Skip to main content

Full text of "Bulletin of the National Association of wool manufacturers"

See other formats










Notional ^Bsociotion 


1 !) 1 1 

FOUNDED NOV. 30, 1864. 

Edited by Wintiikoi' L. Makvin, Secretary. 

Volume XLI. 

19 11. 

rr jc 



Copyright, lull, 
By N'ationaIj Association of Wool Manufacturers. 





I. Forty-sixth Annual Mkkting of thk National Asso- 
ciation OF Wool Manufactuueus 1 

Officers for 1911 2 

Resolution Concerning ]\Iajor Charles A. Stott ... 3 
Resolutions Approving Schedule K and Oftering Assist- 
ance to Tariff Board 3 

Resolutions in Honor of President William Whitman, 4 

Address of President Whitman 4 

Report of the Secretary 14 

n. The Annual Banqukt 17 

Address of President John P. Wood 18 

Address of Charles H. Harding 22 

Address of William INI. Wood 40 

Address of flon. Francis E. Warren 45 

Address of Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge 59 

Address of Hon. Joseph G. Cannon 61 

Address of Henry C Emery, Chairman of the Tariff 

Board 65 

HI. National Wool Growers Association; Forty-sev- 
enth Annual Meeting 74 

Tariff' Resolutions 75 

Election of Officers 76 

Letter of William Whitman 77 

Letterof William M. Wood 80 

Letter of A. D. Juilliard 83 

Letter of Theodore Justice 85 

Address of Joseph R. Grundy 88 

IV. Hygroscopic Qualities of Wool. Statements of How- 
ard Priestman and William 1). Hartshorne .... 108 

Mr. Priestman's Article 108 

Mr. Hartshorne's Paper (with illustrations) .... Ill 




V. In Honor OF President Wood. Dinner in Philadelphia, 119 

Addi-ess of Joseph R. Grundy 120 

Address of Frederic S. Clark 121 

Address of Hon. J. W. Fordney ........ 128 

Address of William M. Wood 133 

Address of ex-Governor Stuart 139 

Address of President John P. Wood 141 

Vr. Obituary : 

Henry M. Steel (with portrait; frontispiece) .... 144 

William R. Dupee '. . 145 

Vn. Editorial and Industrial Miscellany 146 

The Extra Session of Congress ; an Opportunity for 

Early Attack by the Anti-Protectionist Party . . . 146 
A New Dej^arture ; Meeting and Dinner of the National 

Association at Washington 148 

The Year in Bradford (The "Bradford Observer's" 

Report) 150 

Review of " On the Wool Track," C. E. W. Bean, by 

Thomas O. Marvin 168 

British Carpet Trade in 1910 172 

VIII. Comparative Statement of Imports and Exports 
OF Wool and Woolens, Twelve Months ending 

December 31, 1909 and 1910 175 

IX. Quarterly Report of the Boston Wool Market, 178 


I. In Honor of William Whitman. Dinner at Hotel 

Somerset, Boston 180 

Address of President John P. Wood 184 

Remarks of Hon. John D. Long, Toastmaster . . 186, 209 
Letters from Hon. W. Murray Crane, Hon. J. H. Gal- 
linger, Hon. E. N. Foss, Hon. A. J. Pothier, and Mr. 

William M. Wood 189 

Address of Dr. Richard C. Maclaurin 192 

Address of Ji;dge William A. Day 195 

Address of Hon. Samuel L. Powers 199 

Address of Mr. George S. Smith, President, Boston 

Chamber of Commerce 202 

Address of Hon. John T. Cahill 204 

Address of Mr. John Hopewell 207 

Address of Mr. William Whitman 210 

List of Participants 225 



II. Schedule K. Protection of Wool and Woolen Manufac- 
tures in the United States. By Julius Forstmann . 230 

The Plea for Free Wool 231 

American Wool Worth Protecting 234 

Criticisms of Schedule K 237 

Ad Valorem Duties Faulty 238 

Schedule RevMsion Most Unwise 240 

The Tariff and Business 241 

An Important Word from (iermany 242 

in. A Study of Kemps. True Nature of the Dead Fibers 

(illustrated). By Howard Priestman 245 

IV. Te.xtile Education Among tuk Pukitans. Wool and 
Cotton Spinning and Weaving in Ancient Days. By 

C. J. II. Woodbury, Sc.I) 265 

Prosperity of the Puritan Colonists 266 

The Piu-itan Purpose 268 

Cotton at the Time of the Colony 270 

English Restrictions upon Commerce in Cloth . . 274 

Instruction in Spinning 276 

Spinning Schools in Boston 284 

V. Obituary : 

A. Park Hammond (with poi'trait) 293 

VI. Book Review : 

" Textiles for Commercial and Other Schools." By 

William H. Dooley 295 


The Democi-atic Schedule K. By Winthrop L. Marvin, 296 
Text of the Underwood Bill, with Estimate of Prol)- 

able Income Therefrom 299 

United States Census, 1909 — Preliminary Statements, 306 

Woolen and Worsted Manufactures 307 

Carpets and Rugs 316 

Felt Goods 321 

Shoddy Mills 323 

The Felt Hat Manufacture 326 

The Hosiery and Knit Goods Manufacture .... 330 
Cost of Living in America and Europe. Comments of 
the "London Times'" on the British Board of 
Trade Report on " The Cost of Living in American 

ToAvns" 336 

Wages and Hours in England and America . . . 340, 341 

Rents and Food Prices 342 



Comparative Cost of Living 343 

A Loophole in Recipi'ocity. Extract from a Speecla of 

the Hon. Frank W. Mondell 344 

Great Britain and Germany — A Contrast. (" Slieffiekl 

Daily Telegraph ") 346 

The Attack on the Wool Schedule (" Canadian Te.Ktile 

Journal ") 347 

The New Competition of Japan (" Men's Wear," 

London) 349 

The English Shoddy Trade (" London Chronicle") . . 350 

The Linen Industry of Europe 355 

VIIL Quarterly Report of the Boston Wool Market 

FOR January, February and March, 1911 . . 357 


I. Wool and Woolens in Congress. A Review of Recent 

Legislative Effort 361 

The Report on the Underwood Bill 362 

Report of the Tariff Board 372 

The La Follette Substitute 378 

The Smoot Substitute 381,385 

Senator Smooths Argument 390 

The Revised La Follette Schedule 397 

Conference Committee's Report 401 

The President's Veto Message 405 

II. Statement Regarding Comparative Cost of Pro- 

duction IN the United States and Europe. By 

Julius Forstmann 414 

Comparative Cost of Production 415 

American and European Machinery 416 

Higher Wages in the United States 419 

Greater Efficiency in American Mills 420 

Comparative Cost of Material 421 

Free Wool would be Unwise 423 

Schedule K not Prohibitive 429 

What is Adequate Protection ? • 430 

Tariff for Revenue, and Protective Taiiff 433 

Value of Tariff Board ; German Methods 439 

Comparative Cost of Labor, Machinery and Wages . 443 

III. Obituary : 

Colonel Albert Clarke (with portrait) 448 

John Dobson 451 



G. Otto Kunhardt 452 

George Ilinchliffe 452 

Moses Can- 453 

IV. Editorial and Indcstuial Miscellany : 

A Memorable Summer. The Tariff Contest in Congress, 454 

Mr. Forstmann's Article 457 

United States Census — Cotton; Hosiery and Knit 

Goods ; Combined Textiles 459 

The Conference at Work 470 

An p]nglish View. Anticipated Benefits from Tariff 

Revision 473 

Wool Labor Statistics ; Hours of Labor 475 

Textile Training. By Professor Roberts Beaumont . 476 

Better Wool Packing. Action of Roubaix Congress . 482 

Some Incidents in Early Australian History .... 485 

Cotton Growing in Abyssinia 490 


OF Wool and Manufactures of Wool for the 

Twelve Months Ending June 30, 1910 and 1911 , 492 

VL Quarterly Report of the Boston Wool AL\rket 

for April, May, and June, 1911 495 


1. Annual Wool Review 499 

Market Conditions 500 

Reports from Wool Growing States 503 

United States Census Report on Number of Sheep, 1910, 508 

Number of Sheep, 1911 509 

Wool Product, 1911 509 

Value of the Clip 512 

Fleece, Pulled and Scoured Wool, 1888-1911 .... 613 

Available Supplies 515 

Wool Produced, Imported, Exported, and Retained for 

Consumption 516 

Slaughter and Movement of Sheep 517 

Com'se of Prices (with chart) 519 

Statistical Tables, Imports of Wool and Wool Manu- 
factures 521 

The London Market 531 

Liverpool Sales 536 

Antwerp Auctions 537 

Australian Wool and Sheep Statistics 538 



Wool Production of South Africa 548 

South American Wool Production 549 

Number of Sheep in the World 554 

The World's Wool Production . • . . 557 

II. Canada an Example and Wakning. What Inadequate 
Protection Has Done to Her Woolen Industry. By 

Winthrop L. Marvin 559 

HI. Obituary : 

John Neilson Carpender (with porti'ait) 667 

IV. Editorial and Industrial Miscellany 569 

The Elections of 1911 569 

Boston Wool Trade Association 572 

Preparation of Wool for the Market (in South Africa). 

By C. Mallinson 576 

Blankets : Yorkshire and Other 585 

United States Census, 1909, Sheep and Wool .... 591 

English Rag and Shoddy Trade. By Consul B. F. Chase, 598 
Comparative Wages in America and Europe ; Report of 

the Committee on Labor of the National Association, 600 

The Size of Factories, United States Census Report . 604 

Textile Directories 607 

Bushels of Weight and Bushels of Volume .... 607 

V. Quarterly Report of the Boston Wool Market, 609 

VI. Imports of Wool and Manufactures of Wool 
Entered for Consumption, Years Ending June 

30, 1910 AND 1911 612 


national Association of Mool ^lannfactnrrrs 

Devoted to the Interests of the National Wool Inddstrt. 

Vol. XLI.J BOSTON, MARCH, 1911. [No. I. 



By a unanimous vote of the Executive Committee it was 
determined to hold the forty-sixth annual meeting of the 
National Association of Wool Manufacturers at Washington 
this year, and to invite as s[)ecial guests those Senators and 
Representatives whose States were most directly interested 
in wool growing or wool manufacturing, so that the real truth 
about this industry could be set forth to public men to whom 
a knowledge of these facts was most important. 

Accordingly the annual meeting of the Association was 
called to order on the afternoon of February 1, 1911, at the 
New Willard, Washington. William Whitman, President 
of the Arlington Mills and President of the Association, who 
was closing his long career of otiHcial service, was the pre- 
siding ofificer. The call for the meeting was I'ead by the 
Secretary, and the report of the Secretary was i)resented, 
approved by the Association, and ordered to be printed in 
the Bulletin. The report of the Treasurer followed. This 
also was approved and ordered to be placed on file. 


The Nominating Committee of the Association, composed 
of Francis T. Maxwell, President of the Hockanum Com- 
pany of Rockville, Conn.; Thomas Oakes, of Thomas Oakes 
& Company of Bloomfield, N.J. ; H. A. Francis, Treasurer and 


General Manager of the Pontoosuc Woolen Manufacturing 
Company of Pittsfield, Mass. ; Charles W. Leonard, of Holden, 
Leonard & Company of Boston; J. F. Maynard, President of 
the Globe Woolen Company of Utica, N.Y. ; Franklin W. 
Hobbs, Treasurer of the Arlington Mills of Boston, and 
Joseph R. Grundy, of William H. Grundy & Company of 
Bristol, Pa., presented its report through its Chairman, 
Mr. Maxwell, embodying the list of officers for the ensuing 
year, as follows : 

John P. Wood Philadelphia, Pa. 


Charles H. Harding Philadelphia, Pa. 

William M. Wood Boston, Mass. 

Frederic S. Clark No. Billerica, Mass. 

Secretary and Treasurer. 
WiNTHROP L. Marvin Boston, Mass. 

Executive Committee. 

Andrew Adie Boston, Mass. 

Chester A. Braman New York, N.Y. 

Frederic C. Dumaine Boston, Mass. 

Frederick C. Fletcher Boston, Mass. 

H. A. Francis Pittsfield, Mass. 

Louis B. Goodall Sanford, Me. 

Edwin F. Greene Boston, Mass. 

Joseph R. Grundy Philadelphia, Pa. 

A. Park Hammond Rockville, Conn. 

Franklin W. Hobbs Boston, Mass. 

Geo. H. Hodgson Cleveland, Ohio. 

John Hopewell Boston, Mass. 

Ferdinand Kuhn Passaic, N.J. 

Geo. E. Kunhardt Lawrence, Mass. 

C. W. Leonard Boston, Mass. 

J. R. MacColl Pawtucket, R.I. 

Francis T. Maxwell Rockville, Conn. 

J. F. Maynakd Utica, NY. 

Joseph Metcalf Holyoke, Mass. 

Thomas Oakes Bloomfleld, N.J. 

William H. Sweatt Boston, Mass. 


On motion of Mr. Maxwell, the Secretary was instructed 
to cast one ballot for the list of officers reported by the Nomi- 
nating Committee. This was done, and President Whitman 
declared that the gentlemen named in the report of the com- 
mittee were duly elected officers of the Association for the 
year 1911. 

The Secretary read the draft of a resolution of regret on 
the retirement from the Executive Committee of Major 
Charles A. Stott, Treasurer of the Belvidere Woolen Manu- 
facturing Company of Lowell, Mass., who resigns because of 
disability. The resolution, which was unanimously adopted 
on motion of John Hopewell, of L. C. Chase & Company of 
Boston, was as follows: 

Resolved, by the National Association of Wool Manufacturers, That 
we regret the retirement of Major Charles A. Stott, of Lowell, Mass., 
from the Executive ('ommiltee of this Association, and that we record 
our deep appreciation of his service to the Association, to the American 
system of protection and to the promotion of the best interests of our 
industry in the United States. 

It was voted that the resolution should be entered upon 
the records, and that a copy should be sent to Major Stott. 

Charles H. Harding, Vice-President and Treasurer of the 
Erben-Harding Company of Philadelphia, Pa., and senior 
Vice-President of the Association, presented resolutions 
declaring the attitude of the Association, as follows : 

Resolved, by the National Association of Wool Manufacturers, That 
we I'eaflirm oi\r belief in the American system of protection as the best 
system alike for the manufactures, the agriculture and the commerce 
of the United States. 

Resolved, That we approve the underlying principles of Schedule K, 
as embodying the best practicable results of many years of study by the 
ablest economic students among the public men of America, and we 
urge that no changes be attempted in that Schedule until the Tariflf 
Board shall have made new, exact, and comprehensive information 
available for the guidance of Congress and the country. 

Resolved, That we reaffirm the declaration of the Executive Committee 
of this Association on October 20, 1910, in favor of laying all essential 
facts regarding the wool manufacture before the Tariff Board whenever 
such statements are requested, and that we earnestly recommend to the 


wool manufacturers of America that they make a prompt and frank 
response to all inquiries of the Board, in furtherance of the most accu- 
rate and complete understanding of the truth in regard to this great 
national industry. 

These resolutions were unanimously adopted on the motion 
of Richard Campion of Philadelphia, and it was directed 
that they should be entered on the records of the Association 
and published in the Bulletin. 

Frederic S. Clark, President of the Talbot Mills of North 
Billerica, Mass., and a Vice-President of the Association, 
offered resolutions relative to the notable work of the retir- 
ing President, William Whitman. These resolutions were 
adopted by a unanimous vote, with instructions to present a 
copy, suitably engrossed, to Mr. Whitman, and to enter the 
jesolutions on the records of the Association : 

Resolved, by the National Association of Wool Manufacturers, That 
accepting with great reluctance and regret the announced purpose of 
Mr. William Whitman to retire from the Presidency of the Association, 
we record our high regard for Mr. Whitman and our deep appreciation 
of the extraordinary service which he has rendered to the Association 
and the entire wool manufacturing industry of the United States. 

Resolved, That for forty-one years an active member and for seven- 
teen years President of this Association, Mr. Whitman has borne a 
larger part than any other man of his time in making possible that 
wonderful textile development by which the American people are now 
independent of foreign supply for all clothing fabrics. 

Resolved, That the broad, exact information, vigor, and incisiveness 
with which Mr. Whitman for so many years has championed the cause 
of the American wool manufacture and the great principles of the pro- 
tective system have placed under enduring obligation to him, not only 
American manufacturers and their operatives, but all patriotic citizens 
who rejoice in the evolution of great national industries, essential to 
the welfare of the country in both peace and war. Such leadership in 
economic achievement is in the truest sense a national service of the 
first importance. 


President Whitman then delivered his address as follows : 

Our industry has experienced many vicissitudes since the out- 
ing of our Association in the summer of 1908 in the historic 


town of Marblehead on the beautiful shore of Massachusetts 
Bay. At that time the industry was just recovering from the 
disastrous panic of the preceding year. A presidential election 
was impending, and an assault upon the tariff was threatened, 
yet we were confident as to the result of the election and equally 
confident that Congress would not enact laws inimical to our 
industry. Our hopefulness and confidence were voiced by our 
guest, the Honorable Carroll D. Wright, who soon after passed to 
his final home where we hope that there is rest, no trade to vex, 
and no mills, corporations, or railroads to denounce. Whether it 
be true or not that rich men shall hardly enter that blessed abode, 
Ave may be sure that those of them who do, unable to take their 
riches with them, will be free from envy and detraction. 

The dominant party, as expected, was continued in power. 
After eight months of exhaustive preparation the Congress 
enacted a new tariff law. This law conserves every American 
industry. I was opposed to tariff revision. Yon will remember 
that I stated in your behalf to the Ways and Means Committee : 
" We have during the past five years believed that any gain that 
might come to us under a new law would be more than offset by 
the evils necessarily attending tariff agitation. Therefore, our 
industry has not joined in any movement for increasing, reducing 
or removing any duties in any industry." I believed that the 
period of recovery from panic conditions was a most unfortunate 
time for such revision. 


As to the law which was passed, however, I wish to declare 
with all the emphasis of which I am capable that in my judgment 
it is the best tariff law that has ever been enacted. The great 
leaders who successfully advocated the measure, and the Congress 
that passed it should be proud of their handiwork. They are 
entitled to the gratitude of the people for their patriotic labors. 
Should this law remain in operation for a reasonable time its 
bitterest enemies would become its firmest friends. 

In its most important provisions the Payne-Aldrich law marks 
a great step in advance of all the tariff laws which preceded it. 
These provisions, however, are not well known to the public at 
large. They are : 

1. Improved methods for the valuation of foreign merchandise 
to prevent fraud upon the revenue by undervaluations. 


2 The establishment of a customs court to bring quickly to a 
final settlement disputed cases between importers and the 

3. Maximum and minimum rates of duty. The maximum 
rates to be applied only to imports from those nations which 
should discriminate against the prodiicts of our country. 

From a national point of view the value of these maximum 
rates in our relations to foreign countries can hardly be over- 
estimated. They have put an end to all discriminations against 
our country by foreign nations and allayed the fears of many of 
our own people who dreaded threatened loss of trade from such 
countries. It was the assertion of a national prerogative becom- 
ing the dignity of a great nation ; the announcement of a national 
policy that was not to be governed by fear or threats of retalia- 
tion. The stagnation in business and abnormally low prices of 
commodities consequent upon the panic were followed by excep- 
tional business activity and rapidly increasing prices while the 
tariff bill was under discussion. Over-trading marked the period ; 
new enterprises on a large scale were undertaken. There was a 
mania for building upon the expectations of the future. Imports 
were largely increased. It was too generally believed that the 
country had fully recovered from the disastrous effects of the 

This proved to be a mistake. The country had not returned 
to normally healthy conditions. The reaction referred to was too 
violent, and it would probably have been followed by another 
period of less activity even had there been no tariff legislation. 
This would have been only natural. The forces of nature are 
always at work adjusting and readjusting natural conditions. 
So in the business world there are laws or forces always at work 
in the adjustment and readjustment of men's business relations 
to each other, and the relations of the different industries or 
occupations to each other. These involve ever-changing condi- 
tions, not alone in our country, but in the whole business world, 
independent of governmental laws or restrictions. Whatever 
may be the occupation, the man engaged in it under such natural 
conditions must "take his own risk." In the natural order of 
things there would probably have been less activity in business 
in 1910, following the exceptional activity of the latter half of 
1908, and the year 1909. 



The extreme depression of last year, however, was mainly due 
to wholesale denunciation of the tariff law, the fear of further 
tariff revision and political unrest. The new act from the out- 
set was violently assailed. It was denounced by its enemies and 
" damned with faint praise " or apologized for by many of its 
friends. The alleged high cost of living and advanced prices of 
commodities from abnormally low prices were all wrongfully 
attributed to it. Men cannot but honestly differ in opinions 
regarding the problems of life. Such differences are entitled to 
mutual consideration and respect. 

" Error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free 
to combat it." But the greater part of the attacks upon the 
tariff had their origin in ignorance, envy, hatred, malice, and 
selfishness. The demagogue played upon the worst passions of 
men. The most objectionable of such attacks, and I think the 
most demoralizing upon the public mind, were those made by a 
class of newspapers and magazines upon the character and 
motives of leading public men engaged in tariff legislation, and 
upon others who by virtue of their official relations were con- 
nected with the different industries affected by the tariff. Such 
attacks where no opportunity for defence is possible, are 
cowardly. Most of them are false. 

It has been said : 

" Tliat a lie which ii half a truth is 
Ever the blackest of lies ; 
That the lie which is all a lie may 

Be met and fought outright; 
But a lie which is part a truth is 
A harder matter to fight." 

A liar is usually a coward, and a coward is almost always a 
liar. The code of honor among English-speaking people casts 
out the coward and the liar. The Ananiases and Sapphiras 
among recent sensational writers may not bring upon themselves 
the summary punishment of their ancient prototypes, but they 
cannot escape retribution. 

LIFE "simple" and "STRENUOUS." 

Society experiences many fads. These come and go like epi- 
demic diseases of children. Not many years ago a leading 


exponent and teacher of the " Simple Life " visited our country 
and became the sensation of the hour. A minister of the 
Gospel, a man of simple ways and moderate means, who lives in 
a quiet neighborhood near my own home invited this teacher 
to spend a few days at his house. To his surprise, the famous 
exponent of the simple life arrived accompanied by a valet. 
Upon retiring for the night, the minister saw the shoes of both 
the teacher and valet placed outside their respective doors 
to be cleaned. The worthy minister had been in the habit of 
cleaning his own shoes and, being thus qualified, performed the 
humble task of polishing the shoes of the simple life exponent 
and also those of his valet. Experience, no doubt, taught him 
that the simple life, as exemplified by the teacher, was not as 
delightful in practice as it appeared beautiful in theory. 

The teachings of this simple life did not spread very far or 
last very long. There followed soon, and perhaps naturally, the 
fad for the " Strenuous Life." Its inception was in high places. 
I shall not attempt to describe it. Those only who survive realize 
its strenuousness, and the thoughtful among them must consider 
what has really been accomplished. The pathway of the years 
is strewn with wrecks. The " Hysterical Life " was perhaps a 
natural evolution from the " Strenuous Life." How can we 
better characterize the nation's life of the past few years ? I 
have already alluded to some of its unpleasant features. How 
insensate have been the strife, bickerings, contentions, and 
defamations as well as the social and political unrest of these 
years. Hysteria, however, has spent itself. Reason is return- 
ing. Soon it shall be truly said : 

" The lie was dead and damned 
And Truth stood up instead." 

We are now returning to the natural life — the only healthy 
life. While we laud all the efforts being made towards securing 
international peace, we must not forget that internal commercial 
peace should be paramount. Sectional commercial strife may 
sow the seeds of disunion. Is commercial peace a dream ? 
Surely it can be made a reality. What our country needs to-day 
to " restore to rectitude the warped state of things " is an era of 
rest and quietness. Those of us who are workers in the pro- 
ductive industries, who are doing* our part in the real work of 


life, would like freer and better opportunities for doing. We are 
wearied and hampered not only by superfluous legislation, but 
by the many demands upon our time and labors from local, 
state, and national governmental bodies, for statistical and educa- 
tional information regarding our business. 


There are those who favor a permanent tariff commission for 
the alleged purpose of taking the tariff out of politics. I regard 
this as illusive. Congress will always be the final arbiter. So- 
called scientific revision is equally illusive. I prefer trusting 
Congress. " Too many cooks spoil the broth." 

The Constitution vests the framing of revenue legislation in 
the House of Representatives, and there the initiating of such 
legislation must remain. There are able economists in the 
United States, but many of the ablest and best informed men of 
our day are always to be found upon the great Committees of 
Ways and Means in the House and of Finance in the Senate. 
Not only are these public men scholarly and sagacious, but they 
have the inestimable advantage over closet philosophers of being 
in close contact with actual affairs and thoroughly informed as to 
the conditions and possibilities of American business. 

American wool manufacturers do not dread honest and impar- 
tial inquiry. Our industry has always been conspicuously will- 
ing to furnish Congress and the country with all essential facts 
that would be helpful in the formulating of a tariff, but we 
believe that these facts can best be understood and weighed by 
strong, practical men, familiar with the underlying principles of 
political economy and familiar also with what has been done and 
can be done by the great productive forces of American life — 
men like those who have been found in the past and should be 
found in the future controlling the work of Congress. 


The tariff could be removed from party strife for many years 
to come should the leaders of the Democratic party decide to do 
it. It would seem to be wise, statesmanlike, and patriotic for 
them either to permit the present law to remain in force, or to 
frame a new law so wise and beneficent in its provisions that it 
would conserve our industries and at the same time satisfy the 


reasonable expectations of others. All the issues that divided 
the two great political parties for the past fifty years Lave been 
settled with the exception of the tariff. 

What marvelous changes in industrial conditions have taken 
place during that period, especially in the Southern States, and 
what has been accomplished in these Southern States is only a 
forerunner of the greater things to come. These changed indus- 
trial conditions fully warrant a modificatioa of the Democratic 
party's policy of the past. Why should it therefore adhere to a 
traditional tariff policy, which, if carried into effect, will surely 
end in early defeat ? Why should it not deal with present con- 
ditions rather than with inherited theories ? If the great Cal- 
houn could visit his native State to-day, he would be amazed and 
at the same time gratified with its wonderful industrial advance- 
ment under the very policy to which he was opposed. This may 
be and probably is illusive, but no more so than the suggested 
plans for preventing the tariff from becoming the football of 


There is every natural reason why our country should be 
prosperous, tranquil and contented, above all other nations. The 
earth has yielded to us bountiful harvests. We have all the 
resources for the full employment of our people. Our national 
finances are secure, and we are now at peace with all the world. 
With all these blessings, there should not be discontent and 
restlessness. On the contrary we should be grateful for what 
has been given us, and take advantage of our opportunities. 
The brooding sense of fear that has oppressed industrial activi- 
ties should be dispelled. Let us not magnify possible future 
evils, but take advantage of the present and hope for the best 
for the future. Though condemnation has been our portion of 
late, we may still be hopeful. 

" The wretch condemned with life to part 
Still, still on hope relies, 
And every pang that rends the heart 
Bids expectation rise." 


In closing this my last address as an official to my associates, 
I direct your attention to the fundamental error under which the 
opponents of the so-called protected industries labor, and I am 


now speaking of honest-minded opponents. The occasion will 
not admit of an elaborate presentation. I can speak only upon 
a few salient points in connection with our own manufacturing 
industry. The tariff on woolen manufactures is alleged to be 
" legislation for a special interest." We woolen manufacturers 
are characterized as "tariff beneficiaries." Our industry is 
classed as a " protected industry," and differentiated from other 
industries which are classed as "unprotected industries." 

Tliis error must be eradicated from the minds of men in high 
places and their followers, before our true relations with the 
great army of workers and upbuilders of our country can be 
comprehended and appreciated. I believe elementary education 
in this regard to be imperative. We are not tariff beneficiaries ; 
we never have asked and never have been granted special legis- 
lation for our interests. We never have been, we are not, we 
would not be if we could, on the charity list of our country. 
And as a corollary to this, that woolen manufacturers are favored 
by legislation above others, whereby they acquire riches, receiv- 
ing tribute fi-om those engaged in so-called non-protected indus- 
tries, I assert that the so-called non-protected industries are the 
only absolutely protected industries in our country. This is by 
reason of geographical position. I also assert that the so-called 
protected industries are only partially protected, and because of 
this capital and labor in the latter are less remunerative than in 
the former. The fundamental error of which I am speaking has 
been so instilled into the public mind by doctrinaires and theo- 
retical economists that it has become altogether too generally 
accepted as truth. Because of the prominence of its teachers, it 
is all the more dangerous. 


It has been the policy of our country from its beginning to 
develop its natural resources. The interdependence of our 
national industries has been recognized. There have been no 
limits to the field of our activities other than those created by 
nature. Any industry in which a unit of labor will produce as 
much in this country as in a foreign country has been considered 
worth cultivating. The- greatest possible diversity of products 
has been regarded as beneficial to the nation's welfare. Legisla- 
tion to accomplish these objects must necessarily have a basic 
principle. This principle is to impose such duties on certain 


imported competing products of foreign labor as to prevent their 
importation at a less price than they could be profitably manu- 
factured for in our own country under the wages of labor and 
other economic and social conditions which may prevail. 

It has been the policy of our country so to legislate that such 
industries as can be successfully carried on within our borders 
shall be transferred from foreign countries to our own country. 
This policy has resulted in making our country the largest manu- 
facturing nation in the world. Our industry under this policy 
has kept pace in development with others. It is an essential 
part of the industrial equipment of the country. We especially 
deprecate the assaults upon the textile industries. Legislation 
that would cripple them or make them relatively less prosperous 
than others would be class legislation for the alleged purpose of 
favoring the interests of other and absolutely protected industries. 

We ask no favors but we may demand as a right that the 
woolen industry shall have equal opportunities with all other 
industries. Those in other industries cannot reasonably expect 
that those engaged in the woolen industry, only a partially pro- 
tected industry, should have a special mission to furnish mate- 
rials for their clothing without reasonable and proper profits, a 
profit relative to that secured by other industries, however they 
may be classed. The " Daily Consular and Trade Keports " of 
January 26, 1911, just issued by the Bureau of Manufactures, 
contained a table of " Wages in Germany," which I place before 
you as an authoritative exhibit of the general scale of wages 
against which we contend : 

Wages in Germany. 

{From Consul General Frank Dillingham, Coburg.) 

The following statistics, showing the rates of wages paid in the 

Duchy of Coburg, are supplementary to a report, covering the prices of 

foodstuffs in the Duchy, published in the "Daily Consular and Trade 

Reports" for November 23, 1910. The working day is 10 hours: 

Class of Employees. 


Carpenters . 

Painters . . 






$1.07 to $1.19 
.83 to .95 
.83 to 
1.00 to 
.95 to 
.76 to 
.76 to 





Class of Employees. 

Iron moulders 

Pattern makers . . . . 
Cotton weavers . . . . 
Woolen weavers . . . . 
Street laborers . . . . 
Sewer workers . . . . 
Kettlemen in breweries 



43 to 1.67 


.40 to .64 

.59 to .71 




Industrial Employees. 

The following wages are paid to those employed in factories and 
other industrial works, per week of 60 hours. 

Porcelain factories : Boys, 9,5 cents to $1.43 ; men, $2 85 to $4.75 ; 

girls, 85 cents to $1.56; women, $1.78 to $3.57. 
Table china: Boys, $1.43; men, $4.16; girls, $1.43; women, $2 50. 
DollsMieads: Boys, $2.14 to $2.85; men, $3.57 to $4.28; girls, 

$1.43 to $2.15; women, $2 15 to $2.85. 
Technical articles: Boys, $2.14 to $2.86; men, $3.57 to $4 ; men 

modelers, $7.14 to $7 45; girls, $1.90 to $2 26 ; women, $2.87 

to $3 57. 
Figures, toys, and small novelties: Boys, $1.85; men, $4.28 to 

$5.70; girls, $1 85; women. $2 43. 
Glass industries : Boys, $2.14 to $2 86 ; men, $5.70 to $8.57 ; girls, 

$1.29 to $1.43; women, $1.86 to $2 15; boy tube pullers, $4 76; 

men tube pullers, $5.43 to $5.85; boy tube blowers, $8.33; 

men tube blowers, $8.37 to $10.28 (tube blowers and pullers 

64 hours per week) . 
Wooden ware: Boys, $2.10; men, $4.67; girls, $1.83; women, 


Boys and girls are those 16 years and under; all above 16 years are 
classed as men and women. 

I have not had opportunity to make full comparison of 
startlingly low wages with the wages ruling in the so-called 
" unprotected " industries here, but I can speak with confidence 
regarding the following wages : 

Bricklayers in the Duchy of Coburg earn from 10 cents to 12 
cents an hour; in eastern Massachusetts, about 60 cents an hour. 
Carpenters in the Duchy of Coburg receive from Sy^^ to 9^ cents 
an hour; in Massachusetts, 41 cents an hour. Painters in the 
Duchy of Coburg are paid from 8^^^^ to Sy^^ cents an hour ; in 
Massachusetts, from 35 to 37^ cents an hour. Plumbers in the 
Duchy of Coburg receive from 10 to 12 cents an hour ; in Massa- 
chusetts, 43f cents an hour, and in one locality I know of, as Itigh 
as 5Q^ to 60 cents an hour. The wages of labor of all kinds and 
in all countries will no doubt be thoroughly investigated by those 
charged with the duty of making such an inquiry. 

Of myself and ray work in connection with our Association it 
is not necessary to speak, because it is on record. It has always 


received your support. Whether this has been for good or ill^ 
the record cannot be changed, and my work must be judged by it. 
In closing, it is a duty and a pleasure to acknowledge my grati- 
tude for the friendships that have been formed, not only with 
distinguished public men but with my fellow-manufacturers, dur- 
ing the long years of close relation with the members of this 
Association who have stood by me as I have labored, alike in 
anxious years and in prosperous years, for the welfare of our 
industry. The good will of one's associates is a great compen- 
sation to any man, and more than offsets all the smarts of criti- 
cism and misunderstanding. I shall always cherish with pride 
and thankfulness the recollections of my work with you and the 
loyalty and zeal of my comrades of the National Association of 
Wool Manufacturers. 

At the close of President Whitman's address he appointed 
Mr. Maxwell and Mr. Hopewell to act as a committee to 
escort to the chair the President-elect, John P. Wood, of 
William Wood & Company of Philadelphia. Mr. Wood, 
who was introduced by Mr. Hopewell, spoke a few words of 
acknowledgment of the honor that had been conferred upon 
him, and the meeting was then adjourned. 


The report of the Secretary was as follows : 

To THE Members of the National Association of Wool Manu- 
facturers : 

In obedience to the by-laws of the Association, the Secretary herewith 
submits his report for the year ending with the last day of January, 

The year just closing is one which goes without regret on the part of 
the wool manufacturers of America. It has witnessed a long, severe 
depression. Thei'e have been times during the past year when probably 
one-half of the woolen machinery in the United States was idle. At 
present perhaps a somewhat better condition prevails, but the existing 
volume of production is altogether unsatisfactory and the outlook is 
exceedingly uncertain. 

There is one main cause for all this — and that is the persistent 
political agitation of which the wool and woolen industry has been the 
devoted target. During the year 1909, in the middle of which the 


Aldrich-Payne tariff was enacted, our industry as a wliole enjoyed a 
fair degree of prosperity. But a sinister change came at the beginning 
of the present year. Schedule K was singled out for particularly vicious 
attack by widely read magazines and newspapers, encouraged by 
interests opposed to the protective system. The National Association 
of Wool Manufacturers has been able to meet and answer some of these 
attacks, but many of these false and misleading statements have tlown 
far afield, and have unquestionably created a deep prejudice against our 
industry in the minds of a large portion of the American people. One 
important work of the Association for the coming year must be to 
devise means of grappling on a more comprehensive scale with the cam- 
paigns of misrepresentation on the part of our adversaries, which have 
reached every corner of the United States. 

As a result of this hostile propaganda it is now understood that 
Schedule K is to be selected for examination and revision downward by 
the new House of Representatives, controlled by the anti-protection 
party, which will assemble in Washington in December next. Nearly 
a year remains in which the National Association of Wool Manufac- 
turers, acting on behalf of the entire industry, will have a chance to tell 
the truth about Schedule K to the country, which has heard that truth 
so meanly and grotesquely distorted. 

The political agitation against the wool and woolen duties has caused 
the country to expect an immediate lowering of those duties and a con- 
sequent reduction in the price of clothing because of large importa- 
tions from abroad. This anticipation has hurt the trade of dry goods 
and clothing merchants, and lessened their requirement of new fabrics 
from the manufacturers. With the mills partly idle there has inevi- 
tably been a weakened demand for raw wool, which has been reflected 
throughout the year in lowered prices. Farmers, ranchmen, manufac- 
turers, merchants, have alike been involved in the depression, and 
in West and East we have received a striking revelation of the close 
interdependence of the various branches of our common industry. 

Though an effort will undoubtedly be made in the next Congress by 
the leaders of the anti-protection majority in the House of Representa- 
tives to reconstruct Schedule K, this cannot succeed without the co- 
operation of the Senate and the President. It would be most unjust to 
reduce the duties on wool and the manufactures of wool without making 
a proportionate reduction in the duties on the indispensable supplies 
and materials of the industry contained in other schedules of the tariff. 
The plan of schedule-by-schedule revision, though earnestly favored 
now by many sincere men, will have far fewer friends next year when 
the process has been more searchingly considered. 

But to fi'ame a hostile tariff bill is one thing and to secure its complete 
enactment is another. In order to succeed, the anti-protection leaders 
of the House must win the assent of the Senate, where the majority will 


remain at least nominally protectionist. Inasmuch as all of the so- 
called progressive Senators of the Middle West insisted on the main- 
tenance of the present rates of duty on the raw wool of their constitu- 
ents throughout the framing of the Aldrich-Payne law, it is impi'obable 
that a majority can be secured in the Senate as it will be constituted in 
December next for any tariff revision measure which radically reduces 
the protection now given to either wool growei's or wool manufacturers. 
The people of the West will be quick to understand that inadequate 
protection to American mills and a consequent flood of imported goods 
from Eui'ope would be as disastrous to the wool growing interest as if 
wool were put on the free list. This is a fact which the National Asso- 
ciation can profitably impress upon the consciousness of the whole 
United States. 

In a short time the results of the important inquiry undertaken last 
year by this Association into the wool manufacturing industry in 
America will be ready for publication. Most of the requisite material 
is now in hand, and when this is propei'ly arranged and analyzed the 
Association will be in the possession of more knowledge about the 
industry than has ever before been made available. Requests for 
reports have been addressed to nearly two thousand wool nianufac- 
tuiing establishments, and practically all of the concerns of real con- 
sequence have responded. The complete returns will be ready in 
advance of the very full and ambitious reports of the Federal govern- 
ment, and it is the purpose of the Association to revise the facts and 
figures year by year, so that the very latest and most authentic infor- 
mation can always be had as to the conditions of our industry. 

The work of the new Committee on Undervaluations is proceeding 
quietly and satisfactorily, and this undertaking has received hearty 
approval fi'om the members of the Association. Recent developments 
have proved the need of such a work. Undervaluations have been 
practised on a large scale by importing houses, which, when called to 
account, have confessed judgment and made some restitution to the 
Government. But American manufacturers who were cheated of their 
due protection have not been compensated, and our industry can have 
fair play only by the rigid prevention of these practices, which war 
alike against American industry and the national rt- venue. 

The membership and resources of the Association have been consid- 
erably increased during the past year, and the retiring President, after 
his long and honorable service, has the satisfaction of leaving the 
Association greater in strength and influence than ever before in its 
history of almost half a century. Not only have the numbers and 
activities of the Association grown, but there has been a manifest gain 
in the personal interest of oflScers and members in the aftairs of the 
Association and the great work which it has undertakt^n There is 
every indication that the new year will witness a .steady development 


along the same lines, and that the Association in the serious combat 
now impending will win a widening recognition as the niain bulwark 
of the wool manufacturing industiy of the United States. 

The report would be incomplete without a word of gratitude for the 
cordial support which the Secretary has received in all his work from 
the officers and members of the Association. And due acknowledgment 
should be made of the faithful assistance of Mr. William J. Battison, 
whose experience and knowledge make him of great value in the office 
work of the Association, particularly in the department of statistics and 
the preparation of the Annual Wool Review. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

WiNTHROP L. Marvin, 

Boston, January 31, 1911, 



The annual banquet of the National Association of Wool 
Manufacturers was served in the great ballroom on the top 
floor of the New Willard at 8 p.m. The new President, 
John P. Wood of Philadel[)hia, presided. On his right sat 
Hon. Joseph G. Cannon, Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and on the left, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of 
Massachusetts. Seated also at the head table were ex- 
President William Whitman, Vice-Presidents Charles H. 
Harding, William M. Wood, and F'rederick S. Clark, and 
J. R. MacCoU, John Hopewell, and Joseph R. Grundy of 
the Executive Committee of the Association. With them 
were a large number of other distinguished guests including 
Hon. Francis E. Warren, Senator from Wyoming; Hon. 
Reed Smoot, Senator from Utah ; Hon. Boies Penrose, 
Senator from Pennsylvania ; Hon. Robert J. Gamble, 
Senator from South Dakota ; Hon. Weldon B. Heyburn, 
Senator from Idaho ; Hon. Charles Curtis, Senator from 
Kansas ; Hon. George T. Oliver, Senator from Pennsyl- 
vania ; Prof. Henry C. Emery, Chairman of the Tariff 
Board; James B. Reynolds, a member of the TariiT Board; 
Hon. Edgar D. Crumpacker, Representative from Indiana; 
Hon. Irving P. Wanger, Representative from Pennsyl- 


vania ; Hon. William A. Calderhead, Representative from 
Kansas ; Hon. Frank W. Mondell, Representative from 
Wyoming; Hon. Joseph Howell, Representative from Utah ; 
Hon. Joseph W. Fordnej, Representative from Michigan ; 
Hon. J. C. Needham, Representative from California; Hon. 
Arthur L. Bates, Representative from Pennsylvania; Hon. 
Ralph D. Cole, Representative from Ohio ; Hon. J. Hampton 
Moore, Representative from Pennsylvania ; Hon. Charles N. 
Pray, Representative from Montana : Hon. Thomas R. 
Hamer, Representative from Idaho, and L. White Busbey, 
secretary to Speaker Cannon. 


Including the guests, about two hundred and fifty gentle- 
men were present — not only wool manufacturers, but wool 
merchants and representatives of the wool growers of the 
far West. President John P. Wood, calling the assemblage 
to order after the dinner, said : 

The present is not an opportune moment for me to speak at 
length. We are to be addressed by certain of our guests and 
members, each of whom is in a particular way notably qualified 
to inform and counsel us upon subjects of vital interest to us, 
not merely as men engaged in the woolen industry, but in a 
larger and broader way, as citizens of a common country, sin- 
cerely concerned for its welfare in all things, including that 
material prosperity upon which its moral and intellectual 
development must rest. 

To give the distinguished speakers whose messages we desire 
to hear without abridgement the most ample allotment of time 
(always too brief at such events as this), their introductions will 
be in the briefest form, and I shall confine my remarks to the 
statement of a few suggestive facts that are commonly over- 
looked in the discussion of the more technical questions of legis- 
lation in which this Association is interested. 

Those composing the great army of persons directly engaged 
in the woolen industry and in occupations dependent upon that 
industry, are not in any separate or special way beneficiaries of 
the Government. They labor as honestly, as diligently, and risk 


as much as do their fellow citizens in like stations in other 
vocations ; and they share with the whole people whatever 
benefits tiow from legislation enacted for the purpose of building 
up the domestic woolen industry. 


The business is not a close corporation ; it is equally open to 
every one, and in rank and file it offers opportunity for every 
kind of capacity and training. 

Moreover, all these hundreds of thousands of our fellow 
workers are withdrawn from competing for place in other 

Suppose for a moment that wool manufacturing had never 
been established in the United States — and it could never have 
been established and developed here but for the existence of a 
protective tariff. 

Those now engaged in it would not be without employment. 
They would have contested for the places now filled by many 
men who think themselves in no wise concerned with the tariff 
except as consumers. Those in our ranks would have found 
their way into all the activities of life. They would have 
become doctors, lawyers, engineers, preachers, bankers, railway 
officials and employees, merchants, farmers, salesmen, clerks, 
mechanics of all kinds, day laborers, editors, magazine writers, 
perhaps even members of Congress ; and I fear there would 
have been a few, just a very few, "insurgents." 

This illustrates one of the fundamental reasons justifying the 
protective policy — namely, the diversification of industry for 
the greater prosperity of the whole people. And has any other 
country, new or old, with or without natural resources, so abund- 
antly justified that policy by the almost universal diffusion of 
prosperity ? 


Those engaged in the woolen industry ask no special privilege, 
seek no advantage but that of equal opportunity, neither possess 
nor desire any beneficence of government that is not freely avail- 
able to all citizens. They are in no sense beneficiaries of the 
tariff except as they share the benefits for the common advantage 
of all. 


There are no mysteries about the conduct of the woolen indus- 
try ; every essential fact is accessible. 

It invites the most searching investigation and comparison as 
to the returns it makes to capital, the wages of its labor, the 
acuteness of its competition, and the facility with which those 
of limited financial resource can engage in its various branches 
under conditions favorable to success. 

It depends upon no secret processes, no controlled patent 
rights, nor upon exclusive franchises. 

In no branch of the woolen business, from the production of 
the wool to the distribution of the finished clothing, is there any 
trust or combination in restraint of trade. No individual, nor 
corporation, nor group of either, exercises a controlling influence 
in the industry. Indeed, sometimes we might well wish for 
some steadying influence in the times that try men's souls, just 
as the banks have their clearing houses which in seasons of 
panic regulate the conditions under which their business shall 
be done. 

Nor do we know of any instance in which our trade has been 
concerned in violations of the Federal laws relating to interstate 

And, although the transactions of the American woolen manu- 
facturers with the United States Customs House involve amounts 
of great magnitude, they have been singularly free from even 
the suspicion of undervaluation frauds. 


It is noteworthy that none of the great accumulations of 
wealth in this country have been made in the woolen trade. 

At the same time, not a few respectable competences have 
been dissipated in the field of our endeavor. 

Vast individual fortunes have been acquired in transportation, 
banking, mining, real estate ; in wholesale and retail trade ; in 
the use and development of natural resources ; in the construc- 
tion of public utilities ; in the publishing of newspapers, and in 
many other kinds of business, including some few varieties of 
manufacture ; but none such in the woolen trade, though many 
of its establishments have had a continuous existence of from 
fifty to one hundred years, and were preexistent to the begin- 
nings of most of the great American fortunes. 


The products of the woolen industry are not transported at 
government expense. Its properties are not improved and 
enhanced in value by expenditures of public funds. It is not 
assisted in the solution of its technical problems by experiment 
stations and research laboratories conducted by the national or 
State government. All of which advantages are enjoyed by one 
or another of other classes of our fellow citizens. 

Believing in the system of protection for the good of the 
whole people, the woolen manufacturers cheerfully acquiesce in 
the application of that principle to the raw material they use. 
They have not presented the spectacle of advocating adequate 
protection on their finished products while opposing such rates 
on the products of others which they require. 

One of our ablest and brightest members recently remarked 
that " ours is a business in which, once entered, one has a life 
sentence," and the sentence is to hard labor, unremitting toil, and 
ceaseless anxiety. 

Though of excitement there is no lack, for to quote the 
opinion of another dear victim: "No one who buys or manu- 
factures wool has need of other outlet for his speculative 
instinct. He has no excuse for toying with Wall Street, or play- 
'ing the races, or staking his money at games of chance; for he 
should be able to fully satisfy any gambling propensities he 
may have in the wonderful chances the business presents." 

Before proceeding further I wish to make this announce- 
ment on behalf of the woolen industry : 

A committee will call upon the President of the United 
States to-morrow to pay the respects of those engaged in this 
industry, and on behalf of this Association ; and it is desired 
that that shall be a committee of the whole, and I invite all 
of those who are assembled with us and who can remain over 
until to-morrow, to meet in the office of the New Willard 
Hotel for that purpose, at 9.45 a.m., to proceed to the White 

And now, gentlemen, we wish to make a preliminary apol- 
ogy to the distinguished gentlemen in public life who are to 
address us to-night for somewhat reversing the usual order of 


One of our purposes in coming to Washington for the hold- 
ing of this annual meeting was that we might in some meas- 
ure make a statement of our own case, the case of the wool 
growing and wool manufacturing industries, two great allied 
interests. And so we shall so far depart from precedent as 
to ask those who shall speak for us and for the wool growing 
interest to address you before our distinguished guests are 

I have great pleasure in introducing the gentleman who 
has been selected to speak on behalf of the wool manufac- 
turing industry, whom you will all recognize as peculiarly 
and especially qualified, not only by his long and thorough 
experience in the technical aspects of that industr}^ but by 
his great ability in the forceful and eloquent presentation of 
that knowledge which he has acquired during this long 

It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce Mr. Charles 
H. Harding, of Philadelphia. 


Mr. President, our Distinguished Guests, Fellow Mem- 
bers OF THIS Association : 
I am happy to be able to say that on account of an incident 
which at first was very uncomfortable for me, 1 shall cut these 
remarks very much shorter than otherwise ; because as soon as 
this address was finished, it was torn out of my hands by the 
Chairman of the Committee who has this meeting in charge, 
on the plea that it was necessary that the newspapers should 
know what I was going to say before I had said it, and it was 
conveyed to Washington. It is now I believe in the hands of the 
gentlemen who do the reporting, and I have not seen a copy of 
it since, until just a moment before I came here. Therefore, I 
am at liberty to do what I have been anxious to do, and that is 
to cut these remarks to the shortest possible compass, and say to 
you that what I ought to say will be found in some of the news- 
papers to-morrow. Also I can at the same time take notice that 


the President has advised me to get out of the way of the band 
wagon, which I am very anxious to do. 

You have seen fit to elect me for the eighteenth or nineteenth 
time to the office of Vice-President of your Association. I have 
not the words nor the time now to express my great gratitude for 
myself, or my great regret for you. 

You have on previous occasions sent me to meet the National 
Association of Wool Growers, who were kind enough to invite 
me twice more on like journeys ; but the heaviest load you have 
ever given me you have given me to-night, in the defence of this 
Association, and in a certain measure in defence of the schedule 
that levies rates on wool and woolens ; for you know we have been 
assured on very high authority that the woolen schedule is 

Speaker Cannon. — Do you mean Schedule K ? 

Mr. Harding. — Schedule K. And now, without pity on the 
gray and scanty hairs of an old comrade, you have set me to that 
impossible task of defending Schedule K I 

I shall consider very briefly your past and your present 
situation, and the outlook for the future. 


As to the past, you are charged with two conspiracies, the first 
one in 1865, which I shall not at all stop to notice, except to say 
that when the foundation was laid after six months' study of 
the conditions of avooI and woolen manufacturing, for a tariff 
that two years afterward became the law of the United States, 
there was a wonderful prescience, almost an inspiration, in the 
classification and the elaboration of the principles adapted to the 
industry, and our forefathers built far better than they knew 
when they classified the wools, not as clothing, combing, etc., as 
adapted to the machinery and practices of their time, but when 
they decided that the classification of wool should be not on the 
use, which changes from year to year and decade to decade, but 
on the breed or blood of the wool, thereby saving the Govern- 
ment and ourselves unending litigation. Their recital of breeds 
of sheep whose wool was included in Class 2 (combing wools) was 
based on a situation that knew practically but the now obsolete 
combing machine that could handle only long fibers ; the Noble 
comb was not fairly established and the French comb dealing 


with the very short fiber had not been then invented. The main 
sources of supply for the combing industry, established in the 
country less than ten years beforehand, were Great Britain and 
Canada, whose wools were then always marketed in a washed 
condition — and this accounts for the exceptional dealing with 
washed wools in Class 2 ; but the short wools, the pulled wools, 
and any other wools of the class fitted for the cards of that time 
shared with the long wools the privilege of entry as washed 
wools without double duty, as they have done ever since. 

Worsted yarns were used for shawls, reps (in upholstery), dress 
goods (delaines, poplins, and the like), and for hand-knitting 
in common with woolen yarns, knitted underwear being almost 
unknown. Not a yard of worsteds for men's wear had been put 
on the market, these fabrics being first made in notable quantity 
about 1873, and receiving their first public recognition from the 
very beautiful display at the Centennial Exposition of 1876. Not 
only were shorter fibered wools of Class II. then as now available 
for carding as well as for combing purposes, but the market price 
of competing wools from the middle west gradually came to be 
regulated not by them, but by the crossbred wools of Australia, 
New Zealand, and South America, all which must be imported 
*' in the grease " as of Class I. of clothing wools. But the trade 
language of to-day uses the name " combing wool " for all wools 
of Class II. and Class I. that can be used on any form of combing 
machinery, and this includes nearly all the wool grown in the 

The second conspiracy which is laid at our doors applies to 
1908, and we are charged with having met, in a clandestine 
fashion, some wool growers from the West in the city of Chicago, 
and arranged there an irresistible defence of Schedule K. Well, 
there was no secret conspiracy. These wool growers remembered 
very well what had happened in the framing of the Dingley 
tariff ; how some of the manufacturers had come down here with 
the idea that eight cents a pound was enough on unwashed wool 
of the first class, and had met with the representatives of the 
wool growers, who said that thirteen cents a pound would not 
recuperate the injuries they had suffered under the free wool 
law ; and those of us who were here at that time remember how 
long and how acrid sometimes were the conferences that were 
held, and finally the adjustment was reached between us that a 
compromise of eleven cents a pound as duty on unwashed wool, 


with the scoured and washed wools in proportion, would have to 


When in 1908 the platforms of both the political parties declared 
that a tariff revision was imperative after the Presidential 
election, the wool growers naturally wanted to know what you had 
to say about it, and to know whether the scenes that attended the 
making of the Dingley tariff were to be repeated, and they wrote 
to our office. In the meantime a great association called the 
American Association of Woolen and Worsted Manufacturers had 
been formed, many of its members being members of our Associa- 
tion, and they wrote to us and said they preferred not to have any- 
thing to do with the manipulation of tariff matters, which the 
older association had always attended to, to their entire satis- 

The wool growers were informed from our office that it was 
not the intention of this Association to meddle in any way with 
the duties that should be put on wool, as this Association thought, 
as we had always thought, that was a matter to be settled by the 
testimony that the wool growers themselves would present to 
Congress. They, however, were still in trouble, and said as they 
were to have a meeting in Chicago on the 19th of October to 
confer about their new proposition to sell their own wools direct 
through the Chicago warehouse, they would be very hajjpy to 
have a committee of our Association meet them on that date, face 
to face, to talk over the prospects. 

The committees met, and the result of it was the passage of 
unanimous resolutions to the effect that neither body could see 
that there was any occasion or room for the reduction of duties 
on wools and woolens. The resolutions were handed, on the 
assembling of Congress, by the Secretaries of the two bodies, to 
the Committee on Ways and Means. There was no conspiracy 
and there was no secrecy; but as the matter occurred two weeks 
before the Presidential election, it naturally did not engage the 
attention of the newspapers. 


A hue and cry started almost instantly, and it is said that out 
of these two conspiracies two great wrongs had been worked on 
the American people and a section of the manufacturers. It was 


said at once that a certain section of manufacturers are by the 
operation of the duty on raw wool deprived of certain heavy 
shrinking fine wools which are necessary in their business to give 
the American people the kind of cloth they ought to have when 
they do not want to wear worsted clothing and do not want to 
wear shoddy. 

It is a very extraordinary thing that the principles of the 
tariff law which result in this discrimination had been embodied 
in the law and in operation for almost a generation, and the dis- 
crimination had not been found out until now. The proposition 
itself, as stated by these gentlemen, is utterly baseless so far as 
the facts are concerned. 

To put the proposition clearly before you, it is that there is a 
certain class of heavy wools grown in some parts of the world, 
necessary to the operation of making carded yarn ; that the man 
who makes worsted yarn or worsted goods is at liberty to import 
very light shrinking wools which these other people cannot get. 

Now the facts are these : Anybody who knows anything about 
wool and sheep knows that if the wool in a flock is heavy, the 
short wool and the long wool are alike heavy ; if the wool off 
the sheep is light, the short wool and the long wool are alike 
light. Every man of experience in buying wools in the markets 
of the world knows that whenever parcels of combing wool are 
offered for sale, parcels of clothing wool are offered from the 
same clips. Every man who has been present at foreign auctions 
knows that he can buy these clotliing wools at the same or some- 
times a less price at the auction than he must pay for the cloth- 
ing wools, and that wherever in the world he can buy light 
shrinking long wools for combing, he can buy light shrinking 
short wools for clothing. 

The largest importer of foreign wools in Boston, and in the 
United States, sits right here, and he has said to me that in the 
time of free wool — when, of course, no duty being levied, if 
these people could ever do what they want to, they certainly 
ought to do it then — that in the time of free wool he brought 
into this country about 250,000 bales of wool, 80,000 bales in 
one year, and that of that 80,000 bales more than one-half went 
to the carded yarn manufacturers. My own experience is that 
when we once ran both cards for woolen yarns and combs for 
worsted yarns, I was in the habit of buying in the London auc- 
tions long wools and short wools for the two varieties of manu- 


facture, and taking the combing and clothing parcels from the 
same clip as a matter of course. Furthermore, a member of our 
Association lately issued this challenge : 

"I will make this statement, that if the carded wool manu- 
facturers will show me any grade of combing wool the worsted 
manufacturers are importing, I will guarantee to import for them 
a corresponding grade of clothing wool suitable for their require- 
ments, at the same price, clean scoured, delivered in Boston, and 
probably for a little less money." 

There is an opportunity to do business. The answer to that 
was, " I know the Hartley family." Well, we do, too, and we 
know very well that if they make a proposition to do business, 
and you want to do business with them you can do it. Now here 
was a proposition to these complainants that all they had to do 
was to give an order to these well-known gentlemen to import 
wool, and they would get all the wool they wanted, at any time 
that the worsted man buys wool, and usually for a little less 
money. A great many of you will agree with me that when these 
gentlemen make an offer or a promise, they will do what they say. 
They will keep their word. 


Now as to the illustration of the principle that is involved. 
Suppose a man is buying wool in Australia, and he sees a clip of 
Australian wool that will shrink say 42 per cent, that will 3aeld 
58 per cent of clean wool, which he can buy for 15 pence or 30 
cents. That means 50 cents a pound scoured. Looking around 
for these heavy wools which are so much desired, he may find 
that he can get one shrinking 72 per cent, or giving him 28 
per cent of wool; clean ; and to get that at 50 cents a pound, clean, 
he must buy it for 14 cents. Suppose he is able to do that. The 
question now arises what will happen next ? This is what will 
happen next. If he buys the 15 pence or 30-cent light shrinking 
wool, the weighing, shipping, freight, insurance, commissions, 
custom house charges here and other things that land it in his 
mill, may mean to him 5 cents a pound, and that means on his 
scoured pound an addition of 8.6 cents. If he buys the other 
wool, which our friends say is so desirable and essential, he may 
be able, on account of his commissions being reckoned on a lower 
basis, to find that the cost added is only 4 cents a pound ; but 


that 4 cents a poiiud, because of the exceeding shrinkage of the 
wool, means on the scoured pound 14.3 cents. 

Now it is a plain proposition that a man will buy the light 
shrinking wool, no matter what he wants to do with it. He has a 
chance to save the difference between the 8.6 cents on the scoured 
pound in the one case and 14.3 cents a pound in the other case. 
Naturally he selects the light shrinking wool. Furthermore, 
with that difference to his advantage, he will advance his bids a 
little on the light shrinking wool ; if he cannot save the whole 
8.6 cents, he will save as much as he can. But the result of 
that is that all the buyers of wool throughout the United States, 
when they appear in the foreign markets, take by preference 
the light shrinking wools as a matter of profit. That is wh}^ the 
increase of price of the light shrinking wool to America is brought 
about, and so the phrase has grown up the world over that these 
wools are " Wools suitable for America." This reckoning is on 
free wool, but with any rate of duty per pound the principle 
remains the same. 

Now I submit to any man who knows anything about the 
business that it is an absolute absurdity to claim that even with 
free wool any of us who knew what he was about would select 
these heavy shrinking, dirty wools, in preference to the light 
shrinking wools, if he could get them. And I assert again, with- 
out any fear of contradiction, that the American people have been 
stirred to the boiling point and made venomous against you by a 
false charge. 


The worsted man has no opportunity in buying wools any- 
where in the markets of the world that is not equally open to 
me if I am a maker of carded yarn. And it is a strange happen- 
ing of chance that to-night the President of this great Associa- 
tion of the American Woolen and Worsted Manufacturers, Mr. 
Clark, is one of the Vice-presidents of this Association, and our 
new President himself is a manufacturer of carded yarns, having 
in his mill more machinery for making them than all the people 
in Philadelphia combined who make the noise. 

We have been hounded for eighteen months on this charge of 
an unjust discrimination growing out of the nature of the tariff, 
and T wish that my voice could sound all over this country and 
could reverse the opinions and actions of some people, opinions 


they have formed because they have believed in this charge, 
which is a downright falsehood. 

The apparent force of the wonderful cumulative percentages 
that are hurled at you every now and then grows out of the fact 
that the duty on wool is specific. I want to inquire for a mo- 
ment what is the practice of the world in the matter of specific 
duties. Anybody who looks into the subject must be astounded 
to find out that of all the civilized nations of the world this is 
the only one that clings to the principle of ad valorem duties. 
Austria, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Russia, and 
Great Britain have all of them distinctly specific tariffs. 
France has eight hundred and sixty-six items in her tariff, and 
nine of them are ad valorem because of the peculiarity of cer- 
tain articles. Germany has nine hundred and forty-six speci- 
fications in her tariff, every one of them a specific duty. 
England raises about one-fourth of her revenue from customs, 
and not all on liquors and cigars, either, and every duty of 
England is a specific duty. She once had a most drastic proposi- 
tion for dealing with undervaluation. Those laws were known 
as Statutes 16 and 17, Victoria, Chapter 107, Section 57, under 
which every suspected invoice, that was thought to be under- 
valued, had 5 per cent added to it at once, and was taken away 
from the importer and sold for the benefit of the Crown, and if 
there was a loss the Crown took it, and if there was a gain it 
went to the Crown, and the importer had nothing to say. He 
had his investment, as stated on his oath, and a 5 per cent profit 
on that. That is now obsolete, for Great Britain has no more 
ad valorem duties, and so has no more use for that law. 


Another charge laid against you is that because of the passage 
of the late tariff bill the cost of clothing to the American people 
has been enhanced enormously. Without reflecting on the 
National Association of Clothing Manufacturers, I want to read 
what was put out by them. On June 30, 1909, they scattered 
this statement : 

" As the schedule covering this industry has been adopted by 
the Senate Committee of the Whole, and as it is practically a 
continuation of the old Dingley schedule, the N. A. C. M. feel 


that they must file their protest before the adoption by the 
Senate. The operations of the Dingley (?) bill — " 

(I think they must have meant the Payne-Aldrich bill.) 

" Will add to the retail price approximately $2.50 on a $10 
suit of clothes, $3 on a $15 suit, $5 on a $20 suit, or from 20 to 
25 per cent to the cost of clothing to the wearer thereof." 

They continue in their statement : 

" The aggregate burden of the increased cost of men's and 
boys' clothing to the American people under the present advance 
alone will be $120,000,000 for the year 1910, which was twice 
the value of the annual domestic wool clip." 

The President of that association was asked over and over 
again how it was possible that this thing could be, when all of 
the few changes which were made in the woolen schedule were in 
a downward direction? He never answered. But by chance the 
Vice-president of that association, at a dinner of the American 
Woolen Company within a month, has said this. Take it home 
for your comfort : 

" Magazine articles notwithstanding, I want to state most 
emphatically that it is not the fault of the American Woolen 
Company that the prices of clothing are high, but it is the fault 
of our extravagant demands for style, our Byzantine cravings 
for adornment, our costly methods of distributing, that add so 
tremendously to the cost of the finished product. As a matter 
of fact it has been the achievement of your corporation to give 
us serviceable fabrics at low prices. But the structure reared 
upon the three and one-half yards of cloth going into a suit 
contains, besides the cloth, so much advertising, so much cost of 
designing to meet the demands of fashion, so much retailers' 
expense, so much cost of distribution, as to make the cost of the 
finished product out of all proportion to the original cost of the 

When you have paid your tailors $45, $50, $55, $60, $65 or 
$75 possibly for a suit of clothes, you have had a suspicion that 
this might be true ; but it has remained for the last month to 
bring this open confession from the men who use your fabrics. 

Every one of you has a souvenir here. I commend it to your 
careful study, and as Senator Smoot, who sits by me here, says, 
to the study of the whole American people. I wish a million of 
these samples had been sent out. 



So much for the charges against us for the past. You know 
your present situation. You are objects of contempt. The most 
violent, malignant abuse ever let loose, I think, on any section of 
the American people, has been poured upon you without stint for 
a year and a half; and if your machinery, of which 60 per cent 
was idle last year, is now running to the extent of 60 per cent, 
you are happy. The stock of goods in this country, if the 
inventory of Claflin & Company on the first of January is at all 
an index, is the lowest that has been heard of in many a year. 
You are facing, we are told, the cheapest wool in the world. 
Since the Dingley tariff bill has passed, you have advanced your 
wages 20 to 25 per cent. The hours for labor in all the States 
have been reduced, and some of you are not working as many 
hours as the law allows. 

You stand looking into a future from which you have been 
promised a quickly arousing prosperity, dreading lest before the 
arrival of this much desired guest, there shall come to you some 
disaster at the hands of your own Government. 

Now, as to the future, what is to happen ? Well, we are 
accused of being standpatters. Those of you who are old and gray 
enough will recollect that originally we were called bloated bond- 
holders. Well, that was a figment of the imagination that was 
soon dissipated by those knowing anything about our business. 
Then we were robber barons, and to-day we are beneficiaries of 
the wicked Schedule K of the present tariff, and you are offered 
to be reformed and to be revised, and to have a number of other 
things done to you ; and the question is asked, must we stand pat 
on Schedule K ? Now the answer to that depends entirely upon 
what you mean. I can see and you can see that if our legislators 
were to see fit at once to gather all the compensating duties into 
two paragraphs, one on the pound and the other on the square 
yard, the public would at once see two things. One of them is 
that the compensating duty rates are things that rise and fall 
automatically with the duty on raw wool. The other is that it 
might put an end to the cry of "four pounds of wool to a pound 
of clothing," because under this arrangement of the compensating 
duties it would be seen that they are two, two and a quarter, two 
and a half, three times, three and one-half times and four times 


the duty on the pound of unwashed wool, and the four times is 
simply kept for the highest priced cloth and for clothing. 

We have before now offered specific rates for consideration for 
parts of Schedule K : and if the whole of it could be remodeled on 
the plan of the Cotton and Silk schedules, our business would be 
on a much more permanent basis. 


Then we are asked whether we will approve ad valorem duties 
on wool. It seems a pity to have to discuss that before an intel- 
ligent audience. The men who know anything about importing 
wool know that the most vicious thing that could be done to the 
honest importer would be to make him subject to the knavery 
and the trickery that will be practised by the thief under the 
ad valorem duty. 

We have been told time and time again that the wools of the 
world were sold at auction, which is not the fact entirely. It is 
only in two countries that they are sold at auction. We have been 
told time and time again that the parcels of wool sold anywhere 
in the world can be identified by our customs appraisers, which 
we know is not true. I do not think that anybody can put the 
truth about ad valorem duties into better shape than Chairman 
Payne of the House Ways and Means Committee did in his 
epigram when he was examining me on the question. After the 
examination was over he said, " An ad valorem duty on wool is a 
very beautiful thing till you start to collect it." That seems to 
be the whole answer. 

Well, then, we are offered — and these kindergarten proposi- 
tions that come sometimes from very high authorities must look 
very queer to you — we are offered a rare scheme, a graduated 
duty on the scoured pound of wool, with little distances of 5 per 
cent apart, a few cents to be added to each 5 per cent. Anybody 
who knows anything about scoured wool knows that a method 
of that kind would mean that a lot of wool Avould be dutiable at 
one rate one day and another rate the next day, according to the 

Then we are offered free wool. Nobody here knows so much 
about free wool as you do, Senator Warren. 



May I say a word about free trade in general, as to the logic 
of free trade ? Free trade, and the brotherhood of man, and 
universal salvation are . most beautiful things in theory ; but 
everybody admits that they are all subject to modifications in 
practice. Free trade as between the States that make up this 
great nation, where the income is for the common benefit and 
the expenditures are under joint control, is absolutely necessary 
and right. The same thing is true of the Australian Federation. 
The same thing is true of the German Empire; but the proposi- 
tion of free trade between two nations, each of which collects 
its own revenue for its own purposes and spends its own money 
without regard to the other, is unspeakably absurd. 

Reciprocity ! Dare any layman say anything about reciproc- 
ity ? Especially in this distinguished presence. Most of us were 
brought up on the McKinley idea of reciprocity in non-competing 
products, and I have never heard any of you object to it. But 
may I say, privately and not for publication, that the proposi- 
tion of reciprocity between two nations because of their neighbor- 
hood looks to me exactly like a proposition to two families to 
pool their incomes and independently spend tliem, because they 
live in twin houses. Now do not understand me as opposing 

Free raw material is offered to us. You know what free raw 
material means to the clip and the woolen business of the coun- 
try. We have had an experience with free raw material, and 
we were promised that we would be independent of the world, 
that we would export goods, and many wild and beautiful prophe- 
sies of the same kind were given to us. What happened ? I 
cannot stop to tell you. As to the exporting of goods, I do know 
that two cases of goods were sent out of the port of New York 
and landed somewhere in Great Britain by Derby & Co., of New 
York, and so far as the public knows they were never heard of 


Gentlemen, the sorry part of the situation is that so many of 
these things that are proposed to you come out of the deepest 
ignorance. Why, I remember once in an examination before a 
distinguished Ways and Means Committee of this country, when 
somebody was speaking of the possibility of identifying wool 


bought abroad by the coverings in which it was contained, a mem- 
ber of that committee shuffled uneasily and impatiently in his 
seat and said, " As for me, I don't know whether wool comes to 
the market in boxes or in barrels." 

A distinguished correspondent of the cheaper magazines, with 
a very impressive middle name, lately said to the collector of 
the port of Philadelphia, " Your manufacturers ought to have 
free raw materials. With free raw materials you could invade 
the world and conquer the nations," etc. The collector of the 
port said to him, *' Do you know anything about the drawback 
system in our tariff ? " " Never heard of it ; don't think it 
amounts to anything." " Well, but," he said, " my friend, in 
the year 1909 I paid out in the port of Philadelphia alone over 
$700,000 in drawbacks, and in 1910 I paid out $1,028,000 in 
drawbacks, and it looks as though the drawback system is work- 
ing some." And I want to say that anybody who knows, under- 
stands that when an importer gets back 99 per cent of the duty 
on the articles that he exports, he is so far as duties are con- 
cerned on a perfect level with the manufacturers of all the rest 
of the world. 

Well, I hear the noise of the band wagon behind me and must 
hasten. We are offered reform and revision, and it is a question 
whether we shall have it at the hands of a commission or whether 
we shall have it at the hands of the politicians. 

Now we are not opposing a commission. I am perfectly satis- 
fied that if the wisdom of our legislators would give us a com- 
mission for the reasons tliat the French have a commission, and 
after the model of the German commission that was held up to 
us so long and loudly, we would be perfectly content. 


Here is a strange thing to the ears of an American manu- 
facturer, on the subject of the French revision : We read in the 
preface to the translation of the new tariff, the following: 

" The 1910 tariff was not a Government measure. The demand 
for a revision came primarily from the manufacturers, who felt 
that in view of changes in industrial methods and of higher 
customs duties in competing countries, they had come to need 
increased protection. . . 

"The essentially industrial character of the revision is dis- 


closed by the fact that out of 144 new items inserted, 112 covered 
manufactured articles, while of the 341 amended items manu- 
factures represented 249." 

Imagine yourselves and your brethren in the manufacturing 
business coming down to Washington and saying to Congress, 
" Gentlemen, we have not enough protection, and on account of 
competing tariffs and other circumstances the world over we 
ought to have more." Your imagination can finish the picture. 

One of the members of the German tariff commission, who is 
now a member of your Association, and is doing business in, 
Passaic, K. J., writes to me : 

" The German commission consisted of several hundred mem- 
bers, representatives of the principal agricultural, industrial, and 
commercial organizations of the country, the first of whom were 
appointed about 1899." 

" Their labors lasted for three years." 

" Some of the members were appointed by the Government 
direct, others were appointed by the Government after being 
nominated by the various semi-official organizations, such as 
chambers of commerce, etc." 

That is one way — the foreign way — of getting experts on 
the tariff question. Then this gentleman adds : 

*'A similarly constituted commission, representative of all 
interests, would in my opinion be very advantageous to the 
United States." 

The people of the United States are now saying " Blank, 
blank the interests." If we are not to have ourselves reformed 
and revised by a tariff commission, or by the board now exist- 
ing, for which we have the greatest respect, and for which we 
will do anything we possibly can, then we are to be reformed at 
the hands of the politicians who are coming into possession of 
the next Congress. The theory of revising by means of a tariff 
commission is based on the possibility and necessity of finding 
out the facts ; but the shining apostle among the politicians, who 
has lately come into the management of affairs in our sister 
State of New Jersey, rested himself awhile ago long enough 
from his job of appointing a new Senator from that State to 
give utterance to this : 

" It is impossible — " 

He tells us — 

" To base tariff or other legislation upon the finding of facts. 


This proposition of a commission is out of the question entirely. 
These things must be managed by the politicians ; " and he said 
" it is the business of politicians to alter the facts." 

Well, I don't know. Now I believe that the new Speaker-to-be 
of the House is a sensible, reasonable man. I have no fear that 
Mr. Underwood or Mr. Randell will do violence to the facts ; 
but I do remember that the new Speaker promised not long ago 
to drive a team to the Capitol, and we all understand that that 
team has been very largely augmented, and it is just possible 
that it may get headed for the White House, and then what will 
happen ? Who knows ? And if we are to fall into the hands of 
the gentlemen I have named, or fall into the hands of I think 
twelve lawyers in that committee majority, let me repeat again, 
who knows ? 


We are accused of being the principal sinners against the 
public as to the high cost of living. With what I have to say 
about that, I shall have finished my remarks. I want to give 
one or two illustrations of the things that have happened in this 
land, for which you as manufacturers are not responsible. You 
may not remember, but in the year 1882 an invoice of French 
jerseys was landed in the port of New York, and the cost landed 
was $108 a dozen, and they retailed for $12.50 apiece. They 
were garments that were drawn over the head, that fitted tightly 
to the form, and for the moment were extremely fashionable and 
a great fad. In the following year John Wanamaker imported 
the cloth from which to make them, the garments were made in 
Philadelphia by a manufacturer who turned them out, open in 
front, with collar and pockets, at $84 dollars a dozen. Domestic 
production had reduced the cost in less than six months $24 a 
dozen. Then Wanamaker imported the yarn, and they still 
further declined in price. The next year we made the yarn, and 
they retailed at $3.50 apiece. Lower qualities of wool were 
introduced, everybody was making them, and the fashion liter- 
ally wore itself out. That is what domestic manufacture did to 
a fad. 

I want to show you something that is going on now. Do you 
know what this is that I hold in my hand ? A whole lot of us 
are turning out hundreds of pounds a day of it, and if we get a 


dollar a pound for it we are happy. It is made out of your 
wool, Senator Warren, and wool like yours. 

Out of this are made these so-called eider-down caps, and 
I want to admit at once that a party of boys and girls, especially 
girls, coming out of school, wearing that sort of head coverings, 
present a very different picture from that presented some months 
ago when they were wearing hats that had been fashionable, 
were then passe, and on the way to the ash barrel. When it is 
taken from you it is bleached for white or dyed, wound into 1^- 
ounce balls, four of which are put in a paste-board box and sold 
at the department store for $1.50, or at the rate of $4.80 a pound. 
Yet the cursing for the cost of Iiigh living falls on you. As the 
Irish would say, gentlemen, that would be funny if it was not so 
serious. Where the difference between $1 a pound that you 
get and $4.80 a pound that the department store gets shall be 
found. Providence alone knows. I know one man who has been 
making these balls at the rate of 2,000 pounds a day. He cleared 
out a large room, put in 180 girls, and they turned out 8,000 boxes 
a day, which he turned over to the department store man, and he 
and the department store man divided the $3.80 a pound. One of 
these eider-down caps, like the one I hold in my hand, takes a 
little over three of these balls. A woman can knit one in two 
hours if she has had a little experience, and they retail for 
$2.50 apiece; and that is the sort of villainous practice that 
you manufacturers have been perpetrating on the public. 


One more illustration, and I have finished. When the Wilson 
bill was on its way, a gentleman who is now here, and was then 
in the wool business, brought into our office one day an inquiring 
young Democrat from Idaho, who was astounded because wools 
that had been bringing eighteen to twenty cents a pound for 
years were then offered in Philadelphia for eleven cents, and 
would not sell for ten cents, and he wanted to know why. He 
said, " I want to get the yarn that will make a serge suit of 
clothes, and I want that yarn made into cloth, and I want to get 
that cloth made into a suit, and I want a bill for the yarn, a bill 
for the cloth, a bill for the suit, and I want to go down to 
Washington where I know some Democrats, for my father is an 
influential man in Idaho, and I want to see how it is and why it 


is." I said, " That is a very simple proposition." He wanted it 
made out of his wool. I said, " I don't know anything about 
your wool, but let us see." We found out from the weaver 
(Thos. Dolan & Co.) how much yarn he wanted, and although we 
could not give him yarn from his own wool, we did give him 
the same thing from another territory clip. Now I want you to 
listen to the figures which represent that transaction. They are 
worth while. 

Here is a little bundle like that he took away, containing two 
pounds and ten ounces of 2/40 worsted yarn, for which he paid 
$2.14. He took it to the weaver and it was put in shape and 
the cloth came back, and he showed it to me. That cost him 
f 1.66 additional, and then he had $3.80 as the cost of three and 
three-eighths yards of cloth, the material in a suit of clothes. 
He started up Chestnut street, and the first tailor he asked 
wanted to charge $35 for making the suit, but he went along 
Market street and finally found a man who would make it for 
$22, which was the best he could do. He gave him the job, and 
when the suit was completed he showed it to me, as he was on 
his way to Washington, in an effort to impress the great Congress 
of the United States that somewhere there was an Ethiopian in 
the wood-pile. He tried it, and he came back to me later on, a 
sad man on his way home. I said to him, ''My dear friend, 
remember this: if you had found this little package in the 
street, you would have had in it the proportionate cost of run- 
ning your ranch, the duty on wool, and the cost of running our 
factory ; and out of that suit of clothes that cost you $25.80 
you would have saved $2.14." 

The Wilson tariff bill was passed. The distinguished gentle- 
man from New Jersey, Governor Wilson, was not the first man 
of that name who found it was convenient to alter the facts. 

It only remains now to protest, gentlemen, against the tirade of 
abuse that has been showered on you for a year and a half, and 
it is only for that purpose that I have another word to say. The 
butcher birds of cheap literature have hung your reputations up 
to dry, and sometimes they have scattered among them the 
reputations of some of the best statesmen this country has ever 
known. And I want to say in great confidence that I have been 
told that somebody's money was back of this attack. 



I want to make a promise for you, and to the tariff board, the 
tariff commission, or any successors that these gentlemen may 
have, that we will do every possible thing to get before the 
public the facts connected with the management of our business. 
Here is what was passed to-day in the meeting of our Association : 

Resolved, by the National Association of Wool Manufacturers, That 
we reaffirm our belief in the American system of protection as the best 
system alike for the manufactures, the agriculture and the commerce 
of the United States. 

Resolved, That we approve the underlying principles of Schedule K, 
as embodying tiie best practicable results of many years of study by the 
ablest economic students among the public men of America, and we 
urge that no changes be attempted in that Schedule until the Tariff 
Board shall have made new, exact and comprehensive information 
available for the guidance of Congress and the country. 

Resolved, That we reaffirm the declaration of the Executive Committee 
of this Association on October 20, 1910, in favor of laying all essential 
facts regarding the wool manufacture before the Tariff Board whenever 
such statements are requested, and that we earnestly recommend to the 
wool manufacturers of America that they make a prompt and frank 
response to all inquiries of the Board, in furtherance of the most 
accurate and complete understanding of the truth in regard to this great 
national industry. 

All we want is a square deal ; we want what our fellow citizens 
get, and we want no more; and when we find the gentlemen who 
make up and serve to us our news, our law, our medicines, our 
religion, our transportation and our politics, opening their spleen 
upon us, entrenched as they are by their location against foreign 
competition, we say it comes with a very bad grace. We cannot 
import immovable products. We cannot import our preaching, 
we cannot import our transportation, we cannot import our law, 
we cannot import our politicians, because the naturalization laws 
are in the way, and we cannot import our newspapers. We pro- 
test against being made the objects of malicious attacks on the 
part of the people who are locally absolutely protected, while we 
are engaged in industries that can only be protected legally. We 
wish to present to you, gentlemen of the tariff commission and 
your successors, all the facts we have in our possession, including 
our wage list and all of the items of cost in connection with our 


business, and when we do that, we shall only be doing what we 
have always done before. 

President Wood. — I have now the pleasure to introduce 
an honored friend and fellow-member, a very respected com- 
petitor of yours, who I understand you sometimes feel, with 
some characteristic New England zeal, is inclined to do 
a little more than his share in giving the American public 
serviceable cloths at low prices ; and I am told that some of 
you would be quite willing that he should get as much as two 
and one-half or three cents on the cost of the cloth in an 
overcoat more than he now does, and if his prices were only 
as high as his fine courage, what a good time we would all 
have in cutting under him. It gives me a great deal of 
pleasure to introduce one of the most distinguished and fore- 
most members of our industry, Mr. William M. Wood, presi- 
dent of the American Woolen Company. 


Mr. President and Gentlemen : It is with much diffidence 
that I rise to speak to you, when I know what distinguished 
guests are at this table. Nothing on earth could get me up on 
my feet except what I believe to be the call of duty. Repre- 
senting as I do the largest unit in manufacturing in this country, 
both woolen and worsted, and in view of the erroneous impres- 
sions that have gone abroad regarding the protection of our 
industry, my remaining silent might be misconstrued or mis- 

There are some things that I want to say to you to-night, and 
fearing that I might forget some of them I have written them 
down, and I would like to read what I have written and with 
your patience I will be very brief, because the hour is getting 

It has recently been stated in the public prints that there was 
a controversy between the carded woolen manufacturers and the 
worsted manufacturers of this country over Schedule "K." I 


positively deny that there is any controversy between the carded 
woolen manufacturers as a whole and the worsted manufacturers. 
From all that I can learn, the so-called carded woolen association 
is composed of a group of small and relatively insignificant 
mills, whose total aggregation of machinery I believe to be no 
larger than one-half that of the carded woolen division in my 
corporation. I do not brush these mills aside as inconsequential 
because, although they may appear so to a larger unit, to the 
owners of these mills themselves their business may mean all 
they have on earth and it is therefore entitled to the full justice 
that is meted out to any body of manufacturers large or small. 
Indeed I believe that the weaker and poorer a man is the more 
he is entitled to patience and consideration. 


I claim that the contentions which the carded woolen associa- 
tion makes are absolutely groundless. I claim that its represen- 
tatives have started upon wrong premises in the argument and 
therefore have reached wrong conclusions. Speaking both as the 
largest carded woolen manufacturer in America, and I think iu 
the world, and as a worsted manufacturer of the same compara- 
tive size, there is absolutely no discrimination whatever against 
the carded woolen interest in the wool and woolen schedule, as 
compared with the worsted manufacturing interest. If it could 
be said that there was any discrimination at all between the two 
industries, the carded woolen manufacturer is really being 
favored. He can import any and all wools that the worsted 
manufacturer can import and the worsted manufacturer can 
import any and all wools that the carded woolen manufacturer 
can import. Both would like to bring in heavy shrinkage wools 
from which they are debarred, but the wool growers of the west 
consider that unfair. I say this subject to being wrong — that 
this group of carded woolen men are not in the general sense 
users of wool to any great extent. Their raw material consists 
mostly of shoddy, made from rags, old and new, and from 
wastes and the by-products of worsted mills. Some of them use 
fleece wool ; it would be interesting to know how much they use,, 
and I think it would be found surprisingly small. 


Worsted manufacturers can use only straight fleece wools from 
the sheep's back, and cannot and do not use wastes, shoddies, 
or adulterants of any kind whatever. Worsted goods are made 
from straight, clean, pure wool, without manipulation of any 
kind. When I am buying wools in London or in Melbourne, on 
account of the specific duty, I naturally seek for the light 
shrinkage wools. Any carded woolen manufacturer has the 
same privilege. He uses his wool closer and does not have to 
figure the question of noils, which are the short combings from 
the fleece and which the worsted manufacturer cannot use. For 
these noils or short wool he pays the full price, as though it 
were long fleece wool suitable for liis use. He is obliged to sell 
it at a loss from that price of 33 to 50 per cent more or less. 
The carded woolen manufacturer can use that product, but not 
altogether, and in the case of the American Woolen Company, 
we offer for sale in the open market these very noils and waste 
products of our mills, and so do all the other manufacturers, and 
very often they become a glut in the market — all to the advan- 
tage of the carded woolen manufacturer and to the loss of the 
worsted manufacturer. I cannot for the life of me see why the 
few disgruntled men who form that carded woolen association 
have any right to make complaint, and the fact that they are so 
small a minority compared with the great number of carded 
woolen manufacturers of the country who do not agree with 
them, is conclusive evidence that they are in the wrong. 

The president of the carded woolen association testified before 
the Committee on Ways and Means of the 60th Congress on 
February 10, 1909 (page 5629 of the Hearings before the Com- 
mittee), as follows : " If I cannot get an ad valorem duty then I 
will have free raw material." 

Gentlemen, the wool manufacturers of this country as a whole 
do not stand for this one-sided proposition. They believe that it 
is just as essential that wool and mutton should be raised in the 
United States to the greatest possible development as it is that 
the clothing worn by the American people should be manufac- 
tured here to the greatest possible development. 


Schedule K, much maligned, much misunderstood, if properly 
understood would be the most appreciated of any schedule in 


the tariff; and if all schedules in the tariff were as scientifically 
based and as well poised and balanced as Schedule K, it would 
be the most remarkable document, next to the Constitution of 
the United States, that the human mind has ever produced. 
Schedule K protects labor in the woolen and worsted mills of 
this country. It gives them the market up to a certain point — 
mind you up to a certain point. Beyond that, as has already 
been shown, foreign goods can enter this market, and have done 
so, and did so last year to the extent, by American valuation, of 
$45,000,000 of manufactures of wool. In addition to this, there 
have been heavy importations of the raw material, which have 
netted the Government an annual revenue of more than twenty 
millions of dollars. Surely Schedule K ought to be regarded 
favorably by the American people. It protects the labor of the 
employees in the woolen industry ; it contributes largely to the 
revenues of the country — its proper share ; and it admits 
foreign manufactures of wool. What more could be hoped for ? 
Are these manufacturers so protected that they become 
creatures of inordinate wealth ? You can count upon the lingers 
of one hand the wealthy woolen manufacturers of America. I 
know of no one in the woolen business who has retired because 
of wealth. The margins of profit are so close in this business 
that the conduct of the business might be compared with farm- 
ing in New England as against that in the West. A successful 
farmer in New England must make his living right from the 
rocky, sterile soil with his knuckles, whereas the great fertile 
West produces abundantly and easily. The woolen manufac- 
turer's competition at home is so great and the risks of the 
business are so great that his margin is as that of the New 
England farmer. 


A suit of clothes bought for the President of the United 
States yields a profit to the man who made the cloth of not over 
38 cents on that suit, and these figures have been challenged by 
manufacturers from Pennsylvania, who have stated to me that 
their profit was less than half of that. I have seen overcoa^ts 
made from the cloth of my own mills, overcoats for boys, on 
which the net profit to us was less than 9 cents. I merely men- 
tion these figures to show you how closely fought the woolen 
manufacturing business is, and that the high price of clothing is 


not due to the tariff nor yet to the manufacturer, but to the 
middleman whose expenses are very great, and to the retailer, 
who also has large expenses to meet in the way of rentals and 
much advertising in the newspapers of the country. If the 
newspapers appreciated that feature I doubt if they would raise 
a single letter against Schedule K. 

Mr, Theodore Roosevelt, in speaking of protection in the 
Republican platform (a clause which should never have been 
written in that platform) argues that protection should be the 
equalization of wages here and abroad, with a reasonable amount 
of profit. If Mr. Roosevelt knew the woolen business and this 
matter was left to his judgment, and he understood that a suit 
of clothes or an overcoat netted the manufacturer the meager 
profit that it does, with all the vicissitudes and risks of the 
business, he would be the one man and his would be the one 
voice that would say, " It is not enough," I would be perfectly 
willing to leave it to so fair a man as he, or even to our Presi- 
dent, Mr, Taft, 

Gentlemen, I have already taken too much of your time, and I 
thank you for your attention. As Vice-president of this Asso- 
ciation, I wish to take this occasion to express my deep personal 
respect and high regard for the distinguished services of our 
retiring President, a man only in middle life but with heavy 
business cares, and it is right and wise that he should relinquish 
the duties of this position in the interest of his own health. 
Our sympathy, our pity, if it should be expressed, should be to 
the incoming President, who has this high standard that has 
been set to live up to, and he must take the flag and go onward 
and upward. I congratulate the retiring President, and I also 
extend my felicitations and congratulations to our new President. 

President Wood. — I think no one can doubt who 
should respond for the great industry of wool growing. 
The distinguished statesman whom I am about to introduce 
adds to his long experience in the economic aspect of the 
question a practical knowledge of the business itself, and, 
what is still more important from our point of view, a 
thorough comprehension of the interdependence of the wool 
growing and wool manufacturing industries one upon the 


other. I am very happy in being able to introduce our old 
and honored friend, Senator Warren of Wyoming. 


Mr. President and Gentlemen : In every meeting of loyal 
American citizens, around banquet board or elsewhere, all should 
be stalwart supporters of our Government along ethical, physical, 
and financial lines. Support of the Government must mean, 
among other things — and most important — the annual collection 
of a large amount of money for current expense, to support the 
various institutions and keep moving along progressive lines all 
of the Republic's great undertakings. 

In accumulating necessary funds for this purpose the usual 
subjects for consideration are internal revenue, customs revenue, 
corporation tax, and income tax — the first two firmly established 
long ago ; the third in actual operation though new and at pres- 
ent before a high tribunal, the Supreme Court of the United 
States, to test its constitutionality ; and the fourth and last 
(much discussed in private and public, a license for which has 
been under earnest consideration by the Congress of the United 
States) now before the Legislatures of the several States in the 
form of a proposed amendment to the Constitution. 

We can all agree that customs taxes are levied for revenue for 
the support of the Government and are indispensable for that 
purpose. Many of us believe that customs duties should be so 
levied as to be not only productive of needed revenue but pro- 
tective of our great industries as well, thus enabling us to main- 
tain our high position in the industrial world and to uphold the 
dignity of and adequate returns for labor. Some profess to 
believe that we should levy the taxes for revenue only, regard- 
less of protective principles. 

revenue side of schedule k. 

But all must agree, finally, that customs taxes must be levied, 
and in just about the amount that we now collect, or at least as 
large in total, if we are to keep our Government solvent and pro- 
gressive and prevent lapses backward and into debt year by year, 
unless, indeed, we resort to direct TSTational taxation — a propo- 
sition which no party or faction has yet espoused. 

Wherefore it is that whenever and wherever wool growers 


and wool manufacturers assemble, a tariff discussion is imme- 
diately " on," it being claimed by both industries that the tariff 
should be protective, and adequately so, if they are to survive 
and continue in generous financial support of the Government. 

Since the woolen industry stands second in the amount of 
revenue afforded the Government, according to the latest printed 
report of the Bureau of Statistics, it does not require any apology 
on the score of its returns for the support of the Nation, 

It seems tliat sugar alone yielded more revenue than wool and 
woolens in 1909, the amount from sugar being, in round numbers, 
fifty-six million dollars, while wool duties yielded thirty-three 
million three hundred and sixty thousand dollars, the division 
being: $17,082,000 on unmanufactured; $16,278,000 on manufac- 
tured — $33,360,000 in all. And about four hundred million 
dollars represent the wool duties collected in the past fifteen 

The proof thus submitted settles affirmatively and with 
emphasis the revenue side of the equation. 

Now, as to the protective features. A study of the question 
convinces any one who gives it serious, continuous thought, that 
Schedule K jjrotection really reaches far outside and beyond the 
mere production of " raw wool," so called, and the manufacture 
of woolen products. 


During the last thirty years the United States, under the 
guidance, I assume, of an all-wise Providence or Destiny that 
shapes our ends, has, along with England and some other 
countries, become a great consumer of mutton. This is as it 
should be, for mutton is not only among the most healthful and 
palatable of foods, but its supply and consumption has greatly 
assisted in maintaining our meat supply, so necessary to the 
creation and preservation of the brain and brawn of the citizens 
of this virile, wide-awake, and pushing Nation. Except for the 
large mutton supply the price of cattle and hog products would 
be far away in excess of the present prices. 

So I am going to suggest the following : 

First. The Government is ours, and must be supported. 

Second. It takes cash to support the Government; and 

Third. The money must be furnished from some source. The 


best way to obtain it is to make the foreigner pay a license 
for the privilege of doing business in this country. 

Fourth. The laborer is worthy of his hire, and we must give 
protection sufficient to insure work for all who are willing 
to work, and wages sufficiently large to pay for food, cloth- 
ing, and the education of children, with a little laid by for 
sickness or a rainy day. This insurance we must sustain 
for all of our njillions of working men and women. 

Fifth. The amount of revenue from wool duties is large ; the 
per-capita or per-suit-of-clothing wool duty is almost infini- 
tesimal, since but two to four pounds of clean wool go into 
a suit of clothes. 

Sixth. Wool raised and manufactured in our own country in 
the time of war is just as necessary for our soldiery as are 
war-ships, arms, and ammunition. 

Seventh. Cost of living will greatly increase because of higher 
meat prices if our mutton supply is lessened, just as meat 
will be lower if we increase that supply. 

Eighth. The Merino shee]) is the origin or basis of nearly all 
American flocks, and it and its crosses and grades are the 
sheep most profitable to raise and most adaptable to the 
plains, hills, and mountains where our largest flocks are 
found, and are the sheep most affected by the tariff on wool. 

Ninth. Diversified interests, agricultural and manufacturing, are 
vital to the progress and high development of the nation. 

Tenth. Practically all of the people of this country are pro- 
ducers ; every man who works is one. All are consumers ; 
but those who are consumers and not producers are the 
" idle rich," who need not be taken into account. 

While wool growers and wool manufacturers are sometimes in 
harmony and often in hostile attitude, yet the fact remains that 
wool and woolens are so associated in the tariff that we cannot 
dodge, if we would, the fact of their relevancy one to the other 
in considering these industries. 


The wool manufacturer would be greatly hampered without 
wool grown in this country and if dependent entirely, or nearly 
so, upon foreign countries. It would be a sad condition, indeed, 
for our country, and especially in time of war, if we were 
dependent upon foreign countries for that most needed, if con- 
traband, article — wool for clothing — which, next to food, is 
most important. 

On the other hand, the wool grower, without the market 
afforded him by American manufacturers, would have but an 


indifferent and unstable market with starvation prices for his 
product. Even as it is, and as things are under our present 
tariff law, manufacturers must be up-to-date, alert to business, 
and possessed of sufficient capital and modern plants, to meet 
foreign competition and afford the American wool grower a 
market bringing anything like an adequate price. 

So, quarrel as we may, wool growers and manufacturers are 
really life partners, divorce not practicable regardless of incom- 
patibility of temper ; and while offensive and defensive relations 
and alliances may exist, yet the fact remains that we inevitably 
stand or fall together. 


During the past year the Pot has been calling the Kettle 
black, and Kettle has roared back to Pot, " You're another ! " 
And the shepherds, even though belligerent, have been shame- 
faced and sad and have almost resurrected the reverse style of 
shearing, fashionable in the Wilson-Gorman tariff times, when 
they stood the sheep on their heads and commenced shearing 
from the tail, to avoid looking an honest sheep in the face (after 
the flockmasters had voted the Democratic ticket), instead of the 
old way, standing the sheep on their haunches and shearing from 
the head downward. 

All of this because of the low prices of wool in the American 
market caused by the vindictive, senseless, and continuous 
onslaught upon Schedule K by those who are ignorant of the 
facts, but are able, nevertheless, to poison the minds of their 
hearers and readers. 

In the meantime, flockmasters have had a most expensive and 
discouraging year — or nearly two years — owing to various 
causes, and you may look for less wool the coming season and a 
great deal less wool and mutton the season following. 

An exceedingly hard winter of 1909 and 1910 in much of the 
country, followed by excessive, continuous drouth, killed millions 
of sheep, cost millions of dollars for corn and hay in addition 
to the usual supply, and sent millions of sheep and lambs to the 
shambles and market feeding pens ; wool has been abnormally 
low and flockmasters have charged off losses accordingly. 

The shepherds have hoped that the weavers might render a 
less doleful account of their business and might open their 
hearts and purses to the absorption of the long and pathetically 


neglected clip of 1910 and encourage us to again give them our 
confidence and sing loud hosannas in their praise. But, " Me, 
too," and " We have troubles of our own," have been their 
refrains when we have narrated our losses and perplexities. 


