(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Bulletin of the Natural History Museum"

7. * C"5> 



5 13. n. 



\ o\^ 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY) 



ENTOMOLOGY 

VOL. VIII 

1959 




PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

LONDON: I959-I960 



PRINTED IN 

GREAT BRITAIN 

AT THE 

BARTHOUJMSW PRESS 

DORKING 

BY 

ADLARD AND SON, LTD. 




CONTENTS 



ENTOMOLOGY VOLUME VIII 



No. I. Check list and keys to the families and subfamilies of the Hemiptera- 

Heteroptera. By W. E. China & N. C. E. Miller i 

No. 2. A new subfamily, new genera and new species of Reduviidae (Hemip- 

tera-Heteroptera). By N. C. E. Miller 47 

No. 3. Additions to descriptions of new Olethreutinae and Carposinidae in the 

British Museum (Natural History). By A. Diakonoff 119 

No. 4. A revision of the tennites of the genus Amitermes from the Ethiopian 

region (Isoptera, Termitidae, Amitermitinae). By W. A. Sands 127 
No. 5. The Walker t5^es of fruit flies (Tephritidae-Diptera) in the British 

Museum collection. By D. Elmo Hardy 159 

No. 6. Delphacidae from the Lesser Antilles (Homoptera : Fulgoroidea). 

By R. G. Fennah 243 

No. 7. The Acrometopae of the Ethiopian Region : a revision, with notes on 

the sexual dimorphism shown by the group (Orthoptera : Tetti- 

goniidae). By D. R. Ragge 267 

No. 8. New Siphonaptera from Eastern Mediterranean Countries. By F. G. 

A. M. Smit 335 

No. 9. Studies in Powiama (Hym., Tenthredinidae). By Robert B. Benson 367 
No. 10. The Pseudococcidae (Coccoidea : Homoptera) of the Solomon Islands. 

By D. J. Williams 385 

Index to Volume VIII 



INDEX TO VOLUME VIII 



New taxonomic names are in bold type. 



abortiva, Euura 

absolutus, Dacus . 
abbreviata, Seraca 
acinacifer, Amitermes 



Acrometopae 

acutangulus, Tiarodes 

addens, Dacus 

adonidum, Pseudococcus 

afasciata, Euidella 

afilnis, Peronura 

africanus, Harrisocoris 

albinotata, Delphacodes . 

algida, Pontania 

alvea, Trypeta 

amabilis, Poecilopterocoris 

ambulator, Tiarodes 

amentivorus, Amauronematus 

Amitermes 

amoenus, Thereutocoris 

ampla, Themara 

amplipennis, Conchotopoda 

amplipennis, Trypeta 

antiqua, Trypeta . 

approximans, Curticella . 

approximans, Trypeta 

approximata, Chloriona (Sogatella) 

aquilonis, Pontania. 



• 377 
162-163, 232 

• 195-196. pi. 13 

133. 134. 141 (fig). 144 
(fig.), 147 (fig.) 
267-233 
71-72 (pi. I) 

■ 163 

426 

. 258 

291 

104 (fig.), 105 

260 



• 379 
. 208 

58 (fig.). 59 

• 74 (Pl- 2) 

. 381 

129-156 

05, 106 (fig.), 107 

206-208 

291 

. 208 

208-209 

• 232 
209-210, pi. 15 

• 259 

• 379 



arabicus multispinosus, Ctenocephalides 

337. 338 (fig. 
arctica, Pontania 
arctophilae, Pontania 
arcuosa, Enicoptera 
arcuosa, Neosophira 
areolatus, Dacus 
argyrophenga, Acroclita . 
arizicola, Chloriona (Sogatella) 
armatipes, Ptilona 
artocarpi, Mutabilicoccus . 
assamensis, Tiarodes 
atilia, Trypeta 
atrata, Pontania 
atribasis, Picrorrhyncha . 
attrahens, Tiarodes 
axonopi, Delphacodes 
balboae, Delphacodes 



377. 381, 382 

• 373 
185-186 

• 235 
163-164, 232, pi. II 

121-122 (pi. 5, 7) 

• 259 
. 236 

409, 410 (fig.), 411 

• 74 (pl- 2) 
210-21 I 

• 379 
126 (pl. 5, 10) 

• 75 (pl- 4) 
260 
260 



basale, Platystoma . 

basalis, Dacus 

basalis, Trypeta 

basifascia, Trypeta. 

beckettae, Pontania 

belemensis, Bumilia 

belua, Irantha 

biarcuatus, Dacus 

bicolor, Bubiacoris 

bicolor, Dacus 

bilineatus, Dacus . 

bimaculata, Rioxa 

bipars, Hemilea 

bipars, Sophira 

biplagiatus, Moto 

biroi, Tiarodes 

bistriga, Sophira 

borneensis, Carpophthoromyia 

bradleyi, Tiarodes . 

braunsi, Amitermes 134, 



brazilensis, Pissonotus 
brevicornis, Ptilona 
brevipennis, Catamiarus 
brevipes, Dysmicoccus 
brevistriga, Dacus . 
browni, Palmicola . 
browni, Tiarodes 
brunneiventris, Tiarodes 
Bubiacoris 
Bumilia 



calaharica, Prosphaga 
calida, Paragylla 
cameronicus, Tiarodes 

Carposinidae 
Catamiarus . 
caudata, Dasyneura 
celebensis, Tiarodes 
chalepus, Trionymus 
championi, Catamiarus 
citri, Planococcus . 
clavigera, Peronura 
Chloriona 
cluana, Trypeta 



. 228 
164 
211 

. 2X1 

378-379 

. 252 

III 

164-165, 232 pl. II 

112, 113 (fig.), 114 

. 165 

165-166, 234 pl. II 

192 

• 234 
119, pl. 14 

116 (fig.), 117 

75-76 (pl. 4) 

200, 236 

• 234 

• 76 (pl. 2) 
(fig.), 136, 138 

(fig.), 141 (fig.) 

• 255 

• 236 
95 (fig.). 96 (fig.) 

• 397 
166-167, 232 

418 (fig.), 419 
76-77 (pl. 2) 

• 77 (pl- 4) 

.1X2 
250 



323-324 (fig.) 

50 (fig.), 51 

77-78 (pl. 2) 

I2I-I24 

93-94 
184, 232 

• 78 (pl. 3) 
428, 429 (fig.), 430 
97, 98 (fig.) 

. 425. 426 

321 (fig.), 322 

. 258 



135 



94 



417. 





INDEX 






cocois, Laminicoccus 


403. 404 (fig.) 


dyak, Tiarodes 




79-80 (pl. 4) 


Colastocoris 


97-99, lOI 


Dysmicoccus 




- 397 


collaris, Nothocleptes 


114, 115 (fig.) 








concava, Horatosphaga . 


308-309 








Conchotopoda 


325-326 


elegans, Nanyukicoris 




109 (fig.) no 


conciima, Sophira . 


200-201, 236, (pi. 14) 


elimea, Trypeta 




214, (pl. 15) 


concisa, Strumeta . 


. 203-205, (pi. 15) 


elongata, Horatosphaga . 




306-307 


concisus, Dacus 


. 167 


elgonis, Horatospliaga 




. 312-313 


confinis, Rioxa 


192 


emittens, Dacus 




. 171 


conformis, Dacus . 


167-168 


ensifera, Meridarchis 




124 (pl. 6, 9) 


conformis, Strumeta 


205 


enslini, Pontania 




• 379 


congener tenuistigmatus, 


Ctenophthalmus 


erinaceus, Themarohystris 




- 237 


(Euctenophthalmus) 


341, 342 (fig.) 


Euidella, 




■ 258 


censors, Adrama . 


. 160, pi. II 


evuncifer, Amitermes 135 (fig.) 


136, 137. 138 


consors, Sosiopsila 


• 237 


(fig.), 141 (fig.), I 


44 


(fig-). 147 (fig-) 


contorta, Phrictopyga 


. 256 


excavata, Pontania 




• 382 


contrahens, Dacus . 


. 168 


excellens, Tiarodes . 




. 80 (pl. 2) 


contraria, Trypeta 


. 212-213, (pi. 15) 


exigens, Dacus 




. 171 


crassicauda, Conchotopod 


& 328, 329 (fig.), 330 


Exilipedronia 




397-398 


crassipes, Pontania 


379-380 


expertus, Dacus 




171-172 


Criniticoccus . 


391-397 








crosskeyi, Horatosphaga 


318 (fig.), 319 








crudellis, Caprocethera 


• 52, 53 (fig-). 54 


falcigera, Acroclita 




122 (pl. 5, 8) 


cubana, Chloriona (Sogate 


11a) . . .259 


fasciata, Gastrozona 




. 234 


curvifer, Dacus 


. 168, pi. II 


fasciata, Urophora 


226-228, (pl. 16) 


Curvinervus . 


232 


ferruginea, Neosophira 




- 235 


Curticella 


232 


ferruginea, Trypeta 




- 215 


cylindrica, Trypeta 


- 213 


ficus, Criniticoccus . 
Ferrisiana 
figurata, Euphranta 




392, 393 (fig-) 

• 398 

• 234 


de-beauforti, Rioxa. 


• 236 


figuratus, Dacus 


I 


72-173, (pl. 11) 


delicatula, Pontania 


- 377 


flagellata, Ugyops 




247-248 


Delphacidae 


245-265 


flava, Neomalaxa . 




- 255 


Delphacinae 


250 


flavicans, Tiarodes . 




80-81 (pl. 3) 


Delphacodes . 


• 259 


floridae, Delphacodes 




. 261 


deminuta, Pontania 


- 377 


floridae puertoricensis, Delphacodes . 261 


dertona, Trypeta . 


■ 213 


formosipennis, Rioxa 




• 193 


determinatus, Dacus 


168-169 


fossata, Anomoia 




• 231 


detrudens, Dacus 


169 


fulvitarsis, Dacus . 




.173, (pl. 11) 


devius, Dacus 


169 


furcifer, Dacus 


I 


73-174, (pl. 12) 


diffusus, Dacus 


169-170, 234 


lurcifer, Paraeuphranta . 




• 235 


Dilophocoris 


- 56 








diminuta, Horatosphaga 


- 315-316 








Diol(terocoris 


51 








dipodilli, Xenopsylla 3: 


(8. 339 (figs.), 340 (fig-). 

341 

170 (pi. 11) 


glabrifrons, Pontania 
glinkus, Nematus . 




375-377 
- 382 


discipennis, Dacus . 


gracilis, Horatosphaga 




- 294 


distobasalis, Rivellia 


231 


gracilis, Plegmatoptera 




. 296 


distorta, Sophira 


201-202 pi. 14 


gracilis, Tiarodes 




. 81 (pl. 2) 


divergens, Dacus . 


170 


grallatoria, Conchotopoda 




- 330 


doclea, Trypeta 


213-214 


guadalcanalanus, Mollicoccus 


40/ 


. 408 (fig.), 409 


dolichura, Pontania 


380-381 








dolon, Punana 


249-250 (fig.) 








dominicana, Punana 


248 (fig.), 249 


hageni, Dacus 




• 233 


doreyana, Irantha . 


no 


hageni, Tiarodes 




81-82 (pl. 2) 


doreyana, Parirantha 


• III (fig-) 


Harrisocoris . 




. 103 


dorsiguttata, Sapromyza 


. 228 


hastatus, Amitermes 135 (fif 


I). 


137, 138 (fig.) 


drachmophora, Blipta 


122-123 (pi- 6, 8) 


139, 141 (fig.) I 


44 


(fig.), 147 (fig.) 


dryas, Mesodica 


123, (pi. 6, 9, 10) 


havanae, Delphacodes 




. 260 


dux, Tiarodes. 


• 79 (pl- 3) 


havanensis, Delphacodes. 




. 260 



INDEX 



helluo, Tiarodes 

helomyzoides, Strumeta . 
helomyzoides, Themarohystris 
henleyi israelicus, Nosopsyllus 

philus) 
heteromorpha, Horatosphaga 
hilaris, Tiarodes 
hirsuta, Neosimmondsia 
hoehneli, Plegmatoptera . 
humilis, Delphacodes 
hyalina, Pontania . 



iaxartes, Delphacodes 

imitans, Dacus 
impleta, Sapromyza 
impleta, Trypeta . 
importunus, Amitermes 



139, 140, 141 

(fig-) 



inaptus, Dacus 

inaptus, Plagiostenopterina 

incisus, Dacus 

inclusa, Horatosphaga 

inscripta, Cyclopsia 

inscriptus, Dacus . 

insolita, Polyana . 

instabilis, Dacus 

instabilis, Lamprogaster 

insulanus, Tiarodes. 

Iranthoides 

iranus attenuatus, Nosopsyllus 

philus) . . . 357. 358 (fig. 359-361 
iranus persicus, Ctenophthalmus (Euctenoph- 

thalmus) . . 341, 343 (fig.), 344 (fig.), 345 



• 82 (Pl- 3) 

• 205 

• 237 
(Gerbillo- 

361 (fig.), 362 
296-297 

• 83 (pi. 4) 
415, 416 (fig.) 

296-298 

260 

. 382 

264. 265 (fig.) 

• 175 
229 

. 215 
(fig-). 144 
147 (fig-) 

• 175 

• 236 
175-176. 233 

317-318 

• 232 
176 

191-192 

• 177 
230 

83-84 (pi. 3) 
112 
(GerbiUo — 



jucundus, Tiarodes 



67 (pi. 1) 



kasindlna, Horatosphaga .... 302 
kilimandjarica, Pantolepta 296 

kolophon, Chloriona (Sogatella) . . 259 

kukumi, Paraputo . . 419, 420 (fig), 421 



laetus, Colastocoris 
Laingiococcus 
Lamecosoma 
lanceolata, Rioxa . 
lanceolatus, Neodacus 
lapponica, Pontania 
lateralis, Clusiosoma 
lateralis, Dacus 
latifascia, Celetor 
lativentris, Plagiostenopterina 
lativentris, Xarnuta 
latifascia, Dacus 
latiuscula, Noeeta 
latiuscula, Rhegmatosaga 
lativentris, Dacus . 
lativentris, Trypeta 
leggei, Horatosphaga 



194- 



215- 



01 (fig.), 102 

400 

331-332 

195, (pl- 13) 

- 233 

• 379 

• 232 

• 177 
229 

• 230 

• 237 

• 177 
191 

. 231 

177-178 

216, (pi. i6) 

291-292 



leptoeerca, Conchotopoda 

leucotelus, Xarnuta 
leveri, Paraputo 
linearis, Horatosphaga 
lithoxoa, Acroclita 
lituratus, Dacus 
longipes, Horatosphaga 
longivitta, Dacus . 



. 328 

. 228 

421, 422 (fig.). 423 

294-295 

122 (pi. 5. 7) 

. 178 

295-296 

. 178 



lonnbergianus, Amitermes 135 (fig.), 138 (fig.), 
141 (fig.), 142-143, 144 (fig.) 147 (fig.) 

lorata, Pontania 379 

lotus, Tiarodes ... 67, 68 (p. i) 
lutescens, Trypeta . . . .216, 235 

luzonicus, Tiarodes 92-93 (pi- 4) 



Maculicoccus 
magna, Horatosphaga 

maidis, Peregrinus . 
malaitensis, Maculicoccus 405, 
media, Horatosphaga 
melaleuca, Trypeta 
meruensis, Horatosphaga 
messinae, Amitermes 135 (fig), 

(fig-). 143- 
miles, Tiarodes 
mjobergi, Tiarodes . 
MoUicoccus 

montivaga, Horatosphaga 
morsei, Pantolepta . 
mouhoti, Tiarodes . 
multipunctata, Hexacinia 
multistriga, Neothemara 
multistriga, Trypeta 
multivenosa, Pantolepta 
Mutabilicoccus 
multilloides, Dacus 
mutyca, Trypeta . 
myrtillifoliae, Pontania . 



Nanyukicoris 

nautica, Chloriona (Sogatella) 
nebulosa, Dasyneura 
nebulosus, Tiarodes 
nemoralis, Tiarodes 
Neomalaxa . 
Neosimmondsia 
nigrifacies, Delphacodes . 
nigrifascia, Carpophthorella 
nigrifascia, Trypeta 
nigrilinea, Dacus 
nigrilinea, Phytalmia 
nobilis, Tiarodes 
nomima, Horatosphaga 
Nosinius 
Nothocleptes 
nuda, Horatosphaga 
nugax, Phrictopyga 
nyassae, Pteromalestes . 



403. 405 
304-306 

• 255 
406 (fig.), 407 

299-301 

216 

310 

138 (fig.), 141 

-146, 147 (fig.) 

■ 84 (pi. 3) 

84-85 (pi. 2) 

• 407 
311-312 

• 327 
85 (Pl- 4) 

• 235 

• 235 
217, (pl. 16) 

. 288 

• 409 

• 178 
. 217 

• 372 



108, 109 
259 
184-185 
85-86 (pl. 3) 
72 (pl. I) 

• 255 

• 414 
261 
232 

218, (pl. 16) 
. 178 
235 
68 (pl. I) 

• 3" 

• 351 

• "4 
309-310 

257, 258 (fig.) 
99, IOC (fig.) 



INDEX 



obseuripennis, Tiarodes 
obscuripes, Tiarodes 

obtrudens, Dacus . 
Olethreutinae 
optatura, Helomyza 
opulentus, Tiarodes 
ora, PonUnia 
ornatipennis, Saccharosydne 
ortalina, Dimeringophrys 
ostentans, Tiarodes 



painei, Laingiococcus 

Palmicola 

Paraeuphranta 

Paragylla 

paralleia, Euthyphlebia 

Paraputo 

Parfrantha 

parva, Conchotopoda 

pectoralis, Dacus . 

Pedrococcus . 

peeli, Rhegmatopoda 

pelia, Tephritis 

Peragrarchis 

Peregrinus 

Peronura 

perplexus, Dacus . 

Pheletoeoris . 

philyra, Delphacodes 

Phrictopyga 

pictifrons, Burnilia. 

pictipennis, Enicoptera 

Pissonotus 

pUgiatus, Dilophocoris 

plagifera, Enicoptera 

plagif era, Seraca 

Planococcus . 

Poecilopterocoris 

poenia, Tephritis 

poenia, Trypeta 

polaris, Pontania 

pompiloides, Dacus 

Pontania 

popoflanus, Nematus 

pornia, Diorioxa 

pornia, Trypeta 

praecellens, Sparnia 

propinqua, Delphacodes 

propinquus, Tiarodes 

Prosphaga 

Protenthocoris 

proxima, Pontania 

Pseudococcus 

psiloides, Soita 

Pteromalestes 

pubiseta, Dacus 



• 86 (pi. 4) 

86-87 (pi. 3) 

179 

121-124 

189-190 

68-69 (pl- i) 

• 374 
254-255 

• 234 
69-70 (pi. I) 



400, 401 (fig.), 402 
415. 417 

• 235 
49.50 

296 

• 419 

IIO-III 

330-331 
179-180 

423-425 

• 303 

• 237 
124, 125 (pi. 5) 

• 255 
320-322 

. 180 

54 
262, 263 (fig.), 264 

• 255 

• 251 
. 186 

• 255 

5(>. 57 (fig-) 
187-188 

• 236 

• 425 
57. 58, 59 

• 237 
218-219 

• 379 
180-181 

367-384 
. 382 

• 234 
219-220 

• 252 
260-261 

87-88 (pi. 2) 

322-323 

107 

. 382 

426 

197-199, pi. 14 

97. 99 
. 181 



punctifera, Hexacina 

punctifera, Sophira 



235 
202 



quadrifasciatus, Amauronematus . 382 

quadrifera, Helomyza . . I90-I9i,(pl. 13) 



regularis, Horatospliaga 
repleta, Neothemara 
repleta, Strumeta . 
reticulatae, Pontania 
retorta, Carpoplitliarella 
retorta, Trypeta 
Rhegmatopoda 
robusta, Horatosphaga 
rodea, Peragrarchis 

roripennis, Trypeta 
rudis, Euphranta 
rudis, Trypeta 
ruficauda, Colobostrella 

rufiventris, Enicoptera 
ruspolii, Horatosphaga 



307-308 

• 235 
205-206, (pi. 15) 

• 377 
. 232 

220-221 

• 325 
291 

124 (fig.) 125 (fig.), 126 

(Pl- 5) 
221, 229 

• 234 
222 
236 

188, 231 
313-315 



saccharivora, Saccharosydne 

Saccharosydne 

salvazai, Tiarodes . 

sambura, Peronura 

sarinus aryanus, Nosopsyllus 

samia, Trypeta 
schultzei, Tiarodes . 

sciangallorum, Amitermes 141 



scriptus, Tiarodes . 
sedulus, Protenthocoris 
selecta, Adrama 
semele, Phrictopyga 
sepedonoides, Dacus 
sepedonoides, Lamprophthalma 
sepsoides, Dacus 
serrifera, Horatosphaga . 
servus, Tiarodes 
sexmaculatus, Dacus 
signata, Seraca 
signata, Sophira 
signifacies, Trypeta 
signifera, Seraca 
signatipes, Dacus 
signifascies, Dasyortalis . 
similis, Tiarodes 
simmondsi, Mutabilicoccus 



• 254 

• 254 
. 88(pl. 3) 

• 313 
349-351. 352 (fig.), 

353 (fig) 

223, 235 

88-89 (pl. 2) 

(fig.), 144 (fig.), 

146, 147 (fig.) 

• 70 (p. I) 
107, 108 (fig.) 

161, (pl. 11) 

256 (fig.). 257 

. 181 



pumilionis, Nosopsyllus (Gerbillophilus) 364 (fig.), 

365 (fig.). 366 
Punana ...... 248 



. 230 

. 181 

288-291 

• 89 (pl. 3) 

. 181 

196 

. 236 

. 223 

196-197, (pl. 14) 

181-182 

229 

89-90, (pl. 2) 

411, 412 (fig.), 

413 (fig.), 414 

simplex, Tiarodes . 72-73 (pl- 4) 

sinaiensis, Nosopsyllus (Nosinius) 353, 354 (fig), 

355 (fig). 356 (fig.). 357 








INDEX 


sinica, Trypeta 




. 223. 235 


terminifer, Dacus .... 183, 233 


smieroides, Callantra 




. 162 


theobromae, Criniticoccus 395. 396 (fig.), 397 


Sogatella 




• 259 


theodori, Nosopsyllus (Gerbillophilus) 362 


solomonensis, Pseudococcus 426, 


427 (fig.), 428 


363 (fig-). 364 (fig-) 


somali, Horatosphaga 




303-304 


Thereutocoris .105 


somaliensis, Amitermes . 135 (fig.). 138 (fig), 


Tiarodes ..... -59-67 


141 (fig.), 144 (fig-). 


147 


(fig.), 148-149 


timorensis, Tiarodes . . 90 (pi. 3) 


sordidus, Dacus 




. 182 


tinahulanus, Pedrococcus 423, 424 (fig.), 425 


sordidus, Elassogaster 




229 


tortuosa, Enicoptera . . 188-189, (pi. 13) 


sordidus, Pheletocoris 




55. (fig-). 56 


transiens, Euphranta .... 234 


Spamia 




• 252 


transiens, Trypeta . . . 225-226, (pi. 16) 


speculifer, Dacus . 




182, 233 


Trionymus ...... 428 


spinifer, Amitermes 135 (fig. 


). J 


38 (fig.), 141 


trivittatus, Dacus .... 183-184 


(fig.), 144 (fig.). 


147 


(fig.), 149-151 


trochlearis, Horatosphaga - 313 


spinifera, Burnilia 




. 251 


truncatidens, Amitermes 135 (fig), 138 (fig). 


spinifera antillana, Burnilia 




251 (fig.)-252 


141 (fig.), 144 (fig.), 147 (fig.) 153, 154 


splendens, Prosphaga 


323 


(fig.), 324-325 


tubifera, Trypeta . . . .226 


squalida, Campylocera 




. 231 


tucia, Trjrpeta ..... 226 


squalidus, Dacus . 




182 


turgidus, Dacus . . . . .184 


Stella, Trypeta 




. 224, 235 




stellipennis, Hexaclnia 




• 235 




stelfipennis, Trypeta 




224, (pi. 16) 


Ugyops 247 


stephensoni, Amitermes 135 


(fig.), 138 (fig.). 


unidentatus, Amitermes 135 (fig.). 138 (fig), 


141 (fig.), 144 (fig-). 


147 


(fig). I5I-I52 


141 (fig.). 144 (fig.), 147 (fig.), 154-156 


Stobaera 




252-253 (fig) 




strigifer, Dacus 




. 183 




strigifinis, Dacus . 




. 183, 233 


varialis, Dacus . . . . .184 


stuhlmanni, Horatosphaga 




301-303 


varipennis, Tiarodes . . 90-91 (pi. 2) 


stylifera, Horatosphaga . 




■ 307 


venilia, Delphacodes . . 261. 262 (fig.) 


subocellifera, Trypeta 




. 224 


venusta, Sophira . . . 202-203, (pl- ^5) 


sudanicus, Diokterocoris . 




51. 52 (fig.) 


vexillarius, Tiarodes ... 91 (pi. 4) 


sulaensis, Tiarodes . 




70-71 (pi. I) 


vicina, Horatosphaga . . 316-317 


sumatrensis, Tiarodes 




73-74 (Pl- 4) 


vilis, Tiarodes . . . 92 (pi. 3) 


sutana, Exilipedronia 




398, 399 (fig) 


viminalis, Pontania .... 375 
virgata, Ferrisiana .... 398 
volgensis palestinica, Ophthalmopsylla 345 

346 (fig.). 347 (fig-). 348 (fig-) 


tau, Dacus 




• 233 


vosseleri, Pantolepta .... 288 


tau, Dasyneura 




. 185 




teapae, Delphacodes 




. 261 




tectus, Criniticoccus : 


i92. 


394 (fig-). 395 


wallacei, Chloriona (Sogatella) . . . 259 


tenuis, Lamecosoma 




332 (fig.). 333 


wollastoni, Phytalmia . . -235 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO 

THE FAMILIES AND 

SUBFAMILIES OF THE 

HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA 




W. E. CHINA & N. C. E. MILLER 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. i 

LONDON: 1959 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO THE FAMILIES 

AND SUBFAMILIES OF THE HEMIPTERA- 

HETEROPTERA 



BY 



W. E. CHINA & N. C. E. MILLER 



Pp. 1-45 ; I Text-figure 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. i 

LONDON: 19^9 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical Series. 

Parts appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

This paper is Vol. 8, No. i of the Entomological 
series. 



© Trustees of the British Museum 1959 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Issued August, 1959 Price Fifteen Shillings 



r^^ 



'Ssp 



f9S9 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO THE FAMILIES 

AND SUBFAMILIES OF THE HEMIPTERA- 

HETEROPTERA 

By W. E. CHINA & N. C. E. MILLER 

In 1955 {Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 8 : 257-267) the present authors pubHshed a 
tentative check-Hst of family and subfamily names in Heteroptera. 

A number of omissions of synonyms and a few errors were brought to our notice 
in correspondence. Indeed the whole object of publishing that tentative list was to 
solicit such criticism and suggestions. A position has now been reached where the 
publication of a new list is advisable. 

We have considered a list of emendations and additions but such a list would be 
hard to use and would need continual reference to the original publication. 

A new list is therefore given in full, and to make it more useful to students a 
Key to the families and subfamilies, based only on external characters, is 
appended. 

Again, the arrangement has no phylogenetical significance. For this, students 
should refer to Fig. i. which indicates the relationships of the families based on recent 
research. 




Fig. I 



ENTOM, 8, I. 



4 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTER A-HETEROPTER A 

In the present list we have decided to accept the Amyot & Serville, 1843 names 
as vaHd, but, in case they are later invalidated, we give the next oldest valid 
name. 

Contrary to current usage, we believe that the Heteroptera represent merely a 
suborder and, together with the suborder Homoptera, comprise the Order Hemiptera. 
It is preferable not to regard the Heteroptera as the typical suborder and to replace 
the name Heteroptera by Hemiptera. We believe that such procedure, usually 
applied to subfamilies and tribes, is not appropriate to the highest categories where 
it would prove confusing. 

The existence between the Heteroptera and Homoptera of such connecting links 
as the Peloridiidae, combined with the very uniform mouth parts and metamorphosis 
within the Order, indicate that these two groups are best regarded as suborders of 
the comprehensive Hemiptera. 

The innumerable group-names of Lethierry & Severin, 1893-94 and of Haglund, 
1895 have not been included, since they are mainly tribal. 



Order HEMIPTERA 

Suborder HETEROPTERA 

Family Plataspidae Dallas, 1851, Cat. Hemipt. Brit. Mus. i, p. 61. 

Synonym Arthropteridae Fieber, i860, Europ. Hemipt., p. 27. 

Synonym Coptosominae Kirkaldy, 1909, Cat. Hemipt. i. Cimicidae, p. 36. 

Synonym Coptosomatidae Renter, 1912, Ofv. Finska Vet. Soc. Fork. 54a, 

No. 6 : 45. 
Synonym Brachyplatidae Leston, 1952, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12), 5 : 512. 

Family Lestoniidae (China), 1955, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12), 8 : 210 

(Lestoniinae). 
Family Cydnidae (Billberg), 1820, Enum. Ins. Billb., p. 70 (Cydnides). 

Subfamily i. Th5n-eocorinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. 

xviii, 60 (Thyreocorides) . 
Synonym Corimelaeninae Uhler, 1872, Report U.S. Geol. Survey (1871), 4 : 471. 

Synonym Thyreocorinae Van Duzee, 1907, Bull. Buffalo Soc. nat. Sci. 8, 

Pt. 5:5. 
Subfamily 2. Cydninae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xx, 87 

(Cydnides) . 
Synonym Cydninae Dallas, 1851, ^Cat. Hemipt. Brit. Mus. 1, p. 109 {partim). 

Subfamily 3. Sehirinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xxi, 

96 (Sehirides). Sehirinae (Stal), 1864, Hemipt. Afric. 1, p. 18. 

(Sehirida). 
Synonjnn Cydninae Dallas, 1851, Cat. Hemipt. Brit. Mus. 1, p. 109 (partim). 

Family Pentatomidae (Leach), 1815, Brewster's Edinb. Encyc. 9 : 121 

(Pentatomides). 



* This work has been consistently wrongly referred to as " List Hem. B.M." 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTER A-HETEROPTERA 



Synonym 
Subfamily 

Synonym 

Synonym 
Synon5nii 
Synonym 
Synonym 

Subfamily 
Subfamily 



Subfamily 4. 



Subfamily 
Subfamily 

Sjmonym 

Subfamily 

Sjmonjnn 
Synonym 
Synonym 
Synonym 
Synonym 
Synonym 
Synonym 
Synonym 

Subfamily 

Synonjnri 

Synonym 

Synonym 

Synonym 

Synonjnn 



5- 
6. 



7- 



Cimicidae Kirkaldy, 1909, Cat. Hemipt. i, p. i. 

Asopinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. not. Hemipt., pp. xix, 

77 (Asopides). 
Asopinae (Spinola), 1850, Tav. Sin. Hem. ex Mem. Math. Fis. Soc. 

Ital. Sci. Modena, 25, i : 69 (1852) (Asopoideae). 
Amyotinae Schouteden, 1906, Wytsman. Gen. Ins. 52 : 2. 
Amyotinae Leston, 1953, Ent. Gaz. 4 : 19. 
Arminae Bergroth, 1908, Mem. Soc. ent. belg. 15 : 180. 
Tahitocorinae (Yang), 1935 Ann. Mag. not. Hist. (10), 16 : 480 

(Tahitocoridae). 
Tessaratominae^ (Stal), 1865, Hemipt. Afric. i, p. 33 (Tessaratomida). 
Eumenotinae Esaki, 1922. Ins. Insc. Mens. 10 : 196 (under Aradidae); 

1930, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 5 : 630 (under Pentatomidae). 
Cyrtocorinae Distant, 1880, Biol, centr. Amer. Rhynchota, Het. 1, 

P-43. 
Dinidorinae (Stal), 1870, Enum. Hemipt., p. 79. 
Phyllocephalinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., 

pp. xxix, 174 (Phyllocephalides). 
Phyllocephalinae (Dallas), 1851, Cat. Hemipt. Brit. Mus. 1, p. 350 

(Phyllocephalidae) . 
Pentatominae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. 
■ xxiv, 124 (Pentatomides) . 

Pentatominae Stal, 1864, Hemipt. Afric. 1, pp. 32, 76. 
Halydidae Dallas, 1851, Cat. Hemipt. Brit. Mus. i, p. 150. 
Sciocoridae Dallas, 1851, Cat. Hemipt. Brit. Mus. i, p. 130. 
Sciocorides Amyot & Serville, 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., p. 118. 
Macropeltidae Fieber, i860, Europ. Hemipt., pp. 26, 327. 
Discocephalidae Fieber, i860, Europ. Hemipt., pp. 26, 326. 
Aeliidae Douglas & Scott, 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, p. 14. 
Rhaphigastridae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., 

pp. XXV, 141 (Rhaphigastrides). 
Scutellerinae (Leach), 1815, Brewster's Edinb. Encyc. 9 : 121 (Scutel- 

lerida) . 
Pachycorinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xvi, 

34 (Pachycorides). 
Tetjnrinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xvii, 

45 (Tetyrides). 
Eurygastrinae Amyot & Serville, 1843, Hist. nat. Himipt., pp. xviii, 

51 (Eurygastrides). 
Odontoscelidae Douglas & Scott, 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, 

P- 13- 
Eurygastridae Douglas & Scott, 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, p. 13. 



^ See China 
Serville, 1843, 
tominae. 



1954, E'^t- Mon. Mag. 90 : 128 for Tessaratomides Schilling, 1829. Edessides Amyot & 
pp. xxvii, 155 aad of Dallas, 1851 and Dohrn, 1859 cover Pentatominae as well as Tessara- 



6 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTER A-HETEROPTERA 

Subfamily 9. Podopinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xviii, 

56 (Podopides). 
Synonym Oxynotidae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xviii, 

58 (Oxynotides). 
Synonym Graphosomatinae Jakowleff, 1884, Hor. Soc. ent. Ross. 18 : 204. 

Subfamily 10. Serbaninae Leston, 1953, Rev. Brasil Biol., 13 : 137. 
Subfamily 11. Acanthosomatinae (Stal), 1864, Hemipt. Afric. 1, pp. 33, 219 (Acan- 

thosomida). 

(Leston, 1953, Ent. Gazette 4 : 20 elevates this group to family 

rank. We have decided that it is better to regard it as a subfamily 

as has been done with such families as Aepophilidae and Aphelo- 

cheiridae.) 

Subfamily 12. Canopinae^ (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xix, 

70 (Canopides). 
Synonym Canopinae Horvath, 1919, Ann. Mus. nat. Hung. 17 : 205. 

Subfamily 13. Megaridinae^ McAfee & Malloch, 1928, Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. 72 : i. 
Family Aphylidae (Bergroth), 1906, Zool. Anz. 29 : 646 (Aphylinae). 

Synonym Aphylidae Renter, 1912, Ofv. Finska Vet. Soc. Fork. 54a, No. 6 : 46. 

Family Urostylidae Dallas, 1851, Cat. Hemipt. Brit. Mus. i, p. 313. 

Sjmonym Urolabidae (Stal), 1876, Svensk. Vet. Ak. Handl. 14:4:115 (Uro- 

labida) . 
Synonym Urolabididae Renter, 1912, Ofv. Finska Vet. Soc. Fork. 54, No. 6 : 37. 

Subfamily i. Urostylinae Dallas, 1851, Cat. Hemipt. Brit. Mus. i, p. 313. 
Subfamily 2. Saileriolinae China & Slater, 1956, Pacific Sci. 10 : 412. 
Family Phloeidae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xxiv, 

115 (Phloeides). 
Synonym Phloeidae Dallas, 1851, Cat. Hemipt. Brit. Mus. 1, p. 149. 

Family Coreidae Leach, 1815, Brewster's Edinb. Encyc. 9 : 121. 

Synon3an Lygaeidae Kirkaldy, 1899, Entomologist, 32 : 220. 

Subfamily i. Meropachydinae Stal, 1867, Ofv. Vet. Ak. Fork. 24 : 535-536 (Mero- 

pachydida). 
Synonym Merocorinae (Stal), 1870, Enum. Hemipt. i, p. 125 (Merocorina). 

Subfamily 2. Coreinae (Stal), 1867, Ofv. Vet-Ak. Fork. 24 : 535-543 (Coreida). 
Synonjnn CentrosceHnae Kirkaldy, 1899, Entomologist, 32 : 220. 

Synonym Anisoscelidae Dallas, 1852, Cat. Hemipt. Brit. Mus., p. 449. 

Subfamily 3. Pseudophloeinae (Stal), 1867, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 24 : 535 (Pseudo- 

phloeida). 
Synonym Arenocorinae Bergroth, 1913, Mem. Soc. ent. belg. 22 : 135. 

Subfamily 4. Agriopocorinae Miller, 1953, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 78, 

pts. 5 and 6 : 233. 
Subfamily 5. Rhopalinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xxxiii, 

243 (Rhopalides). 
Synonym RhopaHdae Dallas, 1852, Cat. Hemipt. Brit. Mus., p. 520. 

1 These two subfamilies have been previously referred to the Plataspidae (McAtee & Malloch, 1928, 
Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. 72 : i) and to the Cydnidae (China & Miller, 1955). 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTER A-HETEROPTER A 



Synon3nn Corizidae Douglas & Scott, 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, p. 17. 

Synonym Chorosomidae Douglas & Scott, 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, 

p. 17. 
Synon5rm Corizinae Mayr, 1866, Reise Freg. Novara, Zool. Hemipt.'. 2 : 121. 

Subfamily 6. Alydinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xxxiv, 

221 (Alydides). 

S3monym Alydinae (Dallas), 1852, Cat. Hemipt. Brit. Mus. 2 : 467 (Alydidae). 

Synonym Coriscidae Stichel, 1925, Ulus. Bestimmungstabellen Deutsch. Wanz., 

P-45. 
Family Stenocephalidae Dallas, 1852, Cat. Hemipt. Brit. Mus. 2 : 480. 

Synonym Dicranocephalidae (Scudder), 1957, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. London 

(A)32 : 147 (Dicranocephalini). 
Family Hyocephalidae Bergroth, 1906, Zool. Anz. 29 : 649. 

Family Lygaeidae (Schilling), 1829, Beitr. z. Ent. 1 : 37. (Lygaeides). 

Synonym Myodochidae Kirkaldy, 1899, Entomologist, 32 : 220. 

Synonym Geocoridae Kirkaldy, 1902, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 14 : 306. 

Synonym Pyrrhocoridae Kirkaldy, 1904, Entomologist, 37 : 280. 

Subfamily i. Megalonotinae Slater, 1957, Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc. 52, 2 : 35. 
Synon^in Rhyparochrominae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., 

pp. xxxvi, 251 (Rhyparochromides). (Based on Rhyparochromus 

Curtis 1836 : type Lygaeus chiragra Fabr. 1794. = Megalonotus 

Fieber, i860. 
Synonym Rhyparochrominae (Stal), 1862, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 19 : 210 (Rhy- 

parochromida) . Based on Rhyparochromus Hahn 1826 : type 

Cimex pini L., 1758. 

Subfamily 2. Geocorinae (Stal), 1862, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 19 : 212 (Geocorida). 

Subfamily 3. Blissinae (Stal), 1862, Ofv. Vet-Ak. Forh. 19 : 210 (Blissida). 

Subfamily 4. Cyminae (Stal), 1862, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 19 : 210 (Cymida). 

Subfamily 5. Lygaeinae (Stal), 1862, Ofv. Vet-Ak. Forh. 19 : 210 (Lygaeida). 

Synonym Astacopinae Kirkaldy (partim), 1907, Canadian Ent. 39 : 244. 

Subfamily 6. Oxycareninae (Stal), 1862, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 19 : 212 (Oxycarenida). 

Sjmonym Anemopharina Berg, 1879, Hem. Argent., p. 285. 

Subfamily 7. Pamphantinae Barber & Bruner, 1933, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. 41 : 

532. 
Subfamily 8. Malcinae (Stal), 1866, Hemipt. Afric. 2, p. 121 (Malcida). 

Subfamily 9. Lipostemmatinae (Berg), 1879, Hem. Argent., p. 288 (Lipostemma- 

tina). 
Subfamily 10. Henestarinae (Douglas & Scott), 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, 

p. 22 (Henestaridae). 
Subfamily 11. Pachygronthinae (Stal), 1865, Hemipt. Afric. 2, pp. 121, 145 (Pachy- 

gronthida) . 
Subfamily 12. Heterogastrinae (Stal), 1872, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Forh. 29 : 40, 62 (Hetero- 

gastrina). 



