kangwon Do — 26 Sept, 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do - 14, 15 June, 6, 26 Aug. 1883, Dec. 1935 (USNM); Dec. 

1887 (Tacz); 6 Aug., 29 Nov. 1909 (LiWM); 19-22 Apr. 

1917 (5) (Kur); 9, 11, 15 Dec, 5 Mar. 1928, 2 Nov., 

25 Dec. 1929 (Won); 3, 14 Oct. 1933 (Uch); 25 Nov. 

1945, 26 Feb., 26 Mar. 1946 (MCZ). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 141 

Cholla Namdo — Jan. (Kur); 17 Oct. 1925, 20 Mar. 1931 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 25 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

The Turtle Dove is a common permanent resident in the Seoul- 
Suwon area. About seventy-five of them wintered in the vicinity of the 
Suwon Experiment Station. They foraged daily in the orchards and 
mulberry fields, and roosted at night in the tops of a stand of young pine 
on the grounds of the Forestry School. I first heard their courtship song 
during a mild spell 10 February, but by the end of that month court- 
ship was being pursued earnestly. On 10 March I found a nest with 
two eggs in a small pine next to one of our laboratory buildings. The 
eggs hatched 1 April, and the squabs disappeared three weeks later 
(not, I believe, of their own volition.) Kobayashi (1932) reports find- 
ing a nest with two eggs in Hwanghae Do 24 March 1931; Won sent 
Yamashina (unpublished ms.) a nest and two eggs he collected in 
Pyongan Namdo 28 May 1934. The species probably rears two broods 
each year. 

182. Streptopelia decaocto stoliczkae (Hume) 

Turtur stoliczkae Hume, Stray Feathers, 2, 1874, p. 519. (Kashgar.) 
Streptopelia decaocto koreensis Buturlin, Polnyi opredelitel' ptits S.S.S.R., 1934, 
1, p. 226 (nom. nov. for S. d. torquata Bogdanov, Turkestan, partim.) 

English: Eastern Ring Dove. 

Japanese: Shira kobato (white small dove.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —Aug. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — Aug. (Kur). 

Pyongan Pukto — 24 May, 19 June (2) 1917 (LiWM). 

Hwanghae Do — 20 Feb. 1916 (3) (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 17 June, 21, 23 Sept, 1883 (USNM); Nov., Dec. 1887, 

May 1888 (4) (Tacz); Feb. 1910 (LiWM); 1 Feb. 1918 
(Kur); 1 Dec. 1927, 18 Jan. 1928 (2) (Taka). 

Kyongsang Pukto —27 Mar. 1918 (SSC). 

The Ring Dove is evidently an uncommon resident of local dis- 
tribution, formerly more abundant than it is today. Taczanowski 
(1888, 467) found it "resident and common" in his time, but Won 
(1934, 109) never collected it, and calls it rare. There is a nest and eggs 
in the Li Wong Museum from Kyonggi Do, 23 May 1910. 



142 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

183. Streptopelia tranquebarica humilis (Temminck) 

Columba humilis Temminck, PL Col., livr. 44, 1824, pi. 259. (Bengal and 
Luzon.) 

English : Burmese Red Turtle Dove. 
Japanese: Beni bato (red dove.) 

This species is a straggler, collected but once, in Myongchon, Hamg- 
yong Pukto, March, 1928 (see Mori, 1929, 105). 



CUCULIDAE 

184. CUCULUS FUG AX HYPER YTHRUS Gould 

Cuculus hyperythrus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1856, p. 96. (China, ie 
Shanghai.) 

English: Chinese Hawk-cuckoo. 

Japanese: Juichi (imitative of voice, but means eleven.) 

Specimen records : 

Pyongan Pukto — Sept. 1915, 27 July 1917 (SSC); 26 May 1917 (5) (LiWM); 

no date (Kur); 27 May, June 1917 (Taka); 21, 25 May 1929 

(5) (Yam). 
Cholla Namdo — 29 Sept, 1928 (Uch). 

This cuckoo seems to be a not uncommon migrant in spring in the 
northwest corner of Pyongan Pukto. It is significant that a fair series 
has been taken on two separate occasions in the same area at the same 
time of year. The species apparently migrates along the coast of the 
mainland, and goes directly northward or northeastward along the 
Korea-Manchuria boundary instead of spreading down into the 
Korean peninsula. 

Yamashina (1941, 607) comments "it is not yet certain that they 
breed in Korea, but according to the collection dates, there is no doubt 
they do so." This conclusion seems a bit far-fetched, however, and the 
1942 Hand-List Committee was not convinced of its breeding. 



185. Cuculus micropterus micro pterus Gould 

Cuculus micropterus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1837, p. 137. (Himalyas). 
English: Indian Cuckoo. 
Japanese: Seguro kakko (black-backed cuckoo.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 143 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 24 May 1917 (SSC); 31 May 1917 (LiWM); 31 May 1917 
(Kur); 24 May 1929 (Yam). 

This species is an uncommon migrant in northwestern Korea. Its 
status is practically identical with that of the previous species, except 
that, from the record, it is perhaps slightly less plentiful. 



186. Cuculus canorus telephonus Heine 

Cuculus telephonus Heine, Journ. f. Orn., 11, 1863, p. 352. (Japan.) 
English: Japanese Cuckoo. 
Japanese: Kakko (autochthonous, from the voice.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 28 Sept. 1917 (3) (LiWM). 

Pyongan Namdo — 22 Apr. 1936 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do -Nov. 1887 (Tacz); 27 June 1888 (Camp); June, 1909, 

14, 20 June, 7 July 1914 (4) (LiWM); 10 June 1914 
(SSC); 12 May 1926 (SoM); 15 June 1926 (Won); 1, 4, 
29 Sept, 1927, 29 Apr. 1930 (Taka). 

Cholla Namdo — 21 Aug. 1930 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 23 May 1886 (USNM). 

The Cuckoo is a not uncommon summer resident. Taczanowski 
(1888, 466) notes "Common in summer. Our voyageur constantly 
heard the song of the male like that of the European cuckoo, and never 
that of Cuculus indicus." Campbell (1892, 243) writes of observing 
it "as late as the beginning of September." Won (1934, 98) says it is 
common and breeds. Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) observed it in Chungchong 
Pukto 25 May 1931. That Orii did not collect it does not speak well 
of its abundance, but Yamashina (1941, 580) says "they breed in 
Korea," in which the 1942 Hand-List concurs. There is no evidence, 
however, of the breeding of this parasitic species in Korea other than 
the dates of the specimens collected. 



187. Cuculus saturatus horsfieldi Moore 

Cuculus horsfieldi Moore, in Moore and Horsfield, Cat. Bds. Mus. Hon. East- 
India Co., 2, 1856-58 (1857), p. 703. (Java.) 
English: Himalayan Cuckoo. 
Japanese: Tsutsudori (pipe or tube bird.) 



144 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 28 Sept. 1917 (2) (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto —26, 31 May 1917 (3) (LiWM); 27 May 1917 (Kur); 

8 May-1 June 1929 (10) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo —24 May 1932, 13 June 1933 (Won). 
Kangwon Do — 8 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do —9 June 1909 (2), 10 Oct, 1914, 27 June 1915, 17 Oct. 1917 

(LiWM); 10 June 1914 (SSC); 15 May 1924 (SoM); 10 

June 1926 (Won); 1 Sept. 1927, 20 Sept. 1929 (im.) 

(Taka);9May 1934 (Uch). 
Cholla Namdo — 17, 29 Sept. 1931, 17 Aug. 1933 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 25 Sept. 1885, 30 Apr. 1886 (USNM). 

The Himalayan Cuckoo is a common spring and autumn transient, 
passing through Korea in late spring and early autumn, and probably 
a summer resident. Won (1934, 98) calls it common and breeding. 
Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) observed it in Chungchong Pukto 25 May 1931. 
Yamashina (1941, 591) also says it nests in Korea, but inasmuch as 
the only breeding evidence is the immature specimens formerly in 
the Taka-Tsukasa collection, the 1942 Hand-List does not consider 
that status warranted. 



188. Cuculus poliocephalus poliocephalus Latham 

Cuculus poliocephalus Latham, Index Orn., 1, 1790, p. 214. (India.) 
English: Little Cuckoo. 
Japanese: Hototoguisu (autochthonous, probably imitative.) 



Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 26 May 1917 (LiWM); 24 May 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo —  Aug. 1916 (Kur). 

Kyonggi Do — 12 Aug. 1926 (Won); 12 Aug. 1929 (SoM). 

Cholla Namdo — 24 Oct. 1912, 21 Aug. 1930 (Uch). 

The Little Cuckoo is a rare spring transient, perhaps a rare summer 
resident. Won (1934, 98) says it is "rare, breeds deep in the moun- 
tains." Yamashina (1941, 697) also ventures that "a few breed in 
Korea," in spite of the lack of evidence. The 1942 Hand-List just gives 
it as occurring in Korea, which is about all that can be said about it 
until more positive data are collected. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 145 

STRIGIDAE 

189. Otus scops stictonotus (Sharpe) 

Scops stictonotus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 2, 1875, p. 54, pi. 3, f. 2. (China.) 
English : Chinese Scops Owl. 
Japanese: Chosen konoha zuku (Korean tree-leaf owl.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 28 Aug., 5 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — Sept. (Kur); 28 Apr.-12 May 1929 (5) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 1 Nov. 1936 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —27 Oct. 1887 (Tacz); 23 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 3 May 1917 

(LiWM); May 1925 (SoM); 10 Dec. 1927 (Taka); 7 May 
1928, 26 Apr. 1929 (Won); 9 May 1934 (Uch). 

This owl is a not uncommon transient in spring and autumn, and 
perhaps a summer resident in the northern provinces. There is an 
early record of "an unusually dark-colored specimen" mentioned by 
Tristram (1885, 194) collected off the coast by Lt. Gunn in 1884. 
Won (1937, 4) calls it a common year-round resident and states that 
it breeds in mid-June at Anju, Pyongan Namdo, laying two white 
eggs in a hollow tree. Not yet collected in central and southern Korea 
in summer, but if they breed in Korea, it must be this subspecies. 
They pass through Hamgyong Pukto and Pyongan Pukto abundantly 
in spring and autumn. A few winter at Seoul and Kyongsang Namdo." 
There is a nest and eggs in the LiWong collection that might be at- 
tributable to this species. It is without locality, presumably Kyonggi 
Do, labelled "Kahi zuku, 23 May 1910." 

190. Otus asio ussuriensis (Buturlin) 

Scops semitorques ussuriensis Buturlin, Orn. Mitt., 1, 1910, p. 119. (Khanka 
Lake, Ussuriland.) 

English: Feather-toed Scops Owl. 

Japanese: O-konoha zuku (large tree-leaf owl.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto - 6 Nov. 1915 (SSC); 15-27 Oct. 1929 (17) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo —26 Nov. 1932, 17 Jan. 1934 (Won); 5 Feb. 1935, Jan. 

1936 (Taka). 
Hwanghae Do — 19 Jan. 1919, 20 Dec. 1926 (Taka). 



146 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Kyonggi Do — Feb. 1888 (Tacz); Jan. 1889 (Camp); Feb., Mar., May 

1909, 30 Oct. 1910 (LiWM); 2 Mar. 1919, 10 Dec. 1927 
(Taka); Sept. 1925 (SoM); 1 Nov. 1935 (Uch); 28 Dec. 
1934, Jan. 1937, 25 Feb., 24 Dec. 1939, 27 Dec. 1945, 1, 
29 Mar. 1946 (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo —Apr. 1915 (Taka); 8 Feb. 1930 (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 20 Mar., 3, 10 May 1884 (USNM); 18 Jan. 1912, 27 

Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

This species is a common spring and autumn transient throughout 
Korea, and a not uncommon winter resident in the central and southern 
portions. Yamashina (1941, 632) and Won (1934, 94) both say it 
breeds in Korea, but the 1942 Hand-List disagrees. Indeed, the evi- 
dence suggests that it breeds north of the Korean peninsula, for Orii's 
experience in collecting so large a series in Hamgyong Pukto in so 
short a time can be interpreted as nothing but a mass migratory move- 
ment he encountered there. 

Gumming (1933, 47) writes "One may often see the poor dried shell 
of this little owl swaying in the breeze and dust in front of a Korean 
street shop. It makes good medicine for various ills." 



191. Bubo bubo tenuipes Clark 

Bubo tenuipes Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 470. (Fusan, Korea.) 
English: Clark's Eagle Owl. 
Japanese: Washi mimizuku (eagle eared-owl.) 



Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — Nov. 1915 (LiWM). 

Hwanghae Do -8 Dec. 1926 (Taka); May 1936 (USNM). 

Kangwon Do —3 Oct, 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do - 4 Nov. 1887 (Tacz); Jan. 1889 (Camp); Feb., Nov. 1909 

(LiWM); 20 Mar. 1913, 25 Jan. 1929 (SSC); Nov. 1916, 
Apr. 1917, 30 Dec. 1921 (Kur); Nov. 1926 (SoM); 12 
Nov. 1927, 10 Feb. 1928 (Taka); 11 Jan. 1932, 1 Jan. 
1935, 6 June (2), 10, 16 Dec. 1937, 30 Apr. 1938, 27 
Dec. 1946 (MCZ). 

Chungchong Pukto — 25 Feb. 1911 (LiWM); 2 Feb. 1919 (Taka). 

Cholla Namdo — 12 Jan., 12 Feb. 1930 (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 17 Dec. 1883, 20 Feb. 1884 (USNM); 19 Dec. 1914 

(LiWM); 19 Jan. 1919 (Taka). 









AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 147 

The Eagle Owl is a not uncommon resident in Korea. Taczanowski 
(1888, 461) says "resident, quite common; one sees it hunting its prey 
a-wing." Campbell (1892, 243) writes "common in Corea, and many 
specimens have passed through my hands." Kuroda (1918, 524) pur- 
chased a downy young Eagle Owl collected near Seoul in April 1917. 
Kobayashi (1938, 203) lists two eggs from Kyonggi Do, noting "the 
bird nested on the ground under a cliff, and the bed for the eggs was 
lined with rabbit hair. In a Cholla Namdo example the eggs were laid 
on the ledge of a rock facing the river." Adachi (1941, 66) says it nests 
on cliffs at Paekto San. The bird I collected at Suwon 27 December 
1945 was, with dignity and unconcern, undergoing a furious mobbing 
by crows and magpies in the scant woods near the Forestry College, 
immediately after the first heavy snowfall of the season. 



192. Nyctea scandiaca (Linne) 

Strix scandiaca Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 92. (Lapland.) 
English: Snowy Owl. 
Japanese: Shirofukuro (white owl.) 

The Snowy Owl is a rare winter straggler to Korea, known there 
from one sight record and one specimen. The species was first reported 
by Taczanowski (1888, 459) as seen near Wonsan, Hamgyong Namdo, 
late in February 1888, by his collector, Kalinowski, who most cer- 
tainly could not have mistaken anything else for a Snowy Owl. The 
only other record is the specimen in the Seoul School Collection, taken 
at Yesan, Chungchong Namdo, in December 1912. 



193. Surnia ulula ULULA (Linne) 

Strix Ulula Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 93. (Sweden.) 
English: Hawk Owl. 
Japanese: Onaga fukuro (long-tailed owl.) 

The only Korean record of this straggler is a specimen collected by 
the Kyoto University Expedition in Hamgyong Namdo, 13 January 
1935 (Mori, 1935, 11). It was "killed in daylight, hunting shrews, two 
of which were in its stomach." 



148 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

194. Ninox scutulata (Raffles) 

Strix scutulata Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, pt. 2, 1822, p. 280. 

(Sumatra.) 
Ninox scutulata ussuriensis Buturlin, Orn. Mitt., 1, 1910, p. 187. (Ussuri and 
Korea.) 

English: Brown Hawk-owl. 
Japanese: Aobazuku (green-leaf owl.) 

Specimen records: 
Ninox scutulata ussuriensis: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 16 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 8-21 May 1929 (3) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 6 Jan. 1931 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do — 3 Dec. 1927 (Taka); 25 Jan. 1929 (Kur). 

Ninox scutulata scutulata: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 19, 21 Sept. (Kur). 

Pyongan Pukto — 26 May, 3 June 1917 (LiWM); Sept. (Kur). 

Pyongan Namdo —Oct. 1934 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —24 Aug., 18 Sept. (2), 21 Sept. (3) 1883 (USNM); 

May 1888 (Tacz); May 1889 (Camp); 8 June 1909 

(2), 12 June 1913 (2), 12 July 1914 (LiWM); July 

1917 (Kur); 20 May 1927, 30, 31 Apr. 1930 (Taka); 

10 Sept. 1917, 10 May 1926 (SSC); June 1928 (SoM); 

25 Apr. 1929 (Won); 14 July 1937, 24-28 Apr. 1946 

(4) (MCZ). 
Cholla Namdo — 2 Dec. 1927, 28 Sept. 1928 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 3-31 May 1884 (5), 29 Sept. 1885 (13), 30 Apr. 1886 

(USNM). 

N. s. ussuriensis is a common spring and autumn transient in the 
northern provinces, and a winter visitor as far south as Kyonggi Do. 
N. s. scutulata is a common migrant and a not uncommon summer resi- 
dent in the central and southern provinces. On migration the bird 
moves diurnally through the forest lands, and is not overly shy. 
Jouy, from his collecting data, evidently encountered several migra- 
tions in Kyonggi Do and Kyongsang Namdo. I experienced one at 
Suwon in late April, during which I collected four specimens. 

195. Athene noctua plumipes Swinhoe 

Athene -plumipes Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, p. 448. (Chihli, 
n.e. China.) 

English: Eastern Little Owl. 

Japanese: Ko kinme fukuro (little golden-eyed owl.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 149 

From the record this species is a straggler, but further investigation 
may show it to be of fairly regular occurrence as a winter visitor. Won 
(1932, 1) shot a male and female at Anju, Pyongan Namdo, 11 and 16 
November, 1931, which he sent to Kuroda for identification, and the 
latter (1932, 192) also published a description of the same specimens. 
Won (1932, 13) took a third specimen, a male, in the same locality 
27 February 1932, which was destroyed with the Kuroda collection. 
So far as can be determined, Won had no other data on the species 
than the three specimens he collected, but in a later paper (1934, 99) 
he says the species is rare, but breeds in Korea. Kuroda (idem) says 
"rare in Korea, but a permanent resident surely by the date of the 
specimen," which is as unwarranted by the evidence as Won's breed- 
ing statement. 

196. Strix aluco ma (Clark) 

Syrnium ma Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 471. (Fusan, Korea.) 
English: Korean Wood Owl. 
Japanese: Mori fukuro (owl of the woods.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Namdo — 29 May 1931 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 19 Dec. 1912 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — Mar. 1888 (2) (Tacz); June 1909, Feb. 1911 (LiWM); 

1912 (SSC); 23 Apr. (2), May 1917, Jan. 1925 (Kur); 

25 Nov. 1930 (Won); 24 Dec. 1936, 13 May (2 downy 

young), 20 Dec. 1937, 29 Jan., 25 Feb. 1939, 20 Apr. 

1946 (MCZ). 
Kyongsang Namdo — Mar. 1885 (USNM). 

The Wood Owl is an uncommon resident. Taczanowski (1888, 462) 
says it is "resident and rare." Kuroda (1918, 525) collected an adult 
female and a white downy young in Kyonggi Do 23 April 1917. The 
two M.C.Z. specimens taken 13 May 1937 in Kyonggi Do are half- 
grown downy young, collected by the students at Chosen Christian 
College. I shot my single specimen in the forest south of Suwon. 



197. Strix uralensis coreensis Momiyama 

Syrnium uralense japonicum Clark, Proc. U.S.Nat.Mus. ,32, 1907, p. 471. (Hok- 
kaido.) (preoccupied by Slrix hirsuta japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 
1847.) 



150 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Strix uralensis coreensis Momiyama, Journ. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc, no 4, 10 
Jan. 1927, p. 1. (Taianzan, Hamgyong Pukto.) Type formerly in Kuroda 
collection. 
Strix uralensis morii Momiyama, Bull. B.O.C., 48, 3 Nov. 1927, p. 21. (near 
Seoul, Kyonggi Do.) Type in Momiyama collection. (Synonym.) 
English: Yezo Ural Owl. 
Japanese: Yezo fukuro (Yezo owl.) 

The few Korean specimens available are inseparable from the breed- 
ing form of Hokkaido. Though Momiyama's two races are both in- 
valid, evidently based on slight individual variants, his name coreensis 
is the next one available to replace Clark's preoccupied japonicum. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 29 May 1912 (AMNH); Jan. 1920 (Kur) (Type of 

coreensis.) 
Pyongan Namdo — no data (Mom). 
Kyonggi Do — 5 Mar. 1927 (Mom) (type of morii); 3 Apr. 1928 (Taka). 

The Ural Owl is a rare visitor to Korea. Though Won (1934, 99) 
says it breeds there, there is no proof. Won never collected the species. 



198. Asio otus otus (Linne) 

Strix Otus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 92. (Sweden.) 
English: Long-eared Owl. 
Japanese: Torafu zuku (tiger-striped owl.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto - 6 Nov. 1915 (SSC); 19-22 Oct. 1929 (4) (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 4 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 3 Jan. 1927 (Taka). 

Kangwon Do — 21 Sept. 1926 (Taka). 

Kyonggi Do —26 Mar. 1918 (SSC); Jan. 1927 (Kur); 15 Sept. 1926 

(Taka); 28 Jan. 1930 (SoM). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 5, 13 Dec. 1883 (USNM); 24 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

The Long-eared Owl is a not uncommon winter visitor. Won's 
statement (1934, 198) that it breeds in Korea is unsupported by the 
evidence. Yamashina's summation (1941, 672) says it "may be 
found in Korea in autumn, winter and spring, but it is not known 
to breed there." 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 151 

199. Asio plammeus flammeus (Pontoppidan) 

Strix flammea Pontoppidan, Danske Atlas, 1, 1763, p. 617, pi. 25. (Sweden.) 
English: Short-eared Owl. 
Japanese: Ko miraizuku (small eared owl.) 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — Nov. (Kur). 

Pyongan Pukto — 27 Sept. 1915 (SSC); 14 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — Dec. 1912 (LiWM). 

KyonggiDo -29 Jan. 1888 (2) (Tacz); 24 Mar. 1910, Jan. 1911, 15 

Dec. 1912 (LiWM); Jan. 1927 (Kur); 8 Nov., 10 Dec. 

1927, 10, 21 Jan. 1928, 15 Apr. 1930 (Taka); 14 Feb. 1930 

(SoM); 14 Nov. 1930 (Won); 4 Dec. 1934, 1, 28 Jan. 

1946 (MCZ). 

The Short-eared Owl is a not uncommon winter visitor. Taczanow- 
ski (1888, 457) says "one usually sees a few during the winter." I en- 
countered a pair at dawn on 1 January 1947, coursing over the paddies, 
and collected both of them. I shot a single bird at dusk on the 28th. 
I also saw the species several times during February, usually flying 
over the orchard in the late afternoon or early morning. 



CAPRIMULGIDAE 



200. Caprimulgus indicus jotaka Temminck and Schlegel 

Caprimulgus jotaka Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Fauna Jap., Aves, 
1847, p. 37, pi. 12, 13. (Japan.) 

English: Japanese Goatsucker. 
Japanese: Yotaka (night hawk.) 



Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 26, 26 May 1917 (LiWM); 10 June 1917 (SSC); 12-21 

May 1929 (3) (Yam). 
KyonggiDo —May 1888 (Tacz); Sept, (Kur); 2 June 1928 (SoM); 

10 June 1928 (Taka); 28 May 1928, 4 June 1929 (Won); 

9 May 1934 (Uch). 
Cholla Namdo — 2 May 1927 (2) (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 28 Apr. 1884 (USNM). 



152 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Japanese Goatsucker is an uncommon summer resident in Korea. 
Tristram (1885, 194) lists a "dark colored specimen" taken in 1884 by 
Lt. Gunn somewhere along the coast. Taczanowski (1888, 462) calls it 
"rare in summer." Yoshida (1922) gives a sight record for Hwanghae 
Do in mid-July and Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) another for Chungchong 
Pukto 25 May 1931. Hashimoto (1937) observed three goatsuckers at 
Hachibi Island, Kyonggi Do, 9 May and again on 18 September 1934. 
Gumming (1935, 95) writes "not common in Korea." On the other 
hand Won (1934, 95) says it is common and breeds. While Yamashina 
(1933, 451) thinks it must "surely breed in Korea," the 1942 Hand- 
List more conservatively lists it only as occurring. 



APODIDAE 

201. Hirund-apus caudacutus caudacutus (Latham) 

Hirundo caudacuta Latham, Index Orn., Suppl., 1801, p. lvii. (New South 
Wales.) 
English: Needle-tailed Swift. 
Japanese: Hario amatsubame (needle-tailed rain-swallow.) 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —9 Sept. 1917 (2) (LiWM); 29 July 1929 (4) (Yam); 30 

Aug. 1929 (Won). 
Pyongan Pukto — 16 May 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 1 Oct. 1932 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 15, 26 Sept. 1914 (LiWM); Sept. 1917 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do — 26 Sept. 1883 (USNM); 8 Oct. 1934 (SoM). 

Kyongsang Pukto — 21 Nov. 1927 (Kur). 
Cholla Namdo — no date, 1930 (Uch). 

The Needle-tailed Swift is an uncommon migrant throughout Korea. 
It is perhaps a more common migrant and an uncommon summer resi- 
dent in the extreme north. Taczanowski (1888, 459) found it "rare 
during migration." Won (1934, 95) says it is rare at Anjiu, Pyongan 
Namdo, but that a few breed at Musan, Hamgyong Pukto. Yama- 
shina (1933, 443) says it "breeds in the mountains" (on the basis of 
Orii's field notes), in which the 1942 Hand-List concurs. Nevertheless 
the only breeding evidence is Orii's July collecting date. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 



202. Apus pacificus pacificus (Latham) 



153 



Hirundo pacifica Latham, Index Orn., Suppl., 1801, p. lviii. (New South 
Wales, terra tyjrica = Vladivostok.) 

English: Large White-rumped Swift. 
Japanese: Ama tsubame (rain swallow.) 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 28 Aug. 1917 (3) (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto — 3, 4, 9 June 1917 (5) (LiWM); 29 May 1929 (Yam); 

4 June 1917 (Taka). 
Pyongan Namdo — no date 1931 (SoM); 4 July 1932 (Won). 
Hwanghae Do — 15 May — 21 June 1922 (3) (Kur). 

Kangwon Do — 3 July 1929 (7) (Yam). 

Cholla Namdo — 14 May 1930 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 2 May 1886 (USNM). 

The White-rumped Swift is a locally common summer resident. 
Kuroda (1918, 526) observed it on the Daidoko River in Pyongan 
Namdo 29 April 1917, and Yoshida (1923, 316) gives sight records for 
Hwanghae Do and Pyongan Pukto in mid-July. Won (1934, 95) calls 
it common in Pyongan Namdo, and says it nests there in an old castle 
near Anju. 

The species is known definitely to breed in Korea only on off-shore 
islands in the sea-bird rookeries. Mori (1939, 7) says it lays from three 
to five eggs from the last of May to the beginning of June on Ran 
Island, near the Manchurian border in Hamgyong Pukto. Kuroda 
(1923, 309) quotes the light-keeper at Nishi Island in Hwanghae Do, 
who sent him two adults, a nest with eggs and a nestling, all collected 
on that island between 15 May and 21 June 1922: "The swifts arrive 
from the last of March to the middle and last of May. They lay eggs 
from the last of May to the last of June in small, swallow-like nests in 
the interstices of the rocks." Kobayashi (1938, 184) states "they 
usually lay two eggs in Honshu and Korea." 

Hachimoto (1932) notes their arrival at Shichihatsu Island in 
Cholla Namdo 28 March 1930, 28 March 1931 and 4 April 1932. They 
began incubating there 25 May 1931, and the young left the nest 27 
July. He says most of them depart before October, but he records one 
late straggler 1 November 1930. At Hachibi Island in Kyonggi Do he 
first observed them 9 April 1935, and saw the last of them 22 Sept. 
1935, but in 1936 he watched a flight of 200 swifts go by 7 October. 



154 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Cumming (1933, 41) writes "In Korea it is found in the high moun- 
tains or on the rocky islands along the coast but may be seen in swift 
flight over the valleys at rare intervals during the summer, more often 
in late afternoon than at any other hour of the day. Out on the hills 
near Wonsan on a late summer day I watched a flock of from sixty to 
seventy of these swifts first in flight around and across the tops of the 
hills and then in a whirling circling mass rising rapidly until they could 
barely be seen far up in the sky. ..." 



ALCEDINIDAE 

203. Ceryle lugubris lugubris (Temminck) 

Alcedo lugubris Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 92, 1834, pi. 528. (Japan.) 
English: Japanese Pied Kingfisher. 
Japanese: Yama semi (mountain kingfisher.) 



Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Namdo — 1 Dec. 1886 (Tacz). 

Kangwon Do — Feb. 1917 (LiWM); Apr., (Kur). 

Kyonggi Do — Nov. 1909, 2 Jan. 1910 (LiWM); undated (Kur). 

Kyongsang Pukto — no date, 1912 (SSC). 

This species is an uncommon winter visitor, straggling irregularly 
from Japan. Taczanowski (1888, 463) says Kalinowski met it "only 
in winter near Wonsan ; there were four along a stream, all were shot 
and wounded, but only one recovered; after that it was never seen." 
Cumming (1933, 43) writes "In Korea . . . nowhere common. One 
may hear this kingfisher often as he flies far overhead or lower through 
the cover of hillside woods, passing from one streamside feeding place 
to another. The call is so loud and raucous that one knows of the bird's 
presence though it is not seen." 



204. Alcedo atthis bengalensis Gmelin 

Alcedo bengalensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 1, 1788, p. 450. (Bengal.) 
English : Common Indian Kingfisher. 
Japanese: Kawa semi (river kingfisher.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 155 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 15, 24 Aug., 1 Oct. 1917 (LiWM). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 16 Aug. 1880 (4) (G & S); 27 July 1886 (USNM). 

Pyongan Pukto — 19 June 1918 (LiWM); 22 Apr.-22 May 1929 (4) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 4 Sept. 1912 (Taka); 17 Apr. 1932 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 3 Aug. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 28 May, 31 July, 21 Aug., 10 Sept. 1883 (USNM); Apr., 

May, July 1887 (Tacz); June, July 1909, 20 June 1915, 
28 May 1916 (LiWM); 20 Sept. 1917 (SSC); 2 Apr. 
1917, 5 Oct., 18 Nov. 1927 (Taka); 9 Sept. 1929, 10 
Sept., 20 Oct. 1930 (Won); 2 Oct. 1929 (SoM); 30 Mar.- 
1 May 1946 (7) (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo — 11 Nov. 1925, 29 Apr. 1932 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 15 Apr., 25 May, 2 June, 15, 26 Sept. 1886 (USNM). 

This little Kingfisher is a common summer resident. As Cumming 
says, (1933, 44) it "may be seen along the watercourses and the sea- 
shore all over Korea; usually solitary, but sometimes two or three 
within calling distance of each other on some rock or piece of drift- 
wood ..." The first one arrived over the lake at Suwon 29 March 
1946, and I collected it the next day. The next one appeared a week 
later, and more straggled in continually from then on. By mid-April 
it was common on all the lakes and streams. 

Kuroda (1918, 523) had seven eggs "taken from two nests at Ojuri, 
near Seoul, June 2, 1917." There is a nest and eggs in the Li Wong 
Museum labelled "Ruri shobin, 27 May," no locality. Y. Kuroda and 
Miyakoda (1919, 150) give its season near Seoul as from mid-April to 
late October, and add that it breeds in stream banks. 

205. HalcyOxN coromanda major (Temminck and Schlegel) 

Alcedo (Halcyon) coromanda major Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's 
Fauna Jap., Aves, 1848, p. 75, pi. 39. (Japan.) 

p]nglish: Japanese Ruddy Kingfisher. 
Japanese: Aka shobin (red kingfisher.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 20 July 1917 (Taka). 

Kangwon Do — 9 July 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —28 Aug. 1887 (Tacz); July 1909, 30 May 1914, 20 June 

1915 (2) (LiWM); 10 June 1914, 30 Aug. 1931 (SSC); 6 

May 1926 (2) (SoM). 
Kyongsang Pukto — 12 June 1917 (Kur). 
Cholla Namdo — 26 May 1931 (Uch). 



156 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

This species is an uncommon summer resident. Of the August speci- 
men Kalinowski collected, Taczanowski remarks (1888, 450) "the 
only one seen in two and a half years in the country." However, Won 
(1934, 96) calls it common, and Cumming (1933, 5) considers it as a 
permanent resident, indicating that a few may winter in the southern 
end of the peninsula, despite the absence of specimen records. He adds 
(1933, 45) "it is both a shy and solitary bird in general habits, even 
with its bright plumage difficult to find in the deep foliage of the trees 
along some mountain stream where it feeds." The only breeding evi- 
dence beyond the hearsay of all writers and the summer collecting 
dates is a set of eggs with nest in the LiWong collection labelled 
"Shobin, Kyonggi Do, 5 June 1910." 



206. Halcyon pileata (Boddaert) 

Alcedo pileata Boddaert, Table PI. enlum., 1783, p. 41. (China.) 
English: Black-capped Kingfisher. 
Japanese: Yama shobin (mountain kingfisher.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Namdo — 13 June 1933 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do -June, July 1887 (3) (Taoz); 10 June, July 1909 (4) 

(LiWM); 23 May 1912 (SSC); 1 June 1925 (SoM); 

9 Oct. 1930 (Won). 
Cholla Pukto — 7 June 1933 (Won). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 25 May 1884 (USNM). 

The Black-capped Kingfisher is an uncommon summer resident. 
Won (1934, 96) calls it rare. Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919, 149) 
list it for Seoul from mid-May to mid-September, noting "usually 
found in woods of deciduous trees near a marsh or stream; nests near 
Seoul in Kangon Valley." Cumming says (1933, 44) these birds "are 
often caught during the nesting season in their deep tunnels at the end 
of which the nest is placed. This one is reported as nesting in colonies 
in high banks." Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) observed it in Chungchong Pukto 
25 May 1931. Taczanowski (1888, 462) says "quite common in sum- 
mer, nests and leaves for winter." He describes in detail the nests and 
eggs found in a hole in a vertical bank, but gives neither locality nor 
date. Kuroda (1918, 523) purchased two eggs "collected at Seiryori, 
near Seoul, June 6, 1917". Yamashina has two eggs Won collected for 
him at Anju, Pyongan Namdo, 5 June 1932. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 157 

CORACIIDAE 

207. EURYSTOMUS ORIENTALIS ABUNDUS Ripley 

Eurystomtis orientalis abundus Ripley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 56, 1942, p. 170. 
(Nom. nov. for E. calonyx Sharpe, Nanking, China.) 
English: Broad-billed Roller. 

Japanese: Bupposo (autochthonous, also means a Buddhist 
priest.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 26 May 1917 (3) (LiWM); 12-20 May 1929 (5) (Yam). 

Hwanghae Do — no date 1919 (SoM). 

Kyonggi Do — June, July 1887 (Tacz); 8, 12 June 1909 (6) (LiWM); July 
1917 (Kur); 25 May 1912, 25 May 1929 (SSC); May 1926 
(SoM); 10, 11, 11 July, 6 Sept. 1927 (Taka); 30 Apr. 1930 
(Won). 

Cholla Namdo —22 Oct. 1928 (Uch). 

The Roller is a not uncommon summer resident. Cumming (1933, 
42) says "Not common in Korea, but easily recognized when seen be- 
cause of its bright colors, its harsh call notes, and its peculiar habit of 
falling or 'rolling' in flight." Yamashina (1933, 468) estimates it as 
common, while Won (1934, 95) says it is rare. 

There is a nest and eggs in the LiWong Museum collected in Kyonggi 
Do 2 July 1916. Y. Kuroda (1918, 19) mentions nestlings brought into 
the Seoul market for sale along with young orioles. Nishioka (1932, 
198) writes "found in Korea in mid-June. I suppose it breeds near 
Seoul, for I saw Koreans selling young birds in the streets of Seoul.' 
Kobayashi (1938, 187) says "In Cholla Namdo many of them use old 
magpie nests." 



UPUPIDAE 

208. Upupa epops saturata Lonnberg 

Upupa epops saturata Lonnberg, Ark. Zool., 5, 1909 (9), p. 29. (Kjachta, 
southern Transbaicalia.) 
English : Tibetan Hoopoe. 

Japanese: Yatsu gashira (derivation unclear, but yatsu means 
eight-headed.) 



158 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 25 Apr. 1918 (Taka). 

Pyongan Pukto — 12 June 1912 (AMN); 26 May, 19 June 1917 (LiWM); 

Apr. (Kur); 27 May 1917 (SSC); 3 Apr .-30 May 1929 

(5) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — June 1931, 28 Apr. 1932, 5 June 1933 (Won); June 1934 

(SSC). 
Kangwon Do — 5 Apr. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do —30 June 1887 (Tacz); June 1888 (Camp); 8, 12 June 

1909 (3) (LiWM); Mar. 1917 (Kur); Apr. 1931 (SoM); 

Oct. 1931 (Won). 
Cholla Namdo — 14 Mar. 1926, 1 Apr. 1931 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — Oct. 1912 (Kur). 

The Hoopoe is a not uncommon transient throughout Korea, more 
plentiful in spring than in autumn, and a summer resident in the north- 
ern provinces. Taczanowski (1888, 454) says "the hoopoe is rare in 
Korea, but it nests there and leaves in the winter." Won (1934, 95) 
considers it common. Bergman (1938, 155) writes "Very characteris- 
tic of these parts [Riuganpo in Pyongan Pukto] also are the tufted 
hoopoes, which have their nests in hollow trees in the pine woods, and 
which you constantly hear uttering their peculiar cry 'up-up-up'." 
Hashimoto (1931, 1932) observed it at Shichihatsu Lighthouse in 
Cholla Namdo 2 October 1930, 1 April 1931, 15 March and 15 April 
1932. He also (1937) records it from Hachibi Island in Kyonggi Do 
5 and 27 April 1934. I saw a single Hoopoe on 1 April 1946, feeding on 
the ground near my nets in the orchard at Suwon, but it was exceed- 
ingly wild, and though I chased it over an hour, I could not get close 
enough to collect it. 

Adachi (1941, 65) took three young from a nest in a hollow tree in 
Hamgyong Pukto 12 July 1940. In the Yamashina collection is a 
clutch of five eggs which Won collected in Pyongan Namdo 9 May 
1938. 



PICIDAE 

209. Picus canus jessoensis Stejneger 

Picus canus jessoensis Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, 1886, p. 106. 
(Hokkaido.) 

Picus canus perpallidus Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 9, 1886, p. 107, foot- 
note. (Sidemi, Ussuri, eastern Siberia.) (synonym?) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 159 

Gcciniis canus griseuviridis Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 473. 
(Seoul, Korea.) (synonym.) 

English: Green Woodpecker. 

Japanese: Yama gera (mountain woodpecker.) 

The Green Woodpeckers of Korea are very doubtfully subspecifi- 
cally distinct from those of Hokkaido and of eastern Siberia. While I 
have an excellent series of twenty Korean specimens, I have insufficient 
material from Japan to allow a definite conclusion. The one Hokkaido 
specimen in the M.C.Z. is a decidedly lighter, yellower-green bird than 
any in my Korean series, which may be a seasonal, or age, if not an 
individual variation, and my Korean series shows much variation 
within itself. Yamashina is the only systematist who has had an ade- 
quate series from both localities for comparison, and he writes (1941, 
500) "I think the Korean birds belong to jessoensis." Greenway (1940, 
553) notes that the Korean series are darker and "purer green" than 
our inadequate Japanese material, but agrees with Hartert and Stein- 
bacher, as well as the Japanese in synonymizing griseoviridis. All 
woodpeckers show considerable individual color variation, and in the 
present case all measurements overlap. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto - 7 Sept. 1917 (2) (LiWM); 1-10 Aug. (5 juv.), 3-11 Sept. 

(3) 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 10, 26 Apr. 1884 (USNM). 

Pyongan Pukto — 15 Dec. 1929 (Won). 

Pyongan Namdo — 15 Sept. 1931, 4 June, 7 Sept, 1932 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 19 Sept, 1914 (LiWM); 9, 10 July 1929 (1 ad. 3 juv.) 

(Yam). 

Kyonggi Do - 18-20 Sept. (6), 2 Oct. 1883 (USNM); Dec, Jan. 1888 

(Camp); 30 Oct,-15 Dec. 1909-1914 (10) (LiWM); 22 
Apr. 1917 (4), 27 Jan. 1918 (2) (Kur); 3 Feb. 1918 (4), 
20 Oct., 10 Dec. (4) 1927 (Taka); 10 June 1914, 14 Dec. 
1929 (SSC); Aug. 1926 (SoM); 9, 19 Nov. 1928, 5 Mar. 
1929 (Won); 5 Mar .-21 Apr. 1928 (3), Feb., 15 Mar. (5) 
1934, 21 Nov., 8 Dec. 1936, Jan. 1937 (3), 6-20 Apr. 
1946 (6) (MCZ). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 26 Apr. 1884 (USNM); 18 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

This woodpecker is a common transient in the wooded areas of the 
southern half of Korea, and a few occasionally winter. The only sum- 
mer records are for the mountain regions of Hamgyong Pukto and 
Kangwon Do where it doubtless breeds, as evidenced by the juve- 



100 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

nals Orii collected. Gumming calls it (1933, 45) "well distributed over 
Korea but not very common anywhere. Usually seen in the deep 
woods but occasionally comes among the trees as open as those around 
the mission compounds." 

I saw one near Seoul 30 November 1945, and did not observe the 
species again until the spring flight appeared in the forests near Suwon 
the first of the following April. It was common there from then until 
I left in May. It acts much like a Flicker, and usually feeds on or near 
the ground, but chooses high exposed perches on dead tree-tops as 
vantage points from which to shout its distinctive spring call-note. 

210. Dendrocopos major japonicus (Seebohm) 

Picus japonicus Seebohm, Ibis, 1883, p. 24. (Hokkaido.) 

Dryobates major hondoensis Kuroda, Auk, 38, 1921, p. 577. (Shinano, central 

Honshu.) (Synonym?) 
Dryobates major seoulensis Kuroda and Mori, Auk, 39, 1922, p. 364. (Seoul, 
Korea.) (Synonym.) 

English: Pied Woodpecker. 
Japanese: Akagera (red woodpecker.) 

Yamashina (1941, 510) and the 1942 Hand-List divide the Korean 
population of Pied Woodpeckers into two races, 1 japonicus breeding 
in Hamgyong Pukto and wintering to central Korea, and hondoensis 
occupying the area from Kyonggi Do and Kangwon Do southward as 
the breeding form. They consider seoulensis a synonym of japonicus. 
Yamashina (idem and 1932, 239) refers Orii's two July and two Novem- 
ber birds, from Kangwon Do as well as his wintering specimens from 
Cholla Namdo, to hondoensis. But that the species breeds from "Seoul 
to Moppo" as the Hand-List claims in delineating the breeding range 
of hondoensis, is yet to be demonstrated. My series of 18 Kyonggi Do 
birds, all taken between December and late April, shows much in- 
dividual variation, and is inseparable from the few Honshu specimens 
at hand. All are intermediate in belly coloring as a series between 
tscherskii, the white-bellied northeastern Siberian form, and cabanisi, 
the brown-bellied Chinese race. While I have seen no specimens of 
typical japonicus from Hokkaido, I feel there is little justification for 
recognizing more than one intermediate form in the straight inter- 

' Both follow Kuroda and Mori (1922, 365) in referring a single Seoul specimen taken 30 
December 1931 to D. to. brevirostris (Reich.), the well-marked central Siberian form, on the 
basis of longer wing, heavier bill and absence of white spots on the inner secondaries. While 
I have not seen the specimen, I consider this practice unwarranted in so individually variable a 
species. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 161 

gradation between the northern and southern races. Judging from the 
Korean material, the split between japonicus and hondoensis is very 
fine indeed, and it is questionable that any of the specimens (with the 
exception of Yamashina's July Hamgyong Pukto and Kangwon Do 
birds) can be considered as breeding in the locality where collected. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 21, 25 Sept. 1917 (LiWM); 24 July-2 Sept. (5 ad., 2 

juv.), 24 Oct.-17 Nov. (3) 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 16 June, 1 Nov. 1932 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — 20 Mar. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kangwon Do — 8, 11 Sept. 1914 (LiWM); 15 Sept. 1920, Nov. 1927, 21 

Dec. 1929 (SSC); 6, 9 July, 25, 28 Nov. 1929 (Yam); 22 
Feb. 1935 (MCZ). 

Kyonggi Do — 16 Aug.-14 Oct. 1883 (10), 18 Apr. 1930, 15 Dec. 1931 

(USNM); Feb. 1888 (2) (Tacz); Feb. 1910 (3), 29 
Oct.-13 Jan. 1916 (9) (LiWM); 22 Apr. 1917 (4) (Kur) 
(type of seoulensis); 30 Dec. 1921 (Mori); 18 Jan. 1919, 
20 Oct.-16 Dec. 1927 (7) (Taka); 24 Sept. 1929, 30 
Nov. 1926 (SoM); Feb., Mar., Dec. 1934 (5), 9 Dec. 
1936 (3), 5 Dec. 1945, 13 Jan. 8, 12, 27 Feb., 6 Apr. 
1946 (11) (MCZ). 

Chungchong Namdo — 13 Dec. 1917 (2) (Kur). 

Cholla Namdo — 28 Feb. 1930 (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo —28 Sept. 1885 (USNM). 

The Pied Woodpecker is a common resident in the wooded areas of 
Korea. From Kyonggi Do southward it winters not uncommonly, and 
is at times almost abundant on migration. I found it the only common 
woodpecker in winter in the Seoul-Suwon area. I encountered it in the 
thin, scrubby, man-swept woodland patches as well as in the heavier 
forests. There was a marked increase in the population from mid- 
March through April. 

It is doubtful if the species breeds in the southern provinces. The 
birds which winter from Kyonggi Do southward are more likely to 
move northward into the wooded mountainous areas to nest. There 
is a nest and eggs in the LiWong collection dated 23 May 1910 but 
without locality. Kuroda (1917, suppl.) says "this bird breeds certainly 
at Kwang Nung [Kyonggi Do]." Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) observed it in 
Chungchong Pukto 25 May 1936. There is no other information 
available on its breeding in Korea, other than the juvenals collected 
by Orii in Hamgyong Pukto and Kangwon Do. 



162 



bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 



211. Dendrocopos minor amurensis (Buturlin) 

Xylocopus minor amurensis Buturlin, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. 

Petersb., 13, 1908, p. 243. (Amur.) 
Dryobates minor nojidoensis Yamashina, Tori, 6, no. 29, 1930, p. 254. (Nojido, 
Paekto-San, Hamgyong Pukto, Korea.) (Synonym.) 

English : Amur Lesser Spotted Woodpecker. 
Japanese: Ko-akagera (small red woodpecker.) 

I have examined the male and three females in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, and find them inseparable from a series of 
16 Amur and Ussuri specimens in the Rothschild collection, all of 
which are darker and smaller than eight northern Siberian specimens. 
The white patch of the upper back varies individually, not geographic- 
ally. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto - 12, 24, 29, 31 May 1912 (AMNH); 30 July-1 Sept. 1929 

(11) (Yam); 31 July, 1, 7 Aug. 1929 (Won). 
Hamgyong Namdo — 11 Jan. 1935 (Kyoto Univ. Coll.) 

The Lesser Spotted Woodpecker is a locally common resident, con- 
fined in Korea to the high northeastern plateau. 



212. Dendrocopos canicapillus doerriesi (Hargitt) 

Iyngi-picus doerriesi Hargitt, Ibis, 1881, p. 398. (Askold Island.) 
English: Manchurian Pygmy Woodpecker. 
Japanese: Amuru seguru kogera (Amur black-backed little wood- 
pecker.) 



Hamgyong Pukto 
Pyongan Namdo 
Kangwon Do 
Kyonggi Do 



Cholla Pukto 
Cholla Namdo 
Kyongsang Namdo 



Specimen records: 

25 Sept. 1917 (LiWM); 26 July, 16, 28 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

17 Oct, 1935 (Won). 

19 Sept. 1914 (3) (LiWM); 9 July 1929 (2) (Yam). 

June, Aug., Sept., 30 Oct, 1883 (9) (USNM); Dec, 

Feb. 1887 (Tacz); Dec, Jan. 1888-9 (3) (Camp); 30 

Oct. 1910, 20 Nov., 25 Dec. 1911 (LiWM); 21 Nov. 

1910, 23 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 10 Apr. 1917, 19 Nov. 1926, 

5 Apr., 1 Sept, 1927 (Taka); 23 Dec. 1929 (USNM); 21 

Jan., 1, 4, 5 Mar. 1929, 18 Oct., 17 Nov. 1930 (Won); 

Jan. 1916, 17 Oct. 1930, 31 Jan., Dec. 1934, 18-26 Apr. 

(7) 1946 (MCZ). 

13 Aug. 1927 (Won). 

24 Feb. 1930 (Yam). 

10 Aug. 1927 (Won). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 163 

This woodpecker is a not uncommon summer resident; a few winter 
in the central and southern provinces. I encountered it only in the 
heavy forest just south of Suwon, where it first appeared 6 April 1946, 
and by the end of the month had become fairly common. While all 
authorities consider that it breeds in Korea, and it doubtless does so 
judging from the collecting dates, there are no confirmatory data. 



213. Dendrocopos kizuki (Temminck) 

Yungipicus kizuki nippon Kuroda, Ibis, 1922, p. 88. (Suruga, Honshu.) 
Yungipicus kizuki siragiensis Momiyama, Journ. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc, 1927, 

no. 4, p. 2. (Koryo, Kyonggi Do, Korea.) (synonym of nippon.) 
Dryobales kizuki acutirostris Yamashina, Tori, 7 (32), 1931, p. 111. (Kongosan, 
Kangwon Do, Korea.) 

English: White-backed Pygmy Woodpecker. 
Japanese: Ko-gera (little woodpecker.) 

This plastic species varies exceedingly throughout its range, which 
suggests its populations must be static in their movements, and ex- 
tremely local in their distribution. The bird of western and southern 
Korea is indistinguishable from that of Honshu, and Momiyama's 
■siragiensis has thus been discarded by all subsequent authors. The 
bird of eastern Korea, however, is unique in its long, thin bill, but 
Yamashina (1941, 548) is hardly justified in extending the range of 
acutirostris into the Ussurian region without specimen verification. 

Specimen records: 

Dendrocopos kizuki acutirostris: 

Kangwon Do — 14 Sept. 1914 (LiWM); 13 June-4 July 1929 (9) (Yam); 
8 Aug. 1930 (Won). 
Dendrocopos kizuki nippon: 

Kyonggi Do — 5 July, 14 Oct. 1883 (USNM); 8 Feb., 25 Oct. 1914 

(LiWM); 22, 23 Apr. 1917, 23 Sept. 1923 (2), 26 
Feb. 1926 (Kur); 21 Apr. 1946 (MCZ). 
Chungchong Namdo — 16 Dec. 1917 (SSC). 
Cholla Namdo — 24, 27 Feb. 1930 (Yam). 

The Pygmy Woodpecker is an uncommon resident in the central and 
southern portions of Korea. Taczanowski (1888, 467) calls it "the 
commonest of the woodpeckers," which no one since his day has found 
it to be. Even Won (1934, 97) calls it rare. Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) gives 
a sight record from Chungchong Pukto 25 May 1931, which is possibly 



164 



bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 



referable to Dendrocopos canicapillus. I saw only one Pygmy Wood- 
pecker in Korea, a single female in very worn plumage which I col- 
lected in the forest south of Suwon 21 April, during a marked flight 
of other woodpeckers, in which Dendrocopos canicapillus was the most 
abundant species. 

214. Dendropopos leucotos (Bechstein.) 

Picus uralensis Malherbe, Monogr. Picidees, 1, 1861, p. 92; 3, pi. 23, figs. 4 & 5. 

(Ural Mountains.) 
Dendrocopus leuconotus sinicus Buturlin, Mitt. Kaukas. Mus., 3 (1), 1907, p. 61. 

(April, 1907, Peking, China.) 
Dryobates leucotos coreensis Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 472. 
(June 15, 1907, Fusan, Korea.) (synonym of sinicus.) 
English: White-backed Woodpecker. 
Japanese: O-akagera (large red woodpecker.) 

The M.C.Z. and A.M.N.H. specimens from Hamgyong Pukto and 
the three M.C.Z. wintering birds from Kyonggi Do I find inseparable 
from a large series of uralensis from Amurland and Ussuri. The 1942 
Hand-List follows Yamashina (1933, 518; 1941, 523) in assigning all 
Korean specimens except those from Hamgyong Pukto to sinicus. 
These races are not well-marked, and the dividing line between their 
breeding ranges is unsure. Though little is known of their seasonal 
movements, certainly more of the wintering birds from the central 
provinces should be referable to the northern race. 

Specimen records : 

Dendrocopos leucotos uralensis: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 14 Apr.-21 May 1912 (4) (AMNH); 25-27 Sept. 1917 

(7) (LiWM); 24 July-22 Aug. (12), 3-17 Nov. (3) 1929 
(Yam); 1 Aug. 1926 (Kur); 5 Aug. 1929 (2) (MCZ); 1, 

5 Aug. 1929 (Won). 

— 27 Jan., 22 Feb. 1935, 9 Dec. 1936 (MCZ). 

Dendrocopos leucotos sinicus: 

Pyongan Namdo — 11, 17 Oct. 1931, 7 Oct. 1935 (Won); Jan. 1936 (Taka). 

— 20 Mar. 1914 (LiWM). 
— 19 Oct. 1912, 15 Sept. 1914 (LiWM); 6-16 July 1929 

(4) (Yam). 

— Dec, Feb. 1887 (Tacz); 16 Feb. 1910 (2), 15 Dec. 1912 
(LiWM); May, Oct. 1916 (Kur); Mar. 1916, 26 Nov. 
1926, 13 Feb. 1928 (Taka); 5 Nov., 9 Dec. 1929 (Won). 

Chungchong Namdo — 12 Dec. 1917 (SSC). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 30 Sept., 3 Oct. 1885 (5) (USNM); 25 Jan. 1918 (Kur); 

6 Aug. 1927 (Won). 



Kyonggi Do 



Hwanghae Do 
Kangwon Do 

Kyonggi Do 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 165 

The White-backed Woodpecker is an uncommon resident, limited to 
the forested areas. Taczanowski (1888, 466) found it "resident and 
rare." Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) gives a sight record for Chungchong 
Pukto 25 May 1931. The breeding populations probably move slightly 
southward in winter. Orii collected Juvenal birds in Hamgyong Pukto, 
but there is no evidence of the species' breeding elsewhere in Korea 
other than the few summer collecting dates of adults. 

215. Dendrocopos hyperythrus subrufinus (Cabanis and Heine) 

Xylurgus subrufinus Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Heineanum, 4, 1863, Heft 2, 
p. 50. (North China.) 
English: Rufous-bellied Woodpecker. 
Japanese: Chabara akagera (brown-bellied red woodpecker.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 12 May-3 June 1929 (3) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 6 Sept. 1933 (Won). 
Kyonggi Do — 18 Oct. 1919 (Taka). 

This continental species is a rare transient in northern Korea, per- 
haps a rare summer resident in the northwest mountains. Yamashina 
(1929, 169) comments on the three adults Orii collected near Paekto 
San that "the collector said the bird seems to breed near the collecting 
locality." Won (1934, 97) considers it "very rare" but claims it 
breeds. 

216. Picoides tridactylus kurodai Yamashina 

Picoides tridactylus kurodai Yamashina, Tori, 6, 1930, p. 255. (Paekto San, 
Hamgyong Pukto, Korea.) 
English: Korean Three-toed Woodpecker. 
Japanese: Chosen miyubi gera (Korean three-toed woodpecker.) 

I have compared the single specimen in the American Museum of 
Natural History with a series of Amurland birds in the Rothschild 
collection. It agrees with Yamashina's description, for it is decidedly 
darker, with less white above, and with heavier black stripes on the 
sides. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —10 May 1912 (AMNH); 1 Aug. 1926 (juv) (Won); 19 

Aug.-2 Sept. 1929 (5) (Yam). 
Hamgyong Namdo — 1 Feb. 1931 (Won); 11 Jan. 1935 (3) (Kyoto Univ.). 



166 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

This very dark race is a rare resident in the northeastern highlands 
of Hamgyong Pukto. That it breeds there is attested by the juvenal 
bird Won collected (cf. Kuroda and Mori, 1927). It evidently moves 
but a short way southward in winter, and tends to be resident through- 
out its range. 

217. Dryocopus martius martius (Linne) 

Picus martius Linnd, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 112. (Sweden.) 
Dryoscopus [sicj martius morii Kuroda, Auk, 38, 1921, p. 575. (Gunpojo, 
Kyonggi Do, Korea.) (synonym.) 

English: Great Black Woodpecker. 
Japanese: Kuina gera (bear woodpecker.) 

Kuroda (1921, 575) had a series of five males on which he based his 
description of morii, separating it from silvifragus Riley of Sakhalin 
and Hokkaido on the basis of a heavier bill. When they were able to 
examine more adequate material, the Japanese relegated both these 
races to synonymy under martius. 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto —17-30 May 1912 (4) (AMNH); 24 July-19 Aug. 1929 

(10) (Yam); 26, 29, 30, 31 July 1929 (Won); 13 Aug. 
1929 (SoM). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 25 Mar. 1914 (LiWM); 3 Nov. 1931 (SSC). 

Pyongan Namdo — 15 Nov. 1932, 26 Mar. 1934 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — Jan (Kur); 10 Nov. 1913 (SSC). 

Kangwon Do — 30 Jan. 1935 (MCZ). 

Kyonggi Do —20 Nov. 1909, Dec. 1910, 13 Feb. 1911 (LiWM); Nov. 

1913 (Kur); Nov. 1916, 21 Jan. 1928 (Taka); Sept. 1927 
(SoM); 21 Dec. 1929 (Won); Feb. 1934 (2) (MCZ). 

This species is a rare resident in what little heavy forest is left in 
Korea, and is becoming constantly rarer as the forests continue to dis- 
appear. From the collecting data, it probably breeds in the heavy, 
high altitude forests of Hamgyong Pukto, and moves southward to 
central Korea in winter. Won (1934, 97) claims it is common, and 
that it breeds in Hamgyong Pukto. Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) gives a 
sight record for Chungchong Pukto 25 May 1931. The 1942 Hand- 
List also assumes it breeds in Korea, but Yamashina (1941, 561) sums 
up the evidence, "no nests have been found in the Japanese Empire 
except in Sakhalin." 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 167 

218. Dryocopus richardsi Tristram 

Dryocopus richardsi Tristram, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1879, p. 386, p. 31. 

(Tsushima.) 
Thriponax kalinowskii Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1887, p. 607. 
(Seoul and Songdo, Kyonggi Do, Korea.) (type in AMNH.) (synonym.) 
English: Tristram's Woodpecker. 
Japanese: Kitataki (tree knocker.) 

Specimen records: 

Hwanghae Do — Jan. (Kur). 

Kyonggi Do -28 Feb., June 1887 (Tacz); Feb. 1889 (Camp); 8, 12 

June, Dec. (2) 1909, 24 Oct. 1912, 8 Feb. 1914 (LiWM); 

Jan., May, Dec. 1924 (Kur); 8 Dec. 1927, 23, 26 Jan. 

1928, 20 Jan. 1929 (Taka); Oct. 1934, no data (2) (SoM); 

9 Dec. 1929, 21 Oct. 1930 (Won); 4 Oct. 1912, 23 Feb. 

1936 (SSC); 7 June 1930 (USNM); 13 Jan. 1937 (2), 

Dec. 1938 (MCZ). 
Chungchong Pukto — 4 Dec. 1918 (Taka). 
Kyongsang Namdo — Nov. 1912 (Kur); Apr. 1912 (MCZ). 

This woodpecker is a rare resident in the heaviest forests of central 
and southern Korea, now facing extinction with the needless and ruth- 
less wasting of the little tree cover still remaining in that over-popu- 
lated land. Taczanowski's only comment other than systematic 
(1888, 467) was that the species was rare. Campbell, however, (1892, 
242) bought a specimen in Seoul market and wrote "I observed this 
bird on two occasions on some hills to the southeast of Seoul at an 
elevation of 1600 feet. It is by no means rare. My failure to procure 
more than one example was due to ill luck rather than to want of op- 
portunity." It is noteworthy that the bird has never been taken in the 
northern mountains, and even Won (1934, 97) collected it only at 
Kaesong and Pyongsan in Kyonggi Do, and notes it is "rare, breeds, 
but does not occur near Anju [Pyongan Namdo]." Kobayashi (1931, 
77) gives a sight record for three observed 30 March 1931 in Kyonggi 
Do, in company with Professor Mori. 

The most recent account of the status of Tristram's Woodpecker 
was written by Mori in his 1939 article on the need for conservation: 

"This bird formerly lived in Korea and Tsushima Island. But it 
has died out in Tsushima, and now exists only in Korea. ... It was 
first collected sixty years ago in Tsushima by Captain Richards, and 
the bird, a female, described by Mr. Tristram in the London Zoological 
Magazine. In 1891, Mr. Hatae Motokichi and Mr. Tsuchida Toshiza, 



168 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

zoologists from Tokyo University, after an ardent search collected a 
male in Tsushima, which Professor Iijima described. Fifty years ago 
it was discovered that this bird also lives in Korea, through Mr. Tac- 
zanowski, a Russian, who published it in the London Zoological Mag- 
azine. 

"The Kitataki is a very valuable bird scientifically. It lives only in 
forests where big trees thrive, for it nests in trees over two meters in 
circumference at the base. The nest is built in the trunk of such big 
trees as Chosen-momi [a fir], aka-matsu [red pine], nara gashiwa [a 
species of oak]. The nest opening is round or oval, about 10 centi- 
meters in diameter; the interior is a hole 50 centimeters deep, 10 centi- 
meters in diameter. Four eggs are laid, in May and June. 

"This bird hunts worms on tree trunks as other woodpeckers do, 
pecking the bark with its powerful bill, and extending its barbed 
tongue into the insect hole. . . . The name 'Kitataki' comes from 
the noise of its hammering. The Koreans say it sounds like a slow 
"knahk knahk," and so they call the bird "knahk sae." When condi- 
tions are right, the pounding can be heard from over a mile away. But 
the bird is very shy, and the moment it senses the presence of an enemy, 
it immediately stops its hammering and hides itself. 

"It is most active in the early morning, or on a cloudy day or a 
rainy day, flying around the forest in search of food. It seems to hide 
in dark places during the day, and comes out again in the evening. The 
food consists of various insects, usually procured by picking holes in 
decayed trees. 

"As mentioned before, this bird is now very rare. It was collected 
so immoderately in Tsushima, and so many skins were exported, that 
it decreased very much. Finally collecting it was prohibited by law, 
but it was too late, and the bird is gone from Tsushima forever. It 
is decreasing in Korea also. It does not migrate far, but prefers to 
stay in the deep forests where many big trees thrive. Such localities 
are very limited in Korea, as there are very few such forests. 

"I have both observed and collected the bird at Kwangnun in 
Kyonggi Do, at Pyongsan in Hwanghae Do, and at Choryong Moun- 
tain in Chungchong Pukto. Kwangnun, about 15 miles northeast of 
Seoul, is the site of the mausoleum of Li Wong 3rd. As the surroundings 
of the tomb have been protected for 450 years, many big trees grew 
there, and many kitataki could be found. But with the recent cutting 
of the forest, the birds have decreased. So it is now planned to protect 
the Kwangnun forest by ordinance as an important habitat for the 
Kitataki. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 169 

"Briefly, the Kitataki is not only an interesting bird and a useful 
one, but it provides valuable study material from which we can infer 
the fact that Tsushima Island was once formerly connected with Korea 
in an ancient era." 



219. Jynx torquilla chinensis Hesse 

Jynx torquilla chinensis Hesse, Orn. Monatsb., 19, 1911, p. 181. (China, type 
from Peiping.) 

English: Siberian Wryneck. 

Japanese: Arisui (ant-sucker.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 19, 20 May 1912 (AMNH); 1 Sept. 1917 (LiWM); 9 Aug. 

1929 (Won). 
Pyongan Pukto — 9 Apr.-2 May 1929 (9) (Yam); 22 Apr. 1936 (Won). 
Hwanghae Do — 20 May 1917 (SSC); 1 May 1918 (Taka). 
Cholla Namdo — 29 Apr. 1932 (Uch). 

The Wryneck is an uncommon transient, perhaps a rare summer resi- 
dent in the two northern provinces of Korea. Elsewhere on the penin- 
sula it is only of casual occurrence during the spring migration. Won 
(1934, 97) says it is rare, but nests in Korea. The 1942 Hand-List 
gives it as breeding, and Yamashina (1941, 570) says its "breeding 
range extends to Korea, and many pass through in spring and autumn." 
However, there is no breeding evidence. 



PITTIDAE 

220. Pitta nympha nympha Temminck and Schlegel 

Pitta nympha Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Fauna Jap., Aves, 1850, 
p. 135, suppl., pi. A. (Korea.) 

English: Fairy Pitta. 

Japanese: Yairocho (bird of eight colors.) 

Though Temminck and Schlegel's type of this species is given as from 
"Corea," it may as well have come from Tsushima Island, whence 
there are several records, or from Quelpart Island, where the bird is a 
not uncommon summer resident. In Korea proper, however, the spe- 



170 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

cies is but a straggler, known from three west coast records. Kuroda 
(1918, 530) gives Mori as his authority for the statement "this species 
was collected at Choen, Kokai Dist., [Changyon, Hwanghae Do] 
April 29, 1917." Momiyama (1929, 28) lists a second specimen, un- 
dated, taken on the Suro Islands, Cholla Namdo. Won (1932, 397) 
adds the third and last, at Anju, Pyongan Namdo, 15 May 1932. 

Won {idem) proposes that the bird may migrate commonly along 
the outer islands of west Korea, coming north along the China coast to 
the Shantung peninsula, crossing the Yellow Sea to the Liaotung penin- 
sula, and then moving southward along the outer islands to Quelpart. 
However, the species seems strangely limited to the south side of 
Quelpart. As Won points out "even on Hallasan Mountain we cannot 
hear it nor collect it on the north side, but always on the south side." 
It is thus more likely that the Quelpart colony migrates there either 
direct from Shanghai or else via the Ryukyus and Kyushu. The three 
west-Korea records are probably stragglers, off their migratory course. 

Mori (1939, 9) makes a plea for protecting the breeding ground on 
the south slope of Mt. Hallasan, Quelpart Island, adding "Pittas 
migrate to Korea [Quelpart] in April every year, and lay their eggs 
and rear their young from May to June. The bird is very timid and 
solitary, taking insects hopping around on the ground. It flies straight 
between trees like a kingfisher. The song sounds like "kahei kahei" 
in the distance, but more like "kai kai" when near by. As it moves 
rapidly while singing, it is not easy to find ..." 



ALAUDIDAE 

221. Alauda arvensis (Linne) 

Alauda pekinensis Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 89. (Peking.) 
Alauda arvensis lonnbergi Hachisuka, Bull. B.O.C., 47, 1926, p. 23. (Sakhalin.) 
Alauda arvensis quelpartae Momiyama, Annot. Orn. Orient., 1 (1), 1927, p. 14. 
(Quelpart Island.) 

English : Skylark. 

Japanese: Hibari (autochthonous.) 

Korean literature records several hundred specimens of Skylarks, 
but to assign any of these subspecifically on the basis of the various 
written descriptions alone is virtually impossible. The systematics and 
synonymy of the races as used by all but the most recent authors are 
so hopelessly and intricately tangled that in some cases even specific 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 



171 



identity is questionable. 1 Scarcely any two of the earlier authors agree 
as to whether a larger and darker or a smaller and lighter bird breeds 
or is a migrant, and some even claim two distinct subspecies breeding 
in the same area! 

The 1942 Hand-List gives A. a. quclpartae as the breeding race in 
Korea, with pckinensis and lonnbergi occurring as migrants or winter 
visitors, thus largely following Yamashina's treatment of the species 
(1939, 474). Yamashina had an unparalleled series of Japanese, Quel- 
part, Korean and Manchurian specimens on which to base his con- 
clusions. If further revision is possible, it will be only with a com- 
parable series in addition of mainland birds covering the areas from 
north China through Manchuria and southeastern Siberia. 

The small series I collected at Suwon falls nicely into this arrange- 
ment. Largest and darkest of all is a single male collected 14 Decem- 
ber 1945, attributable to pekinensis, the wintering form. I first en- 
countered migrant flocks in the paddies on 15 March 1946, from which 
I collected three males and a female, which, being intermediate in 
size and color, I assign to lonnbergi. The resident birds arrived in 
early April, and I collected five males actively performing their court- 
ship song-flight on 11 April. This small series is distinctly smaller and 
lighter than the others, and doubtless is referable to quelpartae. 

Inclusive collecting dates for the species from all sources are as 

follows : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 30 July-15 Aug.; 14 Sept.-9 Nov. 

Hamgyong Namdo — 29 April-10 May. 

Pyongan Pukto — 4-18 April. 

Pyongan Namdo — 18 Mar -24 May. 

Hwanghae Do — 14 June-15 July. 

Kangwon Do — 30 Mar.; 16 Sept.-3 Oct. 

Kyonggi Do — 1 Feb.-13 May; 4, 5 July; 5-23 Dec. 

Chungchong Do — 8 Apr -June. 

Cholla Namdo — 2-23 Jan.; 21-29 May. 

Kyongsang Namdo — 30 Jan.; 20 Apr.; 5-23 Dec. 

Much of this material is obviously migrant or wintering rather than 
resident. The species winters in the paddies from Kyonggi Do south- 
ward, distributed widely in small flocks. But the winter distribution 
of the various races, and the respective times of their migrations, still 
remain to be determined. A nest and eggs in the LiWong collection 
from Kyonggi Do is dated 20 May 1910. 

1 This is true even of the assigned Japanese common names, which, like their American models, 
have usually proved more stable over the years than the binomials of the Linnaean system. 
"Ko-hibari," for instance, may be either a small race of skylark, or perhaps one of the short- 
toed species. 



172 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

222. Galerida cristata coreensis Taczanowski 

Galerida cristata coreensis Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1887, p. 603- 
(Seoul, Korea.) 

English: Korean Crested Lark. 
Japanese: Kammuri hibari (crested lark.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 19 Aug. 1917 (LiWM); no data (SSC). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 24 Apr. 1903 (2) (Roth). 

Pyongan Pukto — 7-27 Apr. 1929 (11) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 13-18 May 1917 (4) (LiWM); 24, 28 Apr. 1932 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —3, 8, 10 Sept. 1883, 20 Jan. 1930 (USNM); Jan. 1886 

(2) (Tacz);8 June 1894 (AMNH); 15 Apr., 2 May 1912, 

25 Dec. 1929 (SSC); 15 Dec. 1912, 17 Oct. 1914, 14 

May 1916 (LiWM); 15 Dec. 1913, Nov. 1918, 13 Dec. 

1923 (Kur); 20 Sept. 1926, 19, 27 Sept. 1927 (Taka); 

16 Apr., 31 May 1929, Feb. 1936 (SoM); 14, 17 Oct. 

1929 (Won); 12 Apr. ,28 Dec. 1934 (3), 8 Jan. (2), 24 

Mar. (2), 1 May (2) 1946 (MCZ). 
Chungchong Namdo — 8, 9 Apr. 1917 (3) (Kur). 
Cholla Namdo — 7 Jan. 1930 (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 18 Jan., 2 Oct. 1885 (USNM); 18 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

The Crested Lark is a common resident, breeding from Kyonggi Do 
northward and wintering from Kyonggi Do southward. Yamashina 
notes (1933, 246) "while it occurs in southern Korea, it is much more 
common in the northern part." Cumming (1933, 22) considers it 
"common all over Korea, seen usually in small flocks in cultivated 
fields." Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) say it is a year-round resi- 
dent at Seoul, where it is less common than the skylark, and add "once 
I saw a nest built in a cow's foot-print in Pupyong plain [Seoul]." Won 
sent Yamashina (unpublished ms.) a set of three eggs he collected in 
Pyongan Namdo 26 May 1938. 

I found the bird during the winter, from December through Febru- 
ary, scattered in twos and threes over the largest, most open paddies. 
In March as they started to move, small flocks were more apt to be 
encountered in the dry, ploughed, upland fields. 

223. Calandrella cixerea puii Yamashina 

Calandrella cinerea puii Yamashina, Tori, 10 (4), 1939, p. 472. (Lamagulusu, 
northwest Manchuria.) 

English : Yamashina's Short-toed Lark. 
Japanese: Karafuto ko-hibari (Sakhalin small lark.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 173 

This species is a straggler in Korea, taken but once, a single speci- 
men now in the Yamashina Museum, collected by Orii in Pyongan 
Pukto 17 April 1929. (Yamashina obtained a large series of breeding 
birds from western Manchuria in 1935.) 



224. Calandrella rufescens cheleensis (Swinhoe) 

Alauda cheleensis Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871, p. 390. (Talien Bay, 
South Manchuria.) 

English: North Chinese Sand Lark. 
Japanese: Ko-hibari (small lark.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Namdo — 30 Apr. 1917 (Taka); 12 Feb. 1934 (Won). 
Kyonggi Do — 19 Apr. 1917 (Taka). 

Chungchong Namdo — 8 Apr. 1917 (Taka). 

This species is of uncertain status in Korea. While it may be a rare 
summer resident in the northern provinces, it seems of little more than 
casual occurrence farther south in the peninsula. Yamashina states 
(1933, 243) that "while it has been taken a few times in Korea, its 
status is not clear, and it is not known to breed there." He comments 
later (1939, 473) "those sometimes procured in Korea are certainly a 
southern race, cheleensis, but so far as I know they have been collected 
in Korea only between February and May which is not in the breeding 
season." The 1942 Hand-List lists the species for Korea as "(WV?)/' 

Perhaps referable here is a series of eight specimens in the LiWong 
Museum which Shimokoriyama was unable to identify and lists (1917, 
45) as "?Alauda Sp". I was unable to identify them positively in the 
hurried, chilly look I had at them in March, 1946, but they are a 
smaller, darker, shorter-billed and shorter-toed bird than the others in 
the collection, and three of them are immatures in juvenal plumage. 
They were collected in Hamgyong Pukto between 18 August and 9 
September 1917. 

[Eremophila alpestris euroa (Thayer and Bangs) 
English: East Siberian Shore Lark. 
Japanese: Hama hibari (Shore Lark) 

Taka-Tsukasa and Hachisuka (1925, 901) say the East Siberian Shore Lark 
is not uncommon in "Corea and the Kuriles." There is no Korean record for 
the species. A specimen of Galerida cristata, an old Matsudaira skin without 



174 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

further data than "Korea," now in the Uchida collection, labelled "hamu hibari" 
is possibly the source of the error, which fortunately has not been copied by 
any subsequent compilers.] 

HIRUNDINIDAE 

225. Hirundo rustica Linne 

Hirundo gutturalis Scopoli, Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr., 2, 1786, p. 96. (Panay, 

Philippines.) 
Hirundo rustica mandschurica Meise, Abh. Ber. Mus. Tierk. Volkerk., Dresden, 
18, 1934 (4), p. 46. (Charbin, Manchuria.) 
English: House Swallow. 
Japanese: Tsubame (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Hirundo rustica mandschurica: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 2-4 Sept. 1917 (6) (LiWM); 17 Sept, 1929 (4) (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto - 10, 12 June (LiWM); 3 May-4 June 1929 (6) (Yam). 

Hirundo rustica gutturalis: 

Hamgyong Pukto —23 Aug.-l Sept. 1917 (5) (LiWM). 

Hamgyong Namdo —2-12 June 1912 (3) (AMNH); 5-10 May 1903 (3) 

(Roth). 

Pyongan Pukto — 19 Apr.-4 June 1929 (11) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 19 Apr., 8 June 1931 (Won); 10 Sept. 1932 (SSC). 

Kangwon Do - 8 Sept. 1914 (2) (LiWM); 13 July 1929 (juv) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do - 10, 19 June, 2 Aug. 1883 (USNM); 8 June-31 July 

1915 (10) LiWM); 9 July 1927 (Taka); 5 May 1928, 
7 June, 26 Aug. 1930 (Won); 6 Oct, 1928 (SoM); 9 
May 1934 (Uch); 14 Apr. 1946 (3) (MCZ). 

Chungchong Pukto — 16 Sept. 1927 (Kur). 

Cholla Namdo — 24 Mar. 1930 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 28 Apr. 1886 (USNM). 

H. r. mandschurica occurs in Korea only as a migrant along the 
northern border. //. r. gutturalis is a common summer resident. 
Campbell (1892, 242) says "The common saying amongst Coreans is 
that the Swallow comes from the south on the 3rd of their 3rd month, 
which corresponds roughly with the middle of April, and leaves on the 
9th of the 9th month, or beginning of October. These dates are not 
very far out." The swallows had left when I arrived in Korea in Nov- 
ember, and I saw the first arrivals 29 March 1946, some fifteen of them 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 175 

flying over the lake at Suwon. They disappeared the next day, and 
no more were observed until 6 April, after which they arrived in 
numbers. By 14 April they were common. A nest and eggs in the 
LiWong Museum is labelled "Kyonggi Do, 23 May 1910." 

Gumming (1933, 39-40) writes "The Korean 'cheibi' has as good a 
reputation among the people as the sparrow has bad but in this case 
it is well deserved. It is undoubtedly the most valuable bird in the 
country. How the legend grew up that the presence of the swallow 
brought good luck to the home where it built its nest it would probably 
be very difficult to discover but since that seems to be an almost uni- 
versal belief the birds are greatly welcomed and sometimes helped . . . 
by their host arranging a small shelf to support the heavy nest full of 
young . . . If by some method of transfer we could get the people to 
have the same regard for the birds in general that they have for the 
swallow it would be the best move toward bird protection that I know 
of. Unfortunately the general attitude is one of common indifference 
changing into destructiveness whenever the opportunity for nest 
robbing offers." 

226. Hirundo daurica japonica Temminck and Schlegel 

Hirundo alpestris japonica Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Fauna Jap., 
Aves, 1847, p. 33, pi. 11. (Japan.) 

English: Japanese Striated Swallow; Mosque Swallow. 
Japanese: Koshiaka tsubame (red-rumped swallow.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 1-4 Sept. 1917 (5) (LiWM); 25 July 1928 (Yam); 4 Aug. 

1929 (Won). 
Pyongan Pukto — 10 June 1917 (LiWM). 

Kangwon Do -22 Sept, 1914 (2) (LiWM); 13 June-14 July (9) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do — 10 June 1887 (3) (Tacz); July 1910 (LiWM); 25 May 1912 

(SSC). 

This species is a locally common summer resident, usually found in 
the mountain areas, and seldom in the plains. Taczanowski (1888, 462) 
says "rare in summer, it nested in 18S6, but it was not seen at all the 
following year." Kuroda (1917, 63) gives a sight record for thirty of 
them seen on the Taedong River in Pyongan Namdo 30 April 1917, 
and Yoshida (1923, 316) speaks of seeing them "by the ten-thousands" 
crowded on the wires in Hwanghae Do in mid-July, evidently gathering 
preparatory to migration. Won (1934, 94) calls it rare. Gumming 



176 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

(1933, 41) writes "These swallows are usually found in the valleys 
near the higher mountains and therefor nest in the villages in such 
locations. 'The nest is oblong, something like a crooked bottle with a 
large mouth, through which it is entered. It is constructed of mud 
mixed with some sticks and straw, and is attached to the rafters or to 
any convenient surface. The eggs are similar to those of the house 
swallow'." 



227. Delichon urbica dasypus (Bonaparte) 

Ckelidon dasypus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 1, 1850, p. 343. (Borneo.) 
English: Japanese House Martin. 
Japanese: Iwa tsubame (rock swallow.) 



Specimen records: 
Kangwon Do — 24 June-6 July 1929 (7) (Yam). 

The House Martin has been recorded only from the east coast of 
Korea, where it is probably a locally common summer resident. Of 
the seven adults Orii collected in Kangwon Do (one of them is now in 
the M.C.Z.) Yamashina says (1931, 256) "This is not a rare bird, but 
I think this Is the first report of it from Korea." 

In his popular account of bird conservation, Mori (1929) says the 
"Iwatsubame" nests on Ran Island in northeastern Hamgyong Pukto, 
laying from three to five eggs from the last of May to the beginning of 
June. This is a doubtful record, because the Japanese name may be 
loosely applied either to this species or to the White-rumped Swift, 
which, since it is well known to breed in such alcid rookeries, is prob- 
ably the bird Mori referred to. 



228. Riparia riparia (Linne) 

Cotile sinensis (nee Gray and Hard\vicke)Taczanowski,Proc.Zool. Soc. London, 

1888, p. 454. (Korea.) 
Clivicola riparia ijimae Lonnberg, Journ. Coll. Sci. Tokyo, 23, 1908, art. 14, 

p. 38. (Sakhalin.) 
Riparia riparia taczanowskii Stcgmann, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Russie, 1925, 
p. 39. (Vladivostok.) 
English: Bank Swallow; Sand Martin. 
Japanese: Shodo tsubame ("small-cave" or burrow swallow.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 177 

Yamashina (1941, 420-424) refers eight Hamgyong Pukto specimens 
to taczanowskii, the Ussurian and Manchurian form (with which he had 
previously synonymized stotzeriana Meise (1939, 504)), and one Hamg- 
yong Pukto and two Pyongan Pukto birds to ijimae, the northern 
Japan and Sakhalin race, which is slightly lighter in color and longer 
winged. Thus both races may occur on migration, but if breeding 
colonies exist in the northern provinces, they should be referable to 
taczanowskii. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 13-20 Sept. 1929 (9) (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto — 29 May 1929 (2) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do — 29 Sept. 1883 (USNM); 21 Sept. 1887 (2) (Tacz); 5 July 

1913 (LiWM). 

The Bank Swallow is an uncommon migrant in the northern prov- 
inces, rarely straying south as far as Kyonggi Do. It may perhaps be 
a rare and local summer resident along the northern border. Tac- 
zanowski comments (1888, 454) on the adult female and the immature 
Kalinowski collected at Seoul 21 Sept. 1887, ''same measurements as 
the Sidemi birds. One meets this swallow during both migrations." 
Won (1934, 94) claims to have collected it in Pyongan Namdo, where 
he says it is common and breeds, but he mentions no confirmatory 
evidence, and he was unable to furnish Yamashina with data on any 
specimens. The July specimen in the LiWong Museum suggests there 
may be an as yet undiscovered breeding colony farther south. Yama- 
shina (idem) says that taczanowskii breeds in Hamgyong Pukto, but 
Orii's birds, from their collection dates, were undoubtedly migrants. 
The 1942 Hand-List does not consider any of the evidence warrants the 
conclusion that the species breeds in Korea. 



CAMPEPHAGIDAE 

229. Pericrocotus roseus intermedius Clark 

Pericrocotus cinereus intermedius Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 474. 
(Seoul, Korea.) 

English: Korean Ashy Minivet. 

Japanese: Sansho kui (eater of sansho, the Japanese pepper or 
prickly ash.) 



178 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 29 Sept. 1915 (SSC); 24 Apr.-16 May 1929 (11) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do - 10 June 1883 (3) (USNM); May 1887 (2) (Tacz); 18 

Apr.-8 June 1909-1914 (8) (LiWM);4 May 1924 (Kur); 
Sept. 1926 (SoM); 10 Aug. 1926, 19 Apr. 1930 (Won); 9 
July, 5 Sept. 1927 (Taka); 19 June 1934 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 27, 30 Apr. 1884, 3 May 1885, 25 Apr. 1886 (USNM). 

The 1942 Hand-List recognizes Mori's (1929, 106) identification of 
a male specimen in the Seoul Scientific Museum collected by Ezo 
Takahashii 29 September 1915 in Yogampo, Pyongan Pukto, as P. r. 
tcgimae Stejneger, the southern Kyushu and Ryukyu race. It is at 
best a questionable record of an improbable straggler. 

The Ashy Minivet is a not uncommon spring transient, probably 
breeding in the northern highlands. Taczanowski (1888, 465) says it 
"nests in small numbers," while Campbell (1892, 239) considers it "a 
summer visitor on migration northward." Cumming (1933, 33) 
writes "small flocks of these birds may be seen on migration feeding 
through the trees in rather noisy indifference to human folk below. 
While at rest on a limb or even more in flight they repeatedly utter the 
rattling but somewhat musical call that easily distinguishes them ..." 
Won (1934, 89) says it breeds, is common, flies in a flock. Yamashina 
(1933) says it breeds in north Korea. The 1942 Hand-List says it 
breeds. I did not encounter it. 



ORIOLIDAE 

230. Oriolus chinensis diffusus Sharpe 

Oriolus diffusus Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 3, 1877, p. 197. (num. emend. 

for O. indicus Jerdon, nee Daudin, Malabar.) 
Oriolus indicus ochroxanthus Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 38, 1925, p. 5. 

(Korea.) (synonym.) 

English: Black-naped Oriole. 

Japanese: Wocho (yellow bird); Korai uguisu (Korean bush- 
warbler.) 

Oberholser's ochroxanthus was based on Jouy's three Kyonggi Do 
birds, and characterized by paler color and a wider black occipital 
patch, which the Japanese, with larger series, consider as individual 
variants. Yamashina (1932, 217) notes "no distinction between those 
of Formosa and those of Korea in measurement or coloring." 



asutin: birds of korea 179 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto -23 Aug. 1912 (SSC); G June 1917 (2) (LiWM); 11-23 

May 1929 (5) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do - 17 June, 12 Aug., 8 Sept. 1883, May 1926 (USNM); 

May, July 1887 (5) (Tacz); July 1889 (Camp); 8-12 
June 1909 (5) (LiWM); 10 Apr., May 1926 (SoM); 11 
June 1919 (Kur); 1, 4, 7, 16 Sept., 6 Oct. 1927 (Taka); 
10 June 1926, 12 June 1927, 29 May 1931 (Won). 

Cholla Namdo — 6 June 1930 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 11 Aug. 1927 (Won). 

The Black-naped Oriole is an uncommon summer resident, perhaps 
more abundant in the northern provinces during migration, dim- 
ming (1933, 16) writes "It is one of the most persecuted birds in Korea 
so that it is difficult to say how much of its shyness is due to the fact 
that its brilliant plumage and loud clear call too easily advertise its 
presence, though it seldom leaves the tops of the taller trees. Being 
an insect eater and so largely a wood bird it does not make a good cage 
bird but people are forever trying to catch it and no nest discovered is 
left unmolested. Though it does not have a great variety in its song, 
its clear musical quality makes it well worth hearing. . . . one of 
the latest comers in the spring and one of the earliest to leave." 

Taczanowski (1888, 464) gives it only as a migrant, but Y. Kuroda 
(1918, 19) says it arrives in the Seoul region in late May and leaves in 
early September. He observed it in full song in Kyonggi Do from July 
to September, and notes that the young birds are frequently brought 
into the Seoul market for sale, along with those of the Broad-billed 
Roller. Won (1934, 80) says it is not uncommon in Pyongan Namdo, 
and Kuroda (1917, 69) says it arrives there "about May." Hashimoto 
(1932) gives its arrival at Shichihatsu Island, Cholla Namdo, 6 June 
1930, 7 May 1931 and 10 May 1932. He also (1937) gives sight records 
for Hachibi Island, Kyonggi Do, 8 May and 16 September 1934, and 
28 April 1936. In the LiWong Museum there are three sets of eggs and 
nests, all collected in Kyonggi Do, one dated 27 May 1910, the other 
two 27 June 1916. 

CORVIDAE 

231. Corvus corone orientalis Eversmann 

Corvus orientalis Eversmann, Addenda Pallas Zoogr., fasc. 2, 1841, p. 7. 
(Naryn River, Buchtarma.) 

English: Carrion Crow. 

Japanese: Hashiboso garasu (thin-billed crow.) 



180 



bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 



Hamgyong Pukto 
Pyongan Pukto 

Kangwon Do 
Kyonggi Do 



Cholla Pukto 
Cholla Namdo 



Specimen records: 

— 14 Aug. 1917 (LiWM); 3, 21 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

- 15 Dec. 1912, 19 June 1917 (2) (LiWM); 10 Apr. 1929 
(Yam). ' 

— 12, 23 Sept., 2 Oct, 1914 (LiWM). 

— 8 Feb., 30 May, 31 Oct., 20 Dec. 1914, 5 July 1915, 1 
Jan. 1916 (LiWM); 1 Feb. 1912 (SSC); 1 Mar. 1919, 21 
Jan. 1928 (Taka); 17 Sept. 1929, 7 June 1930 (Won); 9 
Feb. 1931 (SoM); 1 Jan.- 14 Feb. 1946 (7) (MCZ). 

— 31 Dec- 1911 (LiWM). 

— 6 Jan., 25 Feb. 1930 (Yam). 



Kyongsang Namdo — Feb., July, Nov., Dec. 1884 (USNM). 

The Carrion Crow is a common resident in Korea. It is the common 
winter crow of the Kyonggi Do and southwest coastal plain areas. 
During severe weather it becomes amazingly tame, foraging in trash 
piles and dumps in close proximity to dwellings. It is wide-ranging 
and adaptable, finding food wherever there is any to be gleaned. 
While especially abundant on the outskirts of towns and near habita- 
tions where refuse is available, small bunches may always be found 
scattered over the frozen rice paddies, out on the coastal marshes, on 
the flats at low tide, in the sparsely wooded foothills, and even on the 
mountain tops. 

While it seems ridiculous to question the fact that the species breeds 
in Korea, which all recent authorities accept, there is no proof of it 
whatever beyond the specimen collection dates. Taczanowski (1888, 
459) says "observed on migration in spring, does not stay to nest." 
Won (1934, 79) comments briefly that it "breeds in the plains lands." 
Campbell (1892, 238) says it is "frequently seen in company with C. 
machrorynchus," the Thick-billed Crow, which I saw but once during 
my entire stay. I found the species just as abundant when I left in 
early May as it had been all winter, though not as tame, and scattered 
farther afield over the farm lands as more food became available. I 
noticed no signs of pairing or of courtship. 



232. C-ORVUS LEVAILLANTII MANDSCHURICUS Buturlin 

Corvus macrorhynchus mandschuricus Buturlin, Mess. Orn., 4(1), 1913, p. 40. 
(Ussuriland.) 

English: Jungle Crow; Thick-billed Crow. 
Japanese: Hashibuto garasu (thick-billed crow.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 181 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto -26 Apr .-15 May 1912 (5) (AMNH); 14 Aug. 1917 

(LiWM); 22 Aug., 3 Oct., 28 Nov. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 1 Nov. 1931 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 1 May, 11 Sept. 1914 (LiWM); 9 Aug. 1930 (Won). 

KyonggiDo —27 July 1883 (2) (USNM); Jan. 1887 (2) (Tacz); 10 

Dec. 1910, 20 Nov. 1911 (LiWM); Jan., 20 Apr. 1928 
(Kur); 21 July 1929 (Won); 15, 30 Mar. 1927, 8 Dec. 
1945 (MCZ). 

Kyongsang Pukto — 10 Nov. 1923 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 29 Jan. 1912 (AMNH). 

The Jungle Crow is a common summer resident throughout Korea, 
more common, however, in the hills than it is in the plains, and an un- 
common winter bird from Kyonggi Do southward. My experience 
with the species is at variance with that of other authors. Taczanow- 
ski (1888, 465) writes of it "Common and resident; a favorite gamebird 
of the Koreans, like many other birds one does not usually eat." 
Campbell (1892, 238) calls it "the Common Crow of Corea," and Won 
(1934, 79) says it is common everywhere and breeds. I collected one 
at Seoul 8 December 1945, the only one I observed during my entire 
stay. Though I shot every crow I saw with a suspiciously large bill, 
every one when in the hand proved to be corone. 

As with the Carrion Crow, there are no data available on its nesting 
in Korea, though that it does can hardly be doubted. Y. Kuroda (1935, 
519) tells of the actions of "hashibuto garasu" starting to nest in 
Kangwon Do in mid-May; "They fly up on the back of the ploughing 
bullock and pull out hair for nest-lining material, while the ploughing 
farmer continues smoking and pays no attention to the birds." 

233. CORVUS FRUGILEGUS PASTINATOR Gould 

Corvus pastinator Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1845, p. 1. (China.) 
English: Eastern Rook. 
Japanese: Miyama garasu (mountain crow.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 21 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 8 June 1931 (Won). 

KyonggiDo —22 Mar. 1915 (LiWM); undated (SSC); 8 Feb.-25 

Mar. 1927 (7) (Taka); Nov. 1934 (Uch); 31 Jan., 23 
Feb. 1930, 14 Feb. 1946 (4) (MCZ). 

Chungchong Namdo — 10 Jan. 1917 (2) (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo — 1, 26 Feb. 1930 (Yam). 



182 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Rook is a common winter visitor in the southern provinces, and 
a common early spring and autumn transient elsewhere. While it 
breeds commonly in adjoining Manchuria, it is not known to nest any- 
where in Korea. Taczanowski (1888, 465) says it is "very numerous 
in spring, rare in autumn, absent in summer and winter." Campbell 
(1892, 238) writes "In the neighborhood of Soul I have observed 
flocks of Rooks only during the severe winter months. In large flocks 
I always saw numbers of a smaller and white-breasted species, which 
I took to be Corvus dauricus. I frequently tried to obtain a specimen, 
but was always baffled by the wariness of the bird. Both it and Corvus 
pastinator were highly suspicious of my European shooting-costume, 
and I always had to don a Corean robe (a white flowing garment and 
very conspicuous) before I could approach them." 