Schedule K stands to-day not higher in duties on a single 
item than for the past twelve or more years, and with some 
items slightly lower ; and yet the public are made to believe 
quite the contrary, thanks to the professional muckraker and their 
assistant train of " would-be " — and " almost " — muckrakers. 

And then here are those find-it-all-out-in-a-minute, know-it-all, 
ne'er-do-well people who can, in their own estimation, conduct a 
newspaper, run a hotel, or elucidate sheep growing and wool 
manufacturing from their own claimed innate knowledge, plus a 
few magazine articles (the writers of which were interested only 
in the price per line payable for such articles). These are 
always much in evidence, and have been particularly so during 
the last eighteen months. They essay to tell us all about it, how 
to fix it, what will be the results, et cetera, et cetera, notwith- 
standing the fact that Schedule K is known to all who have under- 
taken to really study it as the most intricate of all the schedules 
in our tariff law. 

I venture to predict that experts, even the members of our 
present Tariff Board, or any tariff board or commission which 
may follow and take up the business of looking thoroughly into 
the industries under Schedule K, will find it necessary to take 
much time, make many inquiries, and, with deep study and dili- 
gent observation and consideration, take a broad view and review 
of the whole situation and the interdependence of the many 
industries affected and the labor interests under this schedule, 
before they will put before the Executive, the Congress, or the 
people of the land any plan or reconstruction bearing their 
" O.K." and given with confidence that such plan will bring all 
of good and naught of evil. 


• In my opinion the United States Congress is better fitted to 
frame a just tariff law than any other organization. The mem- 
bers are the responsive representatives of the industries of the 


country and quick to act for what it is believed are the best 
interests and for the welfare of the community each represents. 
Yet no part of this great country is disinterested in tariff legisla- 
tion. And Congress, in theory and in fact, so far as tariff 
legislation is concerned, is the legitimate, direct voice of the 

Nevertheless, and notwithstanding, I observe with satisfaction 
that those who have been intrusted with this work of tariff 
investigation now going on have, and during the past season, 
commenced a line of research among the wool growers, and if 
they have not yet commenced among the manufacturers I trust 
they may not fail to reach them in due time ; and my advice to 
both growers and manufacturers is, throw everything wide open 
for their examination. The truth, if the whole truth, is good 
enough for wool growers, and I indulge the hope and confidence 
that this must be relatively true with the manufacturers. 

'Tis said " the proof of the pudding is in' chewing the string." 

We have no millionaires or even semi-millionaires among flock- 
masters who accumulated their fortunes in sheep and wool rais- 
ing alone ; and my information is that the multi-millionaires or 
even plain millionaires are about as scarce as hens' teeth among 
those whose entire business has been the manufacture of all wool 
and woolen goods. And yet the industries are the most ancient 
in history. In fact, we read much of sheep and wool in that 
Good Book — the staff and comfort of the shepherd — the Bible. 
Prom the very beginning the Bible seems to have drawn from 
this industry symbols of excellency, purity, and honesty of 

And so, while I hold no commission as adviser to either the 
sheep raisers or wool manufacturers, yet I will venture modestly 
to offer a bit or two for consideration ; and the advice I have to 
give is this : 


"Whenever a member of tariff board or tariff commission or 
other authorized agent comes to investigate, either with a search 
warrant or with merely a smile and request for information, give 
it up to him freely — even tumultuously if occasion requires. 
You wool growers, show your books. If you have not kept a set 
of books scientifically, give the net business balances and results ; 
and in giving the results of what you have made or lost in years 


past, predicate as closely as you can what the future may have 
in store considering the changes in price of land and condition of 
grasses on the range, the necessities of more, and stronger, and 
better winter feed, and so forth. Give the inquirer every point 
and fact within your knowledge — for you have nothing to hide. 

The sheepmen of the country, taken as a lot, have not become 
wealthy or even •' forehanded " through wool growing. 

And you who are manufacturers, discard all little fibs and 
fallacies, if such have prevailed in interviews heretofore, and per- 
mit the agent to examine your books and works — confidentially, 
of course — and let the whole process pass before him, from the 
raw wool to the final net returns on the product sold. Drop the 
retailing of such little fibs as that which has been reiterated over 
and over again by some wool dealers and some manufacturers, 
more especially carpet men — that we do not grow any carpet 
wools in the United States ; that the wool which we import under 
the heading " third-class " is for carpet manufacture only ; that 
no part of the imported "third-class" goes into fabrics other 
than carpets, and hence there should be no duty on *' third-class," 
and so forth. 

The wool grower knows better. He knows that we do grow, 
in parts of the United States, some carpet wool — although, as a 
matter of fact, it is entirely immaterial whether we do or not, 
because for every pound of imported so-called carpet wool, third- 
class, that is used for clothing, blankets, or other purposes, that 
same quantity of higher-grade wool which we raise is displaced ; 
and, for that matter, every pound that is imported and used for 
carpets outright, displaces a pound of our wool that would other- 
wise be used for carpets. 


Furthermore — and I make no complaints — carpets are the 
most and best protected manufactures under the schedule, so let 
us " fess up " and no longer ask for free third-class wool. 

The proof is so plain that considerable quantities of third- 
class wool are used for other than carpet purposes that one can 
readily find in the trade journals of to-day, when looking for 
current market rates, articles like the following — I will quote 
from the "Boston Transcript " : 

Buyers of finer grade carpet wools for better than carpet 


purposes are willing to pay asking prices for selections, and all 
available stocks find a ready market. 

Again : 

Some manufacturers have made up lines in which the percent- 
age of the higher grade carpet wools have been mixed with low 
grade clothing wools and the result is a fabric that has the 
appearance of regular goods, although it has not the " feel " of 
the straight goods. 

I allude to these trifling foibles only in order to bring out the 
proposition that we must, in this year of Our Lord Nineteen 
Hundred and Eleven, and at all times, afford and even seek the 
ut^nost publicity and invite and assist in the most drastic examina- 
tions, when made in good faith by representatives of our 


Latest statistics show the following : 

Total number of sheep in the world, less than 700,000,000 

Total number of sheep in the United States 57,216,000 

Or about one-twelfth of the whole number. 

Total wool product of the world 2,952,782,955 lbs. 

Total wool product of the United States 321,362,750 lbs. 

Or about one-ninth of the whole production. 

Total wool consumption of the United States over 500,000,000 lbs. 

Over one-sixth of the product of the world. 

The United States consumes far more wool than any other 
Nation in the world. 

People differ widely sometimes in computing wool statistics 
because of the difference between grease wool and scoured wool ; 
but the figures I have given represent quantities, computed in 
the usual and accepted way. 

Shall we then lose our sheep through failure to properly 
protect, and rely solely on foreign countries for our wool supply? 
If so, how long will it be after our sheep are gone before the 
foreigner will raise the price, send us cloth instead of wool, and 
leave our labor unemployed and our factories standing idle as 
monuments to our folly ? 

Touching the importance of wool growing in our own country 
with which to supply our mills, I quote the following from the 


report of the Revenue Commission appointed in 1865 to consider 
and report upon our entire revenue system. The members of the 
Commission were from Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Pennsyl- 
vania. Personally, they were not particularly interested in wool 
growing or manufacturing ; but in the exhaustive report they 
made upon all the matters submitted for their consideration, they 
reported among other things concerning wool problems, the 
following : 

The home production of wool is necessary to render us prop- 
erly independent of foreign powers, in peace and in war, in 
obtaining our supplies of an article on which the lives and health 
of all of our people depend. It is necessary to National 
economy, for no great agricultural country can afford to import 
its most important and costly raw material. 

And — 

Finally, it is necessary to extend and complete the circle of 
diversified industries on which the wealth and independence of 
nations so much depend. 


Regarding our mutton supply : Early history tells us that, in 
the vicinity near by, when a slave owner rented out his slaves 
tinder contract to those requiring assistance in manual or skilled 
labor, it was quite usual for the bond to stipulate that the said 
slaves should be " found " — that is, with bed and board and 
sometimes with clothing as well — during their period of 
employment ; but these contracts protected the slaves against 
being compelled to eat terrapin and canvas-back duck more than 
twice in any one week. This, because terrapin and canvas-back 
duck were so plentiful and in such low esteem, the avaricious 
employer was apt to force terrapin and canvas-back duck upon 
the unoifending employees instead of furnishing good wheat or 
Indian corn bread, Irish potatoes, and the other more expensive 

In the light of to-day, with terrapin from a dollar to two 
dollars and a half per portion, and canvas-back duck from two- 
fifty to five dollars each in this fair hostelry and others, it seems 
hardly possible that such contracts could have been necessary. 

Now, my friends, after looking backward and seeing the 
change along the terrapin and canvas-back duck lines, suppose 
we look into the future, as to mutton chops, saddle of mutton, etc. 


Whereas terrapin and canvas-back duck formerly cost nothing 
but the catching, and had no real money value, they have now 
become luxuries, with prices at the top notch; and by that same 
token mutton, comparatively low in price and within the reach 
of all to-day, would, under the tender mercies of our free-trade 
friends, become a delicacy as rare and perhaps higher in price 
than the terrapin and canvas-back duck of to-day. 

We of the West who used to fight off the deer, bear, ante- 
lope, and other game, to keep them from eating up prospective 
gardens, hay stacks, and even our camp provisions ; who knew 
the time when it cost but a moment with a gun and a steady eye 
to provide a month's or several months' meat rations for the 
family, often smile at the prices quoted in the metropolitan 
market at Christmas season or in the cold of winter, when 
venison or bear meat is offered at extreme prices. 

But mutton at a dollar a pound may be the heading of the 
advertisements of the market man in the not distant future, if 
wool should be made free. 


I have heard the specious arguments advanced that we could 
prevent this kind of a happening by raising, considerably, the 
tariff on coarse wools, supposed to grow on mutton sheep, and 
reducing the tariff on the fine wools, and thereby greatly 
increase our mutton product in this country and depend upon 
the foreign countries for our wool, where it is alleged they are 
bound to grow finer grades for centuries to come. 

Well, gentlemen, upon what experience, upon what history of 
the past, upon what tendency of the present, can we expect a 
result of this kind in the future ? 

First, we must chalk down the fact that practically there is 
no longer an extensive public domain for grazing purposes. It 
has been so generally absorbed that what is left is largely either 
in forest, the " bad lands," the rocky regions of the mountains, 
or the frazzled edges and isolated patches that fill in the ground- 
work of the map, spotted over with homesteaders and farmers 
who have absorbed the water and watering places in the arid 
region and almost, or quite, the entire territory outside those 

Whereas a few years ago we were exporting millions upon 
millions of bushels of wheat, we now find ourselves in danger 


of becoming considerable importers in order to provide for the 
growth of our population from natural causes and immigration. 

We have been making great efforts to reduce our imports of 
sugar, and very considerable areas have, in the past few years, 
passed from grazing land into intensively cultivated tillage 
land through the application of irrigation, and sugar beets grow 
now where sheep grazed before. 

And so on as to corn, potatoes, and other crops, all of which 
are more profitable than sheep under present conditions and 
state of public mind. 

Go, if you please, to the other countries ; the British Isles, for 
instance, where they raise a superior class of mutton. There 
wool growing is not engaged in as a business, but wool is a 
by-product ; and the sheep grown there form only a part of the 
mutton supply for home consumption. 

At this late date in my life, after having been interested in 
sheep raising since my earliest remembrances — born, as I was, 
in a factory village in Massachusetts where wool was both grown 
and manufactured — and after having forty years' experience in 
wool growing in the Rocky Mountain country, to my mind it is 
not so much a question why we have not increased our flocks 
more than we have, as it is why they have not decreased with 
free wool at one time and under numerous tariff changes and 
continual fear of the future. 


It has also been my observation that wool manufactures have 
languished, and idle mills have been in evidence, and the wool 
growers' market nearly or quite destroyed, whenever the tariff 
on wool manufactures has been less than at present. 

And I give you my solemn assurance that I believe as firmly 
as I believe that night follows day and day follows night, that 
the sheep growers of this country cannot successfully continue 
their business with less protection than Schedule K now affords 
them, however you may change or regulate it, and that if any 
changes are to be made to meet existing or altered conditions or 
circumstances, if terms or rate^ relative to the imposition of the 
tariff are to be made different, they must not be lessened and 
ought to be increased in the net clear to the wool grower, if we 
are to have uninterrupted continuance of that industry beyond 
the keeping of a few straggling bunches of mutton sheep, as now 


kept in New England and the Middle States where wool is a 
by-product and early lambs and high-priced mutton are the incen- 
tives to sheep raising, and where formerly large flocks of merino 
and other well-wooled sheep were grown for their wool pro- 

It is alleged by some doctrinaires that if we should reduce the 
tariff on fine wools and increase it upon the long mutton wools, 
we would cause a change from the growth of fine wool sheep to 
that of greatly increased numbers of mutton sheep. 

A theory of this kind is the quintessence of ignorance and 
impertinence. The merino sheep is the basis of our whole struct- 
ure of wool and mutton growing in this country. We can 
indulge in various gradings, cross-breedings, and so forth, up to 
a certain proportion or degree, beyond which we cannot go if we 
wish to succeed in the sheep business. 

Sheep raising, as we all know, has decreased in the older and 
eastern States in late years, and has increased only in the far- 
western or prairie States. In the latter States the sheep are 
handled or grazed in large herds, and the habits of the merino 
sheep and its crosses insure the banding together and the non- 
separation beyond reasonable lines of the flocks so grazed. But 
to undertake to graze, as we do in the West, the thoroughbred 
coarse-wool sheep, like the Cotswolds, Lincolns, and Leicesters, 
is impossible. We might as well undertake to herd a band of 
deer or elk. They are long-legged, swift-footed, independent, 
and will graze only in small bunches. 


In this country, to insure the raising of sheep in large numbers 
for the carcass itself, with the fleece a by-product, land and 
labor will have to become far cheaper than now, or mutton will 
have to be far more expensive. 

We find an exemplification of this in the country just north of 
us where land and labor are cheaper than here. The President's 
recent message to Congress transmitting the Canadian reci- 
procity scheme contains the following : 

The question of the cost of clothing as affected by duty on 
textiles and their raw materials — so much mooted — is not 
within the scope of an agreement with Canada, because she 
raises comparatively few wool sheep, and her textil'e manufac- 
tures are unimportant. 


Canada, with England to nourish and protect her, with cheap 
land and labor, is authoritatively quoted by our President, Mr. 
Taft, as unimportant in her textile manufactures and her sheep 
industry. Are our textile industries in the United States unim- 
portant ? Is the wool growing industry of our country unimpor- 
tant ? Why this difference in our favor ? Because of the past 
benefits of Schedule K, with all its alleged faults, and because of 
what has been demonstrated under that schedule in the past few 
decades by our vigilant, virile, ubiquitous manufacturers and our 
stalwart, never-say-die, patient, and long-suffering wool growers. 

Is it a safe and sane policy to admit free of duty articles 
which we must have, on the assumption that prices to the con- 
sumer will be less ? If so, then how about coffee ? When we 
removed the import tariff a foreign country taxed up against us 
a virtual export tariff and our prices were no less, while we lost 
the revenue. 

And how about hides ? The President had not signed the 
Payne-Aldrich tariff bill, making hides free, when Argentina 
promptly advanced hides 10 per cent ; and after the law was 
signed and launched, a further addition was imposed, so that 
hides were no lower — were indeed higher for a time — and 
shoes, boots, harness, and saddles upon which we had been 
offered — nay, guaranteed — a reduction by the apostles of free 
hides were, in fact, increased. 


It is often asked why, with the protection afforded wool, the 
sheep of this country have not increased faster, especially in 
view of the fact that we consume so much more wool than we 
grow, and the further fact that our manufacturers have provided 
mills enough, and perhaps even more than are necessary, to weave 
all of the finished product needed by the nation. 

Answering this I would say there are various reasons : First, 
wool growing has not been sufficiently profitable, the world over, 
to enable the world's production of wool to keep up with the 
world's demands for woolen fabrics. This is shown as follows : 

World's shrinkage in total number of sheep in the last fifteen 
years, 40,000,000 head. 

World's increase in population during the same period, nearly 

Again : While the population and demand for woolens are 


ever increasing, the acreage of land does not increase; and with 
a growing population the necessities for land for other purposes 
than grazing become greater, and the grazing land of the last 
year becomes the cultivated field of this ; and so on. 

As to the United States : While the total number of sheep 
in the world has decreased in the past fifteen years, as stated, 
40,000,000 head, yet statistics show that the number of sheep 
in the United States has increased during that same period 
from less than 38,000,000 head, worth but $65,000,000, to 
over 57,000,000 head, worth more than $233,000,000, thus 
showing an increase in numbers of 50 per cent and an increase 
in value of over 250 per cent — and this, too, notwithstanding 
the uncertainty of the tenure of protective legislation ever pres- 
ent, and never more so than during the year last past. 

Truly a good showing for fifteen years ! 

As to woolen factories, they, like railroads and highways, once 
built are seldom abandoned ; and even though they may earn but 
a trifle as compared with their cost, still an owner must proceed 
with the use of his mill or suffer total loss of mill and machinery 
through rotting down in idleness. 

With sheep it is different. They are movable, and if too 
unprofitable they are sent to the shambles, the business closed, 
and the loss apportioned. 

Give us adequate, unchanging, guaranteed protection, and more 
and better cultivated land will be used for sheep growing and the 
sheep of the United States will double, or more than double, in 
numbers — which would fully supply the wool requirements of 
the American people. 

For instance : During the period from 1864 to 1884, twenty 
years, the wool clip of the country increased nearly two and one- 
half times, or increased from 123,000,000 to 300,000,000 pounds. 
During that time, however, the people were not, each and nearly 
every one, after Schedule K with an axe, but all supported it as 
necessary to our growth and development. 

President Wood. — It is peculiarly fitting that we should 
have with us to-night the eminent and scholarly Senator in 
whose constituency is the greatest wool manufacturing indus- 
try of this country. I have great pleasure in introducing 
Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, Senator from Massachusetts. 



Mr. President and Gentlemen : Let me in response to your 
very cordial reception at once relieve your minds by saying that 
no one has stolen my manuscript, for I have never had any. I 
was struck by the remarkable confidence of Mr. Harding when 
he said he trusted the newspapers to print what he had to say. 
In a somewhat extended experience I have found that if I trusted 
too far to the palladium of our liberties, it was very apt to be the 
case that I found something that I had not said, and that I 
certainly ought not to have said. 

1 do not propose at this late hour to detain you longer than for 
a moment. It is rather a shock to find myself in the presence 
of an audience that does not regard any one who voted for 
Schedule K as an outcast. During the late little contest that we 
had in Massachusetts, wliich involved the great principle of 
retaining in public life trained public servants, I think the most 
severe critics I had were a branch of your industry. When 
people who do not know much about an industry are told that 
the price of their clothing has been advanced by a schedule which 
has not been changed, I can understand their feeling that a 
wrong has been committed and ouglit to be righted ; but it is 
very difficult to comprehend the attitude of a portion of an indus- 
try which receives all the benefit of the protection accorded to 
the woolen industry by Schedule K, assailing everybody who, 
believing that they were doing on the whole what was best for 
the interest of the country, voted for it, and assailing them 
because something was not done which, as they thought, would 
be of slight benefit to their own industry. That is an attitude 
which I have found it hard to understand. 

the tariff commission. 

The single point I want to make to-night is one that has been 
alluded to by Mr. Harding and others, in reference to the tariff 
commission, in which I have come to take a very great interest. 
And I will say frankly that I was converted to the need of a 
tariff commission by my experience in making the last tariff. I 
have been through five tariff revisions, all very pleasant, but I 
never took actual part in making a tariff until I had the honor to 
serve on the Finance Committee in the making of the last bill, 


and it then became very clear to me that it was of great impor- 
tance to have information gathered by some board or commission 
of experts who were not personally interested in any industry, 
and to whose report the people of the country would give entire 

I am a protectionist by conviction and by principle. I have so 
much faith in the system that I believe that nothing would 
strengthen it so much or assure its continuance and its stability 
so much as the facts being made known to the people of the 
country. I want some machinery which will bring those facts 
before the people of the country in a way which cannot be dis- 
puted. The committee worked hard, as I have reason to know, 
both in the House and in the Senate, and the investigations of 
the Committee of Ways and Means extended over a year's time. 
They gathered all the information they could, as they always do. 
In their consideration of a tariff bill they hear many witnesses, 
and a great deal of the information is very valuable, but the 
information necessarily comes and the testimony is necessarily 
given either by the producers or by the importers, or by gentle- 
men who want to make their raw material free, when their raw 
material is some other man's finished product, and the general 
impression is left on the public mind that none of the testimony 
can thoroughly be relied on, that it is more or less colored by the 
inevitable interest of the witnesses ; I do not believe improperly 
colored or perhaps intentionally so, but that it is more or less 
colored by the interest of those who give it. 

Now if we can gather that information — and that is what the 
duty of the tariff commission will be — so that it will carry 
conviction to the people of the country, it will be in my judgment 
the best support the protective system can have. It is for that 
reason that I have supported and now support strongly the plan 
of a tariff commission. I do not believe for a moment that it 
will lead to instability. I believe it will have directly the 
opposite result. 


We have heard here to-night that the duties do not more than 
represent the difference in costs. It is for the interest of this 
industry to demonstrate that to the country through the labors 
of an honest Government commission, on whose report the 
country will rely. I believe that nothing can be done that will 


be of more value to the stability of the tariff, of more value to 
the continuance of the policy of protection, than to furnish that 
precise information in the way I have suggested. It does not 
make any difference whether it is called a board or whether it 
consists of three or five. The thing is to get the information 
before the country. Let us have the facts. I believe the facts 
will sustain the principle in which I believe, and I have myself 
no question of the result. 

It has been a very great pleasure to me to-night to hear from 
Mr. Harding and others, the suggestion that you open the books, 
and that you show to the tariff commission, who will not disclose 
any of the secrets of the business, precisely what the costs are. 
You will do more in that way to convince the American people 
of what the difference in labor costs is than in any other way ; and 
when they are satisfied that the duty does not more than cover 
the labor costs and assure a fair margin of profit, the people of 
this country will overwhelmingly stand by you. However they 
may be misled here and there by temporary cries, I believe they 
know now perfectly well that the level of wages is higher in 
this country than in any other country in the world and without 
the protective tariff that level cannot be maintained. That is 
the whole of the protective theory, as I see it. 

President Wood. — Employer and employee alike owe a 
debt of everlasting gratitude to one who has stood in these 
times of public hysteria as a bulwark against much of the 
ill-conceived legislation and criticism with which we have 
been threatened; and the gentleman whom I am now about 
to introduce to you is one we honor not more for his great 
qualities of mind and heart than we love for the enemies 
that he has made. I desire to introduce Speaker of the 
House, Hon. Joseph G. Cannon. 


Mr. Toastmaster and Gentlemen : Only a very few 
words, and they shall be plain and truthful so far as I have 
knowledge of the truth. 

I am not a schedule sharp. Perhaps from the standpoint of 
personal efficiency I would not know the merits of a schedule if 


1 should meet it in the street. It has been my business for 
almost forty years to put the money on the wheel, not to gather 
it. I have followed those who have made a specialty of ques- 
tions relating to the getting of the revenue, and who from 
their committee assignments and their investigations have been 
in a position to know more about those questions than I do. If 
anybody thinks that the man lives on this round earth who can 
go into the American Congress, in a country that produces sub- 
stantially one-third of all the products of all the civilized world, 
and monopolize the whole thing, he is badly mistaken. 

I went into Congress nearly forty years ago, without much of 
any kind of knowledge. I read a little of John Stuart Mill and 
a little of Adam Smith. I said, ''I must do something to 
qualify myself" and I turned up a wild-eyed freetrader, with 
the old stock arguments that Christ died for all, all mankind are 
brethren, commerce knows no boundaries, and so forth. 

I fovmd in a little time that it was a practical question ; and 
after a little experience, being a Republican, my surroundings as 
well as my investigations showed me that I would get the best 
results and that all the people would get the best results by my 
casting my vote along the line of the Republican policies, and 
that at least during the development and growth of the country, 
as we had only barely scratched it, and have only yet barely 
scratched it, with a population, of less than 40,000,000 people 
when I went into Congress, up now to more than 90,000,000, and 
in the future to 400,000,000, we could best serve our interests in 
a government by the people if we svibstantially monopolized our 
own markets by products of our own labor. 

I followed McKinley and others and voted for the McKinley 
tariff law. I followed Dolliver, I followed Dingley and others 
and voted for the Dingley bill. And lo, what have the people 
worked out under the provisions of that law ? 


Then came the Payne-Aldrich bill. I grew to know a little 
more about the schedules for myself, but I followed Payne, and I 
followed the Committee of the House, and finally when the com- 
promise was made I voted for the bill. It was not perfect, but I 
agree with the present President of the United States in his 
Winona speech that it is far and away the best revenue law that 
was ever made in the history of the American people, and thank 


God, whatever others may have dojie, through evil and through 
good report, in making my contests, in my feeble way I have 
stood with my face to the enemy, saying it was right, and not 
apologizing for it in any respect. 

Soft words butter no parsnips. If there is weakness amongst 
the friends of protection and in the Republican party to-day, it 
has come as a result of trimming our sails and trying to satisfy 
the dissatisfied who, if you could satisfy them to-day, would be 
doubly dissatisfied to-morrow. I do not know what is to happen 
in the near future. I know what will happen in the swing of the 
pendulum of the twentieth century. As the old pass out and 
the new feed in, they have got to learn by experience. There are 
some people in the United States who read the headlines of a 
sensational press, which headlines give the lie to the sensational 
articles and despatches that follow. There are enough of such 
people in this country who can only be educated in the hard 
school of experience, who will from time to time make a politi- 
cal revolution, and who will only learn through their stomachs 
what they cannot learn through their heads. 

We are vip against it now. The people at a popular election 
have given, under all these conditions, a Democratic majority of 
sixty-seven in the House of Representatives, with great gains in 
the Senate. For Champ Clark personally I have great respect, 
but he does not belong to the same school of thought or belief 
that I do, and God knows what will happen when the House of 
Representatives under the leadership of Champ Clark, booted 
and spurred, sends a tariff bill over to the Senate. I do not 
know, gentlemen of the Senate, what you are going to do with it. 
Do you ? 

Now I will drop that right there. I speak with high respect 
for everybody connected with the Government, and yet I have 
the same opinion of men, whether they occupy one position or 
another, and it is of the very essence of our institutions that we 
speak with absolute plainness. I always had great admiration 
for Peter Cartwright. When he was speaking at the Methodist 
Conference in Nashville, Bishop Basconi pulled his coat tails and 
said, "Be keerful. General Jackson is coming down the aisle." 
Old Peter turned and looked Bascom in the face and said, " Who 
is General Jackson ? If he don't repent, God Almighty will 
damn his soul as quick as he would that of a Guinea nigger.'^ 
I like a plain-spoken man. 



The Constitution of the United States provides that the 
House of Representatives shall originate revenue bills, and that 
the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
shall make treaties. We have lately had a so-called commercial 
agreement, but a treaty in fact, that does not go the Senate, but 
comes primarily to the House with schedules complete not 
originated by the House of Representatives. It may be wise, it 
may not. In a month we are called upon to enact it into law. 
I do not know what we are going to do. There are many ques- 
tions involved. I see some gentlemen from California here. 
With citrus fruits and southern fruits as they are produced in 
this country to go into the Canadian markets free and vice versa, 
I want to ask the gentlemen from California, under the most 
favored nation's clause in the treaty with Spain, and with Italy 
and other countries, if they come and agi-ee to take that same 
treaty — and in so far as I know and believe there is no reason 
why they should not — where is your protection ? It takes 
time to consider these questions. 

And if from Canada there come cattle, sheep, and hogs on 
foot free into the United States, what answer will you make to 
one-third of the population in this country, the farmers, on the 
proposition that if those same cattle, hogs, and sheep are knocked 
in the head and scalded, and treated for a day in a slaughter 
house in Canada, and then shipped into the United States two 
days afterwards, there is a duty of a cent and a quarter a pound 
\ipon them, and all that people may have cheaper living ? 

I only voice my own opinion, with high respect to everybody. 
I measure my words when I say that a proper adjustment of our 
revenue laws will only come from a compromise that fairly cares 
for the industries of all our people, whether on farm, in mine, 
or in factory. High sounding words in a sensational press will 
not avail when, all over this country, we look our constituencies 
in the face, if we have legislated unwisely. So far as I am con- 
cerned, I am not a Senator. I am in the House. With all the 
work there is to do in this Congress, in less than thirty days, I 
do not believe that by legislation originating in the House and 
to be considered in the Senate we can safely do so great a work, 
turning double somersaults and going hop, skip, and jump. If it 
turns out a blessing, all right ; but if it turns out a curse, the 


same newspaper press that yells and howls for all this kind 
of thing will turn its tune and sing a different song and march 
on to further muckraking contests, and we shall receive the 

President Wood. — "Whatever opinions may have been 
held by those in our industry regarding the wisdom of the 
creation of a tariff board or commission, and however we may 
have marvelled at the possibility of the accomplishment of the 
great purpose set before them, many of our doubts have been 
resolved, and our confidence has been greatly strengthened 
by the manner in which the present board have gone about 
their work, and by the very clear and explicit statement of 
principles which the Chairman of that board made upon a 
recent occasion. There has been so much said in regard to 
the subject of the tariff board or tariff commission this even- 
ing that it is only right that we should ask the Chairman, I 
was going to say Professor Emery, but he particularly cau- 
tioned me against that, and so I will ask him to say a few 
words to us before we part for the evening. 


Mr. President and Gentlemen : I understand that you are 
a very much maligned organization. I have read many dastardly 
attacks upon you, and until the last hour I never believed them. 
Now I am convinced that they are all true. I say that because 
in asking me to speak after Senator Lodge and the Speaker of 
the House and the others who have spoken here to-night, I look 
upon it as a plain frame-up to put the tariff board in wrong. 

Mr. Harding said that anybody who went into the woolen busi- 
ness was sentenced for life. Up to date the tariff board has not 
been sentenced for life. We are mucli in the position of Senator 
Young of Iowa who in going to the White House the other day, 
and being delayed for some time in getting to see the President, 
remarked to Mr. Norton, "for heaven's sake get rae in before my 
term expires." So I feel at this late hour to-night that my 
term may expire before I say anything that I want to. 


I had thought of saying something regarding what the National 
Association of Wool Manufacturers could do for the tariff board. 
If I should speak more than two minutes at this time of night, 
I am sure I can say what your Association would do to the tariff 
board. I will simply say this one thing, without going into 
details, that frankly many things are said about you gentlemen 
by all kinds of people, which we know to be absolute rot. We 
want to be perfectly reasonable. I was reasonable to-night when 
I was dressing hastily to come down here, and was putting on 
my shirt. It came all to pieces, the cuffs were frayed, it tore 
out in various places, but I did not have time to change the 
studs, and I had to get into it somehow, and it will come to 
pieces very quickly as soon as I get my clothes off. If I had 
been a writer for a popular magazine, I would have laid it all to 
Schedule K ; but applying to the problem the common sense and 
reasonableness that should become a member of the tariff board 
I said to myself, "Why should this tattered and disgraced ban- 
ner of Schedule I be laid at the door of Schedule K ? " 

On the other hand, there are all kinds of things said about 
other people that are not so. There are all kinds of insinua- 
tions made about other peoples' motives. Those insinuations 
are made about your motives. It is assumed by some people 
that anybody who gives any credit to any statement of a woolen 
or worsted manufacturer who is interested in Schedule K must 
have the wool pulled over his eyes, that he cannot be an honest 
man if he listens to anything that these people say. On the 
other hand, there are certain people interested in Schedule K 
who believe that if anybody listens to any critics of that schedule 
or tries to get any information from anybody else, tries to get 
all sides of the case, that he is a traitor in some way, or that he 
is not working from honest motives, that he is somehow having 
special strings pulled behind him. Why can we not cut all that 
out? Why can we not recognize on all sides that it is not worth 
while to continue this back-biting, this insinuation, this attempt 
to hit the other fellow somewhere, in order to make him the 
goat, because he happens to be willing to listen to somebody 
whom the other person does not like. 


It seems to me that we can play the game in a perfectly fair 
way, that everybody ought to recognize it, that anybody in 


public life is bound to listen to the fair statement of anybody 
else ; and if that person is not making a fair statement, it is 
proper to check it up, to find out from somebody else why it is 
not fair and wherein it is misleading and misguiding, and it 
seems to me that we can eliminate a great deal of all this ill- 
feeling to which I have referred. Let us forget the magazines, 
let us forget the papers. Let us get down to brass tacks and 
cases, where everybody deals with everybody else in a perfectly 
fair spirit, and recognizes that the motives of the other man are 
decent and honest. 

As far as the tariff board is concerned, we recognize with per- 
fect equanimity that we are going to get it any way. We feel 
perfectly certain that whatever we report as facts will not seem 
to certain people to be facts ; because it is very hard for a man 
to see facts which may not exactly fit his particular and imme- 
diate needs. We want to be checked up on our facts. We 
recognize that our spectacles may be colored, and when they are 
colored we want to know it, and we want to know it from the 
men who know the facts. We want to know it from the men in 
the business. They are the men who know what they are talk- 
ing about. As I have said before, you cannot go to a university 
to get facts about a business. You cannot go to a barber shop to 
get facts about a business. You have got to get your facts from 
the men in the business and talk with all of them, and we want 
them to help, and that is the best way in which they can help. 

But whatever we do we know perfectly well that we are going 
to be criticised probably by all sides, and we face that with some 
little courage at least. We feel that we shall go ahead and finally 
put in a bill which will read like the bill I got last summer from 
an old sea captain who came down in a big storm when it was 
raining and blowing and helped me to get out an anchor to hold 
my boat. He was very kind about it, and I told him to send in 
his bill. He said he would not send in any bill for helping a 
man in trouble. I said, " that is all right, but you have spoiled 
your Sunday clothes, and you must send me some kind of a bill." 
So he sent his bill and the first item on it, which I think will be 
the first item on ours, was " to getting a good soaking, fifty 

The President. — There are many other gentlemen 
present from whom we all would like to hear this evening,, 


but owing to Washington's unfortunate custom of dining 
late, we had to begin so late that the time has come when it 
is impossible to detain you longer. I must therefore bring 
the meeting to a close, first reminding you that all who can 
find it possible are to meet to-morrow at nine forty-five at the 
office of this hotel, for the purpose of paying our respects to 
the President. This closes the proceedings of the evening. 

In addition to guests seated at the head table the follow- 
ing-named gentlemen with others were seated at the other 
tables and participated in the enjoyment of the occasion : 

Andrew Adie, Silesia Worsted Mills, Boston. 

Wm. Anderson, Philadelphia, Pa. 

T. W. Andrews, Philadelphia, Pa. 

C. F. Avery, Mauger & Avery, Boston. 

C. J. Bodfish, Wood Worsted Mills, Lawrence, Mass. 

Jacob F. Brown, Brown & Adams, Boston. 

J. E. Bailey, Jr., American Woolen Co., Boston. 

W. W. Burch, " American Sheep Breeder," Chicago, 111. 

C. S. Bottomley, Rockville, Conn. 

Wm. E. Brigham, Washington, D.C. 

Hon. Arthur L. Bates, Meadville, Pa. 

Louis Baer, Eisemann Brothers, Boston. 

John W. Burt, Philadelphia, Pa. 

F. A. Brown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. K. Bready, Philadelphia, Pa. 
H. H. Bosworth, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Thos. H. Ball, Wissahickon, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Benj. Bullock, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fred M. Blackstone, Jr., Thos. H. Ball & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Oscar 0. Bean, Doylestown, Pa. 

James Bateman, Justice Bateman & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

F. S. Brewster, Andrews Mills, Philadelphia, Pa. 

H. W. Butterworth, H. W. Butterworth & Sons Co., Philadelphia, 

H. S. Bottomley, Howland Croft Sons & Co., Camden, KJ. 
J. J. Baughman, Susquehanna Woolen Co., New Cumberland, Pa. 


Everett H. Brown, Germantown, Pa. 
Wm. Burgess, Trenton, N.J. 

William J. Battison, National Association of Wool Manufac- 
turers, Boston. 
Richard Campion, Philadelphia, Pa. 
W. R. Cordingley, Woonsocket Worsted Mills, Boston. 
Willard A. Currier, Ayer Mills, Boston. 
C. H. Clark, " Textile Manufacturers Journal," Boston. 

F. H. Carpenter, American Woolen Co., Boston. 
Edmund Corcoran, Philadelphia, Pa. 

C. L. Connelly, Philadelphia, Pa. 
H. W. Corson, Philadelphia, Pa. 

G. W. Coffin, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Joseph Coleman, Coleman Brothers, Philadelphia, Pa. 

John J. Collins, Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. W. Croft, Howland Croft Sons & Co., Camden, N.J. 

Travers D. Carman, New York, N.Y. 

W. B. H. Dowse, Pres. Home Market Club, Boston. 

F. G. Dunbar, Lowell, Mass. 

J. G. Doak, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Walter Erben, Erben-Harding Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Harrington Emerson, Szepesi & Farr, New York, N.Y. 

J. Fred Essary, Washington, D.C. 

A. G. Elliott, J. Williams & Co., Boston. 
H. S. Edwards, F. Willey & Co., Boston. 
Fred Eick, Saxonia Mills, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Alban Eavenson, Camden, N.J. 

Geo. K. Erben, Erben-Harding Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. H. Emmott, Emmott Worsted Spinning Co., Chester, Pa. 

Frederick C. Fletcher, Pocasset Worsted Mills, Boston. 

H. A. Francis, Pontoosuc Woolen Mfg. Co., Pittsfield, Mass. 

L. H. Fitch, Wm. Whitman & Co., Boston. 

Fredk. W. Flather, Boott Manufacturing Co., Lowell, Mass. 

W. H. Folwell, Folwell Bros. & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

John Fisler, Yewdall & Jones Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

S. B. Fleisher, Philadelphia, Pa. 

B. W. Fleisher, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Samuel Fleisher, S. B. & B. W. Fleisher, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Edward A. France, Philadelphia Textile School, Philadelphia, Pa. 
A. E. Gill, Dewey, Gould & Co., Boston. 
Louis B. Goodall, Goodall Worsted Co., Sanford, Me. 


Edwin Farnham Greene, Pacific Mills, Boston. 

L. Gardiner, Rockville, Conn. 

George Grant, Grant Yarn Co., Fitchburg, Mass. 

Chas. Greaves, Philadelphia, Pa. 

John Greaves, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Thomas Greaves, Germantown, Pa. 

Jas. S. Gould, Philadelphia, Pa. 

F. N. Graves, Boston. 

E. M. Hecker, " Fibre and Fabric," Boston. 
George C. Hetzel, Chester, Pa. 

Franklin W. Hobbs, Arlington Mills, Boston. 
George H. Hodgson, Cleveland Worsted Mills Co., Cleveland, 0. 
Frank Hartley, Harry Hartley & Co., Inc., Boston. 
Conrad Hobbs, Hobbs, Taft & Co., Boston. 
W. T. Haines, Oakland AVoolen Mills, Waterville, Me. 
Capt. J. R. R. Hannay, U.S.A., Quartermaster's Dept., Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

F. J. Hogan, Washington, D.C. 

S. Ainsworth Hird, Samuel Hird & Sons, Inc., Passaic, KJ. 

C. A. Hardy, American Woolen Co., Boston. 

J. H. Herman, New York, KY. 

William H. Henry, Camden, N.J. 

J. D. C. Henderson, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Frank S. Harrison, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Thos. Hornsby, Thurman Mfg. Co., Germantown, Pa. 

A. S. Harding, Philadelphia, Pa. 

F. L. Harding, Philadelphia, Pa. 

James Hulton, Hulton Dyeing & Finishing Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

William Hetzel, G. C. Hetzel & Co., Chester, Pa. 

Fred Irland, Washington, D.C. 

H. C. Jealous, American Woolen Co., Boston. 

Vaughn Jealous, American Woolen Co., Boston. 

Edward Jefferson, Edward Jefferson & Bro., Philadelphia, Pa. 

H. J. Janos, Bristol, Pa. 

J. Koshland, J. Koshland & Co., Boston. 

J. F. Kesseler, Swift Wool Co., Boston. 

Henry T. Kent, Clifton Heights, Pa. 

Geo. W. Kritler, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Geo. M. Kerr, A. J. Webb & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

James Lister, Centredale Worsted Mills, Centredale, R.I. 

John Lorance, Washington, D.C. 


S. R. Latshaw, Mgr. Curtis Publishing Co., Boston. 

Harry Liebmann, Hecht, Liebmann & Co., Boston. 

Ezra Lund, Landeuburg, Pa. 

Wm. V. Leech, Bristol, Pa. 

H. C. Lawrence, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Oliver N. Long, Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. W. Landenberger, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Harry Lonsdale, F. A. Bockman & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Walter Levering, Camden, N.J. 

John W. Levering, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Percy A. Legge, Philadelphia, Pa. 

H. S. Landell, Philadelphia, Pa. 

William Long, Philadelphia, Pa. 

F. W. Manning, Luce & Manning, Boston. 

Francis T. Maxwell, Hockanum Co., Pockville, Conn. 

J. F. Maynard, Globe Woolen Co., Utica, KY. 

F. H. Metcalf, Farr Alpaca Co., Holyoke, Mass. 

Henry C. Martin, Farr Alpaca Co., Holyoke, Mass. 

H. E. Mabbett, Geo. Mabbett & Sons Co., Plymouth, Mass. 

F. R. Masters, American Woolen Co., New York, N.Y. 

Samuel C. Murfitt, Boston. 

Robert Maxwell, Hockanum Co., Rockville, Conn. 

William Maxwell, Hockanum Co., Rockville, Conn. 

Jerry A. Mathews, Washington, D.C. 

Arthur B. Maynard, Utica, N.Y. 

John W. MacLean, Utica, N.Y. 

E. J. Millspaugh, Utica, N.Y. 

James McCutcheon, J. G. Carruth & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
H. W. Marion, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Mr. Mcintosh, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Andrew McAllister, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Winthrop L. Marvin, National Association of Wool Manu- 
facturers, Boston. 
John W. Nary, Princeton Worsted Mills, Trenton, N.J. 

F. V. Oakes, Thomas Oakes & Co., Bloomfield, N.J. 
David Oakes, Thomas Oakes & Co., Bloomfield, N.J. 

A. M. Patterson, Patterson & Greenough, New York, N.Y. 
F. Nathaniel Perkins, Boston. 
William Price, Arlington Mills, Boston. 
Charles Porter, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Geo. B. Pfingst, Philadelphia, Pa. 


John W. Pechin, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fritz Quittner, Philadelphia, Pa. 

W. H. Richardson, Wm. Whitman & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

W. H. Reed, Boston. 

Joseph S. Rambo, Norristown, Pa. 

A. L. Robertshaw, Fern Rock Woolen Mills, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. Reinthal, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Geo. Rommel, Philadelphia, Pa. 

William F. Read, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Arthur Schwarz, Princeton Worsted Mills, Trenton, N.J. 

B. F. Smith, American Woolen Co., Boston. 
J. L. Schultz, American Woolen Co., Boston. 
Eugene Szepesi, Szepesi & Farr, New York, N.Y. 
George B. Spencer, New York, N.Y. 

F. W. Swindells, Rock Manufacturing Co., Rockville, Conn. 

H. M. Schofield, Quartermaster's Department, Washington, D.C. 

S. H. Steele, " Textile Manufacturers Journal," Philadelphia, Pa. 

Edgar C. Snyder, Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Stuart, Washington, D.C. 

Robert J. Studley, Goodhue, Studley & Emery, Boston. 

Chas. F. Sloan, Philadelphia, Pa. 

D. W. Shoyer, Philadelphia, Pa. 
John H. Seal, Philadelphia, Pa. 

L. S. Schaffer, Thos. Wolstenholme & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. C. Schmidt, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Mitchell Stead, Philadelphia, Pa. 

C. B. Smith, Star Worsted Co., Lawrence, Mass. 
William A. Suits, J. Williams & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Ernest R. Townson, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Jackson Tinker, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Edwin Wilcock, Boston. 

John G. Wright, Boston. 

E. E. Whitman, Wm. Whitman & Co., New York, N.Y. 

Malcolm D. Whitman, Wm. Whitman & Co., New York, N.Y. 

Wilbur F. Wakeman, American Protective Tariff League, New 

York, N.Y. 
C. J. H. Woodbury, National Association of Cotton Mfrs., Boston. 
P. C. Wiggin, American Woolen Co., Boston. 
J. Clifford Woodhull, American Woolen Co., New York, N.Y. 
Allen H. Wood, Wood, Putnam & Wood, Boston. 
Penman J. Wood, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Samuel W. Whan, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Max Winkler, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Thos. H. Wilson, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Louis Walther, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hollis Wolstenholme, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Harry Why, Why Bros. & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chas. T. Webb, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ernest G. Walker, Philadelphia, Pa. 

John H. Walker, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Edgar Weil, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Alfred Wolstenholme, Germantown, Pa. 




The forty-seventh annual convention of the National 
Wool Growers Association was held at Portland, Ore., on 
January 4, 5, 6, and 7, 1911 — a good representative gather- 
ing of Western wool growers, with some visitors from among 
the wool merchants and manufacturers of the East. Hon. 
Fred. W. Gooding, of Shoshone, Idaho, the President, deliv- 
ered his annual address, and communications were read from 
Secretary James Wilson, of the Department of Agriculture, 
Senator Francis E. Warren, of Wyoming, and others. Sena- 
tor Warren said : 

Regretting exceedingly that public business here prevents us 
from participating in the labors and pleasures of your meeting, I 
beg you to accept my kindest regards for the Association and all 
its members. Happy New Year and all good wishes for wise, 
harmonious and fruitful consideration of matters pertaining to 
the wool industry and your deliberations at the Portland meet- 
ing. Notwithstanding the past hard winter, the following dry 
summer and an exasperating wool market, we should not lose 
heart nor courage nor cease our efforts for future successes in 
the business nor our efforts for a protection of our industry. 
With twice as much wool imported as we really needed in 1909, 
and the constant attacks on Schedule K, we have had a long 
tedious season, with uninteresting and unprofitable market, but 
if my judgment and power of prophecy are not wholly wrong, 
our wool market will strengthen with the new year. With a 
united front against foreign invasion of our markets and against 
repeal of our protective laws, we shall win in spite of yellow and 
muckraking papers and periodicals, and against what is still 
worse, the vicious attacks of doctrinaires who know little or 
nothing of Schedule K, and still less about the expense and risks 
connected with the wool-growing industry. Earnestly desiring to 


cooperate and to have the benefit of the native judgment of our 
old, honorable, able and battle-scarred National Wool Growers 

This vigorous message was loudly applauded by the con- 

The resolutions adopted read, on the subject of the tariff, 
as follows : 

We reaffirm our belief in the American system of protection, and 
unequivocally indorse the application of its principles as embodied in 
the present arrangement of Schedule " K," as applicable to the wool 
duties, and recognize that every time departure has been made from 
the principles therein contained, serious disaster has befallen the indus- 
try of wool growing. The growers of wool need and deserve pro- 
tective duties equally with the manufacturei-s of wool. 

Both classes feel the competition of the cheap labor of foreign 
countries, and both are dependent upon the taritf for their prosperity, 
and, indeed, for their existence. 

We recognize that in the wool and woolen duties, the West, the East, 
the North and the South are united more closely than in any other 
portion of the tariff law, and we call upon our Senators and Represen- 
tatives in Congress to present a united front against foreign invasion 
of our markets and resist to the utmost all attacks of vicious doctrinaires 
upon the protection that shields this National industry. 

Pending the investigation of the tariff board, appointed by President 
Taft, tariff agitation should cease until such time as the findings of the 
board are reported. The wool growers court the fullest opportunity 
of submitting to the tariff board all information relating to the cost of 
production in their industry, and in this connection we commend and 
heartily support the work being done by the American Tariff Commis- 
sion Association. 

We indorse unreservedly the magnificent services rendered by Senator 
F. E. Warren, whose splendid record in the framing of Sehedule '* K," 
in the Payne-Aldrich law, is now a matter of history, and we hereby 
enroll him in our regard with those grand champions of the wool- 
growing industry, represented by Blaine, McKinley, and Dingley. 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed by the president, with the 
consent and approval of the executive committee, of which the presi- 
dent shall be ex-officio chairman, to represent the National Wool 
Growers Association in matters pertaining to tariff' legislation, the 
membership of the committee to consist of members of the National 
Wool Glowers Association from representative wool-growing districts. 


The duties of said committee shall be to collect, collate, and compile 
data of cost of pi'oducing wool, and to pi'esent such data to the tariff 
board, with the view of demonstrating that wool growers are entitled 
to a protective tariff such as will permit them to continue business, this 
committee to be authorized to meet the said tariff board and legislative 
committees, whenever it may seem advisable, and to be authorized and 
empowered to represent the National Wool Growers Association at 
such meetings. 

The officers elected were : 

President: Hon. Frank R. Gooding, Gooding, Idaho. 

Western vice-president: George Austin, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Eastern vice-president: A. J. Knollin, Chicago. 

Executive Committee: Arizona, F. W. Pei'kins, Flagstaff; California, 
F. A. Ellenwood, Red Bluff; Idaho, F. J. Hagenbarth, Spencer; Mon- 
tana, J. B. Elliott, Great Falls; Nevada, Thomas Nelson, Stonehouse; 
New Mexico, H. F. Lee, Albuquerque ; Oregon, Jay Dobbin, Joseph ; 
Washington, Frank R. Rotherock, Ellensburg. 

The election of secretary was left to the executive committee, who 
selected Dr. S. W. MoClure, of Pendleton, Ore. The office of the 
secretary will be located at Gooding, Idaho. Omaha was chosen as the 
place for holding the next meeting. 

The new President, Hon. Frank R. Gooding, has been 
Governor of Idaho and is a very able and successful sheep 
breeder and a man of great enterprise and strength of 
character. During the trial of Haywood and the other 
miners accused of conspiring to murder. Governor Gooding 
received more than three hundred letters, threatening him 
with death unless the trial were abandoned, but he never 

Dr. S. W. McClure, the new Secretary of the National 
Wool Growers Association, is a native of Pennsylvania, and 
a graduate of the Veterinary Department of the University 
of Pennsylvania. He has been for several years in the 
service of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry, 
and has a fine, expert equipment for his present work. 



Among the important papers presented at Portland was a 
letter from Mr. William Whitman, President of the National 
Association of Wool Manufacturers, who said : 

National Association of Wool Manufacturers, 

Boston, December 22, I'JIO. 

Mb. Fked. W. Gooding, President, 

National Wool Growers Association, Shoshone, Idaho. 

Dear Mr. Gooding : I have received from your Secretary, 
Mr. Walker, an invitation to attend and address the annual 
gathering of the National Wool Growers Association at Port- 
land, Ore., on January 4-7, 1911, and regret to have to reply 
that it is entirely impossible for me to be present. 

The National Association of Wool Manufacturers is with per- 
haps one exception the oldest organization in the United States 
representing any one of our great National industries. We have 
had a continuous, active existence of forty-seven years. Both 
worsted and carded woolen interests are included in our member- 
ship. The statement that the National Association is made up 
exclusively of worsted manufacturers, which you may hear 
echoed at Portland, is wholly false. Associated with us are the 
leading men of the carded woolen as well as the worsted branch 
of our industry. Only an insigniticant fraction of the carded 
woolen manufacturers of the country — and tliese chiefly former 
advocates of free wool — have joined the enemies of protection 
in attacking the present tariff. 

It is the purpose of the foes of the protective policy to divide 
and thus conquer our common industry, if they can. They 
realize, as our enemies always have done, that the wool and 
woolen tariff. Schedule K, is the keystone of the arch of the 
American protective system. If they destroy this or displace it, 
they hope, as they always have hoped, that they may detach the 
agricultural West from the manufacturing East, and thus com- 
plete the destruction of the protective policy. 

These enemies of ours, and of yours, are quick to take advan- 
tage of the existing depression in the wool and woolen industry 
to attempt to poison the minds of the West against the East. 
The relatively low prices at which wool is just now sold are 
being cited as an indictment of Schedule K. But why an indict- 


meut ? The new tariff does not change the wool paragraphs by 
so much as the dotting of an '' i " or the crossing of a " t." The 
duties which protect you are left exactly as they were during the 
twelve years of the Dingley law, from 1897 to 1909, and sub- 
stantially as they were from 1867 to 1894, and the only altera- 
tions made in the entire schedule by the Aldrich-Payne law were 
small reductions on certain manufactures. 

The present tariff rates have absolutely nothing to do with the 
discouraging conditions which prevail among the wool growers of 
America. These discouraging conditions are the direct result of 
the agitation against the new law and especially against Schedule 
K by certain forces in our political life, led, I am sorry to say, 
by some Middle Western Senators and Representatives. You 
have your champions, and they are strong and able men. 
Nobody could battle more bravely and consistently than they 
who are your real friends and are working to defend your 
interests. But I am stating a truth which all acknowledge when 
I say that the principal source of discontent and assault upon 
the existing tariff is the agricultural States of the Middle and 
further West. There is where the so-called " insurgency " finds 
its liveliest inspiration and its firmest foothold. 

You are wondering to-day why you can get no better prices 
for your wool. I can tell you ; it is because some Western poli- 
ticians by their reckless and selfish course have almost destroyed 
your market. These are the men who have been proclaiming 
month after month that Schedule K '' robbed " the American 
people ; that it compelled them to pay excessive prices for 
inferior clothing, and that the whole schedule ought to be radi- 
cally reconstructed. Now these men are exultantly pointing to 
the recent Congressional elections as proof that it ^vill be so 

Let us analyze the situation step by step. The average 
American citizen hears the politician declaiming against Sched- 
ule K ; he reads similar denunciations in the magazines and 
newspapers. He needs a new suit for himself or clothing for 
his wife and children, but this malicious agitation influences him 
to postpone his purchase. " I'll wait," he says, " for this reduc- 
tion of the tariff. Then I shall get American clothing more 
cheaply. Perhaps if the tariff is reduced far enough, I can get 
the foreign clothes which the politicians and the editors declare 
are so much better than American." 

WOOL growers' convention. 79 

So the man waits ; he does not buy. The retail clothing or 
dry goods merchant consequently does not sell, and not being 
able to sell does not order new goods, or orders only in small 
quantities, from hand to mouth, as it were, from the .clothing 
manufacturer. The clothing manufacturer or wholesale mer- 
chant in turn orders sparingly or not at all from the manufacturer 
of the cloth. The cloth manufacturer in turn, with his machinery 
operating only fitfully, or idle, does not need much wool. So 
prices of wool decline, and the wool grower is disappointed. 

Thus the industrial cycle runs. The mischief starts with the 
tariff-hating politician, newspaper or magazine, but the wool 
grower is the ultimate victim. Senseless agitation for immedi- 
ate and radical tariff changes has cost the wool growers of this 
country nearly $20,000,000 in reduced prices of this year's 
domestic clip — and the chief authors of this calamity are some 
Western Senators and Kepresentatives in Congress. There is 
nothing the matter with Schedule K. It is substantially the 
same schedule that gave prosperity to wool growers and wool 
manufacturers under the Dingley law. It would bring pros- 
perity to all of us now if these rancorous attacks upon it 
ceased. Those politicians who are encouraging the American 
people to believe that Schedule K is going to be quickly over- 
thrown, and foreign fabrics made of foreign wool sold cheaply 
on every street corner, are your enemies as they are our enemies. 
They denounce us chiefly but they are hurting you as well. For 
the experience of forty-four years of wool tariffs has demon- 
strated beyond the shadow of a doubt that American wool grow- 
ing and American wool manufacturing are interlocked and 
interdependent interests — the indispensable parts of a great 
common national industry, and that men cannot strike one part 
without injuring the other also. 

You have already some faithful champions in Congress. I 
can give you no more urgent or valuable counsel than to insist 
that all other Western public men consider and defend your 
welfare, or if they will not, that the West send men to Washing- 
ton who will. 

Very truly yours, 

William Whitman, 



Mr. William M. Wood, President of the American Woolen 
Company, said in his communication : 

Boston, Mass., December 28, 1910. 

To THE Officers and Members of the National Wool 
Growers Association. 

Gentlemen : If I could do so, nothing would give me more 
pleasure than to attend your annual convention and greet you 
face to face, in response to your kind invitation. But I cannot 
do this, and, therefore, have put down in writing some of the 
things I should like to say if I were so fortunate as to be able to 
be present at Portland. 

A distinguished member of Congress, in a recent address, 
declared that he respected alike the firm protectionist and the 
frank, consistent free trader. Both were honest men. But he 
had no patience with the man who wanted protection on his prod- 
ucts and free trade in the materials he consumes. As a matter 
of fact, in a sense there is no such thing as a raw material. The 
materials of one industry are the finished product of another, 
and all the productive industries of the United States are alike 
entitled to fair and reasonable protection from the government. 

I believe in adequate protection for wool manufactures, but I 
believe equally in adequate protection for the wool itself. Do 
not let any mischief-makers delude you into the notion that we 
manufacturers of the East are trying to take undue advantage of 
you in tariff legislation. The men who attempt this are no real 
friends of yours or ours, and whatever may be their motive it is 
certainly not any disinterested desire for the welfare of either 
the wool manufacturers or the wool growers of America. 

Now a word about the company of which I am head. It is the 
largest wool manufacturing concern under a single management 
in this country or the world. It owns and operates 34 mills, 
making worsteds and carded woolens — a total of 34 mills out of 
the 1,213 in the United States. The Assabet Mill at Maynard, 
Mass., is the largest carded woolen mill in existence. As a large 
carded woolen manufacturer, I do not feel that the specific duty 
on wool discriminates against us. We have no difficulty in 
securing materials. We have equal access with the worsted 


manufacturers to wools of all kinds. I fail to understand why a 
few carded woolen manufacturers should find the situation so 
much different from all the rest of us. 

The American Woolen Company, with its 34 mills, though a 
great corporation, is not a trust or a monopoly. There are nearly 
1,"Z00 American woolen mills, many of them large ones, in other 
hands, outside of our company, not owned or controlled in any 
way by us. Ours is an intensely competitive industry. No one 
concern monopolizes its activities, and in my judgment none ever 

Now, I suppose you would like my opinion about the much 
debated Schedule K. I will tell you. The schedule is not 
perfect. No important part of the tariff ever has been or proba- 
bly will be perfect. But Schedule K, as it now staifds in the 
Aldrich-Payne law, changed in only a few minor points from the 
Dingley law, is honest in its intent, fair in its classification, and 
not excessive in its general range of duties — as demonstrated by 
the fact that our imports of wool manufactures, on a duty-paid 
basis, were ^43,819,000 in the fiscal year 1910, as compared with 
$34,327,000 for the year preceding. Every yard of those 
imported fabrics was made of foreign wool. If all this enor- 
mous quantity had been manufactured here it would have created 
a so much greater market for the wool growers of America. 

Schedule K, as it now stands, embodies the best work and 
wisdom of many of the ablest statesmen of our time. Morrill of 
Vermont, father of the protective system as we know it ; Sherman 
and Lawrence of Ohio, Allison of Iowa, McKinley of Ohio, 
Aldrich of Rhode Island, Warren of Wyoming, Smoot of Utah, 
Blaine, Reed, and Dingley of Maine — these men and others have 
helped in the framing and development of the schedule that for 
forty years has protected alike the American workers who grow 
the wool and those who spin and weave it. The schedule is often 
referred to as a difficult, complicated one. As a matter of fact, it 
is built upon a simple, orderly plan — a logical process of evolu- 
tion. There is, as you know, a duty of 11 and 12 cents a pound 
on clothing wool and 4 and 7 cents on coarse carpet wools. For 
these duties compensation is provided to the manufacturers — 
and the compensatory duty, though often denounced as excessive 
in amount, is no more, I can assure you, than is necessary on the 
relatively fine fabrics in which American manufacturers come 
into the severest competition with the manufacturers of Europe. 


Beyond the compensatory duty there is an ad valorem protec- 
tive duty upon yarns, a higher duty on cloths and dress goods, 
increasing with their value, and the highest duty of all, or 60 per 
cent, upon finished clothing. This is substantially equivalent to 
the highest duty on silk goods or similar manufactures of cotton, 
both of these industries having their materials on the free list. 
As compared with the remainder of the tariff, and in view of the 
peculiar difficulties and hazards of the wool manufacture. Sched- 
ule K is not conspicuously high, but no portion of the tariff has 
been subject to such persistent and vicious misrepresentation. 

America is the greatest wool consuming country in the world. 
Our people are better clothed than any other. This is the largest 
and richest market for wool and its manufactures. The chief 
impelling motive of the vociferous attacks upon Schedule K can 
be traced back to the jealousy and greed of the manufacturers of 
Europe and their perniciously active agents in the United States, 
between whom and the great home market here Schedule K 
stands as a stout and difficult barrier. 

In 1894, and for the three years thereafter of the Gorman 
"Wilson law. Schedule K was temporarily broken down, and 
foreign jealousy and greed were amply satisfied. Your wool was 
on the free list. Our fabrics were reduced. Europe and not 
America ruled the domestic market. In three years you lost 
10,000,000 of your sheep and $60,000,000 of their total value. 
We manufacturers saw nearly one-half of our woolen market in 
1895 taken away by our cheap-wage foreign competitors. 

Have you or we forgotten this ? Do you desire a repetition 
of that experience ? Ought not one such object lesson to be 
sufficient for a century ? The same forces which brought over- 
whelming disaster upon wool growers and wool manufacturers 
alike in 1894-1897 are at work again. Their first effort is to 
arouse discord between West and East, between the two branches 
of our common industry. The aim of our foes now, as it was 
seventeen years ago, is first to divide and thus to conquer. Shall 
we let them succeed ? 

Yours very truly, 

Wm. M. Wood, 
President American Woolen Company. 

WOOL growers' convention. 83 


Mr. A. D. Juilliard, of New York, the distinguished merchant 
and manufacturer, said : 

Mr. George S. Walker, Secretary, 

National Wool Growers Association, Portland, Ore. 

My Dear Sir: Deeply regret that I cannot be present at the 
Forty-seventh Annual Convention of the National Wool Growers 
Association, at Portland, Ore., January 4 to 7, 1911. 

As a user of large quantities of wool, it affords me pleasure to 
send greetings and Godspeed to the National Wool Growers. 
An important part — much the most important, I should say — 
of your deliberations in annual convention assembled will natur- 
ally relate to the preservation of adequate protection for the 
yiehl of your flocks. Experience has demonstrated the fact that 
without protection the industry of sheep and wool growing must 
languish and ultimately disappear. In the absence of adequate 
tariff duties that shall take account of the lower labor cost in 
foreign wool-producing countries, you cannot stay in the business. 
It is to the interest of the whole nation not only that you should 
stay in the business, but that tlie business of supplying wool and 
mutton for American consumption should be made attractive to 
American farmers. 

Napoleon Bonaparte, chewing tlie bitter cud of reflection upon 
the horrors of the disastrous winter campaign in Russia, when 
his soldiers perished by thousands for lack of warm clothing, is 
said to have exclaimed : " Spain has twenty-five millions of Merino 
sheep. I wish that France had a hundred million ! " If France 
had had a hundred million sheep, the story of that terrible retreat 
from Moscow need never have been written. 

The United States has about fifty-seven million sheep. I wish 
we had three times fifty-seven million sheep. Then we should 
be independent of foreign supply ; then we should have enough 
wool to clothe our population of one hundred million ; then we 
should have three times the present supply of mutton, which 
would go far toward solving the troublesome problem of high cost 
of food supplies. 

If there is to be any interference with the present satisfactory 
tariff on wool, I would rather the change should be toward higher 
duties than toward lower duties. But I hope the tariff on wool 


will not be disturbed. I would like to see adequate protection 
for wool positively assured for the next ten years. Then we 
should see an enormous increase in the growing of sheep for 
wool and mutton. Then the millions of acres of abandoned farms 
in the Eastern States would come into profitable use once more, 
this time as grazing land for millions of sheep. 

I wonder if the " reformers " and other enemies of the wool tariff 
ever stop to think how little the wool duties amount to on the 
average suit of clothes. It requires twelve pounds of unwashed 
wool to produce a suit of clothes. Assuming that we use foreign 
wool exclusively, the wool tariff on one suit of clothes would be 
$1.32 ; but even this small amount is not correctly stated, because 
the competition of the domestic product affects the price to the 
ultimate consumer. 

Eecently I have seen a statement by one of the largest pro- 
ducers of woolen textiles in this country showing that in an over- 
coat selling for $15 there were two yards of cloth for which the 
manufacturer received 82 cents a yard, or $1.64, on which the 
profit was not more than 8 or 9 cents. 

There is no community of interest, as generally understood, 
between the wool grower and the manufacturer, but there is an 
interdependence and a mutuality, where tariff protection is at 

Both the wool grower and the woolen manufacturer must have 
protection. The two branches of the industry — wool growing 
and wool weaving — must stand shoulder to shoulder in resisting 
assaults upon protection. 

Manufacturers will profit by an increased supply of domestic 
wool, and sheep growing will profit by the certainty of a steady 
and profitable market. 

In January, 1908, two manufacturers of woolens called upon 
me and requested my cooperation in securing a reduction of the 
duties on wool. I told them, in effect, that I not only would not 
cooperate with them, but that I would rather raise the duty on 
wool than lower it. 

It is a well-known fact that the population of the world is 
increasing more rapidly than the production of sheep. Now, if 
we let the foreigner produce our wool and mutton, he will 
eventually control the market. 

I am in favor of protection which begins where it ought to 

WOOL growers' convention. 85 

begin, Avith the wool grower, and in due proportion extends to 
the manufacturer. 

Very truly yours, 


Theodore Justice, of Justice, Bateman & Company of 
Philadelphia, sent the following letter : 

Philadelphia, December 10, 1910. 
Mr. George S. Walker, Secretary, 

National Association of Wool Growers, Cheyenne, Lar- 
amie County, Wyoming, 

My Dear Mr. Walker: In my message to the wool 
growers, the hrst thought that I now wish to express is, that the 
menace to the industry by the President's proposition to revise 
the tariff one schedule at a time is the greatest that has occurred 
since the free wool period. This idea of revising the tariff one 
schedule at a time was originally promoted by the Democrats, 
and was repudiated by the nation at the time of General Har- 
rison's election in 1888. It is the most dangerous and damaging 
proposition to an American industry that was ever made, and it 
was again repudiated by the nation at the time of McKinley's 
election in 1896. President McKinley at that time held to the 
theory that all industries depending upon a protective tariff for 
their existence should stand together, shoulder to shoulder. His 
words, often used on these previous occasions, were : " These 
industries, if united, may stand, but if divided they will surely 
fall," and this great recommendation of President Taft's to revise 
the tariff one schedule at a time, if adopted, would be the death 
knell of the sheep industry, for by this process that industry 
would be annihilated. 

I wish to call the attention of the wool growers to the following 
statements, viz. : The advantages to the American people of 
Schedule K have been so great that the $355,000,000 customs 
duties collected during the past twelve years have never cost the 
American people a single dollar, for the following reasons : 

Schedule K has stimulated the flocks, so that the sheep have 
increased in number from 37,000,000 in 1897 to 57,000,000 in 


1910, an increase of 54 per cent, which is likewise a corresponding 
increase in the mutton supply, and this increase has been so 
great that it has lowered the price of all kinds of flesh food to 
the American people to an extent to far exceed in value the 
$355,000,000 customs duties collected up to this time under 
Schedule K. 

Second, the money paid to American wool growers for their 
wool in the past five years has more than liquidated all of the 
duties collected under Schedule K at the custom house since 1898. 
Third, the wages paid to the men and women working in mills 
that manufactured wool in only four years has exceeded by 
f 50,000,000 all the duties collected under Schedule K since 1898. 
Furthermore, if it be true, as some political economists claim, 
and I agree with them, that every dollar paid out in wages, in 
passing from hand to hand in the purchase of the necessaries 
of life, circulates on an average at least ten times during the 
year, any one who is inclined to figure can thus see that the 
$355,000,000 collected at the custom house has caused to be put 
in circulation a vast amount of money, reaching into billions of 
dollars, and it is this that has made the American market the 
greatest in the world. The magnitude of this can only be esti- 
mated or realized by contemplating the calamity of the restric- 
tion of the purchasing ability of the people by the withdrawal of 
the vast wealth that has been created for this nation through 
the operation of Schedule K. This schedule is more closely 
related to the personal comfort of every man, woman and child 
than any other schedule in the tariff law. 

These are only a few of the many other proofs that Schedule 
K has never cost the American people a single dollar. 

Another proposition is this : Theodore Roosevelt has endorsed 
the suggestion of Gifford Pinchot to divorce business from poli- 
tics, and if we may judge by the result of the recent Congres- 
sional election, the wool growers of the United States have taken 
this advice. 

The people of the wool-growing sections in the recent elections 
have permitted some of our most useful public servants to be 
ruthlessly sacrificed, and among them have been their very best 
friends and most effective workers in Congress in defence of the 
invaluable sheep industry. The wool growers, by their actions, 
have thus exposed their throats to the knife. 

My message to the wool growers of the United States is to 

WOOL growers' convention. 87 

cement hereafter more closely their business relations with their 
politics, and unless they do, their industry will be annihilated. 

Among the many friends in Congress who were conspicuous 
champions of the wool industry, and who were slaughtered in 
the recent contest for such necessary and adequate protection as 
would preserve the sheep and wool industry from destruction, 
were the Hon. Ralph D. Cole, representative from Ohio, and the 
Hon. Thomas S. Carter, senator from Montana. The loss of 
Senator Carter at this time is one of the greatest misfortunes to 
the wool growers, as he and, perhaps, two others were counted 
on as the main bulwarks in the Senate to check and hurl back 
the assault upon the wool industry that was sure to come from a 
Democratic House of Representatives, which has been elected 
through a popular but mistaken and indefensible clamor for a 
reduction in wool duties, which probably would never have 
occurred but for the encouragement given to the enemies of the 
industry by President Taft's unfortunate allusion to Schedule K 
in his Winona speech. 

Every man, woman and child must suffer from the decrease in 
the production of our flesh-food supply and in the reduction of 
the supply of our wool. 

The present high cost of living to-day is due in part to the 
reduction of the duty upon wool to 10 cents per pound under the 
law of 1883. When that law went into operation we had about 
918 sheep to each 1,000 of population ; at the end of that period, 
when the destruction of our sheep was halted by the election of 
President Harrison, the number of sheep had fallen to 697 per 
1,000 population, a decrease of 24 per cent since the repeal of 
the war tariff, carrying the adequate protection of practically 12^ 
cents per pound. 

This occurred when the labor cost of growing wool was from 
one-fourth to one-third less than it is to-day, so that in this 
popular cry for a reduction in the tariff upon wool, we should 
remember that, as like causes produce like effects, a return to the 
10 cents per pound duty upon wool will be followed by a more 
rapid reduction in the number of sheep per 1,000 of population 
than before. 

After the law of 1883, with its inadequate protection to wool 
in the duty of 10 cents per pound, the McKinley act followed, 
which lasted only about four years, but the number of sheep 
under the adequate protection of the McKinley act increased to 


712 per 1,000 of population. Paralleling the decrease of 24 per 
cent under the 10-cent duty of the law of 1883, with the increase 
under the 11-cent duty of the McKinley act, we have a demon- 
stration of the fact that 11 cents per pound is the lowest duty 
upon wool that will maintain our sheep industry. 

The McKinley act was followed by a brief period of four years 
of no duty at all, and up to the time when the Dingley act was 
passed in 1897, the number of sheep per 1,000 of population had 
fallen to 528, a decrease of 26 per cent in less than four years of 
free wool, and if this decrease had not been arrested by the 
present Schedule K, which went into operation in 1897, the 
United States in a short time would have been practically with- 
out sheep. 

Part of the high cost of living to-day is due to the destruction 
of so much of our flesh-food supply during the free-trade period, 
while the population that consumed the flesh-food was increasing. 
We were then burning the candle at both ends, and we are now 
paying the penalty in a higher cost of living, in which every 
member of our race is involved. 

The McKinley duties of 11 cents per pound were reenacted in 
the Dingley act of 1897. That law has been in force ever since, 
and during that period, say between 1897 and 1910, the number 
of sheep per 1,000 of population has increased to 626, an increase 
under the present Schedule K of 18J per cent. 

To save the sheep industry, the wool growers must impress 
upon the public the importance of the duties that will sustain 
the flesh-food supply. 

Yours truly, 

Theodore Justice. 


One of the important speakers before the Portland con- 
vention was Mr. Joseph R. Grundy, of William H. Grundy 
& Co., of Philadelphia, who brought the greetings of the 
National Association of Wool Manufacturers. Mr. Grundy 
said : 

WOOL growers' convention. 89 

Mk. Chairman and Members of the National Association 
OF Wool Growers : 

It has been a purpose of the National Government to collect 
duties from wool and woolen imports for the past century of the 
country's existence. During the first fifty years of this period 
the duties which were levied by the Government varied accord- 
ing to the geographical control of public affairs. When South- 
ern men were strong in Congress they were influential in having 
a pretty fair duty for those times on wool ; when New England 
and what was then the West was in charge, they took care of 
the manufacturer and were not so much interested to see that 
the grower had what was coming to him, and so this matter see- 
sawed backward and forward to the great detriment of the indus- 
try, both as to wool growing and wool manufacturing, until the 
breaking out of the Civil War, The needs of large revenue to 
prosecute that great struggle led to heavy taxation in every 

Justin S. Morrill, of Vermont, was Chairman of the Ways and 
Means Committee at that time. Being desirous that each sub- 
ject for taxation shoukl contribute the maximum of revenue, he 
changed a large share of the duties on imports from ad valorem 
to specific rates, and in considering the wool duties placed a 
specific duty on wool, and, by an arrangement original with him- 
self, placed such compensatory duty on wool in goods as to place 
the industry of wool manufacturing on all fours, as if it had free 

As the war progressed more money was required and increased 
revenues were necessitated. In the tariff act of 1864 wool 
duties were largely increased ; compensatory duties, as arranged 
by Mr. Morrill, were increased in proportion. During this 
period all industry in the country was very prosperous, the 
Government was a large buyer of all kinds of material and 
issued all kinds of money, and the fact of our having a war shut 
out imports, privateering swept our commerce from the seas, and 
what was needed in this country and for prosecution of the war 
was of necessity produced here. Under this stimulus wool grow- 
ing and wool manufacturing very rapidly developed. 

THE revenue commission OF 1865, 1866. 
The year 1865 found the war at an end and the Congress of 
the United States confronted, among other things, with the 


reconstruction of the finances of the Government on a peace basis. 
Preliminary to this work there was appointed a revenue commis- 
sion, consisting of three men : Samuel S. Hayes, of Illinois ; 
David A. Wells, of New York, and Stephen Col well, of Penn- 
sylvania. Those men reviewed the laws for the purpose of 
reducing the revenue to the then necessary expenditures and in 
this work their first concern was to not disturb the splendid 
industrial prosperity or reduce the high standard of wages, 
which, during the war, from conditions above described, had 
been brought about. 

There was no industry in the whole revenue commission's 
report that received from them more thoughtful consideration 
than did that of wool. Having in mind its checkered history 
prior to 1861 and being desirous of avoiding the errors which, 
prior to that time, had so seriously retarded its growth, they 
called a joint meeting of your National Association of Wool 
Growers and the National Association of Wool Manufacturers. 
This joint meeting convened at Syracuse, N.Y., in December, 
1865. The executive committees of the two associations were 
in continuous session over six months, reviewing from every 
standpoint the questions concerning the raising of wool, the cost 
of same, and the necessary legislation required for the pro- 
tection of the wool manufacturing industry. 


The report of the joint committee of the two associations 
touching the wool problem will doubtlessly be interesting to you, 
and from it I read as follows : 

We have pointed out considerations which render sheep .hus- 
bandry highly important to our national interests. There are 
others which are almost too obvious to require mention. The 
home production of wool is necessary to render us properly 
independent of foreign powers, in peace and in war, in obtaining 
our supplies of an article on which the lives and health of all our 
people depend. It is necessary to National economy, for no 
great agricultural country can afford to import its most important 
and costly raw material, especially from countries which take but 
little raw or manufactured commodities in return. It is neces- 
sary, in the already quoted words of the executive committee of 
the National Association of Wool Manufacturers, to furnish "the 
first and always the chief dependence" of our woolen manufac- 
tures. It is necessary to supply our people with strong, service- 

WOOL growers' COMVENTION. 91 

able cloths in the place of the comparatively weak and 
unserviceable ones manufactured from much the larger portion 
of the cloth wools now imported. Finally, it is necessary to 
extend and complete the circle of diversified industries on which 
the wealth and independence of nations so much depend. 

The report of the two executive committees of the National 
associations of our industry was unanimously adopted by their 
associations, and after having been reviewed by the Revenue 
Commission was certified by them to the then Secretary of the 
Treasury, Hon. Hugh McCullough, who in turn, transmitted it 
to Hon. Schuyler Colfax, speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives who, after reviewing and approving same, certified as to its 
correctness to Hon. Justin S. Morrill, chairman of the Ways and 
Means Committee. After having it reviewed by that great com- 
mittee it was favorably acted upon by the House of Representa- 
tives, reviewed by the Finance Committee of the Senate, and by 
them placed in their bill, which was finally enacted as the great 
wool and woolen protective tariff law of 1867. The rates of 
duty on wool and woolens contained in that law have substan- 
tially been reenacted in the tariff laws of 1883, 1890, 1897, and 

In the act of 1861, to which I have referred as the Morrill 
Tariff Act, a duty of 3 cents a pound was placed upon wool. In 
the act of 1864 the duty on wool was raised to 6 cents. As a 
result of the investigation of this convention of wool growers 
and manufacturers, based upon the best data they could obtain 
as to the cost of raising wool in this country, and notwithstand- 
ing the fact that the revenue commission was called together for 
the purpose of reducing the revenue of the country to a peace 
basis, the Government raised the rates in the act of 1867 to 10 
cents a pound for wool, when foreign value was under 32 cents a 
pound, and 12 cents when foreign value was over 32 cents, and in 
addition thereto 11 per cent ad valorem. I cite that to show how 
important they viewed the question of wool raising and wool 
manufacturing at that time. 


Now I have listened with a great deal of interest to our distin- 
guished friend from Wyoming in reference to these wool duties. 
The speech which he delivered here seems to be a repetition of 


the speech which, early in December, was delivered by him in 
Wyoming. I was favored with a copy of it and I hope he will 
correct me if I am not quoting right from it. I think that this 
gentleman has a misunderstanding of the intent of the Govern- 
ment in the duties on this material. In his speech he quotes as 
follows : 

The Wyoming wool shrinks approximately 66f per cent or, in 
other words, you are protected, on the average, to the extent of 
only 6-^ cents on every pound of wool in the grease, instead of to 
the extent of 11 cents, as contemplated by the law. You were 
promised gold, and were handed a gold brick : you have been 
deceived into believing that the law meant what it said. And 
yet, so sacred has been the law, that any one daring to assail its 
hallowed name has been branded as a traitor to protection and a 
common enemy to mankind. That is a poor way of getting 
justice at the bar of public opinion 

Now, then, if I understand what Mr. Blume means, it is that the 
Government of the United States has promised to give every man 
who is interested in the growing of wool 11 cents a pound on top 
of the value of foreign wool. If in this I am correct, I want to 
call your attention to the fact that the Government of the United 
States is a cold-blooded business proposition. It is engaged, not 
in giving anybody anything through its tariff law, but in collect- 
ing money for the purpose of paying the great expense of running 
this Government. Now, then, if the Government of the United 
States intended to give the wool grower anything it would be apt 
to give it to him in the only way he would be sure to get it, and 
that would be by way of a bounty, and then there Avould be no 
question but what you would get the 11 cents, but that is not the 
purpose of the Government. 

In your request in 1867, and practically in every protective 
tariff act since, you did not ask anything of the kind from the 
Government. You asked the Government to put a duty on for- 
eign wool, and the Government, in quest of revenue to support 
its projects and to offer an opportunity for people who desire to 
go into the wool business to get a better price for their wool than 
prevails in foreign markets, says to the foreigner who desires to 
invade this market — paragraph 371, clause 2 — writes into the 
law the following language : 

Wools, hair of the camel, goat, alpaca, or other like animals, 

WOOL growers' convention. 93 

unmanufactured ; Class I. Merino, mestiza, metz, or metis 
wools, or other wools of merino blood, immediate or remote, 
down clothing wools, and wools of like character with any of the 
preceding, including Bagdad, China Lamb's wool. Castel Branco, 
Adrianople skin wool or butclier's wool, and such as have been 
heretofore usually imported into the United States from Buenos 
Ayres, New Zealand, Australia, Cape of Good Hope, Russia, 
Great Britain, Canada, Egypt, Morocco and elsewhere, and all 
wools not hereinafter included in Classes II. and III. : 

Unwashed wool : 

On the skin 10 cents per pound. 

Not on the skin 11 cents per pound. 

Washed wool : 

On the skin 21 cents per pound. 

Not on the skin 22 cents per pound. 

Scoured wool, 33 cents per pound. 


What the Government has said, and what you have asked the 
Government to say, is that we put a duty on the wools of other 
countries. I do not see anything in here as to what the wool 
man of the State of Wyoming, New Mexico or Nevada is to get 
for his wool. I do not see anything in here about what my 
friend Pete Johnson of Idaho is to get for his wool, and if the 
Government is going to give anybody anything, I am sure Pete 
is as much entitled to it as any one else I know in the busi- 
ness. Senator Blume is a lawyer, I think, and understands these 
things. If he thinks Pete Johnson is not getting what is com- 
ing to him he has a good opportunity of getting a little business 
out of Johnson, and I would advise my friend Johnson to put 
the matter in his hands. 

As I understand this, you intermountain wool men have been 
selling wool on a scoured basis of 20 cents less than foreign 
wool of equal qualities, and if the distinguished statesman from 
Wyoming is right in his law, something like 20 cents a pound 
scoured would be coming to Pete. If Senator Blume is right in 
his law and the Gov^ernment of the United States has promised 
Pete 11 cents, he had better get on the train and go to Washing- 
ton and have a talk with the Government, and if he can prove 
that the Government owes Pete I will guarantee that Pete will 
get it. That is the situation. The Government of the United 
States did not promise anything to any of us, but it does say to 
the foreigner he cannot come in and trade in this prosperous 


market without paying to the Government 11 cents duty for the 
privilege of doing it, which money the Government needs in its 
business, and, as I will try to show later, uses every care to see 
that the foreigner pays to it on every pound of wool within 
limitations as described. 

With this thought in mind, of getting the full 11 cents on every 
pound of wool in its natural condition, the Government surveys 
foreign wool markets and finds wool exists not only in its 
natural condition, but also fleece-washed and scoured. It also 
finds that the average shrinkage of wool in the world in its natural 
condition is about 66§ per cent. If this wool is washed on the 
sheep's back the shrinkage is about 50 per cent. If it is scoured 
by the foreigner it will lose two-thirds, and so that wool cannot 
get under the bars of the tariff in any other condition, more 
favorable to the importer, than by paying 11 cents per pound in 
the grease, the Government says to the foreigner : " If you 
want to bring your wool in fleece washed, you must pay 22 cents 
on every pound ; if you want to get it in scoured, you must pay 
33 cents." If these rates did not prevail the first thing the Gov- 
ernment would know it would be losing some part of the 11 cents 
that is coming to it as revenue and the grower would be deceived 
as to his measure of protection on wools of shrinkage of 66§ 
per cent or less. 


Next Senator Blume has a round with these compensating 
duties. He states concerning them, with which statement I 
agree, that they are complicated. As our president said here the 
other day, there is not one wool man in a thousand that under- 
stands these duties. I will tell him, in no burst of confidence, 
there are a great many manufacturers who do not understand 
them, and I have come to the conclusion that there is at least one 
other who does not understand them. The Senator from 
Wyoming said to-day, the same as he said at Sheridan : 

The law imposes a duty of 11 cents a pound upon unwashed 
wool of the first class, 22 cents upon the washed, and 33 cents 
upon the scoured wool of that class. It assumes that the 
shrinkage is 66§ per cent; that it takes three pounds of 
unwashed wool to make one pound of clean wool; that a further 
loss of 25 per cent ensues up to the time when the wool is woven 
into cloth. Inasmuch as the law assumes that the manufacturer 

WOOL growers' convention. 95 

is compelled to pay this tariff — either by way of tax to the 
government or by way of additional price upon the home 
product, it undertakes to compensate him for such expenditure, 
and justly, so as to place him upon an equal footing with the 
foreign manufacturer who has free wool. Bear in mind that this 
compensatory duty is based on the theory that the wool that 
makes up this cloth, and on which the duty is paid, shrinks 66§ 
per cent, and that it takes four pounds of wool in the grease to 
make one pound of cloth. 

This statement properly belongs in the class which is often 
referred to as " Important if true." 

In the first place I want to say that the Government, as 
expressed in the law, evinces the same indifference to the 
domestic manufacturer as it does to the domestic wool grower of 
the United States. As far as the law reads, it does not care a 
row of dull pins how many pounds of wool it takes to make a 
pound of cloth in this country, and as far as the Government of 
the United States is concerned, I suppose it has no knowledge that 
there is a wool manufacturer established in these United States, 
but the Government has started out to collect a revenue on first 
class wool of 11 cents per pound, and first realizes that that duty 
is not worth the paper it is written on, either for revenue or pro- 
tection to domestic growers, unless they have a customer at 
home who can manufacture wool on which either the duty is paid 
or the domestic product enhanced by reason of this duty. 


In order to create a customer at home it looks around the 
world to see what condition will have to be met in order to help 
it in its quest for revenue and protection. It looks around the 
earth and sees tiiat wools are grown in foreign lands that in scour- 
ing lose anywhere from 30 to 80 per cent, also finds within the 
range of shrinkage of 66§ per cent there are wools of all degrees of 
fineness abundantly available in tlie foreign markets, of which the 
foreign manufacturer can make such cloths as are required by the 
wide range of consumption in this country. Repeated and con- 
clusive tests made by our Government have shown that four 
pounds of such fine wools shrinking 66f per cent are required to 
make one pound of cloth, therefore, in order that there cannot 
be any wool in cloth gotten in for any less duty than 11 cents on 
raw wool up to a shrinkage of 66^ per cent, the Government 
says to the foreigner : " If you want to bring cloth into these 


United States you will have to pay four times the duty of 11 
cents, which is 44 cents a pound for the privilege of coming in 
here and trading in this country ;" and then says to the Ameri- 
can capitalist or manufacturer, " If you want to get in the game 
here, and clothe the American people, we are going to give you 
an opportunity by charging the foreigner 44 cents a pound of 
cloth and thus put you on all fours, as if you had free wool," 
and thereby insures itself that no wool in goods comes in here 
with a shrinkage of 66| per cent or under at a less revenue to 
the Government than 11 cents a pound in its natural condition. 

Under the act of 1861, with 3-cent duty on wool, a compensat- 
ing duty on cloth was made of 12 cents. In the act of 1864, the 
duty on wool being 6 cents per pound, the compensating duty was 
made 24 cents per pound on foreign goods. The act of 1867, 
where the duty on wool was on a mixed basis of specific and ad 
valorem, the revenue commission recommended 53 cents on a 
pound of goods, but since it has been 11 cents on wool, the com- 
pensating duty has been 44 cents on cloth. 

Before leaving this question of compensating duty levied on 
foreign goods, I desire to say to Senator Blume that its relation- 
ship to the protection of wool is, first, that it prevents wool in 
goods coming into the country at a less tribute to the Government 
than 11 cents per pound on wool in its natural condition, with a 
shrinkage up to and including 66§ per cent. Also, it affords a 
grower what he most needs, and that is a customer who can use 
either foreign wool, duty paid, or his wool at such enhancement 
over its foreign value as he, in competition with his fellow wool 
growers, is able to get out of the manufacturer. 

For the senator to assume that 44 cents, the full measure of 
compensating duty, is added either to the price of the goods by 
the manufacturer or the full measure of 11 cents a pound added 
to the value of foreign wool by the domestic grower in all cases 
would be to reafiirm the Democratic doctrine that the price of 
domestic production is in all cases enhanced to the full extent 
of the duty charges on similar foreign merchandise. No clearer 
case can be called to the attention of the senator as to the fallacy 
of this principal than that which exists in the steel rail industry. 
For many years there was a duty on foreign rails levied by our 
Government of $28 per ton, and yet, during a large share of that 
period, steel rails sold in this country for a less price per ton 
than the duty on the foreign product. 

WOOL growers' convention. 97 


Now Senator Blume seems to think that he has struck a brand 
new idea, that all wools do not shrink 66§ per cent or that all the 
goods do not require four pounds of new wool to make a pound 
of cloth. Nobody has ever said that it did, and it is a matter 
that has been threshed out and understood thoroughly every time 
there has been a review of the tariff. It was a matter which, at 
the formation of this tariff, was understood : that the wool in a 
pound of goods was not necessarily four pounds. 

It may be of interest to you to know just what your own asso- 
ciation in 1866 — and in this revenue report to which I have 
just referred — said about these compensating duties. It is so 
important that I desire to read my thoughts rather than verbally 
express them : 

It is sometimes asserted that all wool does not lose two-thirds 
of its weight in scouring, that it does not require four pounds of 
some kinds of unwashed wool to make one pound of some kinds 
of cloth. These assertions are not denied, they never have been 
denied. It is equally true that the foreign wages of labor are 
not in all countries uniformly less than in the United States. 
For instance, it is well known that the wages of woolen manu- 
facture in England average about one-half those paid in the 
United States, while in Germany the average for the same trades 
is but one-third or less than one-third of those paid in the United 
States. If the protective duty on manufactures of wool is made 
only sufficient to equalize the difference between American and 
British wages, it would not be sufficient to protect against the 
lower wages of Germany. But if it is made adequate to equalize 
the difference between American and German wages, it will also 
protect. as against those of Great Britain, though it may perhaps 
be more than absolutely necessary for the latter purpose alone. 
Now it is quite impracticable to have different rates of duty 
upon similar products coming from different countries, these 
rates being based upon the fluctuating difference between the 
wages of the respective countries and those of the United States. 
It has, therefore, been necessary to adopt a rate sufficient to pro- 
tect against the country of the cheapest labor. This principle 
applied to the protection of labor is the underlying one in the 
compensatory duties in Schedule K. 

To illustrate : It does not require three pounds of all kinds of 


wool in its natural condition to make one pound of scoured wool, 
yet wools are abundantly produced in the world which, in scour- 
ing, require three pounds to make one pound of scoured product, 
and protection for these insures the full measure of protection to 
growers of wools of less shrinkage when levied in this rate ; and 
similarly it would be utterly impossible, hopelessly impracticable, 
to adopt ratios in the compensatory duties in the woolen schedule 
that would separately meet the many variations in the shrinkage 
of different wools or the varying quantities of different kinds of 
wool and substitutes that would be necessary to make the count- 
less kinds and varieties of cloth. 


This is not a new question, nor has adequate and satisfactory 
answer been wanting in the past. It is a phase in the tariff that 
has been discussed whenever tariff legislation has been under 
consideration by Congress. The Revenue Commission, to which 
we have already referred, considered these aspects of the subject 
more than a generation ago, and in its report will be found 
incorporated the following views (page 447) : 

It will be observed that no provision is made in the tariff 
bill proposed for the admission of the class of goods under con- 
sideration at lower duties in proportion to the diminution of the 
foreign cost, as provided in other portions of the bill. The 
minimum principle has been expressly excluded from woolen 
cloths for the purpose of shutting out those made of shoddy, 
mungo, and waste. Cloths costing less than 80 cents per pound 
must be made to a greater or less extent of these materials. 
Fabrics which the consumer cannot ordinarily distinguish from 
cloths composed of sound wool are made containing as much as 
80 per cent of these substitutes for wool. These goods, if 
admitted at moderate duties, would take the place of our sound 
cloths ; and the American manufacturer would be compelled to 
reduce the price of his cloths by fabricating them of the same 
worthless material, or surrender the business to the foreigner. 
The American manufacturer will thus have but little inducement 
to adulterate his cloths, if so disposed. It is but justice to the 
American manufacturer, and for the benefit of the wool grower 
and consumer, that equally stringent duties should exist against 
shoddy cloths. If cheap cloths should be admitted under low 
duties, this country would be inundated by the wretched fabrics 
of Batley, twenty-five thousand workmen in England being 
employed in converting shoddy and mungo into cloths of an 
annual value of thirty million dollars, and consuming sixty-five 

WOOL growers' convention. 99 

million pounds of these materials — more than our whole clip of 
wool in 1860. American wool would have no competitor so for- 
midable, if the barriers against shoddy goods existing in high 
specific duties should be removed. 


As long ago as 1890 when the McKinley bill was under 
consideration, the Senator from Rhode Island made conclusive 
disposition of this specious fallacy in a statement as follows : 

That formula is very simple. It accepts four pounds of 
greasy wool as the quantity of raw material consumed in the 
finished production of a pound of cloth and states proportionate 
relations for a pound of yarn or a pound of clothing. This 
formula does not mean that four pounds of unwashed wool 
necessarily enter into every pound of finished cloth. It means 
that in a pound of the best cloth four pounds of certain clips of 
wool — greasy wools of heavy shrinkage, abundantly accessible 
to foreign manufacturers, but not accessible to our own except 
by the payment of duty tliereon — are necessarily consumed. 

It means that if our manufacturers are to make an equal grade 
of cloth on equal terms out of home-grown wools, or a mixture 
of both, they must be compensated to the full amount of the 
shrinkage and waste established as existing in these wools, from 
the use of which they are practically debarred. If they are 
driven to the use of the other wools — costlier wools of lighter 
shrinkage — they must still be compensated to the extent of four 
pounds or they are at a disadvantage as compared with manu- 
facturers who can and do use these heavier and cheaper wools, 
to say nothing of tiie additional disadvantage of a restricted 
choice in their selection of material, for which the bill does not 
attempt to compensate them. 

Some effort has been made in the course of this debate to 
dispute the accuracy of this computation. But in every such 
effort, whether made by Senators on information furnished them 
by others or by importers anxious for lower duties, these critics 
have misapprehended or misstated the nature of the problem, 
and declared that in these particular instances the proportion of 
shrinkage and waste is only 2 or 3 pounds of wool to 1 of cloth. 
I grant there are such instances ; but as it is the weakest link in 
the chain or the lowest point in the levee that determines 
efficiency, so we are bound to take the highest-shrinkage accessi- 
ble to foreigners and to calculate the compensatory duty on the 
basis of these. If our manufacturers are excluded from the iise 
of this class of wools, their competitors do use them, and it is 
against these that the equalization of conditions is to be effected. 

Again it has been urged that the formula is wrong because 
certain fabrics are produced in which four pounds of wool, even 


of this high shrinkage quality are not required to manufacture a 
pound of goods, while the compensatory duty is fixed at four 
times the wool duty. Goods woven on cotton warps or contain- 
ing some admixture of shoddy are cited. I grant the facts in this 
instance also. But we must, as I have already shown, arrange 
the compensation on the basis of the best cloths ; otherwise we 
should determine by our legislation that the manufacturers in this 
country shall be confined to the lower grades of goods. That 
would be to affix the brand of permanent inferiority upon our 
woolen manufactures. Nor is it possible in a tariff bill to so 
adjust a system of compensatory duties that it sl*all exactly fit 
the amount of wool consumed in an almost infinite variety of 

That statement, to my mind, answers all the objections that 
are made to the compensation duty. 


Now our statesman from Wyoming further intimates that the 
manufacturer appropriates to himself from this compensating 
duty a larger sum than is represented by the duty or enhance- 
ment due to the duty on the actual new wool entering into a 
given fabric. I think a little investigation into the subject will 
pretty clearly show that the manufacturer is not so much 
engaged in showing how much he can extract from the American 
public through the compensating duty, as he is in preventing 
some other fellow from underselling him in the market with his 
goods. Ninety-five per cent of the clothing of the American 
people is practically done by ready made clothiers ; those clothi- 
ers, twice a year, come to New York and buy, in the month of 
January, the goods that are to be worn by the people the 
following winter, and in the month of July the cloths that are 
sold for use the following summer. Now if a man is not 
successful in marketing his goods in these two months he has 
lost the business for the succeeding six months ; this means that 
his mill, with its labor costs, interest and taxes, and other over- 
head charges, are to be met without any income from production. 
His concern, therefore, is not so much what he can get out of 
this compensating duty by way of profit as it is to see that the 
fellow alongside of him does not get away with the business and 
leave him with an idle mill on his hands. 

Also, how impossible it is to effect any combination in the wool 
manufacturing business in restraint of this acute competition is 

WOOL growers' convention. 101 

illustrated by a remark heard made by President Wood at a 
meeting of one of the associations in the industry. At this 
meeting the president of the American Woolen Company said for 
this season's business, now being sold in New York, " they had 
prepared 60,000 styles." And this concern does not do one- 
eighth of the business of the country. 

If any business man in this audience will tell you how it is 
possible — with such a wide variety of goods consisting of all wool, 
wool and shoddy, and reworked wools and noils, with wool and 
various mixtures of cotton, part cotton, part reworked wool, all 
in various weights — how it is possible to put up any kind of 
combination, he could get away with a fortune far beyond what 
the sheep raising business ever produced. 

In this business there is the most acute competition, and 
the aims and ambition of every fellow is to see that he is 
allowed to hold on to his watch and not find himself with his 
season's business gone. 