8 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTER A-HETEROPTER A 

Synonym Phygadicidae Douglas & Scott, 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera 

(The oldest group name is Phygadicidae Douglas & Scott but we 

do not propose to use it and consequently invoke the saving clause, 

custom versus priority.) 

Subfamily 13. Chauliopinae Breddin, 1907, Deutsch. ent. Zeit. 1907 : 40. 

Subfamily 14. Artheneinae (Stal), 1872, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 29 : 38, 47 (Artheneina). 

Subfamily 15. Phasmosomatinae (Kiritshenko), 1938, Trud. Zool. Inst. Baku, 8 : 117. 

N.B. The subfamily Bledionotinae Renter, 1878, is regarded as 
only a tribe of the Megalonotinae. 
Family Pyrrhocoridae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. 

xxviii, 265 (Pyrrhocorides). 
Synon}^! Pyrrhocoridae Dohrn, 1859, C"«^. Hemipt., p. 36, 

Synonym Astemmatidae Spinola, 1850, Tav. Sin. Hem., ex Mem. Mat. Fis. 

Soc. Ital. Sci. Modena, 25 : 79 (1852). 
Family Largidae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xxxviii, 

273 (Largides). 
S3nionym Largidae Dohrn, 1859, Cat. Hemipt., p. 36. 

Synonym Euryopthalminae Van Duzee, 1916, Check-list Hemipt. Am,erica 

N. of Mexico, p. 24. 
Family Piesmatidae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., p. xl 

(Piesmides) . 
Synonym Piesmidae Spinola, 1850, Tav. Sin. Hem. ex Mem. Mat. Fis. Soc. Ital. 

Sci. Modena, 25 : 84 (1852). 
Synonym Zosmenidae Dohrn, 1859, ^^^- Hemipt., p. 41. 

Synonym Zosmeridae Douglas & Scott, 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, p. 237. 

Family Thaumastocoridae Kirkaldy, 1908, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 

32 : (corrigenda). 
Synon3nn Thaumastotheriinae Kirkaldy, 1908, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 

32 : 777. 
Subfamily i. Thaumastocorinae Kirkaldy, 1908, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 

1907, 32 : 768-788. 
Subfamily 2. Xylastodorinae Barber, 1920, Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc. 15 : 98-105. 
Synonym Discocorinae Kormilev, 1955, Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina 18 : 7-10. 

Family Berytidae Fieber, 185 1, Genera Hydroc, p. 9. 

Synonym Neididae Kirkaldy, 1902, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 14 : 302. 

(There is no need to change the old family name Berytidae 
because Berytus F., 1803, is a synonym of Neides Latr., 1802.) 
Subfamily i. Berytinae Puton, 1886, Cai. Hemipt. Palaearct. edn. 3, p. 19. 
Subfamily 2. Metacanthinae Douglas & Scott, 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, 

pp. 99, 145. 
Family Colobathristidae (Stal), 1866, Hemipt. Afric. 2, p. 121 (Colo- 

bathristida) . 
Family Aradidae (Spinola), 1837, Essai Hemipt., p. 157 (Aradites). 

Subfamily i. Isoderminae Stal, 1872, Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. 10 : 4. 
Subfamily 2. Prosympiestinae Usinger & Matsuda, 1959, Class. Aradidae, Brit. 

Mus. p. 62. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO H EMI PTE R A-HETE ROPTER A 9 

Subfamily 3. Chinamyersiinae Usinger & Matsuda, 1959, Class. Aradidae, Brit. 

Brit. Mus. p. 79. 
Subfamily 4. Aradinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. not. Hemipt., pp. xli, 

306 (Aradides). 
Subfamily 5. Calisiinae (Stal), 1873, Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. 11, No. 2 : 138 

(Calisaria) . 
Subfamily 6. Aneurinae (Douglas & Scott), 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, pp. 

26, 267 (Aneuridae). 
Subfamily 7. Carventinae Usinger, 1950, Vllth Intern. Congr. Ent., p. 176. 
Subfamily 8. Mezirinae Oshanin, 1908, Verz. Paldark. Hem., pp. 4, 78. 
Synonym Brach5n:hynchinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., 

pp. xli, 303 (Brachyrhynchides) . 
Synonym Dysodiinae Renter, 1912, Ofv. Finska Vet. Soc. Fork. 54a : 33, 49, 57. 

Synonym Chelonocorinae Miller, 1938, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 1 : 498-510. 

Family Tertnitaphididae Myers, 1924, Psyche, 31, 6 : 267. 

Synonym Termitocoridae Silvestri, 1911, Portici Boll. Lab. Zool. 5 : 231-236. 

Family Joppeicidae Renter, 1910, Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 37, 3 : 75. 

Family Tingidae (Costa A), 1838, Cimicum Regnis Neap. Cent. 1 : 18, 

(Tingini). 
Synonym Tingidites Laporte, 1832, Essai Classif. Syst. Hem. p. 47 ; invalidated 

as so-called vernacular name by Int. Comm. Zool. Nomenclature, 

Direction 6, Opinion and Declarations I.C.Z.N. Vol. 2, Sect. 13, 

1954- 
Synonym Tingidae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xi, 295 

(Tingides) . 
Synonym Tingitidae auctt. Invalidated by International Commission on 

Zoological Nomenclature. Opinion 143 (1943). 
Subfamily i. Tinginae (Douglas & Scott), 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, p. 24 

(Tingididae) . 
Subfamily 2. Cantacaderinae (Stal), 1873, Enum. Hemipt. 3 : 116 (Cantacaderaria) . 
Subfamily 3. Agramminae (Douglas & Scott), 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, 

pp. 24, 242 (Agrammidae) . 
Synonym Serenthiinae Stal, 1873, Enum. Hemipt. 3 : 116. 

Family Vianaididae Kormilev, 1955, Rev. Ecuat. Ent. 2 (3-4) : 465-477. 

Family Enicocephalidae (Stal), i860, Rio Jan. Hemipt. I : 81 K. Svensk. 

Vet.-Ak. Handl. 2, No. 7, 1858. 
Synonym Henicocephalidae (Stal), 1865, Hemipt. Afric. 3, p. 165 (Henico- 

cephalida). 
Subfamily i. Enicocephalinae Ashmead, 1893, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 2 : 328. 
Subfamily 2. Aenictopechinae Usinger, 1932, Pan Pacific Entomologist, 8 : 149. 
Family Phymatidae (Laporte), 1832, Essai Classif. Syst. Hemipt., p. 14 

(Phymatites). 
Synonym Phymatides Amyot & Serville, 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xxxix, 

288. 
Synonym Macrocephalidae Kirkaldy, 1899, Entomologist 32 : 221. 

ENTOM. 8, I. I§ 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO H EMI PTE R A-H ETE ROPTE R A 



Subfamily i. Macrocephalinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. 

xxxix, 291 (Macrocephalides) . 
Synonjnn Macrocephalinae (Dohrn), 1859, Cat. Hemipt., p. 41 (Macrocepha- 

lidae) . 
Subfamily 2. Phymatinae (Dohrn), 1859, Cat. Hemipt., p. 41 (Phymatidae) . 
Subfamily 3. Carcinocorinae Handlirsch, 1897, Ann. K.K. Nat. Hofmus. Wien, 

12 : 142. 
Subfamily 4. Themonocorinae (Carayon, Usinger & Wygodzinski) , 1958, Rev. 

Zool. hot. Afr. 57 fasc. 3-4 : 278 (Themonocorini) . These authors 

regard the genus Themonocoris as intermediate between the 

Reduviidae and Phymatidae and consequently sink the latter 

family to subfamily rank in the Reduviidae, placing Themonocoris 

in a tribe. We prefer for the present to retain the Phymatidae 

as a family and to raise the tribe Themonocorini to subfamily 

rank. 
Family Elasmodemidae Lethierry & Severin, 1896, Cat. Hemipt. 3 : 49. 

Synonym Elasmocorinae Usinger, 1943, Ann. ent. Soc. Amer. 36 : 612. 

Synonym Elasmodemidae Wygodzinski, 1944, Revue Brasil. Biol. 4(2) : 205. 

Family Reduviidae Latreille, 1807, Gen. Crust. Ins. 3 : 126. 

Subfamily i. Emesinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xlviii, 

393 (Emesides). 
Synonym Emesinae Spinola, 1850, Tav. Sin. Hem., p. 45 ex Mem. Mat. Fis. 

Soc. Ital. Sci. Modena, 25 (1852). 
Synonym Ploiariinae, Costa, 1852, Cimic, Regni Neap. Cent. 4 : 66. 

Subfamily 2. Saicinae (Stal), 1859, Berlin ent. Zeit. 3 : 328 (Saicida). 
Subfamily 3. Visayanocorinae Miller, 1952, Eos, 28 : 88-90. 
Subfamily 4. Holoptilinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xlii, 

318 (Holoptilides). 
Synonym Holoptilinae (Stal), 1859, Berlin ent. Zeit. 3 : 328 (Holoptilida). 

Subfamily 5. Tribelocephalinae (Stal), 1866, Hemipt. Afric. 3, p. 44 (Tribelo- 

cephalida) . 
Subfamily 6. Bactrodinae (Stal), 1866, Hemipt. Afric. 3, p. 45 (Bactrodida). 
Subfamily 7. Stenopodinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. 

xlviii, 386 (Stenopodides) . 
Synonym Stenopodinae (Stal), 1859, Berlin ent. Zeit. 3 : 328 (Stenopodida) . 

Subfamily 8. Salyavatinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xliv, 

349 (Salyavatides) . 
Synonym Salyavatinae (Stal), 1859, Berlin ent. Zeit. 3 : 328 (Salyavatida) . 

Subfamily 9. Sphaeridopinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. 

xlvii, 381 (Sphaeridopides) . 
Synonym Sphaeridopinae (Pinto), 1927, Bol. Biol. S. Paulo, 6 : 43, 47 (Sphaeri- 

dopidae). 
Subfamily 10. Manangocorinae Miller, 1954, Idea, 10 : 2. 
Subfamily 11. Physoderinae Miller, 1954, Tijdsch v, Ent. 96 : 82. 
Subfamily 12. Centrocneminae Miller, 1956, Bull. Brit. Mus. Ent. 4 : 219-283. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO H EMI PTE R A-H ETEROPTER A ii 

Subfamily 13. Chryxinae Champion, 1898, Biol. Centr. Amer. Rhynchota, Het. 

2 : 180. 
Subfamily 14. Vesciinae Fracker & Bruner, 1924, Ann. ent. Soc. Amer. 17 : 165. 
Synonym Chopardititae Villiers, 1944, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 49 : 79. 

Subfamily 15. Cetherinae Jeannel, 1919, Voy. Alluaud Jeannel Afr. or., Hem., 

1911-12, p. 178. 
S3monym Eupheninae Miller, 1955, Ann. Mag. not. Hist. (12) 8 : 449-452. 

Subfamily 16. Reduviinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xliii, 

333 (Reduviides). 
Synonym Reduviinae Spinola, 1850, Tav. Sin. Hem., p. 145, ex Mem. Mat. 

Fis. Soc. Ital. Sci. Modena, 25 (1852). 
Synonym Acanthaspinae (Stal), 1866, Hemipt. Afric. 3, p. 44 (Acanthaspidida) . 

Subfamily 17. Triatominae Jeannel, 1919, Voy. Alluaud Jeannel Afr. or., Hem., 

pp. 176, 177. 
Synonym Conorhininae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xlviii, 

383 (Conorhinides). 

Note. Although Conorhininae would be the oldest group name we 

do not intend to break current usage of Triatominae. Conorhinus 

Laporte, 1832 (p. 77) is an unnecessary new name for Triatoma 

Laporte, 1832, (p. 11). 

Subfamily 18. Piratinae (Stal), 1859, Berlin ent. Zeit. 3 : 328 (Peiratida). 

Subfamily 19. Phimophorinae Handlirsch, 1897, Verh. zool. hot. Ges. Wien, 47 : 408. 

Subfamily 20. Mendanocorinae Miller, 1956, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12), 9 : 587-589. 

Subfamily 21. Hammacerinae (Stal), 1859, Berlin ent. Zeit. 3 : 328 (Hammacerida) . 

Synonym Hammatocerinae (Stal), 1862, Stett. ent. Zeit. 23 : 455 (Hammato- 

cerida). 
Synonym Microtominae Schumacher, 1924, Deutsch ent. Zeit. 1924 : 336. 

Subfamily 22. Ectrichodiinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. 

xliv, 342 (Ectrichodides). 
Synonym Ectrichodiinae Spinola, 1850, Tav. Sin. Hem., pp. 44, 45, ex Mem. 

Mat. Fis. Soc. Ital. Sci. Modena, 25 (1852). 
Subfamily 23. Rhaphidosominae Jeannel, 1919, Voy. Alluaud Jeannel Afr. or. , Hem,, 

p. 263. 
Subfamily 24. Harpactorinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xlv, 

355 (Harpactorides) . 
Synonym Harpactorinae Spinola, 1850, Tav. Sin. Hem., p. 45, ex Mem. Mat. 

Fis. Soc. Ital. Sci. Modena, 25 (1852). 
Synonym Reduviinae (Stal), 1859, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 16 : 195 (Reduvides). 

Subfamily 25. Apiomerinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xliv, 

350 (Apiomerides) . 
Synonym Apiomerinae (Stal), 1859, Berlin ent Zeit. 3 : 328 (Apiomerida). 

Subfamily 26. Ectinoderinae (Stal), 1866, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 23 : 245 (Ectino- 

derida) . 
Subfamily 27. Phonolibinae Miller, 1952, Eos, 28 : 86. 
Synonym Perissorhynchinae Miller, 1952, Eos, 28 : 87. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMI PTE R A-H ETEROPTERA 



Subfamily 28, 
Subfamily 29. 
Family 
Synonym 

Family 
Synonym 

Family 
Subfamily i. 
Synonym 

Synonym 
Subfamily 2. 
Synonym 



Subfamily 

Subfamily 

Subfamily 

Family 

Family 

Synonym 

Synonym 

Synonym 



Synonym 
Subfamily i. 

Subfamily 2. 

Subfamily 3. 

Subfamily 4. 
Family 

Synonym 
Subfamily i. 

Subfamily 2. 

Subfamily 3, 

Synonym 

Family 
Subfamily i. 
Subfamily 2. 



Tegeinae Villiers, 1948, Hemipt. Reduv. Afr. noire, p. 171. 
Diaspidiinae Miller, Bull. Brit. Mus., Ent. 8 : 2 (in press). 
Pachynomidae (Stal), 1873, Enum. Hemipt. 3 : 107 (Pachynomina). 
Pachynomidae Carayon, 1954, Bull. Soc. Zool. France 79 : 191 

(as a family). 
Velocipedidae Bergroth, 1891, Wien ent. Zeit. 10 : 265. 
Scotomedinae Blote, 1945, Zool. Meded. 25 : 323 (as subfamily of 

Nabidae) . 
Nabidae Costa, 1852, Cimic. Regni. Neap. Cent. 3 : 66. 
Nabinae Renter, 1890, Rev. Ent. 9 : 293. 
Reduviolinae Renter & Poppius, 1909 (not Reuter, 1890), Acta. Soc. 

Sci. Fenn. 37, 2 : 3. 
Coriscinae (Stal), 1873, Enum. Hemipt. 3 : 106 (Coriscina). 
Prostemminae Reuter, 1890, Rev. Ent. 9 : 289. 
Nabinae Reuter & Poppius, 1909 (not Reuter, 1890), Acta Soc. Sci. 

Fenn. 37 : 2, 3. 
Arachnocorinae Reuter, 1890, Rev. Ent. 9 : 292. 
Gorpinae Reuter, 1909, Ann. Soc. ent. belg. 53 : 423. 
Carthasinae Blatchley, 1926, Het. East N. Amer., pp. 538-539. 
Polyctenidae Westwood, 1874, Thesaur. Ent., p. 197. 
Cimicidae (Latreille), 1804, Hist. not. Crust. Ins. 12 : 235 (Cimicides). 
Cimicidae (Leach), 1815, Brewster's Edinb. Encyc. 9 : 122 (Cimicida). 
Acanthiadae Fieber, 1861, Europ. Hemipt., pp. 37, 135. 
Acanthiidae Douglas & Scott, 1865 {nee Leach 1815), Brit. Hemipt. 

Heteroptera p. 37. 
Clinocoridae Kirkaldy, 1906, Trans. Amer. ent. Soc. 32 : 147. 
Cimicinae Van Duzee, 1916, Check-list Hemipt. Amer. N. of Mexico, 

p. 33- 
Haematosiphoninae Jordan & Rothschild, 1912, Novit. Zool. 19 : 352. 
Cacodminae Kirkaldy, 1899, Bull. Liverpool Mus. 2 : 45. 
Primicimicinae Usinger (in press). 
Anthocoridae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. 

xxxvii, 262 (Anthocorides) . 
Anthocoridae Fieber, 1851, Genera Hydroc, p. 9. 
Lyctocorinae Reuter, 1884, Monog. Anthoc, Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 

14 (1885) : 558. 
Anthocorinae Reuter, 1884, Monog. Anthoc, Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 

14 (1885) : 558- 
Dufouriellinae Van Duzee, 1916, Check-list Hemipt. Amer. N. of 

Mexico, p. 35. 
Xylocorinae Reuter, 1884, Monog. Anthoc. Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 

14 (1885) : 558. 
Microphysidae Dohrn, 1859, Cat. Hemipt., p. 36. 
Microphysinae China, 1953, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12), 6 : 73. 
Plokiophilinae China, 1953, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12), 6 : 73. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTE R A-HETEROPTER A 



13 



Family ^Miridae (Hahn), 1831, Wanz. Ins. i, p. 234 (Mirides). 

Synonym Capsidae (Burmeister), 1835, Handb. Ent. 2, p. 263. (Capsini). 

Synonym Phytocoridae Fieber, 1858, Wien ent. Monatschrift, 2 : 289. 

Subfamily i. Mirinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xxxviii, 277 

(Mirides). 
Synonym Mirinae (Reuter), 1910, Acta. Soc. Sci. Fenn. 37 : 109, 128, 155 

(Mirina). 
Subfamily 2. Orthotylinae Van Duzee, 1916, Check-list Hemipt. Amer. N. of 

Mexico, p. 203. 
Synonym Heterotominae (Reuter), 1910, Acta. Soc. Sci. Fenn. 37, 3 : 114 

(Heterotomina). 
Synonym Cyllecorinae Oshanin, 1912, Kat. Paldarkt. Hemipt., p. 72. 

Subfamily 3. Phylinae (Douglas & Scott), 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, pp. 30, 

346 (Phylidae). 
Synonym Plagiognathinae Oshanin, 1912, Kat. Paldarkt. Hemipt., p. 77. 

Subfamily 4. Brycorinae (Douglas & Scott), 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, 

pp. 28, 276 (Bryocorida) . 
Subfamily 5. Deraeocorinae (Douglas & Scott), 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, 

pp. 29, 315 (Deraeocoridae). 
Synonym Termatophylidae (Reuter), 1888, Wien. ent Zeit. 3 : 218 (Termato- 

phylina) . 
Synonjnn Cliveneminae (Reuter), 1875, Caps. Bor. Amer. p. 62 ; Ofv. Vet.-Ak. 

Fork. 32 No. 9 : 54-92 (Clivenemaria) . 
Synon5nn Hyaliodinae Knight, 1943, Ent. News, 54 (5) : 19. 

Synonym Ambraciinae (Reuter), 1910, Acta. Soc. Sci. Fenn. 37 : 109, 154 

(Ambraciina) . 
Subfamily 6. Cylapinae Kirkaldy, 1903, Wien. ent. Zeit. 22 : 13. 
S5monym Bothynotinae (Reuter), 1910, Acta. Soc. Sci. Fenn. 37 : 109, 155 

(Bothynotina) . 
Synonym Lygaeoscytinae (Reuter), 1910, Acta. Soc. Sci. Fenn. 37 : no. 

Family Isometopidae Fieber, i860, Wien ent. Monat. 4 : 259. 

Carayon, probably rightly, suggests that the Isometopidae are 

merely a subfamily of Miridae. 
Family Dipsocoridae Dohrn, 1859, Cat. Hemipt., p. 36. 

Sjmonym Cryptostemmatidae McAfee & Malloch, 1925, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 

17: I. 
Synonym Ceratocombidae Fieber, i860, Europ. Hemipt., pp. 25, 39, 142. 

Family Schizopteridae (Reuter), 1891, Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 19, 6:3 

(Schizopterina) . 
Family Hydrometridae (Billberg), 1820, Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb., p. 67 

(Hydrometrides) . 
Synonym Limnobatidae Fieber, i860, Europ. Hemipt., p. 23. 



^ The synonyms of Douglas & Scott listed in our previous paper (1955) have been omitted under each 
subfamily as not completely covering the same field as the current subfamilies. Tribal names have also 
been omitted. 



14 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA 



Subfamily i. Hydrometrinae Esaki, 1927, Entomologist, 60 : 4. 

Subfamily 2. Limnobatodinae Esaki, 1927, Entomologist, 60 : 4. 

Subfamily 3. Heterocleptinae Villiers, 1948, Reduv. Afr. noire, p. 174 (described 

in the Reduviidae). 
Synonym Hydrobatodinae China & Usinger, 1949, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 41 : 

4 : 318. 
Family Gerridae Leach, 1815, Brewster's Edinh. Encyc. 9 : 123. 

Synonym Gerridae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. 1, 410 

(Gerrides). 
Synonym Hydrometridae (Fieber), i860, Europ. Hemipt., p. 24 (Hydrometrae) . 

Subfamily i. Gerrinae Bianchi, 1896, Ann. Mus. Petersb. 1896 : 69. 
Subfamily 2. Halobatinae Bianchi, 1896, Ann. Mus. Petersb. 1896 : 69. 
Subfamily 3. Hermatobatinae Coutiere & Martin, 1901, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 

132 : 1066-1068. 
Subfamily 4. Rhagadotarsinae Lundblad, 1933 Archiv. fUr Hydrobiol. Suppl. 

12 : 411. 
Subfamily 5. Ptilomerinae Esaki, 1927, Eos. 2 : 252. 
Family Veliidae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nai. Hemipt., pp. 1., 418 

(Velides). 
S5nionyni Veliidae Dohrn, 1859, C^^- Hemipt., p. 53. 

Synonym Veliidae (Renter), 1912, Ofv. Finska Vet. Soc. Fork. 6 : 14, 18. 

(Veliadae) . 
Subfamily i. Perittopinae China & Usinger, 1949, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12), 

2 : 350. 
Subfamily 2. Rhagoveliinae China & Usinger, 1949, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12), 

2 : 350. 
Subfamily 3. Hebroveliinae (Lundblad), 1939, Ent. Tidsk. 60, 1-2 : 33 (Hebro- 

veliidae) . 
Subfamily 4. Hydroessidae (Fieber), i860, Europ. Hemipt., p. 23 (Hydroessae). 
Synonym Microveliinae China & Usinger, 1949, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12), 

2 : 351. 
Subfamily 5. Veliinae China & Usinger, 1949, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12), 2 : 351. 
Subfamily 6. Haloveliinae Esaki, 1930, Journ. F. Malay S. Mus. 16 : 22. 
Synonym Haloveliidae Poisson, 1956, Mem. Inst. Sci. Madagascar (E) 7 : 255, 

Family Mesoveliidae Douglas & Scott, 1867, Ent. mon. Mag. 4 : 3. 

Synon57m Mesovehadae Renter, 1912, Ofv. Finsk. Vet. Soc. Fork. 6 : 17, 23, 

47> 49- 
Subfamily i. Mesoveliinae Usinger (in press). 

Subfamily 2. Mesoveloideinae Usinger (in press). (See Hungerford 1929, Bull. 

Brooklyn ent. Soc. 24 : 228.) 
Subfamily 3. Macroveliinae (McKinstry), 1942, Pan Pacif Ent. 18 : 91 (Macro- 

veliidae). 
Family Hebridae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xl, 293 

(Hebrides). 
Synonym Naeogeidae Kirkaldy, 1902, Faun. Hawaii, 3, p. 168. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTER A-HETEROPTERA 



15 



Family Leotichiidae China, 1933, Ann. Mag. not. Hist. (10) 12 : 185. 

Family Leptopodidae Costa, 1838, Cimic. Regni, Neap. Cent, i, Atti. real. 

1st. incorragg. alle Sci. not. Nap. 7 : 151, 1847. 
Family Saldidae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. xlix 

(Saldides) . 
Synonym Saldidae Costa, 1852, Cimic. Regni. Neap. Cent. 3, Atti. real. 1st. 

incorragg. alle Sci. nat. Nap. 8 : 66, 1855. 
Synonym Acanthiidae Leach, 1815, Brewster's Edinb. Encyc. 9 : 123. 

Synonym Acanthiadae Fieber, i860, Europ. Hemipt., p. 24. 

Subfamily i. Saldinae Van Duzee, 1917, Cat. Hemipt. America north of Mexico, 

P- 438. 
Subfamily 2. Saldoidinae Renter, 1912, Ofv. Finska Vet.-Soc. Fork. 54a, No. 12 : 23. 
Subfamily 3. Aepophilinae (Puton), 1879, Synop. Hem. Het. France, 2, p. 145 

(Aepophilidae) . 

Note. Leston has recently, wrongly in our opinion, reduced the 
Aepophilinae to tribal rank under Saldinae {Nature, 178 : 427). 
Family Notonectidae Leach, 18 15, Brewster's Edinb. Encyc. 9 : 124. 

Subfamily i. Anisopinae Hutchinson, 1929, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 25, 3 : 362. 
Subfamily 2. Notonectinae Leach, 1815, Brewster's Edinb. Encyc. 9 : 124. 
Family Pleidae (Fieber), 1851, Genera Hydroc, p. 27 (Pleae). 

Family Helotrephidae Esaki & China, 1927, Trans, ent. Soc. Lond. 1927 : 

280. 
Subfamily i. Neotrephinae China, 1940, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (11), 5 : 123. 
Subfamily 2. Idiocorinae Esaki & China, 1927, Trans, ent. Soc. Lond. 1927 : 280. 
Subfamily 3. Helotrephinae Esaki & China, 1927, Trans, ent. Soc. Lond. 1927 : 280. 
Family Corixidae Leach, 1815, Brewster's Edinb. Encyc. 9 : 124. 

Synon}^! Corixidae (Amyot & Serville), 1843, Hist. nat. Hemipt., pp. li, 

444 (Corisides). 
Subfamily i. Micronectinae Jaczewski, 1924, Ann. Zool. Mus. Polon. Hist. nat. 3 : 3. 
Synonym Sigaridae Douglas & Scott, 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, p. 50. 

Note. The genus Sigara F. on which Douglas & Scott's name is 
based belongs to the Corixinae. 
Subfamily 2. Diaprepocorinae Lundblad, 1928, Entom. Tidsk. 1 : 9. 
Subfamily 3. Corixinae (Douglas & Scott), 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, p. 50 

(Corixidae) . 
Subfamily 4. Stenocorixinae Hungerford, 1948, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 32 : 43. 
Subfamily 5. Cymatiinae Walton, 1940, Trans. Connect. Acad. Arts. Sci. 33 : 344. 
Subfamily 6. Heterocorixinae Hungerford, 1948, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 32 : 43. 
Family Nepidae (Latreille), 1802, Hist. nat. Crust. Ins. 3, p. 252 (Nepariae). 

Subfamily i. Nepinae (Douglas & Scott), 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, p. 47. 

(Nepidae). 
Subfamily 2. Ranatrinae (Douglas & Scott), 1865, Brit. Hemipt. Heteroptera, 

p. 46 (Ranatridae) . 
Family Belostotnatidae (Leach), 1815, Brewster's Edinb. Encyc. 9 : 123 

(Belostomida). 



i6 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMI PTER A-HETEROPTER A 



Synonym 

Family 

Subfamily 

Subfamily 

Subfamily 

Subfamily 

Subfamily 

Subfamily 

Subfamily 

Subfamily 

Synonym 

Family 

Synonym 



Subfamily i. 

Subfamily 2. 

Synonym 

Family 
Synonym 



Belostomidae Dohrn, 1859, Cat. Hemipt., p. 54. 

Naucoridae Fallen, 1814, Spec. Nov. Disp. Meth., pp. 3, 15. 

Naucorinae Stal, 1876, Enum. Hemipt. 5, p. 142. 

Limnocorinae Stal, 1876, Enum. Hemipt. 5, p. 142. 

Laccocorinae Stal, 1876, Enum. Hemipt. 5, p. 142. 

Cryphocricinae Montandon, 1897, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 47 : 6. 

Ambrysinae Usinger, 1941, Ann. ent. Soc. Amer. 34 : 911, 

Cheirochelinae Montandon, 1897, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 37 : 367, 

Potamocorinae Usinger, 1941, Ann. ent. Soc. Amer. 34 : 8 9. 

Aphelocheirinae (Fieber) i860, Europ. Hemipt., p. 23 (Aphelochirae) . 

Aphelocheiridae auctt. 

Gelastocoridae Kirkaldy, 1897, Entomologist, 30 : 258. 

Galgulidae (Billberg), 1820, Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb., p. 66 (Galgu- 

lides). 

Gelastocorinae Champion, 1901, Biol. Centr. Amer. Rhynchota, Het. 

2, p. 437- 
Mononychinae (Fieber), 1851, Genera Hydroc, pp. 9, 12 (Monony- 

coidea) . 
Nerthrinae (Kirkaldy), 1906, Trans, ent. Soc. Amer. 32 : 149 (Ner- 

thridae) . 
Ochteridae Kirkaldy, 1906, Trans. Amer. ent. Soc. 32 : 149. 
Pelogoniidae (Leach), 1815, Brewster's Edinb. Encyc. 9 : 123 (Pelo- 

gonida). 

Note. We have been advised that it is preferable to retain the 
name Ochteridae which has been in use for fifty-one years and to 
invoke the saving clause of current usage to prevent its being 
replaced by Pelogoniidae which is actually the older group name. 

Ochterus Latr. 1807 has priority over Pelogonus Latr. 1809 which 
was an unnecessary new name for Ochterus Latr. nee. Ochthera Latr. 
1802 Diptera. 



Key to Families of Heteroptera 

1. Abdominal trichobothria absent^ ......... 2 

- Abdominal trichobothria present . . . . . . . . -39 

2. Three pairs of trichobothria on head, (difficult to observe in some genera such as 

Aepophilus, Hermaiobates et al.), rarely only 2 pairs (Limnobatodinae), or confused 

with bristles (Leptopodidae and Leotichiidae) . . . Amphibicorisa. 3 

- No trichobothria on head, sometimes bristles present but no sensory setae . . 10 

3. Claws terminal ............ 4 

- Claws inserted before apex of tarsus (except Gerrid genus Eotrechus) ... 9 

4. Trichobothria often indistinct hidden or confused with numerous spines or a dense 

pubescence ............. 5 

^ Although the presence of regularly arranged trichobothria is fairly easy to observe, their absence is 
much less easy to ascertain. In very hairy species the trichobothria may be hidden or may be confused 
with ordinary hairs. In some genera of the trichophorous families they appear to be absent, e.g. Oxycarenus, 
Lestonia, Aphylus. In the Reduviid genus Catamiarus there appear to be numerous ventral trichoboth- 
rioid setae regularly arranged. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMI PTER A-HETEROPTERA 17 

- Trichobothria distinct, head not spiny or densely pubescent. .... 6 

5. Compound eyes on ventral surface of head directed downwards ; second antennal 

segment thickened like first ; pronotum with a distinct percurrent median carina ; 
dorsal surface of head densely covered with short setae ; basal segments of rostrum 
without spines or bristles. 

A single genus of 2 species of Malayan cave-bugs living amongst bat guano 

Leotichiidae China, 1933 

- Compound eyes normal ; second antennal segment much more slender than first ; 

pronotum without a percurrent median carina ; dorsal surface of head with numer- 
ous hairs or spines but not densely covered with short setae ; basal segments of 
rostrum armed with spines or spine-like bristles directed laterally. 

A small family of Old World cursorial, predaceous bugs, often spiny living in 
dry situations ........ Leptopodidae Costa, 1838 

6. Head long and narrow, as long or longer than the entire thorax ; eyes placed near 

middle ; antennae 4- or 5-segmented ; metasternum with i or 2 omphalia ; apter- 
ous forms common. 

Usually slender, stick-like insects walking on surface of water near shore. 
Rarely terrestrial ; in damp moss [Meter ocleptes) . Hydrometridae (Billberg), 1820 

- Head shorter, not exceeding the combined length of pronotum and scutellum . . 7 

7. Bucculae forming a distinct longitudinal groove along entire underside of head ; 

tarsi 2 -segmented. 

Very small, robust species ; brachypterous forms occur. Rostrum apparently 
3-segmented ; antennae 4-5 -segmented . . Hebridae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

- Bucculae not forming such a groove ........ 8 

8. Eyes large with inner margins excavate ; ocelli present, often contiguous ; membrane 

of hemelytron with 4 rarely 5 parallel-sided closed cells ; mandibular plates 
prominently convex, transverse and shining ; scutellum large and triangular usually 
longer than broad ; apterous forms unknown. 

Fairly large family of small littoral, cursorial bugs running and jumping on mud 
and sand or amongst damp grass near water Saldidae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

- Eyes medium sized, inner margins not distinctly excavate ; ocelli present, never 

contiguous ; membrane of hemelytron never with 4 or 5 closed cells sometimes with- 
out cells or with membrane broken off or with membrane undifferentiated from 
corium (Macroveliinae) ; mandibular plates not as above ; scutellum usually 
bilobed or if simple triangular (Mesoveloideinae), shorter than wide at base ; 
apterous forms common. 

SmaU family of relatively small species walking on floating vegetation 

Mesoveliidae Douglas & Scott, 1867 

9. Legs inserted more or less equidistantly (except in Haloveliinae^) ; vertex usually 

with a distinct, percurrent, median longitudinal suture or glabrous line, rarely 
obsolete in which case eyes small not extending backwards on to sides of pronotum; 
scent glands usually with paired lateral channels terminating above hind acetabula 
in a tuft of hairs ; inner margin of eyes straight ; male harpagones large and 
distinct. 

Skating actively on surface of streams and ponds and, rarely, on surface of 
sea near shore ...... Veliidae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

- Front legs widely separated from middle and hind pair. Vertex usually without 

a distinct percurrent median longitudinal suture or line, rarely present, in which 
case eyes large distinctly extending backwards on to sides of pronotum ; scent 
glands medial (omphalium) usually without lateral channels (except in Brachymetra 
Cylindrostethus et al.) ; inner margin of eyes usually sinuate ; male harpagones 
rudimentary. 

^ See China, W. E., 1957, /• Linn. Soc. London, 43 (No. 291), p. 352. 

ENTOM. 8, I. I§§ 



i8 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMI PTE R A-HETEROPTER A 

Skating on surface of all kinds of water including the sea and sometimes found 
in mid-ocean {Halobates) ....... Gerridae Leach, 1815 

10. Antennae strongly reduced, shorter than head, placed in grooves under the eyes or 

exceptionally, in the Aphelocheirine and Potamocorine Naucoridae and in the Och- 
teridae, very short, but visible from above ..... Hydrocorisa 1 1 

— Antennae much longer than head, always visible from above . . Geocorisa 19 

11. Rostrum very short and broad, sunk into clypeus, not distinctly segmented ; front 

tarsi modified into spatulate palae fringed with stiff bristles ; base of head laminate, 
overlapping front of pronotum ; neanides (larvae) with 3 dorsal abdominal scent 
gland openings ; head as wide or wider than pronotum, hind tibiae flattened and 
fringed with swimming hairs ; tarsi without claws. 

True water bugs with air bubble respiration . . Corixidae Leach, 1815 

— Rostrum cylindrical or cone-shaped, distinctly 3- or 4-segmented ; front tarsi 

not as above ; base of head inserted into pronotum ; neanide without or with only 

I dorsal scent gland opening ........ .12 

12. Head fused with pronotum to form a cephalonotum ; boundary between them 

indicated by a shallow dorsal, sinuate suture ; antennae i or 2 -segmented ; ovi- 
positor absent. 

True water bugs, usually strongly convex dorsally, hemelytral membrane 
strongly reduced ..... Helotrephidae Esaki & China, 1927 

— Head and pronotum not fused ; sometimes partly so, but then suture deep and 

straight ; antennae 3- or 4-segmented ; ovipositor present . . . . 13 

13. Abdomen with a pair of long, slender posterior appendages forming a respiratory 

siphon ; hind coxae short, free, rotary ; anterior legs raptorial ; tarsi i -segmented; 
ocelli absent ; wings present, reticulately veined, but not functional. 

Water bugs living in vegetation close to the surface ; respiration by siphon 

Nepidae (Latreille), 1802 

— Abdomen without such appendages or if present very short and broadly flattened 

(Belostomatidae) ; hind coxae fixed, broadly joined to thoracic pleura . . 14 

14. Ocelli absent, middle and hind legs with fringes of long swimming hairs ; water bugs 15 

— Ocelli present ; middle and hind legs without fringes of long swimming hairs ; shore 

bugs .............. 17 

15. Front legs modified for grasping prey with femur strongly thickened and anteriorly 

sulcate to form with the curved front tibia and tarsus a raptorial organ. Body 
broad and flattened ........... 16 

— Front legs simple, body strongly convex or tectiform . . . . . . 18 

16. Outer margin of eyes continuous with lateral margin of dilated pronotum and front 

margin of head ; membrane of hemelytron without veins ; apex of abdomen 
without short strap-like appendages ; middle and hind tibiae and tarsi cylindrical 
with rows of bristles and weak swimming hairs. 

Moderately sized rather flattened water bugs.; neanides with a pair of widely 
separated abdominal scent gland openings . . . Naucoridae Fallen, 1814 

— Eyes more or less prominent, not at all continuous with lateral margins of pronotum 

and head ; membrane with reticulate veins ; apex of abdomen with a pair of short 
strap-like appendages (respiratory siphon) ; median and posterior tibiae and tarsi 
flattened with strong fringes of swimming hairs. 

Large water bugs ...... Belostomatidae (Leach), 181 5 

17. Rostrum short not extending beyond anterior coxae ; antennae invisible from above, 

carried in grooves beneath eyes ; anterior legs raptorial, the femur very strong and 
broad with anterior surface either sulcate or flanged ; head transverse, the sub- 
pedunculate eyes widely separated ; scutellum irregularly tumid. 

Toad bugs living and burrowing in mud and sand on banks of lakes and rivers 

Gelastocoridae Kirkaldy, 1897 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO H EMI PTE R A-HETEROPTE R A 19 

— Rostrum long, extending at least to posterior coxae. Antennae visible from above; 

anterior legs simple, similar to posterior and median legs, cursorial ; head with 
vertex little wider than diameter of one eye ; eyes not subpendunculate ; scutellum 
flattened not tumid ....... Ochteridae Kirklady, 1906 

18. Form elongate, wedge-shaped, abdomen without median ventral carina ; antennae 
usually 4-segmented ; posterior legs long oar-like without distinct claws ; posterior 
tibiae flattened. 

Medium sized. Back swimming water bugs more than 5 mm. long with air bubble 
respiration Notonectidae Leach, 18 15 

— Form oval, strongly convex ; abdomen with distinct median ventral carina ; 

antennae 3-segmented ; posterior legs short, with 2 distinct claws ; posterior tibiae 
cylindrical not flattened. 

Small water bugs less than 5 mm. long . . . Pleidae (Fieber), 1851 

ig. Rostrum strongly dorso-ventrally flattened throughout, very broad at base and 
tapering to apex ; front tibia usually widening from base to apex, the single 
segmented tarsus inserted on the outer edge of the truncate apex ; hemelytra uni- 
formly membranous, the corium not differentiated ; no stridulatory furrow, the 
rostrum apparently 4-segmented. 