The first flock of Rooks and Jackdaws appeared at Suwon 12 Febru- 
ary 1946, and more appeared daily thereafter. From 15 February to 
15 March they were abundant, seldom in flocks of less than 50 indi- 
viduals, frequently in clouds of at least five thousand or more birds. 
In the mixed flocks the Rooks outnumbered the Jackdaws, usually 
about four or five to one. Daytimes they ranged over the thawing 
paddies, continually on the move, feeding as they went, and toward 
evening retired in droves to roost in the shelter of nearby pines. The 
large flocks disappeared shortly after mid-March, but scattered smaller 
groups, sometimes only five or six birds, remained until late April. 
I saw one flock of twenty birds 19 April, and the last I saw were five 
on the 25th. 

234. Corvus monedula dauuricus Pallas 

Corvus dauuricus Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 694. 
(Baikalia.) 

English: Daurian Jackdaw. 

Japanese: Kokumaru garasu (black-ball crow.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 23 Apr.-19 May 1912 (7) (AMNH); 23 Dec. 1917 (5) 

(Y. Kur); 21 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 5 Nov. 1930, 24 Mar. 1936 (Won). 
Hwanghae Do —24 Mar. 1910 (2) (LiWM); 5 Mar. 1911 (Kur). 

KyonggiDo -22, 23 Nov. 1883 (USNM); Mar. 1887 (2) (Tacz); 

May 1909, Feb., 20 Dec. 1910, 25 Oct. 1914 (LiWM); 

26 Jan., 22 Feb., 4 Mar. 1919. 16 Mar. 1928 (Taka); 

Nov. 1927 (SoM); 20 Feb. 1931 (Won); 14, 24 Feb. (3) 

1946 (MCZ). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 183 

Cholla Namdo - 12 Feb. 1914 (2) (LiWM); 15 Jan. (2), 12 Feb. (5) 1927 

(Taka); 25 Dec. 1929, 28 Feb., 1 Mar. 1930 (Yam). 
Kyongsang Pukto -3 May 1916 (SSC); 15 Feb. 1924 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo— 11 Feb. 1884 (USNM); 5 Jan. 1912, 23, 24 Dec. 1914 

(4) (LiWM). 

The Jackdaw is a common winter visitor in southern Korea, and an 
early spring and late autumn migrant elsewhere, usually found in com- 
pany with the Rook. While it breeds in nearby Manchuria, it is not 
known definitely to nest in northern Korea. Won (1934, 79) calls it 
"most numerous" and says it breeds, and Adachi (1941, 11) says it 
nests in crevices of the cliffs near Paekto San. But the 1942 Hand-List 
questions the validity of their observations. 

I never encountered Jackdaws singly or by themselves, but always 
in company with the more numerous Rooks. While on the ground the 
Jackdaws seem to keep by themselves in little knots of from three 
or four to thirty or forty birds while feeding, but in flight they mingled 
indiscriminately with the Rooks. The mixed flocks feed rapidly over 
the partly frozen, thawing rice-paddies, and when alarmed circle high 
in noisy confusion before departing. In one flock I observed two 
black-phase individuals, and three partially melanistic birds. 

The Korean farmers in the Suwon area have a saying that the "kal- 
kamogi" always appear on the same day each year, the day after the 
first full moon of the first month by their lunar calendar, which is one 
of their many festival dates. This fell on 15 February 1946, and for 
once folk-lore proved fairly accurate. I saw the first Jackdaws, about 
forty of them in company with some two hundred Rooks, on 12 Febru- 
ary. By the 15th there were several huge flocks of both species in the 
vicinity, numbering into the thousands of individuals. From then un- 
til mid-March they were abundant, but after 15 March their sudden 
absence from the flocks of Rooks still in the vicinity was remarkable. 
While smaller numbers of Rooks remained in the vicinity well into 
April, the last Jackdaws I saw were a knot of five with about three 
hundred Rooks on 20 March. 

235. Pica pica (Linne) 

Pica varia japonica Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Fauna Jap., Aves, 

1848, p. 81. (Japan.) 
Pica pica jankowskii Stegmann, Ann. Mus. Zool. Ac. Sci. URSS, 28, 1927, p. 

380. (Sidemi, near Vladivostok.) 

English: Korean Magpie. 

Japanese: Kasasagi (autochthonous, perhaps bird of ancient 
times?) 



184 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The 1942 Hand-List limits P. p. jankowskii to the two northern 
provinces of Korea, Hamgyong Pukto and Pyongan Pukto, whence its 
range is continuous with topotypical birds from northeastern Man- 
churia and Ussuri. The birds of the rest of Korea are assigned to P. p. 
japonica. My series of ten Kyonggi Do specimens are separable from 
a large series of sericea from eastern China mainly by their longer tails, 
and from one Pyongan Pukto and three Ussurian jankowskii by the 
presence of more purple sheen in the wing and tail feathers. The 
northern bird likewise has an exceedingly short tail, shorter than 
sericea. 

The Magpie is an abundant permanent resident throughout Korea, 
without question the most arrant, manifestly prominent bird in the 
country. There are year-round specimen records for Kyonggi Do, and 
the bird appears on every list from all the other provinces in which 
collecting has been done. It is as common in the cities and villages as 
it is around the rice paddies and in the fields and hills, a door-yard 
bird as well as one of the forests. It is apparently sedentary in its 
habits, and while there is some flocking in the autumn and winter, it 
is perhaps more for communal feeding and roosting than for any sort 
of migratory movement, of which there is no evidence. 

The bulky nests the Magpies build, crude masses of sticks from one 
to three feet in diameter, are a common sight everywhere in Korea. 
Maniwa (1931) published a picture in "Tori" of four nests, one above 
the other, along the trunk of a poplar, which is not unusual. The nests 
increase in size annually, as they are added to during the courtship 
every year. Gumming (1933, 5) notes "they may be seen gathering 
sticks in good weather any time from mid-autumn," but I first ob- 
served them so doing during a mild spell in early February. From then 
on it was almost continuous, the most prominent part of the court- 
ship. Kobayashi (1931) examined twenty nests in Hwanghae Do 26 
March, of which only three contained eggs (6, 3 and 1.) As Kuroda 
observed (1917), the laying season is earlier in the south than in the 
north, and he found it more advanced when he collected eggs in Chung- 
chong Namdo 8 April. 

Taczanowski (1888, 465) says the Magpie is a "favorite food bird" 
of the Koreans, but I found that only the lowest class of peasants 
would eat them. Gumming (1933, 14) writes "Here his noisy chatter 
and his striking appearance make him well known all over the country. 
He is clever and energetic and in spite of a certain amount of fruit and 
grain which he takes as his right he is very valuable for the number 
of beetles and larger insects which he destroys. He goes after cut- 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 185 

worms and grubs in freshly plowed land as our blackbirds do in the 
west. Unfortunately he is supposed to be very good medicine for cer- 
tain ailments so that not only for his depredations is he killed." 
Small boys rob every magpie nest they can reach — most of them are 
quite difficult to climb to — because of the popular belief that eggs 
eaten on or near the Boys' Festival Day not only ensure good health 
for the coming year, but hasten puberty and enhance manly vigor. 

236. Cyanopica cyanus koreensis Yamashina 

Cyanopica cyana koreensis Yamashina, Tori, 10 (49), 1939, p. 457. (Moppo, 
Cholla Namdo, Korea.) 

English: Blue Magpie. 

Japanese: Koma onaga (Korean long-tail.) 

The eight Hamgyong Pukto specimens in the AMNH are easily 
separable from a large series of Tsinling Mountain interposita in the 
Rothschild collection, being much lighter above and below. However, 
C. c. koreensis seems a very fine split on color shading alone from both 
jeholica Yamashina and stegmanni Meise. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 19 Apr.-3 June 1912 (8) (AMNH); 25 Sept, 1917 (2) 

(LiWM); 22 Aug. 1912 (SSC); 30 July 1929 (Won). 

Pyongan Namdo —3 May 1934 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — 15 Apr. 1930 (2) (Taka). 

KyonggiDo —Jan., Mar. 1887 (3) (Tacz); Feb., 12 June (3) 1909, 

Feb., 29 Nov., Dec. 1910, 15 Dec. 1912 (LiWM); 22 
Apr. 1917 (4) (Kur); 8, 8, 10 Dec. 1927, 24 Jan. 1928 
(Taka); Feb. 1934 (USNM). 

Cholla Namdo — 21-26 Feb. 1930 (10) (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 19 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

The Blue Magpie is a not uncommon summer resident in the for- 
ested country of the central and northern provinces, and an uncommon 
winter resident in the southern part of Korea. Taczanowski (1888, 
465) found it "resident and common; rare south of Seoul." Y. Kuroda 
(1918, 21) gives sight records for a flock of 30 in Cholla Pukto in early 
December, a flock of 20 in Kyonggi Do in late December and (1935, 88) 
in Chungchong Pukto 25 May 1931. I did not encounter it at all. 

Won (1934, 80) says it "breeds in the high mountains." A nest and 
eggs in the LiWong collection labelled "Onagadori, Kangwon Do, 10 
July 1934," is probably of this species. 



186 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

237. NUCIFRAGA CARYOCATACTES MACRORHYNCHUS Brehm 

Nucifraga macrorhynchus Brehm, Lehrb. Naturg. europ. Vog., 1, 1823, p. 103. 
(northern Europe and Asia.) 
English: Long-billed Nutcracker. 

Japanese: Hashinaga hoshigarasu (long-billed star crow); Take- 
garasu (bamboo crow). 

Specimen records: 

Kangwon Do — 10, 11 Sept. 1914 (3) (LiWM); June (SSC); 14 Aug. 

1930 (Won). 
Kyonggi Do — Nov. 1887 (Tacz); 27 Sept., 25 Oct. 1914 (4) (LiWM); 

14 Aug. 1930 (SoM). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 23, 27 Sept. 1883 (4) (USNM); Oct. 1923 (Kur). 

The Nutcracker is of uncertain status in Korea, perhaps an un- 
common migrant, more likely a rare resident in the east-central high- 
lands. Kalinowski (Taczanowski 1888, 465) twice met single birds, in 
the autumn. Won (1934, 80) says it is common, and that it breeds 
in Korea, though "confined to a narrow district." The 1942 Hand-List 
disregards Won's breeding hypothesis, but the general habit of the 
species is to breed at or above the treeline in summer, and to retreat 
vertically into adjacent wooded valleys in winter. 



238. Garrulus glandarius brandtii Eversmann 

Garrulus brandtii Eversmann, Addenda Pallas Zoogr., fasc. 3, 1842, p. 8. (Altai.) 
Garrulus brandtii okai Momiyama, Journ. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc, no. 4, 1927, 
p. 5. (Koryo, Kyonggi Do, Korea.) (Synonym.) 

English : Brandt's Jay. 

Japanese: Miyama kakesu (mountain jay.) 

My three Kyonggi Do specimens are inseparable from comparable 
Altai and Ussuri skins. While they appear slightly darker both above 
and below, this is apparently due to foxing in the old skins. 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto —25 Apr. 1912 (AMNH); 22 Aug. 1912 (SSC); 26 Sept. 

1917 (4) (LiWM); 9 Aug.-3 Sept. 1929 (2 ad, 2 juv.) 

(Yam). 
Hamgyong Namdo — 20 Jan., 1 Feb. 1931 (Won). 
Pyongan Pukto —26 Nov. 1917 (Taka). 
Pyongan Namdo — 19 Oct. 1933 (Won). 
Kangwon Do — 22 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 






AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 187 

Kyonggi Do -Jan., Mar. 1887 (Tacz); 1 Feb., Dec. (2) 1910, 8 Feb., 

12 June 1914, 2 Jan. 1916 (3) (LiWM); 22 Apr. 1917, 
23 Apr. 1923 (Kur); 1 Oct. 1917 (SSC); 8 Oct.-27 Nov. 
1927 (5) (Taka); 17 Oct. 1928 (SoM); 22 Sept.-26 Mar. 
1929 (7) (Won); 4 Dec. 1929, 17 Feb. 1930, 26 Jan. 1932 
(USNM); 10, 15 Apr. 1928, 20 Jan., 14 Feb. (2) 1946 
(MCZ). 

Kyongsang Pukto — 15 Oct. 1923, 3 Feb. 1924 (2) (Uch). 

Brandt's Jay is a not uncommon permanent resident in the uplaifd 
forested areas. I found it only in the neighborhood of spruces. While 
occasionally seen singly, in winter it is more likely to be encountered 
in small bands of from two to five or six roving through what forest 
or brush it can find on the hills. Taczanowski (1888, 465) says "com- 
mon in winter, rare in summer." Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1918) 
give its season at Seoul as from November through February. Y. 
Kuroda (1935, 88) observed it in Chungchong Pukto 25 May 1931. 
Won (1934, 80) says it is common and "breeds in the mountains." 
There are no data on its breeding in Korea, though the 1942 Hand- 
List assumes it does so. 



PARADOXORNITHIDAE 

239. Suthora webbiana fulvicauda Campbell 

Suthora fulvicauda Campbell, Ibis, 1892, p. 237. (Chemulpo, Kyongii Do, 

Korea.) (juv.) 
Suthora longicauda Campbell, Ibis, 1892, p. 237. (Seoul, Kyongii Do, Korea.) 
(ad. female.) 
English: Crow Tit. 

Japanese: Daruma enaga (long-handled doll. 'Daruma' is a 
round-based weighted doll which always rights itself 
when tipped.) 

I have had no Manchurian material from which to judge the valid- 
ity of mandschurica Taczanowski, which Yamashina (1939, 488) finds 
"can easily be distinguished from S. w. fulvicauda from central and 
southern Korea in their longer tail which is 67-73 mm. instead of 
59.5-65 mm. as in fidvicauda and paler and less rusty colour of upper 
parts, especially that of the crown and outer webbs of the wing feath- 
ers." My series of 15 Kyonggi Do specimens I find barely separable 
from 4 winter webbiana from Anwhei and Nanking, and five winter 
rosea from northeastern Chihli. As the tails wear unevenly, varying 



188 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

# 

as much as a centimeter within the series, they are not a good criterion. 
The tails of my Kyonggi Do birds vary from 60 mm. to 70 mm., with 
one 55 mm. The Nanking series tails are 56.5, to 68.8 mm., and the 
Chihli birds 54 mm. to 71 mm. Nevertheless the Korean birds are 
distinguishable by their coloration, which is similar to though lighter 
than that of webbiana, and lacks the pinkish tinge which characterizes 
rosea. My January and February specimens show the underparts 
darker, especially the belly and under tail-coverts, than the April 
birds. At best fulvicauda is a rather finely-drawn race. 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — no date (SSC). 

Kangwon Do —6, 22 Sept., 3 Oct. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do —12 Aug. 1883 (3), 10 Oct. 1925 (USNM); 2-25 Dec. 1887 

(3) (Tacz); Feb. (2), Aug. (2) 1889 (Camp); Feb. 1910, 
26 Mar., 30 May 1914, 26 Mar., 6 Apr., 25 Dec. 1911, 
11 Jan. 1914 (LiWM); 21 Jan. 1918 (Uch); 18-22 Apr. 
1917 (11), 26 Feb. 1922 (2) (Kur); 21 Feb.-3 Mar. 1918 
(3), 5 Dec. 1927 (4) (Taka); 5 Nov. 1924, 21 Oct. 1929 
(SoM); 11 Oct, 1930 (Won); Oct. 1930 (2), Nov. 1938, 
10 Jan.-18 Feb. (5), 19-26 Apr. (7) 1946 (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo —2 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 11 Dec. 1929-9 Jan. 1930 (9) Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo— 30 Apr. 1884, 11 Apr. 1886 (USNM); 19 Dec. 1914 (3) 
(LiWM). 

The Crow Tit is a not uncommon resident from Hwanghae Do and 
Kangwon Do southward. Taczanowski (1888, 464) calls it "resident 
and common." Kobayashi (1931) observed a flock of thirty in Hwang- 
hae Do 20 March. Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) saw it in Chungchong Pukto 
25 May 1931. 

My own experiences with the species duplicate those of Cumming, 
who writes of it (1933, 30) "usually seen in small flocks of from five 
to fifteen or more feeding through the underbrush and in the hedges 
or bamboo groves. Though nervous and in continual motion they may 
be approached closely. They apparently have no song but are always 
repeating a distinctive and rather excited but not loud call. They are 
said to be great fighters." 

Cumming also gives the only data available on the species' nesting 
in Korea (1933, 6), a pair which nested "two years successively in a 
hydrangea bush by the porch of a house in Kwangju [Cholla Namdo]. 
The nest is made of fine grass and rootlets." 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 189 

PARIDAE 

240. Parus major wladiwostokensis Kleinschmidt 

Parus wladiwostokensis Kleinschmidt, Falco, 9, 1913, p. 33. (Vladivostok.) 
Parus major takahashii Momiyama, Annot. Orn. Orient., 1 (1), 1927, p. 28. 

(Korean peninsula, nomen nudum.) 
Parus viajor takahashii Momiyama, Annot. Orn. Orient., 1 (2), 1928, p. 191. 
(Koryo, Kyonggi Do, Korea.) (Synonym.) 
English : Vladivostok Great Tit. 

Japanese: Shiju kara (means forty titmouse, but is actually a 
nicely alliterative imitation of the call-note, shi-ju, 
shi-ju.) 

I can find no differences between my series of 40 Kyonggi Do speci- 
mens and a small series of Ussurian birds. Both are however, doubt- 
dully distinct from artatus Thayer and Bangs of northeastern China, in 
being perhaps a shade darker above and below. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —2,16 Apr. 1912 (AMNH); 23 Aug.-28 Sept. 1917 (6) 

(LiWM); 22 July 1929 (Won). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 5 May 1903 (Roth). 

Pyongan Pukto —12 June 1917 (LiWM). 

Kangwon Do —22 Sept. 1914 (LiWM); 15 June-9 July 1929 (3) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —Nov., Dec. 1887 (Tacz); Apr., June 1889 (Camp); 

7 May 1909, 28 Mar. (3), 12 Dec. 1911 (LiWM); Feb., 
18 Apr. 1917 (J) 20 Sept. 1922 (Kur); 29 Apr. 1925 (2) 
(Mom); 18 Oct. 1927 (USNM); 7 Oct. 1919 (SoM); 12 
Sept. 1928 -3 Apr. 1929 (6) (Won); 8 Apr., 14, 24 Oct. 
1933 (Uch); 20 May 1917, 10 Nov. 1926, 10 Oct, 1927, 
27 June 1928 (7), 22 Nov. 1945 -18 Apr. 1946 (33) 
(MCZ). 

Chungchong Namdo— 9 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 23 Dec. 1912, 3 Oct. 1929 (SSC). 

Kyongsang Namdo —6 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 

This species is a common permanent resident, the most abundant 
forest bird in Korea. It is a poor day's birding when you cannot find 
a few titmice, even in the poorest, sparsest woods. They travel through 
the evergreens in winter, usually in small, loosely-knit flocks, and as 
the days start warming up in February and March, their constant 
"shi-ju" is the bird note heard most frequently. Occasionally one 
finds travelling with them smaller numbers of Marsh Tits and Long- 



190 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

tailed Tits, but the Great Tit is by far the most numerous. Tac- 
zanowski (1884,465) notes "commonest of the titmice, but rare in 
summer." 

Despite its abundance, there is little known of its breeding in Korea. 
There is a nest and eggs in the LiWong Museum from Kyonggi Do, 
dated 23 May 1910. 

241. Parus ater amurensis Buturlin 

Periparus ater amurensis Buturlin, Orn. Monatsb., 15, 1907, p. 80. (Amur, 

Ussuri.) 
Periparus ater tyoosenensis Momiyama, Annot. Orn. Orient., 1, no. 1, 1927, p. 
31. (central Korea.) (synonym.) 

English: Coal Tit. 

Japanese: Hi gara (day or sun tit.) 

Having seen insufficient Korean material, I can but follow the 1942 
Hand-List, which assigns the Sakhalin as well as the Korean birds to 
this race. A small series of Ussurian birds in the M.C.Z., however, is 
doubtfully distinct from P. a. ater, and a single Sakhalin bird as well 
as ten specimens from northeastern Chihli are apparently inseparable 
from P. a. insularis from Hokkaido and Honshu. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —30 May 1912 (AMNH); 26 July-29 Aug. (1 ad., 5 juv.), 

19 Oct. (2) 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto —25 Oct. 1917 (2) (Taka). 

Kangwon Do -11 Sept.-2 Oct. 1914 (4) (LiWM); 9 July (1 ad., 2 juv.), 

27 Nov. 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do -13 Oct. 1887 (Tacz); Sept., Oct. 1889 (3) (Camp); Dec 

1909, 17, 20 Dec. 191 1 (LiWM); June 1917 (2), 1, 3 Oct, 
3 Nov. 1926 (Taka); 4 June 1923 (Kur); Mar. 1922 (7), 
12 May 1924, 29 Apr. 1925 (Mom); Oct. 1926 (SoM); 
7, 20 Sept, 1929 (Won). 

Chungchong Namdo— 9 Apr. 1917 (9) (Kur). 

Cholla Namdo —1 1 Jan. 1930 (Yam). 

This species is a not uncommon summer resident; a few winter in the 
southern provinces. Taezanowski (1888, 455) says "sometimes very 
common in the conifer forests during the entire autumn, in winter and 
in spring; rare in summer." Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1918) give 
its season near Seoul as March and April, October and November. 
Kobayashi (1931) observed it in Hwanghae Do, two on 20 March and 






AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 191 

10 on 21 March and Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) saw it in Chungchong Pukto 
25 May 1931. Won (1934, 87) says it is rare, but breeds. Gumming 
(1933, 28) writes "It is usually seen feeding in company with others of 
the Chickadee family, cheerful and spry as it moves through the low 
trees and shrubbery in search of any kind of small insect." I did not 
encounter it at all. 



242. Parus varitjs varius Temminck and Schlegel 

Par us varius Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Fauna. Japon., Aves, 1848, 

p. 71, pi. 35. (Honshu, Japan.) 
Sitliparus varius koreensis Kuroda and Mori, Dobuts. Zasshi, 36, 1924, pp. 315, 
318. (Koryo, Kyonggi Do, Korea.) (Synonym) 
English: Varied Tit. 
Japanese: Yama gara (mountain tit.) 

The 1942 Hand-List follows Yamashina (1933) in synonymizing 
koreensis as inseparable in series from specimens from the northern 
main islands. 

Specimen records : 

Pyongan Pukto —June, 18 Oct. 1917 (Taka). 

Pyongan Namdo —June 1917 (Kur); 20 June 1917 (Taka). 

Hwanghae Do —May 1918 (Kur). 

Kangwon Do -12 Mar. 1916 (2) (Kur); 13 June-3 July 1929 (4 ad., 3 

juv) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do -10, 12 June, 21, 23 Sept., 14 Oct. 1883 (7) (USNM); 8 

Feb. 1886 (3) (Tacz); 24 Mar. 1910, 6 Jan. 1912 (2), 25 
Apr. 1913, 15 Feb., 4, 9, 20 July 1917 (2) (LiWM); 22 
Apr. 1917, 24 Sept. 1923 (Kur); Jan. 1927, Feb. 1933 
(SoM). 

Cholla Namdo —24 Apr. 1923 (Uch); 25 Feb.-3 Mar. 1929 (4) (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo— 12, 19 Oct. 1884, 18 Apr. 1886 (7) (USNM). 

The Varied Tit is a not uncommon summer resident in the forested 
areas; a few winter in the southern provinces. Taczanowski (1888, 
464) found it "common all year." Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda's (1918) 
Seoul season of late April and May, late October and November, does 
not agree with the specimen record, but suggests the bird is perhaps 
more common during migration. Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) later observed 
it in Chungchong Pukto 25 May 1931. Won (1934, 87) calls it rare and 
breeding, dimming (1933, 28) writes "found in the hills and moun- 
tains where it is fairly common throughout Korea. It is usually seen 



192 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

with other members of the Chickadee family." Yamashina collected 
a nest and three eggs under the eaves of a temple in Kangwon Do 3 
June 1936, which are now in his collection. I did not find the species 
during my stay in Korea. 

243. parus atricapillus sachalinensis Lonnberg 

Parus atricapillus sachalinensis Lonnberg, Journ. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, 
23, 1908, p. 20. (Sakhalin.) 

English: Willow Tit. 
Japanese: Ko gara (little tit.) 

The Willow Tit is a straggler in Korea, known from two records. 
Yamashina (1929, 373) reports an adult male in his collection taken 
near Seoul, 10 October 1926. Mori (1935, 11) lists a specimen, without 
data, taken probably in January 1935, in Hamgyong Pukto by the 
Kyoto University Expedition. 

244. Parus palustris Linne 

Poecilia palustris crassirostris Taczanowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 10, 1885, 

p. 470. (Sidemi, near Vladivostok.) 
Poecile communis hellmayri Bianchi, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. P£tersb., 
7, 1902, p. 236. (Peking.) 

English: Chickadee; Marsh Tit. 
Japanese: Hashibuto gara (thick-billed tit.) 

My nine and Jouy's four Kyonggi Do specimens are inseparable 
from a series of twelve hellmayri from northeastern Chihli. While 
my fresh-killed spring birds are less rufous and darker above and be- 
low than the Chihli autumn skins, Jouy's four September birds, with 
an equal amount of age-foxing, are identical in color to them. They 
are all smaller, darker, and more rufous than a series of crassirostris 
from Ussuri. The five Hamgyong Pukto skins in the AMNH, however, 
agree perfectly with this larger, paler Ussurian subspecies, to which 
Yamashina (1939, 484) assigns Orii's large series of summer adults 
from the same locality. Though as Yamashina points out (1933, 375) 
"the dividing line between the races is unsure," it must lie somewhere 
between southern Hamgyong Pukto and northern Kangwon Do. 
While the 1942 Hand-List arbitrarily assigns hellmayri to all of Korea 
except Hamgyong Pukto, the breeding stock of Hangyong Namdo at 
least must be of an intergrade nature. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 193 

Specimen records: 

Par us palustris crassirostris: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 19 Apr.-2 June 1912 (5) (AMNH); 25, 26 Sept. 1917 (4) 

(LiWM); 26 July 1929 (juv.) (MCZ). 24 July-1 Sept. (20), 

27 Nov., 4 Dec. (3) 1929 (Yam). 

Parus palustris hellmayri: 

Kangwon Do —11 Sept. 1914 (LiWM); 16-30 June 1929 (3) (Yam); 7, 9 Aug. 
1930 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do -5 July, 21 Aug., 20, 24 Sept. 1883 (USNM); 17 Dec. 1887 
(Tacz); Jan. 1889 (2) (Camp); 6 Apr. 1911 (LiWM); 22, 23 
Apr. 1917 (11) (Kur); 7 Apr. 1918 (SSC); Apr. 1916 (2), 20 
Nov., 3 Dec. 1926, 6, 8 Sept. 1927 (Taka); Dec. 1927 (2) 
(SoM); 5 Jan.- 21 Apr. 1946 (9) (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo— 1 Mar. 1930 (Yam). 

This Chickadee is a common resident in Korea, though neither so 
plentiful nor so universally distributed as Parus major. Gumming 
(1933, 27) says it is "rarer than the Common Chickadee, but often 
seen feeding with them in the winter time. In the summer this bird is 
the commonest of the Chickadees in the high mountains." Very little 
is known of its movements, but it probably migrates slightly south- 
ward in winter, as well as into the lowland plains areas from its higher 
breeding grounds in the hills. 

While I observed it frequently with the other titmice (it was always 
third in abundance in the mixed flocks, following the Great Tit and 
the Long-tailed Tit) I saw it just as often in small groups by itself. 
There is no mistaking it for an atricapillus in the field, for its notes are 
so different. Its 'chickadee' note is coarser, shorter, neither as clear, 
complete nor finished, and its vocabulary lacks completely the Black- 
cap's spring song of "Sweet-weather." Otherwise it is just the same, 
tame, friendly little bird. 

A nest and eggs in the LiWong Museum from Kyonggi Do was col- 
lected 20 May 1910, but how much farther south the species breeds is 
unknown, probably in the highlands south to the limit of the conifers. 



245. Aegithalos caudatus (Linne) 

Parus caudatus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 190. (Sweden.) 
Acredula trivirgata magna Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 475. 
(Seoul, Korea.) 



194 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Aegithalos caudatus shim.okoriyam.ae Kuroda, Auk, 40, 1923, p. 312. (Koryo, 
Kyonggi Do, Korea.) (Synonym of magnus.) 

English: Long-tailed Titmouse. 
Japanese: E naga (long handle.) 

The two Korean races of the Long-tailed Tit are most readily dif- 
ferentiated by the presence or absence of the two black crown stripes. 
The slightly larger northern race, A. c. caudatus lacks them entirely, 
and has the crown pure white. This is the breeding form of Hamgyong 
Pukto, and probably northern Pyongan Pukto and Hamgyong Namdo, 
nesting perhaps slightly south of the 41st parallel. The southern form, 
A. c. magnus, has the two crown stripes well developed, divided by a 
narrow white line in the center, and in its extreme form probably does 
not breed north of 38 degrees, or northern Kyonggi Do. The breeding 
bird of the remaining area is an intergrade, showing progressively less 
black on the crown and a correspondingly wider white center line as the 
latitude increases, and vice versa. The birds move irregularly south- 
ward in winter, so that while many typical striped-headed birds re- 
main throughout the year in Kyonggi Do, occasionally pure white- 
headed typical caudatus appear as far south as Cholla Namdo. 

I have examined the type of magnus, and find it not a young cauda- 
tus, as Kuroda claims (1923, 312), but an adult which, while perhaps 
not entirely typical, is much closer to the southern form than it is to the 
northern. The head-stripes are black, not brownish as in Clark's 
description, and, while they are not quite as wide as those in my six 
April Kyonggi Do birds, they are not at all like those of young cauda- 
tus. Neither Clark nor Kuroda described the typical extreme southern 
breeding bird. Both types were collected in mid-October, within a few 
miles of one another; both are undoubtedly migrants which bred some- 
where in the intergrade zone of Hwanghae Do or Pyongan Namdo. 
But as Kyonggi Do is well within the breeding range of the southern 
form, Clark's name is available for it, and shimokoriyamae becomes a 
synonym. 

Specimen records: 

Aegithalos caudatus caudatus: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 7 Nov. 1917 (SSC); 26 July-3 Sept. (4 ad, 1 juv) (Yam); 

1 Feb. 1931 (Won). 
Pyongan Pukto —20 Oct. 1933 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do -14, 24 Oct, 1883 (3) (USNM); 20 Dec. 1911 (LiWM); 

2 Nov. 1922 (Kur); 15 Nov. 1925 (SSC); 23 Oct, 1926, 21 
Feb. 1930 (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo —27 Jan. 1930 (2) (Yam). 






AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 195 

Aegithalos caudatus magnus: 

Kangwon Do —9 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do -24 Oct. 1883 (USNM); Oct., Dec. 1889 (5) (Camp); 17 

Dec. 1911, 15 Feb. 1914, 19 July 1917 (LiWM); 3 Feb. 

1918, 19 Nov., 2 Dec. 1926 (Taka); 22 Apr. (2), 15 Oct. 

1917 (Kur); 25, 26 Oct. 1929, 12 Feb. 1930 (Won); Nov., 

Dec. 1938, 1-29 Dec. 1945 (4). 10-24 Apr. 1946 (6) (MCZ). 

The Long-tailed Tit is a common resident, second in numbers only 
to the Great Tit among the Paridae. Taczanowski (1888, 464) termed 
trivirgatus, a dark-headed form "resident, commonest near Wonsan". 
Campbell (1892, 236) referred his specimens to caudata and wrote "On 
the two or three occasions that I observed Long-tailed Tits in Corea, 
they travelled in bands of a dozen or so, flitting continuously from tree 
to tree and keeping up an incessant and distinctive harsh chirping note." 
Gumming (1933, 29) says "Seen feeding in small flocks through the 
treetops, nervous and always on the move. It is not however particu- 
larly shy and may be followed for close observation. Its oft repeated 
call is not as loud nor varied as that of the Common Chickadee with 
which it is most often seen." 

A nest and eggs in the LiWong Museum from Kyonggi Do is dated 
25 May 1910. 

246. Remiz pendulinus consobrinus (Swinhoe) 

Aegithalus consobrinus Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, p. 133. (Yang- 

tsekiang, China.) 
Remiz consobrinus suffusus Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 474. 
(Fusan, Kyongsang Narado, Korea.) (Synonym.) 
English: Penduline Tit. 
Japanese: Suin-ho gara (Swinhoe's tit.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —18 Apr. 1918 (2) (Taka). 

Pyongan Pukto —25 Apr. -2 May 1929 (8) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —13 May 1917 (3) (LiWM); 15 May 1917 (SSC); 20 Apr. 

1918 (Taka). 
Kyonggi Do —3 Feb. 1918 (Taka). 

Kyongsang Namdo— 21 Dec. 1884 (2) (USNM). 

The Penduline Tit's main migration route is along the continental 
mainland. It is a fairly common spring migrant in the northern pro- 
vinces, and straggles occasionally in winter to the southern part of the 
peninsula. 



196 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

SITTIDAE 

247. Sitta europaea (Linne) 

Sitta amurensis Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871, p. 350. (Amur.) 
Sitta europaea hondoensis Buturlin, Trav. Soc. Nat. Pet.rograd, 44, 1916, p. 171. 

(Honshu, Japan.) 
Sitta europaea buturlini Momiyama, Kaidori, 2, 1931 (8), pp. 4, 22, fig. 1. 

(Mts. of Korea.) (nomen nudum.) 

English: Eurasian Nuthatch. 

Japanese: Goju kara (perhaps from the note, but means fifty 
tit); Ki mahari (tree spirit-needle, not commonly 
used.) 
Yamashina (1932, 227) found his series of thirteen summer Hamg- 
yong Pukto and nine central and southern Korean specimens identical 
with the breeding form of Honshu, while two birds collected by Orii 
in Hamgyong Pukto in October are definitely lighter-bellied, and hence 
assignable to amurensis. Taczanowski (1888, 463) says his two 
January Kyonggi Do specimens "agree perfectly with birds from 
Amur and Ussuri", while Campbell (1892, 236) judged his March 
skins to "show, perhaps, more chestnut on the breast and belly than 
birds from Ussuri". My single spring Nuthatch is pale, with less 
chestnut on the underparts than two autumn specimens in the MCZ 
and the seven Hamgyong Pukto birds in the AMNH, which, like the 
Honshu specimens, are darker below than the Amur series. Size is not 
a criterion, and the two races are a fairly fine split, based on shading of 
the underparts. 

Specimen records: 
Sitta europaea amurensis: 
Hamgyong Pukto— 11, 19 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —Jan. 1887 (2) (Tacz); 13, 17 Dec. 1911, 15 Feb. 1914 

(LiWM); 21 Apr. 1946 (MCZ). 

Sitta europaea hondoensis: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 21 Apr.-18 May 1912 (7) (AMNH); 4, 16, 25 Sept. 1917 
(7) (LiWM); 25 July-1 Sept. (10 ad., 2 juv.) (Yam); 27 
July, 1 Aug. 1929 (Won). 

Pyongan Pukto —2 Oct. 1917 (MCZ); Oct. 1917 (3) (Taka). 

Pyongan Namdo —24 Oct. 1932 (Won). 

Kangwon Do —10, 14 Sept. 1914 (3) (LiWM); 20 June-12 July 1929 (6 ad., 
4 juv.) (Yam); 5, 8 Aug. 1930 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —Mar. 1889 (2) (Camp); 25, 28 Apr. 1913 (LiWM); 23 Apr. 

1917 (2), 24 Sept, 1923 (Kur); 6 Nov. 1926 (6) (Taka); 6, 7 
Nov. 1926 (4) (Yam); 21 Oct, 1928 (SoM); 10 Oct. (2), 20 
Sept. 1929 (Won); Nov. 1938 (2) (MCZ). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 197 

The Eurasian Nuthatch is not uncommon in Korea, hondoensis as the 
resident race, breeding in the northern and central highlands and 
wintering slightly southward, and amurensis a winter visitor as far 
south as Kyonggi Do. Both Campbell and Taczanowski mention it as 
only a winter bird near Seoul, and Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) 
give its season there as from November through February. Won 
(1934, 86) claims it breeds in both Hamgyong Pukto and Kyonggi Do. 



248. Sitta canadensis Linne 

Sitta villosa Verreaux, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, 1, 1865, Bull., p. 78, pi. 5, 

fig. 1. (China, north of Peking.) 
Sitta corea Ogilvie-Grant, Bull. B. O. C, 16, 1906, p. 87. (110 miles southeast 

of Seoul, Korea [probably at Mungchong, Chungchong Pukto.]) 
Sitta villosa yamashinai Momiyama, Kaidori, 2, 1931 (8), pp. 5, 24. (Hamg- 
yong Pukto, Korea.) (nomen nudum.) 
English: Grey Nuthatch. 
Japanese: Chosen goju kara (Korean nuthatch.) 

The 1942 Hand-List follows Yamashina (1933, 353, 355) who 
assigns the Hamgyong Pukto specimens to S. c. villosa, and those of 
the remainder of Korea to S. c. corea. Ogilvie-Grant's corea is de- 
scribed as being smaller than villosa, and with no rufous on the breast 
and belly, in which characters the two winter Kyonggi Do skins in the 
MCZ agree. 

Specimen records: 

Sitta canadensis villosa: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 30 July-29 Aug. 1929 (5) (Yam); 10 Aug. 1929 (Won); no 
data (Mom). 

Sitta canadensis corea: 

Pyongan Pukto —20 Oct. 1933 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —19 July 1917 (LiWM); 10 Oct. 1917 (SSC); 7 Dec. 1917 

(2), 20 Oct. 1926 (Taka); 15 Mar. 1924 (Kur); Nov., Dec. 

1938 (MCZ). 
Kyongsang Pukto— 30 Nov. 1905 (Ogilvie Grant.) 

The Grey Nuthatch is an uncommon resident in Korea, probably 
limited to the conifer forests in the highlands, dimming (1933, 26) 
says "hills and mountains of Korea." Won (1934) says it is rare but 
breeds. There is no other information available on its status in Korea, 
beyond that afforded by the few specimens that have been taken. 



198 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

CERTHIIDAE 

249. Certhia familiaris familiaris Linne 

Certhia familiaris Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 118. (Sweden.) 
Certhia familiaris kawamurai Momiyama, Annot. Orn. Orient., 1 (1), 1927, 
p. 22. (Seoul, Korea.) (Synonym.) 

English : Common Tree Creeper. 

Japanese: Kita kibashiri (northern tree-runner.) 



Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto —11 May-2 June 1912 (3) (AMNH); 22-26 Oct. 1929 (10) 
(Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto —July 1917 (2) (Taka). 

Pyongan Namdo —31 Nov. 1932 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —5 Nov. 1883 (USNM); Dec, Jan. 1889 (Camp); Nov. 

1916 (Taka); Dec. 1909, 24 Mar. 1910 (2), 17 Dec. 1911, 
29 Oct. 1914 (LiWM); Dec. 1925, 1 Oct.-l Nov. 1929 (5) 
(Mom); Nov. 1926 (SoM); 10 May 1916 (Kyoto Mus.); 
9 Mar., 9 Nov. 1929, 6 Feb., 10 Mar. 1930, 19 Jan., 19 
Feb. 1931 (Won); 28 Dec. 1929 (SSC); 4 Nov. 1935 
(Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo— 15 Nov. 1884 (USNM); 19 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

From the record the Tree Creeper is a not uncommon transient 
throughout Korea, with a few occasionally wintering in the southern 
provinces. Taczanowski (1888, 463) says it is "common in winter". 
Campbell (1892, 236) "observed the Common Creeper only in winter, 
when it was fairly plentiful. Cumming (1933, 26) notes you "usually 
see it in the winter feeding with the chickadees". Won (1934, 86) on 
the other hand, calls it rare. I did not find it at all. 



TIMALIIDAE 



250. Rhopophilus pekinensis pekinensis (Swinhoe) 

Drymceca ■pekinensis Swinhoe, Ibis, 1868, p. 62. (Peking, China.) 
English: Chinese Babbler. 

Japanese: Kara chimedori (Kara is ancient China; chimedori 
is any timaline bird.) 






AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 199 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 21 Sept. 1912 (SSC). 

Pyongan Pukto —3 Jan. 1928 (Won). 

Pyongan Namdo —17 Apr., 18 Nov. 1931, 9 July 1932 (Won); 25 June 1932 

(Km). 
Hwanghae Do —3 Mar. 1914 (2) (LiWM); 1 Jan. 1919 (Kur); Mar. 1926, 

5 July 1928 (Won). 
Kyonggi Do —5 July 1928 (SoM). 

The Chinese Babbler is a rare visitor to Korea, of uncertain status. 
Won (1934, 92) states that it is common and breeds, but the Japanese 
have not accepted his opinion. The 1942 Hand-List regards the species 
as a straggler. 

BRACHYPODIDAE 

251. Microscelis amaurotis hensoni (Stejneger) 

Hypsipetes amaurotis hensoni Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, 1893, p. 347. 

(Hokkaido.) 
Microscelis amaurotis coreensis Momiyama, Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Jap., 2 (3), 
1932, p. 315. (nomen nudum.) 

English: Henson's Brown-eared Bulbul. 
Japanese: Hiyodori (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Kyonggi Do —Dec, Jan., Feb. 1887 (10) (Tacz); Nov. 1909, 29 Nov. 

1910, 8 Feb. 1914, 2 Jan. 1916 (LiWM); 17 Oct. 1918, 
8 Nov. 1927 (Taka); 10 Jan. 1923 (Mom); 6 Feb., 9 
Mar., 9 Apr. 1929, 9 Jan., 9 Apr., 25 Dec. 1930, 19, 23 
Jan. 1931 (Won); 10 Feb. 1930, 22 Feb. 1932 (SoM); 
26 Jan.-24 Apr. 1946 (7) (MCZ). 

Chungchong Namdo— 12 Dec. 1917 (2) (SSC). 

Cholla Namdo —19 Feb. 1914 (LiWM); 18 Dec. 1929-26 Feb. 1930 (11) 

(Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo —30 Nov. 1883 (USNM). 

The Brown-eared Bulbul is a not uncommon winter visitor to the 
southern half of Korea, from Kyonggi Do southward. It is a noisy, 
active bird of the open woodlands, feeding through the thin forests in 
small bands of from two to five individuals. Its call note has a distinct 
thrush-like quality, and its burbling song is one of the few bird melodies 
you hear in winter. Taczanowski (1888, 464) says "in the winter of 
1886-7 it was common around Seoul and fed on the junipers, the next 
winter it was completely absent." Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) observed it in 



200 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Chungchong Pukto 25 May 1931. I found Bulbuls around the ever- 
greens in the palace grounds at Seoul every time I went there between 
December and April, and encountered it in the brush and woodlands at 
the heads of the valleys around Suwon from January until the end of 
April. 

CINCLIDAE 

252. Cinclus pallasii hondoensis Momiyama 

Cinclus pallasii hondoensis Momiyama, Annot. Orn. Orient., 1 (1), 1927, p. 
52. (Shimotsuke, Honshu.) 

English : Pale Pallas' Dipper. 
Japanese: Kawa garasu (river crow.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto —15 Aug. 1917 (LiWM). 

Hamgyong Namdo— Mar., Dec. 1887 (3) (Tacz); 26 Mar. 1914 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto —29 Dec. 1927 (SoM); 22 Jan. 1938 (Won). 

Kangwon Do —2 July, 2 Dec. 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —9 Feb. 1889 (Camp); 10 Mar. 1911, 5 Feb., 21 Nov. 1912 

(LiWM); Jan. 1918, 10 Feb. 1923 (Kur); 18 Aug. 1920 
(SSC); 2 Dec. 1938, 20 Nov. 1939 (MCZ). 

Cholla Pukto —Dec. 1918 (Y. Kur). 

Kyongsang Namdo— 18 Jan. 1912 (LiWM). 

The Dipper is a not uncommon resident in the highlands throughout 
Korea, on fast-running mountain streams. Taczanowski (1888, 463) 
says "common in winter, but one does not begin to meet it until sixty 
kilometers north of Seoul, from where one finds it up to the Russian 
frontier." Campbell (1892, 21) observed Dippers in the mountains of 
Hamgyong Pukto and Kangwon Do in September. Won (1934, 94) 
calls it common and breeding. Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) found it in Chung- 
chong Pukto 25 May 1931. There are no data on its nesting in Korea. 



TROGLODYTIDAE 

253. Troglodytes troglodytes peninsulae (Clark) 

Olbiorchilusfumigatus peninsulae Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, p. 474. 
(Fusan, Kyongsang Namdo, Korea.) 

English: Korean Wren. 

Japanese: Misosazai (autochthonous.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 201 

The breeding place of this distinct dark race has yet to be demon- 
strated. Southern Korea, though the type locality, is unquestionably 
only its wintering ground. While it may possibly breed in secluded, 
high mountain valleys in Korea, it seems improbable, for there are no 
Korean records later than April (other than a sight record by Y. 
Kuroda (1935, 88) for Chungchong Pukto 25 May 1931) nor earlier than 
October. There is a specimen in the M.C.Z. identical with the Korean 
skins, taken in Vladivostok 8 December 1884. Summer specimens from 
eastern Manchuria and southeastern Siberia might answer the question. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —21, 22 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — Jan. 1936 (Taka). 

Hwanghae Do —Feb. 1926 (SoM). 

Kangwon Do —26 Nov., 2 Dec. 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —Dec, Jan. 1886-7 (5) (Tacz); 20 Jan. 1889 (Camp); 

Nov., Dec. 1909, 28 Mar., 5 Apr. (5) 1911 (LiWM); 
Feb. 1916, Oct. 1917, 20 Nov. 1926, 26 Dec. 1927 (Taka); 
9 Mar. 1923, 26 Feb. 1926 (2) (Kur); 31 Oct. 1926, 29 
Dec. 1929, 5 Jan. 1931 (Won); 1 Dec. 1929 (SoM); 26 
Apr. 1936 (Uch); 20 Dec. 1927, 2 Dec. 1938, 6 Jan., 9, 19 
Mar., 6 Apr. 1946 (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo —13, 27 Dec. 1929 (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo— 4 Dec. 1884, 14 Dec. 1885 (USNM). 

This species is a not uncommon winter visitor in Korea. Both Tac- 
zanowski (1888) and Campbell (1892) list it as resident, but their only 
specimens are December and January. Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda 
(1919) give its season in Seoul as from November through February. 
Hashimoto (1932) saw it a number of times at Shichihatsu Island, 
Cholla Namdo, between 28 October 1930 and 23 April 1932, and again 
(1937) at Hachibi Island in Kyonggi Do, where his earliest autumn 
records are 20 October 1933 and 22 October 1936, and his latest spring 
dates 27 April 1934 and 21 April 1936. ^Yon (1934, 94) says it is com- 
mon and that it breeds, to which Yamashina and the 1942 Hand-List 
agree, but the evidence does not support the claim. 

Cumming (1933, 39) gives the following accurate first-hand summa- 
tion: "This bird probably breeds in Siberia, for it is only seen in Korea 
after the cold weather comes and is not reported elsewhere in the 
Japanese Empire. It is rarely seen then except solitary, feeding along 
in the brush and grass of some stream side or around the fences of the 
Korean homes. It often takes refuge in the chimneys or underground 






202 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

flues from which it has received its Korean name [Kultuk-sai, meaning 
chimney-bird]. It is fussy and nervous like its western kin." 

I observed only eight individuals between 26 November 1945 and 
6 April 1946, of which I was able to collect four. I found the bird 
extremely shy, and adept at concealing itself when flushed. It loves 
to scoot in under the roots of fallen trees and beneath the overhanging 
banks of streams and eroded gullies. Its small size lends it a maddening 
propensity for slipping through the shot-pattern. 



TURDIDAE 

254. Turdus aureus aureus Holandre 

Turdus aureus Holandre, Faune dep. Moselle, in Ann. Mos., 1825, p. 60. 
(Metz.) 

English: White's Ground Thrush. 
Japanese: Tora tsugumi (tiger thrush.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto —26 Apr. -6 May 1929 (3) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —20 Apr. 1918 (Taka). 

Kangwon Do —23 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do -Apr., May 1887 (Tacz); 22 Apr. 1909, 13 May 1910 (4) 

(LiWM); 18 Apr. 1914 (SSC); 10 Sept. 1923, 12 Apr. 1928 
(SoM); 12, 21 Apr. 1928 (Won); 11, 23 Apr. 1946 (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo -2 Apr. 1924, 22, 26 Oct. 1928, 10 Apr. 1931 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo— 22 Apr. 1886 (USNM). 

This handsome thrush is a not uncommon migrant in Korea, seem- 
ingly more plentiful in spring than in autumn. Taczanowski (1888, 463) 
met it only in spring. Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) list it as occurr- 
ing near Seoul in May only. Won (1934, 92) says it is uncommon, but 
that it breeds, in which both Yamashina (1941, 199) and the 1942 
Hand-List concur. But in view of the specimen record, and the paucity 
of any other information, the species can only be regarded as a transient. 



255. Turdus sibiricus sibiricus Pallas 

Turdus sibiricus Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 694. 
(Dauria.) 

English: Siberian Ground Thrush. 

Japanese: Shiberiya mamijiro (Siberian white-eyebrow.) 






AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 203 

(The 1942 Hand-List gives the Japanese race, T.s. davisoni (Hume) 
as a straggler in Korea. The four specimens from Cholla Namdo in the 
Uchida collection were originally identified as davisoni, but the only 
one of them still in existence I found to be sibiricus. Neither of the 
other two specimens assigned to davisoni (Mori's Pyongan Pukto speci- 
men in the SSC, and Won's Kyonggi Do bird in the SoM) is available 
for verification of subspecific identification, but it is doubtful if either 
was ever compared with specimen material of both races.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto -26 May 1917 (3) (LiWM); 27 May 1917 (SSC); 16-20 

May 1929 (10) (Yam). 
Kyonggi Do —20 June 1909 (2) (LiWM); undated (2) (Kur); 19 May 

1926 (SoM). 
Cholla Namdo —20 Sept. 1924, 23 Sept. 1928, 19 Oct. 1930, 17 Sept. 1931 

(Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo— 7 May 1884, 23 Sept. 1885 (USNM). 

This thrush is a common spring migrant along the northern border, 
following the mainland migration route. It is less common during both 
spring and autumn flights in the southern part of the peninsula. 

256. Turdus cardis cardis Temminck 

Turdus cardis Temminck, PL Col., livr. 87, 1831, pi. 518. (Japan.) 
English: Japanese Grey Thrush. 
Japanese: Kuro tsugumi (black thrush.) 

This species is a straggler to southern Korea from the Japanese main 
islands. There are three specimens on record. Jouy collected a female 
25 April 1884 and a young male 26 April 1886 at Fusan, Kyongsang 
Namdo. The third was taken in Cholla Namdo 6 September 1923 and 
is now in the Uchida collection. Mori (1917, 73) claims to have col- 
lected one in Pyongan Pukto during May or June 1917, but there is no 
such specimen in any of the subsequent lists. 

257. Turdus hortulorum Sclater 

Turdus hortulorum Sclater, Ibis, 1863, p. 196. (Amoy, China.) 
English: Grey-backed Thrush. 
Japanese: Kara akahara (Chinese red-belly.) 



204 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —28 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto —3 Apr .-4 May 1929 (10) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —20 Apr. 1918 (2) (Taka); 24 Apr. 10 Oct. 1931, 27 May 

1932, 22 June 1933 (Won). 
Hwanghae Do —7 May 1917 (SSC). 
Kyonggi Do —21 Apr. 1911 (2) (LiWM); Apr. 1916 (Kur); 15, 16 Oct. 

1927 (3) (Taka); 23 Apr. 1929 (SoM); 22 Apr. 1946 (2) 

(MCZ). 
Chungchong Namdo — June (Kur). 
Cholla Namdo —20 Nov. 1924, 25 Apr. 1932 (Uch). 

The Grey-backed Thrush is a not uncommon transient, more plenti- 
ful apparently in the north near the mainland flight route than in the 
southern end of the peninsula, and in spring than in autumn. I col- 
lected the only two I encountered, in fairly heavy forest near Suwon, 
22 April. 

258. Turdus pallidus Gmelin 

Turdus pallidus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 815. (Lake Baikal.) 
English: Pale Ouzel. 
Japanese: Shirohara (white belly.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto —27-30 Apr. 1929 (3) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —21 July 1934, 6 May 1936 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —Spring 1887 (Tacz); 22 Apr. 1911 (LiWM); 20 Apr. 1917 

(Kur); 24 Apr. 1929 (SoM). 
Cholla Namdo —22 Nov. 1928, 30 Oct. 1930 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo— 25-29 Apr. 1884 (5) (USNM). 

The Pale Ouzel is an uncommon spring and autumn transient. 
Taczanowski (1888, 454) says "one sees it only during the two migra- 
tion periods". Won (1934) considers it uncommon. It is noteworthy 
that all the specimen records, except those of Uchida from Cholla 
Namdo, are during the spring migration. 

259. Turdus obscurus obscurus Gmelin 

Turdus obscurus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 816. (Lake Baikal.) 

English: Grey-headed Thrush. 

Japanese: Mamichajinai (autochthonous; mamicha is brown- 
eyebrow, jinai perhaps a bird name of uncertain 
derivation.) 






AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 205 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto —26 May 1917 (2) (LiWM); 11-19 May 1929 (9) (Yam). 
Kyonggi Do —21 May 1887 (2) (Tacz); May 1889 (Camp); 16 Nov. 1914 

(LiWM); Apr. (Kur); undated (SSC). 
Cholla Namdo —6 Nov. 1923, 8 Dec. 1927, 7, 11 May, 12 Nov. 1931 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo— 3 May 1884 (USNM). 

The Grey-headed Thrush is a not uncommon transient, seemingly- 
more plentiful in the northern provinces than it is farther south. 
Taczanowski (1888, 454) calls it a "bird of passage on both migrations." 
Campbell (1892) gives a sight record for Hamgyong Pukto, 4 October 
1889. Won never collected it. 



260. Turdus chrysolaus chrysolaus Temminck 

Turdus chrysolaus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 87, 1831, pi. 537. (Japan.) 
English: Japanese Brown Thrush. 
Japanese: O-akahara (large red-belly.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Namdo —27 May 1931 (Won). 

Cholla Namdo —20 June 1929, 25 Apr. 1932 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo— 3, 7 May 1884 (USNM). 

The Japanese Brown Thrush is little more than a straggler to 
southern Korea from the main islands. Kuroda (1917, 55) lists an 
April record for Chongyon-ri near Seoul without source or details, 
which he does not repeat in his English (1918) version, and there is no 
such specimen on record. Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) say "a very 
few can be found in the hunting season but not in spring" and list it for 
October only in the Seoul region. Won (1934, 92) says "rare, transient 
in spring and autumn." 



261. Turdus naumanni Temminck 

Turdus naumanni Temminck, Man. d'Orn., 1, 1820, p. 170. (eastern Asia.) 
Turdus eunomus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 87, 1831, pi. 514. (Japan.) 

English: Naumann's Thrush, Dusky Thrush. 

Japanese: Tsugumi (autochthonous for T. n. eunomus); Hachijo 
tsugumi (Hachijo thrush, for T. n. naumanni.) 



206 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

While these are two very different looking birds, they intergrade to 
such an extent that they are now considered only subspecifically dis- 
tinct. Their breeding ranges are given as across central Siberia, from 
the Yenissei eastward, T. n. eunomus north to the tree line, and T. n. 
naumanni to the southward. Both mingle on migration, but eunomus 
travels farther to the eastward and southward, occurring in Korea only 
as a migrant. The common wintering form is naumanni. 

Specimen records : 

T urdus naumanni naumanni: 

Hamgyong Pukto —21 Apr. 1912 (AMNH). 

Pyongan Pukto —4-28 Apr. 1929 (9) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —19, 26 Jan., 17 Mar. 1931, 31 Apr. 1932 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —Jan., Feb. 1887 (4) (Tacz); winter 1889 (3) (Camp); 

Feb. 1910, 2 Apr., 24 Dec. 1911, 2 Jan. 1916 (LiWM); 

20 Apr. 1917 (2) (Kur); 2 Mar., 2 Apr. 1917, 27 Feb., 5, 

6, 14 Mar. 1927 (Taka); 2 May 1918, 24 Dec. 1929, 12 

Feb. 1931 (SSC); 5, 15 Mar. 1929, 17 Mar. 1930 (Won); 

8 Apr. 1930, 16 Apr. 1931 (SoM); 30 Mar. 1936 (Uch); 

22 Nov. 1945-14 Apr. 1946 (20) (MCZ). 
Chungchong Namdo— 8 Apr. 1917 (2) (Kur). 
Cholla Namdo —1-25 Jan. 1930 (3) (Yam); 15 Mar. 1927 (Taka); 21 

May 1928 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo —3 Jan. 1886 (USNM). 

Turdus naumanni eunomus: 

Hamgyong Pukto —21 Apr. 1912 (AMNH); 25 Apr. 1918 (Taka). 

Pyongan Pukto -26 May 1917 (LiWM); 4 Apr.-21 May 1929 (11) (Yam); 
25 Apr. 1935 (SSC). 

Pyongan Namdo —3 May 1917 (Kur); 14 May 1917 (LiWM); 27 Apr. 1931, 
21 Apr.; 31 Oct, 1932, 6 June 1933 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do —24 Apr. 1917 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do —Nov. 1909, 2 Apr.-22 May (4) 1909 (LiWM); 19, 20 Apr. 

1917 (Kur); 6, 14 Mar. 1927 (Taka); 21 Apr. 1928, 25 
Apr. 1930 (Won); Mar. 1928 (SoM); 13 Mar. 1931 
(USNM); 2-27 Apr. 1946 (3) (MCZ). 

Cholla Pukto —9 Apr. 1917 (2) (Kur). 

Cholla.Namdo —25 Feb. 1927 (Taka); 22 Oct.-22 Nov. 1928 (7), 21 Apr. 
1932 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo— 12 Mar. 1884 (USNM). 

T. n. naumanni is a common winter resident from Kyonggi Do south- 
ward. Campbell (1892, 232) found the southward flight commenced 
in Hamgyong Pukto during the first week of October, 1889, and Y. 
Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) give its season in Seoul as from October 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 207 

through April. They were already common the first day I went afield 
and collected my first ones 22 November 1945, for I encountered three 
flocks that day of from five to ten birds each. I found them almost 
always in evidence throughout the winter and early spring, though 
never in great numbers, usually small bunches of from three to a dozen 
birds. There was a marked increase in their numbers 18 March as the 
first migrants from the south appeared, and larger flocks, numbering 
from ten to fifty birds were numerous during the ensuing fortnight. 
They thinned out rapidly again after 26 March, but a few kept straggl- 
ing through well in to April, in company with eunomus. The latest 
spring record is Kuroda's of 20 April. 

T. n. eunomus visits Korea strictly as a transient, far more plentiful 
in spring than in autumn. The LiWong November specimen is the only 
fall record, and Jouy's March bird from Kyongsang Namdo is the 
earliest spring arrival date. The autumn migration evidently goes 
southward across the Japan Sea to northern Japan, landing in central 
Honshu in the Ishikawa area, and the birds winter from southern 
Honshu south to the Ryukyus. The spring flight, never pronounced 
in Japan, goes northward farther westward along the coast of mainland 
Asia, following the main flight of naumanni after it leaves its wintering 
grounds in southern Korea. I collected a bird 17 March w T hich is a 
good intergrade between the two races, and several I took during the 
naumanni flight in late March show intermediate characters which 
were entirely absent in the wintering birds. I saw the first well-defined 
eunomus 2 April, and collected two males. Their flight continued 
through the month, and was still in evidence when I left in early May, 
though it never assumed the proportions of the movement of the 
wintering race. They were always in smaller numbers, and it was 
unusual to see more than a few of them daily. The latest spring dates 
are the LiWong specimens of 22 May in Kyonggi Do and 26 May in 
Pyongan Pukto. 

262. Monticola gularis (Swinhoe) 

Oroecetes gularis Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1862, p. 318. (Tientsin, 
China.) 

English: Swinhoe's Rock Thrush. 

Japanese: Hime isohiyo (princess coast-bulbul.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 26. May 1912 (AMNH); 5 July 1929 (Won); 26 Aug. 1929 
(2 juv.) (Yam). 



208 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Pyongan Pukto —Sept, 1915 (2) (SSC); 24, 26 May 1917 (4) (LiWM); 27 
May 1917 (2) (Kur); 24, 26 May, 20 July 1917 (Taka); 
11-19 May 1929 (11) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —24 May 1919 (Doi); 27 May 1931, 23 May 1932 (Won). 

Cholla Namdo —20 May 1930 (Uch). 

Here is another bird of the Asiatic mainland which is common in 
migration along the northern border of Korea, and seldom straggles 
farther south on the peninsula. In view of the two juvenals Orii col- 
lected in Hamgyong Pukto, and Taka-Tsukasa's July specimen from 
Pyongan Pukto, it is possible that the species breeds along the northern 
coasts of both provinces, and may be regarded as a rare summer resi- 
dent. It is known to breed nearby in Manchuria. Won (1934, 93) calls 
it rare. 

263. Monticola solitarius magnus (LaTouche) 

Petrophila solitaria magna LaTouche, Bull. B. O. C, 40, 1920, p. 97. (Japan.) 
English: Large Red -bellied Rock-thrush. 
Japanese: Iso hiyodori (coast bulbul.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo— 10 May 1903 (Roth). 

Pyongan Pukto —3-9 June 1917 (4) (LiWM); 4, 9 June 1917 (Taka); 27 

May, 1917, 1 June 1935 (SSC). 
Pyongan Namdo —30 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 
Kangwon Do —31 Mar., 17 Sept, 1914 (LiWM); 14-24 June 1929 (10) 

(Yam). 
Kyonggi Do —7 Sept. 1883 (USNM); May 1887 (Tacz);20 June 1909 

(3), 30 Apr. 1911 (2) (LiWM); June 1917 (Kur); 4 June 

1912 (SSC); 10 May 1922, May 1927 (SoM); 29 June 

1933 (juv), 7 June 1934 (Uch). 
Cholla Namdo —7 Jan., 20 Feb. 1914 (LiWM) ; 10 Oct, 1925, 31 Aug. 1930 

(Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo— 28 Apr. 1884 (USNM); 5 Jan. 1924 (Uch.). 

The Red-bellied Rock-thrush is a not uncommon summer resident 
along both east and west coasts; a few winter along the southern shores. 
Taczanowski (1888, 463) says it is "common and nests, leaves the 
country in winter". Kuroda (1918, 539) says it "is sometimes met with 
on the rocky mountains". Gumming (1933, 38) writes "Along rocky 
coasts . . . This is the bird which is seen every summer around the 
rocks of the 'point' at Sorai Beach [Cholla Namdo]." According to 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 209 

Hashimoto (1932) it is a year-round resident at Shichihatsu Island in 
Cholla Namdo. He also (1937) observed it occasionally in winter at 
Hachibi Island in Kyonggi Do. He saw three there 17 Dec. 1934, and 
again on 6 Feb. 1934 and 23 Feb. 1935. He found its nest 1 June 1933, 
and notes the young flew away 21 June that year. They left the nest 
15 June 1934. Won (1934) considers it common and breeding; Yama- 
shina (1941, 270) calls it a year-round resident in the southern part of 
Korea, with migrants going north to Manchuria. 



264. Saxicola torquata stejnegeri (Parrot) 

Pratincola rubicola stejnegeri Parrot, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern, 8, 1908, p. 124. 
(Etorofu and Hokkaido.) 

English: Japanese Stonechat. 
Japanese: No bitaki (field chat.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —19 May 1912 (AMNH); 18 Apr. 1918 (Taka); 8 Aug. 

1929 (Won). 
Hamgyong Namdo— 25 July 1916 (SSC). 
Pyongan Pukto —6-29 Apr. 1929 (7) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo —29 Apr. 1931, 15 Apr. 1932 (Won). 
Kangwon Do —11 Apr. 1914 (4) (LiWM); 19 June 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do -10 Sept. 1883 (im.) (USNM); Aug. 1888 (Camp); 23 

Apr. 1911 (LiWM); 22 Apr. 1917 (2) (Kur); 21 Mar., 9 

May 1928 (Taka); 4 Apr. 1930 (Won); 8 Apr. 1933 (Uch); 

13, 15, 26 Apr. 1946 (MCZ). 
Cholla Namdo —24, 29 Apr. 1931 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo— 20 Apr. 1884, 19, 24, 25 Apr. 1885, 11 Apr. 1886 (USNM). 

The Stonechat is a not uncommon summer resident. Kalinowski 
missed it entirely, and Campbell (1892, 233) considered it an "uncom- 
mon visitor". Won (1934, 93) calls it common and breeding. Kuroda 
(1917, 57) found "a few" in April and early May along the west coast, 
which coincides with my own experience. I found scattered pairs at 
the heads of the valleys, on the peripheries of the upland farms, where 
the cultivated lands edge the brushy foothills. Y. Kuroda and Miya- 
koda (1919) call it a year-round resident, in which they are in error, 
and say they "saw a nest at Keifuku palace", which is possible, but 
hardly reliable. Despite the lack of confirmatory data, the species 
undoubtedly breeds in Korea, probably in the upland cultivated areas. 



210 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology . 

265. Tarsiger cyanurus cyanurus (Pallas) 

Motacilla cyanurus Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 2, 1773, p. 709. 
(Yenesei.) 

English: Siberian Blue-tail. 
Japanese: Ruri bitaki (azure chat.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto —2-9 Apr. 1929 (9) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 15 Apr. 1931 (Won). 

KyonggiDo —24 Oct. 1883 (USNM); Apr., Sept., Oct. 1889 (Camp); 
Nov. 1909, 23 Apr. 1911, 25 Oct. 1914 (2) (LiWM); 20-23 
Apr. 1917 (5) (Kur); 7 May 1918, 14 Feb. 1930 (SSC); 12 
Oct.-8 Nov. 1926 (10) (Taka); 1 June 1926, 13 Apr. 1928, 
5 Apr. 1929, 30 Jan. 1930 (Won); 24 Oct. 1933 (2), 4 Nov. 
1935 (Uch); 9-24 Apr. 1946 (12) (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo -19 Jan. 1930 (Yam); 12 Nov. 1931, 12, 23 Apr. 1931 (Uch) 

The Siberian Blue-tail is a common spring and autumn transient in 
Korea; a few winter in the southernmost provinces. I found it a com- 
mon migrant at Suwon through mid-April, where it is a bird of the 
woodlands, usually found in the willow thickets. 

266. Phoenicurus auroreus auroreus (Pallas) 

Motacilla aurorea Pallas, Reise versch Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 695. 
(Selenka, Lake Baikal.) 

English: Daurian Redstart. 
Japanese: Jo bitaki (common chat.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —19 Apr.-2 June 1912 (5) (AMNH); 24 Aug., 25, 27, 28 
Sept. 1917 (LiWM); 28, 29 July, 24 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo— 1 May 1903 (3) (Roth). 

Pyongan Pukto —23 Apr.-12 May 1929 (4) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —3 Apr., 6, 7, 31 Oct. 1932 (Won). 

Kangwon Do —19, 20 June, 30 Nov. 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —12, 16 June, 2, 21 Aug., 8 Oct. 1883 (USNM) ; Nov., Jan., 

Feb., June 1886-8 (Tacz); Sept. 1888 (Camp); 28 Mar. 
(3), 12 Dec. 1911 (LiWM); 3 Oct. 1917 (SSC); 10 Oct.- 
3 Nov. 1927 (8) (Taka); 8 Mar. 1928, 9 Nov. 1929, 10 
Mar. 1930 (Won); 7 June 1929, 4 Apr. 1930 (SoM); 5 
Jan.-31 Mar. 1946 (23) (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo -1 Apr. 1927, 12 Nov. 1931 (Uch); 7 Jan. 1930 (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo— 18, 24 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 211 

The Redstart is a common summer resident in the central and 
northern highlands, and a common winter resident from Kyonggi Do 
southward. Every collector has taken it, and Won (1934, 93) quite 
rightly calls it the "most numerous of all chat species". Gumming 
(1933, 8) mentions its "oft-repeated and very sad little 'tchick, tchick', 
always accompanied by little nervous flirts of the tail, or of the more 
excited call he makes when startled. I had been watching the bird for 
years not knowing he had any other song when one bright sunny 
morning of spring ... I was stopped by a very pleasing song as cheer- 
ful as the morning. I finally located its source, a male redstart in the 
very top of a tall poplar." Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) saw it in Chungchong 
Pukto 25 May 1931. 

Yamashina (1941, 309) says it breeds from the central part of Korea 
northward, and that its definite known breeding district is in the 
mountains of Hamgyong Pukto and Kangwon Do. Won {idem) says 
it "builds its nest under the eaves of dwellings or other buildings." 
Yamashima (unpublished ms.) collected a nest with four fledglings, 
now in his museum, from under the eaves of a temple in Kangwon Do, 
6 June 1936. Adachi (1941, 66) found it nesting in Hamgyong Pukto. 

In the Suwon area I found it a not uncommon winter resident from 
December through March. Through the coldest weather a few could 
always be found in suitable cover. Several wintered in the shrubbery 
around the Station and College buildings. Their numbers began to 
increase in mid-March. There was a marked influx of migrants on 23 
March, and Redstarts were abundant everywhere until 28 March, 
after which their numbers again dwindled off as the flight passed on. 
The last one was observed 10 April 1946. 



267. Phoenicurus ochrurus rufiventris (Vieillot) 

Oenanthe rufiventris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 21, 1818, p. 431. 
(South Africa, error = India.) 

English: Eastern Indian Redstart. 

Japanese: Kuro jo-bitaki (black common chat.) 

This species is a straggler in Korea, known from a single record. 
Taka-Tsukasa (1919, 29) reported a single specimen, a male from the 
description, as being shown him by Viscount Matsudaira. It was col- 
lected in Hamgyong Pukto, 18 May 1918, and was purchased by 
Matsudaira from the Yokahama firm of Japanese collectors who 
succeeded to Owston's business after his death. When Matsudaira 



212 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

was forced to dispose of his collection about 1925, this Redstart speci- 
men was obtained for the Taka-Tsukasa collection and was destroyed 
with it in 1945. 



268. Luscinia calliope (Pallas) 

Molacilla calliope Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 697. 

(Yenesei.) 
Turdus camtschatkensis Gmelia, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 817. (Kamchatka.) 

English: Ruby-throat. 

Japanese: No goma (field steed.) 

Yamashina (1929, 236) assigns the two Pyongan Pukto specimens, 
on the basis of their longer wings (over 78 mm.) to L. c. camtschatkensis. 
All the other Korean specimens have been identified as calliope, the 
southwestern race. The measurements of my Kyonggi Do adult male, 
wing 74 mm. tail 60.5 mm. tarsus 29 mm., place it well within the 
calliope range. 

Specimen records: 

Luscinia calliope camtschatkensis: 
Pyongan Pukto— 12, 17 May 1929 (Yam). 

Luscinia calliope calliope: 

Pyongan Namdo— 10 May 1931, 30 Apr. 1932 (Won). 

Kangwon Do —30 June 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do —1 Oct. 1919 (SSC); 10 Oct. 1920 (Kur); 6 Oct. 1927, 20 

Apr. 1930 (Taka); 26 Apr. 1946 (MCZ). 
Cholla Namdo —14 Apr. 1927, 12 Nov. 1931 (Uch). 

The Ruby-throat is an uncommon transient in Korea. 



269. Luscinia svecica weigoldi Kleinschmidt 

Luscinia svecica weigoldi Kleinschmidt, Abh. Ber. Mus. Tier-u. Volkenk. 
Dresden, 16, 1923 (2), p. 43. (northern Chihli.) 

English: Weigold's Red-spotted Blue-throat. 
Japanese: Ogawa komadori (Ogawa's steed-bird.) 

The only record for this straggler in Korea is a pair Mori (1920, 319) 
collected in a marsh at Susang, Kyonggi Do, 18 October 1919. One of 
these is still in the Seoul Society of Natural History Collection; the 
other was destroyed in 1945 with the Kuroda collection. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 213 

270. Larvivora sibilans Swinhoe 

Larvivora sibilans Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 292. (Macao, 
China.) 

English: Swinhoe's Red-tailed Robin. 
Japanese: Shima goma (striped steed.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 26, 28 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto —7 June 1917 (LiWM); 7-17 May 1929 (10) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —30 May 1917 (LiWM); 12 May 1931 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do -1 Oct. 1883, 7 May 1928 (USNM); 11 May 1887 (Tacz); 

10 Sept. 1888 (Camp); 9, 14 May 1916 (LiWM); Apr. 1917 

(Kur); 4 Oct. 1920 (SSC); 25, 27 Sept., 8 Oct. 1927 (Taka); 

6 May 1928 (Won); 10 May 1929 (SoM); 16 May 1936 

(Uch). 
Cholla Namdo —13 May 1926 (Uch). 

Though I did not encounter it, this species is evidently a not uncom- 
mon spring and autumn transient, especially from Kyonggi Do north- 
ward. Kuroda (1918, 540) says "it seems to be not uncommon in the 
neighborhood of Seoul. Its notes are musical." Y. Kuroda and Miya- 
koda (1919) list it for the Seoul region in late April, early May, and 
October, adding "comparatively common; they can be found singing 
by the inner fence of dwellings near Shochudan Park in Seoul. They 
are fond of a sheltered, sunny place." 



271. Larvivora cyane (Pallas) 

Motacilla cyane Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 697. 
(Dauria.) 

English: Siberian Bluechat. 
Japanese: Ko ruri (small lapis-jewel.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —23 Aug. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto —31 May 1917 (LiWM); 15 July 1917 (Taka); 24 May 

1917 (SSC); 10-18 May 1929 (10) (Yam). 
Kyonggi Do —July 1929 (SoM). 

Cholla Namdo —12, 23 Nov. 1928, 27 Apr. 1930, 13 May 1931, 24, 25 Apr., 

2 Nov. 1932 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo— 7 May 1884, 1, 11 May 1886 (USNM). 



214 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Siberian Bluechat is a not uncommon transient and an uncom- 
mon summer resident. Yamashima (unpublished ms.) has in his col- 
lection a nest with five eggs collected in the highlands of Kangwon Do 
31 May 1936 by Matsuo Takahashi. 

272. Phylloscopus trochiloides plumbeitarsus Swinhoe 

Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 330. (near Peking.) 
English: Middendorff's Willow Warbler. 
Japanese: Yanagi mushikui (willow insect-eater.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 14 Aug. 1917 (LiWM); 23 Aug. 1917 (Taka). 

Pyongan Pukto —3, 4 May 1917 (4) (Kur); 24 May 1917 (LiWM); 17-27 

May 1929 (5) (Yam). 
Kyonggi Do —27, 28 Sept., 8 Oct. 1927 (Taka). 

This species is apparently a not uncommon transient along the 
northern border. Yamashina (1941, 64) says "I saw many on Kumgan- 
san Mountain [Kangwon DqJ the last of May and early June, so I think 
this bird breeds there." However, there is no evidence of its breeding 
in Korea beyond the two August specimens from Hamgyong Pukto, 
and the 1942 Hand-List just lists it as occurring. 

273. Phylloscopus tenellipes Swinhoe 

Phylloscopus tenellipes Swinhoe, Ibis, 1860, p. 53. (Amoy, China.) 
English : Pale-legged Willqw Warbler. 
Japanese: Yezo mushikui (Hokkaido insect-eater.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 18 May 1912 (AMNH). 

Pyongan Pukto —14 May-3 June 1929 (8) (Yam). 

Kangwon Do —7 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo —2, 20 Sept. 1924, 12 Sept. 1926 (Uch). 

This species is of uncertain status in Korea, certainly an uncommon 
(or little observed) transient, and perhaps a rare summer resident in the 
northern highlands. Though Won (1934, 90) says it is common and 
breeds at Nonsadong, Hamgyong Pukto. Yamashina says nothing 
whatever of its possible nesting in Korea. The 1942 Hand-List perhaps 
takes its breeding authority from Hartert (1910, 512) who states it is 
"presumed" to breed in both Japan and Korea. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 215 

274. Phylloscopus borealis Blasius 

Phylloscopus borealis Blasius, Naumannia, 1858, p. 313. (Sea of Okhotsk.) 
Phylloscopus xanthodryas Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 296. 

(Amoy, China.) 
Phylloscopus borealis examinandus Stresemann, Nov. Zool., 1913, p. 353. 
(Bali.) 

English: Arctic Willow Warbler. 
Japanese: Mushikui (insect-eater.) 

The 1942 Hand-List recognizes all three of the above races as occurr- 
ing in Korea, but gives none of them as breeding. Its single record for 
the Kamchatka breeding form, P. b. examinandus, from Shichihatsuto 
[Cholla Namdo] may be in error, for I have been unable to trace it to 
its original source. There is no such specimen, nor any record of there 
ever having been one in the Uchida collection, where all the Shichihat- 
suto material was sent. The other two races are each well represented 
in the Japanese collections. While the northern race, P. b. borealis is the 
more numerous, its occurrence averages earlier in spring and later in 
autumn than xanthodryas, the southern form, which Yamashina 
(1932, 233) believes possibly breeds in Korea. 

Specimen records: 

Phylloscopus borealis xanthodryas: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 10 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto —28 May-4 June 1929 (3) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —9 May 1931, 23 May 1933 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —8 Sept., 6 Oct. 1927 (Taka); 19 Apr. 1928, 24, 29 Sept., 8, 

22, 23 Oct. 1929 (Won); 2 Oct. 1929 (SoM). 
Cholla Namdo —19 May 1932 (Uch). 

Phylloscopus borealis borealis: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 1, 16, 19 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto —26 May, 8 June (6) 1917 (LiWM); 29 May 1917 (Taka); 

17 May-3 June 1929 (17) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo —Aug. (Kur); 21, 22 May 1932 (Won). 
Kangwon Do —23-30 Sept. 1914 (7) (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do —May 1887 (Tacz); 23 May 1914, 15 Oct. 1920 (SSC); 25 

Oct. 1914 (LiWM); 27 Sept. 5 Oct. 1927, 10 Apr. 1930 (2) 

(Taka); 19 Apr. 1928 (USNM);10 Aug. 1927 (Won); 2 

Oct. 1929 (SoM). 
Cholla Namdo —12 Sept. 1926 (2), 2 Dec. 1927, Sept. 1928, May, June 1930, 

7 Oct. 1931, 19 May 1932 (2) (Uch). 



216 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Arctic Willow Warbler is a common spring and autumn tran- 
sient throughout Korea, and perhaps a not uncommon summer resident 
in the highlands. Taczanowski (1888, 463) says "common in spring 
and autumn, rare in summer". W'on (1934, 90) calls it common and 
breeding. Gumming (1933, 35) writes it is "fairly common in all the 
woods on both migrations in Korea, and a summer resident in the 
forests of the mountains. Its weak little song may be heard all through 
the summer months as it feeds through the forest." 

275. Phylloscopus coronatus coronatus (Temminck and Schlegel) 

Ficedula coronata Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Fauna Jap., Aves, 1847, 
p. 48, pi. 18. (Japan.) 

English: Crowned Willow Warbler. 

Japanese: Sendai mushikui (Sendai insect-eater.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —2 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto —16-28 Apr. 1929 (9) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —26 June 1932 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do —1 May 1918 (Taka). 

Kangwon Do — undated (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do —6, 10, 19 Aug., 2, 14 Oct. 1883 (USNM); Apr. 1887 (2) 

(Tacz); 21 Apr. 1889 (Camp); 17, 23 Apr. 1911, 30 May 

1914, 19 July 1917 (LiWM); 3 Oct. 1926 (Taka); 22 Apr. 

1929 (SoM); 9 Aug. 1929 (Won); 12 Apr.-l May 1946 

(10) (MCZ). 
Cholla Namdo —21, 30 Aug. 1930, 23, 30 Apr. 1932 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo— 4, 7 May 1885, 3 May 1886 (USNM). 

This species is probably a not uncommon summer resident. Won 
(1934, 90) calls it common, while Yamashina (1941, 80) and the 1942 
Hand-List both consider it as breeding in Korea. I shot willow warb- 
lers on sight, and saw practically none that I did not collect. This is 
the only species I encountered. It occupies the same ecological niche 
as that of the North American wood-warblers, and the first arrivals 
at Suwon came just as the warbler flight would be expected in New 
England, when the first green is starting to appear on the forest trees. 
Perhaps of significance, indicating a separate migratory movement of 
the sexes, is the fact that my first four specimens taken from 12 to 19 
April are all males, while my last six, collected from 21 April to 1 May, 
are all females. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 217 

276. Phylloscopus proregulus proregulus (Pallas) 

Motacilla proregulus Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 1, 1811, p. 499. (Ingode 
River, southeastern Transbaicalia.) 

English: Pallas' Willow Warbler. 

Japanese: Karafuto mushikui (Sakhalin insect-eater.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto— 24 May 1912 (AMNH); 18, 25 Apr. 1918 (Taka). 
Pyongan Pukto —2 May 1917 (Kur); 7 Oct. 1917 (Taka); 5-17 Apr. 1929 

(12) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo —21 May, 27 Oct. 1932 (Won). 
Kangwon Do —14 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 

This species is a mainland migrant which passes through northern 
Korea fairly regularly, but rarely occurs elsewhere on the peninsula. 
Won (1934, 90) calls it rare, but from the specimen record it seems not 
uncommon. 



277. Phylloscopus inornatus inornatus (Blyth) 

Regulus inornatus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 11, 1842, p. 191. (near Cal- 
cutta.) 

English: Yellow-browed Willow Warbler. 

Japanese: Kimayu mushikui (yellow-eyebrowed insect-eater.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 17, 20, 25 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto —7 Oct. 1917 (Taka); 16 Apr.-18 May 1929 (14) (Yam). 

Hwanghae Do —1 May 1918 (Taka). 

Kangwon Do —30 Sept., 6, 9 Oct. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do —4, 6 Oct. 1883 (USNM); Oct. 1889 (Camp); 23 Apr. 1911, 

25 Oct. 1914 (LiWM); 18 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 4 June 1934 

(Uch). 

This species is a not uncommon transient, both spring and autumn, 
from Kyonggi Do and Kangwon Do northward. Campbell (1892, 234) 
found it common near Seoul in October. Won (1934, 233) calls it 
common. Yamashina (1941, 90) says "the southern limit of breeding 
is Hamgyong Namdo. Not many breed in Korea, but many pass 
through in spring and autumn." The 1942 Hand-List does not seem to 
regard the breeding evidence as conclusive. 



218 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

278. Phylloscopus fuscatus fuscatus (Blyth) 

Phyllopneuste fuscata Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 11, 1842, p. 113. (Cal- 
cutta.) 

English: Brown Willow Warbler. 

Japanese: Muji sekka (muji is plain colored, sekka is autoch- 
thonous.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 1 October 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto —26 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 
Cholla Namdo —19 May 1932 (Uch). 

This species is evidently a rare transient in Korea, perhaps of more 
regular occurrence along the northern border than the record indicates. 



279. Phylloscopus schwarzi (Radde) 

Sylvia (Phyllopneuste) schwarzi Radde, Reisen Sud. Ost. Sib., 2, 1863, p. 260, 
pi. 9. (Tarei-Nor and Buteya Mts.) 
English : Radde's Willow Warbler. 

Japanese: Karafuto mujisekka (Sakhalin plain-colored bush- 
warbler.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto— 27 July 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto —11-20 May (4) (Yam). 
Kyonggi Do —11 May 1887 (Tacz). 

This species is a rare transient along the northern border, and a rare 
summer resident in the northern mountains. Its occurrence in Korea 
was based on Kalinowski's single Kyonggi Do specimen until Orii col- 
lected it in the north. Taczanowski comments (1888, 455) "One finds 
it in summer, but in small numbers". Yamashina (1941) states that 
"a few breed in the mountains." Orii collected a nest with three eggs in 
Hamgyong Pukto 25 July 1929, now in the Yamashina Museum. 



280. Horeites cantans borealis (Campbell) 

Cettia ininuta borealis Campbell, Ibis, 1892, p. 235. (Inchon, Kyonggi Do, 
Korea.) 

English : Manchurian Bush Warbler. 
Japanese: Chosen uguisu (Korean nightingale.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 219 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 2, 28 Sept. 1917 (3) (LiWM); 18, 25 Apr. 1918 (Taka); 

28 Aug. (juv.), 19 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto —5, 8, 9 June 1917 (4) (LiWM); 8 June 1917 (SSC). 
Pyongan Namdo —31 May 1932, 19 Oct. 1933, 13 Oct. 1935 (Won). 
Kangwon Do —15, 22 Sept. 9 Oct. 1914 (LiWM); 13 June-16 July 1929 (9) 

(Yam). 
KyonggiDo —14 Oct. 1883, 19 Apr. 1928 (USNM); 10 Sept. 1889 

(Camp) ; 27 Apr. 1911, 20 Oct. 1913, 27 June 1915 (LiWM) ; 

23 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 11 May 1926, 16 Oct. 1927, 19 Apr. 

1929 (Won); Oct. 1927 (SoM);6, 12 Oct. 1927, 13, 16 Apr. 

1946 (MCZ). 

This species is a common summer resident from Kyonggi Do and 
Kangwon Do northward. Kuroda (1918, 543) says "On the plains in 
Korea this form is not very common." Y. Kuroda (1918, 20) found it 
singing "commonly" in Kangwon Do and Kyonggi Do in July and 
August, and gives its migration seasons at Seoul (1919) as late April 
and early May, and October, adding "uncommon". Won (1934, 91) 
calls it common and breeding. Cumming (1933, 36) writes "This bird's 
name in Japanese has been translated as Nightingale . . . probably 
because of its fine song, a pleasing variety of calls and whistles. This 
is the more noteworthy in the general paucity of first class song birds 
in Korea. The bird is shy and may be heard many times before one is 
fortunate enough to get near enough to see it, but it seems to be fairly 
well distributed over the country as a summer resident in the hills and 
mountains." 

I collected the only two I saw, 13 and 16 April, singing in the shrub- 
bery near the Agricultural Station buildings at Suwon. 

All authorities agree it breeds in Korea, but the ju venal collected by 
Orii in Hamgyong Pukto is the only proof other than the collecting 
dates. Yamashina (1932, 234) doubts the identity of a nest and eggs 
Orii collected, because of the color of the eggs and the structure of the 
nest. 



281. Urosphena squameiceps ussuriana (Seebohm) 

Cettia ussurianus Seebohm, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 5, 1881, p. 143. (Ussuri.) 
English: Short-tailed Bush-Warbler. 

Japanese: Yabusame (autochthonous, but may mean bamboo 
shark.) 



220 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —18, 25 Apr. 1918 (Taka). 

Pyongan Pukto —24 Apr. -8 May (9) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —6 May 1936 (Won). 

Kangwon Do —15 Sept. 1914 (LiWM); 9 July 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —5 May 1917 (LiWM); 10 Sept. 1917 (SSC); 3 Apr. 1925 

(Mom); 27 Sept. 1927 (Taka); 20, 22 Apr. 1932, 9 May 

1934 (Uch). 
Cholla Namdo —15 Oct. 1926 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo— 25 Apr., 2, 3 May 1886 (USNM). 

The Short-tailed Bush Warbler is a not uncommon summer resident. 
Kuroda (1917, 60) gives a sight record for Kyonggi Do 23 April 1917. 
Yamashina and the 1942 Hand-List both say that it breeds in Korea, 
but there is no evidence other than the collecting dates. 



282. Locustella fasciolata (Gray) 

Acrocephalus fasciolalus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, p. 349. (Batch- 
ian.) 

English: Gray's Grasshopper Warbler. 
Japanese: Yezo senniu (autochthonous, but Yezo is Hokkaido; 

sennin is a hermit, a fairy or a gnome; niu means to 

enter.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto— 8 June 1917 (SSC); 6, 8 June 1917 (4) (LiWM); 8, 9 June 

1917 (Taka); 4 June 1929 (Yam). 
Kyonggi Do —June 1917 (Kur); May 1926 (SoM). 
Cholla Namdo — 13 Sept. 1926 (2), 21 Aug. 1930 (2), 16 Aug. 1931 (2), 2, 10 

Sept. 1932 (Uch). 

This species is probably an uncommon summer resident in western 
Korea. The 1942 Hand-List considers that it breeds there, but there is 
no information available about its Korean status other than the speci- 
mens listed above. 



283. Locustella ochotensis pleskei Taczanowski 

Locustella pleskei Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1889, p. 620. (Korea.) 
English: Taczanowski's Grasshopper Warbler. 
Japanese: Uchiama shima senniu (L T chiama's streaked grass- 
hopper warbler.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 221 

Specimen records : 

Pyongan Pukto— 24 May 1917 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do —15 July 1887 (3) (Tacz); 15 Nov. 1913 (LiWM);25 July 1933, 

1 July 1934 (Uch). 
Cholla Namdo —12 Sept., 5 Oct. 1926, 2 Sept.-12 Nov. 1931 (8), 7, 23 May 

1933 (Uch). 

This species is a not uncommon but localized summer resident, con- 
fined to islands along the west coast. Of the specimens he described in 
1889, Taczanowski (1888, 455) wrote originally (he assigned them first 
to L. fasciolota) "Three males killed 15 July at Inchon on the little 
islets about a kilometer off the coast, covered with shrubs and tall 
grasses, where it nests ; at ebb tide these islets are joined to the main- 
land. The bird leaves the country in winter. Our traveller also heard 
it singing along the banks of the Seoul River, but was not able to collect 
it there." 

Ishizawa (1933, 68) gives an account of its breeding on the islands in 
southwestern Korea. Besides three breeding adults from Shichihatsu 
Island in Cholla Namdo, he collected an adult and three nests in 1933 
on Hachibi Island in Kyonggi Do, one with four eggs 16 June, another 
with four eggs 15 July, and one with two chicks and two eggs 17 July. 
He writes "On Shichihatsu Island its nests are in willow thickets, 30 
cm. off the ground, on Hachibi in shrubbery 15 cm. to 2 meters high. 
The exterior of the nest is dead willow leaves with grasses and a few 
feathers, the interior is dead grass, rootlets and feathers ... It must 
breed on every small island near by, but lack of transportation pre- 
vented verification ..." 

Hashimoto (1934) found it "ready to nest" on Hachibi Island 25 
May 1933, and later that season found thirteen nests. In 1934 he 
found two clutches of five eggs and one of three, but says the average 
is four. He found the incubation period to be fourteen days, and that 
the young leave the nest from thirteen to fifteen days after hatching. 
They leave the island early in September, and his latest date is 14 
September 1933. 



284. Locustella certhiola minor David and Oustalet 

Locustella minor David and Oustalet, Ois. de Chine, 1877, p. 250. (Peking.) 
English: David's Grasshopper Warbler. 
Japanese: Shiberiya senniu (Siberian grasshopper warbler.) 



222 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology - 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto— Aug. 1912 (SSC); 17 Aug. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto —Sept. 1915 (SSC); 31 May, 6, 7, 8 June 1917 (5) (LiWM); 

24-30 May 1929 (6) (Yam). 
Kyonggi Do — 17 May, 15 June (J. B. Hurley). 

This species is apparently an uncommon late spring and early 
autumn transient along the northern border, probably breeding nearby 
in northern Manchuria or southeastern Siberia. Yamashina (1941, 
151) hypothesizes that it might breed in Hamgyong Pukto, which the 
1942 Hand-List disallows, evidently as unproved. Two specimens in 
fresh plumage, collected by A. S. Loukashkin at Inchon, Kyonggi Do, 
are in the collection of Mr. J. B. Hurley of Y T akima, Washington. 
The year of collection is not stated on the labels. 

285. Locustella lanceolata (Temminck) 

Sylvia lanceolata Temminck, Man. d'Orn., ed. 2, 4, 1840, p. 614. (Russia.) 
English : Streaked Grasshopper Warbler. 

Japanese: Makino senniu (makino means a pasture, but is also 
a man's common name. Senniu is autochthonous.) 

Specimen records : 

Pyongan Pukto —24 May 1917 (SSC); 26 May, 3, 6, 8, 9 June 1917 (7) 
(LiWM); 31 May, 26 Sept, 1917 (Taka); 11-23 May 1929 
(10) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo— 22 May 1932 (Won). 

Kangwon Do —29 Sept., 8 Oct, 1914 (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo —27 Oct, 1924, 11 Sept, 1931 (Uch). 

This species is a spring and autumn transient along the northern 
border, plentiful at times, and perhaps an uncommon summer resident 
there. Won (1934, 91) calls it rare. Yamashina (1941, 155) says 
"many pass through Korea in spring and autumn, and a few breed" 
in which the 1942 Hand-List concurs, though there is no breeding 
evidence whatever. 

286. Phragmaticola aedon rufescens Stegmann 

Phragamaticola aedon rufescens Stegmann, Journ. f . Orn., 1929, p. 250. (Amur.) 
English : Amur Pallas' Reed Warbler. 
Japanese: Hashibuto oyoshikiri (big-billed marsh-reed cutter.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 223 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto— 26 May 1917 (LiWM); 20-27 May 1929 (7) (Yam). 
Cholla Namdo —5 May 1931, 25 Apr. 1932 (Uch). 

Here is another continental migrant, the edge of whose flight route 
touches northern Korea. It is undoubtedly of fairly regular occurrence 
during the spring flight, especially along the northern border. 



287. Acrocephalus arundinaceus orientalis (Temminck and 

Schlegel) 

Salicaria turdina orientalis Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Fauna Jap., 
Aves, 1847, p. 50, pi. 20B. (Japan.) 

English: Eastern Great Reed Warbler. 
Japanese: O-yoshikiri (large marsh-reed cutter.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto —12 June 1912 (AMNH). 

Hamgyong Namdo— 24, 27 July 1886 (5) (USNM); 10, 11 May 1903 (Roth). 

Pyongan Pukto —4, 12 June 1917 (Taka); 8, 9 June 1917 (LiWM) ; undated 

(Kur); 20 May-3 June 1929 (12) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo -27 July 1917 (SSC); 3, 24, 25 June 1931 (Won). 
Hwanghae Do —27, 28 June 1913 (LiWM). 
Kangwon Do —8 Sept. 1914 (2) (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do -May 1925 (SoM); 25 Sept., 4 Oct. 1927 (Taka). 