Now as an evidence that this compensating duty is not gotten 
away with by those gentlemen who are engaged in the fabrication 
of the cloths in the country, I would like to call your attention to 
the fact that this great American Woolen Company, so frequently 
quoted from, has been in operation about twelve years ; it has 
paid 7 per cent dividend on its preferred stock, which amounts 
to f 40,000,000, which represents mills, machinery, and working 
capital. They have a large amount of common stock on which 
they have never paid a cent of dividend — and if any of you 
gentlemen want to take your surplus earnings made out of wool 
raising, you can walk down to Wall street and there buy that 
preferred stock for 90 cents on the dollar and the common stock 
at about 30 cents on the dollar. If any one has absorbed the idea 
that this arrangement of compensating duties allows anybody to 
get away with what is not coming to him, I desire to call attention 
to the experience of nearly twelve years' existence of the 
American Woolen Company. 

(Mr. Hagenbarth, of Idaho, appealed to the speaker for more 
explicit information, saying, " That statement probably would not 
mean anything. If they paid a 7 per cent dividend on preferred 
stock, we would like to know what that stock means. We pay 
rates to railroads on stock that is three-fourths watered. We 
want to know whether it is capital in mills or watered stock.") 
Mr. Grundy replied : I am glad you asked that question, and I 


can truthfully say that if the company attempted to reproduce 
the mills to-day they could not reproduce them for the $40,000,000 
which the preferred stock represents. A large number of these 
mills are mills they bought as assigned properties, at prices so 
much below their real cost as probably not to realize the creditors 
25 cents on the dollar of the original cost of buildings and equip- 
ment. I also want to add that in this $40,000,000 capitalization, 
from actual cash paid in, has been constructed many of the 
largest and best equipped and economically managed mills in the 
woolen industry. I thank you for asking that question. 


In order to illustrate the acute competition in the woolen trade, 
I would be prepared to enter into a contract on behalf of a num- 
ber of mill men I know and thus enable you gentlemen to get 
this unearned increment, as it is called by the uplift magazines 
and the historical writers — I will agree to sell as many thousand 
yards of goods as you want to get away with and pay for, for 
any length of time in the future, at 5 cents a yard profit to the 

If a manufacturer can get 5 cents a yard profit on goods that 
sell for f 1.00 to $1.75 for a whole season's production, he will 
run day and night for any length of time the buyer will take his 
production. Five cents a yard means from 15 cents to 25 cents 
on a suit of clothes, and when you realize when you come to 
buy a suit of clothes for which you will pay from $20 to $40, or 
even $65, as our distinguished friend Dr. Wilson paid, that suit 
of clothes will not have a profit of over 15 cents to 25 cents to 
the maker of the cloth, and I will venture the assertion without 
any fear of successful contradiction, that an instance cannot be 
brought forward and proven that the profit to the maker of cloth 
is any greater than 1 per cent on the retail selling price of the 
clothes. I want to emphasize these facts so there will be no mis- 
understanding as to the competitive character of the cloth 

Now the Senator from Wyoming to-day did not enlarge to the 
extent that he did in his address in Wyoming on the alleged dis- 
crimination existing in the wool duties against the carded wool 
manufacturers and in favor of the worsted manufacturers, but by 
inference and indirection intimated that there is a row on 

WOOL growers' convention. 103 

between the makers of carded wool goods and makers of the 
worsted cloths. I want to say here to the wool growers that 
there is no row on between the worsted people and anybody. 
The worsted manufacturers are thoroughly satisfied that the men 
who made this tariff back in '67 and have been making it ever 
since, knew what they were doing. We are not in a row with 
anybody. There are a few carded wool manufacturers who, in 
Harrison's administration, under the McKinley tariff bill, were 
shouting and howling and raising the roof for free wool. These 
men said if they could get free wool they would go out and 
conquer the world and clothe them with wool clothes. These are 
the men who, for the main part, are now kicking against Schedule 
K. These men amount to very little, even in the carded wool 
industry. After careful investigation I find that all those who 
are agitating against Schedule K represent not to exceed 15 per 
cent of the carded wool industry in point of machinery, and that 
is a far less important branch of the woolen industry than are 
the worsted manufacturers. So far as any importance is attached 
to these men, they represent practically less than 6 or 7 per cent 
of the total wool manufacturing industry of the country. 


Now, then, I think it is no breach of confidence to say to you, 
gentlemen, these dissenting manufacturers are not interested in 
the duty on wool. What they want is waste, by-products of 
wool, noils, rags, etc., brought in here on more favorable terms 
than is permitted in the present bill, and if any of you go away 
with the idea that these carded wool manufacturers are using 
your wool in any great quantity, you are going to have a rude 
awakening. That is the one thing they don't use to any great 
extent. During the three years and eight months under the 
McKinley bill less than a million pounds of these wastes were 
imported into the United States ; during the three years and four 
months under the Wilson tariff act, when they had free wool 
wastes, 86,000,000 pounds of those wastes were brought in 
through the custom house. These fellows first got a taste of 
waste, shoddies, etc., under the free wool period, and they want 
to get at it again, and their agitation in this industry is not an 
agitation in the interest of the wool grower, because they do not 
extensively use your wool. What they are agitating for is to 


get in, on the one hand, fine wool which would be in direct 
competition with your intermountain wools, and, above all, to 
get their hands on the wastes they revelled in under the free 
wool period. 

I have been in this business of wool manufacturing for thirty 
years. For twenty-eight years I have been identified primarily 
with the wool buying end of it. I want to say to you with the 
confidence of that experience, I do not see how under any pos- 
sible construction of the present classification of wool where 
these men have not an equal opportunity of buying foreign wool^ 
if they so desire, on equal or better terms than the worsted 
manufacturer. There is no classification of wool that is not 
equally available to them as it is to the worsted manufacturers. 
If there is any advantage in the thing they have the advantage 
of a little cheaper wool because they are able to use wools shorter 
in staple than those the worsted people are desirous of using, 
and therefore sell for a little less on the scoured basis, in equal 
grades, and go to these men without competition from the worsted 
trade. So I want to emphasize this, that these men have no 
kicks coming on wool duties or classification that could not also 
be made by the worsted manufacturers. They have every 
opportunity the worsted people have and they have the added 
advantage of being able to substitute the wool they use so 
sparingly for by-products not worth, on the average, 60 per cent 
of the value of the scoured wool these wastes supplant. 

If either branch of the industry has a right to go tearing up 
and down this land accusing Schedule K of discriminating, the 
worsted manufacturers ought to be the ones to raise the conten- 

On the other hand, the worsted manufacturers are satisfied 
that the men who drew that tariff and have re-written it, knew 
their business and tried to be as fair as possible. There is not an 
act in the statute books but what somebody can take out in the 
back yard at night, without anybody being present, and raise 
thunder with it. And this is about what Senator Blume seems, 
to have been doing with Schedule K. 


(Mr. Hagenbarth, of Idaho, being duly recognized, said to the 
speaker : " Before you go I would like to understand about this 
quarrel between the carded wool and worsted people. I would 

WOOL growers' convention. 105 

like to ask, for instance : Are you in the carded wool business or 
in the worsted business ? " The speaker stated he was in the 
worsted business, whereupon Mr. Hagenbarth continued : " You 
state there is only about 10 per cent represented by the dissent- 
ing part — " ) 

The speaker then continued : Less than 15 per cent of the 
carded wool people, the other 85 per cent of the carded wool 
manufacturers in the business stand shoulder to shoulder with 
the worsted industry. The American Woolen Company, for 
instance, operates the largest carded woolen mills in the country 
and have more machinery than all the 15 per cent who are in this 
agitation. This large company is in harmony with this schedule,, 
and are on record stating there is no discrimination in the wool 
duties in Schedule K to the disadvantage of the carded wool 
manufacturer as against the worsted manufacturer. 

Of tlie many other phases of State Senator Blume's treatment 
of Schedule K one that I want to refer to is his sneering refer- 
ence to what he terms the " sacredness of this schedule." If 
ever a great piece of legislation of a revenue character earned 
the right to this term, certainly Schedule K is entitled to that 
designation. If the senator will but read the report of the 
Revenue Commission of 1865-1866, he will see how this body of 
patriotic men viewed it and how with pride they pointed to your 
association's report, which set forth the fact that under this 
schedule 200,000,000 pounds of wool had been used to make 
35,000,000 garments for the clothing of soldiers and sailors 
engaged in preserving the integrity of this Government. To 
this they add their indebtedness to the important contribution 
to the meat food supply during that trying period, by the 
presence in the country of a large number of sheep. 

The value of this schedule as arranged in 1867 to the country 
and the industry is shown by the fact that the annual wool clip 
of the country increased from 100,000,000 in 1865 to 300,000,000 
pounds in 1883. And the industry of wool manufacturing thrived 
in a like manner, and had it not been for the class of agitators of 
which the senator is one, who through ignorance of the history 
and purposes of the law, periodically have broken out in the last 
quarter of a century, the sheep industry to-day would be fully 
abreast of the requirements of the American people. As a 
revenue measure the schedule has also produced splendidly 
toward the requirements of the Government. Of all the sched- 


ules in our tariff laws it is the third largest contributor of 

For the eleven years under the Dingley law, 1897-1908, it 
placed $292,791,146 in the treasury of the United States, This 
schedule has received the earnest, intelligent, and patriotic 
examination and approval of the greatest protectionists of the 
past fifty years. Originally conceived by that great statesman 
and economist, Hon. Justin S. Morrill, it was watched over by 
him so long as he remained in the House of Representatives. 
When the State of Vermont placed him in the Senate of the 
United States, William McKinley took up the special champion- 
ship of Schedule K. So strongly did he believe in the integrity 
of its construction that when in the revision of 1883 some reduc- 
tion was made in the duty on wool, as well as reduction in the 
principal of its compensating duties, he declined to vote for the 
bill, although it was a party measure; it was his championing of 
this schedule that materially contributed to the election of Har- 
rison in 1888, and after the disastrous experience of the Cleve- 
land administration made him preeminently the candidate of the 
protectionist party in 1896. 

This schedule has received the support of Dingley, Grosvenor, 
and your own ex-president. Judge Lawrence, in the House of 
Representatives, and Sherman, Allison, and the Republican lead- 
ers in the Senate for half a century. A review of the debates in 
the Senate of 1890, when the McKinley bill was before that 
body, shows the clear and comprehensive knowledge possessed of 
its provisions by the present chairman of the finance committee, 
Mr. Aldrich ; and a review of the debates in the Senate collateral 
to the passage of the present tariff law convinces any one of the 
thorough understanding of the principles underlying Schedule K 
possessed by your own great intermountain senator, Hon. Francis 
E. Warren. 

In the face of all this, it is left for State Senator Blume to 
come before you and, from information gathered from briefs pre- 
pared by importers anxious to break down the great American 
system of protection, endeavor to discredit in your eyes the 
splendid achievements of the greatest statesmen of the past half 

There is one thought more, gentlemen, and then I am through. 
The agitators in the East, if not all frank enough to demand free 
wool, are interested in such tariff changes as will permit them to 

WOOL growers' convention. 107 

import freely the wastes of the woolen industry abroad, which 
wastes would supplant pound for pound your scoured wool. The 
suggestion of changes in the law calls to mind a point always to 
"be remembered, and that is the great value to an industry of the 
integrity of the language of a tariff schedule. 

Schedule K in the tariff act of 1883, while made by friends of 
the wool and woolen industry, yet when passed upon in its 
details by Government appraisers and United States Courts at 
the instigation of the importers, was literally " shot to pieces " 
by these agencies, with the result that the industry of growing 
and manufacturing wool from 1885 to 1890 passed through a 
period only less disastrous than that of 1894 to 1897. 

These errors in Schedule K, as they were developed in the act 
of 1883, were remedied in the act of 1890, and this schedule in 
the McKinley bill, as has its prototype in the Dingley and 
Payne-Aldrich bills, has now for sixteen years withstood the 
assault of the domestic critic and the foreign importer. 

To my mind, those of us who are sheltered behind the protec- 
tive features of a great revenue law dealing with a highly techni- 
cal subject, have a great deal to be thankful for in the proven 
integrity of its language and provisions, and as one whose busi- 
ness experience covers both the unfortunate provisions of 
Schedule K in the laws of 1883 and 1894, I earnestly advise 
that one and all will content ourselves with the ills we have, 
rather than "fly to those we know not of." 




(In the Bulletin for September, 1910, there was presented 
a paper by Mr. William D. Hartshorne of the Arlington 
Mills, Lawrence, Mass., on the " Hygroscopic Qualities of 
Wool," in which Mr. Hartshorne commented upon and criti- 
cised certain statements by an eminent English writer, Mr. 
Howard Priestman of Bradford, whose paper, " Electricity, 
Humidity, and Yarn Condition," had appeared in the pre- 
vious June Bulletin. Mr. Priestman now replies to Mr. 
Hartshorne's comment, and Mr. Hartshorne presents the 
results of some further experiments on this subject, of marked 
scientific interest and of direct practical value to textile 


It is not altogether easy to gather what relationship Mr. Hart- 
shorne sees between Galileo and a humble investigator like 
myself, for I take it that he thinks I am wrong whilst Galileo was 
right. As a matter of fact, he has created a situation that has 
some resemblance to the controversy he cites, but it would be a 
breach of etiquette for me to draw the obvious conclusions. 

If I remember rightly the critics of the great philosopher were 
quite sure that they were right and he was wrong and my critic 
doubtless thinks that he is right and that I am in hopeless error. 
Unfortunately for him I have ample proof to the contrary. 

It is very seldom safe to state a negative case, for the simple 
reason that in logic it is impossible to prove such an one, and when 
Mr. H. says that individual wool fibers do not shrink, he is of 
course unable to prove the statement. To do so he would have 
to test more than half the fibers in existence. 

I never said that wool did not expand, because I knew that it 
shrank with moisture. I have learned the futility of expecting 
any two wool fibers to do exactly the same thing under exactly 


similar conditions, and all I said was that " Some fibers shrink 
whilst others remain of their full length . . . often it happens 
that the shrinkage applies to only one or two fibers." On re- 
reading these words I regard them as a very moderate and con- 
cise statement of the truth. The worst charge that can be 
brought agai nst it is one of understatement. I have measured 
many fibers, dry and wet, in proof of it, and in addition Mr. 
Jackson of the Bradford Corporation Conditioning House has 
given me a letter in proof of the same fact. This shows not 
only that some wool fibers contract with moisture whilst some 
do not, but it shows that the self same treatment will cause some 
fibers of 32 luster top to expand and some to contract, whilst 
others from the same top are wholly unaffected. 

I was overhauled by Mr. Hartshorne for basing theories on 
unproven facts. I regret that I did not go into details and state 
on what facts my theories were based ; it might have saved his 
falling into the very error of which he accuses me, for I presume 
that a large part of the theories he propounds are based on his 
assumption that " the individual wool fiber and the individual 
cotton fiber are lengthened and not shortened by increase of 

How many fibers he measured in various states of moisture he 
does not tell us, or what were their qualities. I have measured a 
good many human hairs as well as two kinds of long wool and in 
all I find the same inconsistency of result. 

In preluding the above statement Mr. Hartshorne uses the 
words : " The simple truth is this," etc. It is an unfortunate 
phrase, for the truth in regard to wool shrinkage is very far from 
simple and it is certainly not what my critic believes it to be. 
The problem is far too complex for further discussion now. 
Those managers will fall into fewest errors who take the problem 
as unsolved and act with the greatest caution. In the meantime 
Mr. Hartshorne's criticism should call pointed attention to a very 
important subject — a subject so wide that only the cooperation 
of many researchers will lay bare all the facts that are at present 

I always regret that force of circumstances has compelled me 
of late years to work alone, and I further regret that I did not 
point out that all statements represented the result of my own 


Far be it from me to say tliat there are not other ways in 
which electricity is produced, in addition to those I named. I 
only state as facts things that were proved before the very criti- 
cal scientific staff of the University of Leeds in the Laboratory of 
Professor Stroud, D.Sc, For this reason I apologize for any 
error there may be on page 215. When speaking of tops in bags, 
stored in a good cellar, I ought to have said that so far as my 
experience went, nothing but the mechanical application of 
moisture or a super-saturated atmosphere would increase the con- 
dition above 19 per cent, but possibly the word super-saturated is. 
even then open to criticism. 

In conclusion I would thank Mr. Hartshorne for his criticism, 
which is courteous even when it is most severe and I trust that 
he will see that he has left me no other course than to defend my 
methods of research. 

I am 

Yours truly, 

Howard Pbiestman, 

Cheapside Chambers, Bradford. 


Deak Sir, 

Re Sample of Lustre Top. 

As requested I have carefully taken out fibres from the above Top and 
tested them in order to ascertain if it is possible to find any fibres which 
shorten in length when in a wet state. The fibres were : — 

1st. Carefully measured under tension. 
2nd. Immersed in water for 60 seconds without tension. 
3rd. Measured wet with same tension. 

4th. Measured after drying with same tension, but dried without 

I have found several fibres which were shorter when wet (average .31 c/ra) 
than the original length, they however form no proportion of the bulk and 
were shorter than their original length when dried. 

Yours truly, 


Mr. Howard Priestman, 




On reading Mr. Howard Priestman's courteous rejoinder to my 
criticism of his previous paper, I think I might express my feel- 
ings in the terms of the little girl who had been bothering the 
Central by taking down the telephone receiver, which she was 
just tall enough to reach. Central had expostulated with the 
mother, who in turn chided the child — " You must not do that, 
Anna, Central does not like it : you bother her." The child 
seemed very grave for a moment and then replied smilingly, 
" Well, she cannot spank me anyway." 

Indeed, if there were any real relationship between the two 
parties to this discussion similar to that which disturbed Galileo, 
it might be classed in the same category as the above comment, 
only the central authority of that day could get at the poor 
fellow, and compel him, so the tradition runs, to retract all he 
had said upon the subject, or suffer the direful consequences, not 
of being spanked only, but of losing his head. But can we not 
imagine the gleam in his eye while saying under his breath as he 
vanished from the presence of the Council — " But it is the 
world that revolves just the same." 

But in reality Mr. Priestman must not imagine that I was 
either comparing him or myself to an ecclesiastical hierarchy, or 
to a Galileo. It was really the subject matter of discussion that 
was wholly in my mind, and the comparison was in what this 
involved, and not in the individuals. Certainly from Mr. Priest- 
man's statement that he has been working on these subjects 
entirely alone, I have no right now to assume that he has been 
influenced in his statement by Dr. Bowman's very plain case 
of misunderstanding the facts, as exemplified in the hair 

So far as it may be true that it is " seldom safe to state a 
negative case, for the simple reason that in logic it is impossible 
to prove such an one," I am quite willing for the sake of argument 
to admit the impeachment, but it would certainly have to be 
admitted also that to carry this method of proof to its logical 
conclusion would require the testing of not merely " more than 
one-half the fibers in existence," but all of them. The force of 
my statement, however, rested rather as a counter to what I 
understood Mr. Priestman to mean, not only in the paragraph 


which he now quotes in part — but not in full — and which may 
be found on page 150 of his first paper, but also in a paragraph 
on page 143, which I quote in full and then quote in full the 
paragraph on page 150 : 

If on the other hand all the fibers in a thread are not equally 
moist the shrinkage is not uniform and the result is nothing 
short of disastrous. As a rule certain portions of the thread 
contract in length, but the fibers that remain dry retain their 
original length and are thrown up on the surface of the yarn in 
loops or curls, which entirely spoil the surface of the finished 

Now for the quotation from page 150 : 

But it is especially when yarn has been spun out so far that 
the curling point is almost reached that the worst fault of all 
takes place. It is very difiicult to give a scientific explanation 
of the reasons, but it is very easy to see the extraordinary nature 
of the result. * Some fibers shrink whilst others remain of their 
full length and these long fibers are thrown onto the surface in 
the form of perfect loops (see figure 5). 

Often it happens that the shrinkage applies to only one or two 
fibers. The result is then of the worst, for every fiber that is 
not shrunk is thrown up into the loop which resembles that 
which is deliberately made in fancy loop yarns both in structure 
and appearance. 

Both of these paragraphs are by either direct statement or 
context dealing with the effect of unequal distribution of moist- 
ure, and in view of the fact that it is Mr. Priestman's opinion in 
the one case that it is the " fibers that remain dry " — " which 
are thrown out on the surface," the implication from the second 
would be that it was at least the fibers which remained drier 
which looped up, by reason of the shortening of the wetter ones. 
But he confesses that he is not sure of his explanation beyond 
the fact which he now confirms that he is sure that at least a 
few fibers have this property of shortening by moisture though 
he never meant to say that none were lengthened. Permit me 
to try to state the case more fully : 

On first reading Mr. Priestman's paper when I came to the top 
of page 143 and read down to the paragraph quoted his state- 

* Th« Italics are mine, and are intended to show the portion quoted by Mr. Priestman. 


nient seemed to be correct, for I at first understood him to mean, 
what is probably true, that the waving or crimping of a fiber 
tends to shorten the distance between its two ends, and the effect 
of this effort of the fibers to crimp in a wetted twisted thread, 
not held too taut, may have something to do with the shortening 
of the thread itself. This shortening, he points out (page 143) 
takes place when all the fibers are equally moist, but it should 
be noted that tlie degree of shortening of the thread has a very 
pronounced relation both to the kind of staple and to the num- 
ber of turns of twist in the thread, whether single or two-ply. 
Moreover, where there is the opportunity for individual fibers, or 
a bunch of fibers, by reason of smoothness of surface or some 
loosening of the twist at a given point, to pull themselves out 
from their bound inclosure you will have the form of a loop, 
even when all the fibers are soaked in water. This 1 will try to 
show later. 

I do not quite find authority in Mr. Jackson's, letter or certifi- 
cate for all the alleged facts which Mr. Priestman claims are 
shown thereby, but this is of small consecjuence. If the meas- 
urements by Mr. Priestman and Mr. Jackson have been correctly 
interpreted by them, whether or not- they have any bearing upon 
the looping question, certainly Mr. Priestman has ground for his 
contention that the phenomenon of fibers being lengthened by 
moisture is not universal, even if those which are claimed to have 
been found " shorter when wet " " form no proportion of the 
bulk and (sic) were shorter than their original length when 
dried," as says Mr. Jackson. But have their measurements been 
correctly interpreted ? Neither one tells us what method of 
measurement was used, or gives us any definite clue by which 
their experiments in measurement may be repeated and such 
possibly important conclusions confirmed. I confess that I have 
not been able to determine by measurement of the wet and dry 
state of a wool fiber under tension the amount of difference in 
length which was due to the moisture alone, and how much to 
the effect of the weight upon the stretching capacity of the fiber 
when wet and dried. It is perhaps conceivable that the so-called 
crimping effect might be enough to raise a weight, and thus give 
the impression that the fiber itself had been shortened by mois- 
ture, but I have not succeeded in finding a fiber and weight 


whose compensating conditions would exhibit this effect.* The 
difficulties of the problem are illustrated by the photographs of a 
merino fiber held between the clamps of a twist tester : 

Exhibit No. 1. — Fiber dry and loose. 

Exhibit No. 2. — Fiber in same state with a 10-niilligram weight 

suspended in the middle. 
Exhibit No. 3. — Fiber in same state with a 315-milligi*am 

weight suspended in the middle. 
Exhibit No. Jf. — Same fiber, with the same weight on, after 

soaking two minutes in water with weight off. 

In each of these exhibits the distance between the clamps of 
the tester has repiained the same. It will be seen that the first 
weight was far from enough to take out the natural crimps of 
the dry state, and that even the second weight had not fully 
done so while dry, or even when wet, though evidently these 
crimps show less in the wet state, and the fiber has apparently 
been elongated, and, of course, this apparent elongation could be 
approximately measured, but even without considering the mere 
straightening out of the crimps it is inconclusive as to the actual 
amount of elongation due to unaided expansion of the fiber 
longitudinally, for the question still remains : How much has 
the weight affected the result — and could not a weight have 
been found which the extra crimping effort of the fiber when wet 
might actually have lifted? Similar results have been observed 
on long fibers of crossbred wools, with varying weights, and which 
were equally inconclusive. But the problem may be approached 
in another way : 

Exhibit No. 5. — Is of a thread of cap spun single 18s crossbred 
wool of about .32s quality, containing 8^ turns (theoretical) 
twist, clamped in the twist tester in its natural state, just 
taut, 10 inches between jaws. 

* Since the above was written I liave succeeded In producing a regular spiral spring from a 
strong wool fiber by winding it tightly around a glass tube in a spiral direction (its two ends 
being fastened to the tube) and setting it in that position by boiling in water fur half an hour 
and afterwards cooling and drying in that position. This, with a minute weight attached, 
after first lengthening out by racist air and then lengthening further by dry air, finally found 
a point of equilibi iura where moist air shortened the spiral and dry air lengthened it a minute 
amount, as often as the conditions were repeated. This shortening of the spiral could 
hardly be claimed as proving a shortening of the fiber itself, but this is the only way in 
which I have so far been able to make an individual fiber appear to shorten under the effect 
of moisture. 



Exhibit No. 6. — The same thread, let up just a little (to avoid 
straining while putting in twist) with 5 turns per inch more 
twist put into it by the twist tester. 

Exhibit No. 7. — The same thread, with the distance between 
jaws let up a little more, to show a drop with the .'il5-milli- 
gram weight on the middle. 

Exhibit No. 8. — The same thread, with the same weight on, 
clamped fast in the same position as in No. 7 after being 
submerged in water two minutes with the weight off. 

Exhibit No. 9. — The same fiber with the weight removed, and 
after taking out slowly 10 turns of twist. 

The relative positions of the clamps in the several exhibits 
can be noted on the scale to which they are attached. 

Now first, it is evident that the effect of the wetting has been 
to tighten up and shorten this thread beyond what the weight 
could pull it down, and that the shortening could be measured if 

Second, it is also evident that a loosening up of the twist has 
allowed the fibers to escape from tlieir bound condition, forming 
loops. This looping began and progressed with tlie removal of 
the twist. 

Third, it will be noticed that across the loops, like a string to 
a bow, there are individual taut fibers. Are these the transgres- 
sors of the rule, whose shortening by moisture has caused the 
looping of the others ? Surely if any have been shortened it must 
be these. 

To test the question further, the taut fiber showing at " A " 
was marked by a little spot of ink to identify it, and then care- 
fully removed from the thread, its two ends fastened by collodion 
to little rubber blocks and these clamped to a glass strip, and 
the strip and fiber attached put into a glass tube, as in the experi- 
ment illustrated on page 213 of my previous paper : 

Exhibit A. — Shows a reproduction of a photograph of this fiber 
as first put into the tube. 

Exhibit B. — After passing moist air through the tube. 

Exhibit C. — After passing dry air through. 

Can there be any doubt that even this fiber has lengthened by 
moisture and shortened by its removal ? 


A repetition of these alternating conditions gave the same 
apparent effects as often as tried. . 

This paper might end here, but I believe its readers are not so 
much interested in the bare (j^uestion of whether the wool fiber 
lengthens by wetting and shortens by drying, or the reverse, as 
in what practical consequences the alleged effects enable us to 
explain, make use of, or guard against. Some of these, like the 
advantageous conditions for spinning and the looping effect in 
improperly conditioned yarn, were alluded to in ni}^ previous 
paper, as well as in that of Mr. Priestman. But a few more 
experiments may help to an understanding of the subject : 

Experiment 1. — A thread from the same bobbin of yarn already 
experimented upon (single 18s crossbred) was fastened at one 
end to a porcelain scale taken from a thermometer, while to 
the other end was attached a weight of 1,550 milligrams, 
arranged to slide freely up and down upon the scale. The 
scale and thread were then placed vertically in the same 
tube used for the experiments on the single fiber and sub- 
jected to alternating conditions of moist and dry air passing 
through. Chart 1 shows the measured results at the time 
intervals given. 

Experiment 2. — Another thread from the same bobbin was 
Avound around a small setting frame (the ends fastened 
tight and the frame expanded until the thread was quite 
taut) and then set by boiling in water half an hour and 
afterwards cooling and drying in the taut state. A portion 
of this set thread was rigged up on the thermometer scale 
with the same weight attached and subjected to the same 
alternating conditions as the thread of Experiment No. 1. 
Chart No. 2 shows the measured results. There is a strik- 
ing difference between the effects shown on the two charts. 

By Chart 1 it will be seen that the first effect of the moisture 
on unset j^arn is to lengthen the thread, but very quickly as the 
fibers get time to bulge out it begins to shorten it. The fibers 
once bulged out, their barbed scales prevent them from returning 
and the succeeding effect of drying shortens the thread still more. 
It is possible an even greater effect of shortening might have 
taken place with longer exposure, or more complete wetting 
before drying. 

The renewal of the moist air condition at once lengthened the 
thread, but not to so great an extent as before, and after the first 

\d\\/ do fsioij-iaNoo 

(0 (II 

1 5 

h t- }- 

«n v) <o 

o o 

2 15 


f- I- f- I- ^ ^ 

2 ° 5 5 ° 2 5 ° 

> "V oi c: 

O N 

O o 

W N •> _ N N "^O 

"* N r» ^ 10 

- (J tfl ^)- 


U i (M jy ^ W y 7 , 'i «« r» ', "7 u — i^ I,' V 

I- I- 

O ?0 

{^, n: X 

N O IJ-Vt'/S ta 3 S 9 O dO 3 1/NIJ. 






552 55 5 5 5 5 5 



NO l_LVAti 3SQO dO 3»^IX. 












u - 







^ (vJ 


- cJ 



sO f9 





6" 6 



















1 u 








- 00 





five minutes there was no further increase in ten minutes more. 
Reversing to the dry air again the thread in fifteen minutes 
became shorter than at the previous dry stage. When moistened 
again it failed to lengthen quite so far as in the immediately pre- 
ceding moist stage, but on redrying it shortened again more than 
at the immediately preceding dry stage. On remoistening and 
redrying successively similar comparative results were obtained. 
The difference between the first five minutes of the last moisten- 
ing and the next ten, though measurable, is exceedingly small, 
and probably indicates the effect of some motion of the thread 
permitting individual fibers to come out further and slightly 
shorten the expanded thread. At all events, at this time loops 
began to appear in the thread itself, in spite of the weight 

The results exhibited in ('hart No. 2 show that the setting of 
the thread has made its fibers all act together as a unit, and in 
the period of fifteen minutes for each change the moisture every 
time lengthens the thread, and the cb-ying shortens it the same 
amount, no indications of looping at any time becoming visible. 

These two experiments indicate important considerations for 
the dyer and finisher, and explain many of the troubles and 
many of the beautiful effects which in large measure are at the 
finisher's command. The principles involved are at the base of 
the required condition for producing crepes from hard twisted 
yarns, where it is of importance that no setting shall take place 
in the yarn or the fabric until the crepe has been produced by 
the wetting. On the other hand, for smooth faced luster fabrics 
it is important that the setting (crabbing and steaming) shall be 
the first of the operations used. They explain the necessity for 
setting in a taut state certain classes of yarn before they are dyed 
in the skein, or the dyeing itself would set them in a cockly con- 
dition. They partially at least explain the so-called permanent 
finish on lining goods, where the extreme effects of setting and 
resetting finally produce a surface which remains smooth and 
bright under wetting and ironing. 

In fabrics whose character or finish does not admit of much 
or any setting the proverbial ability to continue to shrink every 
time the fabric or garment is washed and dried again is explained. 
Undoubtedly also this property of the wool fiber to lengthen 


under moisture has a close connection with the results of rubbing 
and soaping, and especially pounding and rolling, as in the full- 
ing process, in aiding the fibers to bulge out from their confined 
place and accomplish the intended purpose of felting. 

In these effects and those of a similar class I think it cannot 
be successfully controverted that the fundamental properties 
involved are three : 

First. — It is a general property of the wool fiber to lengthen by 
moisture and shorten by drying. 

Second. — When fibers bulge out from their confined position in 
a thread or fabric by reason of this tendency to lengthen 
individually when wet, or for any other reason, the scales 
prevent their returning to their original position. 

Third. — Heat and moisture together cause the wool fiber, in 
common with hair and horny materials generally, to 
assume a more or less plastic state, in which as an indi- 
vidual fiber, or a group of fibers, it can be moulded, pressed, 
smoothed, stretched, or kinked into more or less permanent 
shapes, if kept in such shapes until cold and dry. The 
more perfectly this plastic condition has been obtained, and 
the form fixed or set, the more nearly will the thread or 
fabric thereafter behave as a unit under wetting and drying. 
Mere moistening and drying has some tendency to set a 
wool fiber, but it does not do this perfectly, and may be the 
cause of more harm than good. 

It is not claimed that these propositions are novel, but it is 
possible that their relationship to each other has not been as 
fully understood as it ought to be. 

We may indeed admit, if we must, Mr. Priestman's contention 
that some wool fibers have been found which shrank in length 
by wetting, but one swallow never made a summer, and it is 
conceded indeed that the moon revolves around the earth, but, 
nevertheless, it is the revolution of the earth on its own axis, 
and not the revolution of the sun and stars around the world, 
that produces the phenomenon of day and night. 

William D. Hartshorne. 
Arlington Mills, 

Lawrence, Massachusetts. 




A NOTABLE dinner in honor of John P. Wood, of Wil- 
liam Wood & Company, the newly-elected President of the 
National Association of Wool Manufacturers, was given by 
Mr. Wood's Philadelphia friends at the Manufacturers' Club in 
his home city, on the evening of Saturday, February 25, 1911. 
The invitations were sent out by Charles H. Porter, Jr., on 
behalf of the manufacturers, spinners, and wool merchants 
of Philadelphia, and the committee in charge of the dinner 
consisted of Joseph R. Grundy, Nathan T. Folwell, James 
Dobson, Theodore Justice, Richard Campion, Charles H. 
Harding, Allen R. Mitchell, Caleb J. Milne, Jr., John Burt, 
William M. Coates, George C.Hetzel, William T. Galey, Jr., 
John Fisler, Joseph S. Rambo, and Charles Porter, Jr. 

The gathering at the reception and dinner was a large one 
and thoroughly representative of the important business inter- 
ests of Pennsjdvania. There were present also a number of 
President Wood's friends of the National Association of 
Wool Manufacturers from New England, New York, and 
New Jersey. President Wood received his guests at the head 
of the main stairs of the club-house, long famous as the old 
Hotel Bellevue. Joseph R. Grundy, the toastmaster, presided 
at the banquet, with President Wood on his right hand. 
President William M. Wood of the American Woolen Com- 
pany ; Representative Joseph W. Fordney of Michigan, of 
the Committee on Ways and Means ; ex-Governor Edwin S. 
Stuart of Pennsylvania; Charles H. Harding, of the Erben- 
Harding Company and Vice-President of the National Asso- 
ciation of Wool Manufacturers; Frederic S. Clark, President 
of the Talbot Mills, President of the American Association 
of Woolen and Worsted Manufacturers and Vice-President 
of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers ; George 
C Hetzel ; James Dobson ; Francis T. Maxwell ; Charles 


Porter, Jr. ; Herman J. Waterhouse ; William H. Folwell,. 
Jr., and Richard Campion were others who sat at the head 
table. The banquet hall, in which the Clover Club for many- 
years had held its celebrated festivities, was beautifully deco- 
rated for the occasion. 


After the dinner had been served, Mr. Grundy as toast- 
master called the assemblage to order, saying : 

The high quality of integrity and of honesty which the peo-- 
pie of Pennsylvania inherit from the founders of the Common- 
wealth is responsible for the conspicuous part that our people 
have always taken in every crisis which has confronted our 
common country. 

It was these characteristics that led the colonists to feel that 
confidence in their hearts and in their minds in the citizens of 
Philadelphia as to gather here when they founded the Constitu- 
tion of our country. It was these characteristics that at the 
time of the Civil War resulted in Philadelphia and Pennsylvania 
contributing more in treasure and more in men to the main- 
tenance of the Union than any other sister State, After that 
great struggle with the experiences involved, with the disarrange- 
ment of our foreign commerce, the huge expenditure of our 
Government during that period, with the great stimulus it gave 
to industry, and with the high rates of wages established, there 
grew in the minds of the statesmen of the times the great. 
American system of protection which the world has since known. 

It has been Pennsylvania that, every time that principle and 
that policy of protection have been in jeopardy, has come to the 
front and unanimously sustained them. In the crises which have 
confronted the common industry in which we are all engaged, it 
is these characteristics that have directed the thoughts of the 
craftsmen engaged in this industry to Pennsylvania, and selected 
from her citizenship one who possesses all these characteristics 
in a highly refined degree. That man is our guest to-night, and 
he has been chosen to lead us from the paths of darkness, we- 
hope, into the paths of light. 

Gentlemen, it was a conspicuous honor that you paid me in 


asking me to be your toastmaster here to-night. Being aware of 
the amenities of that position, I do not propose to take up any of 
the time which properly belongs to the gentlemen whom you are 
waiting to hear from. But I would like to call your attention 
just for a moment to the importance, in these crises, of organiza- 
tion. The !N"ational Association of Wool Manufacturers is one 
of the very oldest trade associations in our country, and embraces 
within its membership a very large percentage of the machinery 
engaged in converting wool into partially manufactured, or man- 
ufactured, goods. During the life of that association, however, 
there has been much machinery introduced into our country 
which is engaged in the partial manufacture of wool on toward 
the finished cloth. A great deal of this machinery is not in the 
National Association of Wool Manufacturers, but, very fortu- 
nately, is embraced in a sister association, whose ideas and aims 
are on the same line as those of our own. Fortunately, to-night we 
have with us the president of that association, a gentleman who 
has long been associated with our guest of this evening in the 
affairs of the National Association as well as those of the 
American Association. 

In that direction and in that particular he has been able to 
know of the great personal worth and ability of our guest of 
this evening. I have very great pleasure in introducing to you 
the President of the American Association of Woolen and 
Worsted Manufacturers, Mr. Frederic S. Clark. 


Mr. Clark said : 

I accepted the invitation of your committee with much pleas- 
ure because of the opportunity it gives me to testify by my pres- 
ence to the very warm personal regard and esteem which I feel 
for your honored guest, Mr. John Wood. 

I have been associated with him on the executive committee 
of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers for a great 
many years, and long ago I became attached to him for his 
lovable personal traits, and found that we could expect from him 
on all questions a keen insight, intelligent judgment, and a per- 
suasive force, all the more convincing because of a remarkable 


felicity of expression. No wonder that these attributes should 
have caused his associates to accord him the highest honor in 
their power, and I assure you they have done so with profound 
satisfaction to themselves, and with the greatest confidence in his 
leadership in the troublous times which we have before us. 

I have been asked to speak on " The Advantages and Necessity 
of Cooperation and Organization in Business." Gentlemen, what 
a subject for Philadelphia ! It might just as well have read, 
" The Advantages and Necessity of Bringing Coals to Newcastle ! " 
Certainly it is unnecessary and superfluous to enter into any 
argument on that proposition in the home of Theodore C. Search, 
John P. Wood, Charles Porter, Jr., and Joseph R. Grundy. 

I will not, therefore, indulge in an academic argument on this 
question, but confine my brief remarks to a few observations on 
the work of two business associations with which I am familiar, 
the National Association of Wool Manufacturers and the American 
Association of Woolen and Worsted Manufacturers. 

The first is one of the oldest business associations in the 
country, and was founded in 1864 for the purpose of protecting 
the interests of the industry in various ways, but particularly as 
affected by national legislation. It has been active and influen- 
tial up to the present time, never more so than during the last 
two years, and, under its new president, Mr. John P. Wood, who 
is so well equipped to lead it, I am sure it has a useful future. 

Since the .passage of the Payne-Aldrich tariff bill there has 
been much criticism of the Ways and Means Committee of the 
House and of the Senate Finance Committee, because they con- 
sulted manufacturers in framing the bill. We all feel that this 
is a ridiculous contention and it is interesting to read what Mr. 
Erastus B. Bigelow, the noted first president of the Association, 
said in his first report in regard to its future work : 

" That the association should make itself a source of informa- 
tion, so that the heads of departments at Washington, committees 
and members of Congress, when about to report or legislate on 
matters connected with the woolen manufacture, will avail them- 
selves of the information which it will be in our power to 
impart, and which is not likely to be accessible through any 
other channel." 

There has also been great criticism because of a so-called 


improper combination of interests between this association and 
the wool growers, and in this connection I will read another 
quotation from Mr. Bigelow's first report : 

" The opposition of interests, which has sometimes been 
thought to exist between men whose pursuits are different and 
yet allied, as between those, for instance, who grow the raw 
material and those who manipulate it, is, I believe, always 
imaginary and cannot fail to disappear under a careful considera- 
tion of principles and facts. So far as our society, by its action 
or by its bearing, shall contribute to the removal of misappre- 
hension and prejudice, the result will be gratifying to us all." 

Could Mr. Bigelow look upon the work of the association 
during these forty-six years he would find that his ideas as to its 
legitimate field of action have been wouderfully fulfilled. The 
association has prepared and furnished to congressional commit- 
tees the fullest information, and has exerted a powerful influence 
in securing adequate protection to the industry. It has also 
acted on the belief that wool growing and wool manufacturing are 
interdependent and should cooperate for mutual defence. 

The vast amount of textile information which has been col- 
lected and presented as occasion required by the association has 
been published for a period of forty years in a quarterly bulletin 
which has thus become a most valuable history of tariff legisla- 
tion and wool manufacturing. 

Especial praise and gratitude are due to William Whitman 
who for seventeen years as president labored indefatigably and, 
as a carded wool manufacturer, I can say that I believe he did so 
unselfishly, for all branches of the industry in these matters. 

A new departure was made in holding our recent annual meet- 
ing in Washington, but still in the line of imparting information 
to our legislators and incidentally to the public. Who can doubt 
the valuable effect of the masterly exposition and defence of 
Schedule K by Mr. John P. Wood, Mr. Charles H. Harding, and 
Mr. William M. Wood on that occasion. It has been manifested 
in various ways, notably in the changed attitude of certain news- 
papers which had previously seen nothing but iniquity and a 
cause of high cost of clothing in that schedule. 

Such, in brief outline, is the important work of this associa- 
tion. Organization and cooperation were absolutely necessary ta 


accomplish it. Its membership has always been representative 
of the most important woolen and worsted interests, and was 
never more so, or larger, than it is to day. 

The American Association of Woolen and Worsted Manufactu- 
rers is the infant of our industry, but it is a lusty one. It origi- 
nated about four years ago, as all good associations in our 
industry do, in the brains of some of the Philadelphia gentlemen 
whom I have mentioned, and was organized for other purposes 
than those of the National Association. The distribution of 
woolen and worsted goods had been attended with grave abuses in 
the way of cancellations, returns, claims, etc., and manufacturers 
were quite ready to follow a lead in attempting a reform. The 
constitution of the association declares: "The object of this 
association shall be to promote the interests of those persons, 
firms, and corporations engaged in the manufacture and sale of 
woolen and worsted woven fabrics in the United States of 
America ; to cooperate for the improvement of all conditions 
relating to the industry ; to regulate and correct abuses current 
in the trade; to secure freedom from unjust or unlawful exac- 
tions ; to interchange information relating to credits and standing ; 
to establish uniformity and certainty in the customs and usages 
of said business, and to promote an enlarged and friendly inter- 
course among its members, and with those with whom we have 

Thus far the work of the association has resulted in the 
adoption of 

A uniform order blank ; 
The limitation of free selling samples ; 
The determination of free delivery points ; 
The definition of trade terms ; 

The establishment of a credit bureau and a collection 

But most important of all has been the provision of methods 
for equitably settling differences with our customers without 
resort to law, with its unpleasant effect on business relations. 

In this connection with the establishment of friendly working 
intercourse with the National Association of Clothiers has been 
of great benefit. A joint committee representing the two associa- 
tions meets frequently and hereafter is to constitute a final court 


for the reference of important cases. I was interested to note 
that at the annual meeting of the Clothiers' Association, held a 
short time ago, Mr. Marks, the president, referred to this matter 
in these words : 

" Our relations with the American Association of Woolen 
and Worsted Manufacturers, through the joint committee, have 
been very friendly and growing in intimacy as well as good 
result. Kot only has the broadest spirit of justice and equity 
prompted the deliberations of this joint committee, but the 
theories thus accepted have been crystalized into actual working 

" The expensive litigation will thus be avoided in some 
instances, and in others there will be a conservation of good will 
which now is interfered with by unpleasant discussions regard- 
ing deliveries of woolens. 

" Our cooperation with the woolen association is one of the 
most hopeful signs of the broad spirit of fraternity now begin- 
ning to pervade business life. Every effort should be made to 
facilitate the evolution of this movement." 

That the provisions for adjusting cancellations, claims, etc., 
have been widely used and have proved effective is evidenced by 
these figures : 

Total cases considered 951 

Total cases settled 653 

Total cases settled in member's fayor 569 

Total cases settled in customer's favor 84 

Total cases withdrawn 192 

Total cases under consideration now 106 

Of above 653 cases, 103 were settled by arbitration. 

The association has grown beyond the fondest expectations of 
its founders and has to-day 145 mills enrolled in its active 
membership, representing 13,702 looms, and an associate mem- 
bership, consisting of selling agencies of 48. 

I have thus alluded to some of the activities and accomplish- 
ments of these associations because, to my mind, they constitute 
the best argument I can offer of the value of organization and 
cooperation in business. It needs no argument to prove that very 
little could have been accomplished along these lines by indi- 
vidual action. 


Some manufacturers, not members, have admitted to me that 
their business has been benefited by the work of one or both of 
these associations, and yet unaccountably they do not feel that 
spirit of fellowship and that obligation which would lead them 
to add their influence and financial assistance by joining the 

In closing, as in my opening, I wish to get nearer to the spirit 
of this occasion. It has been said that " a prophet is not without 
honor save in his own country." I need not assure you that Mr. 
Wood's reputation is secure outside of this city and it is a pleas- 
ure to me to note that this gathering, and especially the grand 
Philadelphia delegation which came to Washington to honor him, 
are delightful proofs that, so far as he is concerned, the saying 
has no standing in Philadelphia. 


Toastraaster Grundy, in introducing Hon. Joseph W. 
Fordney, said : 

In presenting the next speaker, I want to ask your indulgence 
for a moment, to make a few statements as one engaged in the 
woolen trade. Following the experiences through which we 
passed only fourteen years ago, I was content in the thought that 
if ever tariff revision came again, the experience of our industry 
had been so disastrous and of such a national character that no 
one would dare to lay an unkind finger on that industry. 

When the time for the revision by the Republican party was 
arranged, we proceeded to Washington to see what our status 
was and what information was required by the proper committee 
of the House of Representatives, who first took the matter up. 
To my amazement, we found that in that body and on that com- 
mittee the woolen industry was practically unknown, notwith- 
standing the fact that only twelve years had passed since the 
country had such a disastrous exhibition of what legislation could 
do with that industry. 

When we reflect that changes in politics, as well as business, 
are rapidly going on ; when we realize that not only had Mr. 
McKinley, the author of the McKinley bill of 1890, passed out of 
existence but that Mr. Dingley, the chairman of the Ways and 


Means Committee, who made the later bill, had died ; that 
General Grosvenor, who came from Ohio to the Ways and Means 
Committee and who had always given special attention to the 
woolen industry, was out of Congress, you can then realize what 
ravages time makes. Out of nearly four hundred members 
only about twenty remained that had been there at the time the 
Dingley bill was made. 

When the woolen schedule was taken up, there was practically 
not a man in the popular branch of government that knew he 
had a sheep in his district, let alone in his State, and to supple- 
ment that difficulty an understanding had been arrived at by the 
Republican members that any information which reached that 
committee would have to reach it in the form of briefs or 
written petition. 

As Mr. Clark has said, Carnegie libraries had been written on 
the woolen industry, if the quantity of literature was taken into 
consideration ; but what particular phase of that industry the 
Congressmen would want to investigate was beyond anybody's 
knowledge. We were practically without friends in that great 
committee in the House of Representatives, and all kinds of 
accusations, all kinds of unfair statements were made against 
the integrity of the business we are engaged in. It was only 
after we had exercised great concern as to what our status was to 
be in that revision, and to have our interests properly presented 
before that great committee, that our attention was called to a 
gentleman on the committee from the State of Michigan, a 
business man like ourselves, of staunch and tried principles. 
We were presented to him and in a kindly way he asked us what 
our trouble was. We told him we were in the woolen trade and 
" in bad " with the Ways and Means Committee and unable to reach 
this committee with such information as we thought it should 
have. Notwithstanding that he was there already representing 
great interests, the lumber interest, the sugar interest, and the 
silk interest which he had interested himself in, and was charged 
with many other cares of that kind, the gentleman from Michi- 
gan opened his ear and his splendid intelligence to our troubles 
also. He asked us to bring our samples to his room and there 
state the relative proposition between scoured wool, plain wool, 
and worsted yarn. He familiarized himself in the hurly-burly of 


the revision of the tariff from the viewpoint of our industry 
also, so that when the time came to vote on the revision he took 
his samples down in the committee room and told his story before 
these men; and notwithstanding that the chairman of that 
committee was against the industry and was against some of the 
duties as they stood with that committee, when this friend of 
our industry got done with his exposition of it there, the 
industry came out of that committee with the principles and 
ratios intact. 

Now, gentlemen, we have all read in history and in fiction of 
men in days gone by that have achieved greatness and fame by 
their bravery and by their heroism in saving nations and saving 
lives in various ways. Their names have been handed down to 
posterity as names to be revered ; but in these days, when the 
great battles of nations are made up of battles in the business 
world, when the nations fight with tariffs, instead of on the field 
of battle, I hold that the man who can take an industry and save 
it either from the bad legislation of its friends or the vicious 
legislation of its enemies is as great a hero as the man who has 
achieved greatness by force of military arms. 

Such a man of great achievements I want to present to you, a 
man who is the friend of every man in this room ; a man of true 
and tried patriotism. 

I take great pleasure in presenting to you the Honorable 
Joseph W. Fordney, of Michigan. 


Congressman Fordney said : 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen : I am truly grateful for 
the invitation to be present at your banquet, given to our 
mutual friend, John P. Wood, whom you have recently chosen as 
the President of the Woolen Manufacturers Association, and it 
is my opinion a wiser selection could not have been made for 
your president. I thank you for the kind invitation to be here 
to-night, and assure you I feel highly honored. 

My acquaintance with Mr. Wood and many of his friends 
here to-night has been only for the period of a few short years. 
I first met Mr. Wood when he came before the Committee on 


Ways and. Means of the House of Representatives, of which 
committee I have the honor to be a member, and was heard in 
the interest of your industry, in opposition to the lowering of 
duties on wool and. woolen goods. 

I was strongly opposed to the lowering of the rates of duties 
in Schedule K, and when Mr. Wood and Mr. Grundy learned of 
my attitude on this schedule they came to me — being interested 
as they were — and volunteered to give me all the information 
they could, to aid me in my work on that committee, and through 
that acquaintance a friendship has arisen which I trust nothing 
shall- ever mar. They have won my greatest confidence and 
highest esteem. 

I am a firm believer in protection to our domestic institutions, 
and, of course, that means protection to our laborers. Why? 
some may ask. There are many reasons why. First of all I am 
a Republican, not an insurgent Republican, not a so-called pro- 
gressive Republican, but a real Republican, a protectionist, a 
stalwart, old-time, dyed in the wool protectionist, and in my 
opinion no man is a good Republican who is not a real protec- 
tionist and believes in all that the term protectionist means. 

The Republican party came into control of national affairs 
over fifty years ago ; it came into life advocating protection, and 
every platform adopted by that party in convention, from its 
birth down to the present time, has advocated, as its slogan, the 
policy of protection, and under that policy our people have pros- 
pered as no other people in the world have ever prospered. 

The wool and woolen industries have succeeded in this country 
under that policy, and without protection could not survive a 
single decade on account of the competition of the cheaper paid 
labor of Europe and the Orient. Give this industry adequate 
protection and the capital and labor employed will thrive ; give 
it free trade and you will wipe out the industry from this coun- 
try. What is true of the woolen industry is true of every 
important industry in this country. 

The men of greatest importance amongst us are the ones with 
capital invested in the various industries and different lines of 
manufacture ; but, I am sorry to say, the political bodies of our 
various States, and the national government can, by their acts, 
as legislators, by giving us good or bad laws, bring about busi- 


ness depression or be largely responsible for business prosperity^ 
and while it is necessary for every business man to give the 
closest and most strict attention to his business affair if he 
succeeds, it is also necessary that he should devote a portion of 
his time to the selection of candidates to public office. We are 
all quite apt to be neglectful of our duty to go to our caucuses 
or to attend primary elections and take part in the selection of 
representative men to our legislative halls. In many instances 
politicians of low grade bring such dissatisfaction to the general 
public in their selection of men for office that the average busi- 
ness man becomes displeased and many times disgusted with the 
procedure, and remains away from the polls, thus enabling the 
unscrupulous politicians to gain office. 

It is of the greatest importance, therefore, that at the proper 
time all business men should give sufficient attention and con- 
sideration to the selection of candidates to office, and then, if 
possible, aid in their election. 

There are plenty of men in public life occupying positions of 
public trust (elected to such offices by the votes of the people) 
who wholly disregard the best interest and welfare of the masses 
of the people, or the capital invested in our great industries, 
unless their vote, when cast, is in the interest of their political 

Men called upon to put upon our statute books laws to govern 
the people of the United States should be of the highest character. 
Men in public office should cast aside their selfish political aspira- 
tions and bend their efforts to the best interest of all the people 

We have had, in the past, and at the present time, in my 
opinion, we have men in high office who aim to build political 
castles solely for themselves, and this, too, with the knowledge 
that their actions are not for the best interest of the people they 
claim to represent. 

Permit me to say, any man in public life who would, for per- 
sonal gain, destroy his neighbor or even discriminate against him, 
is unworthy of reasonable consideration by the good people of 
this country. 

The man who plays to the galleries should and generally does 
live but a short political life ; such men, when found out by the 
people, are soon relegated to the rear. At this particular time 


many seem to be seeking popular favor by criticising the Payne 
tariff law. 

If I were to wish something bad upon the ones who are loudest 
in their criticism of this law, I would wish upon them the task of 
preparing a perfect tariff law which they talk about, one that 
would please all concerned ; that would decrease the cost of every- 
thing consumed and increase the price of labor. It is easy to 
criticise ; so easy to make high-sounding, pleasing statements of 
how things should be ; it is easy to destroy and so hard to build 
up. I admire a good, sound practical man with practical reasons 
for practical suggestions, a man who offers something better for 
that which he condemns, a man who builds up rather than destroys. 
An exhibition of unfriendliness, of misstatement of facts, is no 
display of intelligence. In such matters intelligence is only 
shown by furnishing proof of the unfriendly allegations made. 

There is before the Senate of the United States, at the present 
time, a proposed trade treaty aifecting imports coming into the 
United States from Canada and our exports to Canada. In 
my opinion this agreement was too hastily prepared, and is very 
faulty, and if enacted into law would be one in which there is 
more discrimination against agriculturalists than, perhaps, in any 
other law upon our statute books. It is proposed by the framers 
of that measure to admit into our markets, free of duty, all 
agricultural products. It proposes no reductions whatever of 
duties on farm machinery coming in from Canada, but provides 
for a small reduction on our farm machinery exported to Canada. 

The word reciprocity is a pleasing one to the ears of many of 
our citizens, but there are many kinds of reciprocity treaties 
proposed these days. 

The greatest men of the Kepublican party who heretofore have 
favored reciprocity with foreign countries have never, in a single 
instance, in public utterances or with the pen, suggested reci- 
procity on competitive articles. Charles Emory Smith, late Post- 
master General, in defining reciprocity, said : 

" When rightly understood the principle is axiomatic. Brazil 
grows coffee, but makes no machinery. We make machinery, 
but grow no coffee. She needs the fabrics of our factories and 
forges, and we need the fruits of her tropical soil. We agree to 
concessions for her coffee ; she agrees to concessions for our 
machinery. That is reciprocity." 


William McKinley, in his inaugural address of 1897, in speak- 
ing of reciprocity, said : 

" The end in view always to be the opening up of new markets 
for the products of our country by granting concessions to 
products of other lands that we need and cannot produce our- 
selves and which do not involve any loss of labor to our own 
people, but tend to increase their employment." 

Does the proposed trade agreement with Canada, as its friends 
claim, conform with the sound policies laid down by McKinley ? 
Decidedly no. On the other hand, it would grant concessions to 
Canadian products which we do not need and which we can 
produce ourselves and which involve a loss of labor to our 

In speaking of the Canadian Keciprocity Treaty of 1855, Mr. 
Morrill said : 

" The Canadian reciprocity treaty demonstrated the profitless- 
ness of reciprocity treaties with foreign countries whose products 
or exchange are chiefly agricultural and which we do not want." 

He believed, as did Blaine and McKinley, that products 
admitted into the United States free of duty must not compete 
with those produced by us, and in any agreement the concessions 
obtained by us must be fully equivalent in the volume of trade 
thereby gained to those made by the countries with which the 
arrangements were entered into. But, in this Canadian Trade 
Agreement, it must be remembered that we are giving away the 
market of 90,000,000 of people for the trade of 7,500,000 of 
people, a population not more than equivalent to the population 
of the State of New York. 

If this treaty gave us advantages equivalent to those given 
away by us to Canada, I could and would feel quite different 
toward the matter. But this agreement gives Canada on all her 
agricultural products free access to our markets without the pay- 
ment of any duty. Flour and dressed meats of every kind 
remain on the protective list, while wheat, cattle, hogs, and sheep 
are placed on the free list. 

By this proposed treaty, we are to accept, free of duty, print 
paper and wood pulp, while at the same time provincial restric- 
tions in Canada exclude from our pulp mills and saw mills any 
of Canada's raw forest materials, pulp wood and saw logs. I 


submit that if it is fair that we should accept Canada's finished 
forest products, arrangements should be entered into giving us 
access to her forests' raw materials. But there is another feat- 
ure of that trade treaty of great importance to our people, and 
that is, with the single exception of corn meal and condensed 
milk, England still retains an advantage over us on her goods 
going into Canada by rates of duties ranging from 10 to 33 per 
cent below rates proposed to be fixed on our exports to Canada. 
Of course, on the articles on the free list, we are placed upon a 
plane with England in Canadian markets, but England has no 
agricultural products to send to Canada. In fact, the situation is 
right the reverse, and ^hile Canada is an export nation on all 
agricultural products, this agreement seems to me to be somewhat 

I speak of this trade treaty here to-night because, in my opin- 
ion, any law placed upon our statute books that will affect the 
purchasing power of the people of the United States is of vital 
importance to the growers of wool and the manufacturers of 
woolens. Our people purchased and consumed, last year, 
between 25 and 30 billion dollars' worth of products of home 
production and manufacture, while the whole world outside of 
the United States imported not more than one-half that amount. 
I ask, do you think it wise to jeopardize our magnificent home 
market for the possibility of gaining a portion of that trade 
abroad, when you know that in the foreign markets you must sell 
at low prices or you caniiot sell at all, for in these foreign 
markets, you compete on no better than equal terms with the 
cheapest paid labor in the world. 

Your industries have, beyond question, prospered under pro- 
tection, and under free trade from 1894 to 1897 your industries 
not only suffered loss of business and profits, but many of your 
institutions went into bankruptcy. 


Toastmaster Grundy then said : 

We have the presence of a number of gentlemen from New 
England who have made the journey to be present here this 
evening and bear their testimony and good will toward Captain 


Wood's administration of the affairs of the National Associa- 

One of these gentlemen I want to ask to say a word, although 
he came entirely unprepared — a gentleman whose activity in 
our industry has been most forcible, who has certainly been a 
general in the industry, if such term can be applied to an 
industry, one who has pushed forward not only the standard of 
American goods, but the protection of American goods to the 
point where we, like the other industries, can say we are now 
producing 95 per cent at least of all the goods of the woolen 
market of the United States to clothe ninety odd million of the 
most prosperous people in the world. 

Gentlemen, this evening would not be complete unless we had 
a few words from Mr. William M. Wood, president of the 
American Woolen Company. 

Mr. Wood was cordially received, the whole assemblage 
rising in honor of him. He was listened to with close atten- 
tion. He said : 

Mr. Toastmasteb and Gentlemen : I was never more sur- 
prised in my life. In the first place I do not believe you know 
who I am or where I come from. I want to say with great pride 
that I am from Boston. That makes me think of the woman 
who rode in the bus one afternoon and she passed a milestone 
which said, <' 1 M to Boston." She said, '' When I die that is 
what I want written on my gravestone — 1 M from Boston." 

I read a great deal about Philadelphia being slow, but being 
from Boston I think you are " 1 M " ahead of us. 

When I received the invitation to come here to dine to-night 
I accepted with the provision that I wasn't to be called upon to 
make any speech. I am not a speaker or an after-dinner talker ; 
I am only a plain poor woolen manufacturer trying to defend 
Schedule K. I am what they call a stand-patter. I never have 
spoken in Faneuil Hall, the Cradle of Liberty, and I have never 
spoken in your Independence Hall where you have your Liberty 
Bell, but I am told that of all the rooms throughout the whole 
country there is no room like this for liberty taking. This par- 
ticular room, I am told, is famous for liberties. Now, the hour 
is getting very late and I don't want to detain you. There is 


really nothing that I can add to the distinguished remarks of the 
gentleman from Michigan, or your very much beloved late 
ex-Governor, and yet, since you have done me the honor of 
insisting, I will try to say a few words that may interest you. 

Now, I opened the year 1910 with the liveliest expectations. I 
thought I would resign from my business on January 1, 1911, 
with the greatest record that any woolen manufacturer in the 
world had ever made. Now, why ? Because a gentleman, a 
personal friend of mine, a man whom I think a great deal of, 
a man who moves in the Civic Federation with the highest 
honors, a man who is well regarded in the highest circles and by 
nobodies, with Andrew Carnegie and all the great men of New 
York, had gone into Washington and whispered into the ear of 
the President of the United States that the woolen manufac- 
turers were robbing the people of this country of f 120,000,000 
for that year. Has anybody heard of $120,000,000 being 
dropped anywhere ? I am hoping this year with less optimism. 
I don't think my directors are expecting me to resign, but I 
haven't made the record I want to make. I didn't get a hand on 
the $120,000,000. But there was only a slight mistake made. 
The gentleman simply made a slight mistake, and of course he 
was forgiven for it — it wasn't the woolen manufacturers who 
had lost that $120,000,000 ; it was the wool growers who lost 
it, caused through discrimination between wools. The gentleman 
now confesses that he made a mistake. It wasn't the woolen 
manufacturers who were going to rob the $120,000,000 from 
the people, but it was the tariff going to discriminate on fine 
wools and that is all. 

Now the woolen business is a business of a lifetime. We are 
here to stay. They tell me that if you once get into it it is a life 
sentence, and I begin to believe it. I understand that most of 
you gentlemen present, or many of you, are not woolen manu- 
facturers, but whatever happened to Schedule K will happen to 
every other industry. To those who are interested in Schedule 
K, I want to say that your backs are against the wall, that you 
now have the fight of your life before you. You have got to 
make an effort if you want to have that industry succeed. 

There is a feeble voice we hear now from Cincinnati that the 
woolen manufacturers are not making the woolen goods demanded 


in this country. If there has been any part of this country 
demanding poor goods I leave it to you if it has not been 
Cincinnati. I have in my warehouse millions of pounds of the 
finest wool in the world grown right in your own State, in Ohio, 
and wool grown in Australia, waiting for orders to make of the 
finest goods in the world, but I don't get those orders. 

They are all after something pretty nearly carpet wool. Now, 
when the cry goes out that we American manufacturers don't 
make fine goods we can only reply that we make what the trade 
wants. We are ready to make anything they want. 

However, every mill through this whole country is dull. We 
would be glad to turn out any kind of goods that the people in 
America want. Miss Ida Tarbell says there are no woolen goods 
manufactured in this country, that we are driving the people to 
tuberculosis through cotton and other goods because we are 
robbing them and not making woolen goods. I would like to 
know what becomes of the 300,000,000 pounds that we raise in 
this country and the 250,000,000 pounds that are imported from 
abroad. If we don't make woolen goods what becomes of all 
that ? No nation in the world uses wool so freely as we Ameri- 
cans, but an article to that effect would not sound well in the 
muck-raking magazines ; maybe Ida Tarbell wouldn't be wanted if 
she told the exact situation instead of painting the picture of the 
Governor of Rhode Island's residence in its magnificence and on 
the other hand the picture of a hovel that has been abandoned 
for half a century as a contrast between wealth on one side and 
the oppressed on the other. 

That sort of article sells in the magazines to-day, but if they 
would go to the American Woolen Company's houses at Law- 
rence or to the American Woolen Company's houses at May- 
nard, they would find that the tenement houses of old, of five 
and six families in the tenement house, were things of the past. 
The American Woolen Company has built three hundred separate 
individual homes all furnished with bath tubs, individual homes 
where an employee can have his family under one roof and know 
where his family is at night, and not the six or seven-family 
tenement house with its attic rooms divided between the families 
so that the man did not know where his daughter or his son was 
at night. 


The American Woolen Company has built in the city of Law- 
rence individual houses of this class for its help. The company 
believes that by treating its help well this will be recognized 
and appreciated. These people who didn't know what bath tubs 
were, who used them for the storage of potatoes and coal, have 
come to know what good the proper use of bath tubs will bring 
about. And that work is going on not only with the American 
Woolen Company, but with many other industries throughout 
this land. The people who run these great industries nowadays 
are humane. They want the people who work for them to be 
comfortable because they know if they treat the help well they 
will get the best kind of help and no other kind of help will do. 
The machinery in our mills is extremely valuable. We can't 
afford to leave the machinery to the utterly ignorant and incom- 
petent help. 

The textile industry to-day has in the woolen and worsted line 
the best body of the help employed. According to the census 
of the United States, the increase of wages in the woolen mills 
in the last ten years has been nearly 30 per cent over the past. 
Mr. Roosevelt said that protection means equalization of wages 
here with abroad, with a fair margin of profit. What is to be 
done about increased wages hereafter? We need more than 
that. I am such a stand-patter — so unfashionable — that I doubt 
that even you here would agree with me, but if I had my way I 
would put around this country the highest protective walls 
because it is the most valuable market in the world and I would 
put a barbed wire around that. And I would keep this market 
for the people who live here and who are enjoying the highest 
wages in the world. I read a report recently that the Japan- 
ese, who only a few years ago did not buy a pound of wool 
anywhere, bought in Melbourne last year over J^ 8,000,000 of 
wool. How are you going to compete with that kind of compe- 
tition? I am a loyal Republican, I am a great admirer of our 
President, for whom I have the most profound respect, and no 
citizen of this country can claim higher patriotism than myself, 
but I cannot understand how a president elected under a pro- 
tection platform for a protection country can forget himself so 
far as to say that he is committed to Canada in this reciprocity 
business, in preference to the United States. 


The first duty of any American, whether he is the humblest or the 
one in the highest exalted office, is to his country and the United 
States. His first duty must be to his country and Canada second. 
We are a great country. We ought to be familiar with great 
affairs. We ought to say to Canada, "Look at yourself, you are 
only seven millions. In the last ten years we have grown ten mil- 
lions, 50 per cent more than what you are from the foundation, 
from the discovery of your country, 50 per cent greater in ten years. 
We are increasing at the rate of over a million a year in emigra- 
tion alone, to say nothing about the natural increase of popu- 
lation." You can say to her that when she is willing to enjoy 
the prosperity that this country has, and put up the same protec- 
tion that we pvit up, there is no question about reciprocity, the 
barriers will fall down naturally. Fix your foreign policy like 
men, we may say, and instead of having seven millions as a result 
of four or five hundred years, you will get them in ten. We 
will open up America with its ninety millions against your seven 
if you will put the protection against the foreigner that we do. 

Within ten days I have received from the Secretary of State a 
very courteous letter, asking me what I would like to suggest for 
the Government in regard to foreign markets. That is your 
administration ! The Secretary of State asked me what I would 
do to promote the foreign trade. I replied I had no suggestions 
to make. If they cannot see that this is the greatest argument 
in the world to hold the American markets for ourselves, then I 
have nothing to say. Ask the emigrant who comes in at New 
York what he earned abroad at Alsace, in France, in Germany, 
or in England, and go up to the gates of your mills and my mills, 
ask them what they earn. That ought to be a good object lesson. 

I tell you, gentlemen, the newspapers run this country. The 
editors of the papers of America are individual kings. They 
mould public opinion, and they mould it so that the consumers 
pay for the advertisement. The first intimation that I received 
about the expense that this Government was put to by the trans- 
portation of the muck-raking magazines and the yellow journals 
was from a Philadelphian. I do not think Philadelphia is slow 
at all. I have learned to respect Philadelphia a great deal. 
That gentleman spoke in New York and he told us that this 
Government spent every year $62,000,000 and that there is a 


deficit in the Post Office Department for that amount in the 
transportation of the merchandise of the muck-raking press. 
Naturally it occurred to me that we honest manufacturers, honest 
woolen manufacturers — and I never heard of any other kind — 
contribute to the revenue of this Government $20,000,000 a year, 
our just share towards promoting this Government. Then to 
have a press so tainted, so conscienceless as to say that we are 
beneficiaries, and are enjoying special privileges, when they 
themselves are soaking us three times more than we pay for just 
contributions for revenue, is certainly remarkable. We ought 
unblushingly go to Washington and say, "Transport my mer- 
chandise to Chicago. It is better that you should transport the 
woolen goods of this country that the people may have clothing 
than to transport magazines that are horribly bad, because it is 
better that the people of this country should be warmed with 
woolen goods than to be fed with a lot of literature that is dam- 
aging the country and that is absolutely and positively injurious 
to the people who read it." 

I read an article in the " Sun " the other morning about the 
educational advantages of these magazines, and that therefore on 
that ground they should be transported. Is there anything more 
infamous and more damaging than literature that shuts down 
your mills ? Is there anything more wicked than the talk of 
employees who have been thrown out of work, as they have been 
since that damaging speech at Winona ? I have seen my looms 
shut down since that speech ; I have seen our help on the street, 
and they are there to-day. We are paying the highest schedule 
of wages ever known in the woolen business ; but the help care 
little for schedules unless they are schedules that fill their 
envelopes, and no schedule will fill their envelopes unless you 
have peace in business. 


In introducing ex-Governor Stuart, Toastinaster Grund}^ 

This evening we have the very great honor of having with us 
our ex-Governor who so ably administered the duties of that 
great office that we really did not know that we had been 
governed. In the discharge of his official duty we all grew 


to look upon him with the keenest regard and with the greatest 
respect, with affection and admiration, and I feel he has paid us 
a very great compliment indeed in coming here to-night to be 
our guest and say a few words to us in regard to our dis- 
tinguished guest. 

1 take great pleasure in introducing ex-Governor Edwin S. 

Ex-Governor Stuart said : 

Mr. Toastmastek and Gentlemen : I did not really come 
here to-night to make an address, because as each speaker said, 
it is something a little out of my line. My entire life has been 
spent in business, with a little dip every now and then out into 
public life, and back again. When I heard your distinguished 
Congressman from Michigan speak here to-night I was very 
proud to hear him say that his ancestors came from Pennsylva- 
nia. I am glad to have been here to-night to hear such a prod- 
uct of Pennsylvania. I want to say here that Lancaster 
County, in Pennsylvania, where his father and mother lived, is 
the leading agricultural county in the United States. There is 
no people more prosperous, or no better citizenship than is found 
among the Pennsylvania Dutch in Lancaster County, and there 
are no better or stronger stalwart believers in the policy of pro- 
tection than in Lancaster County. They believe that if any 
revision of the tariff is needed it must be made by the party that 
believes in the policy of protection as a principle, and not by 
those who believe in the opposite. 

Instead of this being a testimonial to our friend, Mr. Wood, 
it has developed into a good, old-fashioned Republican meet- 
ing, with good old-fashioned Republican doctrines. In that 
case I feel at home, of course, because I am here to-night by 
reason of my friends. Campion and Grundy, inducing me to 
come ; secondly, because I wanted to come and show my appre- 
ciation of the distinguished guest of the evening. Campion is 
like the old fireman of olden days. All you had to do was to 
stand in front of his house and holler "■ Fire," and he would 
come out. If Campion is in bed, all you have got to do is to go 
and say, " Schedule K," and out he comes. If Campion is down 
at Cape May bathing, and somebody hollers, " There is something 


the matter with Schedule K," he comes out, dresses, and talks to 
you. In fact, on all his stationery, I am told, and upon all his 
linen he has had stamped " K," for Kampion. Campion has 
gone so far that, to show his faith in the matter, he spells his 
name K-a-m-p-i-o-n. 

I did not come here to-night, as I said, to make any address, 
but I was very much gratified at hearing the two addresses 
delivered to-night. I did come to say a word, not in the sense of 
flattery or anything of that kind, of a man who was a Pennsyl- 
vanian and a Philadelphian ; but I want to say that there is no 
place in this country under God's footstool that has done more 
for the policy of protection than the State of Pennsylvania. ' We 
have stood for it inside and outside all the time, because we 
believed in it and because we believed it was right, and because 
we believed and believe that it was and is for the best interests 
of this republic. 

The guest of the evening is one of a family of Philadelphians 
who stand for the highest type of citizenship and the highest 
type of business integrity. Every man ought to give some time 
to some of the public work in the district or vicinity or State or 
city in which he lives ; but we are very derelict, some of us, in 
that regard. I know I am in a Republican assemblage, and I 
believe that there is nothing that compels a Republican to stand 
for anything but decency in politics and honesty in the manage- 
ment of public affairs. No man who does not believe in these 
two principles is fit to be a Republican, and I do not think we 
want him in the Republican party. 

Now, my friends, I just came here to-night to say for President 
Wood that in every point of life, upon every occasion, he has per- 
formed his duty, he has had the courage of his convictions. 
I am particularly gratified to be here to-night, and say " God 
speed " to him in his new work. I am satisfied he will be suc- 
cessful because he never takes hold of anything in which he 
does not believe he is right and he never stops until he brings it 
to a successful determination. 


Toastmaster Grundy, in introducing President John P. 
Wood, remarked that in accepting the position of President 
of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers Mr. 


Wood had done this from his high sense of duty which he owed 
to the industry in which he had passed practically his entire 
life. He would appreciate beyond any words of eulogy that 
support, that encouragement, in the work he had before him 
that was more important than everything else, and that would 
most aid him in his new field of labor. 

President Wood was received with very hearty applause, 
the guests rising and cheering three times vigorously for him. 
He bowed his thanks and began his brief speech, speaking of 
the imminent tariff question, and appealing to his hearers to 
work for laws that would give justice to manufacturers, and 
for the maintenance of the American system of protection. 
He thanked his friends for their cordial reception and invoked 
their strong, united and individual support in the crisis now 
confronting the industry in Washington. Mr. Wood was 
again heartily cheered as he sat down. 

The speech-making of the evening was closed most 
felicitously by Charles H. Harding of the Erben-Harding 
Company, who paid a warm tribute to Mr. Wood for his 
sagacity as a counsellor and power as an executive. Mr. 
Harding expressed the utmost faith that the new administra- 
tion of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers 
would justify all the expectations entertained of it. His 
knowledge of the life and character of President Wood was 
sufficient assurance of the high level of efficiency that 
would be maintained. Mr. Wood would coolly, quietly, and 
courageously do his duty by the industry, and it was 
a pleasant thought to Mr. Harding himself and to Frederic 
S. Clark that they were associated with Mr. Wood as Vice- 
presidents of the Association of which he was the head. 

Those who were present at the dinner were : 













W. T. GALEY, Jr., 


0. W. LONG, 
W. H. LONG, 





Mr. Henry M. Steel, a widely known manufacturer and 
public-spirited citizen and an able writer on economic topics, died 
on February 1, in the Germantown Hospital. Mr. Steel was the 
head of the firm of Edward T. Steel & Company of Bristol, Pa., 
and was seventy years of age. He was a native of Philadelphia, 
descended from an English Quaker family that came to America 
in Colonial days. One of his ancestors was treasurer of the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania under William Penn. Mr. 
Henry M. Steel was the youngest of five brothers, three of whom 
had borne a conspicuous part in the public life of Philadelphia. 
Mr. Edward T. Steel, the founder of the mills, was long president 
of the Board of Education, and Mr. William G. Steel, before 
becoming a resident English partner of the firm, had been an 
active member of the Committee of One Hundred that wielded 
such powerful influence in municipal reform in Philadelphia, fol- 
lowing the Centennial Exposition of 1876. 

Though of Quaker lineage, Mr. Henry M. Steel as a young man 
took his musket and joined a New York regiment, marching to 
the front when General Lee's army was invading Pennsylvania. 

His business life won wide recognition for him as a remarkably 
sagacious manufacturer. His firm had mills in Bradford, Eng- 
land, and produced there goods for the markets of America, but 
after the McKinley law was passed the Steels established a plant 
in this country, bringing over their machinery and being followed 
by many of their operatives. 

This double experience of practical business conditions on both 
sides of the Atlantic gave a peculiar weight of authority to Mr. 
Henry M. Steel's vigorous writings on the tariff question. Many 
strong articles came from his trenchant pen, and he had rendered 
especially good service to the industry in recent defences of 
Schedule K against the attacks of sensational magazine writers. 
His fellow-manufacturers of Philadelphia and vicinity had great 
regard for Mr. Steel, and his death has brought deep sorrow to 
the men of his calling everywhere. 



In social life Mr. Steel was always a great favorite. He was a 
studious, traveled man, and a most delightful comrade. He was a 
director of the Penn iSTational Bank, and a member of the Union 
League Club, the Philadelphia Country Club, the Germantown 
Cricket Club, the City Club, the Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania, and the Colonial Society of Pennsylvania. Mr. Steel 
married Mary Thorn Justice, and is survived by his widow, one 
son, Warner Justice Steel, and three daughters, Miss ^Mariana 
Justice Steel, Mrs. Robert W. Swift, and Mrs. JS'ewell C. Bradley. 


Mr. William R. Dupee, a retired wool merchant, died at his 
home in Boston, January 20, at the age of sixty-nine. Mr. 
Dupee had been for more than half a century, before his retire- 
ment in 1905, one of the best known and most highly regarded 
of Boston wool merchants. His firm was originally Nichols, 
Parker & Dupee, becoming Nichols, Dupee & Company in 1874. 
The business is still continued by Dupee & Meadows, Arthur 
Dupee of the firm being a son of William R. Dupee. 

His associates in the wool trade prepared the following 
memorial : 

" The death of Mr. William R. Dupee comes as a shock to the 
wool trade, although he had retired from the business several 
years ago. He was for many years one of the leading men in 
the business, a man of upright character and sterling honesty, 
whose word was as good as his bond. He was fair in his com- 
petition and generous with his friends. His opinion was con- 
sulted and valued by the banks, and up to two weeks ago he 
attended meetings of the Five Cent Savings Bank, where he was 
a, director. 

" Although for some years past he has not been an active 
member of the wool trade, we nevertheless feel that his death 
comes to us as a personal loss, and with this feeling we hereby 
tender to his family this expression of our appreciation of his 
worth and our heartfelt sympathy to them in their bereavement." 


(^tritortal anti iittiustrial JKtscellattp, 



Because of the failure of the Canadian reciprocity agreement 
the Sixty-second Congress, with its Democratic House of Repre- 
sentatives, is called by the President to assemble in extra session 
on April 4, 1911. This action has been anticipated ever since it 
became manifest that the farmers of the country were opposed 
to the agreement, and were impressing their views forcibly upon 
their Senators and Representatives in Washington. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the National 
Association of Wool Manufacturers in Boston on February 16, 
1911, the following resohition was adopted : 

" Resolved, by the Executive Committee of the National Asso- 
ciation of Wool Manufacturers, That it is the sense of this 
Committee that no action should be taken by the United States 
Senate on the Canadian reciprocity agreement until there have 
been not only a thorough examination of the details of the agree- 
ment, but a mature consideration by the American people of the 
probable effect upon our farming and fishing interests, our com- 
mercial relations under treaty with other countries, and the 
American system of protection." 

American wool manufacturers, are not among those men of 
business who would sacrifice the farmers' interests for their own 
supposed advantage. The National Association has been con- 
sistently opposed for many years to any plan of reciprocity with 
Canada which would give the cheaper labor and cheaper land of 
the Dominion free access to the great markets of our Northern 
States. Certainly no such step as that contemplated in the 
Canadian agreement should be taken without ample opportunity 
for consideration by the national law-makers. The resentment of 
the farmers would have been all the more sharp and disastrous if 
the agreement had been " jammed through " the Senate before 
the adjournment of the Sixty -first Congress on March 4th. 


It is the manifest purpose of the Democratic leaders in the 
National House to begin at this extra session their program of 
tariff revision and reduction. Doubtless the wool and woolen 
schedule will be an early target for attack. As a sympathetic 
Washington correspondent naively writes of the purpose of some 
of the anti-protection statesmen : '' Developments show plainly 
that the only kind of tariff revision that can succeed at once 
will be that which is directed against manufactured commodities 
so located as to have only a limited geographical support. In 
short, there has been a decided reappearance of tariff sectionalism, 
and the outlook now is for a vigorous assault by Western, Middle 
Western, and Southern men upon the manufactured products of 
the Eastern States." 

Thus the baleful spirit of sectional hatred is being early 
invoked by those who hope to profit by its influence. Of course, 
this Southern and Western assault upon the " manufactured 
products of the Eastern States " will be heartily approved by 
the manufacturing interests of Europe. History is repeating 
itself in this particular. It was believed by the framers of the 
Gorman- Wilson tariff that the wool and woolen schedule had 
" only a limited geographical support." And yet the popular 
verdict upon the Gorman-Wilson law bore no strictly sectional 
character — the Congressional elections of 1894 resulted in a 
protectionist majority of 114 in the National House of Repre- 
sentatives. A new generation of statesmen has arisen since that 
time. We would commend a careful perusal of the election 
returns of November, 1894, to those gentlemen who may imagine 
that only a few persons in New England, New York, and Penn- 
sylvania have any interest in the maintenance of adequate 
protection for the industries concerned in Schedule K. 

Though the anti-protectionist party has a majority of more 
than 60 in the National House, the Senate of the Sixty-second 
Congress remains at least in the nominal control of protectionist 
Senators. The actual control is held by a group of ten or 
twelve so-called " insurgents " or " progressives." These " pro- 
gressive " senators, if their attitude is properly indicated by 
the amendments which the late Senator DoUiver and Senator 
LaFollette offered to the Aldrich-Payne law, are opposed to any 
reduction whatsoever in the rates of duty on the raw wool of 


their constituents. This circumstance is sure to be a serious 
stumbling block to any effort of the anti-protectionist leaders to 
force a downward revision of Schedule K through both houses 
of Congress at the extra session, which must end before Decem- 
ber next. 

The farmers of the West have been able to make the " pro- 
gressive " Senators understand that they touch the wool duties 
at their peril. But the wool-growing industry in this country 
would not be more surely sacrificed by free wool than by a radi- 
cal reduction of the duties on woolen goods, which would turn 
the American market over to Europe. It makes very little 
difference to American farmers and ranchmen whether the foreign 
product enters this country in the form of raw wool or of finished 
fabrics. In either case American wool is crowded out — for the 
one market for American wool is the American mill, and the 
American wool grower is dependent absolutely for his prosperity 
on the continued prosperity of the American manufacturer. Here 
is a hard, economic fact which bids fair to baffle all the calcula- 
tions of sectional hate. In the broadest and truest sense of the 
term, the business of wool growing and wool manufacturing is a 
great national industry. 



It is a new departure on the part of the National Association 
of Wool Manufacturers to have its annual meeting and banquet 
in Washington. Hitherto these anniversaries have been observed 
in Boston, New York, or Philadelphia. But the suggestion to 
visit Washington this year was heartily and unanimously 
approved by the Executive Committee, and is appai'ently justi- 
fied by the result, for the meeting in Washington was as large 
as the meetings previously held. The members and friends of 
the Association did not seem to be daunted by the distance. All 
of the manufacturing centers were well represented, and this 
was particularly true of the great cluster of mills in and around 
the city of Philadelphia. 

But the circumstance which gave the Washington meeting its 


great distinction was the presence at the dinner of a large group 
of eminent public men who could not possibly have journeyed 
over to New York or Boston. To the Speaker of the House and the 
Senators and Representatives and members of the Tariff Board, 
the Vice-President of the United States would have been added 
but for an unexpected demand which called him away from 
Washington. Mr. Sherman had been invited and had accepted 
and his appearance and words were eagerly looked for. 

The advantage of the Washington gathering is that there the 
public men heard direct from manufacturers, at first hand, the 
essential truths about the industry and its need of national 
protection and encouragement. On the other hand, it was a 
privilege to the members of the Association to meet and hear 
these public men. It is to be hoped that the Senators and 
Representatives who attended the dinner have a clearer under- 
standing of the needs and interests of the wool manufacture in 
the United States. They have seen face to face the leaders of 
this industry and have talked with them, and such personal con- 
tact and acquaintance cannot but be helpful on both sides. 

To Speaker Cannon, Senator Lodge, Senator Warren, and 
Chairman Emery of the Tariff Board, the Association would 
make hearty acknowledgment for their presence and their 
addresses. The time was all too short to say what needed to be 
said, but it is manifest that the public men themselves and the 
country thoroughly approve the frank and open attitude of the 
National Association of Wool Manufacturers. The Association 
went down to Washington to tell its story in a straightforward 
fashion, and cordially invited a great number of the representa- 
tives of the press, so that what was said and done should be 
circulated as freely and as far as possible. The effort along this 
line was an unquestioned success. 

But though the holding of this annual gathering at Wash- 
ington is a new departure, the policy of frankly and fully stating 
the case is not a new one on the part of this Association. In 
every tariff revision since 1865 the National Association of Wool 
Manufacturers has prepared its case with the utmost care and 
has submitted this without reservation to the national law- 
makers. The records of the Association and the thousands of 
pages of the quarterly Bulletin are sufficient witness that the 
Association has always believed in doing its part to let the light 
in upon the intricacies of Schedule K and the actual conditions 


of the wool manufacturing industry in America. This was con- 
spicuously true of the recent Aldrich-Payne revision. Several 
hundred pages of the testimony of the Committee on Ways and 
Means are occupied exclusively with the evidence gathered and 
presented by this Association. 

No other commercial body in the country probably contributed 
one-half so much in the way of specific facts and figures to a 
thorough understanding of any important industry. This testi- 
mony was the work not of one or two men, but of many men — 
practical manufacturers, bearing heavy responsibilities, who 
gladly gave of their time and strength to show, line by line and 
paragraph by paragraph, the actual working of the tariff as it 
affects the wool manufacture, the need of adequate protection 
and the danger of any large reduction in the protective duties. 
The real reason why Schedule K was not radically changed in 
the Aldrich-Payne law was that the arguments submitted by the 
manufacturers were unanswerable. They were unanswerable 
because they were honestly and carefully prepared. They left 
the opposition no opportunity to do anything but to indulge in 
abuse — and abuse in a tariff fight is more dramatic than 

It has seemed to be the sense of the Association that next 
year's annual meeting and dinner should also be held in Wash- 
ington. American wool manufacturers are not only willing but 
desirous to go there and to state their case right where it will 
have the most interested and intelligent hearing. That is more 
than can be said for the influences in this country and abroad 
that would disrupt Schedule K and destroy the protection of one 
of the greatest and most indispensable of our national industries. 


The interesting review of the wool industry of Bradford, as 
presented by the Bradford " Observer," comes to hand at a time 
which makes it impossible to quote from it until the March 
number of the Bulletin. It always contains so complete a pres- 
entation of the facts concerning the year's business of that great 
center and is of so great historical value that it has been our 
custom to make copious extracts from it for presentation where 
it will be easily available for the use of American manufacturers. 


The Review this year is of unusual interest and our quotations 
correspondingly large. 

Contrary to our own experience, Bradford has enjoyed a most 
prosperous year. Its machinery has been employed to its full 
capacity, especially in the yarn manufacture. Its exports have 
been greater than ever before, and generally at remunerative 
prices. Its consumption of wool was the largest in its history, 
and while its claim to the title of Worstedopolis is by no means 
lessened, its energetic, alert, and skilfvil manufacturers in recent 
years have added to their worsted and mohair manufactures the 
production of tweeds, high grade cotton fabrics and silk goods, 
thus diversifying their productions and adding greatly to the 
importance of their metropolis as a manufacturing center. 

The Review says : 

Every year finds us leaving further behind the old meaning of 
"the Bradford trade." It used to cover bright goods (mohair, 
alpaca, and luster), moreens, cross-dyed cashmeres, a few repps, 
cords and damasks and linings. For the most part it was a 
black trade, but it was essentially a " stuff " trade. Now it is 
well-nigh impossible to say what does not belong to the Bradford 
trade. In stuffs Bradford has emulated Roubaix and beaten it 
off its own ground, it has attached a large slice of what at one 
time was regarded as within the sole province of Huddersfield, 
it is producing "tweeds" in competition with the Border towns 
of Scotland, and even the low qualities produced in Colne Valley, 
while an entirely new industry — the production of the most 
elaborate and often expensive fabrics in cotton, silk, and artificial 
silk — has sprung up, and in a few years has attained to enor- 
mous importance. It is no exaggeration to say that as regards 
our shipping trade, at least 50 per cent of it is done in cottons. 

Of the Bradford trade, then, as a whole, in the newer and wider 
acceptation of the terra, it can be said that it never enjoyed a better 
year. For some branches there have been difficulties and some 
have had better profit margins in other years. But never have 
the combs put through so much wool, never has it been known 
that there was not an idle spindle the year through, never have 
our looms turned off a greater value of manufactured goods of 
one sort or another, and never before have our shipping merchants 
handled quite so much trade — though a few of them did better 
perhaps in 1907. That was the boom year in which all records 
were broken. 

The following table reveals that wool in one form or another is 
responsible for at least a hundred millions sterling of our oversea 
trade in the course of a year, or something more than 10 per 
cent of the whole. 


Imports of Wool and Wool Textiles. 
Eleven months ended November 30. 




Yarns, tops, etc 


2,498 000 





Exports of Wool and Wool Textiles. 
Eleven months ended November 30. 


Yarns, tops, etc 
Fabrics , 







From which it will be seen that while the import of manufac- 
tured fabrics of wool has declined nearly a million and a quarter, 
the export has increased by more than two and a half millions in 
value as compared with 1907. 

Very few of our oversea markets have been depressed. Even 
the United States, about which we have heard the most 
melancholy reports, has taken a fair average quantity of our 
manufactures, though the export of raw wool has shrunk to some- 
thing less than half what it was in 1909. The export yarn trade 
has grown prodigiously — it is more than a million and a half 
better than it was in the previous year, which was a good one for 
spinners. Indeed, this year may be described as emphatically 
the spinners' year. No other section .of the trade has done quite 
so well as the spinner, and the year closes, too, with spinners' 
order-books full up for some months yet. All through the year 
they have been behindhand and pressed for deliveries, and it has 
JDCen the universal experience. Botany spinners in the coat- 
ing trade, spinners of hosiery yarns, those in the export trade, 
mohair spinners — all alike have had more work than they could 
turn out with every possible spindle running. And although 
reports from Germany, our best foreign customer, and Russia, as 
well as from some of our own makers of dress goods, are not 
quite so optimistic as they were, there is no slackening yet 
noticeable in the demand. 

One generally observed characteristic of this year, as of several 


years past, is the stead}' upward movement in the matter of 
quality. It is pointed out in our article on the yarn trade that 
although the actual weight turned out for export has been 
exceeded, the value of the export is unprecedented. This is not 
simply a question of price ; it is mainly a question of value — 
finer spinning. Still more is this noticeable in regard to manu- 
factured goods. The amount of work put into the designing, 
production, and finishing of fabrics is greater than ever. The 
public taste all the world over is being rapidly educated, and it 
demands more perfect goods. This may give more trouble, may 
even militate against profits — though this ought not to be so — 
but it does make our position in the competition of the world all 
the more secure. The unqualified success of the Bradford show 
at the Brussels Exhibition this year has given us a lift the value 
of which we shall feel for some time to come, and it is to be 
hoped that the advantage gained will be followed up at Turin 
next year. 


If the measure of good trade be the size of the profits made 
out of it, then the year 1910 has not been altogether satisfactory 
to those engaged in tlie buying and selling of wool. In this 
respect the trader in the home-grown article has probably done 
better than the importer and topmaker. But if volume of trade 
and value of turnover be tlie test of good trade, then we must 
indeed have had a bumper year, for never before have we 
handled so much wool. 

The difficulties of the dealer in colonial and foreign grown wool 
have arisen from circumstances which he is reluctantly obliged 
to confess are beyond his control. Last season's (1909-10) 
Australasian abounding crop, which should have pulled prices 
down, didn't, because it was offset by the tremendous shrinkage 
in the South American production. Again, the collapse of 
American support this year in Australia and in this market has 
failed to '' work the trick," because both England and Germany 
have been so busy that they have proved quite able so far to take 
care of what will no doubt turn out to be the biggest clip of wool 
the world has yet produced, at prices which are considered very 
high. That it is time prices came down is a curiously commonly 
accepted article of belief. It is not ten years since we had 60's 
tops below 19d., and in the last ten years of last century the 
average was seldom above 20d., and the production is increasing. 
That is the argument for lower prices. But it leaves out of sight 
several important factors, the chief of which is, put briefly, that 
wool production over a period of fifteen years past has only 
increased about 12^ per cent, while the requirements — due 
partly to increased" population, but still more to the develop- 
ments in the purchasing power of the unit all the world over — 
have been growing faster than production. 


In the colonial wool market the year opened with a most 
optimistic feeling. America was still buying heavily and all our 
own trade centers, the Heavy Woolen District, the Colne Valley, 
Scotland, Leicester, the West of England, as well as Bradford, 
were in good shape and bought with confidence and even eager- 
ness. And though there have been quiet weeks and some fluctua- 
tions in prices, the consumption in all branches of our industry has 
been maintained throughout the year. Indeed we have taken, and 
presumably absorbed, a good deal more raw material than we did 
in 1909, prosperous year though it was. Merinos all through 
the year have ruled remarkably steady. 

Crossbreds have felt the full force of the slump in American 
demand. At the March sales in London greasy medium and 
coarse wools in light condition dropped quite 10 per cent, and in 
their fall dragged other things with them to some extent. They 
steadied at the May series, but relapsed in the July series, when 
the total of American purchases was only three hundred bales, 
and the rather large total of 33,000 bales was carried over. 

The resale in London of wools bought for America and stopped 
in transit, and even of several thousand bales reshipped from 
Boston to London, was another factor which did not help the 
market for medium to fine crossbreds, though possibly some top- 
makers and spinners were thereby assisted to some very reason- 
able purchases. Another feature of the London Sales this year 
has been the excellent selection of Punta Arenas and Falkland 
Islands wools, which have sold remarkably well. Swan Rivers, 
among Australians, have also been prominent. East Indian and 
foreign wools have sold well at Liverpool, the blanket and rug 
makers having been busy all the year. 

Price of 60's Super Tops during 1910. 

January . . 
February . 






August . . . 
October. . . 

Ist Week. 













2d Week. 













3d Week. 


4th Week. 














For the English wool merchant and topmaker the year on the 
whole has been a good one. It has not been so pi-ofitable for 
everybody perhaps as 1909, but it has been possible to get a 
working profit on most business, and there have been no serious 
losses, while the wool grower has had a good price for his wool. 
In buying the clip some mistakes were made in speculating upon 
an American demand which never came, and some pick Shrop- 
shire hogs were taken at a price which was a thick penny too 
dear for this market. But the balk of the clip was reasonably 
bought. America had ceased buying in London and in Bradford 
two months before clip day, and they had no buying orders out 
for the country fairs. When, therefore, the grower and the 
merchant and spinner came to a deal it was not difficult to 
establisli a basis that was satisfactory to both sides. 

American buying of English, Scotch, and Irish wools had been 
very heavy throughout 1909, and it continued with but slight 
abatement for the first two or three months of the present year. 
Hence with the very large home consumption in all branches of 
the trade, stocks at the beginning of the year had been reduced 
to a low point, and staplers were able to clear out at very good 
prices indeed, so that the American collapse came at a most 
opportune moment. 

Throughout the season business has seemed to run on the fine- 
haired descriptions, and it appeared at one time as though strong 
wools would have a bad time of it. To begin with it has not 
been so good a clip in Lincolnshire as was the last, and although 
at the beginning of the season some wool was bought at what 
looked a cheap price, the demand in Bradford was not good. 
Mohair of medium quality has been in heavy supply, and at such 
a low price that it competed on unequal terms with lusters, and 
the demand went off, and the super-luster yarn trade has been 
very quiet throughout tlie year. So depressed was the market 
that wethers which had cost 8fd. were actually offered at 7fd., 
though this was an exceptional case. Anyhow, when the 
announcement of the fixing of tlie date of the King's Coronation 
was made the market took a sudden upward turn. The demand 
for wethers for bunting yarns became insistent, and very soon 
prices got back on to a paying level. Indeed for some time past 
wethers have been worth practically as much as hogs, and are 
now quite scarce, while the hogs have moved off quite slowly. 
Scotch wools, and especially blackfaced, have had a very good 
sale, notwithstanding that America has been out of the market 
altogether. So dear have Scotch wools been that one outlet 
which has absorbed a considerable quantity of strong-haired 
scoured wool has been closed — we refer to the Spanish trade. 
When these wools can be sold at a shilling scoured, they are 


exported in small bags of about 100 pounds each to Spain, and the 
wool, which will not mat, is made by the peasants into mattresses 
for the navy. 