Small to very small gnat-like bugs with short robust legs, often found flying in 
swarms ; neanides live in rotten wood ..... Enicocephalidae 

— Rostrum not dorso-ventrally flattened throughout ; front tibia and tarsus not as 

above ; hemelytra rarely uniformly membranous in which case rostrum apparently 
3-segmented, prosternal stridulatory furrow present or absent .... 20 

20. Head with a dorsal transverse furrow or sulcus dividing it into two lobes, usually 

running between or just below the eyes ; if obsolescent or indistinct (Triatominae 
and Sphaeridopinae) or completely absent ( Visayanocorinae) , then membrane of 
hemelytron with 2 large cells and at most one longitudinal vein extending from 
the apex of the posterior one . . . . . . . . .21 

— Head without a dorsal transverse furrow or sulcus dividing it into two lobes ; mem- 

brane of hemelytron seldom with two large cells in which case there are also several 
supernumary longitudinal veins extending from them towards the apical margin 
of the membrane ........... 22 

21. Membrane of hemelytron without cells but with 3 longitudinal veins; head and 

body extremely flattened both dorsally and ventrally; meso- and meta-sterna 
fused ; thoracic scent glands present, hidden beneath the anterior border of the 
fused meso- and meta-sterna, submedially ; legs multi-spinous. 

Family based on a single genus from Brazil and Paraguay, inhabiting birds' nests 
and under bark .......... Elasmodemidae 

Note. It is almost certain that the W. African genus Heteropinus Breddin 
belongs here. 

— Membrane of hemelytron with 2 large cells, never with 3 free longitudinal veins ; head 

and body rarely strongly flattened and meso- and meta-sterna fused (Durganda, 
Staliastes) in which case membrane with 2 large cells and scutellum apically acute 
or spined ; thoracic scent-gland openings apparently absent but hidden in posterior 
acetabulae. A very large and variable family of predatory bugs of world-wide 
distribution ........... Reduviidae 

22. Prosternum with stridulatory furrow ; front legs usually fully raptorial, the front 

tibia and tarsus being fused ; fore femur usually very strongly thickened, the curved 
tibia-tarsus closing on its anterior edge in a pincer-like manner ; sometimes the 
front femur extending beyond the insertion of the tibia-tarsus to form a crab-like 
pincer. In Themonocoris the front legs are not truly raptorial, the tibia and tarsus 
are not fused, the tarsus being 2 segmented (see subfamily key to Phymatidae). 
Abdomen usually strongly dilated below base. Medium to small sized bugs living on 
flowering plants and predators on bees and other insects visiting the flowers. Phymatiaae 



20 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTERA-HETE ROPTERA 

— Prosternum always without a stridulatory furrow ; front legs not truly raptorial, the 

front tibia and tarsus not fused. . . . . . , . . .23 

23. Basal rostral segment as wide as head at apex and apparently forming an apical lobe 

of the head from which it is delimited only by a suture so that the rostrum at 
first sight seems 3-segmented ; basal two-thirds of labrum dorsal ; bucculae absent; 
posterior lobe of pronotum very large and with a median longitudinal percurrent 
suture and lateral marginal carinae. Anterior femora very strongly incrassate. A 
very small family of predatory bugs formerly associated with the Nabidae and in 
many respects intermediate between the Nabidae and Reduviidae . Pachynomidae 
■ — Basal rostral segment not as above, the labrum almost entirely ventral ; bucculae 

present ............. 24 

24. Bucculae strongly elevated and extending the whole length of the underside of head, 

forming a sulcus for the basal visible segment of rostrum ; sulcus closed anteriorly 25 

— Bucculae not strongly elevated, not extending whole length of head ; if forming a 

sulcus (some Aradidae) then this not closed anteriorly ..... 26 

25. Hemelytra densely reticulate or areolate ; second antennal segment always shortest 

eyes always distinct ; head usually, but not always, with several anteriorly directed 
spines ; scutellum usually covered by pronotum, if visible, small and indistinct. 

Small delicate bugs living on shrubs and low plants . Tingidae (Laporte), 1832 

— Hemelytra coriaceous, lightly punctate, coleopteroid, without membrane ; second 

antennal segment longer than the first, eyes absent or obsolescent ; head always 
without spines ; scutellum small but distinct. 

Minute, subterranean, tropical American bugs . . Vianaididae Kormilev, 1955 

26. Eyes absent (inquilines or parasites) ......... 27 

— Eyes present ............ 28 

27. Completely apterous ; scale-like ; no ctenidia present ; maxillary and mandibular 

stylets coiled in head capsule. 

Minute inquilines in termites' nests . . . Termitaphididae Myers, 1924 

— Hemelytra rudimentary, ctenidia always present ; viviparous parasites living 

in the fur of bats ...... Polyctenidae Westwood, 1874 

28. Antennae strongly thickened ; basal three segments equally thick and parallel 

sided (cylindrical) ; apical segment fusiform with apical region pubescent ; hairs of 
body, short and strongly curved ; antennophores very prominent, always visible 
from above ; mandibular and maxillary setae very long and coiled inside head 
capsule ; ocelli always absent, tarsi 2-segmented ; veins of corium strongly elevated. 
Medium sized bugs, strongly flattened, living under bark and feeding on fungi. 
Often apterous ........ Aradidae (Spinola), 1837 

— Antennae if thickened, irregularly so, not parallel sided (cylindrical) ; apical segment 

if fusiform without the apical pubescent area, hairs of body never short and strongly 
curved ; antennophores seldom prominent ; mandibular and maxillary setae 
normal, not coiled in head capsule ; ocelli present or absent, tarsi 2- or 3-seg- 
mented ; veins of corium seldom strongly elevated . , . . . , 29 

29. Pronotum with a median longitudinal carina. 

Small predatory insects living on shrubs in Egypt and Israel Joppeicidae Renter, 1910 

— Pronotum without a median longitudinal carina ...... 30 

30. Rostrum apparently 3-segmented (or sometimes apparently 2-segmented) (basal 

segment very short and hidden) ......... 31 

— Rostrum apparently 4-segmented (basal segment longer and visible). Rarely 3- 

segmented (some Microphysidae-M allochiola, Chinaola and Plokiophila) , in which 

case male genitalia symmetrical . . . . . . . . .34 

31. Ocelli absent; clypeus triangular, broadening apically to truncate apical margin, 

except in Primicimex in which case rostrum very short not reaching level of insertion 
of antennae ; hemelytra always rudimentary ; male genitalia asymmetrical ; 
female with opening to Ribaga's organ on ventral or dorsal surface of abdomen. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA 21 

Small bloodsucking bugs living in the nests and lairs of birds and bats and in 
the houses of man ....... Cimicidae (Latreille), 1804 

— Ocelli usually present ; clypeus parallel sided or narrowed to apex not broadened 

apically ; hemelytra usually, developed, sometimes brachypterous ( Anthocoridae) . 
Ribaga's organ usually absent ......... 32 

32. Male genitalia symmetrical ; rostrum with second visible segment (third actual) 

extremely long and slender ; antennae slender throughout ; hemelytra broad 
with costal margins strongly convex ; cuneal fracture distinct but cuneus not other- 
wise well defined ; membrane with numerous veins extending from basal 
cells ; no apterous forms ; tarsi 3-segmented. Small bugs running actively on 
ground. 

No real information as to ecology. Oriental species only. Velocipedidae Bergroth, 1891 

— Male genitalia strongly asymmetrical ; antennae not slender throughout at least 2 

basal segments thicker than third and fourth ; hemelytra more or less parallel- 
sided ; membrane with few or no veins . . . . . . -33 

33. Hemelytra with cuneus distinctly defined ; tarsi 3-segmented ; corium and clavus 

not or only feebly punctate ; eyes never pedunculate or stylate. 

A widely distributed family of small, blackish bugs living in flowers, litter and 
stored products. Many species are predaceous Anthocoridae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

— Hemelytra without a cuneus ; tarsi 2-segmented ; corium and clavus strongly 

punctate ; eyes usually pedunculate or stylate. 

A small family of Lygaeid-like bugs restricted to Australia, S. India, Argentina 
and Antilles. Drake & Slater (1957) regard this family as related to the Cimicoidea 

Thaumastocoridae Kirkaldy; 1908 

34. Male genitalia symmetrical . . . . . . . . . • 35 

— Male genitalia asymmetrical . . . . . . . . . .36 

35. Tarsi 2-segmented ; cuneal fracture present ; eighth ventrite in female divided into 

2 plates on each side of ovipositor when present ; membrane with a single square cell 
at base between 2 longitudinal veins, rarely without such a cell (Chinaola) or with- 
out venation (Plokiophila) . 

A very small family of minute predaceous bugs living on the bark of trees and 
shrubs, in moss and amongst lichens. The males are usually macropterous and 
the females brachypterous. Two tropical American genera, which Carayon regards 
as representing a new family, live in webs, Plokiophila in spiders' webs and 
Emhiophila in Embiid webs Microphysidae Dohm, 1859 

— Tarsi 3-segmented ; no cuneal fracture, cuneus absent ; eighth ventrite in female 

not divided into 2 plates on each side of ovipositor when the latter is present ; 
membrane in macropterous forms with numerous short veins radiating to the 
margins from 3 or more large basal cells. No sexual dimorphism although 
brachypterous or apterous specimens common. Ocelli sometime absent in insular 
species. 

Medium sized predatory bugs living in low vegetation ; some arboreal species 

Nabidae Costa, 1852 

36. Antennae with the 2 basal segments short and thickened, the 2 apical segments long 

and thin, covered with long erect hairs or setae; hemelytral membrane with 
variable venation but without an arcuate basal cell as below . . . . 37 

— Antennae variable but never with the 2 apical segments long and thin and covered 

with long erect hairs ; hemelytral venation consisting of a basal arcuate cell 
usually divided into 2 unequal cells by a longitudinal vein (except in Bryocorinae) 
rarely undivided or with secondary radial or reticulate veins, rarely without a 
basal cell {Myrmecophyes) in which case basal segment of rostrum long (4-segmented 
rostrum) .........•••• 3^ 

37. Head broad at apex, strongly defiexed ; eyes large ; hemelytron without a cuneal 

fracture. 



22 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTER A-HETE ROPTER A 

Very small predatory bugs living in damp soil, moss or litter 

ScHizoPTERiDAE (Reuter), 1891 

— Head more or less conical, porrect not deflexed ; cuneal fracture present. 

Small predatory bugs living in damp soil and under shingle along the shores 
of lakes and rivers ...... . Dipsocoridae Dohrn, 1859 

38. Ocelli absent ; tarsi usually 3-segmented, rarely 2-segmented {Mevius, Vannius 

and Peritropis) in which case the first tarsal segment is very long ; head seldom 
very strongly deflexed (Cylapinae). 

A very large and variable family of medium to small bugs usually phytophagous 
but frequently predaceous ...... . Miridae (Hahn), 1831 

— Ocelli present, rarely absent ; tarsi always 2-segmented, the first segment shorter 

than the second ; head strongly deflexed almost perpendicularly to the body ; 
vertex very short and usually narrow lying in the same plane as the body ; ocelli 
usually almost contiguous ; rarely vertex wider [Isometopus), and ocelli placed 
apart and close to eyes ; second antennal segment always strongly modified either 
thickened or dilated or both. 

A small family of small predatory bugs living on the bark of trees and shrubs. 
Carayon (1958) regards this family as only of subfamily rank within the Miridae. 

IsoMETOPiDAE Fieber, i860 

39. Scutellum large, sometimes completely covering the abdomen and hemelytra ; at 

least as long as clavus, if not (brachypterous forms), clavus corium and membrane 
fused ; no claval commissure present (a very short one in Urostylidae) ; anten- 
nophores not or scarcely visible from above (except in Urostylidae) ... 40 

— Scutellum smaller, shorter than clavus, a distinct claval commissure present ; 

antennophores visible from above ; antennae 4-segmented .... 46 

40. Lateral margins of abdomen very strongly laminately expanded ; antennae 3-seg- 

mented ; body strongly flattened. 

A small family of S. American bugs living on the bark of trees and shrubs 

Phloeidae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

— Lateral margins of abdomen not or only sUghtly laminately expanded ; antennae 

usually 5-segmented, rarely 4-segmented (Tessarotominae and the Scutellerine 
genera Fitha and Tetarthria) ; body usually not excessively flattened . . 41 

41. Pronotum with large backwardly produced lateral lobes ; meso- and metanotum 

visible from the side beneath the base of hemelytron ; trichobothria obsolescent ; 
tarsi 3-segmented. 

Small Australian bugs (living on eucalyptus?) . Aphylidae (Bergroth), 1906 

— Pronotum without large backwardly produced lateral lobes ; meso- and metanotum 

not visible from side beneath base of hemelytron . . . , . . 42 

42. Apices of median and posterior coxae with fringes of closely set stiff setae or pegs 

{Stromhosoma and Carrahas) ; tibia usually multi-spinous. 

Small to medium sized black or dull coloured, shining species often with a row of 
bristles along anterior margin of head ; sometimes with anterior and posterior 
legs modified for digging. Usually feeding on the roots of plants 

Cydnidae (Billberg), 1820 

— Apices of median and posterior coxae without fringes of closely set stiff setae; 

tibiae not multispinous, at most with short stiff bristles or depressed hairs . . 43 

43. Antennae inserted on lateral margin of head, antennophores cylindrical ; ocelli 

more or less contiguous ; claval commissure obsolescent. 

Medium sized, rather delicate, phytophagous bugs of coreoid appearance ; 
often found in swarms ...... Urostylidae Dallas, 1851 

— Antennae inserted below lateral margin of head ; antennophores not cylindrical 

ocelli usually well separated ; claval commissure absent. .... 44 

44. Head, pronotum and part of costal margin of hemelytra strongly laminately ex- 

panded and recurved to produce a tortoise-like appearance ; venter with a pair of 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO H EMI PTER A-HETEROPTER A 23 

disk-shaped (sucking?) organs ; tarsi 2 -segmented. 

Represented by a single Australian genus and species ; small tortoise-like bug 
probably living on a smooth substrate such as Eucalyptus bark or leaves 

Lestoniidae (China), 1955 

— Head, pronotum and costal margin of hemelytra not strongly laminately expanded 

and recurved ; not tortoise-like ; venter without sucking organs ... 45 

45. Hemelytra much longer than abdomen so that they are folded (elbowed) between 

membrane and corium in order to be hidden under scutellum ; scutellum always 
more or less covering the abdomen ; ventral abdominal segments with a straight, 
black, transverse sulcus on each side level with the trichobothria ; sometimes 
(Plastaspis) abdominal ventrites fused laterally. 

Small to moderately large bugs usually very convex and shining on upper side 
and flattened on ventral side, living on shrubs and low plants 

Plataspidae Dallas, 1851 

— Hemelytra not or only slightly longer than abdomen, not folded (elbowed) between 

membrane and corium although at rest sometimes almost completely covered by the 
scutellum ; scutellum often not covering the abdomen so that hemelytra are fully 
exposed ; ventral abdominal segments without black transverse sulcus on each 
side ; abdominal ventrites rarely fused laterally. 

A very large family of phytophagous and predaceous bugs showing considerable 
variation in form ...... Pentatomidae (Leach), 181 5 

46. Ocelli absent ; membrane of hemelytron usually with 2 basal cells from which 7-8 

branching, longitudinal veins extend to the apical margin . . . . 47 

— Ocelli present at least in macropterous forms, rarely absent {Camptocera in the 

Lygaeidae) in which case clavus regularly punctate ..... 48 

47. Sixth visible (seventh actual) ventral abdominal segment in the female cleft in middle 

Medium to large brightly coloured, usually phytophagous bugs 

Largidae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

— Sixth visible ventral abdominal segment entire in both sexes. 

Medium sized bugs, brightly coloured, usually phytophagous, seed feeding 
species but rarely {Dindymus) predaceous Pyrrhocoridae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

48. Antennophores dorsal placed relatively close together rarely lateral [Agraphopus 

and Maccevethus) in which case membrane of hemelytra with numerous longi- 
tudinal veins, basal cells usually absent, rarely reticulate (Pseudophloeus). 

Medium to large phytophagous bugs sometimes with dilated antennae or 
posterior tibiae ; posterior femora in male often strongly swollen and spined 

CoREiDAE Leach, 18 15 

— Antennophores placed further apart, more or less lateral and ventral of a line from 

centre of eyes to apex of head ; membrane of hemelytra with not more than 6 veins 49 

49. Female with the 2 dorsal abdominal segments anterior to the penultimate one, 

deeply arcuately incised ; the apical segment deeply sinuate ; membrane of 
hemelytron with 2 basal cells and several subreticulate veins ; head seen from side 
with tylus strongly elevated. 

Known only from a unique female specimen from S. Australia. Not seen by the 
present authors ....... Hyocephalidae Bergroth, 1906 

— Female with abdomen not as above ......... 50 

50. Apices of slender femora clubbed ; antennae geniculate, the apices of the slender 

basal and apical segments thickened ; peritreme of thoracic scent gland openings 
laterally produced ; body and legs slender. 

A small family of phytophagous bugs .... Berytidae Fieber, 1851 

— Apices of femora not clubbed ; antennae not geniculate . . . . . 51 

51. Antennae very long and slender ; scutellum spined. 

A small family of medium sized phytophagous bugs with narrow elongate bodies 
and broad heads Colobathristidae (St&l), 1866 



24 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTER A-HETEROPTER A 

— Antennae robust not exceptionally long ; scutellum not spined . . . . 52 

52. Corium, clavus and base of membrane areolate, tarsi 2-segmented ; membrane 

in macropterous forms, with 4 straight veins. 

A very small family of small phytophagous bugs 

PiESMATiDAE (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

— Corium and clavus regularly punctate but not areolate ; tarsi 3 -segmented ; mem- 

brane of hemelytron with 5 or 6 sinuate veins . . . . . . 53 

53. Juga acuminate and contiguous at base in front of tylus ; basal antennal segment 

strongly thickened and much thicker than remaining segments, densely, setosely 
pubescent. 

A small family of medium sized bugs formerly placed in the Coreid tribe Steno- 
cephalini and related to the Lygaeidae . . . Stenocephalidae Dallas, 1852 

— Juga rarely acuminate and extending in front of tylus, if so, never contiguous at 

base in front of tylus ; basal antennal segment not greatly thicker than remaining 
segments, pubescence sparse and non-bristly. 

A large family of small to medium bugs mainly dull in colour but with one sub- 
family (Lygaeinae) brightly coloured .... Lygaeidae (Schilling), 1829 



Keys are given below of the subfamilies where such exist. Many families have not, 
so far, been subdivided. 

Key to Subfamilies of Hydrometridae 

1. Antennae 5-segmented ; metastemum with i or 2 omphalia ; size small 3-5 mm. . 2 

- Antennae 4-segmented ; metastemum without omphalia ; size 6 mm. or more 

Hydrometrinae Esaki, 1927 

2. Head broadly constricted behind the eyes, with 2 black ocellar spots ; the hind 

lobe with posterior pair of trichobothrial setae inserted on prominent rounded 
elevations ; anterior lobe of head with 2 pairs of erect, stiff bristles ; metastemum 
with 2 separate omphaUa on posterior margin, front wings with 3 closed cells. 

Terrestrial species ...... Heterocleptinae Villiers, 1948 

(= Hydrobatodinae China & Usinger, 1949) 

- Head subcylindrical behind eyes, without ocellar spots, posterior pair of trichobothrial 

setae inserted on small tubercles at extreme base of head ; only i pair of erect stiff 
bristles in front of eyes ; metastemum with a median single omphalium on 
posterior margin, front wings with 2 closed cells . Limnobatodinae Esaki, 1927 

Key to Subfamilies of Mesoveliidae^ 

1. Head elongate slightly declivous towards apex ; antennae inserted well in front of 

anterior margin of eyes ; posterior margin of eyes not contiguous with anterior 
margin of pronotum 

Scutellum not simple and triangular ........ 2 

- Head short, strongly declivous ; antennae inserted close to anterior margin of eyes ; 

posterior margin of eyes contiguous with anterior margin of pronotum ; scutellum 
simple, triangular rather shorter than broad at base. 

S. American species ...... Mesoveloideinae subfam. nov. 

(Usinger in press) 

2. Pronotum (macropterous form) extending posteriorly to cover scutellum which is 

apparently absent (as in Veliidae) ; hemelytra with the corium not differentiated 
from the membrane, the whole with 6 closed cells ; apterous form unknown. 

1 Prof. R. L. Usinger has advised us that the structure of the neanides in these three groups is so 
similar that they should all be regarded as subfamilies of Meso veliidae. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMI PTER A-HETEROPTERA 25 

Terrestrial species in moss on bark of trees near water ; restricted to California 

Macroveliinae McKinstry, 1942 

- Pronotum (macropterous form) not as above ; scutellum distinctly visible (macrop- 

terous forms) consisting of 2 lobes, the basal one convex the apical one spatulate ; 
membrane of hemelytron without cells, often completely broken off leaving only a 
narrow corium ; ocelli present in macropterous form, obsolescent or absent in 
apterous form which is common. 

Small but world-wide subfamily of small surface bugs living on floating vegeta- 
tion ........ Mesoveliinae Douglas & Scott, 1867 

Key to Subfamilies of Veliidae 

1. Tarsal formula 2:3:3, the basal segments of tarsi of anterior and posterior legs 

very short, and inconspicuous ; of median legs long, subequal to apical segments ; 
hemelytra divided by a straight line into corium and membrane ; the corium 
with 2 closed cells ; membrane broad and long without veins 

Perittopinae China & Usinger, 1949 

- Tarsi not as above ; hemelytra not divided into distinct corium and membrane, with 

4-5 closed cells ............ 2 

2. Median tarsi deeply cleft, with laminate claws and plumose hairs arising from base of 

cleft ....... Rhagoveliinae China & Usinger, 1949 

- Median tarsi not deeply cleft, without plumose hairs arising from base of cleft . 3 

3. Tarsal formula^ 1:2:2. . . . . . . . . . . 4 

- Tarsal formula 2:2:2 or 3:3:3 . . . . . . . . . 5 

4. Claws all terminal ; hemelytra with 5 closed cells, the extra cell located along costal 

margin ........ Hebroveliinae Lundblad, 1939 

- Claws preapical ; hemelytra with 4 closed cells 

Microveliinae China & Usinger, 1949 

5. Tarsal formula 2:2:2:2: very small i*5-2'5 mm.; suboval usually apterous, 

macropterous forms unknown. 

Marine bugs along coral shores, Indian and Pacific Oceans Haloveliinae Esaki, 1930 

(Haloveliidae Poisson, 1956) 

- Tarsal formula 3:3:3, basal segment usually short ; larger 4-10 mm. elongate 

usually macropterous ; mesonotum largely concealed by pronotum in macropterous 
forms ........ Veliinae China & Usinger, 1949 

Key to the Subfamilies of Saldidae 

1. Scutellum transverse, much broader than long, narrowly arcuate ; eyes small, inner 

margins entire ; ocelli absent ; hemelytra always abbreviated, the apical margins 
concave with the outer angle produced ; pronotum quadrate. 

In rock crevices and under sea-weed in lowtide zone of rocky seashore. S.W. 
Europe ........ Aepophilinae^ (Puton), 1879 

- Scutellum large triangular at least as long as broad, rarely [Omania) broader than long 

but never narrowly arcuate. Eyes large, usually with inner margin sinuate ; ocelli 
always present, often placed close together ; hemelytra never abbreviated with 
apical margin concave ; pronotum more or less trapezoidal .... 2 

2. Pronotum with two erect conical tubercles or spinous processes ; head and pronotum 

narrow, inner margins of eyes parallel, not emarginate. 

A small subfamily of very small Saldids distributed in Florida, Formosa and 
Philippines ......... Saldoidinae Renter, 1912 

^ Tarsal formula is number of tarsal segments of anterior, median and posterior legs placed in that 
order. 

^ Obviously evolved from Saldidae (see China, 1927, Ent. mon. Mag. 63 : 238-241) but we do not agree 
with Leston that this group, hitherto regarded as a distinct family, should be sunk as a tribe of Saldinae. 



26 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTER A-HETEROPTER A 

- Pronotum without tubercles or spinous processes ; head wider, pronotum trapezoidal ; 

inner margins of eyes usually emarginate. 

A large subfamily of small to medium sized littoral bugs of world-wide distribution 

Saldinae Van Duzee, 191 7 

Key to Subfamilies of Gerridae 

1. Abdomen elongate, more than twice as long as broad at base ; internal margin of 

eyes concavely emarginate .......... 2 

- Abdomen very short, often shorter than wide at base, never more than twice as long 

as broad at base ; internal margin of eyes not concavely emarginate ... 3 

2. Median and posterior legs with tibiae and tarsi very long and slender tapering to 

apex, thread-like, the tarsi i -segmented and very short ; median tibiae in male with 
a fringe of long thin hairs. 

Medium to large water skaters living on surface of running water 

Ptilomerinae Esaki, 1927 

- Median and posterior legs with tibiae and tarsi only moderately slender, not tapering 

to apex nor thread-like, the tarsi long, 2 -segmented with the basal segment much 
longer than the apical segment. 

Medium to large water skaters living on both stagnant and running water 

Gerrinae Bianchi, 1896 

3. Apical abdominal segments cylindrical, elongate ; head produced in front of eyes 

so that it is about as long as broad between eyes, sides more or less parallel in 
front of eyes. 

Small water skaters often with curiously modified antennae and legs 

Rhagadotarsinae Lundblad, 1933 

- Apical abdominal segments not cylindrical or elongate, usually strongly transverse 

and retracted ; head transverse, triangular, not strongly produced in front of 
eyes, sides strongly convergent to apex ........ 4 

4. Abdomen hardly extending beyond the apices of the posterior coxae, the segments 

fused and indicated only by the presence of spiracles at sides ; male genital segment 
folded ventrally to lie with its apex directed towards the head. 

Minute marine bugs with relatively short robust legs living on isolated coral reefs 
in the Pacific and Indian Oceans . . Hermatobatinae Coutiere et Martin, 1901 

- Abdomen usually extending distinctly beyond the apices of posterior coxae, the 

segments not fused and the male genital segments backwardly porrect, not 
folded ventrally with apex pointing towards head. 

Small to medium sized water skaters some genera of which {Halobates) are fully 
marine ......... Halobatinae Bianchi, 1896 

Key to Subfamilies of Corixidae 

1. Scutellum exposed, covered by pronotum only at anterior margin ... 2 

- Scutellum covered by pronotum rarely with apex visible ..... 3 

2. Ocelli present ; antennae 4-segmented ; anterior tarsal claw large. 

Small Australasian water bugs probably living in temporary pools of water 
judging by the presence of ocelli . . . Diaprepocorinae Lundblad, 1928 

- Ocelli absent ; antennae 3 -segmented ; anterior tarsal claw in $ spine-like, in ^ 

flattened and capable of being folded back into an excavation on the outside of 
the tarsus. 

Small shallow-water bugs of world-wide distribution 

MiCRONECTiNAE Jaczewski, 1924 

3. Hemelytra with an embolar groove along costal margin ..... 4 

- Hemelytra without an embolar groove. Long narrow corixids living in River Nile 

and its tributaries in Sudan ..... Stenocorixinae Hungerford, 1948 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTE R A-HETEROPTER A 27 

4. Rostrum with transverse sulcations ; nodalsuture, towards apex of embolium, present 5 

- Rostrum without transverse sulcations ; nodal suture absent. 

Small corixids inhabiting ponds and swamps . . Cymatiinae Walton, 1940 

5. Infra-ocular part of the genae very broad ; lower margin of eye concave ; hypo- 

ocular suture arising near the subacute production of the inferior angle of the eye. 

Small tropical- American corixids . . Heterocorixinae Hungerford, 1948 

- Infra-ocular part of the genae usually not broad, if so the hypo-ocular suture, if 

present, arising about midway along ventral margin of eye. 

Small to medium sized corixids of world-wide distribution and living in ponds, 
lakes and rivers ...... Corixinae Douglas & Scott, 1865 

Key to Subfamilies of Helotrephidae 

1. Adult tarsal segmentation 3-3-3 ; dorsal surface of head separated from ventral 

surface by a distinct but fine carina, scutellum much broader at base than long 
in middle ; female with subovipositor. 

Small water bugs living in pot holes in mountain streams in S. America 

Neotrephinae China, 1940 

- Adult tarsal segmentation 1-1-2 ; dorsal surface of head not separated from ventral 

surface by a distinct carina (if so scutellum much longer than broad), scutellum at 

least as long as broad ; female without an ovipositor ..... 2 

2. Body flattened ; suture between head and pronotum absent ; antennae, i -segmented 

(plate-like) . 

Minute water bugs from Lake Tanganyika in E. Africa Idiocorinae Esaki & China, 1927 

- Body strongly convex ; suture between head and pronotum distinct ; antennae 

2-segmented. 

Small semi-globular water bugs living in still water and lakes in the Oriental 
and Ethiopian Regions .... Helotrephinae Esaki & China, 1927 

Key to Subfamilies of Nepidae 

T. Head across eyes distinctly narrower than the anterior margin of pronotum ; pro- 
notum broad trapezoidal ; anterior coxae short ; anterior femora strongly 
thickened. 

Medium to large water bugs usually living on the bottom of shallow water 
along the margins of ponds and streams . . Nepinae Douglas & Scott, 1865 

- Head across eyes distinctly broader than the anterior margin of pronotum ; pro- 

notum elongate, cylindrical, widened posteriorly ; anterior coxae long and 
slender ; anterior femora not strongly thickened. 

Medium to large water bugs living amongst water plants in deeper water of ponds 
and lakes ....... Ranatrinae Douglas & Scott, 1865 

Key to Subfamilies of Naucoridae 

r. Head narrow, elongate produced in front of eyes ; rostrum slender and at least as long 
as front femora ; antennae extending beyond side margins of head and hence 
visible from above ; the anterior tarsi mobile and with 2 well developed claws . 2 

- Head broad transverse, not or very slightly produced in front of eyes ; rostrum very 

broad at base tapering towards apex ; much shorter than anterior femora ; anten- 
nae short completely concealed below margins of head ; anterior tarsi more or 
less fused to tibiae (connate) and immobile, usually with i or 2 small claws . 3 

2. Rostrum very long, reaching at least the median coxae, apical segment much shorter 
than the penultimate segment ; anterior tarsi with 3 segments the basal segment 
very small and obscure ; spiracles visible but apparently closed and surrounded 
by a rosette of radiating branches ; male genitalia asymmetrical ; medium 
sized water bugs usually brachypterous, (the macropterous forms rare), living 



28 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTER A 

on the bed of swift flowing rivers, their plastron respiration enabling them to 
stay submerged throughout their life. 

Distribution throughout the Old World . . Aphelocheirinae Fieber, i860 

- Rostrum short, reaching the anterior coxae only, last 2 segments subequal in length; 

anterior tarsi with i -segment only ; spiracles obsolete ; male genitalia symmetrical. 
Minute water bugs living in S. American rivers ; so far only macropterous 
forms are known although in the genus Coleopteroides the hemelytra are without 
a membrane ....... Potamocorinae Usinger, 1941 

3. Anterior margin of pronotum deeply emarginate, head strongly inserted . . 4 

- Anterior margin of pronotum straight or feebly emarginate, head not strongly 

inserted ............. 6 

4. Rostrum arising from a deep excavation on under side of head far from its anterior 

margin ; head convexly and laminately produced in front of eyes ; labrum usually 
much reduced. 

Medium sized water bugs of Oriental disttribution 

Cheirochelinae Montandon, 1897 

- Rostrum arising from anterior margin of head ; labrum distinct and well developed 5 

5. Propleura produced laminately over posterior region of prosternum, contiguous 

medially and completely covering this area of the prosternum ; ventral surface of 
abdomen densely pubescent, the circumspiracular areas glabrous and a transverse 
row of small glabrous areas behind each spiracle ; always macropterous. 
Medium sized species, distributed in the Neotropical and Nearctic Regions 

Ambrysinae Usinger, 1941 

- Prosternum completely exposed, separated from the flattened pleura by simple sutures 

and not at all produced medially ; venter of abdomen without pubescence with a 
perforated disk-like area near each spiracle ; strongly dimorphic ; brachypterous 
form most common and elongate oval in form. 

Medium sized species inhabiting waterfalls in the Neotropical and Mexican 
Regions ....... Cryphocricinae Montandon, 1897 

6. Anterior tarsi with 2 segments, with 2 claws which are often inconspicuous, anterior 

margin of head strongly turned downwards and backwards, the rostrum thus arising 
well behind the anterior margin of the head ; gular region very short ; median 
and posterior femora each with 2 longitudinal rows of conspicuous bristles on 
lower surface in addition to the 2 usual rows of short bristles along the inner 
(posterior) surface. 

Medium sized Naucorids occurring in a wide variety of aquatic habitats and 
widely distributed in both Old World and New World tropical regions 

Laccocorinae St&l, 1876 
Anterior tarsi with i segment, with or without a minute scarcely distinguishable 
claw ; anterior margin of head usually less strongly backwardly declivous ; gular 
region moderately long, median and posterior femora without distinct additional 
rows of bristles ............ 7 

7. Inner margin of eyes anteriorly divergent ; meso- and metastema with prominent 

longitudinal carinae which are broad and foveate or otherwise excavate along 
middle ; body broadly oval and subflattened. 

Medium sized Neotropical Naucorids .... Limnocorinae St&l, 1876 

- Inner margins of eyes anteriorly convergent ; meso- and metastema at most with 

small thin plate-like carinae, these sometimes absent ; body strongly convex ; 
robust species. 

Medium sized Naucoridae of cosmopolitan distribution . . Naucorinae St&l, 1876 

Key to Subfamilies of Gelastocoridae 
I. Pronotum with lateral margins subparallel, feebly convex, anterior margin behind 
vertex straight ; head partly sunk beneath anterior margin of pronotum, eyes 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO H EM I PTE R A-H ETEROPTER A 29 

prominent but not pedunculate ; anterior tarsus and claw fused to form a single 
claw. 

Medium sized shore bugs living in muddy situations sometimes a long way from 
water. Distribution world-wide in tropical and subtropical regions 

MoNONYCHiNAE Ficber, 1851 

- Pronotum with lateral margins strongly sinuate the widest part about the middle, 

anterior margin also sinuate ; head not sunk beneath anterior margin of pronotum, 
eyes extremely prominent and raised, pedunculate ; anterior tarsus with 2 distinct 
claws. 

Medium sized shore bugs (toad bugs) inhabiting sandy and muddy shores of 
ponds and streams in the Neotropical Region only . Gelastocorinae Champion, 1901 

Key to Subfamilies of Notonectidae 

I. Hemelytral commissure without a pit (sensory organ) at anterior end ; median 
femur with a subapical spur on its posterior margin ; antennae with 4 well defined 
segments ; male genitalia symmetrical. 

Cosmopolitan water bugs (back swimmers) . . . Notonectinae Leach, 1815 

- Hemelytral commissure with a pit. Median femur without a subapical spur ; antenna 

with 3 well defined segments. 

Tropical and subtropical water bugs (back swimmers) Anisopinae Hutchinson, 1929 

Key to the Subfamilies of Reduviidae^ 

1 . Anterior coxae elongate at least 4 times as long as wide ; front legs often raptorial . 2 

- Anterior coxae not elongate seldom more than twice as long as wide [Evonymus) 

in which case front tibiae with an apical spur and process of trochanter blunt not 
spine-like and ocelli placed close together ; front legs never truly raptorial . . 5 

2. Anterior coxal cavities opening straight downward ; underside of head with down- 

wardly projecting spines and rostrum with upwardly projecting spines or bristles 3 

- Anterior coxal cavities opening forward and downward ; head and rostrum without 

such spines and bristles .......... 4 

3. Head with a distinct transverse furrow ; pronotum usually spined ; body not highly 

polished. Small to medium sized species of world-wide distribution. Biology un- 
known but nocturnal in habit ...... Saicinae (Stal), 1859 

- Head without a transverse furrow ; pronotum without spines ; head and body highly 

polished ; legs relatively long and slender. Only a single genus of small dark 
coloured, shining species probably inhabiting the forest canopy in Ethiopian and 
Oriental regions ...... Visayanocorinae^ Miller, 1952 

4. Ocelli absent ; the lower anterior border of prothorax, seen in side view, scarcely 

produced beyond upper margin on which head is inserted. Large group of small 
to fairly large, fragile but predatory species, sometimes bacilliform, sometimes 
gnat-like ; distribution world wide ; sometimes found in caves and associated 
with spider webs. Probably prey on Diptera . . Emesinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

- Ocelli present ; the lower anterior border of the prothorax produced distinctly beyond 

the upper border in the middle of which the head is inserted. Small group of 
genera allied to Emesinae but no ecological data available ; distribution Neo- 
tropical ......... Bactrodinae (St&l), 1866 

5. Rostrum with 4 visible segments, the basal segment distinct. A small family of 

robust, spiny bugs of Oriental and Malayan distribution 

Centrocneminae Miller, 1956 

1 Carayon, Usinger and Wygodzinsky (1958, q.v.) do not accept all these subfamilies and would 
relegate some of them to tribal status. 

2 Although we agree with Villiers (1958) that Visayanocoris Miller 1952 is a synonym of Carayonia 
Villiers 195 1, we are not convinced that it belongs to the Saicinae and therefore Miller's subfamily name 
is retained. 



30 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO H EMI PTE R A- H ETE ROPTE R A 

- Rostrum apparently 3 segmented, the basal segment not distinctly visible . . 

6. Anterior tarsi strongly reduced, either minute or obsolete, rarely robust and distinct 

(Ectinoderinae) in which case the anterior claws are minute and parallel ; the 
front tibiae are usually distinctly longer than the femora ; anterior tibiae often 
clothed with dense erect pubescence ........ 7 

- Anterior tarsi not strongly reduced, never obsolete ; anterior claws seldom minute 

and parallel ; front femora seldom longer than tibiae ; anterior tibiae not as 
above ............. 9 

7. Pronotum strongly backwardly produced to cover all or most of the scutellum ; 

prosternal stridulatory furrow absent ; anterior tarsus usually i -segmented. . 8 

- Pronotum not backwardly produced, scutellum entirely visible ; prosternal stridu- 

latory furrow present. Anterior tibiae with a dorsal sulcus apically in which the 
2- or 3-segmented tarsus is carried at rest : head and body and legs somewhat 
densely setose ; females sometimes with a coloured foliaceous process on each 
side of the eighth dorsal abdominal segment ; stridulatory furrow present. 

A small group of genera of Neotropical distribution allied to the next two 
subfamilies but less specialized. Habitat : foliage and flowers associated with forest 
clearings ....... Apiomerinae (Amyot & Serville) 1843 

Note. Some species use resin on the front legs to capture prey and this is the 
most primitive of the two groups in which this curious habit appears to have started. 

8. Scutellum entirely invisible, the posterior margin of the pronotum entire ; pronotum 

not flattened ; anterior tarsus probably i -segmented but usually missing in 
museum specimens ; apex of front tibiae curved downwards. 

A very small group of medium to small sized species from Central Africa and 
Madagascar, living under bark and amongst leaf debris . Diaspidiinae Miller, 1959 

- Scutellum not entirely invisible, its apex visible beyond the medially excavate 

posterior margin of the pronotum ; pronotum strongly flattened ; the small 
anterior tarsi one-segmented. A small group of moderately large to medium 
sized species of Oriental distribution found on the trunks of jungle trees which 
exude resin. 

Note. The bugs dip their front legs into the sticky resin and use them to 
catch small bees, etc. Resin is often found on the front legs of museum specimens 

Ectinoderinae (St&l), 1866 

9. Anterior tarsus with 2 segments ; underside of head not spinous ... 10 

- Anterior tarsus with 3 segments, rarely with basal segment very short and apparently 

2 segmented (Rhaphidosominae) ; rarely 2-segmented {Nalata, Stachyogenus and 
Microlestria, in which case underside of head armed with spinous tubercles . . 14 

10. Scutellum triangular ; if not then armed with a long erect spine . . . . 11 

— Scutellum semi-circular, unspined posterior margin sometimes fringed ; antennae, 

legs and abdomen with abundant serrate or plumose setae ; trichome usually 
present on basal ventral abdominal segments ; hemelytra with membrane ample ; 
hind wings reduced. A small group of small to moderate sized bugs often found in 
association with ants on which they prey and which they are said to anaesthetize 
with the trichome ..... Holoptilinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

1 1 . Undersurface of head with a distinct buccal groove ; antenna with first segment 

strongly thickened, the remaining segments also distinctly thickened with the 
apical segment very short ; tarsi very short ; distinctly Aradid-like in general 
appearance, not Reduviid-like ......... 12 

— Undersurface of head without a distinct buccal groove ; antennae not as above ; 

not Aradid-like except Aradomorpha (Reduviinae), see note below . . . 13 

12. Hind wing cell without hamus ; dorsal surface of abdomen with only one pair of 

scent gland openings ; head anteriorly without an interantennal process at 
apex. A small group, of doubtful Reduviid affinity, based on a single genus 
of neotropical distribution .... Phimophorinae (Handlirsch), 1897 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEM I PTER A-H ETEROPTE R A 31 

Note. Phimophorus was associated by Handlirsch (1897) with the Stenopodinae, 
by Wygodzinsky (1948) with the Phymatidae and the genus Aradomorpha 
(Reduviinae). In spite of the absence of a buccal groove Aradomorpha with its 
2 -segmented tarsi might be placed in the Phimophorinae which might better be 
regarded as a distinct family. 