Cholla Namdo —12 Sept. 1926, 7 Oct. 1931, 7 May 1932 (Uch). 

The Great Reed Warbler is a common summer resident in the north- 
ern half of Korea. Won (1934, 91) says it is common and breeds. Y. 
Kuroda (1918, 22) found "very many of them" in full song in Kangwon 
Do 25 July. He and Miyakoda (1919) say "this bird can be found in 
marsh thickets at Yongsan [near Seoul] but scarcer than in Kangwon 
Do". They record it only for July and October in their chart but add 
"seems to stay all summer, but have not yet found its nest". There is 
a nest and eggs in the LiWong Museum without data. Gumming (1933, 
36) writes "It is a regular summer resident of the marshes in Korea 
where it comes to breed late enough for the reeds in the spring to have 
grown large enough for cover. Here it spends the summer season where 
it may be heard at all hours of the day, its harsh grating song being 
one that cannot easily be mistaken after having been once identified." 



224 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

288. Acrocephalus bistrigiceps Swinhoe 

Acrocephalus bistrigiceps Swinhoe, Ibis, 1860, p. 51. (Amoy.) 
English: Von Schrenk's Reed Warbler. 
Japanese: Ko yoshikiri (small marsh-reed cutter.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 1-13 Oct, 1929 (3) (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto —3, 8 June 1917 (LiWM); 21 May 1917 (SSC); 25 May-1 

June 1929 (5) (Yam). 
Kyonggi Do —8 Oct. 1916 (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo —15 Oct. 1926, 20 May, 1, 28 Oct., 12 Nov. 1930, 7 Oct. 

1931 (Uch). 

This species appears to be a not uncommon spring and autumn 
transient, though it is considered by both Yamashina (1941, 172) and 
the 1942 Hand-List to breed in Korea. 



289. Regulus regulus japonensis Blakiston 

Regulus japonensis Blakiston, Ibis, 1862, p. 320. (Hakodate, Hokkaido.) 
English: Golden-crowned Kinglet. 
Japanese: Kiku itadaki (the chrysanthemum-crowned one.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto —16-21 Oct. 1929 (11) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —26 Oct. 1932, 24 Sept. 1933 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —27, 30 Oct. 1887 (Tacz); Apr., Sept., Oct. 1889 (4) 

(Camp); 12 Nov. 1909 (4), Feb. 1910, 27 Mar. (2), 5, 20 
Dec. 1911 (LiWM); 22 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 28 Apr. 1919 
(SSC); May 1926 (SoM); 1-7 Nov. 1926 (5), 13 Feb. 
1928 (Taka); 23, 29 Oct. 1929 (Won). 

Chungchong Namdo — 9 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 

Cholla Namdo —9 Jan. 1930 (Yam); 4, 14 Apr., 8 May (8) 1927 (Uch). 

The Golden-crowned Kinglet is a fairly common but irregular tran- 
sient throughout Korea, and winters in the central and southern por- 
tions. Taczanowski (1888, 455) found it "very common in autumn and 
throughout the winter in the pine forests". Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda 
(1919) list it only for April on their Seoul chart, adding "four or five 
birds were found in the pines of Seoul Middle School which were not 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 225 

entered in the list because it was a very rare occurrence". Gumming 
(1933, 29) writes "Seen in Korea in the winter where it spends that 
season with the chickadees. Most often seen in the pine forests." 
Hashimoto (1930) saw one at Shichihatsu Island, Cholla Namdo, 28 
October 1930, and (1937) records Kinglets from Hachibi Island, 
Kyonggi Do, 4, 20 October 1932, 29 September 1934, and 21 April and 
17 September 1936. Won (1934, 88) says it is common and that it 
breeds in Korea, in which observation he is not joined by the 1942 
Hand-List, though there is a questionable set of eggs and nest in the 
LiWong Museum labelled "Kiku itadaki, Kyonggi Do, 20 May 1910." 
Though I was constantly on the alert for it, I did not encounter it dur- 
ing my stay in the country. 



MUSCICAPIDAE 



290. Terpsiphone atrocaudata atrocaudata (Eyton) 

Muscipeta atrocaudata Eyton, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839, p. 102. (Japan.) 
English : Japanese Paradise Flycatcher. 
Japanese: San ko cho (three-rayed bird.) 



Specimen records : 

Kyonggi Do —10 June 1914 (SSC); 10, 11, 12 June 1914 (LiWM). 

Cholla Pukto —18 Nov. 1916 (2) (Kur). 

Cholla Namdo —1 May 1927, 28 Sept. 1928 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo— 3 May (3), 11 May (2) 1884 (USNM). 

The Japanese Paradise Flycatcher is a rare transient of irregular 
occurrence in southern Korea. Jouy (1910, 653) wrote "I have only 
met with this bird in Korea, in the southeastern part of the country, 
none being observed near Seoul, where other species of flycatchers were 
abundant. In Fusan they make their appearance about the first of 
May, the males a few days in advance of the females, and remain about 
a fortnight." Hashimoto (1931, 1932) saw it occasionally at Shichi- 
hatsu Island in Cholla Namdo, on 15 July and 25 September 1931, and 
2 May 1932. He also (1937) observed it at Hachibi Island in Kyonggi 
Do, where he saw a male 8 May 1934, and pairs on 29 August 1934 and 
16 May 1936. Of dubious identity are two sets of nests and eggs in the 
LiWong collection, labelled "Sankocho, Kangwon Do, 10 July 1935." 



22(> bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

291. Terpsiphone paradisi incei (Gould) 

Muscipeta incei Gould, Bds. Asia, 2, 1852, pi. 19. (Shanghai.) 
English: Chinese Paradise Flycatcher. 
Japanese: Kawari sankocho (varied three-rayed bird.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto— 31 May 1917 (2) (SSC); 4 June 1917 (LiWM); 25 May-4 

June 1929 (6) (Yam). 
Kyonggi Do — July 1917 (Kur). 

The Chinese Paradise Flycatcher is apparently a not uncommon 
spring transient in northwestern Korea, and practically unknown 
elsewhere in the country. Bergman (1938, 156) gives sight records for 
the species' arrival in late May at Riuganpo, Pyongan Pukto. From 
the specimen records Yamashina (1941, 12) concludes "many in spring 
in Pyongan Pukto, but breeding there unknown", though he found it 
nesting commonly in eastern and southern Manchuria (1939, 490). 
Yet in 1942 the Hand-List states it breeds in Pyongan Pukto. 



292, Alseonax latirostris latirostris (Raffles) 

M uscicapula latirostris Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, pt. 2, 1822, p. 
312. (Sumatra.) 

English : Sumatran Brown Flycatcher. 
Japanese: Ko same bitaki (little shark flycatcher.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —10, 19 Sept. 1917 (5) (LiWM); 21 Sept. 1917 (Taka). 

Hamgyong Namdo— 31 May-25 June (6) (AMNH). 

Pyongan Pukto —24, 26 May 1917 (4) (LiWM); 4-12 May 1929 (10) 
(Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo -21 May 1917 (Taka); 10 May 1931, 7 Sept, 1932 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —2, 4 Oct. 1883 (USNM); May 1887 (Tacz); 16 Oct. 1888 

(Camp); 7 May 1909, 20, 27 Apr. 1911 (3) (LiWM); 
2 June 1918, 11 Oct. 1929 (SSC); 15 May 1925, 15 May 
1929, 11 Oct, 1928 (SoM); 5 Dec. 1927 (Taka); 20, 25 
May 1927, 11 Oct, 1928, 15 Oct, 1929 (Won). 

Cholla Namdo -29 Apr., 10 May, 11 Sept., 7 Oct, 1931 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo— 1 June 1884 (USNM). 

This species is a common spring and autumn transient. Won (1934, 
89) says it is common and breeds at Nonsadong, Hamgyong Pukto. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 227 

Yamashina (1941, 19) also surmises that it breeds in Korea, a conclu- 
sion not followed by the 1942 Hand-List. 

293. Hemichelidon griseisticta Swinhoe 

Hemichelidon griseisticta Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 330. (Araoy and Taku.) 
English: Chinese Grey-spotted Flycatcher. 
Japanese: Yezo bitaki (Hokkaido flycatcher.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto —20-23 May 1929 (4) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —15 May 1931 (Won). 

Kangwon Do —9, 16 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do —23 May 1913 (SSC); 15 May, 29 Oct. 1929 (SoM); 29 

May 1930 (Won). 
Kyongsang Namdo— 23-28 Sept. 1885 (4) (USNM). 

This species is a not uncommon spring and autumn transient. Won 
(1934, 89) considers it a common migrant. Gumming (1933, 34) says 
"Observed in South Korea on migration usually from two to four or 
five together. Though more active in the trees than the American 
flycatchers which form a different family, these eastern birds have the 
same habit of sitting quietly on a limb and from it darting out at some 
winged insect which is caught in flight. They are easy to approach 
seemingly much more interested in watching for their prey than in 
bothering about the intruder." 

294. Hemichelidon sibirica sibirica (Gmelin) 

Muscicapa sibirica Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 936. (eastern Siberia.) 
English: Siberian Flycatcher. 
Japanese: Same bitaki (shark flycatcher.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 16 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto —26 May-9 June 1917 (5) (LiWM); 24-28 May 1929 (8) 

(Yam). 
Kangwon Do —10 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do —28 May, 2 Oct. 1883 (USNM); May 1888 (Camp); May 

(Kur). 
Cholla Namdo —13, 29 May 1928, 24 Mar.-lO June 1930 (4) (Uch). 



228 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Siberian Flycatcher is a not uncommon spring and autumn 
transient, possibly more common in the northern boundary provinces 
than it is farther south. There are no data in literature other than the 
above, yet the 1942 Hand-List says the species breeds in Korea, which 
is improbable. 

295. SlPHIA PARVA ALBICILLA (Pallas) 

Muscicapa albicilla Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 1, 1811, p. 462. (Daurian 
region.) 

English: Eastern Red-throated Flycatcher. 
Japanese: Ojiro bitaki (white-tailed flycatcher.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 20 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto —26 May 1917 (LiWM); 8, 19 May 1929 (Yam). 
Kangwon Do — 30 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 4, 6, 8 Oct. 1883 (USNM); 8 Nov. 1926 (Taka); 9 May 

1934 (Uch). 

This species is evidently an uncommon spring and autumn transient 
in the northern half of Korea. 

296. Siphia mugimaki (Temminck) 

Muscicapa mugimaki Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 97, 1835, pi. 577, fig. 2. (Japan.) 
English : Japanese Robin Flycatcher. 

Japanese: Mugimaki (autochthonous, but means to sow wheat 
or barley.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 25, 27 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto -24 May 1917 (LiWM); 7-24 May 1929 (11) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 15 May 1930, 6 May 1932 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 11 Sept., 1 Oct. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — 1-20 Oct. 1883 (31), 30 Oct. 1926 (USNM); May 1887 

(Tacz); 13 May 1909, 25 Oct. 1914 (LiWM); Apr. 1917 
(SSC); 7 Oct., 27 Nov. 1929 (Won); 10 Oct. 1928, 
28 Sept. 1929 (SoM); 9 May 1934 (Uch). 

Cholla Namdo -22 May 1928, 7, 11 May, 12 Nov. 1931 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 19 Oct. 1884, 2 May, 1 June 1886 (USNM). 

The Mugimaki Flycatcher is a common spring and autumn transient, 
most abundant in May and October. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 229 

297. Muscicapula narcissina Temminck 

Muscicapa uarcissina Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 97, 1835, pi. 517, fig. 1 (Japan) 
Muscicapa Zanthopygia Hay, Madras Journ., 13 (2), 1845, p. 162. (Malacca.) 

English: Narcissus Flycatcher. 

Japanese: Ki bitaki (yellow flycatcher.) 

The Sakhalin and Japan subspecies, M. n. narcissina occurs as an 
irregular transient visitor in southern Korea. It is a well-defined race, 
larger than the Korean form, zanthopygia, and with a yellow instead 
of a white supra-orbital stripe. I have examined the four specimens in 
the Uchida collection, and find them correctly identified. Dr. Herbert 
Friedmann re-examined the Jouy skins at my request and assures me 
(in Hit.) "they are indeed of the nominate race." 

Specimen records: 

Muscicapula narcissina narcissina: 

Cholla Namdo — 29 May 1928, 21 Aug. 1930 (2), 9 Apr. 1931 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 27 Apr., 10, 11 May 1884, 2 May 1886 (USNM). 

Muscicapula narcissina zanthopygia: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 23, 24 Aug. 1917 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto — 26 May 1917 (3) (LiWM); 6 July 1917 (Taka); 28 Apr.- 

12 May 1929 (12) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 8 Sept., 7 May 1932, 27 May 1935 (Won). 

KyonggiDo —10 June-2 Aug. (12), 8 Aug. (juv) 1883 (USNM); 

Apr., May 1887 (Tacz); May (4) (Camp); 13 May 1909 
(6), 17-23 June 1911 (4), 8-27 June 1915 (5) (LiWM); 
22, 23 Apr. 1917 (5) (Kur); 15 May 1927, 28 Apr. 1929 
(SoM); 28 Apr., 7 May 1928, 3 Apr., 3 May 1929, 
3 June 1930 (Won); 9 May 1934, 18 May 1936 (Uch); 
17-24 Apr. 1946 (18) (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo — 30 Apr. 1932, 20 May 1930 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 7 May 1884 (USNM). 

The Narcissus Flycatcher is a common summer resident, abundant 
in the deciduous woodlands during its spring migration. It arrives in 
Kyonggi Do in mid-April, becoming for the ensuing ten days the domi- 
nant bird of the sprouting woodlands. By early May the migrants have 
passed through, and the residents of the area are selecting their breed- 
ing territories. Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) give its season near 
Seoul as from April through September, which, judging by the specimen 
record, is about correct, though there are insufficient autumn records 
to give an accurate departure date. 



230 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

There are two sets of nests and eggs in the LiWong Museum, dated 
23 May 1910 and 8 June 1913 respectively, both from Kyonggi Do. 
Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (idem) "found a nest in the peach orchard 
of the Seoul Middle School", dimming (1933, 34) says "The nest is 
built in holes in trees, usually near the water. It is a very fragile struc- 
ture of fine leaves, roots, grass and hair. There are five light pink eggs, 
speckled brownish red and purple, heaviest toward the larger end." 

298. Muscicapula cyanomelana cyanomelana (Temminck) 

Muscicapa cyanomelana Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 79, 1829, pi. 470. (Japan.) 
English: Japanese Blue Flycatcher. 
Japanese: O-ruri (large lapis jewel.) 

The Japanese find their series of Korean breeding birds indistinguish- 
able from those of Honshu. They claim the Siberian race, M. c. cuma- 
tilis Thayer and Bangs, is a transient along the northern border, on the 
basis of a single male taken by Orii in Pyongan Pukto 11 May 1929, 
which Yamashina (1932, 232) says "has a conspicuously pale color 
compared with those in Korea and Hondo". 

Specimen records : 

Pyongan Pukto —4 May 1917 (Kur); 24 Apr.-ll May 1929 (11) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —3, 7, 13, 14 Aug. 1931 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 29 July 1929 (Yam); 5 Aug. 1930 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do —18, 20 Sept. 1883 (3) (USNM); spring 1887 (Tacz); 

13 May 1909 (2), 25, 28 Apr. 1911 (5) (LiWM); May 
1925, 2 May 1927 (Mom); 27 Sept, 1927 (Taka); 
10, 15 May 1925, Apr. 1929 (SoM); 18 Aug. 1928, 
5, 15 Apr. 1929, 9 Apr. 1930 (Won) ; 29 Apr. 1932 (SSC) ; 
16 May 1936 (Uch). 

Cholla Namdo — 24 Mar., 29 Apr. 1930 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 27 Apr., 23 May 1884, 27 Apr. 1885, 27 Apr. 1886 

(8) (USNM). 

The Blue Flycatcher is a not uncommon summer resident in Korea, 
more abundant, however, during its spring migration. Taczanowski 
(1888, 465) says Kalinowski "met a lone female in spring". (He was 
speaking of the bird, of course.) Won (1934, 90) calls it common. 
Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) observed it in Chungchong Pukto 25 May 1931. 
There is a Kyonggi Do nest and eggs in the L^Yong collection taken 
19 May 1910. Gumming (1933, 35) says "It is not very common in 
Korea but its striking colors and beautiful song seem to warrant the 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 231 

inclusion in this list. It is usually seen in the woods of the mountain 
sides." Adachi (1941, 66) claims to have found it nesting in Hamgyong 
Pukto. 

PRUNELLIDAE 

299. Prunella collaris erythropygia (Swinhoe) 

Accentor erythropygia Swinhoe., Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, p. 124, pi. 9. 
(North China.) 

English: North China Alpine Accentor. 
Japanese: Iwa hibari (rock lark.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 7 Nov. 1915 (SSC). 
Hamgyong Namdo — 9 Oct. 1930 (Won). 
Kyonggi Do — 30 Apr. 1911 (LiWM); 25 Dec. 1929, Nov. 1934 (SSC). 

From the record this species seems to be a rare transient visitor and 
perhaps a rare resident in northern Korea. Won (1934, 94) calls it 
rare. The 1942 Hand-List says it breeds in Hamgyong Namdo, on the 
basis of the unpublished record of a fledgling collected there in the late 
nineteen-thirties by Mori and sent to Kuroda who (1947) still recalls 
identifying it, but does not remember what disposition was made of the 
specimen. It was not in his collection. 

300. Prunella montanella (Pallas) 

Motacilla montanella Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 695. 
(Dauria.) 

English: Chinese Mountain Accentor. 
Japanese: Yama hibari (mountain lark.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 7 Nov. 1915 (SSC); 27 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — winter 1887 (Tacz). 

Pyongan Pukto — June 1917 (Kur). 

Kyonggi Do —Dec, Jan., Feb. 1887 (Tacz); Jan. 1889 (Camp;) 

24 Dec, 29 Mar. 1911, 6, 16 Jan., 29 Dec. 1913 (LiWM); 

24 Apr. 1917, 23 Dec. 1924 (Kur); Mar. 1916, 15 Nov. 

1925, 21 Nov. 1926 (Taka); Apr. 1926 (SoM); Feb. 1933, 

27 Mar. 1936 (Uch). 
Cholla Namdo — 27 Apr. 1930, 26 Feb. 1931 (Uch). 



232 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

This species is an irregular, perhaps locally common winter visitor 
in the highlands. Taczanowski (1888, 463) calls it "common in winter, 
rare in summer", while Campbell (1892, 233) says "I have only seen 
this species in winter; it was fairly common". Won (1934, 94) considers 
it rare. Kobayashi (1931, 77) lists a sight record near Seoul, made in 
company with Mori on 30 March 1931. That it occurs at lower alti- 
tudes during migration is attested by the Kyonggi Do and Cholla 
Namdo specimens in the Uchida collection, which were light-house- 
killed birds from Hachibi and Shichihatsu islands sent in by Hashi- 
moto. Hashimoto (1932) also observed the species at Shichihatsu 
Island 28 October 1930 and 23 March 1931. 



MOTACILLIDAE 

301. Anthus richardi richardi Vieillot 

Anthus richardi Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 26, 1818, p. 491. (France.) 
English: Richard's Pipit. 
Japanese: Mamijiro tahibari (white-eyebrowed paddy-lark.) 

Specimen records: 
Pyongan Pukto — 4-12 May 1929 (6) (Yam). 

This species is apparently a rare or uncommon spring migrant in 
northwestern Korea, perhaps of more regular occurrence than might 
be suspected from the specimen record. Yamashina (1929, 169) gives the 
only Korean records, as above. 

302. Anthus campestris godlewskii (Taczanowski) 

Agrodroma godlewskii Taczanowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1876, p. 128. 
(south Dauria.) 
English: Blyth's Pipit. 

Japanese: Ko mamijiro tahibari (small white-eyebrowed paddy- 
lark.) 

Specimen records: 

Kyonggi Do — 26 Sept. 1883 (USNM); 6, 7, June 1917 (LiWM). 

Blyth's Pipit is but a straggler in Korea. Mori (1923, 40) lists a 
specimen in the exhibition collection taken in "Kyonggi Do?", but it 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 233 

was possibly misidentified, for the species does not appear in Yama- 
shina's holograph list of the Seoul Scientific Society and Seoul School 
collections. 

303. Anthus hodgsoni Richmond 

Anthus hodgsoni Richmond, Publ. Cam. Inst. Wash., 54, 1907, p. 493. (China, 

nom. 7iov. for Anthus rnaculatus Jerdon.) 
Anthus rnaculatus yunnanensis Uchida and Kuroda, Annot. Zool. Jap., 9, 1916, 

p. 134. (Restricted type locality, Yunnan.) 

English: Tree Pipit. 

Japanese: Ki hibari (tree lark); Binzui (autochthonous, meaning 
is unclear, perhaps 'a follower'.) 

Having seen insufficient material, I can but follow the Japanese 
treatment of this species. The 1942 Hand-List and Yamashina (1939, 
477) delineate the breeding range of A. h. yunnanensis as extending 
from the Kurils and Sakhalin to northern Manchuria, and say that it 
occurs in Korea as a migrant or winter visitor. Hokkaido birds they 
consider as intermediate between this northern form and A. h. hodgsoni, 
the breeding race of Honshu and Korea. However, it should be pointed 
out that most of the Korean material is migratory, as the species has 
not been demonstrated definitely to breed there. As most of the Kor- 
ean specimens have been judged inseparable from comparable Honshu 
birds, it follows that the breeding range of hodgsoni probably extends 
across southern Ussuri and southeastern Manchuria. The two races 
are a fine split at best, and the presence of indeterminable intermediates 
further complicates the problem when migrants are handled. The exact 
subspecific status of the Korean birds will not be settled satisfactorily 
until complete material is available from the breeding grounds. 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 2 Aug. 1926 (im.) (Kur.); 9 Oct. 1929 (Yam); 29 July 
1929 (Won). 

Pyongan Pukto — 3 June 1917 (LiWM); 28 Apr.-ll May 1929 (11) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 13 May 1917 (LiWM); 10 Oct. 1932 (2) (Won). 

Hwanghae Do —20 Apr., 1 May 1918 (2) (Taka). 

Kyonggi Do —2, 14 Oct. 1883 (USNM); 11 Oct. 1887 (Tacz); 22 Apr., 

20 Dec. 1911, 2-29 Oct. 1916 (8) (LiWM); 15 Oct. 1917 
(2) (Kur); 5 May 1918 (SSC); 15 Oct., 23 Nov. 1928, 
9 Oct. 1929 (Won); 2 Oct. 1929 (SoM). 

Cholla Namdo —3 Oct. 1924, 11 May 1926, 27 Apr. 1930, 29 Apr. 1932 
(Uch); 17 Jan. 1930 (Yam). 



234 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Tree Pipit is a not uncommon spring and autumn transient, 
perhaps more plentiful in the northern highlands where it is thought 
to breed, and an occasional winter resident in the extreme south. 
Taczanowski (1888, 455) says "this bird is rare during migrations; 
small numbers in summer". Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) give its 
Seoul dates as March and early April, and October. Y. Kuroda (1935, 
88) observed it in Chungchong Pukto 25 May 1931. Its breeding status 
is based on the evidence of Won, who (Kuroda and Mori, 1927, 292), 
having collected an immature at the foot of Paekto San in Hamgyong 
Pukto, says it breeds there. However, this bird may have been an early 
migrant from farther north. 

Gumming (1933, 23) writes "This bird though called a tree pipit 
may often be seen down by the side of rocky streams in places where 
the wagtails are found and the nervous weaving motion of the tail 
reminds one of the other birds. In the woods it may be mistaken for 
the Forest Wagtail." 

304. Anthus gustavi Swinhoe 

Anthus gustavi Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 90 (Amoy). 
Anthus gustavi menzbieri Shulpin, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. URSS., 1927, 
p. 402. (South Ussuriland.) 

English: Petchora Pipit. 

Japanese: Sejiro tahibari (white-backed paddy-lark.) 

Both the above races of the Petchora Pipit have been identified from 
Korea on migration. The two early specimens were ascribed to gustavi, 
which is evidently the commoner form. It was not until he examined 
Orii's large series that Yamashina (1932, 224) determined the presence 
of menzbieri, to which he also refers (1933, 274) two Shichihatsu speci- 
mens formerly in the Uchida collection but which are now missing. 

Specimen records: 

Anthus gustavi gustavi: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 1-11 Oct. 1929 (5) (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto — 29 Apr.-3 May 1929 (7) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 17 May 1934 (Won). 
Hwanghae Do — 20 Apr. 1917 (SSC). 
Kyonggi Do — 23 Sept. 1883 (USNM). 

Anthus gustavi menzbieri: 

Pyongan Pukto — 29 Apr.-3 May 1929 (4) (Yam). 

Cholla Namdo - 20 May 1930, 17 Sept. 1931 (Uch). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 235 

The Petchora Pipit is an uncommon transient, more plentiful in the 
northern provinces on the edge of the mainland flight route. It is 
evidently only of casual occurrence farther south in the peninsula. 

305. Anthus cervina (Pallas) 

Motacilla cervina Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., 1, 1811, p. 511. (Siberia.) 
English : Red-throated Pipit. 
Japanese: Mune akaku tahibari (red-throated paddy-lark.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 17 Sept. 1917 (LiWM); 18 Apr. 1918 (Taka); 4, 8 Oct. 

1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto — 28 Apr.-4 May 1929 (11) (Yam). 
Kangwon Do —25, 29 Sept., 1 Oct. 1914 (5) (LiWM). 
KyonggiDo —22 Apr. 1911, 13 May 1917 (LiWM); 10 May 1928 

(SoM); 9 Apr., 8 May 1929 (Won); 8 May 1929 (SSC). 

The Red-throated Pipit is another of the mainland migrants which 
occurs in northern Korea during its spring and autumn flights. Won 
(1934, 85) calls it common, which it seems to be during migration in 
the northern provinces. It is less common farther southward. 



306. Anthus roseatus Blyth 

Anthus roseatus "Hodgson," Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 16, 1847, p. 437. 
(Nepal.) 

English: Hodgson's Pipit. 

Japanese: Chosen tahibari (Korean paddy-lark.) 

Specimen records: 

Kyonggi Do — 4 Nov. 1889 (Camp). 
Cholla Namdo — 28 Oct. 1930 (Uch). 
Korea —Jan. 1918 (2) (Taka). 

Why the Japanese should call this species the "Korean Paddylark" 
is inexplicable, for in Korea it is a straggler of the first water, known 
only from the three widely scattered records listed above. Won (1934, 
85) claims to have collected one at Kaesong, Kyonggi Do, but the 1942 
Hand-List omits the record, and the data for such a specimen do not 
appear in the holograph list Won sent Yamashina. 



236 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

307. Anthus spinoletta japonicus Temminck and Schlegel 

Anthus pratensis japonicus Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Fauna Jap., 
Aves, 1847, p. 59, pi. 24. (Japan.) 

English: Japanese Water Pipit. 
Japanese: Ta hibari (paddy lark). 

Yamashina (1930, 256) reports and the 1942 Hand-List accepts as 
a straggler A. s. blackistoni Swinhoe, from a single specimen collected 
by Orii in Kumwha, Kangwon Do, 1 December 1929. Yamashina 
comments "According to Mr. LaTouche, many of this subspecies live 
in the northern China in winter, so it is no cause for wonder that it was 
collected in Korea". I consider highly dubious the subspecific assign- 
ment of such an individual, far from its normal range, and within the 
range of another race of the same species, of which it may be simply 
an individual variant. 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto —12-24 May 1912 (4) (AMNH); 26 Sept,-29 Oct. 1929 

(11) (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto — 3 May 1917 (Kur); 15 Apr.-3 May 1929 (6) (Yam). 
Kangwon Do — 1 1 Apr. 1914 (LiWM); 1 Dec. 1929 (Yam — see above.) 

Kyonggi Do —21 Apr. 1889 (Camp); 15 Feb., 3 Nov. 1911 (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo - 19 Feb. 1930 (Yam); 1 Oct, 1930 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 6 Apr. 1917 (2) (Kur). 

The Water Pipit is a not uncommon spring and autumn transient, 
more abundant, however, in the northern provinces which lie in the 
path of the mainland migration route than it is farther south, (/amp- 
bell considered it (1892, 240) "very rare. This specimen is the only one 
I saw during my two years collecting." Won (1934, 85) calls it common, 
but does not list collecting it. 

308. Motacilla alba Linne 

Motacilla leucopsis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1837, p. 78. (India.) 
Motacilla lugens Gloger, Isis, 1829, col. 771. (Kamchatka.) 
Motacilla ocularis Swinhoe, Ibis, 1860, p. 55. (Amoy, China.) 
English : Pied Wagtail. 

Japanese: Haku sekirei (haku means "white", sekirei is auto- 
chthonous for all wagtails, but may mean "seat 
waver.") 

The races of this species are so well marked and distinct there is very 
little difficulty in determining the subspecific identity of all but a very 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 237 

few intermediates. My seven Kyonggi Do specimens are all leucopsis, 
'the resident form, lacking the black eye-stripe of the Japanese sub- 
species, lugens, and without the black throat of the northern Siberian 
race, ocularis. As can be seen readily from the specimen record, if the 
original identifications of the old skins be accepted, lugens is of irregular 
occurrence in the southern half of the peninsula, while ocularis occurs 
fairly regularly as a not uncommon migrant in the north. 

Specimen records: 

Motacilla alba lugens: 

Kangwon Do — 2, 5 Oct. 1914 (5) (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do —29 Sept. 1883 (USNM); Mar., Apr., July [?] 1889 (Camp); 

5 Oct. 1912 (SSC); 3 Oct. 1927 (Taka). 
Cholla Namdo — 3 Mar. 1931 (Uch). 

Motacilla alba ocularis: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 17-27 Sept. 1929 (4) (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto — 28 Apr. -2 May 1929 (8) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —Dec. 1887 (2) (Tacz); 17, 25 Oct. 1914 (4) (LiWM); 

7 Nov. 1927 (Taka). 

Motacilla alba leucopsis: 

Hamgyong Pukto —21 Apr. 1912 (AMNH); 23 Aug.-13 Sept. 1917 (8) 

(LiWM); 18 Apr. 1918, 2, 15, 21 Sept., 3 Oct. 1927 
(Taka). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 27 Apr.-9 May 1903 (6) (Roth). 

Pyongan Pukto —June 1917 (Kur); 7-28 Apr. 1929 (9) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 12, 13, 18 May 1917 (LiWM). 

Hwanghae Do — 18 Mar. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kangwon Do - 6-28 Sept. 1914 (9) (LiWM); 14 June 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —20, 26 Sept. 1883 (USNM); Apr. 1887 (Tacz); July, 

Oct. 1889 (Camp); May 1909, Nov. 1910, 5 Apr. 1911, 
5 July 1913, 20 June 1915 (LiWM); 18 Apr. 1919, 
7, 29 Sept. 1932 (SSC); 13 Nov. 1910, 24 May 1927 (2) 
(Taka); 14 Aug. 1926, 20 Sept, 1927, 5, 19 May, 
17 Sept., 5 Oct. 1929, 26 Aug. 1930, 14 Apr. 1932 
(Won); 20 Apr., 6 May, 9, 10 Sept. 1929 (SoM); 
9 Mar.-l May 1946 (7) (MCZ). 

Chungchong Namdo — 9 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 

Cholla Namdo — 11 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 

Kyongsang Namdo —6 Apr. 1917 (2) (Kur). 

Motacilla alba leucopsis is a common summer resident throughout 
plainsland Korea, and one of the first small landbirds to appear in 
spring. I saw the first arrivals in Suwon 9 March, feeding along the 



238 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

narrow dykes of the flooded paddies at the edge of tidewater. A week 
later they became common farther inland, usually along the streams, 
frequently in the wetter rice fields. Campbell (1892, 240) notes "it 
affects rice-fields rather than running water". Kobayashi (1932) 
mentions its arrival in Hwanghae Do 21 March 1931. 

The species probably rears two broods each spring in Korea. Kuroda 
(1918, 533) purchased a nest with five eggs taken near Seoul 10 June 
1917. Yamashina (1932, 226) comments that a juvenal Orii collected 
in Pyongan Pukto had left its nest by the end of April, rather an early 
example. 

309. Motacilla grandis Sharpe 

Motacilla grandis Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 10, 1885, p. 492. (Japan.) 
English: Japanese Wagtail. 
Japanese: Seguro sekirei (black-backed wagtail.) 

Specimen records: 

Chungchong Namdo — 4 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 18 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

This straggler from the Japanese main islands is, according to 
Kuroda (1918, 533) "one of the rarest birds in Korea". In addition to 
the two specimens listed above, Mori (1923, 41) records one without 
date from Kyonggi Do in the Seoul Society collection, which was not 
found there by Yamashina's cataloguer, and which the 1942 Hand-List 
omits. 

310. Motacilla cinerea caspica (S. G. Gmelin) 

Parus caspicus S. G. Gmelin, Reise d. Russland, 3, 1774, p. 104, pi. 20, fig. 2. 
(South coast of the Caspian Sea.) 

English: Eastern Grey Wagtail. 
Japanese: Ki sekirei (yellow wagtail.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 15 Aug., 6, 17 Sept, 1917 (LiWM); 5, 6 Oct. 1927 (Taka); 

26, 27 Sept. 1929 (Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto — 9, 30 May 1929 (Yam). 
KangwonDo —9, 13, 30 Sept. 1914 (LiWM); 27 Sept, 1916 (SSC); 

16 June, 12 July 1929 (Yam). 
Kyonggi Do -7 Oct, 1883 (USNM); June 1887 (Tacz); 7 Apr. 1889 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 239 

(Camp); Apr. 1911 (3), 27 June 1915 (LiWM); 22, 23 
Apr. 1917 (3) (Kur); May 1927, 10 Sept. 1929 (SoM); 
15 Apr. 1928, 14 Apr. 1929, 20 Sept. 1930, 28 Apr., 
10 May 1932 (Won); 9 May 1934 (Uch); 14, 24 Apr. 1946 
(MCZ). 
Cholla Namdo - 13 Nov. 1926, 23 Mar. 1931, 7 May, 2 Sept. 1932 (Uch). 

The Grey Wagtail is a common spring and autumn transient. It is 
doubtfully a summer resident in the north. Taczanowski (1888, 464) 
says "common, nests, leaves for winter". Campbell (1892, 239) writes 
"A summer visitor. I have occasionally noticed the Grey Wagtail in 
small bands of half a dozen on the banks of shallow streams." Y. 
Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) give its season in Seoul as from early 
April to late October, adding "nest not yet found, but we often see 
young with yellow at the base of the bill, so they seem to nest near by." 
Y. Kuroda (1935, 88) also observed it in Chungchong Pukto 25 May 
1921. Won (1934, 85) says it is common, but makes no mention of its 
breeding. Both Yamashina (1933, 297) and the 1942 Hand-List admit 
no proof of nesting. The two I collected were each feeding alone along 
the stream running out of Suwon lake, and were the only ones I encoun- 
tered. 

311. Motacilla flava Linne 

Budytes taivanus Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 334. (Formosa.) 
Motacilla flava simillima Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 1, 1905, p. 289. (Kam- 
chatka, Korea, China, etc.) 
Budytes flava macronyx Stresemann, Avif. Macedon., 1920, p. 76. (Vladi- 
vostok.) 

English: Grey-headed or Yellow Wagtail. 

Japanese: Tsumenaga sekirei (long toe-nailed wagtail.) 

Having no new material, I can but follow the 1942 Hand-List, which 
in turn follows Yamashina's (1933, 288) excellent analysis of the eastern 
races of this plastic and difficult species. He gives simillima as breeding 
in northeastern Siberia and the northern Kurils, taivana as from 
central Siberia easterly to Sakhalin, and macronyx as the most south- 
erly, nesting in Ussuriland and on both banks of the Amur River. All 
three races have been taken on migration in Korea, together with 
intermediates impossible of accurate subspecific assignment. 

Specimen records : 

Motacilla flava macronyx: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 2, 7 Sept. 1917 (LiWM); 18 Apr. 1918 (Taka); 20 Sept. 

1929 (Yam). 



240 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Pyongan Pukto — 7-16 Apr. 1929 (10) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 20 Apr. 1918 (Taka). 
Kangwon Do —4 Apr. 1914 (LiWM). 

Motacilla flava simillima: 

Hamgyong Pukto —26 Apr. 1912 (AMNH); 17, 18 Sept. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 8 May 1929 (Yam) (intermediate). 

Pyongan Namdo — 12, 13 May 1917 (LiWM); 14 May 1917 (SSC). 

Kangwon Do — 17 Sept.-2 Oct. 1914 (8) (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo — 3 Oct. 1924, 13 Sept. 1926, 17 Sept. 1931 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 23 Sept. 1885 (USNM). 

Motacilla flava taivana: 

Pyongan Pukto — 2 May 1929 (Yam). 

The Yellow Wagtail is a mainland migrant, a common spring and 
autumn transient in the northern provinces of Korea. It seems 
occasionally to follow the eastern coastline of the peninsula in its 
southward flight, but has never been taken on the west coast south of 
Pyongan Namdo. Most of the Korean specimens are of one or the other 
of the two eastern subspecies, macronyx and simillima, and there is but 
the one definite record for the central Siberian taivana. From the 
collection dates of Orii's specimens from Pyongan Pukto, Yamashina 
(idem) deduces that the three races migrate through northern Korea 
at different times, macronyx in mid-April, taivana in late April and early 
May, and simillima from the first to the twentieth of May. 



312. Dendronanthus indicus (Gmelin) 

Motacilla indica Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1, pt. 2, 1789, p. 962. (India.) 
English: Forest "Wagtail. 

Japanese: Iwami (province name) or Yokofuri sekirei (sideways- 
swinging-wagtail.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 9-17 May 1929 (4) (Yam). 

Kangwon Do — 13 June-4 July 1929 (6) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do -2-29 June 1883 (7) (USNM); June 1887 (3) (Tacz); May 
1889 (2) (Camp); 23 May 1911, 8 June 1913, 30 May 1914 
(LiWM); 5 May 1912 (SSc); 10 July 1927, 5 May 1928, 
13 Oct, 1930, 2 May 1931, 5 July 1932 (Won); May 1929 
(2) (SoM). 

Cholla Namdo — 1 Sept. 1924 (Uch). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 241 

The Forest Wagtail is a not uncommon summer resident in the 
forested areas of Korea. It was one of the first species recorded from 
Korea, collected "on a sand spit" somewhere along the coast by the 
"Flying Fish" expedition (Tristram, 1885, 195). Taczanowski (1888, 
464) found it "common, nests, leaves for winter". Campbell (1892, 
237) just calls it a "summer visitor". Gumming (1933, 26) writes 
"This bird is always found in the woods, usually in the higher hills. 
It is very shy and were it not for its oft repeated frightened-sounding 
cry it would not be easily seen. The movements of the tail are almost 
continuous, a sort of weaving-around motion very different from the 
flirting tail movements of the redstart for instance. It is fairly well 
distributed over the country, in mild winters staying the year round in 
southern Korea." Won (1934, 85) calls it common and breeding. He 
collected a nest with five eggs, now in the Yamashina collection, in 
Pyongan Namdo, 3 June 1938. 



BOMBYCILLIDAE 



313. BOMBYCILLA GARRULUS CENTRALASIAE PoljalcOV 

Bombycilla garrulus centralasiae Poljakov, Mess. Orn., 1915, pp. 137, 138. 
(Altai, Turkestan.) 

English: Eastern Waxwing. 

Japanese: Ki renjaku (yellow waxwing.) 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 7 Nov. 1915. (SSC). 

Pyongan Namdo — 19, 20, 21, 23 Jan., 9 Feb. 1931 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do — 9 Dec. 1910 (LiWM); 5 May 1912 (SSC); 15 Mar. 1928 

(USNM); Jan. 1924, 20 Dec. 1927, 22 Feb. 1928 (Taka); 

7 Apr. 1929 (Won); 16 Mar. 1932 (3) (SoM). 

The Eastern Waxwing is an irregular and uncommon winter visitor. 
Taczanowski (1888, 459) "observed [it] in February at Songdo [Kyong- 
gi Dol". Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) give the same data in their 
migration chart for both waxwings, as occurring in Seoul from Febru- 
ary to early April and in October and November, which agrees with 
the specimen record in neither case. Won (1934, 88) says it is "com- 
mon, passes through in spring and autumn, flying in flocks". 



242 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

314. Bombycilla japonica (Siebold) 

Bombicivora Japonica Siebold, De hist. nat. in Japon. statu etc., 1824, p. 13. 
(Higo and Chikuzen, Japan.) 

English: Japanese Waxwing. 
Japanese: Hi renjaku (scarlet waxwing.) 



Specimen records : 

Kyonggi Do — May 1909, 8 Mar. 1911 (2) (LiWM); 22 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 
17 Jan. 1916, 6 Mar. 1930 (SSC); May 1926 (2) (SoM); 
23 Mar. 1927 (2) (Taka); 9 Apr., 1 May 1929 (Won). 

The Japanese Waxwing is an irregular and uncommon spring tran- 
sient in Korea. It was first recorded there by Campbell (1892, 239) 
who says "A band of these pretty Waxwings visited Soul in the spring 
of 1890. I identified one which was sent to me . . . M. Kalinowski did 
not obtain a specimen of this bird, and though it should be very con- 
spicuous, I never observed it myself." Kuroda (1918, 546) says "I have 
seen a group of some ten birds of the species [in Kyonggi Do]". Won 
(1934, 88) says it is a rare migrant and flies in a flock. Kobayashi 
(1931, 78) in company with Mori, saw thirty waxwings near Seoul 
30 March 1931, which he attributes to this species. 



LANIIDAE 



315. Lanius sphenocercus sphenocercus Cabanis 

Lanius sphenocercus Cabanis, Journ. f. Orn., 1873, p. 76. (Canton, China.) 
English: Great Grey Shrike. 
Japanese: O kara mozu (large shrike of old China.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —Feb. 1918 (Taka); 20 Aug., 6, 7, 18 Sept. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto —late Apr. 1917 (Mori). 

HwanghaeDo —25 Oct. 1911 (2) (Kur); 5 Dec. 1929 (Won); 16 Oct. 

(SoM). 
KangwonDo —3 Oct. 1911 (2), 12 Apr. 1914 (LiWM); 9 Oct. 1911 

(Kur); 29 Sept. 1912 (SSC); 3 Apr. 1917 (Taka); 

25 Nov., 1 Dec. 1929 (Yam). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 243 

KyonggiDo -28 Sept., 16, 18, 21 Nov. 1883 (USNM); Dec, Feb. 

1887 (Tacz); 20 Sept., 21 Nov., 22 Dec, 9 Feb. 1888-9 

(Camp); Nov.-Dec 1909, 24 Mar. 1910 (LiWM); 

Nov. 1911, 12 Feb. 1919, 23 Dec. 1927 (Taka); 16 Nov. 

1928 (Won); 9 May 1934 (Uch); 26 Dec 1934, 11 Jan. 

1946 (MCZ). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 19, 26, 27 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

The Great Grey Shrike is a not uncommon winter visitor throughout 
Korea, and perhaps a rare summer resident in the mountains of Hamg- 
yong Pukto. Taczanowski (1888, 464) calls it "resident, more numerous 
in winter than in summer". Campbell (1892, 239) observed it near 
Seoul "at all seasons". Won (1934, 88) says it is uncommon, but breeds 
"distributed in a limited area". Both Yamashina and the 1942 Hand- 
List say it breeds in Korea, but there is no indication of it, beyond 
Orii's late August specimen. 

The specimen I collected in January contained the remains of a line- 
backed mouse, Apodymys. I saw two others in February. 



316. Lanius Bucephalus Bucephalus Temminck and Schlegel 

Lanius bucephalus Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Fauna Jap., Aves, 
1844, p. 39, pi. 14. (Japan.) 

English: Bull-headed Shrike. 
Japanese: Mozu (autochthonous.) 



Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 22 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 6 Mar. 1914 (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto — 5 Apr. 1929 (2) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 23 May 1932 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 15 June 1929 (Yam). 

KyonggiDo —Mar. 1887 (Tacz); Mar. 1889 (Camp); Feb. 1910, 

28 Mar. 1911, 8 Feb. 1914, 14 Aug. 1915, 1 Jan. 1916 
(LiWM); 1 July 1912 (SSC); 8 Dec, 19 July 1927, 
2 Apr. 1930 (Taka); 3, 9 July 1927 (Won); Oct. 1928 
(SoM); 1 Jan., 27 Apr. 1946 (MCZ). 

Cholla Pukto —31 Dec. 1911 (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo —15 Sept. 1925, 30 Apr. 1930, 10 May, 16 Aug. 1931, 

2 Sept. 1932 (Uch), 11 Dec. 1929-24 Feb. 1930 (5) 
(Yam). 



244 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Bull-headed Shrike is a not uncommon resident, wintering from 
Kyonggi Do southward and summering in the northern half of Korea. 
Taczanowski (1888, 464) says "quite common in summer, nests, absent 
in winter". Campbell, on the other hand (1892, 238) found it "not a 
common bird". Won, Yamashina, and the 1942 Hand-List all give it 
as breeding in Korea, but again, there is no evidence other than the 
summer collecting records. Highly questionable is Y. Kuroda and 
Miyakoda's statement (1919) that it "builds its nests here and there 
in Seoul". They give its season there as from May through October. 

I found this shrike a not uncommon winter resident in the vicinity 
of Suwon. I saw one 20 December, and collected one the first of Janu- 
ary. I saw another 26 January, and two more in February. On 5 
March one chased a flock of Rustic Buntings into my bird net, and got 
caught itself, but escaped just as I reached up to remove it. The 
species became more common in mid-April, and a marked wave passed 
through between 20 and 25 April, during which I saw two or three 
daily. It is a comparatively shy bird, and I was only able to collect 
one more, a female on 22 April. 



317. Lanius tigrinus Drapiez 

Lanius tigrinus Drapiez, Diet. Class. IJJst. Nat., 13, 1828, p. 523. (Java.) 
English: Thick-billed Shrike. 
Japanese: Chigo mozu (little child shrike.) 

Specimen records: 

PyonganPukto —31 May, 8 June 1917 (3) (LiWM); 23 Sept. 1917 

(Taka); 17-26 May 1929 (9) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 17 May 1930 (SSC); undated (Kur). 

Kangwon Do — 16 June 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do — May 1888 (2) (Camp); 8 June 1913 (2), 30 May 1914 

(2) (LiWM). 

Cholla Namdo — 20 May, 28, 30 Aug. 1930, 2, 17 Sept. 1931 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 22 May 1886 (USNM). 

The Thick-billed Shrike, from the specimen record, appears to be an 
uncommon late spring and early autumn migrant in Korea. Camp- 
bell (1892, 238) says "I shot a pair of this species, which was rare in my 
experience, in May 1888 near Soul". Yamashina (1933, 440) perhaps 
basing his thought on Orii's June collecting date, says it breeds in 
Korea, a conclusion not endorsed by the 1942 Hand-List. 






AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 245 

318. Lanius cristatus Linne 

Lanius lucionensis Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 135. (Luzon.) 
Lanius cristatus confusus Stegmann, Journ. f. Orn., 77 (2), 1929, p. 248. (Upper 
Amur.) 

English: Red-tailed Shrike. 

Japanese: Aka mozu (red shrike.) 

The 1942 Hand-List records the north Siberian race, L. c. cristatus 
as occurring in Korea, apparently on the basis of a specimen from 
northern Korea in the former Kuroda collection, which can no longer 
be verified. The local breeding form is lucionensis, and the Amur 
and upper Manchuria subspecies, confusus, occurs as a rare transient 
in the northern provinces, as shown by the Yamashina and Kuroda 
specimens. 

Specimen records : 

Lanius cristatus confusus: 

Hamgyong Namdo — no date (Wonsan) (Kur). 

Pyongan Pukto — 11, 21 May 1929 (Yam). 

Lanius cristatus lucionensis: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 26 July 1929 (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 24 July 1886 (USNM). 

Pyongan Pukto —26 May, 7 June (3) 1917 (LiWM); June 1917 (Kur); 

11-24 May 1929 (11) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo —4 Sept. 1911 (Kur); 20 May 1917 (LiWM); 13, 15 

May, 30 June 1931 (Won). 
Kyonggi Do 5 June-31 July 1883 (5) (USNM); May, June 1887 (4) 

(Tacz); May, June, July 1889 (9) (Camp); 10 June 1914 

(SSC); 8, 12 June 1909 (3), 30 May 1914 (LiWM); 

3, 9 July 1927 (Won); 9 July 1927, 13 May 1931 

(AMNH). 
Cholla Namdo — 24 Apr. 1932, 16 Aug. 1933 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 17 May (2), 9 July (2), 14 Dec. 1884 (USNM). 

The Red-tailed Shrike is a common summer resident throughout 
Korea; a few winter in the southern provinces. Taczanowski (1888, 
464) says "commoner in summer [than L. bucephalus), lacking in 
winter". Campbell found it (1892, 239) "very common in summer". 
Won (1934, 88) calls it "the most numerous of the shrikes, widely dis- 
tributed, breeds". Gumming (1933, 30) writes "its loud quarrelsome 
call may be heard throughout the year in the southern parts of the 
country. However, it is rare in the breeding season and it is probable 
that the birds seen in winter are those which have spent the summer 



246 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

farther north and have thus moved down with the season. . . . this 
species is very valuable as a destroyer of the larger beetles and insects 
of all kinds, and though it is very noisy, I have never seen it fighting 
other birds unless in defense of its nest. In strange contrast with its 
call is the quiet musical little song which may be heard at rare intervals, 
chiefly during the breeding season". There are two sets of nests and 
eggs in the LiWong Museum, taken in Kyonggi Do 20 and 24 May 1910 
respectively. Yamashima (unpublished ms.) collected a nest with six 
eggs 16 June 1936, in Kangwon Do. The species had not appeared at 
Suwon when I left there in early May. 



STURNIDAE 



319. Spodiopsar cineracea (Temminck) 

Sturnus cineraceus Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 94, 1835, pi. 556. (Japan.) 
English: Grey Starling. 
Japanese: Mukudori (bird of the 'muku tree', Aphanantha aspera.) 

Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 22 Apr. 1912 (AMNH); 18 Aug. 1917 (2) (LiWM); 

25 Apr. 1918 (Taka); 15 Mar. 1929 (Won); 28 July 1929 

(Yam). 
Pyongan Pukto — 11 Apr. -28 May (6) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo - 20 Apr. 1931 (SoM); 23 Apr. 1931, 15 Apr. 1932, 31 Mar. 

1933 (Won). 
Hwanghae Do - 21 Mar. 1914 (2) (LiWM); 3 Apr. 1934 (SoM). 

Kangwon Do - — Apr. (Kur). 

Kyonggi Do — 14 Jan. 1883 (2) (USNM); Apr. 1887 (Tacz); Apr. 1889 

(Camp); 1 May 1909, 12 Apr. 1911, 31 Nov. 1914 

(LiWM); 4 June 1919 (Kur); 22 Aug. 1929 (Won); 

25 Feb. 1930 (2) (Taka); 4 Apr. 1934 (Uch); 26 June 

1935, 8 Feb., 11 Apr. (3) 1946 (MCZ). 
Cholla Namdo — 1 June 1928, 24 Apr. 1932 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Pukto — 27 Mar. 1916 (SSC); 15 Sept. 1923 (Uch). 

The Grey Starling is a common spring and autumn transient, appar- 
ently more abundant during the spring migration. A few winter from 
Kyonggi Do southward. Campbell (1892, 239) says "very numerous 
in spring". Won (1934, 80) says "many pass through Korea in spring, 
flying in flocks". 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 247 

I saw one at Suwon 28 December 1945, but collected the first winter 
straggler 8 February 1946. The first spring arrivals were a compact 
little flock of 15 birds feeding in the paddies near salt water 23 March, 
but they did not appear in numbers until early April. Throughout 
that month, however, I observed them frequently in the large pines at 
the edge of the forest south of Suwon. Usually they were in loose flocks 
of from six to thirty birds, staying in the cover of the tops of the taller 
trees, and feeding along the larger high branches. 

There is no definite record of the species' breeding in Korea, and 
though Yamashina (1933, 55) lists Korea as part of its breeding range, 
the 1942 Hand-List gives it just as occurring. While some of the June 
and August specimen records of adults are suggestive and tempting, 
there is no evidence that it nests south of Manchuria. No subsequent 
authority has given credence to Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda's (1919) 
statement that it "occasionally nests in the eaves of big buildings in 
Seoul". 

320. Sturnia sturnina (Pallas) 

Gracula sturnina Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 695. 
(Dauria.) 

English: Daurian Myna. 

Japanese: Shiberiya mukudori (Siberian starling.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — May 1928 (3) (SSC). 

PyonganPukto —18-27 May 1929 (10) (Yam); May 1934, July 1937, 
6 June 1940 (Won). 

The Daurian Myna is a not uncommon summer resident in the two 
northern border provinces. Won (1941, 91) first saw it in Pyongan 
Pukto in May 1934, and recorded single birds annually until July 1937, 
when he saw a female feeding a newly-fledged juvenal. He observed six 
adults in May 1940, and found a nest in a hole in a tree 30 May 1940, 
which he watched assiduously' for a week, finally collecting both 
parents and the clutch of three eggs on 6 June 1940. He notes that 
both sexes share the incubation duties. Later the same month he 
watched a second pair evidently preparing to nest in another site, from 
which they first removed the old nest before starting to carry in new 
material. He was unfortunately unable to complete his observations. 
Adachi (1941, 66) found it nesting in Hamgyong Pukto, and notes that 
it lays from three to five eggs in a hollow tree. 



248 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

321. Sturnia philippensis (Forster) 

Motacilla philippensis Forster, Indian Zool., 1781, p. 41. (Philippines.) 
English: Red-cheeked Myna. 
Japanese: Ko mukudori (small starling.) 



Specimen records : 

Hamgyong Pukto — 15 Oct. 1927 (SSC). 
Pyongan Pukto — 17 May 1934 (Won). 

This species is a straggler from the southward, having been taken 
but twice. Mori (1929, 104) reported the first specimen, from Nanam, 
Hamgyong Pukto. Won never published the data on his Pyongan 
Pukto bird, but included it in the holograph list he sent Yamashina. 






ZOSTEROPIDAE 



322. Zosterops palpebrosa uiMAE Kuroda 






Zosterops palpebrosa ijimae Kuroda, Tori, 1 (5), 1917, p. 4, pi. 6, fig. 3, 
text figs. 2, 3. (Tsushima.) 

English: Ijima's White-eye. 

Japanese: Iijima mejiro (Ijima's white-eye.) 

Specimen records: 

Cholla Namdo — 14 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 12 Oct. 1884 (USNM); Sept. 1917, 31 May, Aug. 1918, 

17 Dec. 1928 (2) (Kur). 

The 1942 Hand-List gives this race as breeding in Cholla Namdo and 
Kyongsang Namdo, the two southernmost provinces. It is more likely 
that the species occurs there simply as a casual spring and autumn 
transient en route between its southern wintering grounds and its 
nearest known breeding places on Dagelet and Tsushima Islands. 
Hashimoto gives a number of sight records for White-eyes from his 
light-house stations, usually listing "several". He observed it (1932) at 
Shichihatsu Island in Cholla Namdo 23 March and 8 May 1931, and 
4, 15 April 1932. He also records it (1934) from Hachibi Island in 
Kyonggi Do 7-15 May 1933 and 30 Sept. 1934. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 249 

323. ZOSTEROPS ERYTHROPLEURA ERYTHROPLEURA Swinhoe 

Zosterops erythro pleura Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 204. (North 
China.) 

English: Red-flanked White-eye. 
Japanese: Ko mejiro (small white-eye.) 

Specimen records : 

Pyongan Pukto — 8 July 1917 (LiWM); 16 May 1929 (2) (SSC). 
Pyongan Namdo — 23 May 1933 (2) (Kur). 

This species is either a rare migrant or a summer straggler in north- 
western Korea. Won, who collected the pair in the Kuroda collection 
says (1934, 86) "a few pass through in spring and autumn, flying in a 
flock". 



PLOCEIDAE 



324. Passer montanus dybowskii Domaniewski 

Passer montanus orientalis Clark, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 38, 1910, p. 69. 

(Hokkaido and Korea.) (partim.) 
Passer montanus dybowskii Domaniewski, Compt. Rend. Soc. Sci. Varsovie, 
8, 1915, fasc. 7, pp. 562, 566. (Ussuri and Korea.) 
English: Ussurian Tree Sparrow. 
Japanese: Chosen suzume (Korean sparrow.) 

This is the common, door-yard bird of Korea, an abundant perma- 
nent resident everywhere despite constant persecution from children 
and adults alike. I omit the specimen record as unnecessary; there are 
numerous skins, from almost every province and for every month of the 
year, wherever birds have been collected in Korea. My series of four- 
teen specimens was collected in Seoul and Suwon between 22 November 
1945 and 8 April 1946. 

The best popular account is that of Cumming (1933, 19) who writes: 
"... easily the commonest bird in Korea. It may be found around the 
villages all the way from the seaside to the remotest mountain valleys, 
ubiquitous and assured. It becomes during the harvest season more or 
less of a pest as it gathers in large flocks to feed in the rice fields. It is 
then that the farmers hang their long strings of paper streamers or tin 
cans over the ripening grain that the birds may be frightened away by 
the noise or the waving paper. Everyone has heard the cries of the 



250 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

watchers, old men and women or children set to keep the birds from 
feeding on the rice." He omits mention of the strings of them you see 
hanging in the markets through the winter, their heads shoved between 
the twists of a piece of rice-straw rope. As I did not care to waste preci- 
ous ammunition on them, most of my specimens were caught for me by 
my house-boy, who simply picked them by hand off their roosts in the 
shrubbery after dark with the aid of my flash-light. 

There are no details available on the nesting of the species in Korea. 
Kobayashi (1931) noted them on 19 March 1930 "building in the sides 
of a stork's nest, fifty feet high on top of a tree" in Hwanghae Do. 
Their usual nesting site, however, is under the eaves and in the 
thatched roofs of the Korean dwellings. Two sets of eggs in the LiWong 
collection are labelled Kyonggi Do, 25 May and 30 May 1910, respec- 
tively. 

325. Passer rutilans rutilans (Temminck) 

Fringilla rutilans Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 99, 1835, pi. 588, fig. 2. (Japan.) 
English: Russet Sparrow. 
Japanese: Niunai suzume (go-inside sparrow.) 

Specimen records: 

Kangwon Do — 8 Oct. 1914 (LiWM); 13-27 June 1929 (8) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do — 23 Apr. 19] 7 (Kur). 

Chungchong Pukto — 9 Feb. 1918 (2) (Kur). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 24, 25 Dec. 1914 (4) (LiWM). 

The Russet Sparrow is an uncommon, perhaps locally common, 
summer resident. A few may winter in the extreme south, and it seems 
to be far more plentiful on the east coast than on the west. Y. Kuroda 
(1918, 21) gives a sight record for a flock of twenty birds in Kangwon 
Do on 25 July. Adachi (1941, 66) says it occupies nesting boxes in 
Hamgyong Pukto, laying three to five eggs in a nest of leaves. 

FRINGILLIDAE 

326. Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Linne) 

Coccolhraustes vulgaris japonicus Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Fauna 

Jap., Aves, 1847, p. 50, pi. 51. (Japan.) 
Coccothraustes coccothraustes verticalis Buturlin, in Buturlin and Tugarinow, 
Materialy po ptitsam Yeniseisko'i Gubernii, 1911, p. 88. (Yenissei.) 
English: Hawfinch. 
Japanese: Shime (autochthonous.) 






AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 251 

As C. c. japonicus breeds from Hokkaido to Manchuria, Yamashina 
(1939, 462) assumes that those which breed in northern Korea must 
also belong to this subspecies, a logical conclusion in which he is fol- 
lowed by the 1942 Hand-List. However, the only summer Korean 
specimen is a ju venal which (Yamashina, 1932, 218) had just left its 
nest, and is hence too young for subspecific determination. Adults of 
this southern form have never been taken in Korea. All the migrant 
and wintering specimens have been referred to the northern race, 
verticalis, with darker back and scapulars than japonicus. 



Specimen records: 

Coccothraustes coccothraustes japonicus: 
Hamgyong Pukto — 28 July 1929 (Yam) (juv.). 

Coccothraustes coccothraustes verticalis: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 27 Oct.-12 Nov. 1929 (3) (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto — 26 Nov. 1926 (Taka). 

KyonggiDo —Apr. 1887 (Tacz); Jan., Feb., Mar. 1889 (Camp); 

Nov. 1909, Mar. 1910, 1 Jan. (3), 26 Apr., 3 Dec. 1911 
(LiWM); 20 Jan. 1926 (2) (Kur); 13, 25 Dec. 1926 
(Taka); 5 Jan., 11, 26 Nov., 21 Dec. 1929 (Won); 
Dec. 1925 (SoM); 20 Jan. 1930 (SSC). 

Chungchong Namdo — 12 Dec. 1917 (SSC). 

Cholla Namdo — 25 Dec. 1929 (3) (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo —7, 14 Dec. 1884, 11 Apr. 1886 (USMN). 

The Hawfinch is a locally common but irregular winter visitor 
throughout Korea, and a rare summer resident in the north. Campbell 
(1892, 240) calls it "very numerous in winter". Y. Kuroda and Miya- 
koda (1919) chart its Seoul season as from October to early March. 
Kobayashi (1931) saw Hawfinches in Hwanghae Do 24 March and in 
Kyonggi Do 30 March 1931. Won (1934, 80) calls it a common winter 
visitor. Its presence as a summer resident is based on Orii's juvenal 
(see above) from the highlands of Hamgyong Pukto, and on a nest and 
eggs in the Kobayashi collection from Hwanghae Do. Kobayashi 
(1933, 67) writes "In Hwanghae Do, Korea, nests are mostly in 
boughs of tall chestnut trees . . . The principal material for the out- 
side structure is dead grass, with which is mixed waste cloth and waste 
thread. For the inside part a large quantity of rootlets are used. This 
... is a comparatively crude structure." 



252 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

327. Eophona personata magnirostris Hartert 

Eophona personata magnirostris Hartert, Bull., B.O.C., 5, 1896, p. 38. (Siberia: 
Amur Bay.) 

English : Large-billed Japanese Grosbeak. 

Japanese: Ikaru (autochthonous, perhaps from the voice.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto —26 May 1917 (LiWM). 
Pyongan Namdo — undated (Won). 
Kyonggi Do — 9 Jan. 1918 (SSC). 
Cholla Namdo —26 May 1926 (Uch). 

This species is a straggler in Korea. The Kyonggi Do specimen was 
picked out of a string of dead Hawfinches in the Seoul market by Mori 
(1918, 53) and identified by Kuroda. The Pyongan Namdo specimen 
was bought by Won (1934, 81) "from a farmer who had been breeding 
it near Anju. It died after I kept it six months. The mounted specimen 
is now in the Anju Agricultural School." The Cholla Namdo bird, 
identified by Uchida, was received in Tokyo in the flesh from Shichi- 
hatsu Island, in such bad condition it could not be preserved. 



328. Eophona migratoria migratoria Hartert 

Eophona melanura migratoria Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 1, 1903, p. 59. (Sidemi, 
Ussuri.) 

English: Migratory Chinese Grosbeak. 
Japanese: Ko ikaru (small grosbeak.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 23, 24 Aug. 1917 (4) (LiWM). 

Pyongan Pukto -26 May-19 June 1917 (6) (LiWM); 9-20 May 1929 

(11) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo —8 May 1931, 22 Sept. 1932, 24 May 1934 (Won). 
Kangwon Do —8 Sept. 1914 (2) (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do — 26 Aug. 1887 (Tacz); July 1889 (2) (Camp); 7 May 1909 

(2), 8 June 1913 (2) (LiWM); 20 Dec. 1913 (SSC); 

16 May 1928, 2 July 1927, 25 May 1931 (SoM). 
Cholla Namdo — 24 Feb. 1930 (Yam). 

This grosbeak is a not uncommon summer resident in the northern 
half of Korea. It is plentiful in migration at times along the northern 
border, and occasionally winters in the south. Campbell (1892, 240) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 253 

collected two immature males in July at Inchon, and calls it rare. 
Won (1934, 80) says it is common, and breeds in Kyonggi Do and Pyon- 
gan Namdo. There is a nest and set of eggs in the LiWong collection 
labelled "Ikaru, Kyonggi Do, 23 May 1909", and another nest with 
two eggs in the Yamashina collection taken by Wong in Pyongan 
Namdo, May 1935. 

329. Chloris sinica ussuriensis Hartert 

Chloris sinica ussuriensis Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, 1, 1903, p. 64. (Sidemi, 
Ussuri.) 

English: Ussurian Greenfinch. 
Japanese: Kawarahiwa (riverside finch.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 17 Sept. 1917 (LiWM). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 27 Apr.-lO May 1903 (14) (Roth). 

Pyongan Pukto —6 June 1917 (2) (LiWM); 4 Apr.-29 May 1929 (10) 

(Yam). 
Kangwon Do — 15 June-13 July (1 ad., 2 im.), 23, 26 Nov. (5) 1929 

(Yam). 
Kyonggi Do — 10, 12, 25 June, 27 Oct. 1883 (USNM); Jan., May 1889 

(Camp); 24, 25 Mar. 1910 (4), 25 Apr. 1911, 27 June 

1915 (3) (LiWM); 13 June 1912, 10 May 1927 (SSC); 

23 Apr. 1917 (2) (Kur); 5 Oct. 1927, 26 Jan. 1928 

(7) (Taka); 20 Apr. 1927, 12 May 1929, 3 Apr., 26 Oct. 

1932 (Won); 28 Dec. 1927, 22 Mar. 1930, 29 Nov. 1945- 

17 Apr. 1946 (9) (MCZ). 
Kyongsang Pukto — 19 Jan. 1924 (Uch). 

The Greenfinch is a common resident throughout Korea. Y. Kuroda 
and Miyakoda (1919) say that in the Seoul region from November 
through April it "makes big flocks. Pairs of birds often found in sum- 
mer. It seems to nest." A nest and eggs in the LiWong Museum 
labelled "Aoji, Kyonggi Do, 20 May 1910" is of this species, not Ember- 
iza spodocephala. 

I found it an abundant winter resident in the Suwon area, most 
frequently seen on the dry banks of the sheltered river bottoms. It is 
one of the few small birds that tends to remain in cohesive flocks, and 
the only winter bird to perch in long rows on the telephone wires. The 
flocks remain together from December through February, sometimes 
as many as three hundred individuals in each. I heard the first notes 
of its spring song 8 February. Toward the end of that month the 



254 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

flocks began to split up as the birds paired off. By mid-March it was 
unusual to see more than a dozen together. Away from the river bot- 
toms I found it most frequently in wooded patches containing alder 
and willow, feeding on the catkins. 

330. Carduelis spinus (Linne) 

Fringilla Spinus Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 181. (Sweden.) 
English: Siskin. 
Japanese: Ma hiwa (true finch.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 22 Oct.-ll Nov. 1929 (5) (Yam). 

Pyongan Pukto —Apr. 1917 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do - Dec, Apr. 1887 (9) (Tacz); Jan. 1889 (Camp); Dec. 1909, 

Feb. 1910, 12 Apr. (4), 20 Dec. 1911, 1 Dec. 1913 (2) 
(LiWM); 20 Apr. 1914, 1 July 1916, (SSC); 10, 22 Oct. 

1926, 20 Apr., 2 May 1927, 21 Jan. 1928 (Taka); Apr. 

1927, 19 Apr. 1930 (2) (SoM); 2 Mar. 1929 (Won). 
Cholla Namdo — 17 Jan.-23 Feb. 1930 (5) (Yam); 27 Apr. 1930 (6) (Uch). 

The Siskin is a common but irregular winter visitor, usually appear- 
ing in abundance in alternate years. Taczanowski (1888, 466) says 
"common in spring, rare in summer". Gumming (1933, 18) writes "it 
may be seen in winter feeding in flocks through the woods or on grassy 
slopes. Habits are similar to those of the greenfinch." Won (1934, 81) 
calls it a common winter visitor. The winter of 1945-46 was evidently 
one of its off years, for though I looked for it constantly, I never 
found it. 

331. ACANTHIS FLAMMEA FLAMMEA (Linne) 

Fringilla flammea Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 182. (Sweden.) 
English: Redpoll. 
Japanese: Beni hiwa (rouge finch.) 

Won (1934, 17) assigns the immature bird he took in Hamgyong 
Namdo to A. hornemanni exilipes on the basis of "published descrip- 
tions", and also so identifies one of the two specimens he took in Pyon- 
gan Namdo 20 February 1938 (in his holograph list). While Yamashina 
and the 1942 Hand-List both accept the records, the measurements of 
the specimens are well within the range of flammea, and I do not believe 
they should be considered as anything else until they have been com- 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 255 

pared with specimen material. I examined the two specimens, both 
young males, in the LiWong Museum, and found them typical flammea. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 17 Nov. 1929 (im.) (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 1 Jan. 1931 (im.) (Won). 

Pyongan Namdo — 20, 20, 22 Feb. 1938 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do — 24 Mar. 1910 (2) (LiWM); 1 Sept. 1927 (2) (Taka). 

The Redpoll is an uncommon, irregular winter visitor in Korea. 



332. Uragus sibiricus ussuriensis Buturlin 

Uragus sibiricus ussuriensis Buturlin, Mess. Orn., 1915, p. 128. (Ussuri.) 
English: Ussurian Long-tailed Rosy Finch. 
Japanese: Beni mashiko (red monkey-child.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —29 May, 2 June 1912 (USNM); 7 Nov. 1916 (Kur); 

12. Aug., 27 Oct. 1929 (Yam). 
Hamgyong Namdo — 25 July 1916 (SSC); Aug. (Kur); 1 Feb. 1931 (Won). 
Pyongan Namdo — 14 Nov. 1932 (Won). 
Kyonggi Do —Dec. 1887 (3) (Tacz); 27 Nov. 1916 (LiWM); 24 Apr. 

1917 (Kur); 10 Dec. 1924 (2), 10 Dec. 1927, 8 Feb. 

1928 (SoM). 
Cholla Namdo — 2 Mar. 1930 (Yam). 

This species is an uncommon summer resident in the northern high- 
lands, wintering irregularly in southern Korea. Hashimoto (1937) 
experienced a marked flight of them at Hachibi Island in Kyonggi Do 
during the early spring of 1936; he saw 15 on 5 February, 10 on 18 
March, and 8 on 21 April that year. Won (1934, 81) says that it is 
common and breeds at Nonsadon in Hamgyong Pukto. He collected 
a nest with four eggs at Anju, Pyongon Namdo, 1 May 1938, which is 
now in the Yamashima collection. There is a set of eggs in the LiWong 
Museum labelled "Beni Mashiko, Kyonggi Do, 27 May 1910." 



333. Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Linne) 

Pyrrhula coccinea var. cassini Baird, Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1, 1869, p. 316. 

(Nulato, Alaska.) 
Pyrrhula cineracea Cabanis, Journ. fur Orn., 1872, p. 316. (Lake Baikal.) 
Pyrrhula rosacea Seebohm, Ibis, 1882, p. 371. (Yokohama.) 



256 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

English: Bullfinch. 

Japanese: Uso (autochthonous.) 

The usual wintering Bullfinch in Korea is P. p. rosacea. I have 
examined the two specimens in the Yamashina collection on which the 
presence of the other two races in Korea is based, each collected by 
Orii in Hamgyong Pukto. The specimen of the northeastern race, 
cassini, is an adult male, and is larger and markedly redder than any of 
the series of rosacea. Also larger, but singularly blue-gray on compari- 
son with other specimens is a female taken 12 November 1929, which 
is probably cineracea. 

The relationship betwen the eastern Asiatic forms of Pyrrhula 
pyrrhula is still a moot question, and the application of their racial 
names has been variously interpreted. The name cassini, for instance, 
was at one time applied to the gray form which is now known as ciner- 
acea. This gray bird is frequently given specific rank, because of the 
absence of any intermediate specimens, and on the evidence of Sushkin 
(1925, 14), who found it breeding in the same area of south-central 
Siberia occupied by the pink-bellied subspecies rosacea, and evidently 
not interbreeding with it. If his observation is correct, this may be a 
case of a peripheral subspecies expanding its range into territory 
already occupied, and reacting specifically with the resident form from 
which, by morphological criteria, it is only subspecifically distinct. 
Yamashina has expressed to me his present opinion, which is that cin- 
eracea is a mutant of limited and narrow distribution, perhaps co- 
existant in the same territory with the parent stock from which it 
sprang, and with which it cannot interbreed because of cytological 
disharmony. While both hypotheses are logical and plausible, neither 
resolves the systematic problem involved by this almost unique case, 
for which there is neither provision in the International Code of Zo- 
ological Nomenclature, nor precedent in systematic usage. Because 
its relationship to the other forms is still imperfectly understood, I 
prefer to accord cineracea only subspecific rank, which, morphologically 
at least, is all it deserves. 

Specimen records: 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula cineracea: 

Hamgyong Pukto— 12 Nov. 1929 (Yam). 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula cassini: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 6 Nov. 1929 (Yam). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 257 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula rosacea: 

Hamgyong Pukto -6 Nov. 1915 (SSC); 28 Oct.-9 Nov. 1929 (4) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —Feb., Mar. 1887 (Tacz); Apr. 1910, 25 Dec. 1911 

(LiWM); 13 Dec. 1926 (2) (Taka); 18 Jan. 1928 (SoM); 

28 Jan. 1928 (Won). 
Cholla Namdo — 24 Feb.-2 Mar. 1930 (5) (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 18 Apr. 1886 (USNM). 

The Bullfinch is an uncommon and irregular winter visitor to Korea. 
Taczanowski (1888, 466) says it is "rare in winter". Won (1934, 81) 
calls it rare. Kobayashi (1931) ventures a doubtful sight record for 
Kyonggi Do, 30 March 1931. Hashimoto (1937) saw five at Hachibi 
Island, Kyonggi Do, 30 September 1934. There are no other data. 



334. Loxia ctjrvirostra japonica Ridgway 

Loxia curvirostra japonica Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 2, 1885, p. 101. 
(Japan.) 

English: Japanese Crossbill. 
Japanese: Isuka (autochthonous.) 

Yamashina (1932, 219) synonymizes caucasica Buturlin with japon- 
ica, and points out that the latter itself is a fine-drawn race, differing 
from curvirostra Linne only in the deeper, brighter coloring of the adult 
male. 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Namdo — 30 Oct., 12 Dec. 1932 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do - Feb. 1887 (7) (Tacz); Feb., 24 Mar. 1910 (7), 17 Dec. 1911 

(2) (LiWM); 13 May 1912 (SSC); 21 Jan. 1918 (Kur); 

20 Feb. 1927 (3) (Taka); 26 Oct, 1933 (Uch). 
Cholla Namdo — 1 Apr. 1927, 26 Oct., 13 Nov. 1930 (Uch); 24 Feb. 1930 

(4) (Yam). 

The Crossbill is an uncommon and irregular winter visitor in Korea. 
Taczanowski (1888, 466) says "common in autumn and winter, absent 
in summer". Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) give its season in Seoul 
as from September through December, which does not coincide with 
the specimen record. Won (1934, 82) calls it a common winter visitor. 
Hashimoto (1931) saw Crossbills only on Shichihatsu Island in Cholla 
Namdo. In addition to the specimens he sent Uchida from there, he 
saw others 3 January 1931, and several from 26 October to 13 Novem- 
ber 1930. 



L- 



258 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

335. Erythrina rosea (Pallas) 

Fringilla rosea Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 699. 
(Udam and Selengam.) 

English: Pallas' Rose-finch. 

Japanese: O-mashiko (large monkey-child.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto - 11 May 1918 (Taka); 27 Oct. 1929 (3) (Yam). 

Hamgyong Namdo— 15 Feb. 1928, 1 Feb. 1931 (Won). 

Pyongan Pukto — 2 Jan. 1928 (SoM). 

Pyongan Namdo —21 Dec. 1932 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — 11 Jan. 1914 (2) (LiWM). 

KyonggiDo —Feb. 1887 (Tacz); 12-25 Jan. 1914 (7) (LiWM); 

3 Feb. 1918 (2) (Taka); 2 Jan. 1928, 26 Dec. 1929 
(SSC); 23 Feb. 1928, 9 Mar. 1929, 12 Feb. 1930 (Won); 
18 Mar. 1936 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 5 Jan. 1924 (Uch). 

This species is a not uncommon, but irregular winter visitor. Tac- 
zanowski (1888, 466) says it is "common in winter, not met in summer". 
Won (1934, 82) calls it common. Hashimoto (1937) saw a flock of ten 
on Hachibi Island in Kyonggi Do 23 September 1936. I did not en- 
counter it. 

336. Fringilla montifringilla Linne 

Fringilla Montifringilla Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 179. (Sweden.) 
English: Brambling. 
Japanese: Atori (autochthonous.) 

Specimen records : 

Pyongan Pukto — 9 June 1917 (LiWM); 4-17 Apr. 1929 (10) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 30 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 17 Oct. 1932 (Won). 

Kyonggi Do -23, 24 Oct. 1883 (USNM); Dec. 1887 (Camp); Feb., 

Mar. 1889 (4) (Camp); 28 Mar. 1910 (2), 27 Mar.- 
20 Apr. 1911 (6), 6 Jan., 15 Dec. 1912 (LiWM); 
22 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 17 Jan. 1928 (2) (SoM); 21, 23 
Feb. 1928, 29, 30 Sept. 1929 (Won); 8 Apr. 1933 
(Uch); 20 Jan.-13 Apr. 1946 (8) (MCZ). 

Chungchong Namdo — 17 Dec. 1917 (SSC); 20 Apr. 1923, 3 May 1926, 

30 Apr. 1930, 12 Nov. 1931 (2) (Uch). 

Cholla Namdo — 29 Jan. 1930 (Yam). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 18 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 259 

The Brambling is a common migrant in spring and autumn through- 
out Korea, and a not uncommon winter visitor from Kyonggi Do 
southward. Taczanowski (1888, 466) says it is a "winter resident in 
the conifer forests, absent in summer; in winter it is very abundant and 
feeds mostly on pine seeds." Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) give its 
Seoul season as from November through April, which is roughly cor- 
rect, though from the specimen record 20 October to 20 April is better. 
Hashimoto (1931) gives early arrival dates at Shichihatsu, Cholla 
Namdo, 26 September 1931 and 2 October 1930, and (1937) he saw a 
flock of 15 at Hachibi Island, Kyonggi Do, 17 September 1936. 

I found it not uncommon at Suwon through the winter, though never 
in any numbers, usually one or two individuals at a time in the thin 
woods in company with Rustic and Yellow-throated Buntings. The 
Bramblings suddenly increased markedly in numbers during the third 
week in March, coincidental with a similar increase in Naumann's 
Thrushes. From March 20th, small flocks numbering up to twenty 
birds moved through the tree tops singing their thin little spring song, 
until April 12th, when the flight slackened. I saw the last one on 
April 18th. 

337. Leucosticte arctoa brunneonucha (Brandt) 

Fringilla (Linaria) brunneonucha Brandt, Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp. Sci. PeHersb., 
10, 1842, p. 252. (Kurile Islands.) 
English: Japanese Ground Linnet. 
Japanese: Hagi mashiko (Lespedeza, or bush-clover monkey-child.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 15 Nov. 1929 (4) (Yam). 

While it is possible that this northern breeder winters more or less 
regularly to the high plateau country in northern Korea, the record 
does not justify its being considered at present as more than a straggler. 
Yamashina (1929, 258) reports the two pairs Orii collected at Bampo, 
Hamgyong Namdo, as above. It is the only record for Korea. 

338. Emberiza leucocephalos leucocephalos S. G. Gmelin 

Emberiza leucocephalos S. G. Gmelin, Novi Comm. Acad. Sci. Imp. Petrop., 
15, 1771, p. 480, pi. 23, fig. 3. (Astrachan.) 
English: Pine Bunting. 
Japanese: Shiraga hojiro (white-headed white-cheek.) 



260 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records: 

Hvvanghae Do — 21 Mar. 1914 (2) (LiWM). 

Korea —25 Feb. 1911 (Kur), undated (Sci. College coll., Tokyo). 

The Pine Bunting is little more than a straggler in Korea, known 
only by the three records listed above. 

339. Emberiza rutila Pallas 

Emberiza rutila Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 698. 
(Mongolia.) 

English: Chestnut Bunting. 

Japanese: Shima nojiko (island field-path-child.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 23 Aug.-14 Sept. 1914 (6) (LiWM); 16 May 1918 (2) 

(Taka). 
Pyongan Pukto — 10 May-4 June (9) (Yam). 
Kangwon Do — 3 Oct. 1914 (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do — 11 May 1887 (2) (Tacz); May 1889 (3) (Camp); 13 May 

1909 (2) (LiWM); 20 May 1913, 10 May 1925 (SSC); 

21 Mar. 1928 (4) (Taka); 15 Feb. 1929 (2) (SoM); 

16 May, 18 Oct. 1930, 20 Apr. 1931 (Won); 9 May 1934 

(Uch). 
Cholla Namdo — 20 May 1930 (2), 7 May 1932 (Uch). 

The Chestnut Bunting is a not uncommon spring and autumn tran- 
sient, evidently more common in the northern provinces nearer the 
mainland flight-route than it is farther south on the peninsula. Tac- 
zanowski (1888, 456) says "one never sees it in summer or in winter". 
Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) list it for the Seoul region in October 
only. Hashimoto (1931) notes its arrival at Shichihatsu Island in 
Cholla Namdo 1 May 1930 and 8 May 1931, and (1937) observed it at 
Hachibi Island in Kyonggi Do 21 May, 30 August and 5 September 
1934 (20), 2 November 1935, and 25 November 1936, (10). Won (1934, 
82) calls it a spring and autumn transient. He also adds that it breeds 
at Musan in Hamgyong Pukto, which is extremely unlikely, and in 
which no other authorities have concurred. 

340. Emberiza aureola ornata Shulpin 

Emberiza aureola ornata Shulpin, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. URSS., 28 (3), 
1927 (1928), p. 401. (Southern Ussuriland.) 

English: Yellow-breasted Bunting. 
Japanese: Shima aoji (island greenfinch.) 









AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 261 

» 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 15-24 May 1912 (5) (AMNH); 4, 17, 25 Sept. 1917 

(LiWM); 2 Aug. 1929 (MCZ). 
Pyongan Pukto — 31 May, 8 June (3) 1914 (LiWM); 30 Apr .-31 May 1929 

(11) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 13-20 May 1917 (5) (LiWM); 20 May 1917 (SSC); 

25 May 1933 (Won). 
Kangwon Do — 6 Sept.-9 Oct. 1914 (4) (LiWM). 
Kyonggi Do —27 May 1927 (Won); 23, 26 Sept., 4, 5, 9 Oct. 1927 

(Taka); 8 May 1929 (SoM); 30 May 1933 (Uch). 
Cholla Namdo — 11, 13 May 1926, 20 May (2), 28 Oct. 1930 (Uch). 

The Yellow-breasted Bunting is another of the continental migrants, 
a common spring and autumn transient in the northern provinces of 
Korea, but less plentiful below the 38th parallel. It evidently breeds 
in the northern mountains. Its nest and eggs have been collected in 
nearby Manchuria, but the only evidence of its nesting in Korea is the 
August specimen from Hamgyong Pukto in the M.C.Z. This bird, 
collected by Won, is a ju venal just starting to moult into immature 
plumage, and could not have moved far from where it was hatched. 



341. Emberiza elegans elegans Temminck 

Emberiza elegans Temminck, PI. Col., livr. 98, 1835, pi. 583, fig. 1. (Japan.) 
English: Yellow-throated Bunting. 
Japanese: Miyama hojiro (mountain white-cheek.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —28 June, 18 Oct. 1917 (Uch); 27 July-21 Aug. (1 ad., 

3 Juv.), 15-21 Oct. (8) 1929 (Yam); 27 Aug. 1929 
(MCZ). 

Pyongan Pukto —8 June 1917 (LiWM); 3-13 Apr. 1929 (8) (Yam). 

Kangwon Do — 30 June 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —24 Oct, 1883, 20 Sept. 1929, 4 Apr. 1930 (USNM); 

Dec, Jan., Mar. 1887 (Tacz); Jan., Feb. 1889 (3) 
(Camp); 25 Oct.-Feb. 1909-14 (8), 27 June 1915 (2) 
(LiWM); 1 June 1912 (SSC); 22 Apr. 1917 (4) (Kur); 
5 Oct. 1927 (Taka); 8 Oct. 1928, 30 Mar. 1929 (SoM); 
27 Oct.-25 Mar. (7), 7 June 1929 (Won); 15 Mar., 
8 Apr., 28 Sept, 1933, 21, 28 Apr., 2 May 1934, 26 Mar. 
1936 (Uch); 29 Nov. 1945-6 Apr. 1946 (16) (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo — 19 Jan. 1930 (Yam); 30 Oct. 1930 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 30 Nov. 1883, 19 Apr., 14 Dec. 1884, 26 Apr. 1886 

(USNM). 






262 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Yellow-throated Bunting is a not uncommon summer resident 
in northern Korea, breeding in the highlands possibly as far south as 
Kangwon Do. It is a common winter visitor from Kyonggi Do south- 
ward. 

Y. Kuroda and Miyakoda (1919) delineate its season to Seoul as 
October and November, and from February to early May but the 
former (1935, 88) observed it still lingering in Chungchong Pukto 25 
May 1931. I found it common in the Seoul-Suwon area from my 
arrival in late November continuously until late March, small flocks of 
a dozen or so birds foraging through what little underbrush they can 
find. The flocks seem predominantly males, and I had to make a spe- 
cial effort to find and collect the four retiring and duller colored females 
in my series of sixteen birds. The wintering flocks departed from 
Suwon during the last week in March, but stragglers were observed 
until mid-April. 

342. Emberiza spodocephala Pallas 

Emberiza spodocephala Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, 

p. 698. (Daurian region.) 
Emberiza spodocephala extremi-orientalis Shulpin, Orn. Monatsb., 36 (3), 
1928, p. 82. (Amurland and Korea.) (Nom. emend.) 
English: Black-faced Bunting. 
Japanese: Kara aoji (Chinese greenfinch.) 

The breeding form of this species in Korea is E. s. extremi-orientalis, 
characterized by deep yellow on throat and breast. Typical E. s. 
spodocephala, the paler, less yellow form which breeds farther north- 
ward and westward, occurs in Korea only as a winter visitor. Some 
of the wintering birds, and many of the migrants are intermediate in 
coloring between the two. Yamashina (1932, 221) found Orii's excel- 
lent series of 29 spring, summer and autumn birds from the northern 
provinces "all show the special features of E. s. extremi-orientalis" . So 
also do the 21 specimens from the border provinces in the American 
Museum of Natural History, and the single August Hamgyong Pukto 
bird in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Two of my January 
males from Kyonggi Do are unquestionably spodocephala, for the yel- 
low in their anterior underparts is very pale and light, in fact hardly 
discernible. My four mid-April specimens, however, are much nearer 
to, if not typical of extremi-orientalis. The 15 birds in the Rothschild 
collection, taken on migration in early May in Hamgyong Namdo, 
show some intergrade characteristics, but the yellow of the southern 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 263 

form predominates. Because of the impossibility of identifying all the 
migrant and wintering specimens subspecifically, the specimen record 
is not subdivided. 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —26 Apr.-31 May 1912 (15) (AMNH); 16-28 Sept. 1917 

(7) (LiWM); 2 Aug. (juv), 19 Sept.-18 Oct. (9) 1929 
(Yam); 7 Aug. 1929 (MCZ). 

Hamgyong Namdo — 2-15 May 1903 (13) (Roth). 

Pyongan Pukto — 12 June 1912 (6) (AMNH); 13 Apr.-6 May 1929 (19) 

(Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo — 18 May 1917 (LiWM); 11 Apr., 4 May 1931, 11 May 

1933 (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 8 Oct. 1914 (6) (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do — May 1887 (Tacz); Oct. 1889 (Camp); 23-27 Apr. 1911 

(5), 17 Oct. 1914 (4) (LiWM); 5 Oct., 15 May 1912 
(SSC); 22 Apr. 1917 (Kur); May 1926 (SoM); 4-8 
Oct. 1927 (14) (Taka); 30 Apr. 1928, 10 Oct. 1929, 
11 May 1932 (Won); 21, 27 Apr. 1934 (Uch); 6 Jan.- 
26 Feb. (6), 6-16 Apr. (4) 1946 (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo — 28 Oct., 6 Nov. 1930 (Uch). 

The Black-faced Bunting is a common bird in Korea. It breeds in 
the northern highlands, is frequently abundant in migration, especially 
in the border provinces, and winters in small numbers from Kyonggi 
Do southward. Gumming (1933, 20) writes "they are usually seen in 
small groups of from two to five feeding in the hedges or along the roads 
or hillsides where there is thick cover nearby. They are shy and take 
flight easily, but do not go far." This nicely sums up my own experi- 
ence with them, except that both the birds and myself had trouble 
finding any "thick cover" in Kyonggi Do in 1945-46. 



343. Emberiza sulphurata Temminck and Schlegel 

Emberiza sulphurata Temminck and Schlegel, in Siebold's Fauna Japonica, 
Aves, 1848, p. 100, pi. 60. (Japan.) 

English: Japanese Yellow Bunting. 
Japanese: Nojiko (autochthonous, but characters mean 
field-path-child). 

Specimen records: 
Kyonggi Do — 10 Oct. 1927, 1 Oct. 1928 (SoM). 



264 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

This species is a straggler from the Japanese main islands. Kuroda 
(1917, 79) considered it of doubtful occurrence on the peninsula, and 
included it only on "the basis of other authors", which then consisted 
of its being mentioned in the three early nominal lists (Iizuka et al 1914, 
Taka-Tsukasa and Kuroda 1915, and Mori 1916), without substantia- 
tion. Both Yamashina (1933, 183) and the 1942 Hand-List give the 
bird as occurring in Korea, but without details or comment. The only 
specimens known from Korea are the two listed above, in the Songdo 
Museum, the first of which was collected by Won (1934, 83). 

344. Emberiza cioides Brandt 

Emberiza cioides castaneiceps Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1855, p. 215. 

(Kintang, China.) 
Emberiza cioides weigoldi Jacobi, Abh. Ber. Mus. Dresden, 16 (1), 1923, 

p. 36. (Chihli, N. E. China, 30 km. north of Balihandien.) 
Emberiza cioides tyoosenica Momiyama, Journ. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc, (4), 
1927, pp. 3, 4. (Koryo, Kyonggi Do, Korea.) (Synonym of castaneiceps.) 
English: Meadow Bunting. 
Japanese: Hojiro (white-cheek.) 

The 1942 Hand-List follows Yamashina's (1932, 221) diagnosis of 
the races of Meadow Bunting in Korea. He states "E. c. weigoldi breed 
in the most northern part of Korea, and in winter migrate southward 
to the middle part (neighborhood of Seoul). Those which breed in the 
neighborhood of Chosen [northern Kangwon Do] belong to E. c. cas- 
taneiceps." He had 22 spring, summer and autumn adults from Hamg- 
yong Pukto and Pyongan Pukto which he calls iveigoldi, and three 
summer Kangwon Do adults and one Cholla Namdo winter bird which 
he assigns to castaneiceps. While my series unfortunately throws no 
further light on the dividing line between the breeding grounds of the 
two races in Korea, nor between their respective wintering grounds, it 
bears out the correctness of Yamashina's interpretation. My eight 
wintering males, taken from 25 November to 9 February are all the 
larger, lighter, northern form. These birds were common at Suwon 
throughout the winter, but started to dwindle in numbers early in 
March, and after mid-March no Meadow Buntings were seen until 
early April. My series of spring males, taken from 7 April to 1 May are 
all the smaller, darker, brighter castaneiceps, as are two males from 
Wonsan, Hamgyong Namdo, in the Rothschild collection taken 24, 27 
April. Two other Rothschild males, taken 21, 26 April in the same lo- 
cality are weigoldi, as are the three birds Andrews collected in June on 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 265 

the border. The two races are well marked and distinct, individually 
as well as in series, and the absence of any intermediates or intergrades 
is notable. Size, however, is not as good a criterion as the color differ- 
ence between the adult males, echoed to a lesser extent by the females. 
As for Momiyama's tyooscnica, I find no difference whatever between 
my winter Kyonggi Do series of weigoldi and an excellent series of them 
in the M.C.Z. from north China and Manchuria, nor between my 
spring castaneiceps and a large series of topotypical material from 
central China of comparable dates and plumages. 

Specimen records: 
Emberiza cioides weigoldi: 
Hamgyong Pukto — 29 Aug.-25 Sept. 1917 (6) (LiWM); 15 Sept.-19 Nov. 

1929 (8) (Yam); 27 July 1929 (MCZ). 
Hamgyong Namdo — 21, 26 Apr. 1903 (Roth). 
Pyongan Pukto — 3 June 1912 (3) (AMNH); 3-12 June 1917 (3) (LiWM); 

7-10 Apr. 1929 (3) (Yam), 26 Dec. 1929 (Won). 
Kyogngi Do —Jan. 1889 (Camp); Nov. 1909, 24 Dec. 1911 (LiWM); 

26 Feb. 1926 (Kur); 6 Dec. 1929, 25 Jan. 1932 (Won); 

25 Nov. 1945-12 Feb. 1946 (13) (MCZ). 

Emberiza cioides castaneiceps: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 24, 27 Apr. 1903 (Roth.) 

Pyongan Namdo —30 Apr. 1917 (2) (Kur); 14 May 1917 (2) (LiWM). 

Kangwon Do —8 Sept., 4 Oct. 1914 (LiWM); 14, 15 June 1929 (3) 

(Yam). 
Kyonggi Do —12 Aug. 1883 (2) (USNM); Apr., July, Sept. 1889 

(Camp); 30 Apr. 1911, 5 July 1915 (LiWM); 2 Apr. 