During the year the British Wool Buyers' Association has 
materially strengthened its organization. There is ample scope 
for the work the association is endeavoring to accomplish. 
Unfortunately there are many farmers who, through ignorance 
or carelessness, are most indifferent about the way in which their 
wool is got up for sale. Hundreds of thousands of bales of wool 
come from Australia and New Zealand every year, a much larger 
quantity than we grow at home, and it is all properly skirted and 
classed. Yet English wools are sent to market anyhow. Some- 
times a hog fleece when opened out will be found to have half a 
cot inside it. Farmers after sheep-washing will turn their sheep 
into a strawyard with cattle and pigs about, instead of into a 
clean pasture, with the result that the good done by the washing 
is undone. At one time there used to be recognized " winders " 
who knew their work and did it well, but that type of man is 
dying out. Some of the best farmers will let the shearing by 
contract at so much per hundred or score to clip and wind. If 
there is but one winder to, say, six clippers, he no doubt has 
plenty to do to keep up with them. He may even think that he 
is doing the farmer a good turn by winding in all the dags and 
skirtings. One large firm in Bradford this season got 400 pounds 
of daggings out of four sheets of halfbred hogs — a matter of £5 
a sheet. But though this was a flagrant case it stands as an 
example of quite common practice — and it is a practice which in 
the old days the law put down with a heavy hand. The Wool 
Buyers' Association is doing well to focus attention upon these 
matters and in order that their importance may be apprehended 
by the wool growers it is, we believe, in contemplation to invite a 
number of them to Bradford, that they may have practical 
demonstration of the difficulties which, no doubt unwittingly, 
they are making for the trade. Another matter which needs to 
be brought to their notice is the need of greater attention being 
paid to breed. Yorkshire Wold wool, the finest luster that can 
be grown, is not what it was — it has lost much of its character 
and something of its value. And it is solely attributable to the 
practice of using a Lincoln instead of a pure bred Leicester tup 
or even a Wensleydale. 


If there was " very little to be said about the mohair trade of 
1909," there is no possibility of saying much about it in 1910. 
Apparently, measured in number of bales only, we have had a 


record importation — 97,993 bales against the 96,236 of last 
year. But this total figure is most misleading, for the Cape 
imports of 36,981 bales to December 1 are very nearly 3,000 
bales down, and the increase of nearly 4,000 bales from Turkey 
do not by any means compensate. It is clear, however, and 
satisfactory also, that there has been no real set-back anywhere. 
In Turkey, the more settled conditions are leading to an expan- 
sion of the mohair-growing industry and so long as the price 
keeps anywhere near its present level, goat breeding should be 
profitable. It does seem, however, as if the Cape production 
needed to be checked — or we should rather say improved in 
quality. A difference of 3^d. and occasionally even 4d. between 
the price of the two articles at a given time is eloquent on this 
point. And it is a difference which is likely to widen, to the 
detriment of the South African grower as well as our own indus- 
try, unless a determined movement is started at the Cape to 
improve the quality of the mohair flocks and the methods of 
clipping, classing, grading, and shipping the hair. It is time that 
some new blood were introduced into South Africa, and under 
the altered conditions in Turkey this may be not impossible of 
attainment. . . . More than ever is the call for brilliance, 
fineness, and length, and it is now as certain as such things 
can be that mohair combining these qualities will find a con- 
stant market at good prices. 

Still, though there has been no mohair boom, and prices are 
moderate for all but the very finest Turkey and kids, the con- 
sumption has been large. Spinners have been kept very busy 
all the year, and the marvel is where it all goes to. And the 
outlook is good, for there is no lack of particulars and no empty 
order-books. Mohair is finding outlets in many channels. There 
is a huge business done in rather coarse and strong Sicilians, and 
the manufacture of mohair coatings has been developed by the 
few firms who have taken it up into a very large trade, while 
mohair linings also take a lot of matei-ial. 

Turkey mohair imports 61,102 

Cape mohair imports 36,891 bales. 

Alpaca imports (fleece 15,654, inf. 11,749). 27,403 bales. 


Prices of Mohair and Alpaca. 


January . . 
February . 
March . . . 





August. . . 
October . . 


Cape Firsts. 

Alpaca Fleece. 

16 — 16i 

14 —141 


16 -16i 

13 — 14i 


16 -16i 



16 — 16i 

13i— Hi 

18 —19 


121— 14i 

18i— 19 


13i— 15i 

18 —19 

16i— 161 

13i— 15 

18 —19 


14 — 15| 

18 —181 



18 —181 



171— 18i 



173 — 184 


13 — 15i 


For alpaca there has been a steady demand all the year with 
something more than an average consumption, but with few and 
unimportant fluctuations in prices of raw material. The general 
tendency of prices may indeed be described as upward .... 
Manufacturers have been busy both in mohairs and alpacas, and 
the export of mohair and alpaca yarns to Germany and Russia 
has been exceedingly heavy. 


We expected good things from the year 1910, but it has 
brought us more, it has brought us great things. Why, there 
never was such a year in the annals of the Bradford yarn trade ! 
Even 1895, hailed at the time as the annus mirabilis of the 
nineteenth century, and that other giant, 1899, must stand back 
before glorious 1910. We doubt whether even the home trade 
has ever been better in any one year, though there are no figures 
available to prove this. For the export trade, however, we have 
the Board of Trade returns, and they have the word '< Records " 
writ large all over them. We have never sent out so much 
worsted yarn in the eleven months ended November 30th of any 
year — we shall always mean eleven months' periods in the fol- 
lowing — we have never, taking all yarns together, exported 
such a grand total, and we have never but once, in 1907 to wit, 
seen a bigger export figure for alpaca and mohair yarns. Our 
this year's exports of worsted yarns to Germany have been 
surpassed by those of 1899 and 1903, but in weight only, not in 
value, and as for Russia, the figures both for worsted" and for 
mohair yarns stand out as the highest we have ever had for that 



Yarn Expokts. 

Eleven Months ended November 30. 

Woolen, "Worsted, 
and Mohair Tarns. 







"Woolen Yarn 






"Worsted Yarn : 


























United States 

Other Countries . . . 





Yarn, Alpaca, and 




















Other Countries . . . 





Yarn, Hair, or "Wool 
(unenumerated) . 





Our exports of worsted yarns exceeded those of last year by 8 
million pounds ; Germany alone accounted for 3J million pounds 
and Russia for IJ million. Of mohair and alpaca yarns we 
exported 1^ million pounds more than last year, Germany account- 
ing for one million and Russia for ^ million. The wonderful recov- 
ery of Russia since the black year of 1904 speaks volumes for the 
enormous recuperative power of that country. Austria, which is 
not classed separately by the Board of Trade, must be responsible 
for a large part of the increase returned under " Other Countries," 
the conditions in that Empire and in the Balkan States generally 
having become more settled, and the Turkish boycott of Austrian 
goods having gradually died away. France, alas, is not the large 
customer she used to be, at least not for worsted yarns. Her 


takings of such yarns have become considerably less since 1895, 
in which year she took pretty nearly twice as much as in 1910. 
If her mohair imports show a decrease of 190,000 pounds coni pared 
with 1909, this is partly attributable to the increasing preference 
given to artiticial silk in the manufacture of braids and trim- 

The exportation of tops from Bradford grows perceptibly from 
year to year, and has now reached the respectable figure of 39^ mil- 
lion pounds. Perhaps this is not altogether a matter for rejoicing, 
as it shows that other countries are endeavoring more and more 
to spin their own yarns. But then we could not prevent that 
even if we would, and in a year when more yarn orders have 
been coming our way than we could cope with we should not 
grumble. For the same reason we need not be alarmed at the 
growth in the imports of woolen and worsted yarns, the weight 
of which amounted, in round figures, to 25.4 million pounds in 
1910, as against 22 million in 1909. 

The home trade, and for that matter probably the export trade 
as well, has received a special fillip by the establishment in Japan 
of new protective duties on piece goods which are to come into 
force on July 1, 1911, and in consequence of which great 
activity now prevails in the endeavor to turn out goods for the 
Land of the Rising Sun to reach there before that date. 

The blessings of peace have never been more strikingly 
evidenced than by these happy results. For it is to the absence 
of wars or other wides])read disturbances of a similarly serious 
nature, we believe, that we owe our success. True, there have 
been troubles in the labor world, but their effects have been 
local rather than universal, and we have heard far more of 
scarcity of hands than of unemployment. 


The glaring instances of laxity in the treatment of contracts 
which were brought before the Chamber of Commerce by stuff 
and yarn merchants in September have not been the rule, but 
are not so isolated either as some of the members seemed to 
think. It was the contract question over again, only reversed, 
not the merchant or the manufacturer, but the spinner being the 
culprit this time. And it is a case of six of one and half a dozen 
of the other. 

There is in every year, and probably in every trade, a certain 
sprinkling of complaints about faulty or otherwise not quite 
satisfactory deliveries. If — contrary to the experience that in 
busy periods users are less inclined to be critical — this year has 
not been without its sprinkling, the explanation will be found, 
we think, in the difficulties of the labor supply already referred 
to, the training up of new hands thereby necessitated, the 


hurried production and the newness of rovings and yarns, which 
is never to the advantage of the latter. We all know that 
there is no such thing as perfection. But it is astonishing how 
near perfection we can get by intelligent methods and constant 
attention as observed in well-conducted mills. 

Through some of these complaints merchants have often 
been brought into contact with Continental conditioning-houses, 
and it has once more been felt that a uniform method of testing 
adopted by all conditioning-houses, and a generally acknowledged 
standard of permissible margins of deviation would be a bless- 
ing indeed. The experiments which are being conducted by our 
painstaking and able conditioning-house manager witli a view to 
ascertaining the correct " standards of condition '' for the various 
materials employed in our trade should prove of valuable assist- 


The merchant's troubles did not end here. Jn July last he 
was, to his surprise, informed by German forwarding agents 
that, as from the first of that month, new regulations for the 
examination of worsted yarns had been issued to the custom- 
houses by the German authorities. This piece of news was soon 
followed by notifications, according to which first this yarn and 
then another had been challenged by the custom-house as not 
belonging to the category they had been scheduled under up to 
now, but as being liable to a higher duty. The surtax claimed 
amounted to about ^d. or a trifle more per pound. This was 
no joking matter, either for the merchant who had sold, as in a 
good many cases, in German currency inclusive of duty, or for 
the customer who had bought on f. o. b. terms. Protests were 
numerous, but unavailing, appeals to the authorities for reexami- 
nation generally resulted in the confirmation of the first ver- 
dict, and shippers could consider themselves lucky if they 
escaped being fined into the bargain for false declaration of 
contents. The matter was discussed by the Chambers of Com- 
merce of Bradford, Halifax, and Keighley, and a thorough inves- 
tigation of the new method instituted. The report on its result 
was laid before the Bradford Chamber on October 27th, and its 
most salient points are these : The new method appears unfair, 
inasmuch as a length of 2.20 meters only is insufficient to base 
the counts of a yarn or the average length of fibers upon, 
especially as, according to the regulations in question, this length 
of 2.20 meters has to be cut no less than six times, and as further 
one test only is to determine what, to be just, an average of several 
tests should determine. A system which entails the cutting of 
any fibers cannot give the correct length of fibers. Besides, the 
method is too complicated and too delicate for custom-house 
officials to undertake unless specially trained. 


Prices of Yarns. 








■J "a 


:3 m 

^ "■ 

!- C 

£ H 

ij «> 


Q s 

O 3 




3 fc. 

S k. 

OD « 

OQ « 

CO P< 








5. d. 

s. cZ. 

s. d. 

S. <Z. 

s. d. 

1 7i 


8 6 

8 H 

7 9 

1 8 

2 0| 
2 1 
2 04 
2 1 

8 9 

8 6 

7 9 

1 8 
1 7| 

8 9 
8 6 

8 6 
8 3 

7 9 

7 9 


1 Si 
1 8i 

8 6 

8 3 

7 9 


2 1 

8 6 

8 3 

7 9 


1 8^ 
1 9 

2 1 

8 6 

8 4i 
8 9 

7 9 

2 U 




1 9i 
1 H 

2 2 
2 2 


8 9 
8 9 

8 3 

October ... 

8 3 


1 9 

2 U 


8 9 


1 9 

2 U 


8 9 


Worsteds — (Continued). 




t^ . 


>, • 


« 1 




« o 

O 2 

JO p. 

CD ^^ 


° 2 

<o p, 


00 p, 

O 1. 





s. d. 

s. d. 

s. d. 

s. d. 

s. d. 

s. <^. 


7 3 

2 11 

3 1 

July ... 

7 104 

3 2 

3 4 


7 H 

2 11 

3 1 

August. . 

8 14 

3 2 

3 4 

March . . . 

7 U 


3 2 

Sept. . . . 

8 3 

3 2 

3 4 


7 6 

3 1 

3 3 

Oct. .... 

8 3 

3 1 

3 3 


7 9 

3 2 

3 4 

Nov. . . . 

7 104 

3 1 

3 3 


7 lOi 

3 2 

3 4 


7 9 


3 2 



Mohairs and Alpacas. 

January . . 
February . 
March . . . . 





August . . . 
October . . . 

b a 



m p. 

o 9 

■J 3 

2 i" 



i; s 

O I. 


o a 

J° u 

OO Q> 




s. d. 

s. <Z. 

s. d. 

s. d. 

2 9 

2 4 

3 5 


2 9 

2 4 

3 5i 


2 9 

2 4 

3 5i 


2 9 

2 4 

3 5^ 


2 9 

2 4 

3 5^ 


2 9i 

2 4 

3 5^ 

12 3 

2 9^ 

2 4 

3 5i 

12 3 

2 9i 

2 5 

3 5.^ 

12 3 

2 9^ 

2 5 

3 6 

12 4 4 

2 94 

2 5 

3 6 

12 4i 

2 9^ 

2 4^ 

3 6 

12 6 

2 9i 

2 4i 

3 6 

12 6 



10 6 
10 6 


January . . 
February . 
March . . . 
April . . . . 




August . . . 
October . . 



























p. V 

Sc q 























02 g 
















































The piece trade of 1910 gives much cause for satisfaction and 
little for complaint. On the whole it has been quite a good year, 


and in the shipping trade a boom year surpassing even 1907. 
Both manufacturers and merchants have made money, though 
profits have not perhaps been on a scale commensurate with the 
turnover. Prices started on a high level, and went still higher, 
and it is well known that in a rising market those who stand 
farthest removed from the raw material always have the worst 
time. It is the old story of the inelasticity of retail prices. The 
topmaker and the spinner may get their full margin, but the 
manufacturer and the merchant, who have to accommodate them- 
selves to the fixed prices customary in the drapery trade, have 
often to be content with a part only of the advances which they 
themselves had to pay. As we have pointed out before, things 
have a way of righting themselves in the end by a general lower- 
ing of quality, and the ultimate consumer who takes the draper's 
one-and-elevenpenny cloth always to represent the same value 
imagines a vain thing. Ifor the first three months of the year 
the home trade was in an exceedingly healthy state. The effect 
upon it of the death of King Edward in May was much exag- 
gerated at the time, but it was undoubtedly substantial, more or 
less spoiling the season for colored goods without bringing 
adequate compensation in the black department. Serious labor 
troubles in various parts of the country also had an injurious 
influence upon the home trade in the latter half of the year, and 
a wet autumn completed the mischief. 

Of late years the Bradford trade has branched out in so many 
directions, and the variety of fabrics now made is so great, that 
it becomes increasingly difficult to give anything like an adequate 
catalogue of styles. A leading feature of the year has been the 
demand for botany suitings — fabrics more or less in men's styles, 
but suitable for tailor-made dresses. The indispensable requisite 
in a fabric of this kind is that it shall stand pressing with the 
tailor's iron, and hence the quality must be good. There is every 
prospect of this very serviceable style having another good run 
next season. All-wool cheviot suitings have also done well, and 
in the spring there was a big sale for fine navy suitings, the 
demand for which was fostered by the vogue of the " hobble " 
skirt. Like its predecessor, the Directoire costume, the " hobble " 
skirt was too extreme a fashion to last, but it dealt still another 
blow at the moreen skirting trade, which, badly hit before, has 
been quite insignificant this year. 

It has been a good year for tweeds, especially during the latter 
part. The Harris and Donegal style has been most in evidence — 
the rougher the better. Although the tweed trade is not usually 
reckoned as part of the Bradford trade, not a few manufacturers 
have turned their attention to the better class fabrics, and have 
been well rewarded. The rough tweeds have been extensively 
imitated in Batley and Dewsbury. Milled amazons, habit cloths, 
and Venetians have done badly, and voiles also have been out of 


fashion. On the other hand there has been a good plain trade in 
little armure effects, poplins, etc. It may be claimed that the 
wool poplin has practically beaten the French tricot — a similar 
cloth, so named for its knitted appearance — out of the field. 
Some exquisite fabrics have been made in mixtures of wool and 
silk, including plain and fancy satins with spun silk warp and 
Botany weft and imitation Shantungs. All-silk goods, too, are 
made in Bradford to a much greater extent than most people are 
aware of, and the trade is a growing one. The manufacture of 
high-class cotton goods, both with and without the admixture of 
artificial silk, has made tremendous strides, and now occupies an 
important and to all appearances a permanent place in the Brad- 
ford trade. Poplins, voiles, and Shantungs have been the leading 
lines in this department. There is, however, a great range of 
designs and styles, and the beautiful fabrics produced have found 
a ready outlet both in the home and export markets. Cotton 
poplins have done especially well in South America, and they 
have also sold largely in China. 

The bright goods trade has been better than last year, although 
1910 cannot be called a moliair year. Sicilians have accounted 
for the bulk of the trade, and there has been a marked increase 
in the output of mohair suitings for tropical and sub-tropical 
climates. White warp luster figures finished with the "therma- 
line" finish of the Bradford Dyers' Association have likewise 
done well, principally in the South American trade. Single warp 
mohairs with the "permo" finish have made notable progress, 
and promise to keep mohair permanently in fashion as a dress 

Gaberdine makers have been extraordinarily busy throughout 
the year and gaberdine cloth may now be counted as a Bradford 
staple — an article for which there is likely to be a constant and 
steady demand. The general serviceableness of the gaberdine 
and its superior hygienic properties as compared with rubbered 
proofings have obtained for it a well-merited popularity, but there 
is some danger of its reputation suffering injury from the inferior 
makes now being put on the market. The plain twill weave 
which was the characteristic of the original gaberdine is now 
varied by covert effects. 

Judged by output the lining trade has been remarkably good, 
but profits have l)een sadly reduced by the ridiculously high 
prices which have had to be paid for cotton yarns. People who 
had the courage to buy early in the year will have done reason- 
ably well, no doubt ; for others it has been a case of seeing a big 
business done with very little return for it. In the autumn the 
home lining trade was affected by the same influences that pro- 
duced the falling off in the dress trade, and while manufacturers 
had previously been more or less constantly in arrears with 
deliveries it is probable that at the present moment quite a third 
of the looms employed in the lining trade are idle. As was the 


case last year, the trade in Botany and luster linings has been 
largely done in colors. It will be remembered that when cotton 
Italians were first introduced it was feared that they would to 
a large extent oust the Botany Italians which they imitated. 
Fortunately that fear has proved to be groundless. Although the 
finishing of cotton linings was never so good as it is at present, 
they are not taking the places of Botanies and cross-dyes, but 
rather meeting a new need which is largely the result of the 
remarkable development of the making-up trade. 

Large quantities of luster linings bought early in the year for 
the United States were "dumped" in the autumn in Canada, 
greatly to the detriment of what may be called the legitimate 
trade, but in spite of this Canada has been a splendid market, 
and so, also, has Japan. There has been a good trade with the 
Levant, and a very promising market is now being opened up in 

As regards the outlook for the future it must not be forgotten 
that during the depression of three years ago stocks all the 
world over were allowed to run very low. During the past two 
years, therefore, the trade has been doing something more than 
meet the current demand — it has been filling up an empty reser- 
voir. That process is about completed, for while the world's 
stocks are by no means heavy, they are by this time fairly 
substantial, and for the future the trade will depend on the 
current demand alone. At the same time there is nowhere any 
sign that this is diminishing, and the two least satisfactory 
markets, namely, the United States and China, must soon begin 
to show an improvement. A speedy improvement in the home 
trade is practically certain, and with the prospect of a good 
home trade on the top of the present shipping trade Bradford 
should be able to face 1911 with equanimity. 



Woolen and Worsted Exports. 
Twelve Months ended with November — in £1,000^ s. 





Netherlands . . 











United States . 





Uruguay. , 

Argentina .... 
South Africa . . 
East Indies . . . 


New Zealand. . 


Other countries 

Totals ... 


1907. 1909. lOlO 

























































































1007. 1900. 





































































• 196 




















Woolens. Worsteds. 

1908 £9,648 £5,944 

1906 9,790 6.864 

1905 9,130 6,674 

1904 7,257 6,480 

1903 5,753 6,430 

1902 5.566 6,239 

1901 5,247 5,902 

1900 5,868 6,454 

1899 5,269 6,253 


Imports of Wool Fabrics. 
For Twelve Months ended with November — in 1,000 Yards and £1,000^ s. 

1900. . . 


































Value all 





























Note. — The value of cloths imported in the twelve months ended with November this 
year has been £40-1,000, against £406,000 last year; and of the stuffs this year £4,846,000, 
against £5,300,000 last year. We have further to remember that of the total of imported 
wool manufactures, somewhat over £1,000,000 worth is reexported each year. 



It is not pastoral Australia, nor all of the wool growing region 
of Australia, which is dealt with in the vivid, interesting book, 
" On the Wool Track," by C. E. W. Bean and published in New 
York by the John Lane Company. But some day, with the growth 
of population and the spread of urban and rural boundaries, these 
parched and wind-swept tracks of the "outside country " will form 
the last retreat of the Australian sheep husbandry. And so these 
back stations which now sustain less than one-half of the wool 
growing of Australia assume importance as the future center of 
wool growing, when the inevitable pressure of a growing popu- 
lation forces the flocks farther and farther inland. 

Already little lonely homesteads dot the hills and riverflats, 
and there live the men and women who, despite drought and flood, 
are raising their flocks and doing their brave part toward the 
making of Australia. The writer of this book has tried to show 
what the life of these men and women on these back stations 
really is. " The wool industry turns out wool and meat and tal- 


low and glue and cold cream, and many other things. But the 
most important things it turns out are men." And so this book 
deals with the men encountered along the wool track from the 
paddock to the loom. 

Only the hardiest types of men are found in that inhospitable 
country — the red country it is called. "If an Englishman saw 
the country in some years he would probably say it was the old 
Sahara Desert. Some of the explorers did say so. And then 
other explorers went there in other years and said they had found 
a beautiful pastoral country with grass waist-high. And they 
were both right. That country does turn into a Sahara in drought 
time, except where there happens to be scrub upon it. In some 
years the center of it does actually become a desert — a red, sandy 
des^^t, with the surface blown off it and piled in sandhills by 
any wind that comes along. And then down comes the rain in 
the proper part of the month, and the particular grass or herb 
•or even tree, which this extraordinary Australian nature has 
marked up on lier calendar against that particular day or two, 
■comes up and turns the land into a wheattield. It is as though 
England and the Sahara Desert got mixed, and one was always 
Pushing up for the time and effacing the other." 

Such is the red country and throughout it but one change 
could be noted since the first explorers found it. It is the same 
wide, wild, pitiless region that it was when they first saw it, only 
with one exception — the sheep have come. Through toil and 
thirst and death men have made of this wilderness a country in 
any part of which a sheep can live. " That is all. Men can't 
live there. It is when they think they can that they come to 
grief. They have made themselves homesteads — little redoubts 
fifty or a hundred miles apart, where they can defend themselves 
securely enough when they get there. But over the wide spaces 
in between they have to stage from water to water, from tank to 
tank, or well to well. And it was not for them the water was 
dammed or these wells sunk. It was for the sheep. Except for 
the sheep, and the sheep alone, the West would be, and is, to-day 
as the untamed centuries had left it — as the first white man, 
when he came over the red sandhill on the horizon to the edge of 
the pine scrub, found it." 

This is the country which they have found to be exceedingly 
well suited to the growing of fine wool. " It is the land of those 
astonishing grasses which spring up and then vanish for twenty 


years, and then suddenly flush up again to the delight of the 
oldest inhabitant. It is the land of the delicate scrub, which is 
as puzzling as the grass and mostly as useful ; of the mulga, the 
best of all for stock, and one of the prettiest ; of the applebush 
or rosewood or bluebush, which when half dry is fairly good for 
stock ; of the emu-bush, which is very good to eat, as the rabbits 
have found; of the native willow, which is good to make yokes 
of; of the gidgea, which is good for fencing, and which drops 
beans which are good for sheep ; of the leopard-wood, which is 
good feed and bad timber, and crops up again as often as it is 
cut ; of the myall, which is good sheep feed ; of the white-wood, 
which is fairly good ; and the belar, which is very little good ; 
and the wild fuchsia, whose flowers, full of honey, the sheep at 
any rate think to be good ; of the hopbush, which is good for 
yeast, and the beefwood, which is good for timber ; and the dead- 
finish, which may be good for whip handles ; and the budda, 
which is good for nothing, except to keep the surface on the 
ground — to stop the wind from blowing the skin of Australia 
away, and leave her cheek-bones all shiny red and bare and 

This country, its sheep, and its men are pictured in this book 
as they have not been before, by a man who looks deep into the 
heart of the country and of the men who are making it, the men 
who embody the genius of Australia, who can turn their hand to 
any work, who can make wagons, drive engines, forge iron, make 
the saddles they ride in, the whips they use, cobble their boots, 
and turn soap-boxes into furniture. Not without reason does 
the author call them the most capable men in Australia, the Aus- 
tralian handy-men, the men who are producing so much of the 
wealth of the country. 

This district had three record years between 1885 and 1890. 
On 6,000,000 acres in Cobar there were 1,500,000 sheep. Some 
runs carried a sheep to three acres. But by 1895 the drought 
was on the land, and for seven lean years the country was like a 
desert. The sheep were held on the runs in the hope of rain 
till they were too weak to travel. There was not a blade of 
grass on the earth. A loose sand swept over parts of it, and 
covered up even the fences. Every station was reduced to a 
tithe of its stock. Several of the stations have never since carried 
a sheep. The following table of figures gathered between Wil- 



eannie and Broken Hill shows what the drought meant to the 
sheepmen of this inland Australia : 

Name op Station. 








Nuntlierungie , 

Grass mere and Netallie 





Marra and Rosedale . . 

Total Acres. 

998 514 

358,295 "1 
322,327 / 


stock carried 

ia 1907. 






























hefore the 











The copious rains of 1906 demonstrated that the country could 
revive, for up again came the grasses, fresh and green and as 
high as the tops of the fences. The sand had held the grass 
seeds, and with the coming of the rain they burst into life again, 
but the sheep could not return so speedily ; where they carried a 
sheep to five acres or even three acres before, they carry only one 
to fifteen acres now. The stamping out of the rabbit pest and a 
system of irrigation will do much to help this country, and again 
bring the sheep up to the record numbers of earlier years. 

From the red country comes a wool that is in great demand at 
the Sydney auctions. France takes a large part of it — 264,000 
bales last year ; 245,000 for England ; 225,000 for Germany ; 
91,000 for Belgium; 27,000 for the United States, and 8,000 for 
Japan. There are shrewd observers in Sydney who expect to 
see the last-named country rise to first place on the list. As late 
as the Boer War, England bought 64 per cent of all the wool 
from Sydney, and other countries only 36 per cent. Last year 
England bought 28| per cent and other countries 71|- per cent. 
Sydney counts upon American buyers to pick up the best of their 
wool and to pay the best prices for it, but Japan is expected to 


show the greatest relative increase in the amount purchased. 
But back in the red country they care little who manufactures 
the wool so long as they are allowed to raise it. 

Thomas 0. Marvin. 


The " Kidderminster Shuttle," in reviewing the British carpet 
trade in 1910, said: 

The year has witnessed a distinct revival in the British carpet 
trade, and the development has not been confined to one or two 
branches of the industry, for all grades have participated in the 
upward movement. It has probably been more noticeable in the 
finer qualities, and especially in Wiltons, Axminsters and the deep 
pile seamless carpets, which indicate that the middle and upper 
classes have been better off, and able to spend more money on 
the decoration of their homes. 

The fact that the cheaper qualities of Brussels and tapestries 
have not proportionately done as well as the more elaborate and 
expensive fabrics may be due to the trade troubles which have 
been experienced in various parts of the country limiting the 
income of the workers, and the reduced earning power of those 
engaged in the cotton industry. Still, in the aggregate, the year 
has been characterized by exceptional activity. It has been a 
period of expansion all round. Employment has been more 
general, machinery has been kept well going, and a good deal of 
overtime has been found necessary in order to meet the demand 
for quick deliveries. 

The volume of trade has been large. On one day alone one of 
the leading Kidderminster firms despatched 9^ tons of carpets up 
to various parts of the British Isles, and during the same week 
the despatches for oversea markets were almost as heavy. These 
are unusual conditions in the carpet industry, and indicate the 
activity which has prevailed. 

While the home trade has been good the oversea business has 
never been better. During the year nearly 9,000,000 yards of 
carpets and rugs have been sent out by British makers to the 
colonies and foreign countries, an increase of over 30 per cent on 
the previous year, and the value of the goods has exceeded 
£1,250,000 sterling. These figures establish a record for the car- 
pet industry in exports. The satisfactory feature is that every 
country to which carpets have been exported has shown an 
increased trade, while the largest expansions have been with 
Australia, Canada, and South America. South Africa is now 


becoming a good market for carpets. At one time the taste of 
the colonials in floor coverings was of a local character, and car- 
pets had to be specially designed and woven for those markets. 
But of late the colonial taste has become more consolidated and 
British, and the designs and colorings which are in popular 
demand in the home market are to a large extent those sought 
after by the colonials. 

Tapestry trade during the past year has been very variable. 
For the first half of the year it did not share the general pros- 
perity enjoyed by the other sections of the carpet trade. With 
the arrival of September, however, a very much increased demand 
was experienced, and this has continued till the close of the year. 
The prospects for 1911 are distinctly good. The demand for 
seamless carpets has penetrated to this branch of the car[)et 
trade, and preparations to meet this are quietly taking placQ. 
Nearly every firm has had to extend its finishing departments^ 
which, while suitable for narrow goods, did not permit of the 
efiicient handling of the wide seamless carpets. One of the most 
notable features of the year was an advance in prices in July. 
This, while being small, had a steadying and stimulating effect on 
the trade. 

There is a strong desire expressed in some quarters for 
establishing an essentially English school of design in carpet 
production, and no doubt much has been done in that direction. 
There has during the year been a distinct elevation in artistic 
taste on the part of carpet consumers, and to meet this many 
beautiful fabrics, especially in the expensive qualities, have been 
produced. The demand for reproductions of high class Persians 
and other Oriental effects has, however, been well maintained, 
and soft subdued effects have been in good demand. 

The trade during the year in art squares and similar carpets 
has not had the buoyancy in it that has prevailed in the Axmin- 
ster and other pile carpets, largely owing to the fact that the 
prices of Axminster, etc., have been at a somewhat low point, 
and this consequently has added to their popularity. Art 
squares have been, compared with pile carpets, relatively dear, 
and consequently the volume of trade has not kept pace with other 

The outlook is regarded as distinctly bright and hopeful. The 
general trade of the country, and, indeed, of the world, seems 
good, and with a coronation year before them carpet producers 
believe that the achievements of the closing year will not only be 
equalled but excelled, so far as volume of trade is concerned. 

The fly in the ointment has been the unremunerative char- 
acter of the trade. Every one admits that the last reduction in 
prices was a mistake, and yet there is not sufficient combination 
and cohesion among manufacturers to enable them to revert to 
the former price lists. All kinds of raw material, worsted yarns, 


cotton and jute are much dearer than at the beginning of the 
year, and manufacturers have had to bear the strain of a rising 
market throughout the year. It may be stated that worsteds 
have risen during the year quite 20 per cent, cottons 30 per cent, 
and are to-day higher than they have been for one or two 
decades ; jutes are at least 20 per cent higher than at the begin- 
ning of the year, with the probability of increased quotations 
being made at an early date, and linens have also gone up, but 
the rise has not been as pronounced as with the other materials. 
No doubt most of the manufacturers covered their needs for the 
year many months ago, but as the contracts have worked out they 
have had to face the increased demands of the spinners, and the 
immediate future must be viewed with much concern. It seems 
pretty certain that carpets of all grades will be dearer before the 
new year has far advanced. 


MONTHS ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1909 and 1910. 

Gross Imports. 


Wool, Hair op the Camel, Goat, 
Alpaca, etc., and MANurAOTURBS 

Claea 1 — Clothing ( dutiable) — 
Imported from— 

United Kingdom 




Australia and Tasmania . . . 
Other countries 


Clais 2 — Combing (dutiable)- 
Imported from — 

United Kingdom 


South America 

Other countries 


Class 3 — Carpet (dutiable) - 
Imported from — 
United Kingdom . . . . 
Russia in Europe . . . . 

Other Europe 


Chinese Empire 

EaHt Indies 

Turkey in Asia 

Other countries 


Total unmanufactured 

Manufactures of — 
Carpets and Carpeting (duti- 
Imported from — 

United Kingdom 

Turkey In Europe 


Other countries 


Quantities for Twelve 

Months ending 

December 31. 















Values for Twelve 
Months ending 
December 31. 






2,021,573 I 






















312,131,171 180,134,981 $55,530,366 $36,102,447 



Sq. Yards. 





Sq. Yards. 



















WOOL, Etc. 

Gross Imports. — Continued. 


Articles and Codntries. 

Clothing, ready-made, and other 
wearing apparel (dutiable) . . 

Cloths— (dutiable)— 
Imported from — 
United Kingdom 


Germany .... 
Other co'intries . 


Dress Goods, Women's and 
Children's — (dutiable)— 
Imported from — 

United Kingdom 

France ... 


Other countries 


Quantities for Twelve 

Months ending 

December 31. 





Values for Twely* 

Months ending 

December 31. 



Sq. Yards. 





All other (dutiable) . . 
Total manufactures of . 


Sq. Yards. 








































WOOL, Etc.— Concluded. 

Exports of Wool and Manufactures of. 











Wool, Hair of the Camel, Goat, 

Alpaca, etc., and Manufactures 



Class 1— Clothing (dutiable) lbs . 

ClasB 2 — Combing " " . 

Class 3— Carpet " " . 









Total unraanufactured .... 





Manufactures of— 

Carpets and carpeting, sq. yds., 









Clothing, ready made, and other 

Cloths, pounds, dutiable 

Dress goods, women's and chil- 
dren's, sq. yds., dutiable . . . 






Wool, and Manufactures of : 

Wearing apparel 

All other 






Domestic Wools. (George W. Benedict.) 

Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West 

XX anil above 


k Blood 

October. November. December 

Fine Delaine 


Fine . . . 
k Blood . . . 

Fine Delaine 

Michigan, Wisconsin, New York, 



i Blood 

Fine Delaine 


Fine ... 
§ Blood . . . 

Fine Delaine 

Kentucky and Indiana, 
i Blood 

30 (g 31 

29 ,0 30 

33 @ 34 

3:j @ 34 

32 @ 33 

33 © 34 

22 ® 23 

28 @ 29 

28 @ 29 

27 ig 28 

26 @ 27 


Missouiti, Iowa, and Illinois. 


i Blood 


(scoured basis.) 

Spring, tine, 12 iiioutlis 

" " 6 to 8 months 

■' medium, 12 montha 

" " 6 to 8 months . . . 

Fall, line 

" medium 


(scoured BASIS.) 

Spring, Northern, free, 12 months . 
" " " 6 to 8 months 

Fall, free 

" defective 

Territory Wool: Montana, Wyo- 
ming, Utah, Idaho, Oregon, etc. 
(scoured basis.) 
Staple, tine and fine medium . . . . 

" medium 

Clothing, fine 

" " medium ....... 

" medium 

New Mexico. (Spring.) 
(scoured basis.) 

No. 1 

No. 2 

No. 3 ; 

No. 4 

New Mexico. (Fall.) 

(SCOURED basis.) 

No. 1 

No. 2 

No. .3 

No. 4 

Georgia and Southern. 

32 @ 33 

32 g 33 

31 @ .32 

32 a 33 

20 (g 21 

27 @ 28 

27 (g 28 

26 !g 27 

25 3 26 

28 @ 29 
27 ig 28 
22 (g 23 

27 @ 28 
25 @ 26 
22 e 23 

58 @ 60 

52 ® 54 

52 m 64 

47 (g 48 

48 @ 50 
42 @ 43 

55 (3 66 
51 (g 52 
44 ig 45 
35 @ 38 

62 (H 63 

58 @ 69 

56 (g 57 

56 i@ 56 

50 g 51 

55 @ 67 
46 (g 47 
36 Q 37 
34 ig 35 

44 @ 45 

38 ig 40 

33 (ft 34 

30 (g 31 

24 @ 25 

30 @ 31 

29 a 30 

33 (g 34 

33 (g 34 

32 ® 33 

33 (g 34 

22 ig 23 

28 (g 29 

28 @ 29 

27 (g 28 

26 @ 27 

32 § 33 
32 ig 33 

31 (g 32 

32 ® 33 

20 g 21 

27 ig 28 

27 (g 28 

26 @ 27 

25 (g 26 

28 @ 29 
27 @ 28 
22 @ 23 

27 @ 28 
25 g 26 
22 ® 23 

58 g 60 
62 a 64 
52 i 54 

47 g 48 

48 g 50 
42 a 43 

65 g 56 
51 © 52 
44 @ 45 
35 g 38 

62 (S 63 
58 S 59 
56 @ 57 
55 g 56 
50 @ 51 

55 (g 57 
46 @ 47 
36 g 37 
34 (g 35 

44 g 46 
38 (H 40 
33 i 34 
30 a 31 

24 ig 25 

30 @ 31 

29 a 30 

34 (g 35 

33 ig 34 

32 ® 33 

33 e 34 

22 @ 23 

29 @ 30 

28 ® 29 

27 28 

26 S 27 

32 g 33 

32 (g 33 

31 (g 32 

32 ig 33 

20 @ 21 

28 ® 29 

27 (g 28 

26 (g 27 

25 g 26 

28 S 29 
27 (g 28 
22 (g 23 

27 (3 28 
25 Q 26 
22 a 23 

58 ® 60 

62 @ 64 

52 ig 64 

47 @ 48 

48 Ig 60 
42 @ 43 

55 @ 66 
51 @ 62 
44 @ 45 
36 @ 38 

62 (g 63 

58 @ 59 

56 !g 57 

55 ig 56 

60 g 51 

55 @ 57 
46 ® 47 
36 @ 37 
34 @ 35 

44 (g 45 

38 @ 40 

33 (g 34 

30 @ 31 

24 @ 26 



36 ig 37 

34 (g 35 

40 (g 41 

40 (g 41 

38 g 39 

38 (g, 39 

27 @ 28 

36 (g 37 

36 (g 87 

34 @ 35 

31 a 32 

















36 § 37 
34 ig 35 
29 g 30 

36 @ 37 
34 ig 36 

28 g 29 

74 Q 75 
67 ig 68 
66 @ 67 

60 g 62 

61 Q 62 
53 @ 55 

67 (8 69 
62 @ 64 
55 e 57 
40 g 45 

74 (g 76 
68 (8 70 
68 (8 70 
66 « 67 
64 g 66 

57 58 
47 g 50 
43 a 45 

56 @ 57 
49 a 52 
45 3 46 
40 g 42 


Domestic Wool. 

Boston, December 31, 1910. 

The last quarter of the year opened with a rather more active market than 
had been experienced for some months previous. A number of the large 
worsted manufacturers replenished their stocks with good-sized lines and 
this movement served to quicken trade both among the smaller manufac- 
turers and dealers. For a few weeks it seemed as though the tide had turned 
and the outlook was decidedly more hopeful for the prevalence of normal 
conditions in the market. Prices were firmer but quotations were not mate- 
rially changed. 

These fond hopes were of short duration, however, as tiie fall elections, 
accompanied by the Democratic landslide, had a most depressing effect on 
business as it presaged further tariff changes in the near future. The mar- 
ket gradually quieted down and another period of inactivity prevailed through 
the remainder of the year, manufacturers buying only to cover their imme- 
diate wants. 

Statistics show a larger amount of domestic wool on hand than usual at 
the close of the year; but the mills are carrying light supplies, and, should 
the heavy-weight season prove a successful one, undoubtedly the present 
stock of wool will practically all be absorbed before the new clip is ready for 

George W. Benedict. 

Polled Wools. {Scoured basis.) (W. A. Blanchard.) 

Brushed, Extra . 
Fine A . . . . 
A Super .... 
B Super .... 
C Super .... 
Fine Combing . 
Combing .... 
California, Extra 



55 ig 
50 g 
45 ig 
33 a 
55 @ 
45 ig 
55 @ 


82 @65 
55 g 58 
50 3 53 
45 g47 
33 g 38 
54 @ 58 
44 (g 4$ 
54 @ 53 


60 @ 65 
55 g 67 
50 (§53 
43 g 47 
33 ig 3S 
53 @ f.S 
43 ig 48 
53 @ 58 



72 IS 75 
67 3 70 
0(1 .g 65 
53 3 68 
37 3 40 
65 (g 70 
53 a 60 
67 (3 70 

Pulled wools were in fair demand during the quarter and many of the 
large pullers kept their sales well up to production. While most of the wool 
went directly into consumers' hands, dealers were free buyers of certain 
grades, particularly of A and B lambs, as later in the winter the character of 
the pullings changes and the wools grow longer in staple. Prices have been 
steady for the limited range of grades actually pulled in the period, the 
quotations given on the combings being nominal, as few staple wools were 
made and fewer carried over. Low and coarse wools have sold well, also 
grays, which advanced in value three cents a pound during the quarter. 
Choice white A's and B's sold readily at the outside quotations. Business 
fell off a little in December, but the market generally held firm. 

W. A. Blanchard. 

Boston, January 2, 1931. 


Foreign Wools. (Mauger & Avery.) 

A.u8tralian Combing : 




Australian Clothing ; 




Sydney and Queensland : 

Good Clothing 

Good Combing 

Australian Crossbred : 



Australian Lambs : 



Good Defective 

Cape of Good Hope : 



&f ontevideo : 



Crossbred, Choice 

Knglish Wools : 

Sussex Fleece 

Shropshire Hogs 

Yorkshire Hogs 

Irish Selected Fleece .... 
Carpet Wools : 

Scotch Highland, White . . 

East India, 1st White Joria . 

East India, White Kandahar 

Donskoi, Washed, White . 

Aleppo, White 

China Ball, White 

" " No. 1, Open . . 

'• " No. 2, Open . . 











@ 38 

@ 22 
@ 26 
@ 23 


40 @ 41 

37 @ 39 

35 @ 37 

40 @41 

35 @37 

35 @36 

35 @ 37 

36 (g38 

37 3 40 

34 @ 36 

42 @ 46 

39 (g 40 

35 @ 36 

34 @ 35 

31 @ 33 

34 ig 35 
31 (g 33 

35 @ 39 

40 @ 42 
40 @ 42 

36 @38 

21 @ 22 
30 @32 
24 @26 
32 @ 34 

22 @ 23 
22 (g 24 
20 @ 21 
13 @ 14 


40 @41 

36 ig38 

35 @37 

40 @42 

36 © 38 
35 © 36 

35 @ 39 

36 @ 38 

37 @ 40 

34 @ 36 

42 @ 46 

39 @ 40 

35 @ 36 

34 @ 35 
32 @33 

35 @ 36 
31 @ 33 

35 ® 39 

40 § 42 
40 @ 42 

36 @ 38 

21 @ 23 
SO ©32 
24 © 26 
32 © 34 

22 @ 25 
22 © 24 
20 © 21 
13 © 14 



42 ® 44 

40 41 

30 © 40 

42 i3 43 

40 a 41 

38 & 40 

40 & 41 

42 ® 43 

42 (S43 

36 38 

42 ® 46 
40 ® 43 

35 38 

85 @ 37 

32 33 

85 37 

33 34 

37 9 39 

43 44 
42 @44 
37 O 38 

36 ©37 

22 24 

32 ©33 

26 ©28 

32 © 34 

32 34 

22 © 23 

20 ©21 

13 @ 14 

Foreign Wools. 

The last quarter of the year showed no improvement over those preced- 
ing it. The demand for foreign wools generally was very much restricted, 
and with increasing anxiety on the part of sellers, values continued in 
buyer's favor and prices were a little below the cost of importation. 

Stocks of all classes of imported wools in bonded warehouses have been 
steadily depleted without causing any betterment in prices. 

Carpet wools have been in principal demand during the quarter, the seem- 
ing scarcity of third class wools abroad compelling buyers to look into 
stocks on this side. Low values of domestic crossbreds have tended to 
exclude English and similar wools from the current demand. 

Orders from America for South American and Australian wools this 
season, owing to unfavorable conditions here, have been of a very limited 
amount compared with last year. 

Boston, January 3, 1911. 

182 national association of wool manufacturers. 

Charles W. Leonard. 
James M. Prendergast. 
Philip Stockton. 
William H. Wellington. 
WiNTHROP L. Marvin, Secretary. 

Invitations were issued in the name of the committee ~to 
several hundred of Mr. Whitman's personal friends and busi- 
ness associates in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Provi- 
dence, Lawrence, New Bedford, Fall River, and other cities. 
The scope of the plan for the dinner was a broad one. It 
was recognized by the committee that Mr. Whitman's great 
work as an upbuilder of industry appealed to men of all 
shades of political and economic belief, and the result was a 
gathering of important business men such as is seldom seen 
in Boston. 

The presiding officer at the dinner was John P. Wood of 
Philadelphia, the successor of Mr. Whitman in the presi- 
dency of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers. 
The toastmaster was Hon. John D. Long, one of the most 
distinguished citizens of the Commonwealth — a former 
Governor, member of Congress, and Secretary of the Navy 
during the war with Spain. The speakers represented a wide 
range of interests. 

The dinner was held in the large ballroom of the Hotel 
Somerset at 7 p.m., and was preceded by a reception beginning 
at six-thirt}^, where Mr. Whitman received the direct personal 
congratulations of the guests. The committee on arrange- 
ments was assisted at this reception by : 

Samuel G. Adams. 
Andrew Adie. 
F. H. Carpenter. 
Joseph R. Grundy. 

in honor of william whitman. 183 

George E. Kunhardt. 
Daniel D. Morss. 
Richard S. Russell. 
C. J. tl. Woodbury. 

At the dinner Mr. Whitman sat on the right hand of 
President Wood, and at Mr. Wood's left hand was Governor 
Long. Other gentlemen at the head table were Dr. Richard 
C. Maclaurin, President of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology ; Hon. Eben S. Draper, ex-Governor of the Com- 
monwealth ; Franklin W. Hobbs, President of the National 
Association of Cotton Manufacturers and Treasurer of the 
Arlington Mills ; Hon. Samuel L. Powers, ex-Represencative 
in Congress from Mr. Whitman's district ; Hon. John T. 
Cahill, Mayor of Lawrence; George S. Smith, President of 
the Boston Chamber of Commerce ; Judge William A. Day 
of New York, President of the Equitable Life Assurance 
Society, in which Mr. Whitman had long served as a fellow- 
director; John Hopewell, of L. C. Chase & Company, chair- 
man of the committee on arrangements ; Colonel George H. 
Doty, Assistant Treasurer of the United States at Boston ; 
Clarence Whitman, of Clarence Whitman & Company of New 
York, a brother of Mr. Whitman ; Stephen O'Meara, Police 
Commissioner of Boston ; Frederic C. Dumaine, President of 
the Arkwright Club ; Hon. William B. Plunkett of North 
Adams ; Frederic S. Clark, President of the American Asso- 
ciation of Woolen and Worsted Manufacturers and Vice- 
President of the National Association of Wool Manufactu- 
rers ; Charles H. Hutchins of Worcester, Vice-President of 
the Home Market Club, and Frederic P. Vinton of Boston, 
the eminent artist who has painted Mr. Whitman's portrait. 

In opening the speech-making after the dinner President 
Wood of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers 
said : 



It is, I presume, because the Association for which I am 
commissioned to speak upon this occasion is the oklest of 
the national trade organizations, and the first to engage the 
interest of our guest of honor, that I am privileged to address 
you first. 

In certain high altitudes of government it has lately 
become fashionable to characterize as obsolete anything that 
has existed for so great a period of time as thirty years. 
But I confess to a respect for venerable institutions, be they 
associations or laws, that have stood the test of time without 
impairment of principle or usefulness. 

The Association of Wool Manufacturers after nearly half 
a century of existence still holds true to the high purpose 
which brought it into being ; and having witnessed the rise 
and fall, the death and burial of many public agitations 
begotten by political demagogy and born of popular hysteria, 
I doubt not it will survive the present campaign of abuse 
and untruth, to abundantl}^ justify the cause for which it 
has faithfully and fearlessly labored. 

In an address delivered at a convention of manufacturers 
and growers of wool held in Syracuse about the time when 
Mr. Whitman began his activity in this great industry, a 
distinguished secretary of the Wool Manufacturers Associa- 
tion said : 

" We are as yet in our infancy in our manufactures. The 
work before us is to clothe all the people of the United States 
with our wool and our fabrics. We have just commenced 
the work, and when a full supply of raw material is furnished, 
and grower and manufacturer are encouraged by a stable 
system of protection, the imagination can hardly conceive 
the grand field which will be opened in this country in the 
industry of wool and woolens." 


Dr. Hayes' anticipation, so far as it referred to domestic 
wool manufacture, is now a fact accomplished. Since that 


time the industry has been developed and expanded until at 
the present time the woolen mills of the United States are 
abundantly able to produce all the woolen and worsted goods 
required for the clothing of our entire population. 

Foremost among the pioneers who blazed the way for the 
wonderful expansion of this industry to its present propor- 
tions is the distinguished guest in whose honor we have 
come together to-night. 

Combining with an unusual skill in affairs, a keen fore- 
sight, abounding faith and sublime courage, bold conceptions 
were by him made practical realities. 

Possessing a public confidence in his ability and rectitude, 
capital, always shy, and sometimes wayward, at his command 
was directed to channels of industrial usefulness that liave 
brought to the communities in which his activities have been 
exercised benefits too vast to be calculable. 

Endowed with intellectual qualities that peculiarly fitted 
him for the study and exposition of economic problems, he 
might more easily have won distinction in an academic life. 
But the world has been the gainer through the application 
of those great talents to the practical problems of commerce 
and industry. 


Permit me to interject a speculative inquiry here. In 
recent years some of the great institutions of learning in this 
country and abroad have instituted the practice of inter- 
changing professors for a term, the purpose being to create a 
broader and more liberal scholastic atmosphere in the several 
seats of wisdom. Would it not be of incalculable benefit if 
this idea could be given a further extension, to the end that 
there might be for brief periods a similar interchange between 
the institutions of learning and those institutions engaged in 
performing the world's work? Imagine, if you please, our 
honored guest exchanging chairs with a learned professor of 
political economy in a famous university not far distant, and 
ask yourselves whether the collegians or the personnel of the 


mills would derive the greatest benefit from the teaching of 
the visiting instructors. 

The domain of our guest's activities has been a wide and 
varied one. I come from a single field of his labors to bear 
testimony to his service therein. 

For a generation past Mr. William Whitman has been the 
guiding spirit in the counsels of the National Association of 
Wool Manufacturers and for upwards of seventeen years has 
served as its president. His colleagues in tlie membership 
of that Association desire to fittingly commemorate this 
long, faithful and able service, and I crave your indulgence 
for availing of this occasion to announce the presentation to 
Mr. Whitman on behalf and in the name of the National 
Association of Wool Manufacturers of a portrait, painted by 
your eminent townsman, Mr. Frederic P. Vinton, the 
acceptance of which we ask as an evidence of our regard, 
esteem and appreciation. (Applause.) 

It would be an act of the greatest presumption upon my 
part to venture to introduce to this audience a fellow citizen 
of yours so distinguished that his name has become a house- 
hold word, not less for the great service that he has rendered 
to the state and the nation than for his charming personality. 
I shall therefore avoid any formal introduction and simply 
now invite to act as your chairman and toastmaster the 
Hon. John D. Long. (Great applause.) 


Mr. President : You have given me the easiest place of 
all. General Butler and Governor Talbot were once at a 
military ball in Lowell. They were leaning unoccupied 
against the wall, and in the lack of other conversation Gov- 
ernor Talbot said to General Butler, " General, don't 3'ou 
dance?" "No," said the General,"! make other people 
dance." A man who could make as good a retort as that 
ought to have a bronze statue erected to his memory. 
(Laughter and applause.) I am not going to dance to-night ; 
I am going to make these other fellows dance, and naturally 
the inference is that I ought to have a bronze statue, too. 


(Laughter, and a voice " You will." ) I hope mj enthusiastic 
friend will not think of putting that project into execution 
at once. Will he kindly defer it a few yeai-s ? 

Well, to' be serious, gentlemen, I am very happy indeed to 
act as toastmaster at this dinner given in honor not only of a 
man but also of the interests he represents (applause) — not 
his interests alone, not merely the interests of capital, repre- 
sented so largely here to-night, but the interests of a great 
industry, which involves the welfare and the fortunes of 
the very foundation of our institutions, and that is labor. 

As the President has said, oitr guest has been President of 
the National Association of Wool Manufacturers for seven- 
teen out of its forty years of existence. From the hard 
beginning of an errand boy in a Boston commission house he 
has risen till he stands as the highest authority in our 
national cotton and woolen industries and the most con- 
spicuous figure in that realm. (Applause.) 

Under his directing hand are half a dozen of the very 
largest cotton and woolen mills in this Commonwealth. The 
annual output, as you know, is enormous. The annual 
wages, I think $6,000,000, are paid to 15,000 employees, mak- 
ing with their families perhaps 75,000 people in Massachu- 
setts whose comfortable homes and whose large opportunities 
for education and free American life are the best evidence of 
that superiority in the condition of its labor which marks 
Massachusetts, and to which this man has contributed by his 
pen, his word, and still more by his constant, strenuous 
effort. (Applause.) That is what he has done for labor. 

When you further consider that there are something like 
140,000 persons in our Commonwealth emplo3^ed in the 
same lines, their product $250,000,000 a year, their wages 
$50,000,000 a year, constituting with their families perhaps 
half a million or more persons who are dependent upon the 
continued successful operation of this industry, you may 
well hesitate at any such impairment of a fostering system as 
shall tend to stop its mills, to reduce its wages or strike at 
the welfare of those who have most, because it is their all, at 
stake. (Applause.) 



It certainly is not too much to say, as has already been 
intimated by you, Mr. President, that in recent years our 
guest has been the dynamo whose force has held and directed 
this industrial development. More than any other man he 
has contributed to its literature of argument and exposition. 
His reputation to-day is national. With the courage of his 
convictions, — and nobody ever doubts that (laughter and 
applause), — with the courage of his convictions he has not 
hesitated to make himself a target to opposing forces and has 
arrayed against himself often bitter and stinging criticism. 
But let him remember that while in our public life there is 
nothing better than honest and outspoken difference of 
opinion, free to us all, there has never been the slightest per- 
sonal reflection upon him, and that he commands to-day, and 
always has commanded, the respect and trust of those who 
have fought him hardest. (Applause.) This gathering, 
utterly non-partisan, of Democrats and Republicans, men who 
have been candidates for the governorship on both sides 
(laughter), is their common, united tribute to him, not in any 
narrow capacity, but in the broadest recognition of his life and 
services as a merchant, as a manufacturer and best of all as a 
good citizen. (Applause.) In these cordial and welcoming 
faces, these faces here typical of a host more, let him read 
that best of all rewards, " Well done." (Renewed applause.) 

I must not, however, forget that I am here to enforce one 
parliamentary rule, and that is that no speaker, with the 
exception of our guest who is unlimited in that respect, shall 
exceed ten minutes. Gentlemen on the platform will please 
take notice. (Laughter.) 

Naturally we should turn first of all to the head of our 
Commonwealth. Governor Foss seems to be making good. 
He, too, speaks his mind ; and he, too, is in the cotton 
interest. But he is detained to-night, much to his regret, by 
a previous engagement at Worcester, and I will ask Mr. 
Hopewell to read his very cordial letter of tribute and 
regret. Mr. Hopewell, will you read the Governor's letter ? 


Mr. John Hopewell said: Mr. Toastmaster, as I am 
informed that there is a little delicacy between the Governor 
of a commonwealth and the members of the Senate, with 
the Governor's indulgence I will read first some letters from 
the Senate of the United States, and then I will read the 
Governor's letter. 

My dear Mr. Marvin : 

Your letter of the 16th instant is received. I am sorry 
that my duties here will prevent me from attending the 
dinner that is to be given to Mr. William Whitman on April 
26th, but I thank you and through you the committee having 
the dinner in charge for their kindness in inviting me. Mr. 
Whitman has been a great leader in the textile business and 
his services in behalf of protection to New England indus- 
tries have been of inestimable value, and I am glad that his 
associates are going to recognize him in this way. 

Sincerely yours, 

W. M. Crane. 

We have a great many letters, and it is impossible to read 
them all. We have also a letter from Senator Lodge regret- 
ting his inability to be with us and join with us to-night, and 
this letter from the distinguished senior Senator from New 
Hampshire : 

United Statks Senate, 

Washington, April 20, 1911. 

My dear Mr. Marvin : 

It is a matter of real regret to me that I am unable to 
accept the invitation to the dinner to Mr. William Whitman, 
on the 26th day of April. I would like very much indeed 
to have the privilege of taking him by the hand on that 
occasion, as well as to give him and his friends my renewed 
assurance of sj-mpathy and cooperation in the work in which 
he has so long been engaged. In these days of so-called 
reform, when an attack upon the protective policy of the 
country is imminent, it is well for real friends of the protec- 
tive policy to take counsel together, and do what they can to 
avert a calamity that is sure to come to the country if the 


present program of the Democratic majority in the House of 
Representatives becomes an accomplished fact. 

Be good enough personally to extend to Mr. Whitman my 
assurances of regard and good will, and trusting that the 
occasion may be one of rare pleasure and profit to all who 
may be privileged to attend, know me to be, 

Most cordially yours, 

J. H. Gallinger. 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
Executive Chamber, 

State House, Boston, April 24, 1911. 

Mr. John Hopewell, Chairman^ 

683 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass. 

My dear Sir : I acknowledge with many thanks your 
letter of April 12th and accompanying invitation to a recep- 
tion and dinner in honor of Mr. William Whitman at Hotel 
Somerset, Boston, on April 26th. 

Several weeks before receiving this invitation I had 
accepted an invitation to attend the annual banquet of the 
Worcester Board of Trade on the same date ; and if it is 
possible for me to get away at all on that day I feel that I 
must go to Worcester. 

I wish you would convey to your associates on the com- 
mittee my warm appreciation of the invitation and my real- 
izing sense of the distinction which Mr. Whitman has 
worthily attained in the Commonwealth. 

It would afford me deep gratification to be present and pay 
my tribute to Mr. Whitman in person, if I could do so. 

Very truly yours, 

E. N. Foss. 

State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 
Executive Department, 

Providence, April 18, 1911. 

Mr. Winthrop L. Marvin, 

683 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass. 

My dear Sir: I regret extremely that I shall be unable 
to be present, in response to the cordial invitation of the 
committee, at the dinner in honor of Mr. William Whitman 
at the Hotel Somerset, on the evening of the 26th instant. 

I should be most happy to be one of the many who will pay 
homage to Mr. Whitman on that occasion, but I am compelled 


by force of circumstances and a strenuous period in state 
legislation to confine myself to my duties here for the 
remainder of the present month. 

Assuring you and the members of the committee of my 
deep appreciation of the lionor conferred by your invitation, 
and trusting that you will convey to the distinguished guest 
of the evening my sincere personal compliments, I am. 

Yours very truly, 



There have been innumerable letters from distinguished 
men from all over the country, but the time is so limited I 
can only read a few. I have one here from a man who stands 
at the head of the largest wool manufacture in the world, who 
cannot be present, but who sends this letter, a portion of 
which I will read : 

Mr. John P. Wood, President, 

National Association of Wool Manufacturers, 

521 North 22d St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dear Mr. Wood : I had hoped to be present with you at 
the dinner in honor of Mr. William Whitman on April 26th, 
but cannot have the pleasure. However, I am very glad that 
our company will be fully represented on that evening. . . . 

The vast modern development of the textile manufacturing 
industry in New England has nearly all come within Mr, 
Whitman's lifetime. He has not merely witnessed it ; he has 
been a great part of it himself. For his energy, his sagacity, 
his courage, his power to plan and create, we manufacturers 
all owe William Whitman an imperishable debt of gratitude. 
He is distinctively one of the great men of our time. It is a 
proud privilege to know him. No tribute that can possibly 
be paid to him, to his character and his achievements, will be 

I am very truly yours, 

Wm. M. Wood. 

The Toastmaster. — We will give the rest of the letter- 
writers leave to report in print. Having heard from them, 
we will now proceed to enjoy ourselves. (Laughter.) 


Technical education lies very near the textile arts. I have 
emphasized the element of labor ; I hope to see the time 
come when the man at his loom will regard himself as much 
an artist as the poet or the sculptor or the painter. The 
whole tendency is to make all employment to-day, what it 
should be, a fine art, whether it be domestic labor, or the 
labor of the loom, or the labor of the mechanic-, — the exal- 
tation of hand labor to the artistic ideal. Who shall speak 
to us of that relation better than the present head of the 
Institute of Technolog}', the parent of these textile schools, 
which the State is encouraging and helping and which are 
doing so much for the education of the hand as well as of 
the mind. I call upon Dr. Richard C. Maclaurin, President 
of the Institute of Technology. (Great applause.) 


Mr. Toastmaster, Mr. Whitman, and Gentlemen: 
On an occasion like this one would like to appear as a busi- 
ness man, but I have no claims to that high honor. I am 
here, as has been suggested, as a representative of the 
schools, and I am glad in such a capacity to take part in this 
tribute of respect and of admiration for the splendid work 
of a great man of business. 

The world of business and the world of education have 
long been too far separated, but they are coming together 
at last. Following the cue of your President I have 
to-night invited Mr. Whitman to assume tlie honorable and 
lucrative position of a professor at the Institute of Tech- 
nology. (Applause.) Should he see fit to accept that invita- 
tion he would be welcomed to the Institute with unbounded 
enthusiasm. No institution has done more than that one to 
bring together the worlds of business and of learning, and 
none believes more firmly that the bringing together of those 
two worlds is one of the best seeds of promise for the future 
of this country. 


I have been reminded by Mr. Whitman to-night that that 
Institute of Technoh)gy in its early days, as ever since, 
owed great things to the business men of Boston. Such 
men as Mr. E. B. Bigelow and Mr, J. M. Beebe were the 
men who fifty years ago saw that there was something dis- 
tinctly lacking in the educational system of the day. They 
saw that the older schools, splendid as some of them were, 
neglected too much some of the great practical affairs of life, 
devoted their attention too exclusively to training men for 
the older professions, failed to recognize that in the changes 
of time new professions had arisen quite as important to the 
welfare of society and of tremendous potential power in the 
business world. We owe much to those shrewd men of 
business of fifty years ago. They saw clearly enough that 
technical education was a good business investment, and 
through the foundation of the Institute of Technology and 
of textile schools and other similar institutions in this com- 
munity they did great things to introduce this modern idea' 
of practical education into the world as a whole. Their idea 
was a new idea fifty years ago ; it is a commonplace to-day. 
The Institute of Technology within the last few days has been 
celebrating its fiftieth anniversary and we have had from all 
parts of this Commonwealth testinion}^ that the business 
men of to-day recognize the importance of that kind of 
education and see quite clearly now what only a few saw 
then, that those shrewd, sagacious business men were per- 
fectly right, and that they rendered a splendid service to 
education when they broke into the field fifty years ago. 

I am not here to talk about the Institute of Technology, 
but these recent celebrations to which I have referred have 
suggested to ni}^ mind that on a congratulatory occasion such 
as this it is not improper to dissect the subject that is being 
extolled, to lay bare for our edification the reasons that have 
explained in a sense the great achievements that w^e are all 
talking about, and it occurs to me to repeat one of the expla- 
nations of the success of the Institute of Technology, because 
it seems to me peculiarly relevant to this occasion. 



It was said a few days ago that the success of the Institute 
of Technology was a perfectly simple thing ; its secret was 
just this : that the Institute had from the very outset a clear 
view of the object aimed at; it had from the very outset per- 
fectly definite ideas (whether they were right or wrong) as to 
how it was going to reach that object; it had never allowed 
itself to be turned aside from its purpose, and, in a single 
word, it had ahvarjs stuck to business. The doctrine of stick- 
ing to business is somewhat old-fashioned to-day, but I 
believe that our guest to-night could, if he would, preach an 
eloquent sermon from that text. 

The wiseacres tell us on every hand that we are passing 
through a period of transition, as if every thinking man did 
not know that every period is a period of transition. The 
truth is, however, that some periods of transition are a little 
more uncomfortable in their adjuncts than are others. Thus, 
in England, we have the suffragettes, of whom their critics 
say that they have ceased to be ladies and have not yet 
become gentlemen, and we have in the business world of this 
country a number of people who seem to have ceased to be 
individualists and have not yet become socialists. They talk 
a great deal about the service of society, a splendid ideal of 
course, but in practice it seems too often to take the form of 
neglecting your own affairs and harassing other people as to 
the conduct of theirs. (Laughter and applause.) It gives 
rise to much loose talk as to the antithesis between the social 
and the individual aim. There is no necessary antagonism at 
all, for if a man really sticks to business, if he devotes himself 
to his afPairs with no narrow, no purely selfish spirit, if he sets 
himself heart and soul to do his own business thoroughly well 
in all its details, then, like our guest of honor to-night, he is 
not only a successful business man ; he renders, gentlemen, a 
splendid service to society as a whole. (Continued applause.) 

The Toastmaster. — Mr. Whitman's services have not 
been limited to any one line of usefulness. You all know 


how valuable his aid was in the rehabilitation of that great 
insurance company, the Equitable Life Assurance Society 
(applause), and we are very fortunate in having with us its 
President, Judge William A. Day, of New York, whom I 
now present to you. 


I must confess a feeling of timidity, if not of awe, in 
standing before a Massachusetts audience. It is the first 
time I have ever done so. Born and reared in one of the 
distant and older colonial States, I was taught from youth to 
revere Massachusetts for her glorious history, her enlight- 
ened institutions and great host of illustiious sons. I learned 
to look upon a citizen of your Commonwealth as distin- 
guished among men, and oftentimes coveted the honor of 
being able to say, " I am a citizen of Massachusetts." 

To be justly acclaimed by fellow citizens of the State one 
of Massachusetts' worthies is an honor of which any man 
might well feel proud. This gathering of citizens from 
diverse fields of activity, presided over by one of the nation's 
worthies, who has added luster to the fame of his State in 
the highest counsels of the nation, testifies eloquently, quite 
as much as what has been and will be said, that on that 
exalted plane have you placed William Whitman. That is 
a democracy's highest honor because it can only be born of 
a man's works. I count it a high privilege to partake of 
your feast and join in this tribute of good will and esteem 
to so deserving a man. 

For five and a half years it has been my privilege to be 
closely associated with Mr. Whitman, as Governor Long has 
said, in his efforts to rehabilitate the Equitable Life Assur- 
ance Society. You doubtless well remember the apprehen- 
sion and dread that was felt throughout the country at the 
disclosures made in the course of an investigation of some of 
the life insurance companies of the State of New Yoi-k. 
This feeling was fully shared by the people of the New 
England States, always justly celebrated for their thrift and 


providence. In these States the Equitable Society alone 
had forty thousand policyholders who carried insurance 
aggregating seventy millions of dollars, the reserve on which 
exceeded twenty millions of dollars. In many instances the 
policies represented entire fortunes, the savings of a lifetime, 
and naturally the holders were alarmed by the stress laid 
by the press on the revelations. Realizing the strength of 
unit}^ these people organized what was termed " The New 
England Policyholders Protective Committee." They recog- 
nized the need of effective leadership and that the post called 
for a man of honor, high intelligence, and force who would 
take charge of these sacred interests pro bono publico. In 
praise of their wisdom and his disinterested public spirit, be 
it said, they chose William Whitman, chairman, and he 
accepted. Man of large affairs that he is, he well knew the 
duties involved in that position meant a great deal of valu- 
able time, thought, and labor, without material reward of 
any kind. He cheerfully gave all that was necessary to 
accomplish the purpose of the organization. To his honor 
it should be said that the pernicious practices and unsound 
methods which had been indulged in by certain insurance 
managers, and brought universal condemnation, have been 
relegated to the realm of the impossible largely through Mr. 
Whitman's efforts and cooperation with the Armstrong Com- 
mittee in the direction of reform. Not all the recommenda- 
tions of that Committee could Mr. Whitman agree to, but in 
the main the substantial reforms adopted were those he 

You will perhaps also remember that in the month of 
June, 1905, before the Armstrong Committee had begun its 
work, Grover Cleveland, Judge Morgan J. O'Brien, and 
George Westinghouse were appointed trustees of the 
majority of the shares of the capital stock of the Equitable 
Society by Mr. Thomas F. Ryan, who had recently acquired 
it. The stock was conveyed to these trustees with plenary 
power for its use in the reformation of the directorate of the 
Society, and the free and undisturbed exercise of their 
judgment to assure the policyholders that their interests were 


in safe hands. Moved by the gravity of the situation and 
the need of the hour the trustees proceeded to select quali- 
fied men, of whose fidelity there could be no question, for 
directors. Among the first selected, to whom Grover Cleve- 
land and his colleagues gave full faith and confidence, was 
Mr. Whitman. 


The new insurance laws of New York were drastic. All 
that legislation could do to make men faithful to fiduciary 
obligations was intended to be done by the Armstrong laws. 
Not fully satisfied with results of those laws, Mr. Whitman 
drafted, as the active head of a committee of directors 
appointed for the purpose, an improved scheme of internal 
government for the Equitable, and it was crystallized in the 
by-laws of the Society. The scheme provided checks and 
balances on the powers of officials which, Avith the laws on 
the subject, I believe effectually prevents any recurrence of 
conduct approaching that which caused the anxiety of six 
years ago. Subsequent experience has abundantly proven the 
wisdom and sagacity of Mr. Whitman in this vital matter. 

Perhaps I may be pardoned for believing that these 
accomplishments are not the least of Mr. Whitman's record. 
When you consider the millions of people affected by the 
security of life insurance protection, and the Equitable 
Society with its 500,000 policyholders and five hundred 
millions of dollars of assets, managed by officials selected by 
the Board of Directors, you get some idea of the magnitude 
of the task he unselfishly undertook and capably discharged. 
His services on our Board have been faithful and of high 

Gentlemen : In bringing these leaves for the laurel wreath 
of esteem and affection we weave for Mr. Whitman to-night, 
I express the gratitude of those thousands of beneficiaries of 
his labors whom he can never know. We justly honor him 
who put public advantage over private interest, and declining 
to be merely a sympathizer, toiled for those results that 
would protect the widows and orphans and reestablish the 


fundamental faith of the people in the beneficence of 
American life insurance. 

If I could characterize in a word or two the impressions 
made upon me by observation and association of five and 
one-half years with William Whitman those words would be 
" Conscientious and Efficient." (Applause.) 

The Toastmastbr. — Just think of the joinder of Grover 
Cleveland and William Whitman. (Laughter.) I wonder 
if they discussed the tariff. (Laughter.) 

Mr. Day, if you hadn't said that you felt a little timid 
nobody would have believed it. The idea of an insurance 
man being timid ! (Laughter.) And if you had opened 
your heart to me before the speaking began I could have 
told you that a Boston audience is the most good-natured in 
the world, after eating and — eating. (Laughter.) In that 
condition, I can say, after a long experience, that they will 
bear anything (renewed laughter), especially such a charming 
and cordial address as you have just made. (Applause.) 

I have always wished that my friend — I came very near 
saying Sam, but my friend Hon. Samuel L. Powers (ap- 
plause), had been like one or two gentlemen whom I see in 
this audience, a capitalist, for then he could have remained 
in Congress. Perhaps no man in his early service there 
made a stronger impression from the very first upon his 
country and fellow congressmen. Could he have remained 
I am sure that with his interest in Massachusetts industrial 
and commercial development, he would have rendered us 
still more most admirable service. I believe that he is pre- 
pared, not specially for this occasion let me say, but always, 
to speak upon the relation of those interests to national legis- 
lation, and if he will only mingle a little of his charming 
humor we shall be under still greater obligation to him, for 

a little nonsense now and then 
Is relished by the best of men. 


The Hon. Samuel (applause, every one rising) — they are 
so eager to applaud you they would not wait for the full 
mention of your name. 

hon. samuel l. powers. 

Mr. Toastmaster, Mr. Whitman, and Mr. Whit- 
man's Friends : No one can be more gratified than I am 
to join you to-night in paying tribute to one of the greatest 
men in tlie industrial world to-day. (Voices : " Right," and 

As I have looked over the list of speakers I have been 
somewhat in doubt where I fit in. I notice that all the 
speakers to-night either represent great interests or great 
institutions. Personally I represent nothing. (Laughter.) 
I'll tell you what I represent to-night, I represent the ulti- 
mate consumer, and as I look over this audience I am inclined 
to think I am the only ultimate consumer here to-night. 
(Renewed laughter.) 

You have been good enough, Mr. Toastmaster, to refer to 
my once having been in Congress. Most people have 
forgotten that, and if it were not for you and otlier men with 
generous hearts it would entirely fade away. But I remem- 
ber very well six j^ears ago when I retired from Congress 
receiving a very magnificent banquet of this kind, in which 
there were a great many things said that were not true. 
There has been nothing said here to-night, and there will be 
nothing said here to-night, that is not true. But I remember 
that I never received such an ovation in my life as I did 
when I retired from public life. (Laughter.) One of the 
principal speakers said, and I think the audience believed 
him, that the greatest service I had rendered the public was 
my retirement. (Laughter.) There was one condition, how- 
ever, imposed upon me before I accepted that dinner, and that 
was that I should never be a candidate again for public office. 
I assume that that condition is in no way imposed upon our 
distinguished guest. He has not got to retire from manu- 
facturing, nor has he got to retire from his interest in life 
insurance and other great interests. (Applause.) 

I had the honor, however, when I was in Congress, of 


representing Mr. Whitman. I think he was the best constit- 
uent I had in my district. He never so much as ever 
asked me even for seeds for his garden, and what was more, 
he was a very considerate man. He never found any fault 
with my service, and I appreciate that very much, because I 
had always understood that Mr. Wliitman was a man who 
spoke his mind. 

It mnst be a great satisfaction to our distinguished guest 
to find some four hundred gentlemen of the character of 
those present this evening to come here and to say that they 
believe in him and that they appreciate the great service 
which he has rendered. We live, my friends, at a time 
when the tendency is for men to lose confidence in their 
fellow men. We are drifting towards what is called pure 
democracy (laughter), and by that I mean it in no partisan 
sense but in the broad sense. We are up against what is 
called the initiative, the referendum, the recall, and also the 
direct primary, in which everybody takes part. Why, just 
think what kind of Governors we might have had in the years 
gone by if we had only had this direct primary. (Laughter.) 
Hereafter there will be no Governors nominated by conven- 
tions ; they will be nominated by the people voting as a whole. 
When I look over the list of Governors that we have had in 
this Commonwealth, and I refer not only to those who have 
been elected by one party, but by the other, and remember 
that they all were elected or nominated in conventions, it 
seems to me that the system worked pretty well. 

I am not here to discuss politics. I am here to show that 
the tendency of the times is for men to lose confidence in 
each other. In other words, apparently at least the majority 
of the Massachusetts people are not willing that they should 
be represented in convention by delegates of their own selec- 
tion, they must vote themselves, and so hereafter any man 
can run for Governor, — it is only a question of getting the 
requisite number of names. 


But really it is a pleasure to be here and to look into the 
faces of this audience. I cannot but believe, Mr. Whitman, 


that as the years roll by you will think of this as the most 
significant occasion in your life. The beauty of this tribute 
is that it is a tribute to a man that is entitled to receive it 
(applause), it is a tribute to one who has won his place upon 
absolute merit, it is a tribute to one who under the republican 
institutions of this country has grown up from small begin- 
nings to become a great power in the industrial world, and he 
has reached it not because some one has pushed him, biit he 
has reached it by force of his own honesty, integrity, and 
ability. (Applause.) There are no people in the world that 
recognize merit more clearly and more keenly than the people 
of Massachusetts. There are no people in the world that 
believe more thoroughly in character and industry than our 
own people right here in this Commonwealth. And so I say 
it is a great tribute when a man like Mr. Whitman comes up 
from small beginnings to become a power in the industrial 
world, that he has reached that position by merit, and that he 
to-day not only has the respect of his friends who are gathered 
here but he has the respect of the entire people of the Com- 
monwealth, because the people of Massachusetts recognize 
that any man who has built up the industries that he has built 
up has not only performed a service which is of value to our 
people but a service that is of value to the people of the entire 

We in Massachusetts owe our prosperity to the manu- 
facturing industries. Have you ever thought that this little 
State, way out here on the Atlantic seaboard, one of the 
smallest States in area, a State with practically no natural 
resources whatever, has more than 3,000,000 people better 
fed, better clothed, better housed, better educated, than any 
other people upon the face of the globe ? And why is it ? 
We are in that position by reason of our manufactures. We 
could not be there except for our manufactures. Any man 
who builds up our manufactures, who fights for the economic 
policies which are necessary to preserve those manufactures, 
is the man who is serving the entire people of the Common- 
wealth. And may God bless you, Mr. Whitman. May you 
live for many years and appreciate the great work that you 


have done, and may your reputation and your fame increase 
not only among the people of the Commonwealth but among 
all people who believe in that policy which has made Massa- 
chusetts prosperous and has made the United States a great 
republic. (Prolonged applause.) 

The Toastmaster. — I agree, my dear friends, that we 
have had pretty poor Governors in the past, but as I look at 
the last speaker I cannot help thinking what we have been 
spared. (Laughter.) 

I do not believe it is easy to draw the line between com- 
mercial and industrial interests. They blend together. They 
are the twin columns on which the prosperity of Massachu- 
setts rests. Who shall speak of their relations better than 
the President of the Chamber of Commerce, recently elected 
to that position, and most worthy of it, — Mr. George S. 
Smith. (Continued applause.) 

president george s. smith. 

Mr. Toastmaster, Mr. Whitman, and Gentlemen: 
I count it an honor to enter into the pleasures of this evening 
and to pay my word of tribute to our honored guest. 

In these days of expanding optimism regarding the 
resources and the promise of a great future for New England, 
fostered and developed by a universal recognition that at no 
time has New England gone back or become decadent but 
rather steadily, surely and relentlessly has enjoyed a distinct 
industrial and commercial advance, we have been too prone 
to lay the emphasis upon great machinery, great mills, great 
industries, and too little inclined to recognize the worth of 
the man behind the machinery, the genius in control of the 
mill, and the master mind and brain at the head of a great 
industry. And therefore to-night, as we contemplate the fact 
that among the great industries of Massachusetts and New 
England the closely allied industries of cotton manufacturing, 
wool and woolen manufacturing are the largest and form a 


very large proportion of the total output of the whole United 
States, it certainly is fitting, and commendable, and just, and 
right that we seek out the great leading spirit of this great 
allied industry, which reflects to the glory of New England, 
the man who has been the controlling spirit, the man who 
has been behind the great machinery and is the genius of 
great mills and is the master mind of a great industry. 

This is called commonly a commercial age, and so it is if 
by that phrase is meant a great expansion of modern business 
methods and practices, the application of scientific principles, 
and the opening door of opportunity for the development of the 
individual, who by his own work and steady purpose compels 
recognition and advancement. But this term is used rather 
to characterize this era as one of sordid grasp and reach, and 
I say that it is an unjust charge to levy against the business 
men of this generation. The great business men are the men 
who are earnestly and persistently seeking out those men of 
training and rare equipment upon whom they can place the 
responsibilities of management of large affairs. (Applause.) 
And I venture to say that Mr. Whitman to-night would 
freely say that one of the great fundamentals of his success 
was the fact that early in life he had the broad vision to 
recognize that he could not bring these gfreat results about 
alone, but must have the intimate cooperation of faithful 
co-laborers, and I happen to know personally several of his 
intimate co-laborers and can testify to the wisdom and the 
breadth of mind of William Whitman. (Applause.) 

Some one has said that only those who are superior to 
or the equals of a man can truly appreciate his worth and 
greatness, and I am not sure that a very ready confession of 
the fact that very few of us are able to truly appreciate the 
greatness of Mr. Whitman in the industrial world and as a 
citizen is a confession of weakness on our part but rather a 
confession of strength, for in that confession may we not go 
back to our various vocations determined to apply all the 
systems and principles of efficiency that will make us better 
men in whatever calling we are, and above all better citizens 
of our state and our nation. (Great applause.) 


The Toastmaster. — I hark back to my original sugges- 
tion of the three great interests represented here : Whitman, 
capital, labor. The greatest of these is labor. 

Lawrence is a very beehive of industry. What Mr. Whit- 
man's relations are to the laboring population of that city and 
to that whole neighborhood who shall tell us so well as its 
chief magistrate, Mayor Cahill ? (Applause.) Mayor Cahill 
is one of the young leaders of our Massachusetts munici- 
palities. (Applause.) 

hon. john t. cahill. 

Mr. Toastmaster, Benefactor of Lawrence, and 
Gentlemen : In rising to address you I feel very much like 
saying what little Willie said his Ma was accustomed to say 
in the morning. One evening as the nurse was about to put 
Willie to bed, having prepared him, he jumped immediately 
into bed and covered himself up with the bed clothes. The 
nurse said, "Willie, haven't you forgotten something?" 
He said, "No, nurse, I don't know of anything I have for- 
gotten." " Why," she saicl, "you have forgotten to say your 
prayers." Willie said, " Oh, yes. And what prayer shall I 
say, nurse ? " She said, " Say that pretty little prayer that 1 
taught you, 'Now I lay me down to sleep.'" And Willie 
said, " I don't want to say that prayer, nurse. I'd rather say 
the one Ma says in the morning when I go in and wake her up." 
The nurse said, "What does she say, Willie?" "Well," 
he said, " she puts her arms over her head and says, ' Oh, 
Lord, have I got to get up? ' " (Laughter and applause.) 

Whenever I am invited to speak in Boston I always come 
prepared, because I never wish to have the city of Lawi-ence 
subjected to such an arraignment as I once heard the Athens 
of America subjected to. A friend from the other side came 
over here and passed through different cities of our country, 
and one night at a club in London after his return home he 
made the remark that the Americans did not use very good 
English. An American who was present said, " Did you go 
to Boston ? " " Oh," said he, " it was in Boston that I formed 


my opinion." (Laughter.) The American said, " Would you 
please give me an example of what was said in Boston that 
led 3^ou to believe that they do not speak good English in 
the Hub of tlie Universe?" and he replied, " Why, I heard a 
man, a very intelligent appearing man at that, say, ' Where 
am I at?'" (Laughter.) The American said, "Well, what 
would you say?" He said, "I would say 'Where is my 
'at ? ' " (Renewed laughter.) 

In the valley of the Merriniac we are noted principall}^ for 
two things : the flow of cloth from the loom and the flow of 
eloquence from the vocal cords. I wish to curtail the flow 
of eloquence to-night, so I have assigned to myself, notwith- 
standing the courtesy of the Toastmaster, five minutes instead 
of ten. 


I have the honor to represent here this evening the city of 
Lawrence, and the pleasure to state that the great hive of 
industry on the banks of the Merrimac owes everything to 
the brains, energy, and confidence of men who pushed for- 
ward, regardless of obstacles, to the goal of all human 
endeavor — success. Success attained varies in value. The 
breached and battered walls of capitulated Fort Sumter spelled 
success. The riddled "Alabama," sleeping beneath the sea 
off Cherbourg, spelled success. The flag of the rammed and 
sunken " C'umberland " floating at the main mast-head above 
Virginia's waters marked success. The fleets, acting under 
the direction of an eminent son of Massachusetts, achieved 
a grand success at Santiago and Manila Bay. They were 
the successes of war, and success in war means destruction — 
destruction justified by necessity perhajis, but begotten of 
wrath nevertheless. Glory and fame halo tlie deeds of the 
warrior and history records the successes and failures of 
imperators and captains who slay to save a cause more or less 
worthy, but there are successes unalloyed with the element 
of destruction. They are the successes of peace, successes 
creative in essence and consummated without discord, such 
as those which have come alter years of earnest endeavor 
and prolonged exertion to him in whose honor we are 


assembled here to-night. In contemplating his work I am 
reminded of a great, intensely humane, military commander 
who attended to the manifold duties of his station so well 
that everything worked with precision and everything 
accomplished revealed the master mind. 

" In and out of whose tent all day long to and fro 
The messengers come and the messengers go 
On missions of mercy, on errands of toil 
To tell how the sapper contends with the soil ; 
In the terrible trench ; how the sick man is faring, 
In the hospital tent, and combining, comparing, constructing, 
Within, moves the brain of one man moving all." 

The brain of one man moving all ! How often have I 
thought, while viewing the Arlington Mills in operation, 
that behind all the concentrated energy a master mind was 
at work : the constructor, the builder, the producer, the 
architect, not only of the factory, the industrial plant, but 
of hundreds of homes erected and maintained by recom- 
pensed labor, in a locality which was only a pasture land 
until he came to vivify and vitalize it. (Applause.) 


I was raised within a stone's throw of the Arlington 
Mills. I have been familiar for years with the name of 
Whitman, and the tribute I come to pay to-night is from the 
heart, the tribute of the burgomaster to one who merits 
praise because of good deeds and honest endeavor. I am the 
bearer of a message, as well as a tribute. The tribute is mine 
straight from the heart. The message is from the people I 
have the honor to represent. (Applause.) The people of 
Lawrence have one desire and one hope expressed in three 
little words of the utmost importance — work and wages. 
They ask nothing more ; the}^ expect nothing less. There 
are fifty-four different nationalities in the melting pot by the 
Merrimac ; in the matter of tongues Lawrence is a Babel. 
There is one great essential for peace and prosperity — 
employment. Whatever may be the aims and aspirations of 
other localities this may be set down as a fact : Lawrence 


wants work and plenty of work. We have no natural 
resources other than our water power ; our very life depends 
on the success of our industrial establishments and the 
energy and intelligence of men interested in the textile 

It is but natural that we should have a strong affection 
for such a man as William Whitman, who not content with 
developing the Arlington Mills has given other evidences of 
his good will towards our municipality and whose latest 
addition to our wealth, the Merino Mill, would be sufficient 
to entitle him to the appellation " William the Good " were 
he not already good and great. (Applause.) I feel that 
there must be much good in Lawrence — that her destiny is 
greatness — when good men have confidence enough in the 
municipality to invest millions and millions more within her 
confines. I hope to see the day when the names of her great 
benefactors shall be engraved in the Book of Gold. Among 
them future generations will be sure to find the name of our 
friend and patron, the constructive genius, William Whitman. 
(Great applause.) 

The Toastmaster. — After five minutes of eloquent 
manuscript what would we not give for five minutes of 
eloquent extemporaneous speech? Eloquence is as natural 
to an Irishman as the glitter of a dewdrop to the morning- 
sun. (Applause.) 

Do not forget that this splendid meeting is due for its 
success largely to the committee of arrangements, the chair- 
man of which is your associate member, Mr. Hopewell. 
He is not only going to give us a few words, but he is going 
to do what no other orator has done, accompany them with 
illustrations. (Applause.) 


Mr. Toastmaster : The next on the program will jDroba- 
bly be a surprise to our friend Mr. Whitman. We propose to 
give you an optical demonstration of a part of our friend's 


It is often asserted that all creations in the world are 
mental. A brick mill does not have much mental character 
to the ordinary looker on, j^et no mill was ever built that was 
not first conceived and built in some fertile and active brain, 
and in nearly all its perfection was clearly marked out before 
a brick was laid. The little that one man can personally 
accomplish in these days would scarcely make a ripple on the 
surface of commercial trade. 

The inventive and initiative mind of a well balanced man 
is the greatest blessing to mankind, and especially to its pos- 
sessor if he has faith in himself and the necessary courage 
and ability to execute his ideas in a business project. To 
draw men to him, to inspire them with his views and aspira- 
tions, his hope, courage, and steadfastness, in good times and 
bad, he must be a leader of men. Such is our friend Mr. 
Whitman. In fact, such a man must be an optimist, an 
idealist of the best type, also a seer who can forecast the 
future and allow no circumstances to discourage him. Few 
men have these requisites in as large a degree as our friend 

We will now show you on the canvas some lantern slides 
which will illustrate what Mr. Whitman has been able to 
accomplish in upbuilding the woolen and cotton industries of 
our Commonwealth, — cotton and woolen, — and in building 
towns and cities in waste places, giving work, the greatest 
blessing to mankind, to thousands of people. 

Some have criticised, but we have met to praise and to give 
credit to his strength of character while he is still alive. 
This is better than erecting monuments to him after he is 
dead. It is a small reward to him, and will do us more good 
than it will him. 

So we honor and greet to-night one who had confidence to 
build the mills that you will see and faith to believe that the 
country would sustain him and his successors in manufac- 
turing the textiles, cotton and woolen, needed by the great 
American people. 

Mr. Whitman is president of five of probably the largest 
industries in the world, and we will present to you on the 


canvas pictures of these mills. First come the Arlington 
Mills, with a capital of -18,000,000. Then come the Manomet 
Mills, with a capital of $2,000,000, the Nashawena Mills, 
with a capital of $8,000,000, the Nonquitt Spinning Com- 
pany, with a capital of $2,400,000, the Monomac Spinning 
Company, with a capital of $750,000, — a grand total of 
$16,150,000, with employees numbering 13,625, with a 
weekly wage of $121,750 and an annual payroll aggregating 
$6,331,000. The machinery in the above mills will consume 
annually 75,000 bales of cotton and 60,000,000 pounds of 
wool, and as we said before, the payroll is $6,000,000. 

When I read a few of these figures to one of the leading 
citizens of Boston recently, he said, " Is that true ? Well, 
that's goinof some." We think it is going some. It reminds 
me of a story of a man who was trying to sell some horses. 
He brought out one that was coming, another that had been. 
He said, " Gentlemen, I want no horse that has been. I want 
no horse that is coming, I want an I's-er." Mr. Whitman 
is still an is-ev. And now we propose to demonstrate to 
you on the canvas what he lias been able to stimulate, guide 
and direct in this great Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

(The diners were then shown stereopticon views of the 
five mills which Mr. Hopewell had just referred to, a table 
showing the number of employees, the payrolls, etc., and a 
portrait of the guest of the evening.) 

The Toastmaster. — Gentlemen, while this dinner is 
given to Mr. Whitman in honor of his retirement as Presi 
dent of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers, it 
is by no means his retirement from business, in which he will 
still remain an active and potential factor. (Applause.) I 
trust that he will long remain so. Everything points to it. 
Though born in Nova Scotia his ancestry had their home in 
our own dear Commonwealth, in the near town of Weymouth. 
His venerable father, now rounding out one hundred years, 
still lives. (Applause.) It is a long lived race. As you 


will see from his picture, he is an eternal youth. I don't 
know why it should remind me, but it does remind me of 
that very old story of the man who, hearing of a centenarian, 
went to his house and finding a venerable personage congratu- 
lated him upon his years. The reply was, " Oh, no, it isn't I 
that you want to see, it is my father. He is with my son out 
in the hay field hard at work." I present to you not the 
father, but the son, who is still in the hay field hard at work 
(applause), our honored guest of the evening, Mr. William 
Whitman. (Three cheers for Mr. Whitman, every one rising.) 

mr. william whitman. 

Mr. Toastmaster, Invited Guests and Gentlemen : 
I find it difficult to put into language an expression of my 
feelings on this occasion. I only wish that I deserved the 
encomiums given me to-night. It is exceedingly gratifying 
to have such an expression of confidence. I remember 
many years ago speaking to the then President of the 
Arlington Mills, Mr. Joseph Nickerson, whom some of the 
older men present remember well. It was in the early days 
of the company, when we were struggling. I didn't know 
much about the business, I felt uncomfortable and uneasy, 
and I said to him, " Captain, are you satisfied with my 
work ?" He turned and looked at me and said, " I had not 
supposed that you were a little boy that needed to be patted 
on the back. If I had not been satisfied I would have told 
you so." 

My experience teaches me, however, that there is no man, 
no matter how strong and self-reliant he may be, who does 
not at times appreciate the commendation of his fellows. I 
am afraid that it is characteristic of our people to refrain 
from giving expression to all that they feel, and to have such 
expressions as have been given .to-night touches me very 
deeply. As I said before, I only wish that I deserved them. 
(Voices : " You do," and applause.) I thank you, gentlemen, 
for tendering me such a high compliment, and I thank the 
President, the Toastmaster, and the gentlemen who have 


addressed you for their kindly, friendly, and appreciative 

I regret that the completion of the portrait tendered me by 
the National Association of Wool Manufacturers, to which 
you, Mr. President, referred in your address, has been delayed 
by n)y recent illness and that some friends are disappointed 
that it cannot be presented to-night. My grateful acknowl- 
edgments for the testimonial will be offered later. 

Some friends have suggested that instead of delivering a 
formal address this evening it would be more appropriate for 
the occasion, and perhaps more interesting to you, if I talked 
somewhat informally about my personal experiences in con- 
nection with the development of the textile industries. In 
complying with this suggestion I must confess to being 
oppressed with the feeling that I may not succeed in interest- 
ing you, and indulging in personal reminiscences lays one 
open to the charge of becoming old. 

There are relatively few boys beginning the work of life 
so circumstanced that they are free to make choice of a voca- 
tion. Necessity compels securing such employment as may 
be obtained for a livelihood, without reference to special 
fitness for the work. When some great dominating predilec- 
tions exist, an industrious and ambitious young man often 
succeeds in bursting the bonds of his environment and finds 
his natural and therefore most efficient sphere of labor. 
Most of us, however, drift through life, and there are conse- 
quently more misfits than fits in every vocation. 

In order to give evidence as an expert one must qualify as 
to fitness. Few men have had quite so varied an experience 
in connection with textiles as myself. I have always been 
identified either directly or indirectly with them, and my 
present work in life as a merchant and manufacturer is 
undoubtedly a natural outgrowth of early environment. 

My earliest recollections are of the farm upon which I 
lived during the first six years of my life. The next six 
years' experiences belong about equally to my grandfather's 
farm and to my father's village store. On the farm I became 
familiar not only with sheep husbandry but with the wool 


manufacture as a household industry for family clothing — 
an industry which embraced all the processes used, such as 
cleaning the wool, hand carding, spinning, dyeing, and hand- 
loom weaving. Memory of the cumbrous hand loom in my 
great-grandmother's kitclien, and of the good lady herself 
when one hundred years of age engaged in knitting woolen 
stockings, is still vivid. 

The seaside village store was an excellent training school. 
I know of none better for a boy. There one could learn in 
a limited but practical way the comparative values of the 
products of the factory, of the soil, and of the sea, and 
the nature of exchanges. But whether on the farm, in the 
village store, or in my home, I was expected to lend a help- 
ing hand. The expectation fitted in with my inclinations, 
for I think that during my whole life I have enjoyed work. 

This training was such that I was delegated to load a 
vessel to come to Boston when I was eleven years old, and 
was fortunate in obtaining the consent of my mother, who 
had perhaps more confidence in me than some others, to 
come to Boston alone under the care of the captain. That 
was the first time that I saw this beautiful city. 

At the age of twelve I left home alone and for the next 
two years was employed by a wholesale and retail dry goods 
firm in St. John, New Brunswick. During this period I had 
the advantage of excellent training, and of varied employ- 
ment such as seldom falls to the lot of a boy. First in the 
counting room under an accomplished accountant; in addi- 
tion to the routine work belonging to an office boy I became 
a good rapid penman and quick and accurate at figures. 
There was hardly any kind of work about the business that 
I did not assist in performing and with which I was not per- 
fectly familiar. 

When there was no work in the wholesale department in 
the spring of 1856 I was transferred to the retail department 
and acted as a salesman behind the counter. There I 
acquired a knowledge of all kinds of textile fabrics that 
were used in that country, all of which were imported from 
other countries. In fact, even at that early age I might have 


used the language which Henry Kingsley puts into the 
mouth of Mrs. Arnaud : 

" From my knowledge of textile fabrics I could hang 
mj'self in my stockings dexterously." 

Possibly before the evening is over I may be guilty of 
some such act. 

Little events often change the current of men's lives. In 
those days there were no saleswomen. The retail salesmen 
were for the most part full grown, highly trained men, 
obtained from England, Scotland, and the north of Ireland. 
One of these men, without provocation, violently kicked me. 
I left the store at once and could not be persuaded to return. 
I had determined to come to Boston, and to Boston I came 
alone in the earl}'' summer of 1856 at the age of fourteen. 
The overt act had clinched the decision. 

For the first and only time in my life I solicited employ- 
ment and was- fortunate in securing it with the firm of 
James M. Beebe, Richardson & Co., then the leading whole- 
sale dry goods importing and jobbing firm in the United 
States. M}' first work began almost immediately upon enter- 
ing the store, but it was found necessary, because I was so 
small at that time, to build a platform for me to stand on in 
order that I might carry on the work. The firm name was 
soon changed to James- M. Beebe & Co. I remained with 
the house for about eleven years, or until it went out of 
existence, being the last person in its employ. I began as an 
entry clerk, but was rapidly promoted from one position to 
another until I became confidential clerk and general office 

Some time prior to the close of the Civil War Messrs. 
Beebe & Co. retired from the importing and jobbing busi- 
ness and engaged in the wholesale dry goods commission 
business, becoming the selling agents for several corpora- 
tions manufacturing ginghams, prints, delaines, spool cotton, 
and woolen cloths, a part of which business was taken over 
from the old firm of A. & A. Lawrence & Co. when it went 
out of business. 