— Hind wing cell with a long hamus ; dorsal surface of abdomen with three pairs of 

scent gland openings ; head anteriorly with an apically falcate inter-antennal 
process. 

Based on a single genus and species from the Solomon Islands. Superficially 
closely allied to Phimophorinae (see above) . . Medanocorinae Miller, 1956 

13. Fossula spongiosa indistinct, apparently absent from apex of anterior tibia ; whole 

insect smooth and shining with numerous long erect setae, particularly long and 
dense on hind tibiae which are themselves very long and curved ; anterior tibiae 
swollen and compressed laterally on apical half with the tarsi very long ; erect 
scutellar spine very long ; humeral angles of pronotum hemispherically rounded ; 
posterior lateral angles of connexivum not dentate. 

Very small delicate insects, allied to the Salyavatinae, of which only a single 
specimen, from Borneo, is known .... Manangocorinae Miller, 1954 

— Fossula spongiosa always present at apex of anterior tibia usually very distinct ; 

whole insect dull mat, not shining, not strikingly setose ; hind tibiae straight of 
normal length ; anterior tibiae often widely dilated even to base, the tarsus usually 
short, sometimes folded back into a groove at the dorsal apex of the tibia ; humeral 
angles of pronotum usually acute or spined ; posterior lateral angles of connexivum 
usually acute or dentate . . . Salyavatinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

14. Hemelytral membrane very broad combined with a narrow and elongate corium ; 

head usually acuminate ; eyes not at all prominent, definitely flattened so that 
they do not project laterally beyond the lateral margins of the postocular region 
of the head, sometimes almost contiguous dorsally ; antennophores placed immedi- 
ately in front of the eyes and always obliquely divergent anteriorly, rarely laminate 
(Afrodecius) in which case the second visible rostral segment is thickened and its 
inner posterior apical margin produced into a small sub-acute process parallel with 
the short apical segment, giving a pincer-like appearance ; first antennal segment 
both thickened and much longer than the head ; ocelli absent ; head, body and 
veins of corium often very densely tomentose so that actually surface is invisible. 
A small group of medium sized bugs, dull coloured, nocturnal species living 
among leaf debris and in crevices. Oriental, Australasian and Ethiopian Regions 

Tribelocephalinae (Stal), 1866 

— Hemelytral membrane not very broad combined with a narrow and elongate corium ; 

eyes not flattened, usually distinctly prominent beyond lateral margins of post- 
ocular region of head, never almost contiguous dorsally ; antennophores never 
obliquely divergent anteriorly nor laminate ; first antennal segment often longer 
than head but never strongly thickened as well ; head body and veins of corium 
sometimes tomentose but never so densely that surface is invisible. . . . 15 

15. Scutellum triangular, apex sometimes bifid (Hammacerinae) .... 16 

— Scutellum not triangular, apically truncate and mucronate, that is with two or three 

curved prongs. 

A large group of small to medium, often shining, brightly coloured species. 
Habitat amongst vegetable debris under stones and logs ; mainly nocturnal. 
World wide distribution in tropical and subtropical regions 

Ectrichodiinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

16. Ocelli absent ; hemelytra present . . . . . . . . . 17 

— Ocelli present, absent only in apterous specimens . ..... 18 

17. Head with the postocular region much longer than the anteocular region, the latter 

ending apically in a stout spine-like process ; pronotum constricted behind the mid- 
dle ; anterior femora strongly swollen ; tarsi long and slender ; insect not bristly. 



32 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO H EMI PTER A-HETE ROPTE R A 

A small group of Neotropical and Ethiopian distribution of which probably only 
Vescia and Chopardita are typical (see China and Usinger 1949) 

Vesciinae Fracker & Bruner, 1924 

— Head with the postocular region not longer than the anteocular region, the latter 

not ending in a spine like process ; pronotum constricted at or near middle ; 
anterior femora not especially swollen ; insect covered with bristle-like hairs. 
A very small family of two genera, Chryxus and Lentia of neotropical distribution 

Chryxinae Champion, 1898 

18. Second antennal segment multi-pseudosegmented (8-28). A small family of moder- 

ately large, apparently subcorticolous species of Neotropical distribution Hammacerinae 

— Second antennal segment not multi-segmented . . . . . . . 19 

19. Head with an apically truncate process between the antennae ; the eyes pedunculate ; 

auxilliary postero-lateral, metathoracic scent glands (Brindley's glands) present. 
A small group of Cicindelid-like reduviids living mostly under logs and stones. 
Distribution Ethiopian and Neotropical Regions . . Cetherinae Jeannel, 1919 

• — Head without such a process ; the eyes not pedunculate ; Brindley's glands absent 20 

20. Head with the transverse sulcus between or behind the eyes absent or obsolescent ; 

anterior and posterior lobes of pronotum indistinctly separated, the former 
much shorter than the latter . . . . . . . . .21 

— Head with the transverse sulcus between or behind the eyes present and usually 

distinct; rarely (some Physoderinae) very wide and shallow or rather indistinct 
(Piratinae) ............. 22 

21. Head not extending beyond eyes, strongly deflexed anteriorly; antennae inserted 

close together between the eyes which are very large and sub-spherical ; ocelli 
placed close together on a strongly elevated protuberance ; rostrum short and 
straight relatively slender with second visible segment very long, lying between 
the almost contiguous eyes. 

A very small group of superficially Triatoma-like bugs of Neotropical distribution. 
Biology unknown .... Sphaeridopinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

— Head extending well beyond eyes, not defiexed anteriorly ; antennae inserted on 

the sides of the anteocular region of the head in front of middle of anterior margin 
of eyes ; ocelli not placed close together on a protuberance ; rostrum long and 
straight not particularly slender, first visible segment much longer than in Sphaeri- 
dopinae ; eyes not nearly contiguous on underside of head. The prosternal stridu- 
latory furrow is absent in Linshcosteus Dist. Moderately large insects associated 
with mammals and birds whose blood they suck. Some species are vectors of 
Trypanosoma cruzi, Mostly neotropical or subtropical but one species is tropi- 
copolitan ......... Triatominae Jeannel, 1919 

22. Hemelytra with cubital nerve branching to form an additional 4 to 6-angled cell 

between corium and membrane ......... 23 

— Hemelytra with cubitus simple not forming such a cell, cubitus sometimes obsolete . 28 

23. Cubital cell usually hexagonal, first antennal segment stout, porrect ; abdomen 

with only two dorsal scent glands ; claws simple. A fairly large group of rather 
elongate rather pallid reduviids inhabiting secluded spots in all the Zoogeographical 
Regions ..... Stenopodinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

— Cubital cell usually quadrangular, sometimes very small ; first antennal segment 

usually relatively slender ; abdomen with three dorsal scent glands ; claws 
dentate or appendiculate .......... 24 

24. Rostrum slender and straight, rarely slightly curved at base, either cylindrical, of 

equal thickness throughout, or swollen at base and tapering gradually to a long 
fine point ; usually extending to the anterior coxae but sometimes {Phonolibes) 
extending almost to the base of abdomen ....... 25 

— Rostrum not slender and straight, usually distinctly curved from base to apex and 

strongly curved at base. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTER A-HETE ROPTERA 33 

A large group of variable reduviids living on flowering plants, grasses and shrubs 
in all the Zoogeographical Regions . . Harpactorinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

25. Narrow elongate, often bacilliform species with the transverse head sulcus running 

between the very small eyes ; usually apterous with long slender legs and short, 
curved, apparently 2-segmented tarsi ; if not apterous then ocelli situated very close 
to eyes and far from base of head. 

A small group of Old World reduviids living mainly in grasses and low herbage 

Rhaphidosominae Jeannel, 1919 

— Not elongate or bacilliform ; transverse head sulcus behind the eyes which are not 

very small ; macropterous species, the legs seldom exceptionally long and slender 26 

26. Head anteriorly acuminate, elongated in front of antennophores so that the sub- 

spherical basal lobe bearing the ocelli is very much shorter than the region in 
front of the eyes ; eyes relatively small ; pronotum smooth with a median 
longitudinal sulcus ; body tomentose. A small group of Old World species living 
mainly under logs and stones ; sometimes found in termites' nests 

Phonolibinae Miller, 1952 

— Head not as above, basal lobe bearing ocelli not subspherical and not much shorter 

than the antiocular region ; eyes relatively large . . . . . . 27 

27. Pronotum shining with two percurrent, sinuate, dorso-lateral carinae ; pronotum 

posteriorly without a flat tongue-like process on each side of scutellum ; hind 
femora nodular with dense short, erect, glandular setae ; scutellum with a sub-erect 
thickened process or knob. 

A very small group of medium sized species usually with abundant secretory 
hairs or setae. Habitat jungle trees and foliage in the Oriental and Australasian 
Regions ; also recorded as predators of termites . . Tegeinae (Villiers), 1948 

— Pronotum dull without percurrent carinae ; pronotum posteriorly with a flat, 

tongue-like process projecting posteriorly on each side of scutellum ; the scutellum 
with an apical, spatulate process ; anterior lobe of pronotum usually broader than 
posterior lobe, the anterior lateral margins broadly rounded ; sometimes with the 
posterior lobe widest in which case the transverse furrow behind the eyes is very 
broad and shallow and consequently indistinct ; legs short and thick, femora 
tuberculate. A small group of reduviids found mainly in rotting vegetable debris 
and predators on beetles in the Oriental and Mascarene Regions 

Physoderinae Miller, 1954 

28. Pronotum constricted well behind the middle ; anterior coxae large, somewhat later- 

ally compressed and flattened on outer side ; anterior femora usually incrassate. 
A small group of mostly dark coloured, terrestrial species of world-wide distribution 

Piratinae (Stal), 1859 

— Pronotum constricted about middle ; anterior coxae not especially large nor out- 

wardly flattened ; anterior femora not or only feebly incrassate. A medium sized 
group of nocturnal mainly terrestrial species found amongst leaf debris, in rocky 
places and in houses, sheds and poultry houses. Distribution Cosmopolitan 

Reduviinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

Key to the Subfamilies of Phymatidae 

1. Anterior tarsus 2-segmented, articulating normally with tibia and non-raptorial 

Themonocorinaei (Carayon, Usinger & Wygodzinsky), 1958 
- Anterior tarsus fused with tibia and the two together articulating with femur to form 

a raptorial organ ............ 2 

2. Scutellum short not longer than broad, membrane of hemelytra with numerous 

veins extending from basal cells .... Phymatinae (Dohrn), 1859 

^ Carayon, Usinger and Wygodzinsky (1958) regard this group as annectent between Reduviidae and 
Phymatidae, sinking the latter to subfamily status under the Reduviidae and giving Themonocoris 
tribal status in the Phymatinae (our Phymatidae). To us it is a primitive Phymatid and should not be 
allowed to disrupt this very concise group. 



34 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTER A-HETEROPTE R A 

- Scutellum longer than broad at base, often extending to apex of abdomen, rarely 

short and only slightly longer than wide at base in which case hemelytral membrane 

with not more than 5 longitudinal veins ....... 3 

3. Anterior legs with the apex of femur on the posterior side extended into a long 
process beyond the insertion of the tibia-tarsus, so that the femoral process and the 
tibia act as a pincer ; head and pronotum spinous ; hind wing without a hamus 

Carcinocorinae HandUrsch, 1897 

- Anterior legs as in Phymatinae, the femora not apically produced on posterior side 

but apically strong widened, the tibia-tarsus acting with the broad apex of the 
femur to form a pincer . . . . Macrocephalinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

Key to the Subfamilies of Tingidae 

1. Head strongly produced in front of insertion of antennae ; bucculae anteriorly 

produced and posteriorly not extending beyond anterior margin of prosternum ; 
pronotum posteriorly, obtusely rounded or angulate, rarely truncate and disclosing 
apex of scutellum ; hemelytra with discal call usually divided by transverse vein 
or veins into 2 or 3 areas. 

Medium to small species, widely distributed in the Old World 

Cantacaderinae (St&l), 1873 

- Head not or feebly produced in front of insertion of antennae ; bucculae not produced 

anteriorly but posteriorly strongly, backwardly produced and reaching anterior 
coxae ; pronotum posteriorly distinctly angulate ; hemelytra with discal cell entire, 
transverse veins absent .......... 2 

2. Hemelytra with areolations very small ; corium without distinct discoidal and 

subcostal areas ; pronotum without either a vesiculate hood or lateral paranotal 
dilations ; costal margin of hemelytra not dilated. 

Very small, narrow, elongate species of world-wide distribution 

Agramminae (Douglas & Scott), 1865 

- Hemelytra usually with large areolations ; corium with distinct discoidal and sub- 

costal areas ; pronotum usually with a vesiculate hood or hood-like prominence, 
often with paranotal dilations and with the costal margin dilated. 

Small to medium sized bugs ; cosmopolitan . Tinginae (Douglas & Scott), 1865 

Key to Subfamilies of Aradidae 

1. Genae reduced, not produced on either side of clypeus to form a cleft apex of head ; 

3 equally developed dorsal abdominal scent gland ostioles .... 2 

- Genae large, often surpassing clypeus to form a cleft apex of head ; only 2 distinct 

dorsal abdominal scent gland ostioles, the first large, the second rarely well 
developed, the third obsolescent ......... 6 

2. Rostrum free at base ; wings deciduous at a line of weakness level with apex of 

scutellum. 

A small subfamily of strongly flattened, fulvous aradids from Chile, New Zealand, 
Australia and Tasmania ...... Isoderminae Stal, 1872 

- Rostrum enclosed by bucculae at base ; wings not deciduous and without the line 

of weakness ............ 3 

3. Metapleuron with a distinct scent gland ostiole in front of posterior coxa . . 4 

- Metapleuron without distinct scent gland ostioles ...... 5 

4. Scent gland ostiole with a long curved seta ; juga well developed extending on each 

side of clypeus for nearly half its length. 

A very small subfamily of primitive aradids from Australia, Tasmania and New 
Zealand ...... Prosympiestinae Usinger & Matsuda, 1959 

- Scent gland ostiole with a carina curved at apex ; juga reduced. 

A very small subfamily of primitive aradids from New Zealand 

Chinamyersiinae Usinger & Matsuda, i959 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA 35 

Scutellum large covering nearly all the abdomen ; hemelytra largely hidden and 
membranous ; edge of connexivum double. 

A small subfamily mainly restricted to the Southern Hemisphere 

Calisiinae (St&l), 1873 
Scutellum small, covering only a small area of abdomen ; hemelytra completely 
exposed often with costal margins dilated at base. 

A medium sized subfamily, mainly holarctic in distribution 

Aradinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 
Rostrum arising from an open atrium ; anterior dorsal abdominal scent gland 
ostiole of third segment not or slightly displaced backward. 

A small subfamily of cosmopolitan distribution Aneurinae (Douglas & Scott), 1865 
Rostrum arising from a closed atrium through a longitudinal slit-like opening ; dorsal 
abdominal scent gland ostiole displaced from third to median or posterior margin 
of fourth segment ........... 7 

Metapleural scent gland ostiole inconspicuous ; body more or less covered with 
a pale incrustation which forms a constant pattern and sometimes entirely obscures 
the integument ....... Carventinae Usinger, 1950 

Metapleural scent gland ostiole distinct, placed laterally behind the middle coxa ; 
usually narrow-elongate with a channel leading from inner end towards the median 
coxa ; sometimes (Chelonocorini) the metapleural scent gland ostiole is wide with 
a continuous peritreme that is isolated and without a channel leading to the median 
coxa ; body sometimes obscured by dirt but without a distinct patterned incrusta- 
tion .......... Mezirinae Oshanin, 1908 

Key to the Subfamilies of Enicocephalidae 

Pronotum divided into 3 lobes by two distinct transverse furrows. Male pygophor 

with neither mobile gonopods nor a distinct anal tube . Enicocephalinae (Stal), i860 

Pronotum roundly narrowing from base to apex, not divided by two distinct trans- 
verse furrows into 3 lobes. Male pygophor with a pair of mobile gonopods and 
with a distinct anal tube ..... Aenictopechinae Usinger, 1932 

This last subfamily was suppressed by Usinger (1943) but has been reinstated by 
VilUers (1958). 

Key to the Subfamilies of Cimicidae 

(based on the work of R. L. Usinger) 

Clypeus narrowed apically ; rostrum very short, not reaching level of insertion of 
antennae. 

A single American genus on cave bats [Tadarida mexicana) in North America 
(Texas) ........ Primicimicinae Usinger (in press) 

Clypeus widened apically ; rostrum longer, usually surpassing base of head . . 2 

Bristles at sides of pronotum serrate on their outer edges ; metasternum widened 
posteriorly, plate-like between posterior coxae ; organ of Ribaga ventral on fourth 
or fifth segments of abdomen. 

Parasites of bats and birds and man. Cosmopohtan . Cimicinae Van Duzee, 1916 
Bristles at sides of pronotum not serrate on their outer edges, usually cleft or dentate 
at tips ; metasternum roundly lobed and more or less compressed between the 
hind coxae ; organ of Ribaga usually dorsal ....... 3 

Tibiae with short stout bristles in addition to short hairs. 

Bugs predatory on birds including domestic fowl in America 

Haematosiphoninae Jordan & Rothschild, 1912 
Tibiae with fine bristles which may be short or very long but not stiff and spine-like. 
Bugs predatory on bats in the African and Oriental Regions 

Cacodminae Kirkaldy, 1899 



36 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTE R A-HETEROPTERA 

Key to the Subfamilies of Anthocoridae 

1. The hind wing cell with a distinct hamus (hook-like vein) ..... 2 
-. The hind wing cell without a distinct hamus. 

Small species living under bark . . . Dufouriellinae Van Duzee, 191 6 

2. Hamus of hind wing cell arising from the vena connectens^; the two apical antennal 

segments slender, filiform. 

Small predatory species in litter or stored products . Lyctocorinae Reuter, 1884 

- Hamus of hind wing cell arising from vena decurrens or from the vena subtensa ; 

the two apical antennal segments fusiform. 

Small, phytophaguous and predatory species of cosmopolitan distribution 

Anthocorinae Reuter, 1884 

Note. The authors had considered the genera allied to Bilia Distant, previously 
placed in the Isometopidae, as forming a new subfamily of Anthocoridae distin- 
guished from the Anthocorinae by the strongly convex margins of the pronotum 
and hemelytra, deep cuneal fracture and widely spaced ocelli. Carayon's recent 
paper (1958) in which he associates Orius and other genera with Bilia and regards 
the group as merely a tribe (Oriini) of Anthocorinae, has caused them to refrain 
from establishing such a new subfamily. 

Key to Subfamilies of Microphysidae 

I. Rostrum either apparently 3- or 4-segmented but always with the formula i, 4, 3, 2 
(segments numbered from base to apex and arranged in order of length, shortest 
first) ; membrane with distinct venation in males ; females with ovipositor present 

Microphysinae China, 1953 

- Rostrum apparently 3-segmented (that is first segment invisible), formula either 

I, 2, 3, 4, or [Nabidomorpha) i, 2, 4, 3 ; membrane always without venation ; 
ovipositor absent, female genital opening transverse . Plokiophilinae China, 1953 

Key to Subfamilies of Nabidae 

1. Metathoracic scent gland ostioles not visible between median and posterior coxae ; 

all tarsi i -segmented ; tibiae with curious spatulate process at apex below insertion 
of tarsi ; underside of head with 2 pairs of spines ; underside of anterior femora 
spined as well as the usual bristly pubescence. 

A single genus of tropical American species . . Carthasinae Blatchley, 1926 

- Metathoracic scent gland ostioles distinct between median and posterior coxae, placed 

nearer to the posterior coxa than to the median ; all tarsi 3-segmented, tibiae 
without an apical spatulate process ; underside of head and anterior femora 
without spines ............ 2 

2. Pronotum very strongly convex, laminately extended backwards on each side of base 

of scutellum ; median femora in male incrassate and spined ; abdomen narrowed at 
base ; ovipositor reduced ; hamus absent in wing. 

A single genus of tropical American species living in spider webs 

Arachnocorinae Reuter, 1890 

- Pronotum not very strongly convex, not laminately extended backwards on each 

side of base of scutellum, the posterior margin more or less straight ; median 
femora in male not incrassate ; abdomen broad not narrowed at base ; ovipositor 
well developed ; hamus present in wing ........ 3 

3. Anterior coxal cavities closed behind ; anterior coxae very long. 

A single genus of Oriental and African species . . Gorpinae Reuter, 1909 

- Anterior coxal cavities open behind ; anterior coxae relatively short ... 4 

^ For definition of these terms see Parshley, 1923, Guide to Ins. of Connecticut, Part 4, Hemiptera, 
p. 670, fig. 153. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMI PTE R A-HETE ROPTE R A 37 

4. Pronotal collar reduced ; clavus narrowed posteriorly, the commissure shorter than 
the scutellum. 

A small subfamily of rather brightly coloured, terrestrial species 

Prostemminae Renter, 1890 
- Pronotal collar broad and distinct ; clavus broadened posteriorly, the commissure 
longer than the scutellum. 

A large group of species inhabiting low vegetation and bushes 



Nabinae Renter, 1890 



Key to Subfamilies of Miridae 



1. Arolia present, large and free .......... 2 

- AroUa absent, substituted by a pair of straight hairs ...... 3 

2. Arolia distinctly divergent towards their apices, usually dilated ; pronotal collar 

always present and well separated from pronotum by a furrow 

MiRiNAE (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

- Arolia parallel or convergent toward their apices, usually slender ; pronotal collar 

if present of the depressed type that is at a lower level than rest of pronotum 

Orthotylinae Van Duzee, 19x6 

3. Pseudarolia present, free or attached to the claw, sometimes minute, in which case 

pronotal collar absent ........... 4 

- Pseudarolia absent, pronotal collar present or if not claws very long smooth and 

slender ............. 5 

4. Pseudaroha arising from the base or inner margin of claw ; membrane with 2 cells ; 

tarsi linear ...... Phylinae (Douglas & Scott), 1865 

- Pseudaroila arising from the inner surface of claw ; membrane with i cell only ; 

tarsi thickened towards apices . . . Bryocorinae (Douglas & Scott), 1865 

5. Claws toothed or thickened at base . . Deraeocorinae (Douglas & Scott), 1865 

- Claws not toothed or thickened at base .... Cylapinae Kirkaldy, 1903 

Key to the Subfamilies of Cydnidae 

1. Feebly convex; scutellum not extending to apex of abdomen; clavus elongate 

extending to or almost to the apex of scutellum ; posterior margin of ventral surface 
of eye extending to posterior margin of ventral side of head ; hind wing without a 
small hole in the anal lobe behind the second anal vein ..... 2 

- Strongly convex ; scutellum extending to apex of abdomen ; clavus visible only as 

a small triangle on each side of base of scutellum ; posterior margin of ventral 
surface of eye not extending to posterior margin of ventral side of head ; hind 
wing often (?) with a small hole in the anal lobe behind the second anal vein 

Thyreocorinae Van Duzee, 1907 

2. Head usually with distinct spines or bristles, often with an apical marginal fringe of 

spines or bristles, anterior tibiae broad and flattened. A moderately large sub- 
family of black or brownish bugs living on the roots of low plants, sometimes with 
the anterior and posterior legs modified for digging ; pairs of ventral abdominal 
trichobothria longitudinally arranged and more or less in line with the spiracles 

Cydninae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

- Head destitute of spines and bristles, without an apical marginal fringe of spines ; 

anterior tibiae cylindrical towards base but triangularly dilated apically ; tricho- 
bothria in transverse pairs not in line with spiracles 

Sehirinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

Key to the Subfamilies of Urostylidae 
I. Corium irregularly punctured on disk ; 5 pairs of abdominal spiracles (3-7) all ven- 
tral ; rostrum short, not extending to median coxae ; wing with normal pentato- 



38 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTER A-HETE ROPTER A 

moid venation, that is, with Cu and antevannal veins complete ; vannals i and 2 
and jugal vein all present. 

Coreid-like bugs confined to the Oriental Region , Urostylinae Dallas, 1851 

- Corium unpunctured on disk between the distinct row of punctures along R -{- M 

and the row along the claval suture ; 6 pairs of visible abdominal spiracles, 
second basal and ventral and 3-7 placed on lateral margin of connexivum ; rostrum 
long, extending to fourth abdominal segment ; wing with apical Cu, antevannal, 
vannals, anal and jugal veins absent. 

Known only from a single specimen of a minute species from Borneo 

Saileriolinae China & Slater, 1956 

Key to Subfamilies of Pentatomidae 

1. Prosternum with a deep, median longitudinal sulcus, the lateral margins of which 

(anterior lateralia) are strongly laminately elevated above the basisternum on 
each side of rostrum ; primary vein {R + M) of hind wing remote from subtended 
vein (Cm), the basal cell so formed with a long (complete) hamus vein formed by the 
passing of M from R + M to Cu . . . . . . . . 2 

- Prosternum without a deep, median longitudinal sulcus, lateral margins not strongly 

laminately elevated on each side of rostrum ; primary vein (i? -f M) of hind 
wing more or less parallel with Cu ; hind wing cell rarely with a hamus (Tessarato- 
minae) in which case the hamus is short (not complete) ..... 4 

2. Tarsi 2 -segmented ; no veins on hemelytral membrane. 

Minute blackish S. American bugs formerly placed in the Cydnid subfamily 
Thyreocorinae ..... Megaridiinae McAtee & Malloch, 1928 

- Tarsi 3-segmented ; at least several strong, longitudinal veins on hemelytral mem- 

brane ............. 3 

3. Antennae 5-segmented with the second segment very short, much shorter than the 

first ; anterior margin of pronotum rounded into lateral margins, no anterior 
lateral angle. 

Relatively small, black shining bugs of Neotropical distribution formerly placed 
in the Cydnidae ..... . Canopinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

- Antennae 5-segmented, the second segment not shorter than the first ; anterior 

margin of pronotum forming distinct angles with lateral margins. 

A large subfamily of bugs, often very highly coloured and frequently metallic 
although some groups are dull brown in colour. Inhabiting flowering shrubs and 
trees, also Graminaceae (Eurygaster) . . . Scutellerinae (Leach), 1815 

4. Spiracles of second abdominal segment always exposed ; hind wing cell with spur-like 

(short) hamus. 
Mostly large flattened bugs with dilated connexivum. Old World distribution 

Tessaratominae (Stal), 1865 

- Spiracles of second abdominal segment always covered by posterior part of meta- 

pleura ; hind wing cell without a spur-like hamus ...... 5 

5. Tarsi 2-segmented ; third abdominal segment spinuously produced mid-ventrally ; 

eighth abdominal segment well developed, not ring like ; meso-stemum medially 
longitudinally carinate ; mostly phytophagous but some species have been 
recorded feeding on carrion. 

Widely distributed ...... Acanthosomatinae (St&l), 1864 

- Tarsi 3-segmented very rarely 2-segmented ; third abdominal segment not spinously 

produced midventrally ; eighth abdominal segment reduced to a ring and con- 
cealed ; mesosternum not carinate ......... 6 

6. Rostrum very short, not extending beyond anterior coxae ; basal segment and a large 

part of segment 2 concealed within bucculae. Somewhat elongate or elliptical 
bugs with head acute anteriorly, the juga in some species being separated. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMI PTER A-H ETE ROPTER A 



39 



Found on low plants and Graminaceae. Ethiopian, Oriental and Australian 
Regions ........ Phyllocephalinae Dallas, 1851 

- Rostrum not very short ; .......... 7 

7. Basal segment of rostrum very thick. 

Predacious bugs distributed in all Zoogeographical Regions 

AsopiNAE Spinola, 1850 

- Basal segment of rostrum not thick ......... 8 

8. Antennae with 4 segments ; pronotum and connexival segments with lateral 

foliaceous or thickened expansions ........ 9 

- Antennae with 5 segments sometimes with 4 (Dinidorinae) ; pronotum and con- 

nexival segments without foliaceous or thickened expansions . . . . 11 

9. Bucculae obsolescent, shorter than basal rostral segment ; scutellum short, as long 

as wide. 

One species known at present from Malaysian subregion ; habits unknown 

Serbaninae Leston, 1953 

- Bucculae distinct, as long as basal rostral segment ; scutellum longer than wide . 10 
[o. Basal antennal segment moderately long, slender ; scutellum large with strong 

spine or projection arising from middle ; scutellum covering part of abdomen. 
A small subfamily of somewhat small dull Neotropical bugs 

Cyrtocorinae Distant, 1880 

— Basal antennal segment short, thick ; scutellum much longer than wide without 

median spine or projection and not covering part of abdomen. 

Subfamily containing few species distributed in the Oriental Region ; found 
mainly in damp situations ..... Eumenotinae Esaki, 1922 

11. Bucculae closed posteriorly,; hemelytral membrane reticulate; antennae 4-seg- 

mented, sometimes 5-segmented in which case hemelytral membrane usually reticu- 
late. 

Mostly dull coloured bugs of wide distribution . . Dinidorinae Stal, 1870 

— Bucculae open posteriorly ; hemelytral membrane not reticulate ; antennae 

5-segmented ............ 12 

12. Tibiae sulcate on outer surface ; basal rostral segment longer than bucculae ; scutel- 

lum variable in size, mostly longer than wide, very rarely concealing abdomen and 
hemelytra. 

Large subfamily living on a wide variety of plants ; often of economic importance. 
Distribution world-wide . . . Pentatominae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

— Tibiae not sulcate on outer surface ; basal rostral segment not longer than bucculae ; 

scutellum longer than wide, often covering entire abdomen and hemelytra except 
corium. 

Somewhat small dark coloured bugs, some of which are of economic importance. 
Distributed in Oriental, Australian, Ethiopian, Palaearctic or Nearctic Regions 

PoDOPiNAE (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

•I 

Key to Subfamilies of Thaumastocoridae 

I. Pseudarolia absent ; apex of tibia bearing a lobate sensory appendage ; males 
with I harpago present ; pygophore with a lateral projection ; apex of corium not 
extending almost to apex of membrane. 

Distributed in Australia and Southern India . Thaumastocorinae Kirkaldy, 1908 

- Pseudarolia present ; apex of tibiae without a lobate sensory appendage ; males 

without harpagones ; pygophore lacking a lateral projection ; apex of corium 
extending almost to apex of membrane. Known species feed on developing leaves 
of palms. 

Distributed in West Indies and South America (Argentine) 

Xylastodorinae Barber, 1920 



40 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO H EMI PTER A-HETEROPTER A 

N.B. The subfamily Discocorinae Kormilev, 1955, listed on page 8 is regarded 
by Drake & Slater (1957, ■^*^*^- Ent. Soc. America, 50 : 368) as a synonym of 
Xylastodorinae Barber, 1920. 

Key to Subfamilies of Berytidae 

I. Head elongate with vertex produced above tylus ; peritreme of metathoracic scent 
glands not produced. 

Distributed in Palaearctic, Oriental and Australian Regions Berytinae Puton, 1886 

- Head short with no process on vertex ; peritreme of metathoracic glands produced. 

Distributed in Palaearctic, Oriental, Ethiopian, Nearctic, Neotropical and 
Australian Regions ..... Metacanthinae Douglas & Scott, 1865 

Key to Subfamilies of Coreidae 

1. Apterous species. Spiracles located close to margin of abdomen ; those on segments 

2 and 3 marginal and visible from above. 

Small dull-coloured Aradid-like Coreids living among vegetable debris on forest 
floor. Australia ........ Agriopocorinae Miller, 1953 

- Macropterous or at least brachypterous species ; spiracles ventral, in normal posi- 

tion away from lateral margin ......... 2 

2. Metapleural scent gland ostioles distinct, rarely {Euthetus and Stachyocnemus) 

obsolete ; fourth and fifth dorsal abdominal segments with basal margin lobately 
sinuate into preceding segment ......... 3 

- Metapleural scent gland ostioles absent ; if not, then ostioles placed between posterior 

acetabula and usually with 2 divergent sulci ; fourth dorsal abdominal segment 
medially sinuate at base and apex, or at least at the apex ; corium often hyaline 
in middle. 
Medium to small phytophagous bugs Uving on low vegetation 

Rhopalinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

3. Bucculae long, extending posteriorly (in lateral view) beyond the position of insertion 

of the antennae ; broader and more robust species with shorter and thicker legs ; 
often strongly sexually dimorphic, the males with posterior legs thickened and 
armed with spines or spurs .......... 4 

- Bucculae small, short not extending posteriorly beyond insertion of antennae, 

sometimes entirely anterior to antennophores. Narrow, elongate species with 
relatively long legs ; posterior femora in males often thickened. 

Medium sized phytophagous bugs of world-wide distribution living on grasses and 
leguminous plants ..... Alydinae (Amyot & Serville), 1843 

4. Posterior tibiae with apex produced below into a tooth or spine ; head small, much 

shorter and narrower than the thorax. 

S. American species ...... Meropachydinae (Stal), 1867 

- Posterior tibiae unarmed apically, rarely spined, in which case head large or only 

slightly shorter or narrower than thorax ....... 5 

5. Hind wing cell with a distinct hamus ; head in front of eyes without a median sulcus ; 

tibiae not sulcate on outer surface. 

Small, usually setose bugs, Palaearctic, Nearctic, Ethiopian and Oriental 
regions ........ Pseudophloeinae (Stal), 1867 

- Hind wing cell without a hamus ; head in front of eyes with a median sulcus ; tibiae 

sulcate on outer surface, 

Large subfamily comprising a great diversity of forms classified into many tribes 
and of world-wide distribution. Includes numerous species of economic importance 

Coreinae (Stal), 1867 

Note. Some of the tribes of the Coreinae are worthy of elevation to subfamily 
rank. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTER A-HETE ROPTER A 41 

Key to Subfamilies of Lygaeidae 

1. Ocelli present ............ 4 

- Ocelli absent ............. 2 

2. Elongate species with acuminate head and long slender antennae and legs : Brachy- 

pterous. 

Transcaucasia ...... Phasmosominae Kiritshenko, 1938^ 

- Not elongate ; body oblong or elliptical ; head not sharply acuminate at apex ; legs 

and antennae not slender and elongate ....... 3 

3. Eyes large with large facets ; membrane with 3 or 4 veins ; body strongly pilose. 

A single S. American species .... Lipostemmatinae (Berg), 1879^ 

- Eyes small with large facets ; membranal veins obsolescent ; body only with 

scattered pale hairs. 

An Eremian genus of the Palaearctic Regions . . Camptocera Jakovlev, 1877 

(Megalonotinae) 

4. All spiracles situated on dorsal surface of abdomen ...... 5 

- All spiracles not situated on dorsal surface of abdomen ..... 8 

5. Apical half of corium narrow elongate, apex thickened ; antennae long, the second 

and third segments long and slender, the basal segment thickened ; ocelli more or 
less contiguous, connexival segments 5-7 with laminate, horizontal expansion. 

Small subfamily. Oriental Region .... Malcinae (Stal), 1866 

- Apical half of corium not narrow elongate, apex not thickened ; antennae relatively 

short, the second and third segments not very long and slender ; connexival seg- 
ments 5-7 without laminate horizontal expansions ...... 6 

6. Corium shorter than hemelytral membrane ; connexival segments 5-7 laterally 

elevated ; eyes sty late ; antennophore with a distinct tooth in front of eye. 

Distributed in Ethiopian and Oriental Region . Chauliopinae Breddin, 1907 

- Corium not shorter than hemelytral membrane ; veins of membrane distinct ; eyes 

not stylate ; antennophore without a distinct tooth in front of eye. ... 7 

7. Hemelytra wider than abdomen ; costal margin of corium dilated ; corium distinctly 

punctate. 

Small species distributed in all Zoogeographical regions . Cyminae (St&l), 1862 

- Hemelytra not wider than abdomen ; costal margin of corium not dilated ; corium 

not, or very feebly punctate. 

Large subfamily of mostly brightly coloured species ; usually phytophagous ; 
I species recorded as feeding on carrion ; some species of economic importance. 
Distributed in all Zoogeographical Regions . . . Lygaeinae (St&l), 1862 

8. Third ventral intersegmental suture not extending to lateral margin. Spiracles 

usually ventral but the basal 3 segments or some of them often with spiracles 
dorsal ........ Megalonotinae Slater, 1957 

- Third ventral intersegmental suture extending to lateral margin .... 9 
9 Spiracles all ventral ........... 10 

— Spiracles situated both dorsally and ventrally . . . . . . • 1 1 

10. Rostrum not extending to, or only a little beyond anterior coxae ; anterior femora 

incrassate and spinose on lower surface ; segments 5 and 6 of abdomen mid-ventral- 
ly wide ; hamus of basal wing cell arising from the vena subtensa. 

Small subfamily of pale coloured species recorded from the Nearctic, Palaearctic, 
Sonoran, Ethiopian and AustraUan Regions . . Pachygronthinae (St&l), 1865 

— Rostrum extending beyond anterior coxae ; anterior femora not incrassate and 

spinose on lower surface ; segments 5 and 6 of abdomen mid -ventrally very 

^ We are not entirely convinced that these are distinct subfamilies and think that they are more 
likely to be aberrant genera of existing subfamilies as Camptocera is of the Megalonotinae. Phasmosomus 
Kiritshenko is remarkably similar in habitus to some of the Alydine Coreidae such as Stachylobus Stal 
and might indeed be an aberrant genus of that group rather than a Lygaeid . Lipostemmata Berg also seems 
likely to be an aberrant genus of Megalonotine Lygaeidae. 



42 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTER A 

narrow ; hamus of basal wing cell arising from the vena connectens. 

Small subfamily of small, somewhat hirsute species, distributed in all Zoogeo- 
graphical Regions ...... Heterogastrinae (Stal), 1872 

11. Spiracles on segment 2 of abdomen dorsal, on segments 3-7 ventral . . . 12 

— Spiracles differently arranged .......... 13 

12. Lateral margins of pronotum laminate ; lateral margins of corium not widely 

laminate. 

Small subfamily of small species distributed in Palaearctic Region 

Artheneinae (St&l), 1872 

— Lateral margins of pronotum not laminate ; lateral margins of corium widely 

laminate. 

Moderately large subfamily of small, mostly dull-coloured, somewhat setose 
phytophagous bugs ; some of economic importance. Distributed in all Zoogeo- 
graphical Regions ...... Oxycareninae (Stal), 1862 

13. All spiracles dorsal, except on segment 7 where they are ventral. Somewhat narrow, 

elongate, mostly small, flattened species ; head usually narrower than posterior 
margin of pronotum ; sometimes with anterior tibiae modified for fossorial or 
raptorial purposes ; brachyptery common. 

Moderately large subfamily of mainly phytophagous species ; some species 
possibly carnivorous ; one known species myrmecophilous. Distributed in all 
Zoogeographical Regions except Mascarene . . . Blissinae (Stal), 1862 

— Spiracles differently arranged .......... 14 

14. Spiracles on segments 2-4 dorsal ; on segments 5-7 ventral ..... 15 

— Spiracles on segment 2 ventral ; on segments 3-5 dorsal, on segments 6 and 7 

ventral. 

Small species distributed in Palaearctic Region 

Henestarinae (Douglas & Scott), 1865 

15. Pronotum longer than wide, with a transverse sulcus near middle ; scutellum as 

long as wide. 

Small, somewhat delicate, elongate, pallid bugs. Recorded only from W. Indies 

Pamphantinae Barber & Bruner, 1933 
■ — Pronotum wider than long, without a transverse sulcus in middle ; head across eyes 
very broad ; scutellum longer than wide. 

Small, elliptical, more robust species. Distributed in all Zoogeographical 
regions except Mascarene ...... Geocorinae (StS,l), 1862 

Note. The subfamily Bledionotina of Renter (1878, Ann. Soc. ent. Fr., p. 144) 
has been omitted from this key as we consider Bledionotis Reuter to be merely an 
aberrant genus in the subfamily Megalonotinae. 

REFERENCES 

Blote, H. C. 1945. On the systematic position of Scotomedes. Zool. Meded. 25 : 321-324. 