1916 (SSC); 19, 22 Apr., 12 Nov. 1917 (Kur); 6 July, 

8 Oct. 1929, 15 July 1932 (Won); 20 Mar. 1934 (Uch); 

7 Apr.-l May 1946 (9) (MCZ). 
Chungchong Namdo — 8 Apr. 1917 (3) (Kur). 
Cholla Namdo — 17 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 6 Jan. 1930 (Yam). 
Kyongsang Pukto — 17 Oct. 1923 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 3, 5 Aug. 1880 (G & S); 3 May 1883, 30 Jan., 20 Apr. 

1884 (USNM); 6 Apr. 1917 (2) (Kur). 

The Meadow Bunting is a common resident. Through the winter it 
tends to remain in smaller flocks than either the Rustic or Yellow- 
throated Buntings, and is usually found in more open country. E. c. 
weigoldi is one of the earliest wintering Emberizas to depart. When 
castaneiceps arrives in April, the birds are usually observed in pairs, 
evidently having mated either on the wintering grounds, or in transit 
therefrom. Orii collected a nest with four eggs 27 June 1928, in Kang- 



266 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

won Do, which are now in the Yamashima museum. Adachi (1941, 65) 
found its nest in Hamgyong Pukto. 

345. Emberiza jankowskii Taczanowski 

Emberiza jankowskii Taczanowski, Ibis, 1888, p. 317, pi. 8. (Sidemi, near 
Vladivostok.) 

English: Jankowski's Bunting. 

Japanese: Koma hojiro (north Korean white-cheek.) 

Specimen records: 
Hamgyong Pukto — 15-25 Oct. 1929 (6) (Yam). 

This extremely localized species is resident in southern Ussuria, 
southeastern Manchuria, and the adjoining portion of northeastern 
Korea. Yamashina (1933, 193) says of it "limited in Korea to the 
region in the immediate vicinity of the river on the northeast boundary, 
where it is not uncommon." Unlike a similar homologous Nearctic 
relict species, the Ipswich Sparrow, which is limited in its breeding 
range to Sable Island, Nova Scotia, and migrates southward along the 
Atlantic seaboard, Jankowski's Bunting does not migrate, for it has 
never been taken outside its narrow breeding range. 

346. Emberiza fucata fucata Pallas 

Emberiza fucata Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 698. 
("Ad Ononem et Ingodam in ripis.") 

English: Grey-headed Bunting. 
Japanese: Hoaka (red-cheek.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —17, 29 Aug. 1917 (3) (LiWM); 18 Apr. 1918 (Taka); 

28, 29, 30 July 1929 (Won). 
Pyongan Pukto — 12 June 1912 (4) (AMNH); 9 June 1917 (3) (LiWM); 

17 Apr.-6 May 1929 (8) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo - 14 May 1917 (LiWM); 11 May 1932 (SSC); 28 Apr.- 

26 Oct. 1932 (6) (Won). 
Kangwon Do — 6-24 Sept. 1914 (3) (LiWM); 13 June 1929 (Yam). 

KyonggiDo —12 Aug. 1883 (USNM); May 1887 (Tacz); July 1889 

(4) (Camp); 27 Apr. 1911, 8 June 1913, 25 Jan., 17 Oct. 

1914, 5 July, 14 Aug. 1915 (LiWM); 2 May 1926 

(SoM); 28 Nov. 1933 (Uch); 12 Dec. 1945, 15 Apr.- 

1 May 1946 (4) (MCZ). 
Cholla Namdo —23 Feb. 1930 (Yam); 24, 29 Apr., 10 May, 12 Nov. 

1931 (Uch). 
Kyongsang Namdo — 2, 4 Aug. 1880 (G & S). 






AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 2G7 

This species is a common summer resident throughout Korea. A few 
stragglers remain in winter in the southern provinces. Taczanowski 
(1888, 465) says "common in spring, nests in small numbers, gone in 
winter". Won (1934, 83) calls it common and breeding. The species 
had departed when I arrived in late November, but I shot a straggling 
female from a flock of Yellow-throated Buntings 12 December, and 
saw no more until the first spring migrants appeared the following 
April 15th. While it must breed in Korea, there are no data on its 
nesting. 

347. Emberiza rustica rustica Pallas 

Emberiza rustica Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 698. 
("In salicetis Davuriae".) 
English: Rustic Bunting. 
Japanese: Kashiradaka (autochthonous, but means high -headed.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 17 Dec. 1915 (SSC); 2-27 Oct. 1929 (7) (Yam). 

Pyongan Namdo —25 Jan.-20 Apr. 1932 (5) (Won). 

Kangwon Do — 25, 26 Nov. 1929 (3) (Yam). 

KyonggiDo —27 Oct. 1887 (2) (Tacz); Dec, Jan., Apr. 1889 (5) 

(Camp); Feb. 1910 (2), 5, 30 Apr. (3), 17 Dec. 1911, 
15 Dec. 1912, 25 Nov. 1913, 25 Oct. 1914 (LiWM); 
25 Nov. 1926 (4), 2 Jan. 1927 (4) (Taka); Apr. 1929 
(SoM); 2 Apr. 1917 (Uch); 12 Nov. 1917, 26 Feb. 1926 
(Kur); 6, 15 Feb., 2, 5 Sept, 1929, 4 Apr. 1930 (Won); 
6 Feb. 1930 (USNM); 4 Dec. 1945-24 Apr. 1946 (41) 
(MCZ). 

Chungchong Namdo — 8 Apr. 1917 (Kur). 

Cholla Namdo —2 Jan. 1930 (Yam); 22 May 1928, 26 Feb., 30 Oct., 

12 Nov. 1930 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 18 Dec. 1914 (LiWM). 

The Rustic Bunting is a common spring and autumn transient in the 
northern provinces, and an abundant winter visitor from Kyonggi Do 
southward. I found it by far the commonest of the wintering small 
birds in the Suwon area. When you encountered Eringillids at all, you 
found Rustic Buntings. From December through March flocks 
numbering upwards of 500 birds lived among the weeds in the mulberry 
fields, and smaller bunches could be found wherever there was cover at 
almost any time. They began to depart in mid-March, and by early 
April had all disappeared except for the usual few stragglers. 



268 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

348. Emberiza pusilla Pallas 

Emberiza pusilla Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 697. 
(Daurian region.) 

English: Little Bunting. 

Japanese: Ko-hoaka (small red-cheek.) 

Specimen records: 

Pyongan Pukto — 28 Apr.-6 May 1929 (7) (Yam). 
Kyonggi Do — Dec. 1916 (LiWM). 
Cholla Namdo  - 7 Oct, 1931, 5 May 1932 (Uch). 
Korea — Oct. 1917 (2) (Taka). 

This species is evidently a not uncommon spring transient along the 
northern border. It is another of the continental migrants which follow 
the mainland coastline, and occur farther southward on the Korean 
peninsula only casually. Its occurrence in Korea was based on the three 
specimens in the LiWong and Taka-Tsukasa collections until Orii 
encountered it during the spring flight in Pyongan Pukto. 



349. Emberiza chrysophrys Pallas 

Emberiza chrysophrys Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs, 3, 1776, p. 698. 
(Daurian region.) 

English: Yellow-browed Bunting. 

Japanese: Kimayu hojiro (yellow-eyebrowed white-cheek.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 10 May 1918 (SSC). 
Pyongan Pukto — 2 May 1929 (2) (Yam). 
Pyongan Namdo — 14 May 1917 (LiWM). 

The Yellow-browed Bunting is a rare spring transient along the 
northern border. It has never been taken in the southern two-thirds 
of the peninsula. 



350. Emberiza variabilis Temminck 

Emberiza variabilis Temminck, PI. col., livr. 98, 1835, pi. 583, fig. 2. (Northern 
Japan.) 

English: Japanese Grey Bunting. 
Japanese: Kuroji (black finch.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 269 

Specimen records: 
Kyonggi Do — 10 Dec. 1927 (SoM). 

This species is a straggler from the Japanese main islands. The single 
record appears in Snyder's list (1937) of the specimens in the Songdo 
Museum. Won should have known of it, but he makes no mention of 
it, nor does the 1942 Hand-List. 

351. Emberiza tristrami Swinhoe 

Emberiza tristrami Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, p. 441. (Amoy, 
China.) 

English: Tristram's Bunting. 

Japanese: Shirohara hojiro (white-bellied white-cheek.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto —29 May 1912 (AMNH); 1 Oct. 1912 (SSC); 28 Sept. 

1917 (LiWM). 
Pyongan Pukto — 31 May 1917 (2) (LiWM); 20 Apr. 1918, 31 May 1917 

(Taka); 24 Apr.-6 May 1929 (12) (Yam). 
Kangwon Do — 13 Sept. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kyonggi Do —4-14 Oct. 1883 (4) (USNM); May 1889 (Camp); 

30 Apr. 1917 (Kur); 4 Nov. 1933, 28 Apr., 9 May 1934 

(Uch); 21 Apr. 1946 (2) (MCZ). 
Cholla Namdo — 27 Apr., 20 May 1930 (Uch). 

Kyongsang Namdo — 27 Apr. 1885 (USNM). 

Tristram's Bunting is a common spring and autumn transient in the 
two northern provinces, and an uncommon one elsewhere in Korea. 
Campbell (1892, 241) says "This Bunting appeared to be very rare". 
Yamashina (1933, 211) considers it "especially common in spring and 
autumn in Pyongan Pukto". I encountered one small flock of five birds 
in the heavy forest south of Suwon in late April, of which I collected 
two. 

352. Emberiza yessoensis continentalis YYitherby 

Emberiza yessoensis continentalis Witherby, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 31, 1913, p. 74. 
(Nanking, China.) 

English: Chinese Reed Bunting. 

Japanese: Chosen ko-jurin (Korean little reed bunting.) 



270 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 15-26 Oct. 1929 (2 ad., 1 im.) (Yam). 

Hwanghae Do — 20 Apr. 1917 (SSC). 

Kyonggi Do — 25 Nov. 1913, 5 Jan., 1 Feb., 23 Nov. 1914, 31 Jan. 1915 

(LiWM); Jan. 1918 (3) (Taka); 21 Jan. 1929 (SoM); 

9 Jan. 1930 (SSC); 26 Oct. 1930 (Kur); 18 May 1936 

(Uch). 
Cholla Namdo — 27 Dec. 1929 (3) (Yam). 

This species is evidently an uncommon transient in the northern 
provinces, and an equally uncommon winter visitor in the southern 
half of Korea. There is nothing in the literature about it except the 
specimen records above, and I never encountered it. As it breeds in 
Amuria and Ussuria and winters to central China, it should be more 
abundant, at least in the northern provinces on migration, than the 
specimen record indicates. 



353. Emberiza pallasi minor Middendorff 

Emberiza schoeniclus var. minor Middendorff, Sibir. Reise, 2, p. 144. (Stanovoi 
Mountains to Udskoi-Ostrug.) 

English: Lesser Reed Bunting. 

Japanese: Shiberiya jurin (Siberian reed bunting.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Namdo — 8 Nov. 1919 (SSC). 

Pyongan Namdo — 10 Feb. 1936 (Won). 

Hwanghae Do — 20 Mar. 1914 (LiWM). 

Kangwon Do —26 Nov.-l Dec. 1929 (7 ad., 3 im.) (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —Mar. 1887 (4) (Tacz); 29 Dec. 1913, 8, 15 Feb. 1914, 

31 Jan., 10 Mar. 1915 (LiWM); Jan. 1918 (3) (Taka); 
21 Jan., 3 Feb. 1918 (Uch); 24 Apr. 1917, 26 Oct. 1920, 
13 Mar., 5 Nov. 1929 (Kur); 15 Feb. 1927 (SSC); 
15 Dec. 1927, 4 Nov. 1929 (SoM); 27 Feb. 1928, 
20 Jan. 1931, 3, 5, 9 Dec. 1929 (Won); 12 Dec. 1945- 
9 Mar. 1946 (12) (MCZ). 

Cholla Namdo — 24 Dec. 1929-6 Jan. 1930 (6) (Yam). 

The Lesser Reed Bunting is a not uncommon winter visitor from 
Kangwon Do and Kyonggi Do southward. It is a bird of the grassy 
roadside thickets and the reed beds along the shore. I found small 
numbers in the heavy weeds and brush along the irrigation ditches 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 271 

fairly commonly and regularly during December and January. But 
by mid-January the Koreans had cut down to use as fuel every bit of 
the sort of cover this species requires inland, and the birds became hard 
to find, except in isolated small bunches near the shore where a few 
reeds remained. 



354. Emberiza schoenicltjs pyrrhulinus Swinhoe 

Emberiza pyrrhulinus Swinhoe, Ibis, 1876, p. 333, pi. 8, fig. 2. (Hakodate, 
Hokkaido, Japan.) 

English: Swinhoe's Reed Bunting. 
Japanese: O-jurin (large reed bunting.) 

Specimen records: 

Kangwon Do — 30 Mar. 1914 (LiWM). 

KyonggiDo —15 Nov. 1913, 3 Apr. 1914 (LiWM); 17 Oct. 1919 (Kur); 
3 Feb. 1918 (5) (Taka). 

This species is little more than a straggler from the Japanese main 
islands. Yamashina (1933, 222) calls it a winter visitor in Korea, but 
the specimen record does not indicate that it is of regular occurrence. 



355. Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus (Linne) 

Fringilla lapponica Linne\ Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 180. (Lapland.) 
English: Lapland Longspur. 
Japanese: Tsumenaga hojiro (long toe-nailed white-cheek.) 

Specimen records: 

Hamgyong Pukto — 31 Nov. 1917 (Uch); 11 May, 6, 10 Nov. 1918 (Taka). 

Pyogan Pukto —4 Apr. 1929 (Yam). 

Kyonggi Do —31 Jan. 1915 (LiWM); 2 Mar. 1918 (2) (Taka); Feb., 31 

May 1932 (Kur). 
Cholla Namdo — 13 Dec. 1929-6 Jan. 1930 (10) (Yam). 

The Lapland Longspur is an uncommon, sporadic transient and 
winter visitor in Korea. There is no reason why this circumpolar species 
should vary the, irregularity of its habits between the Nearctic and the 
Palearctic. Korea probably gets a visitation of Longspurs sporadically 
every few winters, much as temperate North America does. 



272 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

[Pledrophenax nivalis nivalis (Linne) 

English: Snow Bunting. 

Japanese: Yuki hojiro (snow white-cheek.) 

The 1942 Hand-List says this species occurs in Korea. Yamashina (1933, 
231) says it is "rare in Korea". Won (1934, 84) lists it as a rare winter migrant. 
However, I can find no record of a Korean specimen, and the only other men- 
tion of the Snow Bunting in the literature is Taczanowski's (1888, 459) state- 
ment that Kalinowski "encountered it in February [1888] near Wonsan 
[Hamgyong Namdo]." While as experienced a field man as Kalinowski could 
hardly be mistaken in identifying a Snow Bunting at sight, still, there is no 
specimen on record.] 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 273 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Adachi, Junichi 

1941. "Nesting of Wild Birds on Mount Paekto." (In Japanese.) 
Yacho, 8 (2), Feb. 1941, pp. 62-68. 

(Detailed notes on the nesting of five species, and breeding records 
for about fifteen more. The author was a primary school teacher 
in Hamgyong Pukto. Some of his identifications are questionable, 
and some of his statements are perhaps based on hearsay, not 
observation.) 

Amoeba. (Bulletin of the Amateur Biological Club of Japan.) (In Japanese.) 

Published by the Club, Tokyo. Contains occasional ornithological 
papers, but only a few minor references to Korean birds in a 
complete file running from Vol. 1 through 5, dated 1929 through 
1933. 

Anderson, Malcolm Playfair 

1907. A collecting trip in Korea. 
Condor, 9, 1907, p. 146-147. 

(A brief account of a trip made to a region sixty or seventy miles 
northeast of Seoul between 29 October and the end of November, 
1906. Mentions, by generic names only, a few species seen and 
collected.) 
1919. [Obituary of.] 

Condor, 21, May, 1919, pp. 115-119, por. 

Andrews, Roy Chapman 

1944. "Under a Lucky Star." 

New York, 12 mo, 1944. pp. 1-300. 

(An interesting short popular account of his trip to Korea in 1912 

is given on pages 102-114.) 

Annotationes Ornithologiae Orientalis. (In Japanese and English.) 

Published in Tokyo by Anthenaei Ornithologici Momiyamici; 

Vol. 1 (1-5), pp. 1-51, published from 1927 to 1930. 

Vol. 2, (1), pp. 1-124, dated 30 December 1933. 

Vol. 2, Supplement, pp. 89-186, was reprinted from the Bulletin 

of the Biogeographical Society of Japan, 1, (3), July 1930. 

(The above is all of Momiyama's private journal ever published.) 

Anon. 

1909. "[Bird Notes from Korea.]" (In Japanese.) 
Zool. Mag., 21 (248), 15 June 1909, p. 272. 

(This is a letter, without heading, address or signature, containing 
the first Japanese bird notes from Korea. It mentions a flock of a 
thousand swans, also white-fronted and bean geese in Kangwon 
Do; many ruddy sheldrakes for sale in the Seoul markets; 



274 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

falconing common in the Pyongan districts; rollers common near 
Seoul; cuckoos and other small birds heard. No dates or definite 
localities, and specific identifications sometimes doubtful.) 

Beebe, Charles William 

1918-1922. "A Monograph of the Pheasants." 
New York, 4to, vols. 1-4. 

(Vol. 3, pp. 116-118, contains R. C. Andrew's notes on his field 
experiences with Phasianus colchicus in Korea.) 

Bergman, Sten 

1935. "Nagra Korta brev fran Korea." 

Fauna och Flora, 1935, pp. 170-172. 
1935. "Glimtar fram djulivet i en Koreansk floddal." 

Fauna och Flora, 1935, pp. 203-209. 

(Neither of these two 1935 papers has been available to me.) 
1938. "In Korean Wilds and Villages." (In English, tr. from Swedish.) 

12mo, John Gifford Ltd., London, 1938, pp. 1-232, map and num. 

photos. 

(A popular account of the author's experiences, mostly in northern 

Korea. Good local color, but very little of a specific nature on 

the birds.) 

Bianchi, V. 

1902. "Catalogue of the Known Species of Paridae or the Family of 
Tits." 
Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb., 7, 1902, pp. 235-262. 

Blaauw, F. E. 

1897. "A Monograph of the Cranes." with illustrations by H. Leutman 
and J. G. Keulemans. pp. i-viii + 62, 22 col. pi., folio. Leiden and 
London. 
(Not seen; only 170 copies of this work were ever published.) 

Bolau, Heinrich 

1891. "Haliaetus pelagicus und H. branickii." 

Der Zoologische Garten, 32, 1891, pp. 265-274. 

1892. "On Specimens of Haliaetus pelagicus and H. branickii now living 
in the Zoological Gardens of Hamburg." 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1892, p. 173-174. 

(A specimen of branickii (niger) received from Korea in 1887 
never developed the white thighs and shoulder-patches of 
pelagicus.) 
1894. "Der Riesen-Seeadler und der Korea-Seeadler im Zoologischen 
Garten in Hamburg." 
Der Zoologische Garten, 35, 1894, p. 193-194. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 275 

Botany and Zoology (In Japanese.) 

Published monthly in annual volumes in Tokyo under the auspices 
of the Faculty of Science, Tokyo Imperial University. Contains 
occasional papers on Korea. Complete file runs from Vol. I, 1932 
to Vol. XI, 1943. 

Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan. (In Japanese and English.) 
Published in Tokyo by the Biogeographical Society, an organiza- 
tion closely associated with the Ornithological Society. 
(All Korean ornithological references have been taken from a 
complete file, running from Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr. 1929 to Vol. 14, 
No. 2, Jan. 1944.) 

BUTURLIN, S. A. 

1904. "On the Geographical Distribution of the True Pheasants, (Genus 

Phasianus sensu stricto)." 

Ibis, 1904, pp. 377-414. 

(Contains the original description of Phasianus karpowi.) 
1910. "Ninox scutulata ussuriensis, n. subsp." 

Mess. Orn., 1, 1910, p. 187. 

Campbell, C. W. 

1892. "A List of Birds Collected in Corea." 
Ibis, 1892, pp. 230-248. 

(Lists the 112 species collected by the author while he was British 
Consul at Seoul and Inchon in 1888 and 1889. Gives first Korean 
records for 14 species, notes and comments on status and abund- 
ance, and describes as new Suthora fulvicauda, Suthora longicauda, 
and Cettia minuta borealis.) 

Clark, Austin H. 

1907. "Eighteen New Species and One New Genus of Birds from 

Eastern Asia and the Aleutian Islands." 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 32, 1907, pp. 467-475. 

(Describes nine new forms in the Jouy collection.) 
1910. "Report on a Collection of Birds made by Pierre Louis Jouy in 

Korea." 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 38, pp. 147-176. 

(Complete report on Jouy's specimens, totalling 155 species from 

Korea, and eight from Tsushima. Lists the new forms described 

in the preceding paper, and the twelve specimens collected in 

Cholla Namdo by Dr. Smith.) 

Courtois, R. P. 

1912. "Les Oiseaux du Musee de Zi-Ka-Wei." 

Memoires concernant l'Histoire naturelle de l'Empire Chinois, 
par des Peres de la Compagnie de Jesus, tome V, 3 e cahier, 1912, 
p. 6. 



276 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

(A specimen of Haliaeetus niger, taken from a nest in Korea in 
1884, died in its cage at Zikawei, Shanghai, in Feb. 1908.) 

CUMMING, D. J. 

1933. "Notes on Korean Birds." 

Trans. Korean Royal Asiatic Soc, 22, pp. 1-94. 
(The original "Notes" were read before the society in Seoul 28 
January 1931, and published later with the addition of two sec- 
tions, the first containing descriptions and a few notes on about 
100 of the more common species, and the second a list of the 
species attributed to Korea by the 1932 Hand-List of Japanese 
Birds. Also included is a list of Korean bird names, in Korean 
characters without Romaji spelling or English translation. The 
work of an amateur, while it contains a few inaccuracies, its 
original contributions are of real value, particularly the author's 
personal observations. The Society reprinted it in 1945, and it 
is still obtainable at the Society's headquarters in Seoul.) 

Delacotjr, Jean 

1928. "Mr. J. Delacour exhibited on behalf of Dr. Kuroda two very 
beautiful paintings . . . of . . . Pseudotadorna cristata." 
Bull. B. O. C, 48, 1928, p. 125. 

Delacour, Jean, and Hachisuka, Masauji 

1928. "Birds in Korea and North China." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 5 (25), March, 1928, pp. 500-506, 1 text fig. 
(The secretary's summary of a lecture delivered before the 
Ornithological Society in Tokyo, 7 November 1927, on a recent 
five-week trip made by the authors to Korea and north China. 
Contains the first published record of Mergus squamatus from 
Korea, with Shimokoriyama's photo of the mounted bird in the 
LiWong Museum, and expresses opinions on the LiWong speci- 
mens of Haliaeetus niger and Grus nigricollis.) 

Dobutsu-gaku Zasshi — see Zoological Magazine. 

Doi, Kancho 

1920. "Report on the Birds of Heijo." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 2 (9), 1920, p. 253. 
(Gives the second Korean record for Monticola gularis.) 

Domaniewski, J. 

1915. "Sur les Forms Orientales de Passer montanus L." 

Compt. Rend. Soc. Sci. Varsovie, 8, fasc. 7, 1915, pp. 556-567. 
(In Polish, with resume in French; contains the original description 
of P. m. dybowskii.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 277 

Dresser, H. E. 

1883. "On the Specimen of Corean Ring-necked Pheasant." 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1883, p. 466. 

(Short note on a Korean specimen, said to be intermediate between 
the pheasants of China and of Formosa.) 

Esaki, Teizo 

1935. "Zoological Expeditions of the Duke of Bedford." (In Japanese.) 
Bot. &Zool., 3 (7-10), June-Dec. 1935, pp. 1348-54; 1505-12; 
1671-78; 1835-41. 

(Gives on p. 1508 M. P. Anderson's itinerary in southern Korea in 
1905.) 

FlNSCH, O. 

1872. "Ueber eine Vogelsammlung aus den Kusternlandern der chines- 
isch-japanischen Meere." 

Verh. k.-k. zool.-bot. Gesell., Wien, 22, pp. 253-272. 
(Unimportant, except for its antiquity. Adds three common 
species to the Korean list, all collected off the coast.) 

Gen, Konkiu (see Won, Hong Koo) 

Giglioli, H. H., and Salvadori, T. (also see Salvadori and Giglioli) 

1887. "Brief Notes on the Fauna of Corea and the Adjoining Coast of 
Manchuria." 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1887, pp. 580-596, pi. 52. 
(Lists 15 species collected at Fusan and Wonsan in 1880 and 1881 
by the Vettor Pisani expedition.) 

Greenway, James C, Jr. 

1940. "Oriental Forms of Picus canus." 
Auk, 57, 1940, pp. 550-560. 

(Comments on synonymizing P. c. griseoviridis with P. c. jessoen- 
sis.) 

Hachisuka, Masailh (see also Delacour and Hachisuka) 
1925. "An example of Pseudotadorjia cristata Kuroda." 

Bull. B. O. C, 45, pp. 46^8. 

(Notes on the Copenhagen specimen by Hachisuka and Taka- 

Tsukasa, with succinct and pertinent comments by Ernst Hartert) 
1930. "A Unique Specimen of Mergus squamatus from Korea." (In 

Japanese.) 

Tori, 6 (30), 1930, p. 441. 

(A letter from Tamezo Mori to the author gives the description 

and measurements of the LiWong Museum specimen.) 



278 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

"Hand-List of Japanese Birds." (In English.) 

Compiled and edited by a committee of, and published by, the 
Ornithological Society of Japan, in Tokyo. First edition, 1922, 
pp. 1-184, 1-18, 1-4; second edition, 1932, pp. i-iv, 1-211; third 
edition, 1942, pp. i-vii and 1-238. 

(This standard "check-list" has been revised by the leading 
Japanese ornithologists at ten year intervals (see historical sketch). 
All three editions cover Korea, as well as all other lands belonging 
to the former Empire at the time of publication. References to 
original descriptions include those synonyms whose type localities 
are in or near Japanese territory, and the location of the type 
specimen is given when known. "Approved" Japanese and 
English common names are supplied for each species and sub- 
species. Distribution within the Empire is delineated briefly, 
but extra-limital ranges are omitted, and the status of many 
forms within the area covered is poorly defined.) 

Hangiwara, Shinsei 

1923. "Observations on Migration at Nishi Island Lighthouse." (In 
Japanese.) 

Tori, 3 (15), 1923, pp. 307-309. 

(Random notes by the lightkeeper on species observed, other than 
those he sent Kuroda. As Nishi light is small, only a few birds 
come there; in October, 1921, wagtails, kinglets and redstarts 
observed; says Shichihatsu light is better, being so large that 
"many birds come to it in migration", but gives no details.) 

Hartert, Ernst 

1903-1922. "Die Vbgel der palaarktischen Fauna." 

Berlin, pp. 1-2328; Nachtrag, 1923, pp. 1-92; Nachtrag (mit 

Dr. Friedrich Steinbacher), Heft 1-7, 1932-1938, pp. 1-602. 

(Still the standard for any Palaearctic territory.) 
1905. "Miscellanea Ornithologica." 

Nov. Zool., 12, 1905, pp. 497-500. 

(Assigns Korean Great Tit to Parus major minor.) 
1917. "The Subspecies of Cyanopica cyaneus." 

Nov. Zool., 24, 1917, p. 493. 

(Describes C. c. interposita from Tsinling, China, and assigns to it 

seven Korean specimens in the British Museum collected by 

Anderson, for which no data are given.) 

Hashimoto, Hideo 

1930-1935. "Reports from Shichihatsu Island Lighthouse." (In Japan- 
ese.) 

'Reports on Birds & Animals', Ministry of Agr. & Forestry, 
Tokyo, 6 (10), July 1930, p. 97; 6 (11), Jan. 1931, pp. 52, 97, 128; 






AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 279 

7 (12), July 1931, pp. 315, 335, 265, 380; 7 (13), Oct. 1932, 
pp. 423, 474; 8 (1516), May 1935, pp. 23, 31, 49. 
1936-1938. "Reports from Hachibi Island Lighthouse." (In Japanese.) 
'Reports on Birds and Animals,', Ministry of Agr. & Forestry, 
Tokyo, 9 (17/18) Mar. 1936, pp. 65, 76, 92, 97, 98, 102, 130, 141, 
146; 10 (19/20), Mar. 1937, pp. 4, 39, 67; 11 (21/22), Mar. 1938 
pp. 35, 77; 12 (23/24), Mar. 1938, pp. 5, 31, 82. 
(Sight records of birds observed by the lightkeeper who shipped 
so many specimens to Uchida in the flesh, and who seems to have 
had a good knowledge of local common birds. Contains valuable 
arrival and departure dates for many unmistakeable species. 
Those observations for species difficult to identify, or in any other 
way questionable, have not been included in the systematic 
account. Good notes on the breeding of Locustella ochotensis 
pleskei, Synthliborhamphus antiquus, Micro-pus pacificus and 
Puffinus leucomelas.) 

Hellmayr, C. E. 

1903. "Erlauterungen sur 18. Lieferung des 'Tierreich'. (Bemerkungen 
liber Pariden.)" 
Journ. fur Orn., 51, 1903, pp. 394-404. 

(Assigns Korean Nuthatches to Sitta europaea amurensis.) 

Heude, P. M. 

1887. "Nouvelle espece d'aigle de Tartarie" 
Le Naturaliste, 9, no. 8, 1887, p. 95. 

(Original description, from a living specimen in Shanghai, of 
Haliaeetus niger from Korea.) 

Iizuka, Akira 

1912. "A New Record for the Sand-grouse." (In Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag., 24 (280), 15 Feb. 1912, pp. 103-104. 

(Only Korean record for Syrrhaptes paradoxus.) 
1914. "Large Bean-goose in Korea, Melanonyx arvensis sibiricus Alph." 

(In Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag., 26 (304), 15 Feb. 1914, pp. 82-83. 

(First Korean record for the Siberian race.) 
1914. "The Magpie and its Nest in Korea." (In Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag., 26 (305), 15 March 1914, pp. 105-108, 1 txt. fig. 

(A general account, in popular form, of the Magpie's habits and 

nesting, with photograph of a mounted bird, but no dates or 

localities.) 

Iizuka, Akira, Taka-Tsukasa, N., Kuroda, N., and Shimokoriyama, S. 
1914. "Handlist of the Birds of Korea." (In Japanese.) 
Zool. Mag., 26 (306), 20 April 1914, pp. 157-180. 



280 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

(First such list made by the Japanese, a careless paper containing 
many errors, an unannotated nominal catalogue, without dates, 
localities, or authorities for the species listed. It gives an accepted 
scientific name in Romaji, followed by a few synonyms and a 
Japanese name in Hiragana. Primarily the work of the junior 
author. See historical sketch.) 

Ishizawa, Takeo (see also Kobayashi and Ishizawa) 

1933. "On the Breeding of Locustella ochotensis pleskei." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 8 (36), 1933, pp. 67-71. 

(Detailed description of its nesting in Korea.) 
1933. "Life History of Synthliboramphus antiquus." (In Japanese.) 

Plants and Animals, Tokyo, 1, (2), 1933, pp. 279-280. 

(Details on nesting in southwestern Korea.) 

Journal of the Chosen Natural History Society. (In Japanese.) 
1923-1944. Formerly published by the Society of Seoul. 

(Numerous references to Korean birds from this journal appear 
under their respective authors. The periodical appeared irregu- 
larly, apparently as material was available, and all issues are 
numbered consecutively from No. 1 in 1923 to No. 40, the last 
one issued in September, 1944.) 

Jouy, Pierre Louis 

1894. [Obituary of.] Auk, 11, July, 1894, pp. 262-263. 

Jouy, Pierre Louis (See also Clark, A. H.) 

1910. "The Paradise Flycatchers of Japan and Korea." 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 37, 1910, pp. 651-655. 
(Posthumously published revision of the genus Terpsiphone.) 

Kaidori [The Cage Bird]. (In Japanese.) 

1921-1938. Formerly published by the Bird Society, Tokyo. 

(A journal edited by Mr. Takayo Takano and devoted to avi- 
culture, a popular Japanese hobby. It contains occasional data 
of value to the systematic ornithologist, on collecting of wild stock 
in the field. Only fifteen numbers were published, in two volumes. 
Vol. I numbers 1 to 5 run from November 1921 to March 1924. 
Vol. II numbers 1 to 10 run from September 1925 to September 
1938.) 

Kobayashi, Keisuke, and Ishizawa, Takeo 

1932-1940. "The Eggs of Japanese Birds." (In English.) 

(2 vols, 8vo, parts 1-16, published in parts in Kobe, Japan, at 
intervals from April 1932 to March 1940, pp. 1-235, col. plates 
1-67, photo plates 1-38, plus title page, preface, introduction, 
map, table of contents, index and errata sections, all separately 
paged.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 281 

(The only major work on the subject, with excellent colored plates 
of eggs and photographs of nests. The text gives habitat, breeding 
range, laying season, descriptions of eggs, nests and nest sites, 
partly culled from the works of others, but largely based on the 
senior author's collection and both men's field experiences. It 
contains a number of previously unpublished Korean records.) 

KOBAYASHI, KENZO 

1931. "A Partial List of Birds of Korea and Manchuria observed in 
early spring." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 7 (31), May 1931, pp. 73-78. 

(Sight records for waterfowl and a few upland species, with some 
good arrival and departure dates, reliable for the more common 
and unmistakable species, but marred by use of loose common 
names which are now unidentifiable). 

1932. "[A letter to a Mr. Kishida]" (In Japanese.) 

'Collected Reports on Birds and Animals'; Agr. & For. Ministry, 

Animal Dept., Tokyo, 6 (10), Jan. 1930-June 1931 (1932), pp. 70, 

71. 

(Random notes on the waterfowl flight in late March in Hwanghae 

Do, good for their arrival and departure dates of the well-marked, 

unmistakable species.) 

Kuroda, Nagamichi (see also Taka-Tsukasa & Kuroda, and Iizuka & 
others) 

1913. "Bean Goose in Japan." (In Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag., 25 (295), 15 May 1913, pp. 298-300. 
(Review of the known Japanese and Korean specimens, revising 
their systematics and common Japanese names.) 
1913. "Dotterel and Grey Tern." (In Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag., 27 (298), 15 Aug. 1913, pp. 419-421. 
(Adds the Dotterel to the list of Korean birds.) 

1916. "Pelican in Korea, Pelicanus crispiis." (In Japanese.) 
Zool. Mag., 28 (331), 15 May 1916, p. 189, 1 text fig. 
(The only Korean record, with photo of the mounted bird.) 

1917. "First Korean Records for Two Species of Birds." (In Japanese.) 
Zool. Mag., 29 (341), 15 March 1917, pp. 95-96. 

(Reports Gypaetus barbatus and Grus nigricollis, from information 
Mori sent him by mail. Mori published the same data in Tori a 
month later.) 
1917. "One New Genus and Three New Species of Birds from Korea and 
Tsushima." (In English.) 
Tori, 1 (5), Dec. 1917, pp. 1-6, 2 txt figs. 

(Original descriptions of Pseudotadorna cristata (duplicated in 
Japanese in the next title), Par us major quelpartensis and Zosterops 
palpebrosa ijimae.) 



282 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

1917. "The Birds of Korea and Manchuria." (In Japanese.) 

7th special publ. of Orn. Soc. of Japan, Tokyo, 28 Dec. 1917, 
pp. 1-82 and 1-95, numerous txt figs. 

(This is the first major Japanese work on Korean birds. The 
systematic section lists 340 species and subspecies for Korea, 
fully documented with references. There are separate sections 
devoted to an annotated bibliography, a diary of his trip, field 
notes, and comments on his specimens.) 

1918. "Additions to the list of Korean Birds." (In Japanese.) 
Zool. Mag., 30 (357), 15 July 1918, pp. 289-292. 

(Brings his previous work up to date by adding the 17 species 
missing from it in the almost simultaneous Shimokoriyama list, 
plus two species, the Snow Goose and the Long-tailed Rosy-finch 
missing from both.) 

1918. "Notes on Corean and Manchurian Birds." (In English.) 
Annot. Zool. Jap., 9 (4), 1918, pp. 495-573. 

(An English edition, for occidental consumption, of the essential 
parts of the original 1917 opus. It comments on 204 species and 
subspecies in the systematic list, those from both Korea and 
Manchuria combined, instead of separately as in the Japanese 
version. Records from earlier literature are omitted, and no 
account is given of his own trip, but more details of his own 
collecting are included, and a few sources are quoted which were 
omitted from the original, such as the specimens given him by 
Mori and Y. Kuroda, and those reported from the LiWong and 
the Seoul School and Scientific Society collections.) 

1920. "On the Sexual Differences of Pseudotadorna cristata Kuroda." 
(In Japanese.) 

Tori, 2 (9), 14 April 1920, pp. 239-242, 2 text figs. 
(Description of the male, as figured in a mediaeval Japanese print.) 

1920. "Scientific Names and Distribution of Several Birds." (In 
Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag., 32, 1920, p. 409. 

(Systematic notes on several specimens of Emberiza schoeniclus, 
E. pallasi and E. yessoensis from Korea, for which no collection 
data are given.) 

1921. "Description of Seven New Forms of Japanese and Korean 
Picidae." (In English.) 

Auk, 38, 1921, pp. 575-582. 

(Describes from Korea Dryoscopus martins morii and Dryobales 
major hondoensis.) 
1923. "Description of two apparently new Forms of Aegithalos caudatus 
from Japan and Korea." (In English.) 
Auk, 40, 1923, p. 312. 

(Describes Aegithalos caudatus shimokoriyamae from central 
Korea.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 283 

1923. "The Birds at Nishi Island Lighthouse in Hwanghae Do." (In 
Japanese.) 

Tori, 3 (15), July 1923, pp. 309-314. 

(Data on nesting of White-rumped Swift, Ancient Murrelet and 
Black-tailed Gull, sent him, with specimens, by the light keeper 
from Nishi (West) Island.) 

1924. "A Note on the Japanese Quail." (In English.) 
Auk, 41 (1), Jan. 1924, pp. 116-123. 

(Color differences, measurements and ranges are given from the 

study of a large series of C. c. colurnix and C. c. japonicus.) 
1924. "A List of the Birds Preserved in Kyoto University Science 

College." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 4 (16, 17), 1924, pp. 68-90. 

(The collection contains specimens of 18 species from Korea. No 

data given.) 
1924. "On a Third Specimen of rare Pseudotadorna crislata Kuroda." 

(In Japanese and English.) 

Tori, 4 (18), Oct. 1924, pp. 171-184, 1 col. pi. and 4 text figs. 

(From Cholla Pukto comes the first known male specimen.) 

1926. "A Monograph of the Pheasants of Japan." (In English.) 
4to, Tokyo, 1926, pp. 1-43, pi. I-XV. 

(A sumptiously illustrated, privately printed compilation of all 
the information available on the pheasants of Japan, including 
Korea and Formosa.) 

1927. "A List of the Birds described by the Author during the ten years 
from 1915 to 1925, with descriptions of two new forms." (In 
English.) 

Ibis, 1927, pp. 691-723. 

(Includes the seven subspecies and one species he described from 

Korea.) 
1932. "Eastern Little Owl in Korea." (In Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag., 44 (523), 15 May 1932, pp. 192-193. 

(Description of specimens sent him by Won, who also published 

the same information almost simultaneously in two different 

papers.) 
1932. "A Revision of the Types of Birds Described by Japanese Authors 

during the Years 1923 to 1931." (In English.) 

Nov. Zool., 37, June 1932, pp. 384-405. 

(Recognizes two of Yamashina's and one of Momiyama's proposed 

Korean races, and invalidates nine of the latter 's.) 
1933-1934. "Birds in Life Colors" (In Japanese.) 

4to, Tokyo, 1, 1933, pi. 1-371; 2, 1934, pi. 372-732; 3, 1934, 

pi. 733-1092. 

(A popular work containing colored plates of almost all the 

species known in the "Empire", with brief text comments on 

habits and life histories.) 



284 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

1934. "Notes on the breeding grounds of certain species of Anatidae in 

Japanese Territory." (In English.) 

Proc. 5th Pac. Sci. Congress (Vancouver, 1933), 6, 1934, pp. 4087- 

4094. 

(Summarizes the known information on breeding of waterfowl 

within the "Empire"; in Korea the Spot-billed Duck is the only 

breeding species.) 
1934. "The Specimens of Lesser White-fronted Goose in Japan." (In 

Japanese.) 

Tori, 7 (38), April 1934, pp. 282-284. 

(The two Kyonggi Do specimens were destroyed by the Tokyo 

earthquake in 1923.) 
1934. "A Nominal List of Limicolae preserved in the Author's Col- 
lection." (In English.) 

Tori, 8 (39), Nov. 1934, pp. 328-343. 

(No data given for the specimens of 21 species listed from Korea.) 

1938. "A consideration on the Water-cock (Gallicrex cinerea.)" (In 
Japanese.) 

Tori, 10 (47), Nov. 1938, pp. 130-150, pi. 4, text figs. 

(A short monograph on the taxonomy and life-history of the 

species, listing all data available on 28 Korean specimens.) 

1939. "Geese and Ducks of the World". (In Japanese.) 

4to, Tokyo, Feb. 1939, unpaged, with 121 black and white plates 

of photos and drawings, a page of descriptive text with each, 

and 19 numbered pages describing 65 varieties of domesticated 

waterfowl. 

(The most complete and authoritative work on the subject in 

Japanese, largely a compilation of previously published material.) 

1940. "An Old Record for a Pair of Pseudotadorna cristata obtained near 
Hakodate." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 10 (50), Sept. 1940, pp. 739-741, figs. 135, 136. 
(A drawing and description made about 1820 prove the former 
occurrence of this rare duck near Hakodate, Hokkaido.) 
1942. "A Bibliography of the Duck Tribe." (In English and Japanese.) 
8vo, Tokyo, Oct. 1942, pp. 1-852. 

(An exhaustive compilation of 6539 titles on the ducks, geese and 
swans, listed chronologically from 1849 to 1940, exclusive of those 
contained in Phillips' (1926) bibliography. Brief abstracts are 
included for the more important papers, but while those in 
English, French, German and other "foreign" tongues are all 
abstracted in English, the titles in Japanese are listed and anno- 
tated in Japanese only, and hence will be difficult for occidental 
students to use.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 285 

Kuroda, Nagamichi, and Mori, Tamezo 

1922. "On some New and Rare Birds from Corea." (In English.) 
Auk, 39, July, 1922, pp. 364-366. 

(Testrastes bonasia coreensis and Dryobates major seoulensis pro- 
posed as new, and a single specimen of Dryobates major brevi- 
rostris reported from Seoul.) 

1924. "Description of a Subspecies of Sittiparus varius from the Korean 
Peninsula." (In Japanese, with English summary.) 
Zool. Mag., 36 (430), 15 Aug. 1924, pp. 314-318. 
(S. v. koreensis proposed, and all the other races briefly reviewed.) 

1927 "A young Three-toed Woodpecker and other Birds collected in 
northern Korea." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 5 (23), June 1927, pp. 290-292. 

(An account of the collection by Won of a juvenal Three-toed 
Woodpecker, a White-backed Woodpecker and a Northern Tree 
Pipit, all new to the peninsula.) 

Kuroda, Yasukichi 

1918. "Observations on the Habits of Korean Birds." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 2 (6), May 1918, pp. 19-25. 

(Random notes on a number of common species; some of the sight 

records, especially of waterfowl, are questionable, and the use of 

loose Japanese names for the birds makes identification impossible 

in several instances.) 
1928. "On the Food and Habits of the Common Quail in Korea." 

(In Japanese.) 

Tori, 5 (25), March 1928, pp. 469-484. 

(Inexpert observations on Coturnix, giving but little accurate 

data, and stating several conclusions unwarranted by the evidence 

(they disappear into the mountains in winter!) A partial analysis 

of crop and gizzard contents.) 
1928. "Supplement to Treatise on Food of Quail in Central Korea." 

(In Japanese.) 

Tori, 6 (26), Dec. 1928, p. 53. 

(A list of identifications, by an un-named botanist, of the vegetable 

remains mentioned in the previous paper.) 
1930. "Korean Black Stork." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 6 (29), April, 1930, p. 360. 

(Describes a juvenal specimen taken in Chungchong Pukto.) 
1930. "Revision and Addition to the Food of Quail in Central Korea." 

(In Japanese.) 

Tori, 6 (29), April 1930, p. 362. 

(A new table on the 1928 subject.) 
1935. "The Korean Hazel Grouse." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 8 (40), May 1935, pp. 518, 519. 



286 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

(Notes from Kangwon Do on its habits in spring; also sight 
records for a few other common species.) 

1935. "The Measurements of Grus vipio in Korea." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 9 (41), Dec. 1935, pp. 84-85. 

(Complete measurements of thirty specimens, with a few notes 
on each.) 

1935. "A Report on Zokuri Sanctuary in Korea." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 9 (41), Dec. 1935, pp. 86-88. 

(General description of the sanctuary in Chungchong Pukto, 
and a list of 48 species of birds observed there during a visit 24-26 
May 1931.) 

1937. "The White-naped and other Cranes in Korea." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 9 (44), June 1937, pp. 307-312. 

(Excellent detailed observations, mostly on Grus vipio, but with 
notes on the other three species as they occur in Chungchong 
Pukto. Abundance, arrival and departure dates, local distribution, 
food and other factors influencing their habits, likewise their 
senses of smell, sight and hearing are discussed with the authority 
of long experience with the birds in the field.) 

1937. "The Japanese Quails in Korea." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 9 (44), June 1937, pp. 313-319. 

(A mature and accurate account of the movements of Coturnix 
in Chungchong Pukto, in welcome contrast to his paper a decade 
earlier on the same subject. A pronounced autumn migration, 
but no discernible spring flight; their presence during shooting 
season largely dependent on available food supply.) 

Kuroda, Yasukichi, and Miyakoda, Jinzaburo 

1919. "Migration of common Birds near Seoul." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 2 (8), July 1919, pp. 148-151. 

(A date chart, slightly annotated, for some 70 species, based 
mostly on sight records (and perhaps guesswork), many of which 
are open to question.) 

Lavauden, Louis 

1924. "Note sur le Pygargue de Coree (Haliaetus niger Huede)." 
Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Marseille, 19, 1924, pp. 1-5, pi. 1. 
(Notes on the specific validity of H. niger, giving measurements 
of the Marseille Museum specimen, which is compared with those 
of the Taczanowski and Zikawei specimens. Mentions other 
captive birds in the Hamburg, Berlin and London zoos.) 

Linsdale, Jean M. 

1937. The Natural History of the Magpies." 

Pac. Coast Avif., No. 25, Cooper Orn. Club, Univ. Cal. Mus. Vert. 
Zool., 24 Aug. 1937, pp. 1-34. 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 287 

(A scholarly account, based mostly on the Nearctic representatives, 
but with a complete review of the literature on the eastern Asiatic 
and all other forms.) 

Ltnes, H. 

1930. "Review of the Genus Cisticola." 

Ibis, Ser. 12, 6, 1930, suppl., pp. 1-673. 

Maniwa, Gunichi 

1918. "[Answers to Questions.]" (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 2 (7), 1918, pp. 134-135. 

(Miscellaneous data on cranes in southern Korea, body weights, 

arrival and departure dates, habits in captivity.) 
1930. "The Nest of the Magpie." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 6 (30), Nov. 1930, p. 429, 1 text fig. 

(Photo of a poplar tree with four magpie nests, one above the 

other.) 

Meinertzhagen, R. 

1923. "A review of the Genus Oriolus." 
Ibis, Ser. 11, 5, 1923, pp. 52-96. 

(O. c. indicus "apparently not seen yet except on passage in 
Corea ") 

Meise, Wilhelm 

1934. "Die Vogelwelt der Mandschurei." 

Abh. und Ber. Mus. Tierk. Volkenk. Dresden, 18, 5 July 1934 

(2), pp. 1-86. 

(Discusses the systematics of a number of Korean forms.) 

MOMIYAMA, TOKUTARO 

1917. "A new Locality for the Old Squaw." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 1 (4), April 1917, p. 44. 

(First Korean record for Clangula hyemalis.) 
1920. "Notes on some Strigidae." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 2 (10), Dec. 1920, pp. 309-312, fig. 48. 

(Remarks on three specimens of Strix uralensis from northern 

Korea.) 
1927. "Four new Subspecies of Korean Birds." (In Japanese.) 

Journ. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. (4), 10 Jan. 1927, pp. 1-6. 

(Describes four fancied races, of Ural Owl, Pigmy Woodpecker, 

Meadow Bunting, and Brandt's Jay.) 
1927. "Descriptions of four new Forms of Corvus coronoides from 

Quelpart, Sakhalin, Hondo and Kiusiu." (In Japanese.) 

Journ. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. (5), 10 June 1927, pp. 1-6. 

(Over-fine splitting, subsequently disallowed by his compatriots.) 
1927. "Some new and unrecorded Birds from Japanese Territories. I." 

(In Japanese.) 



288 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Annot. Orn. Orient., 1 (1), 27 Dec. 1927, pp. 1-79. 
(Proposes names for two titmice and a creeper from Korea, now 
in synonymy.) 
1927. "Description of twenty-five new Birds and three Additions from 
Japanese Territories." (In English.) 
Annot. Orn. Orient., 1 (1), 27 Dec. 1927, pp. 81-102. 
(English version of the preceding, somewhat edited, corrected 
and abridged for foreign consumption.) 

1927. "[Descriptions of new Birds from Japan.]" (In English.) 
Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, 48, 1927, pp. 19-22. 

(Describes Strix uralensis morii, now in synonymy.) 

1928. "New and known Forms of the Ural Owl (Strix uralensis) from 
southeastern Siberia, Manchuria, Korea, Sakhalin and Japan." 
(In English.) 

Auk, 45, 1928, pp. 177-185. 

(Reviews the literature, and recognizes twelve races, only five of 
them not his own; proposes three new races, one of them not 
named because he had no specimen, but had just observed the 
bird in the field as different.) 
1928. "A Catalogue of the Bird Skins made by Mr. Matakichi Tatibana 
in southern Sakhalin during May 1926 to Jan. 1927." (In Japanese 
and English.) 

Annot. Orn. Orient., 1 (2), 25 Jan. 1928, pp. 171-239. 
(Describes Parus major takahashi from Seoul, rectifying the 
nomen nudum he proposed in 1927.) 

1928. "Twelve Forms of Japanese Birds." (In Japanese and English.) 
Annot. Orn. Orient., 1 (4), 31 Dec. 1928, pp. 419-456. 

(Lists specimens and gives descriptions of Cyanoptila cyanomela 
intermedia (Weigold) and Urosphena squameiceps ussuriana 
(Seebohm) from Korea, and Turdus eunomys ni Momiyama from 
Quelpart "and perhaps Korea?".) 

1929. "The Pitta, (Pitta nympha nympha Temm. & Schleg.)" (In 
Japanese.) 

Amoeba, 1 (2), 1929, pp. 28-37. 

(An account of the Pitta in Japanese territory, listing the Korean 

records.) 

1931. "On a Family of Nuthaches [sic] in Japan." (In Japanese and 
English.) 

Kaidori, Tokyo, 2 (8), 1931, pp. 1-24. 

(Proposes Sitta villosa yamashina and Sitta euro pa buturlini, now 

disallowed.) 

1932. "The Geographical Distribution of the Birds of Botel Tobago." 
(In Japanese and English.) 

Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan, 2 (3), p. 315. 

(Proposes Microscelis amaurotis coreensis, a nomen nudum, for 

the wintering Korean bulbuls.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 289 

1937. "On the Hydrobatidae of Japan." (In Japanese.) 
Zool. Mag., 49 (3/4), 1937, pp. 99-101. 
(Lists Oceanodroma monorhis from southwestern Korea.) 

Mori, Tamezo (see also Kuroda, N. and Mori) 

1916. "List of Vertebrate Animals of Korea." (In Japanese.) 
'Lecture Materials' published by the government, Seoul, 1916. 
(Includes a nominal list, without sources, of 306 species and sub- 
species of birds, with Korean and Japanese names for most of 
them.) 

1917. "New Locality for the Bearded Vulture." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 1 (4), April 1917, pp. 41-42. 

(Repeats data written to and published by N. Kuroda.) 
1917. "A rare Crane collected in Korea." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 1 (4), April 1917, pp. 43, 44. 
(Repeats data written to and published by N. Kuroda.) 

1917. "List of Birds collected along the Coasts of Pyongan Pukto, 
Pyongan Namdo and Hwanghae Do in Korea." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 1 (5), Dec. 1917, pp. 72-74. 

(An unannotated list, by Japanese common names only, of 63 
species collected from April to July 1917, evidently for the 
Seoul School collection. Gives no data on dates or localities.) 

1918. "A Japanese Grosbeak." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 2 (6), May 1918, pp. 53-54. 

(He bought one in the Seoul market.) 

1918. "Abnormal underplumage in a White-fronted Goose." (In Japan- 
ese.) 

Tori, 2 (7), Sept. 1918, p. 130, 1 txt fig. 

(Description and picture of a male goose with completely black 
underparts, bought in Seoul Market, 13 Feb. 1918.) 

1918. "A Curious Bird, the Pitta." (In Japanese.) 

Chosen Bull., Seoul, Nov. 1918, pp. 1987-1990, with col. pi. 
(Not uncommon in southern Quelpart Island, rare in mainland 
Korea.) 

1920 "White-winged Black Tern." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 2 (9), April 1920, pp. 252-253. 
(Description and measurements of three Korean specimens.) 

1920. "The Red-spotted Blue-throat." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 2 (10), December 1920, p. 319. 
(Measurements and description of the only Korean specimen.) 

1923. "Catalogue of Specimens at the Exhibition of Specimens of the 
Natural History of Chosen." (In Japanese.) 
Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. publ., Keijo, 1923, pp. 1-95. 
(The avian section, pp. 27-46, lists scientific and common Japanese 
names for 371 Korean forms. For each species on exhibition (most 
are from the Seoul School collection) one locality is given, with 



290 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

no further data. Species previously recorded from Korea but not 

represented in the collection are merely listed without comment.) 
1925. "The Pheasant in Korea." (In Japanese.) 

Journ. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. (3), 15 Dec. 1925, pp. 21-34, map 

and text figs. 

(A careful study of the variations of Korean specimens of Phasianus 

colchicus. Its well thought-out conclusions have not been altered 

materially by any of the later revisions.) 
1927. "Relation between Bird Food and Agriculture." (In Japanese.) 

Journ. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. (5), 10 June 1927, p. 85. 

(Crop and stomach contents of Black Grouse, Bustard, Short- 
eared, Ural and Wood Owls.) 
1927. "The Food of the Korean Hazel Grouse." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 5 (23), June, 1927, pp. 285-286. 

(Crop and stomach contents of two birds from Kangwon Do, and 

one from Hamgyong Pukto.) 

1927. "The Nest and Eggs of the Little Ringed Plover." (In Japanese) 
Tori, 5 (24), Nov. 1927, pp. 388-389, 1 text fig. 

(Details, with photograph, of a nest on the Han River, near 
Seoul.) 

1928. "First Collection of the Black-winged Stilt in Korea." (In 
Japanese.) 

Tori, 5 (25), March, 1928, pp. 490, 491, 1 text fig. 
(Short note, giving full data and picture of the specimen.) 

1929. "Two new Additions to the List of Japanese Birds and three new 
Records for the Korean Avifauna." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 6 (27), April, 1929, pp. 100-108, 1 col. pi. 

(Description, with English summary, of Lyrurus tetrix koreensis, 

and first Korean records of Sturnia sturnina, Sturnia philippensis, 

Streptopelia t. humilis, Pericrocotus r. tegimae, and Nycticorax n. 

nycticorax.) 

1932. "Korean Black-cock, Lyrurus tetrix koreensis Mori kept in cap- 
tivity." (In Japanese.) 

Journ. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. (13), Apr. 1932, pp. 26, 27. 
(Notes on a captive bird kept by a Japanese high school principal 
in Hamgyong Pukto. Describes cage, feeding, voice, and general 
behavior in captivity.) 

1933. "Black-cock occurs in Hamgyong Namdo." (In Japanese.) 
Journ. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. (15), 1933, pp. 97-98. 
(Short note, giving southernmost record for the species.) 

1935. "On the Birds and Mammals collected by the Expedition of 
Kyoto University to Paekto-San in Winter." (In Japanese.) 
Journ. Chosen. Nat. Hist. Soc. (20), 1935, pp. 10-12. 
(Lists, with a few comments but without essential data, the 
specimens of eight species collected by the expedition, which 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 291 

climbed the mountain between December 1934 and mid-January 
1935.) 

1938. "On the Breeding Ground and Habits of Ciconia nigra." (In 
Japanese.) 

Tori, 10 (47), Nov. 1938, pp. 127-129, 1 text fig. 

(Notes on nests found on a cliff near Andong, Kyongsang Pukto.) 

1939. "Bird Conservation in Korea." (In Japanese.) 

Yacho, 6 (1), Jan. 1939, pp. 1-11, map and 3 text figs. 
(A plea for protection and conservation of certain valuable species, 
meant for lay reading, but containing the best data available 
on some of the water-bird colonies, and an excellent account of the 
history and habits of Tristram's Woodpecker.) 

MORIKAWA, TSUTOMU 

1925. "On the Distribution of Phasianus colchicus karpowi and pallasi." 
(In Japanese.) 

Tori, 4 (19), April 1925, pp. 251-261. 

(Conclusions based on the examination of a tremendous series 
of specimens from the Korea-Manchuria border by the principal 
of the Chosen School in Chunchun, Manchuria, who was evidently 
not a scientist. A letter from N. Kuroda follows the paper, pointing 
out its errors and discrepancies.) 

NlSHIOKA, KANKICHI 

1932. "Concerning the Broad-biJled Roller." (In Japanese.) 
Zool. Mag., 44 (523), 15 May 1932, pp. 197-198. 
(A general account of the species' distribution, mainly outside 
Korea, but mentioning its status there briefly.) 

Oberholser, Harry C. 

1925. "Description of a New Oriolus." 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 38, 1925, pp. 5-6. 

(Proposes 0. c. ochroxanthus, now in synonymy, from Jouy's old 

skins.) 

Ogilvie-Grant, William Robert 

1906. "Mr. Ogilvie-Grant describes a new species of the Nuthatch from 
Corea . . ." 

Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, 16, 1905-6 (1906), p. 87. 
(Description of Sitta corea, sp. n., now of subspecific rank.) 

Ornithological Society of Japan 

Publishers of "Tori" [The Bird], the principal Japanese ornitho- 
logical periodical, also a series of special publications in memoir 
form, and the "Hand-List of Japanese Birds", a new and revised 
edition of which has appeared at ten year intervals, the third 
and most recent in 1942. 



292 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Phillips, John C. 

1923-1926. "A Natural History of the Ducks." 
London, 4to, Vols. 1-4. 

(Contains no previously unpublished material on the waterfowl 
in Korea, but gives most of the references to data available in 
all languages except the Japanese. Kuroda's notes on Pseudo- 
tadorna and a fine plate of this rarity are included.) 

Reichenow, A. 

1917. "[liber Abarten der Passer montanus.]" 
Journ. fur Orn., 65, 1917, p. 115. 
(Passing remarks on P. m. dybowskii Dom.) 

Riley, J. H. 

1915. "Descriptions of Three New Birds from China and Japan." 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 28, 1915, pp. 161-164. 

(Describes Tetrastes bonasia vicinitas, Dryocopus martins silvi- 
fragus and Eophona melanura sowerbyi.) 

1916. Description of a New Hazel Grouse from Manchuria. 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 29, 1916, p. 17. 

(Original description of Tetrastes bonasia amurensis.) 

Salvadori, T. (see also Giglioli and Salvadori) 

1909. "Notes on the Corvus neglectus of Schlegel." 
Ibis, 1909, pp. 34-137. 
(Revision of the Jackdaws.) 

Salvadori, T. and Giglioli, H. H. 

1889. "Ucceli raccolti durante il Viaggio della Corvetta 'Vettor Pisani' 
negli anni 1879, 1880 e 1881." 

Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2), 39, 1889, pp. 99-143. 
("Uccelli della Corea", pp. 138-141. Lists 24 specimens of 15 
species, taken between 1 and 18 August, 1880.) 

Sclater, P. L. 

1 893 . " [A Young Corean Sea-Eagle]" . 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1893, p. 613. 

("H. branickii, obtained direct from Corea by the authorities of 
the Zoological Gardens of Hamburg, and purchased from them 
Sept. 21" for the London Zoo.) 
1896. "List of the Vertebrated Animals in the Gardens of the Zoological 
Society of London." 
9th edition, 1896, p. 387. 
(Mentions the London specimen of Haliaeetus niger.) 

Seebohm, H. 

1894. "On the Chinese Species of the Genus Suthora." 
Ibis, 6, 1894, pp. 338-339. 

(Synonymizes Campbell's fulvicauda and longicauda with web- 
biana.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 293 

Shimokoriyama, Seichi (see also Iizuka et al.) 

1913. "Crested Ibis in Korea." (In Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag., 25 (292), 15 Feb. 1913, pp. 113, 114. 
(A letter to Prof. Iizuka describes finding a concentration of 
several thousand ibises in Chungchong province, and collecting 
two of them.) 

1917. "A List of the Bird Specimens in the LiWong Museum, Seoul." 
(In Japanese.) 

Seoul, Korea, 8vo, Oct. 1917, pp. 1-84. 

(Catalogues the 1900 skins of 318 species and subspecies in the 
collection by their accepted scientific names, with Japanese names 
in Hiragana, and complete data, sex, date and locality, for every 
specimen. A separate list contains the 38 species known at the 
time to have been recorded from Korea, but not represented in 
the collection.) 

1918. "[Answers to questions.]" (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 2 (7), 1918, p. 134. 

(Body weight of Manchurian Crane in LiWong Zoo; a White-naped 
Crane laid a single egg there 10 May 1918; Manchurian Crane 
arrives in Hwanghae Do the end of October.) 

Shulpin, L. 

1928. "Emberiza spodocephala extremi-orientalis, n. amend." 
Orn. Monatsb., 36, 1928, p. 82. 

Slater, H. H. 

1897. "On a Further Collection of Birds, made by Messrs. LaToucheand 
Rickett, from N. W. Fokhien." 
Ibis, Ser. 7, 3, 1897, pp. 169-176. 
(Synonymizes Campbell's two races of Suthora with S. webbiana.) 

Snouckaert van Schauberg, R. C. E. Q. J. Baron 
1930. "De duiven van het geslacht Columba L." 

Org. CI. Nederl. Vogelk., 3, 1930, pp. 12-36; 83-100; 158-178. 
1937. "De geographische verbreiding der P ycnonotidae von Azie en den 

Indischen Archipel, VI." 

Limosa, 10 (1/2), 1937, pp. 32-61. 

Snyder, L. H. 

1937. "Catalogue of the Collection of Avifauna in the Wasson Museum 
of the Songdo High School, Songdo, Korea." 
Small 8vo., Y.M.C.A. Press, Seoul, Korea, 1937, pp. 1-23. 
(Specimens are listed with complete data; the scientific names in 
Romaji and the accepted common Japanese names in Kata-kana 
were evidently taken from the 1932 Hand-List of Japanese Birds; 
the dates are in English, but the localities are in Chinese characters.) 



294 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Stegmann, B. 

1927. "Die ostpalaarktischen Elstern und ihre Verbreitung." 

Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. URSS., 28, 1927, pp. 366-390. 
(Revision of the magpies, describing P. p. jankowskii, the Ussurian 
race whose range extends into northern Korea.) 

1931. "Die Vogel des dauro-mandschurischen Uebergangsgebietes." 
Journ. fiir Orn., 79, 1931, pp. 137-236. 

(Pertinent comments on the systematics of a number of forms 
whose ranges extend to Korea.) 

1932. "Die geographischen Formen des Birkhuhns (Lyrurus tetrix L.)." 
Journ. fur Orn., 80, 1932, pp. 342-354. 

(Without Korean material, cannot judge validity of L. t. koreensis 

Mori.) 
1934. "Ueber die Formen der grossen Mowen ("subgenus Larus") und 

ihre gegenseitigen Beziehungen." 

Journ. fiir Orn., 82, 1934, pp. 340-380. 

(A subadult Herring Gull from Korea shows characters inter- 
mediate between mongolicus and vegae.) 
1937. "Charadrius mongolus litoralis subsp. n." 

Orn. Monatsb., 45 (1), Jan./Feb. 1937, pp. 25-26. 

(Describes the northeastern Siberian race.) 

Stejneger, L. 

1888. "Review of Japanese Birds, VIII, The Nutcrackers." 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 11, 1888, pp. 425-432. 

(Discusses systematics; first mention in literature of any of 

Jouy's Korean birds, the four Nutcrackers he collected near 

Fusan.) 
1893. "Notes on a Third Installment of Japanese Birds in the Science 

College Museum, Tokyo, Japan, with descriptions of new Species." 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, 1893, pp. 615-638. 

(Proposes Columba taczanowskii, sp. nov., from Jouy's Fusan 

specimen.) 

STRESEMANN, E. 

1913. "Ornithologische Miszellen aus dem Indo-Australischen Gebiet." 

Nov. Zool, 20, 1913, pp. 289-324. 

(Korean Broad-billed Roller is an intergrade between E. o. 

orientalis and E. o. calonyx.) 
1927. "Die Wanderungen der Rotschwanz-Wurzer." 

Journ. fur Orn., 75, 1927, pp. 68-85. 

(Refers Taczanowski's Korean specimens of Red-tailed Shrike to 

lucionensis.) 
1940. "Die Rassen von Charadrius mongolus." 

Orn. Monatsb., 48 (2), 1940, pp. 51-56. 

(C. m. stegmanni, nom. nov. for litoralis Stegmann, preoccupied.) 






AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 295 

Sushkin, Peter P. 

1925. "Notes on Systematics and Distribution of Certain Palaearctic 
Birds." 

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 38, Aug. 1925, pp. 1-55. 
(Contains notes on the specific affinities of the Bullfinches.) 

Swann, H. Kirke, and Wetmore, Alexander 

1924-1945. "A Monograph of the Birds of Prey." 
4to, Parts 1-16, 1924-1945. 
(Korean data are from previously published sources.) 

Swinhoe, R. 

1870. "A List of Birds collected by Mr. Cuthbert Collingwood during a 
Cruise in the China and Japan Seas, with notes." 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, pp. 600-604. 

(Redstart, Kinglet and Brambling collected on outer islands off 
the coast are the only Korean specimens in the small list, the 
first from Korea.) 

Taczanowski, M. L. 

1887. "Liste des Oiseaux recuellis en Corde par M. Jean Kalinowski." 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1887, pp. 596-611. 

(Notes on the 107 species in Kalinowski's first shipment of 
specimens; describes Galerida cristata coreensis and Thriponax 
kalinowski.) 

1888. "Liste supplemental des Oiseaux recuellis en Coree par M. Jean 
Kalinowski." 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1888, pp. 450-468. 

(Adds 72 species to the previous list and describes Haliaetus 
branickii; gives Kalinowski's field notes, and observations on 
species not collected.) 

1889. "Description d'une nouvelle Locustella de la Coree." 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1889, pp. 620-621. 
(Original description of L. pleskei.) 

1893. "Faune Ornithologique de la Siberie Orientale." 

Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Ser. 7, torn. 39, pts. 1 & 2, 
. 1893, pp. 1-1278. 

(Korean references largely copied from his previous works.) 

Taka-Tsukasa, Nobtjsuke (see also Iizuka, et al.) 

1915. "Additions to the Bird List of Korea." (In Japanese.) 
Zool. Mag., 27 (315), 15 Jan. 1915, pp. 35-36. 
(Corrects fourteen errors in the 1914 Iizuka list, and adds four 
species to it.) 
1919. "The Black Redstart." (In Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag., 31 (363), 15 Jan. 1919, pp. 29-30. 

(Only Korean record for Phoenicurus ochruros rufiventris.) 



296 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

1925. "On a Specimen of Pseudotadoma cristata from Vladivostok." 
(In Japanese.) 

Tori, 4 (20), Aug. 1925, pp. 358-366, 3 text figs. 
(Notes on the specimen in the Zoological Museum, Copenhagen.) 

1932-1943. "The Birds of Nippon." (In English.) 

1, (a) & (b), pts. 1-8, pp. I-CLXXXIV and 1-456, 15 Aug. 1932- 
28 Feb. 1943, 4to, privately printed, Tokyo, numerous colored 
plates and photographs. 

(The first volume (eight separately published parts bound into 
two quartos, a and b) of this monumental work contains an 
account of the physiography of Japan, a history of Japanese 
ornithology, and an excellent bibliography. The systematic 
portion covers only the gallinaceous birds, which are discussed in 
detail. The last half of vol. lb consists of corrections and addenda 
to the earlier portions. The Korean forms are treated by a 
thorough compilation of previously published information.) 

1944. "Studies on the Galli of Nippon." (In English.) 

8vo, privately printed for the author, Tokyo, 31 January 1944, 
pp. 1-67, 5 col. pi. 

(This revision of the systematics of the gallinaceous birds of the 
"Empire" presents no new data for the Korean forms, which are 
treated summarily on the basis of previously published material.) 

Taka-Tsukasa, Nobusuke, and Hachisuka, Masauji 

1925. "A Contribution to Japanese Ornithology." (In English.) 
Ibis, 1925, pp. 898-908. 

(Comments on the changes in status of a number of species, on 
the basis of data published previously only in Japanese; includes 
for Korea notes on Pseudotadoma, Cygnus olor, and, erroneously, 
Eremophila alpeslris.) 

Taka-Tsukasa, Nobusuke, and Kuroda, Nagamichi 

1915. "List of the Birds of Korea." (In Japanese.) 

in "Illustrated Birds of Japan" by S. Uchida, supplemental 
volume, 1915, pp. 189-220, and appendix 3, pp. 23-34. 
(The first section gives general descriptions of Korean species 
that do not occur in Japan; the appendix contains an unannotated 
nominal list of 295 species and subspecies.) 

1927. "List of the Birds of Korea." (In Japanese.) 

in "Illustrated Birds of Japan" by S. Uchida, revised, supple- 
mental volume, 1927, pp. 197-237, and appendix, pp. 1-14. 
(Revision of the 1915 lists, the appendix increased to 379 forms.) 

Temminck, C. J. and Laugier de Chartrouse 

1827-1836. "Nouveau Recueil de Planches Coloriees d'Oiseau." 
Large folio, 5 vols, Paris. 

(Japanese Murrelet, Temminck's Robin and Slender-billed 
Shearwater are described from "CoreV'.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 297 

Temminck, C. J. and Schlegel, H. 

1833-1850. "Aves" in Siebold's "Fauna Japonica." 

Japanese edition, 300 copies, printed 1 Oct. 1934. 
(Describes the Pitta as from "Coree".) 

Ticehurst, Claud B. 

1938. "A Systematic Review of the Genus Phylloscopus." 
London, 8vo, 1938, pp. 1-193, pi. I & II. 
(Most recent and finest revision of this most difficult group.) 

Tori, [The Bird}. (Papers in Japanese and English.) 

Official organ of the Ornithological Society of Japan, published by 
the Society in Tokyo at irregular intervals; all Korean references 
have been extracted from a complete file running from Vol. I 
No. 1, Jan. 1915, to Vol. XI, No. 55, Sept. 1944, and are listed 
under their various authors. 

Transactions of the Chosen Natural History Society. (In Japanese.) 
1937-1939. Formerly published by the Society in Seoul. 

(The Society evidently issued this periodical primarily to record 
minutes of meetings and annual membership lists. Only five 
numbers were issued, from January 1937 to January 1939. They 
contain a few minor papers, too short for inclusion in the Journal, 
three of them containing brief notes on birds.) 

Tristram, H. B. 

1885. "On a Small Collection of Birds from Korea." 
Ibis, 1885, pp. 194-195. 

(A nominal list of eight specimens of as many common species, 
without data, collected somewhere along the Korean coast, by 
the crew of H. M. S. "Flying Fish".) 

UCHIDA, SEINOSUKE 

1915. "The Illustrated Birds of Japan." 
8vo, Tokyo, Vols. I, II and Suppl. 
(Contains Taka-Tsukasa and Kuroda's "List of the Birds of 

Korea".) 
1918. "Concerning Kuroda's Sheldrake, Pseudotadorna cristata Kuroda." 

Tori, 2 (6), May, 1918, pp. 6-12, 2 text figs. 

(Notes on Pseudotadorna from ancient writings and pictures.) 
1927. "The Illustrated Birds of Japan." (Revised ed.) 

8vo, Tokyo, Vols. I, II and Suppl. 

(Contains Taka-Tsukasa and Kuroda's revised "List of the Birds 

of Korea".) 

Ueki, H. 

1932. "About the Keeping of the Black-cock." (In Japanese.) 
Journ. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. (13), 1932, pp. 26, 27. 
(Notes on a pair from Hamgyong Pukto kept in captivity.) 



298 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Underwood, H. H. 

1915. "Hunting and Hunter's Lore." 

Trans. Korean Roy. As. Soc, 6 (2), 1915, pp. 1-21. 

(Not seen, but reported to contain a few bird observations.) 

Won, Hong Koo 

1932. "Notes on the Eastern Little Owl, Athene noctua plumipes from 

Korea." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 7 (33/34), May 1932, pp. 278-280. 

(Cf. Kuroda's simultaneous paper in the Zoological Magazine on 

the same subject.) 
1932. "Swallow Plover Collected in Korea for the First Time." (In 

Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag., 44 (524), 15 June 1932, pp. 242-243. 

(Short account of how this species was added to the Korean list.) 
1932. "Two species of Birds to be added to the List of Korean Birds." 

(In Japanese.) 

Sci. Papers, 25th Ann. Suigen [Suwon] Agr. & For. Coll. 1932, 

pp. 1-4. 

(Repeats the information in the preceding two titles, adds a third 

specimen of the Eastern Little Owl, and gives a few random notes 

on other species, mostly shorebirds and herons.) 
1932. "A List of Korean Birds collected by the Author." (In Japanese.) 

Sci. Papers, 25th Ann. Suigen [Suwon] Agr. & For. Coll., 1932, 

pp. 27-48. 

(A nominal list, without data, of 245 forms, with Japanese and 

Korean names added. A short introduction reviews the history 

of Korean ornithology briefly, and gives an interesting account 

of the author's trials and tribulations as a bird student.) 
1932. "Migration Route of the Pitta in Korea." (In Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag., 54 (528), 15 Oct. 1932, p. 397. 

(A novel theory, hardly justified by the evidence. Contains the 

third record for this straggler in Korea proper.) 
1934. "Two Species new to the List of Korean Birds." (In Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag., 66 (543), 15 Jan. 1934, p. 17, 1 text fig. 

(First records for Hoary Redpoll and Partridge Auklet.) 
1934. "A Handlist of Korean Birds." (In Japanese.) 

Bull. Kagoshima Imp. Coll. Agr. & For., Ded. to 25th Ann., 1, 

Nov. 1934, pp. 77-118. 

(An annotated list, with localities and a few terse notes on the 

status of each species, but no dates. In the Yamashina library 

is a unique copy in which, at Yamashina's request, the author has 

entered by hand the dates of his own specimens.) 



AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 299 

1935. "Importance to Agriculture of Bird Preservation." (In Japanese.) 
Zool. Mag, 47 (567), 15 Dec. 1935, pp. 200-202. 

(A plea for bird protection, with a few dates on specimens col- 
lected for stomach analysis, and a summary of recommendations.) 

1936. "Addition of one Species to the List of Korean Birds." (In 
Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag, 48 (6), 15 June 1936, pD. 312-313, 1 text fig. 

(Tries to assign an old specimen in his collection to Falco peregrinus 

pealei, disallowed by subsequent authors.) 

1937. "Birds in Spring." (In Japanese.) 

Trans. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. (2), Apr. 1937, pp. 3, 4. 
(Brief notes on the breeding of Eophona migratoria and Otus scops 
stictonotus.) 
1941 . "Observations on the Breeding of Sturnia sturnina." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 11 (51/52), Oct. ,1941, pp. 90-98, 3 text figs. 
(The author's experiences with a pair found nesting in central 
Pyongan Pukto, a detailed account of the first Korean breeding 
record for the species.) 

Yacho [The Wild Bird}. (In Japanese.) 

Tokyo, Vol. 1 (1), May 1934, to Vol. 11 (115), Sept. 1944. 
(All published.) 

(A semi-popular periodical, published in Tokyo and produced 
and edited by Godo Nakanishi. Most of its articles ara of a 
popular nature. It contains excellent photographs, considerable 
poetry, and an occasional article of value scientifically based on 
first-hand observations.) 

Yamashina, Yoshimaro 

1927. "Two Species of Korean Birds." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 5 (24), Oct. 1927, pp. 373-374. 
(First Korean records for the Willow Tit and Japanese Skylark.) 

1929. "Several Birds collected in Korea." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 6 (28), Dec. 1929, pp. 168-171. 

(First brief report on the results of Orii's collecting in Pyongan 
Pukto. Notes on eight species new to or rare in Korea.) 

1930. "Twelve Forms of Birds new to Korean Avifauna." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 6 (29), April 1930, pp. 251-260, 2 text figs. 

(Describes Dryobates minor nojidoensis and Picoides tridactylus 
kurodai, and gives first Korean records of ten other species.) 

1931 . "Six Birds newly added to the Avifauna of Japan." (In Japanese.) 
Tori, 7 (31), May 1931, pp. 1-5. 

(New to Korea are Dryobates leucolos uralensis and Lanius cristatus 
confusus.) 
1931. "Notes on Tringites subruficollis and Pisobia maculata." (In 
Japanese.) 



300 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Tori, 7 (31), May 1931, pp. 72-73. 

(American Pectoral Sandpiper from Hamgyong Pukto.) 

1931. "A new Korean Subspecies of Japanese Pigmy Woodpecker." 
(In Japanese.) 

Tori, 7 (32), Dec. 1931, pp. 111-112, 3 text figs. 
(Describes Dryobates kizuki acutirostris from Kangwon Do.) 

1932. "On the Specimens of Korean Birds collected by Mr. Hyojiro 
Orii." (In English.) 

Tori, 7 (33/34), May 1932, pp. 213-252. 

(Collection data and critical systematic comment on the 1940 
Korean specimens of 279 species and subspecies collected by Orii 
from April 1929 to March 1930 in Pyongan Pukto, Hamgyong 
Pukto, Kangwon Do, Cholla Namdo, and Quelpart Island.) 

1933. "A Natural History of the Japanese Birds." (In Japanese.) 
Vol. I, large 8vo, Tokyo, 1933, pp. 1-524, many col. pi. and text 
figs. 

(The 1931 prospectus planned this opus in five volumes, the first 
three dealing with greater Japan (the four main islands, Sakhalin, 
Kuriles and Korea), the fourth embracing the Ryukyus, Formosa 
and China, the fifth on the Japanese Pacific Islands.) 

1939. "Nesting of Redstart in Korea." (In Japanese.) 

Trans. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. (6), Jan. 1939, p. 47. 
(Notes on nesting of Phoenicians auroreus in Kangwon Do, where 
it breeds commonly, frequently building under the eaves of 
temples and other buildings.) 

1939. "Notes on the Specimens of Manchurian Birds chiefly made by 
Mr. H. Orii in 1935." (In English.) 
Tori, 10 (49), Dec. 1939, pp. 446-544. 

(Critical systematic notes, embracing several revisions of Korean 
races from this new material; describes Cyanopica cyanus koreensis.) 

1941. "A Natural History of the Japanese Birds." (In Japanese.) 

Vol. II, large 8vo, Tokyo, 1941, pp. 1-1079, many col. pi. and 
text figs. 

(The second volume of this monumental work, started a decade 
earlier, carries it through the herons in the Japanese systematic 
order. Both volumes are well done, and fairly complete, with 
good descriptions and fine illustrations (done by Mrs. Yamashina). 
But many important data, such as dates and localities of specimens, 
are omitted. There is no bibliography, and the synonymy, though 
accurate as far as it goes, is incomplete.) 

Yamashina, Y., and Mukasa, K. 

1934. "A List of Bird-skins belonging to the Order of Accipilrcs kept in 
the University Museum of Natural History in Sapporo." (In 
Japanese.) 






AUSTIN: BIRDS OF KOREA 301 

Trans. Sapporo Nat, Hist. Soc, 13 (3), 1934, pp. 287-297. 
(The only Korean specimen is a Golden Eagle labelled 'Korea, 
10 Dec. 1907.) 

YOSHIDA, YUJIRO 

1923. "The Birds of West Korea in Summer." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 3 (15), July 1923, pp. 314-317. 

(A list of 42 species observed on a trip through Hwanghae Do, 

with a few random comments. Most of the identifications of 

unmistakable common well-known species are probably accurate, 

though a few are open to question.) 
1925. "Outline of the Revision of Hunting Regulations in Korea." 

(In Japanese.) 

Zool. Mag., 37 (443), 1925, pp. 436-438. 
1932. "On Falconry in Korea." (In Japanese.) 

Tori, 7 (33/34), May 1932, pp. 340-347. 

(An interesting account of this most ancient of sports, with 

details on catching, training and feeding falcons, how they are 

used in Korea, and with what results.) 

Zoological Magazine. (Dobutsu-gaku Zasshi.) 

Published in Tokyo; Vol. I (1889) through Vol. 57 (1947); also 
Transactions and Abstracts, Vols. 1 through 8, 1922 to 1940. 
(A complete file has been combed for all Korean ornithological 
references, which appear in the bibliography under their respective 
authors.) 



PLATE 



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PLATE 

Outline map of Korea to show the provinces. 






BULL. MUS. COMP. ZOOL. 



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Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 

AT HARVARD COLLEGE 

Vol. 101, No. 2 




NEW GUINEAN REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS IN THE 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY AND 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



By Arthur Loveridge 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U. S. A. 
PRINTED FOR THE MUSEUM 

September, 1948 



PUBLICATIONS 
OF THE 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 
AT HARVARD COLLEGE 

The Bulletin and Memoirs are devoted to the publication of 
investigations by the Staff of the Museum or of reports by spec- 
ialists upon the Museum collections or explorations. 

Of the Bulletin, Vols. 1 to 101, No. 2 have appeared and of the 
Memoirs, Vols. 1 to 55. 

These publications are issued in numbers at irregular intervals. 
Each number of the Bulletin and of the Memoirs is sold separately. 
A price list of the publications of the Museum will be sent upon ap- 
plication to the Director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
( "ambridge, Massachusetts. 



Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
AT HARVARD COLLEGE 

Vol. 101, No. 2 




NEW GUINEAN REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS IN THE 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY AND 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



By Arthur Loveridge 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U. S. A. 
PRINTED FOR THE MUSEUM 

September, 1948 




,.. -" - IWIl 

^o.** 2oology *<£> 

24 m\ 

No. 2. — New Guinea?! Reptiles and Amphibians in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology and United States National Museum 

By Arthur Loveridge 

CONTENTS 

Page 
INTRODUCTION 

Summary of taxonomic alterations 307 

Gazetteer of all New Guinean localities mentioned 309 

Acknowledgements 314 

List of the reptiles and amphibians of New Guinea with an Index to 

the species discussed 314 

SYSTEMATIC DISCUSSION 

Turtles 325 

Crocodiles 326 

Lizards 327 

Snakes 376 

Frogs and toads 394 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 427 



INTRODUCTION ' 

The original intention in writing this report was to make available 
to herpetologists the data derived from an examination of the many 
specimens sent in from New Guinea by men in the Services. However, 
the most assiduous of these collectors, Mr. W. H. Stickel, desired that 
the whole of his material be included, the greater and most representa- 
tive selection of which had been presented to the National Museum. 

Dr. Doris M. Cochran, curator of the herpetological collections in 
the Smithsonian Institute, when packing the extensive Stickel material 
decided to include the rest of their New Guinean specimens. This led 
to the project being broadened to embrace all material from New 
Guinea in both museums. In addition reference is made to a few speci- 
mens from the adjacent islands of the Aru, Kei, and New Britain 
Archipelagoes. 

Altogether this report deals with the 1,809 specimens in the two 
museums at the end of 1947. Of these 1,378 were in the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. It was suggested that keys be compiled for all 
genera, but though 166 species or races are represented they only form 
about 44% of the total number listed as occurring in New Guinea. 



306 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

To compile keys on so slender a representation would inevitably lead 
to the perpetuation of many errors, for some of the names included in 
the list will certainly prove to be synonyms. 

The largest single collection was that made by W. H. Stickel (631 
specimens). Not only did it comprise a great many species, each indi- 
vidual of which was carefully preserved, but with them were the most 
detailed notes on habits, habitat, and color, ever accompanying a 
collection submitted to me. It has been possible to print only a portion 
of these notes in this report, where they appear either in quotes or 
followed by the collector's initials (W.H.S.). Mr. Stickel has urged me 
to furnish the names of all regimental colleagues and others who con- 
tributed specimens or accompanied him when hunting. Unfortunately 
this would add too much to the already heavy cost of printing; more- 
over I am confident that without Stickel's enthusiasm few would have 
accomplished much in the trying conditions of climate and camp life 
under which he laboured. One cannot praise too highly Stickel's con- 
tribution to New Guinean herpetology, which will undoubtedly be 
drawn upon by all future writers who attempt to deal exhaustively with 
the reptiles and amphibians of that fascinating island. 

The Museum of Comparative Zoology is also much indebted to 
W. M. Beck who gathered 305 specimens for us at Aitape, a port that 
under the spelling Etape has figured as a type locality of some impor- 
tance. While Stickel, Beck, and others, had to confine their activities 
to the coast, my colleague "Captain P. J. Darlington flew in to Mount 
Wilhelm in the Bismarck Range from which he returned after a couple 
of weeks with 224 specimens, among them nine new species or races, 
including the first Tropidophorus ever to be recorded from New Guinea. 
Dr. Darlington's effort showed that much still remains to be discovered 
in the interior of New Guinea, whose coastal belt appears to have been 
relatively well worked from the herpetological point of view. 

Prior to World War II the only substantial New Guinean collection 
in the Museum of Comparative Zoology was that made by the late Dr. 
Thomas Barbour in 1906-1907 (284 specimens) and briefly dealt with 
in his (1912, pp. 1-203) "Contribution to the Zoogeography of the East 
Indian Islands." Other sources of specimens referred to in the present 
paper are: G. H. Bick (1); E. A. Briggs (9); J. F. Cassell (21); L. E. 
Cheesman (11); D. Crocker (3); S. F. Denton (2); D. Fairchild (1) 
E. Gerrard (3); W. M. Gordon (1); A. Guilianetti (1); J. E. Hadley (3) 
E. S. Harald (1); J. Hurter (4); W. G. litis (1); L. W. Jarcho (15) 
P. N. van Kampen (3) ; — Karcher (1) ; A. M. Keefe (12) ; J. Kern (5) 
G. M. Kohls (4); F. Kopstein (6); R. Mertens (1); C. W. Moren (11) 






loveridge: new guinean reptiles 307 

J. F. G. Nulauf (1) ; G. H. Penn (35) ; A. E. Pratt (15) ; P. T. L. Putnam 
(43); K. P. Schmidt (2); — Schoede (1); M. A. Smith (1); H. Stevens 
(38); T. R. Tovell (8); W. M. Welch (3); F. Werner (2); P. Wirz (3). 
Material collected by some of the preceding, such as P. Wirz and 
Miss L. E. Cheesman, were actually received in exchange from other 
museums, so that the following list of specimens obtained by the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology through exchanges with other insti- 
tutions does not completely reflect all our additions from these sources. 
Amsterdam Museum (13); Australian Museum (5); Basel Museum 
(3); Berlin Museum (20); British Museum (20); Hamburg Museum 
(1); Leiden Museum (6); Museum Godeffroy (16); Museum Sencken- 
berg (4); Queensland Museum (2); Vienna Museum (2). 



SUMMARY OF TAXONOMIC ALTERATIONS 

In addition to certain other changes, the following forms are ac- 
corded subspecific rank: 

Scincus gigas becomes Tiliqua scincoides gigas (Schneider) 

Lygosoma (Hinulia) jobiensis, L. (Sphenomorphus) variegatum jobiense Meyer 

Hinulia papuensis, Lygosoma (S.) megaspila papuense (Macleay) 

Lygosoma kuhnei, Lygosoma (S.) striolatum kuhnei Roux 

Lygosoma (Hinuha) maindroni, L. (S.) consobrinum maindroni Dauvage 

Lygosoma moszkowskii, L. (S.) pardale moszkowskii Vogt 

Lygosoma wollastoni, L. {Lygosoma) pratti wollastoni Boulenger 

Lygosoma neuhaussi, L. (Lygosoma) pratti neuhaussi Vogt 

Lygosoma jeudi, L. (Lygosoma) pratti jeudi Boulenger 

Leiolopisma morokanum, L. (Leiolopisma) stanleyanum morokanum (Parker) 

Heteropus beccarii, L. (Leiolopisma) fuscum beccarii (Peters & Doria) 

Heteropus luctuosus, L. (Le.) fuscum luctuosum (Peters & Doria) 

Emoa pallidiceps, Emoia baudinii pallidiceps de Vis 

Mabouia irrorata, Emoia atrocostata irrorata (Macleay) 

Homalopsis australis, Cerberus rynchops australis (Gray) 

Pelodryas militarius, Hyla infrafrenata militaria (Ramsay) 

Rana novae-britanniae, Rana papua novaebritanniae Werner 

Asterophys minima, Asterophrys pansa minima Parker 

While the undermentioned are considered to be synonyms, in a few 
instances additional material may reveal some are recognizable geo- 
graphic races: 

Lygosoma (Riopa) albofasciolatus boettgeri Sternfeld = Riopa albofasciolata 

(Giinther) 
Lygosoma misolense Vogt = L. (S.) variegatum jobiensis Meyer 



308 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Lygosoma jobiense elegans Sternfeld = L. (S.) m. megaspila (Giinther) 
Lygosoma ambit/ placodes Vogt = L. (S.) megaspila papuense (Macleay) 
Lygosoma rufum Boulenger = L. (S.) aruensis (Doria) 
Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) papuae Kinghorn = L. (S.) aruensis (Doria) 
Lygosoma (Hinulia) elegantulum Peters & Doria = L. (S.) p. pardale (Macleay) 
Lygosoma nigrolineatum Boulenger = ? L. (S.) p. pardale (Macleay) 
Lygosoma minuta var. obtusirostrum de Jong = L. (S.) minutum Meyer 
Lygosoma minuta var. rolundirostrum de Jong = L. (S.) minutum Meyer 
Lygosoma longicaudatum de Rooij = L. (Ly.) solomonis schodei Vogt 
Lygosoma atrigulare Ogilby = L. (Le.) fuscum luctuosum (Peters & Doria) 
Lygosoma nigrigulare Boulenger = L. (Le.) fuscum luctuosum (Peters & Doria) 
Leiolepisma pullum Barbour = L. (Le.) fuscum luctuosum (Peters & Doria) 
Leiolepisma fuscum diguliense Kopstein = L. (Le.) fuscum luctuosum (Peters 

& Doria) 
Lygosoma iridescens Boulenger = Emoia cyanogaster (Lesson) 
Lygosoma cyanura werneri Vogt = Emoia caeruleocauda (de Vis) 
Lygosoma werneri triviale Schiiz = Emoia caeruleocauda (de Vis) 
Lygosoma mivarti Boulenger = ? part Emoia b. baudinii (Dumeril & Bibron) 
Lygosoma mehelyi Werner = Emoia baudinii palUdiceps de Vis 
Lygosoma jakati Kopstein = Emoia baudinii palUdiceps de Vis 
Lygosoma mivarti var. obscurum de Jong = Emoia baudinii palUdiceps de Vis 
Hyla bernsteini Horst = Hyla nigropunctata (Meyer) 
Hyla ouwensii Barbour = Hyla nigropunctata (Meyer) 
Hyla (Hylella) nigromaculata Barbour = Hyla riigropunctala (Meyer) 
Hyla atropunctata van Kampen = Hyla nigropunctata (Meyer) 
Hyla pylchra Wandolleck = ? Hyla m. montana Peters & Doria 
Hyla mehelyi Xieden = Hyla pygmaea (Meyer) 
Hyla impura Peters & Doria = Hyla thesaurensis Peters 
Hyla macros Boulenger = Hyla thesaurensis Peters 
Hyla megregori Ogilby = Hyla thesaurensis Peters 
Hyla solomonis Vogt = Hyla thesaurensis Peters 
Hyla spengleri Boulenger = Hyla i. infrafrenata Giinther 
Cornufer moszkowskii Vogt = Platymantis corrugatus papuensis Meyer 

In addition to three skinks and five frogs already described from 
these collections, the following forms are believed to be new: 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) variegalum stickeli subsp. nov. 
Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) fuscum jamnanum subsp. nov. 
Cerberus rynchops novaeguineae subsp. nov. 
Acanthophis antarcticus rugosus subsp. nov. 
Rana grisea milneana subsp. nov. 
Asterophrys pansa wilhelmana subsp. nov. 
Cophixalus biroi darlingtoni subsp. nov. 
Cophixalus variegatus parkeri subsp. nov. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 309 

Attention is directed to certain startling or puzzling changes such as 
the application of Dasia smaragdina perviridis Barbour to the New 
Guinean form. The elucidation of the confusion resulting from 
Boulenger's application of the name Lygosoma jobiense Meyer to the 
much larger L. m. megaspila described by Giinther, whose Hinulia 
megaspila Boulenger relegated to the synonymy from which it is now 
rescued. 

In the matter of treating Sphenomorphus and Leiolopisma as some- 
thing less than full genera, I have followed Malcolm Smith (1937) as 
last reviser — though with some misgivings — and I should prefer to 
regard the groups as subgenera rather than as "sections." However, 
I have not followed Smith in separating from Lygosoma (in its subgen- 
eric sense) the natural group of skinks for which he (1937, p. 222) 
proposes the name Ictiscincus. The fang-like character of the teeth 
noticeable in some members of the group is so poorly developed in 
others that I failed to note any appreciable difference between their 
teeth and those of species he refers to the section Lygosoma. 