It may be of interest to you to know that from the firm 


of James M. Beebe & Co. came many really prominent busi- 
ness men. Just prior to my entering their employ Mr. 
Junius S. Morgan, who had been a partner, left the firm to 
become a partner with George Peabody & Co., the great 
American-London bankers. Mr. Levi P. Morton, now living 
and an associate on the board of directors of the Equitable 
Life Assurance Society, was also a partner of Mr. Beebe 
prior to that time. Mr. Eben D. Jordan, to whom I will 
refer later, had also been in the employ of Mr. Beebe. 
Coming down to more recent times, Mr. Cornelius N. Bliss 
was connected with that firm, and the late Mr. George F. 
Fabyan also, both of them being in the employ of the firm 
when I went there in 1856. 

I wish here to express my grateful recognition of the high 
character and ability of the gentlemen with whom it has 
been my good fortune to be associated during my business 
life. They were and are gentlemen who bring honor to the 
name of the American manufacturer and merchant. 

In the early part of 1867 I formed a connection with 
Robert M. Bailey & Co., who were then selling agents of 
the Arlington Woolen Mills, the name of which was after- 
wards changed to Arlington Mills. At about the same time 
I was elected to the treasurership of this corporation. When 
the honored Mayor of Lawrence addressed you to-night it was 
with great difiiculty that I could realize it to be possible that 
I became treasurer of that corporation before the gentle- 
man was boi'u. The original mill had been destroyed by 
fire the previous year and the new mill was in course of 
construction. It was intended for a shirting flannel mill, 
but the owners decided to engage in the manufacture of 
women's and children's dress goods made with cotton warp 
and worsted filling. I have been connected with this concern 
in various capacities from that time to the present with the 
exct-ption of about six months in 1869. During that inter- 
mission I became part owner of a mill at Ashland, N.H., 
manufacturing fancy shirting flannels. It was not until 
1888 that I engaged in mercantile business on my own 
account. On the first of January of that year I entered the 


firm of Harding, Colby & Company, and my firm became the 
selling agents of the Arlington Mills. A little more than a 
j'^ear later Mr. Colby died, and in December, 1889, the firm 
was succeeded by the firm of Harding, Whitman & Compan}-, 
of which I became the managing partner, and on July 1, 
1909, it was succeeded by the present firm of William 
Whitman & Company. 

In 1895 I became interested in the cotton manufacturing 
in New Bedford, beginning with the Whitman Mills and 
continuing with the Manomet Mills, Nonquitt Spiiniing 
Company, and Nashawena Mills. 

In 1910 I engaged in building a worsted and merino spin- 
ning plant in Lawrence which is just completed. It will prob- 
ably be incorporated under the title of " Monomac Spinning- 

In 1909 I became interested in building a cotton mill at 
Calhoun Falls, S.C. 

The chairman of 3'our committee has exhibited upon the 
screen nearly all the different enterprises with which I have 
been and am now connected. The firm of William Whitman 
& Company act as selling agents for all of the mills shown 
upon the canvas. It is generally supposed that I have been 
exclusively connected with the woolen manufacture; as a 
matter of fact, my interests in the cotton manufacture are 
greater than those in woolen. 

So much by way of qualification for talking to you with 
some degree of familiarity with the development of the textile 
industry during the past fifty-seven years. This slight sketch 
exhibits a rather striking contrast to recent pictures that have 
appeared in some public prints. 

In 1856 Boston was the center of the cotton and wool 
textile industries of the country, both as to the manufacture 
and as to distribution. It also enjoyed the prestige of being 
the most prominent of the dry goods jobbing cities. Twice 
a year from ever}^ quarter buyers came to it. During the 
busy seasons the packing rooms of my employers were filled 
with miscellaneous goods for shipment. Traveling salesmen 
were not then employed. 


The buyers of that day or their successors have long since 
outgrown their original sources of supply in textiles, and 
their business greatly exceeds in magnitude that of those of 
whom they formerly bought. The methods of distribution 
have been revolutionized. Boston failed to maintain its 
supremacy as a manufacturing and distributing center 
because its capital and efforts were turned to other channels 
of development which, unfortunately, were regarded with 
greater favor than the textile business. During the last 
decade, however, a marked change favorable to textile indus- 
tries has taken place in the attitvide of Boston investors. 

At that period the woolen industry has been established 
for more than half a century, the factory system of the cotton 
industry for more than forty years and some minor branches 
of the silk industry had been in existence for many years. 
The manufacture of ingrain carpets began as early as 1842, 
of Wilton, Brussels and tapestry carpets in 1845, all under 
the patents of that most remarkable genius, Mr. Erastus B. 
Bigelow. The successful manufacture of ginghams with 
power looms was established as early as 1850 at the Lancaster 
Mills under Mr. Bigelow's supervision, though begun a few 
years earlier, but the development of textile industries, how- 
ever, had been comparatively slow and had been confined to 
the coarsest and commonest kinds of goods. 

The following is an interesting statement in the " Boston 
Transcript " of March 3, 1869, of an interview with Mr. 
Eben D. Jordan, founder of Jordan, Marsh Company, one of 
the ablest and most progressive merchants of his time ; 

The firm has now been in business more than eighteen 
years. When they began there were but one or two articles, 
outside the plain, cotton fabrics, in their trade that were not 
obtained from abroad. Now, but one-tenth of their entire 
stock yearly sold passes through the Custom House and that 
is composed of the highest range of goods not sought for by 
the people at large. Mr. Jordan's experience, gathered from 
repeated visits to distant markets, leads him to confidently 
believe that ere long America will depend entirely upon her 
own industry to clothe the masses of her people and will 
eventually command her share of the trade of the world. 


A large part of this prophecy has been abundantly verified. 
America now out of her own industry does clothe the 
masses of her people. Although statistical information is 
necessarily inadequate to any proper description of growth, 
yet the following summarized statement, compiled from the 
census report of 1905, conveys some comprehensive idea of 
the development in textiles from 1860 to 1905. 

The total capital invested in the United States in com- 
bined textiles in 1860 was $150,080,852 and the total value 
of the products was $214,740,614. 

The total capital invested in the United States in combined 
textiles in 1905 was 11,343,324,605 and the totixl value of 
the products was $1,215,036,792. In 1905, therefore, the 
capital employed was about nine times that employed in 
1860 and the value of the products in 1905 was about six 
times the value of those in 1860. From 1905 to 1910 the 
increase has relatively been very much greater than at any 
corresponding period. 

A few illustrations may better serve to show the magni- 
tude of the growth of textile industries. Our annual pro- 
duction of raw cotton has more than quadrupled since 1856. 
It is now about two-thirds of the commercial supply of the 
world. Our annual consumption of raw cotton is now 
about seven times the quantity consumed in 1856, and is 
greater than that of any other country, and equivalent to 
about the consumption of Great Britain and Germany com- 
bined. There are in operation in our country to-day about 
six times as many cotton spindles as there were in 1860, 
or about one-fourth of the world's total number of cotton 

The most noteworthy development has been in the cotton 
growing States. In 1860 there were in operation in those 
States only 324,052 cotton spindles. These have increased 
to 10,801,494 spindles in 1910 — a number about thirty-three 
times as large as that of 1860. These cotton growing States 
use in their manufacture more cotton than do the New Eng- 
land States, and about one-half of all that is used in the 
United States. Massachusetts has rather more than two and 


one-half times as many spindles as any other State, and uses 
about two times as much cotton. South Carolina ranks 
second in number of spindles and third in amount of cotton 
consumed. North Carolina ranks third in number of spindles 
and second in quantity consumed. Nearly all of the won- 
derful development of the cotton manufacture in cotton 
growing States has taken jjlace in the last twenty years. 

Possibly no more striking illustrations in the development 
of the cotton manufacture in New England, within my 
experience, are to be found than in the cities of Fall River 
and New Bedford. In 1856 there were only four small cot- 
ton manufacturing companies in Fall River, established 
respectively in 1814, 1822, 1825, and 1853, with a com- 
paratively small number of spindles. To-day this is one of 
the two largest cotton manufacturing cities in the country. 

New Bedford furnishes even a more striking example. 
The evolution from the whaling to the cotton industry 
began in that city in 1847, when the Wamsutta Mills was 
incorporated. In 1856 this corporation had only 80,000 
spindles and 600 looms, and not until 1860 was there an 
increase of 15,000 spindles made. It was not until 1870 
that there was further mill construction begun in that cit}-. 
There are now about 3,000,000 spindles in New Bedford. 
The great increase has been during the past sixteen years, 
and naturally I feel some degree of satisfaction in the fact 
that my associates and myself have been the means of con- 
tributing during that period about one-sixth of the entire 
spindleage of that city. (Applause.) 

It is questionable whether during the past fifty-five years 
there have been any inventions involving new princij^les of 
textile machinery. The improvement in the practical effi- 
ciency of the machinery, however, has been marvelous. The 
speed of the cotton spinning spindle has been increased from 
about 5,000 to say 9,000 turns per minute — I am not speak- 
ing of excessive speeds but ordinary speeds — and the speed 
at which all other cotton machinery is operated has been 
correspondingly increased. 

In 1816 in Waltham a weaver on a plain cotton cloth 


operated only one loom at a relatively low speed. I have 
been unable to determine the exact speed, but probably 
somewhere from 80 to 100 picks per minute. In 1850 a 
weaver operated four looms at a much higher speed. When 
the Northrop automatic loom was introduced in 1895, a 
weaver operated eight looms at a still higher speed. To-day 
a weaver operates from sixteen to twenty-four automatic 
looms on ordinary cotton cloth, the number of looms and the 
speed at which they are run varying according to the width 
and the character of the cloth. In a paper carefully pre- 
pared by Mr. E. B. Bigelow in 1851, — and, by the way, I 
look upon Mr. Bigelow as one of the greatest men that ever 
lived in Massachusetts, — it was stated that the number of 
spindles per operative in a new gray cloth weaving mill at 
that time was fifty-nine ; in an up-to-date mill making similar 
goods, I consider 125 spindles per operative to be a fair 

It may be said that improvements in machinery and 
various mechanical devices connected with it and in connec- 
tion with mill engineering skill, have made the labor of 
operatives in cotton cloth three times as efficient in 1911 as it 
was in 1856, and yet all these inventions and improvements 
were fought by the laboring man, fearing that they would 
drive him out of employment. 

In the early days of our textile industries we were told 
that because of the quality of the water, of climatic and 
other conditions, it would not be possible for American 
manufacturers to bleach, color, or print their fabrics as well 
as it was done abroad. Such statements were generally 
believed, and naturally accentuated existing prejudices 
against American fabrics. 

What has been accomplished must have disappointed these 
unbelievers. Witliin a few days one of the oldest and best 
merchants in this city, an importer of foreign goods all his 
life, declared to me in emphatic terms that our fine cotton 
fabrics of to-day, in perfection of manufacture, in design, in 
the bleaching, coloring, printing, and finishing were equal to 
any goods of similar grade produced in any part of the world. 


This is true, however, not only of cotton fabrics, but equally 
so of textiles made of wool, or of silk, or of combinations of 
cotton, wool, and silk. 

The last half century has witnessed a marvelous growth in 
the domestic silk manufacture; greater relatively than in anv 
of the other textiles. One cannot go into details, but this 
growth can be gauged by the quantity of raw silk consumed 
in 1860, viz., 462,965 pounds, with the quantity consumed 
in 1909, viz., 20,270,000 pounds. Therefore the eon- 
sumption in 1909 was more than forty-three times the 
quantity consumed in 1860, or more than one-fifth of the 
world's production. The United States ranks second only to 
China in the quantity of raw silk consumed. In addition to 
this, there was consumed 882,000 pounds of artificial silk, a 
comparatively new product developed under foreign patents 
issued as late as 1885. The foreign value of the imports of 
raw silk for the calendar year 1910 was $71,136,698. 

The art of wool manufacturing in its present varied and 
attractive aspects is altogether a modern development in the 
United States. Up to the Civil War the industry had found 
only a precarious foothold, and all branches of the industry 
at that time were confined to what appear to us now as cheap 
and inferior goods. Dr. John L. Hayes in a speech delivered 
in Philadelphia in 1865, said : " To our shame be it spoken 
all our flags are grown, spun, woven, and dyed in England. 
On the last Fourth of July the proud American ensigns 
which floated over every national ship, post, and fort, and 
every patriotic home flaunted forth upon the breeze the 
industrial dependence of America on England." In this 
address he spoke also of an association of patriotic ladies 
formed in Washington in the gloomiest days of the Civil 
War, who pledged themselves to wear nothing but American 
fabrics and were surprised and mortified to discover the 
extremely meager range of suitable dress goods of native 

Nathaniel Stevens began the manufacture of wool flannels 
— this is a bit personal — in North Andover in 1813, with a 
small mill containing four sets of forty-inch cards. Abraham 


Marland also began the manufacture of flannels and blankets 
at about the same time. 

Grandsons of Mr. Stevens are present to-night, and they 
now operate the mills established by their grandfather, 
although producing different goods, and greatly enlarged. 
A great-grandison of Mr. Marland is also present. He is the 
Treasurer of the Arlington Mills, a corporation engaged in 
manufacturing the class of goods which his great-uncles were 
the first in the country to undertake. 

The following abstract of Mr. Marland's testimony before 
the Committee on Manufactures at the first session of the 
twentieth Congress on January 23, 1828, is interesting and 
instructive as showing the condition of the industry at that 
time : 

He stated that the pounds of wool manufactured by him 
were : 

1825 34,000 lbs. 

1826 34,000 " 

1827 51,000 " 

and that in 1825 one-half of the wool was imported ; in 1826, 
one-fourth ; and in 1827 none was imported. It is interesting 
to note, by way of comparison, that the Arlington Mills could 
now comb in four hours the quantity of wool which Mr. 
Hobbs' great-grandfather manufactured in one year. The 
capital invested was $42,000, but part of the property was 
leased. The sales in 1827 were about $40,000. The number 
of hands was 70 ; the men earned $6 per week ; the women 
$2.25 to $2.50 per week ; boys and girls 8 to 12 years old 
$1.50 per week. The hours of labor were 72 per week ; now 
they are 56, soon to be 54. In Mr. Marland's testimony he 
speaks of the fact that no worsted goods were made in the 
United States and that the English attempted to keep the 
sheep that grew " combing wools " exclusively at home. 

The worsted branch of the woolen industry in our country 
had its origin in 1845 at Ballardvale, Mass. The first goods 
to be manufactured were an imitation of the French muslin 
delaine but using a cotton warp instead of a worsted warp. 
The attempt was made by Mr. John Marland in a limited 


way. The wool used was combed by hand. The under- 
taking proved a failure, but in 1853 the first Pacific Mill was 
built for the avowed purpose of manufacturing worsted dress 
goods for women's wear, and more especially for the manu- 
facture of cotton warp muslin delaines, which were then 
being extensively imported into the United States from Great 
Britain. To this corporation belongs the honor of importing 
the first wool combing machine into this country, the impor- 
tation being made in 1853 and the manufacture of the goods 
beginning in 1854. This same machinery had been used, 
however, in England for five or ten years prior to this period. 
The Pacific Mills imported six Lister combing machines, and 
the first goods that were produced were printed by printing 
machines, at that time a departure from the block system 
of printing that had been in vogue. The first treasurer of 
the Pacific Mills was Mr. Jeremiah S. Young, who had 
been previously associated with Mr. John Marland. He was 
a brother-iTi-law of Mr. Marland and a son-in-law of Mr. 
Abraham Marland. From this small beginning the city 
of Lawrence has become the greatest wool combing city in 
the United States. It is estimated that its present combing 
capacity is in excess of 135,000,000 pounds of greasy wool 
per year. 

The class of women's dress goods then maniifactuied has 
long since given way to goods of an entirely different charac- 
ter, showing a great advance in the art. The women's dress 
goods and goods of similar character now manufactured in 
the United States are in every respect equal to the best 
productions of similar grades of any country, and in many 
respects they are vastly superior. There is hardly any ser- 
viceable article of woman's wearing apparel that is not the 
product of American looms. These products are not only 
more serviceable but cheaper than foreign goods. 

The greatest development in the woolen industry, however, 
has been in the production of what are known as worsted 
fabrics for men's wear. It is somewhat difficult to fix the 
exact date when American manufacturers began the making 
of such goods, but it was at some time subsequent to 1867 — 


subsequent to the time when I became treasurer of the 
Arlington Mills — and undoubtedly they were produced 
almost simultaneously b}^ two or three different manufac- 

From the very beginning of the manufacture of worsted 
men's wear goods it has been predicted that such fabrics 
would diminish in popularity, but as a matter of fact with 
each succeeding year for more than forty years they have 
become relatively more and more popular, and have displaced 
to a large extent woolen fabrics that had been previously 
made. It does not follow, however, that what are known as 
worsted fabrics will displace what are known as woolen 
fabrics, because in the very nature of things many classes of 
worsted fabrics fail to meet requirements which can be suc- 
cessfully met with what are known as woolen fabrics. Each 
branch of the woolen industry has its proper functions and 
opportunity. Tlie future development of all branches of the 
industry will be governed by the character of the wools 
produced incident to the best methods of sheep husbandry. 

The wool combing machine almost universally used in the 
United States is known as the Noble combing machine. It 
was invented and put upon the market very soon after the 
Lister comb, and has practically displaced it. The first 
machine was brought into this country, I think to Philadel- 
phia, in 1867. This combing machine has been improved 
from time to time so that it can comb to equal advantage all 
classes of wools, and has practically changed the classification 
of wools, for the short as well as the long wools can be 
combed by the machine. The growth of the combed wool 
industry has necessitated the combing of what has been 
known from the beginning of the industr}'' in this country as 
fine clothing wool, so that the distinctions of clothing and 
combing wools have lost much of their former significance. 

The wastes and by-products that come from the combing 
wool industry are best adapted to be worked up in what is 
known as the carded industry. 

No invention within the last one hundred years has done 
so much to revolutionize the woolen industry, and to 


improve its character, as the wool-combing machine, and this 
applies to every branch of the industry — to wearing apparel 
of men, women, and children, and to all fabrics for furnish- 
ing and decorative purposes. And the cotton comb in later 
days has accomplished for cotton the same results that the 
wool comb has accomplished in wool. 

It is evident that the trend of the whole textile manu- 
facture is toward finer and lighter weight fabrics, this with- 
out regard to the nature of the materials used. Not only 
this, but with every year the demand for better goods 
increases. Goods that were salable when I became interested 
in manufacturing would not be salable now. The cost of 
making up garments has a marked influence upon using 
better materials. Of course there are exceptional cases and 
exceptional periods, but it is recognized that it is cheaper for 
the consumer to buy better cloths for garments or garments 
made of better cloths. They are handsomer in appearance, 
more serviceable in wear, and therefore cheaper in the end. 
I know that the opposite of this has been exploited in the 
press and has been generally believed, and particularly so in 
reference to woolen and worsted fabrics, but what I state to 
you is the truth and is confirmed by the preliminary report 
issued a few weeks ago by the Bureau of the Census. The 
American people are wearing better goods than ever before. 

I have presented a most incomplete and imperfect sketch 
of fifty-five years of textile development, but the proprieties 
of the occasion have necessitated many limitations. 

The textiles of to-day are more than necessities. Were we 
to look upon them only as such we should fail to realize their 
value. Were clothino- confined to the absolute necessities of 
covering the body and securing warmth but little more would 
be required than has been the heritage of man from time 
immemorial. The advance in the art of textile manufacture 
has brought within the reach of the masses of our people the 
enjoyment of comforts, adornments, refinements, and luxuries 
which in early days were not obtainable even by the opulent. 
They have up-builded home life by making it beautiful and 



attractive. The possibilities, not the necessities of Hfe, 
stimulate textile production to-day. 

I believe in the greatest possible diversification of national 
industries, and that any industry in which a unit of labor 
will produce as much in our country as in a foreign country 
should be encouraged. I believe thit the welfare of our 
country will be promoted by the fullest development of textile 
industries. I believe also that from their very nature the 
prosecution of these and kindred industries appeals especially 
to New England skill and enterprise for the employment of 
her people. Full employment insures prosperity. 

The future is full of hope. The achievements of the past 
will prove to be but fore-runners of the greater things to come, 
and I hope as long as healtli and strength will permit to con- 
tinue to perform my part in this great work. 

And now, my friends, in closing permit me to say that I 
hoi)e that all of the choicest of God's blessings may be with 
you. (Prolonged applause.) 

The Toastmastek. — The evening is over. 

Mr. Hopewell. — I propose three cheers for William 

(The cheers were given enthusiastically, and the gathering 
then dispersed.) 

LIST OF those present. 

Those who were present at the dinner, with others, were 






DORR, E. H. 
EDDY, A. H. 



GILL, A. E. 

GOFF, I). L. 




LOCKwooD, H. Deforest 

LOWE, A. H. 

mabbett, george 
mabbett, h. e. 
McCarthy, jeremiah j. 

MacCOLL, J. R. 
McNEEL, R. W. 

NUNN, C. P. 




WALLS, A. B., Jr. 




President of the Forstmann & Hoffmann Company, Passaic, N.J. 

(.4 Former Memher of the German Tariff Commission.') 

In view of the widespread interest taken by the public in 
the tariff question, and considering the many arguments for 
and against Schedule K which have appeared in the press of 
the country, I trust I may be pardoned if I summarize the 
situation from the point of view of one who has had years of 
experience, both here and in Europe, in all stages of woolen 
manufacture, from the fiber to the finished fabric. 

Of all the questions which writers have tried to treat from 
a popular point of view, the tariff is one of the most difficult; 
and of all the tariff schedules, the one which, above all others, 
requires technical knowledge for its thorough comprehension 
is, without doubt. Schedule K. Very few people indeed 
have an exact understanding of the subject or fully realize 
its economic importance. It is exceedingly difficult to popu- 
larize a technical topic and at the same time lose nothing of 
academic accuracy, and due allowance must be made for any 
one who tries to write for the public upon such a subject. 
But all attempts of this kind should be characterized by a 
thorough knowledge of the matter under discussion and the 
general impression left upon the reader should be correct. 

K, as it stands, needs no justification, nor does it deserve 
the wholesale abuse and ridicule heaped upon it. It may be 
susceptible of improvement, but what under the sun is not? 
Judged by its aggregate results, and not by the operation of 
this or that clause, the wool schedule is a monument to the 
conscientious efforts of many patriotic and honest men. If 
conditions have arisen causing some of its provisions to lose 
their original effectiveness, the underlying principles are 
still true and any amendment of the schedule should be 


undertaken only after careful study of those underlying 
principles and a full realization of the ultimate effects of any 
proposed change. Without entering, then, into an elaborate 
defence of Schedule K, let us carefully analyze some of the 
commoner arguments brought against it. 


First and foremost comes the old plea for free raw mate- 
rial, for free wool. Land in the United States, it is averred, 
is too valuable to raise sheep. When speaking of the wool- 
growing industry of the United States, however, it is a mis- 
take to treat the country as a whole, and to offset the 
decline in wool growing in the more populous States against 
the magnificent strides made in the newer, more unsettled 
regions. If the farmers within easy reach of large cities find 
it more profitable to turn their attention to other things than 
sheep, that surely is no reason why support should be taken 
from the States where sheep raising is successful, and where 
it can be developed to an even greater extent. The figures 
covering wool growing in the United States for the past 
fourteen years afford, if rightly interpreted and despite any 
assertions of free wool advocates to the contrary, the best 
possible proof of the success of the policy of protection. 
While the world's wool-growing industry has been prac- 
tically at a standstill since the introduction of the Dingley 
Bill, the United States have, on the other hand, shown in 
this period a substantial increase in the amount of wool 

From year to year, of course, fluctuations have occurred 
in the United States as elsewhere, due to heavy snows and 
rains, to drought, disease, etc. ; but the net results under the 
recent protective tariffs compare favorably with most of the 
other wool-growing countries. In the last season or so, to be 
sure, a considerable increase has been shown by Australia 
individually in the production of wool ; but wool is Aus- 
tralia's leading agricultural product, and in view of the fact 
that Australia is coming to be the chief reliance of woolen 
manufacturers all over the world, it is not to be wondered at 


that such increased demand should stimulate increased pro- 
duction. And it will not take much leflection to make 
manifest how inexpedient it would be for the United States to 
become entirely dependent upon an}- other country for their 
supply of wool. Aside from the political phase of the ques- 
tion, discussed later in this article, experience has shown 
that the wool clip of any particular country can suffer, in 
one single season, a most serious diminution. What there- 
fore would be the position of the woolen manufacturers of 
this and other countries in the event of a repetition, possibly 
in a far more serious form, of the drought experienced in 
Australia in 1898 and 1899, when the flocks there suffered 
severe losses? And what possibilities are suggested, by such 
an eventual shortage, of a partial or complete cornering of 
the market in wool ! 


At all events the only possible advantage to be hoped for 
from abolishing or lowering the duty on wool would be a 
temporary cheapening of raw wool to American manufac- 
turers, and the lessening of the price of clothes, for the time 
being, to the American wearer. These would be the imme- 
diate consequences, but the next result would be, as was seen 
after the passage of the Wilson bill, greatly to reduce the 
output of domestic wool, and to increase the American 
demand for foreign wools. And seeing that the supply of 
wool the world over is running behind the rapidly increasing 
demand, it would not be long before prices would again soar, 
and the people of the United States would then find them- 
selves confronted with the fact that they had to pay as much 
as ever for raw wool, while they were minus the greater part 
of their present wool-growing industry and minus all or pait 
of the revenue produced from imported wool — an item 
now equal to 8 per cent of the total present customs revenue. 
In view of the fact, moreover, that the customs duties have 
come to form so large a part of the national budget, it is of 
interest to inquire what substitute in the way of taxation is 


to be proposed by those who favor the abolition or reduction 
of the duties on wool and woolen manufactures, and what 
assurance we have that the proposed new method, while 
destroying or lowering the protection hitherto given 
Ameiica's woolen industry, will be any more welcome to the 
tax-paying public than the duties of Schedule K. 

And suppose the land now used for the raising of sheep 
were devoted to the growing of grain, as some would wish, 
would the final gain be so great? Grain, in the processes to 
which it is subjected before reaching the ultimate consumer, 
does not furnish labor to nearly so many people as wool ; and 
all the wool grown by the United States is consumed at home, 
while none is exported. Besides, one of the first principles 
of practical political economy is that a nation should pro- 
duce its own requirements in all those agricultural products 
which it is capable of raising naturally and advantageously 
witiiin its own territory, before it opens its home markets to 
imports and seeks to increase the sale of its own products in 
foreign countries. The United States, of all nations, are 
most favored in this respect. They are, more than any 
other country, in a position to suppl}', with a few exceptions, 
all their own wants, and in framing a national tariff policy 
this fact should never be lost sight of. 

After all, the entire aim of protection is not merely to gain 
a financial advantage for the protected country, but rather 
also to further its industrial freedom. Political and economic 
independence go hand in liand, as has been well exemplified 
i)i tlie history of the North German ZoUverein, the nucleus 
of the present German Empire, with its protective system. 
The protection of national industries serves a two-fold pur- 
pose — the increase of national wealth, the increase of 
national independence. Once for all the idea should be got 
rid of that, because a thing is " imported " and comes from 
Paris or London, it is for that reason any better than home- 
made .goods. The last half century has seen a wonderful 
growth, all over the world, of the feeling of nationality, of 
pride in one's own country and zeal for its advancement. 
This is the era of national unity and national development. 



The sheep industry of the United States is said to furnish 
barely enough wool to make a pound of clothing for every 
person in the country, while, at the same time, much concern 
is expressed for the American who cannot get an all-wool 
suit. But all the wool produced in the world available for 
wearing apparel is only about eight times the production of 
the United States. So assuming that the United States 
could monopolize the earth's output of wool, the total supply 
would hardly be more than adequate to clothe the people 
properly. Imagine then the predicament of Americans if 
they were entirely dependent on foreign wool. And in face 
of this it is asserted that the wool industry of this country 
is not worth protecting ! 

Of late, it may here be. added, a great improvement has 
been noticeable in the quality of American wool, and efforts 
are being made on every hand to improve the output and the 
method of grading and handling it. Strong arguments have 
been presented to the Department of Agriculture urging 
the Government to foster, with the same scientific thorough- 
ness it has manifested in other directions, the wool-grow- 
ing industry of the country. As wool growing in South 
America, the only other important source, aside from the 
English colonies of Australia, New Zealand and Cape 
Colony, for wool used in the manufacture of wearing 
apparel, is more or less on the decrease, it does not need 
much economic acumen to see that the woolen manufacturers 
of the world are largely dependent on England and her 
colonies. A successful wool-growing industry, moreover, is 
the work not of a day, but of years of a steady, consistent 
policy and untiring effort, and the more such a policy is 
encouraged the better. 

The unrivaled position which England enjoyed, up to late 
years, in the woolen trade was the outcome of decades of 
persistent protection and careful fostering of wool growing 
and woolen manufacture ; and only those ignorant of English 
economic history can cite England, in this connection, as an 


example of the benefits of free trade. Here again tlie 
example of Germany may be cited. Germany's wool supply 
now comes, to a very large extent, from the English colonies. 
Realizing the importance to the country's woolen industry of 
an uninterrupted, adequate supply of wool, the German 
Government, with the cooperation of manj^ prominent wool 
merchants and manufacturers, is establishing stations in 
German Southwest Africa, where the 1 est breeding sheep 
will be raised and furnished at low prices to the farmers 
there for the improvement and enlargement of their flocks. 
Such an enterprise is naturally beyond the power of the 
individual farmer and can best be inaugurated and carried to 
successful completion under Government auspices. Other 
countries, like Japan, are making similar strenuous efforts to 
encourage sheep raising for the sake of both the meat and 
the wool. 


Any candid man, then, will admit that the question of pro. 
duction of wool in this country has passed beyond the limits 
of a mere question of prices — high prices for the farmer and 
low prices for the consumer — and has become a problem of 
supreme economic importance for the future, and especially 
for coming generations. America's dependence on foreign 
countries for her wool requirements is fortunately at present 
not nearly so great as it might be. But there is no time to 
waste and better results can be accomplished now than by 
waiting until the situation has become more acute. The 
greatest efforts should be made to bring home to farmers the 
possibilities for direct and indirect profit which lie in sheep 
raising. Anything which will aid the country's wool-grow- 
ing industry should receive the enthusiastic support of all ; 
and it goes without saying that success in this direction 
depends upon proper Government encouragement — national, 
State, and local — adequate tariff protection against the 
importation of foreign wool — and upon the securing of a 
stable home market for the domestic clip. With proper 
encouragement and once assured of a settled policy of pro- 


tectioii, there is no doubt that the farmers would take up 
with greater confidence and energy the raising of sheep. It 
also cannot be denied that a certain responsibility rests upon 
the farmers themselves to take advantage of the protection 
afforded them in wool growing. And more of them would 
devote themselves to this industry if they had any reasonable 
assurance of freedom from the disturbance to their business 
and attendant financial loss due to threatened or actual 
changes in the tariff. No man of sense would build up an 
industry upon ground of which he only held a yearly lease, 
and from which he could be ejected at any time. 

How far the American wool-growing industry can be 
seriously affected by any threatened radical tariff legislation 
has been seen in the last year or so, when production in 
woolen manufacturing was curtailed and consequent buying 
of the raw material reduced or altogether suspended owing to 
the uncertainty of the political outlook, in consequence of 
which the price of American wool, despite the tariff, fell 
below tlie price of wool in foreign markets, thus showing 
that while an adequate tariff is necessary to protect Ameri- 
can wool against undue competition from abroad, the success 
of American wool growing is at the same time also linked 
firm and fast with the prosperity of American woolen mills. 
Instead of seeking, then, to destroy American wool growing 
by the removal or lowering of the protection now accorded 
it, everything possible should be done by the Government 
and by individuals to encourage the industry until it increases 
two and even threefold, until it is so strengthened that it 
can satisfy the requirements of the rapidly-growing popula- 
tion. In this way only, and 7iot by free or less fully protected 
wool and woolen manufactures, can the supply be made to 
meet tlie needs and interests of the American people ; in this 
way, too, we should not only accom[)lish the cheapening of 
good woolen clothing for the people, but should also increase 
the country's meat supply and thereby diminish its cost. 

In this connection it must never be lost sight of that the 
United States occupy, with respect to wool growing and 
woolen manufacturing, a most unique position among Indus- 


trial nations. Whatever may be true of other industries, 
neither the American wool grower nor the American manu- 
facturer of woolen goods has as yet attained the position 
where he can enter international markets and compete for 
the world's trade. In the event of stagnation in the home 
market, such as has recently been witnessed owing to the 
indiscriminate and ill-informed criticisms of Schedule K, 
American wool and American woolen fabrics find no outlet 
abroad and the consequence is a glutting of the home market 
and a resultant demoralization of business. On the other 
hand, it cannot be denied that European manufacturers are 
wont to relieve a strained situation at home bj^ unloading on 
foreign markets, even at a sacrifice, their surjilus produc- 
tion — a practice wliich, as can readily be seen, would be 
followed still more widely in the event of any lowering of 
the tariff by the United States. No more convincing argu- 
ment could be advanced for the maintenance of the protective 
policy regarding wool and the manufactures of wool ; noth- 
ing could lend greater force to the plea for the abandonment 
of the senseless agitation against Schedule K. These are 
fundamental facts which no student of the tariff should for 
a moment lose sight of. 


Aside from those who advocate free wool, there are others 
who, while admitting the correctness of the principle of 
protection, find fault with its application. And of all the 
critics these are no doubt tlie most consistent. It does not 
indeed seem logical, from an academic point of view, to put 
the same duty on wool which shrinks in the scouring oidy 
one-third, as on wool wiiich shrinks two-thirds. But looking 
at the matter practically, how is the shrinkage of wool to be 
determined exactly for the purpose of scaling the duties? 
What niceties of calculation would be necessary in the case 
of wools near the dividing line of such classes ! And to 
what endless arguments would such a system give rise ! 

The greatest fault found with the failure to grade wool 
duties according to shrinkage is that this system has enabled 


the worsted manufacturer, by means of lower prices, to com- 
pete the carded woolen manufacturer out of business. At 
the same time it is maintained that the present tariff has 
increased the cost to the wearer of all cloths. The worsted 
manufacturer has at one and the same time, then, lowered 
and raised the price of cloth ! Or again, an eloquent plea 
for all-wool clothing for the American people is followed by 
a criticism of Schedule K because it taxes, as all-wool 
products, cloths made only partly of wool, thus excluding 
them from the country, or rendering more difficult their 
importation. In this respect, certainly, it would seem as if 
Schedule K were more consistent than its critics. 

It is sometimes asserted that the increase in worsted con- 
sumption for the past few years has not been due to any 
change in vogue and the tariff is blamed for this change. 
But any one familiar with foreign conditions knows that the 
tendency towards worsteds instead of woolens has not been 
confined to America. England may truly be called the 
mother of the cloth industry ; but in England to-day the 
worsted industry is supreme, and a^ great part of her require- 
ments in carded woolen goods for wearing apparel is 
imported from the Continent ! Yet England has no tariff 
on wool or w^oolen goods or textile machinery. And it is 
largely the influence of England, which is the great authority 
on men's wear, that has made worsted goods the fashion in 
late years. All over Europe, where there is certainly none 
of the alleged discrimination in favor of the one and against 
the other, the same thing has been true. Mills which, 
twenty years ago, made only carded woolen goods, now pro- 
duce three-quarters worsteds and one-quarter woolens. 


The criticism is also made that the schedule of duties on 
wool in its various stages of manufacture — tops, noils, yarn 
and the finished fabric — has become more or less obsolete. 
This is true of the ad valorem duties, which do not, for the 
following reasons, accomplish their object. European facto- 
ries, even those in the same country and in the same locality, 


all operate on a different basis, according to their manage- 
ment, methods of calculations, etc., and consequently the 
product of one foreign mill can be put upon the market more 
cheaply than that of another. It will thus be seen that an 
ad valorem duty which would protect American manufac- 
turers against the products of one foreign factory would be 
inadequate as a means of protection against the output of 
another, which, by reason of better organization and superior 
facilities for buying raw material, or by a closer system of 
cost calculation, could enter the same grade of goods in an 
American custom house at a much lower valuation than its 

In any eventual revision of the tariff, the propriety might 
well be discussed of abolishing ad valorem duties entirelv, as 
all European countries have done, and adopting a graduated 
scale of specific duties, which should compensate and protect, 
at each stage of manufacture, the actual expenditure of labor 
and capital upon the product in question. Tlie motto for 
the advocates of protection should always be : " Protection of 
American Labor ! " And in the term labor we must include 
all forms of effort, from the man who works for a day's wage 
to the man who contributes the brains and energy to direct 
the enterprise; we must include also the capital which is the 
evidence of labor performed in past years, and by the utiliza- 
tion of which the labor of to-day is rendered more effective 
and more productive. To safeguard this national labor and 
this national capital against foreign competition is the task 
of protection. 


Schedule K is also assailed because it taxes the necessaries 
of life and not the luxuries. In the first place it cannot be 
admitted a priori that such taxation of life's necessaries is 
always so disastrous in its effects as is often claimed. Ger- 
many, in looking for a means of protecting its farming inter- 
ests against foreign competition, suggested a duty on grain. 
It was proposed to tax grain M.S. 50 per 100 kilos, or more 
than half a cent a pound. Immediately there was a great 


howl. To tax the daily bread of the people ! But the duty 
went through and has been a marvelous success, bringing 
prosperit}'^ not only to those who were directly benefited, 
but also to those dependent, in greater or lesser degree, upon 
the farmer class as their customers. And to this economic 
advantage has been added the equally important political 
one, namely, that in case of war the country is in a better 
position to supply its army and its people with the necessary 
means of sustenance. 

As a matter of fact, however, the duty on woolen cloths 
taxes not the necessaries of life, but rather the luxuries. 
Not the everyday clotlies of the people are made dearer, but 
rather the more luxurious and, therefore, less commonly used 
articles of wearing apparel. In spite of the tariff, competi- 
tion in the United States among manufacturers of woolen 
and worsted fabrics is very great and the American working 
man on the one hand is better and more soundly clad than 
his European brother, while, on the other hand, the cost of 
everyday clothing here, in comparison with the general scale 
of prices and w^ages, is relatively less than in Europe. A 
suit for which a working man in the United States pays $10 
costs in Europe from $7 to $8 — a difference far more than 
offset by the higher wages in this country. 

The United States alone consume, reckoning domestic and 
imported wools, one-fifth of the world's production of wool 
available for wearing apparel ! This despite the fact that 
many of the more thickly settled countries of Europe have a 
severer climate, where the people would naturally be expected 
to wear more woolen clothing. And that the tariff on foreign 
wool and manufactures of wool is not too high, is not pro- 
hibitive, is amply attested by the steadily increasing volume 
of imports in these articles from year to year. 


The proposition has been made to change the tariff sched- 
ule by schedule. Surely no more inequitable proposal could 
be made than to put one class of manufacturers U[)on the 
basis of a reduced tariff with regard to their output, while 


keeping them upon a higher protective basis with respect to 
their supplies ; for it must be evident to all that in addition 
to raw material (which would, of course, be comprised in the 
general schedule under revision and would, therefore, share 
in the reduction of that schedule) there still remain the 
important items of general supplies and labor. All kinds of 
machinery, parts of machinery, oil, and general mill and 
office supplies, not being included in the schedule under 
revision would remain at the higher level. In the matter of 
labor, too, the manufacturers coming under any particular 
schedule suffering revision by itself would be at a great dis- 
advantage, for while otlier industries enjoying a full measure 
of protection would be able to keep up their old wages, the 
factories coming under the reduced tariff would be forced to 
pay higher wages than their business warranted, or else see 
their best help go to other industries. And what is true of 
the manufacturer who might be the victim of such discrimi- 
nation is also true of all those employed by him ; they would 
find themselves, with their income seriously affected as it no 
doubt would be by the new order of things, forced, so far as 
regards their daily wants, upon the old protected market. 
And how would such a schedule by schedule revision work 
when applied to certain towns where the whole life of the 
community is bound up with a particular industry? Evi- 
dently the plan for piecemeal revision of the tariff, even if 
only partly followed out to its logical conclusion, shows 
itself to be extremely unfair, and therefore undesirable. 


Enough has been said to show tliat the protective system 
of America is based, after all, upon true economic principles, 
enough to show without question that the amending of the 
tariff is not a matter to be undertaken lightly or spasmodi- 
cally. No change should be made which would cause any 
sudden or violent interruption or readjustment of the business 
of the country, or which would discriminate in an unfair way 
against any particular industry or industries. The tariff 
should cease, once for all, to be the shuttlecock of political 


parties ; the industrial system of the country should no longer 
be confronted at every general election with the possibility 
of a radical upheaval, paralyzing business for months in 
advance. Whenever the need of tariff revision is felt there 
should be formed a non-partisan board, composed of experts 
from all lines of business, including farmers, merchants, and 
manufacturers ; and the recommendations of such a board 
should be submitted to Congress for final action. In this 
respect also something might be learned from Germany. 
There proposed vital changes in the tariff, as well as other 
commercial legislation, commercial treaties, etc., are first 
subjected to mature consideration by chambers of commerce 
and specially appointed committees com[)rising men selected 
for their high standing and recognized abilit}^ in their 
respective lines, and consequently the details of the various 
schedules are not decided upon in a short session of the 
legislative body. 

In the United States there is not close enough affiliation 
between the lawmakers and the real representatives of the 
country's business interests. The drafting of laws affecting 
business and commerce is left too much to the legislators 
themselves, to Government officials or to academic theorists. 
The vv^ork of all these, it is true, is very valuable, but in the 
last analysis the only reliable judges of the actual business 
needs of the country must be the representatives of the 
country's organized business interests. And were the cham- 
bers of commerce throughout the country made more truly 
representative of all business interests, and were a closer 
organization of all such chambers perfected and the services 
of such an organization systematically availed of in the 
framing of all legislation affecting the country's business, less 
would be heard of legislation being controlled solely by 
special interests. 


In conclusion it may be of interest to note how this ques- 
tion is regarded in other countries, especially in those which 
have, in recent years, made most progress. It cannot be 


doubted that, of all European nations, Germany has, in the 
last forty years, shown the greatest economic advancement. 
In view of this it seems very appropriate to give here the 
following partial translation of an address delivered on 
Monday, February 15, of this year, at the meeting of the 
German Agricultural Council, by Dr. v. Bethmann-Hollweg, 
the Imperial Chancellor, Germany's leading statesman and a 
recognized authority on all economic questions, on the subject 
of protection of national labor and agriculture : 

. . . I am especially grateful to your President for 
his frank admission that the piices of many farm products 
have, in the past years, reached an unhealthy height, burden- 
ing, in a deplorable manner, a great part of the people. 
This matter cannot be disposed of with the customary cry of 
Agrarian greed for gain. In the last analysis it is a matter 
closely connected with the question wiiether German agri- 
culture can enlarge, improve, and make more permanent its 
industry. I am sure I shall meet with no opposition from 
you if I unconditionally answer this question in the affirma- 
tive, and if I state, at the same time, that it is a most serious 
economic and political duty of our agricultural class to solve 
this problem with all the means at their disposal. This they 
can only do if they have a lasting and j)owerful protection. 
But they must do it I Our economic policy has not only in 
view the protection of national labor; it is based at the 
same time upon the will and the power of German agri- 
culture to make the people, so far as regards their needs for 
farm products, more and more independent of foreign coun- 
tries. This will must be transformed into action. The 
agricultural class must daili/ show itself worthy of the pro- 
tection which it enjoys, otherwise the foundation will be 
undermined upon which the national structure rests. In the 
last number of the "Socialist Monthly Review" (Sozial- 
istischen Monatshefte) a writer of the Social-Democratic 
party reaches the conclusion, based upon unprejudiced and 
apparently expert evidence, that for Germany the proper 
Agrarian policy is the one which will increase the domestic 
agricultural production to the fullest extent. Such a 
removal of economic questions from the fruitless strife of parti/ 
argument and their return to the domain of sober, economic 
calculation, is what we need. 

I will not express an opinion whether the agricultural class 
would have attained their object if they had not at the out- 


set laid about them, so to speak, with a certain recklessness. 
They were at that time badly off, very badly off, and, as is 
usually the case, in the fight between free trade and protec- 
tion, those who had the least practical experience fought 
most bitterly for principles and dogmas. Whoever to-day 
regards, impartially and in its general outlines, the picture of 
Germany's economic growth must admit, in addition to the 
fact of her wonderful development, that in this development 
no class has been treated as a step-child, neither agriculture 
nor industry nor trade, neither employer nor workman. 
Therefore we should see an end on all sides of such argu- 
ments as may occur between step-brothers and step-sisters, 
but which cannot be permanently tolerated between real 
brothers and sisters. I do not know what better proof our 
economic policy could give of its usefulness than in its 
practical achievements and results ; and what has shown 
itself to be true, that we must and will keep. 

Germany, it must be remembered, whose area is much 
smaller than that of the United States, has a density of 
population ten times as great. Yet Germany, while develop- 
ing her trade in exports to a most marvelous degree, has been 
able, under her tariff policy, to give the fullest protection in 
the home market to national industry and to develop, in a 
most thorough and scientific manner, her national agricult- 
ure, practically up to the last square foot of land available. 

There is no doubt whatever that the high prices prevalent 
in the United States during the last few years have been due 
to the incomplete utilization of the country's resources and 
not to their insufficiency. A correct understanding of this 
subject must be acquired by all before it is too late ; before, 
by means of a false tariff policy, conditions are made worse 
instead of better, and before the agricultural and industrial 
activities of the country are weakened and its whole 
economic forces seriously injured. 




(In furtherance of the policy of securing technical articles 
of large practical value for the pages of the Bnlletin, there 
is published below an illustrated paper on kenips, prepared 
by Mr. Howard Priestnian of Bradford, England. It will 
be found to be of interest alike to the wool growers of this 
country and to the men in charge of American woolen mills.) 

It may be true that textile literature has suffered in the 
past from over-much (juotation from old and accepted author- 
ities. If so, it is a pardonable fault and is only serious when 
it perpetuates errors. 

Agnosticism and a certain amount of scepticism are all very 
well for the critical appreciation of scientific work, but modern 
writers may be found who calmly state that facts observed 
by others have never been observed at all. And this, to put 
it mildly, is not a scientific method of proceeding. There is 
even in existence a book which says that wool has no saw- 
like serrations! After this we need be surprised at nothing. 
This statement is on a par with the opinions of a man who 
believes the earth is flat — sim[)ly because he is unable to use 
scientific instruments and is too ignorant and conceited to 
acce])t the word of those who can. 

This paper is not intended to prove that wool scales 
protrude like saw teeth when seen in protile, but some 
of the photographs used in illustration show very clearly 
that such is the fact, and if the fine points do not come out 
in reproduction those who are interested may have copies of 
the original untouched photographs. 

AVhat serrations have to do with kemps may not be very 
clear at first sight, but when the reader remembers that ser- 
rations are but the edges of the outer scales of wool fibers, 
and when he turns to Dr. Bowman's description of kemps, 


he will probably forgive this introduction to the subject, 
because Dr. Bowman's description has been wisely accepted 
as the trade definition of a kenip from his day to this. 


He says, " The fiber assumes a dense ajjpearance until even 
the cellular character is entirely obliterated," and " the fiber 
assumes the appearance of an ivory rod without any internal 
structure being visible," and again, " They always resist the 
action of reagents used in dyeing, and are apt to remain 
xincolored and thus spoil the surface of the fabric." 

Every word of this is true. Sometimes it is painfully true, 
and not infrequently the truth is rubbed into the practical 
man with most unpleasant force. In these days of perfect 
photographic plates the camera can be added to the micro- 
scope as a means of confirming, in the most palpable way, 
many otherwise controvertible facts. 

Nothing could be more confirmatory of Dr. Bowman's 
words than the first photograph in this series, which shows a 

Fig. 1. 
Opaque kemj) in sunliglit majjnified 80 times. 


kenip almost round, illumined solely by direct sunlight, 
unassisted by lenses or reflectors, for Dr. Bowman says that 
sucli a fiber "assumes the appearance of an ivory rod," and 
that " the whole surface of the fiber has a silvery appearance 
not unlike frosted, silver." My own opinion is that the color 
is nearer to that of silver than that of ivory ; certainly in 
sheen the fiber strongly resembles frosted silver, but at the 
same time there is a suggestion of ivory in the peculiar 
opacity of the substance. 

The most striking feature of kemps of this class, however, 
is their extreme density. No light can penetrate them and 
taken by transmitted light they appear absolutely black with 
the exception of a narrow margin at either edge. Whether 
it is by refraction or for some other cause, the light gets 
through the extreme edges of the fiber, in some way as 
mentioned by Dr. Bowman on page 163. 

The words he wrote on this subject twenty-five years ago 
were these : "' Sometimes, however, they are very opaque, as 
will be seen in the fiber marked D where the light seems 
hardly to penetrate the fiber, although it is refracted at the 
thinner edges, whilst the true wool above and below it is 
quite transparent to the same light." 


My own opinion is that it is refraction and refraction only 
that produces the opa(i[ue condition of all the central and 
cortical portions of the fiber within the outer scales. I do 
not regard the fiber as being solidified in any sense of the 
term ; rather it looks as if the density to light were caused by 
the attrition or evaporation of the connective material, — 
suint, yolk or whatever it may be — within the fiber. Such 
evaporation will leave all the spindle-shaped cells with 
infinitely small spaces between them instead of being united, 
and for that reason they will be impervious to light, just in 
the same way that glass becomes impervious to light when it 
is reduced to a fine powder. 

This agrees perfectly well with what Dr. Bowman says 
about the definition which is visible in medullary cells in all 


fibers which have a tendency to be kempy. The presence of 
definite marking in the center of fibers is a sure sign that 
they are not of first quality. It is not at all certain that 
such fibers have originally any difference of structure from 
that of perfect fibers, but it is clear that there is now some- 
thing missing in their construction that makes them opaque 
in places. When such fibers are mounted in benzine only 
(or in a thin solution of balsamin benzine), the volatile liquid 
percolates through the whole fiber and fills up the vacant 
spaces, making the whole substance as transparent as a 
perfect hair. 

There can be no doubt about this fact, because under a 
power of two hundred or more magnifications, the whole 
process can be watched in operation as the benzine insinuates 


Fig. 2. 
Opaque kemp in transmitted light magnified 80 times. 

itself into the substance of the fiber. Exactly the same 
thing is true of a large number of kemps, although it is not 
true of all. In time they absorb volatile fluids and become 
transparent. How they do it is not clear, for the absence of 



the superficial markings is very noticeable. This seems to 
confirm Dr. Bowman's contention that the outer scales "seem 

Fig. 3. 

Greasy Australian wool fibers magnified 50 times. One faulty fiber 

showing central marking. 

to be completely attached to the body of the fiber." There 
is, however, no proof of this fact; and in the case of the 
densest kemp I have ever mounted the serrations or saw-like 
edges are perfectly clear when seen in profile. This makes 
it seem certain that the relative transparency of the edge 
is due to some filling-up or cementing of interstices; the 
exact reverse of the process which makes the center of the 
fiber opaque. I use the words "relative transparency" 
advisedly, for the outer part of a kemp is little if any more 
transparent than is the whole substance of any good undyed 
fiber; and I would call especial attention to the fact that the 
edges of the scales on a kemp become visible all over the 
surface of that kemp so soon as it is rendered transparent 
enough for the upper surface to be illumined by transmitted 


Any person can try the very simple experiment for him- 
self; first examine a particularly obvious ivory white kemp 
under the microscope, mounting it only in glycerine or oil. 
In reflected light it appears quite solid, opaque and of ivory 
consistency, but if the same kemp be left in a mixture of 
olive oil and benzine all night, or, if it be boiled in oil, it 
will absorb sufficient fat to till up all the infinitely small 
spaces within it, and the consequence will be that it will 
become transparent. A tiny bubble looks black when seen 
under the microscope, and if there remains any air within 
the fiber when it is again examined, it is quite likely that 
every space where air still lodges will be more or less round 
in shape. 

Exactly the same thing is true of many fibers that are 
certainly not kenips. Something causes the central portion 
of the wool to differ in constitution from the rest of the fiber. 
Either it is not properly nurtured during growth or it is so 
constituted that it parts with an excessive percentage of its 
yolk or snint in the washing process. Whatever may be the 

Fig. 4. 
Roots of skin wool showing faulty central markings. 



reason, the fact remains that when seen under the micro- 
scope the center looks black. Sometimes it appears to 
contain black bubbles : sometimes it appears to have a solid 
core of black. Both effects are due to hollowness. In the 
one case the cells are only partially separated by air, in the 
other the central cells are either gone completely or they are 
so entirely surrounded by air that they refract light as 
completely as a hollow tube would do. 

Fibers in this condition are often mistaken foi- fibers con- 

FiG. 5. 

Culored fibers showing pigment cells evenly distributed. Magnified 

80 times 

taining pigment cells or coloring matter, ])ut this is an entire 
mistake. Pigment cells are seldom, if ever, confined to the 
central portion but are distributed through the whole sub- 
stance of the fiber. They are often distinguishable as spindle- 
shaped bodies, but at other times they are so minute as to 
give the appearance of homogeneous color to every portion of 
the fiber including the outer wall. Moreover, a central core 
of imperfect cells often occurs in colored fibers. This may 
be filled up with benzine, as already described, but such 
treatment in no way affects the real color of the fiber. 


The size of kemps is perhaps 
account for. The majority of the 
times the diameter of the normal 
grow. Their length is much less 
to one-third the length of other 
Kemps that are not broken appear 

the most difficult thing to 
m are something like three 
fibers amongst which they 
than normal, say one-half 
hairs on the same sheep, 
to taper to a point at both 

Fig. 6. 
Enil of a kemp broken showing spindle-sliaped cells protruding. 

80 times. 


ends. This means that the tip is grown in the usual way ; 
then say one inch of abnormal fiber is produced, and finally 
just before the fiber is disunited from the skin a portion of 
normal transparent hair is produced that has no sign of 
central markings. And if this portion is broken the spindle- 
shaped cells are easily seen, with a relatively low power, 
completely filling the space within the scaly coating of the 


We must now turn to another portion of the subject 
which has been once mentioned in literature ; I refer to 


" flat kemps " to which Dr. Bowman called attention in his 
first edition on page 160 in 1885. It is a curious fact that 
few people in the wool trade are aware that there are such 
things. Perliaps this is because Dr. Bowman's statement is 
quite true, that they can be dyed if treated with care, and 
therefore under certain circumstances they will not show in 
the cloth. On the other hand they often do show very badly, 
even when tliey are thoroughly dyed, simply because they 
are flat and therefore reflect a great deal of light when it 
strikes them at the necessary angle. They show just as an 
ebony paper knife would show if laid amongst a lot of black 
pencils. Each pencil reflects a line of light from its curved 
surface, the paper knife reflects a sheet of light from its 
whole width. 

How these curious fibers have managed to escape attention 
for such a lengtli of time is a difficult problem to solve, for 
they exist in many low-class varieties of wool. So far as I 
have yet been able to discover they are found in far fewer 
classes of wool than are ordinary kemps. The ordinary 
kemp which is so well known, may be found in fine Austral- 
ian and in the finest-fibered Cape merino, in spite of the fact 
that kempiness is a usually accepted sign that the breed of 
the sheep has not been kept up to a high standard. 

It is also well known that the nature and quantity of the 
food available for the sheep have a great effect on wool, and 
there can be little doubt that if the question were thoroughly 
investigated growers would find an answer to the problem of 
their growth. Weather also must be taken into account, 
for it is well known that fleeces of sheep exposed to very 
rough conditions are nearly always kempy ; as are the wildest 
Scotch sheep. 

In dyed and finished cloth flat kemps generally appear on 
the surface in a way that makes even competent manufac. 
turers regard them as hemp or grass. They appear lighter 
than the rest of the fibers in the piece, but under the micro- 
scope there is little difference in depth of color. The 
apparent lightness is due to reflection. 

Under the microscope they resemble nothing so much as a 


woven canvas hose pipe which is empty and therefore flat. 
Their shape prevents all waviness in a horizontal plane, and 

Fig. 7. 
Flat kemp showing manner of bending. Magnified 30 times. 

if they are bent they act exactly as a tape or an empty hose 
pipe would do, turning over and forming an angle at each 
bend. In this, of course, they differ entirely from normal 
wool fibers or from ordinary kemps. It is probably their 
erratic shape which deceives so many practical men, and 
were it not for the very obvious way in which the scales show 
under the microscope it would be extremel}^ hard to identify 
them as wool at all. 


It would, however, be very unfair to allow any reader to 
think they are really common, for in a fairly long experience 
I have only found them five times (that is to say, in yarn from 
four different spinners). In four cases the yarns were woven 
into rather low serges and the fibers were most noticeable in 
browns, olives, and greens. In navy blue and solid black 
pieces, the flat kemps take the dye so effectively that they 



are practically invisible, and in the gray or undyed state are 
almost equally difficult to detect. 

Some people will contend that it is no use investigating 
the problem of their structure when they are obviously an 
abnormal product ; but such readers must bear in mind that 
these faulty fibers become invisible when dyed to certain 
shades, and that if their peculiarities were fully understood 
it is quite likely that they might be made invisible in all 

Certain kinds of black dye not only render the flat kemps 
absolutely black and impervious to light, but they also alter 
them so that they reflect little more light than a single nor- 
mal fiber. It is impossible to be al)Solutely certain of the 
reason for this in all cases, but there is little doubt that some 
black dyes are absorbed so freely by the fillers that the fibers 
swell until they are nearly round, and when they are thus 
restored to something like their original shape it is clear that 

Fi(i. 8. 
Flat kemp dyed black. Central portion swollen. Magnified 80 times. 

they will reflect little more light than an ordinary wool fiber. 
The greatest difficulty in research as to the nature of these 


abnormal libers arises from our ignorance as to their origin, 
and if this paper should do nothing else it may help to 
interest some buyers and growers, who in their turn may be 
able to throw light on the first causes that contribute to the 
formation of all classes of kemp and of this small class in 

All we can say at present is that flat kemps are in all 
probability a modified form of the common kemp, though 
how the two merge into one another is not at present clear. 


Flat kemps first came under my notice in a piece of serge 
in 1906, and for two years I sought in vain to find them in 
any raw wool. The kempiest of kempy Cape gave nothing 
of the kind. It contained some fibers that were more oval 
than round, but none of them took any dye, all were shiny 
and opaque (see Fig. 1), remaining shiny and opaque in spite 
of any treatment that I could give them. The same is true 
of all the Australian wool that I examined, so I was driven 
further afield, that is to say, I was driven to qualities of wool 
that I did not expect to find represented in medium-quality 
worsted yarns. Here at the very first effort my quest was 
successful, and in a tiny sample of East Indian wool I found 
all the flat kemps that I needed for two years of microscopic 
research. They exactly resembled the flat fibers I had found 
two years before in the piece of serge. They were so flat 
that they would buckle rather than bend; they absorb dye 
but they shine with a peculiar brilliance so long as they remain 
in their natural condition. 

I can only theorize as to the nature of their condition, but 
the theory is based on and supported by micro-photographs 
of considerable magnification, and I only offer the theory as 
a first contribution to the literature of a new subject which 
others may criticise and correct. 

So far as is at present known, their curious luster and 
their opacity when dry are due to the fact that they are 
hollow. If put into benzine under a cover-glass they are 
at first quite opaque, but if squeezed a quantity of tiny air 



bells escape from the fiber and benzine takes the space pre- 
viously occupied by air. Wherever the air is expelled the 
fiber becomes quite transparent, so much so that the scaly 
covering of both sides can easily be seen. This applies to 
all fibers dyed and undyed, with the single exception of 
black. Fibers dyed black become apparently solid ; the air 
is expelled ; some pigment takes its place within the outer 
scales and swells the fiber (see Fig. 8). In all other cases 

Fig. 9. 
Flat keiups, opaque in parts where air is not expelled. Magnified 80 times, 

the fiber remains tape-like in form with no apparent internal 

Professor Proctor's theory is that all the internal spindle- 
shaped cells are eaten out or destroyed by some bacteria, and 
whether this theory is right or wrong it seems pretty clear 
that all the internal cells are missing. Neat sulphuric acid 
when a{iplied to normal fiber for twenty-four hours removes 
their outer scales and so far attacks the spindle-shaped cells 
that they begin to disintegrate and fall out of place. The 
outer scales may also be removed by caustic soda or sodium 


sulphide in a very brief space of time, but both these reagents 
leave the spindle-shaped cells in a rather gelatinized condi- 
tion and in consequence they are not so easy to detect in 

Fig. 10. 

Fine Australian mooI, magnified 120 times, showing spindle-shaped 

cells disintegrated by sulphuric acid. 

detail. On the other hand, it is very obvious indeed that 
there is a very definite structure left when the scales have 
been removed from normal fibers, whilst no experiment that 
I have yet devised has shown that anything exists within the 
outer casing of a flat kemp. 

As already stated, they are invariably opaque as they 
appear in untreated wool. This, and their peculiar luster 
may be put down without doubt to the presence of air 
within them. Sulphuric acid renders the fiber soft, flexible, 
and transparent in places where the air is free to escape. 
Two hours in 5 per cent KOH leaves them equally trans- 
parent and much more pulpy in character, so that slight 
pressure applied to the cover-glass under the microscope 
causes them to burst, freeing many tiny air bells. Such 
bursting should, of course, make any internal structure 
visible, but on no single occasion have I succeeded in 
detecting a single spindle-shaped cell in the flat portion of 


a flat kemp ; though the same treatment invariably leaves a 
sheaf of internal cells visible when it is applied to normal 

One is therefore driven to one of two conclusions : Either, 
all the internal cells are missing in these fibers, or else they 
have entirely altered in their nature and contracted in size 
so much as to leave room in the flattened fiber for a quantity 
of air. Now it is obvious that the fibers are so flat that 
there is not room for any great amount of internal matter, 
but on the other hand, the action of the black dye in filling 
out the fiber points to the presence of some material on 
which it is able to act, by means of which it is able to 
expand the otherwise collapsed case. If boiled in olive oil 
the fibers also absorb lubricant sufiicient to fill in many of 
the microscopic spaces within them, and thereby they also 
become transparent. 

It may be taken as certain that the libers did once contain 
spindle-shaped cells, because these internal cells are often 
visible at the root end of the fiber in the form of a tuft look- 



















Fig. U. 

Wood fiber, magnified 120 times. Outer scales stripped by caustic soda 

showing core of spindle-shaped cells. 


ing exactly as if they were being pressed out of the sur- 
rounding case by internal pressure (see Fig. 6). That is the 
only direct evidence we have that spindle-shaped cells ever 
existed within the fiber for certain. 


The nature of ordinary kemps is equally difficult to diag- 
nose. They clearl}^ consist of three concentric layers or 
rather of a core surrounded by a relatively thick layer, which 
in its turn is surrounded by a thin coat of scales. When 
broken or cut across and the end examined in direct sun- 
light, they appear to be quite solid and of exactlj^ the same 
nature, color, and density as when they are seen longitudi- 
nally. For the most part they are oval in section ; the edges 
of the central core are clearly marked, being about one-third 
the diameter of the whole fiber, whilst the cortical portion 
and the scaly coat appear of one density, ivory white in 
color, with the sheen of frosted silver, which has already 
been mentioned, but without any visible structure under 
powers of five hundred diameters. 

The fact that the central core is one-third of the total 
diameter of the fiber is very clearly shown if a kemp is 
placed in dilute KOH for an hour. Figure 12 is a photo- 
graph of Cape kemp after this treatment. It shows the 
relation of the central core to the medullary portion, which 
in this case (as already noted) is indistinguishable from the 
scaly coat. In sound wool fiber the central core is indis- 
tinguishable under normal circumstances, and it is therefore 
difficult to say what its size really is. Professor Bowman, in 
his illustration of a longitudinal section of a hair on page 32 
of his first edition, shows the central medulla as composed of 
round nucleated cells, exactly one-tenth of the total diameter 
of the fiber. He shows the bulk of the fiber as composed of 
fibrous or (as he calls them) spindle-shaped cells, surrounded 
by the laminated cells or plates which form the serrated edge. 
It is true that in his large scale illustration of a section of 
Lincoln wool he shows no central core, but as he repeatedly 
refers to the existence of medullary cells in wool, it is fair to 



assume that he regarded them as being common, if not 
universal in wool fiber. Although I have never seen them in 
normal fiber I also regard them as being present, and further- 

FiG. 12. 
Kemp soaked in KOH for an hour. Magnified 80 times. 

more regard them as being more liable than any others to 
alterations of structure. 


Dr. Bowman advanced the theory that the structure of 
wool fiber resembles that of the stems of plants in being least 
dense in the center and steadily increasing in density to the 
ovitmost layer. In conformity with this theory, his section 
of hair shows the cells in the absolute center of the fiber as 
being almost spherical in shape, whilst all others within the 
outer coat are spindle-shaped, the scaly coating itself being 
composed of cells which have developed into absolutely flat 

I see no reason to quarrel with this theory, for the learned 
author is careful to refer to the " change " which has made a 


kenip different from a normal fiber, and my photographs only 
go to show that the medulla or central portion of a kemp is 
composed of approximately spherical cells. They also show 
that if the medulla of a kemp was ever one-tenth of its total 
diameter, some strange alteration has taken place and caused 
it to expand very greatly, for it has not only expanded to 
one-third the diameter of the fiber, but the fiber itself has 
also expanded to three times the thickness of a normal wool 
fiber. Put into plain words, I make the medulla of a kemp 
to be one two-hundredths of an inch in diameter or at least 
twice the diameter of the thickest fiber of healthy cross- 
bred wool that I have yet measured, the whole kemp itself 
(after treatment with caustic potash) being six times the 
diameter of a very thick forties fiber. When one considers 
that this kemp grew amongst very fine Cape merinos, it is no 
exaggeration to say that before it was treated in any way it 
was six times the diameter of the finest fibers amongst which 
it grew. 

Why this should be so is not yet clear, but it seems to me 
that some tem})orary defect in the hair bulb causes the 
formation of spherical instead of spindle-shaped cells. If 
this were so the fiber would of course gain in size what it 
lost in length. 

I have already stated that an average kemp is about three 
times the diameter and one-third the length of the fibers 
amongst which it grows. Amongst six-inch fibers a kemp 
would not much exceed two inches in length. Spindle- 
shaped cells, according to Dr. Bowman, average ^-q^q inch in 
diameter b}^ -^^^ inch in length. Such photographs as I 
have, show them to be in about the same proportion of length 
to diameter, that is to say ten times as long as they are wide. 

Suppose, for example, that we state the case in ten 
thousandth parts of an inch, and imagine a fiber composed of 
spindle-shaped cells measuring four of these fractions in 
diameter by forty in length. The cubic contents of each 
would be more simply stated as 640. But so far as we can 
tell the cells in kemps are not spindle-shaped (see Fig. 12). 
Their length and diameter are nearly equal, as are the cen- 


tial cells shown in Dr. Bowman's illustration of a hair 
already referred to, and to find the dimensions of a cell of 
this shape whose cubic contents are 640, we take the cubic 
root and get 8.62, that is to say, the diameter is more than 
double and the length about oiie-fourtli of a spindle-shaped 
cell of equal bulk, and therefore we may surmise that a fiber 
composed of such cells should likewise be one-fourth the 
length and twice the diameter of a normal fiber. This brings 
us to what appears at first to be a reductio ad absurdum, for 
the bulk of a kemp three times the diameter and one-third 
the length would be equal to but three times the bulk of 
the normal fiber. In spite of the fact that it does not fit 
with theory I regard this figure as approximately correct. It 
has one strong point ; it accounts for the presence of air bells 
which are found in so many kemps of both classes. If 
spindle-shaped cells have ever existed as such within such 
kempy fibers, they have obviously sliortened and widened in 
course of time and in so doing their altered shape has formed 
spaces into which air has percolated through the walls of the 


This would certainly account for the presence of air in so 
many kemps. Air does exist. The curious fact remains 
that in spite of the air they contain they are heavier than 
water ; so that the specific gravity of the actual matter of 
which they are composed must be well over one. In this 
they do not differ from normal wool fibers. Perfectly clean 
fibers, once immersed so as to remove all air bells adher. 
ing to them, will sink steadily in clean water. Flat kemps 
on the other hand will generally float. Some not only float 
but are quite buoyant and rise quickly through water if they 
are sunk to a depth of a few inches below the surface with a 
pair of forceps. This, of course, is in line with what we 
should expect, and if the buoyancy is solely due to the pres- 
ence of air they should sink as soon as the air escapes. 

If flat kemps are boiled, the air that they contain is driven 
off in about ten minutes, and then they immediately sink. 


Therefore we may say without hesitation that the material 
of which tliey are composed is like that of ordinary wool 
fiber and ordinary kemps in having a specific gravity of more 
than 1. 

Tliis practically completes the tale of facts that I have 
observed and it is not easy to sum them up in a few words. 

It is unsafe for the student with a microscope to draw too 
many deductions; it is for the manufacturer and the grower 
to do that. The practical value of tliese investigations to 
the manufacturers lies in the knowledge that flat kemps are 
invisible when dyed navy blue or black. To the grower 
they are little more than data. They show how serious is 
the damage occasioned by flat kemps as well as by ordinary 
kemps, and must therefore show him the desirability of 
eliminating them from the wool if possible. 

It may be impossible ; but knowledge is seldom thrown 
away and some few new facts may bear fruit if they are more 
widely known. 

Howard Priestman. 

Bradford, England. 




(Before the Bostonian Society, on April 18, 1911, C. J. 
H. Woodbury, Sc.D., the Secretary of The National Asso- 
ciation of Cotton Manufacturers, delivered an address, 
" Textile Education among the Puritans," which contains 
much information as to the early beginnings of the textile 
art in New England. Dr. Woodbury's address is of large, 
permanent interest, and with his kind consent it is presented 
in full to the readers of the Bulletin.) 

The more spectacular religious and governmental oppres- 
sions of that day often overshadow the economic conditions 
which were fundamental elements in the settlement of New 
England by the English. 

England had been growing poorer in common with conti- 
nental Europe. Population had gradually grown, and the 
primitive conditions of husbandry failed to increase crops 
commensurate with the greater consumption, and handiwork 
had not received the aid of machinery to develop the larger 
production of cloth. 

None are too poor to fight and the burden of wars, both 
civil and foreign, throughout Europe perhaps developed 
irritation and discontent of povert}' which made taxation by 
the state and rates of the church especially onerous burdens. 
The whole story of daily existence in Europe was told by 
the Pilgrim author in three words, " Life was hard." 

The details of war, rather than the greater victories of 
peace, usurp the pages of history, and in like manner the 
printed books of colonial days are largely devoted to polemics 
among the clei'gy, relations with the Indians, and a great 
amount of petty legislation inevitable with the conditions of 
a new country, while the events of daily life which led to 
substantial results in the founding of a nation were rarely 


printed, and such as exist were, for the most part, found in 
old letters, inventories, and accounts. 

Outside of the daily press, a comparable condition as to 
the record of commercial affairs exists with us to-day. 

Of the many in England discontented with their lot, there 
were some who had available resources sufficient to come to 
Massachusetts Bay, which had been visited for many years 
and mapped for over twenty years. 


Whatever may have been the desires of many to emigrate, 
traveling to colonize was an expensive matter, available 
only to the prosperous. 

The selective character of the New England colonists was 
as well understood as it is to-day, and in a sermon William 
Stoughton said, "God sifted a whole nation that he might 
send choice Grain over into this Wilderness." 

The Puritan pioneers were not poverty-stricken refugees, 
and their sufferings were largely due to ignorance of more 
severe climatic conditions than those of the old country, 
which they were not prepared to meet, and it was merely a 
lack of available resources at the first. 

It is strictly in line with what is to be presented in this 
paper on their fertile expedients to provide themselves with 
cloth that a reference should be made to their domestic 
ingenuity such as their origin of banking around houses, 
placing clay between the studding and keeping it in place 
with clay-boards, now known as clap-boards, anticipating 
building-paper, by birch bark under shingles which has been 
known to last over a century, and packing houses with sea- 
weed to keep out all land vermin — later the subject material 
of a patent not yet expired. In their meeting houses was 
originated the closed pew, in place of open benches of the 
old country with their inevitable drafts. The origin of foot- 
stoves has eluded all my searches for an answer, but I cannot 
learn that they were ever known in England, although they 
are still used in Holland, and similar braziers are extensively 
used in Italy. The later introduction of large stoves into 


meeting houses divided at least one parish at the time of the 
Armiuian schism. 

Whenever a glimpse of their daily life can be obtained, 
there is found most fertile resourcefulness of method. 

It has been estimated that the fifteen hundred who came to 
Salem in 1628-30 brought with them property to the amount 
of fully a million dolhirs. Silks, furs, and plate abounded in 
the colony, and yet in a few years there was such a shortage 
of cloth that sheep skin garments became a necessity. 

The dress of the period for both men and women in cir- 
cumstances to have their portraits painted, which appears to 
be the best measure of prosperity and social standing in 
early days, was elaborate in cut, color, and decoration, and 
the right to the dress of the gentleman or the gentlewoman 
was fixed by statute in Massachusetts Bay, as it was in 
England, limiting the privileges of wearing gold and silver 
lace and other ornaments to those of estates above certain 

Inventories and also correspondence with the old country, 
ordering outfits, contain a vast amount of dandified detail. 

Wherever there were instances of unusual prosperity, 
conditions akin to an aristocracy prevailed. The prosperous 
class were Tories almost to a man, as they or their wives did 
not wish the supply of luxuries of dress from abroad 
stopped. The Revolution by the impoverishment or the 
ex[)atriation of these Tories brought these aristocratic 
assum[jtions to an end. 

Later simplicity leading to fashions of the present day in 
men's garb, at least, may have been forced by the scarcity 
of varied fabrics and more especially the material for 

Although. I shall run from the Colony to the Province, as 
the facts may lead, the purpose of this paper is to call atten- 
tion to the fertility of mental resources exercised by this 
seashore colony in providing themselves with cloth when a 
sufficient supply could not be obtained from the mother 
country, and vexatious as her commercial prohibitions may 
have appeared, it is evident that the earlier laws of this 


nature were defensive, because England had not the wool to 
spare. The Pilgrim writer claimed that " warrs had kept 
down the sheepe." 

Two irrelevant conditions proved to be of vital benefit to 
the colony, first : the reform of the methods of taxation, by 
equalization as people had means to pay without undue distress 
and not to rest directly upon agriculture, attempted by 
Elizabeth, had not been fully developed under Charles the 
First, and indeed contains open questions to this day ; but 
she performed one act ultimately of untold value to the 
colonists of Massachusetts Bay, who came from the eastern 
counties of England in the very territory where she had 
colonized spinners and weavers from the Netherlands and 
these people had taught others of their skill, so that these 
Puritan emigrants were the best equipped of all England to 
spin and weave. The general exercise of such skill un- 
doubtedly became a necessity rather than an early intention 
among the colonists. 

The other condition helpful to the colony was the fact that 
the increasing scarcity of meat had impelled those living in 
the shore countries of England and Europe to go after fish, 
and finding the great supply of cod in the north Atlantic 
they sailed the high seas and developed a race of bold 
navigators from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, who 
traversed the ocean to great distances in small boats whose 
return to port was evidence of skilled seamanship. 

While Endicott's Colony did not contain many fishermen, 
those of the Dorchester Colony which came from Devonshire, 
which reaches from the English Channel to the Bristol 
Channel, who earlier came to Cape Ann and thence to Salem, 
and the Manxmen who later came to Marblehead, — and 
brought their dialect with them, — were fishermen, who 
added to the strength of the little colony whose fortunes 
they shared. 


While the charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony recites 
its purpose to be the conversion of the Indians to the Chris- 


tian religion, yet it is an historical fact that the Puritans came 
over for business rather than for sentiment, and when a 
Marbleheacler interrupted the minister with " we came here 
to tish, and not to worship God," he undoubtedly vied with 
the sermon in an irreverent declaration of truth, without 
any disparagement to the " soundness " of the longer dis- 
course from the pulpit. 

They intended to catch fish for the English market, but in 
fact were forced to send them to the West Indies and Spain 
in order to obtain cotton and wool. They expected to buy 
beaver skins from the Indians on their own terms, but the 
savages were such keen traders that the struggle for self- 
preservation develo[)ed the proverbial Yankee shrewdness. 

They expected to depend upon the old country for supplies, 
even to their drink, for there was such a general belief in 
England that the water in America was unfit for drink, 
owing doubtless to the brackishness of tide-washed springs 
at the shore where early travelers filled their water butts, 
that Endicott's fieet was ballastetl with casks of ale. 

Even angle worms were brought over for bait in fresh 
water fishing and the English angle worm, a different species 
from those indigenous to this country, still exists in some 

It may be difficult to state their economic intentions other 
than to remain a loyal, subservient colony, but the neglect of 
the Mother Country followed by repressive commercial legis. 
lation developed their mental resources into an independent 
condition a century before it was one of record. 

No one with facts at hand can pretend that this was a land 
of liberty, for there was greater personal freedom in England 
as the very fact of the thousands of non-conformists who 
remained there, either in relative peace or to fight out their 
differences, attests. 

This colony was no democracy, Governor John Winthrop, 
the broadest mind among them, inveighed most bitterly 
against general representation. The first freemen were 
qualified May 18, 1631, and a count of those so elevated 
above their fellowmen up to 1641 when the population was 


first known, showed that out of a colony of 21,000 there had 
been 1,293 qualified as freemen, although on account of death 
and returns to England the maxirauiu number at any one 
time was probably less than 1,000 freemen. 

In a country fringing the seacoast, although their charter 
conferred jurisdiction westerly to the " South Sea," yet they 
were content with the judgment of an exploring party sent 
out from Salem who reported that the country was not worth 
the while of more than one plantation running back a league 
from the sea, save at some places where two leagues might be 
worth the while. 

These pioneers were of that middle English stock still 
feeling the pride of strength from the advancement which 
they had received at the expense of the prestige of the aris- 
tocracy as some of the results of the wars of the Roses which 
rehabilitated England, except as to the condition of the peas- 
ant farm laborers, which continued as before. 

The extent to which this little band, fringed between the 
savages and the deep sea, developed their own self-reliance is 
shown by the manner in which they applied the principles of 
law developed under generations of monarchies, to the solu- 
tion of problems of local self-government, and beyond that 
they initiated new functions of government, notably the 
written ballot, trade schools, industrial statistics, free public 
education, the town government, the separation of church 
and state, citizen militia, printed paper money and the record 
of deeds and mortoages. Well did Carlyle characterize the 
people who showed such an initiative as "the last of the 


The relations of England and the North American colonies 
to cotton contain some unexpected anomalies. 

Cotton appears to have been the oldest known fabric in the 
Orient, where its use for cloth is prehistoric and uninterrupted 
to this day. It was mentioned in the Old Testament, in 
Greek and Roman writers; it was related with strange exag- 
gerations by early travelers to the East as Marco Polo and 


Sir John Mandeville, and was used for clothing as far to the 
west as the army of Julius Csesar. 

All of the early explorers to the portions of the western 
hemisphere where cotton was indigenous mention this plant 
and its use for cloth. 

It must have been well known to the Crusaders who brought 
most of the luxuries to England and northern Europe. It 
must have been within the academic knowledge of the clergy 
and scholars of the laity in England, yet there did not appear 
to be any general use or even knowledge of cotton cloth in 
England until long after it was known in continental Europe 
and New England. 

The earliest reference to cotton in an English book as far 
as I have been able to learn is in " Nova Britannica ; Offering 
Most Excellent Fruits of Planting in Virginia," London, 
1609, in which the statement is made that cotton would grow 
as well in that province as in Italy. 

"A Declaration of the State of Virginia," London, 1620, 
mentions cotton among the " naturall commodities dispersed 
up and downe the divers parts of the world all of which may 
be had in abundance in Virginia." 

It should be noted that these citations refer to prospective 
cultivation of cotton ratlier than to it as a commercial com- 
modity, and passing by certain references in letters the 
earliest mention in an English book of cotton as merchandise 
to be received in England is said to be "• Treasure of Traffic," 
by Lewis Roberts, 1641, in which it is related that cotton 
woole had been received in London from islands in the Med- 
iterranean and thence sent to Manchester. Later records show 
that it was used for beds, and I have been unable to find any 
reference precisely indicating when cotton spinning and 
weaving was begun in England. 

Barbadoes and other of the West Indies were settled by the 
English at about the same time as Massachusetts Bay, and 
cotton from these islands was sent to England as well as to 
American colonists. Obstructive navigation laws were a 
hindrance to its importation, and the spinning of this fiber in 
the old country must have been conducted from the first on 


a very limited scaler and evidently without that commercial 
importance which was the case in New England. 

The Poor Law of l^^lizabcth, IGOl, cites the raw materials 
used in nianul'acture and yet makes no reference to cotton, 
as would have been the case if it was s])un at that day. 

Samuel Pepys' records in his diary, Fcbinary 27, 1^)03-64, 
"Great good company at dinner, among others Sir Martin 
Noell, who told us the dispute between him as farmer of the 
Additional Duty, and the East India Company, whether 
callicos be linnen or no, which he S'Ayn it is, having ever 
l)e(!n esteemed so ; they say it is made of cotton woole which 
grows upon trees and not like flax or hemp. But it was 
carried ;ig;unst tiie com|)any, tliough tliey stand out against 
the verdict." 

Would that we knew the results of the appeal against the 
inti('|)idity of ignoiance in this depaitmental ruling, but the 
gossij)y diarist does not make any later record on the sul)ject, 
and as he would liave gloated over the discomfiture of the 
reversal of the ruling it is assumed that the Calicut cloth 
was legally adjudged to be " some sort of linnen." 

Yet the Colony of Massachusetts Bay was legislating upon 
" cotton woole " as a well-k]U)wn commercial raw material 
twenty-four years before this time. 

Two notes of record on the early use of cotton in this 
country may be relevant in this connection. 

Christo|)her Columbus, who was the son of a weaver, dis- 
covered in this luimis[)h(!re corn, cotton and tobacco, but 
does not appear to have regarded them as anything out of 
the ordiiiaiy of expected euriositic^s, so grcsat was his eager- 
ness for gold and gems. In his diary he relates that after he 
had left the Island of San Salvador on the occasion of his 
first landing, the natives swam out to the boats, bearing 
balls of cotton thread as presents, and later in the evening 
came out to the ships in their canoes with more balls of 
cotton, some weighing over twenty-five pounds. 

A few days later he refers to cotton cloth used by the 
natives of another island, and similar references are repeated 
in the accounts of visiting uuuierous ishiuds. 


What is evidently the earliest record of cotton in this 
vicinity is contained in the account by Champlain of his 
battle on the west shore of Lake Cliamplain, July 2, 1609, 
wliere he refers to arrow-proof armor worn by the chiefs, 
consisting of strips of hard wood bound together by cotton 

This cotton could not have been raised in that vicinity, 
but the commerce among the Indians was exclusively barter 
and extended over long distances. 

The Indians in the natural cotton belt in Georgia and the 
Carolinas are known to have spun cotton, and although any 
known samples of that product in the North have long gone 
out of existence, yet if any exclusive product of the Indians 
at the North has been found in tlie South, it is fair to assume 
that cotton yarn was among the articles exchanged in the 

The arrow heads made of the peculiar rock of Mount 
Kineo, at Moosehead Lake, Me., and not existing elsewhere 
in this country, have been found in Alabama, Ohio, and 
Indiana, thus showing the extent of their distribution. 

The only original fabric of the Indians in Massachusetts 
which has been found is the plaited rather than woven cloth 
made of the wild hemp. 


When the first settlers came to Massachusetts, the Indians 
had to a slight extent a red cloth made of a mixture of wool 
and flax, known as Shag, and probably as irritating as the 
shirt of Nessus, which they had obtained from the early 
explorers and fishermen who had sailed along the coast for 
nearly twenty years, and they were eager to barter skins for 
cloth, which formed the basis of the trade in beaver skins, 
forming an important commerce for more than a generation. 

The extent of these antecolonial visitations of fishermen 
and adventurers along the New England coast — all of them 
traders — is indicated by the "Welcome, Englishmen!" of 
Samoset to the Plymouth colonists, and the evident ease of 
communication with the Indians at all the later settlements 


shows that it had been sufficient for the savages to learn con- 
siderable of the English language. 

As an instance of the measure of communication and its 
inevitable errors at earlier dates, it will be noted that the 
charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony vested to it from 
three miles north of the Merrimack to three miles south of 
the Charles, and from the Atlantic Ocean to the " South 
Sea," which was supposed at the time to be a branch of the 
ocean reaching from the west to the vicinity of the present 
site of Albany, N.Y. 

The source of this authority was from the information 
received from the Indians by the earlier travelers, and prob- 
ably resulted from an attempt of the Indians to communicate 
some information in regard to Lake Champlain, the largest 
body of fresh water lying within the United States. 


Commerce with the Mother Country would have been 
beset with difficulties even under the most adventitious con- 
ditions. Vessels were small, rarely over 100 tons even after 
the Revolution, and generally less than half that tonnage, and 
could make but two round voyages to England in a year. 
Freights were X3 to X4 a ton, an enormous amount in those 
days, which has been estimated as the equivalent of eight 
times that amount at the present day. Thus without con- 
sidering the obstructing legislation of the Navigation Acts 
of England, there were legitimate commercial difficulties in 
the way of obtaining a supply of clothing from England, 
and the serious condition of affairs and the remedies which 
were initiated were fully set forth in the acts of that very 
paternal government, constituting the court of the governor 
and deputies which legislated upon every conceivable detail 
of person and property. 

The English Navigation Acts, 1662-1685, intended to 
secure to English shipping all available commerce, among 
them being cotton, wool, and indigo. These acts were so 
contrary to the natural courses of trade that they were 
evaded and scarcely enforced. 


The export of sheep, wool, and woolen yarns from England 
to the colony was prohibited in 1665, and an export duty 
levied on woolen cloth, and commerce between the American 
colonies had been forbidden at an earlier day. These unwar- 
rantable interferences virtually made smuggling very general 
among the colonists, if such a term be fairly applicable to 
illegal commerce under such conditions. 

The extent to which this repressive legislation failed of its 
purpose is shown by the fact that the " Complete Tradesman " 
issued in England in 1663, makes no mention of commerce 
with New England as a field of export for English woolens. 

It is only fair to call attention to the skill of the Florentine 
merchants who bought the rough woolen cloth woven in Eng- 
land and dyed and finished it in a superior manner by the skill 
of their guilds, and not merely interfered with the English 
market on the continent, but also sold large quantities of it 
at a greatly augmented price in England. 

The relations of Cromwell with the Colony of Massachu- 
setts Bay were fickle ; although posing as a friend restrictive 
legislation was enacted during the protectorate. At one 
time he contemplated joining the colony as its ruler, at 
another moving it to Jamaica, and later to transfer it to 
Ireland, but the roots had grown too deep. 

The relations of the colony with the Mother Country were 
summed up years later by David Hartley, who was the sole 
commissioner on the part of Great Britain to sign the Treaty 
of Utrecht, which closed the Revolution, when he declared 
in the House of Commons that for one hundred and fifty 
years England had given no aid or encouragement to those 
who sought to establish the English race on these shores, but 
left them to battle with the Indians and to defend their own 
frontier, and forced the colonists to buy in her market and 
to pay the prices which were demanded. 

The colonists realized this, and their first seal bore the 
Macedonian cry, "Come over and help us I " 

All parties in England appeared to be a unit in seeking to 
keep the colony in an absolutely dependent commercial con- 


dition, and to permit only agriculture, lumbering, fishing, and 

Lord Chatham, the proverbial friend of the colonies, stated 
that if he had his way they would not be permitted to make 
a horseshoe nail. 

Years later when Franklin as the agent of the colonies 
was asked by the Council in London, " Suppose the external 
duties were to be laid on the necessaries of life ? " gave the 
amazing answer, "I do not know a single article imported 
into the Northern Colonies but what they can either do with- 
out or make themselves. The people will spin and work for 
themselves in their own houses." 

Severe as this legislation may appear it was not vindictive, 
but merely a correspondence course in stupidity. England 
was poor and needed money, therefore she taxed everything 
available ; the people were poor and it was assumed that it 
would help matters if such taxation was so framed as to drive 
colonial customers to merchants in the Mother Countr3^ 

History repeated itself when George III. wanted the town 
residence of the Duke of Buckingham, and the Council stated 
that the Exchequer had no money. "Tax the American 
Colonies ! " said the King. Buckingham Palace was secured, 
the tax levied, the minority in the colonies ruled and the 
cord snapped. 


Spinning and weaving were entirely domestic occupations 
until about the time of the Revolution, and there must have 
been considerable manufacture of cloth during the earlier 
days of the colony among those who came across the Atlantic, 
but the younger generation were not under the instructing 
influence derived from the spinners from the Netherlands, 
and with the distracting conditions of the new country they 
were not continuing with the same skill, and heroic measures 
by the colonists were necessary in self-defence to make pro- 
vision for clothing. 

Let the acts in their sequence tell the story which abounds 
in detail if not perspective. On November 8, 1633, the 


scarcity of cloth had evidently begun to conform to the com- 
mercial conditions of higher prices, as the court on that day 
regulated the prices of many articles adding with covert 
threat : 

And for lynnen & other comodities wch in regard of their 
close stouage & small hazard may be afforded att a cheap rate 
wee do advise all men to be a rule to themselues in keeping a 
good conscience assureing them that if any man shall exceede 
the bounds of moderacon wee shall punish them seuerely. 

Without citing more than typical acts of legislation, the 
first measure which attempted to provide a physical remedy 
other than attempts at commercial regulation of prices which 
were probably as unfeasible in the face of commercial condi- 
tions then as they have been ever since that time, was the act 
of May 13, 1640, which introduces provisions for industrial 
statistics and industrial education, and indicates that some- 
body had been thinking wisely and concluded that the time 
for action had arrived. 

This Court takeing into serios consideration the absolute 
necessity for the raising of the manufacture of linnen cloth, 
&c.,doth declare that it is the intent of this Court that there 
shalbe an order setled about it, & therefore doth require the 
magistrats & deputies of the severall townes to acquaint the 
townesmen therewith, & to make inquiry wdiat seede is in 
every towne, what men & weomen are skilfull in the braking, 
spining, weaving, what meanes for the pviding of wheeles & 
to consider wth those skilfull in that manifacture what 
course may bee taken to raise the materials & i)duce the mani- 
facture & what course may bee taken for teaching the boyes 
& girles in all townes the spining of the yarne & to returne 
to the next Court their severall & ioynt advise about this 
thing. The like consideration would bee had for tlie spining 
& weaveing of cotton woole. 

This was followed by the act of October 7, 1640, giving a 
bounty of 25 per cent for textile manufactures. 

For incuragment of the manifacture of linnen, woollen 
and cotton clothe, it is ordered that whosoever shall make 
any sort of the said cloathes fit for use and shall shewe the 


same to the next magistrat or to 2 of the deputies of this 
Court, upon certificate thereof to this Court or the Court of 
Assistants, the party shall have alovvance of 3d in the shill- 
ing of the worth of such cloth according to the valewation 
wch shalbee certified wth it. And the said magistrate or 
deputies shall set such marke upon the same cloth as it may 
bee found to have bene alowed for ; pvided this order shall 
extend onely to such cloth as shalbee made wthin this iuris- 
diction, & the yarne heare spun also, & of such materials as 
shalbee raised also wthin the same, or else of cotton. This 
order to continue for 3 yeares next followinge. 

This was evidentl}' not entirely satisfactory, as it was 
repealed June 2, 1641, eight months later, and on the same 
date, legislation was passed indicating twice that the supply 
of cotton was insufficient for the existing demand, and also 
referring to the wild hemp which was evidently derived from 
the practices of the Indians with this as their only indigenous 
source of textiles to which reference has already been made. 

This Cort takeing into consideration the want of cloath- 
ing wch is like to come upon us the next winter & not finding 
any way to supply us so well as by cotton wch wee find not 
like to bee pvided in dew time for the present want & vender- 
standing withall from the certain knowledge of divrse of the 
court that there is a kind of wild hempe groweing plentifully 
all over the countrey wch if it were gathered and improved, 
might serve for psent supply until cotton may bee had, it is 
therefore ordered : 

And here follow provisions for the gathering and use of 
wild hemp, and its spinning mornings and evenings through 
the seasons " that the honest and profitable custom of 
England may be continued." The latter appears to be the 
earliest reference to spinning in the old country. 

The same line of constructive legislation continues, for on 
June 14, 1642, the following act was passed: 

This Cort taking into consideration the great neglect of 
many parents and masters in training up the children in 
learning & labor & other iniployments wch may bee profit- 
able to the common wealth do hereupon order & decree that 
in every towne the chosen men for managing the prudenciall 


affaires of the same shall hencefourth stand cl)arffed wth the 
care of the redresse of this evill. They are to take care that 
such as are set to keep cattle bee set to some other iiDpliment 
withall as spinning upon the rock, knitting, weveing tape, & 
for their better ])formance of this trust committed to them 
they may divide the towne amongst them, appointing to every 
of the said townsmen a certeine number of families to have 
speciall oersight of, they are also to pvide that a sufficient 
quantity of materialls as hempe, flaxe, &c., may bee raised in 
their severall townes & tooles and implements pvided for 
working out the same & for their assistance in this so need- 
full & beneficiall impliment, if they meete with any difficulty 
or opposition wch they cannot well muster by their owne 
power, tliey may have recorse to some of the magistrates. 

This "spinning upon tlie rock" is a unique reference not 
known to occur contemporaneously elsewhere, rehitive to a 
method of spinning obtained from the Indians. The rock 
was a whorl of stone or dried clay in the form of a torus, or 
a round doughnut, in which the hole was small enough to 
prevent from passing through the large end of the wood 
spindle forming the distaff and in this manner acts as a small 
fly-wheel on the spindle and also keeps it in a vertical posi- 
tion. The clay and pottery whorls found among the Indian 
relics in the southwest are generally covered with elaborate 

On May 14, 1656, the Court enacted further legislation 
whose preamble indicated an alarming state of affairs on the 
scarcity of cloth, which urgently called for immediate action 
as set forth in the act, which was in part: 

This Cort taking into serjous consideration the present 
streights & necessitjes that lye vppon the countrje in respect 
of cloathing, which is not liked to be so plentifully suppljed 
from forraigne parts as in tjmes past, & not knowing any 
better way & meanes condiiceable to our subsistence then 
improoving as many hands as may be in spinning woole, 
cotton, flaxe, &c, — 

Itt is therefore ordered by this Court and the authoritje 
thereof, that all hands not necessarily implojde on other 
occasions as woemen, girles & boyes, shall and heereby are 
enjoyned to spinn according to theire skills & abiliitje ; & 
that the selectmen in euery toune doe consider the condicon 


& capacitje of euery family and, accordingly assess them at 
one or more spinners; & since severall familyes are neces- 
sarily imployd the greatest part of theire time in other 
buisness, yet if opportunitjes were attended, sometjme might 
be spared at advantage by some of them for this worke. 
The sajd select men shall therefore assess such familyes at 
half or a quarter of a spinner, according to their capacitjes ; 
secondly, that euery one thus assessed for a whole spiner 
doe, after this present yeare, 1656, spinn, for 30 weekes euery 
yeare, three pounds p weeke of lining, cotton, or woolen, & 
the select men shall take special care for the execution of 
this order and shall haue power to make such orders in theire 
respective tonnes for the clearing of comons for keeping of 
sheepe. And the deputjes of the severall tonnes are hereby 
required to impart the mind of tlie Cort, for the saving of ye 
seede both of hemp and fiaxe. 

The differences in the provisions for the enforcement of 
the acts of 1642 and 1656 reveal a change of conditions 
between the old country and the new. 

In the first instance, it was entrusted to the masters, being 
master workmen of the English guilds who had come over 
presumably with the Salem colony fourteen years before, as 
there had been but little other immigration, and at the time 
of the second act, it was as much later, and these twenty- 
eight years, added to the age of a master workman of mature 
age at the time of the settlement, would bring him beyond 
active labor, and in the sere and yellow age, if indeed living. 

As the guilds were not perpetuated in this country, it 
became necessary at the time of later legislation to use the 
authority of officers of colony and towns which had been 
established by the Court in developing the government of 
the colony. 

This legislation indicates the wonderful scope of initiative 
in their minds, as we find here provisions for the first public 
education, which was vocational and textile education, and 
also industrial statistics. 

The oft quoted act establishing free public schools sus- 
tained by general taxation where our ancestors learned their 
letters from the horn book, and in the scarcity of paper 


learned to write and to cypher on birch bark, was not passed 
until 1647. 

Would that we knew the man who framed the legislation 
which met the issue so decisively, in order that later genera- 
tions might keep him in grateful remembrance for the action 
which undoubtedly preserved the colony, and also served as 
a nucleus which in due time developed the textile manufac- 
ture of New England. 

Such individual instruction was not accompanied by 
records to reveal the various steps and details of the work, 
but the more important matter of the result is known and 
that is, the people were adequately furnished with home-spun 
cloth or there would have been further legislation, and some 
outcries in sermons, account books or inventories would have 
furnished a record. 

There is, however, one record which sums up the whole 
result of this stimulus both of textile education and the 
provisions for raw material, and that is in the contemporane- 
ous " Johnson's Wonder Working Providence in New 
England" in 1652, stating that the people made more than 
enough clothing for their own use. 

Some clothing at a price did come from England as account 
books show, but it was evidently far less than required for 
supjDlying the needs of the people. 

As woolen goods require to be fulled, the establishment of 
fulling mills became matters of record in the sale of land, 
development of water power, and permits to build, in 
settlements throughout the colony where there was a water 
supply for the purpose, and this gives records showing the 
weaving of wool, while the spinning and weaving of cotton 
being a domestic handicraft made no comparable record. 