Carayon, J. 1954. Organes assumant les fonctions de la Spermatheque chez divers H6ter- 
opteres. Bull. Soc. Zool. France 79 : 191. 

1958. fitudes sur les H6mipt6res Cimicoidea i. Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. (N.S.) Ser. 

A. Zool. 16 fasc. 5 : 141-172. 

Carayon, J., Usinger, R. L., Wygodzinsky, P. Notes on the higher classification of the 
Reduviidae with the description of a new tribe of the Phymatidae. Rev. Zool. bot. Afr. 
57, 3-4 : 256-281. 

Carvalho, J. C. M. 1952. On the major classification of the Miridae with Keys to the sub- 
families and tribes and a catalogue of World genera. Ann. Brasil Cienc. 24 : 31-110. 

China, W. E. 1933. A new family of Hemiptera-Heteroptera with notes on the phylogeny 
of the suborder. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 12 : 190-196. 

1935- New and little known Helotrephidae (key to genera and species). Ibid. (10) 15 : 

593-614. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA 43 

China, W. E. 1936. The first genus and species of Helotrephidae from the New World. Ibid. 
(10) 17 : 527-538. 

1940. New South American Helotrephidae. Ibid. (11) 5 : 124-126 (phylogenetical table). 

1940. Key to the subfamilies and genera of Chinese Reduviidae with descriptions of new 

genera and species. Lingnan Sci. Journ. 19 : No. 2 : 205-255. 

1943- The generic names of British Insects Part 8 : The generic names of the British 

Hemiptera-Heteroptera with a check list of the British species. Roy. enf. Soc. London, 

pp. 209-342. 

1953- A new subfamily of Microphysidae. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 6 : 67-74. 

1955- A new genus and species representing a new subfamily of Plastaspidae with notes 

on the Aphylidae. Ibid. (12) 8 : 204-210. 

1955- A reconsideration of the systematic position of the family Joppeicidae with notes 

on the phylogeny of the suborder. Ibid. (12) 8 : 359-370. 

1955- The evolution of the Water Bugs. Bull. Nat. Inst. Sci. India, 7 : 91-103. 

1957- The marine Hemiptera of the Monte Bello Islands with descriptions of some allied 

species. Journ. Linnean Soc. London, Zool. 43 : 350-352. 
China, W. E. & Miller, N. C. E. 1955. Check List of Family and Subfamily names in 

Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 8 : 257-267. 
China, W. E. & Myers, J. G. 1929. The Systematic position of the Peloridiidae as elucidated 

by a further study of the external anatomy of Hemiodoecus leai China. Ibid. (10) 3 : 282-294. 
1929. A reconsideration of the classification of the Cimicoid families. Ibid. (10) 

3 : 105-118. 
China, W. E. & Slater, J. A. 1956. A new subfamily of Urostylidae from Borneo. Pacific 

Science, 10 : 410-414. 
China, W. E. & Usinger, R. L. 1949. Classification of the Veliidae with a new genus from 

South Africa. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 2 : 343-354. 
1949. A new genus of Hydrometridae from the Belgian Congo with a new subfamily 

and a Key to the genera. Rev. Zool. Bot. Afrique, 41, No. 4 : 316-319. 

1949. A new species of Chopardita Villiers from the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan with notes 



on the subfamily Vesciinae. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 1 : 598-604. 
Drake, C. J. & Slater, J. A. 1957. The phylogeny and systematics of the family Thaumas- 

tocoridae. Ann. ent. Soc. Amer. 50, No. 4 : 353-370. 
Ekblom, J. 1929. New contributions to the systematic classification of the Hemiptera 

Heteroptera. Ent. Tidskr. 50 : 169-180. 
Elson, J. A. 1937. A comparative study of Hemiptera. Ann. ent. Soc. Amer. 30 : 579-597- 
EsAKi, T. & China, W. E. 1928. Monograph of the Helotrephidae subfamily Helotrephinae. 

Eos, 4, No. 2 : 129-172. 

1927. A New family of aquatic Heteroptera. Trans, ent. Soc. Lond. pt. 2 : 294-295. 

Handlirsch, a. 1897. Zur Systematic Stellung der Hemipteren gattung Phimophorus. Verh. 

Z. B. Ges. Wien 47 : 558-560. 
HoRVATH, G. 191 1. Nomenclature des Families des H6mipt6res. Ann. Mus. nat. Hung. 9 : 

1-34- 
Hungerford, H. B. 1929. A new genus of semiaquatic Hemiptera. Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc. 

24 : 288-290. 
Kiritshenko, a. N. 1938. Die Echten Halbfliiger der Natchitschewan. A.S.S.R. Trud. 

Zool. Inst. Baku, 8 : 117. 
Kirkaldy, G. W. 1906. List of the Genera of Pagiopodous Hemiptera Heteroptera. Trans. 

Amer. ent. Soc. 32, 2 : 47-156. 
1909. Catalogue of the Hemiptera [Heteroptera), prefaced by a discussion on Nomenclature 

and an analytical table of families. Felix Dames, Berlin. 
KoRMiLEV, N. A. 1955. A New Myrmicophil family of Hemiptera from the delta of Rio 

Parana, Argentina. Rev. Ecuat. Ent. 2 (3-4) : 465-477. 
1955. Una Curiosa familia de Hemipteros nueva para la fauna argentina. Rev. Soc. ent. 

Argentina, 18 : 5-10. 



44 CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTE RA-HETEROPTER A 

Leston, D. 1953. An acanthosomid from Angola with remarks upon the status and mor- 
phology of Acanthosomidae. Cia. Diamant. de Angola Pubs. Cult. 16 : 123-132. 

1956. Systematics of the Marine Bug. Nature, 178 : 427. 

Leston, D., Pendergrast, J. G. & Southwood, T. R. E. 1954- Nature 174, No. 4419 : 92. 

LuNDBLAD, O. 1939. Eine Neue Gattuug und Art. von. Wasserwanzen. Hebrovelia singularis 
Ent. Tidskrift, 60 : 29-36. 

McAtee, W. L. & Malloch, J. R. 1928. Synopsis of the Pentatomid bugs of the subfamilies 
Megaridinae and Canopinae. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 72 : i. 

1933- Revision of the subfamily Thyreocorinae of the Pentatomidae. Ann. Carnegie 

Mus. 21 : No. 4 : 191-411. 

McKiNSTRY, A. p. 1942. A new family of Hemiptera-Heteroptera proposed for Macrovelia 
hornii Uhler. Pan. Pacif. Ent. 18 : 91. 

Miller, N. C. E. 1952. Three new subfamilies of Reduviidae. Eos, 28 : 88-90. 

1953- A new subfamily and new genera and species of Australian Coreidae. Proc. Linn. 

Sac. N.S.W. 78 : 233-240. 

1954- A new subfamily and new genera and species of Malaysian Reduviidae. Idea, 

10 : 1-8. 

1954- New genera and species of Reduviidae from Indonesia and the description of a new 

subfamily, voor Tijd . Ent. 97 : 75-114. 

1955. The synonymy of Eupheno Gistel and the description of a new subfamily. Ann. 

Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 8 : 449-452. 

1956. Centrocneminae a new subfamily of Reduviidae. Bull. Brit. Mus. {Ent.) 4 : 219-282. 

1956. A new subfamily of Reduviidae from the Solomon Is. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 

9 : 587-589- 

1959. A new subfamily new genera and species of Reduviidae. Bull. Brit. Mus. {Ent.) 

8 No. I. (in press). 

OsHANiN, B. 1912. Kalalog Paldarktischen Hemipteren. Berlin. 

Pendergrast, J. G. 1957. Studies on the reproductive organs of the Heteroptera with a 

consideration of their bearing on classification. Trans. Roy. ent. Soc. Lond. 109, pt. i : 1-63. 
PoissoN, R.. 1951. Ordre des H^teropt^res in Grassi's Traite de Zoologie, 10 (2) : 1657-1803. 
1956. Contribution a I'^tude des Hydrocorises de Madagascar. Mem. de I'Institut Sci. 

Madagascar Ser. E. 7 : 252. 
Pruthi Hem Singh. 1925. The Morphology of the male genitalia in Rhynchota. Trans. 

ent. Soc. Lond. 127-256. 
Reuter, O. M. 1888. Revisio Synonymica Heteropterorum Palaearcticonim. Acta Soc. Sci. 

Fenn.15 242-313 and 443-812. 
1910. Neue Beitrage zur. Phylogenie und Systematik der Miriden. Ibid. 37 (3) 1-83 and 

table. 

1912. Bemerkungen uber mein neues Heteropteren system. Of. Finska Vet. Soc. Fork. 

54 (a) No. 6 : 1-62. 

Southwood, T. R. E. 1956. The structure of the eggs of the Terrestrial Heteroptera and its 
relationship to the classification of the group. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 108, pt. 6 : 163-221. 

Spooner, C. S. 1938. The phylogeny of the Hemiptera based on a study of the head capsule. 
Univ. III. Biol. Monogr. 16, (3) : 1-99. 

Tullgren, a. 1918. Zur Morphologic und Systematik der Hemiptera. Ent. Tidskr. 39 : 

113-133- 
Usinger, R. L. 1941. Key to the subfamilies of Naucoridae with a generic synopsis of the 
new subfamily Ambrysinae. Ann. ent. Soc. Amer. 34, No. i : 5-16. 

1942. Revision of the Termitaphididae. Pan. Pacif. Ent. 18, No. 4 : 155-159. 

1943. A revised classification of the Reduvioidea with a new subfamily from S. America. 

Ann. ent. Soc. Amer. 36, No. 4 : 602-618. 

1945- Classification of the Enicocephalidae. Ibid. 38, No. 3 : 321-342. 

Usinger, R. L. & Matsuda, R. 1959. Classification of the Aradidae. British Museum (N.H.) 

London. 



CHECK-LIST AND KEYS TO HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA 45 

Van Duzee, E. P. 191 7. Catalogue of the Hemiptera of America north of Mexico. Univ. 

California Publ. Ent. 2 : 1-487. 
ViLLiERS, A. 1948. Reduv. Afr. noire, L. 174. Paris. 

1958. H6mipt. R6duviides r6colt6s en Angola. Cia Diamant de Angola Pubs. Cult. 

38 : 11-46. 

1958. Ins. H6mipt. Enicocephalidae, Faune de Madagascar VII, p. 24. 

Wygodzinsky, p. 1943. Contribui9ao ao conhecimento da subfamilia Vesciinae. Rev. Brazil. 

Biol. 3 (2) : 203-223. 
1944- Contribui9ao ao conhecimento do genera Elasmodema St&l. Rev. Brasil. Biol. 

4 (2) : 193-213- 
1946. S6bre um novo genero e uma nova esp6cie de Chryxinae e considera96es s6bre a 

subfamilia. Rev. Brasil. Biol. 6 (2) : 179. 

1948. On some Reduviidae belonging to the Naturhistorisches Museum Vienna. Rev. 

Brasil. Biol. 8 (2) : 209-224. 




/. 



A NEW SUBFAMILY, NEW 
GENERA AND NEW SPECIES 

OF REDUVIIDAE 
(HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA) 



N. C. E. MILLER 




BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 2 

LONDON: 1959 



A NEW SUBFAMILY, NEW GENERA 
AND NEW SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 
(HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA) 



BY 



N. C. E. MILLER ^ J 

Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, iJtndon 



pp. 47-117 ; Plates 1-4 ; 92 Text-figures 




BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 2 

LONDON: 1959 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical Series. 

Parts appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

This paper is Vol. 8, No. 2 of the Entomological 
series. 



Trustees of the British Museum, 1959 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Issued August, 1959 Price Twenty Shillings 



A NEW SUBFAMILY, NEW GENERA AND NEW 

SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE (HEMIPTERA- 

HETEROPTERA) 

By N. C. E. MILLER 

In this paper a new subfamily is established and new genera and species of Reduviidae 
from the Ethiopian, Oriental and Australian Regions are described and figured. 

For the loan of types and other specimens of the genus Tiarodes which I have 
revised, I am greatly indebted to Dr. S. von Keler, Zoologisches Museum, Humboldt 
Universitat, Berlin {Tiarodes dubius Reuter) ; Dr. Rene Malaise, Naturhistoriska 
Riksmuseet, Stockholm {T. cruentus Stal, T. varicolor Stal) ; Professor Dr. Sachtleben, 
Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Berlin, {T. friihstorferi Breddin, T. waterstradti 
Breddin, T. rabiosus Miller, T. nitidus Miller) ; Dr. H. C. Blote, Rijksmuseum van 
Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden (T. convivus Miller, T. serenus Miller) ; Dr. Eva 
Halaszfy and Dr. A. Soos, Hungarian National Museum, Budapest {T. xanthusi 
Reuter). 

I have also to thank Dr. S. L. Tuxen, Universitetets Zoologiske Museum, Copen- 
hagen, for the photograph of the holotype of Tiarodes rufithorax Reuter, and the 
Photographic Department of the British Museum, Natural History, London, for the 
photographs of the remaining species of Tiarodes. 

Except where otherwise stated, holotypes are in the British Museum, (Natural 
History), London. 

Subfamily Stenopodinae 

PARAGYLLA gen. nov. 

Size. Small. Basal segment of antennae moderately thick, setose, longer than 
anteocular ; segment 2 longer than basal segment. Head tuberculate, shorter 
than pronotum ; interantennal projections present ; tylus and bucculae produced 
anteriorly ; gula flattened ; eyes large, prominent, longer than height of head, 
narrowly separated at their lower margins ; postocular tuberculate on lower surface 
laterally ; ocelli large, elevated, widely separated ; vertex wider than an eye ; 
antennophores equidistant between eyes and apex of head ; rostrum compressed 
laterally ; basal segment subequal in length to remaining segments together ; 
segment 3 strongly compressed, acute, longer than segment 2. Anterior pronotal 
lobe shorter than posterior lobe, laterally tuberculate and with tubercles on disc ; 
lateral angles of collar produced ; lobe medially, longitudinally sulcate basally ; 
posterior lobe medially, longitudinally sulcate with a carina on each side of sulcus ; 
humeral angles feebly produced ; prostemum laterally produced ; sides of stridu- 

ENTOM. 8, 2. 2 



50 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 



latory furrow tuberculate ; mesosternum with an elliptical sulcus ; pronotum, 
pleura, metasternum, minutely granulose ; scutellum with apex produced and with 
short, conical projection basally laterally ; disc feebly depressed. Hemelytra 
extending beyond apex of abdomen ; enclosed cell absent. Legs slender ; anterior 




Figs. 1-5. Paragylla calida gen. nov., sp. n. (i) Head and pronotum, dorsal view. 
(2) Idem, laterial view. (3) Head and prosternum, ventral view. (4) Hemelytron. (5) 
• Apex of abdomen, ventral view. 



tarsi with 2 segments. Abdomen medially excised apically ; midventrally longi- 
tudinally carinate, except segment 7 ; segment 8 exposed ; vestiges of dorsal gland 
ostioles on segments 4, and 5 only (indistinct on 4). Type species, Paragylla calida 
sp. n. Text-figs. 1-5. 

Paragylla calida sp. n. 

Colour. Testaceous with faint reddish suffusion. Head somewhat dark ; scutel- 
lum brown. Hemelytral membrane very pale stramineous with infumate suffusion ; 
metathoracic wings hyaline, whitish. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 51 

Structure. Basal antennal segment feebly curved, somewhat constricted 
basally ; segment 2 about one-quarter longer than basal segment. Tubercles on 
postocular moderately long, thick, setigerous, fused basally. Tubercles on vertex 
and bucculae low, rounded. Ocellar interspace medially, longitudinally sulcate, 
about three times as wide as an ocellus. Space between lower margin of eyes subequal 
in width to basal rostral segment. Scutellar spine subacute, horizontal. Humeral 
angles with a short, rounded tubercle. 

Total length, 10-50 mm.; hemelytra, 7-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 2-50 mm. 

One ^ (holotype), i c^ (paratype), W. Australia, Nicol Bay dist. Dr. Clement 
(B.M. 1900-220). 

Allied to Agylla Stal, 1865, Hem. Afr. 3 : 150. Differs in having the ocelli widely 
separated, the eyes narrowly separated at their lower margins, the rostrum somewhat 
flattened (third segment strongly flattened), segment 2 shorter than segment 3, 
and in lacking an enclosed cell on the hemelytral membrane at base of internal cell. 



DIOKTEROCORIS gen. nov.i 

Size. Small. Basal segment of antennae moderately thick, feebly curved ; 
segment 2 slender ; remaining segments filiform ; antennophores nearer to apex 
of head than to eyes ; head longer than pronotum ; gula flattened ; lower lateral 
margins tuberculate ; bucculae produced ; tylus feebly elevated ; length of eyes 
less than height of head ; surface of head, except gula, granulose ; ocelli moderately 
large, widely separated ; postocular somewhat flattened dorsally ; basal segment of 
rostrum longer than remaining segments together ; segment 2 with robust setae 
or spines on outer surface apicaUy. Pronotum wider than long ; anterior lobe longer 
than posterior lobe ; lateral angles of collar produced ; humeral angles rounded ; 
prostemum produced laterally ; scutellum produced apically ; postscutellum with 
an elevation on apical margin medially. Hemelytra extending to apex of abdomen. 
Anterior femora moderately incrassate, with 2 rows of moderately long, setigerous 
spines and a few short spines on lower surface ; upper surface and laterally with 
low, setigerous tubercles ; anterior tibiae shorter than femora ; median and 
posterior legs slender. 

Type species, Diokterocoris sudanicus sp. n. Text-figs. 6-9. 



Diokterocoris sudanicus sp. n. 

Colour. Pale testaceous. Head darker and with a brown spot near inner 
margin of ocelli. Elevation on postscutellum piceous. Apex of corium faintly 
suffused with brown ; discal cell and external cell of membrane with faint infumate 
suffusion. 

Total length, 7-50 mm.; hemelytra, 5-00 mm.; Greatest pronotal width, i-6o mm. 

One $ (holotype), Sudan, Taladir, 11. x. 1920, Maj. Graham, i $ (paratype), 
Mongalla, 6.xii.i9i7, J. R. Yardley. 

^ dtOKXnp = a pursuer, KopiQ = a bug. •• '.' ■ 



52 



NEW SUBFAMILY. GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 



Allied to Padasastra Villiers (1948, Reduv. Afric. noire, p. 373) and Collartiella 
Schouteden (1931, Ann. Mus. Congo helg. Zool. (3), 1 : 109) from both of which it 
differs in the structure of the head and armature of the anterior femora. Also allied 
to Staccia Stal (1865, Hem. Afr. 3 : 150) from which it differs similarly and also in 
having no spines on the inner face of the basal rostral segment. 




Figs. 6-9. Diokterocoris sudanicus gen. nov., sp. n. (6) Head, pronotum, scutellum 
and postscutellum, dorsal view. (7) Head and pronotum, lateral view. (8) Hemelytron. 
(9) Anterior femur. 



Subfamily Cetherinae 

Caprocethera crudelis sp.n. 

(Text-figs. 10-14) 

Colour. Testaceous. Head laterally, gula, piceous. Eyes black. Basal rostral 
segment with suffusion, apical segment piceous. Carinae on anterior pronotal lobe 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 



53 




Figs. 10-14. Caprocethera crudelis sp. n. (10) Head, pronotum and scutellum, dorsaj^ 
view. (11) Idem, lateral view. (12) Hemelytron. (13) Metathoracic wing. (14) Apex of 
pygophore, dorsal view. 



54 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

and some tubercles on posterior lobe pale ; collar, propleural episternum anteriorly 
piceous ; humeral spines piceous ; apex of scutellum very pale testaceous ; spine 
and apex of disc piceous ; meso- and metapleura with piceous suffusion ; stridu- 
latory furrow, meso- and metasternum, piceous. Hemelytra with brown and piceous 
suffusion as in Text-fig. 12. Abdomen very pale testaceous ; mid-ventrally with a 
large, discal brown suffusion ; sublaterally with triangular spots and laterally with 
suffusion on segments 3-6, piceous ; pygophore brown ; connexivum dorsally 
with piceous suffusion at base of each segment. Anterior and median tibiae missing ; 
posterior tibiae whitish yellow with a median, basal and apical black annulation ; 
basal segment of posterior tarsi black ; segments 2 and 3 whitish yellow ; segment 3 
suffused with piceous apically ; femora pale yellowish white with apex broadly and 
confluent suffusion, piceous. 

Structure. Differs from Caprocethera cave Breddin (1903, Sitz. Ges. Naturfr. 
Berlin, p. 116), in having the spines between the antennophores more curved, the 
sulci on vertex and transverse sulcus wider and deeper, the anterior pronotal lobe 
with short, subacute, conical tubercles, discal tubercles on posterior lobe moderately 
narrow and rounded apically, the posterior lobe more coarsely rugose and tuber- 
culate, the basal lateral scutellar spines less acute and the apical spine longer and 
more acute. 

The pygophore in this new species has a moderately wide, subapical, acute, more 
or less parallel sided process, angulately concave on inner surface. 

Total length, 10-50 mm.; hemelytra, 7-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 3-50 mm. 

One ^ (holotype), Ghana, Ifione, 2. v. 1957, H. Roberts. 

Sub-family Reduviinae 
PHELETOCORIS gen. nov.i 

Size. Small. Basal segment of antennae as long as anteocular ; segment 2 about 
five times longer than basal segment ; antennophores nearer to eyes than to apex of 
head ; basal segment of rostrum subequal in length to segment 2 ; head shorter 
than pronotum ; anteocular subequal in length to postocular ; vertex wider than 
an eye, with a bifurcate sulcus basally and a rounded elevation laterally basally ; 
ocelli widely separated, feebly elevated ; postocular gradually narrowed to base 
and medially sulcate between ocelli. Pronotum wider than long ; anterior lobe 
shorter than posterior lobe ; laterally carinate and with sulci and low elevations on 
disc ; posterior lobe medially depressed and laterally carinate ; depression with 
feeble transverse sulci ; presternum with a median tubercle anteriorly ; posterior 
margin produced, acute, curved downwards ; scutellum as long as wide with apex 
produced and disc excavate. Hemelytra extending to apex of abdomen ; base of 
external cell of membrane wider than base of internal cell. Abdomen somewhat 
expanded, elliptical in outline ; segments 4-6 ventrolaterally feebly depressed. 
Anterior femora moderately incrassate ; anterior and median tibiae with a fossula 
spongiosa ; apical segment of tarsi as long as remaining segments together. 

Type species, Pheletocoris sordidus sp. n. Text-figs. 15-18. 

* (prikfftTqQ = a thief, icoptc = bug. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 



55 



Pheletocoris sordidus sp. n. 

Colour. Piceous. Elevations on vertex, lateral angles of collar, elevations on 
anterior pronotal lobe, parts of posterior lobe, particularly posteriorly, suffused 
with testaceous. Corium with testaceous suffusion medially ; area between claval 




Figs. 15-18. Pheletocoris sordidus gen. nov., sp. n. (15) Head, pronotum and scutellum, 
dorsal view. (16) Idem, lateral view. (17) Apex of pygophore, terminal view. (18) 
Harpago. 



suture and Cu with a fuscous spot ; membrane infumate. Connexival segments 
with a testaceous spot at external apical angle. Anterior and median tibiae with a 
little less than half basally, posterior tibiae suffused with reddish testaceous ; tarsi 
reddish testaceous ; segment 3 suffused with piceous. 



56 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

Structure. Vertex about one and a half times wider than an eye ; eyes a Httle 
shorter than height of head. Sulci on median depression on posterior pronotal lobe 
feeble. Fossula spongiosa a little less than one-third as long as tibia. 

Total length, lo-oo mm.; hemelytra, 6-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 3-20 mm. 

One (^ (holotype), Solomon Islands, Guadalcanal, Mamara, 8.viii.i956, E. S. 
Brown. 

Belongs to the Velitra complex. Differs from Velitra Stal (1865, Hemipt. Afric. 
3 : 122) in having the vertex relatively wider and with elevations basally laterally, 
the posterior pronotal lobe laterally carinate and the abdomen rounded mid-ventrally, 
not flattened. 

DILOPHOCORIS gen. nov.i 

Size. Small. Basal segment of antennae shorter than anteocular ; segment 2 
longer than basal segment ; apical segments subequal in length. Head shorter than 
pronotum, transverse, tuberculate ; postocular wider than anteocular ; vertex 
wider than an eye ; tylus somewhat elevated ; interantennal elevations present ; 
ocelli widely separated ; antennophores nearer to eyes than to apex of head ; gula 
setose ; rostrum moderately thick ; basal segment subequal in length to segment 
2 ; all segments setose. Anterior pronotal lobe shorter than posterior lobe with 
minute tubercles arranged in a pattern ; anterior lobe medially, longitudinally 
sulcate in basal half ; posterior lobe widely sulcate anteriorly, the sulcus with 
transverse carinulae ; propleura medially produced ; posterior pronotal lobe, 
pleura, scutellum, tuberculate ; apex of scutellum produced ; disc damaged ; proster- 
num on each side of stridulatory furrow with setigerous tubercles. Hemelytra 
extending to apex of abdomen ; veins of corium tuberculate. Femora moderately 
incrassate ; tuberculate on upper surface ; anterior and median femora spinose 
on lower surface ; fossula spongiosa present on anterior and median tibiae. 

Type species, Dilophocoris plagiatus sp. n. Text-figs. 19-21. 

Dilophocoris plagiatus sp. n. 

Colour. Basal antennal segment testaceous ; remaining segments piceous. 
Head testaceous with vertex and postocular, except laterally, piceous. Thorax 
piceous ; acetabula suffused with testaceous. Corium testaceous with costa basally, 
a wide median transverse stripe and apex narrowly brownish infumate ; membrane 
infumate ; base of veins of internal cell, external vein of external cell testaceous. 
Abdomen testaceous ; connexival segments 2-6 with a quadrate piceous spot ; 
segments 8 and 9 dorsally suffused with piceous. Tarsi testaceous ; tibiae piceous, 
narrowly testaceous basally ; femora testaceous with a wide, subapical piceous 
annulation ; coxae and trochanters testaceous. 

Structure. Segment 2 of antennae thicker and four times as long as basal 
segment ; apical segments filiform. Ocellar interspace twice as wide as space between 
an ocellus and an eye ; ocelli moderately large ; vertex about three times wider than 

^ dtXoq>oi: = with 2 humps, Kopty = a bug. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 



57 



an eye. Scutellar spine horizontal, rounded apically. Produced portion of propleura 
short, conical. Setae on gula, rostrum, sides of stridulatory furrow robust. Tubercles 
very short and with short, recumbent setae. Fossula spongiosa very short. 

Total length, 8-oo mm.; hemelytra, 5-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 2-00 mm. 




Figs. 19-21. Dilophocoris plagiatus gen. nov., sp. n. 19. Head and pronotum, dorsal 
view. (20) Idem, lateral view. (21) Anterior femur, coxa and trochanter. 



One $ (holotype), AustraHa, Queensland, Mackay, A. J. Turner (B.M. 1905-125). 
The affinity of this new genus is doubtful. It is possibly allied to Sphedanocoris 
Stal, 1866, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork., p. 240. 



POECILOPTEROCORIS gen. nov.i 

Size. Very small. Segments i and 2 of antennae moderately thick ; segment 2 
longer than basal segment ; segments 3 and 4 together subequal in length to i 
and 2 together ; segments 2-4 with abundant, short, forwardly directed setae ; 
basal segment extending beyond apex of head ; antennophores nearer to eyes than 
to apex of head ; anteocular shorter than postocular, the latter transverse and 
abruptly constricted basally ; tylus with setigerous tubercles apically ; vertex wider 
than an eye ; ocelli moderately large, widely separated, not prominent ; head smooth 

^ noiKiXoTiTepog = with wing of changeful colour, KopiQ = bug. 



58 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 



with areas of low setigerous tubercles ; gula concave, laterally with tubercles ; 
basal segment of rostrum subequal in length to segment 2. Pronotum as wide as 
long ; lateral angles of collar produced ; anterior lobe longer than posterior lobe, 
smooth with areas of low setigerous tubercles and a submedian foveole ; posterior 
lobe rugose punctate and with short carinae anteriorly ; transverse sulcus foveolate ; 




Figs. 22-27. Poecilopterocoris amabilis gen. nov., sp. n. {22) Head and pronotum, dorsal 
view. (23) Idem, lateral view. (24) Anterior femur. (25) Hemelytron. (26) Metathoracic 
wing. (27) Ovum. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 59 

humeral angles rounded ; prosternum laterally tuberculate ; lateral margins of 
stridulatory furrow with low, setigerous tubercles ; scutellum as wide as long with 
apex produced ; disc excavate, rugose. Hemelytra extending almost to apex of 
abdomen ; interveinal areas of corium and base of membranal cells hyaline ; base 
of internal cell of membrane wider than base of external cell ; veins of corium 
thick, prominent. All femora incrassate and with low, setigerous tubercles on upper 
and lateral surfaces and with linear areas lacking tubercles ; anterior femora spined 
on lower surface ; anterior tibiae with setigerous tubercles on lower surface ; tarsi 
with 3 segments ; fossula spongiosa on anterior and median tibiae. 
Type species, Poecilopterocoris amahilis sp. n. Text-figs. 22-27. 

Poecilopterocoris amahilis sp. n. 

Colour. Piceous. Apical segment of rostrum and humeral angles testaceous ; 
tibiae, tarsi, coxae and trochanters testaceous. Connexivum pale testaceous with 
a quadrate spot at apex of segments piceous ; apex of segment 7 piceous. Median 
and posterior femora with an obscure, pale testaceous annulation sub-basally. 

Structure. Vertex a little more than twice as wide as an eye. Ocellar interspace 
a little less wide than vertex. Spines on anterior femora truncate apically and seti- 
gerous. Fossula spongiosa short and extended beyond apex of tibiae. 

Total length, ^ 4-50 mm., $ 5-00 mm.; hemelytra, ^ 2-80 mm., $ 3-00 mm.; 
greatest pronotal width, ^ i-oo mm., $ i-io mm. 

One S (holotype), i ? (paratype). New Guinea, Lae, iii.1957, R. W. Paine. 

The affinity of this new genus is doubtful. Possibly it should be placed near 
Sphedanocoris Stal (loc. cit.). 

Ovum (Text-fig. 27). Cylindrical ; chorion feebly oblique at opercular end and 
with longitudinal carinae on most of surface ; between carinae, some of which 
anastomose, there are transverse striae ; operculum elliptical with a low, subovate 
elevation medially. Dark yellow with carinae brownish ; operculum apparently 
whitish. Length, i-io mm. (dissected). 

This is a large ovum in relation to the species and it is probable that only about 
6-10 develop at one time. 

The Genus TIARODES^ Burmeister 

The genus Tiarodes was established by Burmeister in 1835 {Handb. 2 : 237) for 
Cimbus versicolor Laporte (1832, Essai Classif. Syst. Hem., p. 80 suppl.). 

Some of the most brightly coloured of the Reduviidae are contained in the genus. 
Unfortunately, much of the brilliance is lost after death when the red or reddish 
yellow areas become darker and the white or pale yellow areas, for example, the 
spots on the corium or the connexival segments turn to a dull yellow. Metallic 
green or blue colours occur. These, however, do not fade as a rule, or become 
discoloured. 

Little is known of the habitats and nothing of the prey of Tiarodes species'; 
some have been found among deca5dng vegetable debris and also under the loose 

^ Ttapa = a tiara, in allusion to the shape of the head. 



L 



6o NEW SUBFAMILY. GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

bark of dead trees. Specimens are frequently met with which have mites attached 
to the ventral surface and legs, a condition often to be observed in species belonging 
to other genera of Reduviidae occupying similar habitats. 

The secluded type of life of Tiarodes species, no doubt, accounts for their being 
frequently overlooked by collectors, consequently in collections rarely is a species 
represented by more than single or a very few specimens. 

Information concerning the developmental stages is equally scanty. The ova 
are deposited loosely and without adhesive in the soil or under the bark of trees. 

The ovum of T. nigrirostris Stal, obtained by dissection is more or less regularly 
oval with a smooth chorion and with the opercular end less broadly rounded than 
the opposite end. 

Up to the present time 33 species have been described. In the present paper 45 
new species are described and photographically illustrated. Photographs are also 
provided of the species already described. 

Tiarodes rusticus Distant (1919, Entomologist, 52 : 245) should not have been 
placed in the genus. It has since been transferred to a new genus, Neotiarodes 
(Miller, 1957, Bull. Brit. Mus, 5, 2 : 40-41). 

Mention should be made of a representative of the genus from Ternate for the 
purpose of amplifying the distributional picture. It is unfortunately, in too damaged 
a condition for description. This specimen forms part of a collection received by 
me from the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden. 

Dr. S. von Keler, Zoologisches Museum, Humboldt Universitat, Berlin kindly 
sent me a consignment of Tiarodes species among which is a species labelled by 
Breddin. The description, however, has not been published. In view of the fact 
that the data label bears no collector's name and the locality of origin is indeci- 
pherable, I have decided that it would be unwise to include this species in the present 
study, although it is undoubtedly a new species. It resembles in coloration T. hradleyi 
sp. n. from the Solomon Islands and also T. obyanus Distant from Obi Island. 

I have not been able to examine the type of T. kiikenthali Breddin. Professor 
Dr. Sachtleben, Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Berlin has informed me that 
it cannot be traced in the collections at the Institut. 

Tiarodes species may be divided into four distinct groups. The first, which I 
designate the nigrirostris group contains mostly the largest species varying from 
20-00 mm. to 30-00 mm. in length and characterized by having a yellow discal 
spot and sometimes yellow suffusion basally on the corium of the hemelytra. 

The head in this group is cylindrical, occasionally with obscure striations, mostly 
laterally, and sometimes sparsely setose. The anteocular is appreciably narrowed 
towards the apex. 

The prostemum is smooth and has no projections laterally. The anterior and 
median femora are strongly incrassate and the anterior and median tibiae are 
incrassate for about half their length, with the fossula spongiosa about half as long. 

Present records show that this group is distributed in Indo-China, Malaysia and 
Indonesia. 

The second group, the waterstradti group, contains species which are about 20-00 
mm. in length and which are closer morphologically to those in the nigrirostris 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 



6i 



group, but which have the anterior and median tibiae incrassate for a Httle more than 
a quarter of their length and the anterior and median femora moderately incrassate. 
The fossula spongiosa is about one-quarter as long as the tibiae and the meso- and 
metasternum have a median longitudinal carina. 

The hemelytra in this group may be pale yellow or fuscous with a pale yellow 
discal spot, isolated or extended to the base of the corium. 

To the third group I give the name versicolor. It contains species measuring 
approximately iO'00-20-oo mm. in length. The head is cylindrical with the gula 
somewhat flattened and with abundant, recumbent, spatulate setae. Viewed from 
above the anteocular has parallel sides. It is also striate to a greater or less degree 
particularly laterally. The prosternum is produced laterally. 

The hemelytra are fuscous or black and have usually a wide or narrow red or 
reddish yeUow area or suffusion at the base of the corium, or a pale discal spot as 
well as a basal suffusion. 

The fossula spongiosa are mostly about one-quarter as long as the tibiae, the apex 
of which is not very strongly incrassate. 

This is widely distributed as will be seen from the list of species given in this 
paper. 

Two species about 15-00 mm. in length from the Philippine Islands, namely 
T. cruentus Stal and T. luzonicus sp. n. constitute the fourth group, the cruentus 
group. These species have relatively more slender tibiae, a very short fossula 
spongiosa, relatively less incrassate anterior and median femora, narrower and very 
feebly striate head on which the transverse sulcus is very shallow. The prosternum 
is feebly produced laterally and the mesosternum has a wide sulcus medially. The 
hemelytra are distinctly bicolorous. 



Key to Tiarodes Groups 

Meso- and metasternum with a median longitudinal carina 
Meso- and metasternum without a median longitudinal carina 
Anterior tibiae incrassate for half their apical length 
Anterior tibiae incrassate for one-fourth of their apical length 
Mesosternum with a median sulcus ..... 
Mesosternum without a median sulcus .... 



2 

3 

nigrirostris group 

waterstradti group 

cruentus group 

versicolor group 



Key to Species in nigrirostris Group 



1. Thorax black with faint metallic lustre ..... 

- Thorax not black ......... 

2. Abdomen ventrally red with large black spot on seventh segment 

- Abdomen ventrally with segments 2-5 red, 6 and 7 black 

3. Thorax including scutellum light red ..... 

- Thorax yellow and black ; scutellum black .... 

4. Pronotum yellow with feeble piceous suffusion on posterior lobe posterio: 

- Pronotum differently coloured ...... 

5. Abdomen ventrally yellow ....... 

- Abdomen ventrally yellow with transverse black stripes 

6. Posterior pronotal lobe dark yellow anteriorly, black posteriorly . 

- Posterior or pronotal lobe mostly piceous ..... 



rly 



nohilis sp. n. 

pustulatus St&l 

sakai Miller 

4 

5 

6 

. lotus sp. n. 

opulentus sp. n. 

7 

9 



62 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 



7. Connexivum yellow with black spots 

- Connexival segments 2-5 black, 6 and 7 yellow 

8. Meso- and metapleura black 

- Meso- and metapleura reddish yellow 

9. Connexival segments yellow with black spots 

- Connexival segments 2-4 black, 5-7 yellow 

10. Discal spot on corium small, circular 

— Discal spot on corium moderately large 

11. Discal spot on corium extended to costal margin 

— Discal spot on corium not extended to costal margin 

12. Connexival segments 2 and 3 piceous 

— Connexival segments 2 and 3 piceous with yellow spot 

13. Connexivum of seventh segment dorsally piceous ; posterior pronotal lobe with an 

obscure obUque dark yellow spot on each side of median depression . erinnys Miller 

— Connexivum of seventh segment dorsally piceous with a white spot apically ; 

posterior pronotal lobe with a distinct, moderately large oblique dark yellow spot 

on each side of median depression ....... xanthusi Reuter 



8 

ostentans sp. n. 

nigrirostris St&l 

jucundus sp. n. 

10 

sulaensis sp. n. 

scriptus sp. n. 

II 

12 

13 

juncturus Walker 
hieroglyphicus Miller 



Key to Species in waterstradti Group 

Tibiae black ; pronotum castaneous ....... amoenus Miller 

Tibiae differently coloured ; pronotum yellow with piceous spot on anterior lobe 

posteriorly ............. 2 

Median and posterior tibiae black ......... 3 

Median and posterior tibiae pale yellow with piceous suffusion basally and apically 5 

Corium yellow with apex fuscous and with faint brownish suffusion between claval 

suture and Cm ......... . simplex sp. n. 

Corium fuscous ............ 4 

Corium with large pale yellow discal spot extending to costal margin 

waterstradti Breddin 
Corium with large t»' '- yellow discal spot extending to costal margin and also to base 

acutangulus sp. n. 
Segments i and antennae piceous ; antennophores testaceous sumatrensis sp. n. 

Segments i and 2 of antennae testaceous, basally and apically piceous ; antenno- 
phores black ............ 6 

Anterior pronotal lobe with very feeble diagonal depression subdorsally ; produced 
portion of posterolateral angles of posterior pronotal lobe thick, triangular, 
subacute .......... malayanus Distant 

Anterior pronotal lobe with a distinct, shallow, circular depression subdorsally ; 
produced portion of posterolateral angles of posterior pronotal lobe narrowly 
conical, acute .......... nemoralis sp. n. 



3- 



Key to Species in versicolor Group 

Size under 14-00 mm. 

Size 14-00 mm. and greater 

Pronotum unicolorous 

Pronotum not unicolorous 

Abdomen entirely black or piceous 

Abdomen red with apical segments black 

Corium black, narrowly reddish basally 

Corium reddish fuscous, moderately broadly suffused with red basally 

Corium entirely fuscous ........ 



2 
8 
3 
7 
4 
5 

serenus Miller 
dohertyi Miller 
hradleyi sp. n. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 



63 



6. 



7- 



Corium fuscous with base reddish or yellowish .... 

Base of corium broadly reddish ...... 

Base of corium narrowly yellow ...... 

Anterior pronotal lobe violaceous, collar red, corium black . 
Anterior pronotal lobe brown ; corium fuscous with apex pale yellow 



ohyanus Distant 
• hiroi sp. n. 
browni sp. n. 

picturatus Distant 

9 
12 
10 
II 



segments suffused with 

mirandus Miller 

hukit Miller 

elongatus Miller 

rufithorax Renter 

13 
18 

14 
16 

15 

insulanus sp. n. 