Among the more interesting points that cropped up during these 
studies, mention might be made of the fact that the overlapping, or 
failure to overlap, of the adpressed limbs of Lygosoma {Sphenomorphus) 
arucnsis is clearly an age-sex character and of no specific importance. 
The presence or absence of an interparietal in various species of Emoia, 
regarded as a key character of some importance for over half a century, 
appears to be without even racial significance. 

I should like to stress the need for a re-examination of the types of 
Macleay and other early Australian workers before the nomenclature 
of reptiles in this region, including northern Australia, can be satis- 
factorily stabilized. Many of these early descriptions were much too 
brief to be properly diagnostic and satisfy the requirements of modern 
taxonomy. 

GAZETEER OF ALL NEW GUINEAN LOCALITIES 
MENTIONED IN TEXT 

When I began work on these collections place names proved a con- 
stant source of frustration, for few indeed were to be found in any of 
the standard atlases. Nor were indices to maps available until my 
attention was drawn to the United States War Department's loose leaf 
publication entitled "Gazetteer to Maps of New Guinea." This com- 
pilation by the United States Board on Geographical Names proved an 
inestimable boon on which I have drawn heavily in preparing the fol- 



310 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

lowing list of herpetological localities. It is hoped that the list will 
supply a much-felt need for those colleagues to whom the Army Map 
Service's publication is inaccessible. 

In an effort to standardize the many diverse renderings, I have 
adopted the spelling employed in the Army publication except in the 
case of Jappen Island, for which the name Jobi has so long been in use 
in herpetological literature. Another of Meyer's 1874 type localities 
is that of Mysore (Misore or Misory) Island. This I have changed to 
Biak (alias Wiak) Island on the authority of Dr. Robert Mertens who 
investigated the matter in connection with one of the monitor lizards 
described from there by Meyer. Unlike Jobi, Mysore no longer appears 
on modern maps and, moreover, is likely to be confused with the not 
so distant Mysol (or Misool) Island lying between northwest New 
Guinea and the Moluccas. 

In the present paper a number of type localities have been restricted 
where their vagueness seems likely to lead to taxonomic confusion, 
otherwise such action has been left to first revisers. 

Latitude & Longitude 1 New Guinean Localities mentioned these pages 

10°20' S., 150°40' E. B. Ahioma 

3°10' S., 142°25' E. A. Aitape (Etape) 

D. Albatrosbivak, Mamberamo River; which see 

7°25' S., 145°50' E. B. Albert Edward Mountains 

0°20' S., 132°10' E. D. Amsterdam Island off Cape Sansapor 

0°55' S., 134°00' E. D. Andai 

1°20' S., 133°55' E. D. Angi (Anzi or Anggi Gigi) Lakes 

1°45' S., 135°50' E. D. Ansoes (Ansus; not Ansoes Id.), Jobi Island 

1°05' S., 136°15' E. D. Arfak Mountains 

D. Assike, Upper Digoel River; which see 

5°25' S., 145°50' E. A. Astrolabe Bay 

D. Bajon, Waigeo Island; which see 

1°00' S., 136°00' E. D. Biak (Misory) Island, Schouten Islands 

9°00' S., 143°00' E. D. Binaturi River 

5°25' S., 144°40' E. A. Bismarck Range 

D. Bivak Island, Lorentz River; which see 

5°25' S., 145°45' E. A. Bogadjim, Astrolabe Bay 

5°30' S., 145°50' E. A. Bongu, Astrolabe Bay 

A. Bulowat, Morobe District; which see 

8°40' S., 148°25' E. A. Buna 

2°30' S., 140°30' E. D. Cijcloop (Cyclops) Mountains 

D. Cyclops, i.e. Cijcloop Mountains; which see 

»A = Australian New Guinea, B = British, D = Dutch. 



5°35' S., 


140°15' E. 


D. 

D. 
B. 
D. 


8°50' S., 


148°20' E. 


A. 


1°40' S., 


136°10' E. 


D. 

A. 
B. 


5°25' S., 


145°45' E. 


A. 


3°55' S., 


134°50' E. 


D. 


2°55' S., 


132°15' E. 


D. 


9°35' S., 


150°45' E. 


B. 


6°30' S., 


147°50' E. 


A. 


8°30' S., 


143°30' E. 


B. 
D. 
A. 
B. 


2°30' S., 


135°25' E. 


D. 
D. 

? 


6°25' S., 


147°50' E. 


A. 
D. 


8°50' S., 


146°35' E. 


B. 
D. 
B. 


4°30' S.. 


, 138°40' E. 


D. 


2°30' S., 


, 140°45' E. 


D. 


2°35' S., 


, 140°45' E. 


D. 
A. 


8°35' S. : 


, 146°35' E. 


B. 


2°15' S. ; 


, 134W E. 


D. 


2°00' S. : 


, 133°55' E. 


D. 


2°00' S., 


, 139°15' E. 


D. 


2°20' S. : 


, 134°30' E. 


D. 


1°45' S. ; 


, 136°25' E. 


D. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
D. 


0°55' S. : 


, 132°40' E. 


D. 
D. 
D. 
D. 


8°35' S. 


, 151°10'E. 


B. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 311 



Digoel (Digul) River 

Digul, i.e. Digoel River; which see 

Dinawa, Owen Stanley Mountains; which see 

Djamna, i.e. Jamna Island; which see 

Dobodura 

Dore (Dorerey; Dore Harbor) Jobi Island 

Mertens places it on Beron Islet. 

Draeger Harbor, 5 miles east of Finschhafen 

Epa, i.e. Mount Epa; which see 

Erima, Astrolabe Bay 

Etna Bay 

Fakfak 

Ferguson (Fergusson or Moratau) Island 

Finschhafen (Finsch-Hafen), Huon Gulf 

Fly River; also runs through Dutch New Guinea 

Fort Merkusoord, west coast Dutch New Guinea 

Friederich-Wilhelmshafen = Madang; which see 

Gamadodo, Milne Bay; which see 

Geelvink Bay 

Geitenkamp, near Lorentz River; which see 

Germania Bay ? Humboldt Bay; which see 

Gusiko, Huon Peninsula 

Haas 

Hall Sound 

Hatam, Arfak Mountains; which see 

Haveri in Moroka, Bartholomew Range 

Hellwig Mountains 

Hollandia, Humboldt Bay 

Humboldt Bay 

Ibundo, Sepik River; which see 

Inawi, Mekeo District 

Jakati 

Jakati River, Bintuni (Bentoni) Bay 

Jamna (Djamna) Island, Geelvink Bay 

Jende (Jendee), Roon Island, Geelvink Bay 

Jobi (or Japen; Jappen) Island, Geelvink Bay 

Kaiserin Augusta River = Sepik River; which see 

Kaiserwilhelmsland = Australian New Guinea 

Kalueng River; see Gusiko, Huon Peninsula 

Kapaor = Kapar; which see 

Kapar 

Kasawari, Kohari Mountains; which see 

Katau, i.e. Binaturi River; which see 

Katow, i.e. Binaturi River; which see 

Kiriwina Island 



312 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 



Kito River 

Kohari Mountains, south of Humboldt Bay 

Kokoda 

Koragu, Sepik River; which see 

Kordo, Mysore = Biak Island; which see 

Kundiawa, Chimbu Valley 

Kwatto Branch Mission, Milne Bay; which see 

Lababia, Huon Gulf 

Lake Sentani 

Langemak Bay 

Launch Camp, Setekwa River; which see 

Liki Island, north of Sarmi Island 

Lorentz (or North) River 

Madang 

Mafoor Island (an Adolf B. Meyer loc. 1874) 

Mafulu, 4,000 feet 

Majalibit Bay, Waigeo Island 

Mamberamo River 

Manikion District 

Manisam Island 

Manokwari 

Matapan, Wakip River 

Merauke 

Milne Bay (Tauwarra Bay), Eastern Division 

Mimika River 

Mios Woendi (Meosboendi) off Biak Island 

Misima (St. Aignan) Island 

Modderlust (Modder-lust) 

Mondo, 9 miles southeast of Mafulu; which see 

Moresby, see Port Moresby 

Morobe District 

Moroka, 2,300 feet, Bartholomew Mountains 

Moso = Mosso River; which see 

Mosso River empties into Humboldt Bay 

Mount Epa 

Mount Lamantsiri, Lobo, Triton Bay; which see 

Mount Lamington 

Mount Misim, Morobe District 

Mount Scratchley, Owen Stanley Mountains 

Mount Tafa, 5 miles southeast of Mondo 

Mount Victoria, Owen Stanley Range 

Mount Wilhelm, Bismarck Range 

Mysol = Misool Island, Molucca Islands 

Mysore = Biak (Misory) Island; which see 

Nicura = Nikora; which see 



8°55' S. ; 


147°25' E. 


B. 


2°50' S., 


141°05'E. 


D. 


8°55' S., 


147°50' E. 


B. 

A. 

D. 

A. 

B. 

A. 


2°35' S. ; 


, 140°30' E. 


D. 


6°35' S.. 


147°50' E. 


A. 
D. 


1°35'S. ; 


138°45' E. 


D. 


5°05' S. ; 


, 138°40' E. 


D. 


5°15' S. : 


, 145°50' E. 


A. 
D. 


8°33' S.. 


, 147W E. 


B. 


0°15'S. ; 


, 130°50' E. 


D. 


1°35' S., 


137°55' E. 


D. 
D. 
D. 


0°50' S.. 


, 134°05' E. 


D. 


3°20' S.. 


, 143°00' E. 


A. 


8°32' S., 


, 140°20' E. 


D. 


10°20' S.. 


150°30' E. 


B. 


4°20' S.. 


136°40' E. 


D. 


1°15'S. ; 


, 136°20' E. 


D. 


10°40' S. ; 


, 152°45' E. 


B. 

B. 
B. 
A. 
B. 
D. 


2°40' S., 


140°55' E. 


D. 


8°45' S., 


146°45' E. 


B. 
D. 


9°00' S., 


148°05' E. 


B. 


7°10' S., 


146°40' E. 


A. 


8°40' S., 


147°30' E. 


B. 
B. 


8°50' S., 


147°35' E. 


B. 


5°45' S., 


145°00' E. 


A. 


1°50' S., 


130°10' E. 


D. 
B. 



8°50' S., 


146°35' E. 


B. 
D. 


9°10'S., 


147°50' E. 


B. 


1°15' S., 


136°15' E. 


D. 


1°15'S., 


136°30' E. 


D. 
D. 


1°15'S., 


136°35' E. 


D. 
D. 


1°40' S., 


135°45' E. 


D. 


9°25' S., 


147°15' E. 


B. 
D. 


4°35' S., 


138°45' E. 


D. 
A. 


2°25' S., 


134°35' E. 


D. 


4°45' S., 


138°50' E. 


D. 
A. 


5°40' S., 


146°30' E. 


A. 
B. 
B. 


8°55' S., 


147°25' E. 


B. 


1°05' S., 


130°55' E. 


D. 
D. 
D. 


6°30' S., 


147°45' E. 


A. 


3°10' S., 


142°30' E. 


A. 


4°00' S., 


144°25' E. 


A. 


2°00' S., 


140°00' E. 


D. 


4°40' S., 


, 137°20' E. 


D. 


7°50' S., 


143°45' E. 


B. 


0°55' S. : 


, 131°15'E. 


D. 
B. 


5°50' S., 


, 141°40' E. 


A. 


;i°30' s.. 


, 153°25' E. 


B. 


2°40' S.. 


, 140°55' E. 


D. 
A. 


2°22' S., 


, 139°48' E. 


D. 
D. 


2°00' S. 


, 139°00' E. 


D. 


3°20' S. 


, 142°30' E. 


A. 


2°00' S. 


, 139°00' E. 


D. 


3°50' S. 


, 134°00' E. 


D. 


8°30 S. 


, 151°05 E. 


B. 
B. 
D. 

A. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 313 



Nikora, opposite Yule Island 

North River = Lorentz River; which see 

Owen Stanley Mountains 

Owi Island, Padaido Islands 

Padaido (Padaidori; Padeaido) Islands 

Parana Valley (a P. Wirz loc. 1922) 

"Passim" ? Pasi Island, Geelvink Bay 

Pionierbivak, Mamberamo River; which see 

Pom, Jobi Island, Geelvink Bay 

Port Moresby 

Rawack Island, north of Waigeo Id., which see 

Resi Mountains 

Rienjamur, Torricelli Mountains; which see 

Roon (Ron; Run) Island, Geelvink Bay 

Sabang, Lorentz River 

Sacksackhiitte, Torricelli Mtns.; which see 

Saidor 

Saint Aignan Island = Misima Id.; which see 

Saint John's River 

Saint Joseph's River (if Creek = Kito) 

Salawati (Salwatti) Island 

Sansapor 

Saonek, Waigeo Island; which see 

Satelberg (Sattelberg), Huon Peninsula 

Seleo Island, near Aitape (Berlinhafen) 

Sepik River (mouth near Cape Girgir) 

Sermowai River (mouth west of Hollandia) 

Setekwa River 

Sogeri (Sogere) Camp at 1,750 feet 

Sorong 

Sudest Island = Tagula Island; which see 

Surprise Creek 

Tagula Island 

Tami River (mouth in Humboldt Bay) 

Tonomanbanau, Bismarck Mountains; which see 

Tawarin River (somewhat below position given) 

Timena River, south shore of Lake Sentani ; see 

Toem, Maffin Bay 

Torricelli Mountains 

Tor River near Toem, Maffin Bay (Not B. N. G.) 

Triton Bay 

Trobriand — Kiriwina Islands 

Upuli 

Utakwa River = Setekwa River ; which see 

Valise Island = Walif Island; which see 



314 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 



0°10 


s. 


, 130°35 


E. 


D. 


Waigeo (Waigeu; Waigiu) Island 


4°25 


s., 


135°55 


E. 


D. 


Wakia River 


3°15 


s. 


143°20 


E. 


A. 


Walif (Valise) Island, east of Aitape 


8°00 


s. 


141°00 


E. 


D. 


Wanggar River, Weyland Mountains 


1°20 


8., 


131°05 


E. 


D. 


Wasemsan (Wa Samson) River, near Salwati 


7°20 


s., 


146°45 


E. 


A. 
D. 
D. 


Wau 

Wendessi 

Went Mountains 



D. Wiak Island = Biak Island; which see 

4°25' S., 138°40' E. D. Wichman Mountains 

1°40' S., 135°30' E. D. Wooi Bay, Jobi (Japen) Island 

8°50' S., 146°30' E. B. Yule Island 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I wish to express my thanks to Dr. Doris M. Cochran for submitting 
all the New Guinean material received by the United States National 
Museum up to December 31, 1947. I am also indebted to Mr. H. W. 
Parker and Dr. Malcolm A. Smith for answering numerous questions 
involving examination of type material in the British Museum, to 
J. Roy Kinghorn Esq., of the Australian Museum for studying and 
submitting paratypes of the former microhylid genus Aphantophryne. 
Thanks are also due Mr. W. C. Brown of Stanford University for help- 
ful suggestions regarding the status of Evioia kordoana and other 
species. I am also under obligation to Dr. G. H. Tate of the American 
Museum of Natural History for identifying mammalian remains found 
in some of the snakes, and Mr. J. T. Lucker of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry for determining the parasitic worms recovered. 



A LIST OF THE REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS 
OF NEW GUINEA 

Note. Including some from New Britain, Aru and Kei Islands. 
Families and genera are systematically arranged, species and subspecies 
alphabetically. Those mentioned in this paper are marked with an 
asterisk (*); the listing of others does not necessarily imply their 
occurrence in New Guinea is certain, or recognition of their validity. 
Some recently proposed names do not appear as they are considered 
synonyms. A few extraterritorial names are included in parentheses. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 315 

CLASS REPTILIA 

TESTUDINATA 1 
DERMOCHELIDAE page 

Dermochelys coriacea (Linne) 

CHELONIIDAE 

*Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz) 325 

Caretta caretta (Linne) 

Chelonia mydas (Linne) 
*Eretmochelys imbricata (Linne) 325 

CHELYDIDAE 

Emydura albertisi Boulenger 
Emydura branderhorsti Ouwens 
Emydura kreffti (Gray) 
Emydura macquarri (Gray) 

*Emydura novaeguineae Meyer 326 

Emydura schultzei Vogt 
Emydura subglobosa (Krefft) 
Chelodina novaeguineae Boulenger 
Chelodina oblonga Gray 
Chelodina siebenrocki Werner 

CARETTOCHELYIDAE 

*Carettochelys insculpta Ramsay 326 

TRIONYCHIDAE 

Pelochelys bibroni Owen 

LORICATA 

CROCODYLIDAE 

*Crocodylus novaeguineae Schmidt 326 

Crocodylus porosus Schneider 

1 The allegedly New Guinean snapping turtle (Devisia mythodes) has been shown by Shreve 
and Loveridge (1947, Copeia, p. 120) to be only a North American Chelydra serpentina (Linn6) 
with wrong locality data. 



316 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

SAURIA 1 
GEKKONIDAE page 

* Gymnodactylus loriae Boulenger 329 

* Gymnodactylus louisadensis de Vis 329 

Gymnodactylus marmoratus (Kuhl) 

Gymnodactylus mimikanus Boulenger 
Gymnodactylus novaeguineae Schlegel 

* Gymnodactylus papuensis Brongersma 328 

*Gymnodactylus pelagicus (Girard) 327 

Gymnodactylus sermowaiensis Rooij 

* Gymnodactylus vankampeni Brongersma 327 

*Hemidactylus frenatus Dumeril & Bibron 330 

*Hemidaetylus garnotii Dumeril & Bibron 331 

*Cosymbotus platyurus (Schneider) 331 

*Gchyra baliola (A. Dumeril) 332 

*Gehyra interstitialis Oudemans 332 

Gehyra lampci Andersson 

*Gehyra mulilata (Wiegmann) 332 

*Gehyra occanica (Lesson) 333 

Gehyra variegata (Dumeril & Bibron) 

Gehyra vorax Girard 
*Hemiphyllodactylus typus typus (Bleeker) 333 

Lepidodactylus guppyi Boulenger 
*Lepidodactlus lugubris (Dumeril & Bibron) 333 

* Lepidodactylus pulcher Boulenger 334 

Lepidodactylus woodfordi Boulenger 

Gelcko pumilus Boulenger 
*Geklco vittatus Houttuyn 335 

AGAMIDAE 

Goniocephalus auritus Meyer 
Goniocephalus binotatus Meyer 
Goniocephalus bruijnii Peters & Doria 

* Goniocephalus dilophus (Dumeril & Bibron) 336 

Goniocephalus geelvinkianus Peters & Doria 

* Goniocephalus godeffroyi (Peters) 336 

* Goniocephalus modestus Meyer 337 

Goniocephalus nigrigularis Meyer 

'Omitted from this list are Calotes cristatellus (Kuhl), Draco lineatus Daudin and Varanus 
timorensis (Gray), whose inclusion by De Jong (1915, pp. 296, 299) appears inadmissable. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 317 

PAGE 

*Goniocephalus papuensis (Macleay) 336 

Diporiphora australis (Steindachner) 

Diporiphora bilincata Gray 

Pkysignatkus lesueueri Gray 
*Physignathus temporalis Giinther 337 

Chlamydosaurus kingi Gray 

Hydrosaurus amboinensis amboinensis (Schlosser) 

SCINCIDAE 

* Tribolonotus novaeguineae (Schlegel) 338 

*Tribolonotus gracilis Rooij 338 

*Tropidophorus darlingtoni Loveridge 338 

*Tiliqua scincoides gigas (Schneider) 339 

*Mabuya multifasciata multifasciata (Kuhl) 339 

Dasia 339 

*Dasia smaragdina perviridis Barbour 340 

*Riop>a albofasciata (Giinther) 342 

*Riopa rvfescens (Shaw) 341 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) aignanum Boulenger 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) albodorsalc Vogt 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) annectens Boulenger 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) aruanum Roux 

*Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) aruense (Doria) 348 

*Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) consobrinum maindroni Sauvage . . 350 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) derooyae Jong 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) emigrans Jeude 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) granidatum Boulenger 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) lesueuri Dumeril & Bibron 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) louisadense Boulenger 

* Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) megaspila megaspila (Giinther) . . . 345 
*Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) megaspila papuense (Macleay) . . 346 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) melanochlorum Vogt 

* Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) melanopogon Dumoril & Bibron. . 348 
Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) mimikanum Boulenger 

*Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) minutum Meyer 351 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) nototaenia Boulenger 
*Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) pardale pardale (Macleay) 350 

* Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) pardale moszkowslcii Vogt 350 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) rufum Boulenger 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) schultzci Vogt 
Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) simum Sauvage 



318 



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Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

[*Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

* Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

*Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 

Lygosoma 



(Sphenomorphus) spaldingi (Macleay) 

(Sphenomorphus) striolatum kohnei Roux 

(Sphenomorphus) totocarinatum Vogt 

(Sphenomorphus) undulatum Peters & Doria 

(Sphenomorphus) variegatum variegatum Peters] 

(Sphenomorphus) variegatum jobiense Meyer . . . . 

(Sphenomorphus) variegatum stickeli subsp. nov. 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 

(Lygosoma) 



PAGE 



348 



343 
344 
345 



) beauforti Jong 

) comtum Roux 

) crassicauda A. Dumeril 

) forbesii Boulenger 

) keiense Kopstein 

) loriae Boulenger 

) mulleri mulleri (Schlegel) 

) mulleri latifasciatum Meyer 

) nigriventre Rooij 

) oligolcpis Boulenger 

) pratti pratti Boulenger 

) pratti jeudi Boulenger 

) pratti neuhaussi Vogt 

) pratti wollastoni Boulenger 

) solomonis solomonis Boulenger 

) solomonis schodei Vogt 

) torneri Vogt 

) unilineatum Rooij 

(Leiolopisma) bicarinatum (Macleay) 

(Leiolopisma) cheesmanae Parker 
(Leiolopisma) elegantoides elegantoides Ahl 

(Leiolopisma) elegantoides lobulus Loveridge 

(Leiolopisma) flavipes Parker 

(Leiolopisma) fuscum fuscum (Dumeril & Bibron) 
(Leiolopisma) fuscum beccarii (Peters & Doria) . . 

(Leiolopisma) fuscum jamnanum subsp. nov 

(Leiolopisma) fuscum luctuosum (Peters & Doria) 

(Leiolopisma) longiceps Boulenger 

(Leiolopisma) miotis Boulenger 

(Leiolopisma) noctua noctua (Lesson) 

(Leiolopisma) noctua rouxi Hediger 

(Leiolopisma) novaeguineae Meyer 

(Leiolopisma) parkeri M. A. Smith 
(Leiolopisma) phaeodes Vogt 



352 

352 
353 

365 



355 
354 
361 
360 
363 
361 
357 
359 
357 

365 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 319 

PAGE 

*Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) prehensicauda Loveridge 355 

*Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) pulchrum Boulenger 358 

*Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) semoni Oudemans 356 

*Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) stanleyanum stanleyanum Boulenger. 358 
*Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) stanleyanum morokanum Parker. . . . 359 
*Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) virens virens (Peters) 355 

Emoia 366 

Emoia acrocarinata Kopstein 

Emoia ahli Vogt 
*Emoia atrocostata irrorata (Macleay) 372 

Emoia atrocostaia nigra (Hombron & Jaequinot) 

*Emoia baudinii baudinii (Dumeril & Bibron) 369 

*Emoia baudinii pallidiceps de Vis 370 

Emoia buergersi Vogt 

Emoia callisticta (Peters & Doria) 

Emoia cuneiceps (de Vis) 

*Emoia cyanogaster (Lesson) 366 

*Emoia cyanura (Lesson) 367 

*Emoia caeruleocauda (de Vis) 368 

Emoia Iclossi Boulenger 

Emoia tetrataenia Boulenger 

*Emoia tropidolcpis Boulenger 372 

*Ablepharus bontonii keicnsis Roux 374 

*Ablepharus boutonii novaeguineae (Mertens) 373 

Ablepharus boutonii pallidus (Mertens) 

DIBAMIDAE 

Dibamus novaeguineae Dumeril & Bibron 

PYGOPODIDAE 

Lialis burtonis Gray 
*Lialis jicari Boulenger 374 

VARANIDAE 

Varanus gouldi (Gray) 
*Varanus indicus indicus (Daudin) 374 

Varanns indicus kalabeck (Lesson) 

Varanus prasinus prasinus (Schlegel) 
*Varanus prasinus beccarii (Doria) 375 

Varanus salvadorii (Peters & Doria) 



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SERPENTES 
TYPHLOPIDAE page 

Typhlops ater suturaUs Brongersma 
Typhlops bipartitus Sauvage 
Typhlops depressiceps Sternfeld 

* Typhlops erycinus Werner 376 

Typhlops flaviventer Peters 

Typhlops fusconotus Brongersma 

Typhlops inornatus Bonlenger 

Typhlops iridescens Jong 

Typhlops leucoproctus Boulenger 

Typhlops monochrous Vogt 

Typhlops midtilineatus Schlegel 

Typhlops polygrammicus poly g ram micus Schlegel 

Typhlops similis Brongersma 

Typhlops supranasalis Brongersma 

BOIDAE 

*BothrochUus boa (Schlegel) 376 

*Liasis amethistinus amcthistinus (Schneider) 377 

Liasis fuscus fuscus Peters 
*Liasis fuscus albertisi Peters & Doria 377 

Liasis maximus Werner 

Liasis olivaceus j^apucnsis Peters & Doria 

Morelia argus (Linne) 

*Chondropyihon viridis (Schlegel) 378 

*Enygrus asper asper (Giinther) 378 

*Enygrus asper schnidti Stull 379 

*Enygrus carinatus (Schneider) 379 

ANILIIDAE 

Cylindrophis aruensis Boulenger 

COLUBRIDAE 

*Acrochordus granidatus granulatus (Schneider) 380 

*Natrix doriae (Boulenger) 381 

Natrix hypomelas Giinther 

*Natrix mairii multiscidellata Brongersma 381 

*Natrix melanocephala (Werner) 381 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 321 

Natrix montana Jeude page 

Natrix novaeguineae Jeude 

Natrix picturata Schlegel 
*Stegonotus diehli Lindholm 383 

Stegonotus dorsalis Werner 

*Stegonotus guentheri Boulenger 383 

*Stegonotus magnus (Meyer) 382 

*Stegonotus modestus (Schlegel) 382 

Stegonotus poechi Werner 

Stegonotus plumbeus (Macleay) 

Ahaetulla calligaster calligaster (Gunther) 

Ahaetulla calligaster distinguendus Meise & Hennig 

Ahaetulla calligaster heiensis Mertens 

Ahaetulla calligaster papuensis (Boulenger) 

* Ahaetulla calligaster salomonis (Gunther) 386 

* Ahaetulla calligaster schlenckeri (Macleay) 385 

Ahaetulla meeki (Boulenger) 

* Ahaetulla puuctulata lineolata (Jacques & Guichenot) 384 

*Boiga irregularis irregularis (Merrem) 387 

Brachyorrhus albus (Linne) 

Enhydris enhydris (Schneider) 

Enhydris polylcpis Fischer 

*Fordonia leucobalia (Schlegel) 388 

*Cerberus rynchops novaeguineae subsp- nov 388 

* Myron richardsonii Gray 389 

Cantoria annulata Jong 

Heurnia vcntromaculata Jong 



ELAPIDAE 

Glyphodon tristis Gunther 
Toxicocalamus stanleyanus Boulenger 
Ultrocalamus preussi pireussi Sternfeld 
Ultrocalamus preussi angusticinctus Bogert & Matalas 
Apistocalamus granidis Boulenger 
Apistocalamus lamingtoni Kinghorn 
Apistocalamus lonnbergi Boulenger 
Apistocalamus loriae Boulenger 
Apistocalamus pratti Boulenger 
Pscudapistocalamus nymani Lonnberg 
*Aspidomorphus mulleri mulleri (Schlegel) 390 



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Aspidomorphus miilleri interruptus Brongersma page 

Aspidomorphus miilleri lineaticollis (Werner) 

Aspidomorphus miilleri lineatus Brongersma 

* Aspidomorphus scfdcgclii (Giinther) 390 

*Pseudcchis australis avstralis (Gray) 391 

Pseudcchis papuanns Peters & Doria 

Pseudechis scutellatus Peters 

*Micropechis ikahcka ikahelca (Lesson) 391 

*Micropechis ikahelca fasciatus Fischer 391 

*Acanthophis antarcticus antarcticus (Shaw) 392 

*Acanthophis antarcticus rugosus subsp. nov 392 

HYDROPHIIDAE 

*Laticauda colubrina (Schneider) 393 

*Laticauda laticaudata (Linne) 393 

Laticauda schistorhynchus (Giinther) 

Aipysurus duboisii Bavay 

Aipysurus eydouxi (Gray) 

Aipysurus laevis Lacepede 

Enhydrina schistosa (Daudin) 

Hydrophis belcheri (Gray) 

Hydrophis elcgans (Gray) 
*Hydrop)his fasciatus atriceps Giinther 393 

Hydrophis vicrtoni (Roux) 

Hydrophis ornatus ornatus (Gray) 

Hydrophis ornatus ocellatus Gray 

Lapcmis hardwickii Gray 

Pelamis platurus (Linne) 

CLASS AMPHIBIA 

SALIENTIA 

LEPTODACTYLIDAE 

Lechriodus flctcheri (Boulenger) 
Lechriodus melanopyga (Doria) 
Lechriodus papuanus (Roux) 
Lechriodus platyceps Parker 
Limnodynastes convexiusculus (Macleay) 
Crinia signifcra signifcra (Girard) 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 323 

HYLIDAE page 

Hyla aibolabris Wandolleck 

Hyla angioma Boulenger 

*Hyla angularis Loveridge 402 

*Hyla arfakiana Peters & Doria 398 

*Hyla becki Loveridge 405 

*Hyla bicolor (Gray) 399 

Hyla brachypus (Werner) 

*Hyla brongersmai Loveridge 399 

*Hyla caerulea (Shaw) 404 

Hyla chloronota (Boulenger) 

*Hyla congenita Peters & Doria 405 

*Hyla darlingioni Loveridge .- 396 

Hyla eucncmis Lonnberg 

Hyla genipiaculata Horst 
*Hyla graminea Boulenger 394 

Hyla humeralis Boulenger 

*Hyla infrafrenata infrafrenata Gunther 402 

*Hyla infrafrenata militaria (Ramsay) 404 

Hyla jeudi Werner 

Hyla longicrus (Boulenger) 

*Hyla montana montana Peters & Doria 396 

*Hyla montana pratti Boulenger 397 

Hyla nasuta (Gray) 
*Hyla nigropunctata (Meyer) 394 

Hyla obsoleta Lonnberg 

Hyla obtusirostris (Meyer) 

Hyla papuensis Werner 
*Hyla pygmaea (Meyer) 397 

Hyla rhacophorus van Kampen 

Hyla sanguinolenta van Kampen 
*Hyla thesaurensis Peters 400 

Hyla vagabunda Peters & Doria 

Hyla wirzi Roux 

Hyla wollastoni Boulenger 

Hyla wolterstorffi, (Werner) 

Nyctimystes granti Boulenger 

Nyctimystes gularis Parker 

*Nyctimystes milneana Loveridge 406 

*Nyctimystes montana Parker 406 

*Nyctimystes papna (Boulenger) 405 

Nyctimystes semipalmata Parker 



324 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

RANIDAE page 

Cornufer unicolor Tschudi (part) 

*Platymantis beauforti (van Kampen) 410 

* Platymantis boulengeri (Boettger) 410 

* Platymantis cheesmanae Parker 409 

*[Platymantis corrugatus corrvgatus (A. Dumeril)] 406 

* Platymantis corrugatus papuensis Meyer 407 

*Platymantis corrugatus rubrostriatus (Barbour) 409 

Platymantis punctatus Peters & Doria 

*Rana arfaki van Kampen 415 

*Rana daemeli (Steindachner) 410 

*Rana grisea grisea van Kampen 413 

*Rana grisea milneana subsp. nov 414 

Ra?ia grunniens Daudin (part) 

Rana krcffti Boulenger 

*Rana papua papua Lesson 412 

*Rana papua novaebritanniae Werner 412 

BREVICIPITIDAE or MICROHYLIDAE 

*Genyophryne thomsoni Boulenger 416 

Xenobatrachus bidens (van Kampen) 
Xenobatrachus giganteus (van Kampen) 
Xenobatrachus macrops (van Kampen) 
Xenobatrachus ocellatus (van Kampen) 
Xenobatrachus ophiodon Peters & Doria 

* Xenobatrachus rostratus (Mehely) 416 

Asterophrys bouwensi (de Witte) 

Asterophrys doriae (Boulenger) 
Asterophrys microtis (Werner) 

* Asterophrys oxycephala (Schlegel) 419 

*Asterophrys pansa pansa (Fry) 417 

Asterophrys pansa minima Parker 

* Asterophrys pansa wilhelmana subsp. nov 419 

* Asterophrys robusta (Boulenger) 417 

* Asterophrys rufescens (Macleay) 416 

Asterophrys turpicola (S. Miiller) 

* Asterophrys valvifera (Barbour) 417 

*Metopostira ocellata Mehely 420 

Raragenys atra (Giinther) 
*Raragenys cheesmanae Parker 420 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 325 

PAGE 

Baragenys kopsteini (Mertens) 
*Sphenophryne brevicrus (van Kampen) 422 

Sphenophryne brevipes (Boulenger) 

* Sphenophryne cornuta Peters & Doria 420 

*Sphenophryne macrorhyncha (van Kampen) 421 

Sphenophryne mehelyi Parker 

Sphenophryne rhododactyla (Boulenger) 
*Sphenophryne schlaginhaufeni Wandolleck 421 

Oreophryne albopunctata (van Kampen) 

^Oreophryne anthonyi (Boulenger) 422 

*Oreophryne biroi (Mehely) 423 

Oreophryne crucifera (van Kampen) 

Oreophryne flava Parker 

Oreophryne kampeni Parker 

Cophixalus ateles (Boulenger) 

Cophixalus biroi biroi (Mehely) 
*Cophixalus biroi darlingtoni subsp. nov 423 

Cophixalus cheesmanae Parker 
*Cophixahis geislerorum Boettger 423 

Cophixalus montanus (Boettger) 
*Cophixalus oxyrhinus (Boulenger) 426 

Cophixalus rostellifer (Wandolleck) 

*Cophixalus variegatus variegatus (van Kampen) 425 

*Cophixalus variegatus parkeri subsp. nov 425 

*Cophixalus verrucosus (Boulenger) 424 

TESTUDINATA 
CHELONIIDAE 

Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz) 

Chelonia olivacea Eschscholtz, 1829, Zool. Atlas, Part 1, p. 3, pi. iii: Manila 
Bay, Philippine Islands. 

1 (M. C. Z. 4716) New Britain Archipelago (Mus. Godeffroy) 1882. 



Eretmochelys imbricata (Linne) 

Testudo imbricata Linne, 1766, Syst. Nat. (ed. 12), 1, p. 350: American and 
Asiatic Seas. 



326 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Eretmochelys squamata Agassiz, 1857, Contr. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1, p. 382: Indian 
and Pacific Oceans. 

1 ale. (M. C. Z. 4715) New Britain Arch. (Mus. Godeffroy) 1882. 
2 shells (M. C. Z. 46547-8) Mios Woendi, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 

1907. 
3 crania (M. C. Z. 49450) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

CHELYDIDAE 

Emydura novaeguineae Meyer 

Platemys Novae Guineae Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 128: 
(Dutch) New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 28640) Wanggar River, D. N. G. (British Mus.) 1929. 

The closely related schultzei Vogt (1911, p. 410) is differentiated in 
Rooij's key (1915, p. 318) by the tail being longer than the head, 
possibly a sexual difference. In our specimen the head is 41 mm. long, 
the carapace 185 mm., and the tail 21 mm. 



CARETTOCHELYIDAE 

Carettochelys insculpta Ramsay 

Carcttochelys insculpta Ramsay, 1886, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. (2), 1, p. 158, 
pis. iii-iv: Fly River, British New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 20964) Lorentz River, D. N. G. (Amsterdam Mus.) 1925. 

One of H. A. Lorentz's specimens with a carapace length of just 
over 400 mm. (16 inches). 



LORICATA 
CROCODYLIDAE 

Crocodylus novaeguineae Schmidt 

Crocodylus novae-guineae Schmidt, 1928, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Series, 
12, p. 177, pis. xiii-xiv: Ibundo, lower Sepik River, Australian New 
Guinea. 

2 skulls (M. C. Z. 32099-100) Near Sepik River, A. N. G. (K. P. 
Schmidt) 1931. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 327 

These specimens, obtained above Koragu, have been discussed by 
Schmidt (1932, pp. 167-172) in a paper dealing with the validity of 
a species whose interesting habits have been reported on at length by 
W. T. Neill, Jr. (1946, p. 17). 



SAURIA 

GEKKONIDAE 

Gymnodactylus vankampeni Brongersma 

Gymnodactylus vankampeni Brongersma, 1933, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10), 
11, p. 252: near Modderlust, Dutch New Guinea. 

9 (M. C. Z. 48567) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

Internasals in contact; supra- and postnasals 2; upper labials 6; 
postmentals 0; dorsal tubercles in 10 rows; lamellae under fourth toe 
17; preanal pores 46; no preanal groove; no lateral fold. Total length 
of c? , 59 (29 + 30) mm., but tail regenerated. 

This distinctive dwarf species, which superficially resembles G. 
pelagicus very closely, was taken with fifteen pelagicus at Aitape on 
the north coast about a hundred miles east of Modderlust. 

Gymnodactylus pelagicus (Girard) 

Heteronola pelagica Girard, 1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, p. 197: 

Fiji and Navigator Islands. 
Heteronola fasciata Macleay, 1877, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 2, p. 100: Hall 

Sound, British New Guinea. 
Gymnodactylus heteronotus Boulenger, 1885, Cat. Lizards Brit. Mus., 1, p. 41: 

nom. nov. for fasciata Macleay, preoccupied. 

(For Australian synonymy see Loveridge (1934, p. 300) ). 

1 (M. C. Z. 4731) New Britain Archipelago (Mus. Godeffroy) 1882. 
15 (M. C. Z. 49251-9) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

2 (M. C. Z. 49260-1) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (L. W. Jarcho) 1944. 
1 (M. C. Z. 49262) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

5 (M. C. Z. 49264-9) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

7 (U. S. N. M. 119176, 119233-8) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 

1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119177) Milne Bay, B. N. G. (J. F. Cassell) 1944. 

3 (U. S. N. M. 119239-41) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 



328 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Internasals usually (29 ex.) in contact, or separated by a single 
granule (5 ex.); supra- and postnasals 3-4; upper labials 7-10 (right 
side only counted), average 8.5; postmentals 2; dorsal tubercles in 
12-20 rows, average 16.5; lamellae under fourth toe 18-23, average 
20.5; preanal pores 10-12, no preanal groove; no lateral fold. Length 
of & (M. C. Z. 49266), 101 (52 + 49) mm., but tail regenerated; 
largest 9 (U. S. N. M. 119238), 113 (53 + 60) mm.; youngest (U. S. 
N. M. 119239), 44 (20 + 24) mm. 

Color in life of a 9 (U. S. N. M. 119236) as recorded by Stickel: 
Above, rich brown mottled with blackish brown and dull grayish 
yellow. Below, throat and belly dull, medium dark gray mauve. This 
gecko, as well as two others taken the same day (May 16), was gravid. 
All three were found resting on the ground beneath boxes and poles 
in a tent. Other G. pelagicus were taken from deserted foxholes in 
brushy jungle, beneath piles of vegetational debris mixed with humus, 
in a shallow burrow beside buttress of stump, while another, detected 
resting on a tree trunk by day, retreated into a fissure of the bark. 
It is interesting to note that at both Aitape and Toem pelagicus occurs 
alongside related forms with which it might easily be confused. 

Trinomials are not used as G. p. undulatus Kopstein, from the Kei 
Islands does not seem too well established. It was based on a gecko 
lacking postmentals, a condition apparently permanent in vankampeni, 
but throughout the range of pelagicus as far east as Fiji individuals 
with greatly reduced postmentals are to be found. 

Gymnodactylus papuensis Brongersma 

Gymnodactylus novae-guineae Brongersma (not of Schlegel), 1928, Zool. Anz., 

75, p. 251, figs, la-b: Southern New Guinea. 
Gymnodactylus papuensis Brongersma, 1934, Zool. Meded., 17, p. 173: nom. 

nov. for novae-guineae Brongersma, preoccupied. 

3 d 71 d" (M. C. Z. 49263, 49269-70) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 
1944. 
hgr. (U. S. N. M. 119232) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Internasals separated by a single large internasal; supra- and 
postnasals 3; upper labials 11-12; postmentals 2; dorsal tubercles in 
22-24 rows; lamellae under fourth toe 20-22; preanal pores about 8, 
concealed in a longitudinal preanal groove; a lateral fold. Largest 
(M. C. Z. 49263), 118 (62 -f- 56) mm., but tail regenerated as with all. 

Stickel took the halfgrown gecko among trash at base of a bushy 
palm plant on May 26; the three adult males, together with some 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 329 

G. pelagicus, to which they bear considerable resemblance, were found 
hiding beneath boxes and poles in a tent on September 2 and 22. 
This species is an interesting link between pelagicus and species like 
sermowaiensis which have a lateral fold. 



Gymnodactylus louisadensis Vis 

Gymnodactylus louisadensis de Vis, 1892, Ann. Queensland Mus., No. 2, p. 11: 
"Sudest" = Tagula Island, British New Guinea. 

9 (M. C. Z. 49611) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
2 9 9 (U. S. N. M. 119230-31) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 
1944. 
hgr. (U. S. N. M. 120083) Munda, New Georgia (W. G. litis) 1944. 

Snout once and three-quarters as long as the eye; supranasals sepa- 
rated by 1 granule; nostril bordered by rostral, first labial, supranasal, 
and 3-4 postnasals; enlarged dorsal tubercles in 32 rows; ventral scales 
in 38-42 rows; median series of subcaudals transversely enlarged. 
Largest perfect 9 (U. S. N. M. 119230), 237 (115 + 122) mm., sur- 
passed in head-and-body length by one of 122 mm. 

In the adults the paired dorsal blotches fuse to form crossbands 
except for the third pair in the largest female where they remain 
separate; in the half grown gecko from the Solomons the blotches are 
very irregularly shaped. 



Gymnodactylus loriae Boulenger 

Gymnodactylus loriae Boulenger, 1897, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (2), 
18, p. 695, pi. vi: "Haveri and Moroka,' : Bartholomew Range, 2,300 feet, 
British New Guinea. 

d> (M. C. Z. 21912) Australian New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1925. 
juv. (U. S. N. M. 119178) Gusiko, A. N. G. (J. F. Cassel) 1944. 

Snout once and a half (juv.) to twice as long as the eye; supranasals 
separated by 2 granules (larger example injured) ; nostril bordered by 
rostral, first labial, supranasal and 3-4 nasals ; dorsal tubercles in about 
22-26 rows; ventral scales in about 46-56 rows; subcaudals quad- 
rangular, the median series not transversely enlarged. Length of cf, 
274 (156 + 118) mm., of juvenile, 98 (48 + 50) mm. 

In the juvenile the lateral fold is scarcely developed and the dorsal 
tubercles so indistinct as to be uncountable. Its coloring, except for 



330 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

the black and white annulate tail, differs from that of the adult, being 
grayish above speckled with brown, chiefly on the tubercles and 
forming about eight, fine, wavy, transverse lines that are apparently 
destined to become the outer, darker edges of the four crossbands 
seen in adults. Below, white, each scale minutely flecked with black. 

I am, therefore, by no means certain that these two geckos are 
conspecific, the very old male displays an uninterrupted angular series 
of 30 + 30 preano-femoral pores, there are a very few enlarged 
tubercles scattered among the gular granules but not so many as 
figured by Brongersma (1934, p. 171) for G. novaeguineae Schlegel. 
However it has numerous enlarged tubercles below the lateral fold 
which Brongersma says distinguishes novaeguineae from all other 
species. On the other hand the subcaudal scaling on the base of the 
tail agrees best with loriae and the dorsal aspect is longitudinally 
striped as in the type. 

Werner (1901, p. 604), followed by Barbour (1921, p. 100), synony- 
mized loriae with louisiadensis, but in this I think he was mistaken 
for both his geckos were apparently referable to loriae. 

Hemidactylus frenatus Dumeril & Bibron 

Hemidactylus frenatus Dumeril & Bibron, 1836, Erpet. Gen., 3, p. 366: Java 

(restricted). 
Hemidactylus tristis Sauvage, 1878, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris (7), 3, p. 49: New 

Guinea. 

3 (M. C. Z. 7602) Saonek, Waigeo Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
17 (M. C. Z. 7603) Manokwari, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

15 (M. C. Z. 7604) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
6 (M. C. Z. 7617) Humboldt Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

4 (M. C. Z. 49271) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 119245) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 119531) Gamadado, B. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 

2 (U. S. N. M. 120099-100) Amsterdam Id., D. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 

1944. 

Internasals in contact (7) or separated by a granule (15); nostril 
surrounded by 3 nasals, rostral, and first labial (except in U.S.N.M. 
119531); upper labials 9-13, average 11.5; lower labials 7-10, average 
8; dorsal tubercles in 2-6 rows; scansors under fourth toe 7-9 (or 11, 
if unpaired basal ones are counted); no lateral fold; preanal pores in 
males 24-39. Largest <? (M. C. Z. 7603), 119 (61 + 58) mm., 9 
(M. C. Z. 7604), 98+ (53 + 45+) mm. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 331 

The above data applies to 22 specimens only, labial and scansor 
counts to those on right side only. Comparison with similar data 
derived from African material reveals no apparent differences. Bron- 
gersma (1934, p. 173) synonymized tristis after comparing the types 
with those of frenatus. 

Hemidactylus garnotii Dumeril & Bibron 

Hemidactylus garnotii Dumeril & Bibron, 1836, Erpet. Gen., 3, p. 368: Tahiti, 
Society Islands. 

juv.; 9 (M. C. Z. 49207-8) Manokwari, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
9 (M. C. Z. 49209) Saidor, D. N. G. (C. W. Moren) 1946. 

Internasals in contact or separated by a granule; nostril surrounded 
by 3 nasals, rostral, and first labial; upper labials 8-10; lower labials 
7-9; no dorsal tubercles; scansors under fourth toe 8; a lateral fold. 
Larger 9 (M. C. Z. 49207), 85+ (50 4- 35+) mm., tail regenerating. 

'Apparently these Manokwari specimens were the first garnotii 
to be taken in New Guinea. They were found among the long series 
(M. C. Z. 7603) of Hemidactylus frenatus, a species with which garnotii 
may be easily confused. On the other hand the claw of the fifth toe is 
so minute as to be readily overlooked and the gecko assigned to Gehyra. 

Cosymbotus platyurus (Schneider) 
Stellio platyurus Schneider, 1792, Amphib. Physiol., 2, p. 30: No type locality. 
9 (M. C. Z. 7615) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

Internasals separated by a granule; nostril surrounded by 3 nasals, 
rostral, and first labial; upper labials 11; lower labials 8; no dorsal 
tubercles; scansors under fourth toe 7; a broad lateral cutaneous ex- 
pansion. Length 87 (47 -f- 40) mm. 

Myers (1943, Copeia, p. 192) points out that Platyurus Oken, 1836, 
being preoccupied by Platyurus Ritgen, 1828, Cosymbotus Fitzinger, 
1843, must now be used. 

Gehyra spp. 

This genus has long been separated from Hemidactylus by the alleged 
absence of a claw on the fifth toe. However, a minute claw is present 
in all four species listed below and so far as I know Gehyra differs from 



332 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Hemidactylus only in the fifth digit lacking a free terminal phalange 
as pointed out by M. A.. Smith (1935, pp. 29, 104). 

Gehyra interstitialis Oudemans 

Gehyra interstitialis Oudemans, 1894, in Semon, Zool. Forsch. Austr., 5, p. 134, 
figs. -: New Guinea. 

c? (M. C. Z. 7314) Fakfak, D. N. G. (A. E. Pratt) 1907. 

d" (M. C. Z. 22905) Merauke, D. N. G. (P. T. L. Putnam) 1927. 

Internasals separated by 2 granules; postnasals 3; upper labials 
12-16; lower labials 11-13; lamellae and divided scansors under fourth 
toe 16-18; a lateral fold; a posterior fold on hind limb; preanal pores in 
males 33-36. Larger c? (M. C. Z. 7314), 186 (93 4- 93) mm. 

Gehyra mutilata (Wiegmann) 

Hemidactylus (Peropus) mutilatus Wiegmann, 1835, Nova Acta Acad. Caesar. 
Leop. -Carol., 17, p. 238: Manila, Philippine Islands. 

juv. (M. C. Z. 49272) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
6 (U. S. N. M. 119247-51, 120352) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. S.) 
1944. 

Internasals in contact or separated by a single granule; postnasals 
2; upper labials 8-10; lower labials 7-8; lamellae and divided scansors 
beneath fourth toe 10-12; no lateral fold; a posterior fold on hind limb; 
preanal pores in males 40-41. Larger d* (U.S.N.M. 119251), 94 (46 + 
48) mm., 9 (U.S.N.M. 119247), 90 (45 + 45) mm., hatchling (M. C. Z. 
49272), 37 (20 + 17) mm. 

Stickel records the juvenile as having hatched in early August. 
Of the adults one female w r as taken on the trunk of a coconut palm 
at night, three others hiding beneath bark during daylight. 

Gehyra baliola (A. Dumeril) 

Hemidactylus Baliolus A. Dumeril, 1851, Cat. Meth. Rept., p. 38: New Guinea 

9 (M. C. Z. 21934) Pelew Islands (Berlin Mus.) 1925. 

<? (M. C. Z. 120098) Amsterdam Id., D. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 

Internasals separated by 2 or more granules; postnasals 2-3; upper 
labials 11-12; lower labials 11-12; lamellae and divided scansors be- 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 333 

neath fourth toe 19-20; no lateral fold; a posterior fold on hind limb; 
preanal pores in male 21. Head and body of cf, 76 mm., of 9 , 72 mm., 
regenerating tails 51-55 mm. 

Gehyra oceanica (Lesson) 

Gecko oceanicus Lesson, 1830, Zool., in Duperry, Voyage autour du Monde . . . 
sur ... La Coquille, 2, pt. 1, p. 42, pi. ii, fig. 3: Tahiti and Borabora, 
Oceania. 

c? (M. C. Z. 4166) New Guinea (E. Gerrard) 1877. 

<? (M. C. Z. 7456) New Britain (Mus. Godeffroy) 1882. 

Internasals separated by 1-2 granules; postnasals 3; upper labials 
11-13; lower labials 8-11; lamellae and undivided scansors beneath 
fourth toe 16-18; a lateral fold; a posterior fold on hind limb; preanal 
pores in males 41-42. Larger <? (M. C. Z. 4166), 236 (123 + 113) mm. 

Though occanica is genotype of Gehyra Gray (1842), minute claws 
are clearly visible on the fifth toes of both examples. Burt and Burt 
(1932, p. 498) doubt whether torax Girard is really separable from 
oceanic a. 

Hemiphyllodactylus typus typus Bleeker 

Hemiphyllodactylus typus Bleeker, 1860, Nat. Tijdschr. Ned. Indies, 20, p. 327: 
Gunong Paring, Java. 

9 (M. C. Z. 49273) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

d> (U. S. N. M. 119246) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Internasals separated by 1-2 granules; postnasals 2; upper labials 
11; lower labials 10-11; lamellae and scansors under fourth toe 9-10; 
preanal pores in male 12. Length of cf, 70 (40 -f- 30) mm. 

These specimens apparently constitute the first records of the oc- 
currence of Hemiphyllodactylus in New Guinea. The cT was taken on 
ground in partly cleared jungle on April 4 by Captain E. S. Ross. 

Lepidodactylus lugubris (Dumeril & Bibron) 

Platydactylus Lugubris Dumeril & Bibron, 1836, Erpet. Gen., 3, p. 304: Tahiti, 
Society Islands. 

3 (M. C. Z. 48568) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

3 (M. C. Z. 49274) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (L. W. Jarcho) 1944. 

4 (U. S. N. M. 119252-5) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 



334 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Internasals separated by 2-3 granules; postnasals 2; upper labials 
11-12; lower labials 9-12; lamellae and scansors under fourth toe 
12-19; no males; sides of tail depressed with serrated edge. Largest 
9 (M. C. Z. 49274), 70+ (36 + 34+) mm., tail regenerating; a hatch- 
ling is 27+ (13 + 14+) mm. 

Shape of tail and color pattern appear to be the best means of 
separating this gecko from pulcher which also occurs at Gusiko. As 
the three Aitape geckos are tailless, their identification is somewhat 
questionable. Two Gusiko females, one spent, the other gravid with 
large eggs, were taken April 5 on the trunk of a coconut palm. 



Lepidodactylus pulcher Boulenger 

Lepidodadylus pulcher Boulenger, 1885, Cat. Lizards Brit. Mus., 1, p. 166, 
pi. xiii, fig. 5: Wild Island, Admiralty Islands. 

9 (M. C. Z. 49612) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
c? 9 (U. S. N. M. 118824-5) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (A. M. Keefe) 
1944. 
9 (U. S. N. M. 119248) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Internasals separated by 1-2 granules; postnasals 1-2; upper 
labials 11-12; lower labials 9-10; lamellae and scansors under fourth 
toe 13-15; preanal pores in male 12; sides of tail rounded. Length 
of d" (U.S.N.M. 118825), 70 (38 + 32) mm., largest 9 (U.S.N.M. 
118824), 76 (39 + 37) mm. 

These geckos lack the spotting shown on the head of the figured 
type; the backs of three are crossed by dark brown, sometimes light- 
edged, wavy lines, while one (U.S.N.M. 119248) has a pair of dark 
brown lateral and a pair of dorsolateral lines, the latter enclosing what 
almost amounts to a pale vertebral band; two only have the four dark 
spots in the shoulder region which are typical of lugubris and present 
in our big guppyi from Stirling Island in the Solomons. 

Burt and Burt (1932, p. 505) were mistaken in synonymizing pulcher 
with guppyi, but two of the series they called guppyi (now in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology) are in reality woodfordi Boulenger. 
Our guppyi is quite distinct. 

One Gusiko 9 was taken on a coconut palm trunk at the same time 
as lugubris; the other beneath bark of a dead tree was, according to 
Stickel, "brown, marked with dull yellowish gray; belly dull yellow, 
speckled with mauve brown." 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 335 

Gekko vittatus Houttuyn 

Gckko vittatus Houttuyn, 1782, Verh. Zeeuwsch. Genootsch. Wet. Vlissingen, 

9, p. 325: Indies. 
Platydactylus bivittatus Dumeril & Bibron, 1836, Erpet. Gen., 3, p. 334: Waigeo 

Island, Dutch New Guinea. 

10 (M. C. Z. 7597) Jamna Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
1 (M. C. Z. 7599) Ansoes, Jobi Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
3 (M. C. Z. 48569-70) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

1 (M. C. Z. 49275) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (L. W. Jarcho) 1944. 

2 (M. C. Z. 49276-7) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (M. C. Z. 49278) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 38961) Jamna Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

3 (U. S. N. M. 119242-4) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

2 (U. S. N. M. 120097, 120349) Amsterdam Id., D. N. G. (G. H. 

Penn) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 120350) Mios Woendi, D. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 

Internasals in contact' (4 ex.) or separated by 1 granule; post- 
nasals 2; upper labials 12-15; lower labials 11-14; lamellae and scan- 
sors under fourth toe 18-23; preanal pores in males 21-57, average 
42.6 for 13 males. Largest & (M. C. Z. 49278), 203 (93 + HO) mm.; 
the largest 9 (U.S.N. M. 119243) measures 95 mm. from snout to 
anus, tail regenerating; youngest (M. C. Z. 49277), 72 (37 + 35) mm. 

De Rooij's (1915, p. 51) key character of "granules on the throat 
intermixed with larger ones" (vittatus), or subequal (pulchcr), is un- 
reliable to judge by the wide variation displayed by the Jamna series 
and occasional specimens where the gular granules are more or less 
uniform. Nor does the diameter of the ear opening into that of the 
orbit furnish any better indication, for in our series the ear diameter 
is usually about one-third (not half as stated by de Rooij) the eye 
diameter, and obviously depends on the degree of contraction of the 
ear opening. 

Color in life of two subadults as recorded by Stickel: (M. C. Z. 
49276) Above, light olive with faint brown-edged, olive-yellow, 
vertebral stripe; tail banded brown and dull white. Below, throat and 
belly white faintly tinged with lavender; limbs pale olive; digital 
lamellae light lavender. Eye yellowish brown. (U.S.N.M. 119242) 
Above, olive green with brown-edged, greenish white, vertebral stripe 
becoming yellow on anterior fork; limbs olive; tail banded brown and 
brownish white. Below, throat dull white; belly dull greenish white. 

The three Gusiko geckos were captured by following bulldozers as 
they worked through dense secondary jungle composed of bananas, 



336 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

breadfruit, cocos and spiny palms, etc., from twenty to sixty feet 
high and about 450 yards from the shore. The Toem juvenile was 
found beneath a box in a tent. 



AGAMIDAE 



Goniocephalus dilophus (Dumeril & Bibron) 

Lophyrus dilophus Dumeril & Bibron, 1837, Erpet. Gen., 4, p. 419, pi. xlvi: 

New Guinea. 
Tiaris megapogon Gray, 1845, Cat. Lizards Brit. Mus., p. 239: nom. nov. for 

Tiaris dilophus Dumeril & Bibron. 

2 skins (M. C. Z. 5265-6) Port Moresby, B. N. G. (S. F. Denton)1883. 
1 (M. C. Z. 7487) Am Islands (A. E. Pratt) ca. 1910. 

Supraciliary border moderately raised; some enlarged scales below 
the ear; nuchal and dorsal crests discontinuous; dorsals heterogenous; 
ventrals strongly keeled. Length (M. C. Z. 7487), 545 (200 + 345) mm. 



Goniocephalus godeffroyi (Peters) 

Lophura (Hypsiliurus) Godeffroyi Peters, 1867, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 
p. 707, pi. -: Pelew Islands. 

1 (M. C. Z. 4706) New Britain Archipelago (Mus. Godeffroy) 1882. 

Supraciliary border moderately raised; some enlarged scales below 
the ear; nuchal and dorsal crests subcontinuous; dorsals homogenous; 
ventrals strongly keeled. Length 680 (160 + 520) mm. 



Goniocephalus papuensis (Macleay) 

Tiaris papuensis Macleay, 1877, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 2, p. 101: Hall 

Sound, British New Guinea. 
Gonyocephalus (Lophosteus) Albertisii Peters & Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. 

Stor. Nat. Genova, 13, p. 377: "Nicura," i.e. Nikora, opposite Yule Island, 

British New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 28660) Ferguson Id., B. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1929. 
3 (M. C. Z. 44181-3) Bulowat, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 

2 (M. C. Z. 44184-5) Wau, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 337 

Supraciliary border moderately raised; some enlarged scales below 
the ear; nuchal and dorsal crests discontinuous; dorsals homogenous; 
ventrals strongly keeled. Largest (M. C. Z. 44182) measures 830 
(205 + 625) mm., far surpassing previous records. 



Goniocephalus modestus Meyer 

Gonyocephalus (Hypsilurus) modestus Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. 

Berlin, p. 130: Jobi Island, Dutch New Guinea. 
Gonyocephalus (Arua) inornatus Doria, 1874, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 

Genova, 6, p. 345, pi. xi, fig. e: Aru Island. 

1 (M. C. Z. 4709) New Britain Archipelago (Mus. Godeffroy) 1882. 
1 (M. C. Z. 7306) Astrolabe Bay, A. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
1 (M. C. Z. 7644) Pom, Jobi Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
3 (M. C. Z. 49279-80) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
1 (M. C. Z. 49281) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
22 (M. C. Z. 49290-9) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119257) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Supraciliary border moderately raised; no enlarged scales below ear; 
nuchal crest formed of 4-6 widely separated scales; dorsal crest in- 
distinct; dorsals homogenous, small, keeled; ventrals keeled. About 
the largest & (M. C. Z. 49296), 342 (87 + 255) mm., 9 (M. C. Z. 
49292), 344 (83 + 261) mm., the latter holding eggs ready for laying 
on August 17-22, 1944. 

A slow, passive, sometimes green lizard, often seen on coconut palm 
trunks, capable of speed when pursued but immobile when being 
handled. (W. H. Stickel). 



Physignathus temporalis (Giinther) 

Grammatophora temporalis Giinther (part), 1867, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), 
20, p. 52: Port Essington, Northern Territory, Australia. 

1 (M. C. Z. 4141) British New Guinea (E. Gerrard) 1877. 

1 (M. C. Z. 20989) Merauke, D. N. G. (Amsterdam Mus.) 1925. 

1 (M. C. Z. 22906) Merauke, D. N. G. (P. T. L. Putnam) 1927. 

Nostril slightly nearer tip of snout than orbit; gular scales obtusely 
keeled ; keels of dorsals adjacent to the vertebral line directed obliquely 
towards it; tail slightly compressed, without crest. Largest, a c? 
(M. C. Z. 4141), 388 (97 + 291) mm. 



338 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

SCINCIDAE 

Tribolonotus novaeguineae (Schlegel) 

Zonurus novae guineae Schlegel, 1834, Tijdsch. Nat. Gesch. Phys., 1, p. 218: 
Fort Merkusoord, west coast of Dutch New Guinea. 

2 (M. C. Z. 21062-3) Manokwari, D. N. G. (Amsterdam Mus.) 1925. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 119486) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Postmental slightly shorter than anterior pair of chin shields each 
of which is much larger than the shield following it; caudal spines 
more or less directed upwards. Largest (M. C. Z. 21063), 154+ 
(84 + 70 + ) mm., but surpassed in head and body length by one of 
90 mm. 

Tribolonotus gracilis Rooij 

Tribolonotus gracilis de Rooij, 1909, Nova Guinea, Zool., 5, p. 381 : near Mosso 
River, Dutch New Guinea. 

2 (M. C. Z. 49243-4) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

Postmental much shorter than anterior pair of chin shields each of 
which is very much larger than the shield following it; caudal spines 
directed backwards. Larger & (M. C. Z. 49244), 173 (97 + 76) mm. 

One might feel inclined to regard gracilis as an eastern race of 
novaeguineae had not de Rooij recorded both species from Humboldt 
Bay and Mosso River, Germania Bay, and de Jong (1927, p. 318) 
reported both from Pionierbivak, Mamberamo River, and (1930, 
p. 406) both from Albatrosbivak. However, there are records of 
novaeguineae from points east that should be reexamined. 

Tropidophorus darlingtoni Loveridge 

Tropidophorus darlingtoni Loveridge, 1945, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 68, 
p. 47: Mount Wilhelm at 5,000-6,000 feet, Bismarck Range, Australian 
New Guinea. 

9 & yng. (M. C. Z. 47051-3) Mount Wilhelm, A. N. G. (P. J. 
Darlington) 1944. 

These are the type and paratypes of the first member of the genus 
to be recorded from New Guinea. A detailed description has been 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 339 

published; midbody scale rows 34-36; lamellae under fourth toe 12-15. 
Length of gravid 9 (M. C. Z. 47051), 116 (63 + 53) mm. 



Tiliqua scincoides gigas (Schneider) 

Scincus gigas Schneider, 1801, Hist. Amphib., 2, p. 202: Amboina Island, 
Ceram Islands. 

d> (M. C. Z. 38994) Astrolabe Bay, A. N. G. (Leiden Mus.) 1935. 
9 (M. C. Z. 49242) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (L. W. Jarcho) 1944. 
d> (U. S. N. M. 119487) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Supraoculars 3-4; supraciliaries 3-6; anterior temporals 1-1/4 times 
as long as the interparietals; forelimb longer than the head, and from 
2^-334 times in the distance from axilla to groin; midbody scale 
rows 30-32; dark crossbands on body 8-10. Larger c? (M. C. Z. 
38994), 465 (260 + 205) mm., of gravid 9 , 464 (265 + 199) mm. 

Trinomials appear necessary owing to the presence on the Kei 
Islands of Tiliqua scincoides Iceiensis Oudemans, which combines 
both the characters that serve to separate gigas from the Australian 
scincoides. The smaller male was taken beneath a pile of lumber on 
grassy flats adjacent to a coral cliff. 



Mabuya multifasciata multifasciata (Kuhl) 

Scincus multifasciatus Kuhl, 1820, Beitr. Zool. Vergl. Anat., p. 126: No 
locality. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7722) Mios Woendi, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

Postnasal present; parietals separated; midbody scale rows 30; 
adpressed hind limb falls short of axilla. Length 189 (75 + 114) mm. 
The locality appeared as Meosbundi, Wiak Island, Schouten Islands 
in Barbour (1912, p. 89) ; Biak now appears to be the preferred spelling 
for Wiak. 



Dasia 

The name Dasia, recently proposed by Lebour (1938, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London, 108, p. 650) for a genus of decapod Crustacea, was re- 
named Dasella by the same author (1945, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
115, p. 279) on account of the prior use of Dasia for a genus of skinks. 



340 



bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 



Dasia smaragdina perviridis Barbour 

Dasia smaragdina perviridis Barbour, 1921, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 
7, p. 106: Fulakora, Ysabel Island, Solomon Islands. 

. 4714) New Britain (Mus. Godeffroy) 1862. 

. 7310) Fakfak, D. N. G. (A. E. Pratt) 1903. 

. 7707-8, 7482) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

. 7712) Wooi Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

. 7713) Manokwari, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

. 7714) Humboldt Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

. 7715) Saonek, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

. 48598) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

. 49284) Owi Id., D. N. G. (E. S. Harald) 1944. 

. 49285-9) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

. 49312-6) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

M. 40037-9) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

M. 119428) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

M. 119429-30) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

M. 119431) Hollandia, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

M. 119432-3) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

M. 119544) Mios Woendi, D. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 
M. 120101) Amsterdam Id., D. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 

M. 122105) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (J. E. Hadley) 1944. 

No supranasals; nuchals and dorsals smooth or faintly striated; 
midbody scale rows 22-26, average 23.4 for seventy-two skinks; en- 
larged scale on heel. Largest (M. C. Z. 49312), 267 (103 + 164) mm. 

Color in life of a Finschhafen skink as recorded by Stickel. Above, 
green, the posterior half of body and forw r ard portion of tail heavily 
suffused with grayish brown; legs brownish. Below, lighter. A 
Gusiko skink of almost the same size is described as having: Head 
and back green becoming olive-yellowish on tail; forelegs green an- 
teriorly, the rest brown spotted with black and tan, this coloring 
extending also around the base of each hind limb. Below, pale yellow 
tinged with green turning to olive-yellow beneath the tail. Of M. C. Z. 
49312 Stickel remarks: "Heel scale orange, which is unusual." 

Some of these arboreal skinks were seen on trunks of trees and 
palms, one was taken on the ground. 

The subspecific name I am applying to these New Guinea skinks 
may come as a surprise, for in describing perviridis Barbour (1921, 
p. 106) stated the Solomons' form was "similar to D. s. smaragdinurri 1 
of Papua, but wholly brilliant green throughout; not with a green 



1 


(M. C. Z 


1 


(M. C. Z 


24 


[M. C. Z 


6 


[M. C. Z 


3 


[M. C. Z 


2 


[M. C. Z 


3 


;m. c. z 


3 


;m. c. z 


1 


;m. c. z 


10 


;m. c. z 


9 


;m. c.z 


3 


:u. s. n. 


1 1 


;u. s. n. 


2 1 


'U. S. N. 


1 ( 


'U. S. N. 


2 ( 


U. S. N. 


1 ( 


U. S. N. 


1 ( 


U.S.N. 


1 ( 


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1 Not of Lesson, see succeeding paragraphs. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 341 

head, and a body fading to bronze, or in alcohol to brownish, in- 
feriorly." Unfortunately not even a majority of our New Guinea 
Dasia are bronzy posteriorly (25 ex.), wholly green-backed specimens 
(38 ex.) apparently occurring alongside the others throughout the 
range or in some localities like Liki Island seemingly to the exclusion 
of the green and bronze form. Therefore one cannot say that even 
the green and bronze form so beautifully depicted by Barbour (1912, 
pi. i, fig. 1) predominates, much depending on the population from 
which the material happens to be drawn. 

The green and bronze lizards represent a stage where moluccarum 
of the Philippines and Moluccas is giving way to the wholly green 
type. If herpetologists cannot tell whether half the above material 
came from the Solomons or New Guinea it scarcely seems worthy of 
separation and a name. Dasia from both New Guinea and the Solo- 
mons are fairly well distinguished from the other races by the hind 
limbs being spotted with black and white on a tan ground. 

It will be noted that Barbour writes of s. smaragdina (Lesson) as 
having a green head and body fading to bronze posteriorly. But this 
is in contradiction to Lesson's (1830, p. 43, pi. iii, fig. 1) description 
and figure which are of a green-backed lizard. If further proof were 
needed that Lesson's smaragdina never came from Papua one has only 
to look at the hind limbs of his figured type. I consider, therefore, that 
Barbour's (1912, p. 91) suggestion that Lesson's skink never came 
from Oualan, Caroline Islands, was not justified. Lesson himself 
suggested that it might be the opposite sex to viridi punctata Lesson 
(1830, p. 44, pi. iv, fig. 1) also from "Oualan" (= Kusaie Id.). Both 
types of coloration may be found in our material from the Carolines. 

Mertens (1929, p. 218), following Barbour, went even further and 
restricted the name "smaragdinum" to the New Guinea form, an 
action with which I cannot concur as it came from the Carolines. 
Scincns viridipunctus Lesson becomes a synonym of Dasias. smaragdina 
(Lesson) and how far one is justified in recognizing D. s. philippinicum 
Mertens as distinct from it, remains to be seen. Both philippinicum 
and moluccarum with endless intermediates occur among a series of 
32 skinks collected by Dr. E. H. Taylor between Tatayan and Saub 
on the Cotobato Coast, Mindanao Island, Philippine Islands. 

Riopa rufescens (Shaw) 

Lacerta rufescens Shaw (part), 1802, Gen. Zool., 3, p. 285: "Arabia and Egypt" 

(other part refers to Eumeces s. schneideri) 
Eumeces oppellii Dumeril & Bibron, 1839, Erpet. Gen., 6, p. 656: New Guinea. 



342 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Eumeces uniformis Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 133: Mafoor 

Island, Dutch New Guinea. 
Euprepes (Tiliqua) cingulatus Peters & Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 

Genova, 13, p. 350: Mansinam Island, Dutch New Guinea. 

2 (M. C. Z. 7692) Jamna Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
2 (M. C. Z. 48605-6) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
1 (M. C. Z. 49341) Finchhafen, A. N. G. (J. W. Jarcho) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 119434) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

2 (U. S. N. M. 119545-6) Mios Woendi, D. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 

Supranasals present or fused with the postnasal; frontal slightly 
narrower than, as broad as, or slightly broader than the supraocular 
region; lower eyelid with a scaly, opaque, or semitransparent disk; 
auricular lobules 5-6; midbody scale rows 26-30; lamellae under 
fourth toe 16-20. Largest <? (M. C. Z. 48605), 314+ (117 + 197+) 
mm.; 9 (U. S. N. M. 119546), 330 (127 + 203) mm., smallest (M. C. Z 
48606) has a head and body length of 45 mm. 

The head and body of this smallest skink show about eighteen white 
cross lines in striking contrast to the uniformly iridescent brown of 
the largest. The chin and throat of the young skink show the charac- 
teristic series of black chevrons that fade out in half -grown lizards and 
are quite lacking in the Mios Woendi adults. Both of these are gravid, 
one holding four eggs approximately 16 x 10 mm. 

Riopa albofasciolata (Gunther) 

Eumeces albofasciolatus Gunther, 1872, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 10, p. 370: 
North Australia. 

1 (M. C. Z. 4762) New Britain (Mus. Godeffroy) 1882. 

1 (M. C. Z. 38992) Morotai Id., Molucca Ids. (Leiden Mus.) 1935. 

Supranasals present; frontal narrower or broader than the supra- 
ocular region; lower eyelid scaly; auricular lobules 5-7; midbody scale 
rows 34, smooth; lamellae under fourth toe 16-20; larger (M. C. Z. 
38992), 238+ (132 + 106+) mm., tail regenerating. 

The Museum of Comparative Zoology has a score of specimens of 
albofasciata all of which I examined to see if there were grounds for 
recognizing insular forms. I concluded that Lygosoma (Riopa) albo- 
fasciolatus boettgcri Sternfeld (1921, p. 418) of which we have topotypes 
from Ponape, Caroline Islands, is invalid. Quite apart from bocttgeri 
being preoccupied in Lygosoma by Sternfeld's Emoia boettgeri in the 
same paper (1921, p. 406). 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 343 

Our material showed a range of from 32-38 (extremes rechecked) 
midbody scale rows, 15-22 lamellae beneath the fourth toe, and 
obsolescent chevrons or dusky lines on the throat. M. C. Z. 38992, 
collected by Bernstein in 1863, was received as rufescens (Shaw) but 
despite the close relationship between the species no overlap in mid- 
body scale rows occurs so I hesitate to treat albofasciolata as a race of 
the much smaller rufescens. Bernstein's specimen was labelled 
"Morotai" which Dr. Brongersma informs me is Morotai Island in 
the Molucca Islands, from where vientovarium Boettger was described. 
As suggested by Sternfeld (1919, p. 418) the name would be available 
subspecifically should the Molucca skinks prove separable, which is 
doubtful. 

[Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) variegatum variegatum Peters] 

Lygosoma (Hinulia) variegatum Peters, 1867, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 
p. 20: Mindanao Island, Philippine Islands. 

L. variegatum has often been recorded from New Guinea, but our 
New Guinea material differs constantly, as indicated below, from our 
Philippine specimens of which there are 71 from 9 localities including 
Mindanao. 

Our three skinks (d\ 9 , young) from Sarawak and Dutch Borneo 
agree fairly closely with the description of anomalopus Boulenger, 
described from Penang but are actually intermediates, to judge by 
our anomalopus from Sumatra which apparently represents yet another 
race. 

The Celebes skinks referred to variegatum by Malcolm Smith (1927, 
p. 216) have a very distinctive dorsal pattern. Smith remarks that 
their midbody scale rows range from 38-44, a figure higher than any 
recorded for variegatum by Boulenger or de Rooij. The nine specimens 
from Smith's series now in the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
(M. C. Z. 25395-25403) range from 38-42, but it may be noted that 
sarasinorum, described from "Central Celebes" by Boulenger (1897, 
p. 210), was said to have 44-46. 

The following key may serve to separate the forms hitherto lumped 
under "variegatum" in the Museum of Comparative Zoology collections 

Key to some of the races of L. (S.) variegatum 

1. A conspicuous black patch on nape between tympanum and 

shoulder; range: Philippine Islands v. variegatum 

No conspicuous black patch on nape 2 



344 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

2. Midbody scales 36-38; lamellae under fourth toe 17-23; range: 

Borneo (see remarks above) v. subsp. 

Midbody scales 38-44 (? 46) ; lamellae under fourth toe 20-27 3 

3. Back bordered by a conspicuous, cream-colored, dorso-lateral line 

or series of dashes, between which are two longitudinal series of 
black blotches (that tend to coalesce and form wavy cross lines 
in the young); size larger 61 + 100 mm. (76 -f- 160 if type of 

sarasinorum is included); range: Celebes v. 'isarasinorum 

Back rarely bordered by a conspicuous, cream-colored, dorso-lateral 
line; size smaller, under 50 + SO mm 4 

4. Midbody scale rows 37-42; lamellae under fourth toe 20-27; range: 

Misool Island and Dutch New Guinea v. jobiense 

Midbody scale rows 42-46; lamellae under fourth toe 23-29; range: 
Australian New Guinea v. stickeli subsp. nov. 



Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) variegatum jobiense Meyer 

Lygosoma (Hinulia) jobiensis Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 

p. 131: Jobi Island, Dutch New Guinea. 
Lygosoma misolense Vogt, 1932, Zool. Anz., 76, p. 324: Misool Island, Molucca 

Islands. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7701) Pom, Jobi Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
1 (M. C. Z. 7702) Jende, Roon Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
1 (M. C. Z. 7703) Manokwari, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7704) Ansoes, Jobi Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

2 (M. C. Z. 7706) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

1 (M. C. Z. 27944) Lake Sentani, D. N. G. (P. Wirz) 1929. 

2 (M. C. Z. 49248-9) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 119461) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 121218) Sansapor, D. N. G. (G. M. Kohls) 1944. 

No supranasal; nasal entire; upper and lower loreal; supraoculars 
6-8, the anterior ones in contact with the frontal; midbody scale rows 
37-42 (42 in U. S. N. M. 121218 only); lamellae under fourth toe 
20-27. Largest (U. S. N. M. 121218), 112 (50 + 62) mm., but sur- 
passed in tail length by a c? (M. C. Z. 7706), 123 (46 + 77) mm. 

Stickel remarks that the Toem skink was taken during clearing of 
secondary growth on reddish sandy soil about 450 yards inland. 

Meyer's brief description states that the Jobi Island type had 38 
scale rows and was distinguished from elegans Gray (now a syn. of 

1 Not of Boulenger (1SS7, p. 247) et al. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 345 

/. tenuis Gray) by the black lateral band extending forward beyond 
the anterior corner of the eye. Two statements that clearly indicate 
he was not describing the larger skink (L. (<S.) megaspila papuense) 
of which we also have examples from Jobi Island. 



Ltgosoma (Sphenomorphus) variegatum stickeli subsp. nov. 

Type. Museum of Comparative Zoology No. 49326, a gravid 9 
from Gusiko, Australian New Guinea, collected by W. H. Stickel, 
May 8-13, 1944. 

Paratypes. 

5 (M. C. Z. 49327-9, 49615-6) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
9 (U. S. N. M. 119450-1, 119453, 119456-60) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. 

Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 120106) Draeger Harbor, A. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 

Diagnosis. Differs from the western race, L. v. jobiense Meyer, in 
slightly larger size and more numerous midbody scale rows. In both 
scale rows and lamellae it resembles the still larger, but very differently 
colored, L. (S.) megaspila papuense (Macleay) occurring in the same 
localities. Many of the Gusiko females are gravid. 

Description. Rostral in contact with a divided frontonasal (divided 
in 6 paratypes, undivided in 9) and sometimes an additional azygous 
shield; no supranasal; nasal entire (semidivided on left of U. S. N. M. 
119457, divided in 119451); two superposed loreals; supraoculars 7 
(6-8 in paratypes), the first four (three in all Gusiko paratypes) in 
contact with the frontal; midbody scale rows 44 (42-46, average 44); 
lamellae uuder fourth toe 24 (23-29, average 26.4). 

Color. Substantially that of L. v. jobiense but with little black on 
flanks. 

Size. Total length of 9 type, 118 (45 + 73) mm., surpassed by a 
c? (U. S. N. M. 119456) of 127 (47 + 80) mm., and 9 (U. S. N. M. 
120106) of 125 (49 + 76) mm. 

Habits. Diurnal and terrestrial according to Stickel. 



Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) megaspila megaspila (Giinther) 

Hinulia megaspila Giinther, 1877, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 128, pi. xxviii: 

Duke of York Island = Atafu, Tokelau Islands. 
L(ygosoma) jobiense elegans Sternfeld, 1921 (1920), Abhand. Senckenberg. 

Naturf. Ges., 36, p. 397, pi. xxxi, fig. 1: Ross Island, "Neu Pommern" = 

New Britain. 



346 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

1 (M. C. Z. 4707) New Britain Archipelago (Mus. Godeffroy) 1882. 

2 (M. C. Z. 33532-3) Ross Id., New Britain (Mus. Senckenberg) 1932. 

No supranasal; nasal entire; upper and lower loreal; supraoculars 
5-6, the two anterior ones in contact with the frontal ; midbody scale 
rows 44-48; lamellae under fourth toe 24-27. Largest (M. C. Z. 4707), 
212 (88 + 124) mm. 

Hinidia megaspila Giinther was placed in the synonymy of jobiense 
Meyer by Boulenger (1887, p. 247) which I regard as a very different 
reptile (vide L. variegatum jobiense Meyer). Giinther gave the midbody 
scale rows of megaspila as 41-47, so I restrict his name to the eastern 
form with 44-48 scale rows. Our Ross Island skinks are paratypes of 
elegans Sternfeld, a name preoccupied in Lygosoma by Hinulia clegans 
Gray. 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) megaspila papuense (Macleay) 

Hinulia papuensis Macleay, 1877, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 2, p. 62: "Katow" 

= Binaturi River, British New Guinea. 
Lygosoma amblyplacodes Vogt, 1932, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, p. 283: 

Australian, New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7685) Wooi Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

2 (M. C. Z. 7686) Jamna Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

3 (M. C. Z. 44188-90) Wau, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 

5 (M. C. Z. 48574-8) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

1 (M. C. Z. 49330) Langemak Bay, A. N. G. (C. W. Moren) 1944. 

1 (M. C. Z. 49331) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

8 (M. C. Z. 49332-7) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

3 (M. C. Z. 49338-9) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 37287) Australian New Guinea (Berlin Mus.). 

2 (U. S. N. M. 119179-80) Gusiko, A. N. G. (J. F. Cassel) 1944. 

3 (U. S. N. M. 119435-7) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944 
11 (U. S. N. M. 119438-48) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 119449) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119452) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 124928) Biak Id., D. N. G. (W. M. Welch) 1944. 

No supranasal; nasal entire, semidivided or divided; upper and 
lower anterior loreals; supraoculars 3-7 (3 on left side of U. S. N. M. 
124928 only, which has 5 on right), the two (31 ex.) or three (10 ex.) 
anterior ones in contact with the frontal (without geographical signifi- 
cance); midbody scale rows 39-44 (39 in one Toem skink only); 
lamellae under fourth toe 21-29. Largest d 1 (M. C. Z. 49339), 234 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 347 

(91 + 143) mm., but surpassed in body length by eight others ranging 
from 92-96 mm., smallest (M. C. Z. 49337), 70 (28 + 42) mm. 

It is questionable whether this race can be maintained for Hediger 
(1934, p. 45S) gives a range of 40-46 midbody scale rows for "jobiense" 
in New Britain, at most New Guinea skinks average lower. Vogt's 
90 + 150 mm. holotype of ambly placodes appears to be a yapuense in 
which the nasal is divided, a not uncommon condition, enabling him 
to call the upper portion a supranasal. 

The first three skinks listed above were referred by Barbour (1912, 
p. 90) to "jobiense," with which this species has long been confused, 
but the Pom specimen mistaken for a young "jobiense" was actually 
a gravid minutum Meyer. 

Color in life of a Finschhafen skink as recorded by Stickel, was: 
Above, olive brown with black markings; eyelids edged with yellow; 
posterior part of lips and about ear suffused with orange; tail brown 
with black markings and rows of tan spots. Below, throat, chest and 
forelegs suffused with orange; tail watery pink. 

A gravid 9 taken by Stickel at Gusiko on April 11, was: Above, 
head anteriorly olive green, rest olive brown and black; eyelids yellow; 
upper lips strongly tinged with orange; sides gray brown spotted with 
tan; legs black mottled with brown; a dorso-lateral row of orange 
spots on posterior trunk and most of tail. Below, scales of chin and 
throat edged or tinged with orange; throat ventro-laterally, front of 
forelegs, and sides on same plane, tinged with orange; belly pale 
opalescent; limbs pale lavender; anterior third of tail rosy orange, 
posterior two-thirds pale bluish. 

Stickel remarks that none of the Toem specimens possess the lovely 
pastel colors characteristic of Gusiko skinks; this is especially true as 
regards their underparts which are almost colorless in the Toem skinks. 
It might be added that Gusiko lizards were taken between April 4 
and May 18, the Toem ones from May 26 to October 9. The Biak 
Island skink alone lacks the heavy black streaks on sides of neck and 
shoulder, suggesting by its pallid appearance a low-lying, sandy 
habitat. 

Though a young one was taken resting on a twig in a shrub, Stickel 
states that the species is essentially terrestrial, scurrying when dis- 
turbed to seek shelter beneath leaves or, when pursued, making for 
some deep burrow that has its opening between the buttress roots of 
a tree. Four Toem skinks were taken in abandoned foxholes beside 
a track through scrub, one on the ground in jungle, another beneath 
a rotting log. 



348 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) melanopogon Dumeril & Bibron 

Lygosoma melanopogon Dumeril & Bibron (part), 1839, Erpet. Gen., 5, p. 723: 
New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 28681) Mimika River, D. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1929. 

No supranasal; nasal entire; a single loreal; supraoculars 7; the four 
anterior ones in contact with the frontal; midbody scale rows 48; 
lamellae under fourth toe 17. Length 184 (89 + 95) mm. Closely 
related to m. megaspila and m. papuense but differing from both in 
having a single loreal. 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) striolatum kuhnei Roux 

Lygosoma (Hinulia) Kuhnei Roux, 1910, Abhand. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges., 
33, p. 237, pi. xiii, fig. 2: Kei Islands, Dutch East Indies. 

Cotype 9 (M. C. Z. 27945) Kei Ids., S. W. of D. N. G. (Basel Mus.) 
1929. 

No supranasals; nasal entire; a single anterior loreal; supraoculars 
7, the four anterior ones in contact with the frontal; midbody scale 
rows 40; lamellae under fourth toe 29. Length of -gravid 9, 132 
(52 + 80) mm. 

When describing kuhnei Roux compared it with melanopogon, 
making no mention of striolatum Weber from the nearby island of 
Damma. Weber's species was said to have finely striate scales, while 
those of kuhnei were allegedly smooth; under strong magnification, 
however, there is a suggestion of striae in kuhnei and certainly our 
specimen does not differ in this respect from eight striolatum collected 
by E. R. Dunn on Komodo Island. The adpressed hind limb of 
striolatum was said to reach the tympanum, but does not extend far 
beyond the shoulder in our series, some only to the shoulder as in 
kuhnei. Both species have 40^42 midbody scale rows, while the 
lamellae under the fourth toe number 26-30 in our striolatum, 29-34 
in kuhnei. L. kuhnei is treated as a race on account of some slight 
color differences; our gravid 9 has a black throat while all our strio- 
latum are immaculate white below. 



Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) aruense (Doria) 

Eumeces aruensis Doria, 1874, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 6, p. 335, 
pi. xi, fig. c: Aru Islands, south of Dutch New Guinea. 

Lygosoma rufum Boulenger, 1887, Cat. Lizards Brit. Mus., 3, p. 239: "Wokan" 
i.e. Wokam Island, Aru Islands. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 349 

Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) papuae Kinghom, 1928, Rec. Australian Mus., 16, 
p. 292, fig. 1 : Mount Lamington district, British New Guinea. 

cf, 5 9 9,2yng. (M. C. Z. 47059-66) Mt. Wilhelm, A. N. G. 
(P. J. Darlington) 1944. 

Prefrontals narrowly or broadly in contact, fused into a single shield 
in M. C. Z. 47064; supraoculars 4 (5-6 if some very small posterior 
ones are included); supraciliaries 6-8; upper labials 7-8; the fifth (in 
M. C. Z. 47059 as in type of rufum) or sixth (in rest of series) below 
the eye; lower labials 6-7; ear-opening as large as, or smaller than, 
the eye opening; midbody scale rows 32-36; lamellae under fourth toe 
19-22; toes of the adpressed hind limb overlapping the fingers of the 
backward pressed forelimb only in specimens with a head and body 
length under 61 mm., they are widely separated in all adult females; 
the distance from tip of snout to forelimb is contained 1)3 to 1^3 in 
the distance from axilla to groin. Length of d 71 (M. C. Z. 47065), 163 
(61 + 102) mm., 9 (M. C. Z. 47063), 181 (75 + 106) mm. One 
gravid 9 , taken October 13-26, holds three unpigmented embryos. 

Eumeces aruensis Doria was synonymized with "jobiense" (i.e. 
megaspila of this report) by Boulenger (1887, p. 247) on the strength 
of a specimen sent him by the Marquis of Doria as representing 
"aruensis," but this skink was not one of the thirteen cotypes but 
came from Ansoes, Jobi Island, where megaspila papuense might be 
expected to occur. 

The fact that Boulenger omitted the low number of 36 midbody 
scale rows from his redescription of "jobiense," suggests that the skink 
sent him by Doria had the higher number of megaspila. 

Our eight specimens, though variable, appear to agree well with 
the description and figure of aruensis except that the figure shows a 
clearly delineated transparent disk. Though the lower eyelids are 
semi-transparent in our series there is no actual disk. Otherwise they 
also agree with Kinghorn's description of papuae except that by its 
shape the foremost supraocular in papuae appears to be divided. 
Comparative studies may possibly show that papuae can be used in 
a subspecific sense. 

The lighter variegations of which Boulenger writes, tend to form 
on the flanks vertical stripes that nearly meet on the back and corre- 
spond to the wavy crossbands mentioned by Kinghorn. They are 
particularly well defined in the youngest skink (M. C. Z. 47062). 
Below, the throat of adult females may be with or without conspicuous 
dark vermiculations. 



350 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) consobrinum maindroni Sauvage 

Lygosoma (Hinulia) maindroni Sauvage, 1879 (read 22.xi.78), Bull. Soc. 
Philom. Paris (7), 3, p. 55: "Haas" (? Haar), Dutch New Guinea. 

2 (U. S. N. M. 119532-3) Gamadodo, B. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 

No supranasal; nasal entire; a single anterior loreal; prefrontals in 
contact; supraoculars 4-5, the two anterior ones in contact with the 
frontal; nuchals 5 pairs; midbody scale rows 30; lamellae under fourth 
toe 24. Larger & (U. S. N. M. 119532), 104 (44 + 60) mm. 

Trinomials are used as this skink differs but slightly from our 
topotype of L. c. consobrinum Peters & Doria (15.x. 1878, p. 342) from 
"Batcian" = Batjan Island, Molucca Islands. 



Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) pardale moszkowskii Vogt 

Lygosoma moszkoivskii Vogt, 1912, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, p. 357: 
Dutch New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7668) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

1 (M. C. Z. 21064) Merauke, D. N. G. (Amsterdam Mus.) 1925. 

1 (M. C. Z. 49340) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (L. W. Jarcho) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 119462) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

No supranasal; nasal entire; a single anterior loreal; prefrontals 
separated; supraoculars 4-5, the two anterior ones in contact with 
the frontal; nuchals 4-5 pairs; midbody scale rows 26-28; adpressed 
limbs fail to meet; lamellae under fourth toe 14-19. Largest (M. C. Z. 
7668), 124+ (55 + 69+) mm., tail regenerating. 

Color in life of an 80 (35 + 45) mm. skink as recorded by Stickel: 
Snout redd isb -orange brown; body brown flecked with black; tail 
black flecked with lighter. Terrestrial. 

Differs from L. p. pardale of the southeast only in its more uniform 
coloring. One wonders whether the Astrolabe Bay skink referred to 
emigrans Lidth de Jeude by de Rooij (1915, p. 180) is not really a 
pardale with ill-developed nuchals. 



Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) pardale pardale (Macleay) 

Hinulia pardalis Macleay, 1877, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 2, p. 63: Barrow 

Island, Queensland. 
Lygosoma (Hinulia) elegantulum Peters & Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. 

Nat. Genova, 13, p. 344: Somerset, Cape York, Queensland. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 351 

ILygosoma nigrolineatum Boulenger, 1897, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 19, p. 6: 
Mount Victoria, Owen Stanley Mountains, British New Guinea. 

<? (M. C. Z. 10200) S. E. Cape of B. N. G. (Australian Mus.) 1914. 

Midbody scale rows 26; lamellae under fourth toe 18. Length cf , 
ISO (75 + 105) mm. 

This specimen, received as elegantulum, agrees with our extensive 
series of p. pardale from Queensland and islands in the Torres Straits, 
also with the description of nigrolineatum except in coloration, having 
many black dashes on the dorsum but no definite dorsolateral lines. 
Such lines, longitudinal or transverse, are formed by fusion of the 
black markings. From the skinks referred to L. p. moszkowskii it 
differs only in the more abundant spotting; in the two mid-dorsal 
rows being less noticeably enlarged transversely, a character which is 
variable in our Queensland series, even as between skinks from the 
same locality; and in the adpressed limbs just meeting, a character 
probably correlated with its large size. 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) mintjtum Meyer 

Lygosoma (Hinulia) minuta Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 132: 

Dutch New Guinea. 
Lygosoma minuta var. typica de Jong, 1927, Nova Guinea, 15, p. 312: n.n. for 

type of minuta Meyer. 
Lygosoma minuta var. obtusirostrum de Jong, 1927, Nova Guinea, 15, p. 312, 

fig. 3a: Upper Sermowai River, Dutch New Guinea (restricted). 
Lygosoma minuta var. rotundirostrum de Jong, 1927, Nova Guinea, 15, p. 313, 

fig. 3b: Parana Valley, Dutch New Guinea (restricted). 

9 (M. C. Z. 7687) Pom, Jobi Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
9 (U. S. N. M. 119463) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

No supranasal; nasal entire; a single anterior loreal; prefrontals 
minute, widely separated; supraoculars 4, the two anterior ones in 
contact with the frontal ; nuchal developed on one side only ; midbody 
scale rows 22; lamellae under fourth toe 15-16. Larger 9 (M. C. Z. 
7687), 74 (35 + 39) mm. 

The Jobi Island skink, mistaken for a young "Sphenomorphus 
jobiense" by Barbour (1912, p. 90), is actually gravid, the body cavity 
being almost filled by an egg measuring 8x3 mm. Also gravid is the 
Toem skink taken on June 9 among dead leaves on jungle floor at 
edge of clearing, by John M. Kern for W. H. Stickel. It is 2 mm. 
longer in head and body than the other but lacks a tail. 



352 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Ictiscincus as a section of Lygosoma 

Malcolm Smith (1937, p. 222) suggests separating half a dozen New 
Guinean-Solomons' skinks from his "section" Lygosoma on the fang 
like character of the larger species. After examining several specimens 
the differences appear so slight as to make the change inadvisable. 
I therefore retain pratti and solomonis in the subgenus Lygosoma. 