Rowley appears to have been a textile headquarters which 
failed to develop into leading conditions for the textile 
manufacture in years later, probably from lack of water 
power and deep water transportation, as flax, hemp, and cotton 
were woven there in large quantities before 1639, and this 
centering of the industry attracted twenty families of York- 
shire weavers to settle there in 1643. 



The acts of the General Court show that " cotton woole " 
was well known in the colony in 1636 and various records 
show that the earlier importation of cotton and indigo from 
Barbadoes, which appears to have been in many instances a 
generic name for the West Indies, was extensive ; and this 
importation continued until the War of 1812. 

The " Desire of Salem," the largest ship of her day, 
returned to that port in 1638 with a large supply of cotton. 

The " Trial," one hundred and sixty tons, was the first ship 
built in Boston and her first voyage was to St. Christophers 
in the West Indies for a cargo of cotton. 

Salt fish, staves and Indian captives were sent to that 
fertile island in exchange for cotton, molasses, and "ye 
inspiring Barbadoes drynk " and negro slaves. I have been 
told by an observant traveler that Indians sent there and 
intermarrying with the negroes were sufficient to hybridize 
the kink in the wool to a wave, remaining to this day nearly 
three centuries in anticipation of the skill of Marcel, the 

The State of Connecticut in 1640 imported cotton from 
the West Indies and sold it to their towns, and private 
enterpri undoubtedl}'- obtained it at an earlier day, as in 
the Colony of Massachusetts Bay. 

The packing of cotton gave trouble then and remains a 
live issue to this day, as an organization was formed in 
Boston last February to mitigate this difficulty. 

John Hull, the most enterprising Boston merchant of his 
day and the treasurer of the Commonwealth for many years, 
writes that he had received from the West Indies two bags of 
" vile cotton woole," which he sends to a customer who evi- 
dently comes to the same opinion when he finds in the middle 
of a bag " much fowle cotton " and makes reclamation upon 
Hull, who is obliged to make amends. Evidently the " dog- 
tail" grade has no claim as modern slang. 

The supply of cotton was provided for by an active export 
trade in what was practically a foreign product, until long 


after the invention of the American cotton gin by Eli Whit- 
ney in 1793, which provided' for the raw material the entirely 
different commercial conditions of cotton manufacturing. 


The shortage of wool received due attention of the Court 
by the act of Angust 22, 1654, in which the growth of sheep 
was encouraged by an act whose preamble stated that : 

Whereas this countrje is at this tjme in great streights 
in respect of cloatliing, and the most likeljust way tending 
to our supply in that respect is the rajsing and keeping of 
sheepe wthiii our jurisdiccon, 

and in detail the exporting of ewes is forbidden as well as 
the injunction that none shall be killed until they are two 
years old. 

The effect of these and earlier provisions for increase of 
sheep for the sake of their wool was little short of marvelous. 

There were 1,000 sheep in Massachusetts Bay Colony in 
1642, and in IGGO the English Council made a report that 
the colony had 100,000 sheep and was also buying wool fioin 
the Dutch. At the earlier date at least they were sending 
staves and salt fish to Spain which were traded for wool. 


Vessels of that day were equipped with revolving hooks 
for laying cordage, which was the first textile manufacturing 
of the colony. These rope-making heads turned by hand, con- 
tinued without serious modifications until recent time, about 
two hundred years after the landing, were also set up on shore 
and rope making carried on at first in the open, but theie was 
so much available space for this purpose that information on 
the subject comes by way of incident rather than designed 
record. In this way, it is known that John and Philip 
Varen made rope in Salem in 1635, and John Harrison, on 
Purchase street, at Boston in 1641, and there were others 
wherever rope was wanted and hemp available, and it was 
not until there was a larger po[)ulation after the next century 


came in that there appears any legislation on the subject 
other than the early acts of the Court relative to the cultiva- 
tion and treatment of hemp already cited, and these pertained 
to its ultimate use for weaving. 

In the later days we learn that the selectmen of Boston on 
April 12, 1702, allowed Edward Gray to make use of the 
highway near Lieutenant Holmes to make ropes at a rent of 
twenty shillings a year in the future and seven shillings a 
year in the past, and later, on May 17, 1708, the town of 
Boston gave "Edward Sheaf leaf to set up some posts in the 
training field to make ropes on.'' After the lope walks 
between Pearl and Atkinson (now Congress) streets had been 
destroyed by fire and considered to be a hazard to the build- 
ings in that vicinity, the town granted in 1794 lands west of 
Charles street and the Common which were called "• rope 
walk lands." The ropes were first made in the open, but as 
this Avas too much of a pleasant weather business like the 
making of hay, four covered rope walks were built and these 
later proved to be such a fire hazard to buildings which had 
extended in that direction, at the fire which destroyed them 
in 1806, that after several j^ears' negotiations the city bought 
the lands in 1828 for $35,000, and the tract forms the i)resent 
Public Garden. 

The problem in regard to cordage was that of the raw 
material and not its method of manufacture, as every sailor 
knew how to lay hemp, and there was no need of legislation 
upon its manufacture. 


About 1720 the question of instruction in spinning took a 
distinctively different position from that of the colony 
seventy years before. 

In place of a system organized on the basis of individual 
instruction to small groups, in the fields or elsewhere work- 
ing with distaff or in a dwelling at a spinning wheel, there 
was a general movement for vocational schools, although 
they left that word and not much else as to methods tor 
modern instructors. 


The suddenness of the achievement and its grasp upon the 
comtnunity was remarkable, and while there must have been 
some cause for a sentiment which enlisted the intense affilia- 
tion of all classes of the community, yet the economic prin- 
ciple which must have existed does not appear in any marked 
change of commercial or sociological conditions. 

Although there are no citations to confirm the opinion, yet 
it appears as if this movement must have had some connec- 
tion with the organized opposition of the English spinners 
and weavers of cotton, which found voice in the English law 
of 1721 forbidding the wearing of dyed or printed cotton 
goods " except blue calicoes, muslins or fustians." The first 
two of which at that time were imported from Calcutta, and 
indicated the hand of the powerful East India Company in 
amending legislation. 

The people of New England had grown to appreciate 
cotton, which was then as it is now the cheapest of fibers, 
and naturally desired to provide for its continuance before 
any similar prohibitions should be attempted for New England 
by the mother country. 

While allusion is made to the poor in some of the records, 
they were " " always with us," and as the spinning schools 
were begun seventy years after the establishment of public 
schools, there is nothing in any such references to warrant 
an opinion that they were tributary to a mendicant class, but 
it is evident that they were framed for the general welfare 
of the community. 

It is unfair for some writers to apply the term " spinning 
craze " to this movement, as instead of being ephemeral, it 
endured for over fifty years, when it was stopped by the 
stirring events of the Revolution. 

The endorsement of these schools by those of social posi- 
tion was indicated by the establishment of organizations of 
ladies who would meet and spin, while the clergyman would 
discourse to them, and the easy running Saxony wheel did 
not disturb the spinning of yarns while that of yarn went on. 

Shortly before the Revolution, these spinning societies 
took an important part in stirring up local zeal, as serving a 


similar purpose to what has been done by other organiza- 
tions equally far afield from their original object in move- 
ments preceding political overturns in many countiies. 

The reiteration of considering, referring to committees, 
resolving, and appropriating for spinning schools, drags its 
weary way through fifty and more years of town records. 

The records for the most part fail to indicate what was 
actually accomplished, but the fact of the renewal of the 
resolutions on the subject indicates tliat the former measures 
had not been permanent, but that the purpose of the people 
was unchanged. 

In the perspective of nearly two centuries, the years 
appear close together, and the brief records omit the obvious 
of that day, but the very pertinency with which the subject 
was attacked by so many different people witli their varied 
points of view during two generations, indicate these measures 
appealed to public sentiment as a living need. 

Without assuming to cite in detail, a general review of 
this industrial movement will illustrate the definite purpose 
of a community for over half a century. 

Long preliminary to the establishment of these schools, 
the selectmen of Boston on April 13, 1702, voted to buy 
some spinning wheels to provide work for the poor, evi- 
dently an instance of that wisest form of charity which places 
the needy in a self-supporting condition. 

It should be noted that in 1718 a number of Irish spinners 
arrived and were assigned land on the west side of the 
Merrimac river below Manchester, N.H. The site was 
unsatisfactory and many of them moved to different parts of 
tha Province, especially to Boston, where they excited the 
enthusiasm of the people for spinning, and a spinning school 
was formed by them which met on the Common before the 
establishment of S[)inning schools by the town. It may be 
worth the while to note that these people introduced the cul- 
tivation of the first potatoes into New England, although 
they had been brought in small quantities from Bermuda as 
early as 1636, and were served as a rarity at Harvard College 
commencement dinner in 1708. 


The town of Boston voted on March 14, 1720, to establish 
a spinning school in which the pupils had not merely free 
instruction but board for the first three months, after which 
time the yarn should be bought from them, and also pre- 
miums for good work. Three hundred pounds were loaned 
to the school for seven years, and twenty spinning wheels 

Daniel Oliver, a Boston merchant, one of the Royal Coun- 
cil, and also chairman of the town committee ap[)ointed to 
establish a spinning school in 1720, built at an expense of 
.£600 a spinning school next to Barton's Rope walk near to 
the Craigie Bridge, for the use of the town, to which he 
bequeathed the building. He died July 23, 1731. This 
appears to be the site of the spinning school, although the 
report of the committee at the meeting December 27, 1720, 
recommended as tlie site of the spinning school the " cellar 
most made" in front of Captain Southacks, which is the site 
of the ScoUay building formerly in ScoUay's square, but I do 
not find any record of the acquisition of the site or the con- 
struction of the building, although several histories refer to 
ScoUay's square as the site of the school. 

This subject was further taken up by a town meeting Sep- 
tember 28, 1720, which, according to some authorities, resulted 
in the erection of a large building known as the Manufactory 
House on Long Acre (now Tremont) street, where Hamilton 
place now enters. A large figure of a woman with a distaff 
was painted on the westerly wall. 

Although both the records and local histories contain 
many references to this building which was an important 
feature in industrial development, but little is known about 
it. It is quite probable that the name was applied to two 
buildings or to extensive enlargements of the first one, as 
there is evidence of purchase of land and expenditures on 
the building by the Province on the Manufactory House in 
1753 and 1754. 

The reference to the provision of board for the pupils was 
so inconsistent with a town school as to raise a query which 
was answered in part by the action of the Provincial Legisla- 


ture purchasing the Manufactory House in 1748, and granting 
to the town of Boston four townships for its support and the 
use of the provincial frigate for the transportation of the 

In 1735 the Province levied a tax on carriages to support 
the spinning school and this statute was repealed in 1753, in 
which year the town of Boston passed an ordinance for a 
similar tax for the same purpose. 

This pi'ovincial legislation on the school and its mainte- 
nance indicates that it was a provincial as well as a town 
institution, and gives a reason why board was provided for 
the scholars. 

In 1762 the Manufactory House was ordered sold, but the 
sale did not take place, perhaps from lack of a purchaser, and 
it remained standing until 1806, when Hamilton place was 
run through its site. 

When this spinning school was opened there was a large 
spinning bee on the Common, where many women operated 
their spinning wheels. Chief Justice Samuel Sewell, who 
was the moderator of the town meeting when the spinning 
school was authorized, presided on this occasion. 

In 1753, on the fourth anniversar}^ of the society, there 
was another large spinning bee held on the Common' at which 
three hundred weavers were in three rows, with their leader 
borne on the shoulders of men and a large number of weavers 
with their leader weaving on a raised platform. Rev. Dr. 
Samuel Cooper " improved " the occasion by a discourse. This 
affair attracted to the town the largest number of people 
ever known at any one time. 

The town of Boston voted in 1754 to use the Old Town 
House on the site of the present Old State House, for a spin- 
ning school and appropriated £50, old tenor, to i)ut the 
building in repair. 

Charlestown had taken similar action in regard to its old 
town house the preceding year. 

Another movement in textile instruction is indicated by 
the town notice September 2, 1762, that the spinning school 
in the Manufactory House is again opened and that any 


person may learn to spin without charge and be paid for their 
spinning after tlie first three months, and that a premium of 
<£]8, old tenor, is offered to the four best spinners. 

At a town meeting April 4, 1769, a committee of which 
William Molj'neaux, a leading Boston merchant of Huguenot 
ancestry, born in 1716 and died October 22, 1774, was the 
chairman, reported in favor of setting up spinning scliools in 
various parts of the city, and hiring rooms and spinning 
wheels, and the employment of school mistresses, and buying 
wool which "can be converted into shalloons, durants, pam- 
blitts, callaniancoes, durois, legathies, and in general men's 
summer wear." None of these fabrics are known by this 
name to-day, or indeed what manner of cloth other than they 
were woolen goods. 

The action of the town varied somewhat from the recom- 
mendation of the committee. The whole project was put into 
the hands of Mr. Molyneaux to whom the town gave <£200to 
purchase equipment and hire rooms and employ school 
mistresses, and also loaned him £300 to purchase wool. 

1 have been unable to learn anything of the several places 
which it was authorized sliould be hired for tiiis purpose, 
except that the Manufactory House was granted him hn- the 
purpose for seven years at an annual rental of five j)epper- 
corns. It should be remembered that this building was then 
the property of the province and not of the town. 

A year later, March, 1770, we learn that he had a large 
number of si)inning wheels and had engaged rooms for 
enabling many young women to earn tlieir support. 

The energy of Mr. Molyneaux inspired great activity in 
spinning schools throughout the community outside of 
Boston and large quantities of cotton and woolen goods were 

In this good work Mr. Molyneaux had personally advanced 
amounts beyond the appropriations, and at the town meeting 
in March, 1770, he requested a further allowance from the 
town in reimbursement, but the question was laid over until 
an adjourned meeting when Justice Dana could be present 
and give legal advice and at the later meeting Justice Dana 
was in attendance and gave his opinion that he doubted 


whether the town could legally remit the amount asked for, 
and no further action was taken except to give Mr. Moly- 
neaux, " a vote of thanks for his faithful discharge relative to 
the spinning business." 

While Mr. Molyneaux may have longed for an hour of 
Judge Sewell, who presided at the town meeting when spin- 
ning schools were authorized fifty years before, he did not 
rest here, but at once presented a memorial to the General 
Court in which for the first time during this fifty years there 
is any disclosure of methods and equipment of this succession 
of spinning schools, and this action also indicates the close 
relation between town and province in regard to these 

He states that they have thorougldy instructed at least 
three hundred children in the art of spinning, and to whom a 
large amount lias been later paid in wages, and that he has 
received only a loan from the town of £500 without interest, 
while between ,£11,000 and £12,000 has been expended in 
fitting up the machinery ; the first amount is evidently old 
tenor, but not the later ones. 

The equipment of this institution is interesting as it 
includes on hand 40,000 skeins of fine 3^arn fit to make any 
kind of women's wear and a large amount of dyestuffs ; and 
for the plant, a large number of spinning wheels which he had 
made, also " comj)lete apparatus " among which is cited 
twisting and winding mills, fifty looms^ furnaces for hot and 
cold presses, and dyehouse with large copper tanks. 

There does not appear to be any record showing that this 
memorial received different treatment from the usual govern- 
ment claim, but whatever may have been the injustice of town 
and province, the official record shows that the people owed a 
great debt of gratitude to this wise merchant in giving of his 
skill and his fortune toward the extension of the textile art 
in such a manner that the immediate results made many 
women self-supporting at a time when the opportunities for 
work outside of domestic employment were few. 

It may be a surprise to some, as it was to the writer, to be 
informed that public hand spinning and weaving schools are 
still maintained in Holland. 


I have omitted all reference to the long continued peti- 
tions, votes and appropriations relative to the linen duck" 
manufacture in the town of Boston, as it was at best a manu- 
facturing scheme, or a succession of them, by promoters 
which was brought to an end by the granting of a petition to 
discharge the obligations of the surviving members of the 
Linen Manufactory as the enterprise had been a failure. It 
does not appear that there ever was any provision for the 
textile education of the young in the enterprise. 

Sails in northern countries were ahvays made of linen, 
until Seth Bemis made duck from sea island cotton at 
Watertown in 1809. A few years ago sea island cotton was 
used in making at New Hartford, Conn., a set of sails for one 
of the defenders of the international cup. 

In closing this account of the sagacity and enterpiise in 
textiles of the people of Massachusetts Ba}-, it may be well 
to note that an important provision for the beginnings of the 
manufacture of cotton goods at about the time of tlie 
Revolution rested upon the wisdom of Governor John 
Winthrop, who in 1633 encouraged the development of all 
water powers near to settlements for grain mills and saw 

These mills are said to have been generall}- built of stone 
and were one story in height. One hundred and fifty years 
later when power spinning machinery was surreptitiously 
imported, many of these grain and saw mills were extended 
a story higher with wood, and there were twenty-seven such 
spinning mills in Massachusetts before 1812, — none of 
which are believed to be now standing, — but the charter 
and vested rights of many a water-power in this Common- 
wealth rest upon the run-of-stone which they must still 

The inventions of the spiiniing jenny by Hargreaves in 
1667, and the spinning frame by Arkwright in 1769, which 
surreptitiously reached this country just before the Revolu- 
tion, were the beginning of the end of making cloth solely as 
a domestic occupation, and cotton manufacturing had begun. 

It should be stated there was always one marked difference 
between hand-made cotton goods in Old England and New 


England, that whereas in New England such cloth was made 
entirely of cotton, and inventories in colonial times show 
that it was appraised at a higher price than linen, and pure 
hand-made cotton was not made in Old England until after 
1760, but was woven with linen warp and cotton filling, yet 
the English imported a large amovmt of calico, which was 
the trade name for cotton cloth obtained from Calcutta 
whether white or hand printed. 

The extent of cotton manufacture involves amounts 
"beyond the dreams of avarice," and yet its increase had 
been largely the additional use by those within the zone of 
the cotton manufacture. Civilized people are using an 
increased amount of cotton cloth both in elaboration of dress, 
and of late years in the substitution of cotton for wool, 
either pure or mixed in many fabiics. 

Yet the cotton manufacture has hardly made its mark 
among the unnumbered millions of the Orient or the bar- 
barous people of warm countries. It has been estimated 
that only about 20 to 25 per cent of the population of the 
eaith, wearing cotton cloth, use manufactured goods. 

Labor in those countries is so cheap and land transporta- 
tion so dear, that the differences in cost generally equate 
themselves in a distance of fifty miles from navigable waters. 

The great amount of concentration of human skill in the 
cotton manufacture has accomplished wonderful results in 
reducing the cost of the manufactured product, and therefore 
extending its usage. 

Although it may have made the cheaper class of goods 
more uniform in their quality, yet the finer varieties of fab- 
rics still continue to be the result of handicraft. 

The finest muslins are still spun and woven by hand in 
India b}' a cult whose skill was well established at the time 
of the earliest acquisitions of authority by the East India 
Compan}' in that country. 

The artistic weaving of the world is that of the Gobelins, 
who still maintain handicraft methods at tlieir little Flemish 
Colony in Paris, where they were established by Louis XIV., 
who also introduced the merino sheep into France. 

' fzu.u.UA.^nycJ<^^ 




Mr. a. Park Hammoxd, of the Hockanum Mills, one of the 
veteran woolen manufacturei's of New England, died on March 
18, 1911, at his home in Rockville, Conn. He had been ill for a 
long time and, much to his sorrow, incapacitated for active busi- 
ness. Mr. Hammond's career was a long and successful one, and 
liis rare personal qualities had endeared him to hundreds of 

He was born in Vernon, the son of Captain Allen Hammond, 
one of the pioneer woolen manufacturers whose work has made 
the name of Rockville famous throughout the country. The 
older Hammond was the first superintendent of the New Eng- 
land Mills, and served as agent until his death in 1864. The 
son was educated in the schools of Rockville and in the Hall 
School at Ellington and at Troy Polytechnic Institute. Asa lad 
he worked in the New England Mills, but he was not satisfied with 
the theoretical instruction in manufacturing which the technical 
schools could give. Hard study, constant application, made him 
a thorough, practical manufacturer. He mastered also the diffi- 
cult art of the business administration of the mills. P>ecoming 
superintendent, he succeeded his father as agent and treasurer 
of the New England Company. 

From 1874 to 1878 Mr. Hammond resided in Iowa, conducting 
successfully a large farm. '^Phen for a time he was in the ser- 
vice of the Hartford, Providence & Fishkill Railroad, but when 
the company operating the New England Mills was reorganized, 
Mr. Hammond was elected treasurer and held this important 
post until the Hockanum, Springville, New England and Minter- 
burn Mills were combined into the Hockaniim .Mills. He then 
became assistant treasurer of the greater company. 

Mr. Hammond was also the president of the Rockville National 
Bank, the president of the Rockville Water & Aqueduct Com- 
pany, and the president of the Rockville Building & Loan Asso- 
ciation. During the Civil War he served with credit in the 
Fourteenth Connecticut Volunteers, commanding a company at 


the battle of Antietam. Mr. Hammond had been a member of 
the Masonic Order for more than fifty years, and he was a com- 
rade of the Grand Army of the Republic. He had represented 
his town in the Legislature of Connecticut, and had been a 
member of the city council. In religious faith he was a Con- 

Mr. Hammond's long business career had made him widely 
known among his fellow manufacturers. He was regarded by 
them as an honor to his calling. For many years he was a 
member of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers and 
an active and influential member of tlie Executive Committee. 
His presence at the meetings of the committee and of the Associ- 
ation had lately been severely missed, and his death has brought 
keen grief to his associates. 

Few men have had such an engaging personality as Mr. 
Hammond. His frank and genial temperament impressed all 
who had the privilege of his acquaintance. He bore a notable 
part in the modern development of New England manufacturing, 
and the work which he achieved, his good deeds and his strong 
and sunny character will be long remembered in his city and his 

Mr. Hammond leaves a widow and two sons, George B. and 
Allen Hammond. 



A CONCISE, clearly printed, practical and informing volume is 
"Textiles; for Commercial, Industrial, Evening and Domestic 
Art Schools," written by William H. Dooley, the Principal of 
the Lawrence Industrial School, and published by D. C. Heath & 
Company, of Boston, New York, and Chicago. It is a pioneer in 
its field, just as its author has been a pioneer in industrial educa- 
tion in Massachusetts. The construction of the work is a simple 
and logical one. Mr. Dooley begins with a consideration of the 
character of the fibers themselves — wool, cotton, flax, hemp, 
silk, etc. He explains very carefully the distinctions among the 
different kinds of wool and cotton — the bulk of his work being 
devoted to these two most indispensable fibers. He goes on to 
describe the processes of manufacture in various kinds of fabrics 
which are the results. The whole work shows a fine, painstak- 
ing industry and precision of statement. The book ought to be 
of large, permanent value to the work of industrial schools in 
similar industries, and it is full of important information also 
for young people who look forward to engaging in such indus- 
tries as wholesale and retail dry goods, dressmakers' and allied 
trades. Appended there is an excellent chapter on the testitig of 
materials. There are sufficient and apt illustrations. A place 
should be found for this admirable little work in the libraries of 
all American textile mills. Mr. Dooley has performed an unques- 
tioned service to a great industry in compiling it. 


(iHtiitorial anti Intiustrial jEiscellaup. 



The Democratic draft of a proposed revision of Schedule K, 
as formulated by Chairman Underwood and the majority of the 
Committee on Ways and Means, is just about what observers in the 
wool and woolen trade have anticipated. An ad valorem duty 
on raw wool of 20 per cent, and a duty on wool manufactures of 
from 30 to 45 per cent have been clearly foreshadowed for a long 
time as embodying the current Democratic idea of tariff reduc- 
tion. Both constitute broadly an elimination at one stroke of 
one-half of the protection which the wool and woolen industry of 
America has enjoyed for a period of more than forty years, 
broken only by the disastrous Gorman- Wilson experiment of 

That earlier Democratic tariff made raw wool absolutely free 
of duty, and gave to wool manufactures in finished cloth and 
dress goods an ad valorem duty of 40 and 50 per cent. The ad 
valorem duty on such fabrics in the new Democratic proposal is 
lower on the average than the Gorman- Wilson rates with free 
wool, while the manufacturers under the new bill would be com- 
pelled to pay a substantial duty on their raw material. 

In other words, the new Democratic bill is more favorable to 
raw wool and much less favorable to manufactures of wool than 
the Gorman- Wilson Act of sinister memory. It is manifest that 
the Democratic leaders, while desiring free wool in the abstract, 
have been afraid of the political consequences of such extreme 
legislation in the great Middle Western agricultural States which 
a year ago gave the Democracy its coveted majority in the House 
of Representatives. This apprehension of the prompt loss of the 
House if wool were made entirely free has doubtless counted 
even more heavily with the Committee on Ways and Means than 
the loss of from .$15,000,000 to $20,000,000 of revenue. 

Between 1893 and 1897, under the free wool policy of the 
Gorman-Wilson law, the five populous Middle Western States of 


Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, Wisconsin, and Iowa saw their sheep 
shrink from 6,775,474 to 3,697,087 — a loss of nearly one-half, 
and a terrible sacrifice of one of the most valuable assets of 
Middle Western agriculture. Free wool produced in 1894 a 
veritable political revolution in these prairie States, the like of 
which now would almost inevitably deprive the Democracy of its 
present control of the House of Representatives. In avoiding 
another such radical expedient as free avooI, the Democratic 
chieftains of to-day have shown themselves possessed of far more 
political sense than their predecessors of the school of Mills, 
Breckinridge and Wilson, if even less practical knowledge of 
industrial affairs. 

It is true that the bill now proposed is much less protective of 
the manufacturing interest than was the Gorman-Wilson law, 
but the Democratic leaders are not looking with any great solici- 
tude to the favor of the northeastern manufacturing States, 
where most of the American woolen and worsted mills are 
located. The handling of the Canadian reciprocity agreement 
and of the free list bill shows clearly that Democratic calcula- 
tions for the great Presidential campaign of 1912 are being made 
with reference to winning and holding the support of the agricul- 
tural constituencies of the Mississippi Valley, the West and the 
Northwest, which in combination with the solid South, it is 
hoped, can overwhelm the East and capture the National Govern- 
ment. This is the underlying philosophy of the retention of a 
duty on wool allied with a radical reduction of the protection on 
wool manufactures. 

We have discussed the new Democratic wool and woolen bill as 
a political rather than as an economic measure, for the simple 
reason that the bill obviously is political rather than economic. 
No shadow of sanction of a policy of making a duty on crude 
materials relatively higher, all things considered, than a duty on 
high finished products can be found in the teachings of the 
schools or the practice of tlie nations. This new Democratic 
proposal has unquestionably been fabricated with a view to the 
Presidential election of 1912 rather than with a view to actual 
enactment. It must have been perfectly well known to its authors 
that such a measure, unless it was radically amended, could never 
hope for the approval of even a nominally Republican Senate or 
the signature of a Republican Executive. 

President Taft has freelv criticised Schediile K. He mis^rht 


have welcomed some kind of a moderate revision downward. 
But there are few who are willing to believe that he would ever 
accept a proposal like this, which so far as its effect upon Ameri- 
can manufacturing is concerned goes as far beyond Gorman- 
Wilsonism as that went beyond the McKinley law which had 
preceded or the Dingley law which superseded it. 

And in the long run what is bad for the manufacturers of wool 
is bad for the American growers of wool. There is no profitable 
market for the fleeces at Wyoming, Ohio, Illinois or Michigan, 
except in the woolen mills of the United States. A policy which 
admits at a low, non-protective rate of duty foreign wool in the 
form of manufactured goods from Europe robs American wool 
growers of their prosperity just as surely as it robs the owners 
of the mills. The close interdependence of the two branches of 
the wool and woolen industry is not appreciated by the antliors 
of the new Democratic wool and woolen bill. There must be 
an active effort in the weeks to come to impress this interde- 
pendence upon the consciousness of Senators and Representatives 
of both political parties in Congress. 


The Democratic wool and woolen bill, as drawn up by the 
majority of the Committee on Ways and Means, was submitted 
to a caucus of the Democratic members of the House of Repre- 
sentatives in Washington on June 1, and after a debate was 
approved, several members, Messrs. Rucker of Colorado, Ash- 
brook, Francis and Sharp of Ohio, and Gray of Indiana, being 
excused from a pledge to support the caucus platform. 

A resolution was adopted declaring that support of the duty 
on raw wool should not be construed as an abandonment by the 
Democratic party of the principle of free wool. 

On June 2 the new bill was introduced into the House, and at 
the request of Mr. Underwood referred to the Committee on 
Ways and Means. Its text is as follows ; the notes following 
each paragraph show the imports under it and the revenue 
derived tlierefrom during the last fiscal year and the estimated 
imports and revenue under the proposed law. 



To reduce the duties on wool and manufactures of wool. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, That on and 
after the first day of January, nineteen hundred and twelve, the 
articles hereinafter enumerated, described, and provided for shall, 
when imported from any foreign country into the United States 
or into any of its possessions (exce[)t the Pliilippine Islands and 
the islands of Guam and Tutuila), be subjected to the duties 
hereinafter provided, and no others ; that is to say : 

1. On wool of the sheep, hair of the camel, goat, alpaca, and 
other like animals, and on all wools and hair on the skin of such 
animals, the duty shall be twenty per centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Rceiilts for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 30, 1910. a l2month period. 

Imports $47,087,293.20 $6(),99 1,000. 00 

Duties JB21,128,728.74 $13,398,200.00 

Average unit of value per pound on — 

Class I $0,230 

Class II 80.259 

Class III $0,126 

All wools $0 1 86 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 44.31 20.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — Free. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — Free. 
Springer Bill — Free. 
Mills Bill — Free. 

2. On all noils, top waste, card waste, slubbing waste, rov- 
ing waste, ring waste, yarn waste, burr waste, thread waste, gar- 
netted waste, shoddies, mungo, flocks, wool extract, carbonized 
wool, carbonized noils, and on all other wastes and on rags com- 
posed wholly or in part of wool, and not specially provided for 
in this act, the duty shall be twenty per centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 30, 1910. a 12-month period. 

Imports $20:^,509 25 $890,500 00 

Duties $79,29^.00 $178,100.00 

Average unjt of value, per pound . . . $0,352 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 38.96 20.00 

Wilson BUI as passed House — 15 per cent, except top waste, slubbing waste, 
roving waste, ring waste, and garnetted waste were free. 

Wilson Bill as enacted — 15 per cent, except top waste, slubbing waste, rov- 
ing waste, and ring waste were free. 

Springer Bill — Free. 

Mills Bill — Free. 

3. On combed wool or tops and roving or roping, made wholly 
or in part of wool or camel's hair, and on other wool and hair 


which have been advanced in any manner or by any process of 
manufacture beyond the washed or scoured condition, not spe- 
cially provided for in this act, the duty shall be twenty-live per 
centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Peoposbd Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 30, 1910. a 12-njonth period. 

Imports f 1,129.80 $732,500.00 

Duties $1,188.41 $183,100.00 

Average unit of value, per pound . . . $0,537 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 105.19 25.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — Combed wool, 25 or 30 per cent, according 
to value. Wool and hair advanced, etc., not specially provided for, 
probably dutiable as manufactures not specially provided for, at 40 per 

Wilson Bill as enacted — Combed wool, at 20 per cent. Wool and hair 
advanced, etc., not specially provided for, probably dutiable as manu- 
factures not specially provided for, at 40 or 50 per cent according to 
class and value. 

Springer Bill — 25 per cent. 

Mills Bill — 40 per cent, as manufactures of wool not specially provided for. 

4. On yarns made wholly or in part of wool, the duty shall 
be thirty per centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. endingJune30,1910. a 12. month period. 

Imports $326,886.02 $1,373,900 00 

Duties $269,296.16 $412,200.00 

Average unit of value, per pound ... $0 908 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 82.38 30.00 

Wilson BiU as passed House — 30 or 35 per cent, according to value. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — 30 or 40 per cent, according to value. 
Springer Bill — 30 per cent. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 

5. On cloths, knit fabrics, felts not woven, and all manu- 
factures of every description made, by any process, wholly or 
in part of wool, not specially provided for in this act, the duty 
shall be forty per centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. endingJuneSO, 1910. a 12-month period. 

Imports $6,658,288 07 $24,06^,400.00 

Duties $6,465,884.31 $9,624,900.00 

Average unit of value, per pound. . . $1.04 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 97.11 40.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — Cloths and knit fabrics, 40 per cent. Felts 
for paper maker's use and printing machines, 25 to 35 per cent, accord- 
ing to value. Felts, not woven and not specially provided for, 45 per 
cent All other manufactures not specially provided for, 40 per cent. 

Wilson Bill as enacted — ("lotlis and knit fabrics, 35 to 40 per cent, accord- 
ing to value. Felts for printing machines, 25 to 35 per cent, according 
to value. Felts not specially provided for, 45 to 50 per cent, according 


to value. All other manufactures not specially provided for. 40 to 50 

per cent, according to value. 
Springer Bill — Cloths, knit fabrics, and all other manufactures of wool not 

specially provided for, 40 per cent. Felts. 45 per cent. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 

6. On blankets and flannels, composed wholly or in part of 
wool, the duty shall be thirty per centum ad valorem : Provided, 
That on flannels composed wholly or in part of wool, valued at 
above fifty cents per pound, the duty shall be forty-five per 
centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 3u, 1910. a 12-monlh period. 

Imports $1 68,889.82 $258,400.00 

Duties $161,412.70 $101,700.00 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, percent, 95.57 30 and 45 

Wilson Bill as passed House — 25 to 40 per cent, according to class and value. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — 25 to 50 per cent, according to class and value. 
Springer Bill — 25 to 35 per cent, according to class and value. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 

7. On women's and children's dress goods, coat linings, 
Italian cloths, bunting, and goods of similar description and 
character, composed wholly or in part of wool, and not specially 
provided for in this act, the duty shall be forty-five per centum 
ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 3U, 1910, a 12-month period. 

Imports $9,218,374.10 $25,408,500.00 

Duties $9,481,206.75 $11,433,800.00 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 102.86 45.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — 40 per cent. 

Wilson Bill as enacted — 40 to 50 per cent, according to value. 

Springer Bill — 40 per cent, or 35 per cent if warp of cotton and remainder 

of wool. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 

8. On clothing, ready-made, and articles of wearing apparel 
of every description, including shawls whether knitted or woven, 
and knitted articles of every description made up or manu- 
factured wholly or in part, and not specially provided for in this 
act, composed wholly or in part of wool, the duty shall be forty- 
five per centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 30, 1910. a 12month period. 

Imports $1,776,236.34 $5,066,4(10 00 

Duties $1,444,296 87 $2,279,900.00 

Average unit of value, per pound. . . . $2 06 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 81.31 45.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — 45 per cent. 

Wilson Hill as enacted — 45 or 50 per cent, according to class and value. 

Springer liill — 45 per cent. 

Mills Bill — 45 per cent, except 40 per cent for outside garments and shawls. 


9. On webbings, gorings, suspenders, braces, bandings, belt- 
ings, bindings, braids, galloons, edgings, insertings, flouncings, 
fringes, gimps, cords, cords and tassels, ribbons, ornaments, laces, 
trimmings, and articles made wholly or in part of lace, embroid- 
eries and all articles embroidered by hand or machinery, head 
nets, nettings, buttons or barrel buttons or buttons of other 
forms for tassels or ornaments, and manufactures of wool orna- 
mented with beads or spangles of whatever material composed, 
on any of the foregoing made of wool or of which wool is a 
component material, whether containing India rubber or not, the 
duty shall be thirty-five per centum ad valorem. 

Pkesent Act. Pkoposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 30, 1910. a 12-month period. 

Imports $77,16L70 .$160,900.00 

Duties $67,174.54 $56,300.00 

Average unit of value, per pound .... $1.85 ....... 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 87.06 35.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — 40 per cent. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — 50 per cent. 
Springer Bill — 40 per cent. 

Mills Bill — 50 per cent, except 40 per cent on laces and embroideries not 
for dress trimmings. 

10.^^ On Aubusson, Axminster, moquette, and chenille carpets, 
figured or plain, and all carpets or carpeting of like character or 
description, the duty shall be forty per centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 3u, 1910. a 12-month period. 

Imports $62,700.00 $79,300.00 

Duties $38,930.65 $31,700.00 

Average unit of value, per square 

yard $2.71 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 62.09 ' 40.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — 35 per cent. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — 40 per cent. 
Springer Bill — 30 per cent. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 

11. On Saxony, Wilton, and Tournay velvet carpets, figured 
or plain, and all carpets or carpeting of like character or descrip- 
tion, the duty shall be thirty-five per centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. PRorosED Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 30, 1910. a 12-month period. 

Imports $40,711.00 $51,100.00 

Duties $28,554.96 $17,900.00 

Average unit of value, per square 

yard $1.99 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 70.14 35.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — 35 per cent. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — 40 per cent 
Springer Bill — 30 per cent. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 


12. On Brussels carpets, iSgured or plain, and all carpets or 
carpeting of like character or description, the duty shall be thirty 
per centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 3u, 1910. a liiiiionth period. 

Imports S8, 222.00 SI 0,000 00 

Duties $6,272.77 $3,000.00 

Average unit of vahie, per square 

yard $1.21 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 76.29 30.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — 30 per cent. 
Wi son Bill as enacted — 40 per cent. 
Springer Bill — 30 per cent. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 

13. On velvet and tapestry velvet carpets, figured or plain, 
printed on the warp or otherwise, and all carpets or carpeting of 
like character or description, the duty shall be thirty-five per 
centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 3U, 1910. a 12. month period. 

Imports $41,058.00 $5I,7ii0.00 

Duties $25,645.89 $18,100.00 

Average unit of value, per square 

yard $1.78 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 62.46 35.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — 30 per cent. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — 40 per cent. 
Springer Bill — 30 per cent. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 

14. On tapestry Brussels carpets, figured or plain, and all 
carpets or carpeting of like character or description, printed on 
the warp or otherwise, the duty shall be thirty per centum 
ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimati'd results for 

Item. ending June 30, 1910. a 12mouih period. 

Imports $187.00 $200.00 

Duties $120.44 $60.00 

Average unit of value, per square 

yard $1.15 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 64.41 30.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — 30 per cent. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — 42^ per cent. 
Springer Bill — 30 per cent. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 


15. On treble ingrain, three-ply, and all-chain Venetian carpets, 
the duty shall be thirty per centum ad valorem. 

Prksent Act. Peoposed Act. 

Results for year Estimnted refults for 

Item. ending June 30, 1910. a 12-month period. 

Imports $1.675 00 f 1,800 00 

Duties $1,077.66 $500.00 

Average unit of value, per square 

yard $0,904 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 64.34 30.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House —30 per cent. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — 32^ per cent. 
Springer Bill — 30 per cent. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 

16. On wool Dutch and two-ply ingrain carpets, the duty 
shall be twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 30, 1910. a 12mQntb period. 

Imports $22.00 $20 00 

Duties $13.75 $5.00 

Average unit of value, per square 

yard $0.80 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 62.50 25.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — 25 per cent. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — 30 per cent. 
Springer Bill — 30 per cent. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 

17. On carpets of every description, woven whole for rooms, 
and Oriental, Berlin, Aubusson, Axminster, and similar rugs, the 
duty shall be fifty per centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. endmg June 30, 1910. a 12 month period. 

Imports $4,892,786.43 $5,582,200 00 

Duties $2,660,723.16 $2,791,100,00 

Average unit of value per square 

yard $4 37 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 60.57 50.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — 35 per cent. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — 40 per cent. 
Springer Bill — 30 per cent. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 


18. On druggets and bookings, printed, colored, or otherwise, 
the duty shall be twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 30, 1910. a 12 mouth period. 

Imports S30.. 587.00 $38,800.00 

Duties $20,273 13 $9,700.00 

Average unit of value, per square 

yard $0,837 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 66.28 25 00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — 25 per cent. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — 30 per cent. 
Springer Bill —30 per cent. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 

19. On carpets and carpeting of wool, flax, or cotton, or com- 
posed in part of any of thein, not specially provided for in this 
act, and on mats, matting, and rugs of cotton the duty shall be 
twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Item. ending June 30, 1910. a 12-month period. 

Imports $48,934.25 $62,300 00 

Duties $24,455.61 $15,600.00 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per cent, 49.98 25.00 

Wilson Bill as passed House — 25 per cent. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — ;^0 per cent. 
Springer Bill — 30 per cent. 
Mills Bill — 40 per cent. 

20. Mats, rugs for floors, screens, covers, hassocks, bed 
sides, art squares, and other portions of carpets or carpeting, 
made wholly or in part of wool, and not specially provided for in 
this act, shall be subjected to the rate of duty herein imposed on 
carpets or carpeting of like character or description. 

Wilson Bill as passed House — Text and provision same as above. 
Wilson Bill as enacted — Text and provision same as above. 
Springer Bill — Same as carpets, 30 per cent. 
Mills Bill — Same as carpets, 40 per cent. 

21. Whenever in this act the word "wool" is used in con- 
nection with a manufactured article of which it is a component 
material, it shall be held to include wool or hair of the sheep, 
camel, goat, alpaca, or other like animals, whether manufactured 
by the woolen, worsted, felt, or any other process. 

Sect. 2. That on and after the day when this act shall go into 
effect all goods, wares, and merchandise previously imported, and 
hereinbefore enumerated, described, and provided for, for which 
no entry has been made, and all such goods, wares and merchan- 
dise previously entered without payment of duty and under bond 
for warehousing, transportation or any other purpose, for which 


no permit of delivery to the importer or his agent has been 
issued, shall be subjected to the duties imposed by this act and 
no other duty, upon the entry or the withdrawal thereof. 

Sect. 3. That all acts and parts of acts in conflict with the 
provisions of this act be, and the same are hereby, repealed ; but 
this section shall not take efllect until the first day of January, 
nineteen hundred and twelve. 

Present Act. Proposed Act. 

Results for year Estimated results for 

Summary of Statistics Presented Herein 

Present Act. P 

Results for year Es 

Item. endingJuneSO, 1910. a 12-month period 

Raw wool : 

Imports .$47,087,293.20 $66,991,000.00 

Duties $21,128,728.74 $13,398,200.00 

Average unit of value, per pound, . $0,186 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per 

cent 44.31 20.00 

Manufactures of wool : 

Imports $23,057,357.78 $63,831,000. 00 

Duties $20,775,820.76 $27,158,000.00 

Equivalent ad valorem rate, per 

cent 90. 10 42.65 

Total revenue $41,904,549.50 $40,556,200.00 

Wilson Law (1896) — Average ad valorem rate on manufactures of wool, 



The United States Census .Bureau has recently issued prelim- 
inary reports on the wool manufacture and the hosiery and knit 
goods manufacture of the United States ; a report on the cotton 
manufacture will be issued shortly. In the reports on the wool 
manufacture the statistics for the woolen and worsted mills are 
combined while the statistics for the other branches of the indus- 
try are given separately. 

When the tabulation of the returns has been completed a report 
covering the woolen, worsted, carpet, felt, and wool hat manufac- 
ture, which will be comparable with previous census reports on 
these industries, will be issued. The reports on the shoddy 
manufacture and on hosiery and knit goods will be treated sepa- 
rately, as was the case in 1900 and in 1905. The reports given 
herewith show a remarkable increase in the manufacture in the 
decade 1899-1909, except in the case of wool hats, an advance 


which appears to be more noticeable in the latter half of the 
period. The census was taken at a time when the industry was 
in a prosperous condition, and the threat of tariff revision had 
not begun to produce its blighting effects. 

Particular attention is called by the Census Bureau to the fact 
that these reports are -preliminary ^ and subject to such change and 
correction as may be found necessary from a further examination 
of the original reports. 


The apparent growth in value of products is from 1^238,745,000 
in 1899 to $307,942,000 in 1904 and $415,826,000 in 1909, an 
increase of 62 per cent in the period which is as notable as it is 

The cost of materials used is as follows : 1899, $148,087,000; 
1904, $197,489,000 ; 1909, $273,466,000 ; and the percentage of 
increase from 1899 to 1909 is 85. 

These totals, as seems to be unavoidable in all census returns, 
contain a very considerable element of duplication owing to the 
sub-division of the industry, in consequence of which tlie produc- 
tions of one department become the raw material for the next 
step in the manufacturing process and the statistics for the 
minor processes become part and parcel both in the cost and 
value of the final result. 

These complications seriously affect, in fact render impossible, 
an exact comparison of some of the most important points in 
manufacture. The " Cost of Materials Used " and the " Value of 
Products " are greatly enhanced, while the items " Capital 
Engaged," " Operatives and Others Employed," " Miscellaneous 
Expenses," and " Wages Paid " are not correspondingly increased, 
so that calculations involving the relations of the second group 
of items to the first are misleading and of no value. 

The costs of production in the earlier processes properly 
belong in the item of total cost, but the cost of yarn, etc., pur- 
chased is a doubtful element. A portion of it, no doubt, belojigs 
in the general account, and clearly, also, a part of it does not. 
Again, in the total value a similar difficulty appears. The values 
of the product of the earlier processes, if carried on independ- 
ently, appear in the total value twice at least, first as yarn 
produced and again in the cloth manufactured. If every estab- 
lishment carried on all the processes of manufacture, as formerly 


was the case, such difficulties would not exist, for the cost of the 
raw material, wool, for instance, would appear in the value of the 
product only in the cloth and not perhaps as tops, again as 
yarn and finally as finished cloth. An attempt has been made 
in the report to overcome this difficulty by the presentation of a 
statement of the " value added by the processes of manufac- 
ture," but this does not make it possible to ascertain the true 
value of the product which includes this amount, all of the neces- 
sary expenses incurred and also all the cost of materials used 
after duplications are eliminated. It is much to be regretted 
that no system has yet been devised by whicli the actual value 
of the product can be accurately ascertained, for the difficulty 
becomes accentuated as an industry is more and more specialized 
and sub-divided. 

The wool '' in condition purchased," both foreign and domestic, 
used amounted to 474,751,000 pounds valued at .$136,665,000, 
an increase of 144,572,000 pounds in quantity and $57,861,000 in 
value over the quantity and value reported in 1899. The equiva- 
lent quantity of wool in scoured pounds is 289,703,000 in 1909 
and 192,706,000 in 1899 and there was a corresponding increase 
in the consumption of other animal fibers. 

The consumption of shoddy has decreased in the decade from 
68,663,000 pounds to 53,621,000 pounds, owing no doubt to the 
increased use of worsted goods, in the manufacture of which, as 
a rule, no shoddy is employed. The 40,392,000 pounds of tailors' 
clippings, etc., reported were used in the production of the 32,067,- 
000 pounds of shoddy made in the mills. This quantity added 
to the 21,554,000 pounds purchased makes the total quantity used. 

The quantity of raw cotton used decreased in the decade from 
40,245,000 pounds to 20,055,000 pounds, equal to 50 per cent. 
On the other hand the use of cotton yarns increased 11 per cent, 
from 35,343,000 pounds to 39,109,000 pounds. The change 
indicates an increase in the quantity of cotton warp fabrics and a 
decrease in the production of so-called " union " goods. 

An examination of the table of products confirms this view, for 
the union fabrics for men's and women's wear decreased from 
48,032,000 square yards in 1899 to 27,818,000 square yards in 
1909, while the similar cotton warp goods increased from 
120,065,000 square yards in 1899 to 159,883,000 square yards in 
1909. In addition to the above there was also an increase in the 


quantities of Italian cloths, linings, etc., from 10,157,000 square 
yards to 29,608,000 square yards. 

The principal part of the wool manufacture is found in the 
production of all wool suitings and dress goods, both woolen and 
worsted. These increased from 199,245,000 square yards valued 
at .1111,641,000 in 1899 to 310,649,000 square yards in 1909, 
having a value of $213,668,000. This increase is all on the 
worsted side of the industry, for woolen goods for men's wear 
decreased in quantity 5 per cent and woolen dress goods, etc., 
26 per cent. The increase of worsted coatings, etc., was from 
54,911,000 square yards in 1899 to 120,309,000 square yards in 
1909, and in dress goods, etc., from 57,712,000 square yards in 
1899 to 105,799,000 square yards in 1909. 

Woolen (carded) yarns show a decrease of 10 per cent while 
worsted yarns and tops, reported together in 1899, but separately 
in the present census, show an increase of 131 per cent. Merino 
yarns decrease nearly 2,000,000 pounds, equivalent to 21 per cent. 
JSToils show a large increase, 167 per cent, as must be the case 
when the immense increase in the production of worsted yarns 
is considered. 

The reports show a wonderful growth in the industry placing 
the American wool manufacture well toward the front as com- 
pared with the manufacture of other countries. 

The report is as follows : 

Washington, D.C, April 4, 1911. 

A preliminary statement showing the general results of the 
1909 census for establishments engaged in the manufacture of 
woolen and worsted goods was issued to-day by the Director of 
the Census, E. Dana Durand. It presents a comparative sum- 
mary for the 1909, 1904, and 1899 censuses and detailed state- 
ments of the quantities and costs of materials used and 
quantities and values of products manufactured in 1909 and 
1899. It was prepared under the direction of Chief Statistician 
William M. Steuart, division of manufactures, by L. D. H. 
Weld, expert special agent. The figures are preliminary and 
subject to such change and correction as may be found necessary 
from a further examination of the original reports. 

The statistics do not include the operations of establishments 
engaged in the manufacture of carpets, felt goods, wool hats, 
hosiery and knit goods, and shoddy, nor independent dyeing and 


finishing establishments, but apply only to those establishments 
manufacturing woolen goods and worsted goods. The reports 
were taken for the calendar year ending December 31, 1909, 
wherever the system of bookkeeping permitted figures for that 
period to be secured, but where the business year of an establish- 
ment differed from the calendar year, in some instances the 
reports relate to this business year. 

The word " establishment " as used in the census may mean 
more than one mill or plant, provided they are owned or con- 
trolled and operated by a single individual, partnership, corpora- 
tion, or other owner or operator, and are located in the same 
town or city. 


Comparative figures for the censuses of 1909, 1904, and 1899 
are as follows : 


AND 1899.* 

1909, 1904, 

Number of eBtabliahmentB .... 


Cost of materials used 

8(iliirie-> and wajjee 

Miscellaneous expenFes 

Value of products 

Value added by manufacture 
(products less cost of male- 


Employees : 

Number of salaried ofiScials and 

clerks . . 

Average numberof watte earners 
employed during the year . . 



























Per Cent of 


1899 to 1909. 

25 1 






* The Census Bureau has not published tables corresponding to this for the other branches 
of the industry. — Ed. 
1 Decrease. 



The comparative figures of the above statement clearly indi- 
cate the remarkable development that has taken place in the 
industry since 1899. Although the number of establishments 
has decreased, denoting a tendency toward concentration, which 
has been the rule in the wool manufacturing industry since 1870, 
on the other hand the amount of capital reported as invested 
shows an increase from $256,554,000 in 1899 to $415,465,000 
in 1909, or 62 per cent during the decade. The cost of materials 
used increased 85 per cent and the amount paid in salaries and 
wages 58 per cent. The number of salaried officials and clerks 
increased but 47 per cent and the number of wage-earners only 
29 per cent. 

The value of products increased from $238,745,000 in 1899 to 
$419,826,000 in 1909, or 76 per cent. The greater part of this 
increase took place during the second half of the decade ; in fact, 
the increase of over $100,000,000 in the five years since 1904 is 
far greater than that of any decade prior to 1900 in the history 
of the industry. 

The value of products represents their selling value or price at 
the plants as actually turned out during the census year and does 
not necessarily have any relation to the amount of sales for that 
year. The values under this head also include the amount 
received for work done on materials furnished by others. 


The following statement gives the quantities and costs of 
materials used in 1909 and 1899, exclusive of mill supplies, and 
soap, oil, fuel, etc. : 


Materials used — Quantities and Costs: 1909 and 1899. 



Purchased in raw state : 
Wool, foreign and 
domestic, in con- 
dition purchased, 
Equivalent of above, 
in scoured condi- 

Animal hair and fur: 

Camel, alpaca, and 

vicuna hair . . . 

Mohair, domestic 

and foreign . . 

Buffalo, cow, and 

other animal hair 

and fur 

Raw cotton 

Purchased in partially 

manufactured form : 

Tailors' clippings, 

rags, etc 


Wool, camel, etc., and 
mohair waste and 



Yarns : 






Spun silk 


Jute, ramie, and other 
vegetable fibers . . 
Chemicals and dyestuffs, 
All other materials 
which are compo- 
nents of the products, 
Shoddy made in mill for 
use therein .... 



































































Per Cent of 

Increase in 


1899 to 



15 2 


55 2 

80 2 



1 Exclusive of the cost of soap and oil, mill supplies, and other items which are not com- 
ponents of the products. 

2 Decrease. 

sfncludedin all other materials. 


This statement shows that there have been some interesting 
and important changes in the character of materials used during 
the past decade. The quantity of wool consumed, in condition 
purchased, increased from 330,179,000 pounds to 474,751,000 
pounds, or 44 per cent; reckoned on a scoured-wool basis, the 
increase was 50 per cent. The quantity of raw cotton consumed 


decreased from 40,245.000 pounds to 20,055,000 pounds, or 50 
per cent, while the amount of cotton yarn purchased increased 
from 35,343,000 pounds to 39,169,000 pounds, or 11 per cent. 
The net result is a decided decrease in the amount of cotton 
used as a material by wool manufacturers. 

The figures also show a marked decrease in the use of shoddy. 
The quantity purchased decreased 35 per cent, and the amount 
manufactured in woolen mills for use therein fell off 10 per cent. 
In 1899 the total amount of shoddy consumed by woolen and 
worsted manufacturers was 68,663,000 pounds ; in 1909 it was 
only 53,621,000 pounds, a decrease all the more significant when 
the growth of the industry is considered. This is explained by 
the fact that the manufacture of worsted fabrics, into which 
shoddy does not enter as a material to any appreciable extent, 
has increased enormously, while the quantity of ivoolen fabrics 
in which shoddy is utilized was actually less in 1909 than in 

The quantity of tops purchased as materials increased from 
5,566,000 to 20,828,000 pounds, or 274 per cent, and the quantity 
of worsted yarn from 25,111,000 to 58,769,000 pounds, or 134 per 
cent. These increases are due not only to the rapid growth of 
the worsted branch of the industry, but also to the greater 
degree of specialization which developed within that branch. 
Weavers of worsted fabrics usually purchase their yarn instead 
of spinning it themselves, and although worsted spinners usually 
comb their own wool, they are purchasing tops to an increasing 


The following statement shows the quantities and values of 
the different products manufactured as reported at the censuses 
of 1909 and 1899, and clearly manifests the changes in the 
character of products manufactured during the decade : 


Products — Quantities and Values: 1909 and 1899. 



All-wool woven goods : 

Woolen casslmeres, 
suitings, overcoat- 
ings, etc. ...... 

Woolen dress goods, 
opera flannels, etc. . 

Worsted coatings, 
suitings, overcoat- 
ings, etc. ..... 

Worsted dress goods, 
cashmeres, serges, 

Flannels for under- 


All other all-wool 


Union or cotton-mixed 
woven goods : 

Suitings and overcoat- 
ings . 

Dress goods, opera 
and similar flannels. 

Flannels for under- 


All other union goods. 
Cotton-warp woven 
■ goods : 

Wool-filling cassi- 
meres, suitings, 
overcoatings, etc. . 

Wool-flUing dress 

Worsted-filling suit- 
ings, overcoatings, 

Worsted filling dress 

Satinets and linseys . 

Linings, Italian cloths, 

Cotton-warp blankets, 

All other cotton-warp 


Upholstery goods and 


Partially manufactured 
products for sale : 

Woolen yarn, all wool. 

Worsted yarn, a 1 1 

Merino yarn, wool and 
cotton mixed . . . . 

Worsted tops and slab- 

Mohair and similar 
yarns . . 

Cotton yarn 

Wool card rolls . . . 



Bhoddy and mungo . 


All other products . . . 
Contract work 















































653 000 




































Per Cent of 
Increase in 

1899 to 1909. 






























52 » 













79 8 





' Includes tops. 

^ Included in worsted yarn. 

8 Decrease. 



The most notable features of this statement are the great 
increases in quantities and values of worsted fabrics, and the 
pronounced decreases in the quantities and values of many kinds 
of woolen fabrics produced. Of the all-wool goods, the value of 
woolen suitings and overcoatings increased 5 per cent, and woolen 
dress goods 26 per cent. Worsted suitings, on the other hand, 
increased 136 per cent in value and 119 per cent in quantity, and 
worsted dress goods, 231 per cent in value and 83 per cent in 
quantity, both showing a much higher value per square yard in 
1909 than in 1899. All-wool flannels for underwear decreased 
both in quantity and in value, while all-wool blankets decreased 
slightly in quantity but gained in value. 

Of the union or cotton-mixed goods produced, the value of 
men's wear fabrics decreased 39 per cent, and the value of 
women's dress goods, 52 per cent. Mixed cotton and wool 
blankets showed a gain of 154 per cent in value. 

Of goods woven on cotton warps,"wool-filling suitings showed 
a slight increase in quantity but a decrease of 1 per cent in value, 
denoting a drop in price [)er square yard — due possibly to the 
use of inferior materials in this class of goods. Worsted-filling 
suitings and overcoatings increased 111 per cent, and linings, 
Italian cloths, etc., which are worsted rather than woolen goods, 
gained 308 per cent in value. Satinets, linseys, and cotton-warp 
blankets decreased both in quantity and value. 

On the whole, the values per square yard of cloth manufac- 
tured were much higher in 1909 than in 1899 ; among the reasons 
for this may be given higher costs of production and an improve- 
ment in the general quality of goods made. 

The relative amounts of woolen and worsted fabrics produced 
are more clearly brought out by combining the items of the 
above statement which fall in each of the two classes. In 1899, 
the number of square yards of worsted suitings, overcoatings, 
and dress goods, worsted-tilling suitings, overcoatings, and dress 
goods, and linings, Italian cloths, etc., was 181,228,000, while in 
1909 there were 350,659,000 square yards, an increase of 93 per 
cent. A combination of the remaining items shows 245,723,000 
square yards of woolen cloths made in 1899, and 220,740,000 
square yards in 1909, or a loss of 10 per cent. 

Of the partially manufactured products made for sale, wool 


waste shows a gain of 185 per cent in value over the 1899 ligures. 
The large increase in quantity and value of noils produced for 
sale is another evidence of the growth of the worsted branch of 
the industry, and the large quantity of worsted yarn wliich enters 
the channels of trade is due to the fact that worsted spinning 
and weaving are not usually carried on under the same roof. 


The statistics do not include the operations of small establish- 
ments which make carpets and rugs from rags and old carpeting, 
but they do comprise a few large mills which weave colonial rag 
rugs on power looms. The reports were taken for the calendar 
year ending December 31, 1909, wherever the system of book- 
keeping permitted figures for that period to be secured, but, in 
some instances, where the business year of an establishment 
differed fro/n the calendar year, the reports related to the former 

The word "establishment" as used herein may mean more 
than one mill or plant, provided they are owned, or controlled, 
and operated by an individual person, partnership, corporation, or 
other owner or operator, and are located in the same town or 

The following statement gives the number of establishments, 
together with the quantity and cost of the principal materials 
used, exclusive of mill supplies, soap, oil, fuel, etc., in 1909, 1904, 
and 1899 : 



Carpets and Rugs — Number of Establishments and Quantity and Cost 
OF Materials Used: 190y, 1904, and 1899. 

Number of establishments .... 
Principal materials used — cost . . 
Foielgu wool in condition pur- 
chased : 



Domestic wool in condition pur- 
chased : 


Cost , 

Hair of all kinds : 


C>.st , 

Cotton : 



Tailors' clippings, rags, etc. : 



Shoddy : 



Waste and noils : 






Woolen yarn : 



Worsted yarn : 



Merino yarn : 



Cotton yarn : 



Linen yarns : 


Cost . . 

Jute, ramie, or other vegetable 
fiber : 



Chemicals and dyestuffs — cost . 

All other materials which are 

components of the product — 




















Per cent 






$35,701,000 ' 











13 2 

14 2 















44 s 



22 « 




















^Does not include the cost of soap and oil, mill supplies, and other items which are not 
components of the product. 
2 Decrease. 

''Included in "All other materials." 
* Less than one half of 1 per cent increase. 



The amount of foreign wool used in the manufacture of 
carpets and rugs increased from 51,762,000 pounds in 1899 to 
63,904,000 in 1909, or 23 per cent; the cost thereof increased 
from f 8,077,000 to $11,696,000, or 45 per cent. In addition, a 
considerable quantity of foreign wool is consumed in the manu- 
facture of woolen and worsted yarn purchased by carpet manu- 

During the decade large increases were shown in the use of 
cotton, cotton yarn, and yarns of jute and other vegetable fibers. 
In 1899 foreign and domestic wool, tops, woolen yarn, and 
worsted yarn constituted 55 per cent of the principal materials 
used, while in 1909 they formed only 49 per cent. This differ- 
ence in the relative consumption of the leading wool materials 
is undoubtedly due to the high cost of carpet wools during the 

The following statement shows the kind, quantity, and value 
of carpets and rugs produced in 1909, 1904, and 1899 : 

Carpets and Rugs — Quantity and Value of Products; 

AND 1899. 

1909, 1904, 





Per cent 


Total value 

Carpets : 

Axminster and moquette — 

Square yards 


Wilton — 

Square yards 


Wilton and Wilton velvet — 

Square yards 


Brussels — 

Square yards 


Tapestry velvets — 

Square yards 


Tapestry Brussels — 

Square yards 


Ingrain, 3-ply — 

Square yards 


Ingrain, 2-ply — 

Square yards 





















t <■' 

4 3,587,000 
; $4,031,000 


4,280,000 s 





27 < 




Carpets and Rugs — Quantity and Value of Products ; 
AND 1899. — Continued. 

1909, 1904, 


Rugs, woven whole : 

Axminater and raoquette — 

Square yards 


Wilton — 

Square yards 


Brussels — 

Square yards 


Tapestry velvets — 

Square yards . 


Tapestry Brussels — 

Square yards 

Value • 

Ingrain Art Squares — 

Square yards 


Smyrna carpets and rugs — 

Square yards 


Other rugs — 

Square yards 


Partially manufactured products for 
sale : 
Woolen yarn — 



Worsted yarn and tops — 



Merino yarn — 



Noils — 



Waste — 



All other products — value 








































5,111,000 « 
$2,392,000 « 








Per cent 







62 « 

56 ^ 

35 < 
49 « 

26 < 

1 Included under Wilton and Wilton velvet. 

2 Wilton velvet included with tapestry velvet. 

3 Does not include Wilton velvet. 
* Decrease. 

f' Not reported separately in 1904 and 1899. 

6 Does not include the small quantity of rugs made in felt mills. 


The total value of products increased from .$48,192,000 in 
1899 to $69,998,000 in 1909, or 45 per cent, showing a substantial 
growth for the industry during the decade. In 1899 the number 
of square yards of carpets and rugs was 76,410,000, compared 


with 86,927,000 in 1909. In 1899 rugs, woven whole, constituted 
only 16 per cent of the total, or 12,172,000 square yards, while 
in 1909 they constituted 28 per cent of the total, or 24,402,000 
square yards. Although the census returns showed an increase 
in the manufacture of carpets from 1899 to 1904, the number of 
square yards manufactured in 1909 was nearly 2,000,000 less 
than in 1899. 

Of the various kinds of carpets produced during the decade, 
Axrainster and moquette showed an increase of 147 per cent in 
quantity and 185 per cent in value, and tapestry Brussels increased 
40 per cent in quantity and 60 per cent in value. The output 
of 2-ply ingrain carpets decreased from 36,698,000 square yards 
in 1899 to 20,870,000 square yards in 1909, or 43 per cent, and 
the decrease in value was relatively greater. All of the various 
kinds of rugs showed remarkable increases except Smyrna, which 
decreased 62 per cent in quantity. 

The following statement shows the imports of carpets and 
rugs, both as to quantity and value, by countries, for the fiscal 
years 1909, 1904, and 1899 : 

Imports of Carpets and Rugs into the United States for the Year 
ENDING June 30, 1909, 1904, and 1899. 

Total : 

Square yards . . 

British East Indies : 

Square yards 


France : 

Square yards 


Germany : 

Sqiiaie yards 


Persia : 

Square yards 


Turkey (including Egypt) : 

Square yards 

Value . 

United Kingdom : 

Square yar-;*" 


All other: 

Square yards 

Value . . 


































41 ,944 

Per cent 





29 2 

1 Included in " All other." 

2 Decrease. 


It will be seen from this statement that only high-grade rugs 
are imported into the United States angl that the total imports 
amount to a very small percentage of the carpet and rug con- 
sumption. Turkey supplied more than any other country, the 
imports tlierefrom amounting to 670,098 square yards, valued at 
$2,937,326, in 1909. The United Kingdom is the next largest 
contributor, after which Persia and British East Indies follow in 
the order named. The exports of carpets and rugs of domestic 
manufacture are insignificant, amounting to only 67,088 square 
yards, valued at $66,6.53, for the fiscal year 1909. 


The number of felt goods establishments increased from 36 in 
1899 to 43 in 1909, or 19 per cent, and the cost of the principal 
materials used increased from $3,421,000 to $6,540,000, or 91 
per cent. 

Raw wool is the most important material used in the industry, 
and tlie amount increased from 9,606,000 pounds to 12,410,000, 
or 29 per cent, during the decade, while the cost thereof increased 
79 per cent. Animal hair ranks next, increasing from 2.820,000 
pounds in 1899 to 8,144,000 in 1909, or 189 per cent, while the 
cost rose 91 per cent. Wool and other waste and noils increased 
from 2,654,000 pounds in 1899 to 4,864,000 in 1909, or 83 per 
cent, while the cost gained 121 per cent. Shoddy increased from 
712,000 pounds in 1899 to 2,536,000 in 1909, or 256 per cent, and 
the cost increased 223 per cent. The quantity of cotton con- 
sumed increased from 1,226,000 pounds, valued at $78,000, in 
1899, to 1,376,000 pounds, valued at $156,000, in 1909. Further 
details appear in the subjoined table, giving the number of 
establishments engaged in the manufacture of felt goods, and the 
quantity and cost of materials used, not including soap and oil, 
mill supplies, and other items which do not form a component 
part of the finished product. 


The growth of the industry is more clearly brought out by the 
figures representing the quantity and value of products manu- 
factured for the years 1909 and 1899. 

The total value of products increased from $6,462,000 in 1899 
to $11,853,000 in 1909, or 83 per cent. 


Felt goods are produced in great variety and for numerous pur- 
poses. Those coming under the head "Trimming and lining 
felts, felt skirts, etc.," constitute the largest single item and show 
the greatest actual increase for the decade. The quantity pro- 
duced was 2,470,000 square yards, valued at $797,000, in 1899, as 
compared with 7,604,000 square yards, valued at $1,906,000, in 
1909, an increase of 208 per cent in quantity and of 139 per cent 
in value. Hair felting shows a notable increase from 125,000 
square yards, valued at $57,000, in 1899, to 1,160,000 square 
yards, valued at $531,000, in 1909, a gain of 828 per cent in 
quantity and of 832 per cent in value. Felt cloth increased 
83 per cent in quantity and 152 per cent in value. Endless belts 
increased 215 per cent in value. " All other felts " consist 
largely of polishing felts and piano felts. The complete figures 
are shown in the subjoined summary, giving the quantity and 
value of felt goods. 

Felt Goods — Number of Establishments and Quantity and Cost of 
Principal Materials Used: 1909 and 1899. 

Number of establishments 

Principal materials used : Total cost 

Wool, foreign and domestic, in condition 
purchased : 



Animal hair 



Cotton : 



Tailors' clippings and rags : 






Wool and other waste and noils : 



Chemicals and dyestuffs, cost 

All other materials which are components of 

the product, cost 



$6,540,000 1 

f 3,927 ,000 









$3,421 ,000 J 







Per Cent of 







iDoes not include the cost of soap and oil, mill supplies, and other items which are not 
components of the product. 
- Included in cost of " All other materials which are components of the product." 



Felt Goods — Quantity and Value of Products: 1909 and 1893. 


Total value 

Felt cloth : 

Square yards 


Eodless belts : 



Boot and shoe linings : 

Square yards 


Hair felting: 

Square yards 


Trimming and lining felts, felt skirts, etc, 

Square yards 


All other felt goods, value 

All other products, value 


Per Cent of 











1,114,000 > 

' 215 



5 = 













' Reported in square yards in 1899. 

- Decrease. 


The statistics of shoddy mills cover only the operations of 
those establishments which are primarily engaged in the manu- 
facture of shoddy, mungo, and wool extract, and do not include 
spinning and weaving mills which manufacture shoddy for their 
own use. Mills engaged in the cutting of flocks and the clean- 
ing and garnetting of wool waste are included with shoddy mills, 
as in previous censuses. 

The number of establishments was 87 in 1909 and 105 in 1899, 
a decrease of 17 per cent. 

The total cost of the principal materials used was $4,558,000 
in 1909 and $4,567,000 in 1899, a decrease of less than 1 per 

The quantity of raw wool consumed decreased from 422,000 
pounds, costing $127,000, in 1899, to 237,000 pounds, costing 
$98,000, in 1909, a drop of 44 per cent in quantity and of 23 per 
cent in cost. The quantity of rags consumed decreased from 
79,623,000 pounds, costing $3,559,000, in 1899, to 64,442,000 
pounds, costing $3,046,000, in 1909, a decrease of 19 per cent in 
quantity and of 14 per cent in cost. 

Increases obtained for all remaining items. Wool and other 
waste and noils gained 72 per cent in quantity and 31 per cent in 


cost during the decade. Cotton used increased from 173,000 
pounds, valued at $15,000, in 1899, to 293,000 pounds, valued at 
$18,000, in 1909. Further details are given in the subjoined 
table showing the number of shoddy establishments, etc. 


The total value of products of shoddy mills increased from 
$6,731,000 in 1899 to $7,434,000 in 1909, or 10 per cent. 

The quantity of shoddy and mungo produced was 48,376,000 
pounds, valued at $5,699,000, in 1909, as against 39,015,000 
pounds, valued at $5,388,000, in 1899, a gain of 24 per cent in 
quantity and of 6 per cent in value. The quantity of wool 
extract was 5,638,000 pounds, valued at $866,000, in 1909, as 
compared with 4,981,000 pounds, valued at $621,000, in 1899, an 
increase of 13 per cent in quantity and of 39 per cent in value. 
There was an increase of 39 per cent in quantity and 86 per cent 
in value in wool waste, a product which is principally cleaned 
and garnetted waste to be used in the manufacture of yarn by 
wool manufacturers. The quantity of flocks decreased 31 per 
cent and the value 28 per cent. " All other products " increased 
13 per cent in value. Complete figures appear in the appended 
table, giving the quantity and value of shoddy products. 

Census reports for the separate establishments are assigned to 
the diiferent industries according to their product of chief value; 
therefore the statistics for shoddy mills do not represent all of 
the shoddy manufactured. In addition to the large quantity 
made by woolen mills, principally for their own use, shoddy 
products were also manufactured in 1909 in cotton, wool-scouring, 
and other mills, to the value of $291,000, including 2,125,000 
pounds of shoddy, worth $174,000, and 1,161,000 pounds of wool 
waste, worth $81,000. 

The total imports of rags, mungo, flocks, noils, shoddy, and 
waste entered for consumption into the United States during the 
year ended June 30, 1909, were 250,593 pounds, valued at 
$94,799, the greater part coming from Great Britain. Shoddy 
proper formed a negligible part of the whole. The United 
States trade statistics do not give the exports of these commodi- 
ties separately, but it is known that the exports of shoddy and 
woolen rags have increased remarkably during the past five 



Shoddy — Number of Establishments and Quantity and Cost of 
Principal Materials Used : 1909 and 1899. 


Number of eetablishraents 

Priucipal materials used : Total cost 

Wool, foreign and domestic, in condition pur- 
chased : 



Cotton : 



Shoddy and mungo : 



Wool and other waste and noils : 



Tailors' clippings and rags : 

Pounds . • 


Chemicals and dyestuffs, cost 

All other materials which are components of 
the product, cost 



$4,558,000 = 










$4,567,000 2 








Per Cent of 


44 1 

23 > 




1 Decrease. 

- Does not include the cost of soap and oil, mill supplies, and other items which are not 
components of the product. 
3 Less than 1 per cent decrease. 

Shoddy — Quantity and Value of Produ* ts : 1909 and 1899. 


Total value . • 

Shoddy and mungo : 



Wool extract : 


V^alue . . • 

Flocks : 






All other products, value 













Per Cent of 



I Decrease. 


The statistics cover the operations of only those establish- 
ments engaged principally in the manufacture of fur felt hats 
and wool felt hats and therefore do not include the manufacture 
of cloth hats and caps, straw hats, or millinery. In the case of 
a few establishments which made both wool felt and fur felt hats, 
the product which predominated in value determined in each 
instance the industry to which such establishment belonged. 


Fur felt hats are made from the fur of the rabbit, coney, and 
nutria. This is the most important branch of the hat industry 
and includes the manufacture of all derbies and soft felt hats for 
men's wear and also hats for women's use except such as are 
made from wool of the sheep, which are reported separately as 
« wool felt hats." 

The number of establishments increased from 171 in 1899 to 
272 in 1909, or 50 per cent, and the cost of the principal niate- 
rials used increased from ;ill,830,000 to $17,464,000, or 46 per 
cent. The amount of hatters' fur, which is the most important 
material used in the industry, increased from 6,166,000 pounds 
to 8,566,000 pounds, or 39 per cent. The 406,000 hat bodies 
reported as materials in 1909 were purchased principally by 
small finishing establishments from other factories which are 
engaged in forming hat bodies. The complete figures appear in 
the appended table, which shows the quantity and cost of 
materials used in 1909, 1904, and 1899. 

The total value of products increased substantially from 
$27,811,000 in 1899 to $47,501,000 in 1909, or 71 per cent. The 
number of fur felt hats produced in 1909 was 2,961,000 dozen, 
or 35,532,000 hats. In addition to these there were made in 
1909 in establishments engaged primarily in the manufacture of 
wool hats, straw hats, and the like, 73,000 dozen fur felt hats, 
valued at $863,000, making the total production for the country 
36,408,000 hats. During the year ended June 30, 1909, there 
were also imported 32,716 dozen fur felt hats, valued at $397,917. 

The number of fur felt hat bodies and hats in the rough made 
for sale increased from 165,000 dozen in 1899 to 366,000 dozen 
in 1909, or 122 per cent, and the value increased from $993,000 


to f 2,704,000, or 172 per cent. The details are shown in the 
statement of quantity and value of products at the end. 


The number of establishments engaged in the wool felt hat 
industry decreased from 24 in 1899 to 17 in 1904, but increased 
again to 31 in 1909, a gain of 29 per cent for the decade. The 
cost of the principal materials used decreased from f 1,866,000 
in 1899 to f 1,847,000 in 1909, and the quantity of raw wool 
decreased from 2,713,000 pounds in 1899 to 1,203,000 pounds in 
1909, or 56 per cent. This is accounted for partly by the 
increase in the use of wool waste and noils from 863,000 pounds 
in 1899 to 1,282,000 pounds in 1909, or 49 per cent, and by the 
fact that fewer hats were made in 1909 than 1899 in spite of the 
increase in number of establishments and value of products. 

Increases were recorded in the use of hatters' fur, shoddy, and 
wool felt hat bodies, and a decrease in fur felt hat bodies. The 
figures are given in detail below. 

The total value of products decreased from $3,592,000 in 
1899 to $2,457,000 in 1904 and increased to $4,382,000 in 1909, a 
gain of 22 per cent for the decade. The number of wool hats 
produced was 591,000 dozen, or 7,092,000 hats, an increase of 33 
per cent since 1904, but smaller by 27 per cent than the number 
produced in 1899. The number of wool hat bodies produced for 
sale decreased from 56,000 dozen in 1899 to 54,000 dozen in 1909, 
or 4 per cent, while the value increased from $120,000 to 
$309,000, or 158 per cent. 

In addition to the product reported above, there were manu- 
factured during 1909 in fur felt hat, straw hat, and millinery 
establishments, 43,000 dozen wool felt hats valued at $667,000. 

The total number of felt hats, both wool and fur, and soft and 
stiff, produced in the United States in 1909 was 44,016,000. 

Statements showing the quantity and cost of materials used 
and quantity and value of products manufactured in the felt hat 
industries follow : 


Fur Felt Hats — Number of Establishments, and Quantity and Cost 
OF the Principal Materials Used: 1909, 1904, and 1899. 


Number of establishments 

Principal materials used : 

Total cost 

Hatters' fur : 



Fur fell hat bodies and hats in 
the rough : 



Chemicals and dyestuffs : 


All other materials which are 

components of the product : 




$17,464,000 1 








Per Cent 

1899. 1899-1909. 







iDoes not include the cost of fuel, mill supplies, and other materials which are not com- 
ponents of the product. 

Fur Felt Hats — Quantity and Value of Products: 1909, 1904, and 



Per Cent 







Total value : 





Fur felt hats : 












Fur felt hat bodies and 
rough : 


in the 




All other products : 



Amount received for contract work . 




Wool Felt Hats — Number of Establishments, and Quantity and 
Cost of Materials Used: 1909, 1904, and 1899. 


Number of eetablishments 

Principal materials used : 

It^ Total cost 

Wool, foreign and domestic, in 
condition purchased : 


Cost . . 

Hatters' fur : 



Shoddy, mungo, and wool ex- 
tract : 



Wool waste and noils : 



Wool felt hat bodies and hats in 
the rough : 



Fur felt hat bodies and bats in 
the rough : 



Chemicals and dyestuffs : 


All other materials which are 

components of the product : 



















287,000 i 











Per Cent 


56 2 




88 » 

4 2 
38 = 

1 Does not include the cost of Boap and oil, mill supplies, and other materials which are 

components of the product. 
- Decrease. 

Wool Felt Hats — Quantity and Value of Products : 1909, 1904, 

AND 1899. 



Per Cent 



IS 99. 






Wool hats : 










27 1 


Wool hat bodies and hats in the 
rough : 


All other products : 





The report presents comparative statements of the quantity 
and cost of the principal materials used and the quantity and 
value of products manufactured for 1909, 1904, and 1899 cen- 
svises, and was prepared under the direction of William M. 
Steuart, chief statistician for manufactures, by H. J. Zimmerman. 


There were 1,264 establishments engaged in the manufacture 
of hosiery and knit goods in 1909, an increase of 37 per cent 
over the 921 establishments reported in 1899 and 17 per cent 
over the 1,079 establishments in 1904. 

The value of products in 1909 aggregated $198,812,000, an 
increase of 108 per cent over the $95,483,000 reported in 1899 
and 46 per cent over the $136,558,000 in 1904. The cost of the 
principal materials was $85,997,000, an increase of 106 per cent 
over the $41,852,000 reported in 1899 and 36 per cent over the 
$63,340,000 in 1904. The totals do not include the cost of all 
materials, such as buttons, ribbons, and the like, or mill supplies, 
soap, oil, fuel, etc. Those establishments which use only hand- 
knitting machines in the manufacture of these goods, which, as 
stated above, are not included in this report, numbered 110, used 
materials costing $750,000 and produced goods valued at 
$1,572,000. There were also a number of establishments manu- 
facturing hosiery and knit goods, their product of chief value 
assigning them to other industries, such as the manufacture of 
cotton, silk or woolen goods, clothing, furnishing goods, and 
leather gloves and mittens. 


In 1909, as in 1899, cotton, raw and in the yarn, was the 
largest factor in quantity and in cost of materials, raw cotton 
increasing from 49,451,000 pounds in 1899 to 75,331,000 in 1909, 
or 52 per cent, and cotton yarn from 131,820,000 pounds to 
217,761,000, or 65 per cent. The cost of raw cotton was 
$3,562,000 in 1899 and $8,790,000 in 1909, an increase of 147 
per cent, while the cost of yarn purchased rose from $22,205,000 
in 1899 to $48,326,000 in 1909, or 118 per cent. Formerly it 
was the general practice of factories manufacturing hosiery and 
knit goods to purchase their cotton yarns, but in recent years a 


number of the larger concerns have installed cotton-spinning 
departments and are now producing their own cotton yarns. 


The quantity of raw wool used, in condition purchased, 
decreased from 17,954,000 pounds in 1899 to 7,069,000 in 1909, a 
loss of 61 per cent, and the cost from $5,262,000 to ."$2,919,000, 
or 44 per cent. Practically all of the decrease occurred since 
1904. While the decrease in the use of wool as such is pro- 
nounced, the increase in the use of wool waste and noils and of 
shoddy must be considered in arriving at the total quantity of 
woolen fibers used by the mills in the production of yarn. 
Wool waste and noils were used to the extent of 5,276,000 
pounds in 1899, with a cost of ^1,488,000, while in 1909 the 
quantity was reported as 8,580,000 pounds, an increase of 63 per 
cent, and the cost as $2,810,000, an increase of 89 per cent. 

Shoddy increased in quantity from 3,771,000 pounds in 1899 
to 7,483,000 in 1909, or 98 per cent. The cost was 88 per cent 
more in 1909, increasing from $489,000 to $920,000. The 
inci-ease in the use of shoddy was wholly in 1904 over 1899, as 
there was an actual, though slight, falling off in both quantity 
and cost during the latter semidecade. 


Woolen yarn purchased as such increased during the decade 
from 2,622,000 pounds to 5,749,000, or 119 per cent, and its cost 
from $1,258,000 to $3,580,000, or 185 per cent. Worsted yarns 
purchased increased from 5,823,000 pounds to 9,955,000, or 
71 per cent, and the cost from $4,865,000 to $9,687,000, or 
99 per cent. Merino yarn likewise shows a notable increase 
from 1,981,000 pounds in 1899 to 3,974,000 in 1909, or 101 per 
cent ; the cost was $642,000 in 1899 and $2,645,000 in 1909, an 
increase of 312 per cent. 

The relative increase in the quantity of silk and spun silk 
yarn used was greater than for any other materials, the per- 
centage of increase being 268. The percentage of increase in 
cost, 280, was also large — and greater than in any other 
material, except merino yarn. 

Linen, jute, and other vegetable fiber yarns were used in 1909 
to the amount of 242,000 pounds, an increase from 116,000 in 


1899, or 109 per cent, the cost increasing from $111,000 to 
$181,000, or 63 per cent. The cost of chemicals and dyestuffs 
increased from $1,023,000 to $2,542,000, or 148 per cent, during 
the decade. 

NEARLY 750,000,000 PAIRS OP HOSE. 

Hose and half hose were among the chief products at both 
decennial censuses, being 62,365,000 dozen pairs, of the value of 
$65,031,000, in 1909, and 29,892,000 dozen pairs, having a value 
of $27,233,000, in 1899. Thus the increase in quantity is 
109 per cent and in value 139 per cent. The percentage of 
increase was more marked in the first half of the decade. The 
per cent of increase in half hose was somewhat less from 1899 
to 1909 than the increase in full hose, but the per cent of 
increase in value was greater. 

Shirts and drawers are the most important products manu- 
factured. They increased from 15,819,000 dozen in 1899 to 
25,386,000 in 1909, or 60 per cent, and their value from $45,158,- 
000 to $69,122,000, or 53 per cent. In connection with these 
garments should be considered the manufacture of combination 
suits, which increased from 974,000 dozens in 1899 to 2,478,000 
in 1909, a gain of 154 per cent, the value rising from $3,576,000 
to $14,692,000, or 311 per cent. These figures are striking and 
point out the increased use of these garments. 


Cardigan jackets, sweaters, fancy jackets, etc., are the products 
showing the greatest percentage of increase, both in quantity and 
in value; in quantity from 594,000 dozen in 1899 to 2,139,000 
dozen in 1909, or 260 per cent, and in value from $3,499,000 to 
$21,248,000, or 507 per cent. The increase since 1904 is very 
noticeable and is due almost entirely to the item of sweaters. 

The large increase shown under " Hoods, scarfs, nubias, etc.," 
is due greatly to the increased use of scarfs, and the large 
increase in the value may be attributed to the more expensive 
materials being used in their manufacture. 

Boot and shoe linings decreased from 10,406,000 square yards 
in 1899 to 9,727,000 in 1909, or 6 per cent, and in value much 
more — that is, from $2,205,000 to $1,210,000, or 45 per cent. 
This does not represent the entire output of these goods, because 


a number of establishments engaged in the boot and shoe busi- 
ness manufactured their own linings. 

The quantity of cotton yarn manufactured for sale increased 
from 2,419,000 pounds in 1899 to 7,457,000 in 1909, a gain of 
208 per cent, while the value increased from $422,000 to 
$1,568,000, or 272 per cent. These increases are remarkable, 
but may be explained in part by the practice of companies own- 
ing several hosiery mills to install in one of them a spinning 
department, the output of which is used in the several mills. In 
instances of this kind the yarn thus transferred is considered as 
manufactured for sale and is given a value. Only small quanti- 
ties of wool, worsted, and merino yarns were manufactured for 

The manufacture of knit gloves and mittens shows a con- 
sistent increase from census to census in both quantity and 
value — in value from $4,244,000 to $7,260,000, or 71 per cent, 
and in quantity, from 1,899,000 dozen pairs to 2,363,000, or 24 
per cent. 


The following statements give the number of establishments, 
quantity, and cost of principal materials used, and quantity and 
value of the different products returned for 1909, 1904, and 
1899 : 


Hosiery and Knit Goods — Number of Establishments and Quantity 
AND Cost of Principal Materials Used: 1909, 1904, and 1899. 


Number of establiBhmentB 

Principal materials : Total cost . . . 
Raw cotton : 



Wool in condition purchased: 



Wool waste and noils : 






Cotton yarn : 



Woolen yarn : 



Worsted yam : 



Merino yarn : 



Silk and spun Bilk yarn : 

Pounds . 


Linen, jute, and other vegetable 
fiber yarns : 



Chemicals and dyestuffs, cost . . 














$ 1^1,000 































Per Cent 
















Hosiery and Knit Goods — Products by Kind, Quantity, and Value 
1909, 1904, AND 1899. 


Products : Total value 

Cotton, merino, and all-wool half 
hoae : 

Dozen pairs 


Cotton, merino, and all-wool hose : 

Dozen pairs 


Cotton, merino, and all-wool 
shirts and drawers: 



Cotton, merino, and all-wool 
comljination suits: 



Gloves and mittens : 

Dozen pairs ... ... 


Hoods, scarfs, nubias, etc. : 



Cardigan jackets, sweaters, fancy 
jackets, etc. : 



Shawls : 



Fancy knit goods, wristera, etc. : 



Boot and shoe linings : 

Square yards 


Wool, worsted, and meriDO yarn : 



Cotton yarn : 



All other products, value .... 
Contract work 




















































Per Cent 









45 » 







A FULL summary is published in the " London Times " of April 
12, 1911, of the important report of the British Board of Trade 
on " The Cost of Living in American Towns " as compared with 
towns in the United Kingdom, which has attracted so much 
attention from public men and students on both sides of the 
Atlantic. Only brief fragments of this report have appeared in 
the newspapers of the United States. The " Times " devotes an 
editorial leader to a consideration of the salient points of the 
report, declaring that its chief value is "for the serious student 
of social and economic conditions." 

The " Times " emphasizes as the main lesson of the report the 
fact that " the workman in America enjoys an enormous advantage 
over his fellow in England." " He earns more than two and a 
quarter times as much money and works shorter hours for it ; so 
that his hourly rate of earnings is as 240 to 100, or pretty nearly 
twice and a half as much. Against that enormous difference in 
wages there is something to be said in the way of expenditure. 
Rent is twice as high and food is about one-third higher than in 
England, but the cost of living altogether is only as 152 to 100, 
or about half as much again." 

The "Times" leader adds: 

It further appears from the report that the advantage enjoyed 
by this country in regard to the cost of food is even less than it 
looks in the summary comparison. A workman living on the 
American scale only pays 25 per cent .more for his food in the 
United States than he would in England. Most men would cheer- 
fully accept the condition of paying 25 or even 38 per cent more 
for their food in order to get 130 per cent more pay. And when 
the food items are scrutinized the difference is seen to be even 
less in regard to important articles. British beef and mutton 
are actually dearer than American, and pork is much dearer. 
The items in which the American prices are really much higher 
are potatoes and bread; but that means baker's bread bought 
in the loaf, which is little eaten by working-class families in the 
United States, as the report points out. The bread on which 
they chiefly live is made at home, and flour only costs 3d. a 
stone more. That is not a ruinous difference, and, therefore, 
so far as bread and meat are concerned, the British housewife 
has but small advantage. These results, we must confess, are a 


little surprising; but there is no doubt about the care and 
accuracy with which the data have been collected. It is clear 
that prices have not risen so much in recent years in the United 
States as we have been led to suppose, and that wages have risen 
far more rapidly. 

The " Times' " summary of the report is as follows : 

A Report on the " Cost of Living in American Towns " was 
issued yesterday by the Board of Trade [Cd. 5609]. It is the 
fifth of a series which has already embraced the United Kingdom, 
Germany, France, and Belgium ; and, like the previous ones, it is 
tlie result of a special inquiry carried out in a number of selected 
towns. The subjects covered are the same — namely, wages, 
hours of work, housing and rents, food prices and family expen- 
diture ; but the time of the inquiry when the data were collected 
was February, 1909, which somewhat spoils them for exact com- 
parison with the statistics for other countries, collected mainly 
in October, 190.5. The difference is noted in the Report, which 
contains a statistical comparison between the United States and 
the United Kingdom, and allowance is made for it in regard to 
these two countries so far as it can be calculated. The towns 
selected for the inquiry are twenty-eight in number; they include 
all the great cities, with the exception of San Francisco and 
many representative industrial centers. The River Mississippi 
has been taken as the western boundary of the area investigated, 
because the main urban and industrial development has taken 
place in the States lying between the Mississippi and the Atlantic. 
They comprise about one-third of the total area of Continental 
United States exclusive of Alaska, but contain more than three- 
fourths of the total population. 


In a prefatory note Mr. G. R. Askwith draws attention to 
certain broad features which differentiate the United States from 
the United Kingdom for the purposes of the present inquiry. 
He points out that the towns investigated are scattered over an 
area nine times greater, and in general represent a less advanced 
stage of urban development. The United States is still primarily 
a great agricultural community ; the proportion of the occupied 
population engaged in agriculture is nearly three times as high 
as in this country. He further notes the differences in climate 
and physical environment within the area investigated, which 
extends from Duluth, on Lake Superior, in the north to New 
Orleans in the south ; the Federal Constitution of the States, 
which have their own Legislatures and codes of law ; the absence 
of a common body of labor legislation ; and the cosmopolitan 
character of the population, due to the vast and constant stream 
of immigrants and to the native colored stock. These conditions 


complicate investigation and make it peculiarly difficult to ascer- 
tain the facts actually representative of working-class conditions. 
Account has been taken of the geographical and ethnological 
differences by dividing the towns into groups according to their 
situation and by presenting the family budgets of income and 
expenditure on a nationality basis, according to the country of 
birth claimed by the head of the family. 

Exclusive of New York, which is treated as the metropolis, the 
towns fall into five geographical groups thus : New England, 
6; other Eastern States, 4; Central, 6; Middle West, 5 ; Southern, 
6. The distribution is open to some criticism. The great indus- 
trial States of New York and Illinois are each represented by 
their capitals only — New York and Cliicago — and are thus put 
on an equality with such comparatively unimportant States as 
Kentucky, Indiana, and Tennessee. On the other hand, Massa- 
chusetts is allowed five towns, Georgia three, and Minnesota two, 
which are really three. Georgia is particularly over-represented; 
it is a typical colored State, but less so than South Carolina, which 
is omitted. These are, however, minor points. Broadly speak- 
ing, the varying features of urban America are well and fully- 
represented, though in regard to housing and some other condi- 
tions it is a pity that no specimen of "welfare" or "model" pro- 
vision on a large scale by employers of labor has been included. 

The trades selected for comparative investigation in regard to 
wages are building, engineering, and printing, as in the previous 
reports on other countries; but the sections dealing with the 
individual towns contain details of other industries and much, 
valuable information which is not applicable to general compari- 
sons. The latter are liable to be somewhat misleading unless 
corrected by reference to other and more detailed particulars. 


The conclusions of most general interest are those which 
embody comparisons between American and British conditions. 
They are fully treated in a section of the Report, and are sum- 
marized in Mr. Askwith's prefatory note as follows : 

" Summarizing now the results of the international comparison, 
it appears that the ratio of the weekly wages for certain occupa- 
tions in the United States and England and Wales respectively 
at the dates of the two inquiries is 243 : 100 in the building 
trades, 213 : 100 in the engineering trades, 246 : 100 in the print- 
ing trades, and 232 : 100 in all these trades together. Allowing 
for a slight advance in wages in England and Wales between the 
dates of the two inquiries the combined ratio would be 230 : 100. 

'•'The weekly hours of labor were found to be 11 per cent 
shorter in the building trades in the United States than in Eng- 
land and Wales, 7 per cent shorter in the printing trades, but 6 


per cent longer in the engineering trades, the ratio shown by all 
the occupations in these three trade groups together being 90 : 100. 

"As regards rents, the American workman pays on the whole 
a little more than twice as much as the English workman for 
the same amount of house accommodation, the actual ratio being 
207:100; the minimum oi the predominant range of rents for 
the United States towns as a whole exceeding by from 50 to 77 
per cent the rnaximum of the range for towns in England and 
Wales for dwellings containing the same number of rooms. 

" The retail prices of food, obtained by weighting the ascer- 
tained ])redominant prices according to the consumption shown 
by the British Budgets, show, when allowance is made for the 
increase which took place in this country between October, 1905, 
and February, 1909, a ratio of 138 : 100 for the United States 
and England and Wales respectively." 

Putting these details together and assuming that an English 
workman with an average family maintained under American 
conditions the standard of expenditure on food to which he had 
been accustomed, Mr. Askwith concludes that his wages would 
be higher in the United States by about 130 per cent, with 
slightly shorter hours, while on the other hand his expenditure 
on food and rent would be higher by about 52 per cent. The 
General Report, after re-stating these calculations, adds at the 
conclusion of the section dealing with this part of the subject: 

"Thus, according to this ratio, the money earnings of the 
workman in the United States are rather more than two and one- 
fourth times as great as in England and Wales, and, since there 
is no proof that employment is more intermittent in the United 
States than in this country, a much greater margin is available, 
even when allowance has been made for the increased expendi- 
ture on food and rent. . . . 

"The margin is clearly large, making possible a command of 
the necessaries and conveniences and minor luxuries of life that 
is both nominally and really greater than that enjoyed by the 
corresponding class in this country, although the effective margin 
is itself, in practice, curtailed by a scale of expenditure to some 
extent necessarily and to some extent voluntarily adopted in 
accordance with a different and a higher standard of material 



The summary statistical comparison between the two countries 
in regard to wages is given in the following table : 


Building Trades : 



Carpenters 1 

Joiners f 




Hod Carriers and 
Bricklayers' La- 

Engineering Trades : 




Patternmakers . . . . 


Printing Trades : 

Hand Compositors 
(job work) 

Predominant Range of Weekly Wages. 

England and Wales 
(October, 1905). 

S. d. s. d. 

37 6 to 40 6 

37 2 " 39 4 

36 2 " 39 4 

m 6 " 41 8 

35 4 " 39 9 

31 6 " 37 6 

24 4 " 27 

32s. to 36s. •) 
328. " 3f)S. / 
32s. " 36s. 
34s. •' 38s. 
18s. " 22s. 

288. " 33s. 

United States (Feb- 








to 125 


3 ' 

' 110 


9 ' 

' 90 



' 119 



6 ' 

' 112 




' 85 



' 68 



4 ' 

' 74 



8 ' 

' 85 



6 ' 

• 91 



6 ' 

' 43 



9 ' 

' 81 


Ratio of Mean Pre- 
dominant Wage in 
the United Slates 
(February, 1909) to 
Mean Predominant 
Wage in England 
and Wales (Octo- 
ber, 1905) taken as 

270 I ^^-^ 
f 210 
I 210 







Arithmetic Means ■ 

The Building Trades . . . 
The Engineering Trades 
All above Occupations. . 


The figures relate, it should be noted, to different periods, as 
pointed out above. They are corrected by taking account of the 
changes in the English rates between 1905 and 1909. In the 
building trades no change occurred, but engineering rates 
advanced about 1^ per cent and printing rates about 2^ per cent. 
The effect is to lower the mean ratio of American to English 
rates from 232 to 230 : 100. The Report discusses the question 
whether the ratio thus arrived at fairly represents the relative 
level of men's wages in the towns investigated, or whether the 
selected occupations tend either to exaggerate or minimize the 
real differences. On this point it observes, while the combined 
ratio yielded by the figures in the above table appears to give an 
approximately correct general indication of the relative rates of 
remuneration for town occupations as between the two countries, 
so far as they can be determined within the limits of the present 



inquiry, the comparative figures appear to be somewhat weighted 
in favor of the United States, and should not be pressed to an 
undue extent. 


The following table gives the corresponding details with regard 
to hours of work: 

Average Hours of Labor per 
Week (excluding intervals). 

Ratio of Average Hours 
of Labor in the United 
States (February, 1909) 
to those in England and 
Wales (October, 1905) 
taken as 100. 


England and 
Wales (Octo- 
ber, 1905). 