. miles sp. n. 

schultzei sp. n. 

duhius Reuter 

17 

varicolor Stkl 



8. Corium with discal yellow spot 

- Corium without a discal yellow spot 

9. Gula entirely red ...... 

- Gula piceous, narrowly red basally 

10. Abdomen ventrally piceous with violaceous lustre ; basal 

red ........ 

— Abdomen ventrally reddish .... 

1 1 . Abdomen ventrally yellowish .... 

— Ventral abdominal segments 2 and 3 red . 

12. Pronotum dark blue with metallic lustre . 

— Pronotum light red ..... 

13. Corium black ....... 

— Corium almost entirely light red 

14. Legs yellow or red ...... 

— Legs yellow ; femora apically, tibiae basally black 

15. Legs red ; abdomen light red .... 

— Legs yellow ; abdomen yellow .... 

16. Basal third of corium fuscous ; remainder light red 

— Basal third of corium not fuscous 

17. Hemelytral membrane black .... 

— Hemelytral membrane fuscous with basal half of internal cell and anal area yellow 

elegans St&l 

18. Legs red ; clavus, greater part of area between claval suture and Cu yellow varipennis sp. n. 

— • Legs not entirely red ; clavus and area between claval suture and Cu black . . 19 

19. Femora piceous with bluish lustre ......... 20 

— Femora red, apically piceous . . . . . . . . . .22 

20. ScuteUum coral red ....... kukenthali Breddin 

— ScuteUum black or piceous . . . . . . . . . .21 

21. Segments 2-5 of abdomen ventrally red ; remaining segments piceous with metaUic 

blue lustre ........... attrahens sp. n. 

— Segments 2-5 of abdomen ventrally yellow ; remaining segments and mid-ventrally 

piceous .......... ovatulus Miller 

22. Abdomen piceous ; scutellum reddish yellow ....... 23 

— Abdomen and scutellum differently coloured ....... 24 

23. Meso- and metapleura hght red . . . . ' . . brunneiventris sp. n. 

— Meso- and metapleura light red with metaUic bluish spot . . . meldolae Distant 

24. Corium black or fuscous broadly laterally light red ...... 25 

— Corium black or fuscous ........... 27 

25. Segment 6 of connexivum pale yellow ...... convivus Miller 

— Segment 6 of connexivum not pale yellow ........ 26 

26. Segment 6 of connexivum red ........ timorensis sp. n. 

— Segment 6 of connexivum piceous ...... friihstorferi Breddin 

27. Abdomen piceous ; segments 6 and 7 with connexivum yellow .... 28 

— Abdomen differently coloured . . . . . . . . . .29 

28. Posterior femora piceous ........ mouhoti sp. n. 

— Posterior femora red, apically piceous ....... dux sp. n. 

29. Anterior tibiae piceous ; red in apical half ....... 30 

— Anterior tibiae piceous . . . . . . . ... . .32 

ENTOM. 8, 2. 3 



64 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

30. Connexival segments 2-5 without a yellow spot ; segment 6 ventrolaterally with a 

large yellow spot ......... celebensis sp. n. 

— Connexival segments 2-5 with a yellow spot ; abdominal segments 6, 7 and 9 

yellow . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 

31. Other segments of abdomen ventrally piceous ..... excellens sp. n. 

— Other segments of abdomen ventrally red, narrowly piceous with bluish lustre 

laterally ........... salvazai sp. n. 

32. Connexival segments 2-5 without a yellow spot ...... 33 

— Connexival segments 2-5 with a yellow spot . . . . . . .41 

33. Connexival segments 6 and 7 yellow . . . . . . . . .34 

— Connexival segment 6 yellow, 7 piceous ........ 35 

34. Ventral abdominal segment 6 yellow, 7 piceous suffused with yellow . helluo sp. n. 

— Ventral abdominal segments 6 and 7 piceous, yellow laterally . obscuripennis sp. n. 

35. Anterior and median femora red, obscurely piceous apically . . rabiosus Miller 

— Anterior and median femora red, moderately broadly and distinctly piceous apically 36 

36. Abdomen ventrally mostly piceous . . . . . . . . -37 

— Abdomen ventrally mostly red ......... 38 

37. Corium black with obscure reddish suffusion basally .... similis sp. n. 

— Corium fuscous with distinct, wide, reddish suffusion basaUy . . ambulator sp. n. 

38. Segment 7 of abdomen yellow suffused with piceous apically ; segment 6 yellow 

suffused with red mid-ventrally . . . . . . . assamensis sp. n. 

— Segment 7 of abdomen piceous ; segment 6 piceous suffused with yellow laterally . 39 

39. Segments 2-5 of abdomen ventrally piceous .... cameronicus sp. n. 

— Segments 2-5 of abdomen ventrally not piceous ...... 40 

40. Segments 2-5 of abdomen red mid-ventrally .... versicolor (Laporte) 

— Segments 2-4 red mid-ventrally ; segment 5 piceous with faint reddish suffusion 

servus sp. n. 

41. Ventral abdominal segments 6 and 7 yellow ....... 42 

— Ventral abdominal segments 6 and 7 piceous, yellow laterally . . . .47 

42. Ventral abdominal segments 6 and 7 with brown suffusion mid-ventrally hageni sp. n. 

— Ventral abdominal segments 6 and 7 not suffused with brown .... 43 

43. Corium fuscous with red suffusion basally ....... 44 

— Corium black with red or yellow suffusion basally .... hilaris sp. n. 

44. Corium with very faint reddish suffusion basally .... gracilis sp. n. 

— Corium with moderately broad reddish suffusion basally ..... 45 

45. Anterior and median femora red, narrowly piceous apically ; meso- and metapleura 

piceous with metallic blue lustre ........ vilis sp. n. 

— Anterior and median femora red, broadly piceous apically ; meso- and metapleura 

red .............. 46 

46. Apical margin of seventh ventral abdominal segment yellow . . vorax Miller 

— Apical margin of seventh ventral abdominal segment piceous . . propinquus sp. n. 

47. Segment 6 of abdomen ventrolaterally with a large triangular yellow spot 

vexillarius sp. n. 

— Segment 6 of abdomen ventrolaterally with a yellow spot or suffusion ... 48 

48. Segment 7 of abdomen ventrolaterally with a yellow spot or suffusion ... 49 

— Segment 7 of abdomen ventrolaterally without a yellow spot or suffusion 

obscuripes sp. n. 

49. Corium fuscous ............ 50 

— Corium fuscous with narrow reddish suffusion basally . . . . . . 51 

56. Connexivum of seventh abdominal segment ventrally basally yellow . flavicans sp. n. 

— Connekivum of seventh abdominal segment ventrally piceous . taipingensis Miller 

51. Reddish suffusion at base of corium well defined . ...... 52 

— Reddish suffusion at base of corium ill-defined ....... 54 

52. Spots on connexival segments 3-5 wide and well defined . . . . . 53 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 65 

— Spots on connexival segments 3-5 narrow and with somewhat suffused margins 

dyak sp. n. 

53. Ventral abdominal segments 2 and 3 moderately broadly red ; part of segments 4 and 

5 red ........... mjobergi sp. n. 

— Ventral abdominal segments 2 and 3 narrowly red ; part of segments 4 and 5 not red 

nitidus Miller 

54. Abdominal segment 7 ventrolaterally with a large, pale yellow sp>ot . nehulosus sp. n. 

— Abdominal segment 7 ventrolaterally with a very small pale yellow sp>ot . . 55 

55. Segment 2 of abdomen mid-ventrally red ..... selangorensis Miller 

— Segments 2-6 of abdomen mid-ventrally suffused with red . . . veneficus Miller 

Key to Species in cruentus Group 

I . Corium black with apical half coral red and base with faint red suffusion ; membrane 

black ............ luzonicus sp. n. 

- Corium light red with wide, transverse fuscous stripe sub-basally ; membrane 

fuscous ........... cruentus Stdl 



List of Species in nigrirostris Group 



Tiarodes erinnys Miller 
T. hieroglyphicus Miller 
T. jucundiis sp. n. 
T. juncturus Walker 
T. lotus sp. n. 
T. nigrirostris Stal 
T. nobilis sp. n. 
T. opulentus sp. n. 
T. ostentans sp. n. 
T. pustulatus St&l 
T. sakai Miller 
T. scriptus sp. n. 
T. sulaensis sp. n. 
T. xantusi Reuter 



Distribution 

Sarawak 

Malaya 

Sumatra 

patria ignota 

Sumatra 

Java 

Ceram 

Siam 

Indo-China 

Batchian 

Malaya 

Borneo 

Sula I. 

Borneo 



Holotype 
British Museum (N.H.) 



London. 



Rijksmuseum van Natuurhjke Historie, Leiden. 
British Museum (N.H.), London. 
Rijksmuseum van Natufirlijke Historie, Leiden. 
Natuurhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm. 
British Museum (N.H.), London. 

Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden. 
British Museum (N.H.)., London 



Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm. 
Magyar Nemzeti Muzeum, Budapest, Hungary. 



List of Species in waterstradti Group 



Tiarodes acutangulus sp. n. . Sarawak 

T. amoenus Miller . ,, 

T. malayanus Distant . Malaya 

T. nemoralis sp. n. . ,, 

T. simplex sp. n. . Borneo 

T. sumatrensis sp. n. . Sumatra 

T. waterstradti Breddin . Borneo 



British Museum (N.H.), London. 



Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden. 
Zoologisches Museum, Humboldt Universitat, 

Berlin. 
Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Berlin. 



List of Species in versicolor Group 
Tiarodes ambulator sp. n. . Sumatra 



T. assamensis sp. n. 
T. attrahens sp. n. 



Zoologisches Museum, Humboldt Universitat, 
Berlin. 
Assam . Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm. 
Sumba I. . Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden. 



66 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 



T. biroi sp. n. 


. New Guinea 


T. bradleyi sp. n. 


. Solomon Is. 


T. browni sp. n. 


• »» 


T. brunneiventris sp. n. 


Assam 


T. bukit Miller 


Malaya 


T. cameronicus sp. n. 


>> 


T. celebensis sp. n. 


Celebes 


T. convivus Miller 


. Enggano Is. 


T. dohertyi Miller 


. Halmahera 


T. dubius Reuter 


. Philippine Is 


T. dux sp. n. 


Burma 


T. dyak sp. n. 


Borneo 


T. elegans Stkl 


Ceylon 


T. elongatus Miller 


Sarawak 


T. excellens sp. n. 


Siam 


T. flavicans sp. n. 


Malaya 


T. friihstorferi Breddin 


Lombok 


T. gracilis sp. n. 


Borneo 


T. hageni sp. n. 


Sumatra 


T. helluo sp. n. 


Cochin China 


T. hilaris sp. n. 


Borneo 


T. insulanus sp. n. 


Philippine Is. 


T. kukenthali Breddin 


Batchian 


T. meldolae Distant 


Andaman Is. 


T. miles sp. n. 


Philippine Is. 


T. mirandus Miller 


Malaya 


T. mjobergi sp. n. 


Sarawak 


T. mouhoti sp. n. 


Cambodia 


T. nebulosus sp. n. 


Borneo 


T. nitidus Miller 


,, 


T. obscuripennis sp. n. 


Malaya 


T. obscuripes sp. n. 


Sarawak 


T. obyanus Distant 


Obi Is. 


T. ovatulus Miller 


Solor Is. 


T. picturatus Distant 


Batchian 


T. propinquus sp. n. 


Borneo 


T. rabiosus Miller 


Java 


T. rufithorax Reuter 


Malaya 


T. salvazai sp. n. 


Indo-China 


T. schultzei sp. n. 


Philippine Is. 


T. selangorensis Miller 


Malaya 


T. serenus Miller 


New Guinea 


T. servus sp. n. 


Sumatra 


T. similis sp. n. 


Malaya 


T. taipingensis Miller 


„ 


T. timorensis sp. n. 


Timor 


T. varicolor St&l 


Philippine Is. 


T. varipennis sp. n. 


Sumatra 


T. veneficus Miller 


Malaya 


T. versicolor (Laporte) 


Java 


T. vexillarius sp. n. 


Borneo 


T. vilis sp. n; 


Indo-China 


T. vorax Miller 


Borneo 



Magyar Nemzeti Muzeum, Budapest, Hungary. 
British Museum (N.H.), London. 



Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden. 

British Museum (N.H.), London. 
Zoologisches Museum, Humboldt Universitat, 
Berlin. 

British Museum (N.H.), London. 
Magyar Nemzeti Muzeum, Budapest, Hungary. 
? 

British Museum (N.H.), London. 



Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Berlin. 
Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden. 



Magyar Nemzeti Muzeum, Budapest, Hungary. 
British Museum (N.H.), London. 
? Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Berlin. 
British Museum (N.H.), London. 



Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden. 
Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Berlin. 
British Museum (N.H.), London. 



Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden. 
Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Berlin. 
Magyar Nemzeti Museum, Budapest, Hungary. 
Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden. 
British Museum (N.H.), London. 

Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden. 
British Museum (N.H.), London. 



Naturhistoriska Riksmuscct, Stockholm. 
Riksmuscum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden. 
British Museum (N.H.), London. 
? 

Magyar Nemzeti Muzeum jBudapest, Hungary. 
Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden. 
British Museum (N.H.), London. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 67 

List of Species in cruentus Group 

Tiarodes cruentus St&l . Philippine Is. . Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm. 

T. luzonicus sp. n. . ,, . British Museum (N.H.), London. 



Tiarodes jucundus sp. n. 

(PI. I, fig. 6) 

Colour. Antennae missing. Head shining black ; gula, anteocular narrowly, 
postocular widely, base laterally, yellow ; rostrum missing. Thorax reddish yellow ; 
lateral angles of collar paler ; anterior pronotal lobe with 4 obscure piceous spots 
basally ; posterior two- thirds of posterior lobe and all of median depression, piceous ; 
scutellum piceous ; foveole with faint reddish suffusion. Hemelytra black ; corium 
with a large, transverse, ovate spot extending to costal margin, yellow. Connexivum 
black ; segment 2 with faint yellow suffusion laterally ; segments 3-6 with a large, 
suboblique transverse spot apically, segment 7 with apex yellow ; segments 2-5 
of abdomen ventrally reddish yellow, with a piceous spot laterally ; segment 5 
laterally with suffusion, segments 6-8 yellow ; segment 5 with 2 transverse spots 
mid- ventrally ; segment 6 with an arcuate spot, segment 7 with an ovate spot and 
a median stripe leading to apex, piceous. Tibiae and tarsi black ; coxae, trochanters, 
femora light red ; anterior and median femora narrowly apically, posterior femora 
very broadly apically black. 

Structure. Anteocular with feeble, regular, transverse striae laterally. Median 
depression on anterior and posterior pronotal lobes wide and deep, that on posterior 
lobe with somewhat obscure, transverse striae and a deep, transverse foveole anteri- 
orly ; transverse sulcus with i deep, subcircular foveole and a smaller ovate foveole ; 
posterolateral angles moderately strongly produced, conical, acute, directed inwards 
somewhat ; apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; discal foveole moderately deep, 
strongly transversely depressed anteriorly, Hemelytra extending to apex of abdomen. 
Fossula spongiosa half as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 31-00 mm.; hemelytra, i8-oo mm.; greatest pronotal width, 9-10 
mm. 

One $ (holotype), Sumatra, Serdang, Tobermeer, Dr. B. Hagen. 

Tiarodes lotus sp. n. 

(PI. I, fig. 10) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments missing. 
Head shining black with faint metallic green lustre ; anteocular and postocular 
laterally, gula and base whitish yellow ; neck dorsally almost entirely piceous ; 
basal segment of rostrum piceous ; remaining segments testaceous. Thorax yellow ; 
anterior pronotal lobe with faint linear brown suffusion ; posterior lobe with brown 
suffusion medially and laterally posteriorly. Corium and membrane black, the 
former with a subreniform pale yellow spot extending almost to costal margin. 
Abdomen reddish yellow ; connexival segments with irregular black spots. Tarsi 



68 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

brown ; coxae, trochanters and femora yellow ; anterior and median femora with 
broad black suffusion in apical half ; tibiae black. 

Structure, Head smooth ; anteocular laterally with obscure, widely-spaced, 
transverse striae. Median depression on anterior and posterior pronotal lobes very 
deep, wide, short ; transverse sulcus with a deep, circular foveole on each side of 
depression ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe moderately strongly produced, 
slender, acute, directed backwards ; apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; foveole 
on disc deep with obscure transverse sulci. Hemelytra extending to apex of abdomen. 
Fossula spongiosa on anterior tibiae about one-half as long, on median tibiae one- 
third as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 21-50 mm.; hemelytra, 14-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 6-oo mm. 

One (^ (holotype), Sumatra, Solok, 1913, P. O. Stolz. 

Tiarodes nobilis sp. n. 

(PI. I, fig. 8) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae dark brown ; remaining segments 
testaceous. Head, segments i and 2 of rostrum black ; segment 3 of rostrum brown ; 
base of head suffused with brown. Thorax black. Hemelytra black with a yellow 
discal spot. Abdomen light red ; segment 2 ventrally except laterally, black ; 
segments 3-6 basally and apically with transverse piceous suffusion ; segment 7 
with a large, lunate black spot with margin suffused with brown ; genital segments 
black. Legs light red ; tibiae basally and apically, femora apically black ; tarsi 
brown ; suffusion on anterior tibiae relatively wider ; coxae and trochanters black. 

Structure. Head smooth, shining with feeble transverse striae laterally and 
on antennophores. Median sulcus on posterior pronotal lobe transversely carinulate ; 
posterolateral angles of posterior lobe produced, subacute, directed backwards. 
Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa a little 
less than half as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 29-00 mm.; hemelytra, 17-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 8-oo mm. 

One $ (holotype), Ceram, Wallace (A. R.). 

Tiarodes opulentus sp. n. 

(PI. I, fig. II) 

Colour. Antennae missing. Head dorsally black ; laterally, ventrolaterally and 
base pale yellow ; rostrum missing. Thorax, except scutellum, light red ; scutellum 
piceous ; meso- and metapleura with piceous suffusion. Median depression on 
posterior pronotal lobe, posterior margin of lobe suffused with piceous. Hemelytra 
fuscous with a large discal yellow spot, the external margin of which extends to 
costa. Abdomen dorsally yellow with faint red suffusion ; connexival segment 2, 
most of 3 and 4 black ; segment 5 with a large spot, bifurcate on inner margin at 
base of segment, segment 6 with a smaller spot, segment 7 with a still smaller spot, 
black ; abdomen ventrally yellow with faint red suffusion ; connexival segments 
2, 3 and 4 (except apex), black ; segments 5 and 6 with a large black spot basally ; 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 69 

segments 2 and 3 ventrally black, both with yellow suffusion laterally ; segment 3 
with a yellow spot mid-ventrally ; segment 4 with a large black area enclosing a 
transverse, elongate yellow spot mid-ventrally and with a wide black stripe joining 
black area to lateral margin ; segments 5 and 6 with an arcuate black spot mid- 
ventrally and suffusion laterally ; segment 7 with a small piceous spot on apical 
margin medially. Anterior and median tibiae, posterior legs, black ; anterior and 
median femora narrowly black apically ; trochanters, median tibiae basally suffused 
with piceous ; coxae light red. 

Structure. Head smooth ; anteocular laterally coarsely striate ; vertex, except 
medially, feebly transversely striate ; medially aciculate, basally medially more 
coarsely striate ; postocular with very obscure, shallow narrow depressions. Anterior 
pronotal lobe with a narrow, sinuate sulcus subdorsally medially ; median depression 
on lobes posteriorly transversely carinulate ; posterior lobe with deep foveoles and 
longitudinal carinulae anteriorly ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe moderately 
produced, rounded apically and directed inwards feebly ; apex of scutellum broadly 
rounded apically and with transverse sulci. Hemelytra extending to apex of abdomen. 
Fossula spongiosa on anterior tibiae a little less than half as long, on median tibiae 
one-third as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 25-00 mm.; hemelytra, i6-oo mm.; greatest pronotal width, 7-50 mm. 

One cJ (holotype), Siam (B.M. 65-13). 

Tiarodes ostentans sp. n. 

(PI. I, fig. 14) 

Colour. Antennae missing. Head black ; anteocular laterally, gula, postocular 
and base yellow ; segments i and 2 of rostrum piceous ; segment 3 brown. Pronotum 
light red ; median depression between lobes, posterior half of posterior lobe of 
pronotum, piceous ; produced part of posterolateral angles reddish ; scutellum 
black ; propleura, sterna, light red ; mesosternum with an oblong black spot 
laterally ; meso- and metapleura black ; acetabula reddish yellow. Abdomen dark 
yellow ; segment 2 ventrally black ; segments 3-5 almost entirely suffused with 
piceous ; segment 6 with a black stripe medially on apical margin ; connexival 
segments 2-4 black ; segment 4 with a circular yellow spot ; segment 5 black in 
basal half, remainder yellow ; segments 6 and 7 yellow. Corium black and fuscous 
with a large pale yellow discal spot extending almost to costal margin ; membrane 
black. Tibiae and tarsi black ; coxae light red ; anterior trochanters light red 
suffused with piceous ; median and posterior trochanters piceous ; anterior and 
median femora light red, broadly black apically ; median femora suffused with 
piceous basally ; posterior femora black. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally distinctly transversely striate ; ocellar area 
very obscurely striate. Anterior pronotal lobe with a distinct arcuate depression 
subdorsally ; median depression between lobes wide, deep, transversely striate ; 
transverse sulcus with a large, circular foveole and a small, circular foveole with 
external side open ; produced portion of posterolateral angles of posterior pronotal 
lobe thick, conical, subacute ; apex of scutellum broadly rounded ; discal foveole 



70 NEW SUBFAMILY. GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

with surface strongly declivous ; sides of disc deeply depressed. Hemelytra extending 
to apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa a little less than half the length of tibiae. 

Total length, 28-00 mm.; hemelytra, i8-oo mm.; greatest pronotal width, 9-00 mm. 

One c? (holotype), Indo-China, Laos, Vitalis de Salvaza. 

Tiarodes scriptus sp. n. 

(PI. I, fig. 15) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae black ; remaining segments missing. 
Head shining black ; gula, base of head, postocular laterally, stripes on anteocular 
laterally, dull yellow ; rostrum black. Anterior pronotal lobe, propleura reddish 
yellow, the former with lateral angles of collar almost entirely, collar and 2 large 
subtriangular spots coalescing anteriorly, a large subtriangular spot laterally, 
confluent spots along posterior margin and laterally posteriorly, black ; posterior 
lobe black with an oblique, elongate yellowish spot anteriorly on each side of median 
depression ; scutellum black with reddish yellow suffusion at apex of disc ; pleura 
9.nd sterna reddish yellow ; propleura with black spot at base of acetabular incision. 
Hemelytra fuscous with an elongate, suffused yellowish spot basally at claval suture 
and a transverse subtriangular yellowish discal spot, the acute angle directed 
towards costa. Connexivum black ; segment 3 with a small quadrate spot, segments 
4-6 with a transverse, subapical, elongate spot yellow ; segments 2-4 of abdomen 
ventrally reddish yellow ; segments 5-7 yellow ; pygophore yellow with brown 
suffusion ; segments 2-5 laterally with a large, irregular spot, segment 4 with 2 
spots mid-ventrally, segments 5 and 6 with a transverse spot mid-ventrally, segment 
7 with a triangular spot mid-ventrally, black ; connexivum of segment 7 ventrally 
suffused with yellow. Tarsi and tibiae black ; coxae, trochanters, femora, reddish 
yellow ; anterior and median femora broadly apically, posterior femora with apical 
half, black ; basal margins of black areas suffused and reddish yellow areas with 
somewhat obscure, linear black suffusion. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally striate, the striae more or less parallel. Median 
depression on both pronotal lobes wide and deep, particularly on posterior lobe ; 
base of depression on anterior lobe with short, transverse carina ; depression on 
posterior lobe with a wide, deep foveole anteriorly and shorter transverse sulci 
posteriorly ; transverse sulcus with a large and a small deep foveole and carinulae 
laterally ; posterolateral angles strongly produced, triangular, acute ; apex of 
scutellum narrowly rounded ; disc damaged ; laterally irregularly sulcate. Hemely- 
tra extending very little beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa a little more 
than half as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 27-00 mm.; hemelytra, 17-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 7-50 mm. 

One ^ (holotype), E. Borneo, Sanga Sanga, W. D. Jensen (B.M. 1907-203). 

Tiarodes sulaensis sp. n. 

(PI. I, fig. 16) 

Colour. Basal segment of antennae piceous ; remaining segments brown. Head 
black, narrowly light brown basally ; gula dark yellow ; rostrum piceous. Anterior 



NEW SUBFAMILY. GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 71 

pronotal lobe dark yellow or reddish yellow with a black pattern ; posterior lobe, 
propleural epimeron, meso- and metapleura, scutellum shining black ; lateral 
angles of collar suffused with brown ; propleural epimeron dark or reddish yellow, 
suffused with black posteriorly ; prostemum yellow ; stridulatory furrow black ; 
meso- and metasternum black, the former suffused with yellow anteriorly. Segments 
2-4 of abdomen black ; segment 3 narrowly ventrolaterally, segment 4 mid- 
ventrally with reddish yellow suffusion ; remaining segments reddish yellow with 
brownish suffusion mid-ventrally ; genital segments suffused with piceous. Corium 
fuscous somewhat paler laterally and with a small, median whitish spot ; membrane 
dark infumate. Tarsi light brown ; anterior and median tibiae, posterior femora 
and tibiae black ; anterior and median femora reddish yellow, narrowly black 
apically ; median femora with brown suffusion basally ; coxae and trochanters 
reddish yellow suffused with piceous. 

Structure. Head smooth ; vertex and laterally with transverse striae which 
are less defined on vertex. Anterior pronotal lobe with a wide, shallow, oblique 
sulcus with sulci within it ; median depression on both lobes very deep and trans- 
versely carinulate ; subdorsal foveole on transverse sulcus very deep ; sulcus also 
with strong, transverse carinulae ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe somewhat 
strongly produced, subacute, directed backwards. Apex of scutellum subacute and 
constricted subapically. Hemelytra extending a little beyond apex of abdomen. 
Segment 7 of abdomen ventrally with strong transverse sulci ; segment 6 with irregu- 
lar, somewhat feeble sulci. Fossula spongiosa a little less than half as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 31-00 mm.; hemelytra, i8-oo mm.; greatest pronotal width, 8-50 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Sula. 

Tiarodes acutangulus sp. n. 

(PI. I, fig. 2) 

Colour. Antennae piceous ; apical segments somewhat paler. Head black ; 
anteocular laterally, gula, postocular laterally pale yellow ; neck pale yellow, 
dorsally piceous anteriorly ; basal segment of rostrum piceous ; remaining segments 
brown. Thorax dark yellow ; anterior pronotal lobe with 2 large bilobate spots 
anteriorl}^ a semicircular spot medially laterally, a large bifurcate spot at postero- 
lateral angles, a large elongate spot on each side of median depression and a large 
spot almost confluent with them, piceous. Segments 2-4 of abdomen dark yellow ; 
remaining segments pale yellow ; segment 2 of connexivum with external margin 
black ; segments 3-7 with a large, more or less triangular spot basally black ; seg- 
ments 3-4 also apically narrowly black ; apical margin of segment 3 dorsolaterally 
narrowly black ; apical margin of segments 4-7 black ; segments 5 and 6 with an 
undulate piceous spot laterally ; segment 7 with piceous suffusion medially. Corium 
dark yellow, broadly fuscous apically ; clavus fuscous, except external margin 
narrowly yellow ; apical half of area between claval suture and Cu, base of costa, 
fuscous. Coxae, trochanters, femora pale yellow ; femora narrowly piceous apically ; 
anterior tibiae pale yellow, broadly apically, narrowly basally piceous ; median 
and posterior tibiae piceous ; tarsi dark brown. 



72 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

Structure. Anteocular laterally with a few obscure, transverse striae. Anterior 
pronotal lobe with a very obscure transverse sulcus subdorsally ; median depression 
on lobes wide and deep with somewhat obscure transverse and oblique sulci within 
it ; produced part of posterolateral angles of posterior lobe very acute ; apex of 
scutellum rounded, subtruncate ; foveole on disc deep, subtriangular ; sides of disc 
almost smooth. Hemelytra extending to apex of abdomen, Fossula spongiosa a 
little more than half as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 18-50 mm.; hemelytra, 11-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 5-80 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Sarawak, foot of Mt. Dulit, junction of Rivers Tinjar and Lejok, 
10. ix. 1932, B. M. Hobby & A. W. Moore (Oxford Univ. Exped. B.M. 1933-254). 

Tiarodes netnoralis sp. n. 

(PI. I. fig. 3) 

Colour. Basal segment of antennae piceous ; remaining segments testaceous ; 
segment 2 basally and apically narrowly piceous. Head black with faint metallic 
green lustre ; anteocular laterally, including antennophores, postocular laterally, 
base of head yellowish ; neck very narrowly piceous anteriorly ; basal segment of 
rostrum piceous ; remaining segments brown. Thorax dark yellow ; pleura and 
sterna suffused with red ; anterior pronotal lobe with a large, subtriangular spot 
medially laterally, a large angulate spot at posterolateral angles and 2 large spots on 
posterior margin, dark brown. Corium pale yellow with apex broadly fuscous, 
an elongate spot on clavus and on anterior part of area between claval suture and 
Cu and a stripe on costa basally, fuscous ; membrane fuscous ; venation black. 
Abdomen ventrally pale yellow ; segments 2-4 suffused with red ; segments 4 
and 5 with a brown spot on each side of mid-venter ; connexival segments 3-7 
with a spot basally, piceous. Legs pale yellow ; coxae trochanters and femora with 
light red suffusion ; tibiae with brown suffusion basally and apically, that on median 
and posterior tibiae covering nearly half of tibiae ; tarsi testaceous. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally with distinct, widely-spaced transverse striae 
Anterior pronotal lobe with a moderately deep subcircular depression subdorsally ; 
median depression on lobes wide and deep ; transverse sulcus with 2 large circular 
foveoles ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe narrowly conical, acute ; apex 
of scutellum narrowly rounded ; disc laterally with a few sulci. Hemelytra extending 
just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa on anterior tibiae a little more 
than one-third as long, on median tibiae one-third as long as tibia. 

Total length, 19-00 mm.; hemelytra, 13-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 6-00 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Malaya, Gunong Angsi, Negri Sembilan, 2000-2790 ft. April 
1918 (B.M. 1955-354). 

Tiarodes simplex sp. n. 

(PI. 4, fig. 20) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments testaceous. 
Head black ; anteocular laterally, gula, yellow ; vertex adjacent to antennophores 
with yellow suffused spot ; neck yellow, anteriorly narrowly piceous ; basal segment 



k 



NEW SUBFAMILY. GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 73 

of rostrum piceous ; remaining segments brown. Thorax yellow ; anterior pronotal 
lobe anteriorly subdorsally with a securiform spot, sublaterally with a circular spot, 
laterally with a pyriform spot, a large bilobate spot at posterolateral angles and 2 
large circular spots posteriorly piceous. Corium pale yellow ; area between claval 
suture and Cu with brown suffusion ; apex of corium broadly piceous ; membrane 
black, fuscous basally ; costa basally with faint brown suffusion. Abdomen ventrally 
yellow ; apical margin of segments 3-7 dorsally narrowly black ; segments 5-7 
with a transverse brownish stripe laterally ; connexival segments 3-7 with a wide, 
quadrate spot basally and apical margin narrowly black. Anterior femora and tibiae, 
median and posterior femora pale yellow ; tibiae basally and apically, femora 
apically with brown suffusion ; median and posterior femora black ; tarsi dark 
brown. 

Structure. Postocular laterally with moderately distinct transverse striae. 
Anterior pronotal lobe with a small, obscure depression subdorsally ; median depres- 
sion on anterior and posterior lobes wide and deep and with obscure sulci posteriorly ; 
transverse sulcus with a deep, circular foveole and a small, parallel-sided foveole 
and a shallow depression with carinulae within it laterally ; produced portion of 
posterolateral angles moderately thick, acute ; apex of scutellum rounded ; foveole 
on disc deep, transverse ; sides of disc with longitudinal sulci. Hemelytra extending 
just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa half as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 21-00 mm.; hemelytra, 14-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 6-50 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Borneo, Long Bloeoe, Mahakkam, 1898, Dr. Nieuwenhuis. 

Tiarodes sumatrensis sp. n. 

(PL 4, fig. 18) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments missing. 
Head black ; anteocular laterally, antennophores, gula and postocular laterally 
pale yellow ; base of head broadly pale yellow ; rostrum brown. Thorax pale reddish 
yellow ; anterior pronotal lobe with a small spot medially laterally, an angular 
spot on posterolateral angles and 4 circular spots posteriorly, brown. Corium very 
pale or whitish yellow ; clavus fuscous except external margins narrowly whitish 
yellow ; area between claval suture and Cu with an elongate fuscous spot ; apex of 
corium broadly fuscous ; membrane fuscous ; venation greyish. Abdomen ventrally 
pale yellow ; segments 2-4 and part of 5 ventrally suffused with red ; connexival 
segments 3-6 with a quadrate spot basally, segment 7 with an irregular spot basally, 
piceous ; dorsal segments 5-7 with apical margin narrowly black. Legs pale yellow ; 
coxae, trochanters and femora suffused with light red ; anterior and median tibiae 
with a broad suffusion apically particularly on inner surface and a narrow suffusion 
basally, piceous ; posterior tibiae with a narrow suffusion apically and moderately 
wide suffusion on inner surface basally, piceous ; tarsi testaceous. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally obscurely but more or less regularly transversely 
striate. Anterior pronotal lobe with a small, distinct, circular depression subdorsally ; 
median depression between lobes wide and deep with obscure, shallow, transverse 
and oblique sulci within it ; transverse sulcus with 2 moderately deep circular 



74 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

foveoles and oblique sulci laterally ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe triangular, 
acute ; apex of scutellum rounded ; disc laterally with feeble longitudinal sulci. 
Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa about 
one-half the length of tibiae. 

Total length, 20-50 mm.; hemelytra, 13-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 6-10 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Sumatra, ober-Langkat, Deli, 1894, M. V. de S. 

Tiarodes ambulator sp. n. 

(PI. 2, fig. 16) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae brown ; remaining segments testaceous. 
Head black with violaceous lustre ; gula brown ; base of head very narrowly dull 
yellow ; rostrum testaceous. Thorax, except scutellum, light red ; scutellum 
piceous with faint violaceous lustre. Abdomen ventrally black with metallic bluish 
lustre ; segment 2 entirely mid-ventrally and with anterior margin laterally dull 
red ; segment 3 mid-ventrally dull red ; segments 6 and 7 laterally suffused with 
yellow ; segment 7 with an angulate yellowish spot mid-ventrally ; connexivum 
piceous with violaceous lustre ; connexival segment 6 yellow except internal margin 
narrowly brownish, Corium fuscous, broadly light red basally ; membrane black. 
Tarsi testaceous ; anterior and median tibiae piceous narrowly suffused with light 
red apically ; posterior tibiae piceous ; coxae trochanters, femora light red ; anterior 
and median femora narrowly apically, posterior femora moderately broadly apically 
black with metallic blue lustre. 

Structure, Anteocular laterally somewhat coarsely striate ; area between 
ocelli and transverse sulcus transversely striate. Median depression on anterior 
pronotal lobe narrow, deep, on posterior lobe wide and somewhat shallow ; anterior 
lobe posteriorly with a subtriangular flattened area on each side of depression ; 
transverse sulcus without distinct foveoles but with somewhat obscure transverse 
carinulae ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe feebly produced, acute ; apex of 
scutellum narrowly rounded ; disc damaged ; sides of disc very obscurely striate, 
Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen, Fossula spongiosa about 
one-fifth as long as tibiae. 

Total length, ,^ 14-00 mm,, $ 16-00 mm.; hemelytra, (^ 9-00 mm., $ 10-20 mm.; 
greatest pronotal width, ^^ 4-30 mm., $, 5-00 mm. 

One (^ (holotype), Sumatra, N. O. Kust, G. Martin, i $ (paratype), S. W. Lampongs, 
Mt. Tanggamoes, Giesting, 600 m., xii.1934, Lieftinck/Toxopeus. 

Paratype in Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden. 

Tiarodes assamensis sp. n. 

(PI. 2, fig. 4) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments missing. 
Head piceous with faint metallic blue lustre ; gula brown ; base of head narrowly 
yellow ; rostrum yellow. Thorax, except scutellum, light red ; scutellum piceous. 
Hemelytra and membrane black, the former broadly light red basally. Connexivum 
piceous, except segment 6, yellow ; abdomen with segments 2-5 ventrally light red. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 75 

narrowly black with metallic blue lustre laterally ; segments 6 and 7 yellow, the 
former suffused with light red medially, the latter piceous apically ; pygophore 
piceous. Tarsi testaceous ; tibiae black ; anterior tibiae with suffusion apically, 
median tibiae in apical half, light red ; coxae, trochanters and femora light red ; 
femora narrowly black apically. 

Structure. Anteocular more or less regularly transversely striate laterally ; 
postocular with very obscure striae. Anterior pronotal lobe with very obscure 
striae on collar and a very feeble oblique depression subdorsally ; median depression 
on both lobes wide and deep ; transverse sulcus with a deep foveole on each side of 
depression ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe not produced, rectangular. 
Apex of scutellum conical. Hemelytra extending a little beyond apex of abdomen. 
Fossula spongiosa one-quarter the length of tibiae. 

Total length, 15-00 mm.; hemelytra, 1070 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-50 
mm. 

One ^ (holot3^e), Assam, Sylhet. 

Tiarodes attrahens sp. n. 

(PI. 4, fig. 5) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae brown ; segments 3 and 4 testaceous. 
Head black with faint violaceous lustre ; gula dull castaneous ; base of head nar- 
rowly light brown. Thorax, except scutellum, red ; scutellum piceous with faint 
violaceous lustre. Segments 2-5 of abdomen red ; remaining segments piceous with 
faint violaceous or greenish lustre. Corium light red ; greater part of clavus apically 
and of area between claval suture and Cu fuscous suffused with yellow marginally ; 
membrane fuscous. Tarsi testaceous ; coxae light red suffused with piceous ; tro- 
chanters, femora and tibiae piceous ; femora somewhat darker apically. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally somewhat coarsely, transversely rugulose ; 
area between ocelli and transverse sulcus with more or less regular transverse striae. 
Anterior pronotal lobe at base of lateral angles of collar with short, somewhat 
obscure transverse carinulae ; collar sublaterally with diagonal striae ; median 
depression between lobes wide, deep and with a small, median circular foveole ; 
transverse sulcus with a distinct, circular foveole and somewhat irregular trans- 
verse and oblique carinulae ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe not produced, 
rectangular ; apex of scutellum rounded ; discal foveole ovate with transverse and 
oblique carinulae within it ; sides of disc with transverse sulci. Hemelytra extending 
just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa about one-quarter as long as 
tibiae. 

Total length, 18-00 mm.; hemelytra, 12-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 6-00 mm. 

One $ (holotype), O. Sumatra, Kananggar, 700 m,, v. 1925, Dammerman. 

Tiarodes biroi sp. n. 

(PI. 4. fig. I) 
Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae brown ; remaining segments testaceous. 
Head piceous with faint violaceous lustre ; base of head yellow ; rostrum piceous. 



76 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

Thorax and abdomen reddish yellow ; segments 6-9 piceous. Hemelytra fuscous ; 
corium narrowly pale yellow basally. Coxae pale reddish yellow ; trochanters, 
femora and tibiae piceous ; tarsi brown. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally irregularly striate ; postocular in front of 
ocelli obscurely transversely striate. Collar with short, somewhat obscure longi- 
tudinal striae ; median depression between lobes somewhat shallow ; posterior 
pronotal lobe anteriorly with obscure, short, longitudinal carinulae ; transverse 
sulcus with 2 shallow foveoles ; scutellar spine subacute ; foveole on scutellar disc 
shallow, subcircular. Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. 

Total length, 10-50 mm.; hemelytra, 7-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 3-40 mm. 

One $ (holotype), 4 $ (paratypes). New Guinea, Erina, Astrolabe Bay, Biro, 
'96. 

Two paratypes in British Museum (N.H,), London. 

Tiarodes bradleyi sp, n. 