Lygosoma (Lygosoma) pratti pratti Boulenger 

Lygosoma pratti Boulenger, 1903, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 128, pi. xiii, 
fig. 1: Dinawa, 4,000 feet, Owen Stanley Mountains, British New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 10176) British New Guinea (Australian Mus.) 1914. 

2 (M. C. Z. 48596-7) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

No supranasal; nasal entire; a single anterior loreal; prefrontals 
separated; supraoculars 4, the two anterior ones in contact with the 
frontal; nuchals absent (though the semicircle of scales bordering the 
parietals are slightly enlarged and undoubtedly correspond to what 
Vogt called nuchals and temporals in his description of neuhaussi) ; 
midbody scale rows 34-36; lamellae under fourth toe 16-18 (13-14 in 
cotypes of pratti). Larger (M. C. Z. 10176), 191 (80 +111) mm. 

Trinomials are used as there is undoubtedly a western race — 
wollastoni — only distinguishable by average scale counts. As the 
cotypes of -pratti had fewer subdigital lamellae it is possible our Aitape 
skinks should be referred to another race. L. p. neuhaussi Vogt (1911, 
p. 422) from Satelberg, A. N. G., appears to differ from typical pratti 
only in the 34-38 midbody scale rows, the tail being allegedly angular 
below, and the dorsal longitudinal lines. In this connection it is 
interesting to note that two of our L. p. wollastoni (vide infra) have 
these longitudinal lines resulting from the usual transverse lines 
breaking up and coalescing longitudinally. L. p. jeudi Boulenger 
(1914, p. 26) apparently differs only in having the prefrontals in 
contact. 



Lygosoma (Lygosoma) pratti wollastoni Boulenger 

Lygosoma wollastoni Boulenger, 1914, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 20, p. 261, 
pi. xxx, fig. 1 : Mimika River, Dutch New Guinea. 

2 (M. C. Z. 49617-8) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
8 (U. S. N. M. 119464-7, 119469-71,-73) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. 
Stickel) 1944. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 353 

No supranasal; nasal entire; a single anterior loreal; prefrontals 
separated; supraoculars 4, or 5 if a small posterior scale is included, 
the one or two anterior ones in contact with the frontal ; nuchals absent 
(though the semicircle of scales bordering the parietals are slightly 
enlarged); midbody scale rows 32-36 (36 in M. C. Z. 49617 only); 
lamellae under fourth toe 16-19. Largest & (U. S. N. M. 119466), 
200 (78 + 128) mm., 9 (U. S. N. M. 119465), 150+ (81 + 69+) mm. 

Color in life of a gravid 9 (U. S. N. M. 119465) as recorded by 
Stickel. Above, head blackish brown with yellowish white markings 
on sides and on neck; back brownish orange mottled with brown, the 
ground color being most evident on the middle of the sides; tail 
brownish black speckled with white Or with white bands invaded with 
brown. Below, chin and throat anteriorly whitish mauve barred with 
purplish brown; belly pale lemon; tail tinged with yellow at base, 
white mesially, brown on distal half. 

A gravid 9 (U. S. N. M. 119465) held three eggs measuring 17 x 8 
mm. on June 13. Most of the series were taken by following bulldozers 
as described for L. (L.) s. schodci below. 

Lygosoma (Lygosoma) solomonis schodei Vogt 

Lygosoma schodei Vogt, 1912, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, p. 6: "Valise" 

= Walif or Guilbert Island, Australian New Guinea. 
Lygosoma longicaudatum de Rooij, 1915, Rept. Indo-Austr. Archip., 1, p. 220, 

fig. 84: Lorentz River, Dutch New Guinea. 

Cotype (M. C. Z. 37206) Valise Id., A. N. G. (Schoede) 1933. 

11 (M. C. Z. 48591-5) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Back) 1944. 
6 (M. C. Z. 49342-6) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (M. C. Z. 49393) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119463) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119474) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
9 (U. S. N. M. 119475-83) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel)1944. 

No supranasal; nasal entire; a single anterior loreal; prefrontals 
separated (barely in U. S. N. M. 119482); supraoculars 4, possibly 5, 
the two anterior ones in contact with the frontal; nuchals 3-6 pairs 
(a single nuchal on one side of U. S. N. M. 119478, 2 or 3 feebly 
developed on the other); midbody scale rows 26-28; lamellae under 
fourth toe 13-18, average 15.1 for 27 skinks. Largest cf (U. S. N. M. 
119476), 148+ (67 + 81+) mm., 9 (U. S. N. M. 119475), 160 (63 + 97) 
mm., the smallest (M. C. Z. 49342), 58 (22 + 36) mm., was hatched 
in the laboratory on July 22. 



354 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Color in life of M. C. Z. 49346 as recorded by Stickel: Above, head 
dull red suffused with brown, back grayish brown and black. Below, 
chin and anterior part of throat dull white; rest of throat and anterior 
part of abdomen yellowish; posterior part of abdomen, and tail 
(including sides) orangeish. U. S. N. M. 119463 measuring 116 
(52 + 64) mm., differs from all the rest in being unspotted above and 
spotted below, each scale on the ventral surface having a dusky center. 
This condition is occasionally approached in the others only on the 
underside of the tail. Whether it indicates a subspecific difference 
remains to be seen. 

Nine were taken by following bulldozers clearing secondary growth 
jungle on moist, loose, rather sandy, reddish soil about 450 yards 
from the ocean beach. Several others during the removal of heaps 
of trash mixed with humus and earth. One was found in a foxhole. 



Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) flavipes Parker 

Lygosoma flavipes Parker, 1936, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10), 17, p. 89: Mondo, 
British New Guinea. 

c? tf 1 9 (M. C. Z. 47054-6) Mt. Wilhelm, A. N. G. (P. J. Darlington) 
1944. 

Frontonasal broader than long; supraoculars 4, the foremost 2 in 
contact with the frontal ; frontal as long as, or longer than, the fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together; interparietal moderate; supra- 
ciliaries 6-10; upper labials 7-8; lower labials 6-10; midbody scale 
rows 38-42; limbs pentadactyle; digits dilated; lamellae under fourth 
toe 19-22; length from snout to forelimb contained \}/$ (9 and 
half grown d 71 ) to I75 (adult c?) times in the distance between axilla 
and groin ; toes of adpressed hindlimb reach wrist of backward-pressed 
forelimb. 

Apart from all three of these skinks (one cf is now in Leiden Mu- 
seum) having distinct, though small, palpebral disks in the lower 
eyelid, they agree well with Parker's description of the holotype 9 , 
the only known specimen, so that the data furnished above extends 
our knowledge of the variational range. Apparently there is sexual 
dichromatism for the coloring of our 9 corresponds fairly closely with 
that of the holotype except that the white temporal bar and lateral 
flecks are lacking (present in the cfcf). The males, however, are 
dark reddish brown above, lighter on the flanks, with 8 irregular, 
silvery gray crossbars on nape and back, and about 10 more on the tail. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 355 

Length of adult d" (M. C. Z. 47054), 194 (88 + 10G) mm., of 
subadult 9 (M. C. Z. 47056), 168 (70 + 98) mm. 

Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) prehensicauda Loveridge 

Lygosoma {Leiolopisma) prehensicauda Loveridge, 1945, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington, 68, p. 48: Mount Wilhelm at 7,500-8,000 feet, Bismarck 
Range, Australian New Guinea. 

<? cf (M. C. Z. 47057-8) Mt. Wilhelm, A. N. G. (P. J. Darlington) 
1944. 

These are the type and paratype of which full particulars have been 
published; midbody scale rows 38; lamellae under fourth toe 15-18. 
Type & (M. C. Z. 47057), 141 (69 + 72) mm. 

Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) elegantoides lobulus Loveridge 

Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) elegantoides lobulus Loveridge, 1945, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington, 68, p. 49: Mount Wilhelm at 7,500-8,000 feet, Bismarck 
Range, Australian New Guinea. 

16 (M. C. Z. 47067-82) Mt. Wilhelm, A. N. G. (P. J. Darlington) 1944. 

These are the type and paratypes of which full particulars have 
been published; midbody scale rows 34-36; lamellae beneath fourth 
toe 19-24. Type & (M. C. Z. 47067), 146 (60 + 86) mm. 

The name elegantoides was proposed by Ahl for elegans Boulenger, 
preoccupied in Lygosoma by Hinulia elegans Gray. 

Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) virens virens (Peters) 

Lipinia virens Peters, 1881, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, p. 81: British 
New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 10164) Kiriwina Id., B. N. G. (Australian Mus.) 1914. 
1 (M. C. Z. 48579) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119181) Gusiko, A. N. G. (J. F. Cassel) 1944. 
20 (U. S. N. M. 119335-54) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. M. Stickel) J944. 

Frontonasal broader than long; supraoculars 5, rarely 6 (in three 
specimens only), the two (rarely three or four; four on right side of 
M. C. Z. 10164 only) anterior ones in contact with the frontal; fronto- 
parietal paired or single (single in five Gusiko skinks, semidivided in 
others); interparietal large; ear-opening small; midbody scale rows 



356 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

32-34; limbs pentadactyle ; digits dilated basally; subdigital lamellae 
transversely enlarged on basal portion; lamellae beneath fourth toe 
14-15 + 6-8 distally (U. S. N. M. 119347 has the distal portion 
missing from all digits). Largest c? (M. C. Z. 10164), 110 (55 + 55) 
mm., though other males surpass it with tail lengths of 65 and 67 mm. 
respectively; smallest (U. S. N. M. 119352), 54 (27 + 27) mm. 

Color in life of U. S. N. M. 119337 as recorded by Stickel: Above, 
olive tinged with bronze; eyelids edged with yellow; lips green; neck 
and flanks flecked with light green; bronze brown especially strong on 
posterior portion of body; legs olive mottled with green. Below, chin 
and throat tinged with pale yellowish green; belly slightly iridescent 
greenish white, the lower flanks mottled with brown; legs and tail a 
dull yellowish green darker than the belly. Apparently there is a 
good deal of variation, for others are described as having the parietal 
and temporal areas suffused with reddish brown; bodies bright olive 
green; chin and throat green; bellies bright yellow. 

Though common on bushes and tree trunks, very elusive and difficult 
to snare or catch (W. H. S.). L. anolis Boulenger (1883) is a race of 
virens and not the reverse as stated by Malcolm Smith (1937, p. 224, 
footnote). 

Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) semoni Oudemans 

Lygosoma semoni Oudemans, 1894, in Semon, Zool. Forsch. Austr., 6, p. 142: 

New Guinea. 

i 

9 (M. C. Z. 48580) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

Frontonasal broader than long; supraoculars 4 (or with a triangular- 
shaped fifth), the two anterior ones in contact with the frontal; fronto- 
parietal paired; interparietal large; ear-opening small; midbody scale 
rows 28; limbs pentadactyle; digits dilated basally; subdigital lamellae 
transversely enlarged on basal portion; lamellae beneath fourth toe 
13 + 8 distally. Length of head and body 74 mm. 

This specimen also differs from the description given by de Rooij 
(1915, p. 234) in having the fifth and sixth (not sixth and seventh) 
upper labials below the orbit; toes of adpressed hind limb just meet 
finger tips (not wrist); 9^ (not 8) dark transverse bands on nape 
and back. 

Parker (1936, p. 89) suggests that there is a northern (typical) form 
with 26 midbody scale rows, and a southern one with 28, for all seven 
specimens in the British Museum have the higher number. The 
Aitape skink shows that, as in other species, it is between west and 
east. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 357 

Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) longiceps Boulenger 

Lygosoma longiceps Boulenger, 1895, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 16, p. 408: 
Trobriand Islands, British New Guinea. 

6 (M. C. Z. 48584-8) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

2 (M. C. Z. 49613-4) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

6 (U. S. N. M. 119356-9-62-63) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944 

1 (U. S. N. M. 120107) Draeger Harbor, A. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 

Frontonasal longer than broad; supraoculars 4, the two anterior 
ones in contact with the frontal; frontoparietals paired (partially fused 
in U. S. N. M. 119363) ; interparietal large; ear-opening small; midbody 
scale rows 22-26 (22 in U. S. N. M. 119356 only; 24 in rest of Gusiko 
series; 26 in Aitape series and U. S. N. M. 120107) ; limbs pentadactyle; 
digits dilated; subdigital lamellae transversely dilated; lamellae under 
fourth toe 12-16 + 4-6 distally. Largest skink with original tail, a 
cf (M. C. Z. 48584), 96 (40 + 56) mm., but surpassed in head and 
body lengths of 41^42 mm., head and body length of smallest 19 mm. 

The holotype of longiceps was said to have 24 midbody scale rows, 
but this was later corrected by Parker (1940, p. 266) who found it 
had 26. Thus there appears to be no geographical significance in 26 
at Aitape as 22-24 occur at Gusiko in an intermediate coastal area. 

Color in life of U. S. N. M. 119359 as recorded by Stickel: Above, 
head sooty with pale yellowish green stripe continued on back as a 
vertebral stripe flanked with olive brown, the olive brown stripes 
converging posteriorly and becoming reddish brown, anteriorly they 
are edged by a black line, below which is a bronze dorso-lateral band 
with an olive area below fading into the pale, metallic gold belly; limbs 
dappled with light brown and black; tail orange bronze above and 
pale dull orange below; in young specimens brighter dull orange. 

An active species living on tree trunks, quick to retreat into crevices 
and consequently hard to catch (W. H. S.). 



Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) noctua noctua (Lesson) 

Scincus noctua Lesson, 1830, Zool., in Duperry, Voyage autour du Monde . . . 

sur . . . La Coquille, 2, pt. 1, p. 48: "Qualan" = Kusaie Island, Caroline 

Islands. 
Lygosoma (Lipinia) aurea Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 132: 

Jobi Island, Dutch New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7657) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

2 (M. C. Z. 48589-90) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 



358 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

1 (M. C. Z. 49351) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 124639) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Frontonasal as broad as, or broader than, long; supraoculars 4, the 
two anterior ones in contact with the frontal; frontoparietal paired; 
interparietal large; ear opening moderate; midbody scale rows 24-26; 
limbs pentadactyle; digits not dilated; subdigital lamellae more or less 
enlarged; lamellae under fourth toe 18-22. Largest (M. C. Z. 48589), 
87 (40 + 47) mm. 

Color in life of U. S. N. M. 124639 as recorded by Stickel: Above, 
head spot yellow; back ruddy bronze with yellow dorso-lateral stripes; 
sides spotted with yellow; tail bronzy orange ringed with orange-yellow 
spots. Below, throat and chin faintly greenish yellow, belly pale 
dull-greenish yellow. Of another specimen (M. C. Z. 49351) he writes: 
Stripes dull cream, tail orange. 

One of these arboreal skinks was taken beneath loose bark on the 
buttress root of a large living tree in dark jungle, the other at edge 
of thatch on a hut (W. H. S.). 



Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) pulchrum Boulenger 

Lygosoma pulchrum Boulenger, 1903, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 127, pi. xii, 
fig. 3: Albert Edward Mountains at 6,000 feet, British New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 49410) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

Frontonasal as broad as long; supraoculars 4, the two anterior ones 
in contact with the frontal; frontoparietal single; interparietal moder- 
ate; ear opening small; midbody scale rows 22 (24 in type); limbs 
pentadactyle; digits not dilated; subdigital lamellae more or less 
transversely enlarged; lamellae under fourth toe 21 (22 in type). 
Length 87+ (39 + 48+) mm. 

The striking color pattern of the tail should render this species 
readily recognizable in the field. 



Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) stanleyanum stanleyanum Boulenger 

Lygosoma Stanleyanum Boulenger, 1897, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 19, p. 7, 
pi. i, fig. 2: Mount Victoria, Owen Stanley Mountains, British New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 21000) Helwigg Mtns., D. N. G. (Amsterdam Mus.)1925. 
27 (M. C. Z. 47083-96) Mt. Wilhelm, A. N. G. (P. J. Darlington) 1944. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 359 

Frontonasal broader than long; supraoculars 4, the two anterior 
ones in contact with the frontal; frontoparietal single; interparietal 
large; ear opening large; midbody scale rows 30-34 (only fourteen of 
Wilhelm series counted); limbs pentadactyle; digits not dilated; 
lamellae under fourth toe 21-27 (only fourteen of Wilhelm series 
counted). 

The following supplementary data is derived from the fourteen 
catalogued specimens in the fine series from Mount Wilhelm, the 
supraciliary and labial counts are taken from the right side only 
Prefrontals separated (in 11) or in contact (in 3); supraciliaries 6-8 
upper labials 7, the fifth below the orbit (constant) ; lower labials 6-7 
nuchals 1-3 pairs. Largest d" (M. C, Z. 47085), 151 (58 + 93) mm. 
9 (M. C. Z. 47090), 129 (51 + 78) mm., but exceeded by severa 
with head and body lengths of 52-57 mm. whose tails are regenerating 

The presence of a dorso-lateral series of buff dashes, frequently 
coalescing into a line which forms the upper edge of a dark lateral 
band, together with the absence of a white lateral line are charac- 
teristic aids to ready recognition. In life breeding males are apparently 
lemon-yellow on abdomen and beneath tail. 



Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) stanleyanum morokanum (Parker) 

Leiolopisma morokanum Parker, 1936, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10), 17, p. 87: 
Moroka, British New Guinea. 

2 (M. C. Z. 44199-200) Mt. Misim, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 

Midbody scale rows 28-30; lamellae under fourth toe 21-22; tip of 
fourth toe of adpressed hind limb reaches elbow of backward pressed 
forelimb. Larger measures 111 (52 + 59) mm. 

In all other respects these two skinks agree with Parker's description 
of morokanum which he compares with miotis. Actually it is inter- 
mediate between that species and stanleyanum from which it differs 
only in the number of midbody scale rows 28-30, instead of 30-34. 



Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) miotis Boulenger 

Lygosoma miotis Boulenger, 1895, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 16, p. 29: Ferguson 

and D'Entrecasteaux Islands, British New Guinea. 
Lygosoma (Liolepisma) subnitens Boettger, 1896, Abhand. Ber. Konig. Zool. 

Mus. Dresden, 6, No. 7, p. 2: Bongu, Astrolabe Bay, Australian New 

Guinea. 



360 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

4 (M. C. Z. 49347-9) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (L. W. Jarcho) 1944. 

1 (M. C. Z. 49394) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

2 (U. S. N. M. 119182-3) Milne Bay, B. N. G. (J. F. Cassel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119355) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Frontonasal as broad as, or broader than, long; supraoculars 4, the 
two anterior ones in contact with the frontal; frontoparietal single: 
interparietal large; ear opening moderate; midbody scale rows 26; 
limbs pentadactyle; digits not dilated; subdigital lamellae more or less 
enlarged transversely; lamellae under fourth toe 15-21. Largest 
(M. C, Z. 49347), 91+ (43 + 48+) mm., but surpassed in head and body 
length of 54 mm. by the Toem skink. 

Color in life of M. C. Z. 49394 as recorded by Stickel. Above, crown 
of head with a brassy tinge, otherwise gray flecked with black and 
cream. Below, white. As now preserved this specimen looks like gray 
lichen, being strikingly different from the striped individuals from else- 
where, though close scrutiny shows how the stripes disappeared. 

As pointed out by its describer this skink closely resembles noctua, 
so closely in fact that the single frontoparietal appears to be the only 
distinguishing character. Parker (1936, p. 87) points out that the type 
actually has 26, not 24, midbody scale rows. Found on the pale- 
colored trunks of dead, but still standing, trees. Apparently rare at 
Toem as only one was seen by Stickel, though others were reported by 
Captain Edward J. Ross. 



Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) fuscum beccarii (Peters & Doria) 

Heteropus Beccarii Peters & Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 
13, p. 361: Tual, Kei Island, Dutch East Indies. 

1 (M. C. Z. 33537) Kei Islands (R. Mertens) 1908. 

Characters as in typical form but frontal equals length of fronto- 
parietal and interparietal together, and midbody scale rows 40; 
lamellae beneath fourth toe 31. Length 131 (48 + 85) mm. 

From the summary of data which follows the key to the forms of 
fuscum in New Guinea, it will be seen that both the typical form and 
more especially L. f. luctuosum occasionally (in 12 of 176 examined) 
possess the character formerly thought to separate beccarii, viz., length 
of frontal equal to that of the frontoparietal and interparietal together. 
As it also overlaps in the number of midbody scale rows I relegate 
beccarii to subspecific status. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 361 

Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) fuscum fuscum (Dumeril & Bibron) 

Heteropus fuscus Dumeril & Bibron, 1839, Erpet. Gen., 5, p. 579: "He de 
Waigiou," i.e. Waigeo Island, Dutch New Guinea (restricted). 

Heteropus tricarinatus Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 133: 
Dore, Jobi Island, Dutch New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7309) Fakfak, D. N. G. (A. E. Pratt) 1907. 

7 (M. C. Z. 7673) Saonek, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

8 (M. C. Z. 7675) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

13 (M. C. Z. 7679) Manokwari, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

3 (M. C. Z. 7684) Jende, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
49 (M. C. Z. 49411-445) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

3 (U. S. N. M. 40029-31) Saonek, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
30 (U. S. N. M. 119305-34) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Frontonasal broader than long (only a few checked) ; supraoculars 4, 
the two anterior ones in contact with the frontal; frontal as long as, or 
longer than, the frontoparietal ; frontoparietal single; interparietal very 
small, absent in M. C. Z. 49413; upper labials anterior to subocular 4, 
except on right side of M. C. Z. 7679 where there are 5; midbody scale 
rows 32-36, tricarinate; forelimb quadridactyle ; digits not dilated at 
base; lamellae under fourth toe 25-31. Largest (both in M. C. Z. series 
7673) 152 (53 + 99) mm., and 144 (60 + 84) mm. 

Some of the specimens referred to fuscum by Barbour (1912, p. 93) 
have been transferred elsewhere, one Sorong skink to L. novaeguineae, 
the Ansoes lizard to Emoia iridescens, the Pom specimen to Emoia 
tropidoleyis, while the Jamna Island reptile appears to represent an 
undescribed insular subspecies. Otherwise, judging from my examina- 
tion of the material, and as indicated by the data furnished below, there 
seems to be no structural grounds for recognizing races, but the colora- 
tion is sufficiently different to warrant recognition of an eastern form 
as discussed under L. f. luctuosum. 

One of these skinks was recovered from the stomach of a tree snake 
(Ahaetulla c. schlenkeri). 



Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) fuscum luctuosum (Peters & Doria) 

Heteropus luctuosus Peters & Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 

13, p. 364: Mount Epa, British New Guinea. 
Lygosoma atrigulare Ogilby, 1890, Rec. Australian Mus., 1, p. 94: St. John's 

River District, British New Guinea. 
Lygosoma nigrigulare Boulenger, 1897, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 

(2), 18, p. 700, pi. vii, fig. 3: Inawi, British New Guinea. 



362 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Leiolepisma pullum Barbour, 1911, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 24, p. 15. 

Humboldt Bay, Dutch New Guinea. 
Leiolepisma fuscum diguliense Kopstein, 1926, Zool. Medel., 9, p. 88: Assike, 

Upper Digul River, Dutch New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 4711) New Britain Arch. (Mus. Godeffroy) 1882. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7486) Humboldt Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

2 (M. C. Z. 22907-8) Merauke, D. N. G. (P. T. L. Putnam) 1927. 

6 (M. C. Z. 38977-81) Assike, D. N. G. (F. Kopstein) 1923. 
9 (M. C. Z. 48581-3) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

41 (M. C. Z. 39352-81) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

2 (M. C. Z. 49390-1) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (L. W. Jarcho) 1944. 

5 (U. S. N. M. 119184-8) Milne Bay, B. N. G. (J. F. Cassel) 1944. 

3 (U. S. N. M. 119259-61) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 

1944. 
41 (U. S. N. M. 119262-302) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
2 (U. S. N. M. 119303-4) Hollandia, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 120353) Milne Bay, B. N. G. (G. H. Bick) 1944. 
while the undermentioned represent the aberration nigrigulare 

1 (M. C. Z. 47097) Mt. Wilhelm, A. N. G. (P. J. Darlington) 1944. 

7 (M. C. Z. 49382-7) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

2 (M. C. Z. 49388-9) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
together with one or two others in the U. S. N. M. Gusiko series. 

The New Britain specimen listed above, being fully adult, is arbi- 
trarily assigned to luctuosum. Whether some older name than luctuosum 
is available for this eastern race appears doubtful. L. Icucotaenia 
Bleeker, I860, of Ceram, to judge by our Ceram material, represents 
still another race. 

Frontonasal broader than long (only a few checked) ; supraoculars 4, 
the two anterior ones in contact with the frontal ; frontal shorter than, 
as long as, or longer than, the frontoparietal; frontoparietal single; 
interparietal, when present, very small; upper labials anterior to sub- 
ocular 4, except on left side of head in M. C. Z. 38981 where there are 3; 
midbody scale rows 32-37; forelimb quadridactyle; digits not dilated 
at base; lamellae under fourth toe 25-33. Largest, a cf (U. S. N. M. 
119303), 163 (61 + 102) mm., but surpassed in tail length by cf 
(M. C. Z. 49352), of 164 (59 + 105) mm. 

Boulenger, when describing nigrigulare, remarked on its similarity 
to fuscum of which he also had specimens from Inawi. It will be noted 
that we have both types from Gusiko and Aitape with nothing to 
distinguish them except the fusion of interparietal with frontoparietal, 
while intermediates are not uncommon in the larger series. In the 
typical form the only individual lacking an interparietal appears to 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 363 

have lost it to the parietals rather than by fusion with the fronto- 
parietal. 

The synonymizing of pullum may appear strange in view of the 
holotype (M. C. Z. 7486) being said to have 42 midbody scale rows, 
actually it has but 36 as I have verified by half a dozen counts. Fur- 
thermore, the number of lamellae under the fourth toe is the same on 
either hind foot, viz. 29, not 32, while the total length is 130 (48 + 82) 
mm., so that the tail is not "almost exactly twice as long as head and 
body." The color description, and subsequently published colored 
plate (Barbour, 1912, pi. ii, fig. 3) of this abnormal individual, how- 
ever, leave no room for doubt that M. C. Z. 7486 is the actual holotype. 
Stickel's two specimens from Hollandia, also in Humboldt Bay, are 
quite normal. 

Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) fuscum jamnanum subsp. nov. 

Leiolepisma fuscum Barbour (part), 1912, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 44, p. 93: 
"Djamna, Papua." 

Holotype. Museum of Comparative Zoology, No. 7677, a 9 from 
Jamna Island, Dutch New Guinea, collected by Thomas Barbour,1907. 

Diagnosis. Characters those of the typical form from which it 
differs only in having 29 (or 28) midbody scale rows instead of 32-36 
(for over one hundred specimens counted). Lamellae under fourth toe 
27. Length from snout to anus 46 mm., tail missing. 

Differs from novacguineae Meyer in its larger size, anteriorly pointed 
(not truncate) frontal, longer digits, and different coloring. See also 
following key, while from remarks made under typical fusca it will be 
noted that color pattern furnishes the only basis on which to separate 
an eastern race on the main island. 

Key to the New Guinean races of fuscum 

1. Midbody scale rows 29 (? 28-30); range: Jamna (Djamna) Island, 

Dutch New Guinea /. jamnanum 

Midbody scale rows 32-40 2 

2. Frontal usually not longer than frontoparietal; midbody scale 

rows 32-38. 

Flanks of young resemble those of adults in being more or less 
uniform olive-brown with or without paler flecks; range: New 
Guinea west of 139° E., with young skinks from Toem showing 
some traces of lateral markings /. fuscum 



364 



bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 



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loveridge: new guinean reptilks 365 

Flanks of young display a broad black lateral band edged above 
and below with white (in addition to a pair of light lines on 
dorsum), these markings breaking up and disappearing with 
age though occasionally persisting in varying degrees in adults 
which, except for the absence of paler flecks, are very similar 
to the typical form; range: New Guinea east of 140° E. 

/. luctuosum 
Frontal usually as long as frontoparietal and interparietal together; 

midbody scale rows 38-40. 

Flanks of adult colored much like those of juvenile luctuosum 
and flecked with lighter while the olive*brown dorsum has both 
light and black flecks; range: Kei Islands (i.e. between 5° and 
6° S., 131°50, and 133°15, E.) /. beccarii 

Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) bicarixatum (Macleay) 

Heteropus bicarinatus Macleay, 1877, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 2, p. G8: Hall 

Sound, British New Guinea. 
Hderopus Albertisii Peters & Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 

13, p. 362: Yule Island, British New Guinea. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 117563) Near Port Moresby, B. N. G. (J. E. Hadley) 
1944. 

Frontonasal broader than long; supraoculars 4, the two foremost in 
contact with the frontal; frontoparietal single; interparietal large; 
midbody scale rows 30, bicarinate; forelimbs quadridactyle, digits not 
dilated; subdigital lamellae transversely enlarged; lamellae under 
fourth toe 28. Length 93 (40 + 53) mm. Taken seven miles from 
the Port; condition poor. 

Lygosoma (Leiolopisma) novaegtjineae Meyer 

Lygosoma (Carlia) Novae Guineae Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 

p. 132: (Dutch) New Guinea. 
Lygosoma curium Boulenger, 1897, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 19, p. 9: Mount 

Victoria, Owen Stanley Mountains, British New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 21065) "Kloofbivak," D. N. G. (Amsterdam Mus.) 1925. 
1 (M. C. Z. 49392) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

Frontonasal broader than long; supraoculars 4, the two anterior 
ones in contact with the frontal; frontoparietals single; interparietal 
large; midbody scale rows 24; forelimbs quadridactyle; digits not 



366 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

dilated; subdigital lamellae transversely enlarged; lamellae under 
fourth toe 24 (and uncountable). Larger (M. C. Z. 49392), 63+ 
(35 + 2S + ) mm., tail regenerating. The Sorong lizard was reregistered 
from M. C. Z. 7676, a series of L. (L.) f. fuscum Dumeril & Bibron. 



EMOIA 

The making of a major division in Boulenger's (1887, p. 219) key 
to this group, based on whether there were more than, or less than, 
40 lamellae under the fourth toe was unfortunate in view of the fact 
that five of our eight New Guinean representatives of the genus would 
come under both sections. This division may in part have been re- 
sponsible for the describing of mivarti which is here considered a 
synonym of b. baudinii. 

Even less fortunate was de Rooij's (1915, pp. 246-247) key based 
on whether the ear opening was "as large as," or "slightly larger than," 
the palpebral disk. Another unstable character utilized by both 
authors depended on whether the frontoparietal and interparietal were 
distinct or fused, a matter dealt with under cyanogaster and other 
species. 

Emoia cyanogaster (Lesson) 

Scincus cyanogaster Lesson, 1830, Zool., in Duperry, Voyage autour du Monde 

. . . sur ... La Coquille, 2, pt. 1, p. 47, pi. iii, fig. 3: "Oualan," = Kusaie 

Island, Caroline Islands. 
Lygosoma iridescens Boulenger, 1897, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 19, p. 9, pi. i, 

fig. 4: Mount Victoria, Owen Stanley Mountains, British New Guinea. 
Lygosoma cyanogaster keiensis Sternfeld, 1921 (1920), Abhand. Senckenberg. 

Naturf. Ges., 36, p. 405: Langgur, Kei Islands. 
Lygosoma cyanogaster aruensis Sternfeld, 1921 (1920), Abhand. Senckenberg. 

Naturf. Ges., 36, p. 405: Papakula, Kobroor Island, Aru Islands. 

1 (M. C. Z. 4712) New Britain (Mus. Godeffroy) 1882. 
1 (M. C. Z. 7683) Ansoes, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
1 (M. C. Z. 7688) Wooi Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7689) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

2 (M. C. Z. 48603) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
2 (M. C. Z. 49317) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 75974) Wooi Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 118826) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (A. M. Keefe) 1944. 
5 (U. S. N. M. 119398, 119416, 119425-7) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. 
Stickel) 1944. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 367 

Prefrontal much shorter than frontal; frontoparietal slightly longer 
than, or as long as, broad; frontoparietal fused with interparietal, or 
interparietal distinct; midbody scale rows 24-28; lamellae under fourth 
toe 66-90. Largest (U. S. N. M. 79574), 283 (95 + 188) mm. 

Color in life of a Toem skink as recorded by Stickel. Above, metallic 
green and bronze mixed and mottled on head; neck and shoulders 
metallic green ; hinder half of body and base of tail bronze underlain by 
green, rest of tail mostly light bronze; stripe on side of neck brownish; 
flanks bronzy green; forelimbs as head; hind limbs bronze with green 
tinge. Below, chin and throat pale greenish yellow; belly bright 
yellowish green mesially, bluish green towards sides; preanal region 
and vicinity of hind legs bright greenish yellow; palms and soles 
brown; fingers and toes black; base of tail bright greenish yellow, re- 
mainder dull white and light bronze. 

One of the Toem specimens of this arboreal skink was taken at 
light in a tent on the night of August 28 (W. H. S.). The Ansoes 
skink (M. C. Z. 7683) listed above was referred to L. fuscum by 
Barbour (1912, p. 93). 

It does not seem possible to regard iridescens as distinct, even as a 
race, for specimens with and without fused interparietals occur at 
Wooi Bay, Toem, and Gusiko, so that the case seems to parallel that 
involving Lygosoma (Lciolopisma) fuscum luctuosum (in which fronto- 
parietal and interparietal are distinct) and the variety nigrigulare (in 
which they are fused). Nor do there seem to be grounds for recognizing 
the two races — keiensis and aruensis — proposed, without diagnosis, 
by Sternfeld. 

Emoa cuneiceps de Vis (1890, p. 498) from St. Joseph's River, 
British New Guinea, agrees in every respect with cyanogaster except 
in the number of midbody scale rows, said to be 33-36 (? possibly a 
misprint for 23-26). 

Emoia cyanura (Lesson) 

Scincus cyanurus Lesson, 1830, Zool. in Duperry, Voyage autour du Monde 
. . . sur . . . La Coquille, 2, pt. 1, p. 49, pi. iv, fig. 2: Tahiti, Society Islands. 

Eumeces lessonii Dumeril & Bibron, 1839, Erpet. Gen., 5, p. 654: substitute 
name for cyanurus Lesson. 

Lygosoma {Emoa) impar Werner, 1898, Zool. Anz., 21, p. 553: Ralum and 
Mioko Islands, New Britain Archipelago. 

2 (M. C. Z. 4708) New Britain Arch. (Mus. Godeffroy) 1882. 
Prefrontal much shorter than the frontal; frontoparietal as long as, 



368 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

or slightly longer than, broad, fused with the interparietal; midbody 
scale rows 28-29; lamellae under fourth toe 55-60. Larger skink, 116+ 
(49 + 67+) mm. 

For comments on New Guinean "cyanura" (auct.) see Emoia 
caeruleocauda below. 

Emoia caeruleocauda de Vis 

Mocoa caeruleocauda de Vis, 1892, Ann. Queensland Mus., No. 2, p. 12: 

"Sudest" = Tagula Island, British New Guinea. 
Lygosoma cyanurum werneri Vogt, 1912, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, 

p. 5: Mariana or Ladrone Islands. 
Lygosoma werneri triviale Schiiz, 1929, Abhand. Ber. Zool. Mus. Dresden, (2), 

17, p. 8: Dore, Jobi Island, Dutch New Guinea. 

4 (M. C. Z. 7647) Pom, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
1 (M. C. Z. 7648) Jamna Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
11 (M. C. Z. 7649) Wooi Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7653) Saonek, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

3 (M. C. Z. 7654) Ansoes, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

4 (M. C. Z. 42153-6) Kokoda, D. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1936. 

2 (M. C. Z. 44195-6) Wau, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 

8 (M. C. Z. 48599-602) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

1 (M. C. Z. 49247) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (L. W. Jarcho) 1944. 
11 (M. C. Z. 49301-9) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

2 (M. C. Z. 49310-1) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

2 (U. S. N. M. 40035-6) Wooi Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 118827) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (A. M. Kcefe) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119418) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
4 (U. S. N. M. 119419-22) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119423) Hollandia, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 119424) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

9 (U. S. N. M. 119534-42) Gamadodo, B. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 
4 (U. S. N. M. 120102-5) Amsterdam Id., D. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 

1944. 

2 (U. S. N. M. 122106-7) Near Finschhafen, A. N. G. (J. E. Hadley) 

1944. 

For the first two characters mentioned below, only a representative 
selection of skinks were examined. 

Prefrontals shorter than the frontal; frontoparietal as long as, or 
slightly longer than, broad, fused with the interparietal; midbody 
scale rows 26-34, average 30.5 for seventy -one specimens; lamellae 
under fourth toe 31-50, average 40.5 for seventy-one specimens. 
Largest (M. C. Z. 7654), 140 (50 + 90) mm., and (U. S. N. M. 119535), 
140 (55 + 85) mm. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 3G9 

Color in life of U. S. N. M. 119418-9 as recorded by Stickel. Above, 
head and body black with yellow stripes; tail blue (but not so in some 
others). Below, chin and throat greenish blue; belly iridescent. So 
closely do the striking markings of this skink resemble those of cyanura 
that I would have treated it as a subspecies had not Mr. W. C. Brown 
of Stanford invited my attention to the fact that both occur together 
on some islands of the Solomon group without apparent overlapping 
of characters. 

Stickel failed to find this species in the jungle, but it was common 
among the brush and grass of the sandy coastal plain ; some specimens 
were in drift trash. One was found on the rocky base of an islet 150 
yards from Pie Beach, with which it was connected at low tide by a 
wet gravel flat interspersed with tidal pools. Except for the rocks and 
cliffs around its base, the islet carried a dense growth of vegetation. 
One skink was recovered from the stomach of a young boa (Enygrus 
carinatus). 

Emoia baudinii baudixii (Dumeril & Bibron) 

Eumeces Baudinii Dumeril & Bibron, 1839, Erpet. Gen., 5, p. 653: New 

Guinea. 
Euprepes Physicae Dumeril & Bibron, 1839, Erpet. Gen., 5, p. 688: New 

Guinea. 
Lygosoma mivarti Boulenger (part ?), 1887, Cat. Lizards Brit. Mus., 3, p. 292, 

pi. xxiii, fig. 1 : Wild Island, Admiralty Islands. 

1 (M. C. Z. 42157) Kokoda, B. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1936. 

2 (M. C. Z. 48604) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 119189) Milne Bay, B. N. G. (J. F. Cassel) 1944. 
50 (U. S. N. M. 119364-97, 119399-403, 119405-15) Gusiko, A. N. G. 
(W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

For the first two characters and scale counts mentioned below, of 
the Gusiko series only 15 skinks were examined. 

Prefrontals much shorter than the frontal; frontoparietals as 
long as, or slightly shorter than, broad, fused with the interparietal; 
midbody scale rows 36-40, average 38 for eighteen skinks; lamellae 
under fourth toe 37^45, average 40.3 for seventeen skinks. Largest 
(U. S. N. M. 119368), 154 (57 + 97) mm., but exceeded by 2 mm. 
in head and body length of U. S. N. M. 119405. 

Color in life of a gravid 9 (U. S. N. M. 119367) as recorded by 
Stickel. Above, head and neck olive bronze edged with olive gold; 
eyelids edged with gold; an olive vertebral stripe, flanked by a mottled 



370 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

brown stripe, bordered by a weak olive stripe, below which is a broad 
black band on flank that becomes reddish brown on side of neck to 
eye; from the ear commences a narrow stripe that is tan on the neck 
but changes to light metallic green on the flank where it extends from 
axilla to groin cutting through the broad black lateral band a little 
of which is seen below fading into the belly coloring; limbs olive, 
spotted with black; base of tail gray brown edged with black, below 
which it is brown on sides, the posterior two-thirds wholly gray brown. 
Below, chin and throat tinged with green; belly an iridescent bluish 
slate; limbs slate; tail mottled slate and gray. 

Variations from this type of coloration were also noted by Stickel. 
Indeed, were it not for the fact that individuals with sharply denned 
vertebral and lateral stripes occur alongside those lacking the vertebral 
stripe together with intermediates, they might well be thought to be 
distinct. 

Stickel found this skink living "on or near large blocks of vegetated 
coral rock but not on the sea cliffs." From our material it would appear 
that typical baudinii is the form occupying the littoral in eastern 
Guinea, while its subspecies pallidiceps (with fewer midbody scale 
rows) occurs on higher ground (1,000 to 10,000 feet) in the interior, 
except that in western Guinea it is also to be found in the coastal belt. 

I cannot see any reason for regarding mivarti as distinct, but it 
would be interesting to have confirmation of Boulenger's lowest count 
of 34 midbody scale rows which would indicate a tendency towards 
pallidiceps comparable to that shown by pallidiceps occasionally ex- 
hibiting 36 midbody scale rows. 



Emoia baudinii pallidiceps Vis 

? Euprepes (Tiliqua) callistictus Peters & Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. 

Nat. Genova, 13, p. 355: Sorong, Dutch New Guinea. 
Emoa pallidiceps de Vis, 1890, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. (2), 5, p. 497: St. 

Joseph's River, British New Guinea. 
Lygosoma Mehelyi Werner, 1899, Zool. Anz., 22, p. 371: "Friederich-Wilhelm- 

shaven" = Madang, Australian New Guinea. 
Lygosoma jakati Kopstein, 1926, Zool. Meded., 9, p. 94: Jakati River, "Bin- 

tuni" = Bentoni Bay, Dutch New Guinea. 
Lygosoma mivarti var. obscurum de Jong, 1927, Novae Guinea, 15, p. 317: 

Pionierbivak, Mamberamo River, Dutch New Guinea (restricted). 

28 (M. C. Z. 7661) Jamna Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
14 (M. C. Z. 7662) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 371 

8 (M. C. Z. 7664, 7695) Manokwari, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

3 (M. C. Z. 7665) Pom, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

5 (M. C. Z. 7666, 7694) Wooi Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

4 (M. C. Z. 7693) Ansoes, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

1 (M. C. Z. 19606) Lake Sentani, D. N. G. (Basel Mus.) 1924. 
1 (M. C. Z. 19608) Central D. N. G. (Basel Mus.) 1924. 

5 (M. C. Z. 44192-4) Wau, B. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 

3 (M. C. Z. 47098-100) Mt. Wilhelm, A. N. G. (P. J. D.) 1944. 
8 (M. C. Z. 49318-25) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 40024) Wooi Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
3 (U. S. N. M. 40032-4) Jamna Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 58505) Sorong, D. N. G. (J. Hurter) 190 ? 
1 (U. S. N. M. 75973) Manokwari, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
5 (U. S. N. M. 124640-4) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Prefrontals much shorter than the frontal; frontoparietal as long 
as, or slightly longer than, broad, fused with the interparietal; mid- 
body scale rows 30-34, rarely 36, average 32.9 for sixty-four skinks; 
lamellae under fourth toe 25-48, average 34 for sixty-four skinks. 
Largest c? (M. C. Z. 47098), 145 (55 + 90) mm., and 9 (M. C. Z. 
47099), 142 (55 + 77) mm., both surpassed by the type of 150 (50 + 
100) mm., fide de Vis. 

Except that they have not got 28 midbody scale rows, our Sorong 
specimens agree so closely with the description of callistictus from 
Sorong that I am inclined to think a recount of the type would reveal 
it as having 30. In that event callistictus would have precedence over 
pallidiceps. 

Much confusion has existed between pallidiceps and typical baudinii 
owing to both forms exhibiting two color phases. Barbour (1912, p. 94) 
referred those (M. C. Z. 7661-6) with a pale vertebral and four dorso- 
lateral white lines to mivarti, and others (M. C. Z. 7693-5), in which 
the lines were absent, to baudinii, both phases occurring at Manok- 
wari and Wooi Bay. When I found both occurring also on Mount 
Wilhelm and noted that these striking color phases possess identical 
scale counts and squamation, there seemed no reasonable grounds to 
treat them as distinct. 

I regard pallidiceps as a race of baudinii, whose color pattern ex- 
hibits corresponding variation, because both forms may have 36 mid- 
body scale rows though so high a number is rare in pallidiceps as it was 
found in only four (one each from Jamna, Ansoes, Wau and Mount 
Wilhelm) of the sixty-four specimens counted. 

L. mehelyi was said to lack auricular lobules, a condition to be 
found in M. C. Z. 7695 and other occasional specimens. L. jakati 



372 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

was compared with "mivarti," i.e. b. baudinii, as was de Jong's L. 
mivarti var. obscurum. The coloration, on which alone this "variety" 
was based, is characteristic of young b. baudinii and persists in later 
life in some adults of b. pallidiceps as our series shows. 

I might add that when a light vertebral stripe is present it differs 
from that of Emoia caeruleocauda de Vis by broadening in the nuchal 
region to occupy two full scales, instead of two half-scales as in 
caeruleocauda which also differs in possessing a more pointed snout. 



Emoia tropidolepis (Boulenger) 

Lygosoma tropidolepis Boulenger, 1914, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 20, p. 260, 
pi. xxix, fig. 4: Mimika River, Dutch New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7682) Pom, Jobi Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
1 (M. C. Z. 21001) Bivak Id., D. N. G. (Amsterdam Mus.) 1925. 
1 (M. C. Z. 44191) Wau, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119404) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119417) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Prefrontal much shorter than the frontal ; frontoparietal as long as, 
or slightly longer than, broad, fused with the interparietal; midbody 
scale rows 36-40, keeled; lamellae under fourth toe 34-41. Largest 
(U. S. N. M. 119404), 169 (55 + 114) mm., and (M. C. Z. 21001), 
161+ (70 + 91+) mm., tail reproduced. 

The skink from Pom, being without stripes, has a superficial re- 
semblance to L. (Leiolopisma) fuscum to which it was referred by Bar- 
bour (1912, p. 93). The Toem specimen was taken by Stickel during 
clearing of dense secondary growth composed of bananas, breadfruit, 
coconuts and spiny palms about four to five hundred yards from the 
seashore. 

Emoia atrocostata irrorata (Macleay) 

Mabouia irrorata Macleay, 1877, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 2, p. 66: Hall 
Sound, British New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7696) Ansoes, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

2 (M. C. Z. 7698) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7699) Saonek, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

2 (M. C. Z. 7700) Wooi Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 58504) Jobi Id., D. N. G. (J. Hurler) 1907. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 120108) Draeger Harbor, A. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 373 

Prefrontal included once and two-thirds (once and a half in duplicate 
of M. C. Z. 7700 only )times in the length of the frontal; frontoparietal 
as broad as, or slightly broader than, long (broken up into three 
scales in M. C. Z. 7700); interparietal distinct; midbody scale rows 
34-39; lamellae under fourth toe 32-38. Largest (M. C. Z. 7699) 
175 + (70 + 105 + ) mm., tail regenerated, but slightly surpassed in 
head and body length by two others. 

The first half-dozen specimens listed above were referred by Bar- 
bour (1912, p. 94) to atrocostatum (Lesson) of "Oualan" = Kusaie 
Island in the Carolines. However, they differ from our Caroline mate- 
rial (M. C. Z. 22073-5) from Ponape Island in possessing a noticeably 
larger mental. The entire group of associated species appears in need 
of revision but it would seem that bocttgeri (Sternfeld, 1921) of the 
Carolines is a synonym of the typical form. Solomons material, which 
has a larger ear opening, is usually referred to E. a. nigrum (Hombron 
& Jacquinot), though the type locality of nigrum was unknown. E. a. 
parictalis (Peters, 1871), with shorter prefrontals, is a western race 
while the dusky -throated skinks of the Philippines, for which the names 
bitaeniata ((Peters, 1864), cumingii (Peters, 1867), and microsticta 
(Peters, 1874) are available appear intermediate between atrocostata 
and parictalis but nearer to the latter. 

Ablepharus boutonii novaeguineae (Mertens) 

Cryptoblcpharas boutonii novae-guineae Mertens, 192S, Zool. Anz., 78, p. 87: 
Mamberamo, Dutch New Guinea. 

3 (M. C. Z. 7484) Saonek, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
1 (M. C. Z. 7671) Wooi Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
1 (M. C. Z. 7672) British New Guinea (T. Barbour) 1907. 
1 (M. C. Z. 49300) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 29415) Port Moresby, B. N. G. (Karcher) 

2 (U. S. N. M. 119484-5) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Frontal not half the size of the shield formed by fusion of frontoparie- 
tals with interparietal; upper eyelid represented by 3-5 (3-5 in Saonek 
series alone, 3 elsewhere) large scales; midbody scale rows 22-26; 
fingers and toes 5. Largest (M. C. Z. 49300), 81 (38 + 43) mm., but 
surpassed in head and body length by four others of 42 mm. 

Color in life as recorded by Stickel. Above, head metallic bronze 
with rosy tinge; (and for U. S. N. M. 119484) back and dorsolateral 
stripe light gray with metallic reddish gold tinge. Below, belly grayish 
white with iridescent sheen. 



374 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

The Liki Island skink may represent yet another race but without 
a series it would be unwise to name it. The back is flecked with darker 
and quite devoid of stripes, the frontal is small and very narrow and the 
head also is narrower than is the case with most of the others listed. 

Ablepharus boutonii keinensis Roux 

Ablepharus boutoni var. keiensis Roux, 1910, Abhand. Senckenberg. Naturf. 
Ges., 33, p. 240, pi. xiii, fig. 3: Elat, Kei-Dulah, etc., Great Kei Island, 
Kei Islands. 

1 (M. C. Z. 29162) Elat, Kei Is. (Senckenberg Mus.) 1929. 
1 (M. C. Z. 29163) Kei-Dulah, Kei Is. (Senck. Mus.) 1929. 

These two skinks, being cotypes, conform to the redescription and 
figures of this race given by Mertens (1931, p. 147, pi. ii, fig. 18) in his 
monograph of the species. 

PYGOPODIDAE 

Lialis jicari Boulenger 

Lialis jicari Boulenger, 1903, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), 12, p. 430: Fly River, 
British New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 19723) Lababia, A. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1924. 

2 (M. C. Z. 48571-2) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

1 (M. C. Z. 49395) Port Moresby, B. N. G. (C. W. Moren) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119258) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Tip of snout truncate; upper labials 16-21; lower labials 18-20; 
midbody scale rows 22; preanal pores 6-8. Largest (M. C. Z. 19723), 
650 + (310 + 340 + ) mm., tail reproduced. The Toem scale-foot was 
secured by Stickel following bulldozers clearing jungle growth on 
moist, loose, rather sandy, reddish soil. 

VARANIDAE 

Varanus indicus indicus (Daudin) 

Tupinambis indicus Daudin, 1802, Hist. Nat. Rept., 3, p. 46, pi. xxx: Amboina 

Island, Molucca Islands. 
Monitor douarrha Lesson, 1830, Zool., in Duperry, Voyage autour du Monde 

. . . sur ... La Coquille, 2, pt. 1, p. 53: Praslin Bay, New Ireland. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 375 

Monitor chlorostigma Gray, 1831, in Griffith, Anim. Kingdom, 9, Synops., 

p. 26: Rawack Island, north of Waigeo Island, Dutch New Guinea. 
Monitor doreanus Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 130: Dore, 

Jobi Island, Dutch New Guinea. 
Varanus indicus rouxi Mertens, 1926, Senckenbergiana, 8, p. 276: Durdjela, 

Wammer, Aru Islands. 
Varanus indicus jobiensis Ahl, 1932, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17, p. 892: 

Jobi = Japen Island, Dutch New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7488) Aru Islands (A. E. Pratt) 1911. 

2 (M. C. Z. 44186-7) Wau, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 
1 (M. C. Z. 48573) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
1 (M. C. Z. 49282) Toem, D. N. G. [W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

1 (M. C. Z. 49283) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119547) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Nostril round (M. C. Z. 48573) or oval (rest of series), slightly 
nearer end of snout than eye; median series of supraoculars trans- 
versely enlarged; nuchals not spinose; dorsals smooth (M. C. Z. 
48573; 44186), very obtusely keeled (M. C. Z. 7488) , or keeled (rest); 
midbody scale rows 125-176 (M. C. Z. 49283^9282), the ventrals 
smooth, or obtusely keeled in adults; tail with a very low, double- 
toothed crest (not distinguishable in juveniles), strongly compressed 
except on basal quarter. Largest skinned out; next (M. C. Z. 49282), 
770 (300 + 470) mm., another (M. C. Z. 48573), 715 (265 + 450) mm. 

Color above, blackish with clearly marked ocelli (M. C. Z. 44187; 
48573), spotted (M. C. Z. 44186; 48573) or necked (rest) with yellow, 
or {fide Stickel) blue on distal half of tail (M. C. Z. 49282). Two of the 
most easterly monitors (M. C. Z. 44186; 48573) have smoother scales 
and larger spots or ocelli than the western, with the exception of an 
ocellate juvenile. Mertens (1942, pp. 260-272) remarks on the ex- 
treme variability of the species and the doubtful validity of V. i. 
kalabech (Lesson, 1830), with one or other of whose characters some of 
these monitors conform. 

The Toem specimen was "shot in jungle near a small stream" 
(W. H. S.). Ticks were present on several. 



Varanus prasintjs beccarii (Doria) 

Monitor beccarii Doria, 1874, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 6, p. 331, 
pi. xi, fig. a: "Wokan," i.e. Wokam Island, Aru Islands. 

2 (M. C. Z. 7489) Aru Islands (A. E. Pratt) 1911. 



37G bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Nostril round; median series of supraoculars transversely enlarged; 
nuchal scales strongly keeled; tail without crest, slightly compressed 
posteriorly; color black. Larger, 845 (295 + 550) mm. In size this 
fine topotype surpasses the type and largest known specimen recorded 
by Mertens (1942, p. 294). These two monitors were presented by 
Barbour who (1912, pp. 89 and 183) referred them to V. kordensis 
(part). 

SERPENTES 

TYPHLOPIDAE 

Typhlops erycinus Werner 

Typhlops erycinus Werner, 1901, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 61, p. 611: 
Australian New Guinea. 

3 (M. C. Z. 49396, 49619-20) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stiekel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 118823) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (A. M. Keefe) 1944. 
7 (U. S. N. M. 119488, 119491-96) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stiekel) 
1944. 
Rostral nearly a third the width of head, not extending to the level 
of the eyes; nasal completely divided, the cleft proceeding from the 
first labial; preocular in contact with second and third labials; no 
subocular; midbody scale rows 20; diameter into total length 27-32 
(44 in type which was much larger than any in this series) ; tail into 
total length of presumed males 12-19 times, in presumed females 
22-28 times. Largest (U. S. N. M. 119488), 297 (286 + 11) mm. 

Color in life of U. S. N. M. 119488 as recorded by Stiekel. Snout 
light lavender slightly tinged with pinkish orange; preocular and 
ocular purplish; back dull brown. Below, semi-transparent dull white. 
Most of these blind snakes were turned up by bulldozers working 
in loose, reddish, rather sandy soil; one was taken in a heap of humus 
and decomposing vegetation, another was found dead on road. This 
species succumbs very slowly to strong ether vapor. (W. H. S.) 

BOIDAE 

Bothrochilus boa (Schlegel) 

Tortrii boa Schlegel, 1837, Essai Phys. Serp., 2, p. 22: New Ireland. 

1 (M. C. Z. 20946) New Britain Archipelago (Exch. F. Werner) 1925. 
1 (M. C. Z. 26939) Tusel, Duke of York Id. (Vienna Mus.) 1928. 
1 (M. C. Z. 26940) Port Weber, New Britain (Vienna Mus.) 1928. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 377 

Midbody scale rows 37-38, smooth; ventrals 253-257; anal 1; sub- 
caudals 49-52, paired and single. Largest, a c? (M. C. Z. 26939), 1045 
(1010 + 35) mm. The habits of this python, long known as Nardoa 
or Nardoana, should be interesting for its body is strongly compressed 
and as strikingly ringed as that of a sea snake. 

Liasis fuscus albertisii Peters & Doria 

Liasis Albertisii Peters & Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 13, 
p. 401, pi. iii, figs. 2a-d: "Kapaor" = Kapar and Andai, Dutch New 
Guinea. 

Leiopython gracilis Hubrecht, 1879, Notes Leyden Mus., 1, p. 15: "Salwatti" 
= Salawati Island, Dutch New Guinea. 

cf (M. C. Z. 48614) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

d" (M. C. Z. 49397) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

9 (U. S. N. M. 118950) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (A. M. Keefe) 1944. 

Rostral pitted (except for Toem snake which appears to have been 
kept in captivity and developed canker, for its regenerated rostral 
is not pitted); 1 pair of prefrontals; parietals bordered by small 
shields; upper labials 12-13, first 6 pitted; lower labials 15-16, median 
7 pitted; midbody scale rows 47-49; ventrals 267-279; anal 1; sub- 
caudals 73-75. Larger & (M. C. Z. 48614), 1253 (1082 + 171) mm., 
9 (U. S. N. M. 118950), 1742+ (1540 + 202+) mm. 

Color in life of Toem python as recorded by Stickel. Above, head 
black; eye dark grayish brown; whitish flecks behind eyes; lips black 
and white; body and tail iridescent blackish brown merging into yel- 
lowish brown and then yellowish on the sides, the lowest row of scales 
being almost white. Below, gulars and genials suffused with pink; 
ventrals white tinged with pink on their posterior borders, especially 
on the anterior third of the belly; subcaudals, especially near base of 
tail, yellowish edged with pink posteriorly. 

Spinous hairs defecated by this Toem snake have been identified 
by Dr. G. H. H. Tate as those of the commonest New Guinea bandi- 
coot (Echimypera). The local natives considered this to be one of the 
deadliest of New Guinean snakes (W. H. S.). 

Liasis amethistinus amethistinus (Schneider) 

Boa Amethistina Schneider, 1801, Hist. Amphib., 2, p. 254: No type locality. 
Aspidopython Jakali Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 135: 
Jakati, and Jobi Island, Dutch New Guinea. 



378 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Hypaspistes dipsadides Ogilby, 1891, Rec. Australian Mus., 1, p. 192: Fly 
River, British New Guinea. 

d* (M. C. Z. 4431) New Ireland (E. Gerrard) 1879. 
juv. (M. C. Z. 7297) Astrolabe Bay, A. N. G. (T. Barbour) ca. 1908. 
c? (U. S. N. M. 119548) Mios Woendi, D. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 

Rostral pitted; 2 pairs of prefrontals; a pair of interparietals; 
parietals bordered by irregular shields; upper labials 12-13, first 4-5 
pitted; lower labials 18-21, median 7-8 pitted; midbody scale rows 
43-52; ventrals 333; anal 1 ; subcaudals 120. Largest, a c? (U. S. N. M. 
119548), has the head and body skinned out so measures 1890 (1500 + 
390) mm. 

The scale counts of this large individual from the Padaido Islands 
in the northwest, tend to cast doubts on the validity of L. a. kinghorni 
Stull from Queensland. 

Chondropython viridis (Schlegel) 

Python viridis Schlegel, 1872, Dierentum Rept., p. 54: Aror = Aru Island, 

south of Dutch New Guinea. 
Chondropython azurea Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 134: 

"Mysore" = Biak Island, Dutch New Guinea. 
Chondropython pulcher Sauvage, 1878, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris (7), 2, p. 37: 

"Misore" = Biak Island, Dutch New Guinea. 

9 (M. C. Z. 7490) Fakfak, D. N. G. (A. E. Pratt) 1907. 
J* (M. C. Z. 7551) Manokwari, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
yng. (U. S. N. M. 121214) Buna, A. N. G. (G. M. Kohls) 1944. 

Rostral pitted; crown covered with small scales; upper labials 12, 
first 2-3 pitted; lower labials 15-17, median 6-7 pitted; midbody scale 
rows 55-70; ventrals 232-236; anal 1; subcaudals 94-104. Length of 
d\ 1368 (1166 -f- 202) mm., 9 , 1387 (1170 + 217) mm. A tooth is 
present on either side of the premaxilla as pointed out by Dunn (1939, 
p. 1) for a specimen from Biak Island. 

Enygrus asper asper (Giinther) 

Erebophis asper Giinther, 1877, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 132, pi. xxi: No 
type locality (restricted to Bismarck Archipelago = New Britain Archi- 
pelago, by Stull). 

9 (M. C. Z. 4705) New Britain Archipelago (Mus. Godeffroy) 1882. 
9 (M. C. Z. 6282) New Britain Archipelago (J. F. G. Nulauf) 1890. 



lovekidge: new guinean keptiles 379 

Upper labials 10; lower labials 12-13; circumorbital scales 13-15; 
no labials; midbody scale rows 37-41; average 39, ventrals 149-150; 
anal 1 ; subcaudals 18-19; dorsal spots ?24-?25, very indistinct. Larger 
9 (M. C. Z. 4707), 660 (612 + 48) mm. 

Enygbus asper schmidti Stull 

Enygrus asper schmidti Stull, 1932, Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 8, p. 26: 
"Kaiserin Augusta River" = Sepik River, Australian New Guinea. 

Type 9 (M. C. Z. 29778) Sepik River, A. N. G. (Amsterdam Mus.) 1931' 
4 (M. C. Z. 48607-10) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
<? (M. C. Z. 49398) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
9 (U. S. N. M. 118077) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (W. M. Gordon 1944. 
c? (U. S. N. M. 119497) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
<? (U. S. N. M. 119745) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (A. M. Keefe) 1944. 

Upper labials 10-12; lower labials 12-16; circumorbital scales 11-16, 
no labials; midbody scale rows 34-37, average 35.6; ventrals 127-138; 
anal 1; subcaudals 15-21; dorsal spots ?15-?22, often indistinct or 
coalescing. Largest c? (U. S. N. M. 119497), 453 (410 + 43) mm., 9 
(U. S. N. M. 118077), 708 (650 + 58) mm. 

W. H. & L. F. Stickel (1946, p. 11) have pointed out the entire 
absence of spurs in this large female, also that in the three males the 
spurs are less curved than in carinatus. Stickel records one Toem boa 
was found on May 31 sluggishly digging a hole with its snout between 
the buttress roots of a tree growing on a mud flat about a foot from a 
small creek. The other was taken September 2 from a long-standing 
heap of humus, earth and plant debris. 

Enygrus carinatus (Schneider) 

Boa carinata Schneider, 1801, Hist. Amphib., 2, p. 261: No type locality. 
Cenchris ocellala Gray, 1831, in Griffith, Anim. Kingdom, 9, Synops., p. 97: 
No type locality. 

2 (M. C. Z. 7568-9) Jamna Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

1 (M. C. Z. 10551) British New Guinea (Queensland Mus.) 1914. 
1 (M. C. Z. 44178) Surprise Creek, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 

3 (M. C. Z. 48611-3) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
1 (M. C. Z. 49399) Saidor, A. N. G. (C. W. Moren) 1944. 

4 (M. C. Z. 49446-9) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

3 (M. C. Z. 49470-2) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 56577) New Guinea (J. Hurter) 



380 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

1 (U. S. N. M. 118040) Ahioma, B. N. G. (A. M. Keefe) 1943. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 118822) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (A. M. Keefe) 1944. 
4 (U. S. N. M. 119498-501) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 119502) Gusiko, A. N. G. (J. Kern) 1944. 

Upper labials 10-13, average 11.4; lower labials 10-15, average 12.1; 
circumorbital ring consists of 2, rarely 3, labials and 9-13, average 11.1, 
other scales; midbody scale rows 32-37, average 34.7; ventrals 170- 
197, average 180.5; anal 1; subcaudals 35-53, average 48. Largest cf 
(M. C." Z. 10551), '617 (540 + 77) ram., 9 (U. S. N. M. 56577), 726 
(640 + 86) mm. 

Part of this material has been studied by W. H. & L. F. Stickel 
(1946, p. 10) who have charted the length of the male spurs and their 
development in a few of the adult females. Stickel found the Toem 
boas under piles of coconut palm fronds and other trash, those from 
Liki Island were brought in by Natives. One snake held a skink 
(Emoia caendeocauda) , another a larger skink and a third from Aitape, 
many parasitic worms (Ophidmcaris sp.). 

COLUBRIDAE 

Acrochordus granulatus granulatus (Schneider) 

Hijdrus granulatus Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amphib., 1, p. 243: India. 
Acrochordus fasciatus Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3, p. 576, pi. cxxx: No type 
locality. 

9 (M. C. Z. 7627) Wooi Bay, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

Nostrals chiefly directed upwards; midbody scales 110; ventrals 
absent but a median fold of skin on belly; tail strongly compressed. 
Length of 9 , 841 (762 + 79) mm. 

Chersydrus was synonymized with Acrochordus by Malcolm Smith 
(1943, p. 131); trinomials are employed on account of A. g. luzonensis 
(Loveridge, 1938). 

Natrix melanocephala (Werner) 

Tropidonotus melanocephalus Werner, 1925, Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 134, 
p. 47: Port Weber, (Blanche Bay), New Britain. 

9 (M. C. Z. 22201) New Britain (F. Werner) 1926. 

Preoculars 2; postoculars 3; upper labials 9, the fifth and sixth 
entering the orbit; lower labials 9, the first 5 in contact with the an- 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 381 

terior sublinguals; midbody scale rows 17; ventrals 178; anals 2; sub- 
caudals 109. Length 849 (5S0 + 269) mm. 

This snake bears a label "Paratypen. (Werner coll. No. 1340)," 
and was bought as such. Apart from minor discrepancies in ventral 
and subcaudal counts its length bears no resemblance to that given 
by Werner — 1163 (803 + 360) mm. — for the only paratype men- 
tioned. Perhaps the relationship of this snake to the New Guinean 
hypomelas is that of a subspecies. 



Natrix doriae (Boulenger) 

Tropidonotus doriae Boulenger, 1897, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (2), 
18, p. 704: Haveri, Moroka District, British New Guinea. 

d" (M. C. Z. 28469) British New Guinea (Brit. Mus.) 1929. 

Preoculars 2; postoculars 3; upper labials 8, the third, fourth and 
fifth entering the orbit ; lower labials 9, the first 5 in contact with the 
anterior sublinguals; midbody scale rows 17; ventrals 153; anals 2; 
subcaudals 74 + , tip of tail missing. 



Natrix mairii multiscutellata Brongersma 

Natrix mairii multiscutellata Brongersma, 1948, Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. 
Wetensch. (Amsterdam), 51, pr. 372: Alkmaar, Lorentz River, Dutch New 
Guinea. 

2 (M. C. Z. 7308) Fakfak, D. N. G. (A. E. Pratt) 1909. 
*3 (M. C. Z. 44171-3) Mt. Misim, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 
il (M. C. Z. 44174) Wau, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 
n (M. C. Z. 48615) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

1 (M. C. Z. 49473) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

1 (M. C. Z. 49474) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 124638) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 124930) Biak Id., D. N. G. (W. M. Welch) 1944. 

Preoculars 2; postoculars 3, rarely 2 (right side of M. C. Z. 44172 
only); upper labials 7-9, the third, fourth and fifth, the fourth and 
fifth, or the fourth, fifth and sixth entering the orbit; lower labials 
8-9, the first 4, or 5, or 6, in contact with the anterior sublinguals; 
midbody scale rows 15; ventrals 143-169; anals 2; subcaudals 66-97. 

1 Brongersma fwhose papsr I have seen in galley) regards those five snakes as representing an 
intermediate form. 



382 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Largest cf (M. C. Z. 49473), 840 (600 + 240) mm., 9 (M. C. Z. 
44171). 794 (604 + 190) mm. 

The upper lip and collar of a young Toem snake were light orange 
in life, according to Stickel who found it swimming in a small pool 
in a sago swamp. The Toem male was on land a hundred yards from 
water, while the Liki Island male was captured in wet jungle. 



Stegonotus magnus (Meyer) 

Lycodon magnus Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 136: "Mysore" 
= Biak Island, Dutch New Guinea. 

c? 9 (M. C. Z. 7312) Fakfak, D. N. G. (A. E. Pratt) 1909. 

c? (U. S. N. M. 124635) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Preoculars 2; postoculars 2; upper labials 7-9, the third and fourth 
or fourth and fifth entering the orbit; lower labials 8-10, the first 4 
or 5 in contact with the anterior sublinguals; anterior temporals 2 
but fused erratically; midbody scale rows 19; ventrals 202-219; anal 1 ; 
subcaudals 86-92 pairs. Length of c? (M. C. Z. 7312), 962 (730 + 
231) mm., 9 , 586 (456 + 130) mm. 

Color in life of Toem male as recorded by Stickel. Above, pinkish 
gray-brown, head darker; upper labials grayish pink with yellow area 
on fourth and fifth; lower labials grayish pink tinged with yellow. 
Below, throat reddish lavender; belly pale dull pinkish lavender with 
the edges of the ventrals grayer; subcaudals paler with faint gray 
transverse streaks and a narrower, median, gray stripe. 

This Toem snake was found in a long-standing and partly revege- 
tated heap of humus, earth and plant debris. The Fakfak specimens 
were referred by Barbour (1912, p. 115) to modestus (Schlegel), a 
species with only 17 midbody scale rows. Whether S. pocchi Werner, 
without locality, can be synonymized with magnus, seems doubtful. 



Stegonotus modestus (Schlegel) 

Lycodon modestus Schlegel, 1837, Phys. Serp., 2, p. 119, pi. iv, figs. 16-17: 

Amboina Island and New Guinea. 
Lycodon cucullatum Dumeril & Bibron, 1854, Erpet. Gen., 7, p. 376: "Havre 

Dorey" = Dore Harbor, Jobi Island, Dutch New Guinea. 
Stegonotus reticulaius Boulenger, 1895, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 16, p. 31: 

Ferguson Island, British New Guinea. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 383 

9 (M. C. Z. 44175) Wau, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 
<? (M. C. Z. 49483) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
2juv. (U. S. N. M. 119510-1) Gusiko, A. N. G. (J. F. Cassel) 1944. 

c? (U. S. N. M. 119549) Mios Woendi, D. X. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 
c? skin (U. S. N. M. 119746) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (A. M. Keefe) 1944. 

Preoculars 1-2 (both conditions in U. S. N. M. 119510); postoculars 
2; upper labials 7-9, the third and fourth or fourth and fifth entering 
the orbit; lower labials 8-9, the first 4 or 5 in contact with the anterior 
sublinguals; anterior temporals 2; midbody scale rows 17; ventrals 
167-207; anal 1; subcaudals 81-83 pairs, tips missing in all three 
males. Length of c? (U. S. N. M. 119746), 1256+ (1000 + 256+) mm., 
9 (M. C. Z. 44175), 541 (400 + 141) mm. 

One adult cf (U. S. N. M. 119746) is plumbeous, the other reddish 
brown reticulated with black. The Toem male was found at night 
in the leaf axil of a cocos tree by Alfred Haffer. 

Stegonotus guentheri Boulenger 

Stegonotus guentheri Boulenger, 1895, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 16, p. 31: 
Ferguson Island, British New Guinea. 

c? cf (M. C. Z. 7313) Fakfak, D. N. G. (A. E. Pratt) 1909. 

Preocular 1; postoculars 1-2; upper labials 7, the third and fourth 
entering the orbit; lower labials 7-8, the first 4 in contact with the 
anterior sublinguals; anterior temporals 1-2 (1 on right, 2 on left of one 
snake); midbody scale rows 15; ventrals 179-185; anal 1; subcaudals 
104+-120 pairs; uniformly white below. Larger d\ 653 (450 + 203) 
mm. 

These specimens were referred by Barbour (1912, p. 115) to cuculla- 
tus (Dumeril & Bibron), a species with 17 midbody scale rows. Whether 
S. dorsalis Werner, without locality, is a synonym, is worth considering. 



Stegonotus diehli Lindholm 

Stegonotus diehli Lindholm, 1905, Jahrb. Nassau Ver. Naturk., 58, p. 236: 
Bogadjim, Astrolabe Bay, Australian New Guinea. 

3 (M. C. Z. 49475, 49484-5) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

1 (M. C. Z. 49491) Saidor, A. N. G. (C. W. Moren) 1944. 

3 (U. S. N. M. 119507-9) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Preocular 1-2 (2 in M. C. Z. 49491 only); postoculars 2; upper 



384 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

labials 7, the third and fourth entering the orbit; lower labials 7-8, 
the first 4 in contact with the anterior sublinguals; anterior temporals 
?2, erratically fused; midbody scale rows 15; ventrals 161-176; anal 1; 
subcaudals 78-90 pairs, each edged with gray and a gray spot at base. 
Length of cf (U. S. N. M. 119507), 620 (453 + 167) mm., 9 (M. C. Z. 
49485), 503 (367 + 136) mm., juvenile (M. C. Z. 49491), 195 (150 + 
45) mm. 

( olor in life of a 9 (Al. C. Z. 49484) as recorded by Stickel. Above, 
dark gray-brown; labials gray -white with dark sutures. Below, the 
three foremost ventrals yellow at base, the remaining ventrals white 
with yellow spots on their antero-lateral edges; subcaudals white, 
each with a brown antero-median blotch. I might add that the juve- 
nile coloration is strikingly different from that of the adults, the head 
being white blotched and spotted with brown; body brown, each 
scale light-edged. Below, white, uniform. 

Of the characters utilized by de Rooij (1917, p. 114) to separate this 
species from guentheri only the ventral count holds, and even so there 
is a slight overlap. In our material the fewer subcaudals and different 
coloring suffice. One might be tempted to regard diehli as a race of 
guentheri but for our Fakfak specimens revealing that guentheri oc- 
curs in the northwest as well as the southeast. 



Ahaetulla puxctulata lineolata (Jacquinot & Guichenot) 

Dendrophis lineolata Jacquinot & Guichenot, 1853, in Voyage au Pole Sud . . . 

Astrolabe . . . , Zool., 3, Rept. et Poiss., p. 20, pi. ii, fig. 1 : New Guinea. 
Dendrophis punctulatus var. alrostriata Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. 

Berlin, p. 136: "Jobi and Mysore" i.e. Jappen and Biak Islands, Dut:h 

New Guinea. 
Dendrophis punctulatus var. fasciata Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. 

Berlin, p. 136: Passim, Geelvink Bay, Dutch New Guinea. 
Dendrophis macrops Gunther, 1877, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 131, fig.: 

Duke of York Island, New Britain Archipelago. 
Dendrophis breviceps Macleay, 1877. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 2, p. 37: 

"Katow" = Binaturi River, British New Guinea. 
Dendrophis papuac Ogilby, 1891, Rec. Australian Mus., 1, p. 193: Fly River, 

British New Guinea. 
Dendrophis elegans Ogilby, 1891, Rec. Australian Mus., 1, p. 194: Fly River, 

British New Guinea. 
Dendrophis gastrosticta Boulenger, 1894, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus., 2, p. 86, pi. 

iv, fig. 3: "Northwest" i.e. Dutch New Guinea. 
Dendrophis nouhuysii de Jeude, 1911, Nova Guinea, 5, p. 277, pi. viii, fig. 3: 

Lorentz River, Dutch New Guinea. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 385 

d" juv. (M. C. Z. 48618) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

9 (U. S. N. M. 124636) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Preocular 1; postoculars 2; diameter of eye longer (9), or much 
longer (cf juv.), than its distance from the nostril; upper labials 9, 
the fourth, fifth and sixth, or fifth and sixth, entering the orbit; lower 
labials 9, the first 5 in contact with the anterior sublinguals; frontal 
much longer (a 71 juv.), or shorter than (9 ), its distance from end of 
snout; midbody scale rows 13; ventrals 193-197; anals 2; subcaudals 
143 (c? ), missing in 9 , which measures 1276+ (922 + 354+) mm. 

Color in life of 9 as recorded by Stickel. Above, head olive; rostral, 
side of snout, upper and lower lips chrome yellow; loreal region yel- 
lowish olive; iris grayish brown; temporals olive; anterior part of 
back olive, the scales edged with brownish black posteriorly; vertebral 
row edged with blue anteriorly; lateral scales yellow ventrally; at 
midbody, end of body, as w r ell as tail, the scales are yellowish olive, 
blue ventrally. Below, sides of ventrals greenish, then bluish yellow; 
anterior part of belly bluish white, posteriorly grayish mottled with 
yellow; tail yellow with a median, black-flecked stripe. 

Dendrophis meeki Boulenger is omitted from the synonymy on ac- 
count of Parker's (1936, p. 91) findings. Neither specimen mentioned 
above has a black streak on the side of the head, while both show the 
characteristic dusky longitudinal line beneath the tail. A third speci- 
men labeled "Dendrophis lineolatus H. & J., German New Guinea. 
No. 708.", purchased in 1928 from Franz Werner, like so much of 
Werner's material was poorly localized. It differs from lineolata in 
the low number of subcaudals (117) and absence of subcaudal streak, 
while the rubbed snout suggested it had been long in confinement. 
It was in fact a typical Australian A. p. punctulata (Gray) with ex- 
amples of which it has been compared before being discarded. 



Ahaetulla calligaster schlenckeri (Macleay) 

Dendrelaphis schlenckeri Macleay, 1898, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 5, p. 361 
Fife Bay, British New Guinea. 

9 (M. C. Z. 44170) Mt. Misim, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1938. 
<? & juv. (M. C. Z. 48616-7) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
juv. (M. C. Z. 49400) Saidor, A. N. G. (C. W. Moren) 1944. 
7 (M. C. Z. 49476-82) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
9 (M. C. Z. 49489) Hollandia, D. N. G. (C. W. Moren) 1944. 
o* (U. S. N. M. 119190) Gusiko, A. N. G. (J. F. Cassel) 1944. 



386 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

<? 9 (U. S. N. M. 119504-5) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

9 (U. S. N. M. 119506) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
Head (U. S. N. M. 119550) Mios Woendi, D. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 

Preocular 1; postoculars 1-2; diameter of eye equal to its distance 
from the nostril; upper labials 8-9, the fourth and fifth, fourth, fifth 
and sixth, or fifth and sixth entering the orbit; lower labials 8-10, 
the first 5 in contact with the anterior sublinguals; frontal shorter 
than (4 ex.), equalto (7 ex.), or longer than (6 ex.), its distance from 
the end of the snout; midbody scales 13; ventrals 172-186; anals 2; 
subcaudals 123-144. Largest c7 (M. C. Z. 48616), 919+ (636 + 283+) 
mm., 9 (M. C. Z. 44170), 1239 (805 + 434) mm. 

Color in life of a d" (M. C. Z. 49476) as recorded by Stickel. Above, 
head dull brown, eye bronze brown, upper lip yellow; back bronze 
brown, lower edges of the scales on neck and forepart robin's egg blue, 
second row of dorsals on posterior part of neck greenish yellow, the 
first row colored like belly. Below, chin, throat and neck pale yellow; 
belly and subcaudals rather light reddish bronze. 

Color of 9 (M. C. Z. 49482) after a fortnight in alcohol, as recorded 
by Stickel. Above, head olive brown, upper lip cream with yellow 
cast dorsally; back medium brown; first scale row of neck grayish 
edged below with yellow, second, third, and fourth yellow below, brown 
above, fifth and sixth blue below and brown above. Below, lower jaw 
and throat creamy; belly gray on cream, the ventrals edged with yellow. 

I should have been inclined to apply papuensis (Boulenger, 1896) 
to these New Guinean specimens were it not for Meise and Hennig 
(1932, p. 278) regarding papuensis as a color form occurring on the 
islands off the southeast coast from whence I have no material. 

Most of the series were taken by Stickel in the compound or brushy 
jungle; one (M. C. Z. 49477) was seen to fall at least seventy-five 
feet from a tree into the roadway where it was run over by two cars. 
One snake (M. C. Z. 49476) had swallowed a skink (Lygosoma (L.) /. 
fusciim) while another held a large frog (Hyla arfakiana). 



Ahaetulla calligaster salomonis (Gunther) 

Dendrophis salomonis Gunther, 1867, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 5, p. 25: 
Solomonlslands. 

tf 1 (M. C. Z. 4703) New Britain (Hamburg Mus.) 1882. 
& 9 (M. C. Z. 10273-4) New Britain (Australian Mus.) 1914. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 387 

Preocular 1; postoculars 2; diameter of eye equal to its distance 
from the nostril; upper labials 8-9, the fourth and fifth or fifth and 
sixth entering the orbit; lower labials 9-10, the first 5 in contact with 
the anterior sublinguals; frontal shorter than, equal to, or longer than 
its distance from the end of the snout; midbody scale rows 13; ven- 
trals 189-194; anals 2; subcaudals 154-158. Larger & (M. C. Z. 
10274), 796 (518 + 278) mm., 9 , 1155 (768 + 387). 



Boiga irregularis irregularis (Merrem) 

Coluber irregularis Merrem, 1S02, in Bechstein, Herr de la Cepede's Naturg. 
Amphib., 4, p. 239, pi. xxxvii, fig. 1: No type locality. 

Hurria pseudoboiga Daudin, 1803, Hist. Nat. Rept., 6, p. 277, pi. lix, figs. 8-9; 
Ixvi, figs. 1 and 3: nom. nov. for irregularis. 

Pappophis laticeps Macleay, 1877, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 2, p. 39: Hall 
Sound, British New Guinea. 

Pappohis flavigaslra Macleay, 1877, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 2, p. 40: 
"Katow" = Binaturi River, British New Guinea. 

Dipsadomorphus irregularis papuanus Mehely, 1898, Termes. Fiizetek (Buda- 
pest), 21, p. 172: Seleo Island near Berlinhafen, i.e. Aitape, Australian 
New Guinea (restricted). 

Mislaid (M. C. Z. 7567) Manokwari, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
2 (M. C. Z. 44179-80) Bulowat, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 
2 (M. C. Z. 48619-20) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
Head (M. C. Z. 49490) southeast A. N. G. (C. W. Moren) 1944. 
1 (M. C. Z. 49621) Mios Woendi, D. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 118821) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (A. M. Keefe) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 119191) Gusiko, A. N. G. (J. F. Cassel) 1944. 

2 (U. S. N. M. 119512-3) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 120351) Mios Woendi, D. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 

Preocular 1; postoculars 2; upper labials 9, the fourth, fifth and 
sixth entering the orbit; lower labials 12-14, the first 5 in contact with 
the anterior sublinguals; midbody scale rows 21; ventrals 230-255; 
anal 1; subcaudals 102-113. Largest c? (M. C. Z. 44179), 1816+ 
(1460 + 356+) mm., 9 (M. C. Z. 48620), 1363 (1060 + 303) mm. 

Color in life of a 9 (U. S. N. M. 119512) as recorded by Stickel. 
Above, head olive brown, upper lip dull yellowish, paler where border- 
ing mouth, marked with brownish anteriorly and posteriorly; body 
olive-brown becoming grayer laterally. Below, bright yellow anteriorly 
the ventrals on last two-thirds of body are pale, dull, pinkish-buffy 
medially, pink laterally; subcaudals whitish medially, pink laterally. 



388 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

This snake was taken on the night of May 14 on coastal road about 
eighteen miles north of Gusiko, the road being flanked by Kunai 
grass with coral limestone cliffs about fifty feet away on either side. 
The young male from Gusiko was found dead on road passing through 
grassy flats on coral terrace and within one or two hundred feet of 
coral cliffs. 



FORDONIA LEUCOBALIA (Schlegel) 

Homalopsis leucobalia (Schlegel), 1837, Phys. Serp., 2, p. 345, pi. xiii, figs. 8-9: 

Timor Island, Lesser Sunda Islands. 
IFordonia Papuensis Macleay, 1877, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 2, p. 35: 

"Katow" i.e. Binaturi River, British New Guinea. 

cf , 4 9 9 (M. C. Z. 22813-7) Merauke, D. N. G. (P. T. L. Putnam) 
1927. 

No loreal ; preocular 1 ; postoculars 2 ; upper labials 5, the third 
entering the orbit; lower labials 7, the first 3 or 4 in contact with the 
anterior sublinguals; midbody scale rows 25-27; ventrals 151 -156; 
anals 2; subcaudals 31-39. Length of & (M. C. Z. 22814), 565 (485 + 
80) mm., largest 9 (M. C. Z. 22813), 734 (657 + 77) mm. Coloration 
uniform or blotched. Nematodes (Ortleppina longissima) were re- 
covered from the stomach of one specimen. 

Boulenger suggests that papuensis Macleay, with 22 midbody scale 
rows and third labial excluded from the orbit, may be based on an 
aberrant individual, but Macleay states he had "several specimens." 
It is quite time someone reexamined them and settled the matter. 
Numerous differences make Macleay 's description impossible to recon- 
cile with Cerberus r. novaeguineae. 



Cerberus rynchops novaeguineae subsp. nov. 

Type. Museum of Comparative Zoology, No. 22818, an adult o 71 
from Merauke, Dutch New Guinea, collected by P. T. L. Putnam in 
1927. 

Paratypes. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Nos. 22819-21 
( 9 , 9 , & ) and a head, with same data as the type. 

Diagnosis. Differs from typical rynchops in the lower number of 
subcaudals iu both sexes, from r. australis as follows : 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 389 

1. Midbody scales in 23-25, exceptionally 27, rows; ventrals less 

than i60 2 

Midbody scales in 27-29 rows; ventrals more than 1G0; range: 
Babuyan and Luzon Islands, Philippine Islands microlepis 

2. Subcaudals 43-51 3 

Subcaudals 50-69 (49-72 in literature), viz. 50-62 for 32 9 9 , 

55-69 for 38 cfcf ; range: India and Ceylon east through Indo- 
China to the Philippine and Pelew Islands south to Timor. . . 

r. ryn chops 

3. Nasal cleft usually (8 out of 10 sides) extending to first labial; 

loreal in contact with second, third and fourth labials (9 sides), or 
second and third only (1 side); range: New Guinea (? southern 

only) t. novacguineae 

Nasal cleft usually extending to the second labial ; loreal in contact 
with the second and third labials (7 sides), or second, third and 

fourth (1 side); range: northern Australia r. australis 

C. r. australis also apparently differs from novaeguineae in its vivid 
color pattern. All four kinds of Cerberus are represented in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology. 

Description. (Of Paratypes, where they differ from the type, in 
parenthesis). Preocular 1; postoculars 2; upper labials 9-10; lower 
labials 9 (-10), the first 4 (3 on left side of uncatalogued head) in 
contact with the anterior sublinguals; midbody scale rows 23; ventrals 
145 (-151); anals 2; subcaudals (43-) 49 (^(^48-49, 9 9 43-44). 
Length of type d\ 827 (690 + 137) mm., of 9 (M. C. Z. 22819), 
780 (656 + 124) mm. . 

That Cerberus, and not Hurria, is the correct name for this genus 
of water snakes has been pointed out by Malcolm Smith (1930, p. 61) 
who, however, (1943, p. 393) follows Boulenger (1896, p. 16) in mis- 
quoting Schneider's spelling of rynchops. 



Myron eichardsonii Gray 

Myron richardsonii Gray, 1849, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus., p. 70: Northwest 
Australia. 

J (M. C. Z. 38963) Bivak Id., D. N. G. (Leiden Mus.) 1935. 

Loreal 1; preocular 1; postoculars 2; upper labials 9, the fourth 
entering the orbit; lower labials 11, the first 3-4 in contact with 
the anterior sublinguals; midbody scale rows 21 ; ventrals 135; anals 2; 
subcaudals 39 pairs. Length of d\ 356 (300 + 56) mm. 



390 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

ELAPIDAE 

Aspidomorphus schlegelii (Giinther) 

Diemenia schlegelii Giinther, 1872, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9), 4, pp. 14, 35: 

Misool Island, Molucca Islands. 
Pseudelaps muelleri insulae Barbour, 1908, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 51, p. 320: 

Djamna = Jamna Island, Dutch New Guinea. 
Pseudelaps muelleri var. concolor Werner, 1925, Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. 134, Abt. 

1, p. 63: Fakfak, Dutch New Guinea. 

9 (M. C. Z. 7080) Jamna Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
c? (M. C. Z. 7311) Fakfak, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1909. 
<?' (M. C. Z. 38967) Salawati Id., D. N. G. (Leiden Mus.) 1935. 
cf 9 (U. S. N. M. 119514-5) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
c? (U. S. N. M. 124929) Biak Id., D. N. G. (W. M. Welch) 1944. 

Top of head unspotted or almost so; an uninterrupted light streak 
on side of head; snout flat; upper labials 6, the third and fourth 
entering the orbit; lower labials 6, the first 4 in contact with the 
anterior sublinguals; midbody scales 15; ventrals 140-148; anals 2; 
subcaudals 18-27. Largest c? (M. C. Z. 7311), 397 (358 + 39) mm., 
larger 9 (M. C. Z. 70S0), 387 (355 + 32) mm. 

The Jamna Island female is holotype of insulae, here sexed and 
correctly measured for the first time. It was placed in the synonymy 
by Brongersma (1934, p. 235) who unravelled the involved synonymy 
of this species with mulleri and its numerous races. 



Aspidomorphus mulleri mulleri (Schlegel) 

Elaps mulleri Schlegel, 1837, Phys. Serp., 1, pp. 182, 243 (part), pi. xvi, figs. 
16-17: In forest at base of Mount Lamantsiri, Lobo, Triton Bay, Dutch 
New Guinea. 

9 (M. C. Z. 38966) Salawati Id., D. N. G. (Leiden Mus.) 1935. 
tP 9 (M. C. Z. 48621-2) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
& (M. C. Z. 49486) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
c?<? 9 (U. S. N. M. 119517-9) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Top of head with light-edged dark spots; a dark suborbital bar 
interrupts the light streak on side of head; snout sloping downwards; 
upper labials 7, the third and fourth entering the orbit; lower labials 7, 
the first 3 or 4, or first, third and fourth only, in contact with the 
anterior sublinguals; midbody scale rows 15; ventrals 162-177; anals 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 391 

2; subcaudals 29-38. Largest cf (U. S. N. M. 119519), 662 (568 4- 94) 
mm., 9 (M. C. Z. 38966), 661 (585 + 76) mm. 



PSEUDECHIS AUSTRALIS AUSTRALIS (Gray) 
Naja australis Gray, 1842, Zool. Misc., p. 55: Northeast Australia. 

9 (M. C. Z. 22811) Merauke, D. N. G. (P. T. L. Putnam) 1927. 

Rostral much broader than deep; internasals less than half as long 
as the prefrontals; frontal once and two-thirds as broad as long; upper 
labials 6, the third and fourth entering the orbit; midbody scale rows 
17; ventrals 191; anals 2; subcaudals 53, all single except the last. 
Length of 9 , 1068 (910 + 158) mm. 

The unique condition of the subcaudals in this snake has already 
been the subject of comment (Loveridge, 1927, p. 58). 



MlCROPECHIS IKAHEKA IKAHEKA (Lesson) 

Coluber ikaheka Lesson, 1830, Zool., in Duperry, Voyage autour du Monde . . . 

sur ... La Coquille, 2, pt. 1, p. 54, pi. v: Forests fringing Dorerey = 

Dore Harbor, Dutch New Guinea. 
Naja daps Schlegel, 1837, Phys. Serp., 2, p. 485: No type locality. 

c? (M. C. Z. 22377) Fakfak, D. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1926. 

Preocular 1 ; postoculars 2 ; temporals 2 + 2 ; upper labials 6, the 
third and fourth entering the orbit; lower labials 7, the first 4 in con- 
tact with the anterior sublinguals; midbody scale rows 15; ventrals 
183; anals 2; subcaudals 37-43 pairs. Length of d\ 1064 (925 + 139) 
mm. 

While there is apparently no appreciable difference in squamation, 
the striking coloring of this Fakfak specimen is as figured and described 
by Lesson and in my (1945, p. 161) key to the genus. 



MlCROPECHIS IKAHEKA FASCIATUS Fischer 

Ophiophagus ikaheka v&r.fasciatus Fischer, 1884, Abhand. Nat. Ver. Hamburg., 
8, p. 10, pi. vii, figs. 3a-c: Aru Islands. 

& & (M. C. Z. 48623-4) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
& (U. S. N. M. 119520) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 



392 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

These males agree with the squamation given for the typical form 
except that the range of ventrals is 180-185; subcaudals 37-39. 
Largest perfect c? (M. C. Z. 4S624), 1314 (1150 + 164) mm. In color 
pattern, being more or less banded, they agree with i. fasciatus and 
the Solomons' race i. elapoides. The Gusiko snake was taken after 
rain in a jungle ravine through which ran a small stream, where it was 
captured by J. M. Kern and Captain J. F. Mangrum. 

ACANTHOPHIS ANTARCTICUS ANTARCTICUS (Shaw) 

Boa antarctici. Shaw, 1794, Nat. Misc., pi. cccccxxv: Australasia. 
Boa palpebrosa Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3, p. 362: No type locality. 
Acanthophis cerastinus Daudin, 1803, Hist. Nat. Rept., 5, p. 289, pi. Ixvii: No 

type locality. 
Acanthophis laevis Macleay, 1877, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 2, p. 40: "Katow" 

= Binaturi River, British New Guinea. 

9 (M. C. Z. 7565) Manokwari, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 

cf (M. C. Z. 38965) Great Kei Id. (Leiden Mus.) 1935. 

9 (M. C. Z. 44176) Surprise Creek, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 
juv. (M. C. Z. 46492) Buna, B. N. G. (C. W. Moren) 1944. 

9 (U. S. N. M. 119192) Gusiko, A. N. G. (J. F. Cassel) 1944. 
juv. (U. S. N. M. 119516) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Head shields smooth; preocular 1; postoculars 2; suboculars 1-3; 
upper labials 6-7; lower labials 7-8, the first 4, or first, third and 
fourth only, in contact with the anterior sublinguals; temporals 
1 + 2, 1 + 3, 2 + 2 or 2 + 3; midbody scale rows 21-22 (actually 
19 or 20 at precise midbody of M. C. Z. 38965); ventrals 111-131; 
anal 1 ; subcaudals 43-51. Largest, a 9 (M. C. Z. 44176), 591 (490 + 
101) mm. 

Nematodes (Abbreviata sp., Kalicephalus sp., and 9 Spiruroidea) 
were recovered from the stomach of the Manokwari death adder. 



Acanthophis antarcticus rugosus subsp. nov. 

Type. Museum of Comparative Zoology, No. 22812, an adult c? 
from Merauke, southwest Dutch New Guinea, collected by P. T. L. 
Putnam in 1927. 

Paratypc. A head with same data as type. 