United States 



Building Trades:* 












} ''^ { 



J 90 



Carpenters \ 

Joiners / 





Hod Carriers and Brick- 
layers' Laborers 

Engineering Trades : 









Printing Trades : 

Hand Compositors (job 


r The Building Trades 

Arithmetic Means -| The Engineering Trades 

( All above Occupations 




*The hours of labor stated for the building trades are for a full week In summer in both 

In regard to hours, no modification is required on account of 
discrepancy in the dates, because there has hardly been any 
change in England since 1905. A marked difference will be noted 
between the building and engineering trades. In the former — 
and to a less extent in printing — the American hours are much 
less than the English, whereas in engineering the position is 
reversed. With regard to the validity of the combined ratio as 
a general index of comparison the Report states, ''there is little 
doubt that the percentage figure is somewhat low for the United 
States." But it is claimed that the comparison is a fair one and 
that it provides a basis of calculation of the hourly rate of wages 


similar to that made in the preceding inquiries. When wages 
and hours are put together the hourly rate of earnings in 
America works out at 240 against 100 in England, or nearly two 
and one-half times as high. 

Rents Compared. 

Number of Rooms 

Predominant Range of Weelily Rents. 

Ratio of Mean Predomi- 
nant Rent in the United 
Htates to that in Eng- 

per Dwelling. 

England and Wales. 

United States. 

land and Wales, taken 
as 100. 

Three rooms .... 

Four rooms 

Five rooms 

Six rooms 

s. d. 8. d. 

3 9 to 4 6 

4 6 " 5 6 

5 6 " 6 6 

6 6 " 7 9 

8. d. s. d. 

6 9 to 9 7 

8 8 " 12 

11 6 " 14 11 

13 '' 17 4 


Arithmetic M* 


The average weekly rent per room works out at 2s. 7|^d. in 
America, against Is. 3d. in England ; it includes rates, as in 
England, so far as taxation is comparable. 

EooD Prices. 

The predominant retail prices of the principal articles of food 
are as follows : 

Predominant Range of Retail Prices. 

Ratio of Mean Pre- 
dominant Price in the 
United States (Febru- 



England and 

Wales (October, 


United States 
(February, 1909). 

ary, 1909) to that in 
Ennland and Wales 
(October, 1905) taken 
as 100. 



Is. to Is. Id. 

Is. 2d. 

2^d. to 3|d. 

8d. " lOd. 

4^d. " 52^d. 

3d. " 4d. 

7^2*1. ^' 8id. 

5d. " 6d. 

7id. " 9d. 

4d. " 5d. 

7id. " 8W. 

7d. " 9d. 

2fd., 3d. 


5^d. "Sjd. 
ll^d. " Is. l^d. 
lOfd. " Hid. 

4|d. " 4^d. 

1 6d. " 8d. 

1 e^d. " 8id. 

5|d. " 7|d. 
8|d. " lOd. 


Cheese '' " 

Butter " " 1 

Potatoes per 7 lb 

Flour " 7 " .... 

Bread per 4 lb 

Milk per qt 




Beef per lb 1 

Mutton " " 1 

Pork " " 

Bacon " " 






With regard to the English prices and the date of collection, 
it is estimated that in 1909 they had risen by 3 or 4 per cent. 

In order to ascertain the actual bearing of prices on the lives 
of the people it is necessary to take into account their habits in 
regard to the kind and quantity of food usually consumed. This 
is ascertained by analyzing a number of typical family budgets 
and obtaining the average quantity of each food consumed ; the 
quantity multiplied by the price gives the cost. 

Cost of the Average British Workingman's Budget (EXCLuniNO Com- 
modities FOR WHICH Comparative Prices cannot be given) at the 
Predominant Prices paid by the Working-classes of (1) England 
AND Wales and (2) the United States. 



Predominant Range of Retail PriceB. 

Cost in Pence nf 
Quantity in Column 2. 


England and 

Wales (October, 


United Stetcs 
(February, 1909). 





Cheese .... 

Potatoes . . . 





Mutton .... 



5J lb. 
% lb. 
2 lb. 

17 lb. 

10 lb. 

22 lb. 

5 qts. 


\ lb. 

\-\ lb. 

2d. per lb. 
7d. per lb. 
Is. l^d. per lb. 

2^d. to 3id. per 

7 lb. 
8d. to lOd. per 

7 lb 
4](I to o.M. per 

4 lb. 
3d. to 4d. per 

6?d. per lb. 
6|d. per lb. 

7id. to S-^d. per 

7d. to9d, per lb. 

25d., 3d. per lb. 

10<l. per lb 

Is 4d to ls.5id. 

per lb. 
55d. to 8id. per 

7 lb. 
Hid to 1/1.1 per 

7 lb. 
103d. to ll.'.d. 4 lb 
4:Jd. to \'iA. per 

(id to 8d. per lb 
6M. to 84d. per 

53d. to 7id. per 

8.',d. to lOd. per 






30 .i 











Total cost of the i 

ibove , . . 



( England and Wales, 

Index numbers -J I'nited States, Febru 

1 Adiusted for Fehrnjirv 

October, 1905; 

ary, I90'J 

, 1909 



On the basis of the average American woi-kingman's budget 
the relation is 100 to 125. That is to say, an English workman 
would pay 38 more per cent for food in America (jn his ordinary 
scale, but an American only pays in the United States 25 per 
cent more than he would in England. 




A MAJORITY of the Republican members of the House of 
Representatives voted a second time against the Canadian reci- 
procity agreement when it came up a few weeks ago in the Sixty- 
second Congress. A majority of the Republican Senators are 
known to be opposed. One motive which has influenced Western 
Senators and Representatives to refuse to follow a Republican 
President in advocacy of this measure is a recognition of the 
fact that it virtually means free wool so far as concerns the 
Dominion of Canada. 

Sheep are now dutiable at f 1.50 a head if one year old or 
older, with 75 cents a head on lambs less than one year old. 
The Canadian agreement makes sheep and lambs absolutely free 
of duty, and makes it possible for Canadian wool growers to 
raise their flocks on cheap land along the border, drive them 
into the United States at shearing time, and have the sheep 
sheared and their wool sold here free of duty. 

This is a serious menace to the wool-growing interests of all 
the border States. Hon. Frank W. Mondell, the able and vigor- 
ous Representative from Wyoming, set forth the facts clearly in 
a speech in Congress on the reciprocity agreement, saying : 

We had a beautiful illustration in tlie House the other day of 
that delightful condition of innocence of knowledge which leads 
men to blindly pursue economic heresies without regard to con- 
sequences. During the reading of the Canadian reciprocity bill 
for amendment, the gentleman from Washington (Mr. La Follette) 
offered a very sensible amendment and explained its purpose, 
which was to" prevent the driving of sheep across the Canadian 
border to be shorn on the American side and then driven back 
and the wool sold here, thus securing our market without pay- 
ing our duty of 11 cents a pound. The vociferous jeers which 
greeted this amendment and its explanation would have really 
been funny, if it were not for the fact that they brouglit vividly 
to mind the dangers to which American industries are now 

Of course, the gentlemen who joined in these jeers do not 
know — I suppose they ought not to be expected to know — 
that there are in the United States over 25,000,000 head of 
sheep, which are bred and grazed on the open range in large 
flocks, which are constantly on the move ; whose summer and 


winter ranges and lambing and shearing grounds are oftentimes 
separated by 50, 75, 100, and 150 miles. There is no difficulty 
whatever and no appreciable additional expense in moving such 
flocks 50 or 100 miles or more to shear. Ten millions or more of 
such sheep occupy the territory immediately contiguous to the 
Canadian line, west of the Great Lakes, in a region having 
similar climatic conditions to those of the adjacent regions of 
Canada. It does not pay under free wool to raise sheep in 
Alberta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia, but the Canadian 
reciprocity bill allows the free importation of sheep from Canada 
into the United States, and under tliat provision the sheep busi- 
ness along the Canadian border for 1,500 miles can be carried on 
just as it is in the same territory south of the line, and sheep 
grazing within 100 miles or more of the border can without diffi- 
culty or considerable expense be driven over the line into the 
United States, shorn, and the wool enter our markets without the 
payment of duty. 

The duty on this class of wool is 11 cents a pound, and about 
7^ pounds per head is the average clip per sheep in that region. 
That means a saving in duty of over 80 cents on the fleece of 
each sheep, and who is bold enough to say that the American 
market for Canadian mutton, with a saving in duty of 80 cents 
on each animal per annum, the next few years will not see at 
least 10,000,000 sheep along tlie border in Canada ? 

I am not a prophet ; I am not prophesying that this will occur, 
but I know of no reason why it should not. It is one of the 
probable effects of the passage of the Canadian reciprocity bill. 
The loss to our Treasury on the fleeces of that number of sheep 
would be $8,000,000, to say nothing of the loss to the American 
farmer by having that quantity of wool, duty free, brought into 
competition with his production. And yet, in the face of the 
probability — the certainty, to an extent at least — of the very 
operation to which I have referred, the very proper and reason- 
able amendment of the gentleman from Washington met only the 
jeers of ignorance on that side. The trouble with the free trader 
and the tariff revenue advocate is, as I have pointed out, he goes 
blindly in ignorance or in defiance of the facts which control the 
commerce and industry of the world. 


Pointing the moral of Germany's advance under protectionism 
and Great Britain's laggard growth under free trade, a writer in 
the Sheffield " Daily Telegraph " says : 

We have been spending an hour or two over the newest 
Blue Book, the Statistical Abstract of Foreign Countries, which 
was issued this week end. There is romance in the heaviest 


looking Blue Book for those who have wit enough to abstract it, 
or vision sufficiently keen to look behind the masses of figures to 
the living people they represent. 

For example, what is implied in the fact that the population of 
Russia increases by something like 2,000,000 a year, while we add 
less than a fourth of that to our numbers ? Or what light is cast 
upon the future when we realize that Germany's increase is very 
nearly double our own — 900,000 per year as compared with 
500,000 per year ? 

When to that is added a contrast between our own enormous 
emigration and Germany's very slender movement in that direc- 
tion, we begin dimly to see that the foreign politics with which 
our grandchildren may have to deal will be very different from 
those that interest us. 

In Germany the birth rate is 32 per 1,000, in this country it is 
25. Is it any wonder that German statesmen, realizing all this, 
should cast envious eyes upon the broad areas over which floats 
the Union Jack ? 

Turning to another page we find a list of the amounts raised by 
various countries in import duties. Here are some of them : 

United States 


United Kingdom ... 




It will be seen from the righthand column, which we have 
worked out from a list of populations given on another page of 
the return, that this country has a heavier tariff taxation per- 
head than any other country in the world. 

Now, it is admitted by all statisticians, free trade or otherwise, 
that the consumer pays every penny of the tariff duties that we 
levy. That is not so in the case of other countries. 

Of Germany's 10s. lOd. per head, the foreign manufacturer 
pays at least a third, and probably a half — something between 
3s. 6d. and 5s. 5d. In the case of the United States the propor- 
tion is certainly higher. 

In actual practice the people of Germany and America and 
France will pay at the most 6s. to 7s. per head as compared with 
our 14s. 2d. And yet we label ourselves Free Traders ! 

We are a nation of humorists. 

England is the greatest maker of cotton goods in the world. 
Long may she retain her lead. We wish we could say that she 
was increasing it, but the facts, unhappily, are all the other way 
about. Other nations are creeping up perilously near. 


Per Head. 

In Millions. 

8. d. 


13 10 


10 10 


14 2 


3 9 


10 2 


7 4 


For example, in 1860 America exported 1,767,686,338 pounds 
of cotton. That went to 


England 1,264,136,782 

Germany 66,072,526 

The rest of the countries of the world took 437,477,030 pounds 
between them. 

We travel along fifty years and come to 1910, and this is how 
the account stands : 


England 1,222,279,124 

Germany 943,828,571 

with 1,040,600,531 pounds for the rest of the world. 

We still have a lead, but it is not the lead it was 50 years ago. 
Then we took 2 pounds in 3 of all the raw cotton America 
exported. Now we take rather over 1 in 3. Then Germany took 
but 1 pound in 27 ; now she takes 1 in every 3^. 

She gains ground every decade, while we, if we have not lost 
it, have stood practically still. And her greatest and swiftest 
progress began when she adopted a tariff system. 




{From the Canadian Textile Journal.) 

The present unsatisfactory state of the woolen and worsted 
branches of the great textile industry of the United States shows 
how detrimental to a nation's commerce may be even the talk of 
radical alteration in the policy which has brought them to such 
a high state of prosperity. The pity of it is that so much of 
the outcry against protection on wool and woolens and against 
Schedule K has been brought about through a desire for sensa- 
tion and based on ignorance of facts. It is not averred that the 
woolen schedule in the United States tariff is perfect in all 
details. But that the principles on which it is based are fair 
ones, and conduce to the development of the industry, to the 
prosperity of a very large number of citizens, and this without 
bringing hardship to any other classes in the community, is 
amply proven by its results. 

Now we are told that wool ought to be free of import tax 
into the United States, because the land has become too valuable 


to be used for the rearing of sheep. What nonsense ! Some 
land may have become more profitable when used for other pur- 
poses, just as history shows that land which was once profitable 
for grain raising has been found to give better profits in dairying 
or under fruit. The best agricultural authorities, however, agree 
that, even in comparatively thickly settled farming communities, 
it is good economy for each farm to possess at least a small flock 
of sheep, both because of their intrinsic money value as wool 
and mutton producers, and because of the beneficial influence 
they exert on the soil. But there still remain large sections of 
land in both Canada and the United States where sheep rearing 
would become the most profitable branch of husbandry to under- 
take. Even supposing it were not good practice to raise these 
useful animals on valuable eastern lands, which is far from being 
the case, surely such an argument cannot apply to the deserted 
and semi-deserted farms of New England, and still less to huge, 
sparsely settled districts of the newer West, even though the 
inroads of the grain-raiser have broken up the great territorial 
ranches of the past. And if it was right for the old sheep 
farmers of the East and the newer sheep farmers of the West to 
enjoy tariff protection on their product, is it any the less right 
that the wool raising of the present and the future should receive 
similar encouragement ? 

There i's good politics and good economy in carrying out the 
idea of a nation being as largely self-supporting as possible. In 
the wool and woolen industries, Canada has failed in this respect 
and the United States succeeded, largely for similar reasons ; i.e., 
the absence or presence respectively of protection. The enemies 
of wool protection appear to want both countries to be in a simi- 
lar plight — at the mercy of foreign manufacturers and of climatic 
seasons. For here is a point to be considered. The wool clip in 
any one country is liable to vary very greatly with weather and 
other conditions, giving rise to great fluctuations in prices. The 
United States crop, of course, is subject to such variations in 
common with other countries, although it compares favorably in 
that respect. Now, with the duty removed from raw wool, there 
is bound to be a material reduction in the herds of sheep, with a 
corresponding diminution in wool production, as history proves 
only too well. The American industry would be to that extent, 
therefore, subject to outside influences in a manner extremely 
detrimental to its welfare. Economically and politically, there 


can be no question of the importance of keeping up the present 
ratio of sheep to population, and, in fact, increasing it. Such 
points as these, however, are treated with sublime indifference 
by the Yellow Press, which continues to bludgeon the industry 
without any idea seemingly that it is " knocking" other interests 
of the people of the United States of even greater importance. 



Amkrican cotton manufacturers who have lost a great part of 
their market in north China because of the aggressions of the 
Japanese will have some sympathy with British woolen manu- 
facturers who see the beginning of the end of their profitable 
commerce with the Orient. The new Japanese tariff imposes 
prohibitive duties of from 250 to 300 per cent on the heavy army 
cloths and similar fabrics manufactured in Batley, Dewsbury 
and other well-known English districts. Japanese mills capable 
of producing tliese fabrics have been established. The Japanese 
people are determined to secure this market for themselves. 

All the concessions that Japan makes in the new trade treaty 
with Great Britain are regarded by British manufacturers as 
nominal and not real. Says " Men's Wear," London, in editorial 
comment : 

The details of the Japanese Tariff Treaty have been published 
during the past week, and while our far Eastern allies have in 
the concessions made given evidence of their good will towards 
us, it cannot be said that the reductions in the proposals are 
adequate to remove the disabilities under which Englisli mer- 
chants and manufacturers must in future deal with Japanese 
distributors. Of course, the tariff is protective in the highest 
degree, and intended to give a safe field to the scores of mills 
and factories now either in operation or projected in connection 
with the textile trade. Not much more than a one-third conces- 
sion could be expected in view that we have nothing to give as 
an exchange bargain ; and no doubt in a very few years Japanese 
textiles will be entering this market on a scale calculated to 
cause embarrassment to some of our own producers. . . . 
Factories for textile production are building with astonishing 
rapidity, and our own profit at the present time must probably 
be looked for in the supply of the essential machinery. We 


advise export clothiers with far Eastern ambitions to study the 
text of the new treaty which has been issued as a Parliamentary 
white paper. 

First, the British woolen manufacturers are to lose their pres- 
ent market in Japan. Second, the development of the native 
Japanese wool manufacture is soon to threaten British manu- 
facturers with Oriental competition right on their own ground at 
home. If Japanese woolen mills can deal so disastrously with 
British woolen mills as this, what is to be said of the prospect 
of Oriental competition on the wool manufacturing industry of 
America, with its wages twice as high as those paid to British 
operatives ? In the pending revision of the tariff a new force 
must for the tirst time be reckoned with — the rivalry of the 
coolie labor of Japan. Of what use is it to bar these coolie 
laborers out of the United States if the protective tariff is to be 
cut down to a point where the products of this coolie labor 
employed at home can be poured into the United States to dis- 
place the products of American mills ? 

Thus the shadow of the Yellow Peril falls across the face of 
affairs in Washington. 

{Froyn the London Chronicle^ 

Batley is one of the towns where shoddy is made into suits. 
It is near Dewsbury, but not of it. The rivalry between Dews- 
bury and Batley is like the rivalry of next door neighbors who 
fling things into each other's backyards. Batley is noted for two 
things ; rags and farthings. I believe, but I am not sure, that 
Batley is the only town in England where there are penny- 
farthing tram fares. The fare from Batley to Dewsbury is a 
penny-farthing ; and the conductor of each car carries a supply 
of farthings in his pouch, I am sorry for the Batley children, 
who stand little chance of getting halfpennies while the supply 
of farthings continues. And you can't get much for a farthing 
— even in Batley. 

But to return to the rag trade. I was privileged to go through 
what is probably the largest rag business in the country, and I 
was conducted by a gentleman who spends several months in the 


year on the continent buying up the rags of different countries. 
In his ofl&ce were glass cases or cabinets containing samples of 
rags which he treasured as if they were so much valuable ore. 
He wore a kind of butcher's smock, and when he talked about 
rags he lowered his voice respectfully. After climbing many 
flights of stairs we came upon a kind of threshing machine which 
was vomiting rags by the hundredweight. The machine was a 
cleaner, and it threshed dust and waste from the rags as a 
threshing machine separates grain from the husk. 


" What do you make out of the dust and waste ? " I asked 

"It is sent to Kent, where it is used to fertilize the hop 

Profit, like wonders, never ceases in Batley. In a large, airy, 
well-lighted room fifty or sixty girls were busy sorting rags. 
There were pure woolen rags, which cost eightpence a pound, 
out of which £3 3s. suits are made, and rags which are made 
into strips for binding young saplings in the parks. Eags were 
shown to me that cost 4Jd. a pound, and I was asked to compare 
them with the rags that cost lid. a pound. I could not see any 
difference, but to my conductor they differed as much as a duck's 
egg differs from the egg of a hen. 

He handed me a fragment of cloth and passed it lovingly 
through his fingers, with the remark : " That's a bit of good stuff ; 
German army's new uniform. Notice the color — green-gray. 
That's the result of much experiment. I have watched a 
battalion of German soldiers manoeuvring in the fields, and you 
could scarcely see them in the grass. A khaki uniform would 
have been easily visible." 

" Yes, it's good stuff, all wool, and it used to cost in rags £60 
a ton ; but I wish I had never seen it." 

"Patriotism or profit?" I inquired. 

" How would you like to lose twopence a pound ? " he went 
on. "During the experiments uniforms were made for only one 
or two regiments, and when you consider that it takes the rem- 
nants of 5,000 uniforms to make a ton of rags, you can imagine 
that there was a scarcity in the market. Well, we managed to 
get all there was, and a very good thing we made out of it. We 
bought all we could at £59 a ton, then the German Government 


started making gray-green uniforms by the tliousand, and the 
stuff poured in, with the result that the price dropped to £40 a 
ton, where it stands now, and we were left with our original 
bargains. Oh, 3'^es. You have to keep your wits about you in 
the rag trade." 

We discussed the uniforms of other countries, samples of each 
being contained in the big rag bags. " See these two grays, one 
is the uniform of the Italian army and the other of the Belgian 
army. They are pretty much the same, but the Italian cloth is 
better dyed. This red stuff goes to make the breeches of the 
French army, those pieces of khaki come from our Indian army, 
that saucy-looking cap belonged to a Bavarian officer, and this 
light green is worn by the German forest rangers, whilst that 
bundle of khaki and blue is sported by the soldiers of the Mikado." 

" N"ow what do you think this is ? " He picked up pieces of 
strong cream cloth. " This comes from the tirst-class carriages 
on the French railways. It is sent over here and made into light 
mantles for ladies, and very good mantles, too." 

Walking from room to room, divided into huge bins, each con- 
taining many tons of rags, I gained some idea of the immense 
business done in the cast-off clothes of the nations. " If it is 
not an impertinent question," I hazarded, " what is the approxi- 
mate value of the rags in this place ? " 

" There's about £10,000 worth on two floors," he replied, care- 
lessly, as he lovingly handled a bundle of new black worsted. 
'' This stuff's worth £30 a ton." 

" That's your best line ? " 

"We've some new white flannel over there that costs £6 10s. 
a hundredweight. Sh-sh ! " 

" What's the matter? " I exclaimed, jumping back. 


" It's only one of the cats. They run wild on these floors. 
We encourage them to keep down the rats. I haven't seen a rat 
about the place for weeks. At one time the place was infested 
with them. You will notice that basins of milk are placed for 
the cats ; we have a man who makes it his business to feed them." 

We halted before one of the large bins, and my guide thought- 
fully patted the huge pile of rags wliich had come pouring down 
a shoot from the room above. " I will let you into a trade secret. 
Some of these rags are being sent back to the country fron» which 


they came, sent back at a profit, of course. You must remember 
that this is the market for the world's rags, and that freights are 
cheap. Take the German rag merchant, for instance. He may 
have tons of rags which are no use for his particular purpose. 
He has not got the right blend. We buy them, mix them with 
other kinds of rags, which makes the blend he requires, and send 
them back again. There is one country — I won't name it — 
with which we do a large trade in reexported rags. Any dealer 
in rags must keep pace with the fashions. As the fashions 
change, so the demand for certain varieties of rags increases, and 
that demand must be met." 

" What puzzles me," I confessed, " is how you or somebody 
else makes these rags into cloth. They are all different colors, 
qualities and sizes. How do you do it? " 

He laughed. " You remind me of a friend wliom I took 
through a rag mill some time ago, — ' what 1 want to know,' said 
he, ' is how the d — 1 you manage to sew these pieces of rags 
together ? ' " 

I joined in tlie laugh, but still i)leaded ignorance. He led the 
way to his private office, and ojiened one of the cabinets I have 
mentioned. He took out the small bundle of varicolored rags. 
"Those," he said, " are worth 3d. a pound, and this " — reaching 
for another cabinet — "is worth 9d. a j)0und." 


He held in his hand what looked like a mass of colored virgin 
wool. "This wool, or woolen, is maile from these rags, and it 
is worth more than much English wool. It is shorter in fiber, of 
course, than virgin wool, but that is all the difference. You will 
have some idea now how cloth is made from rjigs. The rags are 
first passed through heavy rollers, something after the style of a 
domestic wringing machine, and as they emerge they are caught 
by a many-tootlied revolving cylinder, which tears or teases the 
rags back into wool, which is like the raw cotton you get in 
Lancasliire. And the process of spinning and weaving is very 
much the same as employed in yonr cotton mills. Once you 
have the rags pulled into wool it is a sim[jle process re-convert- 
ing them into cloth, or shoddy, as it is faujiliarly known." 

1 began to understand. 1 saw tlie whole art of the shoddy 
business in a flash. By a skilful and judicious blending of rags 
that cost 8d. a pcmnd with rags that cost 2^d. a ])0und, or less, a 


fairly serviceable cloth could be manufactured at a good profit. 
If the more expensive rags were used the cloth so manufactured 
would be almost as good as the original article. But, alas, there 
are new rags and old rags. There are the clippings from mer- 
chant tailors' warehouses, remnants of cloth that have never been 
worn, and there are rags that have seen good service in many 


Kipling was wrong when he asserted that the East and West 
could never meet! A remnant of the robe of a Chinese man- 
darin and the section of the frock coat of an English peer may 
be, and probably are, united in a pair of trousers made for a 
German mechanic. The entire army of a South American 
Republic is clothed in uniforms manufactured from the rags of 
all countries. 

I can quite understand that strangers are not altogether 
welcome in the shoddy mills of Batley, Ossett, and neighboring 
towns. Each mill has its pet secrets. If you could probe these 
secrets you would understand how it is possible to buy a com- 
plete suit of clothes for a gu^inea, or even 15s. And a word in 
the reader's ear. Much of the cloth for which fancy prices are 
paid is nothing more or less than shoddy made from rags — 
rags that have been stored in Dewsbury and made up in Batley. 
To the making of clothes — like books — there is no end. Every 
man is at the mercy of his tailor. 

All the same, there is something thrilling in the idea that one's 
waistcoat was made from the trousers of a German Uhlan, that 
one's coat consists of parts of a Turk's robe, together with one 
leg of a French zouave's breeches, nicely varied with a Dutch 
girl's stockings ; whilst one's trousers are composed of rags from 
six different countries. Also one's wife ought to be impressed 
with the thought that she may stroll in the park with the 
upholstering of a French first-class railway carriage draping her 
graceful shoulders. 

Sartor Resartus was not the last word in the philosophy of 



The following estimates of the numbers of flax spindles and 
linen looms in France, Germany, Belgium, Austria-Hungary, and 
Italy have been obtained from reliable sources by the British 
consular officers in the countries named : 

France. — The number of flax spindles in France is about 
500,000 and of linen looms about 18,700. 

Germany. — The number of flax spindles in Germany is 
estimated at 330,000 and of mechanical looms at from 20,000 to 

Belgium. — The total number of flax spindles in Belgium is 
approximately 325,000, of which 235,600 are in Ghent and 24,500 
in Courtrai, the remaining 64,900 spindles being divided between 
the towns of Alost, Ath, Bavicliove, Bellaire, Eyne, Lauwe, 
Lokeren, Ninove, and Tournai. 

There appear to be some 16,273 linen looms in Belgium, of 
which 8,773 are in Ghent and 5,000 in Courtrai, the remaining 
2,5U0 looms being found in Alost, Ath, Calcken, Eecloo, Gulleg- 
hem, Iseghem, jNIalines, Moorseele, Roulers, Waereghem, Waer- 
schot, and Ruysbroeck near Brussels. 

Austria- HuiKjary. — The present number of flax spindles is 
given as 285,996 in Austria and 8,500 in Hungary. These are 
divided between 28 firms in Austria and 3 in Hungary. 

The number of linen looms is not known. It is estimated at 
from 6,000 to 7,000 machine looms and 20,000 to 25,000 hand 
looms. Many of these, however, particularly of the hand looms, 
do not work linen exclusively, but also often half linen and even 

Italy. — The number of flax spindles in Italy is estimated at 
113,452. No estimate of the number of looms could be obtained. 

Russia. — According to the consular report for 1908 on the 
trade of Moscow, the number of flax spindles in Russia in 1907 
was 405,430, of which 367,670 were spinning spindles and 37,760 
twisting spindles. The number of linen looms in 1907 was 
12,380, of which 11,581 were power looms and 799 hand looms. 


According to a recent issue of Flachs und Leinen (Austria), 
the results of the census of flax spindles instituted by the Inter- 
national Federation of Flax and Tow Spinners, which was con- 
fined to the affiliated associations, were as follows : 

* Daily Consular and Trade Reports, June 14, 1911. 


Number of spindles. 

Austrian flax spinners 266,000 

Silesian and Saxon linen spinners 170,000 

West German flax spinners 1 10,424: 

Belgian flax and tow spinners (inclusive of factories in Ghent) . . . 290,286 

Russian flax spinners 362,382 

Belfast flax spinners 623,000 

French syndicate of flax, hemp, and tow spinners 480,000 

Total 2,302,092 


American Consul Henry S. Culver wrote from Cork a year ago 
that $70,000,000 is invested in the linen industry in Ireland, 
where there are 935,000 spindles and 36,000 power looms. 
England has only 50,000 spindles and Scotland 160,000. The 
output of linen piece goods in 1907 was 220,722,000 yards, 
valued at $30,000,000, while the output of highly finished linen 
fabrics was several million dollars more. 

According to British census returns, the employees in linen 
mills of the United Kingdom number about 96,000, whose 
average earnings in the pay week of September, 1906, was $2.90. 
For those who worked neither less nor more than full time the 
average earnings was $2.92. The average weekly earnings of 
foremen working full time in Irish mills was $8, roughers $5.11, 
sorters $5.26. Boys tending the hackling machines averaged 
$2.05 for full time and 81 cents weekly for half time. Women 
form 58 per cent of the employees of linen factories in the 
British Isles ; the average weekly earnings of those who worked 
full time was $2.19 for line spreaders, $2.16 for tow carders, 
$1.95 for drawers and back minders, $2.22 for rovers, $2.45 for 
spinners, $2.72 for winders, and $2.78 for weavers, the usual 
number of looms tended by each weaver being two. The average 
for girls was $1.64 when tending one loom and $1.86 when tend- 
ing two looms. 

Allowing for all stoppages and on the basis of the average 
earnings per head of all emi)loyed in an ordinary week, the earn- 
ings per head of the mean weekly number employed was $143.43 
in 1906. 

The total exports of linen goods from the United Kingdom in 
1910 aggregated over $46,000,000. Of the $30,000,000 linen 
piece goods exported, a little over one-half was sold in the United 


Domestic Wools. (George W. Benedict.) 

Ohio, Pennsylvania, 


XX and above . . . 


4 Blood 

AND West 

Fine Delaine 


Fiue . . . 
J Blood . . . 

Fine Delaine 

Michigan, Wisconsin, New Yokk, 



i Blood 

January. February. March. 

30 @ 31 

29 ® 30 

34 @ 35 

33 ® 34 

32 @ 33 

33 @ 34 

22 @ 23 

29 ,@ 30 

28 ,g 29 

27 @ 28 

26 g 27 

30 ® 31 
28 g 29 
33 ig 34 

32 (@ 33 

31 @ 32 

33 ® 34 

21 @ 22 

28 g 29 

27 la 28 

26 (g 27 

25 ^ 26 

Fine Delaine 

Fine .... 
4 Blood . . . 
i " ... 

Fine Delaine 

Kentucky and Indiana. 


i Blood 


Missouiii, Iowa, and Illinois. 


i Blood 

Braid , 

(scoured basis.) 

12 monlliB, line, and fine medium . . 

6 to 8 mouthc, fine 

12 months, medium 

6 to 8 months, medium 

Kail, tine and fine medium 

" medium 


(scoured BASIS.) 

Free, 12 mouths 

" 6 to 8 months . 

Fall, free 

" defective 

1'erritory Wool: Montana, Wyo- 
ming, Utah, Idaho, Oregon, etc. 
(scoured basis.) 
Staple, fine and fine medium . . . . 

" medium . 

Clothing, fine and fine medium . . . 

" medium 

New Mexico. (Spring.) 
(scoured basis.) 

No. 1 ■ 

No. 2 

No. 3 

No. 4 

New Mexico. (Fall.) 

(scoured BASIS.) 

No. 1 

No. 2 

No. 3 

No. 4 

Georgia and Southern. 

32 (g 33 

32 g 33 

31 ig .32 

32 g 33 

20 @ 21 

28 @ 29 

27 (g 28 

26 @ 27 

25 S 26 

28 @ 29 
27 ig 28 
22 @ 23 

27 @ 28 
25 i@ 26 
22 e 23 

57 @ 59 
52 ig 53 
52 @ 63 
47 ® 48 
47 g 48 
42 @ 43 

54 ig 55 

50 @ 51 

43 g 44 

34 @ 37 

60 @ 62 

56 @ 57 

55 @ 56 

50 @ 52 

54 g 56 
45 g 47 
35 @ 37 
34 ® 35 

43 @ 44 

37 @ 39 

31 (ft 33 

28 (g 30 

23 (g 24 

31 g 32 

31 ,g 32 
30 i§ 31 

32 g 33 

20 S 21 

27 (g 28 

26 g 27 

25 (g 26 

24 @ 25 

27 @ 28 
26 ® 27 
22 3 224 

26 g 27 

24 a 25 

21 (g 22 

55 g 57 

50 § 51 

50 g 51 

45 ;@ 46 

45 g 46 

41 g 42 

53 @ 54 
48 @ 50 
42 @ 43 
34 @ 36 

58 @ 60 

54 @ 55 

53 ig 54 

48 (g 50 

53 @ 54 

44 ig 45 

35 (g 36 

33 @ 34 

42 g 43 
36 <g 37 
30 (g 31 
28 @ 29 

22 g 23 

29 @ 30 

28 S 28^ 

32 @ 33 

31 @ 32 

31 ® 32 

32 @ 33 

20 (g 21 

27 & 28 

26 3 27 

25 ig 26 

24 g 25 

30 3 31 

30 g 31 

29 @ 30 

31 (g 32 

19 (g 20 

26 3 27 

25 3 26 

24 3 25 

23 3 24 

26 ® 27 
25 3 26 
21 3 22 

25 3 26 
23 3 24 
20 3 21 

50 (S 52 

48 & 49 

48 3 49 

43 3 44 

44 3 45 
40 3 41 

50 @ 52 
45 3 47 
40 3 42 
33 3 55 

53 3 55 
50 3 52 
48 3 50 
43 3 45 

50 3 51 

43 3 44 

34 3 35 

32 3 33 

41 3 42 
35 3 36 
29 3 30 

27 3 28 

22 3 23 


35 3 36 
33 3 34 
39 3 40 
39 3 40 
37 a 38 
37 3 38 

26 3 27 
35 3 36 
35 3 86 
33 3 34 
29 3 30 

38 3 39 
38 3 39 
36 g 37 
36 3 37 

24 g 25 
34 3 35 
33 3 34 
32 3 33 
28 3 29 

35 3 36 
33 3 34 

32 @ 33 
31 3 32 

27 3 28 

70 3 71 
64 3 65 
64 3 65 

58 3 60 

59 3 60 
52 3 53 

64 3 66 
60 3 62 
51 3 53 
38 3 43 

70 3 71 
64 3 65 
64 O 65 
60 3 62 

65 3 66 
55 a 57 
43 3 45 
38 3 40 

52 3 53 
45 3 47 
40 3 42 
37 3 38 

28 3 30 


Domestic Wool. 

Boston, March 31, 1911. 

The wool market during the quarter under review (January, February, 
and March) has been one of keen disappointment to all dealers in wool. 
Anticipating as they did a fairly active goods market following two unprofit- 
able seasons, it was hoped that the demand for wool would at least be suffi- 
cient to keep values steady and allow holders to dispose of their stocks 
before the new clip was ready for market. The season was not far advanced, 
however, before it became evident that manufacturers were not meeting with 
much success in marketing their goods, and raw material soon felt the 
depressing effect of these conditions. Prices for a while held fairly steady, 
but the inevitable law of supply and demand soon became operative and 
values began to be irregular, followed before long by an almost demoralized 
condition of the trade. 

It must be noted here that the primal cause of these unsatisfactory condi- 
tions was the fear of adverse tariff legislation upon the calling of an extra 
session of Congress March 4th. 

Territory wools, being in the largest supply, were naturally the first to 
weaken, but fleeces and scoured wools shared in the general decline. 

Half blood grades were in best demand and have brought relatively higher 

values than the finer grades. The market for | blood wools has been 

particularly slack. 

George W. Benedict. 

Pulled Wools. {Scoured basis.) (W. A. Blanchard.) 

Extra, and Fine A 

A Super 

B Super 

C Super 

Fine Combing . . 
Medium (Jorabing 
Low Combing . . 
(Jalifornia, Extra . 


54 ffl 
50 n 
43 a 

33 @ 
53 @ 
48 @ 
52 @ 



53 @63 

48 (g 52 
42 (g 46 
33 @ 37 
52 @ 54 
47 ig 50 
42 @45 
52® 57 


50 ® 60 
45® 48 
40 ®43 
32 @35 
50 @ 52 
45 @ 47 
40 ® 42 
50 ® 55 


65 @ 72 
68 ® 62 
50 ® 55 
35 @ 40 
60 @ 65' 
55 @ 58 
50 ® 53 
65 ® 68 

The year opened with a more confident feeling in business, but expectations 
of improvement were short-lived, and, before January had closed, a break in 
prices was general. The decline was still more marked in March, particu- 
larly in A and B supers. These grades at this season of the year are usually 
taken by the worsted spinners, but regular lines of combings were in suffi- 
cient supply, and the price-level low enough, to fill the demand from this 
source. The woolen mills bought a fair amount of pulled wool, but on a 
hand-to-mouth basis. As a rule pullers were disposed to meet all reasonable 
offers and the quarter closed with comparatively light stocks in first hands. 

W. A. Blanchard. 


Foreign Wools. (Madgek & Avery.) 

AuBtralian Combing: 




Australian Clothing: 




Sydney and Queensland : 

Good Clothing . 

Good Combing 

A ustralian Crossbred : 



Australian Lambs : 



Good Defective 

Cape of Good Hope : 



Montevideo : 



Crossbred, Choice 

Knglish Wools : 

Sussex Fleece 

Shropshire Hogs 

Yorkshire Hogs 

Irish Selected Fleece . . . 
Carpet Wools : 

Scotch Highland, White . . 

East India, Ist White Joria . 

East India, White Kandahar 

Donskoi, Washed, White . 

Aleppo, White 

China Ball, White 

" " No. 1, Open . . 

" " No. 2, Open . . 















@ 38 








@ 45 


■a 40 


® 36 




(g 33 




(g 33 


@ 40 










g 30 


@ 26 


g 33 


® 32 


IS. 24 






40 ig41 
35 @ 37 

34 g 36 

41 @ 43 

35 @ 38 

35 (g 36 

36 @38 
36 g 38 

38 a 40 

33 @ 36 

42 @ 45 

39 @ 40 

35 g 36 

34 @ 35 
32 g 33 

36 @37 
32 @ 33 
36 @ 40 

40 (g 42 
40 g 42 
36 @ 38 

22 @ 23 

29 g 30 

25 (g 26 

32 g 33 

31 g 32 

22 @ 24 

19 g 20 

13 @15 


40 @41 

35 g 37 

33 @ 35 

40 g 42 

35 (§37 

34 S 36 

36 §38 
36 @ 38 

38 @ 40 

33 g 36 

42 @45 

39 @ 40 

35 @ 36 

34 @ 35 
32 ® 33 



41 ® 43 

39 S 41 

36 @ 37 

40 ig 43 
39 ig 4U 

37 & 59 

39 3 41 

40 @ 43 

38 ® 41 

34 @ 36 

42 @ 45 
38 3 41 

35 @ 37 

35 @ 37 

30 g 33 

36 © 37 38 e 35 

32 @ 33 31 @ 32 

36 ® 39 86 3 38 

40 3 42 ! 42 S 43 

40 @ 42 , 36 ® 37 

36 g 38 I 36 ® 37 

22 @ 23 

30 @ 31 
25 g 27 

31 ff 33 
31 (g 33 
22 @ 23 
19 @ 21 
13 ® 15 

22 e 24 

30 a 32 
26 g 27 

31 @ 33 
31 e 33 
19 © 21 
18 ® 20 
13 e 14 

Foreign Wools. 

The market for foreign wool during the quarter ending in March was char- 
acterized by an absence of general demand, owing to the fact that outside of 
carpet wools the manufacturers were not generally employed to the full 
extent of their machinery. One or two concerns, however, were persistent 
buyers of crossbred wools at steadily declining prices, and large quantities of 
these wools passed from the hands of dealers into the warehouses of con- 

English wools, owing to their relative high cost compared with American 
crossbred avooIs, were in very limited request, and the falling off of importa- 
tion has been marked. The bulk of the wools imported were by one or two 
mills, possibly a completion of contracts made last year. 

Australian lambs have been in limited request and more limited supply, and 
prices have been fairly well maintained. 

Cape of Good Hope has been practically out of stock. 


Montevideo wools were purchased for America to a much less extent than 
in former years, an<l have not been in great request. 

Buenos Ayres wools were bought to a more limited extent for America, and 
the sales of both new and old wool have probably been made without much 
profit on the new wools, and at considerable loss on the holdings carried over 
from last year. 

Carpet wools have continued in good demand, especially for combing 
wools, which are not in large supply The world's prices for carpet wools 
are firm, and although it is practically impossible to assume anything in 
regard to China, it appears as if the apparently inexhaustible supply there 
could not now be depended upon, and that the limit of exports, at least at 
present prices, has been reached. 

Boston, April 6, 1911. 

^^^!^^C;^ "c^^^^^. 


lational ^.ssotiatioii of Mlool Paimtacturcrs 

Devoted to the Interests of the National Wool Industry. 

Vol. XLI.] BOSTON, SEPTEMBER, 1911. [No. III. 



Next only to the Canadian reciprocity agreement the 
attempted wool and woolen legislation occupied the center 
of the stage in the proceedings of the first session of the 
Sixty-second Congress, which closed on August 22, 1911. 

On June 6 the Underwood bill, which had been introduced 
four days before into the House of Representatives and 
referred to the Committee on Ways and Means, was reported 
to the House by Chairman Underwood, and debate upon it 
was immediately begun. 

This bill was printed in full in the June Bulletin (pages 
299-306). The favorable report accompanying it, presented 
on June 6, was a long, detailed document signed by all of 
the Democratic; members of the Committee on Ways and 
Means, thirteen in number. A minority report at the same 
time was filed by ex-Chairman Payne and Messrs. Dalzell, 
Hill, Needham, Longworth, and Fordney, Republicans. The 
Underwood report at the outset summarized the early history 
of tariff legislation, condemned the existing rates of Sched- 
ule K as excessive and " indefensible," and declared aerainst 
waiting for the report of the Tariff Board, on the ground 
that "the public patience has been already too much abused 
in this matter by the Republican party, and immediate revi- 
sion of this admittedly indefensible schedule at the earliest 


possible moment is the plain mandate and expectation of the 
people and the duty of the Democratic party." 

The report approved the principle of ad valorem as con- 
trasted with specific duties, as in accord with Democratic 
anti-protectionist traditions and beliefs. It gave much space 
to a discussion of raw wool, the question of shrinkages, and 
the production year by year. The argument on these points 
is the familiar free trade argument. Indeed, the report 
declared that the Democratic party "recognizes no justifica- 
tion whatever for tariff taxes except the necessity of reve- 
nue." Nevertheless, because of " the depleted and depleting 
condition of the public treasury, a result of Republican 
extravagance, a tariff of 20 per cent ad valorem on raw wool 
is now proposed as a revenue necessity." 


The report described in detail the change made in the 
various paragraphs of Schedule K and the reasons for those 
changes as they appeared to the majority of the committee. 
These reasons comprise the usual arguments of public men 
who believe in free trade, and of importers and foreign man- 
ufacturers greedy to possess the American market, the 
greatest and richest market in the world. On the subject of 
the revenue anticipated from the Underwood bill, the report 
stated : 

For the fiscal year 1910, duties to the amount of |41,900,- 
693 were collected under Schedule K, of which amount 
$21,128,728.74 were from raw wools and 820,771,964.26 from 
manufactures of wool. Four groups of articles provide the 
bulk of the revenue from manufactures of wool. The most 
important grou[) is women's and children's dress goods, etc., 
which, in 1910, yielded $9,481,206.75 in duties, or not far 
from half of all the revenue from the manufactured goods. 
Woolen and worsted cloths are next in importance, and pro- 
duced $5,937,753.72 in duties in 1910, or more than one- 
quarter of the total from the manufactures. Carpets and 
carpeting yielded -12,802,211.52 in duties in the same year; 
and wearing apparel, etc., $1,444,296.87. The total revenue 
from these four groups was $19,665,468.86, out of a total of 


$21,128,728.74 from manufactures of wool. It is the esti- 
mate of the Ways and Means Committee that under the 
duties provided for in the bill H. R. 11019 the probable total 
amount of duties which may reasonably be expected for the 
year 1912 would be about 140,556,000, of which about 
$13,398,000 would be from raw or unmanufactured wools and 
about $27,158,000 from manufactures of wool. It is very 
difficult to estimate accurately the amount of imports to be 
expected in the future under reduced duties. ^lany factors 
have to be carefully studied and considered, and the greatest 
care exercised that conclusions be drawn only from real facts 
and experience and with reference to conditions that are 
fairly comparable. Of course, any attempt to foretell the 
future in such a matter is only an estimate and to be con- 
sidered strictly as such. The committee has, however, made 
every possible effort to secure the best estimate that could 
be made under all the circumstances, and has checked up 
this work at every step by comparative results reached from 
different angles of computation. 


In closing the report the majority members argued earnestly 
that this is the most radical downward reduction in duties 
proposed for a long time : 

In the actual imports and duties under the schedule in the 
fiscal year 1910, the average ad valorem equivalent of the 
duties collected on manufactures of wool was 90.10 per cent. 
Under the bill H. R. 11019 the average ad valorem rate on 
manufactures of wool, on the imports and duties as esti- 
mated for 1912, would be 42.55 [)er cent. The average ad 
valorem equivalent of the duties on all raw wool was 44.31 
per cent in 1910 (47.60 per cent for Class I, and 46.54 per 
cent for Class II wools, the classes which compete with 
domestic wools). The bill H. R. 11019 provides an ad 
valorem rate of only 20 per cent on all raw wool. With this 
duty on the raw wools, the material for the manufacturers 
(amounting to about 10 per cent on the manufactured prod- 
uct), the margin between the tax on the raw wool and the 
average ad valorem rate on the manufactured goods, as esti- 
mated, is about 32.55 per cent. Under the Wilson Act of 
1894 the average ad valorem rate in 1896 was 47.84 per cent, 
with no tax on the raw wool, so that the margin in the rate 
on the manufactured goods was 47.84 per cent. In the 


Springer bill of 1892, the rate on the manufactured goods 
was, for the most part, 40 to 45 per cent. Likewise in the 
Mills bill of 1888, the rate on manufactured goods was, for 
the most part, 40 to 45 per cent, with the margin for the 
manufacturers the same. It is evident, therefore, that the 
bill H. R. 11019 provides a much lower margin, and hence a 
much more competitive rate for manufactures of wool than 
has been passed by the House of Representatives or enacted 
in any other Democratic measure since the tariff acts of 
1846 and 1857. 

The fact that the Underwood bill embodies the principle of 
tariff for revenue only, and is framed without the slightest 
consideration for adequate protection or the welfare of 
American industries, is emphasized again and again in the 
speeches of its authors and promoters. Thus Chairman 
Underwood himself, in his principal address of June 7, said : 

So the criticism of this bill that may be made by gentle- 
men on the other side of the House, that certain manu- 
facturing interests in this country are not allowed sufficient 
protection, is a matter that marks the dividing line between 
two great parties and is not applicable to this bill in par- 

We disclaim any purpose whatever of writing this bill in 
the interests of the manufacturers of wool or the producers 
of raw wool. (Applause on the Democratic side.) 

Chairman Underwood further declared in the course of his 
address that " There is nobody in this country who does not 
know that the American Woolen Company to-day fixes the 
prices of woolen goods ; that it is a monopoly ; that it is a 
trust ; and that this industry and that company dictated to a 
Republican House, prohibiting you from reducing the exor- 
bitant rates under Schedule K in the last Congress." 


On June 9 the Underwood bill was advocated in a formal 
speech by Representative Andrew J. Peters of Massachusetts, 
the New England Democratic member of the Committee on 
Ways and Means. Mr. Peters denounced any tariff policy 


" other than one for revenue only " as " as absurd as it is 
indefinite." The Democratic party, he said, " stands squarely 
for a tariff for revenue only." Mr. Peters urged that the 
free wool policy of the Gorman-Wilson tariff had not reduced 
the number of sheep in the United States, because during the 
same years, from 1893 to 1897, there was a marked decrease 
in the number of sheep in Australia also. He analyzed the 
anticipated results of the new schedule, deprecated waiting 
for the report of the Tariff Board, and insisted that a com- 
parison of costs of production was impossible. 

Another interesting speech for the Underwood bill was 
that delivered by Representative William G. Brantley of 
Georgia, also a majority member of the Committee on Ways 
and Means. Mr. Brantley argued earnestly in favor of a 
revenue duty on raw wool. He accused the Republicans of 
desiring to prohibit all imports, and of perverting "a great 
constitutional power from governmental ends to personal and 
selfish ends." He held that the labor cost of wool manu- 
factures in this country was only a little more than 20 per 
cent, while the pending bill afforded a net protection to the 
manufacturer of between 30 and 35 per cent. 

Other speeches in support of the Underwood bill were 
delivered by Representatives Hull of Tennessee, Redfield of 
New York, Hughes of New Jersey, Macon of Arkansas, and 
others. Representative Henry George, Jr., of New York, 
took the occasion to declare for absolute free trade, and 
Representative Berger of Wisconsin for socialism. Several 
" insurgent " Republican Representatives, among them Mr. 
Murdock of Kansas and Mr. Steenerson of Minnesota, spoke 
in effect in favor of the bill. Mr. Murdock, in order to 
attack what he characterized as a trust, moved that all 
worsted manufactures should be placed upon the free list. 


The protectionist case against the bill was opened on June 
3 before the bill had been reported by Representative E. J. 
Hill of Connecticut, a member of the Committee on Ways 
and Means. Mr. Hill, who has personal knowledge of wool 


manufacturing, declared that the bill would absolutely 
destroy the market for the domestic grower of wool, and put 
him in a worse position than if we had free wool, with fabric 
duties sufficient to preserve the industry of manufacturing. 
When $40,000,000 of foreign fabrics were imported there was 
lost to the United States about $12,000,000 worth of human 
labor in the manufacturing processes alone, which meant the 
throwing of 23,000 persons out of employment in the 

Representative James R. Mann of Illinois, the Republican 
floor leader, vigorously assailed the Underwood bill on June 
8, in a well- constructed speech in which he made the point 
that the authors of the bill were wrongly informed when they 
asserted that the Aldrich-Payne law was producing a deficit 
in the national revenues. Mr. Mann showed that instead of 
a deficit there was a substantial surplus. Mr. Mann con- 
tended that the bill gave insufficient protection to the wool 
grower, and insufficient compensatory duty and protective 
duty to the manufacturer. He urged that final consideration 
of the bill should be postponed until the report of the Tariff 
Board was available for Congress in December. 

Hon. Sereno E. Payne of New York, the Chairman of the 
Committee on Ways and Means, delivered a strong, formal 
speech against the Underwood bill. Mr. Payne urged that 
it was as necessary to have wool and sheep in this country as 
it was to have battleships. His own opinions on the wool 
schedule were known two years ago. He wanted to revise 
and equalize the wool schedule — equalize the duties — but 
he was not able to carry it through. He would put a specific 
duty on the amount of scoured wool in the fleece, making a 
uniform duty on the wool. Mr. Payne criticised the Demo- 
cratic majority severely for the haste with which the new 
wool and woolen bill had been prepared. Speaking of the 
ill effects of the Gorman-Wilson law, he reminded the House 
that in 1896, 42 per cent of the woolen machinery in this 
country was idle, and 47 per cent of the knitting machinery. 
The price of sheep had dropped from $4 to 50 cents a head. 
Mr. Payne presented the following table of the visible wool 



supply at the end of each year, based on production and 
imports, less consumption and exports, from 1896-1908: 

Wool Sdpplt at the End of Each Year, Based on Production and 
Imports, Less Consumption and Exports. 





Carried over from previous year . 












Imports of wool 

Imports of shoddy, noils, rags, 

Total supply 

Consumption aDd exports . . . . 






Carried over at end of year 




1 Added to cover the increased efficiency of 113,958,915 pounds of shoddy over grease wool 
imported during 1895, 1896, and 1897. 

Carried over from previous year . 

American clip 

Imports of wool 

Imports of shoddy, noils, rags, 

Total supply 

Consumption and exports .... 

Carried over at end of year 


























Carried over from previous 



764,62 ;,-00 










American clip 

Imports of wool 

Imports of shoddy, noils, 
rags, etc 

Total supply 

Consumption and exports 





Carried over at end of 






'Estimated on basis of 10 months. 

'Average consumption for 13 years, 483,000 pounds. 


Hon. John W. Weeks of Massachusetts devoted the major 
part of his speech against the Underwood bill to a considera- 
tion of the charge that the wool manufacture was in the 
hands of a monopoly or trust. He showed that there were 
in this country about 1,200 wool manufacturing establish- 
ments, of which 34 were included in the American Woolen 
Company's plants. The number operated by individuals as 
individuals in 1905 was 333 ; the number operated by firms 
was 311 ; the number operated by corporations was 567. It 
could not be said of the American Woolen Company or the 
woolen industry that it has ever sold its products abroad at 
a lower price than at home, because the sales abroad were 
practicably negligible for years. The people of this countfy 
were getting the benefits of intense competition in the 
woolen industry. The annual output of the American 
Woolen Company averaged from $21,000,000 the first year 
to $51,000,000 in the year 1909. Its average output had 
been about $40,000,000. Tlie output of the woolen and 
worsted mills in this country varied from about $238,000,000 
in 1909 to $308,000,000 in 1904 and $420,000,000 in 1909. 
The output of the American Woolen Company has averaged 
to be about 11^ per cent of the total output of all of the 
woolen and worsted manufactories of the country. The 
company was not entirely a worsted manufacturing com- 
pany. Thirty -four per cent of its business was woolen and 
Q6 per cent worsted. Neither in the number of employees, 
in the amount of equipment employed, in the value of the 
output or in its capital stock had the American Woolen 
Company at any time represented more than 15 per cent of 
this industry, and under such circumstances it could not be 
called a monopoly. 


Hon. John Dalzell of Pennsylvania, the senior Republican 
after Mr. Payne on the Committee on Ways and Means, 
attacked the Underwood bill because of its large use of 


ad valorem duties, which every commercial nation on the 
globe had long since abandoned. He quoted against these 
ad valorem duties Secretaries Gallatin, Woodbury, and Man- 
ning, and ex-Speaker Reed. Mr. Dalzell scored the majority 
report of the committee, with its predictions that the imports 
both of raw wool and of wool manufactures would be 
heavily increased under the proposed legislation. It was 
ridiculous, he said, to base a calculation of revenue upon the 
assumption that you would import at the same time large 
quantities of wool and large quantities of woolen fabrics. 
If the imports of manufactures of wool were increased by 
$40,000,000, American mills must produce so much less and 
would, therefore, need less raw wool. He did not oppose at 
the proper time and in the proper way a revision of Schedule 
K. He realized that there was a large and growing sentiment 
that deserved recognition in favor of revising Schedule K, 
but he believed that a majority of the American people, 
while they desired such a revision, still desired that the 
protective features should be retained. 

Hon. Butler Ames of Massachusetts, who is himself inter- 
ested in textile manufacture, as his people before him have 
been for generations, spoke with exact, practical information 
against the Underwood bill. The woolen business, he said, 
was practically in a state of coma, because the buyers of 
cloth did not dare to make purchases until they had assured 
themselves that values had become stable. He cited the 
experience of a prosperous mill in his district, the total sales 
of which for ten years from 1901 to 1910 were -$13,301,422, 
on which the profit was $416,335, or 31 per cent, not count- 
ing in a charge for interest on the money invested. Mr. 
Ames submitted a comparison of wages showing a weekly 
total for an English mill of $308.56 in various occupations, 
as compared with a total in a Lowell mill of $703.60 for the 
same occupation. He showed that the proportion of labor 
cost in wool manufactures was ver}^ much more than the 
19 per cent stated by the Chairman of the Committee on 
Ways and Means, 

Hon. Joseph W. Fordney of Michigan, representing an 


important wool-growing State, showed that a reduction of 
the duty from eleven cents a pound to 20 per cent ad valorem 
meant a reduction of about 60 per cent. He reviewed the 
remarkable development of the wool manufacture in America 
since 1900, as disclosed by the recent report of the Bureau 
of the Census. He reviewed also the operation of the 
Gorman-Wilson law, with its disastrous results alike to wool 
growing and to manufacturing, and he read a long list of 
woolen mills that were abandoned or reorganized in the 
closing years of that free trade experiment. 

Hon. J. Hampton Moore of Philadelphia spoke especially 
from the standpoint of the manufacturers. He said that 
there had been no such depression in the textile industries 
as there is to-day since the days of the Gorman-Wilson law, 
and it was attributed by manufacturers and operatives to the 
tariff agitation. He related his own personal experience 
with a piece of American-made cloth costing $2.25 net per 
yard at the mill — three and one-half yards being requisite 
to make a suit of clothing. He took it to his tailor, and 
found that it would cost $30 to have that made up into a 
suit of clothing. The entire duty on that cloth made into a 
suit of clothing would be $3.70. 

For the Ohio wool growers Hon. Nicholas Longworth of 
Ohio asked that Congress wait for the report of the Tariff 
Board. Sheep in Ohio were raised on high-priced land in 
small flocks and by average, every-day farmers. They could 
not pay in direct competition with men who have 40,000 and 
50,000 in a flock of sheep in Australia, where grazing land 
is worth practically nothing. The tariff was imposed to 
equalize the duty in the cost of production in wool here and 
abroad to maintain that industry. If protection were 
removed, the industry would be driven out of business. 
When wool was placed on the free list, in 1894, the number 
of sheep in Ohio fell from substantially 4,000,000 to a little 
more than 1,000,000, and during the years of the Wilson law 
sheep were selling at 50 cents apiece. Other forcible 
addresses on behalf of the wool growing industry were 
delivered b}^ Hon. Frank W. Mondell of Wyoming, Hon. 


Charles N. Pray of Montana, and Hon. Frank B. Willis of 


The Underwood bill was brought up for final action in 
the House on June 20, and was passed by a vote of 220 
yeas to 100 nays, only one Democrat, Hon. William B. 
Francis of the wool growing district of Ohio, voting against 
the bill, and 24 Republican Representatives voting for it — 
these 24 Republicans being Anderson of Minnesota, Anthony 
and Campbell of Kansas, Davis of Minnesota, French of 
Idaho, Haugen of Iowa, Helgesen of North Dakota, Jackson 
of Kansas, LaF'ollette of Washington, Lenroot of Wisconsin, 
Lindbergh of Minnesota, Madison of Kansas, Miller of 
Minnesota, Morse of Wisconsin, Murdock of Kansas, Nelson 
of Wisconsin, Norris of Nebraska, Rees of Kansas, Sloan of 
Nebraska, Steenerson of Minnesota, Stephens of California, 
Volstead of Minnesota, Woods of Iowa, and Young of 

All material amendments offered to the bill were defeated, 
and it passed the House substantially in the form in which it 
was introduced on June 2 by Chairman Underwood. 

Immediately after the passage of the bill Speaker Clark 
laid before the House a message from the President accom- 
panying a communication from the Tariff Board. On June 
7 the House had passed a resolution requesting the President 
to transmit to the House of Representatives for the use of 
the members all the information secured by the Tariff Board 
relative to the various articles and commodities named in 
Schedule K. 

President Taft in his message stated that the Board had 
no further information in shape proper for transmission than 
that which had already been transmitted to the Committee 
on Ways and Means, but the Board would have a full and 
complete report on the subject of Schedule K by the first of 
December next, when he would be glad to submit both to 


The communication of the Tariff Board to the President 
was as follows : 

The Tariff Board, Treasury Building, 

Washington, June 15, 1911. 
The President : 

In acknowledging receipt of a copy of the resolution of 
the House of Representatives calling for all the information 
in the possession of the Tariff Board relating to Schedule K, 
we beg to submit the following statement : 

Statistics compiled by us froiu tiie latest available foreign 
and domestic sources, covering the production, distribution, 
and consumption of raw wools and woolen manufactures, 
have already been transmitted on request to the Ways and 
Means Committee of the House of Representatives, and 
some 20 pages of the recent report of that committee to the 
House are made up from this compilation and duly credited. 
The Board is conducting an inquiry in relation to raw wools 
— their production and shrinkage — woolen and worsted 
manufacturing, and into the manufacturing of certain staple 
articles made from the products of that industry, which 
involves original research work that is world-wide in its 

A large amount of material has already been obtained. 
This, however, will not be of actual practical value until 
properly checked and tabulated. Our representatives through- 
out the United States and in foreign countries are now for- 
warding data. This incomplete information, necessarily 
fragmentary in character, if transmitted to Congress would 
be not only of doubtful utility but actually misleading. In 
making this statement we are not unmindful of the fact that 
we are under instructions to complete our work upon this 
and other important schedules at the earliest possible date. 
We shall develop the essential facts in relation to both the 
wool and the cotton schedules in time for forwarding to 
Congress next December ; and in this endeavor we are not 
only working to the limit of the present appropriation, but 
to the utmost capacity of our entire force. In order that 
the magnitude of the task may be understood, we respect- 
full}^ present herewith an outline of our procedure. 

The rates provided by Schedule K in its present form are 
based largely upon the duty on raw wool. The logical start- 
ing point, therefore, for any comprehensive study of the 


facts underlying the schedule is the sheep husbandry of the 
United States, South America, Australia, New Zealand, 
South Africa, and various parts of Europe. The Board 
began, more than a year ago, the consideration of plans 
designed to cover this wide field of investigation. An origi- 
nal inquiry as to all the conditions surrounding the industry 
in the great wool growing regions of the United States was 
imperative. It was found at the very inception of the work 
that the inquiry presented many problems difficult of solu- 
tion, especially in the matter of determining wool-production 
costs. Few attempts at ascertaining the exact cost of main- 
taining sheep under different conditions have ever been 
made, so far as we have been able to discover, either by 
individuals, experiment stations, or agricultural departments 
in this or any other country. Time was necessarily con- 
sumed in an effort to formulate the inquiries in such a way 
as to bring out the data desired. 

The first inquiry schedule adopted was printed last 
November and placed in the hands of representatives chosen 
for their special knowledge of sheep management, farm and 
ranch wages, and forage values. They were instructed to 
visit peisonally representative flock owners throughout the 
leading wool -producing sections and obtain first-hand informa- 
tion, to be made the basis of the necessary computations 
and tabulations. 

Wool growing in the United States centers largely in the 
trans-Missouri country, probably two-thirds of the domestic 
clip coming from the far West. Throughout the Middle 
Western States wool is for the most part produced as an 
incident to lamb feeding and mutton making ; but in Ohio 
and the contiguous territory of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, 
and Michigan there is an established industry having as its 
chief objective the production of wool of the finer grades. 
It was believed that production costs for that region could 
be worked out with reasonable exactness, because in a large 
proportion of instances the entire farm and its products are 
devoted chiefly to the maintenance of the flock. The figures 
in such case are not complicated by expense items chargeable 
to other production. Typical counties in this territory were 
covered by our representatives. 

Some 500 different farms were visited, and the returns 
thus obtained are being carefully checked and tabulated, 
the cost of maintenance determined, the weight and selling 
price of the clip ascertained, the cost in each case computed, 
and samples of the wool submitted to an expert to determine 


its market grade and its probable shrinkage. One of these 
agrents also studied the situation in the Province of Ontario. 
Meantime the Board's representatives were sent into the 
Southwest with new schedules specially adapted to conditions 
prevailing in that part of the country. They have already 
covered Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California, 
Utah, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington, and are now 
entering Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. They are under 
instructions to push the work with all possible despatch con- 
sistent with accuracy. It has been found desirable to 
utilize, as far as possible, the same agents throughout the 
entire territory to be covered. These representatives are now 
nearing the end of their study of wool growing in the Wes- 
tern part of the United States. Considerable time, however, 
will necessarily be required in checking carefully the mass of 
figures being accumulated. Not until this is completed will 
it be possible for the Board to analyze and interpret the 
information, statistical and otherwise, being received from so 
many different sources. 

Concurrently with this work, foreign fields have also been 
under investigation by special agents of the Board. One of 
these agents proceeded to Australia last October, has 
recently returned, and is now perfecting his report in Lon- 
don, England, a great distributing point for the Australian 
wools. A similar report from New Zealand, representing the 
work of a special agent in that country, is nearing comple- 
tion. In February a special agent of the Board was sent to 
South America, proceeding direct to Punta Arenas. He is 
now nearing the end of an investigation, attended by many 
difficulties, throughout the vast domain extending from the 
Straits of Magellan to Montevideo. His report will include 
valuable facts and figures from remote wool growing regions 
seldom, if ever before, visited by students of this question. 
He is also under instructions to report upon wheat produc- 
tion in Argentina, as well as upon the meat-export possibilities 
of that country. The latter subject is of especial interest at 
this time in view of pending proposals to open our ports for 
the free entry of meat products. This agent is expected 
back about August 1. It should be stated that a large pro- 
portion of all these reports are accompanied by samples of 
the wool produced, together with selling prices and estimated 

The Board is making careful inquiry into the whole ques- 
tion of shrinkages in both domestic and foreign markets. A 
member of the Board has been in recent attendance upon 


the colonial auction sales of wool in London and will also 
visit continental ports where foreign wools are handled. 
Experts are under instructions to obtain the fullest possible 
data as to the ratio of scoured to grease wool in various clips, 
as determined by the experience of leading makers of " tops " 
and yarns at home and abroad. Agents of the Board are 
also obtaining information concerning wool wastes and 
shoddy in their relation to the spinning and weaving pro- 

Tlie matter of rail and ocean freights on raw wools is of 
importance and is receiving our attention. 

The work of the Board in connection with woolen and 
worsted manufactures deals with four elements of this ques- 
tion : First, cloth of domestic manufacture ; second, cloth of 
foreign manufacture imported into the United States ; third, 
cloth of foreign manufacture not coming into the United 
States; fourth, efficiency of labor and of mill equipment. 

The inquiry into this first section is an investigation of the 
cost of production here of staple cloths of American manu- 
facture and the production cost of similar cloths made 
abroad. This embraces the complete range of woolen and 
worsted fabrics in general use at the present time in the 
United States. The great variety of fabrics manufactured 
by various mills makes it necessary that only those cloths 
shall be taken for inquiry which are staple and are repre- 
sentative of the industry in its different branches. 

A careful study was made of this question and a large 
number of specimen cloths were secured by the Board to 
cover this e)itire range, equally divided between the men's 
wear and women's dress goods, and ranging in grade and 
price from the lowest to the highest. The Board is securing 
the actual cost of production of these cloths from the mill 
where each fabric was made, this being taken directly from 
the books of the manufacturer. 

An extensive part of this work is the collection of verified 
estimates of cost of these goods in different mills of the 
United States. All of the specimen cloths have been 
analyzed, and samples are being taken to manufacturers, with 
a descriptive card attached, giving the width, weight, num- 
ber of picks, number of ends, the different yarns that go to 
make up the fabric, and their size and quality. The purpose 
of the Board in this part of the inquiry is to ascertain the 
cost of making these cloths, not only in different parts of the 
country, but in mills which vary in size, equipment, and 
output. Agents of the Board take these samples to different 


manufacturers, and with their representative figure out the 
cost of production of such goods in their mills. This 
accounting is done upon schedules which go into every detail 
of manufacture, from the original stock to the finished cloth. 
It takes up each process separately, from the sorting and 
blending of the wool to the finishing of the cloth. In every 
process it goes into the elements of productive labor, non- 
productive labor, and department expense, and it secures 
every item and detail entering into the making of the fabric. 

By these schedules is also obtained the yearly general 
expense of each mill, together with every detail of works 
expense and fixed charges, and all such items as taxes and 
de[)reciation. All of this cost accounting is based upon 
identical fabrics, bearing identical analyses, and is being 
secured from mills that make identical or similar fabrics. 
Samples of these same cloths have been sent abroad, and 
similar production costs are being secured there by our 
agents under the personal supervision of a member of the 

Cloths of foreign manufacture are being treated in a 
similar way, and information secured as to wdiat would be 
the cost of such fabrics if manufactured in the United 
States. Typical cloths have been secured by personal visits 
of a member of the Board to foreign manufacturers, and 
these are being used as the basis of this part of the inquiry. 
A special feature of the investigation is the question of what, 
if any, cloths are now excluded fi-om the United States. 
From foreign manufacturers have been obtained sample 
cloths, which they assert they cannot export to this country 
because of prohibitive tariff rates. The Board is conduct- 
ing a careful inquiry as to whether or not such goods do 
come here, and also as to the price of similar goods made in 
the United States. This latter question will be gone into 
thoroughly, to ascertain the effect upon the American con- 
sumer of any nonimportation of such cloths. 

The fourth element is the entire question of labor, hours 
of labor, and efficiency of labor, and equipment. Agents of 
the Board are now at work along this line in this country 
and in England, Germany, and France. They are using the 
same schedules in all four countries in order that the whole 
matter of efficiency may be properly determined and the 
results obtained be comparable. 

These schedules provide for the securing of all details of 
mill manufacture in this industr3\ They call for particulars 
in regard to the persons employed in each and every occupa- 


tion in worsted and woolen manufacture, the machine equip- 
ment, its nature, age, and efficiency, the amount of work 
done by each employee, together with hours of work, amount 
earned, and output produced. 

The Board is also engaged in conducting an investigation 
into the production cost of articles made from woolen and 
worsted cloth to ascertain the details and cost of the manu- 
facture of garments for men and women. An inquiry is also 
being planned into the production cost of woolen blankets, 
and this will embrace such manufacture in the different 
sections of the country. 

In addition to this, a complete glossary of Schedules I and 
K will be ready for submission in December. This will 
include all the latest statistical information available, defini- 
tions of terms used, ad valorem equivalents of existing 
duties, brief presentation of the commercial geography of 
the industries involved, and concise descriptions of manu- 
facturing processes. It will be accompanied by graphic 
charts and the completed results of the Board's own research 
work, covering both the cotton and the woolen schedules. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Alvin H. Sanders, 

Vice Chairman. 


The Underwood bill was received in the Senate on June 21, 
and on the motion of Senator Gore of Oklahoma was referred 
to the Committee on Finance, with instructions that it should 
be reported back not later than the 10th of July, The vote 
on this motion was 39 yeas to 18 nays, 16 Republican Senators 
voting yea with the Democrats and only one Democratic 
Senator, Myers of Montana, voting no with the regular 
Republicans. The 16 Republican Senators who voted for 
Senator Gore's motion were Messrs. Borah of Idaho, Bourne 
of Oregon, Bristow of Kansas, Brown of Nebraska, Clapp of 
Minnesota, Crawford of South Dakota, Cummins of Iowa, 
Dixon of Montana, Gronna of North Dakota, Jones of 
Washington, Kenj^on of Iowa, La Follette of Wisconsin, 
Nelson of Minnesota, Poindexter of Washington, Townsend 
of Michigan, and Works of California. 

On the day following, June 22, Senator Penrose, Chairman 


of the Committee on Finance, repoi'ted back the Underwood 
bill, with an adverse recommendation and a request for 
indefinite postponement. On the request of Senator Nelson 
of Minnesota, Senator Martin of Virginia, and Senator Cul- 
berson of Texas, the bill went to the calendar. At the same 
time, Senator Penrose reported, with an adverse recommenda- 
tion, the so-called farmers' free list bill (H. R. 4413). That 
also, at the request of Senator Nelson and Senator Gore of 
Oklahoma, was placed on the calendar. 

This action of the Senate in directing the Committee on 
Finance to report the Underwood bill was accepted by the 
protectionist Republican Senators and the country as signify- 
ing that actual control of the Senate had passed to a coalition 
of Democrats and so-called " insurgent " or " progressive " 
Republicans from Middle Western and far Western States. 


Immediately after the acceptance by the Senate of the 
Canadian reciprocity agreement, on July 22, Senator Penrose, 
as Chairman of the Committee on Finance, moved that the 
Senate proceed to the consideration of the bill, H. R. 11019, to 
reduce the duties on wool and manufactures of wool. On 
July 13 Senator La Follette of Wisconsin had offered an 
amendment to the Canadian agreement amending Schedule 
K by consolidating Class I and Class II wools into Class I 
and making them dutiable at 40 per cent ad valorem, and 
converting Class III into Class II, and making these coarse 
carpet wools dutiable at 10 per cent ad valorem. Hair of 
the camel, Angora goat, alpaca, and other like animals was 
placed on the free list. The skirting clause was eliminated 
in the La Follette amendment. The duties on cloth, dress 
goods, and similar manufactures of wool were reduced to 60 
per cent, and the duties on manufactures of hair of the camel, 
Angora goat, alpaca, etc., to 35 per cent. Similar reductions 
were made in other portions of the schedule. This amend- 
ment was offered to the Canadian agreement on July 22, but 
was overwhelmingly rejected on a vote of 16 yeas to 64 nays 
— only ''insurgent" Republican Senators and three Demo- 


crats, Senators Bailey of Texas, Simmons of North Carolina, 
and Clarke of Arkansas, supporting it. 

Senator La Follette subsequently offered practically this 
same proposal as an amendment to the Underwood bill, H. R. 
11019, in the course of the debate on that measure in the 
Senate. In this second proposal, however, he transferred 
hair of the Angora goat and alpaca from the free list to 
Class II, making it dutiable at 10 per cent ad valorem. In a 
speech on July 26, Senator La Follette advocated his amend- 
ment, declaring that "• There are no more iniquitous, no more 
indefensible, no more harmful provisions in all the tariff law 
than those contained in Schedule K," and adding that " The 
manufacturer and not the wool grower was the author of 
the iniquity of this schedule." Mr. La Follette attacked 
especially the compensatory duties, asserting that they were 
built up on a false basis. Senator La Follette stated that his 
informant and supporter in this accusation against American 
wool manufacturers was Mr. S. S. Dale of Boston, the editor 
of the " Textile World Record." " He was the manager of 
great woolen mills," said Senator La Follette, " and has 
become familiar through personal experience with everything 
pertaining to the industry. I have come to know him quite 
well and to greatly respect him, not only for his very accu- 
rate knowledge of this whole subject, but as a man of the 
highest standards of integrity." Senator La Follette went 
on to describe the experiments by which he asserted that 
Mr. Dale had discovered and exposed the manner in which 
American manufacturers, "• surreptitiously upon this false 
basis," had secured "an additional protective duty." 

Having made the point that he relied upon Mr. Dale as 
his informant and chief witness in his grave accusations 
against the wool manufacturers of this country, Senator La 
Follette went on to attack "this so-called Tariff Board," 
declaring that the Board " is on trial. It will be judged by 
its work. There are one or two men, more perhaps, on that 
commission who have expert training qualifying them to 
serve on such a commission. I know it is shocking to some 
Senators to hear a statement as plain as that, but I have got 


into the habit of saying on this floor what I know to be true, 
and I am going to continue it." He urged that the law 
"should prescribe the qualifications of the men trained to 
serve on such a board, not ' lame ducks,' not small poli- 
ticians." Senator La Follette, continuing, eulogized Graham 
Clark, formerly of the Bureau of Manufactures, and quoted 
his statements, which practical manufacturers had severely 
criticised, as the basis of further attack upon the protective 

Again quoting from Mr. Dale as his authority that in some 
cases "the duty on raw wool is as high as 550 per cent," Sen- 
ator La Follette denounced the existing duties on wool man- 
ufactures as " mostly prohibitive " and " outrageously high." 
Senator La Follette sneered at the "manufacturers in the 
woolen and worsted industry " who " are barely able to make 
both ends meet, and from the wails of the woolen trust one 
might think it was on its last legs." Later on he denounced 
"these illicit gains" and "surreptitious bounty" of the 
manufacturers. " We know," he exclaimed, " that the 
woolen trust dominates largely the woolen industry," and he 
asserted that " woolen goods are sold in this country gener- 
ally at double the price at which they can be purchased in 
England." Advocating his duty of 60 per cent on woolen 
manufactures, he proclaimed his belief tliat this was higher 
than it ought to be, and he prophesied that the adoption of 
his radical bill would save to the American people $170,000- 
000 a year. 

Senator Joseph M. Dixon of Montana, in a speech on July 
26, went into the history of Schedule K from the standpoint 
of the wool growers, and attacked the skirting clause of the 
act of 1890 as depriving the wool growers of their anticipated 
protection. Senator Dixon asserted that the wool growers 
actually secured only five or six cents a pound of the eleven 
and twelve cents of the tariff. The wool growers wanted a 
prohibitive tariff on wool rags and shoddy, and no diminu- 
tion of their protective duties. Senator Dixon asked for 
eight cents a pound on wools of the first and second class, 
and four cents on carpet wool, with the skirting clause elim- 


inated — either that or a duty of 25 cents a pound on the 
scoured product. ''Give the wool growers a tariff of that 
kind," said Senator Dixon, " and I guarantee that within ten 
years' time we will produce every pound of wool to supply 
the needs of the American people for clothing. We will 
restore a languishing industry to its old-time standard. We 
will retain here at home $100,000,000 that we are sending 
every year to foreign countries for the purchase of wool and 
woolens." " I am broad enough," he added, " to know that 
the woolen manufacturer must also have sufficient protection 
to offset the cost of labor here and in Europe. We all admit 
that labor here is paid twice, and in most cases three times, 
what it is paid in England, France, and Germany." In con- 
clusion. Senator Dixon urged tliat amendment of Schedule 
K should wait upon the report of the Tariff Board. 


Senator J. H. Gallinger of New Hampshire, Senator 
Francis E. Warren of Wyoming, Senator Weldon B, Hey- 
burn of Idaho, and others took effective part in the running 
debate on the wool and woolen bill. On July 19 Senator 
Reed Smoot of Utah, of the Committee on Finance, who has 
given particular attention to the subject both of wool grow- 
ing and of wool manufacturing, offered a substitute of his 
own for the Underwood bill, H. R. 11019, and explained in 
detail the provisions of his substitute, saying : 

In the first place, I maintain the classification of the three 
grades of wool as now provided for in the present tariff law. 

Instead of a rate of 11 cents per pound on tirst-class wool 
in the grease and 12 cents per pound on second-class wool in 
the grease, the substitute provides a rate of 9 cents per pound 
on both classes. 

In the present law there is no provision made for washed 
wools of the second class to carry a rate of duty of twice the 
rate of wool in the gre'ase. The substitute corrects this so 
that the rates upon wool of the second class shall be the 
same as on wool of the first class, whether in the grease, 
washed, or scouied. Wool in the grease, 9 cents per pound ; 
washed wool, 18 cents per pound ; and scoured wool, 27 


cents per pound, instead of the present rates, which are : 
First-class wool in the grease, 11 cents per pound ; washed 
wool, 22 cents per pound ; and scoured wool, 33 cents per 
pound; second-class wool in the grease, 12 cents per pound; 
washed wool, 12 cents per pound ; and scoured wool, 36 
cents per pound. This is to eliminate one of the complaints 
of the carded woolen manufacturers against the present tariff 
law, which they claim favors the worsted manufacturers. 

On third-class wools, valued at 12 cents per pound or less, 
the substitute provides a rate of 3 cents per pound instead 
of 4 cents per pound, the present rate ; valued over 12 cents 
per pound, 6 cents per pound instead of 7 cents per pound. 

The " skirting clause," of which so much complaint has 
been made by the wool growers, is eliminated. The wool 
growers claim that 9 cents per pound without the " skirting 
clause " is as great a protection to wool as 11 and 12 cents 
per pound is with the " skirting clause," as provided in the 
present law. 

Garnetted waste is removed from paragraph 372, with a 
rate of 30 cents per pound, to paragraph 373, with a late of 
25 cents per pound. 

In the proposed substitute the compensatory duties are 
levied upon the same principle as in the present law, with 
many reductions in the additional protective ad valorem 

The provision in the present law assessing blankets over 

8 yards in length has been eliminated in the proposed substi- 

On women's and children's dress goods, Italian cloths, coat 
linings, buntings, and goods of similar description the specific 
duties have been reduced from 11 cents per square yard to 

9 cents per square yard. 

On clothing, ready-made, and articles of wearing apparel 
of every description, the specific rate of duty is 36 cents per 
pound in the proposed amendment, instead of 44 cents per 
pound, as in the present law, while the additional protective 
ad valorem duty is 50 per cent instead of 60 per cent, as in 
the present law. 

Webbings, gorings, suspenders, braces, bandings, beltings, 
bindings, braids, galloons, edgings, insertings, flouncings, 
fringes, gimps, cords, cords and tassels, ribbons, ornaments, 
laces, trimmings, etc., carry a specific duty of 36 cents per 
pound instead of a specific duty of 50 cents per pound, as 
provided in the present law. 

The specific dut}^ per square yard in the proposed substi- 


tute Oil all grades of carpets is reduced one-half, while the 
protective ad valorem duty remains the same as in the pres- 
ent law. The rate on carpets, woven whole for rooms, 
oriental, Berlin, and similar rugs is reduced from 10 cents 
per square foot, the present rate, to 8 cents per square foot. 

On druggets and bockings the specific duty per square 
yard is reduced from 22 cents, present law, to 11 cents. 

The rate on mats and matting is reduced from 50 per cent 
ad valorem, present law, to 40 per cent ad valorem. 

Paragraph 395i is new, which provides that in no case 
shall any of the articles or fabrics enumerated in this schedule 
pay a duty greater tlian is equivalent to an ad valorem duty 
of 80 per cent. This paragraph prevents any equivalent ad 
valorem duty of Schedule K exceeding 80 per cent. This 
provision may be the means of making it very difficult for 
the manufacturers of exceedingly fine and high-priced cloth 
to compete with similar foreign-made goods, but it will pre- 
vent the enemies of Schedule K from having a chance to 
point to a few imported clieap, shoddy blankets, carrying an 
equivalent ad valorem duty under the present law of 165 per 
cent, and claiming that the blankets which the poor people 
keep themselves warm with are burdened with that excessive 

I was in hopes that a revision of Schedule K would not be 
undertaken until the Tariff Board had made its report, but 
it is evident that the Democrats of the House and the Demo- 
crats of the Senate, together with a sufficient number of 
Republican Senators to make a majority of the Senate, have 
concluded to revise Schedule K at this extra session of Con- 
gress without the necessary information that the report of 
the Tariff Board is intended to furnish. The conclusions 
as to what the revision should be are before the Senate in 
the shape of a Democratic House bill and an amendment to 
the reciprocity bill by Senator La FoUette. I have no hesi- 
tancy in saying that if the Democratic wool bill which passed 
the House becomes law practically every woolen mill in the 
United States will be closed. Senator La Follette's amend- 
ment to the Canadian reciprocity bill will, in my opinion, 
have the same effect. The Wilson bill gave manufacturers of 
woolens in this country free wool and a protective duty on 
manufactured goods but slightly lower than provided for in 
the amendment offered by Senator La Follette. Under the 
Wilson bill the woolen industry of this country was brought 
almost to a standstill. Under the La Follette amendment 
manufacturers of wool are to pay a 40 per cent duty on wool 


in the grease, with but little advance over the ad valorem 
rates on manufactured goods provided in the Wilson bill ; 
and I take it that any one familiar at all with the business 
will conclude that the result cannot be anything but dis- 
astrous to the business. Tf the American woolen mills are 
closed, the American wool grower will find that his 40 per 
cent protection avails him nothing. 

The woolen industry of this country is more badly fright- 
ened to-day than it was during the passage of the Wilson 
Act, and the following table will show why : 

Tariff Measures. 

1910— Free 
at U.S. 

Ad Valorem or Percentage 
Duty on Wool. 

Ad Valo- 
rem or 
Duty on 

Net Pro- 
tection to 
turer, i.e.. 
Less the 
Wool Duty. 

Wilson Act 

Dingley and Payue Acts, 

Undeiwood bill 

La Follette bill 




44.31 per cent 

20 per cent 

40 per cent, first-class 
wools, includinir those 
formerly classified as 
second-class wools . . . 

Per Cent. 



Per Cent. 



If Senators will examine this table they will find that 
under the Wilson Act there was 50 per cent net protection 
to the manufacturer; under the Payne Act there is 62.80 
per cent net protection to the manufacturer ; under the 
Underwood bill tliere would be only 20 per cent net protec- 
ti(ni to the manufacturer; and under the La Follette amend- 
ment there would be only 20 per cent net protection to 
manufacturers on goods made from first-class wools, and 
under his reclassification these wools comprise the great 
bulk of the American production. 

The rates in my proposed substitute are as low as I believe 
it is possible for the American woolen business to exist 
under, judging from the information that I have in my 
possession. It may be that in some instances the rates are 
a little high, and in others the 80 per cent limitation may be 
a little too low. I shall reserve the right to support changes 
in any of the rates proposed in my substitute if the Tariff 
Board produces evidence that would justify the same. 

The full text of Senator Smoot's amendment was as 
follows : 


AMENDMENT intended to be proposed by Mr. Smoot to 
the bill (H. R. 11019) to reduce the duties on wool and 
manufactures of wool, viz. : Strike out all after line 9 of 
the bill, page 1, and insert the following : 


360. All wools, hair of the camel, goat, alpaca, and other 
like animals shall be divided, for the purpose of fixing the 
duties to be charged thereon, into the three following 
classes : 

361. Class 1, that is to say, merino, mestiza, metz, or 
metis wools, or other wools of merino blood, immediate or 
remote, down clothing wools, and wools of like character 
with any of the preceding, including Bagdad wool, China 
lamb's wool, Castel Branco, Adrianople skin wool, or butclier's 
wool, and such as have been heretofore usually imported into 
the United States from Buenos Aires, New Zealand, Australia, 
Cape of Good Hope, Russia, Great Britain, Canada, Egypt, 
Moi-occo, and elsewhere, and all wools not hereinafter included 
in Classes 2 and 3. 

362. Class 2, that is to say, Leicester, Cotswold, Lincoln- 
shire, down combing wools, Canada long wools or other like 
combing wools of English blood, and usually known by the 
terms herein used, and also hair of the camel. Angora goat, 
alpaca, and other like animals. 

363. Class 3, that is to sa}-, Donskoi, native South Ameri- 
can, Cordova, Valparaiso, native Smyrna, Russian camel's hair, 
and all such wools of like character as have been heretofore 
usually imported into the United States from Turkey, Greece, 
Syria, and elsewhere, excepting improved wools hereinafter 
provided for. 

361. The standard samples of all wools which are now or 
may be hereafter deposited in the principal custom-houses of 
the United States, under the authority of the Secretary of the 
Treasury, shall be the standards for the classification of wools 
under this act, and the Secretary of the Treasury is author- 
ized to renew these standards and to make such additions to 
them from time to time as may be required, and he shall 
cause to be deposited like standards in other custom-houses 
of the United States when they may be needed. 

365. Whenever wools of Class 3 shall have been improved 
by the admixture of merino or English blood from their 
present character as represented by the standard samples 
now or hereafter to be deposited in the principal custom- 


houses of the United States, such improved wools shall be 
classified for duty either as Class 1 or as Class 2, as the case 
may be. 

366. The duty on wools of the first and second classes 
which shall be imported washed shall be twice the amount 
of the duty to which they would be subjected if imported 
unwashed; and the duty on wools of the first and second 
classes which shall be imported scoured shall be three times 
the duty to which they would be subjected if imported 
unwashed. The duty on wools of the third class, if imported 
in condition for use in carding or spinning into yarns, or 
which shall not contain more than 8 per cent of dirt or other 
foreign substance, shall be three times the duty to which 
they would otherwise be subjected. 

367. Unwashed wools shall be considered such as shall 
have been shorn from the sheep without any cleansing — 
that is, in their natural condition. Washed wools shall be 
considered such as have been washed with water only on the 
sheep's back or on the skin. Wools of the first and second 
classes washed in any other manner than on the sheep's back 
or on the skin shall be considered as scoured wool. 

368. The duty upon wool of the sheep or hair of the 
camel, Angora goat, alpaca, and other like animals of Class 1 
and Class 2, which shall be imported in any other than 
ordinary condition, or which has been sorted or increased in 
value by the rejection of any part of the original fleece, shall 
be twice the duty to which it would be otherwise subject. 
The duty upon wool of the sheep or hair of the camel, 
Angora goat, alpaca, and other like animals of any class 
which shall be changed in its character or condition for the 
purpose of evading the duty, or which shall be reduced in 
value by the admixture of dirt or any other foreign sub- 
stance, shall be twice the duty to which it would be other- 
wise subject. When the duty assessed upon any wool equals 
three times or more that which would be assessed if said 
wool was imported unwashed, the duty shall not be doubled 
on account of the wool being sorted. If any bale or pack- 
age of wool or hair specified in this act invoiced or entered 
as of any specified class, or claimed by the importer to be 
dutiable as of any specified class, shall contain any wool or 
hair subject to a higher rate of duty than the class so sj)eci- 
fied, the whole bale or package shall be subject to the highest 
rate of duty chargeable on wool of the class subject to such 
higher rate of duty, and if any bale or package be claimed 
by the importer to be shoddj-, mungo, flocks, wool, hair, or 


other material of any class specified in this act, and such bale 
contain any admixture of any one or more of said materials, 
or of any other material, the whole bale or package shall be 
subject to duty at the highest rate imposed upon any article 
in said bale or package. 

369. The duty upon all wools and hair of the first and 
second classes shall be 9 cents per pound. 

370. On wools of the tliird class and on camel's hair of 
the third class the value whereof shall be 12 cents or less per 
pound, the duty shall be 3 cents per pound. On wools of 
the third class and on camel's hair of the third class the 
value whereof shall exceed 12 cents per pound, the duty 
shall be 6 cents per pound. 

371. The duty on wools on the skin shall be 1 cent less 
per pound than is imposed in this schedule on otlier wools of 
the same class and condition, the quantity and value to be 
ascertained under such rules as the Secretary of the Treasury 
may prescribe. 

372. Top waste, slubbing waste, roving waste, ring waste, 
30 cents per pound. 

373. Shoddy and garnetted waste, 25 cents per pound ; 
noils, wool extract, yarn waste, thread waste, and all other 
wastes composed wholly or in part of wool, and not specially 
provided for in this section, 20 cents per pound. 

374. Woolen rags, mungo, and flocks, 10 cents per pound. 

375. On combed wool or to[)S, made wholly or in part of 
wool or camel's hair, valued at not more than 20 cents per 
pound, the duty per pound shall be two and one-fourth times 
the duty imposed by this schedule on 1 pound of unwashed 
wool of the first class ; valued at more than 20 cents per 
pound, the duty per pound shall be three and one-third 
times the duty imposed by this schedule on 1 pound of 
unwashed wool of the first class ; and in addition thereto, 
upon all the foregoing, 30 i)er cent ad valorem. 

376. Wool and hair which have been advanced in any 
manner or by any process of manufacture beyond the washed 
or scoured condition, not specially provided for in this sec- 
tion, shall be subject to the same duties as are imposed upon 
manufactures of wool not specially provided for in this sec- 

377. On yarns made wholly or in part of wool, valued at 
not more than 30 cents per pound, the duty per pound shall 
be two and one-half times the duty imposed by this section 
on 1 pound of unwashed wool of the first class, and in addi- 
tion thereto 35 per cent ad valorem ; valued at more than 


30 cents per pound, the duty per pound shall be three and 
one-half times the duty imposed by this section on 1 pound 
of unwashed wool of the first class, and in addition thereto 
40 per cent ad valorem. 

378. On cloths, knit fabrics, and all manufactures of 
every description made wholly or in part of wool, not 
specially provided for in this section, valued at not more than 
40 cents per pound, the duty per pound shall be three times 
the duty imposed by this section on a pound of unwashed 
wool of the first class ; valued at above 40 cents per pound 
and not above 70 cents per pound, the duty per pound shall 
be four times the duty imposed by this section on 1 pound of 
unwashed wool of the first class, and in addition thereto, 
upon all the foregoing, 60 per cent ad valorem ; valued at 
over 70 cents per pound, the duty per pound shall be four 
times the duty imposed by this section on 1 pound of 
unwashed wool of the first class and 55 per cent ad valorem. 

379. On blankets and flannels for underwear composed 
wholly or in part of wool, valued at not more than 40 cents 
per pound, the duty per pound shall be the same as the duty 
imposed by this section on 2 pounds of unwashed wool of the 
first class, and in addition thereto 30 per cent ad valorem ; 
valued at more than 40 cents and not more than 50 cents per 
pound, the duty per pound shall be three times the duty 
imposed by this section on 1 pound of unwashed wool of the 
first class, and in addition thereto 35 per cent ad valorem. 
On blankets composed wholly or in part of wool, valued at 
more than 50 cents per pound, the duty per pound shall be 
three times the duty imposed by this section on 1 pound of 
unwashed wool of the first class, and in addition thereto 40 
per cent ad valorem. Flannels composed wholly or in part 
of wool, valued at above 50 cents per pound, shall be classi- 
fied and pay the same duty as women's and children's dress 
goods, coat linings, Italian cloths, and goods of similar 
character and description provided by this section. 

380. On women's and children's dress goods, coat linings, 
Italian cloths, and goods of similar description and character 
of which the warp consists wholly of cotton or other vege- 
table material, with the remainder of the fabric composed 
wholly or in part of wool, valued at not exceeding 15 cents 
per square yard, the duty shall be 5 cents per square yard ; 
valued at more than 15 cents per square yard, tlie duty shall 
be 6 cents per square yard ; and in addition thereto on all 
the foregoing valued at not above 70 cents per pound, 50 per 
cent ad valorem ; valued above 70 cents per pound, 55 per 


cent ad valorem : Provided^ That on all the foregoing, weigh- 
ing over 4 ounces per square yard, the rates of duty shall be 
5 per cent less than those imposed by this schedule on cloths. 

381. On women's and children's dress goods, coat linings, 
Italian cloths, bunting, and goods of similar description or 
character composed wholly or in part of wool, and not 
specially provided for in this section, the duty shall be 
9 cents per square yard ; and in addition thereto on all the 
foregoing valued at not above 70 cents per pound, 50 per 
cent ad valorem ; valued above 70 cents per pound, 55 per 
cent ad valorem : Provided^ That on all the foregoing, weigh- 
ing over 4 ounces per square yard, the duty shall be the same 
as imposed by this schedule on cloths. 

882. On clothing, ready-made, and articles of wearing 
apparel of every description, including shawls whether 
knitted or woven, and knitted articles of ever}^ description 
made up or manufactured wholly or in part, felts not woven, 
and not specially provided for in this section, composed 
wholly or in part of wool, the duty per pound shall be four 
times the duty imposed by this section on 1 pound of 
unwashed wool of the first class, and in addition thereto 
50 per cent ad valorem. 

383. Webbings, gorings, suspenders, braces, bandings, 
beltings, bindings, braids, galloons, edgings, insertings, 
flouncings, fringes, glm})s, cords, cords and tassels, ribbons, 
ornaments, laces, trimmings, and articles made wholly or in 
part of lace, embroideries and all articles embroidered by 
hand or machinery, head nets, nettings, buttons or barrel 
buttons or buttons of other forms for tassels or ornaments, 
and manufactures of wool ornamented with beads or spangles 
of whatever material composed, any of the foregoing made 
of wool or of which wool is a component material, whether 
containing india rubber or not, 36 cents per pound and 
60 per cent ad valorem. 

384. Aubusson, Axminster, moquette, and chenille car- 
pets, figured or plain, and all carpets or carpeting of like 
character or description, 30 cents per square yard, and in 
addition thereto 40 per cent ad valorem. 

385. Saxony, Wilton, and Tournay velvet carpets, figured 
or plain, and all carpets or carpeting of like character or 
description, 30 cents per square yard, and in addition thereto 
40 per cent ad valorem. 

386. Brussels carpets, figured or plain, and all carpets or 
carpeting of like character or description, 24 cents per square 
yard, and in addition thereto 40 per cent ad valorem. 


387. Velvet and tapestry velvet carpets, figured or plain, 
printed on the warp or otherwise, and all carpets or carpet- 
ing of like character or description, 20 cents per square 
yard, and in addition thereto 40 per cent ad valorem. 

388. Tapestry Brussels carpets, figured or plain, and all 
carpets or carpeting of like character or description, printed 
on the warp or otherwise, 14 cents per square yard, and in 
addition thereto 40 per cent ad valorem. 

389. Treble ingrain, three-ply, and all chain Venetian 
carpets, 11 cents per square yard, and in addition thereto 
40 per cent ad valorem. 

390. Wool Dutch and 2-ply ingrain carpets, 9 cents per 
square yard, and in addition thereto 40 per cent ad valorem. 

391. Carpets of every description, woven whole for rooms, 
and Oriental, Berlin, Aubusson, Axminster, and similar rugs, 
8 cents per square foot and 40 per cent ad valorem: Provided, 
Tliat in the measurement of all mats, rugs, carpets, and 
similar articles, of whatever material composed, the selvage, 
if any, shall be included. 

392. Druggets and bockings, printed, colored, or other- 
wise, 11 cents per square yard, and in addition thereto 40 per 
cent ad valorem. 

393. Carpets and carpeting of wool, flax, or cotton, or 
composed in part of any of them, not specially provided for 
in this section, and mats, matting, and rugs of cotton, 40 per 
cent ad valorem. 

394. Mats, rugs for floors, screens, covers, hassocks, 
bedsides, art squares, and other portions of carpets or carpet- 
ing, made wholly or in part of wool, and not specially pro- 
vided for in this section, shall be subjected to the rate of 
duty herein imposed on carpets or carpetings of like character 
or description. 

395. Whenever, in any schedule of this act, the word 
" wool " is used in connection with a manufactured article, 
of which it is a component material, it shall be held to 
include wool or hair of the sheep, camel, goat, alpaca, or 
other animal, whether manufactured by the woolen, worsted, 
felt, or any other process. 