(PI. 2, fig. 18) 

Colour. Antennae and rostrum piceous. Head black with metallic green lustre ; 
base narrowly yellow. Pronotum, propleura, prosternum, light red ; meso- and meta- 
pleura and sterna black with metallic green lustre ; metasternum anteriorly with 2 
large brownish spots. Abdominal segments 2-6 dorsally dark yellow ; segment 6 
suffused with piceous ; connexival segments 6 and 7, segment 7 black with metallic 
green lustre ; segment 2 with metallic green suffusion laterally ; remaining segments 
black wth metallic green lustre. Corium and membrane fuscous. Mesosternum and 
acetabula suffused with piceous. Tibiae piceous ; femora black with metallic green 
lustre. 

Structure. Head smooth ; anteocular laterally vermiculately striate ; area 
between ocelli and transverse sulcus, irregularly striate. Anterior pronotal lobe with 
a wide, short, deep, subquadrate foveole sub-basally ; depression on posterior pro- 
notal lobe moderately deep ; transverse sulcus with a deep foveole on each side of 
depression ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe rounded, broadly angulate ; 
apex of scutellum subacute ; disc transversely striate. Hemelytra extending to 
apex of abdomen. Femora and tibiae with abundant, short, curved, subrecumbent, 
forwardly directed setae. Fossula spongiosa about one-fifth as long as tibiae. 

Total length, ii-oo mm.; hemelytra, 7-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 3-50 mm. 

One 9 (holotype), Solomon Islands, Guadalcanal, Honiara, 8-12. ix. 1953 (at 
light), J. D. Bradley (Rennel Island Exped. B.M. 1954-222). 

Tiarodes browni sp. n. 

(PI. 2, fig. 17) 

Colour. Antennae piceous. Head and legs black with metallic green and violac- 
eous lustre. Segments i and 2 of rostrum piceous ; segment 3 brown. Base of head 
narrowly yellow. Collar, propleura anteriorly, acetabula, prosternum, light red ; 
anterior pronotal lobe piceous with faint violaceous lustre ; posterior lobe reddish 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 77 

yellow ; meso- and metapleura black with violaceous lustre ; propleural epimeron 
reddish yellow ; scutellum piceous ; apex light brown. Corium blackish green ; 
membrane black. Abdomen dorsally light brown, except connexival segments 2-5 
light red ; connexival segments 6 and 7 black with metallic green lustre ; segment 
2, except connexivum, segments 6 and 7, connexival segment 7 ventrally black 
with metallic green lustre ; remaining segments light red. 

Structure. Anteocular and post ocular between ocelli and transverse sulcus 
transversely striate ; postocular between ocelli and neck with feeble, longitudinal 
striae. Anterior pronotal lobe with a diagonal sulcus laterally ; posterior lobe 
anteriorly with a feeble carina on each side of depression and short carinulae ; postero- 
lateral angles not produced, broadly rounded. Hemelytra extending just beyond 
apex of abdomen. Femora and tibiae with abundant, short, subrecumbent, forwardly 
directed setae. Fossula spongiosa about one-fifth as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 11-50 mm.; hemelytra, 6-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 3*30 mm. 

One 9 (holotype), Solomon Islands, Malaita, Baunani, 6.ix.i954, E. S. Brown 
(B.M. 1958-79)- 

Tiarodes hrunneiventris sp. n. 

(PI. 4, fig. 14) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments missing. 
Head black with metallic blue lustre ; gula and base of head reddish yellow ; segments 
I and 2 of rostrum reddish yellow ; apical segment piceous. Thorax light red ; 
posterior pronotal lobe with median brown suffusion ; mesopleural epimeron with 
a piceous spot. Corium light red in basal half ; remainder fuscous ; base of clavus 
and part of basal area between claval suture and Cu, yellow ; membrane blackish 
infumate. Abdomen dark brown ventrally, with metallic blue lustre particularly 
laterally ; pygophore suffused with testaceous. Coxae, trochanters, femora and 
tibiae light red, femora apically, tibiae basally narrowly piceous ; tarsi brown. 

Structure. Anteocular strongly and finely reticulately rugose ; postocular with 
feeble diagonal and transverse striae. Anterior pronotal lobe anteriorly with short, 
irregular longitudinal striae and with a shallow, transversely striate sulcus sub- 
dorsally medially ; median depression on lobes deep ; posterior lobe with a large, 
deep, circular foveole on each side of depression and smaller foveoles in transverse 
sulcus ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe not produced, broadly angulately 
rounded ; apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; foveole on disc moderately deep 
and with irregular sulci within it. Hemelytra extending to apex of abdomen. Fossula 
spongiosa about one-quarter as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 20-00 mm.; hemelytra, 11-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 6-00 mm. 

One ^ (holotype), Assam. 

Tiarodes cameronicus sp. n. 

(PI. 2, fig. 23) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments missing. 
Head piceous with very faint bluish lustre ; gula testaceous ; base of head yellow ; 
rostrum pale testaceous. Thorax, except scutellum, light red ; scutellum piceous 



78 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

with faint bluish lustre ; apex somewhat pale. Hemelytra fuscous ; corium moder- 
ately broadly red basally. Abdomen ventrally piceous ; segment 6 laterally with a 
quadrate yellow area ; connexivum piceous with blue or violaceous lustre ; connexi- 
val segment 6 yellow. Tarsi brown ; tibiae piceous ; anterior and median tibiae 
with wide reddish brown suffusion apically ; coxae, trochanters, femora light red ; 
femora with narrow piceous suffusion with bluish lustre apically. 

Structure. Anteocular and post ocular immediately behind eyes moderately 
distinctly striate ; area between ocelli and transverse sulcus very obscurely striate. 
Anterior pronotal lobe with some very obscure oblique striae at base of collar, 
mostly laterally and a moderately deep, narrow, oblique sulcus subdorsally ; trans- 
verse sulcus without distinctly defined foveoles ; median depression on lobes wide 
and deep, but short on posterior lobe ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe not 
produced, rectangular ; apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; discal foveole ovate, 
moderately deep and with a smooth, elliptical, low, elevation medially. Hemelytra 
extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa about one-quarter as 
long as tibiae. 

Total length, 15-50 mm.; hemelytra, lo-oo mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-50 mm. 

One (^ (holot3^e), i $ (paratype), Malaya, Boh, Cameron Highlands, 24. ix. 1940, 
N. C. E. MiUer (B.M. 1947-269). 

Tiarodes celebensis sp. n. 

(PI. 3. fig. 9) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; segments 3 and 4 testaceous. 
Head black with very faint metallic blue lustre ; gula brown ; base of head dark 
yellow ; rostrum light brown. Thorax, except scutellum, light red ; scutellum 
piceous ; transversely striate area of metapleura suffused with brown. Corium 
black, moderately broadly light red basally ; membrane blackish infumate. Abdo- 
men fuscous or black with faint blue and green metallic lustre ; connexivum of seg- 
ment 6 dorsally with external half ventrally entirely yellow ; segment 6 ventro- 
laterally with an oblong yellow spot. Tarsi brown ; anterior tibiae dull red in apical 
half, remainder piceous ; median tibiae dull red suffused with piceous basally ; 
posterior tibiae piceous ; coxae, trochanters, femora light red, femora narrowly 
black apically. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally and area between ocelli and transverse sulcus 
coarsely striate. Anterior pronotal lobe laterally at base of collar coarsely, obliquely 
striate ; subdorsally with a shallow, oblique sulcus ; median depression on lobes 
moderately wide and deep ; transverse sulcus with 2 moderately deep foveoles and 
short, longitudinal carinulae ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe not produced, 
acute ; apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; discal foveole circular with surface 
subconvex ; disc laterally obscurely transversely striate. Hemelytra extending to 
apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa about one-quarter as long as tibiae. 

Total length, i8-oo mm.; hemelytra, 12-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-50 mm. 

One $ (holotype), i $ (paratype), Celebes, Limbotti, July-Sept, (no year), Rosen- 
berg. 

Paratype in British Museum (N.H,), London. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 79 

Tiarodes dux sp. n. 

(PI. 3, fig. I) i* ' 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments testaceous. 
Head black with metallic blue lustre ; gula and a spot behind eyes, reddish ; base 
of head yellow ; rostrum testaceous. Thorax, except scutellum, light red ; scutellum 
black ; metapleura with transversely striate area piceous. Corium fuscous, moder- 
ately broadly light red basally ; membrane fuscous. Abdomen piceous ; segments 
6 and 7, 8, part of 9, pale yellow ; segments 6 and 7 mid-ventraUy with piceous 
suffusion ; apical margin of segment 5 narrowly suffused with red ; connexival 
segments 5 and 6 dorsally with yellow suffusion. Anterior and median tibiae ligljit 
red suffused with piceous basally ; posterior tibiae piceous ; coxae, trochanters, 
femora light red ; femora narrowly black apically. 

Structure. Anteocular irregularly transversely striate laterally ; vertex basaljy 
with 2 parallel-sided smooth areas basally ; area between ocelli and transverse 
sulcus obscurely striate. Anterior pronotal lobe obscurely, longitudinally and 
obliquely striate at base of collar ; median depression on lobes deep with a transverse, 
deep foveole medially ; transverse sulcus with 2 deep, subcircular foveoles and 
longitudinal carinulae ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe feebly produced, 
acute ; apex of scutellum acute and strongly transversely sulcate ; disc laterally 
irregularly sulcate. Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula 
spongiosa about one-quarter as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 18-00 mm. ; hemelytra, 12-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 5-70 mm. 

One ? (holotype), Burma, Tenasserim (Kirkaldy coll. B.M. 1912-513), 2 $ (para- 
types), Tavoy. ... 

Tiarodes dyak sp. n. 

(PI. 4. fig. 3) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae brown ; segments 3 and 4 testaceous. 
Head piceous with faint violaceous lustre ; gula pale red ; base of head, rostrum 
yellow. Thorax, except scutellum light red ; scutellum piceous with violaceous 
lustre. Corium fuscous, moderately broadly light red basally ; membrane dark 
infumate. Abdomen piceous ; connexival segment 3 with a moderately wide spot, 
segments 4 and 5 with a very narrow, somewhat suffused spot basally, pale yellow ; 
connexival segment 6 pale yellow ; connexival segment 7 piceous ; segments 2 and 3 
mid-ventraUy with faint reddish suffusion ; segments 6 and 7 with pale yellow 
suffusion laterally ; segment 8 pale yellow. Tarsi brown ; tibiae piceous ; coxae, 
trochanters, anterior and median femora light red ; posterior femora light red, 
strongly suffused with piceous with violaceous lustre. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally with moderately distinct, transverse striae ; 
transverse sulcus with obscure, transverse striae. Anterior pronotal lobe with a 
very narrow sulcus within a shallow depression anteriorly ; median depression 
between lobes somewhat narrow and deep ; transverse sulcus with 2 deep foveoles ; 
posterolateral angles hardly at all produced ; . scutellar foveole distinctly circular, 

ENTOM. 8, 2. 4 



8o NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

deep and with anterior two-thirds depressed ; apex of scutellum narrowly rounded. 
Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen ; costal margin of corium 
distinctly convex in apical two-thirds. 

Total length, 14-50 mm.; hemelytra, 9-20 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-10 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Borneo, Xantus. 

Tiarodes excellens sp. n. 

(PI. 2, fig. 2) 

Colour. Antennae missing. Head black with faint metallic green lustre ; gula» 
part of postocular laterally, dull red ; base of head, rostrum yellow. Pronotum, 
propleura coral red ; meso- and metapleura piceous ; acetabula light red ; scutellum 
dark metallic blue. Corium black, broadly red basally ; membrane fuscous. Abdomen 
piceous ventrally with dark metallic blue suffusion laterally ; segments 6 and 7, 
pygophore yellow ; connexival segments 2-5 piceous with dark metallic blue suffusion 
and a short, transverse yellow spot basally. Tibiae black in basal half, light red 
in apical half ; coxae, trochanters, femora light red ; femora narrowly black apically. 

Structure. Anteocular more or less regularly transversely striate laterally ; 
area between ocelli and transverse sulcus somewhat flattened, feebly transversely 
striate. Anterior pronotal lobe with a short, longitudinal and an oblique stria at 
base of collar ; lobe with a very obscure oblique sulcus subdorsally ; median depres- 
sion on both lobes moderately deep, that on posterior lobe obscurely, transversely 
striate ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe not produced, rectangular, rounded. 
Apex of scutellum narrowly rounded apically ; foveole on disc deep, with irregular 
sulci ; sides of disc somewhat obscurely striate. Hemelytra extending a little beyond 
apex of abdomen. 

Total length, (^ 16-50 mm., $ 19-00 mm., hemel5rtra, <^ ii-oo mm., $ 13-00 mm.; 
greatest pronotal width, ^ 5-00 mm., $ 6-00 mm. 

One (^ (holotype), i $ (paratype), Siam, Khao Sabap, Chantaboon, 1936, J. 
Macbeth (B.M. 1937-24). 

Tiarodes flavicans sp. n. 

(PI. 3, fig. 4) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments missing. 
Head piceous with very faint violaceous and greenish lustre ; gula and rostrum 
yellow ; base of head narrowly yellow. Thorax, except scutellum, yellow ; scutellum 
piceous. Hemelytra fuscous with faint brownish suffusion basally. Abdomen 
ventrally dark brown broadly suffused with black with metallic blue lustre ; connexi- 
val segments 3-5 and 7 with a spot basally, segment 6, pale yellow ; segment 6, 
segment 7 partly, ventrolaterally narrowly yellow. Tarsi brown ; tibiae piceous ; 
coxae, trochanters anterior and median femora yellow ; femora narrowly piceous 
with bluish lustre apically ; posterior femora brown, darker and with bluish lustre 
apically. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally coarsely, transversely striate ; area between 
ocelli and transverse sulcus obscurely transversely striate. Anterior pronotal lobe 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 8r 

obliquely striate at base of collar and with a short oblique sulcus subdorsally ; 
median depression on lobes wide and deep, particularly on posterior lobe ; transverse 
sulcus with a large and a small, deep foveole and oblique striae laterally ; postero- 
lateral angles of posterior lobe moderately strongly produced, conical ; apex of 
scutellum narrowly rounded ; discal foveole moderately deep and with a longitudinal 
carina. Hemelytra extending very little beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa 
one-quarter as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 16-50 mm.; hemelytra, 10-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 5-00 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Malacca (? Malaya), (B.M. 65-13). 

Tiarodes gracilis sp. n. 

(PL 2, fig. 20) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae dark brown ; remaining segments testac- 
eous. Head piceous with metallic blue suffusion ; gula and base yellow ; rostrum 
yellow ; segments 2 and 3 suffused with brown. Thorax, except scutellum, light red ; 
scutellum black with bluish lustre. Hemelytra fuscous with faint reddish suffusion 
basally. Segments 2-5 of abdomen mid-ventrally red ; laterally broadly piceous 
with bluish lustre ; segments 6 and 7 yellow ; pygophore piceous ; connexival 
segments 2-5 with bluish lustre ; segments 3-5 with a subquadrate yellow spot 
basally ; segment 6 yellow ; segment 7 piceous. Tarsi brown ; tibiae piceous ; 
femora light red ; anterior and median femora moderately broadly suffused with 
piceous for apical two-thirds, darker and with bluish lustre apically. 

Structure. Anteocular coarsely transversely striate laterally ; area between 
ocelli and transverse sulcus obscurely transversely sulcate and with a distinct sulcus 
between each ocellus and eye. Anterior pronotal lobe with distinct, oblique sulci 
behind lateral angles of collar and with a moderately deep sulcate depression sub- 
dorsally ; median depression on lobes moderately deep and with a very narrow 
median, longitudinal sulcus with a feebly rounded elevation at middle ; sides of 
depression on anterior lobe with a rounded flattened area basally ; transverse sulcus 
distinctly foveolate ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe feebly produced, acute ; 
apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; discal foveole moderately deep and with 
irregular, transverse sulci. Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. 
Fossula spongiosa about one-fifth as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 14-00 mm.; hemelytra, 9-40 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-20 mm. 

One (J (holotype), Borneo, H. Donckin. 

Tiarodes hageni sp. n. 

(PI- 2, fig. 3) 
Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; segments 3 and 4 testaceous. 
Head black ; gula light red ; base of head yellow ; rostrum yellow. Thorax, except 
scutellum, coral red ; scutellum piceous with violaceous lustre. Hemelytra black ; 
corium basally moderately broadly red. Abdomen brown ; segments 2 and 3 mid- 
ventrally suffused with red ; segments 6 and 7 yellow suffused with brown mid- 



82 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

ventrally ; pygophore brown ; connexival segments 3-5 with bluish lustre and small 
yeUow spot basally ; segment 6 yellow. Tarsi brown ; tibiae piceous ; coxae, 
trochanters, anterior and median femora light red, femora narrowly black apically ; 
posterior femora light red suffused with brown in apical two-thirds. 

Structure. Anteocular coarsely striate laterally ; area between ocelli and 
transverse sulcus obscurely transversely striate. Anterior pronotal lobe at base of 
collar, particularly laterally, obliquely striate ; lobe with long, somewhat obscure, 
feebly ciurved sulcus subdorsally, extending almost to median depression ; foveoles 
on transverse sulcus subcircular, deep ; median depression on lobes wide and deep, 
with a narrow sulcus and a transverse foveole within it ; posterolateral angles of 
posterior lobe feebly produced, acute ; apex of scutellum rounded ; foveole on disc 
moderately deep, ovate with a transverse sulcus medially. Hemelytra extending 
just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa about one-fifth as long as tibiae. 

Total length, (^ 14-00 mm., $ 15-00 mm.; hemelytra, ^ 9-30 mm., $ 9-70 mm.; 
greatest pronotal width, (^ 4-30 mm., $ 4-50 mm. 

One (^ (holotype), 2 $ (paratypes), N. O. Sumatra, Tanjong Morawa, Serdang, 
Dr. B. Hagen. 

Paratype in British Museum (N.H.), London, 

Tiarodes helluo sp. n. 

(PI. 3. fig. 13) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae dark brown ; segments 3 and 4 testaceous. 
Head black with faint green lustre ; gula, lower area of anteocular laterally, postocu- 
lar laterally and base of head, rostrum, testaceous. Pronotum and propleura dark 
yellow ; meso- and metapleura and sterna, piceous ; scutellum black with bluish 
lustre ; acetabula of meso- and metathorax suffused with dark yellow. Hemelytra 
black ; corium with obscure yellowish suffusion basally. Abdomen ventrally dark 
brown with metallic bluish suffusion laterally ; segments 6 and 7 with connexivum 
pale yellow. Tarsi brown ; tibiae piceous ; anterior tibiae with light brown suffusion 
on outer surface apically ; coxae, trochanters, anterior and median femora dark 
yeUow, femora with apex narrowly black with bluish lustre ; posterior femora 
dark yellow, strongly suffused with brown and with apex black with bluish lustre. 

Structure. Anteocular coarsely striate laterally ; area between ocelli and trans- 
verse sulcus somewhat obscurely vermiculately striate. Collar with obscure oblique 
sulci ; anterior pronotal lobe with a shallow, punctate oblique sulcus subdorsally ; 
median depression on lobes deep, with a very narrow longitudinal sulcus within it ; 
medially, depression deeper and with a short, longitudinal carina ; transverse sulcus 
with a moderately deep subcircular and an elliptical foveole ; posterolateral angles 
of posterior lobe not produced, broadly rounded ; apex of scutellum narrowly 
rounded ; discal foveole shallow, ill-defined. Hemelytra extending to apex of 
abdomen ; veins of corium with short, suberect setae. Fossula spongiosa a little 
more than one-third as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 17-00 mm.; hemelytra, 10-60 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 5-20 mm. 

One $ (holotype). Cochin China, Tayninh, 20.viii.1923, R. Vitalis de Salvaza. 



NEW SUBFAMILY. GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 83 

Tiarodes hilaris sp. n. 

(PI- 4, fig. 4) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; segments 3 and 4 testaceous. 
Head piceous with violaceous lustre ; gula reddish yellow ; base of head, rostrum 
yellow. Thorax, except scutellum, light red ; scutellum piceous with violaceous 
lustre. Hemelytra black ; corium moderately broadly dark red basally. Abdomen 
piceous ; connexival segments 3-5 with a transverse, quadrate yellow spot basally ; 
connexival segment 6 yellow ; connexival segment 7 piceous ; segments 3-5 ventrally 
with reddish suffusion which is somewhat obscure on segments 4 and 5 ; segments 
6 and 7 yellow ; segment 7 with piceous suffusion apically. Tarsi brown ; tibiae 
piceous ; coxae, trochanters, anterior and median femora red, broadly piceous 
with violaceous lustre apically ; posterior femora red with apical two-thirds piceous 
with violaceous lustre. 

Structure. Anteocular somewhat coarsely transversely striate ; postocular 
between transverse sulcus and ocelli with obscure, transverse, oblique and longi- 
tudinal striae. Anterior pronotal lobe with an oblique sulcus anteriorly ; collar, 
particularly at middle with distinct, short striae ; median depression between lobes 
deep ; transverse sulcus with i moderately deep foveole ; posterior lobe anteriorly 
with distinct carinulae and striations ; posterolateral angles moderately produced, 
conical, rounded ; foveole on scutellar disc wide, subcircular with transverse sulci 
within it ; apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; sides of disc with short, longitudinal 
striae. Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. 

Total length, 15-00 mm.; hemelytra, 9-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-60 mm. 

One ? (holotype), Borneo, Xantus. 

Tiarodes insulanus sp. n. 

(PL 3. fig. 14) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae dark brown ; remaining segments missing. 
Head black with metallic greenish lustre ; base of head suffused with brown ; 
segments i and 2 of rostrum yellow ; apical segment brown. Thorax metallic blue. 
Hemelytra fuscous. Abdomen yellow. Tarsi brown ; coxae brown ; trochanters, 
femora and tibiae yellow ; anterior femora moderately broadly, median and posterior 
femora narrowly apically, piceous with bluish lustre ; tibiae narrowly piceous 
basally. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally somewhat obscurely striate. Collar with 
oblique striae ; anterior pronotal lobe very obscurely depressed subdorsally ; median 
depression on lobes wide and deep, less deep on posterior lobe ; transverse sulcus 
with I moderately large and deep, i small foveole and very short transverse carinulae ; 
posterolateral angles very feebly produced, rectangular. Apex of scutellum somewhat 
broadly rounded ; discal foveole deep, subcircular, almost smooth ; lateral margins 
of disc without sulci. Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula 
spongiosa about one-quarter as long as tibiae. 



84 NEW SUBFAMILY. GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

Total length, 20-oo mm.; hemelytra, i2-io mm.; greatest pronotal width, 6-oo mm. 
One ? (holotype), Philippine Islands, Imugan, 4000 ft., Nord Luzon, leg. G. 
Bottcher (B.M. 1949-474). 

Tiarodes miles sp. n. 

(PI. 3, fig. 6) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae dark brown ; segments 3 and 4 testaceous. 
Head and thorax dark metallic blue ; head basally suffused with brown ; rostrum 
yellow, Hemelytra fuscous. Abdomen brick red ; segment 2 mid-ventrally, segment 
7 apically and genital segments suffused with black with metallic blue lustre. Tarsi 
testaceous ; coxae, trochanters, femora and tibiae brick red. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally very obscurely aciculate ; area between ocelli 
and transverse sulcus obscurely transversely striate. Anterior pronotal lobe with 
some oblique striae at base of collar and a short, deep, oblique sulcus subdorsally ; 
median depression on both lobes wide and deep, that on posterior lobe widening 
considerably posteriorly ; transverse sulcus with a large, deep, semicircular foveole 
and a very small elliptical foveole ; posterolateral angles very feebly produced, 
broadly rounded ; apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; discal foveole deep sub- 
circular and almost smooth ; lateral margins of disc with longitudinal sulci. Hem- 
elytTB. extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa about one-third 
as long as tibiae. 

Total length, i6-oo mm.; hemelytra, 1070 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 5-00 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Philippine Islands, Insel Masbate, Aroro, 11.viii.1917, leg. 
G. Bottcher (B.M. 1949-474). 

Tiarodes mjobergi sp. n. 

(H. 2, fig. 8) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments testaceous. 
Head black with greenish violaceous lustre ; gula reddish yellow ; base of head 
pale yellow ; rostrum dark yellow. Thorax, except scutellum, light red ; scutellum 
black with violaceous lustre. Hemelytra fuscous ; base of corium and clavus 
moderately broadly light red. Connexivum black with violaceous lustre ; segment 
6 and a moderately large, quadrate basal spot on segments 2-5 yellow ; abdomen 
ventrally piceous with violaceous lustre ; segments 2 and 3 narrowly mid-ventrally 
red ; segments 4 and 5 mid-ventrally suffused with red ; segment 6 laterally with a 
large spot with a narrow stripe leading from it, yellow. Tibiae and tarsi piceous ; 
coxae, trochanters, femora light red ; anterior and median femora narrowly apically, 
greater part of posterior femora basally piceous with violaceous lustre. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally somewhat obscurely transversely striate ; 
transverse sulcus minutely striate. Anterior pronotal lobe with short, oblique and 
longitudinal striae particularly near lateral angles of collar ; anterior lobe with a 
very obscure, oblique sulcus anteriorly subdorsally ; depression between lobes 
wide and deep ; transverse sulcus with a deep, subovate foveole and a smaller, 
elliptical foveole on each side of depression ; posterior lobe with a short carina 
adjacent to larger foveole ; posterolateral angles conical, short, acute ; apex of 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 85 

scutellum subacute ; discal foveole moderately large, subcircular with a transverse 
cannula within it. Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula 
spongiosa about one-quarter as long as tibiae. 

Total length, i6-oo mm.; hemelytra, 10-30 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-80 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Sarawak, Mt. Matang, E. Mjoberg. 

Tiarodes mouhoti sp. n. 

(PI. 4, fig. 6) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments missing. 
Head black with faint metallic blue lustre ; gula, lower area of anteocular immediate- 
ly in front of eyes, postocular and base of head, yellow ; rostrum yellow ; segments 
2 and 3 suffused with brown. Anterior pronotal lobe, propleural epistemum, yellow ; 
acetabula, posterior pronotal lobe, propleural epimeron, reddish yeUow } meso- 
and metapleura and sterna piceous ; scutellum black with metallic bluish lustre ; 
apex piceous. Corium fuscous, moderately widely reddish yellow basally ; membrane 
dark infumate. Abdomen piceous with metallic blue lustre ; segments 6 and 7 and 
genital segments yellow ; segment 7 dorsally apically, segment 8, piceous ; connexival 
segments 3-5 dorsally with a small, suffused yellow spot basally. Tibiae and tarsi 
piceous ; coxae, trochanters yellow with piceous suffusion ; anterior and median 
femora reddish yellow, narrowly black apically ; posterior femora brown with 
piceous suffusion. 

Structure. Anteocular coarsely striate laterally ; area between ocelli and trans- 
verse sulcus obscurely, vermiculately striate. Anterior pronotal lobe at base of 
collar strongly, longitudinally and obliquely striate ; subdorsally with an obscure 
oblique sulcus within a shallow depression ; median depression on both lobes short, 
medially very deep ; foveoles on transverse sulcus subcircular, deep ; posterolateral 
angles of posterior lobe very feebly produced, rounded ; apex of scutellum narrowly 
rounded ; foveole on disc subcircular with regular, transverse sulci ; sides of disc 
with obscure sulci. Hemelytra extending to apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa 
about one-quarter as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 17*00 mm.; hemelytra, ii-oo mm.; greatest pronotal width, 5-50 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Cambodia, Mouhot. (B.M. 65-13). 

Tiarodes nebulosus sp. n. 

(PI. 3. fig. 5) 
Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments testaceous. 
Head black with faint violaceous lustre ; gula dark yellow ; base of head very 
narrowly yellow ; rostrum yellow ; apical segment suffused with brown. Thorax, 
except scutellum, light red ; scutellum black with faint violaceous lustre. Hemelytra 
black ; corium with very faint reddish suffusion basally. Connexival segments, 
except 6, black with metallic blue lustre ; segments 3-5 with quadrate yellow spot 
basally, largest on segment 3 ; segments 2 and 3 of abdomen ventrally red suffused 
with black with violaceous lustre laterally ; segments 3 and 4 piceous ; segments 

* The actual colour of the pronotum was probably light but has been modified by the action of alcohol. 



86 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

6 and 7 yellow, piceous mid-ventrally with metallic green lustre. Tarsi light brown ; 
tibiae piceous ; anterior and median femora light red, broadly black with violaceous 
lustre apically, the basal margin of black areas suffused ; posterior femora piceous 
becoming black apically and basally narrowly suffused with red. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally somewhat coarsely transversely striate ; area 
between ocelli and transverse sulcus obscurely, vermiculately and transversely 
striate. Collar and base of lateral angles obliquely striate ; anterior lobe with distinct, 
oblique sulci subdorsally ; lobe posteriorly with a circular flattened area in front 
of large foveole on transverse sulcus ; median depression on lobes with 2 subcircular, 
moderately deep foveoles ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe moderately 
produced, conical, acute ; apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; discal foveole 
moderately deep, ovate with anterior two-thirds depressed. Hemelytra extending 
just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa about one-quarter as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 15-00 mm.; hemelytra, 10.50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-50 mm. 

, One $ (holotype), i ? (paratype), E. Borneo, 50 m. Balikpapan, Mentawei R., 

II. X. 1950, A. M. R. Wegner, i $ (paratype), Borneo, no precise locality, Schwaner, 

Paratype in British Museum (N.H.), London. 

Tiarodes obscuripennis sp. n. 

(PI. 4, fig. 12) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous; remaining segments missing. 
Head piceous ; gula castaneous ; base of head dull yellow ; rostrum testaceous. 
Pronotum, propleura red ; meso- and metapleura and sterna piceous ; scutellum 
black. Hemelytra black ; corium obscurely suffused with dull red basally. Abdomen 
picepus ; connexival segments 6 and 7 dorsally and ventrally yellow ; segments 
6 and 7 ventrolaterally yellow. Tarsi brown ; anterior and median tibiae dull red 
suffused with piceous basally ; posterior tibiae piceous ; femora red, narrowly 
black apically. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally obscurely transversely striate. Anterior pro- 
notal lobe with short, obscure striae at base of collar and an oblique straight sulcus 
subdorsally ; median depression on lobes very deep ; transverse sulcus with 2 deep, 
subcircular foveoles ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe feebly produced, 
rectangular, rounded ; apex of scutellum rounded ; disc depressed but without a 
distinct foveole ; disc laterally with feeble transverse sulci. Hemelytra extending 
just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa a little less than one-third as long 
as tibiae. 

Total length, 17-00 mm.; hemelytra, 10-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 5-00 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Malaya, Kedah, Gurun, Dec. 1915 (B.M. 1955-354). 

Tiarodes obscuripes sp. n. 

(PI. 3, fig. II) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments missing. 
Head piceous with metallic blue lustre ; gula and base yellow ; rostrum yellow. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF RfeDUVIIDAE 87 

Thorax, except scutellum, light red ; scutellum black with violaceous suffusion. 
Hemelytra fuscous ; corium basally moderately broadly light red. Abdomen 
piceous ; segment 2 mid-ventrally light red ; connexival segments 3-5 with a moder- 
ately wide, quadrate yellow spot basally ; connexival segment 6 yellow ; segment 
6 ventrolaterally suffused with yellow. Tarsi brown ; tibiae piceous ; anterior and 
median femora light red, broadly suffused with piceous apically ; posterior femora 
castaneous with narrow piceous suffusion apically. 

Structure. Anteocular distinctly transversely striate laterally ; area between 
ocelli and transverse sulcus obscurely transversely striate. Anterior pronotal lobe 
with an oblique, shallow depression subdorsally ; median depression on lobes 
moderately wide and deep and with a narrow longitudinal sulcus and a small median 
foveole within it ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe feebly produced, subacute ; 
apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; foveole on disc moderately deep, circular. 
Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa about one- 
quarter as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 15-00 mm.; hemelytra, lo-oo mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-50 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Sarawak (B.M. 65-13). 



Tiarodes propinquus sp. n. 

(PI. 2, fig. 13) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; apical segments testaceous. 
Head black with violaceous lustre ; gula dark yellow ; base of head, rostrum, light 
yellow ; apical segment of rostrum suffused with brown. Thorax, except scutellum, 
yellowish red ; scutellum black with a violaceous lustre. Hemelytra fuscous ; 
corium moderately broadly yellowish red basally. Abdomen mid-ventrally, except 
segments 6 and 7, reddish, broadly black with faint violaceous lustre laterally ; 
segments 6 and 7 yellow with brown suffusion mid-ventrally ; segment 7 laterally, 
pygophore piceous ; connexival segments 3-5 black with faint violaceous lustre and 
a quadrate yellow spot basally. Tarsi brown ; tibiae piceous ; coxae, trochanters, 
anterior and median femora light red, femora moderately broadly black apically ; 
posterior femora piceous with base narrowly light red. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally coarsely transversely striate ; area between 
ocelli and transverse sulcus regularly transversely striate. Anterior pronotal lobe 
with oblique striae behind lateral angles of collar and a very feeble oblique sulcus 
subdorsally ; median depression on lobes wide and deep, the depression on posterior 
lobe with transverse sulci ; transverse sulcus with 2 distinct, deep foveoles ; postero- 
lateral angles of posterior lobe feebly produced, conical, acute. Apex of scutellum 
rounded ; discal foveole moderately deep, large, subcircular and with transverse 
sulci apically. Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa 
about one-quarter as long as tibiae. 

Total length, i6-oo mm.; hemelytra, 10-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 5-00 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Borneo, boven Makakkom (Borneo Exped., 1894, Dr. Nieuwen- 
huis). 



88 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

Tiarodes salvazai sp. n. 

(PI- 3. fig. 2) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments testaceous. 
Head piceous with metallic green lustre ; gula, lower half of ante- and postocular 
red ; base of head yellow. Thorax, except scutellum, light red ; scutellum piceous 
with metallic blue lustre. Corium and membrane black, the former narrowly light 
red basally. Segments 1-5 of abdomen ventrally red, narrowly and irregularly 
piceous with metallic blue lustre laterally ; segments 6 and 7 and pygophore yellow ; 
connexival segments 2-5 piceous with metallic blue lustre. Tarsi testaceous ; anterior 
tibiae piceous in basal half, light red in apical half ; median tibiae light red with 
narrow piceous suffusion basally ; posterior tibiae piceous ; coxae, trochanters, 
femora light red ; femora narrowly black apically. 

Structure. Anteocular more or less regularly transversely striate. Median 
depression on anterior pronotal lobe short, deep ; on posterior lobe short and some- 
what shallow ; transverse sulcus with a large and small foveole ; posterolateral 
angles of posterior lobe not produced, subrectangular. Apex of scutellum narrowly 
rounded, declivous. Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula 
spongiosa about one-quarter as long as tibiae. 

Total length, ^ i6-oo mm., $ 17-00 mm.; hemelytra, ^ 10-50 mm., $ lo-oo mm.; 
greatest pronotal width, (^ 5-00 mm., $ 5-20 mm. 

One (^ (holotype), Indo-China, Tonkin, Hoabinh, June 1917, i (^ (paratype), 
Laos, Vientiane, 20.x. 1919, i $ (paratype), Laos, Na Hoi, 12.iii.1920, R. V. de 
Salvaza. 

Paratype in British Museum (N.H.), London. 

Tiarodes schultzei sp. n. 
(PI. 2, fig. 22) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; segments 3 and 4 testaceous. 
Head dark metallic blue, narrowly brown basally ; rostrum yellow. Thorax metallic 
blue. Hemelytra fuscous. Abdomen dark yellow ; pygophore black with faint 
bluish lustre. Legs dark yellow. 

Structure. Anteocular somewhat coarsely transversely striate. Anterior pronotal 
lobe with obscure striae at base of lateral angles of collar ; lobe with distinct, oblique, 
narrow sulcus subdorsally ; median depression on lobes wide and deep and with a 
median foveole ; transverse sulcus with a shallow, subcircular and an ovate foveole ; 
posterolateral angles of posterior lobe moderately produced, conical, acute ; apex 
of scutellum narrowly rounded ; discal foveole deep, circular, smooth. Hemelytra 
extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa about one- third as long 
as tibiae. 

Total length, ,^ 14-00 mm., $ 17-50 mm.; hemelytra, <^ lo-oo mm., $ lo-oo mm.; 
greatest pronotal width, ^ 4-50 mm., $ 5-50 mm. 

One (^ (holotype), Philippine Islands, Polillo Island, W. Schultze, i <^ (paratype), 
Mt. Balusan, 2000 ft. S. Luzon, leg. G. Bottcher, i $ (paratype), Panay Capiz, 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 89 

Jamendan, W. Schultze, i $ (paratype), Montalban, Luzon Rezal, W. Schultze, 
I $ (paratype), Nord Luzon, Los Bafios, leg. G. Bottcher (B.M. 1949-474). 

The holotype differs in a very minor degree from the paratype from Mt. Balusan, 
but the differences, in my opinion, do not justify the setting up of another new species, 

Tiarodes servus sp. n. 

(PI. 3. fig. 8) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; segments 3 and 4 testaceous. 
Head black with very faint metallic violaceous suffusion mainly on postocular ; 
gula suffused with brown ; base of head yellow ; rostrum yellow. Thorax, except 
scutellum, light red ; scutellum black with faint violaceous lustre. Hemelytra 
fuscous ; corium narrowly dark red basally. Segments 2-5 of abdomen ventrally 
brick red, broadly black with metallic greenish blue lustre laterally ; segment 6 
yellow suffused with brown mid-ventrally ; segment 7 piceous with metallic blue 
suffusion ; connexivum piceous with metallic blue suffusion ; connexival segment 6 
yellow. Tarsi brown ; anterior and median tibiae piceous broadly suffused with dull 
red apically ; posterior tibiae piceous ; coxae, trochanters and femora light red ; 
anterior and median femora narrowly, posterior femora moderately broadly black 
apically. 

Structure. Ant eocular laterally transversely striate ; postocular with vermiculate 
striae, more distinct behind ocelli and eyes laterally. Anterior pronotal lobe with 
distinct oblique striae at base of lateral angles of collar and with a moderately deep, 
short, oblique, subarcuate sulcus subdorsally ; median depression on lobes deep and 
wide and with a short, transverse, elliptical foveole medially ; transverse sulcus 
with 2 moderately deep foveoles ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe feebly 
produced, subacute ; apex of scutellum rounded ; foveole on disc ovate, deep, with 
a transverse depression near apex ; sides of disc transversely sulcate. Hemelytra 
extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa about one-quarter as 
long as tibiae. 

Total length, 17-00 mm.; hemelytra, lo-oo mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-80 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Sumatra, Forbes (B.M. 191 1-383). 

Tiarodes similis sp. n. 
(PI. 2. fig. 15) 
Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments missing. 
Head black with distinct metallic blue lustre ; gula dull red ; base of head yellowish ; 
rostrum yellow ; apical segment suffused with brown. Thorax, except scutellum, 
light red ; scutellum piceous with bluish lustre. Hemel3d;ra black with dull red 
suffusion basally ; segments 2 and 3 of abdomen ventrally red ; remaining segments 
dark brown ; segment 6 laterally and segment 8 with yellow suifusion ; connexivum 
piceous with bluish lustre ; connexival segment 6 yellow. Tarsi brown ; tibiae 
piceous ; anterior and median tibiae with faint reddish brown suffusion apically ; 
coxae, trochanters, femora light red, femora with piceous suffusion with bluish 
lustre apically. 



go NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

Structure. Anteocular laterally moderately coarsely transversely striate ; 
vertex basally with 2 small, smooth, very shallow depressions ; area between ocelli 
and transverse sulcus more or less regularly, but feebly striate. Anterior pronotal 
lobe with obscure, oblique striae anteriorly and a very shallow, oblique depression 
subdorsally ; median depression on lobes moderately wide and deep ; transverse 
sulcus with 2 not very well defined foveoles ; posterolateral angles of posterior 
lobe subrectangular, not produced ; apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; discal 
foveole moderately deep, ovate and with a transverse carinula subapically. Hem- 
elytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa about one-quarter 
as long as tibiae. 

Total length, 14-50 mm.; hemelytra, 9-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-30 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Feb. 1940, N. C. E. Miller (B.M. 1947- 
269). 

Tiarodes titnorensis sp. n. 