Diagnosis. Head shields very strongly rugose, otherwise like the 
typical banded form of antarctica figured by Shaw which appears to 
have smooth head shields. 



loveridge: new guinean reptiles 393 

Description. Preocular 1; postoculars 2 ; suboculars 2-3; upper 
labials 7 (6 in paratype) ; lower labials 8, the first 4 in contact with the 
anterior sublinguals; temporals 2 + 3; midbody scale rows 21; ven- 
trals 119; anal 1; subcaudals 48, the first 30 single, the posterior 18 
paired. Length of type cf, 595 (500 4- 95) mm. Body with 30 broad, 
dark crossbands, tail with 10. 

HYDROPHIIDAE 

From Australian or Indonesian oceans the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology has all but two of the score of sea snakes definitely known as 
occurring on the coasts of New Guinea and the Aru Islands. Only 
those clearly taken from New Guinean seas are dealt with below. 



Laticauda laticaudata (Linne) 

Coluber lalicaudatus Linne (part), 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10), 1, p. 222: "Indus." 

9 (M. C. Z. 23793) Geelvink Bay, D. N. G. (M. A. Smith) 1927. 

Prefrontals 2; upper lip brown; midbody scale rows 19; ventrals 
about 226. Tail missing. 

Laticauda colubrina (Schneider) 

Hydrus colubrinus Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amphib., 1, p. 238: No type locality. 

c? (M. C. Z. 10546) British New Guinea (Queensland Mus.) 1914. 

Prefrontals 3; upper lip mostly white; midbody scale rows 23; 
ventrals 219; anals 2; subcaudals 43. Length 399 (350 4- 49) mm. 

Hydrophis fasciatus atriceps Giinther 

Hydrophis atriceps Giinther, 1864, Rept. British India, p. 371, pi. xxv, figs. 
I— I': Siam. 

c? (U. S. N. M. 124637) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Prefrontals 2; head black except for a light postocular and another 
temporal spot; midbody scale rows 40; ventrals 340; anals 2; sub- 
caudals 56. Length 873 (785 + 88) mm. 

The snake (M. C. Z. 29787) from Broome, West Australia, which I 
(1934, p. 295) referred to this race, is, in reality, an example of Hydro- 
phis elegans (Gray). 



394 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

SALIENTIA ! 

HYLIDAE 

The arrangement of species is substantially that of van Kampen 
(1923, p. ix). Though that author refers to a very small outer metatar- 
sal tubercle being present in montana, arfakiana and congenita, actu- 
ally it is a small subarticular tubercle at the base of the fourth toe to 
which he alludes. None of the sixteen species mentioned below have 
an outer metatarsal tubercle. For the sake of brevity the word "eye" 
is used instead of "orbital diameter," and "heel" in place of "tibio- 
tarsal articulation of the adpressed hind limb." 

Hyla graminea Boulenger 

Hyla graminea Boulenger, 1905, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), 16, p. 183: At 
9,000 feet, northern British New Guinea. 

9 (M. C. Z. 26526) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

c? (U. S. N. M. 119172) Milne Bay, B. N. G. (J. F. Cassel) 1944. 

<? (U. S. N. M. 119543) Mios Woendi, D. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944 

Vomerine teeth between the choanae; head as long as broad; snout 
once and a half to once and two-thirds as long as the eye; interorbital 
space nearly twice as long as an upper eyelid; tympanum three- 
quarters the eye diameter; outer finger webbed to disk; heel reaches to 
between eye and nostril (cf . 9 ) or beyond end of snout (U. S. N. M. 
119543). This last specimen, therefore, would run down to //. rhaco- 
phorus, quite a different frog, in van Kampen 's (1923, p. 24) key. 
Larger c? (U. S. N. M. 119543) measures 73 mm., 9 , 65 mm. 

Parker (1936, p. 76) refers to a 69 mm. d 71 from Kokoda, B. N. G., 
as the largest and second known example of this species. 

Hyla nigropunctata (Meyer) 

Hyperolius nigropunctatus Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 139: 

Jobi Island, Geelvink Bay, Dutch New Guinea. 
Hyla bernsteini Horst, 1883, Notes Leyden Mus., 5, p. 241: "Gebeh," i.e. 

Gebe (restricted) and Salawati Islands, Dutch New Guinea. 
Hyla ouwensii Barbour, 1908, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 61, p. 325: Pom, north 

coast of Jobi = Japen Island, Dutch New Guinea. 
Hyla (Hylella) nigromaculata (Meyer) Barbour, 1908, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

61, p. 325: Nomen nudum, being lapsus for ni d ropunctata, and nothing 

to do with Hyla nigromaculata (Tschudi) of Brazil. 
Hyla atropunctala van Kampen, 1923, Amphib. Indo-Australian Archip., p. 37: 

nom. nov. for nigropunctata Meyer, believed preoccupied. 



loveridge: new guinean amphibians 395 

Type 9 (M. C. Z. 2434) Pom, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1903. 
9 (M. C. Z. 9392) New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 
? 9 (U. S. N. M. 121216) Dobodura, A. N. G. (G. M. Kohls) 1944. 

Vomerine teeth absent; head as long as, or slightly longer than, 
broad; snout once and a half as long as the eye; interorbital space as 
broad as, or broader than, an upper eyelid; tympanum half the eye 
diameter; outer finger webbed to disk; heel reaches to between eye and 
nostril (M. C. Z. 9392), end of snout (M. C. Z. 2434), or just beyond 
(U. S. N. M. 121216). The light area on posterior portion of upper jaw 
is present only in M. C. Z. 9392, but all three exhibit the striking and 
apparently characteristic black streak on the hind side of thigh and 
tibia. Largest 9 (M. C. Z. 2434), 35 mm. 

Thus this frog, the type of ouwensii is now an eighth of an inch 
less than the "about an inch and a half" of the original description; 
its tympanum is clearly equal to half (not "a fifth") the eye diameter; 
the tibio-tarsal articulation does not reach "a considerable distance 
beyond the snout." The only remaining difference between it and 
nigropunctata, though not mentioned in the description, is a series of 
white tubercles on the hinder side of the forearm, their position is in- 
dicated in one of the others; in montana I found the presence of similar 
tubercles dependent on age. 

Hyla nigromaculata appears to be a lapsus for nigropunctata (Meyer) 
for I have failed to find it in the literature prior to 190S. But M. C. Z. 
9392 which has borne this name in the collection for almost a quarter 
of a century, has a curious history. Accompanying it from Berlin was 
a label that read "Hyla nigromaculata Mey. Neu Guinea." However 
the letters "cul" were illegible and in transcribing the name to the 
M. C. Z. label Barbour wrote "Hyla nigromarginata Mayer," and so it 
remained until recently. 

The question arises as to whether this Berlin frog could be the type 
of nigropunctata, no mention having been made of more than one. 
This, however, seems unlikely as it differs in several points, viz. 
Nostril twice as far from eye as from tip of snout (not a little nearer 
tip of snout); outer finger almost webbed to disk (not almost half- 
webbed); heel reaches nostril (not tip of snout or beyond). Length 31 
(not 27) mm.; breadth of head 9 (not 10) mm.; length of forelimb 11 
(not 17) mm.; length of hind limb 43 (not 47) mm. It should be men- 
tioned that its rather shrivelled state would indicate that the frog 
had dried out at some time. From its appearance it might well have 
been collected at the same time as the type. 

Boulenger (1882, p. 421) referred Meyer's nigropunctata to Hylella, 



396 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

a genus considered unrecognizable by van Kampen (1923, p. 37) who, 
on transferring nigropunctata to Hyla renamed it atropunctata on the 
grounds that nigropunctata was preoccupied in Hyla by a Mexican 
species of Cope. Actually it is the Mexican frog that requires re- 
naming. 

Hyla darlingtoni Loveridge 

Hyla darlingtoni Loveridge, 1945, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 58, p. 53: 
Mount Wilhelm, Bismarck Range, Madang Division, Australian New- 
Guinea. 

Type 9 (M. C. Z. 25890) Mt, Wilhelm, A. N. G. (P. J. Darlington) 
1944. 

Vomerine teeth between the choanae; head as long as broad; snout 
twice as long as the eye; interorbital space nearly twice as broad as 
an upper eyelid; tympanum seven-eighths the eye diameter; outer 
finger three-quarters webbed but continued as a fringe to the disk; 
heel reaches to anterior border of eye. Length of gravid 9 , 50 mm. 



Hyla Montana Montana Peters & Doria 

Hyla (Litoria) montana Peters & Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 

Genova, 13, p. 423, pi. vii, fig. 1 : Hatam, Arfak Mountains, Dutch New 

Guinea. 
Hyla papua van Kampen, 1909, Nova Guinea, 9, p. 33, pi. ii, fig. 2: "Noord 

Fluss" = Lorentz River, near Bivak Island, Dutch New Guinea. 
IHyla pulchra Wandolleck, 1911, Abhand. Ber. Konig. Zool. Mus. Dresden, 

13, No. 6, p. 12, pi. xii, figs. 50-59: Locality omitted. 

1 (M. C. Z. 9382) New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 
24 (M.C.Z. 25880-9) Toromanbanau, A.N.G.(P. J. Darlington) 1944. 

Vomerine teeth in two oblique series between the choanae; head as 
long as, or slightly longer or shorter than, broad; snout once and a 
quarter to once and a half as long as the eye; interorbital space as 
Jbroad as, or once and a quarter times as broad as, an upper eyelid; 
tympanum two-fifths (9 ) to half the eye diameter; outer finger half- 
webbed; forearm with a white, crenulated, dermal fold extending as a 
ridge along outer edge of fourth finger; heel reaches to anterior border 
of eye or well beyond end of snout. The Tarambanau series consists 
of one tadpole; one young frog (23 mm. from snout to anus) with 
stump of tail; one young (21 mm.) without trace of tail; four males 



loveridge: new gtjinean amphibians 397 

(sexed by dissection, ranging from 44-52 mm.) with uncolored nuptial 
pads, and twenty males (48-52 mm.) with brown nuptial pads; a 
single 9 (Al. C. Z. 25880) measuring 7G mm. 

Toromanbanau, 7500 feet, in the Bismarck Range, is far removed from 
the Arfak Mountains in the northwest of the island, but the gap is 
bridged to a considerable extent by van Kampen's (1923, p. 34) 
records. The series agrees well with his detailed description except 
that the vomerine teeth are not in two "transverse" rows as depicted 
in Peters and Doria's poor illustration, and for the absence of an al- 
leged outer metatarsal tubercle already discussed. 



Hyla Montana pratti Boulenger 

Hyla pratti Boulenger, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), 8, p. 55: Wendessi, 
and others from the Arfak Mountains at 8000 feet, Dutch New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 11651) Angi Lakes, Arfak Mtns., D. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 
1925. 

Vomerine teeth between the choanae; head as long as broad; snout 
one and a half times as long as the eye; interorbital space as broad as 
an upper eyelid; tympanum half the eye diameter; outer finger a third 
webbed; heel reaches the nostril. Length of gravid 9 , 51 mm. 

This frog shows such close relationship to montana of the same moun- 
tains that I venture to regard it as a subspecies with probable habitat 
differences. Structurally it differs from montana only in the less deeply 
emarginate tongue; less webbed fingers, the outer being a third instead 
of half-webbed, absent between first and second fingers and so deeply 
emarginate that when it does reach the tubercles of second, third, and 
fourth it does so only as a narrow margin; similarly the second toe is 
webbed to the tubercle on one side only though to the disk on the 
other, fifth toe to the disk. One clump of vomerine teeth have never 
been developed in this individual. 



Hyla pygmaea (Meyer) 

Hyperolius pygmaeus Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 139: Jobi 

Island, Dutch New Guinea. 
Hylella boulengeri v. Mehely, 1897 (not Scylopsis boulengeri Cope, 1887), 

Termesz. Fuzetek, 20, p. 414, pi. x, fig. 8: "Friederich-Wilhelmshafen" 

i.e. Madang, Australian New Guinea. 



398 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Hylafallax Boulenger, 1898, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 482, pi. xxxix, fig. 4: 

"Katow" = Binaturi River, British New Guinea. 
Hyla mehelyi Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46, Anura, 1, p. 215: nom. nov. for 

boulengeri (v. Mehely) preoccupied in Hyla. 

1 (M. C. Z. 9384) New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 
47 (M. C. Z. 25864-5, 26010-9) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
7 (U. S. N. M. 119202-8) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Vomerine teeth (absent in young and a 25 mm. frog from Toem) 
between the posterior borders of the choanae; head as long as, or 
slightly longer or shorter than, broad; snout once and a quarter times 
as long as the eye; interorbital space as broad as, or once and a quarter 
times as broad as, an upper eyelid; tympanum half to two-thirds the 
eye diameter; outer finger half to two-thirds webbed; heel reaches eye, 
nostril, or (U. S. N. M. 119203-4) just beyond end of snout. Largest 
c? (M. C. Z. 26011) 32 mm., 9 (M. C. z/26010) 34 mm.; smallest of 
the young 14 mm. (Meyer's type was 15 mm.). 

The juvenile dorsal pattern figured by van Kampen (1923, p. 36, 
fig. 4) and others, is highly variable and by no means confined to the 
young, though the majority of adults tend to be uniformly yellowish 
green or brown above. 



Hyla arfakiana Peters & Doria 

Hyla arfakiana Peters & Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 13, 
p. 421, pi. vi, fig. 2: Hatam, Arfak Mountains, Dutch New Guinea. 

c? (M. C. Z. 10754) Hellwig Mtns., D. N. G. (Amsterdam Mus.) 1925. 
cf, 4 9,2 juv. (M. C. Z. 23293-9) Mt. Misim, A. N. G. (H. Stevens)1933. 

Vomerine teeth in usually oblique series between the choanae; 
head as long as (young), or shorter than, broad; snout as long as, or 
longer than, the eye; interorbital space as broad as, more usually 
broader than, an upper eyelid; tympanum one-third to half (M. C. Z. 
23296) the eye diameter; outer finger one-third to half-webbed; no 
outer metatarsal tubercle; heel reaches eye to well beyond end of 
snout in both sexes; undersurfaces characteristically marbled or 
vermiculated with brown. Larger c? (M. C. Z. 23294), 66 mm., 9 
(M. C. Z. 23293), 80 mm., young 33 mm. 

A frog of this species was recovered from the stomach of a bronze- 
back tree snake (Ahactiilla ealligaster schenkeri). 



loveridge: new guinean amphibians 399 

Hyla brongersmai Loveridge 

Hyla brongersmai Loveridge, 1945, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 58, p. 56: 
Parana Valley, Dutch New Guinea. 

Type & (M. C. Z. 15203) Parana Valley, D. N. G. (P. Wirz) 1925. 

Vomerine teeth absent; head as long as broad; snout once and a 
third as long as the eye; interorbital space once and a half as broad as 
an upper eyelid; tympanum three-quarters the eye diameter; outer 
finger half webbed; heel reaches end of snout. Length of adult cf, 
24 mm. 

This frog was received from the late Dr. Jean Roux as Hyla arfakiana 
Peters & Doria, but has little in common with that 70 mm. species, 
being adult at 24 mm. 



Hyla bicolor (Gray) 

Eucnemis bicolor Gray, 1842, Zool. Misc., p. 57: Port Essington, Northern 
Territory, Australia. 

5 (M. C. Z. 12846-50) Merauke, D. N. G. (P. T. L. Putnam) 1927. 
32 (M. C. Z. 25853-62) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
12 (M. C. Z. 26036-40) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

8 (M. C. Z. 25996-97) near Darwin, N. T. (T. R. Tovell) 1944. 

The almost topotypic Darwin series are from Knuckey's Lagoon 
about nine miles south of the port. This material is separable into 
three groups of which the Darwin and ten of the first Aitape series may 
be regarded as typical, their characters being: 

Vomerine teeth absent; head as long as broad; snout once and a 
quarter to once and a half times as long as the eye; interorbital space 
broader than an upper eyelid; tympanum half to two-thirds the eye 
diameter; outer finger one-third webbed; heel reaches eye or end of 
snout. Largest d" (M. C. Z. 25997), 26 mm., gravid 9 (M. C. Z. 
25855), 26 mm., youngest are 20 mm. 

As the remaining 22 specimens of the first Aitape series are juve- 
niles without vomerine teeth they may be referable to either the first 
or the second group of bicolor discussed here. This second group is 
characterized by 6 cfcf and 6 9 9 (M. C. Z. 26036^0) which may be 
considered as adult for the females are gravid. They apparently differ 
only in the possession of vomerine teeth and larger size. The possi- 
bility of their representing albolabris Wandolleck, described from Ait- 
ape, is rejected principally because that species is said to have to have 



400 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

a tympanum only one-third the eye diameter, toes narrowly webbed, 
upper surface marbled with lighter, lower spotted with brown, and 
length which is given as about 40 mm. The largest of both sexes (c? 
M. C. Z. 26036; 9 M. C. Z. 26037) in our series measure exactly 30 
mm., females of that size being gravid. These twelve adults exhibit 
some average differences from adults in group one but nothing con- 
stant. The tympanum is three-quarters to seven-eighths the eye 
diameter, while the heel reaches eye (in 1), nostril (in 7), or beyond 
end of snout (in 4). 

The third group is composed of the Merauke frogs in which the heel 
reaches the end of snout (in 3), or well beyond (in 4). They were seen 
by van Kampen in 1927 and thought to be referable to bicolor though 
he added that the possibility of their being the young of some larger 
species should not be ruled out. In size they range from 19-25 mm. 



Hyla thesaurexsis Peters 

Hyla thesaurensis Peters, 1877, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 421 : Treasury 
Island, Solomon Islands (2 ex., 28 mm.). 

Hyla impura Peters & Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 13, 
p. 426, pi. vii, fig. 2: Yule Island, British New Guinea (2 ex., 42 mm.). 

Hyla macrops Boulenger, 1883, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), 12, p. 164: Treasury 
Island, Solomon Islands (d\ 38 mm.). 

Hyla macgregori Ogilby, 1890, Rec. Australian Mus., 1, p. 100: St. Joseph's 
River = Kito River, British New Guinea (26 ex., max. 30 mm.). 

Hyla sAomonis Vogt, 1912, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, p. 10: Bou- 
gainville Island, Solomon Islands (d\ 48 mm.). 

9 (M. C. Z. 9373) ^<ew Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 

c? (M. C. Z. 15202) Pionierbiwak, Mamberamo River, D. N. G. 

(P. Wirz) 1925. 
6c?3 9 , 75 juv. (M. C. Z. 25866-7, 26020-9) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. 

Beck) 1944. 
juv. (M. C, Z. 26067) Liki Id., opp. Sarmi, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 

1944. 
d>, 2 juv. (M. C. Z. 26068; U. S. N. M. 119200-1) Toem, D. N. G. 

(J. H. Kern). 

Vomerine teeth (absent in very young, developed on left side only 
in adult M. C. Z. 9373) in oblique, or roundish, groups between the 
choanae; head as long as, or slightly longer than, broad; snout once 
and a half times as long as the eye; interorbital space once and a 
quarter to once and three-quarters as broad as an upper eyelid; 



loveridge: new guinean amphibians 401 

tympanum half to three-quarters the eye diameter; outer finger one- 
third to half-webbed (U. S. N. M. 119201); outer aspect of forearm 
with a row of white spots or tubercles; heel reaches eye, nostril 
(U. S. N. M. 119200 ad. <?; 119201 juv.) or beyond end of snout 
(M. C. Z. 26028, etc.). All largest cfcf 1 measure 40 mm., females of 
43-45 mm. in the Aitape series are gravid, juv. 12-28 mm. 

All these seventy-four 12-28 mm. juveniles from Aitape display 
evidence of recent metamorphosis in an unusually distinct, diamond- 
shaped, dermal marking around the insertion of the arms. Very few 
exhibit vomerine teeth. Otherwise they agree with the characters 
given above except that the developing tympanum is sometimes 
smaller and there is no sign of tubercles along the forearm. Below, 
they are immaculate except for a few individuals possessing some 
conspicuous, scattered, black spots. In this connection it is interesting 
to note that one adult male shows similar azygous spotting. Thirty- 
eight of these juveniles, ranging from 16-26 mm., show, though often 
faintly, a light, broad, vertebral stripe from occiput to anus, at times a 
pair of dorso-lateral lines are also distinguishable. Though this livery 
resembles that of the type of thesaurensis it is not so conspicuous in 
these formalin-preserved specimens. 

Only one Aitape juvenile (the seventy-fifth), 26 mm. in length, has 
assumed the three light lines distinctly, but unlike the others the skin 
around its arms no longer shows any marking, while the tubercles on 
the outer aspect of the forearm are visible. The three juveniles from 
other localities range from 22-27 mm., and all display the striped 
livery. Adults are uniformly olive, brown, or gray above. 

The Museum of Comparative Zoology is fortunate in possessing a 
fine series of thesaurensis from nine different islands in the Solomon 
group, and this material clearly demonstrates the untenability of 
macrops and solomonis. The reasons for this will be set forth in a report 
on the herpetofauna of the islands by Mr. W. C. Brown. 

The New Guinea species were separated on the grounds that the 
vomerine teeth were "between the posterior borders of the choanae," 
instead of "between the choanae." Actually they are between the 
choanae in both Solomons and Guinean frogs though a slight tilting 
of the head may give the impression that they are situated between 
the posterior borders. While H. impura was based on the uniformly 
colored adult, macgregori was described from the strikingly striped and 
patterned young, duplicating what occurred in the Solomons with 
thesaurensis (young) and macrops (adult) from Treasury Island. 

One juvenile (AT.. C. Z. 26068) was taken squatting on a leaf in the 
scrub (J. H. K.). 



402 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Hyla angularis Loveridge 

Hyla angularis Loveridge, 1945, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 58, p. 54: Mount 
Wilhelm, Bismarck Range, Madang Division, Australian New Guinea. 

Type tf, 9 juv. (M. C. Z. 25891-9) Mt. Wilhelm, A. N. G. (P. J. D.) 1944. 

Vomerine teeth between the choanae; head longer than broad; snout 
once and a half as long as the eye; interorbital space nearly twice as 
broad as an upper eyelid; tympanum about half the eye diameter; 
outer finger half-webbed; heel reaches the nostril. Length of tf, 45 
mm., juveniles 17-38 mm. 

In van Kampen's (1923, p. 26) key the nearest relative appears to 
be H. everetti Boulenger, of Timor, to which species it bears little 
resemblance. 



Hyla infrafrenata infrafrenata Giinther 

Hyla infrafrenata Giinther, June 1867, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), 20, p. 56: 
Cape York, Queensland. 

Calamita dolichopsis Cope, September 1867, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia (2), 6, p. 204: Amboina Island, Molucca Islands. 

Litoria guttata Macleay, 1878, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 2, p. 137: "Katow" 
= Binaturi River, British New Guinea. 

Hyla dolichopsis var. tenuigranulata Boettger, 1895, Zool. Anz., 18, p. 136: 
Halmahera Island, Molucca Islands. 

Hyla spengleri Boulenger, 1912, Zool. Jahrb. Suppl., 15, p. 215: Dinawa, Owen 
Stanley Mountains, British New Guinea. 

9, juv. (M. C. Z. 2675) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
d* <? (M. C. Z. 2678) Ternate Id., Moluccas (T. Barbour) 1907. 
9 (M. C. Z. 2680) Manokwari, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
14 (M. C. Z. 12143-9; 12158-64) Merauke, D. N. G. (P. T. L. 

Putnam) 1927. 
& (M. C. Z. 24288) Karakelang Id., (D. Fairchild) 1940. 
9, 7 juv. (M. C. Z. 25868-72) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

& (M. C. Z. 26055) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (L. W. Jarcho) 1944. 
c? (M. C. Z. 26056) Gusiko, Kalueng River, A. N. G. (D. Crocker) 

1944. 
9 (M. C. Z. 26057) Hollandia, D. N. G. (N. Moren) 1944. 
12 (M. C. Z. 26058-63) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
3 & <? (M. C. Z. 26064-6) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
& (U. S. N. M. 57718) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1907. 
9 (U. S. N. M. 119744) Finschhafen, A. N. G. (A. Keefe) 
9 (U. S. N. M. 121215) Sansapor, D. N. G. (G. M. Kohls) 1943. 



loveridge: new gutnean amphibians 403 

Vomerine teeth (absent or only indicated in 22 mm. juveniles) be- 
tween the choanae; head as long as, or slightly longer than, broad; 
snout once and a half to twice (M. C. Z. 2678, 12148, 25868, 25871) 
as long as the eye; interorbital space once and a quarter to once and 
three-quarter times as broad as an upper eyelid; tympanum (absent 
on right side of M. C. Z. 12143) two-thirds to ten-elevenths the eye 
diameter; outer finger half (young) to two-thirds (adults) webbed; 
heel reaches eye or beyond end of snout. Largest c? & (M. C. Z. 
26064-6) measure 100 mm., 9 (M. C. Z. 26057), 130 mm., smallest 
frog (M. C. Z. 26062) 21 mm. 

H. spengleri was based on an exceptionally large 115 mm. frog which 
differed from most infrafrenata in having a tympanum "as large as the 
eye," instead of the normal two-thirds to four-fifths. In seven frogs 
listed above with snout to anus lengths ranging from 34 to 115 mm. 
in length the tympanum eye relationship in millimetres is 3/, 3/45, 
3/5, 3.5/5, 4/5, 5/7:5, 6/9, 10/11. This seems to indicate that with 
growth there is a tendency for the tympanum to increase in size more 
rapidly than the eye. As Kinghorn (1928, p. 289) once suggested 
might happen, H. spengleri must be regarded as a synonym of infra- 
frenata. 

The color in life, or rather 45 minutes after death, of a 118 mm. 
9 (M. C. Z. 26059) from Toem, was recorded by the collector. "Above, 
bright green; labial margin, palate, tongue, and tympanum, lavender, 
the tympanum with a bar of green above; iris metallic reddish brown, 
pupil a horizontal slit; anal region light green; groins lavender; femora 
anteriorly and posteriorly green tinged with lavender; anterior edge of 
tibia narrowly tinged with reddish brown; anterior side of talus 
lavender extending on to first three toes and all webs; two outer toes 
green, lavender, and reddish brown; two outer webs striped mesially 
with green suffused with reddish brown; top of tarsus green followed 
by a narrow stripe of pale whitish lavender; rear and under side of 
tarsus dull lavender. 

"Below, lower jaw edged with cream and lavender; throat and chin 
bright yellowish green; chest pale yellowish green; belly whitish tinged 
with lavender; forelimbs dull white; palms pale lavender; tibia mesially 
dirty white, dirty gray towards sides; femur pale greenish gray suf- 
fused with lavender; soles lavender." (W. H. Stickel). 

This 9 was taken in a foxhole at Toem, a second one as large was 
captured at night (2.ix.44) on the ground in a coconut grove; several 
very young examples in camp (4.x) or in a puddle in the grove (viii), 
on a young banana plant (i.ix), on a leaf in thicket (25.ix), while the 
only adult c? was caught when singing on the side of a tent (27. ix). 



404 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Hyla infrafrenata militaria (Ramsay) 

Pelodryas militarius Ramsay, 1878, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 2, p. 28: 

New Ireland, New Britain Archipelago. 
Hyla dolichopsis var. pollicaris Werner, 1898, Zool. Anz., 21, pp. 554, 556: 

Ralum, New Britain Archipelago. 

9 (M. C. Z. 3580) New Britain (Australian Mus.) 1914. 

Vomerine teeth between the choanae, head shorter than broad; 
snout once and a half times as long as the eye; interorbital space 
nearly twice as broad as an upper eyelid; tympanum half the eye 
diameter; outer finger two-thirds webbed; heel reaches beyond end 
of snout. Length of 9 , 125 mm. 

As this frog apparently differs from infrafrenata only in its possession 
of a strongly projecting rudiment of pollex, it seems reasonable to 
regard it as the representative of that species in the New Britain 
Archipelago. 

Hyla caerulea (Shaw) 

Rana caerulea Shaw, 1790, in White, Journ. Voy. N. S. Wales, App., p. 248, 

pi. -: New South Wales (presumed, not stated). 
Hyla irrorata de Vis, 1884, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland, 1, p. 128: Gympie, 

Queensland. 
Hyla gilleni Spencer, 1896, in Rep. Horn Sci. Exped., 2, p. 173, pi. xv, figs. 

14-17: Alice Springs, Central Australia. 

8 (M. C. Z. 12151-7; U. S. N. M. 75985) Merauke, D. N. G. 
(P. T. L. Putnam) 1927. 

Vomerine teeth between the posterior borders of the choanae; head 
shorter than broad; snout once and a quarter to once and a half as 
long as the eye; interorbital space once to once and a half times as 
broad as an upper eyelid; tympanum two-thirds to four-fifths the eye 
diameter; outer finger half-webbed; heel reaches tympanum or eye. 
Largest 9 (M. C. Z. 12151), 86 mm., smallest frog (M. C. Z. 12152), 
55 mm. 

Though the Museum of Comparative Zoology has so little New 
Guinean material of caerulea, the species is represented in the collec- 
tions by topotypes and frogs from ten Australian localities. From the 
brief description of the young frog that Macleay named Litoria 
guttata, long synonymized with infrafrenata, it seems just possible 
that the species was based on a young caerulea? Whether all the very 
young frogs from /Vitape and Toem referred to infrafrenata (p.402) 



loveridge: new guinean amphibians 405 

are really that species and not caerulea has been carefully considered 
but cannot be said to be beyond question. 

Hyla congenita Peters & Doria 

Hyla (Litoria) congenita Peters & Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 
Genova, 13, p. 247, pi. vi, figs. 4-5: Yule Island, British New Guinea. 

9 (M. C. Z. 11650) Upuli, B. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1925. 

Vomerine teeth behind the level of the posterior borders of the 
choanae; head as long as broad; snout once and a quarter times as 
long as the eye; interorbital space once and a quarter times as broad 
as an upper eyelid; tympanum half the eye diameter; outer finger 
half-webbed; heel reaches eye. Length of gravid 9 , 35 mm. 

Hyla becki Loveridge  

Hyla becki Loveridge, 1945, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 58, p. 55: Mount 
Wilhelm, Bismarck Range, Madang Division, Australian New Guinea. 

Type c? + 39 (M. C. Z. 25900-9) Mt. Wilhelm, A. N. G. 
(P. J. Darlington) 1944. 

Vomerine teeth between the posterior borders of the choanae; head 
as long as, or slightly longer than, broad; snout once and a half times 
as long as the eye; interorbital space once and a third times as broad 
as an upper eyelid; tympanum about half the eye diameter; outer 
finger without web; heel reaches eye or well beyond end of snout. 
Length of type cf (M. C. Z. 25900) 38 mm. 

//. vagabunda Peters & Doria appears to be the nearest relative of 
H. becki. 

Nyctimystes papua (Boulenger) 

Nyctimantis papua Boulenger, 1897, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 19, p. 12, pi. i, 
fig. 5: Mount Victoria, Owen Stanley Mountains, British New Guinea. 

Cotype 9 (M. C. Z. 12838) Mt. Victoria, B. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1927. 
5 c? cf (M. C. Z. 21816-20) Mondo, B. N. G. (L. E. Cheesman) 1934. 

Vomerine teeth between the choanae; head as long as, or slightly 
shorter than, broad; snout once and a quarter times as long as the ey6; 
interorbital space as broad as an upper eyelid; tympanum one-third 
to half the eye diameter even in the male series; outer finger one-third 



406 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

(cfcf) to half-webbed (9); heel reaches end of snout or beyond. 
Length of largest cT (M. C. Z. 21820), 51 mm., of gravid 9 , 55 mm. 

Parker (1936, p. 77, fig. 78) discusses the Mondo series and his 
figure depicts the degree of webbing of the outer finger which I should 
call a third-webbed, attributing its contraction to preservation in too 
strong alcohol. In the 9 cotype the webbing is clearly half, which 
would place it as semipalmata sp. n. in Parker's synopsis (p. 77), but 
it lacks the large lappet on the heel possessed by semipalmata. It will 
be noted also that I do not find the snout of papua as long as the eye. 

Nyctimystes milneana Loveridge 

Nyctimystes milneana Loveridge, 1945, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 58, p. 57: 
Milne Bay, Eastern Division, British New Guinea. 

Type 9 (M. C. Z. 11652) Milne Bay, B. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1925. 

Vomerine teeth between the choanae; head slightly longer than 
broad; snout once and a half times as long as the eye; interorbital 
space narrower than an upper eyelid; tympanum two-thirds the eye 
diameter; outer finger half- webbed; heel reaches halfway between eye 
and end of snout. Length of gravid 9 , 48 mm. 

Nyctimystes Montana Parker 

Nyctimystes montana Parker, 1936, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10), 17, p. 80, fig. 4: 
Mondo, 5,000 ft., British New Guinea. 

Paratype <? d" J 1 (M. C. Z. 21327-9) Mondo, B. N. G. (L. E. 
Cheesman) 1934. 

Vomerine teeth between the choanae; head slightly longer than 
broad; snout once and a half times as long as the eye; interorbital 
space once and a quarter times as broad as an upper eyelid; tympanum 
half the eye diameter; outer finger half-webbed; heel reaches nostril 
or beyond end of snout. Length of largest cf, 45 mm. 

RANIDAE 

[Platymantis corrugatus corrugatus (A. Dumeril)] 

Hylodes corrugatus A. Dumeril, 1853, Ann. Sci. Nat. (3), 19, p. 176: "Java." 
Platymantis plicifera Giinther, 1858, Cat. Batr. Sal. Brit. Mus., p. 95, pi. viii, 

fig. B: Philippines. 
Rana rugata van Kampen, 1923, Amphibia Indo-Australian Archipelago, 

pp. 162, 190: nom. nov. for corrugata A. Dum., preoc. in Rana. 



loveridge: new guinean amphibians 407 

As Dumcril in his description of corrugatus mentions this frog's 
large head it seems reasonable to assume that it came from the Philip- 
pines rather than the New Guinea region. Frogs from these two in- 
sular groups are undoubtedly subspecifically distinct, whether Platy- 
mantis plicifera pelewensis Peters, 1867, from the Pelew Islands, is a 
recognizable race, scarcely concerns us here. 

Nor have I gone into the question whether Platymantis should be 
accorded only subgeneric status within the genus Rana as suggested 
by Van Kampen, a disposition with much in its favor. The large 
series of Philippine corrugatus in the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
do, however, clearly differ from our New Guinea material in possessing 
a 

Head broader than, occasionally only as broad as, long; heel of 
adpressed hindlimb usually reaches well beyond end of snout 
through sometimes only to the loreal region; range: Philippine 

Islands P. c. corrugatus 

Head narrower than, occasionally as broad as, long; heel of ad- 
pressed hind limb reaches the eye (38%), loreal region (53%), 
rarely even to end of snout (9%); range: Molucca Islands and 

New Guinea P. c. papuensis 

Whether I am correct in applying papuensis Meyer, the earliest 
name available from this region, to the common coastal form of New 
Guinea must remain uncertain. 



Platymantis corrugatus papuensis Meyer 

Platymantis corrugatus var. papuensis Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. 

Berlin, p. 139: "Mysore" = Biak Island, Dutch New Guinea. 
Comufer moszkowskii Vogt, 1912, Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, p. 358: 

Interior of Dutch New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 2687) Ansoes Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1906. 

1 (M. C. Z. 9375) New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 

4 (M. C. Z. 12959-62) Matapau, A. N. G. (E. A. Briggs) 1925. 
6 (M. C. Z. 26030-5) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
26 (M. C. Z. 26071-9) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

2 (M. C. Z. 26080-1) Liki Id., D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
2 (M. C. Z. 26082-3) Gusiko, A. N. G. (D. Crocker) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 119174) Milne Bay, B. N. G. (J. F. Cassel) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 119175) Gusiko, A. N. G. (J. F. Cassel) 1944. 

2 (U. S. N. M. 119197-8) Gusiko, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 
16 (U. S. N. M. 119209-24) Toem, A. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. * 

1 (U. S. N. M. 119530) Gamadodo, B. N. G. (G. H. Penn) 1944. 



408 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Tongue without, or with indistinct, papilla, except M. C. Z. 9375 
and 12961 ; interorbital space as broad as, or narrower than, rarely 
broader than (for e.g. U. S. N. M. 119223) an upper eyelid; first 
finger extending beyond second; subarticular tubercles strongly 
developed; outer metatarsals united; tips of toes slightly, or well 
(M. ('. Z. 260S0-1) dilated. For variation in breadth of head and 
limb length see preceding key where the percentages refer to the 42 
frogs from Toem only. 

In life this Toem series evidently displayed considerable color 
variation, now somewhat obscured by formalin preservation. Of one 
deviscerated individual (No. 264, taken 23.vii.44) Stickel records: 
Above, gray; lips barred gray and cream. Below, light; yellowish 
patch at groin; postero-ventral surface of femur pale reddish orange; 
beneath tibia a bare trace of orange. This frog was 37 mm. ; another 
of 30 mm. (No. 265, taken 23.vii.44) was: Above, mottled gray and 
tan; lips gray and cream; flanks yellowish tan. Below, belly faint 
yellowish; femur and tibia rosy. Femur and tibia of one gravid 9 
(M. C. Z. 26072, taken 21.vii.44) were suffused with reddish below, but 
other frogs ranged from reddish orange to yellow, even in a young one 
of 19 mm. (No. 240, taken 30.vi.44). In formalin most of the Toem 
frogs are uniform white below, the throat and chest of one cf is uni- 
form dark gray, those of a dozen other frogs are more or less heavily 
mottled with brown. 

Half-a-dozen of the Toem series display pale brown dorso-lateral 
lines corresponding to the striking color variants which occur* in 
every large series and on which I believe the 56 mm. Cornufer moszkow- 
skii Vogt was based. One of the Aitape series (M. C.Z. 26031) corre- 
sponds closely to the color description of moszJcowskii, which may be 
translated as: Above, dark; snout to eyes light colored; back with a 
pair of reddish white dorsolateral streaks; lips spotted; limbs in- 
distinctly barred. Below, yellow; chin and throat speckled with 
darker. Another frog (U. S. N. M. 119198) differs only in having the 
chin and throat white and unspotted. 

The entire description of papuensis might be translated as follows: 
"Much more slender than the typical form and cherry red on top." It 
may be, therefore, that the name papuensis is not applicable to our 
series of gray frogs from localities along the north coast of Guinea all 
the way from Ansoes Island to Gamadodo, Milne Bay. In that event 
moszkowskii would be available and rvhrostriatus might become a 
synonym of papuensis as their type localities are nearest. 

I can find no characters on which to separate the Liki Island frogs 



loveridge: new guinean amphibians 409 

though the 9 (M. C. Z. 26081), 65 mm. in length, is so much larger 
than (with the exception of M. C. Z. 9375, which is 60 mm.) the 
numerous gravid females (M. C. Z. 26031; U. S. N. M. 119213 for 
e.g.) which do not exceed 45 mm. The 13 mm. Ansoes Island frog is 
too small and dried for taxonomic studies. 

Stickel remarks that these ground frogs are the "toads" of New 
Guinea, being found at times far from permanent water under trash 
in dry, partly cleared jungle; in open dry country; and in abandoned 
foxholes. 

Platymantis corrugatus rtjbrostriatus (Barbour) 

Cornujer corrugatus rubrostriatus Barbour, 1908, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
21, p. 190: Roon Island, Geelvink Bay, Dutch New Guinea. 

2 (M. C. Z. 2441) Roon Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1906. 

At the time this race was described its author was apparently 
unaware of P. c. papuensis Meyer from "Mysore" i.e. Biak Island, 
about 110 miles northeast of Roon Island but almost in the same 
latitude. As the brief description of papuensis (see above) makes no 
mention of the vertebral stripe which characterizes the Roon cotypes 
we must assume it was absent as is the case with 62 of the frogs 
referred to papuensis in this paper. The solitary exception is U. S. 
N. M. 119197 which, however, has light dorso-lateral stripes also and 
does not appear separable from the other four frogs from Gusiko. 
That this difference between the frogs of Roon Island and the main 
island should exist is the more surprising as Roon (Ron or Run) Island 
is so close to the western tip of Geelvink Bay. 

None of the four structural characters mentioned by Barbour sepa- 
rate rubrostriatus from the mainland specimens (of which there were 
no examples in the Museum of Comparative Zoology when he wrote), 
but the shorter limb length of his cotypes (the adpressed heel reaches 
to the eye in one frog, to the loreal region in the other) serves to 
differentiate one from typical corrugatus of the Philippines. 

Platymantis cheesmanae Parker 

Platymantis cheesmanae Parker, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11), 5, p. 257: 
Cyclops (= Cijcloop) Mountains, 3,000-4,000 feet, Dutch New Guinea. 

Paratype (M. C. Z. 26501) Cyclops Mtns., D. N. G. (L. E. Cheesman) 
1947. 



410 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

This 23 mm. adult of a dwarf species whose gravid females measure 
only 27 mm., is adequately covered by Parker's full description of the 
type series. 

Platymantis beauforti (van Kampen) 

Comufcr beauforti van Kampen, 1913, Bijdr. t. d. Dierk., Pt. 19, p. 91: Bajon 
and Majalibit Bay, "Waigeu" i.e. Waigeo Island, Dutch New Guinea. 

Cotype 9 (M. C. Z. 10774) Majalibit Bay, D. N. G. (Amsterdam 
Mus.) 1925. 

Tongue with papilla; head as broad as long; interorbital space as 
broad as an upper eyelid; first finger extending beyond the second; 
subarticular tubercles strongly developed; outer metatarsals united; 
tips of fingers and toes slightly dilated. Length of 9 , 60 mm. 

As this species attains a length of 78 mm., and its dorsum is strikingly 
smooth in marked contrast to the local races of corrugatus, there seems 
little question of its specific distinctness. The sole character used to 
separate them by van Kampen (1923, p. 102) is that of the lingual 
papilla, of rather dubious value. On the strength of it, and size, I was 
at first inclined to regard the 60 mm. M. C. Z. 9375 as beauforti but 
rejected it on account of the presence of dorsal rugosities. 

Platymantis boulengeri (Boettger) 

Cornufer boulengeri Boettger, 1892, Kat. Batr. Mus. Senckenberg. Naturf. 
Ges. F. am M., p. 18: New Britain. 

9 (M. C. Z. 1729) New Britain (Godeffroy Mus.) 1880. 
9 (M. C. Z. 9372) New Britain (Berlin Mus.) 1892. 

Tongue with cavity in place of papilla; interorbital space 1^ to \% 
times as broad as an upper eyelid; head much broader than long; first 
finger extending beyond the second; subarticular tubercles strongly 
developed; outer metatarsals united; tips of fingers and toes slightly 
dilated. Length of both gravid 9 9 circa 70 mm. Nematode worms 
in M. C. Z. 1729. 

Rana daemeli (Steindachner) 

Hylorana Daemeli Steindachner, 1868, Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 57, p. 532, 

pi. C: Cape York, Queensland. 
Hylarana nebulosa Macleay, 1877, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 2, p. 135: 

Cape York, Queensland. 
Hyla nobilis De Vis, 1884, Proc. Royal Soc. Queensland, 1, p. 129: Cape 

York, Queensland. 



loveridge: new guinean amphibians 411 

cf (M. C. Z. 9376) New Britain (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 
& (M. C. Z. 9381) New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 
2 juv. (M. C. Z. 10761-2) Sabang, D. N. G. (Amsterdam Mus.) 1925. 

2 hgr. (M. C. Z. 12965-6) Madang, A. N. G. (E. A. Briggs) 1925.  
cf, hgr. (M. C. Z. 25873-4) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

9 (M. C. Z. 26218) Hollandia, D. N. G. (C. W. Moren) 1946. 
5 juv. (M. C. Z. 26069-70) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

3 juv. (U. S. N. M. 119225-7) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Adult males (M. C. Z. 9376, 9381, 25S73) with internal vocal sacs 
and a humeral gland (obvious only in M. C. Z. 25873) ; distance be- 
tween the thickened dorso-lateral glandular folds immediately behind 
the eyes equals the distance from the nostril to the posterior border 
of the eye; tympanum 75 to % the diameter of the eye from which it 
is separated by a distance equal to about half its own diameter; heel 
reaches the eye (Sabang; Madang; Aitape; Hollandia; 2 Toem), be- 
tween eye and nostril (Sabang; Aitape; 3 Toem), nostril (Toem), or 
end of snout (New Britain; Madang; 2 Toem) ; tibia included in length 
of head and body 1.8 to 2.5 times; toes fully webbed (at least on one 
side) except the fourth which has the last two joints free or the pe- 
nultimate phalange fringed with web. 

Back gray-brown, pale brown, or reddish brown, with a character- 
istic double series of dark spots, at least on the hinder half, and often 
corresponding to raised warts. Below, white, but throat and breast 
in one male (M. C. Z. 25873) with dusky mottling, and one juvenile 
(M. C. Z. 10761) flecked with brown over the entire undersurface. 
Largest & (M. C. Z. 9376), 70 mm., largest 9 (M. C. Z. 26218) 82 mm. 

The Museum of Comparative Zoology has no Australian material 
of daemeli which I (1935, p. 54) erroneously referred to the synonymy 
of papua with w T hich it has repeatedly been confused. Indeed, Rana 
florensis Boulenger, of which we have specimens collected by Dunn, 
was made a subspecies of papua by Mertens (1927, p. 242) to which 
he later (1930, p. 225) referred Dunn's (1928, p. 6) frogs, is in reality 
a subspecies of daemeli and apparently cannot be regarded as a sub- 
species of papua. Attention is directed to the variation in limb length 
as exemplified by the Toem series, making this character of little use 
in keys though the hind leg of daemeli definitely averages shorter than 
that of papua 

The Toem series (M. C. Z. 26069-70) were all taken in jungle — 
one in a deserted foxhole, another in a foxhole after a night of rain, 
a third in a temporary pool, and a fourth in Casuarina forest near the 
mouth of the Tor River. 



412 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Rana papua papua Lesson 

Rana papua Lesson, 1830, Zool. in Duperry, Voyage autour du Monde . . . 
• sur ... La Coquille, 2, p. 59, pi. vii, fig. 1: "Waigou" = Waigeo Island, 

Dutch New Guinea. 
Rana fallax van Kampen, 1913, Nova Guinea, 9, p. 458: "Waigeu" = Waigeo 

Island, Dutch New Guinea. 

<? 9 (M. C. Z. 2703) Pom, Jobi Id., D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1906. 
4 hgr. (M. C. Z. 2704) Sorong, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1906. 

J> (M. C. Z. 2706) Manokwari, D. N. G. (T. Barbour) 1906. 
2 9 9 (M. C. Z. 9379-80) New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 
hgr. (U. S. N. M. 57672) New Guinea (J. Hurter) 1913. 

Adult males (M. C. Z. 2703, 2706) with external vocal sacs and 
humeral glands; distance between the narrow dorso-lateral glandular 
folds immediately behind the eyes equal to, or rather more than, the 
distance from the nostril to the posterior border of the eye; tympanum 
7 5 to % the diameter of the eye from which it is separated by a distance 
equal to about half its own diameter; heel reaches to nostril (M. C. Z. 
2703; 9379), end of snout (M. C. Z. 2704; 9380), or beyond (M. C. Z. 
9380; U. S. N. M. 57672); tibia included in length of head and body 
1.5 to 1.9 times; toes fully webbed except the fourth which has the 
last joint narrowly fringed. 

Back brown, uniform or occasionally with a few scattered spots and 
raised warts of darker hue. Below, throat and chest white more or 
less distinctly marbled with brown leaving large white spots in adults 
(M. C. Z. 2703 9 ; 9379 9 ), the marblings sometimes extending to 
the belly (M. C. Z. 2704 — 2 ex.). In this connection Lesson's de- 
scription reads: "Elle est blanche sous le cou, le thorax et le ventre." 
Largest & (M. C, Z. 2706) 62 mm.; largest 9 (M. C. Z. 2703) 72 mm. 



Rana papua novaebritanniae Werner 

Rana novae-britanniae Werner, 1894, Zool. Anz., 17, p. 155: New Britain. 

& (M. C. Z. 1730) New Britain Archipelago (Mus. Godeffroy) N. D. 

Adult male with external vocal sacs and humeral glands; distance 
between the narrow dorso-lateral glandular folds immediately behind 
the eyes considerably more than the distance from the nostril to the 
posterior border of the eye; tympanum 7/9 the diameter of the eye 
from which it is separated by a distance about half its own diameter; 
heel reaches the eye; tibia included in length of head and body 2.2 



loveridge: new guinean amphibians 413 

times; toes fully webbed except the fourth which has the last joint 
narrowly fringed. 

Back pale brown, uniform; throat, chest, and belly uniform white. 
Length of cf , 76 mm. 

Our specimen, like Roux's (1918, p. 411) was received as Hyla 
nigrofrenata Giinther, a species described from Cape York, Queensland. 
Boulenger (1918, p. 241) had placed novaebritanniae, with a query, in 
the synonymy of krefftii Boulenger (1882, p. 64), and Roux (1918, 
p. 411) confirmed this disposition. He was followed by Boulenger 
(1920, p. 1S6) and van Kampen (1923, p. 206). Actually the white- 
bellied Rana novaebritanniae is perfectly distinct from the mottled- 
bellied kreffti, and its uniformly white underside appears to separate 
it also from R. p. papua Lesson. 



Rana grisea grisea van Kampen 

Rana grisea van Kampen, 1913, Nova Guinea, 9, p. 460, pi. xi, fig. 3: Went 
Mountains, 1,300 metres, Dutch New Guinea. 

<? (M. C. Z. 23292) Mt. Misim, A. N. G. (H. Stevens) 1933. 
2 juv. (M. C. Z. 25875-6) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 
2 9 9.2 juv. (M. C. Z. 25877-9) Kundiawa, A. N. G. (P. J. Darlington) 
1944. 

Distance between the narrow dorso-lateral glandular folds imme- 
diately behind the eyes equals the distance from the nostril to the 
anterior border of the tympanum; tympanum x /i to % the diameter of 
the eye from which it is separated by a distance equal to rather more 
than half its own diameter; heel reaches the eye (M. C. Z. 25875), 
between eye and nostril (M. C. Z. 25876-7), end of snout (M. C. Z. 
25879), or well beyond (M. C. Z. 25878); tibia included in length of 
head and body 1.6 to 1.75 times (Kundiawa) or 1.75 to 2 times 
(Aitape); toes fully webbed except the fourth which has the last joint 
narrowly or broadly fringed. 

Back brown, uniform; throat and chest white heavily infuscated but 
leaving some white vermiculations showing on the chest which carries 
the pair of dark blotches common to many members of this group. 
Larger 9 (M. C. Z. 25877), 96 mm. Length of c? (M. C. Z. 23292) 
78 mm. 

These New Guinea frogs are specifically identical with the Queens- 
land material that I (1935, p. 54) erroneously referred to R. p. papua 
Lesson. One of them (M. C. Z. 18146) was a male with internal vocal 



414 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

sacs and no sign of a humeral gland. In this connection it may be 
noted that van Kampen (1923, p. 208) says grisea has "large external 
vocal sacs and a humeral gland." As, however, his 1913 description of 
grisea was based on an 85 mm. 9 , this additional information was 
probably taken from Boulenger (1920, p. 186). But Parker (1936, 
p. 68) states that the three male frogs Boulenger (1920, p. 186) re- 
ferred to grisea were actually papua, and that many of his "papua" 
were really grisea, hence my misidentification. By defining the 
differences between papua and grisea Parker has greatly clarified the 
situation. My material entirely agrees with his synopsis except in the 
four words italicized above. Parker's key calls for females with a 
tympanum separated from the eye "by a distance nearly equal to its 
own horizontal diameter" whereas in our series there is no material 
difference from papua in this respect. 

Rana grisea milneana subsp. nov. 

Type. United States National Museum No. 119173, a gravid 9 
from the Kwatto Branch Mission, 50 feet, Milne Bay, British New 
Guinea. Collected by Joseph F. Cassell. 

Diagnosis. Differs from Rana grisea van Kampen (which was 
described as having only a narrow fringe of web on the terminal 
phalange of the fourth toe, as is the case with our series of grisea) in 
(1) the more extensive webbing of the fourth toe on which it extends 
quite broadly to the disk, especially on the outer side; (2) the tym- 
panum being separated from the eye by a distance equal only to a 
third of the tympanic diameter; (3) first finger extending well beyond 
second; (4) the smaller size, being gravid at 80 mm., instead of 96 mm. 

Description. Vomerine teeth in two oblique series between, but 
extending backwards behind the level of, the choanae; head longer 
than broad; snout pointed, projecting; nostril nearer end of snout than 
orbit, the distance from nostril to orbit being as long as the orbit; 
canthus rostralis strong; loreal region concave; interorbital space 
much narrower than an upper eyelid; distance between the dorso- 
lateral folds behind the eyes equal to the distance from nostril to 
tympanum; tympanum seven-tenths that of orbit from which it is 
separated by a distance equal to one third its own diameter. 

Disks of fingers and toes small, first finger extending well beyond 
second, which is shorter than the fourth; fifth toe longer than the 
third, toes, including the fourth, webbed to disks; outer metatarsals 
separated to their base by web; subarticular tubercles well developed; 



loveridge: new guinean amphibians 415 

a distinct, elliptic, inner, and a low, round, outer, metatarsal tubercle; 
no tarsal fold; the tibio-tarsal articulation of the adpressed hind limb 
reaches the snout; tibia 1.6 times in length of head and body. Skin 
above, smooth and without warts, a narrow dorso-lateral fold. 

Color in alcohol after formalin . Above, purplish plumbeous, uniform 
on head and back; loreal, tympanum, and temporal region dark brown; 
some irregular, light-edged, black marks in groin; about a dozen dark 
crossbars on each hind limb. Below, buccal border mottled with 
darker and lighter; throat and forearm white, uniform except for a 
pair of streaks (common to members of this formenkreis) on the chest, 
a few flecks about base of forearms and a dark streak on the anterior 
base of each forearm; belly and thighs yellowish, uniform. 

Size. Length of head and body of adult 9 , 80 mm. 

Rana arfaki Meyer 

Rana Arfaki Meyer, 1874, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 138: Arfak 

Mountains, Dutch New Guinea. 
Rana macroscelis Boulenger, 1888, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 1, p. 345: "Sogere" 

i.e. Sogeri Camp, 1,750 feet, British New Guinea. 

? 9 (M. C. Z. 9371) New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 
9 (M. C. Z. 11637) Haveri, B. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1925. 

Head as broad as long; tympanum Yi to 3 / 5 the diameter of the eye 
from which it is separated by a distance about equal to its own 
diameter; no dorso-lateral glandular folds; first finger extending 
beyond second; dilations of fingers and toes with a lateral crescentic 
groove; tibia included in length of head and body 1.6 to 1.8 times; 
toes fully webbed to disks. Sides of head not darker than upper sur- 
face. Larger 9 (M. C. Z. 11637), 150 mm.; type was 115 mm., cotype 
of macroscelis 140 mm. 

The first specimen was received from Berlin as arfaki, the second 
from the British Museum as macroscelis. Parker (1935, p. 71) who 
may have seen the type of waigeensis, has expressed doubts regarding 
its usual disposition as a strict synonym of arfaki, noting a relatively 
smaller tympanum in van Kampen's species. However, the descrip- 
tion of the 36 mm. type agrees well with our 150 mm. female except 
that in the latter (a) the lower jaw is denticulated; (b) the snout is 
longer than the orbit; (c) the terminal phalange of the fourth toe is 
webbed to the disk as in van Kampen's (1913, pi. xi, fig. 2) figure, 
which contradicts the description; (d) the heel extends beyond the end 
of the snout, instead of falling short of the end, a matter of little 
significance. 



416 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

BREVICIPITIDAE 

Genyophryne thomsoni Boulenger 

Genyophryne thomsoni Boulenger, 1890, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 327, pi. 
xxv, fig. 1: "Sudest Island," i.e. Tagula Island, British New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 11646) Albert Edward Mtns., B. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1925. 

Vomerine odontoids present ; two transverse palatal ridges, the pos- 
terior serrate; tongue notched and free behind. Length 33 mm. 
One of the series collected at 6,000 feet by Rohu.- 

Xenobatrachus rostratus (Mehely) 

Choanacanlha rostrata Mehely, 1898, Termes. Fiizetek, 21, p. 175, pi. xii: 
Erima, Astrolabe Bay, Australian New Guinea. 

1 (M. C Z. 9378) Australian New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 

A pair of high, conical, vomerine odontoids present; a single palatal 
ridge, strongly serrate; tongue entire, not noticeably free behind. 
Length 42 mm. 

Asterophrys rufescens (Macleay) 

Hylophorbas rufescens Macleay, 1878, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 2, p. 136: 

"Katow," = Binaturi River. British New Guinea. 
Mantophryne lateralis Boulenger, 1897, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 19, p. 12, 

pi. ii, fig. 3: Mount Victoria, Owen Stanley Mountains, British New 

Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 2894) Albert Edward Mtns., B. N. G. (Br't. Mus.) 1912. 
1 (U. S. N. M. 12465) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

No vomerine odontoids; two palatal ridges, the anterior curved, 
smooth, the posterior serrate; tongue entire, not noticeably free be- 
hind; a pair of mental tubercles; tympanum two-thirds the eye 
diameter; digital disks small. Length 40-42 mm. 

The color in life of the Toem frog is described by Stickel as : Above, 
a mixture of brown and clay, a black dorsolateral band, upper lip, 
hind arm and flanks clay, the lip and forearm banded with blackish 
brown; hind limbs light orange-yellow with orange-gold spots. Below 
white suffused with gray, especially anteriorly, and spotted with black; 
soles gray. 



loveridge: new guinean amphibians 417 

Asterophrys valvifera (Barbour) 

Pomatops valvifera Barbour, 1910, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 23, p. 89, pi. i: 
Fakfak, Dutch New Guinea. 

Type (M. C. Z. 2577) Fakfak, D. N. G. (A. E. Pratt) N. D. 

Two palatal ridges, the anterior curved, smooth, the posterior ser- 
rate; tongue entire, slightly free behind; no mental tubercles; tym- 
panum indistinct; digital disks small; chin and throat brown, spotted 
with white, only breast and belly immaculate. Length 32 mm. 

The frog from Mafulu, 4,000 feet, referred to this species by Parker 
(1936, p. 73) with some misgivings, actually appears to resemble the 
type in the coloring of the underside. 



Asterophrys robusta (Boulenger) 

Mantophryne robusta Boulenger, 1898, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 480, pi. 

xxxviii, fig. 4: "St. Aignan Island," = Misima Island, British New Guinea 
1 (M. C. Z. 9386) New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 

Two palatal ridges, the anterior curved, smooth, the posterior ser- 
rate; tongue feebly nicked, not noticeably free behind; no mental 
tubercles; tympanum distinct, slightly more than half the eye diam- 
eter; digital disks small; heel reaches nostril; chin and breast fuscous 
breaking up into spots on side of belly. Length 41 mm. 

Asterophrys pansa pansa (Fry) 

Aphantophryne pansa pansa Fry, 1917 (1916), Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 41, 
p. 772, pi. liv, and lv, fig. 2: Mount Scratchley, Owen Stanley Mountains, 
British New Guinea. 

Paratype (M. C. Z. 26223) Mt. Scratchley, B. N. G. (A. Guilianetti) 
1896. 

Snout rounded, scarcely prominent, slightly longer than the eye 
diameter; interorbital space twice as broad as an upper eyelid; tympa- 
num slightly distinct, about two-thirds the eye diameter; third toe 
considerably longer than the fifth. Length 22 mm. 

When attempting to determine the generic status of the frogs 
described below, I observed that the pre-pharyngeal palatal ridges 
were curved in the reverse direction to that figured by Fry (1917, pi. 
liv, fig. lb) for his genus Aphantophryne. Nor was the anterior ridge 



418 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

serrated to anything like the extent shown, being almost smooth, 
while on the second ridge the serrations were even more sharply de- 
fined. Fry also shows (figs, lc-ld) the terminal phalange of the fourth 
toe as pronouncedly T-shaped, whereas it is only club-shaped as might 
be anticipated in a frog whose habitus suggests terrestrial habits. 

However, feeling sure that our frogs represented the same species, I 
wrote to Mr. J. Roy Kinghorn at the Australian Museum for further 
information. He agreed with me that Fry was at fault in drawing the 
palatal ridges with forward-directed curves, instead of backward; and 
stated that the terminal phalanges depicted as T-shaped should be 
club-shaped or nodular. He kindly sent me the paratype listed above 
which I have not dissected. 

I communicated these findings to Mr. H. W. Parker and he pointed 
out that there were now no grounds for maintaining Aphantophryne 
as distinct from Asterophrys, furthermore the two Mount Wilhem 
specimens submitted (and now in the British Museum) agreed very 
closely with the description of Asterophrys minima Parker of which the 
only known examples are in the Amsterdam Museum. Mr. Parker 
suggested sending the recently acquired British Museum paratype of 
pansa to Dr. L. D. Brongersma for comparison with the types of minima 
and later forwarded Dr. Brongersma's views on their status, which 
were as follows. 

"As far as I can judge the two species are distinct. I find the follow- 
ing differences: In pansa the snout is about equal to the diameter of 
the orbit, while in minima it is distinctly longer. The snout of minima 
is more pointed and more prominent. The canthus rostralis in pansa 
is more marked, the loreal region being more vertical. In minima the 
canthus rostralis is more rounded, the loreal region much more ob- 
lique. In pansa the interorbital breadth is greater; this difference is 
somewhat difficult to express in words, as in minima there is some dif- 
ference between the type and the paratype. In the the type of minima 
the upper eyelid is broader than the interorbital space, in the somewhat 
shrunken paratype the upper eyelid is slightly narrower than the in- 
terorbital space. Placing the specimens side by side, I find that the 
interorbital space in pansa makes the impression of being much broader 
relatively. The anterior palatal ridge seems to be much more developed 
in pansa than in minima. There may be a slight difference in the shape 
of the coracoids too. The anterior border of the coracoid in pansa 
shows a more marked forward curve near its medial border than in 
minima.'' 

Some of the above differences are shown to be within the range of a 
subspecies by the long series of frogs from Mount VYilhelm described 



loveridge: new guinean amphibians 419 

below, in view of this I prefer to regard minima as a third montane 
race. 

ASTEROPHRYS PANSA WILHELMANA subsp. nov. 

Type. Museum of Comparative Zoology, No. 25910, a gravid 9 
from Mount Wilhelm, 8,000 feet, Bismarck Range, Madang Division, 
Australian New Guinea, collected by Captain P. J. Darlington, Jr., 
October, 1944. 

Paratypes. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Nos. 25911-9, the 
last of which is now in the Australian Museum, and two uncatalogued 
specimens in the British Museum, all with the same data as the type. 

Diagnosis. Differs from the typical form and A. p. minima in the 
snout being truncate at tip; from pansa in the much narrower interor- 
bital space, and from minima, of which the type female was adult at 
27 mm., in being double the size. The type of p. pansa was also 27 mm. 
but Fry did not state if it is adult. 

Description. Snout truncate at tip, (equal to or) slightly longer than 
the eye diameter; canthus rostralis rounded; loreal region slightly ob- 
lique, concave; interorbital space as broad as, or narrower than, an up- 
per eyelid; tympanum distinct or indistinct, about three-fifths the eye 
diameter; fingers and toes without disks, first finger shorter than the 
second, which is slightly shorter than the fourth; toes short, the third 
considerably longer than the fifth; subarticular tubercles not devel- 
oped, a very weak inner, but no outer, metatarsal tubercle; tibio- 
tarsal articulation of the adpressed hind limb reaches the axilla or 
shou'der. 

Color in. life. Recorded by Dr. Darlington as "dark slate." Sub- 
stantially the same in alcohol; below, paler. 

Size. Type 9 (M. C. Z. 25910), 50 mm. Smallest paratype 
(M. C. Z. 25912), 11 mm. 

Habitat. Taken beneath logs in the forest at 8,000 feet (P. J. D.). 

ASTEROPHYS OXYCEPHALA (Schlegel) 

Bombinator oxycephalies Schlegel, 1858, Handl. Dierk., 2, p. 58, pi. iv, fig. 74: 

New Guinea. 
IXenorhina stresemanni Ahl, 1932, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17, p. 897: Jobi = 

Japen Island, Dutch New Guinea. 

9 (M. C. Z. 7610) Humboldt Bay, D. N. G. (P. N. van Kampen) 1921. 

A single palatal ridge, serrate; tongue entire, not free behind; no 
mental tubercles; tympanum indistinct, about equal to the eye diam- 



420 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

eter, which is half the length of the snout; digital disks small; heel 
reaches tympanum. Length 41 mm. 

Color in life violet gray above; throat, belly, and underside of thighs 
brick red, according to van Kampen who collected it in a spring brook 
on south shore of the Bay, 26. i. 1910. 

Metopostira ocellata Mehely 

Metopostira ocellata Mehely, 1901, Termes. Fiizetek., 24, pp. 190, 239, pis. 

vii, xii, fig. 1: Sattelberg, Australian New Guinea. 
Metopostira macra van Kampen, 1906, Nova Guinea, 5, p. 167, pi. vi, figs. 

1-2: "Am Moso und Tami," i.e. Mosso River, Australian New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7612) Humboldt Bay, D. N. G. (P. N. van Kampen) 1921. 

1 (M. C. Z. 9377) Australian New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 

1 (M. C. Z. 12958) Matapau, Wakip R., A. N. G. (E. A. Briggs) 1923. 

Two palatal ridges, the anterior curved, smooth, the posterior 
serrate; tongue entire, not or scarcely free behind; snout shorter or 
slightly longer than the eye diameter; tympanum distinct or indistinct 
in adult, about three-quarters the eye diameter; digital disks of 
fingers small, of toes moderate. Length 32-37 mm. The Matapau 
frog was taken beneath a stone near running water, January, 1923. 

Baragenys cheesmanae Parker 

Baragenys cheesmanae Parker, 1936, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10), 17, p. 66, 
fig. 1: Mt. Tafa, 8,500 feet, British New Guinea. 

Paratype (M. C. Z. 19921) Mt. Tafa, B. N. G. (L. E. Cheesman) 1934. 

The genus Baragenys, of which cheesmanae is genotype, was erected 
by Parker (1936) to include Hylophorbus kopsteini Mertens and Xenor- 
hina atra Giinther, formerly assigned to Metopostira by Parker (1934). 

Sphenophryne cornuta Peters & Doria 

Sphenophryne cornuta Peters & Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 

13, p. 430, pi. vii, fig. 4: "flumen Wa Samson," = Wasemsan River, 

Dutch New Guinea. 
Chaperina ceratophthahnus van Kampen, 1909, Nova Guinea, 9, p. 43, pi. ii, 

fig. 8: "Noord Fluss" = Lorentz River, near Geitenkamp and Resi Peak, 

Dutch New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 7611) Kohari Mtns., D. N. G. (P. N. van Kampen) 1921. 



loveridge: new guinean amphibians 421 

Snout longer than eye; upper eyelid with spinelike tubercle; disks 
of fingers larger than those of toes; heel reaches tympanum. Length 
34 mm. Additional data is contained on the collector's label which 
reads "between Modder-lust and Kasawari," two localities I have 
failed to find. 



Sphenophryne -schlaginhaufeni Wandolleck 

Sphenophryne schlaginhaufeni Wandolleck, 1911, Abhand. Ber. Konig. Zool. 
Mus. Dresden, 13, No. 6, p. 5, figs. 10-17: Upper reaches of Rienjamur, 
650-700 metres, Torricelli Mountains, Australian New Guinea. 

Sphenophryne klossi Boulenger, 1914, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 20, p. 251, 
pi. xxvii, figs. 3-3b: Launch Camp, Setekwa River, Dutch New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 26219) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 124646) Toem, D. N. G. (W. H. Stickel) 1944. 

Snout longer than eye; canthus rostralis angular; upper eyelid 
normal; disks of fingers smaller than those of toes; heel reaches nostril 
(Aitape) or eye (Toem). Length 24-26 mm. The Toem frog is very 
nearly topotypic. 



Sphenophryne macrorhyncha (van Kampen) 

Chaperina macrorhyncha van Kampen, 1906, Nova Guinea, 5, p. 168, fig. 3: 

Manikion District, Dutch New Guinea. 
Chaperina basipalmata van Kampen, 1906, Nova Guinea, 5, p. 169, figs. 4-5: 

Tawarin and Timena River, Dutch New Guinea. 
Chaperina quatuorlobata Wandolleck, 1911, Abhand. Ber. Konig. Zool. Mus. 

Dresden, 13, No. 6, p. 9, figs. 34-36: Torricelli Mountains, Dutch New 

Guinea. 
Chaperina punctata van Kampen, 1913, Nova Guinea, 9, p. 643, pi. xi, fig. 7: 

Went Mountains, 800-1,050 metres, and Hellwig Mountains, 2,500 metres, 

Dutch New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 9383) New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 
Paratype (M. C. Z. 10773) Went, Mtns., D. N. G. (Amsterdam Mus.) 
1925. 

Snout as long as eye; canthus rostralis rounded; disk of third finger 
twice as broad as penultimate phalange, slightly larger than those of 
toes; heel reaches tympanum (M. C. Z. 9383) or eye. Length 25-31 
mm. The smaller frog, taken 11-12.X.09 by the Dutch New Guinea 
Expedition, is a paratype of C. punctata. 



422 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Sphenophryne brevicrus (van Kampen) 

Oxydadyla brevicrus van Kampen, 1913, Nova Guinea, 9, p. 465, pi. xi, fig. 8: 
Hellwig Mountains, 2,500 metres, and Wichman Mountains, 3,000 metres, 
Dutch New Guinea. 

19 (M. C. Z. 25920-9) Mt. Wilhelm, A. N. G. (P. J. Darlington) 1944. 

Except for the tympanum being two-thirds the eye diameter in 
adults, and the third toe being considerably (instead of "a little") 
longer than the fifth, these frogs agree reasonably well with Parker's 
(1934) description. Our largest are 3 mm. shorter than the type. 
Length of & (M. C. Z. 25925), 27 mm., of a spent 9 (M. C. Z. 25920) 
27 mm. 

The coloration is amazingly variable. Above, pinkish, heavily over- 
laid with purplish black, through every gradation to those with a 
mottled crown and almost uniform fawn colored back bordered by a 
black stripe extending from end of snout through nostril and eye to 
below groin. Besides a great variety of spotting and marbling, the 
young sometimes display a heavily black-edged, white, V-shaped mark 
whose apex is directed to the anus. Below, white, uniform or lightly 
speckled or heavily marbled with black so that the throat is very 
largely black. 

Found between 10,000 and 12,000 feet above timber line in shallow 
recesses under tussocks. One, together with 14 eggs, each about 5 mm. 
in diameter, was taken in moss under a tussock at 11,000 feet. A 
woodeny croaking call, presumably produced by this species, was 
heard as high as 13,000 feet (P. J. D.). 



Oreophryne anthonyi (Boulenger) 

Sphenophryne anthonyi Boulenger, 1897, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 19, p. 10, 
pi. ii, fig. 1: Mount Victoria, Owen Stanley Mountains, British New 
Guinea. 

Cotype (M. C. Z. 2896) Mt. Victoria, B. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1912. 

Snout slightly longer than the eye diameter; tympanum about half 
the eye diameter; disks of fingers about thrice as broad as the pe- 
nultimate phalanges, the third about three-quarters the eye diameter; 
toes webbed, the fifth longer than the third. Length 40 mm. 



loveridge: new guinean amphibians 423 

Oreophryne biroi (Mehely) 

Sphenophryne biroi Mehely, 1897, Termes. Fuzetek, 20, pp. 400, 411, pi. x, 
figs. 3-6: "Friederich-Wilhelmshaven" = Madang, Australian New- 
Guinea. 

Sphenophryne loriae Boulenger, 1898, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, (2), 
. 18, p. 707, pi. viii, fig. 3: Moroka, British New Guinea. 

^Sphenophryne mcrtcni Roux, 1910, Abhand. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges., 33, 
p. 227: Samang, Wokam, Aru Islands. 

Mchelyia lineata Wandolleck, 1911, Abhand. Ber. Konig. Zool. Mus. Dresden, 
13, No. 6, p. 7, figs. 18-26: "Sacksackhutte," Torricelli Mountains, 
Australian New Guinea. 

Mehelyia affinis Wandolleck, 1911, Abhand. Ber. Konig. Zool. Mus. Dresden, 
13, No. 6, p. 8, figs. 27-35: Torricelli Mountains, Australian New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 3498) Ferguson Id., B. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1914. 

5 (M. C. Z. 26220-2) Aitape, A. N. G. (W. M. Beck) 1944. 

1 (U. S. N. M. 113199) Gusiko, A. N. G. (J. M. Kern) 1944. 

Snout as long as the eye diameter; tympanum about one-third the 
eye ciameter; disks of fingers twice as broad as penultimate phalanges; 
toes webbed, the fifth longer than the third. Length cf (M. C. Z. 
26220) 21 mm., 9 (U. S. N. M. 113199) 24 mm. 



Cophixalus geislerorum Boettger 

Cophixalus geislerorum Boettger, 1892, Kat. Batr. Mus. Senckenberg. Naturf. 
Ges., p. 24: "Kaiserwilhelmsland," = Australian New Guinea. 

2 (M. C. Z. 12963-4) Matapau, A. N. G. (E. A. Briggs) 1923. 

Snout as long as the eye diameter; inner finger three-quarters the 
length of second, with a large disk; disks of fingers slightly larger than 
those of toes; toes slightly webbed at base, the third not extending as 
far as the fifth ; heel reaches the shoulder. Lengths 23-28 mm. Taken 
near running water in Sago Palm Forest. 



Cophixalus biroi darlingtoni subsp. nov. 

Type. Museum of Comparative Zoology, No. 25930, a gravid 9 
from Toromanbanau, 7,5C0 feet, Bismarck Range, Madang Division, 
Australian New Guinea, collected by Captain P. J. Darlington, Jr., 
October, 1944. 



424 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Paratypcs. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Nos. 25931-9, and 
forty others of which a pair are now in the Australian Museum and 
a pair in the British Museum. 

Diagnosis. Agrees with Parker's redescription of the typical form 
from Sattelberg in most respects, but differs in the third toe being 
slightly shorter (not "much longer") than the fifth (all fifty frogs the 
same); in the tympanum being half (not "about one third") the eye 
diameter (a dozen examined); in having a markedly rugose (not 
"smooth") skin; and while all have a dark streak from the posterior 
corner of the eyelid extending almost to the shoulder, in none is it 
continued as a dark streak along the side of the body, nor do any 
exhibit dorso-lateral lines. 

It might be added that while the snout is "somewhat longer" (often 
considerably longer) than the eye diameter in the great majority 
(thirty-seven) of the series, the snout equals the eye diameter in 
thirteen frogs (including M. C. Z. 25931, 25935-7). 

From C. variegatvs (van Kampen) from Digul River, Dutch New 
Guinea, darlingtoni differs in the third toe being slightly (not "dis- 
tinctly") shorter than the fifth; while the tibio-tarsal articulation of 
the adpressed hind limb fails to reach the axilla in gravid females, in 
all the rest it reaches the shoulder or tympanum (not "the eye") ; it 
differs also in its warty (not "smooth") skin, and possibly in size (the 
type of variegatus was 4 8 mm., our example 17 mm.). 

Size. Type 9 (M. C. Z. 25930), 27 mm., a dozen gravid paratype 
9 9 range from 22-26 mm., a dozen baggy-throated paratype cfc? 
from 19-23 mm., the youngest specimen is 17 mm. 

Remarks. This fine series of beautifully preserved frogs is named 
for the collector, Dr. P. J. Darlington, Jr., of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, who has done so much to advance our knowledge 
of the herpetology of the Bismarck Range. 

Cophixalus verrucosus (Boulenger) 

Sphcnophryne verrucosus Boulenger, 1898, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova 
(2), 18, p. 707, pi. viii, fig. 2: Mount, Victoria, Owen Stanley Mountains, 
British New Guinea. 

c? (M. C. Z. 3496) Ferguson Id., B. N. G. (Brit. Mus.) 1914. 

Snout rounded, longer than the eye diameter; inner finger with a 
small disk, about half the length of second; disks of other fingers 
scarcely larger than those of toes ; toes free, the third extending beyond 
the fifth; heel reaches the nostril. Length 24 mm. 



eoveridge: new guinean amphibians 425 

Cophixalus variegatus variegatus (van Kampen) 

Hylophorbus variegatus van Kampen, 1923, Amphib. Indo-Australian Archip., 
p. 138: Digul (Digoel) River, Dutch New Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 9385) New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 

Snout obtusely pointed, as long as the eye diameter; tympanum less 
than half the eye diameter; inner finger about half the length of the 
second, which is slightly longer than the fourth; disks of fingers larger 
than those of toes; toes free, the third not extending as far as the fifth; 
heel reaches the tympanum (not eye). Length 17 mm. 

Agrees closely with Parker's (1934, p. 176) description of external 
characters, but, being pale brown flecked with darker, does not 
conform to the color description. Received from Berlin as Hylophorbus 
boettgcri (Mehely) of Halmaheira, a species that Parker (1934, p. 61) 
refers to Asterophrys. 



Cophixalus variegatus parkeri subsp. nov. 

Type. Museum of Comparative Zoology, No. 25940, a gravid 9 
from Mount Wilhelm, 8,000 feet, Bismarck Range, Madang Division, 
Australian New Guinea, collected by Captain P. J. Darlington, Jr., 
October, 1944. 

Diagnosis. Differs from the typical form in having an angular 
can thus rostralis; an interorbital space as broad as (not "broader 
than") an upper eyelid; a tympanum only half (not "nearly two- 
thirds") the eye diameter; third toe as long as (not "very distinctly 
shorter than") the fifth; skin of dorsum with scattered tubercles (not 
"smooth"); no broad crossbar on femur, tibia, or tarsus; and possibly 
greater size. 

Description. Snout obtusely pointed, slightly prominent, as long as 
the eye diameter; canthus rostralis angular; loreal region vertical, 
slightly concave; interorbital space as broad as an upper eyelid; 
tympanum distinct, half the eye diameter; disks of fingers large, 
truncate distally, first finger much shorter than the second which is 
about as long as the fourth; toes long, free, their disks slightly smaller 
than those of the fingers, the third as long as the fifth; subarticular 
tubercles developed; no metatarsal tubercles; tibio-tarsal articulation 
of the adpressed hind limb reaches almost to the eye. 

Skin smooth with scattered tubercles, a fine, raised line from snout 
to anus; a W-shaped, raised glandular marking on scapular region. 



426 bullet n: museum of comparative zoology 

Color. Above, plumbeous, a broad, light, transverse bar unites the 
upper eyelids anteriorly; sides of head as far as tympanum dark; from 
tympanum to groin, and on the basal part of fore and hind limbs, 
creamy white variegated with darker. Below, throat dark brown; 
breast, belly and limbs creamy white with dusky mottling; subarticular 
tubercles and disks mostly white. 

Size. Type 9 , 28 mm. 

Remarks. This unique specimen was submitted to Mr. H. W. Parker 
who agrees that it is near variegatus, but as the species is not repre- 
sented in the British Museum he ventures no opinion on the signifi- 
cance of the characters by which I have separated it. 

Cophixalus oxyrhinus (Boulenger) 

Phrynixalus oxyrhinus Boulenger, 1898, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 480, pi. 
xxxviii, fig. 3: "St. Aignan Island," = Misima Island, British New 
Guinea. 

1 (M. C. Z. 9387) New Guinea (Berlin Mus.) 1922. 
Disks of fingers smaller than those of toes. Length 22 mm. 



loveridge: new guinean herpetology 427 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

only of such books and papers as are cited in the text 

Barbour, Thomas 

1912. "A Contribution to the Zoogeography of the East Indian Islands." 

Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 44, pp. 1-203, pis. i-viii. 
1921. "Reptiles and Amphibians from the British Solomon Islands." 

Proc. New England Zool. Club, 7, pp. 91-122, pis. ii-iv. 

BOULENGER, G. A. 

1882. "Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia s. Ecaudata in the Collection 
of the British Museum." (ed. 2, London), pp. vii + 127, figs. -, 
pis. i-ix. 

1887. "Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Natural 
History)." (ed. 2, London), 3, pp. xii + 575, pis. i-xl. 

1896. "Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural His- 
tory)." 3, pp. xiv + 727, figs. 1-37, pis. i-xxx. 

1914. "An Annotated List of the Batrachians and Reptiles collected by 
the British Ornithologists' Union Expedition and the Wollaston 
Expedition in Dutch New Guinea." Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 
20, pp. 247-266, pis. xxvii-xxx. 

1915. "Description of a new Tree-Frog of the Genus Hyla discovered 
by Mr. A. E. Pratt in the Arfak Mountains, Dutch New Guinea." 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), 16, pp. 402-404, pi. xviii. 

1918. "On the Papuan, Melanesian, and North-Australian Species of 

the Genus Rana." Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9), 1, pp. 236-242. 
1920. "Descriptions of Four new Snakes in the Collection of the British 

Museum." Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9), 6, pp. 108-111. 
1920. "A Monograph of the South Asian, Papuan, Melanesian and 

Australian Frogs of the Genus Rana." Rec. Indian Mus., 20, 

pp. 1-223. 

Brongersma, L. D. 

1928. "Neue Reptilien aus dem Zoologischen Museum Amsterdam." 

Zool. Anz., 75, pp. 251-257, figs. 1-3. 
1934. "Contributions to Indo-Australian Herpetology." Zool. Meded., 

17, pp. 161-251, figs. 1-47, pis. i-ii. 

Burt, C. E., and Burt, M. D. 

1932. "Herpetological Results of the Whitney South Sea Expedition. 
VI." Bull. American Mus. Nat. Hist., 63, pp. 461-597, figs. 1-38. 

Dunn, E. R. 

1928. "Frogs from the East Indies." American Mus. Novit., No. 315, 
pp. 1-9. 



428 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

1939. "Zoological Results of the Denison-Crockett Expedition to the 
South Pacific for the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
1937-1938. Part II. Amphibia and Reptilia." Notulae Naturae, 
No. 14, pp. 1-2. 

Fry, D. B. 

1916. "Description of Aphantophryne, a new Batrachian Genus from 
New Guinea." Proc. Linn. Soc. New S. Wales, 41, pp. 770-786, 
pis. liv-lv. 

Hediger, Heini 

1934. "Beitrag zur Herpetologie und Zoogeographie Neu Britanniens." 
Zool. Jahrb. Syst., 65, pp. 441-582, figs. 1-6. 

Jong, J. K. de 

1926. "Heumia ventromaculata n. g., n. sp., und Canloria annulata n. sp., 
zwei neue Schlangen von Neu Guinea." Zool. Anz., 67, pp. 302-304. 

1927. "Reptiles from Dutch New Guinea." Nova Guinea, 15, pp. 296- 
318, figs. 1-4. 

1930. "List of Reptiles collected by Prof. Dr. W. Docters van Leeuwen 
during the north New-Guinea Expedition 1926." Nova Guinea, 
15, pp. 405-408. 

K AM PEN, P. N. VAN 

1923. "The Amphibia of the Indo-Australian Archipelago." (Leiden), 
pp. xii + 304, figs. 1-29. 

KlNGHORN, J. R. 

1928. "Notes on some Reptiles and Batrachians from the Northern 
Division of Papua, with Descriptions of new Species of Opistho- 
calamus and Lygosoma." Rec. Australian Mus., 16, pp. 289-293, 
figs. 1-2. 

Lesson, R. P. 

1830. "Zoologie," in M. L. I. Duperry, "Voyage autour du Monde . . . 
sur la Corvette de sa Majeste, La Coquille, pendant les Annees 
1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825." (Paris), pp. iv + 743, and Atlas of 
157 pis. 

Loveridge, A. 

1927. "On Pseudechis australis (Gray)." Bull. Antivenin Inst. America, 
1, p. 58. 

1934. "Australian Reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts." Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 77, pp. 
243-383, pi. -. 

1935. "Australian Amphibia in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts." Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 78, pp. 
1-62, pi. - 



loveridge: new guinean herpetology 429 

1945. "Reptiles of the Pacific World." (New York), pp. xii + 259, 
figs. 1-70. 

Loveridge, A., and Shreve, B. 

1947. "The 'New Guinea' Snapping Turtle (Chclydra serpentina)." 
Copeia, pp. 120-123, fig. 1. 

Mehely, L. v. 

1897. "Ujabb adatok Uj-Guinea Herpetologiajahoz." Termes Fiizetek 
Magyar Nemzeti Miizeum (Budapest), 20, pp. 398-419, pi. x. 

1898. "An Account of the Reptiles and Batrachians collected by Mr. 
Lewis Biro in New Guinea." Termes Fiizetek Magyar Namzeti 
Muzeum (Budapest), 21, pp. 165-178, pi. xii. 

Meise, W., and Hennig, W. 

1932. "Die Schlangengattung Dendrophis." Zool. Anz., 99, pp. 273-297, 
maps 1-8. 

Mertexs, Robert 

1927. "Neue Amphibien und Reptilien aus dem Indo-Australischen 
Archipel." Senckenbergiana, 9, pp. 234-242. 

1928. "Neue Inselrassen von Cryptoblepharus boutonii (Desjardin)." 
Zool. Anz., 78, pp. 82-89. 

1929. "Die Rassen des Smaragdskinkes Dasia smaragdinum Lesson." 
Zool. Anz., 84, pp. 209-220. 

1930. "Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Inseln Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa 
und Flores." Abhand. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges., 42, pp. 117- 
344, pis. i-iv. 

1931. "Ablepharus boutonii (Desjardin) und seine geographische Vari- 
ation." Zool. Jahrb. Syst., 61, pp. 63-210, figs. 1-6, pis. ii-iv. 

1934. "Die Schlangen-Gattung Dendrelaphis Boulenger in Systemat- 
ischer und zoogeographischer Beziehung. I." Arch. Naturg. 
(N. F.), 3, 2, pp. 187-204. 

1942. "Die Familie der Warane (Varanidae). III. Taxonomie." 
Abhand. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges., No. 466, pp. 237-391. 

Meyer, A. B. 

1874. "Tjber der von mir auf Neu-Guinea und den Inseln Jobi, Mysore 
und Mafoor im Jahre 1873 gesammelten Amphibien." Monatsb. 
Akad. Wiss. Berlin, pp. 128-140. 

Neill, W. T. 

1946. "Notes on Crocodylus novae-guineae." Copeia, pp. 17-20. 

Parker, H. W. 

1934. "A Monograph of the Frogs of the Family Microhylidae." 

(London), pp. viii + 208, figs. 1-67. 
1936. "A Collection of Reptiles and Amphibians from the Mountains of 

British New Guinea." Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10), 17, pp. 66-93, 

figs. 1-6. 



430 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

1940. "Undescribed anatomical Structures and new Species of Reptiles 
and Amphibians." Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11), 5, pp. 257-274, 
figs. 1-3. 

Peters, W., and Doria, G. 

1878. "Catalogo dei Rettili e dei Batraci raccolti da O. Beccari, L. M. 
D'Albertis e A. A. Bruijn nella Sotto-Regione Austro-Malese." 
Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 13, pp. 323-450, pis. i-vii. 

Roou, Nelly de 

1915. "The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, 
Chelonia, Emydosauria." (Leiden), pp. xiv + 384, figs. 1-132. 

1917. "The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. II. Ophidia." 
(Leiden), pp. xiv + 334, figs. 1-117. 

Roux, Jean 

1918. "Note sur quelques Espeses d'Amphibiens de l'Archipel Indo- 
Australien." Revue Suisse Zool., 26, pp. 409-415. 

1927. "Addition a la Faune erpetologique de la Nouvelle-Guinee." 
Revue Suisse Zool., 34, pp. 119-125, fig. 1. 

Schmidt, K. P. 

1932. "Notes on New Guinean Crocodiles." Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. 
Ser., 18, pp. 165-172, fig. 28, pis. vi-vii. 

Smith, M. A. 

1927. "Contributions to the Herpetology of the Indo-Australian Region." 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 199-225, figs. 1-4, pis. i-ii. 
1935. "The Fauna of British India. Reptilia and Amphibia. 2. Sauria." 

(London), pp. xiv + 440, figs. 1-94, pi. i, map. 
1937. "A Review of the Genus Lygosoma (Scincidae: Reptilia) and its 

Allies." Rec. Indian Mus., 39, pp. 213-234, figs. 1-5. 
1943. "The Fauna of British India. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3. Ser- 

pentes." (London), pp. xii + 583, figs. 1-166, map. 

Sternfeld, Robert 

1921. "Zur Tiergeographie Papuasiens und der Pazifischen Inselwelt." 
(1920) Abhand. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges., 36, pp. 375-436, pi. xxxi. 

Stickel, W. H., and Stickel, L. F. 

1946. "Sexual Dimorphism in the Pelvic Spurs of Enygrus." Copeia, 
pp. 10-12, figs. 1-2. 

Vogt, Theodore 

1911. "Reptilien und Amphibien aus Neu-Guinea." Sitzungsb. Ges. 
Naturf. Freunde Berlin, pp. 410-420. 

1912. "Beitrag zur Reptilien- und Amphibienfauna der Sudseeinseln." 
Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, pp. 1-13. 

1932. "Beitrag zur Reptilienfauna der ehemaligen Kolonien Deutsch- 
Neuguinea." Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, pp. 281-294. 



Do not circulate 



it circulate 



Sulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
,;C AT HARVARD COLLEGE 



LIBRARY 

B 2 1 l%9 

HAf!Vf:RD 
JNSVERSITY 



Vol. 101, No. 3 



THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY AND DAY 

LENGTH ON REPRODUCTION IN THE 

ENGLISH SPARROW 



By George A. Bartholomew, Jr. 



With Ten Plates 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U.S.A. 

PRINTED FOR THE MUSEUM 

February, 1949 



PUBLICATIONS 
OF THE 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 
AT HARVARD COLLEGE 

The Bulletin and Memoirs are devoted to the publication of 
investigations by the Staff of the Museum or of reports by spec- 
ialists upon the Museum collections or explorations. 

Of the Bulletin, Vols. 1 to 101, No. 3 have appeared and of the 
Memoirs, Vols. 1 to 55. 

These publications are issued in numbers at irregular intervals. 
Each number of the Bulletin and of the Memoirs is sold separately. 
A price list of the publications of the Museum will be sent upon ap- 
plication to the Director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. 



5-1YA 



V. 



Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 

AT HARVARD COLLEGE 

Vol. 101, No. 3 



THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY AND DAY 

LENGTH ON REPRODUCTION IN THE 

ENGLISH SPARROW 



By George A. Bartholomew, Jr. 



With Ten Plates 



mus. mm. zool 

LIBRARY 

FEB 21 19^9 

HAHVARO 

UNIVERSITY 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U.S.A. 

PRINTED FOR THE MUSEUM 

February, 1949 



MUS. COKP. ZOOL 
LIBRARY 

Feb 21 19^9 

HARVARD 

>/ Ljffl&iB&ffllity chid Day Length on 



No. 3— The Effect 

Reproduction in the English Sparrow 



By George A. Bartholomew, Jr. 

The Biological Laboratories, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 



I. INTRODUCTION 

This study was planned as an investigation of the role of daylight 
in the timing of seasonal reproduction in an animal of the temperate 
zone. With the English sparrow, Passer domesticus, as the experimental 
animal, it was proposed first, to obtain a quantitative evaluation of 
the effects of different intensities of light when applied during days of 
the same length, and second, to obtain a quantitative evaluation of 
the effects of different day lengths during 'which the same intensity of 
light was used. Having determined the effects of day length and light 
intensity under laboratory conditions, it was planned to attempt to 
interpret their roles in nature. 

The author is indebted to Dr. G. L. Clarke for helpful guidance and 
stimulating criticism, which contributed much to the completion of 
this work. 

Reproduction in most animals and plants of the temperate zones is 
seasonal and the study of the effects of environmental factors on 
seasonal sexual cycles has long been a productive line of research. 
One of the most striking results of this line of investigation has been 
the establishment of the importance of day length in the timing of 
sexual periodicity. 

Despite the fact that the control of sexual activity by day length 
has been repeatedly demonstrated in birds, the main features of avian 
photoperiodism under laboratory conditions have been only partially 
delineated and the role of photoperiodism under natural conditions 
remains almost completely unknown. 

It has long been known, see the reviews of Bissonnette (1936, 1937), 
Rowan (1938), and Marshall (1936, 1942), that the effect of light on 
the sexual activity of birds can be modified by its intensity and wave- 



434 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

length as well as its daily period. Since in nature, the variation in 
wave-length can in most instances probably be ignored, the two main 
factors involved in avian photoperiodism under natural conditions 
must be day length and light intensity, each of which is dependent on 
the other and both of which, even in the absence of other environmental 
factors, can be modified by internal physiological rhythms. 

The English sparrow was selected as the experimental subject be- 
cause it is available at all seasons, takes well to captivity, and has a 
strong photoperiodic response. Moreover, with the exception of the 
starling, the English sparrow is the most thoroughly studied of 
passerine birds from the point of view of endocrinology. In addition, 
since Kirschbaum and Ringoen (1936) have shown that external 
temperature does not effect its sexual cycle and Riley (1940) and 
Kendeigh (1941) have shown independently that it is the daily period 
of light and not the daily period of activity which controls its sexual 
development, there can be little doubt that light is the primary 
external factor which controls the sparrow's sexual periodicity. 

The plan of the experiments carried out in this investigation is 
briefly summarized below. 

1. Intensity. In order to get a quantitative evaluation of the effect 
of light intensity, sparrows Were subjected during uniformly long days 
to light of 5 different intensities for periods ranging from less than two 
weeks to more than 12 weeks and then killed for the examination of 
the reproductive condition. 

2. Day Length. To determine the effects of different day lengths, 
groups of male and female sparrows were exposed to the same intensity 
of light for daily periods of 10, 12, 14, 16, and 24 hours and then 
examined for gonadal development. To test whether or not high in- 
tensity of light could be substituted for day length, males were exposed 
to daily periods of light about }/2 hour longer than the shortest day of 
the year at two intensities, one high and one low, but both within the 
range known to be effective. 