395 1-. In no case shall any of the articles or fabrics 
enumerated in this schedule pay a duty more than is equiva- 
lent to an ad valorem duty of 80 per cent. 


Senator Smoot subsequently said in closing the debate on 
the wool and woolen bill: 


I wish that the Senator from Montana (Mr. Dixon) were 
present, for, in a spirit of friendship and kindness, I wanted 
to call attention to some of the statements made by him 
yesterday, because I believe that he has been misinformed as 
to the price of wool in London and the price of wool in this 
country, or as to the grade and classification of the wools 
compared. On further examination, I am positive the Sen- 
ator would make the correction. If true, his statement 
proves beyond question that our wool growers in this country 
are in such a disorganized condition or so wofully lack 
business capacity that a tariff rate of any amount would not 
help them, for they sell their wool for the price offered them 
and do not take into consideration the world price, knowing 
that the manufacturer must import wools and pay the London 
price plus the duty, whatever it is. 

Congress cannot legislate a market for wool. That is 
impossible. It can legislate a duty upon wool in the grease 
of 11 cents per pound, a duty on washed wool of 22 cents, 
a duty on scoured wool of 33 cents a pound ; but it cannot 
pass a law directing the wool men of this country to sell 
their wool for 11 cents more in the grease than it is sold in 
foreign lands, grade, shrinkage, and classification being equal; 
nor can it say to the manufacturer: "You must pa}^ 11 cents 
per pound more for like wools." Eliminate from the present 
law the skirting clause and increase the rate on washed wools 
of the second class to twice that of wools of the second class 
in the grease and the average shrinkage of foreign wools 
imported into this country will be about the same as the 
American wools, grade for grade alike. I know for the last 
year the American wool grower has not received much benefit 
from the tariff, but the reason for that is the fear of the 
American manufacturer, the only purchaser the wool grower 
has, that the revision of Schedule K will place wool on the 
free list or nearly so. The manufacturer must look ahead at 
least one year, for it takes at least that length of time after 
purchasing the wool in the grease before he can convert the 
wool into finished goods and get returns from the sale of 
them. He is not like a merchant who can buy a sack of 
sugar to-day and it is sold to-morrow. One hundred per cent 
on wools with inadequate protection of the manufactured 
article would not benefit the wool grower a penny, for with 
the American mills closed and woolen goods being furnished 
the American people by foreign manufacturers the wool 
grower would have to look to the foreigner for a market 
for his wool. 


Mr. President, the agitation which has been going on, 
through the newspapers and magazines of this country, I 
believe, on a moderate estimate, has cost the industries 
covered by Schedule K $150,000,000. It caused the farmers 
who grow wool to sell the clip of 1910 at 125,000,000 less 
than they received for the 1909 clip. Prices in the United 
States have fallen 30 per cent, while everywhere else in 
the world they have advanced 10 per cent. The prices in the 
value of wool carried over from 1909 to this year, with the 
goods made therefrom, has been another $25,000,000. There 
has been a shrinkage of 12 per head in the value of 25,000,000 
sheep, making another $50,000,000. 

But tlie most cruel effect of this agitation has been felt 
by the laborers employed in the mills that manufacture wool. 
Lack of employment and loss of wages from this cause have 
been another $50,000,000, and this is the most cruel blow of 
all. These losses to a great American industry are caused 
by the fear of radical legislation. What the losses would be 
in case the House Democratic wool bill became a law no man 
can tell, but all must admit that it would be appalling. 

We do know that to-day not to exceed 33J per cent of the 
woolen cards of this country are running. The business 
stands almost paralyzed under the wicked assaults made upon 
it. All sorts of misrepresentations and falsehoods by indi- 
viduals and press have been directed at Schedule K. It has 
been made the basis of criticism of the last tariff act. What 
has Schedule K done for this country? It has stimulated the 
_ manufacture of ready made clothing, so that a suit in this 
countr}', fashionably cut and well tailored, made of an all 
wool worsted fabric, can be bought for less money than 
would have to be paid in Europe for a similar suit made 
there by a merchant tailor, admitting that his cloth in Europe 
is only one-half the price of similar cloth in America. So an 
English laborer coming here could purchase a suit of clothes 
for one week's pay which he could not get in England for 
two weeks' pay. A German laborer could purchase a suit of 
clothes for one week's pay here which he could not buy in 
Germany for three weeks' pay. An Italian laborer could buy 
here his suit for one week's pay, which he could not buy in 
Italy for five weeks' pay. A Chinese or a Japanese laborer 
could buy here a suit of clothes for one week's pay which he 
could not buy in China or Japan for 14^ weeks' pay. 

So I say, Mr. President, that Schedule K has not been so 
bad after all, when considering the grade and the price of 
clothing to the American people. 


I wish that every American citizen actually knew what the 
manufacturer received for the cloth in his suit of clothes. I 
wish that every American citizen knew that a blue or black 
worsted serge can be bought by the American clothing manu- 
facturer, he who makes the cloth into clothes, for from $2.90 
to $5 per suit. I believe if he understood it there would not 
be this hue and cry against the woolen manufacturer of this 

I realize, Mr. President, that while my State is chiefly 
interested in the development of the sheep industrj' and the 
growth of wool, its people must have a home market for that 
wool, or, no matter what duty is levied upon it, they would 
get no benefit from it. Therefore, I am interested not only 
in protecting the wool grower, but I am interested also in 
protecting the woolen manufacturer, because he is the only 
purchaser of the product of the wool grower in this country. 

The production of a woolen mill is sold to the trade six 
months ahead on samples made and submitted by it. These 
sample pieces are made by every mill twice a year, one lot 
called " lightweights " and the other known as " heavy- 
weights." They are first made in blanket form, and the mill 
designer hardly knows whether the blanket will contain suc- 
cessful patterns or not. A blanket may contain a thousand 
different designs and but few found, after finishing, worthy of 
selection as popular sellers. The success of a mill greatly 
depends upon the designer, for if the samples made by him 
are not what the trade demands in color, styles, pattern, 
price and finish the mill will be idle for want of orders, while 
if his designs are popular and the trade requirements met as 
to patterns, fabric and price, the mill will be crowded with 
orders. No mill is always successful in this regard. Every 
cloth mill has a designer, makes its own samples, submits them 
to the trade twice a year. For these reasons it is impossible 
to form a woolen manufactureis' trust. There is always the 
sharpest kind of competition. 

There have been, Mr. President, statements made in the 
Senate and a sentiment created in this country that there was 
a woolen manufacturers' trust or monopoly. Any person who 
understands the manufacturing of woolen goods would never 
make such a statement. The plan of converting wool into 
goods is of such a nature that it is impossible, unless all or 
the great majority of the mills are actually owned by one 

Mr. President, in the United States we have over a thou- 
sand woolen mills. The American Woolen Company, or the 


so-called trust, own about 30 of these thousand mills. They 
have nearly 8,000 looms. In America there are nearly 
70,000 looms. There is produced in this country over 
1450,000,000 in woolen goods. The American Woolen Com- 
pany produce between $28,000,000 and $35,000,000 of this 
amount. Every other mill of the nearly thousand in this 
country make their own goods, submit them to the trade 
every year, sell their goods upon the samples submitted — 
there are no two mills with samples just alike — so I say it 
is impossible under these conditions to form a woolen goods 

It has been charged by Senators not once, but a good 
many times, that the profits in the woolen business are exor- 
bitant, and it is claimed that it is the result of the tariff that 
these immense profits are possible. I ask leave to put in the 
Record a table showing the actual profits of some of the 
leading mills in the different sections of this country. It 
shows that the average profit of those mills is less than 7 per 
cent per annum. 

(The table presented by Senator Smoot was one that had 
been submitted to the Committee on Ways and Means, show- 
ing that the average net return on average capital invested 
in a number of representative New England wool and cotton 
mills from 1889-1908 was 6.67 per cent.) 

Mr. Smoot added : 

Mr. President, I want to briefly call attention to another 
matter, and that is the question of levying ad valorem duties 
on woolen goods. Every time that a bill has been passed 
since 1867 changing the system of specific duties or the plan 
of specific and ad valorem duties combined in Schedule K it 
has proved a disaster to the business of this country. 

Mr. President, take the act of 1883, called anybody's act, 
but desired by nobody and damned by everybody, and what 
do we find '' The specific duties were lowered, especially 
upon cloths and wastes. The result was heavy importations 
and a period of depression in the woolen business. I have 
here a table showing the years, the rate of duty, the quantity 
imported in pounds, the value of the product, the duty col- 
lected, the average price per unit, and tlie average ad valorem 
duty. Take rags, shoddy, and mnngo. Under a duty of 10 
cents a pound we imported 1,235,360 pounds in 1884, the 
first year of the act. The importation grew until in 1889 we 


imported 8,478,984 pounds. Take the importations of the 
manufactures of wool, or of cloth, or of flannels, and the 
difference is as great, and in some cases greater. 

Coming now to the Wilson law, I have here, Mr. President, 
a statement showing the importation of cloths, woolen or 
worsted. The Senator from Mississippi (Mr. Williams) 
the other day stated that it was not on account of the rates 
in the Wilson law that the woolen mills in this country 
were closed, but it was because, he said, the purchasing 
power of the people was not so great and there was a stag- 
nation of business all over the world. I want to call the 
attention of Senators to the fact that there was a stagna- 
tion of business in America: the purchasing power of the 
American people was reduced by lack of employment over 
one-half, and instead of goods being made here by American 
labor they were made abroad ; but, hard as the times were, 
little money as the people had, the importation of woolen 
and worsted goods, dress goods, yarns and wastes actually 

Mr. President, if the market for American wool is to be 
destroyed it makes no difference to the wool grower whether 
it is accomplished by a high duty on wool with a low enough 
duty on woolen goods to close the mills, his onl}' purchaser, 
or by a law giving inadequate protection on wool. A pound 
of manufactured cloth imported into this country displaces 
four pounds of American raised wool in the grease and 
deprives the American laboi'er of employment in making the 
wool into cloth. I want to call the attention of Senators to 
the fact that shoddies and wastes of all kinds imported into 
this country for three years and eight months, under the 
McKinley law beginning in 1891 up to 1894, were 908,923 

During the three years and four months of the Wilson 
law the importations had increased from 908,923 pounds to 
86,263,630 pounds, an increase of not 100 per cent, not 1,000 
per cent, but of 9,000 per cent. That was the period when 
shoddy reigned. We all remember those days when the 
theory of free raw materials and a duty for revenue only on 
manufactured goods was put in practice. That was the 
time the American people were clothed with patched suits or 
cloth made of rags and shoddy, instead of wool. Mr. Presi- 
dent, what does that mean? It means that it would take 
the State of California 19 years to raise wool enough to 
equal the importation of shoddy for those three years and 
four months. It would take the State of Wisconsin 27 


years, under her present production, to produce wool enough 
to take the place of the shoddy that was imported into this 
country under the Wilson law during three years and four 
months. . We find that during the 13 years after the repeal 
of the Wilson law, there have been imported into this coun- 
try only 6,751,557 pounds of shoddies and wastes. 

Mr. President, if the Democratic wool bill passes this 
Senate and becomes a law, there will be scarcely a woolen 
mill in this country that can survive. I plead with Senators 
to save the business, because it is a great one. Senators 
will notice that even under the rates to-day there is collected 
in revenue from the importations of manufactured woolen 
goods something like $20,000,000. It seems to me that the 
only proper way to handle this question is to wait for the 
report of the Tariff Board, not particularly to learn what 
the wages in this country are, not particularly as to what the 
cost of production of wool in this country is, but more par- 
ticularly to obtain the cost of production of wool in foreign 
countries and what the cost of production of cloth in foreign 
countries is, and especially the wage paid the employees. 

Mr. President, an ad valorem duty equaling the difference 
between the cost of production in this country and a foreign 
country is never a protective duty, for undervaluation has 
been and always will be resorted to by the importer and for- 
eign manufacturer; it cannot be avoided and has always 
proven a curse to the protective system and a robbery of the 
Public Treasury ; but a specific duty cannot be evaded. It 
is so much a pound, while an ad valorem duty is based 
upon the value of goods at the last port of shipment. What 
protection would the wool grower receive under the 20 per 
cent ad valorem duty? I received a telegram this morning 
giving the price of wool per pound, unskirted, in Buenos 
Aires — wool that comes in direct competition with 85 per 
cent of all the wool grown in the Rocky Mountain States, 
shrinking 65 per cent. The price named is 13i cents per 
pound. Twenty per cent on 13i cents is 2.6 cents per 

Mr. President, I say to the Senate now that if the House 
bill should become a law, it would be worse in its operation 
on the wool industry than the Wilson law, because under 
the Wilson law the manufacturers were given an average 
duty upon cloth of from 40 to 50 percent. It was utterly 
impossible for the mills with those rates of ad valorem duty 
to exist with free wool, and under the Underwood bill the 
manufacturer is taxed 20 per cent on his wool and only given 


an average ad valorem duty of 35 to 40 per cent. Under 
such conditions it would be impossible for the manufacturer 
to exist and if the manufacturer should cease to run his mill 
the market of the American wool grower would be taken from 
him, and it would be impossible for him to raise wool for 


On July 27 the wool and woolen legislation was called 
up under a unanimous agreement for action in the Senate. 
Senator Smoot did not press his substitute for action. The 
proposed La FoUette substitute was first rejected by a vote 
of 14 yeas to 66 nays — only "insurgent" Republican Sena- 
tors supporting it. Then, on the vote of 36 yeas to 44 nays, 
the Underwood bill, H. R. 11019, was also rejected by the 
Senate — only one Republican, an " insurgent," Senator 
Brown of Nebraska, supporting it. This result, of course, 
had been anticipated, but the real result of the Democratic- 
" insurgent " coalition came when Senator La Follette moved 
to reconsider the vote by which the bill failed to pass. This 
motion was carried on a vote of 49 yeas to 31 nays, all of the 
Democrats and 14 "insurgent" Senators, Borah, Bourne, 
Bristow, Brown, Clapp, Crawford, Cummins, Gronna, Kenyon, 
La Follette, McCumber, Nelson, Poindexter, and Works, 
being recorded in the affirmative. 

Senator La Follette then offered a revised amendment as 
a substitute for the House bill, reducing his proposed duty 
on wool from 40 to 35 per cent and other duties accordingly. 
This motion was carried on a vote of 48 yeas to 31 nays — 
the same division as on the previous motion, except that now 
Senator Borah, who had voted to reconsider, reversed his 
vote and stood with the regular Republicans. On the final 
passage of the bill as amended there was the same division, 
48 to 32. 


The revised La Follette proposal, as thus adopted and 
passed by the Senate, was as follows : 


Section 1. The act approved August 5, 1909, entitled 
" An act to provide revenue, equalize duties, and encourage 
the industries of the United States, and for other purposes," 
is hereb}^ amended by striking out all of Schedule K thereof, 
being paragraphs 360 to 395, inclusive, and inserting in lieu 
thereof the following : 


360. All wool, hair of the camel, goat, alpaca, and' other 
like animals, shall be divided, for the purposes of this act, 
into the three following classes : 

361. Class 1, that is to say, merino, mestiza, metz, or 
metis wools, or other wools of merino blood, immediate or 
remote, Down clothing wools, and wools of like character 
with any of the preceding, including Bagdad wool, China 
lamb's wool, Castel Branco, Adrianople skin wool, or 
butcher's wool, and such as have been heretofore usually 
imported into the United States from Buenos Aires, New 
Zealand, Australia, Cape of Good Hope, Russia, Great 
Britain, Canada, Egypt, Morocco, and elsewhere, Leicester, 
Cotswold, Lincolnshire, Down combing wools, Canada long 
wools, or other like combing wools of English blood and 
usually known by the terms herein used, and all wools not 
hereinafter included in Class 2. 

362. Class 2, that is to say, Donskoi, native South Ameri- 
can, Cordova, Valparaiso, native Smyrna, and all such wools 
of like character as have been heretofore usually imported 
into the United States from Turkey, Greece, Syria, and else- 
where, excepting improved wools hereinafter provided for ; 
the hair of the camel, Angora goat, alpaca, and other like 

363. The standard samples of all wools which are now or 
may be hereafter deposited in the principal custom-houses of 
the United States, under the authority of the Secretary of 
the Treasury, shall be the standards for the classification 
of wools under this act, and the Secretary of the Treasury is 
authorized to renew these standards and to make such addi- 
tions to them from time to time as may be required, and he 
shall cause to be deposited like standards in other custom- 
houses of the United States when they shall be needed. 

364. Whenever wools of Class 2 shall have been improved 
by the admixture of merino or English blood, from their 
present character as represented by the standard samples now 
or hereafter to be deposited in the principal custom-houses 


of the United States, such improved wools shall be classified 
for duty as Class 1. 

365. The duty on wools of the first class shall be 35 per 
cent ad valorem. 

3t)6. The duty upon wools of Class 2 shall be 10 per cent 
ad valorem. 

367. The duty on wools on the skin shall be as follows : 
Class 1, 30 per cent ad valorem ; Class 2, 10 per cent ad 
valorem ; the quantity and value of the wool to be ascer- 
tained under such rules as the Secretary of the Treasury 
may prescribe. 

368. Top waste, slubbing waste, roving waste, ring waste, 
and garnetted waste, 30 per cent ad valorem. 

369. Shoddy, noils, wool extract, yarn waste, thread 
waste, and all other wastes composed wholly of wool or of 
which wool is the component material of chief value, and not 
specially provided for in this section, 25 per cent ad valorem. 

370. Woolen rags, mungo, and flocks, 25 per cent ad 

371. Combed wool or tops, and all wools which have been 
advanced in any manner or by any process of manufacture 
beyond the washed or scoured condition, not specially pro- 
vided for in this section, 40 (jer cent ad valorem. 

372. On yarns made wholly of wool or of which wool is 
the component material of chief value, the duty shall be 45 
per cent ad valorem. 

373. On cloths, knit fabrics, blankets, and flannels for 
underwear, composed wholly of wool or of which wool is the 
component material of chief value, women's and children's 
dress goods, coat linings, Italian cloths, bunting, clothing 
ready made, and articles of wearing apparel of every descrip- 
tion, including shawls, whether knitted or woven, and knitted 
articles of every description made up or manufactured wholly 
or in part, felts not woven, and not specially provided for in 
this section, webbings, gorings, suspenders, braces, bandings, 
beltings, bindings, braids, galloons, edgings, insertings, 
flouncings, fringes, gimps, cords and tassels, ribbons, orna- 
ments, laces, trimmings, and articles made wholly or in part 
of lace, embroideries, and all articles embroidered by hand or 
machinery, head nets, nettings, buttons or barrel buttons or 
buttons of other forms for tassels or ornaments, and manu- 
factures of wool ornamented with beads or spangles of what- 
ever material composed, any of the foregoing made of wool 
or of which wool is the component material of chief value, 


whether containing India rubber or not, 55 per cent ad 

374. Aubusson, Axminster, moquette, and chenille car- 
pets, figured or plain, and all carpets or carpeting of like 
character or description ; Saxony, Wilton, and Tournay 
velvet carpets, figured or plain, and all carpets or carpeting 
of like character or description ; Brussels carpets, figured or 
plain, and all carpets or carpeting of like character or descrip- 
tion ; velvet and tapestry velvet carpets, figured or plain, 
printed on the warp or otherwise, and all carpets or carpet- 
ing of like character or description; tapestry Brussels car- 
pets, figured or plain, and all carpets or carpeting of like 
character or description, printed on the warp or otherwise ; 
treble ingrain, three-ply, and all chain Venetian carpets ; 
wool Dutch and two-ply ingrain carpets ; carpets of every 
description, woven whole for rooms ; oriental, Berlin, Aubus- 
son, Axminster, and similar rugs ; druggets and bockings, 
printed, colored, or otherwise ; all the foregoing, made of 
wool, or of which wool is the component material of chief 
value, 35 per cent ad valorem. 

375. Carpets and carpeting of wool or of which wool is 
the component material of chief value, not specially provided 
for in this section, 35 per cent ad valorem. 

376. Mats, rugs for floors, screens, covers, hassocks, bed- 
sides, art squares, and other portions of carpets or carpeting 
made wholly of wool or of which wool is the component 
material of chief value, and not specially provided for in this 
section, shall be subjected to the rate of duty herein imposed 
on carpets or carpeting of like character or description. 

377. Whenever, in any schedule of this act, the word 
" wool " is used in connection with a manufactured article 
of which it is a component material, it shall be held to 
include wool or hair of the sheep, camel, goat, alpaca, or 
other animal, whether manufactured by a woolen, worsted, 
felt, or any other process. 

378. All manufactures of hair of the camel, goat, alpaca, 
or other like animal, or of which any of the hair mentioned 
in paragraph 363 form the component material of chief value, 
shall be subject to a duty of 30 per cent ad valorem. 

Sect. 2. That on and after the day when this act shall go 
into effect all goods, wares, and merchandise previously 
imported, and hereinbefore enumerated, described, and pro- 
vided for, for which no entry has been made, and all such 
goods, wares, and merchandise previously entered without 
payment of duty and under bond for warehousing transpor- 


tation, or any other purpose, for which no permit of delivery 
to the importer or his agent has been issued, shall be sub- 
jected to the duties imposed by this act, and no other duty, 
upon the entry or the withdrawal thereof. 

Sect. 3. That all acts and parts of acts in conflict with 
the provisions of this act be, and the same are hereby, 
repealed. This act shall take effect and be in force on and 
after the first day of January, 1912. 

The wool and woolen bill as amended was received in the 
House on July 28. On August 1 Chairman Underwood in 
the House moved to disagree to the Senate amendment and 
to ask for a conference. This was moved and agreed to, and 
Speaker Clark announced as the conferees on the part of the 
House, Chairman Underwood, Representative Randell of 
Texas, Representative Harrison of New York, Representa- 
tive Payne of New York, and Representative Dalzell of 
Pennsylvania — all members of the Committee on Ways and 

On the following day, August 2, the Senate, on motion of 
Chairman Penrose of the Committee on Finance, insisted 
upon this amendment to the bill, and complied with the 
request of the House of Representatives for a conference. 
Vice-President Sherman thereupon appointed as conferees on 
the part of the Senate, Senator Penrose of Pennsylvania, 
Senator Cullom of Illinois, Senator La Follette of Wisconsin, 
Senator Bailey of Texas, and Senator Simmons of North 
Carolina — all members of the Committee on Finance. 


On August 12 the Conference Committee submitted its 
report to the House of Representatives and on August 14 to 
the Senate, as follows : 

{To accompany H. R. 11019) 

The committee of conference on the disagreeing votes of 
the two Houses on the amendment of the Senate to the bill 
(H. R. 11019) to reduce the duties on wool and manufactures- 
of wool, having met, after full and free conference, have 


agreed to recommend and do recommend to their respective 
Houses as follows : 

That the House recede from its disagreement to the amend- 
ment of the Senate and agree to the same with an amendment 
as follows : 

In lieu of the matter inserted by said amendment insert 
the following : 

That the Act approved August 5, 1909, entitled " An Act 
to provide revenue, equalize duties, and encourage the indus- 
tries of the United States, and for other purposes," is hereby 
amended by striking out all of Schedule K thereof, being 
paragraphs 360 to 395, inclusive, and inserting in lieu thereof 
the following: 


360. On wool of the sheep, hair of the camel, goat, alpaca, 
and other like animals, and on all wools and hair on the skin 
of such animals, the duty shall be 29 per cent ad valorem. 

361. On all noils, top waste, card waste, slubbing waste, 
roving waste, ring waste, yarn waste, burr waste, thread waste, 
garnetted waste, shoddies, mungo, flocks, wool extract, car- 
bonized wool, carbonized noils, and on all other wastes and 
on woolen rags composed wholly of wool or of which wool is 
the component material of chief value, and not specially pro- 
vided for in this section, the duty shall be 29 per cent ad 

362. On combed wool or tops and roving or roping, made 
wholly of wool or camel's hair, or of which wool or camel's 
hair is the component material of chief value, and all wools 
and hair which have been advanced in any manner or by any 
process of manufacture beyond the washed or scoured condi- 
tion, not specially provided for in this section, the duty shall 
be 32 per cent ad valorem. 

363. On yarns made wholly of wool or of which wool is 
the component material of chief value, the duty shall be 35 
per cent ad valorem. 

364. On cloths, knit fabrics, flannels not for underwear, 
composed wholly of wool or of which wool is the component 
material of chief value, women's and children's dress goods, 
coat linings, Italian cloths, bunting, and goods of similar 
description and character, clothing, ready-made, and articles 
of wearing apparel of every description, including shawls, 
whether knitted or woven, and knitted articles of every 
description made up or manufactured wholly or in part, felts 


not woven, and not specially provided for in this section, 
webbings, gorings, suspenders, braces, bandings, beltings, 
bindings, braids, galloons, edgings, insertings, flouncings, 
fringes, gimps, cords, cords and tassels, ribbons, ornaments, 
laces, trimmings, and articles made wholly or in part of lace, 
embroideries and all articles embroidered by hand or machin- 
ery, head nets, nettings, buttons or barrel buttons or buttons 
of other forms for tassels or ornaments, and manufactures of 
wool ornamented with beads or spangles of whatever material 
composed, on any of the foregoing and on all manufactures 
of every description made by any process of wool or of which 
wool is the component material of chief value, whether con- 
taining India rubber or not, not specially provided for in this 
section, the duty shall be 49 per cent ad valorem. 

365. On all blankets, and flannels for underwear, com- 
posed wholly of wool, or of which wool is the component 
material of chief value, the duty shall be 38 per cent ad 

366. On Aubusson, Axminster, moquette, and chenille 
carpets, figured or plain, and all carpets or carpeting of like 
character or description ; on Saxony, Wilton, and Tournay 
velvet carpets, figured or plain, and all carpets or carpeting 
of like character or description ; and on carpets of every 
description, woven whole for rooms, and Oriental, Berlin, 
Aubusson, Axminster, and similar rugs, the duty shall be 50 
per cent ad valorem. 

367. On Brussels carpets, figured or plain, and all car- 
pets or carpeting of like character or description ; and on 
velvet and tapestry velvet carpets, figured or plain, printed 
on the warp or otherwise, and all carpets or carpeting of like 
character or description, the duty shall be 40 per cent ad 

368. On tapestry Brussels carpets, figured or plain, and 
all carpets or carpeting of like character or description, 
printed on the warp or otherwise ; on treble ingrain, three- 
ply, and all-chain Venetian carpets ; on wool Dutch and two- 
ply ingrain carpets ; on druggets and bockings, printed, 
colored, or otherwise ; and on carpets and carpeting of wool 
or of which wool is the component material of chief value, 
not specially provided for in this section, the duty shall be 
30 per cent ad valorem. 

369. Mats, rugs for floors, screens, covers, hassocks, bed- 
sides, art squares, and other portions of carpets or carpeting 
made wholly of wool or of which wool is the component 


material of chief value, and not specially provided for in this 
section, shall be subjected to the rate of duty herein imposed 
on carpets or carpeting of like character or description. 

370. On all manufactures of hair of the camel, goat, 
alpaca, or other like animal, or of which any of the hair 
mentioned in paragraph 360 form the component material of 
chief value, not specially provided for in this section, the 
duty shall be 49 per cent ad valorem. 

371. Whenever in this act the word "wool" is used in 
connection with a manufactured article of which it is a com- 
ponent material, it shall be held to include wool or hair of 
the sheep, camel, goat, alpaca, or other like animals, whether 
manufactured by the woolen, worsted, felt, or any other 

Sect. 2. That on and after the day when this act shall 
go into effect all goods, wares, and merchandise previously 
imported and hereinbefore enumerated, described, and pro- 
vided for, for which no entry has been made, and all such 
goods, wares, and merchandise previously entered without 
payment of duty and under bond for warehousing, transpor- 
tation, or any other purpose, for which no permit of delivery 
to the importer or his agent has been issued, shall be sub- 
jected to no other duty upon the entry or withdrawal thereof 
than the duty which would be imposed if such goods, wares, 
or merchandise were imported on or after that date. 

Sect. 3. That all acts and parts of acts in conflict with 
the provisions of this act be, and the same- are hereby, 
repealed. This act shall take effect and be in force on and 
after the first day of October, 1911. 

And the Senate agree to the same. 

O. W. Underwood, 

C. B. Randell, 

Francis Burton Harrison, 

Managers on the part of the House. 

Robert M. La Follettb, 
J. W. Bailey, 


Managers on the pari of the Senate. 

On August 14 the compromise bill, as agreed to by the 
committee, was passed by the House on a vote of 206 to 90, 


all the Democrats, 30 Republicans, chiefly " insurgents," and 
1 independent Republican recording themselves in the 
afiirmative. With the exception of Akin, New York, inde- 
pendent Republican, all of the Republican votes for the 
measure came from Western States. 

On the following day, August 15, the bill passed the 
Senate by a vote of 38 to 28, all the Democratic Senators and 
8 "insurgent" Republicans supporting it. Senator Bourne 
on this vote refused to stand with Senator La Follette and 
was recorded with the regular Republicans in the negative. 
Senator Nelson of Minnesota, who had voted with Mr. La 
Follette at previous stages of the bill, also voted on this final 
test against it — indicating the growing dissatisfaction of the 
wool growers of the West with the La Follette program of 
compromise or surrender. 

THE president's VETO MESSAGE. 

The bill was presented to the President on the following 
day, and on the next day, August 17, Mr. Taft sent to the 
Senate and House his anticipated message of veto, saying : 

To the House of Representatives : 

I return without my approval House bill No. 11019 with 
a statement of my reasons for so doing. 

The bill is an amendment of the existing tariff law, and 
readjusts the customs duties in what is known as Schedule 
,K, embracing wool and the manufactures of wool. 

I was elected to the Presidency as the candidate of a party 
which in its platform declared its aim and purpose to be to 
maintain a protective tariff by " the imposition of such duties 
as will equal the difference between the cost of production 
at home and abroad, together with a reasonable profit to 
American industries." I have always regarded this language 
as fixing the proper measure of protection at the ascertained 
difference between the cost of production at home and that 
abroad, and have construed the reference to the profit of 
American industries as intended, not to add a new element 
to the measure stated or to exclude from the cost of produc- 
tion abroad the element of a manufacturer's or producer's 
profit, but only to emphasize the importance of including in 


the American cost a manufacturer's or producer's profit 
reasonable according to the American standard. 

In accordance with a promise made in the same platform I 
called an extra session of the Sixty-first Congress, at which a 
general revision of the tariff was made and adopted in the 
Payne bill. It was contended by those who opposed the 
Payne bill that the existing rates of the Dingley bill were 
excessive and that the rates adopted in the revising statute 
were not sufficiently reduced to conform to the promised 

The great difficulty, however, in discussing the new rates 
adopted was that there were no means available by which 
impartial persons could determine what, in fact, was the 
difference in cost of production between the products of this 
country and the same products abroad. The American 
public became deeply impressed with the conviction that, 
in order to secure a proper revision of the tariff in the future, 
exact information as to the effect of the new rates must be 
had, and that the evil of logrolling or a compromise between 
advocates of different protected industries in fixing duties 
could be avoided, and the interest of the consuming public 
could be properly guarded, only by revising the tariff one 
schedule at a time. 

To help these reforms for the future, I took advantage of 
a clause in the Payne tariff bill enabling me to create a 
Tariff Board of three members and directed them to make a 
glossary and encyclopedia of the terms used in the tariff and 
to secure information as to the comparative cost of prodnc- 
tion of dutiable articles under the tariff at home and abroad. 
In my message to Congress of December 7, 1909, I asked a 
continuing annual appropriation for the support of the 
board and said : 

I believe that the work of this board will be of prime 
utility and importance whenever Congress shall deem it 
wise again to readjust the customs duties. If the facts 
secured b}^ the Tariff Board are of such a character as 
to show generally that the rates of duties imposed by 
the present tariff law are excessive under the principles 
of protection as described in the platform of the success- 
ful party at the late election, I shall not hesitate to 
invite the attention of Congress to this fact, and to the 
necessity for action predicated thereon. Nothing, how- 
ever, halts business and interferes with the course of 
prosperity so much as the threatened revision of the 


tariff, and until the facts are at hand, after careful and 
deliberate investigation, upon which such revision can 
properly be undertaken, it seems to me unwise to 
attempt it. The amount of misinformation that creeps 
into arguments pro and con in respect to tariff rates is 
such as to require the kind of investigation that I have 
directed the Tariff Board to make, an investigation 
undertaken by it wholly without respect to the effect 
which the facts may have in calling for a readjustment 
of the rates of duty. 

A popular demand arose for the formal creation by law of 
a permanent nonpartisan tariff commission. Commercial 
bodies all over the country united in a movement to secure 
adequate legislation for this purpose and an association with 
a nation-wide constituency was organized to promote the 
cause. The public opinion in favor of such a commission 
was evidenced by resolutions adopted in 1909 and 1910 by 
Republican State conventions in at least 28 States. 

In addition, efforts were made to secure a change in the 
rules of procedure in the House and Senate wdtli a view to 
preventing the consideration of tariff changes except schedule 
by schedule. 

The business of the country rests on a protective-tariff 
basis. The public keenly realized that a disturbance of 
business by a change in the tariff and a threat of injury to 
the industries of the country ought to be avoided, and that 
nothing could help so much to minimize the fear of destruc- 
tive changes as the known existence of a reliable source of 
information for legislative action. The deep interest in the 
matter of an impartial ascertainment of facts before any new 
revision, was evidenced by an effort to pass a tariff-commis- 
sion bill in the short session of the Sixty-first Congress, in 
which many of both parties united. Such a bill passed both 
houses. It provided a commission of five members, to be 
appointed by the President, not more than three of whom 
were to belong to the same party, and gave them the power 
and made it their duty to investigate the operation of the 
tariff, the comparative cost of production at home and 
abroad, and like matters of importance in fixing the terms of 
a revenue measure, and required them to report to the 
Executive and to Congress when directed. Several not 
vital amendments were made in the Senate, which necessi- 
tated a return of the bill to the House, where, because of the 


limited duration of the session, a comparatively small minor- 
ity were able to prevent its becoming a law. 

On the failure of this bill, I took such steps as I could to 
make the Tariff Board I had already appointed a satisfactory 
substitute for the proposed tariff commission. An appropri- 
ation of $225,000, to continue the work until June 30, 1912, 
had been granted by Congress in the alternative, to be 
applied to the board I had appointed, unless a tariff commis- 
sion bill was passed. In this appropriation bill the non- 
partisan tariff commission, if created and appointed, was 
directed to make a report on Schedule K by December 1, 
1911. Accordingly I added two members to the Tariff 
Board from the opposition party, and directed the board to 
make report on Schedule K by December 1 next. The board 
differs in no way from the tariff commission as it would have 
been, except in its power to summon witnesses ; and I am 
advised by the members of the board that, without this 
power, they have had no difficulty in securing the informa- 
tion they desire. 

The board took some months to investigate the methods 
pursued in other countries in procuring information on 
tariff subjects and to organize its force. In October, 1910, 
its work of investigation began with a force of 40 that has 
now increased to 80. In addition to the " glossary," which 
is near completion, and other work connected with furnish- 
ing information in connection with the enforcement of the 
maximum and minimum clause of the Payne Tariff Act, and 
in respect to the Canadian reciprocity measure, its attention 
has been especially directed to comparative cost under 
Schedule K (wool and woolens), under Schedule M (paper 
and pulp), and under Schedule I (cotton manufactures). The 
report on Schedule M (pulp and paper) has already been sent 
to Congress. Full reports on wool and cotton will be sub- 
mitted to Congress in December. I have also directed an 
investigation into the metal and leather schedules, the 
results of which it is hoped can be submitted to Congress at 
its first regular session in time to permit their consideration 
and legislative action, if necessary. 

The organization known as the Tariff Commission Associ- 
ation, made up of representatives of substantially all the 
commercial bodies of the country, for the purpose of secur- 
ing the establishment of a permanent tariff commission, 
applied to me for an opportunity to investigate the methods 
pursued by the Tariff" Board. This I was glad to grant, and 


a very full report of the competent committee of that asso- 
ciation concluded as follows : 

In conclusion, our committee finds that the Tariff 
Board is composed of able, impartial, and earnest men, 
who are devoting their energies unreservedly to the 
work before them ; that the staff has been carefully 
selected for the work in view, is efficiently organized 
and directed, and includes a number of exceptionally 
competent technical experts ; . . . that the work of 
the board, vast and intricate in detail, is already highly 
organized, well systematized, and running smoothly ; and 
that Congress and the people can now await the com- 
pletion of that work with entire confidence that it is 
progressing as rapidly as consistent with proper thor- 
oughness, and that it will amplj^ justify all of the time 
and expense which it entails. We believe that the 
value of the work when completed will be so great and 
so evident as to leave remaining no single doubt as to 
the expediency of maintaining it as a permanent func- 
tion of the Government for the benefit of the people. 

I have thus reviewed the history of the movement for the 
establishment of a tariff commission or board in order to 
show that the real advance and reform in tariff making are 
to be found in the acquirement of accurate and impartial 
information as to the effect of the pro[)osed tariff changes 
under each schedule before they are adopted, and further to 
show that if delay in the passage of a bill to amend Sched- 
ule K can be had until December, Congress will then be in 
possession of a full and satisfactory report upon the whole 

This brings me to the consideration of the terms of the 
bill presented for my approval. Schedule K is the most com- 
plicated schedule in the tariff. It classifies raw wool with 
different rates for different classes ; it affords a manufacturer 
what is called a compensatory duty to make up for the 
increased price of the raw material he has to use due to the 
rate on raw wool, and for the shrinkage that takes place in 
scouring the wool for manufacture ; and it gives him, in addi- 
tion, an ad valorem duty to protect him against foreign com- 
petition with cheap labor. The usages which prevail in 
scouring the wool, in making the yarn, and in the manu- 
facture of cloth present a complication -of technical detail 
that prevents any one, not especiall}^ informed concerning 


wool growing and manufacture, from understanding the 
schedule and the effect of changes in the various rates and 

If there ever was a schedule that needed consideration and 
investigation and elaborate explanation by experts before its 
amendment, it is Schedule K. There is a widespread belief 
that many rates in the present schedule are too high and are 
in excess of any needed protection for the wool grower or 
manufacturer. I share this belief and have so stated in 
several public addresses. But I have no sufficient data upon 
which I can judge how Schedule K ought to be amended or 
how its rates ought to be reduced, in order that the new bill 
shall furnish the proper measure of protection and no more. 
Nor have I sources of information which satisfy me that the 
bill presented to me for signature will accomplish this result. 
The parliamentary history of the bill is not reassuring upon 
this point. It was introduced and passed in the House as 
providing a tariff for revenue only and with the avowed pur- 
pose of departing from a protective-tariff policy. The rate 
of duty on raw wools of all classes was changed from a 
specific duty of 11 cents a pound to 20 per cent ad valorem. 
On the average for the importations for the last two years 
this is a reduction from 47.24 per cent to 20 per cent. Rates 
on cloths were reduced in the bill from the present average 
duty of 97.27 per cent to 40 per cent and on wearing apparel 
from 81.31 per cent to 45 per cent. The bill was defeated in 
the Senate, and so was a substitute introduced as a protection 
measure. The proposed substitute fixed the duty on raw 
wool, first class, at 40 per cent, and on a second class of 
carpet wools at 10 per cent, and on cloths at 60 per cent, and 
on wearing apparel at the same rate. On reconsideration, a 
compromise measure was passed by the Senate, which was a 
compromise between the House bill and the Senate substi- 
tute bill, and in which the rate on first-class wool was fixed 
at 35 per cent, on carpet wools 10 per cent, and on cloth and 
wearing apparel 55 per cent. In conference between the two 
houses the rate on all classes of raw wool was fixed at 29 
per cent, this being an increase on carpet wools of 9 per cent 
as fixed in the House bill and of 19 per cent as fixed in the 
Senate bill. The conference rate on cloths and wearing 
apparel was fixed at 49 per cent. No evidence as to the cost 
of production here or abroad was published, and the compro- 
mise amendment in the Senate was adopted without reference 
to or consideration by a committee. 


I do not mention these facts to criticise the method of 
preparation of the bill; but I must needs refer to them to 
show that the congressional proceedings make available for 
me no accurate or scientifically acquired information which 
enables hie to determine that the bill supplies the measure of 
protection promised in the platform on which I was elected. 

Without any investigation of which the details are availa- 
ble, an avowed tariff-for-revenue and antiprotection bill is by 
compromise blended with a professed protection bill. Rates 
between those of the two bills are adopted and passed, except 
that, in some important instances, rates are fixed in the com- 
promise at a figure higher, and in others at a figure lower, 
than were originally fixed in either house. The principle 
followed in adjusting the amendments of existing law is, 
therefore, not clear, and the effect of the bill is most 

The Wilson Tariff Act of 1894, while giving the manu- 
facturer free wool, provided as high duties on leading manu- 
factures of wool as does the present bill, which at the same 
time taxes the manufacturer's raw material at 29 per cent. 
Thus the protection afforded to manufacturers under the 
Wilson bill was ver}' considerably liigher than under the 
present bill. 

During the years in which the Wilson bill was in force the 
woolen manufacturers suffered. iVIany mills were compelled 
to shut down. These were abnormal years, and it is not nec- 
essary to attribute the hard times solely to the tariff act of 
1894. But it was at least an addition to other factors oper- 
ating to injure the woolen business. It is the only ex{)eri- 
ence we have had for a generation of a radical revision of this 
schedule, and, without exaggerating its importance, one 
pledged to a moderate protection policy may well hesitate 
before giving approval without full information to legislation 
which makes a more radical reduction in the protection actu- 
ally afforded to manufacturers of wool than did the Wilson 
Act. Nor does this hesitation arise only for fear of injury to 
manufacturers. Unless manufacturers are able to continue 
their business and buy wool from domestic wool growers the 
latter will have no benefit from the tariff that is supposed to 
protect them, because they will have to sell in competition 
with foreign wools or send their sheep to the shambles. 
Hence the wool grower is as much interested in the protec- 
tion of the manufacturer as he is in his own. 

It mav well be that conditions of manufacture in this 


country have changed so as to require much less protection 
now for the manufacturers than at the time of the Wilson 
bill ; but in view of the possible wide suffering involved by 
hasty action based on insufficient knowledge, the wise course, 
in my judgment, is to postpone any change for a few months 
needed to complete the pending inquiry. 

When I have the accurate information which justifies such 
action, I shall recommend to Congress as great a reduction in 
Schedule K as the measure of protection, already stated, will 
permit. The failure of the present bill should not be 
regarded, therefore, as taking away the only chance for 
reduction by this Congress. 

More than a million of our countrymen are engaged in the 
production of wool and the manufacture of woolens ; more 
than a billion of the country's capital is invested in tlie 
industry. Large communities are almost wholly dependent 
upon the prosperity of the wool grower and the woolen 
manufacturer. Moderately estimated, 5,000,000 of the Ameri- 
can people will be injuriously affected by any ill-advised 
impairment of the wool and woolen industries. Certainly 
we should proceed prudently in dealing with them upon the 
basis of ascertained facts rather than liastily and without 
knowledge to make a reduction of the tariff to satisfy a 
popular desire, which I fully recognize, for reduction of 
duties believed to be excessive. I have no doubt that if I 
were to sign this bill, I would receive the approval of very 
many persons who favor a reduction of duties in order to 
reduce the cost of living whatever the effect on our pro- 
tected industries, and who fail to realize the disaster to busi- 
ness generally and to the people at large which may come 
from a radical disturbance of that part of business dependent 
for its life on the continuance of a protective tariff. If I 
fail to guard as far as I can the industries of the countrj^ to 
the extent of giving them the benefit of a living measure of 
protection, and business disaster ensues, I shall not be dis- 
charging my duty. If I fail to recommend the reduction of 
excessive duties to this extent, I shall fail in my duty to the 
consuming public. 

There is no public exigency requiring the revision of 
Schedule K in August without adequate information, ra.ther 
than in December next with such information. December 
was the time fixed by both parties in the last Congress for 
the submission of adequate information upon Schedule K 
with a view to its amendment. Certainly the public weal is 
better preserved by delaying ninety days in order to do jus- 


tice, and make such a reduction as shall be proper, than now 
blindly to enact a law which may seriously injure the indus- 
tries involved and the business of the country in general. 

Wm. H. ^aft. 

The White House, August 17, 1911. 


The reading of the message was received with applause on 
the Republican side. Chairman Underwood, the Democratic 
House leader, stated that he did not desire to have the 
message referred to the Committee on Ways and Means, but 
preferred to have it lie on the Speaker's table, and he gave 
notice that on the following day he would move to pass the 
bill over the veto of the President. 

On August 18, after a spirited debate participated in by 
ex-Speaker Cannon, ex-Chairman Payne, Representative 
Dalzell of Pennsylvania, Representative Moore of Pennsyl- 
vania, Representative Austin of Tennessee, Representative 
Mondell of Wyoming and others on the Republican side, 
and by Speaker Clark, Chairman Underwood, Representative 
Fitzgerald of New York and others on the Democratic side, 
the House, by a vote of 227 to 129 — not the requisite two- 
thirds majority — refused to pass the bill over the veto. On 
this vote eight "insurgent" Republicans, who had previously 
stood with the Democrats for the bill, reversed their action 
because of the convincing arguments of the President, and 
acted with their fellow-Republicans. However, twenty-two 
" insurgent " Republicans did vote with the Democrats on 
this final division. 

Thus the destructive wool and woolen legislation, framed 
in haste, without proper information, by a coalition of Demo- 
crats and " insurgents," was defeated in the first session of 
the Sixty-second Congress by the manly course of the Presi- 
dent of the United States. 







(By Julius Forstmann, President^ Forstmann and Hufifmann Company, 
Passaic, N.J.) 


It is a generally recognized fact that the opportunities for 
earning a livelihood are better in the United States than in 
any other country The highest wages are paid here for all 
manual labor, as is demonstrated by the steady stream of 
immigrants to America, which has been so great as to neces- 
sitate the passing of the alien contract labor law, for the 
special purpose of protecting American labor by keeping 
wages at their high level. The scale of prices is conse- 
quently higher than in European countries. While a 
German reckons prices in marks, a Frenchman in francs, and 
an Englishman in shillings, the American figures in dollars ; 
and an American very often gives out a nickel as freely as 
an Englishman does a halfpenny, a Frenchman a sou, or a 
German a five pfennig piece, although the intrinsic value of 
a nickel is from four to five times that of the European coins 

This largeness of conception of pecuniary values is dis- 
tinctively an American characteristic. Due in great measure 
to the bountiful natural resources of the country, it has been 
augmented by the fact that many of the country's industries 
have never been affected by foreign conditions and have not 
had to compete with cheaper foreign products. 

Railroad companies, gas, electric light and water com- 
panies, the building trades, newspapers, as well as the whole 
retail trade, professional men in general, such as lawyers, 
doctors, etc., etc., are all in the nature of things practically 


free from foreign competition, for none of the industries and 
occupations mentioned are compelled — with respect to their 
finished products, their wares, or their services — to meet 
foreign competition. Besides, manufacturers of many prod- 
ucts, as for instance bricks, tiles, iron girders and other build- 
ing materials, rails, machinery of all kinds, rolling stock, 
carriages, furniture, etc., etc., are very much less subject to 
foreign competition, for the freight on their bulky and heavy 
products is so large as to be a very important item in the 
cost. All periodicals, moreover, are absolutely freed from 
foreign competition by the postage rate of one cent a pound 
granted to them. Books in the English language, too, in order 
to obtain full copyright, must be set up and printed in this 
country ; this is not merely protection, it is an outright pro- 
hibition of foreign competition. Domestic shipping is also 
absolutely protected, for foreign vessels are excluded entirely 
from the coastwise carrying trade of the United States. 

Woolen manufactures, on the other hand, do not occupy 
the favored position of the classes mentioned. Considering 
their value in proportion to weight, freight is but an exceed- 
ingly small part of the cost of European woolen goods landed 
in America. In this respect woolen manufactures are at a 
great disadvantage compared with those above mentioned, 
the freight on which forms a much larger percentage of their 
value and thus constitutes a measure of protection, over and 
above that afforded by the tariff, which practically does not 
exist in the case of woolen manufactures. 


In arriving at the comparative cost of production of woolen 
goods for plants of equal capacity located here and abroad, 
the ioWowing principal factor's must be taken into account: 

1. Capitalization of mill. 

2. Erecting and organizing mill: 

Building material, labor and supplies. 
Equipment — machinery, etc. 
Organization of plant. 


3. Operating and maintaining mill : 

Management and supervision. 


Raw material, general supplies. 


Repairs and allowance for depreciation. 

4. Outlet for goods : 

Domestic market. 
Foreign market. 

A greater capital is necessary to start a woolen mill in this 
country, owing to the greater items of cost, more fully 
explained later. This greater capital is rendered necessary 
not only by the greater cost of construction, equipment and 
organization, but also by the increased outlays for salaries 
and wages, raw materials and general supplies, for all of 
which a great deal of preliminary expense must be incurred 
before any returns begin to come in. This greater capital 
also necessarily means correspondingly more interest, and, in 
addition to this, the rates of interest are, as a rule, higher in 
the United States than in Europe. 

The initial cost of erecting and equipping a mill of given 
capacity — for building materials, labor, machinery, etc. — 
is greater here than abroad, necessitating, as already stated, a 
greater capital. This additional cost (as I can state from my 
own experience) amounts to fully 55 per cent. This means 
that for every dollar invested in the building and equipping 
of a European mill, $1.55 would be required in the establish- 
ment of the same enterprise in America. In Table I. at end 
hereof is given in detail the comparative cost of erecting and 
equipping a mill in the United States and in Germany. 


To speak from my own experience, I wish to state that 
before coming hei'e in 1903 I was an active member of the 
German firm of Forstmann and Huffmann, Werden-on-the- 
Ruhr, established in 1803 by the great-grandfathers of the 
present members of the firm, which since that time has been 


uninteiTuptedly owned and managed by members of their 
families. When establishing our enterprise in Passaic, N.J., 
we were obliged, in order to be able to compete, not only 
as to price but also with respect to quality and technical 
perfection, with the best European mills, to import most of 
our machinery, because a great deal of American spinning, 
weaving, dyeing, and finishing machinerj' is not yet so highly 
developed as the European. This is especially true of the 
machinery used in what is known as the French system of 
worsted spinning, which is being adopted more and more each 
year. Also our entire woolen spinning machinery had to be 
imported to enable us to compete with the best European 

A great part of our looms could be bought here, while 
others had to be imported on account of special requirements ; 
but those purchased in this country were nearly as expensive 
as the imported ones, so that in buying them we had to bear 
our share of the protection of the textile machinery of this 
country. Dyeing and finishing machinery used in our mill 
also had mostly to be imported. In general, American manu- 
facturers can buy domestic woolen and worsted machinery 
somewhat — but not very much — cheaper than imported 
machinery ; but as the manufacture of woolen and worsted 
machinery, like the woolen industry itself, is younger and 
very much less fully developed in this country than in 
Europe, such domestic machinery, especially that used for 
the production of the finer goods, has not the same efficiency 
as the European and consequently proves more costly in the 
long run. 

On all imported machinery the American Avoolen manu- 
facturer has to pay a duty of 45 per cent, besides the pack- 
ing, freight and forwarding charges, which in the case of 
such heavy articles amount to between 10 per cent and 15 
per cent of the value. All this, besides emphasizing one of 
the important elements of additional cost to the American as 
against the European manufacturer, also furnishes a striking 
instance of how dependent the woolen manufacturing indus- 


try is upon many other important manufactures in this 

While the woolen industry is a customer for the finished 
products of numerous industries — iron, lumber, bricks, 
machinery, oils, dyes, chemicals, paper, etc., etc. — it has 
itself no such auxiliary outlet, its products going direct to 
the various branches of its own particular trade. This lack 
of other outlets explains why any disturbance of the retail 
market, by threatened tariff changes, for instance, proves so 
disastrous to domestic woolen manufacturing. It also empha- 
sizes the injustice and unreasonableness of the suggestion to 
revise the woolen schedule alone, without correspondingly 
reducing the tariff on the products of all those allied indus- 
tries which the woolen industry is compelled to draw upon 
for material and supplies of various kinds. 


After a woolen mill has been built and equipped with 
machinery, there comes the task of getting it into smooth 
running order and properly organizing the work of the plant, 
so that it can be operated as a complete unit. In this respect 
also the European industry has a great advantage over 
the American. First there is in Europe a greater trained 
force available, so that the work of commencing operations 
can proceed more smoothly and more quickly ; secondly, the 
first products of a new mill are usually not quite perfect, 
even when the most experienced help and the very best 
machines are used. In this way the American woolen indus- 
try, with the disadvantages mentioned and the higher values 
involved, is again — during the period of organization — 
subject to greater expenses than the European. 

The cost of management and supervision of work and work- 
men is much greater. The salaries of all those in responsible 
positions, from the heads of departments to the trained fore- 
men, are very much higher here than in Europe, the difference 
with respect to this class of employees being proportionately 
greater even than the difference shown by the comparative 
scale of wages in general. This is due to the fact that men 


with mill training and experience are more numerous in 
Europe and consequently do not command such high salaries. 
From my own experience I know that the salaries paid here 
for competent men are from three to four times as high as in 
Germany and other parts of Europe. 


The average wages paid for the various occupations in 
American woolen and worsted mills, compared with those 
paid by mills of the same capacity in Germany, are in the 
ratio of 224.92: 100, as will be seen from Table II. at the end 
of this statement. This table shows the average of wages 
paid for help by six of the leading manufacturers of woolens 
and worsteds in the Rhine district, the Lausitz and Saxony, 
together with the average wages paid for the same help in 
similar American mills. 

The excess in the rate of wages paid in America is still 
further accentuated by the fact that the operative in Euro- 
pean woolen mills has, as a rule, a better training and more 
experience, and consequently turns out a greater amount of 
more accurate work in a given time than the American opera- 
tive. Many European woolen enterprises have existed for 
generations, and even those of more recent origin can draw 
their help from mills which have had such a long existence. 
The employers, and in very many cases their fathers and 
grandfathers before them, have been born and brought up in 
the business ; and as a rule the children and grandchildren 
of the workpeople are also trained to the same trade. 

And what is true of the firms, and the workers and their 
families, is also true of the communities. The older seats of 
the woolen industry, like Bradford and Huddersfield in Eng- 
land, parts of the Rhine province, the Lausitz, Silesia and 
Saxony in Germany, Roubaix, Tourcoing, Elboeuf and Sedan 
in France, to mention a few of the best known, having gath- 
ered about them for centuries a group of trained and efficient 
workers, possess an inestimable advantage over the centers 
of the woolen industry in America, the latter being, in com- 
parison with those of Europe above named, themselves still 


in their childhood and their workers more or less migratory. 
The woolen industry is one of the oldest and was established 
in Europe, in its more primitive form, even before the dis- 
covery of America, while the establishment of many other 
industries on the two continents has been simultaneous and 
the growth about equal. 


All the factors mentioned tend towards greater efficiency 
in European woolen mills, increasing the output and dimin- 
ishing the cost, and these factors are all the more important 
as they do not appear on the surface and are commonly 
neglected by those who have had no practical experience or 
knowledge of the working of such mills. They also throw 
an interesting sidelight on the tables of comparative wages 
paid here and abroad, for they show that the importance of 
the difference in the wage scales of the United States and 
foreign countries is much greater than is apparent from the 
mere figures. 

The operatives in American woolen mills, in spite of the 
very much higher wages paid, are largely drawn from the 
ranks of unskilled labor. And whence does this unskilled 
labor come ? There is little of it among native-born Ameri- 
cans. It is taken from the steady flow of immigrants into 
this country. A great part of this immigration will not 
engage in agriculture, preferring the life of tlie city or town ; 
and by absorbing and educating thousands and thousands of 
these immigrants from year to year, the woolen mills are 
rendering the greatest possible service to the country, giving 
employment to a great number of people at wages which 
enable them to live and bring up their families according to 
American standards, all of whom, in turn, add enormously 
to the purchasing power of the community and greatly 
increase the number of consumers of the products of other 
domestic industries. Another phase of this question which 
must not be overlooked, especially by those who have at heart 
the welfare of the American working class, is that any great 
injury to the domestic woolen industry would necessarily 


mean the throwing out of employment of thousands of hands, 
who would naturally seek occupation in other industries, 
causing greater competition and thus inevitably lowering the 
general scale of wages. 


The raw material of the woolen manufacturer, wool, is 
dearer by the amount of the specific duty per pound of 
greasy wool imposed for the protection of the American 
wool grower. In this the woolen manufacturers cheerfully 
acquiesce, for they have sufficient economic foresight to 
realize that the encouragement of American wool growing is 
essential to the welfare and development of the industry in 
ofeneral, assurincy the manufacturer of a reliable source of 
supply, within the boundaries of his own country, of his sole 
raw material, and at the same time adding materially to the 
supply of meat products necessary for the nation's sustenance. 
American woolen manufacturers demand no reduction in 
the duty on raw material ; they only ask that they shall 
continue to be sufficiently compensated for the increased 
cost of raw material to protect them from the lower price at 
which foreign manufacturers are able to obtain their wool. 
The freight on foreign wool plays no very great part, but it 
is at all events relatively much higher than the freight on 
the imported woolen fabrics. 

The question is often asked why American manufacturers 
are so interested in maintaining tlie duties on raw wool. In 
the first place a fair application of the principles of protec- 
tion demands that the American wool grower be compen- 
sated by the tariff for the numerous disadvantages under 
which he labors in the growing of wool, as against the 
farmers of Australia, for instance. In America higher 
wages are paid in the wool growing industry, and besides 
that many other important factors operate to make the cost 
of producing wool here greater than in Australia — most 
especially the fact that while Australian flocks can remain 
outdoors the year round and succeed in finding for them- 


selves sufficient food, American flocks have to be sheltered 
and fed during a great part of our rigorous winter. 


But besides all this — and from the manufacturer's point 
of view more important — is the necessity of producing 
within the United States as much as possible of the country's 
requirements in wool. The course of the last sales in Aus- 
tralia and London has shown that the amount of foreign 
wool available is not more than sufficient to supply the 
requirements of countries other than America, for in spite of 
the almost total absence of American buyers from the sales 
in question during the past year, prices were not only firmly 
maintained in foreign markets, but for some grades even 
went considerably higher. There is always a strong compe- 
tition in international markets on the part of European 
buyers, and the slightest increase of activity on the part of 
American buyers immediately makes itself felt in an increase 
of prices. If the demand from America were to be still 
further increased, owing to a decline in American wool 
growing, there would inevitably be a marked rise in the 
price of foreign wool. 

As statistics show, the world's production of wool is not 
keeping pace with the rapid growth of population and the 
even more rapidly increasing demand for wool in all coun- 
tries. This discrepancy between supply and demand is all 
the more noticeable, because in addition to an enormously 
increased demand for the older products of wool, the staple 
is being continually put to numerous new uses, owing to the 
growing fondness for out-of-door life and sports. Especially 
in the event of a repetition of the drought which occurred 
in Australia in 1898 and 1899, prices would be driven to an 
extravagant height. For this reason American manufac- 
turers, like the manufacturers of all countries, are especially 
concerned in fostering to the greatest possible extent — and 
so far as possible within their own country — the production 
of wool, so as to ensure for their machinery at all times a 
sufficient supply of raw material at reasonable prices. 



To sum up, at first glance the question of determining the 
duty on wool seems an extremely simple one, susceptible of 
easy solution. The reduction or abolition of duties on wool 
would certainly have the immediate effect of lowering the 
price of wool in the United States. But as American 
farmers could then not compete with the imported wool, 
owing to the higher wages paid by them and especially on 
account of the natural disadvantages under which they work 
as compared with the leading wool-growing countries, home 
production would be very much endangered and diminished, 
and the American demand for foreign wools would be 
increased accordingly. As there is no inexhaustible^ but only 
a ^meYec/, supply of wool in foreign markets — despite the 
belief which is entertained in many extremely ill-informed 
quarters — the price of wool in international markets would 
undoubtedly be raised. And as every experienced business 
man knows, an excess of demand over supply amounting to 
only 5 per cent is already sufficient to raise prices from 
20 to 30 per cent. 

In the long run a recovery of price in America might 
follow. But in the meantime the breeding of sheep and the 
improvement of flocks — in which direction so much advance 
has lately been made — would have received an enormous 
setback, the wool growing industry would have been seriously 
crippled and the farmers of the country would have suffered 
incalculable losses. And all this for a temporary lessening of 
wool prices in the United States, which would in the end 
result to the advantage of the foreign farmers! 

In addition to all these disadvantages the Government 
would lose all or part of the very considerable revenue now 
brought in by the duties on imported wools. If the duty on 
raw wool should be reduced 50 per cent, as the newspapers 
have reported to be the intention, then, in order to bring in 
as much revenue as at present, enough wool woukl have to 
be imported to destroy the market for and displace nearly 
the entire American clip. 



This question, with all its details and far-reaching conse- 
quences, must evidently be considered in the light of all the 
international industrial and commercial factors which bear 
upon it. The rough-and-ready attempt to reduce prices by 
the reduction or abolition of duties on raw wool resembles 
rather a policy of paying dividends out of capital. The only 
effectual way to make wool permanently cheaper is to increase 
its production and to develop, to the fullest extent, all 
possible fields of production. The contention that the reduc- 
tion or abolition of duty on foreign wool will increase com- 
petition in the American market is but a short-sighted view 
of the situation. It leaves entirely out of consideration the 
markets of the world, with the international demand and 

The enlarging of the American demand for foreign wool 
does not lessen the competition for the world's supply, but 
increases it; the way to really decrease wool prices is to 
increase American production. And American production 
can, and with adequate and permanent protection^ removed 
from the realm of partisan politics, will be increased to the 
desired extent and the United States will be able to produce 
all the wool necessary for her own requirements (and with 
that considerably increase her meat supply) — with the excep- 
tion of wool imported for special purposes, as for instance 
that used in the manufacture of some of the finer fashionable 
fabrics, dutiable as articles of luxury. To the extent that 
this result is accomplished and the American demand for 
foreign wool diminished, the price of wool abroad will 
decline, and with such decline in the world's market the 
price of wool in the United States will become cheaper, as 
the wool markets in this country have to follow the world's 

JVot by lessening American wool production and thereby 
increasing American demand in the ivorld markets, but by 
increasing American production and thereby decreasing Ameri- 
can de7nand in the markets abroad will a general reduction of 


wool prices he surely brought about. This is the only simple 
and satisfactory solution of the question and cannot be too 
strongly commended to the serious contemplation of all 
those who, in the recent newspaper and magazine agitation 
against Schedule K, so loudly proclaimed their anxiety to 
obtain a sufficient quantity of good and cheap woolen clothing 
for the American people. 


An important element in operating expenses is the cost 
of supplies — dyestuffs, chemicals, oil, etc., etc. — in respect 
to which the woolen industry is very much dependent upon 
dutiable imports. Under the head of supplies may also be 
included the parts of machinery necessary to replace those 
worn out. As already stated, very much textile machinery 
is imported and additional parts must be bought and brought 
over with the machinery itself, to avoid possible delay and 
idleness in the mill, thereby increasing the original outlays 
for equipment ; wdiile P^uropean mills can depend upon 
promptly obtaining reserve parts from the makers of 
machinery whenever they need them. 

As for interest on borrowed moriey., that is nearly always 
higher in the United States than in Europe, a fact suffi- 
ciently attested by the amount of European finance credits 
used in the United States, but which cannot be taken advan- 
tage of by American textile enterprises in general. 

The cost of keeping a plant in proper repair is higher 
here, as the life of the buildings and equipment in an Ameri- 
can plant is no greater than in a European mill, but is, if 
anything, less, owing to climatic influences. A greater 
amount must also be written off by American mills each year 
for depreciation proportionate to the higher cost of construc- 
tion and equipment. As this excess in cost is fully 55 per 
cent, the allowance for depreciation in an American mill must 
also be at least 55 per cent greater than in a European mill 
of the same capacity. 


One very important reason why the American woolen 
manufacturer requires protection is the fact that he is pre- 
vented from entering the open markets of the world in com- 
petition with European manufacturers by his more expensive 
plant, higher wages, and greater administrative and operat- 
ing expenses, due to the higher basis of manufacture in 
this country. He must depend entirely, for an outlet for his 
goods, upon the Jiome market, while the whole world is open 
to the European manufacturer, in addition to his usually 
very well protected home market. In the event of business 
depression in the latter, he can send his surplus wares to 
another market, thus avoiding demoralization of prices at 
home ; the American has no alternative but to reduce pro- 
duction or close his mill entirely until business revives. 

In consequence of the favorable chances of an outlet at 
home as well as abroad, European manufacturers have each 
more or less their special territory, and do not enter into 
such close competition with each other as do American manu- 
facturers. If a European manufacturer has any fabric of 
which he makes a specialty, he is not so liable to have as 
keen a competition on the part of other manufacturers as in 
America, where manufacturers, with the exception of a few 
producers of specialties, are forced to compete in a great 
measure with the whole manufacturing force of the country 
catering to the same market. I may say that I am very well 
informed about the conditions in this and the principal 
European markets, and I do not hesitate to assert most posi- 
tively that, despite the fairy tales we hear of a woolen trust 
fixing the prices for American woolens, there is not a single 
country where competitioyi hetiveen wooleti and worsted manu- 
facturers is so keen as it is in the United States. 


In most other industries quality and price are the only 
determining factors in the salability of goods, but in the 
woolen industry fashion also plays a very important part — 


more important even in many cases than quality and price, as 
may constantly be seen from the announcements of all kinds 
of dealers offering their "imported goods " and " latest Paris 
and London styles " to their customers and the public. 
Fashions for men's wear are largely set by England, and 
those in ladies' wear are dictated by Paris, so that European 
mills have in this respect, by reason of their geographical 
position, a great advantage over American mills. As the 
result of greater experience, due to longer establishment and 
the greater adaptability of their workmen, European mills 
can change their styles and qualities more quickly and more 
satisfactorily to meet the constantly varying demands of 
fashion than can most of the mills in America, where a great 
part of the operatives are a less constant quantity, lacking 
the thorough training and experience of their fellow-workmen 
in Europe. 

As changes in fashion are frequent and often far-reaching, 
all this constitutes a serious handicap for the American 
woolen manufacturer. Other industries are very much better 
off, being either free from fashion entirely, or at least fixing 
their own styles and not being bound by those abroad. In 
many lines it is the foreign manufacturer who must come to 
the United States and at great expense and with considerable 
trouble acquaint himself with American styles and require- 
ments, adapting his plant to their production. In these cases 
the foreign manufacturer is at a disadvantage. In woolens 
and worsteds, just the reverse is true. This is another impor- 
tant factor in determining what is adequate protection, over 
and above the bare difference in cost of production here and 


The importance of fashion in the woolen industry was Avell 
recognized and taken into account by the framers of the last 
German tariff, who considered the duty on such fashionable 
products a tax on luxuries and not on necessaries. Germany 
has free wool, because she has not the necessary ground by 
far to raise sufficient wool for her large woolen industry ; but 


sheep-breeding stations are being established in the German 
colonies in Southwest Africa, under Government auspices, 
with the object of encouraging and aiding the farmers to 
undertake and to develop as much as possible the industry 
of wool growing on German territory. 

And although Germany has free wool and has also a trifle 
lower wages than England, she has a protective tariff on 
woolen manufactures, designed to a large extent to protect 
the German woolen industry against the importation of men's 
wear fabrics from England and dress goods from France. 
The German duties are all specific, but it may be said that 
this duty is equivalent to a protection averaging one-third of 
the cost of production (comprising labor, capital and all the 
elements which I have heretofore mentioned as entering into 
such cost). 

The American tariff on woolen manufactures scarcely 
makes up for the difference in cost of production in the 
United States and Europe, and although nominally higher, 
it is, taking into account the relative cost of production here 
and abroad, considerably lower than the tariffs of all the large 
European countries, such as Austria, France, Germany, Italy, 
and Russia, a special feature of all of whose tariffs, with their 
systems of graduated specific duties, is that the greater the 
amount of work necessary in production, the greater is the 
amount of protection. Under such a system, the heavier, 
coarser fabrics, representing less work in respect to spinning, 
weaving, dyeing, finishing, etc., pay less than the lighter and 
finer fabrics, in the production of which more work is 

In case of the adoption of this system in America, the 
compensatory duties now existing would have to be main- 
tained, while the ad valorem duties would be abolished and 
in their place a specific duty, varying with the amount of 
work represented in the cloth in question, would be levied to 
protect the domestic manufacturer. As this system has not 
only been introduced into all the larger European countries, 
with the exception of England, but has been found to 
operate successfully and to give general satisfaction, the criti- 


cism cannot be made that it is impracticable. On the con- 
trary it is a much juster method of levying duties and much 
more equitable in its effects than the ad valorem system now 
in operation in the United States. 


In the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909, woolen manufac- 
tures amounting to eighteen million dollars (foreign value) 
were imported, and for the corresponding period of 1910, 
twenty-three and one-half million dollars (foreign value). 
The landed value in America of these importations was very 
considerably higher. If foreign manufacturers can produce 
these goods, pay the present tariff on them and still make a 
profit, it is evident that the tariff is not too high, and that 
any lowering of it would unnecessarily open ouv market to 
more foreign goods, greatly facilitating their importation and 
correspondingly harming our home industry. 

The margin by which the present duties of Schedule K 
enable American manufacturers to compete with those in 
Europe is so narrow that, were it not for the advantage of 
proximity to the market, the tariff on woolen goods would 
be inadequate to protect most American woolen manufac- 
tures against those of Europe ; and even the American 
manufacturer's advantage of proximity to the market is 
being more and more reduced by the improved and cheaper 
means of transportation and communication — faster steam- 
ships and improved and cheaper postal and cable services — 
which are constantly bringing America and Europe closer 
and closer together. I merely mention these facts to show 
that American woolen manufacturers are not extravagantly 
protected by Schedule K. 


Any tariff legislation regarding woolen manufactures 
should make up for all the differences in the cost of produc- 
tion, viz. : 

1. Greater capitalization and consequent higher 
interest charges ; or conversely, lower dividends 


Oil the same amount of capital invested in 
America than in Europe. 

2. Greater cost of erecting, equipping and organiz- 

ing mill, necessitating correspondingly larger 
allowance for depreciation. 

3. Greater cost of operating and maintaining mill, 

including higher salaries and wages paid in 
United States. 

4. Greater cost of protected raw material. 

5. Lack of foreign market for American manufac- 

tures, and 

6. Must also take into consideration the various other 

disadvantages, outlined above — fashion, better 
trained labor, etc. — under which American 
manufacturers of woolen and worsted fabrics 
labor as compared with European manufac- 

Starting with raw wool as a basis, the schedule on wool 
and woolen manufactures should be so fixed that due allow- 
ance is made for all the elements of greater cost which enter 
into production in the United States as compared with pro- 
duction abroad. The wool grower must be protected to 
make up for the greater cost to him of raising sheep and 
caring for them ; the manufacturer must be compensated for 
the increased cost to him of the raw material and must also 
be protected, with respect to wages, cost of plant and operat- 
ing expenses, in all the processes of manufacture — sorting, 
washing, carding and combing the wool, spinning the yarn, 
weaving, dyeing and finishing the cloth, and so on. Due 
allowance should also be made for the more intricate pro- 
cesses and more experienced and careful work involved in 
the production of the finer fabrics. 


In deciding what is adequate protection, it must be borne in 
mind that it is absolutely impossible to fix, for the purpose of 
determining the amount of duty to be levied, the exact point 
of equilibrium between the cost of production here and 


abroad, and that besides this a vast number of additional cir- 
cumstances, already touched upon, must be taken into account. 
As the cost of production varies greatly in European mills, 
even in those situated in the vicinity of each other, a tariff 
based on prices and conditions prevailing in one place would 
not be enough to protect the American woolen industry 
against the products of another place, where the scale of 
values is altogether different. All the more is this true of 
mills in different countries of Europe. 

American labor and capital must be sufficiently protected, 
and as I have tried to explain, the present tariff is no more 
than sufficient and its underlying principles should be 
maintained. And once the danger of excessive foreign com- 
petition and the possibility of any mistaken change which 
would impair the effectiveness of the present tariff is removed, 
the natural business rivalry of home manufacturers will surely 
develop more and more freely and ensure the continuance of 
adequate and normal prices. While trusts exist in other 
industries, there is not now and never has been a monopoly 
in the woolen industry. Nor can the reproach be brought 
against the woolen industry, as it has been brought against 
others, that its products are sold cheaper in foreign markets 
than at home, because the American woolen industry has no 
foreign trade. The individual industries should he considered 
separately on their merits. 


I am sure everybody may be justified in assuming that the 
members of the leading political parties have equally at 
heart the general welfare of the country. The weakness of 
American politics, however, is the fact that the Republican 
party, as a party., is for a protective tariff, while the Demo- 
cratic party, as such, favors a tariff for revenue only. But 
the manufacturers of America do not weave one fabric for 
the Republican and another for the Democrat ; they weave a 
national American cloth for all, and demand for that a 
national Ainerican system of protection. 

Those who think to serve the country best by a reduction 


of the duty forget that they would thereby hurt the home 
production and make the American consumer more depen- 
dent on foreign countries. The advocates of this policy also 
forget that in this way the national wealth would be decreased 
by many millions of dollars annually, aside from the loss of 
employment to thousands of workpeople, who in their turn 
are consumers for many other industries. They also do not 
reflect that, after the immediate force of the reduction of 
duties had been exhausted in the harming and restricting 
of the American woolen industry, the inevitable consequence 
would be to increase the prices for wool and woolen fabrics 
in international markets, on account of the greater demand 
for such articles from America due to diminished home pro- 

The policy of the other party is to protect the production 
of American wool and woolen manufactures — which are 
inseparably connected — in order that these industries may 
be more and. more strengthened and thereby become more 
productive from year to year, ensuring for coming generations 
an adequate supply of wool and woolen clothing and mutton, 
while adding at the same time greatly to the national wealth, 
instead of paying the large amounts involved to foreign 
countries and being dependent upon the latter for our food 
and clothing. 


The above facts and absolutely reliable figures (given in 
Tables I. and II. at end hereof) regarding the cost of produc- 
tion here and in Europe, which are based on the actual 
present wage lists of six of the leading German firms and 
on those of similar American firms engaged in woolen and 
worsted manufacturing, and on present estimates of leading 
contractors in both countries, are submitted for the purpose 
of demonstrating with what obstacles the woolen industry 
has to contend and how absolutely unfounded are the 
attacks on Schedule K. It is to be hoped that they may 
help to present in a clear light the question of the compara- 
tive cost of woolen manufacturing here and abroad — a 


question regarding which many men have allowed themselves 
to be misled by the conception of the matter hitherto pre- 
sented in a certain portion of the public press. The extent 
to which certain magazine writers have gone in stirring up 
discontent among the general public regarding the woolen 
industry is almost beyond comprehension. Not wishing to 
doubt their sincerity, I can only assume that in thus mislead- 
ing and poisoning the minds of a great part of the general 
public, they have been absolutely ignorant of the subject and 
have failed to realize the magnitude of the injury done by 
them to the business of the country. 


In a statement published in the " New York Evening Post" 
of March 27, 1911, Mr. Underwood, Chairman of the Ways 
and Means Committee, said, among other things : 

In 1860 the importation of woolen manufactures, exclu- 
sive of duplications, amounted to 58 per cent ; in 1890 to 
20.9 per cent, and in 1905 it had fallen to the small figure 
of 4.4 per cent. During the hearings (on the Payne Bill) 
several gentlemen appeared before us, who testified that they 
had been engaged in the manufacture of woolen goods for 
30 or 40 years. I asked these witnesses if they could recall 
the time when they first engaged in the manufacture of 
woolen goods and they said they could. I asked them if the 
industry prospered at that time, and they said it did ; and I 
asked if it was seemingly as prosperous then as now, and they 
said it was ; and yet at that time there was all the way from 
20 to 30 per cent of importations, and, under the Dingley Bill, 
it had been reduced to 4.4 per cent. 

In the first place I can state, from my personal knowledge, 
that conditions in the woolen industry in 1890, either in 
Europe or in America, cannot be satisfactorily compared 
with those of to-day, owing to enormous changes in popula- 
tion and consumption on the one hand and in production and 
business competition on the other. Since the time mentioned 
production and consequently competition have been enor- 


mously increased (see Table III. at end, giving production 
of woolens and worsteds according to Census Reports of 
1890, 1900, 1905, and 1910). In consequence prices and 
profits have been very much lowered. As I can further 
state from exact personal knowledge^ the profits on woolen 
goods sold in the American market by European manufac- 
turers about 1890 before the passing of the McKinley Bill 
were so high that many of the latter neglected their home 
market and devoted themselves almost exclusively to the 
American trade. If things have changed since then, it must 
be ascribed to the workings of a sound and reasonable pro- 
tective tariff. The figures given by Mr. Underwood as to 
the reduction of imports under the wool schedules of recent 
years give the best proof of the correctness of the protective 
duties, which have so favorably developed and extended the 
woolen industry in the United States. Any advocate of 
protection would be willing to rest his case on them. 
Mr. Underwood further says : 

If the woolen manufacturing business could prosper 
when 20 per cent of importations were coming into this 
country, and they testified that it did, why cannot they 
prosper to-day with a fairly competitive tariff, instead of a 
practically prohibitive one? 

This means, of course, that American manufacturers could, 
in his opinion, lower their prices to compete with imports 
under a reduced tariff and yet make a reasonable profit. 
And on this assumption, Mr. Underwood bases his proposal 
for a reduction of the duties on woolen manufactures. If 
American manufactures prospered in 1890, when importa- 
tions equaled 20 per cent of the home production, the 
natural conclusion is that American production of woolen 
and worsted goods at that time fell short, by 20 per cent, of 
supplying the home market. To-day the home production 
supplies 95 per cent of the country's requirements, leaving 
only 5 per cent on the basis of the low foreign value to be 
imported. Any increase of imports, therefore, could only 
take place at the cost of curtailing American manufacture. 



Continuing, Mr. Underwood says : 

The Government is in need of revenue, and the woolen 
manufacturers and their representatives here are not willing 
to contribute their fair portion of this taxation to the Treas- 
ury that they exact from the people by a prohibitive tariff. 

Mr. Underwood wants to obtain more revenue from the 
imports of woolen manufactures, and accordingly wishes to 
reduce the duties with the object of increasing the imports of 
woolen goods. As there is not the least likelihood of the 
demand for these goods increasing sufficiently to make up for 
an eventual increase of imports, the carrying out of Mr. 
Underwood's plans could only be accomplished at the expense 
of American woolen manufacturers, who, in the event of 
greater imports, would have correspondingly to curtail their 

If imports increased 10 per cent, the market for the output 
of American mills would have to be diminished that much, 
unless the latter, which, according to Mr. Underwood's own 
figures, now supply 95 per cent of the country's requirements, 
in order to keep their plants and their workpeople fully 
employed, could lower the prices of their goods to meet the 
foreign competition. And in the latter event there would be 
no increase of imports, while the revenue, at the lower rates 
of duty, would be less. Every experienced business man, 
moreover, knows what is the effect of such competition for a 
disputed market. It is not stimulating, but demoralizing 
in its results, and the offering of a surplus production of, say, 
10 per cent would have far more serious effects on the home 
market than the mere figures indicate. 

To follow out Mr. Underwood's idea, duties would again 
have to be lowered in an attempt to accomplish the desired 
end (the raising of revenues from duties on woolen manu- 
factures). As long as American manufacturers were willing 
and financially able to stay in the field and maintain their 
mills at their present capacity, no appreciable increase could 
take place in European imports, while the duties being con- 


tinually decreased, the revenue therefrom would become 
steadily smaller. 

We need not follow Mr. Underwood's plan to its logical 
conclusion, which would eventually mean the destruction of 
American woolen manufacturing, by continued reduction of 
duties, ruining at first those elements of the industry which 
are economically the weakest and therefore most dependent 
upon and most deserving of national tariff protection. 


Assuming that I have shown that the realization of Mr. 
Underwood's plan would not accomplish, at one and the 
same time — except by the eventual paralyzing of the home 
industry — what are admittedly his chief aims, namely, the 
reduction of prices of American woolen goods and the 
increase of revenue from duties on woolen manufactures, I 
wish to point out the fallacy of his other contention — the 
need of greater foreign competition in the American market 
for the regulation of prices of woolen and worsted fabrics. 

Without going into complicated figures, but simply accept- 
ing Mr. Underwood's statement as to the comparatively small 
amount of importations of woolen manufactures under the 
present tariff, I should like to ask if Mr. Underwood realizes 
what these figures plainly prove to the advantage of the 
American manufacturer? The European manufacturer does 
not alone consider the duty he has to pay on his goods when 
they arrive in this country ; he also considers the price at 
which he can sell them, in order to see whether he can pay 
the duty and still make a profit. And the fact that goods 
are imported to the extent mentioned shows that the present 
tariff gauges pretty closely the difference in cost of produc- 
tion here and abroad, with enough margin in favor of the 
European manufacturer to enable him to sell a certain 
amount of his products in this market. 

As long as this is the case, the tariff is not " prohibitive " and 
does not "enable them (the woolen manufacturers) to increase 
their profits and avoid competition." For it is evident that 
any raising of the prices on the part of American manufac- 


turers would at once make possible an increase in the volume 
of imports. This proves the correctness of what has been the 
main contention of advocates of protection for years, namely, 
that the proper conservation of the home market for domestic 
industries does not tend to raise, but rather to lower prices. 
The American woolen industry is to-day so well developed 
and comprises so many independent enterprises in all parts of 
the country that, as I have previously mentioned in this 
statement, the greatest competition exists and this is entirely 
sufficient to prevent any possibility of a combination to raise 
prices. A greater foreign competition for the purpose of 
regulating prices of woolens in America is therefore abso- 
lutely unnecessary. And as for the profits of American 
woolen and worsted mills, I may state that the profits in 
general are not higher, but rather lower than those of similar 
European enterprises. Also in this 7'espect I claim to be very 
ivell informed from exact personal knowledge. 


The following statement is also made by Mr. Underwood : 

The real justification for a tariff can be only for the pur- 
pose of raising revenue to support the Government. 

Admitting this, for the sake of argument — although 
every man who believes in the further development of 
American industry must be utterly opposed to this con- 
ception of the primary purposes of a tariff — why should 
the tcoolen i7idustr7/ be expected to furnish still more revenue 
than it has done and is doing under the present tariff, where 
it occupies a preeminent place in respect to the amount of 
duties collected? For the fiscal year ended June 30, 1910, 
the customs receipts of the country aggregated three hun- 
dred and thirty-three million dollars — the largest in the 
history of the United States. Of this large amount. Sched- 
ule K, taken as a whole, furnished directly one-eighth, being 
surpassed only by sugar. 

Besides, it must not be forgotten that the woolen manu- 
facturing industry, in addition to the large amounts of wool 


imported by it, which, as above shown, add materially to the 
customs receipts, annually brings in indirectly many millions 
of dollars of revenue in the way of duties on its importa- 
tions of machinery, chemicals, dye-stuffs and numerous other 
supplies. All these items are credited to other industries, 
the receipts from which would be correspondingly diminished 
in the event of any injury to the domestic woolen industry; 
while on the other hand no similar items of supplies, etc., 
intended for other industries are included in the receipts 
under Schedule K. Textile machinery is not specially clas- 
sified, so that it is impossible to say just how much was 
received from this source and credited to the iron and steel 
group. Neither do the tables of customs receipts indicate 
how much of the imports under the head of chemicals, dye- 
stuffs, oils, etc., are intended for use in the woolen industry. 
Directly and indirectly, then, the woolen industry, which 
depends for its existence on adequate tariff protection, has 
done and is doing at least as much toward the upbuilding 
of the country as any other, especially those not dependent on 
the tariff ; and the more the industry is properly protected, 
the greater will be its development and the cheaper and 
better will its products become, thus benefiting the whole 
American nation. None of these facts are taken into account 
by the critics of Schedule K, and in view of the direct and 
indirect revenue derived from imports of wool and woolen 
manufactures and from the imports of other articles used in 
the manufacture of woolen goods, Mr. Underwood, in his 
attempt to still further increase the revenue from Schedule K 
by a reduction of duties, runs a great risk of "killing the 
goose which lays the golden eggs." 


In another respect also the woolen schedule may be relied 
upon to furnish revenue, viz., by the duties on fashionable 
articles of import. Certain goods, representing the latest 
European fashions, will always be imported, regardless of the 
duty, by and for the great number of wealthy people in the 
United States desirous of having something out of the ordi- 


nary, with whom the cost does not enter into consideration 
and who cling to the traditional notion that imported goods 
are better, more stylish, and less commonly worn than 
domestic products. 

This is all the more true in respect to woolen manufac- 
tures, because, in the finer articles of clothing, the cloth used 
only constitutes a small part of the cost. P"'or instance, a 
gentleman's suit made of imported material selling for from 
$60 to $70 requires 3^ yards of cloth, which, at the average 
price per yard of $3 to $4, would amount in all to only $10 
to $15. This also applies, in corresponding degree, to fash- 
ionable articles of ladies' wear made of woolen and worsted 
goods. In order to obtain as much as possible from this inex- 
haustible source of revenue, the duties on such fashionable 
articles must be fixed at such a level as to make them in fact — 
as they are generally considered in European countries and as 
they ought to be considered here — a tax on luxuries. 

Those who are dissatisfied with and attack Schedule K seem 
to have but an inadequate conception of the task of properly 
and soundly clothing the ninety odd millions of people in the 
United States, and while I credit the advocates of this policy 
with the very best intentions, I cannot help stating, as my 
very earnest conviction, that they utterly fail to grasp the 
full importance of the subject. 

Rather than re-arrange our customs duties solely for the 
purpose of raising revenue, regardless of the injury resulting 
to the important wool growing and wool manufacturing 
industries, it would be better, if no other means were avail- 
able, to adopt more equitable and more certain measures for 
obtaining additional revenue. 


President Taft is undoubtedly correct in demanding mature 
consideration of the whole matter, and in asking that Con- 
gress await the report of a tariff board or commission, so that 
many of the unsound theories propounded by various people 
with the best of intentions, but lacking just as much the 


necessary comprehension and knowledge of the subject, may 
be properly corrected. 

In framing legislation of this kind it is impossible to have 
too much information. Not only should the report of the 
tariff board or commission be awaited, but that report should 
be examined most closely and a hearing given to those 
differing with its conclusions. The Tariff Commission of 
Germany, formed in 1899, consumed several years in the pre- 
liminary work of gathering and arranging information and 
statistics upon which to base proposals for the present 
German tariff enacted in 1902. In this country the same 
task might be accomplished in a shorter time. The German 
Commission at first comprised a General Committee (Wirt- 
schaftlicher Ausschuss) of twenty-four members, which has 
since been increased to forty-eight. For the purpose of 
assisting and strengthening the General Committee, the Cora- 
mission was enlarged by the appointment of a great number 
of experts representing all the principal industries and occu- 
pations — iron, textile, and all other industries, commerce, 
agriculture, etc. — who took part in the proceedings relating 
to their respective interests. (I may add that I served as one 
of the experts for the woolen industry.) 

Officials of the Government, representing the Department 
of the Interior and the Treasury Department, were present at 
all sessions of the Commission and drew up, using mainly 
the data obtained by them in cooperation with the Commis- 
sion, the form of the bill to be submitted to the Reichstag 
for final action. None of the members of the German Tariff 
Commission, who were selected for their high standing in 
their respective lines, received any compensation whatever 
for their services, the Government employees keeping records 
of all meetings. If the German system were to be applied to 
America, for instance. President Taft's Tariff Board could 
represent the Government, and a Commission along the 
German lines outlined above, representative of all the coun- 
try's interests, agricultural, industrial, and commercial, could 
be appointed to cooperate with the Tariff Board in compiling 


data for a sound and at the same time business-like tariff bill 
for the final consideration of Congress. 

So thorough and systematic were the methods of the 
German Commission that it achieved a world-wide reputa- 
tion. The most detailed statements were required from all 
agricultural, industrial, and mercantile enterprises of any 
importance regarding production, capitalization, number of 
laborers, sources of supply for raw material, domestic and 
foreign sales, suggestions regarding the home and export 
trade, etc. With these data in hand it was possible for the 
Government and the members of the Commission to obtain a 
thorough insight into the working of each industry, as well 
as the interrelation of the various industries. Without a simi- 
larly thorough knowledge of the subject no body of legisla- 
tors should attempt to pass laws affecting the country's 
wealth, its agriculture, commerce and industry, and the 
opportunities of all its people for earning their livelihood 
under equal conditions. 


Whenever, in a European country, changes are made in the 
tariff, the changes do not take effect until those affected have 
had an opportunity to adjust themselves to the new condi- 
tions. The last German Tariff was completed in the summer 
of 1902, but its provisions did not take effect until March 1, 
1903. The same is true of the French tariff which took 
effect last year. In the United States, too, when the tariff is 
revised, due time should be allowed the business interests 
affected to adapt themselves to the changes. There are 
many industries, among them the woolen industry, which 
must make the purchases required in manufacture and also 
accept orders for their products many months in advance. 
The woolen trade is divided into two seasons — spring and 
fall — and in order to take care of the rush of business in 
the height of the seasons, extensive arrangements must be 
made a very long time ahead by the retailer, the clothing 


manufacturer, the jobber and the manufacturer of woolen 
and worsted fabrics. From the time the last mentioned buys 
his wool in the primary market to the time when the finished 
cloth is offered for sale by the retail dry goods store, or is 
made up into wearing apparel by the dressmaker or the 
merchant tailor, many months must necessarily elapse. In 
the case of ready-made clothing, suits, cloaks, etc., where the 
cloth has to go through the hands of the wholesale clothing 
manufacturer and then be delivered to the retailer, the lapse 
of time from the purchase of the raw wool to the sale to the 
consumer of the finished product is even greater. Therefore 
in all fairness ample time should be given to all concerned, 
in the case of eventual tariff changes, to arrange their busi- 
ness accordingly. 

It is to be hoped that by a thorough and scientific investi- 
gation by a non-partisan board or commission the whole situ- 
ation may be made clear and that the misleading speeches 
and writings against Schedule K may cease, so that the 
woolen industry, which is as much entitled to existence as 
any other, may be permitted to further develop under just 
and equitable conditions and contribute as heretofore its 
important part to the general welfare of the country. 



Table I. 

A. — Buildings. 

Comparative unit costs of labor and materials required in the construction 

of a mill building suitable for wooleii or worsted manufacturing. 

In Germany. 

In U.S.A. 

Excess Cost 
in U.S.A., 
Per Cent. 

Excayation, per cubic yard 

Concrete, " " " 

Brickwork, " " '' 

Roofing, per square foot 















Skylights, per square foot 

Cement floor, per square foot 

Cast and wrought iron, per lb 

Doors, windows, painting, etc 


I-beams, per ton of 2,200 lbs 

500 H. P. cross compound Rice and 
Sargent Engine, including con- 
denser erected on foundation .... 

Fire tube boilers, per 100 lbs 









Piping and covering 


Electric lighting and motors 






Average percentage of excess 
cost in U.S.A. for above 
units of construction 


Laborers, per hour 








Bricklayers, per hour 


Carpenters, per hour 


Sheet metal workers, per hour .... 
Iron workers, per hour 


April 11, 1911. 

The above are exact figures obtained at date hereof from 
very prominent American and German mill contractors and 

B. — Machinery . 

Imported macliinery pays 45 per cent duty, and the packing, forwarding 
and freight charges amount to from 10 per cent to 15 per cent additional. 

As outlined in the foregoing statement, domestic machinery used in woolen 
and worsted manufacturing is not quite so expensive as European machinery, 
but in many cases the domestic machinery has not been so fully perfected as 
the European machinery and is therefore less effective and this fact tends to 
neutralize the difference in cost. 


From the above figures, compiled under A and B, it can be 
seen that the cost of a mill in the United States is 55 per cent 
higher than that of a mill of equal capacity in Germany ; and 
the German figures may well be taken as the average for 
European countries in general. 

Table II. 
Comparative Wages paid in Woolen and Worsted Mills in the Eastern part 
of the United States and in Germany. 

(Figures for Germany represent in each case the average wage paid by leading firms in 
six of the principal woolen centers. The actual wages differ in each locality, but the 
amounts given below represent the average weekly wage.) 

Worsted spinning (French sys 
tern): * 

Head wool sorter 

Wool sorter 

Wash house overseer 

Card room overseer 

Combing room overseer 

Drawing room overseer 

Mule spinning overseer 

Ring spinning overseer 

Twisting and reeling overseer. . 

Wool washers 

Card strippers 

Card feeders 



Gill boxes 

Drawing gills 

Drawing frames 

Roving frames 

Mule spinners 

Mule spinners' helpers 

Ring spinners 


Winders and reelers 

Cylinder room overseers 

Cylinder room overseers' helpers, 

Needle setter overseers 

Needle setter overseers' helpers 


Engineer helpers 

Firemen overseer 

Average Wage Per Week of 
56 Working Hours. 

Ratio of U.S. 
Wages to 

Eastern U.S. 


Per Cent. 



























































































* The Bradford system of worsted spinning is not used in Germany at all. 
**The wool sorting in the United States is done principally by men and in Germany by 



Table II, — Continued. 

Firemen overseer helpers 

Yard laborers overseer 

Laborers, all around 

Woolen spinning: 

Boss spinner 



Spinner's helper 

Card cleaner 


Laborers for various kinds of 



Boss weaver 

Loom fixer '. . . 

Warping room foreman 

Sizing room foreman 

Drawing in foreman 

Examining room foreman 





Sizer's helper 

Drawer in 

Hander in 

Warp twister 



Dyeing : 

Head dyer 

Dye house foreman 

Dye tub man 

Rinsing machine man 

Finishing : 

Burling: Head overseer. .. . 
Assistant overseer, 

Scouring : Head overseer .... 
Assistant overseer, 

Carbonizing : Overseer 


Fulling : Overseer 


Teazling : Head overseer. . . . 
Assistant overseer, 

Steaming : Overseer 


Average Wage Per Week of 

66 Working Hours. 

Ratio of U.S. 

Wages to 

German in 
Per Cent. 

Eastern U.S. 










































































































































Table II. — Concluded. 

Average Wage Per Week of 
.56 Workine Hours. 

Ratio of U.S. 

\\ ages to 

German in 
Per Cent. 

Eastern U.S. 


Drying : 

Head overseer. . . . 




Assistant overseer, 









Head overseer. . . . 




Assistant overseer, 








Pressing and 

glossing : 

Head overseer. . . . 




Assistant overseer, 








Examining : 

Head examiner . . 








Putting up : 



5.50 ■ 






The above figures are based on the following conditions : 
Throughout Germany experienced, skilled labor is generally 
available for all positions in woolen and worsted mills. In 
America skilled labor must of course be used for the more 
important positions, while in veiy many American woolen 
centers the ordinary operatives are mostly drawn from what 
is absolutely unskilled labor and are on the whole inexperi- 
enced and consequently much less efficient than in Germany. 
For this reason more people are necessary to do the same 
amount of work, consequently requiring more foremen to 
oversee the work of a given number of operatives. The 
wages given for the United States in the above tables are 
furnished by mills having mostly unskilled labor, and while 
they show that the average wages paid in American woolen 
and worsted mills for the various occupations, compared with 
those paid by mills of the same capacity in Germany, are in 
the ratio of 224.92 : 100, it will also be seen therefrom that 
the excess paid in the United States to overseers, assistant 
overseers, and those doing more important work necessitating 
special skill and judgment is considerably above this average. 
If there were employed in the American mills by which the 



above figures have been furnished ordinary operatives equally 
as skilled as those employed in the German mills on whose 
wage lists the above absolutely correct figures are based, then 
the difference between the wages quoted for ordinary opera- 
tives in the United States and in Germany would be much 
greater and the ratio above given would be considerably 

Table III. 
Development of Woolen and Worsted Manufacturing in the United States, 

(Compiled from reports of United States Census Bureau.) 

S >. 



5 a 



5w • 

5"" S 

and Wages 

C 3 03 

o o « 















1909 * . . . 




Value of 




Tariff Law of 1883; McKinley 
Bill 1890; Wilson Bill 1894; 
Dingley Bill 1897. 

DiiiKley Bill 18117. 

Dingley Bill 1897. 

Payne-Aldrich Bill 1909. 

Increase in value of products 1904-1909 was greater than in any ten years prior to 1900. 
♦Preliminary figures issued by Census Bureau. 


COLONEL ALBERT CLARKE. {With portrait.) 

The wool manufacture of New England and America, and 
indeed all the great national industries of our country, have lost 
a most powerful friend in the death on July 16 of Colonel 
Albert Clarke, the distinguished Secretary of the Home Market 
Club of Boston. For a year or more Colonel Clarke had been 
bending under the burden of weariness, but the end was sudden, 
and it has brought deep grief to a host of friends who admired 
him for his intellectual courage and strength and loved him for 
his frank and manly qualities. 

Colonel Clarke was a native of Vermont, of old colonial lineage, 
descended from soldiers of the Revolution. He was born on a 
farm at Granville, and graduated from Barre Academy in 1859. 
Studying law, he was admitted to the bar, and practised at Mont- 
pelier from 1859 to 1862, when he joined Company I of the 
Thirteenth Vermont Infantry, soon becoming First Sergeant and 
First Lieutenant. His regiment saw arduous service in Virginia 
and with the First Corps fought at Gettysburg. Here Lieutenant 
Clarke and his comrades shared in that famous charge of Stan- 
nard's Vermont Brigade on the flank of Pickett's advancing 
column, the very crisis of the combat. In the three days' battle 
the Thirteenth Vermont re-took a battery which had been lost to 
the Confederates and secured sev