3. Internal Rhythms. The investigation of internal rhythms was 
incidental to the study of light intensity and day length and was con- 
fined to two experiments. Females were kept on uniform day lengths 
of 8 hours during winter and spring, the seasons of gonadal growth, 
and examined at intervals for signs of sexual development. Males 
were exposed during the winter and again in the fall to the same 
intensities of light during similar daily periods for the same number 
of days and the gonadal development obtained in the two seasons 
compared. 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 435 

II. REPRODUCTION AND PHOTOPERIODISM IN 
THE ENGLISH SPARROW 

The annual reproductive cycle of the English sparrow has been 
studied in Iowa by Keck (1934), in Minnesota by Kirschbaum and 
Ringoen (1936) and in Oklahoma by Allender (1936a, 1936b). Except 
for slight differences in time which are probably associated with the 
differences in latitude of the places in which they made their studies, 
all these authors report the same situation. In the male, gonads are 
of minimum size during the fall, germinal activity begins sometime 
during January and full reproductive competence is reached during 
the month of March and maintained until midsummer when the testes 
start to involute. The cycle of the female resembles that of the male 
except that the female reaches reproductive competence several 
weeks later in the spring. 

The earliest work on the photoperiodic response of the English 
sparrow was that of Kirschbaum (1933) who found that during 
October, November, and December, the extension of day length by 
the addition of 6 or 7 hours of artificial light after sunset induced 
gonadal recrudescence in males and that the artificial reduction of day 
length during the winter and spring did not invariably cause com- 
plete repression of testicular activity. 

Kirschbaum and Ringoen (1936) verified the findings reported above 
and in addition found that response was greater in January than in 
October and November. Riley (1936) showed that the males which 
had bred the previous spring showed no response to an increase in 
hours of light started in September, even after 50 days, while imma- 
ture birds hatched the previous spring showed a marked response. 
Adult males which had bred the previous spring, however, showed a 
strong response when subjected to artificially increased day lengths 
starting November 18. 

Riley and Witschi (1938) showed that the female English sparrow 
also responds to artificially increased day length, but that light alone 
is not sufficient to produce ovulation and that the response is much 
slower than in the male. They found that both juvenile and adult 
females are partially refractive in September and October, but not in 
winter and spring. Their findings were confirmed by Ringoen and 
Kirschbaum (1939). Kirschbaum, Pfeiffer et al (1939) showed that 
the limited ovarial reaction is due not to the insensitivity of the female 
pituitary to light, but to the fact that the ovary has a relatively higher 
threshhold for response to gonadotropic hormones than has the testis. 



9 



436 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

That factors other than light must be important in the reproductive 
cycle of the female English sparrow is apparent from the preceding 
discussion, but definite proof was not available until 1940 when 
Polikarpova demonstrated the importance of behavioral factors in the 
induction of reproductive activity of the female English sparrow. He 
reported that during the winter, if in addition to being subjected to 
artificially lengthened days, a group of male and female sparrows were 
supplied with nest boxes and nesting materials, both sexes would reach 
reproductive competence and the females would lay fertile eggs. If, 
however, nesting boxes and nesting materials were not supplied, the 
females would not reach reproductive maturity and their ovaries 
would eventually regress without ever reaching full development. 

One other external factor associated with light has been proposed as 
the cause for seasonal sexual periodicity in the English sparrow. Perry 
(1938) reported that sparrows fed on wheat irradiated by ultra-violet 
lamps during December, January, and February, but themselves 
exposed only to normal winter daylight showed marked gonadal 
development. Kirschbaum, Pfeiffer, et al. (1939) carefully duplicated 
Perry's work but were unable to confirm it. 

III. MATERIALS AND METHODS 

A. CAPTURE AND MAINTENANCE OF SPARROWS 

Because trapping produced such meagre results, the sparrows used 
in the experiments about to be reported were captured at night with a 
long-handled net as they roosted in the ivy on the sides of buildings. 

The cages in which the birds were kept measured 3 feet long, 2 feet 
wide, and 2 feet deep, and were made of x /i inch galvanized wire mesh. 
A supporting framework was omitted in order that no part of the cage 
be shaded. Each cage was equipped with a single perch running 
lengthwise. Grit, cuttlebone, water, and food, which consisted of 
millet and "Pablum" with the frequent addition of sliced apple or 
lettuce, were available at all times. Males and females were caged 
together. The number of birds per cage never exceeded twelve. It was 
not necessary to clean the cages since the droppings fell through the 
bottom of the cage to the floor. 

B. SOURCE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT 

The importance of wave-length in the photoperiodic response of 
birds has been clearly established (see Benoit and Ott, 1944, and 
Ringoen, 1942). The sources of artificial white light hitherto used in 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 437 

the experimental study of photoperiodism have been either incan- 
descent tungsten lamps or in a few instances ultraviolet sunlamps, 
both of which have a spectrum which differs markedly from that of 
sunlight. This might invalidate a comparison of the laboratory results 
with natural conditions. 

In the experiments reported here, all light was supplied by "Day- 
light Fluorescent Lamps" manufactured under patents of the General 
Electric Company. See Fig. 1 for a comparison of sunlight with the 
light from both tungsten and "Daylight Fluorescent" lamps. It will 
be noted that the fluorescent lamps approximate sunlight remarkably. 
Another asset of fluorescent lamps is that the large area of their 
radiating surfaces makes it possible to obtain a more uniform light in 
a cage than would be the case with any other convenient source of 
light. A final and important advantage is that fluorescent lamps have 
such a low operating temperature that their heating effect can be 
ignored. 

C. MEASUREMENT OF LIGHT 

The light used in the present experiments was measured for the most 
part by a Weston Illumination Meter which was calibrated in foot- 
candles. Although the instrument is standardized on tungsten filament 
light at one color temperature, no correction is required for illumina- 
tion having the same color composition as sunlight. 

Since the lowest intensities of light used in the experiments were 
below the range of the Weston Illumination Meter, these intensities 
were measured with a MacBeth Illuminometer. The two instruments 
were checked against each other at intensities ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 
foot-candles and they showed good agreement. 

In order to find the actual range of intensities, as well as the mean 
intensity of light, to which the experimental birds were exposed, in 
every cage 12 measurements were made at the bottom, 12 at the top, 
12 at each of two intermediate horizontal planes, and 3 on the perch. 
At each station the photronic cell was rotated or tilted to give the 
maximum reading. To avoid diminution of the intensity of the light 
with time, the intensity was measured weekly and lamps replaced 
when necessary. 

It was found that the birds spent a little more than 60% of the time 
on the perch, about 35% of the time on the floor and the rest of the 
time either clinging to the sides of the cage or flying about. Therefore, 
the average intensity of light to which the birds were exposed was 
assumed to be the weighted mean of the values measured on the floor 
of the cage and on the perch. This is the light intensity used for com- 
parison and discussion. , 



438 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

D. method of analysis of experimental results 

Gonadal activity in the English sparrow, as in other vertebrates is 
under control of hormones secreted by the pituitary, Witschi and 
Keck (1935) and Riley and Witschi (1938). Consequently, in a study 
of the factors controlling the cyclical nature of reproduction in the 
English sparrow, the pituitary is the primary target of the investigator. 
As indicators of secretory activity by the pituitary both primary and 
secondary sex characters may be used. 

1. Males. Three indicators of reproductive activity were used: 
spermatogenic condition, testicular weight, and bill pigmentation. 

Spermatogenic condition is the most critical and reliable of the 
indices since it entails direct microscopic examination of the germ cells 
themselves. Therefore, in this study primary dependence was placed 
on this criterion. At the end of the period of exposure to light, the 
birds were killed, their gonads removed and immediately fixed in 
Bouin's solution. After preparation by the paraffin method, at least 
one testis from every bird was sectioned at 10 micra, stained with 
Delafield's haematoxylon, and examined microscopically, Depending 
on the degree of spermatogenic advancement, the testes were placed 
in one of the 6 classes listed below : 

I. resting spermatogonia only 
II. spermatogonia dividing, but only a few spermatocytes present 

III. many spermatocytes 

IV. spermatocytes with spermatids 
V. spermatids with a few sperm 

VI. full spermatogenic activity with many sperm 

The typical histological picture presented by each class is shown in 
Figs. 2 to 7. 

Weight was selected as an easily and accurately measurable indica- 
tion of growth. Each testis was weighed to the nearest tenth of a 
milligram after being fixed in Bouin's solution. The weight of each 
experimental testis was divided by the mean weight of the control 
testes and the ratio thus obtained, used for comparison. Since the left 
testis was almost always larger than the right, right testes were com- 
pared with right testes and left with left, although the mean weight of 
both testes could be used just as well. 

The bill of the male English sparrow darkens under the influence of 
testosterone, Keck (1932, 1933), Witschi and Keck (1935), Witschi 



BAETHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 439 

(1936), Witschi and Woods (1936). Five classes of bill pigmentation 
were set up. Although arbitrary, they indicate a regular and easily 
recognizable series and reproduce the sequence of changes through 
which the bill passes as the male progresses toward full testicular 
activity. They are as follows: yellow and horn-color, horn-color and 
gray, gray, gray and black, and all black. The class of pigmentation 
was recorded at the beginning and end of each experiment for every 
male. The number of advances in class during the experiment was 
used as an expression of the hormonal production of the testis. Aside 
from being corroborating evidence in the analysis of the reproductive 
response of the male, bill pigmentation is very useful to the experi- 
menter because it is an easily visible indication of the gonadal develop- 
ment during the experiment. 

2. Females. The ovary and oviduct were weighed to the nearest 
tenth of a milligram. The weights of these organs from the experi- 
mental animals were divided by the mean weights of those of the 
controls and the resulting figure used for purposes of analysis. The 
oviducts grow markedly in the presence of estrogen (Keck, 1932, 1934). 
Consequently their weights are an indication of the production of this 
hormone by the ovaries. 



IV. THE ROLE OF LIGHT INTENSITY 

A. REVIEW 

Despite the fact that intensity is one of the most conspicuous 
variables of sunlight, relatively little critical work has been done on its 
role in the photoperiodic response of vertebrates and that which has 
been done cannot easily be related to natural conditions in a quantita- 
tive manner. 

From the ecological point of view, the primary questions to be 
answered concerning the role of light intensity in photoperiodism are 
these: 

1. Can light intensity modify the photoperiodic response? 

2. If so, what is the minimum intensity that will evoke the reaction? 

3. 'What is the intensity beyond which further increases have no 

effect? 

4. Can light intensity be substituted for day length? 



440 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

5. Is the range of effective intensities such that the response of an 
animal to day length in nature can be modified by the variation 
in the intensity of sunlight from day to day and season to 
season? 

The present knowledge concerning these problems will be considered 
in relation to the questions listed above. Light intensity does modify 
the photoperiodic response of passerine birds. Bissonnette (1931b) 
established the fact that the photoperiodic response of starlings in- 
creased with increasing intensity, but his experiments yielded little 
satisfactory quantitative data, because he did not measure the light 
within the cages and he used light of controlled intensity only after 
sundown, sunlight being used during the day. Bissonnette and Wad- 
lund (1933) reported that for the starling a 200 watt incandescent 
lamp was more effective than a 1000 watt incandescent lamp, but 
they also suggested that differences in wave-lengths of light emitted 
by the two lamps may have been a factor. 

Burger (1939b) found that male starlings kept on a uniform day 
length of 103/2 hours showed no spermatogenic development when the 
intensity of the artificial light to which they were exposed was in- 
creased by small daily increments from 5 foot-candles to 190 foot- 
candles. From this it was concluded that an increase in light intensity 
during short days did not have the same effect as an increase in the 
length of the short days, i.e., during short days, intensity of light at 
least above 5 foot-candles cannot be substituted for duration of ex- 
posure to light. 

Brown and Rollo (1940) found that intensity was a factor in de- 
termining the type of feather regenerated in a plucked area on an 
African weaver-finch, Pyromelana. Light of controlled intensity was 
added for 2j/£ hours after 11 J^ hours of daylight. Thirty foot-candles 
allowed the regeneration of the non-breeding plumage normal for the 
season, while 250 foot-candles caused regeneration of nuptial plumage. 
This work was expanded and extended by Rollo and Domm (1943) 
who tested the effects of light supplied by incandescent lamps of 
various wattages and ranging in intensity from 3% to 216 foot-candles. 
They found an intensity of maximal effectiveness. Light with an 
intensity of 126 foot-candles caused an earlier onset of moult and 
subsequent growth of nuptial plumage than light of either lower or 
higher intensity. In this species the growth of nuptial plumage is 
under direct pituitary control since feathers as well as gonads respond 
to gonadotropic hormones. 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 441 

Although it seems probable that the mode of action of light is 
different in birds and mammals, Marshall and Bowden (1934) showed 
that the speed of induction of estrus by artificially lengthened days 
increased directly with increasing light intensity. 

The answers to the questions concerning the ecological significance 
of light intensity in the photoperiodic responses of animals which were 
posed in the preceding review remain for the most part unknown. For 
no animal have all of the questions been answered and for the English 
sparrow none of them have been answered. 



B. PLAN OF EXPERIMENTS 

The set of experiments about to be described was designed to obtain 
a quantitative expression of the relationship between light intensity 
and degree of gonadal development in sparrows, and in addition to 
establish the minimum intensity which would evoke the response and 
also the intensity above which further increases no longer had an 
accelerating effect. Further, by running experiments at the same 
intensities and day lengths for different periods of time, it was hoped 
to determine the relationship between intensity of light and number 
of days of exposure. 

The experiments were run in two dark rooms, windowless, black- 
walled, and equipped with forced ventilation. The fluorescent lights 
and some of the cages were suspended from the ceiling. Cages A, B, C, 
and D were arranged as shown in Fig. 8. Cage E, whose light source 
was a single 15 watt fluorescent lamp masked as shown in Fig. 9, was 
placed by itself in one of the dark rooms. The cage for the controls, 
which was lighted by a single 30 watt fluorescent lamp, was placed in 
the compartment to the left of the curtain shown in Fig. 8. All lights 
were turned on and off by automatic timers. 



C. THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY DURING 16-HOUR DAYS 
ON TESTICULAR DEVELOPMENT 

In the first experiment, male English sparrows were exposed during 
the winter to light of five different intensities 16 hours per day for 25 
days and then killed for examination (see Table 2 for dates). The 
birds were not grouped according to age, because Riley (1936) re- 
ported that by late fall, males of all age groups in this species react 



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TABLE 1 
SUMMARY OF LIGHT INTENSITY IN CAGES 



Cage 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


Control 


Maximum Intensity 


464 


83.0 


14.0 


1.2 


0.07 


28.0 foot-candles 


Minimum Intensity 


124 


30.0 


7.0 


0.4 


0.03 


5.8 


Intensity at Center of Cage 


200 


55.0 


10.2 


0.8 


0.05 


11.1 


Mean Intensity on Perch 


296 


62.5 


11.2 


0.8 


0.05 


14.7 


Mean Intensity on Floor of 














Cage 


139 


32.5 


8.3 


0.4 


0.03 


5.9 


Weighted Mean of Perch & 














Floor of Cage 


244 


52.4 


10.3 


0.7 


0.04 


11.8 



TABLE 2 

SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTS ON THE EFFECT OF LIGHT 

INTENSITY ON TESTICULAR DEVELOPMENT 

DURING 16-HOUR DAYS 





Experiment 




1A 


IB 


2A 


2B 


3 


4 


Experiment started 


1-14-46 


2-24-46 


1-14-46 


2-24-46 


2-10-46 


10-19-47 


Days of exposure to 














light 


25 


25 


46 


46 


11 


25 


Males in cage A 


6 











4 


5 


Males in cage B 


6 

















Males in cage C 


3 





4 








5 


Males in cage D 


3 





3 











Males in cage E 





3 





3 








Controls 


3 


2 


3 


3 


4 


5 



similarly to added hours of light. Since the lowest light intensity 
(0.07 foot-candles) used in the first part of this experiment evoked an 
appreciable response, a much lower intensity (0.04 foot-candles) was 
used in the second part. Separate controls were used for both sections 
of the experiment. In this and all other experiments carried out in this 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 



443 



investigation, the controls were exposed for 8 hours daily to light with 
an intensity of approximately 10 foot-candles. 

The spermatogenic condition of the birds at the end of the two parts 
of the first experiment is shown in Tables 3 and 4. The comparison 
of the number of advances in spermatogenic class beyond the most 
developed of the controls caused by each of the five intensities of light 
which is shown by Table 5 allows the results of both halves of the 
experiment to be compared. It will be observed that (1) a light in- 
tensity of 0.04 foot-candles was insufficient to cause any spermatogenic 
progression, (2) the greatest variation in the effect of light intensity 



TABLE 3 

SPERMATOGENIC CONDITION AFTER 25, 16-HOUR DAYS 

(EXP. 1A) 



Spermatogenic class 


Controls 


Light Intensity in 
Foot-Candles 




0.7 


10.3 


52.4 


244.0 


VI. Full spermatogenic activity 

with many sperm 
V. Spermatids plus few sperm 
IV. Spermatocytes plus spermatids 
III. Many spermatocytes 
II. Spermatogonia dividing, but 

few spermatocytes 
I. Resting spermatogonia 


X 
XX 


XX 
X 


XX 
X 


xxxx 

XX 


xxxxx 

X 



occurred below 10 foot-candles, and (3) above 10 foot-candles further 
increases of light intensity caused no further spermatogenic acceler- 
ation. 

The increases in testicular weight showed the same relation to light 
intensity as did spermatogenic development. The maximum gradient 
in the response (Fig. 10) occurred below 10 foot-candles and the 
difference between the effects caused by light intensities greater than 
this value was relatively slight. Indeed, the mean weight of the testes 
of the birds exposed to 10 foot-candles was actually larger than that 
of the birds exposed to either of the two higher intensities. The testes 



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TABLE 4 

SPERM ATOGENIC CONDITION AFTER 25, 16-HOUR DAYS 

(EXP. IB) 



Spermatogenic class 


Controls 


Light Intensity 


0.04 f.c. 


IV 
III 
II 
I 


X 
X 


X 
XX 



TABLE 5 

SPERMATOGENIC ADVANCEMENT DURING 25, 
16-HOUR DAYS 



Advances in sperm class 
beyond controls 


Light Intensity in Foot-Candles 


0.04 


0.7 


10.3 


52.4 


244.0 


4 
3 
2 

1 



XXX 


XX 

X 


XX 

X 


xxxx 

XX 


xxxxx 

X 



TABLE 6 

RELATION BETWEEN LIGHT INTENSITY AND BILL 
PIGMENTATION AFTER 25, 16-HOUR DAYS 



Advances in class of 
bill pigmentation 


Controls 


Light Intensity in Foot-Candles 


0.04 


0.7 


10.3 


52.4 


244.0 


4 
3 
2 

1 



xxxxx 


XXX 


x 

XX 


XX 
X 


XXX 

XX 

X 


XXXXX 
X 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 



445 



of the birds exposed to the lowest intensity (0.04 foot-candles) were 
not significantly larger than those of the controls. 

The response of bill pigmentation (Table 6), which is an indicator 
of male sex hormone production, agrees with the results obtained by 
the other methods of analysis. 

The second experiment was similar to the first except that it was 
run for 46 rather than 25 days. Since the gonads of the birds exposed 
to the two highest light intensities used in the first experiment were 
already well developed after 25 days, it was thought that a longer 
exposure to these intensities would yield little of further interest. 



TABLE 7 
SPERMATOGENIC CONDITION AFTER 46, 16-HOUR DAYS 





Experiment 2A 


Experiment 2B 


Spermatogenic 




Light Intensity 




Light Intensity 




Controls 


in f.c. 


Controls 


in f.c. 




0.7 


10.3 


0.04 


VI 




XX 


xxxx 






V 




X 








IV 










X 


III 








XX 


X 


II 


XX 








X 


I 


X 






X 





Therefore, only the 3 lower intensities, 0.04, 0.7, and 10.3 foot-candles, 
were used. As indicated in Table 2, the test was run in two parts. 
The spermatogenic condition of the birds at the end of the experi- 
ment is summarized in Tables 7 and 8. All four of the birds exposed 
to light of 10 foot-candles showed full spermatogenic activity with 
many sperm. All of the birds in the 0.7 foot-candle cage had progressed 
far beyond the condition of those individuals from the same cage 
which had been examined after 25 days, and two of them were as well 
developed as the birds exposed to any of the higher intensities. How- 
ever, only one of the three birds exposed to light of 0.04 foot-candles 
had advanced beyond the state reached by the most developed bird 



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from the same cage at 25 days. This individual, the only one which 
had progressed farther than the most advanced of the controls, had 
just begun to form a few spermatids. 

TABLE 8 

SPERMATOGENIC ADVANCEMENT DURING 46, 
16-HOUR DAYS 



Advances in 


Light Intensity in Foot-Candles 


Sperm Class 




Beyond Controls 


0.04 


0.7 


10.3 


4 




XX 


XXXX 


3 




X 




2 








1 


X 









X 






—1 


X 







TABLE 9 

RELATION BETWEEN LIGHT INTENSITY AND BILL 
PIGMENTATION AFTER 46, 16-HOUR DAYS 



Advances in Class of 
Bill Pigmentation 


Controls 


Light Intensity in Foot-Candles 


0.04 


0.7 


10.3 


4 
3 
2 
1 



xxxxx 


XX 

X 


X 
X 
X 


XXX 
X 



The effect on testicular weight of 46 days of exposure to the three 
intensities of light is shown in Fig. 10. The weight of the testes in- 
creased with increasing intensity. At each intensity the mean weights 
the of testes was greater after 46 days than after 25 days. Even after 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 447 

46 days, however, the mean weight of the testes of those birds exposed 
to 0.04 foot-candles was only 4.4 times as large as that of the controls. 
This is only about 1/10 the growth caused by light intensities of 0.7 
and 10.3 foot-candles in the same length of time. 

Light intensity was correlated with degree of bill pigmentation after 
46 days of exposure just as it was after 25 days of exposure. As 
Table 9 indicates, the more intense the light, the greater the increase 
in pigmentation. Only two of the three birds exposed to the light of 
0.04 foot-candles gave evidence of the production of testosterone by 
the darkening of their beaks. 

A third experiment, which was similar in plan to the first two, was 
designed to obtain evidence concerning the effect of different light 
intensities when administered for a small number of days. Four males 
were placed in each of the two cages of highest light intensity. At the 
end of the eleventh 16-hour day of exposure, all eight were killed for 
examination. It was assumed that during the 11 days of the experi- 
ment there would be no change in the reproductive condition of the 
controls. Therefore, since the third experiment began within a few 
days of the end of the first experiment, the controls of the latter were 
used as a basis of comparison for the results of the former (see Table 2 
for dates). 

Both groups of birds showed spermatogenic progression at the end 
of the experiment. All of the birds exposed to light of 244 foot-candles 
had many spermatocytes present, but none had produced any sperma- 
tids. Three of the four birds exposed to light of 52 foot-candles showed 
spermatocytes, but one of them, slightly more advanced than the 
others, had begun to form a few spermatids. 

The weights of the testes (Fig. 10) indicate a slightly greater growth 
of the gonads in the birds exposed to the less intense light. The 
difference between the two is so slight, however, when compared with 
the spread, that it is of no significance. 

The experiment was of such short duration that changes in bill 
pigmentation, although faintly perceptible, were not great enough to 
be reliably measured. 

From the preceding, it is apparent that during an 11-day exposure, 
just as during a 25-day exposure, a light intensity of 244 foot-candles 
when administered in the winter during a day length of 16 hours, 
causes no more gonadal growth than does an intensity of 52 foot- 
candles. 

Since Kirschbaum and Ringoen (1936) and Riley (1936) reported 
that male English sparrows responded more strongly to increased day 



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length in winter than in fall, it was thought advisable to test for 
seasonal variation in their response to light intensity. Ten immature 
male sparrows were exposed to light of approximately 10 foot-candles 
8 hours per day starting Oct. 12, 1946.' On Oct. 19 they were divided 
into two groups; 5 birds were placed in cage A and 5 in cage C (see 
Fig. 8) and exposed to light of 244 foot-candles and 10 foot-candles 
intensity respectively 16 hours per day for 25 days. The five control 
birds were as usual exposed for 8 hours daily to light with an intensity 
of approximately 10 foot-candles. 

TABLE 10 

SPERMATOGENIC CONDITION AFTER 25, 16-HOUR DAYS 

(EXP. 4) 



Spermatogenic 
Class 


Controls 


Light Intensity in Foot-Candles 


10.3 


244.0 


VI 

V 

IV 

III 

II 

I 


xxxxx 


X 
XXX 


XXX 
XX 



In the fall 16 hours per day of light with an intensity of 10 foot- 
candles caused relatively little spermatogenic progression when com- 
pared with a similar exposure to light with an intensity of 244 foot- 
candles. After 25 days the most advanced bird in the 10 foot-candle 
group was less advanced than the least developed of the 244 foot- 
candle group (Table 10). 

The analysis of the weights of the testes of the two groups of birds 
(see Fig. 11) showed the same situation as did the histological exami- 
nation. Once again there was no overlap between the birds exposed 
to the two intensities. The mean size of the testes of the birds exposed 
to the higher intensity was more than 4 times as great as that of the 



1 The age of the birds was determined with the technique described by Miller (1946). An 
incision was made in the scalp of the bird and the exposed skull examined to determine the 
degree of ossification which in turn allowed the separation of first year, from older birds. 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 



449 



birds exposed to the lower intensity. Bill pigmentation (Table 11) 
corroborates the other lines of evidence. 

The conspicuous difference between the effects of light intensities 
of 10 and 244 foot-candles during the fall contrasts sharply with the 
situation existing during the winter when, as previously described, 
these two intensities are equally effective. The significance of this 
seasonal variation in response will be discussed later. 



TABLE 11 

RELATION BETWEEN LIGHT INTENSITY AND 
BILL-PIGMENTATION AFTER 25, 16-HOUR DAYS 

(EXP. 4) 



Advances in Class 
of Bill 


Controls 


Light Intensity in Foot-Candles 


Pigmentation 


10.3 


244.0 


4 
3 
2 
1 



xxxxx 


XX 
XX 

X 


X 
XX 
X 
X 



D. THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY DURING 16-HOUR DAYS 
ON OVARIAN DEVELOPMENT 

This experiment, designed to test the reproductive response of the 
female sparrow to light of various intensities, was similar to the first 
of the experiments on males, except that, since females have a less 
pronounced photoperiodic response than males, it extended over a 
greater number of days. The females were exposed for 46 days, 16 
hours per day, to light of the 5 intensities shown in Table 1. The test 
using the lowest intensity of light was run later in the winter than the 
others (Table 12). At all times during this experiment, males were in 
the cages with the females. The controls were treated in the same 
way as the controls for the intensity experiments on males. 

Production of gonadotropic hormones, as indicated directly by the 
growth of the ovaries and indirectly by the growth of the oviducts, 



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was differentially influenced by different light intensities. As shown 
in Figs. 12 and 13 the growth of both ovaries and oviducts progressed 
with increasing intensity, but in no instance was full breeding con- 
dition reached. A photograph of the most developed reproductive 
system obtained is shown in Fig. 14. 

Although both females and males react in a qualitatively similar 
manner to light intensity, quantitatively there is a conspicuous differ- 
ence. During the winter the gonads of males exposed to light in- 
tensities of 10, 52, and 244 foot-candles showed similar degrees of 
development while the gonads of the females which were exposed to 
the same three intensities at the same time of year showed differing 
degrees of development. The range of differential response of the 
ovaries to light intensity extended throughout the entire range of 
intensities tested. 

TABLE 12 

SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTS ON THE EFFECT OF LIGHT 
INTENSITY ON OVARIAN DEVELOPMENT DURING 

16-HOUR DAYS 



Experiment started 
Days of exposure to light 
Females in cage A 
Females in cage B 
Females in cage C 
Females in cage D 
Females in cage E 
Controls 



Experiment 



1A 



IB 



1-14-46 
46 
3 
4 
3 
3 

3 



2-24-46 
46 




4 
3 



1-14-46 
86 
3 
3 
3 
3 

3 



As described in the preceding section, at all of the intensities tested, 
the gonadal development of male sparrows was greater after 46 days 
of exposure to light than after 25 days. In order to determine whether 
or not a comparable increase in days of exposure caused a similar 
gonadal development in the female, females were exposed to the various 
intensities of light 16 hours per day for 86 days and then killed for 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 451 

examination. No females were exposed to the light with an intensity 
of 0.04 foot-candles, and during the last 30 of the 86 days no males 
were present in the cages. 

After this exposure of over 12 weeks the size of the ovaries was no 
longer correlated with light intensity (Figs. 12 and 13), the birds ex- 
posed to the various intensities having reproductive organs of about 
the same size. At all light intensities both ovaries and oviducts were 
smaller after 86 days than they had been after 46 days. This fact 
corroborates the results of Polikarpova (1940) who found a similar 
regression after a prolonged exposure to light. 

There arises the question of whether or not the females in the 
present experiments reached full breeding condition at any time be- 
tween 46 and 86 days. It can almost certainly be stated that they 
did not. Complete ovarian activity has never been produced in this 
species by light despite exposures to artiflcally lengthened days for 
periods intermediate to those used in the present experiments (Riley 
and Witschi, 1938; Ringoen and Kirschbaum, 1939). 

Thus, in attempting to analyse the role of light as an environmental 
control of the breeding cycle in the English sparrow, the male should 
be the principle target of the investigator, for light alone will bring 
the male into full breeding condition while it will cause only partial 
gonadal development in the female. 

E. THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY DURING 10-HOUR DAYS 
ON TESTICULAR DEVELOPMENT 

As will be discussed in a subsequent section of this paper, a day 
length of 10 hours during November and December evoked no increase 
in size of the testes and only a very slight spermatogenic advancement. 
Since 10 hours thus appeared to be close to the shortest length of day 
which would cause gonadal progression, it was decided to test the effect 
of light of different intensities at this day length. 

Fourteen male sparrows, which for the preceding two weeks had 
been in a dark room exposed to light with an intensity of approxi- 
mately 10 foot-candles for 8 hours daily, were divided into two groups. 
Seven of the birds were placed in a wire mesh cage which was suspended 
immediately below the battery of fluorescent lamps shown in Fig. 8. 
This cage was 3 feet long and 2 feet wide, but only 1 foot deep. The 
purpose of the shallowness was to keep all parts of the cage as close 
to the source of light as possible and by so doing insure a high intensity 
of light. The seven remaining birds were placed in a cage of the usual 



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dimensions (3' x 2' x 2') in another dark room and exposed to light of 
much lower intensity (see Table 13). Both groups of birds were put 
on day lengths of 10 hours for 25 days starting December 28, 1946 and 
then killed for examination. The 3 controls were exposed as usual to 
light of approximately 10 foot-candles for 8 hours per day. 

TABLE 13 
SUMMARY OF LIGHT INTENSITY IN CAGES 





High intensity cage 


Low intensity cage 


Maximum intensity 


345 foot-candles 


75 


Minimum intensity 


155 


9 


Intensity at center of cage 


280 


26 


Mean intensity on perch 


332 


33 


Mean intensity on floor of 






cage 


172 


10 


Weighted mean of intensi- 






ties on perch and floor 


270 


25 



TABLE 14 
SPERMATOGENIC CONDITION AFTER 25, 10-HOUR DAYS 



Spermatogenic 
Class 


Controls 


Light Intensity 


25.0 f.c. 


270.0 


IV 
III 
II 
I 


X 
XX 


XX 

XXXX 

X 


XX 
XXXX 

X 



Both of the light intensities used in this experiment produced 
spermatogenic activity and the development (Table 14) caused by 25 
foot-candles was as great as that caused by 270 foot-candles. 

The mean weight of the testes of each group of experimental birds 
was over twice that of the controls (Fig. 11). Although the mean 
gonadal weight of the birds exposed to the lower intensity was slightly 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 453 

greater than that of the birds exposed to the higher intensity, the 
difference is not statistically significant. 

There was no appreciable difference in degree of bill pigmentation 
between the two groups of experimental birds. 

From these observations it is concluded that a day length of 10 
hours is sufficient to cause spermatogenic advancement and growth of 
the testes of the English sparrow during January and that at this day 
length and season there is no difference in effect between 25 and 270 
foot-candles after an exposure of 25 days. 

From the experiments reported above, it is apparent that under 
laboratory conditions, light intensity can modify the photoperiodic 
response of both male and female sparrows. The physiological and 
ecological significance of this fact will be discussed in detail after the 
effect of the primary factor in photoperiodism, i.e., the day length, 
has been considered. 

VI. THE ROLE OF DAY LENGTH 

A. REVIEW 

Although photoperiodism was originally defined as a response to 
the relative lengths of day and night, experiments designed to compare 
the effects of different photoperiodically effective day lengths, and not 
merely to demonstrate that very long or very short days evoke photo- 
periodic responses, have been made on only two species of birds, 
Pyromelana franciscana, a weaver finch from tropical Africa, and 
Sturnus vulgaris, the European starling. 

If one accepts the definition of day length for photoperiodism as 
the daily period during which sunlight of effective intensity and 
spectral distribution is available, the question of whether it is the 
absolute day length, or the change in day length which is important 
immediately arises. The answer for at least one species, the starling, 
has been supplied by Burger (1939a, 1940) who found that if male 
starlings had their daily period of light reduced to 6 hours, a subse- 
quent 3 hour increase caused no testicular activation. A 3 hour in- 
crease resulting in a day length of 12}£ hours, which is approximately 
3 hours longer than the shortest day of the year in Connecticut where 
the experiments were performed, caused, however, marked sexual 
advancement. 

Burger also found that reduction in day length will not of itself 
cause gonadal regression. On November 21, he subjected sexually 



454 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

inactive male starlings to lengthened days by adding artificial light 
for 11 hours after dark. Half of the birds were kept on these long 
days until December 18, the end of the experiment; half had their 
artifically extended days shortened 30 minutes about every third day, 
thus decreasing the length of the daily exposure to light approximately 
4 hours during the course of the experiment. Despite this reduction 
in day length, there was no difference in the gonadal condition of 
the two groups of birds; all showed full spermatogenic activity. 
Bissonnette (1931b) found, however, that a reduction of only two 
hours from a 12-, to a 10-hour day would cause regression of the testes 
in the starling. Thus it is apparent that in the male starling at least, 
increases and decreases in day length do not in themselves control 
sexual periodicity. They are effective only when the change shifts the 
day length into a period of light whose absolute length is such that it 
evokes or suppresses testicular activity. 

Burger (1940) reported that the minimum length of day necessary 
to cause complete spermatogenesis in the starling was probably a little 
less than 12^ hours. In determining this figure, however, he ran his 
experiment for only 33 days. It seems possible that a longer experi- 
ment might have caused the production of sperm during a day length 
even shorter than 12^ hours. The same author reports (1939a) that 
103/2 hours of light daily produces just the beginning of spermatogonial 
mitoses, but nothing more. The earliest observation of mature sperm 
in wild starlings (Burger, 1940) coincides with a day length of 12.3 
hours and the maximum sprematogenesis occurs when the days are 
13.5 hours long (both figures apply to Hartford, Connecticut). It 
should be noted that if mature sperm are being produced when the 
day is 12.3 hours long, most of the development of the testes must of 
necessity have occurred earlier in the year when the days were shorter. 
Increases beyond 13.5 hours of daily light do not cause as great a pro- 
portional increase in testicular activity as do similar increases in day 
lengths lying between 10 and 13 hours. 

Rollo and Domm (1943), working on a tropical weaver finch, 
Pyromelana, reported a phenomenon that has not been described in 
other seasonally breeding birds. They found that the optimum daily 
period of light was 13 to 14 hours, but that longer as well as shorter 
days retarded the production of nuptial plumage.' The inhibiting 
effect of very long days may be related to the fact that Pyromelana 
lives in the tropics where days longer than 14 hours do not occur. 



1 The photoperiodic response in this case was measured in terms of feather growth rather 
than gonadal growth, but in weaver finches the growth of nuptial plumage like that of the 
gonads is under the influence of gonadotropic hormones. 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 



455 



Although in some passerine birds it seems well established that it is 
not the change in day length, but the absolute day length which is 
the critical factor, the fact remains that in nature the period of light 
changes only by a few minutes per day. Rowan (1938:386) says that, 
"... in juncos complete normality depends on slight, progressive 
advances in the length of illumination, longer jumps affecting the birds 
adversely and resulting in complete irregularity." Bissonnette (1936: 
377) states, however, "With starlings a maximum effect and consistent 
results were obtained by giving large and immediate increases in daily 
periods of light with electric light, rather than by gradually increasing 
periods, even in autumn when daily periods of daylight decrease." 



TABLE 15 
SPERMATOGENIC CONDITION AFTER 18 DAYS 



Spermatogenic 
Class 


Controls 


Hours of Light per Day 


10 


12 


14 


16 


24 


VI 

V 

IV 

III 

II 

I 


xxxx 


XX 
XXX 


X 
XXX 

X 


X 

XX 
XX 


XX 
XX 
XX 


X 

XXX 

X 



B. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DAY LENGTHS 
ON GONADAL DEVELOPMENT 

The experiment about to be described was designed to obtain a 
quantitative evaluation of the relationship between day length and 
degree of gonadal development in English sparrows. Twenty-six 
female and 26 male sparrows were placed in a dark room on November 
12, 1946 and exposed to light of approximately 10 foot-candles for 8 
hours daily. On November 19, these birds were divided into 5 groups, 
each containing 5 or 6 males and 5 or 6 females. Each group was 
placed in a separate cage and illuminated by a single 40 watt "Day- 
light" fluorescent lamp which was suspended overhead at such a 
distance that the weighted mean of the light intensities on the perch 
and on the floor of the cage, measured as previously described, was 



y 



456 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

between 25 and 27 foot-candles. The cages were placed in separate 
dark rooms and lighted for 10, 12, 14, 16, and 24 hours per day re- 
spectively. The controls, 4 males and 4 females, as usual, were exposed 
8 hours per day to light with an intensity of approximately 10 foot- 
candles. The males were killed for examination after 18 days and the 
females, after 30 days. 

As shown by Fig. 15 testicular size increased directly with day 
length. The maximum increase in effectiveness came between day 
lengths of 12 and 14 hours, the 8-hour increase from 16 to 24 hours 
of light per day having only }/i the effect of the 2-hour increase from 
12 to 14 hours. 

From Table 15, which summarizes the spermatogenic condition of 
the birds at the end of the experiment, it will be noted that the gonads 
of two of the five birds exposed to 10-hour days contained a few 
spermatocytes. Therefore, even a day as short as 10-hours is long 
enough to cause limited spermatogenic advancement in the English 
sparrow during the fall. The increase in day length from 12 to 14 
hours caused the largest change in spermatogenic condition. Although 
only one of the 12-hour birds showed anything more advanced than 
spermatocytes, some of the 14-hour birds had mature sperm. There 
was little difference in the spermatogenic condition of the birds exposed 
to day lengths of 14, 16, and 24 hours. 

Neither 10- nor 12-hour days caused the production of sufficient 
testosterone to produce a noticeable darkening of the bill (Table 16). 
There did, however, appear to be somewhat greater production of sex 
hormones at day lengths of 16 to 24 hours than at 14 hours. 

At the end of the experiments using different day lengths, two male 
sparrows which had not been used in any experiments were still 
available. Both birds had been captured during the first week in 
December and had been kept on a day length of 8 hours with a light 
intensity of approximately 10 foot-candles from the time of their 
capture. As previously discussed, a day length of 10 hours is sufficient 
to cause some testicular growth in a period of 25 days. Therefore, it 
was thought desirable to determine the effect of 10-hour days over a 
longer period. 

The two males were placed in one of the cages previously used in 
the 10-hour intensity experiment and exposed to light with an in- 
tensity of 270 foot-candles (see Table 13) for 46 days starting January 
23, 1947. No controls were used because no males captured before the 
winter solstice were available. At the end of the experiment both birds 
showed very marked gonadal advancement. One, in full breeding 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 



457 



X 



condition, had testes as fully developed as those obtained in any of 
the experiments reported in this paper and the other, although less 
developed, had begun to form spermatids. 

Despite the absence of controls and the small number of birds 
involved, this experiment shows that it is at least possible for the male 
sparrow to reach full breeding condition on a day length of 10 hours. 
The ecological significance of this fact will be discussed later. 

TABLE 16 

CORRELATION BETWEEN DAY LENGTH AND BILL 
PIGMENTATION AFTER 18 DAYS 



Changes in 






Hours of Light per Day 




Class of 


Controls 








Bill Pigmentation 


10 


12 


14 


16 


24 


4 












X 


3 










X 


XX 


2 








XX 


XXX 


XX 


1 








XXX 


X 







xxxx 


xxxxx 


xxxxx 




X 





As can be seen from Figs. 16 and 17 the day lengths which evoked 
the greatest change in rate of ovarian growth were longer than those 
which had a similar effect on the testes. The ovaries of the 10-hour 
birds were the same size as the ovaries of the controls. The 12- and 
14-hour birds showed a small amount of ovarian growth with no 
significant difference between the two. The 16-hour birds had ovaries 
twice as large as those of the controls, while the 24-hour birds had 
ovaries four times as large as those of the controls. The oviducts 
showed the same general picture except that the relative growth at all 
day lengths was greater. The slight increase in size of the oviducts of 
the birds exposed to 10-hour days may indicate that even a day length 
of 10 hours is sufficiently long to cause the production of some estrogen. 

Kirschbaum and Ringoen (1936) found that exposure to short days 
during winter and spring will not completely suppress testicular ac- 
tivity in the English sparrow. During January, February, and March 
they gradually reduced the day length to which 7 male sparrows were 
exposed to 3 hours. When the birds were examined in April, although 



X 



458 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

none showed mature spermatozoa, the gonads of one had increased in 
size and the gonads of three others showed spermatogonial mitoses 
without increase in size. Thus in male English sparrows there is an 
internal rhythm which even greatly reduced day length does not 
completely suppress. 

In the present investigation an experiment to determine whether or 
not short days will completely suppress seasonal gonadal growth in 
females was carried out. The experiment was run during two winters, 
1945-46, and 1946-47. In each year the birds received the same ex- 
posure to light and were killed on the same dates. In the following 
discussion the results obtained in the two years are combined. Starting 
December 21, female sparrows were placed in a dark room and exposed 
for 8 hours daily to light with an intensity of approximately 10 foot- 
candles. Six birds were killed for examination on January 15, 8 on 
February 28, and 6 on April 9. There was no perceptible difference 
in degree of sexual development between the three groups of birds. 
The mean ovarian weight of the birds examined on January 15, was 
12.7 mg.; on February 28, it was 13.1 mg. ; and on April 9, it was 
12.6 mg. There is no statistically significant difference between the 
three mean weights. Thus, any intrinsic rhythm of seasonal ovarian 
growth that may have been present was not expressed between the 
winter solstice and the first week of April when the birds were kept 
on 8-hour days. 

The experiments reported above show that in both male and female 
English sparrows, gonadal growth increases directly with increasing 
day length. In the male the greatest increase in relative gonadal 
growth occurs between day lengths of 12 and 14 hours, there being 
relatively little difference between the testicular growth caused by 
day lengths of 14, 16, and 24 hours. A day length of 10 hours is 
sufficient to bring the male to full breeding condition. In the female 
the greatest increase in gonadal growth occurs between day lengths of 
16 and 24 hours. No ovarian growth is caused by either 8-hour or 
10-hour days. 

DISCUSSION 

A. MODE OF ACTION OF LIGHT 

The fact that in the English sparrow different intensities of light 
evoke different degrees of gonadal development supports the theory 
that light itself produces the photoperiodic response. If wakefulness 
were the critical factor, all intensities above that necessary to keep a 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 459 

bird awake should have the same effect. In each of the intensity 
experiments reported in this paper, although the birds were all awake 
for the same period daily, gonadal development increased with in- 
creasing intensity of light. Therefore, it seems inescapable that the 
gonadal development was controlled directly by light because light 
intensity was the only variable. 

The differential response to light intensities which are adequate for 
vision and normal activity can be explained in terms of the theory put 
forward by Benoit and Ott (1944) which suggests that in birds, the 
site of the photoperiodic excitation is located within the brain median 
to the eyes and that the light acts by passing through the transparent 
material of the eye, through the thin bony wall of the skull and into 
the region of the pituitary and there, by photochemical stimulation 
either of the hypothalamus or the pituitary itself, evoking the pro- 
duction of gonadotropic hormones by the hypophysis. The quantity 
of light which could pass through the tissues of the orbit, the skull, 
and the brain and then stimulate an internally located receptor would 
increase directly with increasing intensity. Because of the relative 
opacity of the tissues of the head, long after light intensity has passed 
the visual threshold it should still evoke a differential response from a 
light-sensitive locus within the brain. 



B. RANGE OF LIGHT INTENSITIES WHICH PRODUCE A DIFFERENTIAL 
RESPONSE FROM THE PITUITARY 

It has been shown that in the fall, 244 foot-candles are much more 
effective than 10 foot-candles in evoking testicular growth, but that 
in the winter the two intensities are equally effective. This seasonal 
difference in photoperiodic response could be explained either by 
seasonal variation in the sensitivity of the pituitary to light, or by 
seasonal variation in the sensitivity of the gonads to gonadotropic 
hormones. Such a seasonal variation in gonadal sensitivity has been 
demonstrated in the female sparrow (Kirschbaum, Pfiefer et al, 1939), 
but not in the male. If such a situation does exist in the male, however, 
it follows that when the sensitivity of the testis to gonadotropic 
hormones is high, the range of light intensities which evoke differential 
testicular growth should be greater than when the sensitivity is low. 
Therefore, the similar growths shown by the testes of the sparrows 
exposed to the three highest intensities of light during the winter may 
well be due, not to the fact that the amount of gonadotropic hormones 
being produced in the pituitary by the three different intensities was 






460 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

the same, but to the fact that at all three intensities the quantity of 
hormones produced equalled or exceeded the amount necessary to 
allow the gonads to grow at their maximum rate. The point, of course, 
cannot be settled until further evidence is available. 

During the fall, however, it was definitely established that 244 foot- 
candles were more effective than 10 foot-candles in causing pituitary 
secretion of gonadotropic hormones in the male so that it can be stated 
definitely that at least at certain times of the year the pituitary of the 
male English sparrow responds differentially to light intensities higher 
than 10 foot-candles. 

In the case of the female even during winter the differential response 
of the pituitary to light extended throughout the range of intensities 
tested (0.04, 0.7, 10, 52, and 244 foot-candles). This means that the 
female pituitary is affected by differences in intensity beyond the 52 
foot-candle level. 

From the discussion above, it would appear probable that in both 
sexes of the English sparrow the differential response of the pituitary 
to light intensity extends beyond 52 foot-candles, but that in the male 
in winter the hormonal output caused by 10 foot-candles is sufficient 
to produce maximal development, consequently higher intensities 
cause no further acceleration of testicular growth, while in the female 
the differential gonadal response is apparent even at relatively high 
intensities because of the relative insensitivity of the ovaries to gonado- 
tropic hormones. 

C. THE EFFECTS OF LIGHT OF VERY LOW INTENSITY 

Since in avian photoperiodism the primary factor is the production 
of gonadotropic hormones, in considering the effects of low intensities 
of light, two principal points are to be determined: first, the minimum 
light intensity which will cause the production of a quantity of 
hormones sufficient to bring the animal into full breeding condition; 
and second, the minimum light intensity which will produce a quantity 
of hormones sufficient to have a measurable effect on the gonads. 
There is very little quantitative evidence from which to determine 
these two points for seasonally breeding birds. 

Rollo and Domm (1943) found that, given time, any light intensity 
adequate for survival will cause the growth of nuptial plumage in the 
male African weaver finch, Pyromelana. From their work, however, 
the range of light intensity adequate for survival seems remarkably 
restricted when compared with the range of intensity of sunlight. 
They reported that an intensity of 3% foot-candles caused convulsions 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 461 

and death because it was too low, and that an intensity of only 216 
foot-candles had a similar effect because it was too high. No ill effects 
were observed between 7 3^2 and 126 foot-candles. 

Bissonnette's (1931a) experiments on the role of exercise in the 
photoperiodic response of the starling yielded some incidental data on 
the effects of light of low intensity. He found that a 3-candle-power 
incandescent lamp at a distance of 6 to 8 feet (producing within the 
cage an intensity calculated by Burger (1939a) to be not more than 
0.5 foot-candles) caused no gonadal development in male starlings. 
In this instance, however, the light of controlled intensity was applied 
only after sunset, sunlight being used during the day, and during the 
period of added light the birds were forced by mechanical means to 
exercise. These facts make the significance of the observation un- 
certain. In 1932, Bissonnette reported the production of sperm in the 
starling when day length was extended by the use of artificial light with 
an intensity of 2.8 foot-candles — once again, however, the artificial 
light was applied only after dark. 

In the experiments reported in this paper, it was found that in 46 
sixteen-hour days a light intensity of 0.7 foot-candles was sufficient to 
cause the English sparrow to attain full spermatogenic activity. This 
intensity is lower than that which caused a similar response from 
either of the two species discussed above and is the lowest which has 
been reported to evoke the production of mature sperm in any season- 
ally breeding bird. From the marked gonadal development called 
forth by 0.7 foot-candles, it seems possible that light of still lower 
intensity might bring the male to full breeding condition. 

It was also found that during the winter, 25 days of exposure to 
light of 0.04 foot-candles for 16 hours per day had no effect on the 
testes of English sparrows. The same intensity and day length for a 
period of 46 days, however, brought the most advanced of 3 males to 
the beginning of spermatid formation, although the other two were 
no more developed than the most advanced of the controls. The 
46-day exposure also caused darkening of the bill in 2 of the 3 males. 
Similarly during the winter, a 46-day exposure of 4 females to light 
of 0.04 foot-candles 16 hours per day caused the mean weight of their 
ovaries to increase approximately 40 per cent beyond that of the 
controls. 

These limited responses make it apparent that although 16 hours 
per day of light with an intensity of 0.04 foot-candles will cause the 
production of a small quantity of gonadotropic hormones by the 
pituitary, this production is insufficient to produce full breeding 
condition. 



462 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

d. the effect of variation of light intensity in nature 

One purpose of the experiments reported in this paper was to de- 
termine the effect on the English sparrow's photoperiodic response of 
the normal variation of light intensity in nature. In the following 
discussion, only males will be considered, because they, unlike the 
females, can be brought to full breeding condition by light alone. 
Evidence presented earlier in this paper indicates that for female 
English sparrows, behavioral factors are as important as light in the 
timing of reproductive activity. Since at the present time the relative 
importance of light when compared with the other factors which may 
effect the time of onset of ovarian activity is not known, a discussion 
of the modification of the effect of day length by light intensity would 
be of little significance in the case of the female. 

In this discussion there are three main factors, to be considered: 
(1) the range of light intensities which causes a differential photo- 
periodic response, (2) the range of light intensities which occurs under 
natural conditions, and (3) the ways in which an animal's habits and 
habitat may affect its exposure to sunlight. 

As reported above, during the winter under laboratory conditions 
artificial light of approximately the same spectral constitution as 
sunlight with an intensity of 10 foot-candles produces maximal tes- 
ticular development, but an intensity of 0.7 foot-candles is sufficient 
to evoke the production of sperm. Therefore, it may be stated first, 
that as long as the intensity of sunlight does not fall below 10 foot- 
candles, its variation has no effect on the photoperiodic response of 
the male sparrow, and second, that even when the intensity of sunlight 
falls as low as 0.7 foot-candles, the photoperiodic response is still being 
evoked, but at a reduced rate. 

It should be noted that the light intensities which are mentioned in 
the preceding paragraph are not measurements of the amount of light 
entering the eye of the sparrow, but rather they are measurements of 
the amount of light impinging on the flat surface of the photometer. 
Nevertheless, these intensities are proportional to the light which 
enters the eye of the sparrow and are a valid representation of the 
quantity of light falling in the area in which the sparrow is active. 

When one attempts to determine the variation of light intensity 
under natural conditions, many difficulties of course present them- 
selves, for the range of intensity of sunlight is tremendous (Atkins 
and Poole, 1936). Not only does it change seasonally, daily, and 
hourly, but it varies greatly from place to place within an animal's 
environment. 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 463 

Through the kindness of Mr. Earnest Hand, Director of the Bureau 
of Solar Radiation of the United States Weather Service, the original 
pyrheliometer records for the vicinity of Boston were made available. 
From these records it was found that during the middle of the day, 
the intensity of sunlight in an unshaded area did not fall below 10 
foot-candles. In order to supplement the pyrheliometer records with 
measurements more readily comparable to those made in the labor- 
atory during the experiments reported in this paper, numerous readings 
were made with the Weston Illumination Meter whose characteristics 
have previously been described. All measurements were made with 
the photronic cell held horizontally at ground level in places where 
sparrows were frequently observed. 

The lowest intensity measured, except near sunrise and sunset, was 
recorded at 9:45 a.m., January 21, 1947 during a sudden violent snow 
squall which was accompanied by remarkably low, thick clouds. In 
this instance, a reading of 48 foot-candles was obtained. The period 
of relative darkness lasted, however, only about five minutes. Light 
intensities measured during a snow storm on an unusually dark day 
are shown in Fig. 18. It will be observed that the lowest light intensity 
recorded during the early afternoon was 61 foot-candles and that lower 
intensities occurred only toward sunset. 

It is difficult to ascertain to what extent the low intensities which 
occur during the middle of the day may be further reduced by shade 
in some parts of the sparrow's environment. On a sunny summer day, 
a sparrow might hop from a densely shaded spot beneath a shrub where 
the light intensity was perhaps 15 foot-candles, into the direct sunlight 
where the light intensity was as high as 8,000 to 9,000 foot-candles. 
The photoperiodic response of the sparrow takes place mainly during 
January, February, and March and at this time of year, because of 
the absence of leaves and the reduced intensity of sunlight, the contrast 
between shaded and unshaded areas is smaller than during the summer. 
The sparrow is a bird of the open and even an overcast sky is suf- 
ficiently luminous in the winter in the vicnity of Boston to keep the 
light intensity in the open shade far above 10 foot-candles at all times 
of day except early morning and late afternoon. It is safe to say, 
therefore, that in New England, with the exception of certain instances 
such as a sparrow's going into a barn during the middle of the day, 
light intensity ordinarily modifies the photoperiodic response of the 
male sparrow only near sunrise and sunset. 

The English sparrow is a wide-ranging species. It occurs as far 
north as the Arctic Circle (Dementiev, 1934) and it is entirely possible 



464 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

that during the winter at such a high latitude, fog or heavy clouds 
might reduce the light to an intensity below 10 foot-candles during 
the middle of the day. The relatively low intensity of winter sunlight 
at high latitudes may, however, have little effect on the photoperiodic 
response of the sparrows living there, because these birds may be 
adapted to respond photoperiodically to a lower range of light in- 
tensities than members of the same species living as far south as New 
England. 

From the facts discussed above, it is apparent that in the vicinity 
of Boston during the winter the intensity of sunlight falls below the 
level which evokes the maximum photoperiodic response from the 
male sparrow only near sunrise and sunset. The range of light in- 
tensities which evokes a differential photoperiodic response is minute 
when compared with the total range in intensity of sunlight and the 
pyrheliometer records of the Bureau of Solar Radiation are recorded 
on a scale that is of little use in evaluating the low intensities of light 
near sunrise and sunset. Therefore, numerous measurements of the 
variation in the intensity of sunlight at sunrise and sunset were made 
with a Weston Illumination Meter during the winters of 1945-46 and 
1946-47. 

Light intensities recorded at dawn on a cloudless winter day are 
shown in Fig. 19. On this day the light intensity passed 1 foot-candle 
about 25 minutes before sunrise and 10 foot-candles about 10 minutes 
before sunrise. The diminution of intensity of sunlight at sunset 
follows a curve similar to that shown by the increase in light intensity 
at sunrise. Thus on a clear winter day in the vicinity of Boston, the 
length of time during which the intensity of light is greater than 1.0 
foot-candle may exceed the time from sunrise to sunset by as much 
as 50 minutes, and the length of time during which the intensity is 
more than 10 foot-candles may exceed the time from sunrise to sunset 
by as much as 20 minutes. These figures compare favorably with 
those of Greulach (1942) who made some similar measurements. 

The diminution in light intensity at dusk on a cloudy winter day 
is shown in Fig. 20. On this day the light intensity fell below 10 foot- 
candles approximately 10 minutes before sunset and fell below 1 foot- 
candle approximately 8 minutes after sunset. 

The changes in the effective photoperiodic day length caused by the 
variation in light intensity at dawn and twilight during a clear day 
and a cloudy day are summarized in Table^.17. It will be observed 
that the difference between a clear day and an overcast day may cause 
an alteration in the effective photoperiodic day length almost as great 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 



465 



as the seasonal change in the length of day during the month of 
January. 

Presumably when sparrows are asleep very little light of low in- 
tensity could pass through their closed eyes and stimulate the photo- 
sensitive system within the brain, but when they are awake and have 
their eyes open, even if they have already gone to roost, light of low 
intensity could still cause photoperiodic stimulation. Therefore, unless 
one actually knows when the birds open their eyes in the morning and 
close them at night, it cannot be stated with any precision to what 

TABLE 17 

MODIFICATION OF EFFECTIVE DAY LENGTH 
BY CLOUDINESS 





Cloudy 


Clear 






day 


day 


Difference 




Dec. 30 


Jan. 17 




Day length 1 


9 hr. 07 min. 


9 28 


21 


Period with light intensity >10.0 f.c. 


8 47 


9 48 


1 01 


Period with light intensity >0.7 f.c. 


9 23 


10 18 


55 


Difference between day length and 








period with light intensity >10.0 








f.c. 


—20 


20 


40 


Difference between day length and 








period with light intensity >0.7 f.c. 


16 


50 


34 



1 day length = sunrise to sunset 
Difference in day length between Jan. 1, and Jan. 31, = 48 minutes 



extent the irregular day-to-day variation in the photoperiodically 
effective day length caused by cloudiness can alter the time of year 
at which the male reaches full spermatogenic activity. In the present 
study, it was found that the effective day length for the sparrow starts 
before sunrise. During January, 1947, sparrows were repeatedly seen 
and heard before sunrise when the light intensity was less than 2 foot- 
candles. In the late afternoon, however, the end of the effective day 
length is not readily determined. During the winter months, the birds 
go to roost before sunset when the light intensity is usually far in 
excess of 10 foot -candles. For those individual birds which roost in 
barns or other buildings, the time of going to roost probably marks 



466 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

the end of the effective day. Most of the sparrows in and about 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, however, roost in the ivy on the sides of 
buildings. During the winter this ivy has no leaves and as a result, 
most of the sparrows roosting in it occupy relatively exposed positions. 
Consequently, for them the effective day length is ended not by the 
time of going to roost, but either by the time when the birds close 
their eyes to sleep, or by the time when light intensity falls below the 
threshold for the photoperiodic response. Unfortunately, whether or 
not the birds close their eyes before the light intensity falls below the 
photoperiodically effective level has not been determined in this study. 
All that can be stated is that if during the winter the birds after going 
to roost keep their eyes open until the light falls below 0.7 foot-candles, 
the difference in light intensity between cloudy and clear days may 
cause almost as great difference in the effective day length of two 
consecutive days as the seasonal change in length of day during an 
entire month in early winter. 

From this it can be speculated that in a year in which most of the 
days were clear, it would be possible for male sparrows to reach repro- 
ductive competence at an earlier date than in a year in which most 
of the days were cloudy. 

As previously discussed, during the fall the range of light intensities 
which evoke a differential gonadal growth is much greater than in the 
winter. Therefore, it is of interest that Riley (1937) reports a situation 
which is perhaps best interpreted in terms of seasonal variation in the 
intensity of sunlight. In the fall, testicular size in the sparrow is at 
or near its minimum, but Riley states, ". . . . at the end of the so- 
called Indian summer in November, the house sparrow [English 
sparrow] in Iowa experiences a mock breeding season. The bill darkens 
and the testes show enlargement." At this time of year there are quite 
numerous spermatogenial mitoses in wild birds killed for examination, 
but the recrudescence is only temporary and the testes soon regress to 
their normal winter condition. Since it is generally agreed that the 
gonadal cycle of the sparrow is independent of environmental temper- 
ature, this testicular activity is probably caused by some factor other 
than the warm weather of Indian summer. It is possible that the clear 
weather at this season causes an extension of the effective photo- 
periodic day length and that the lengthened days cause the slight 
gonadal recrudescence. 

This "mock breeding season" is of no ecological significance at the 
latitude of Iowa where the observations were made, but it is of theo- 
retical importance in that it gives evidence that seasonal variation in 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 467 

light intensity can effect the reproductive physiology of the English 
sparrow and further it suggests the possibility that under favorable 
climatic conditions, i.e., at low latitudes, the sparrow might be capable 
of breeding during the late fall. 

The Smithsonia?i Meteorological and Physical Tables give the in- 
tensity of zenithal moonlight as 0.02 foot-candles. In the experiments 
reported above, it was found that an intensity of 0.04 foot-candles 
produced only very slight gonadal growth. Therefore, even if male 
sparrows were awake and as a result had their eyes open for several 
hours per night during the light of the moon, their photoperiodic 
response would not be appreciably accelerated. 

It is apparent that the importance of the effect of variation in the 
intensity of light in nature on the photoperiodic response of the 
English sparrow, cannot definitely be established but the differential 
gonadal response to various light intensities shown by English sparrows 
clearly has an important application to laboratory experimentation. 
^Yhen this effect is ignored, experimental results are open to question. 
As an example, Perry (1938) exposed juvenile English sparrows to 10 
hours of light from a 25-watt incandescent lamp added daily after 
dark for 60 days and found that this exposure resulted in no more 
gonadal growth than an exposure of three weeks to 10 hours daily of 
added light from an ultraviolet sunlamp. From this he concluded that 
under natural conditions, ultraviolet radiation is an important stimu- 
lant to gonadal activity. The "Sperti" sunlamps he used, however, 
have a much higher luminous intensity than 25-watt incandescent 
bulbs. Consequently, his results might well be explained in terms of 
intensity rather than wave-length. 

In the preceding discussion it has been shown that although the 
variation of light intensity in nature can cause a difference between 
the effective length of two consecutive days which is as great as the 
seasonal change in day length during the month of January, the 
ecological significance of this fact cannot at the present time satis- 
factorily be determined. Despite this fact the differential effect of 
various light intensities is sufficiently marked that it must always be 
borne in mind in laboratory experimentation. 

E. THE EFFECT OF DAY LENGTH ON SEASON OF REPRODUCTION 

It has been demonstrated that there is a correlation between day 
length and sexual periodicity in many animals, but the extent of this 
correlation and its significance in the determination of the time of 



468 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

breeding under natural conditions has not been precisely established 
for any vertebrate. 

Baker (1938b) after a comprehensive survey of the breeding seasons' 
of Old World birds which have a wide latitudinal distribution says, 
p. 583: 

"Despite all the intensely interesting experiments on the effects of 
light on the reproduction of birds, . . . clearly length of day stands in 
no direct and obvious relation to the breeding seasons of birds under 
natural conditions. One is forced to the conclusion that light is only 
one of the factors concerned. ... An internal cause affecting (but not 
completely controlling) the onset of the breeding season is the internal 
rhythm, which is sometimes so strong as to cause a southern- 
hemisphere bird to breed at the locally "wrong" time of year when 
introduced in the northern hemisphere (Baker and Ranson, 1938). 
Internal rhythm probably often plays an important part in determining 
the onset of the breeding season a considerable time before the external 
proximate causes stimulating reproduction are beginning to be ef- 
fective." 

As previously discussed, the English sparrow shows a seasonal vari- 
ation in its response to artificially lengthened days. On the basis of 
this fact, Riley (1936:332) said, "In adult male sparrows an intrinsic 
sexual rhythm seems to be established which, through environmental 
factors merely becomes synchronized with the seasons." There can 
be no doubt, however, that in nature, as well as in the laboratory, day 
length does profoundly effect gonadal activity in this species. A 
"natural experiment" has been performed by the introduction of the 
English sparrow into New Zealand where its season of reproduction 
has changed to conform with spring in the southern hemisphere 
(Baker, 1938a). 

In the present study it was shown that day lengths of 10, 12, 14, 
16, and 24 hours cause progressively greater gonadal development, 
with the largest difference in response being between 12 and 14 hours. 
Thus, the longer the day, the stronger the photoperiodic effect. It 
was also shown in the present study, however, that the male sparrow 
can reach full breeding condition during the winter even when kept 
in the laboratory on day lengths as short as 10 hours. Moreover, under 



1 In this study, Baker correlated egg-season with day length, because data on the time of 
egg-laying is readily available in the literature. Although Baker does not discuss this point, 
it should be noted that to determine the relationship between day length and time of breeding 
of a species of bird, one should consider not the egg-season, but the time of year when the sex 
which has the most pronounced photoperiodic response reaches reproductive competence. 
The latter time may precede the former by as much as a month. 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 469 

natural conditions, male sparrows will attain full spermatogenic ac- 
tivity at a time of year when the length of day has not yet reached 
12 hours. In Oklahoma (Allender, 1936b), multiplication of the germ 
cells begins by the first of January (day length, 10 hours); primary 
spermatocytes appear by the middle of January, and by the first of 
February (day length, 103/2 hours) "all stages of development of the 
spermatozoa are present and the sperm are forming bundles". By the 
first of March (day length, 113^3 hours) full spermatogenic activity has 
been achieved. Thus mature sperm are present when the days are 
only 10J^ hours long and full breeding condition has been reached 
before the day length reaches 12 hours. 

In the latitude of Oklahoma, days are longer than 10j!/2 hours for 
almost 9 months of the year. Consequently, during % of the year 
the day length is sufficient to allow the sparrow to produce mature 
spermatozoa, and for the remaining }/% of the year, since spermato- 
gonial mitoses can occur when the days are only 10 hours long, the^ 
day length is sufficient to allow some gonadal activity. The sparrow 
of course does not experience gonadal activity throughout the year; in 
the north temperate zone, its principal time of breeding extends from 
April through July. Therefore it seems reasonable to assume that 
under natural conditions, an internal control of the time of repro- 
duction is important in this species. 

The male English sparrow loses reproductive competence near the 
end of July and from that time until the middle of November or the 
first of December it is refractory to increased day length. Immature 
male sparrows experience a similar, but partial, refractory period ex- 
tending at least to the first of December. Thus for 4 months of the 
year, the internally controlled condition of the male sparrow causes it 
to be relatively independent of day length. Since testicular develop- 
ment will occur when the day length is only 10 hours, in latitudes 
where days shorter than 10 hours do not occur, gonadal development 
probably begins as soon as the refractory period ends. In such a case, 
the initiation of gonadal activity is internally controlled rather than 
externally controlled. Farther north where days shorter than 10 hours 
do occur, the initiation of gonadal development may be caused by 
increased day length, but even there, only a small segment of the 
period of increasing day length is necessary to bring males of this 
species to reproductive competence, because males (except in the ex- 
treme north of the range of the species) are usually in full breeding 
condition by the vernal equinox. Thus over much of the range of the 






• 



470 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

species, the increase in day length between March 21 and June 21 
has no further effect on the male. 

The fact that the male sparrow is photoperiodically stimulated by 
day lengths as short as 10 hours and may reach full reproductive 
condition before the days are 12 hours long reduces the importance of 
"long days", i.e., days with more than 12 hours of light, yet since the 
sparrow breeds in the spring, it clearly does not breed when day length 
is decreasing; and presumably, if it is like the starling, it is not affected 
by change in day length, but by absolute day length. Moreover, the 
internally controlled refractory period plays an important role in de- 
termining the season of breeding. Nevertheless, all this does not mean 
that the photoperiodic response is unimportant in this species. On 
the contrary, it is of great importance, because as the days become 
longer, the photoperiodic response results in an increasing production 
of gonadotropic hormones which insures that all male sparrows will 
reach full breeding condition sometime during the spring rather than 
at some other time of year, and this in turn determines that the 
refractory period will extend from midsummer to late fall. Thus, the 
progressively lengthened days in the spring reinforce the internal 
rhythm and synchronize it with seasonal environmental changes. As 
a result, in the temperate zone the season of reproduction of this 
species is determined in large measure by day length. 

Near the equator where seasonal variations in day length are slight, 
the internal reproductive rhythm would, however, be only slightly 
affected by changes in length of day. As a result of this relative inde- 
pendence of environmental control, members of the sparrow population 
in the tropics could gradually get out of phase with the solar cycle, 
and eventually individuals would be in breeding condition in every 
month of the year — presumably each bird would have but a single 
breeding period each year. This theory can account for the fact that 
in Ceylon, latitude approximately 9.5° N., English sparrow sbreed 
throughout the year (Baker, 1938a). 

Thus, in the English sparrow day length reinforces the internal 
reproductive rhythm and insures that all males reach reproductive 
competence in the spring. This spring breeding season determines the 
period of reproductive refractoriness and the end of the refractory 
period determines the time when the sparrow can respond sexually to 
environmental stimuli. Consequently in this species the time of re- 
production appears to be controlled by the inter-relationship between 
seasonal change in day length and internal reproductive rhythm. 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 471 

SUMMARY 

1. The effects of light intensity and day length on reproduction in 
the English sparrow were studied quantitatively in the laboratory and 
the ecological significance of these factors in controlling the breeding 
season of this species in nature was considered. 

2. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of 5 different intensities 
of light, 0.04, 0.7, 10, 52, and 244 foot-candles was obtained by ex- 
posing sparrows to these light intensities during uniform day lengths 
of 16 hours. In the male 10 foot-candles was more effective than 
either of the lower intensities and was as effective as either 52 or 244 
foot-candles in causing gonadal development in the winter. During 
the fall, however, 10 foot-candles was much less effective than 244 
foot-candles, indicating a seasonal variation in response to light in- 
tensity. The minimum light intensity which caused full spermatogenic 
activity was 0.7 foot-candles, but slight testicular activity was caused 
by 0.04 foot-candles. 

3. Experiments testing the effect of the light intensities listed above 
during 16-hour days showed that in the female, as in the male, gonadal 
growth increased with increasing intensity. These experiments, 
limited to the winter, showed that after 46 days, the highest intensity 
used (244 foot-candles) caused more ovarian development than any 
of the lower intensities. By 86 days, however, gonadal regression had 
set in and ovarian size was no longer correlated with light intensity. 
This confirms the observations of previous investigators that light 
alone will not cause full ovarian development in this species. 

4. The effect of light intensity during uniformly short days was 
investigated and it was found that 270 foot-candles was no more 
effective than 25 foot-candles in causing testicular development after 
an exposure of 25 days to 10 hours of light per day during winter. 

5. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of different lengths of 
day was obtained by exposing male and female sparrows to day lengths 
of 10, 12, 14, 16, and 24 hours at a uniform light intensity. In the 
male, gonadal development increased with day length. During an 
exposure of 18 days the greatest relative increase in testicular response 
occurred between day lengths of 12 and 14 hours; days longer than 
14 hours produced little further development. During an exposure of 
46 days, however, it was shown that males could be brought to full 
breeding condition in winter by a day length of only 10 hours. In the 
female, as in the male, gonadal growth increased with increased day 
length, but during a 30 day exposure the greatest relative increase in 



472 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

ovarian development occurred between day lengths of 16 and 24 hours 
and no ovarian growth occurred on day lengths of 8 or 10 hours. 
During an experiment lasting approximately 3}^ months females kept 
on a uniform day length of 8 hours showed no gonadal growth. 

6. The difference in the degree of reproductive response of males 
and females to light is probably explained by the fact that the testis 
responds to lower concentrations of gonadotropic hormones than does 
the ovary, rather than by a difference in the sensitivity of the male 
and female pituitaries to light. 

7. Light intensity in nature falls low enough to modify the photo- 
periodic response of the sparrow only near sunrise and sunset. The 
presence or absence of clouds may cause a difference between the 
photoperiodically effective length of consecutive days which is as great 
as the seasonal change in day length during the month of January. 

8. In the English sparrow an internal rhythm is important in de- 
termining the breeding season. Increased day length in the spring 
reinforces this internal rhythm and insures that all males reach repro- 
ductive competence in the spring rather than at some other season. 
The time of onset of breeding determines the onset of the reproductive 
refractory period. Consequently, the spring breeding season causes 
this refractory period to occur during the fall and early winter. The 
end of the refractory period in turn determines the time when the 
sparrow can again respond to day length. As a result, in this species 
the season of reproduction is controlled by the interrelationship be- 
tween the seasonal change in day length and the internal reproductive 
rhythm. 



BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 473 

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BARTHOLOMEW: LIGHT EXPERIMENTS WITH SPARROWS 475 

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1938. Comparative effects of light stimulation and administration of 
gonadotropic hormones on female sparrows. Endocrinology, 
23:618-624. 

RlNGOEN, A. R. 

1942. Effects of continuous green and red light illumination on gonadal 
response in the English sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus). 
Am. J. Anat., 71:99-116. 

Ringoen, A. R. and Kirschbaum, A. 

1939. Factors responsible for the sexual cycle in the English sparrow, 
Passer domesticus (Linnaeus). Ocular stimulation and spermato- 
genesis; effect of increased light ration on ovarian development. 
J. Exp. Zool., 80:173-191. 

Rollo, Marie and Domm, L. V. 

1943. Light requirements of the weaver finch. 1. Light period and 
intensity. Auk, 60:357-367. 



476 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

Rowan, W. 

1938. Light and seasonal reproduction in animals. Biol. Rev., 13: 
374-402. 

WlTSCHI, E. 

1936. The bill of the sparrow as an indicator for the male sex hormone. 

I. Sensitivity. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol, and Med., 33:484-486. 

Witschi, E. and Keck, W. N. 

1 935 . Differential effect of some gonadotropic substances on development 
of cyclical sex characters in the English sparrow. Proc. Soc. Exp. 
Biol, and Med., 32:598-603. 

Witschi, E. and Woods, R. P. 

1936. The bill of the sparrow as an indicator for the male sex hormone. 

II. Structual basis. J. Exp. Zool., 73:445-459. 



PLATES 



PLATE 1 



Bartholomew — Light Experiments with Sparrows 



PLATE 1 

Fig. 1 . A comparison of the light from an incandescent tungsten lamp and 
the light from a "Daylight Fluorescent" lamp with sunlight. (Adapted from 
Bulletin LD-1 of the General Electric Company.) 

Fig. 2. Spermatogenic class I. Resting spermatogonia only. X 450. 

Fig. 3. Spermatogenic class II. Spermatogonia dividing, but only a few 
spermatocytes present. X 450. 



BULL. MUS. COMP. ZOOL. 



Bartholomew. Sparrows. Plate 1 




4000 4500 5000 5500 feOOO 6500 7000 1 





PLATE 2 



Bartholomew — Light Experiments with Sparrows 



PLATE 2 

Fig. 4. Spermatogenic class III. Many spermatocytes. X 450. 

Fig. 5. Spermatogenic class IV. Spermatocytes with spermatids. X 450. 

Fig. 6. Spermatogenic -class V. Spermatids with a few sperm. X 450. 



BULL. MUS. COMP. ZOOL 



Bartholomew. Sparrows. Plate 2 













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PLATE 3 



Bartholomew — Light Experiments with Sparrows 



PLATE 3 

Fig. 7. Spermatogenic class VI. Full spermatogenic activity with many 
sperm. X 450. 

Fig. 8. Arrangement of the cages and lights used in the light intensity 
experiments. 

Fig. 9. Method of masking fluorescent lamps. 






BULL. MUS. COMP. ZOOL. 



Bartholomew. Sparrows. Plate 3 









'r 



. . 



f. 



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CARDBOARD MASK 



SURFACE OF LAMP 



METHOD OF MASKING FLUORESCENT LAMP 



PLATE 4 



Bartholomew — Light Experiments with Sparrows 



PLATE 4 

Fig. 10. The effect of light intensity on testicular weight during 16-hour 
days in winter. 

Legend 

The unit of relative weight is the ratio of the mean weight of the left 
gonads of the controls to the weight of the left gonad of the experimental 
bird. 

O 1 1-day experiment 

• 25-day experiment 

▲ 46-day experiment 

The means of the relative weights caused by each light intensity are 
connected by lines. 
Fig. 11. The effect of light intensity on testicular weight. 

Legend 
Units are the same as in Fig. 10. 
• after 25, 16-hour days during the fall 
O after 25, 10-hour days during the winter 
The means are connected by lines. 



BULL. MUS. COMP. ZOOL. 
80 



Bartholomew. Sparrows. Plate 4 




0.1 10 100 

LIGHT INTENSITY IN FOOT-CANDLES 



1000 



30r 



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LIGHT INTENSITY IN FOOT-CANDLES 



PLATE 6 



Bartholomew — Light Experiments with Sparrows 



PLATE 5 

Fig. 12. The effect of light intensity on ovarian weight during 16-hour 
days in winter. 

Legend 
Units are the same as in Fig. 10. 

• 46-day experiment 
O 86-day experiment 

The means are connected by lines. 

Fig. 13. The relation between weight of oviduct and light intensity during 
16-hour days in winter. Relative weight determined as in case of gonads 
(see Fig. 10). 

Legend 

• 46-day experiment 
O 86-day experiment 

The means are connected by lines. 



BULL. MUS. COMP. ZOOL. 



Bartholomew. Sparrows. Plate 5 



x 8 

UJ 

5 



< 

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o 

UJ 

> 



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1.0 10.0 

LIGHT INTENSITY IN FOOT-CANDLES 



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20 



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light intensity in foot-candles 



100.0 



PLATE 6 



Bartholomew — Light Experiments with Sparrows 



PLATE 6 



Fig. 14. Comparison of resting condition of female reproductive organs 
with the maximum development produced by light in the present study (X 2 l A). 
Fig. 15. The effect of day length on testicular weight. 



Legend 
Units same as in Fig. 10. 
o o means 



BULL. MUS. COMP. ZOOL. 



Bartholomew. Sparrows. Plate 6 




14 18 22 

HOURS OF LIGHT PER DAY 



PLATE 7 



Bartholomew — Light Experiments with Sparrows 



PLATE 7 

Fig. 16. Effect of day length on ovarian weight. 

Legend 
Units as in Fig. 10. 
o o means 



BULL. MUS. COMP. ZOOL 



Bartholomlw. Sparrows. Plate 7 



fe4 

o 

UJ 

< 
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UJ 

> 



uj , 



j L 



10 14 18 22 

HOURS OF LIGHT PER DAY 



PLATE 8 



Bartholomew — Light Experiments with Sparrows 



PLATE 8 

Fig. 17. The relation between day length and weight of oviduct. Relative 
weights determined as in case of gonads. 

Legend 
o o means 



BULL. MUS. COMP. ZOOL. 



Bartholomew. Sparrows. Plate 8 



28r 




10 14 18 22 

HOURS OF LIGHT PER DAY 



PLATE 9 



Baktholomew — Light Experiments with Sparrows 



PLATE 9 

Fig. 18. Light intensity during a snow storm on a heavily overcast after- 
noon, December 29. 



BULL. MUS. COMP. ZOOL. 



Bartholomew. Sparrows. Plate 9 




hOO 2=00 3O0 4O0 5O0 RM. 



PLATE 10 



Bartholomew — Light Experiments with Sparrows 



PLATE 10 

Fig. 19. Light intensity at dawn on a cloudless day, January 17. 
Fig. 20. Light intensity at dusk on a cloudy day, December 30. 



BULL. MUS. COMP. ZOOL. 



Bartholomew. Sparrows. Plate 10 



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MINUTES FROM SUNRISE 




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MINUTES FROM SUNSET 



Do not circulate 



i circulate 



Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 



LIBRARY 
FEB 2 L 19*49 



A T H A R V A R D C L L E (1 E 
Vol. 101, No. 4 



HARVARD 
UNIVERSITY 



'ARC 
iiSITY 1 



THE NEARCTIC MEMBERS OE THE GENUS 

LYC ABIDES HUBNER 

(LYCAENIDAE, LEPIDOPTERA) 



By V. Nabokov 



With Nine Plates 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U S. A. 

PRINTED FOR THE MUSEUM 

February, 1949 



PUBLICATIONS 
OF THE 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 
AT HARVARD COLLEGE 

The Bulletin and Memoirs are devoted to the publication of 
investigations by the Staff of the Museum or of reports by spec- 
ialists upon the Museum collections or explorations. 

Of the Bulletin, Vols. 1 to 101, No. 4 have appeared and of the 
Memoirs, Vols. 1 to 55. 

These publications are issued in numbers at irregular intervals. 
Each number of the Bulletin and of the Memoirs is sold separately. 
A price list of the publications of the Museum will be sent upon ap- 
plication to the Director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. 






Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 

AT HARVARD COLLEGE 
Vol. 101, No. 4 



THE NEARCTIC MEMBERS OF THE GENUS 

LYCAEIDES HUBNER 

(LYCAENIDAE, LEPIDOPTERA) 



By V. Nabokov 



With Nine Plates 



mus. GBKP. ZOOL 
LIBRARY 

FEB 21 191*9 



UNIVERSITY 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U. S. A. 
PRINTED FOR THE MUSEUM 
February, 1949 



MUS. COMP. ZOOL 
LIBRARY 

FEB 21 19^9 



No. 4. — The Noarotw members oj 



Lycaeides Hubner 



{Lycaenidae, Lepidoptcra) 



By V. Nabokov 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 479 

Remarks on the Eurasian Group 484 

Descriptions of the North American Forms 

Lycaeides argyrognomon anna (Edwards) 486 

Lycaeides argyrognomon ricei (Cross) 490 

Lycaeides argyrognomon lotis (Lintner) 495 

Lycaeides argyrognomon alaskensis (F. H. Chermock) 498 

Lycaeides argyrognomon scudderi (Edwards) 501 

Lycaeides argyrognomon aster (Edwards) 506 

Lycaeides argyrognomon ferniensis (F. H. Chermock) 509 

Lycaeides argyrognomon atrapraetextus (Field) 511 

Lycaeides argyrognomon sublivens subsp. nov 513 

Lycaeides argyrognomon longinus subsp. nov 516 

Lycaeides melissa melissa (Edwards) 520 

Lycaeides melissa pseudosamuelis subsp. nov 529 

Lycaeides melissa inyoensis (Gunder) 530 

Lycaeides melissa annetta (Edwards) 532 

Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov 535 

Conclusions 540 



INTRODUCTION 

The genus Lycaeides (sensu stricto), belonging to the subfamily 
Plebejinae (also s. sir.), consists of three polytypic species, of which 
the first, argyrognomon (Bergstrasser, Tutt), is holarctic, the second, 
ismcnias (Meigen), palearctic, and the third, melissa (Edwards), 

nearctic. 

The classification adopted in discussing these organisms is based on 
the following principles: 1. When we say that a genus consists of 
species, and that a species consists of subspecies, each of which again 
consists of smaller units (minor races or strains, alar or genitalic), we 
are dealing primarily with certain definite and recurrent aspects 
(within the general aspect of the genus); these "forms" endure in time 



480 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

as preserved material for study and in space as living creatures with 
a definite habitat. 2. A morphological gap between two forms with 
spatial (geographical, zonal etc.) coincidence or contact, but no inter- 
breeding, is taken to mean absolute specific distinction between them, 
even if in some other region the two species to which they belong are 
linked by intergrades. 3. A morphological gap with no spatial contact 
means either relative specific distinction (i.e. depending on compari- 
sons with allied sets of sympatric forms) or absolute subspecific dis- 
tinction. 4. When there is spatial contact between two different forms 
at the limits of their distribution, with some morphological merging 
there, we have either relative subspecific distinction between the two 
(i.e. depending on comparisons with allied isolated forms) or some 
minor racial distinction not requiring a quadrinomial designation. 
5. In order to raise the subspecific criterion a peg or so above the 
subjective level, I have adopted the following rule : a form in the genus 
under review is subspecifically distinct if separable from any other 
intraspecific form, already described, by at least two characters, one 
of which must be either (a) male alar (e.g. underside) or (6) male 
genitalic, and the other either male genitalic (if the first be a) or female 
alar (e.g. upperside or shape). 

In the present paper I extend the holarctic specific concept argy- 
rognomon, as given by me (1944, Psyche for 1943, 50, p. 87, etc.), to 
include the Central Asiatic agnata (Staudinger), the Eastern Asiatic 
subsolanus (Eversmann) with allied races, and the North American 
group scudderi (Edwards, Nabokov). The palearctic concept ismenias 
as given by recent authors is now extended to include the Central 
Asiatic christophi (Staudinger) and the Aral Sea bergi (Kuznetzov). 

An ancestral type of Lycacides male armature was deduced by me 
from a preliminary study of the variation in the genitalia of the pale- 
arctic and nearctic forms (1945, Psyche for 1944, 51, p. 109), and was 
later discovered to have survived in a butterfly still inhabiting the 
mountains of Peru (Parahjcaeides Nabokov, 1945, Psyche, 52, p. 36). 
This fact tends to justify the study of the male genitalia for the purpose 
of tracing the evolution of the various Lycaeides forms. Specific 
formulas for the three species have been worked out by measuring 
parts (F, forearm, H, humerulus, E, elbow, U, uncus lobe, see PI. 1, 
fig. 9) of the male genitalic dorsum (the right half of the uncus as seen 
from the ventral side) in some 600 specimens. Below is the arrange- 
ment I have decided upon. From N ("normal") the Lycaeides falx 
may depart intraspecifically to produce variations W ("weak hume- 
rulus") and C ("semicircle"). N is characterized by a more or less 



NABOKOV: NEARCTIC LYCAEIDES 481 

conspicuous, angled or rounded, elbow and a more or less gradual 
thickening of the humerulus from a breadth slightly exceeding the 
medium breadth (FM) of the forearm. \Y is angled at the elbow and 
conspicuously narrowed along the humerulus (to a breadth equal to, 
or less than FM) before the latter bulges to form the short shoulder. 
C is evenly rounded at the elbow with a thin F and an equally thin, 
or thinner, humerulus, which is shaped as in W, the combined effect 
being that of a slender semicircle. Excluding for the moment certain 
transitional forms from Wyoming, the three species show the following 
measurements (in 1/100 mm. units). 

argyrognomon. Falx N, with distinct hook. F short to long (32-52), 
from equal to H to 1.5 times longer, and from thin to very thick (at 
elbow 5.5-11). H short to long (26-44), and from equal to (or in rare 
nearctic cases slightly shorter than) U to 1.5 times longer. U short to 
medium (25-39). 

ismenias. Falx N, W or C (but W or C alone when F less than 55), 
with more or less distinct hook. F medium to very long (43-74), from 
1.1 to not quite 1.5 times longer than H, and from thin to fairly thick 
(at elbow 6-9). H medium to very long (35.5-56), and from 1.02 to 
almost 1.2 times longer than U. U short to long (26.5-50). 

melissa. Falx W or C, with weak hook. F medium to very long 
(47.5-69), from 1.5 to almost 1.8 times longer than H, and from very 
thin to medium (at elbow 4.5-7.5). H short to long (32-45.5), and 
from 1.4 times shorter than U to (in rare cases) equal to U. U medium 
to long (37-50). 

The valve is poor in diagnostic characters. In all three species it 
has the same variational range in length (measured from proximal 
point to tip of mentum, in 1/100 mm. units), namely 120-165. The 
longer valves correspond to a larger wing expanse, so that among the 
nearctic valves, for instance, the longest occur in argyrognomon anna. 
Breadth fluctuations are: Eurasian argyrognomon 45-55, nearctic 
argyrognomon 45-60, melissa 45-65. In the breadth of the comb the 
melissa-ismenias range, 13-20, exceeds that of palearctic argyrognomon, 
which is 16-18. In broad comb races (or individuals) of melissa and 
ismenias (e.g. certain altitudinal Chinese forms of the latter, or melissa 
annetta) the valve has a thickset appearance due to the whole rostellum 
being broadened; but in broad-combed races of argyrognomon (West 
Coast nearctic specimens and especially European forms) it is only the 
comb proper which is affected, the neck of the rostellum remaining 
comparatively narrow, so that the dorsal part of its tip appears ex- 
curvated at the point where the distinctly toothed comb expands. In 



482 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

other words, an elongated valve with a strongly retrousse comb always 
(as far as my material goes) belongs to argyrognomon, while a round- 
humped, squat valve with an evenly thick rostellum never does. 
There are, however, a number of less extreme shapes which may occur 
in any of the three species. 

According to my present views, argyrognomon is represented in 
North America by ten multiform intergrading subspecies which may 
be grouped in three geographical arrays: 1. the Western array (from 
Central California to British Columbia), consisting of three subspecies 
{anna, lotis, ricei); 2. the Northern or Transcontinental array (from 
Alaska and British Columbia to the Maritime Provinces), consisting 
also of three subspecies (alaskensis, scudderi, aster) ; and 3. the Rocky 
Mts. array (from S. E. British Columbia and S. W. Alberta to S. 
Colorado) consisting of four subspecies (ferniensis, atrapraetextus, and 
two new subspecies). 

The other species, melissa, consists of a Western nearctic group of 
four multiform intergrading subspecies (the widely distributed melissa, 
and three, more local, races, inyoensis, annetta and one new subspecies) 
and of a monoform, isolated Eastern nearctic subspecies (samuelis). 

W'hile studying the nearctic organs, I have come across an extra- 
ordinary case not easily paralleled in the annals of speciation. In the 
palearctic region ismenias and argyrognomon occur sympatrically from 
the Pacific Coast to Central France (only the second reaching Spain), 
being everywhere separated by a distinct gap in F, a gap which is 
small (3-7.5) on Honshu Island, medium to large (8-25.5) in East 
Siberia and very large (17-31) in Europe. In the nearctic region, 
melissa occurs sympatrically with argyrognomon from British Columbia 
eastward to South Manitoba and Minnesota, south-eastward to lo- 
calities in Montana, Idaho and South Colorado, and southward through 
the W : est Coast states to the southern spurs of the Sierra Nevada. 
They are separated by distinct gaps in F and U; but in the mountains 
of North-W r est Wyoming, argyrognomon, after producing through a 
sequence of local forms, a longer F than its palearctic counterpart 
.does, gradually reaches a point of development from which either 
ismenias or melissa is evolved, depending on whether it is H or U that 
grows with F; in other words, a group of intergrading forms is pro- 
duced, some individuals of which can be classified as "long" argy- 
rognomon, others as "medium" ismenias, others again as "shortish" 
melissa. 

The alar characters of the genus, studied in 2000 specimens, are 
examined in the light of my work on the morphology of the group 



NABOKOV: NEARCTIC LYCAEIDES ISM 

(1944, Psyche, for 1945, 51); the subspecific divisions now in use are 
drastically revised, and a number of new forms, to three of which it 
was found convenient to give subspecific names, are described from 
material in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. The nomenclature 
of the macular elements is based on my viewing the evolution of the 
pattern as an intracellular movement distad, a centrifugal succession 
of waves, a phenomenon of expansion, in opposition to the old and 
still widely accepted theory (of which Schwanwitch is the foremost 
modern exponent) of a fixed number of initial transversal lines or 
bands that break into macules. I am inclined to think that ever since 
organisms which a modern systematist would have classified as 
Lycaenids or proto-Lycaenids (or indeed Lepidoptera) have existed 
macular patterns have been in existence too ; while the zebroid patterns, 
peculiar to certain groups in certain environments, suggest specialized 
protective adaptations rather than primitive designs. The discovery 
(see Psyche, 51, p. 112) of the concentric rings or ripples in which the 
scales are placed, radiating from a center more or less coincident with 
the base of the wing, and which I have termed scale-lines (sis.), con- 
tinues to yield a convenient method for calculating and describing the 
position of various elements of the pattern. In this respect the "critical 
cell", Cui of the hindwing, has proved to be most valuable in giving 
as it were a summary of the main variational characters in a race 
(see PI. 2). 

I have spent many happy hours looking up bibliographical matters, 
and the results are given under each subspecies; it was found un- 
necessary, however, to clutter the synonymy with references to cata- 
logues (Wiedemeyer, 1864; Kirby, 1871, 1877; Edwards, 1872, 1877; 
Scudder, 1876; Strecker, 1878; Skinner, 1898; Staudinger and Rebel, 
1901; Dyar, 1902), mere lists of names (Edwards, 1884; Smith, 1903; 
Barnes and McDunnough, 1917; Barnes and Benjamin, 1926; McDun- 
nough, 1938; Forster, 1938) and other compilations (Morris, 1862; 
French, 1886; Maynard, 1891; Draudt in Seitz, 1921, etc.), unless 
something new or peculiar was added to the history of the forms under 
discussion. 

A number of persons and institutions have loaned me specimens for 
study, some of which they have allowed this Museum to keep. I have 
to thank Mr. W. P. Comstock, Mr. E. I. Huntington, Mr. C. F. dos 
Passos, and the American Museum of Natural History; Professor 
W. T. M. Forbes and the New York State College of Agriculture at 
Cornell University; the late R. C. Williams, Jr., and the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for much interesting material. With 



484 bulletin: museum of comparative zoology 

the utmost generosity Mr. D. B. Stallings and Dr. J. D. Turner, Mr. 
Harry K. Clench, Mr. F. H. Chermock, and Messrs. P. S. and C. L. 
Remington loaned me their choicest specimens of Lycaeides, and do- 
nated a number of them to the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 
Dr. J. McDunnough and Mr. T. N. Freeman most kindly provided 
me with specimens of argyrognomon aster form empetri Freeman, 
Mr. D. Eff with N. Ohio specimens of melissa sarnuelis Nabokov, and 
Monsieur H. Stempffer of Paris with a series of argyrognomon calliopis 
(Boisduval), the first consignment of butterflies received here from 
Europe since the end of the war. Among the Mus. Comp. Zool. ma- 
terial, the Weeks Collection (especially the beautiful specimens col- 
lected by Signor O. Querci) proved of invaluable assistance in pursuing 
these studies. Professor Oakes Ames kindly determined for me some 
plants and Dr. W. S. Creighton an ant. 

The following abbreviations are used in the references to collections : 
SCD — ex coll. S. H. Scudder; AGW — ex coll. A. G. Weeks; G — ex coll. 
J. D. Gunder; H — ex coll. E. I. Huntington;