(PI. 3, fig. 10) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; remaining segments missing. 
Head dull black with metallic blue lustre ; gula and base of head brownish ; rostrum 
piceous. Pronotum, propleura light red ; scutellum, meso- and metapleura black 
with violaceous lustre ; acetabula light red. Corium and base of clavus narrowly 
light red ; remainder of clavus, membrane fuscous. Abdomen light red ; segment 7 
ventrally, connexival segment 7 and genital segments piceous. Tibiae and tarsi 
black ; coxae, trochanters, femora light red ; femora narrowly black apically. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally vermiculately striate ; postocular obscurely 
and irregularly striate and with a narrow sulcus between each ocellus and eye. 
Depression on anterior and posterior pronotal lobes shallow and with a very narrow 
median longitudinal sulcus ; foveoles on transverse sulcus deep ; posterolateral 
angles of posterior lobe very feebly produced, rounded ; scutellum apically rounded 
and somewhat curved downwards ; disc laterally with deep, transverse sulci ; 
foveole on disc moderately deep and with irregular sulci. Hemelytra extending just 
beyond apex of abdomen ; corium with sparse, short, suberect setae. Femora 
with wide, smooth, shallow, parallel-sided sulcus on lower surface ; fossula spongiosa 
about one-quarter the length of tibiae. 

Total length, 19-00 mm.; hemelytra, 12-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 5-00 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Timor, Doherty (B.M. 191 1-383). 

Tiarodes varipennis sp. n. 

(PI. 2, fig. 24) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; segments 3 and 4 testaceous. 
Head piceous with metallic blue lustre ; base of head yellow ; gula reddish brown ; 
rostrum light red. Thorax, except scutellum, light red ; scutellum reddish brown 
with bluish lustre. Corium light red, broadly suffused with black apically ; clavus, 
except base narrowly, greater part of area between claval suture and Cu, base of 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 91 

anal area of membrane, base of internal cell of membrane, dull yellow ; membrane 
infumate. Segments 2-5 of abdomen ventrally light red with piceous suffusion on 
segments 3-5 laterally ; segment 6, greater part of segment 7 basally yellow ; re- 
mainder of segment 7, connexivum of segment 7, pygophore, piceous ; connexivum 
of remaining segments red, strongly suffused with piceous. Coxae, trochanters, 
femora and tibiae light red ; tarsi testaceous. 

Structure. Anteocular moderately coarsely transversely striate ; postocular 
regularly striate between ocelli and transverse sulcus. Anterior pronotal lobe with 
deep, short, arcuate sulci immediately behind collar laterally and a subarcuate, 
moderately deep sulcus subdorsally ; median sulcus on both lobes wide and deep, 
extending for about two-thirds of length of lobes ; foveoles on transverse sulcus 
deep ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe not produced, rectangular, rounded ; 
apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; foveole on disc deep, subtriangular, almost 
smooth. Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. Fossula spongiosa 
one-fifth the length of tibiae. 

Total length, 13-50 mm.; hemelytra, 9-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-00 mm. 

One (^ (holotype), Sumatra, Sibolangit, Lortling. 



Tiarodes vexillarius sp. n. 

(PI. 4. fig. 2) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; segments 3 and 4 testaceous. 
Head piceous with faint metallic green lustre ; gula, base of head, rostrum, yellow. 
Thorax, except scutellum, light red ; scutellum piceous with violaceous lustre. 
Corium black with external area fuscous and base moderately broadly reddish 
yellow. Abdomen piceous ; connexival segments 3, 4 and 5 with a moderately 
large, quadrate spot basally pale yellow ; connexival segment 6 pale yellow with 
inner margin suffused with piceous ; connexival segment 7 piceous ; segments 
2 and 3 of abdomen ventrally almost entirely suffused with red ; segment 6 with a 
triangular spot laterally, segment 7 with faint suffusion, pale yellow. Tarsi brown ; 
tibiae piceous ; coxae, trochanters, anterior and median femora light red, moderately 
broadly piceous with faint bluish or greenish lustre apically ; posterior femora 
light red broadly suffused with piceous with bluish lustre apically. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally somewhat coarsely, regularly transversely 
striate ; transverse sulcus with very short, longitudinal striae ; area between sulcus 
and ocelli obscurely striate ; postocular from ocelli to eyes laterally with a narrow 
sulcus. Anterior pronotal lobe with a moderately deep, oblique sulcus and depression 
anteriorly ; median depression between lobes deep and with a somewhat obscure 
median foveole ; transverse sulcus with i large and i small foveole ; posterolateral 
angles moderately produced, subacute ; apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; 
scutellar foveole broad, oval. Hemelytra extending to apex of abdomen. 

Total length i6-oo mm.; hemelytra, lo-oo mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-90 mm. 

One $ (holotj^e), i $ (paratype), Borneo, Xantus. 

Paratype in British Museum (N.H.), London. 



92 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

Tiarodes vilis sp. n. 

(PL 3. fig. i6) 

Colour. Segments i and 2 of antennae piceous ; segments 3 and 4 testaceous. 
Head black with a metallic green lustre ; gula, part of lower area of anteocular, 
post ocular, reddish yellow ; base of head yellow ; rostrum testaceous. Pronotum, 
propleura, light red ; meso- and metapleura and sterna piceous with violaceous 
lustre ; acetabula light red ; scutellum piceous or black with violaceous lustre. 
Hemel5rtra fuscous ; base of corium moderately broadly dull red. Abdomen ventrally 
castaneous, broadly suffused with piceous laterally ; segments 6 and 7 and pygophore 
yellow ; connexivum black with very faint metallic green lustre ; segments 3-5 
with a quadrate yellow spot basally. Tarsi brown ; tibiae piceous ; anterior and 
median tibiae suffused with red apically ; coxae, trochanters and femora light 
red ; anterior and median femora narrowly apically, posterior femora broadly 
apically suffused with black with a metallic green lustre. 

Structure. Anteocular somewhat coarsely transversely striate laterally ; area 
between ocelli and transverse sulcus obscurely transversely striate. Anterior pro- 
notal lobe with oblique striae, particularly laterally at base of collar ; lobe with a 
very obscure, oblique, narrow sulcus subdorsally ; median depression on lobes wide 
and deep and with a transverse median foveole ; transverse sulcus with 2 deep, 
subcircular foveoles ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe very feebly produced, 
acute ; apex of scutellum narrowly rounded ; foveole on disc moderately deep, 
with a transverse sulcus. Hemelytra extending just beyond apex of abdomen. 
Fossula spongiosa about one-quarter as long as tibiae. 

Total length, i6-oo mm.; hemelytra, 11 -oo mm,; greatest pronotal width, 5-00 mm. 

One c^ (holotype), Indo-China, Luang Prabang, Nuong You, 29.xi.1918, R. V. de 
Salvaza. 

Tiarodes luzonicus sp. n* 

(PI. 4, fig. 16) 

Colour. Basal segment and segments 3 and 4 of antennae testaceous ; segment 
2 brown. Head, pronotum, scutellum, pleura, prosternum, scarlet ; rostrum reddish 
yellow ; meso- and metapleura and sterna piceous ; mesosternal epimeron and 
acetabula, metapleural acetabula reddish ; mesosternum suffused with red anteriorly. 
Hemelytra black ; corium with base narrowly suffused with crimson and a little 
more than half apically crimson. Abdomen with segments 2-5 crimson ; remaining 
segments black. Tarsi reddish yellow ; coxae, trochanters, femora and tibiae light 
red. 

Structure. Anteocular laterally smooth with obscure striae on upper margin 
and more distinct, vermiculate striae on lower margins laterally. Anterior pronotal 
lobe very obscurely striate anteriorly and with a moderately distinct, short, oblique 
sulcus subdorsally ; median depression between lobes moderately wide and deep, 
becoming shallower on posterior lobe, with a very narrow median, longitudinal 
sulcus and a short, transverse, wider sulcus medially ; transverse sulcus between 



NEW SUBFAMILY. GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE ^3 

lobes with a large, subcircular foveole, a much smaller, ovate foveole and a short, 
shallow, oblique depression ; posterolateral angles of posterior lobe short, conical, 
acute, directed backwards. Hemelytra extending a little beyond apex of abdomen. 
Fossula spongiosa about one-quarter as long as tibia. 

Total length, 15-50 mm.; hemelytra, 10-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 4-50 mm. 

One (J (holotype), 2 (^ (paratypes), Philippine Islands, Balbulan, N. Luzon, 
4000 it.,1 ^ (paratype), Imugan, N. Luzon, 4000 ft., leg. G. Bottcher (B.M. 1949-474). 

One paratype in Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm. 

This new species does not differ very greatly from Tiarodes cruentus Stal and it 
was with some hesitation that I decided to consider it a distinct species. The principal 
differences are, the relatively longer basal and second antennal segments, the former 
extending to the apex of the head, the relatively longer head, much thicker lateral 
angles of collar, less deep transverse sulcus on head and larger ocelli, larger foveoles 
on transverse sulcus. The coloration is different in that the hemelytra are black, 
not fuscous and the base of the corium is very narrowly suffused with red. 

PiRATINAE 

The genus CATAMIARUS^ Amyot & Serville 

The genus Catamiarus was established by Amyot & Serville (1843, Hist. nat. Ins. 
Hemipt., p. 323) for the species brevipennis which had been assigned to the genus 
Pirates {Peirates) by Serville (1831, Ann. scien. nat., p. 3). 

The generic diagnosis and description of the species brevipennis given by Amyot 
& Serville (loc. cit.), are not adequate. Distant (1904, Fauna Brit. India, Rhyn. 
2 : 302-303) also gives a description and figures of C. brevipennis. Since neither of 
these is satisfactory I redescribe and figure the species. 

In 1877, Distant {Entom. Month. Mag. 14 : 134) described a new species — nyassae — 
which he placed in Catamiarus. Since this was incorrect and there is no other 
known genus appropriate for its reception, I propose a new genus — Pteromalestes.^ 

Nothing apparently is known about the habits of C. brevipennis. A reference to 
Pteromalestes nyassae (under Catamiarus) is given in Notes on the Biology of the 
Reduviidae of Southern Rhodesia (Miller, 1953, Trans, zoo. Soc. Lond. 28, pt. VI : 
590-591). 

Catamiarus Amyot & Serville 

Basal segment of antennae shorter than anteocular ; antennophores nearer to 
eyes than to apex of head ; anteocular longer than postocular ; transverse sulcus 
arcuate ; vertex with a short, median, longitudinal sulcus ; ocelli relatively large, 
widely separated ; interocellar area sulcate, basal segment of rostrum shorter than 
segment 2, somewhat compressed laterally. Anterior lobe of pronotum longer than 
posterior lobe ; lateral angles of collar produced ; lobe abundantly tuberculate ; 
posterior lobe strongly rugose, tuberculate ; propleura tuberculate ; meso- and meta- 

^ XOLTa. = very, /iiapot; = bad. 

* nx'i^Oifia = feathered, Ajjott/c = thief. 



k 



94 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

pleura granulose ; scutellum as wide as long, produced apically ; hemelytra variable 
in length. Fossula spongiosa on anterior and median tibiae ; coxae tuberculate 
anteriorly ; femora with low, setigerous tubercles on lower surface. 

Catatniarus brevipennis (Serv.) 
(Text-figs. 28-35) 

Colour. Basal segment of antennae piceous ; remaining segments brown. Head 
and thorax black ; abdomen and legs piceous. Corium fuscous with a large yellow 
discal circular spot ; membrane yellow in basal half, fuscous in remainder ; anal 
margin with a very narrow, yellow stripe. 

Structure. Basal segment of antennae feebly curved, about two-thirds as long as 
segment 2. Ocellar interspace one and a third wider than an ocellus. Tubercles on 
anterior pronotal lobe of various sizes, mostly subcircular and ovate, flattened. 
Scutellar spine horizontal, rounded apically. Fossula spongiosa on anterior and 
median tibiae half as long as tibia. 

Total length, ^ 20-24-00 mm., $ 27-00 mm.; hemelytra, ,^ 6-50-10-50 mm., 
$ 10-20-10-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, <^ 8-00 mm., $ 8-00 mm. 

S. India, i J, i $, Madras, Major Sale, i ,$, Madras (B.M. 1911-383), i ^, Madras, 
W. Elliott, I S, Cutch (B.M. 1911-383), 2 c^, Hardwar (B.M. 1911-383), i ?, Kachh, 
I cJ, I $, Dohnavur, Tinevelly dist. 350 ft., 30.x. 1938, i.x.1938 (B.M. Colombo 
Mus. Exped. Sept-Oct. 1938), i ?, Kolpatti, Tinevelly, 21.X.1913 (B.M. 1930-599). 

Ovum (text-fig. 36). Subampulliform. Chorion glabrous with filaments curved 
inwards apically on apical margin ; operculum (text-figs. 37-38) concave with a 
cylindrical elevation constricted medially on upper surface ; margin with filaments 
curving inwards apically. Chorion apparently dark yellow ; filaments and operculum 
whitish, 3-50 mm. (dissected). 

Fourth Instar Neanide (Text-fig. 39) 

Colour. Head and thorax black. Antennae and legs piceous. Intersegmental 
areas between nota and pleura, segment i of abdomen, testaceous ; connexival 
segments dorsally testaceous or yellowish, narrowly shining black apically and 
laterally ; ventrally broadly shining black apically ; segments 2-7 of abdomen 
dorsally fuscous with 2 small shining black depressions on each segment ; segment 
8 shining black, laterally testaceous infumate ; segment 9 shining black ; abdomen 
ventrally testaceous infumate with a shining black, shallow depression adjacent to 
spiracles. Mesosternum black with a wide, median whitish stripe ; metasternum 
almost entirely testaceous. 

Structure. Vertex with a few shining granules. Stridulatory furrow and fossula 
spongiosa developed ; ostioles of dorsal abdominal glands at base of segments 
4, 5 and 6. Anterior coxae anteriorly and lower inner surface of anterior femora with 
low, setigerous tubercles. Rudimentary hemelytra extending just beyond base of 
first abdominal segment. 

Total length, 15-00 mm. 

S. India, Bangalore (B.M. 1900-63). 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 95 




Figs. 28-35. Catamiarus brevipennis (Serville). (28) Head and pronotum, dorsal view. 
29. Idem, lateral view. (30) Hemelytron. (31) Metathoracic wing. (32) Apical process 
of pygophore, terminal view. (33) Idem, lateral view. (34) Right harpago. (35) Left 
harpago. 

ENTOM. 8, 2. 5 



L 



96 NEW SUBFAMILY. GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 




Figs. 36-40. Catamiarus hrevipennis (Serville). (36) Ovum. (37) Operculum, lateral 
view (some filamentous processes removed). (38) Idem, lateral view. (39) Fourth instar 
neanide. (40) Fifth instar neanide. .... 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SiPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE gj 

Fifth Instar Neanide (Text-fig. 40) 

Colour. Similar to fourth instar. Differs in having the thorax and rudimentary 
hemelytra dark brown, the tubercles black, the metanotum entirely black and 
granular, the abdomen ventrally testaceous with a broad, lateral infumate suffusion, 
segments 7 and 8 with a transverse, smooth, shining brown area, segments i and 2 
dorsally and connexival segments pale yellow, connexival segments with apical 
half dark brown and with a dense clothing of pale yellow, recumbent setae. 

Structure. The principal differences from the fourth instar neanide are, the 
tubercles on the pronotum are relatively fewer and more widely spaced and the 
rudimentary hemelytra extend to the middle of the second abdominal segment. 

Total length, 20-00 mm. 

S. India, Mysore, H. K. Slater (B.M. 1901-182-), S. India, Bangalore (B.M. 1903- 
63). 

Catamiarus championi sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 41-48) 

Colour. Antennae missing. Head, body and legs black ; harpagones piceous. 
Corium black ; area between claval suture and Cu with a large, pale yellow spot with 
marginal fuscous suffusion ; membrane fuscous, becoming dark infumate apically 
and with a wide, transverse stripe and a narrow stripe on anal margin, pale yellow. 

Structure. Closely resembles Catamiarus brevipennis, but differs in the shape of 
the anterior pronotal lobe which, posteriorly, is relatively wider, in the shape of the 
venation of the membrane and in the shape of the harpagones and of the apical 
process of the pygophore. The yellow spot and transverse stripe on the: membrane 
are paler. The hemelytra extend to the apex of the abdomen and the humeral 
angles are rectangular with the angle rounded. 

Total length, 21-50 nrun.; hemelytra, 13-00 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 7-50 mm. 

One (^ (holotype), India, Haldwani dist. Kumaon, H. G. Champion (B.M. 1927- 
409). 

PTEROMALESTES gen. nov. 

Basal segment of antennae shorter than anteocular. Head shorter than pronotum ; 
anteocular longer than postocular, the latter abruptly narrowed to neck ; antenno- 
phores nearer to eyes than to apex of head ; transverse sulcus angulate ; vertex 
medially, longitudinally sulcate basally ; ocelli moderately widely separated, not 
elevated ; basal segment of rostrum shorter than segment 2 and somewhat laterally 
compressed. Anterior pronotal lobe laterally carinate, longer than posterior lobe, 
with a median, longitudinal sulcus for three-quarters of basal length, with obsolescent, 
flattened carinae and some punctures between carinae ; lateral angles of collar 
rounded ; posterior lobe coarsely rugose ; scutellum as long as wide with apex 
produced ; prosternum acutely produced posteriorly ; propleura smooth ; propleural 
acetabula, meso- and metapleura finely shagreened ; mesosternum with a median, 
longitudinal carina. Abdomen smooth, feebly striate ventrolaterally. Hemelytra 
not extending to apex of abdomen ; base of internal cell of membrane wider than 



98 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 




Figs. 41-48. Catamiarus championi sp. n. (41) Head and pronotum, dorsal view. (42) 
Idem, lateral view. (43) Hemelytron. (44) Metathoracic wing. (45) Apical process of 
pygophore, terminal view. (46) Idem, lateral view. (47) Right harpago. (48) Left 
harpago. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 99 

base of external cell ; internal cell with veins parallel and a little more than half 
as long as external cell. Anterior coxae long, flattened on outer surface ; anterior 
femora somewhat incrassate ; fossula spongiosa on anterior and median tibiae. 
Head, anterior lobe of pronotum, sterna, pleura, corium abdomen ventrally, connexi- 
val segments and segment 8 dorsally, legs, except outer surface of anterior coxae 
with adpressed, silvery, sericeous setae and suberect simple setae ; posterior pronotal 
lobe, scutellum with abundant, somewhat coarse suberect setae. 
Type species, Pteromalestes nyassae (Distant). Text-figs. 49-56. 

Pterotnalestes nyassae (Distant) 

Colour. Piceous. Posterior pronotal lobe castaneous. Basal segment of antennae 
piceous ; remaining segments reddish brown. Hemelytra fuscous, basally suffused 
with castaneous ; membrane dark infumate. 

Structure. Basal antennal segment somewhat curved a little more than half 
as long as segment 2. Ocellar interspace equal to space between an ocellus and an 
eye. Scutellar spine horizontal, thick, rounded apically. Hemelytra extending to 
apex of eighth abdominal segment. Fossula spongiosa on anterior tibiae more than 
half as long, on median tibiae half as long as tibia. 

Total length, ^J 14-00 nmi., $ i8-oo mm.; hemelytra, ^ lo-oo mm., $ 11-50 mm,; 
greatest pronotal width, ^ 4-50 mm., $ 5-00 nmi. 

One $ (holotype), Nyasaland (no precise locality), Symons (B.M. 191 1-383), 
I (J, Uganda, plains NE, of Lake Edward, 3200 ft., 15-16. x.1911, S. A. Neave 
(B.M. 1912-193), I c^, Kenya, Kisumu, i.1919, T. J, Anderson (B,M, 1921-50), 

1 $, S. Rhodesia, Odzi dist, 11. ii. 1949, N. C. E. Miller. 

Pteromalestes differs from Catamiarus in having abundant adpressed pubescence 
on head, body and legs, the anterior pronotal lobe obscurely carinate and punctate, 
not tuberculate, the base of the internal cell of the membrane subequal in width 
and not more than twice as wide as base of internal cell. It differs also in the some- 
what narrow habitus in the relatively longer fossula spongiosa on the anterior 
tibiae and in not having setigerous tubercles on the lower surface of the anterior 
femora. 

Subfamily Ectrichodiinae 
COLASTOCORIS gen. nov.i 

Size. Small. Antennae with 6 segments ; basal segment as long as head ; segment 

2 subequal in length to basal segment. Head shorter than pronotum ; vertex wider 
than an eye ; ocelli moderately large, elevated, not very widely separated ; trans- 
verse sulcus behind eyes ; basal segment of rostrum shorter than segment 2. Anterior 
pronotal lobe shorter than posterior lobe, transverse, medially longitudinally sulcate 
throughout ; lateral angles of collar not produced ; posterior lobe medially and later- 
ally sulcate, the sulci foveolate ; transverse sulcus foveolate ; anterior margin of 
mesopleura carinate and foveolate ; scutellum with 2 widely separated apical 
spines ; mesosternum medially longitudinally sulcate ; metasternum broadly, 

^ KoAaoTqc = a chastiser, Kopig = a bug. 




Figs. 49-56. Pteromalestes nyassae (Distant), gen. nov. (49) Head and pronotum, dorsal 
view. (50) Idem, lateral view. (51) Hemelytron. (52) Metathoracic wing. (53) Apical 
process of pygophore. terminal view. (54) Idem, lateral view. (55) Right harpago. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE loi 

shallowly depressed. Hemelytra extending to apex of abdomen:; costal area of 
coriium only coriaceous. Abdomen with connexival segments 2-4 and mid-ventraUy 
longitudinally sulcate ; all segments intersegmentally carinulate. Anterior femora 
moderately incrassate ; anterior tibiae moderately incrassate apically ; anterior and 
median tibiae with a fossula spongiosa. 

Type species, Colastocoris laetus sp. n. Text-figs. 57-59. 




Figs. 



57-59. Colastocoris laetus gen. nov., sp. n. (57) Whole insect, dorsal view. (58) 
Head, pronotum, scutellum and mesopleuron, lateral view. (59) harpago. 



Colastocoris laetus sp. n. 

Colour. Segments 1-5 of antennae piceous ; segment 5 apically, segment 6, 
pale yellow. Head and rostrum light brown. Anterior pronotal lobe, pleura, except 
propleural epimeron, meso- and metapleura and sterna, scutellum, piceous ; posterior 
pronotal lobe, propleural epimeron, light red. Hemelytra fuscous ; non-coriaceous 
areas of corium infumate. Abdomen dark yellow ; connexival segment 2 black ; 
other connexival segments with suffused piceous spot basally ; ventrolaterally with 
suffusion, greater part of segment 7, pygophore, piceous. Legs brown ; femora 
somewhat paler basally ; posterior tibiae with a pale testaceous annulation basally. 

Structure. Antennae with moderately long setae. Vertex about twice as wide 
as an eye ; ocellar interspace a little wider than an ocellus. Median sulcus on anterior 
pronotal lobe feeble ; disc of scutellum deeply excavate. Fossula spongiosa very 
short. 



102 NEW SUBFAMILY. GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

Total length, 8-60 mm.; hemelytra, 5-40 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 2-50 mm. 

One ^ (holotype), Solomon Islands, Bougainville, 10.vii.1922, E. A. Armytage 
(B.M. 1947-284), I (^, Kieta, 9.x. 1937, J. L. Froggatt (B.M. 1948-548), i <^, Short- 
land Islands, Lofung, 25 . x . 1936, R, A. Lever. 

Allied possibly to Caloundranius Miller, 1957, Bull. Brit. Mus. 5, 2 : 65-66, from 
which it differs in the somewhat less robust habitus, relatively narrower head, less 
widely separated scutellar spines, relatively wider base of external membranal cell 
and in structure of sterna. 

Subfamily Apiomerinae 

The subfamily Apiomerinae, established by Stal in 1859, contains, as constituted 
at present, fifteen genera, eleven of which are distributed in the Neotropical Region, 
one in the Nearctic Region and three in the Ethiopian Region. They appear to possess 
one characteristic in common, namely the faculty of utilizing exudations or resins 
from various trees to assist in the capture of prey. They smear the anterior tibiae 
with the resin in which small insects, if they come into contact with it, become 
entangled. It has not been fully established if this faculty is possessed by all genera. 

Very little is known about the habitats of the Apiomerinae, but, apparently those 
inhabiting the Neotropical Region and Nearctic Region frequent mainly foliage and 
those found in the Ethiopian Region live among leaf-debris or under the bark of 
dead trees. 

Morphologically some similarities exist. For example, representatives of the 
Neotropical genera have the apex of the anterior tibiae sulcate, the sulcus receiving 
the tarsus when not in use. The tarsus, in this case, is reduced in size. The median 
tibiae in some genera are also sulcate, but the tarsi are not noticeably reduced. 

A striking feature in certain species of Apiomerus is the foliaceous expansion 
which arises from each side of the apical margin of the eighth abdominal segment 
in females. 

In one of the Ethiopian genera {Cleontes), the anterior tarsi are absent. In the other 
genera {Diaspidius, Rodhainiella) , they are reduced in size and when not in use, lie 
in a sulcus on the tibia. 

There are, however, significant differences in morphology between the Neotropical 
and Ethiopian genera. They may be summarized as follows : 



Neotropical genera 

Ocelli widely separated and feebly elevated ; 

directed more or less outwards 
Rostrum extending beyond anterior margin of 

prosternum 
Stridulatory furrow present 
Discal cell of corium relatively small 
Seventh abdominal segment in males normal 

Posterior pronotal lobe not produced posteri- 
orly ; scutellum not concealed 
Head, body and legs usually strongly setose 



Ethiopian genera 

Ocelli widely separated ; strongly elevated ; 

directed outwards. 
Rostrum not extending beyond anterior 

margin of prosternum. 
Stridulatory furrow absent. 
Discal cell of corium relatively large. 
Seventh abdominal segment in males strongly 

expanded. 
Posterior pronotal lobe strongly produced 

posteriorly ; scutellum concealed. 
Head and legs only setose. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 103 

These differences, in my opinion, are such as to warrant the removal of the 
Ethiopian genera from the Apiomerinae. There is no other subfamily into which 
they can correctly be placed, therefore I propose a new subfamily, Diaspidiinae. 
for their reception. 

Diaspidiinae, subfam. nov. 

Macropterous. Head and legs setose. Rostrum thick, straight, extending to anterior 
margin of presternum ; basal segment very short. Ocelli lateral, elevated. Anterior 
pronotal lobe much shorter than posterior lobe, the latter strongly produced posteri- 
orly and concealing the scutellum. Connexivum expanded, simple or undulate. 
Discal cell of corium large. Legs moderately thick ; anterior tarsi reduced or absent ; 
when present rest in a sulcus at apex of tibia. 

The three genera which the new subfamily contains may be separated by the fol- 
lowing key : 

1. Anterior tarsi absent . . . . . . , . Cleontes Stkl, 1874 

- Anterior tarsi present ........... 2 

2. Vertex twice as wide as an eye ; basal antennal segment shorter than head 

Rodhainiella Schout., 19 13 

- Vertex subequal in width to an eye ; basal antennal segment as long or longer than 

head .......... Diaspidius Westw., 1857 

Field observations on some of the genera have revealed instances of the use of a 
resin or some such exudation from trees. This substance is applied to the anterior 
tibiae for the purpose of catching other insects for food. This method is also employed 
by members of the Oriental subfamily Ectinoderiinae. 

Subfamily Rhaphidosominae 
HARRISOCORIS gen. nov. 

Size. Small. Elongate. Antennae missing. Head shorter than pronotum ; anten- 
nophores nearer to apex of head than to eyes and with a spine basally ; anteocular 
shorter than postocular, both with setigerous tubercles ; vertex wider than an eye ; 
ocelli small, lateral, widely separated ; basal segment of rostrum thicker than seg- 
ment 2 and somewhat shorter, extending to middle of eyes. Pronotum longer than 
wide ; anterior lobe shorter than posterior lobe with a median, longitudinal sulcus 
basally ; transverse sulcus interrupted medially ; posterior lobe with indications 
of longitudinal carinae and with humeral angles tuberculate ; both lobes with 
setigerous tubercles ; posterior margin of posterior lobe deeply excised ; scutellum 
longer than wide with apex produced. Hemelytra not extending to apex of abdomen ; 
base of membranal cells subequal in width. Abdomen with sides parallel ; external 
apical angle of seventh connexival segment produced. Anterior femora moderately 
incrassate ; median and posterior femora, all tibiae slender, the former with apex 
somewhat incrassate ; femora with setigerous tubercles. Head, body, legs, corium 
with dense, minute flattened and spatulate setae. 

Type species, Harrisocoris africanus sp. n. Text-figs. 60-64. 



I04 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

Harrisocoris africanus sp. n. 

Colour. Light brown ; connexival segments with a suffused black spot apically. 
Setae pale fulvous ; setae on abdomen ventrally white. 

Structure. Vertex three times as wide as an eye ; ocellar interspace equal in 
width to vertex. Produced apex of scutellum acute, horizontal. Seventh abdominal 
segment with tubercles near apical margin. 




Figs. 60-64. Harrisocoris africanus gen. nov. sp. n. (60) Head pronotum and scutellum, 
dorsal view. (61) Head and pronotum lateral view, (62) Anterior leg. (63) Hemelytron. 
(64) Apex of abdomen lateral view. 



Total length, 12-50 mm.; hemelytra, 7-20 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 1-50 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Tanganyika, Morogoro, 24. iv. 1930, W. V. Harris (on cotton) 
(B.M. 1950-96). 

Allied to Lopodytes Stal, 1853, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 10, p. 263, from which it differs 
in having the head relatively less elongate, the postocular more globose, the ante- 
and postocular with setigerous tubercles, the antennophores with a spine, the tylus 
with setigerous tubercles, the anterior pronotal lobe much shorter than the posterior 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 105 

lobe, both lobes with setigerous tubercles, the posterior lobe with humeral angles 
tuberculate, the posterior margin strongly excised, the cells of the membrane of 
approximately the same size and the femora with setigerous tubercles. 

Subfamily Harpactorinae 
THEREUTOCORIS gen. nov.i 

Size. Moderate. Smooth. Antennae longer than head, body and hemelytra 
together. Antennophores equidistant between eyes and apex of head ; basal segment 
of rostrum shorter than segment 2, extending to anterior margin of eyes ; head longer 
than pronotum ; eyes prominent, shorter than height of head ; vertex subequal in 
width to an eye ; anteocular shorter than postocular ; ocelH small, widely separated. 
Anterior pronotal lobe shorter than posterior lobe with a median, longitudinal 
sulcus basally ; posterior lobe widely shallowly depressed medially ; posterolateral 
angles not produced. Scutellum longer than wide with apex produced ; disc feebly 
depressed. Hemelytra extending beyond apex of abdomen ; discal cell of corium 
longer than wide ; base of external cell of membrane narrower than base of internal 
cell. Abdomen feebly constricted basally. Legs slender ; femora feebly incrassate 
and constricted apically. 

Type species, Thereuiocoris amoenus sp. n. Text-figs. 65-68. 

Thereutocoris amoenus sp. n. 

Colour. Ant^nae black ; basal segment with 2, segment 2 with i wide, pale 
yellow annulations. Head black, except base pale reddish yellow. Thorax reddish 
yellow ; posterior pronotal lobe with a large black spot on humeral angles ; apex 
of scutellum white. Corium reddish yellow, broadly black basally, except extreme 
base ; apex suffused with piceous ; membrane dark violaceous infumate in basal 
half ; remainder pale yellow. Abdomen with segments 2-5 reddish and remainder 
black ; connexival segments 5-7 with a pale yellowish, spot. Coxae, trochanters, 
femora reddish yellow ; femora with apex black, a wide subapical pale yellow 
annulation and a suffused blackish annulation medially ; tibiae and tarsi black, 
the former with 2 wide, pale yellow annulations. 

Structure. Segment 2 of antennae a little less than half as long as basal segment ; 
segments 3 and 4 together somewhat longer than basal segment. Segments 2 and 3 
of rostrum together about twice as long as basal segment. Sulcus on anterior pro- 
notal lobe very narrow and within a very shallow depression. Produced portion of 
scutellum horizontal, rounded apically and with a semicircular sulcus subapically. 
Discal cell of corium about three times longer than wide. 

Total length, (^ 13-00 mm., $ 15-00 mm.; hemelytra, (^ 10-00 mm., $ 11-50 mm.; 
greatest pronotal width, (^ 2-80 mm., $ 3-00 mm. 

One cJ (holotj^e), Solomon Islands, Guadalcanal, Gold Ridge, 20.iii.1955, i ? 
(paratype), Guadalcanal, Tinakula River, 19.iii.1955, i $ (paratype), Guadalcanal, 

1 drjpexrrrjQ = hunter, Kopis — bug. 



io6 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

Sutakiki River, 23. vi. 1956, E. S. Brown, i $, Guadalcanal, 5000 ft., xii.1934, 
C. Bird [per R. A. Lever), B.M. 1948-548). 

Black humeral spots are absent from the $ from Tinakula River. 




Figs. 65-68. Thereutocoris amoenus gen. nov., sp. n. (65) Whole insect, dorsal view. 
(66) Head and pronotum, lateral view. (67) Apex of pygophore, lateral view. (68) 
Ovum. 



Ovum. (Text-fig. 68). Cylindrical, feebly curved towards opercular end ; dif- 
ferentiated portion of chorion moderately long ; chorion smooth, shining, yellow ; 
differentiated portion white, 2-00 mm. (dissected). This is a relatively large ovum. 

Allied to Euagoras Burmeister, 1835, Handbuch, 2, p. 226 {pro parte). 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 107 

Differs in the relative lengths of the head and rostral segments, structure of the 
scutellum and venation of the hemelytra. 

PROTENTHOCORIS gen. nov.i 

Size. Small. Basal antennal segment longer than head, pronotum and scutellum 
together ; segment 2 a little more than half as long as basal segment ; segment 3 
half as long as basal segment ; segment 4 two-thirds as long as 3, Head shorter than 
pronotum ; antennophores projecting beyond apex of head with a spine at base ; 
anteocular shorter than postocular, more or less vertical apically ; postocular 
tuberculate laterally ; juga produced anteriorly ; ocelli widely separated ; vertex 
wider than an eye ; basal segment of rostrum moderately thick, as long as remaining 
segments together, extending beyond posterior margins of eyes. Pronotum as 
long as wide ; anterior lobe shorter than posterior lobe with tubercles laterally and 
on collar laterally ; lateral angles of collar not produced. Scutellum longer than 
wide ; disc not excavate or foveolate ; presternum medially produced. Hemelytra 
extending beyond apex of abdomen ; base of external cell of membrane wider 
than base of internal cell. Anterior femora moderately incrassate ; anterior tibiae, 
median and posterior legs slender. Pleura with area with dense, tomentose pubes- 
cence. 

Type species, Protenthocoris sedulus sp. n. Text-figs. 69-73. 

Protenthocoris sedulus sp. n. 

Colour. Antennae and legs pale stramineous ; basal antennal segment with 
feeble reddish suffusion basally. Head and pronotum, scutellum, upper area of 
propleura testaceous. Rostrum, gula, remainder of propleura, meso- and metapleura 
pale stramineous. Corium subhyaline, almost colourless with faint reddish suffusion 
apically ; clavus, area between claval suture and Cu, membrane hyaline, almost 
colourless. Abdomen dorsally yellow ; connexival segments 4-6 with a large blackish 
spot basally ; abdomen ventrally whitish. 

Structure. Ocellar interspace twice as wide as space between an ocellus and an 
eye. Tubercles on postocular, lateral angles of collar, and on anterior pronotal lobe 
laterally very short, rounded. Anterior pronotal lobe smooth ; posterior lobe rugose 
punctate ; humeral angles obtusely conical ; produced part of presternum very 
short, conical. 

Total length, ^ lo-oo mm., $ 11-50 mm.; hemelytra, ^ 7-00 mm., $ 8-oo mm.; 
greatest pronotal width, (^ 2-oo mm., $ 2-50 mm. 

One cJ (holotype), Uganda, Entebbe, 17.viii.1938, H. Hargreaves, i (^, 2 ? (para- 
types), Kisumu, April, 1936, H. J. A. Turner. 

The specimens from Kisumu differ in having a short spine on the humeral angles ; 
apart from this there appear to be no other characters which would justify their 
being considered another species. They differ in colour in that the connexivum is 
devoid of spots. 

' npOTSvdrjg = a gourmand, KopiQ = a bug. 



io8 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE^ 



Ovum (text-fig. 73). Cylindrical with a relatively long differentiated portion of 
the chorion; partly smooth, partly reticulate; operculum with abundant short, 
erect, slender processes. Brownish yellow ; differentiated portion of chorion white, 
I -60 mm. (dissected). 




Figs. 69-73. Protenthocoris sedulus gen. nov., sp. n. (69) Head and pronotum, dorsal 
view. (70) Idem, lateral view. (71) Hemelytron. (72) Pygophore, dorsal view. {73) 
Ovum. 



Apparently should be placed near Nagusta Stal, 1859, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 16, 
p. 374- 



NANYUKICORIS gen. nov. 

Size. Moderate. Smooth. Basal antennal segment longer than head ; shorter 
than head and pronotum together ; segment 2 much shorter than basal segment ; 
segment 3 longer than 2 ; segment 4 missing. Head shorter than pronotum ; ante- 
ocular shorter than postocular, the latter somewhat abruptly narrowed to base ; 
vertex wider than an eye ; ocelli widely separated, elevated ; basal segment of 
rostrum moderately thick, extending to middle of eyes, shorter than segment 2. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF iREDUVIIDAE ioc> 

Pronotum wider than long ; anterior lobe shorter than posterior lobe, medially 
longitudinally sulcate and with lateral angles of collar produced ; posterior lobe 
with a median, longitudinal depression, concurrent with sulcus on anterior lobe ; 
humeral angles marginally, dorsoventrally compressed ; posterolateral angles 




Figs. 74-78. Nanyukicoris elegans gen. nov. sp. n. (74) Head and pronotum, dorsal view. 
(75) Idem, lateral view. (76) Hemelytron (lower scale of magnification). (77) Apex of 
abdomen, lateral view. (78) Ovum. 



very feebly produced. Scutellum as long as wide with apex produced and disc 
foveolate. Hemelytra extending beyond apex of abdomen ; discal ceU of corium 
longer than wide ; base of membranal cells subequal in width. Abdomen somewhat 
constricted basally ; gonapophyses of eighth abdominal segment produced. Anterior 
and median femora nodulose. 

Type species, Nanyukicoris elegans sp. n. Text-figs. 74-78. 



no NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

Nanyukicoris elegans sp. n. 

Colour. Antennae black. Anteocular black ; gula and postocular yellow, the 
latter with black area laterally ; rostrum yellow ; basal segment basally black. 
Pronotum black, except collar, humeral and posterolateral angles and posterior 
margin yellow ; pleura yellow with greater part of propleura black ; mesopleura 
with a black spot. Corium yellow with apex black ; clavus, area between claval 
suture and Cu, discal cell, hyaline yellow ; membrane infumate with base of cells 
yellow ; metathoracic wings hyaline, pale yellow with apical half infumate. Abdo- 
men yellow with genital segments black. Coxae, trochanters,^ femora yellow ; 
posterior femora with 2 piceous annulations ; anterior and median tibiae piceous 
with base broadly yellow ; posterior tibiae black, narrowly yellow basally ; tarsi 
piceous. 

Structure. Segment 2 of antennae one-fifth as long as basal segment ; segment 3 
about twice as long as 2. Vertex nearly twice as wide as an eye. Ocellar interspace 
twice as wide as space between an ocellus and an eye. Discal foveole on scutellum 
deep. Discal cell of corium about one-third as wide as long. 

Total length, 12-00 mm.; hemelytra, lo-oo nun.; greatest pronotal width, 3-00 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Kenya, Nanyuki, v. 1948, van Someren. 

Ovum (text-fig. 78). Ampulliform, strongly narrowed towards opercular end ; 
smooth ; minutely reticulate ; differentiated portion of chorion very short ; oper- 
culum with an irregular conical elevation. Pale stramineous ; differentiated portion 
of chorion white, 1-50 mm. (dissected). 

Belongs to the Harpagocoris-Callilestes group. Differs from Harpagocoris Stal, 
1855, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. 12, p. 262, in the shape of the head, the postocular being 
relatively wider and shorter, in having the basal rostral segment relatively shorter, 
the posterior pronotal lobe medially sulcate, the base of the membranal cells subequal 
in width. It differs similarly from Callilestes Stal, 1866, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork, 13, 
p. 285, and also has the apex of the scutellum non-lamellate. 

Irantha doreyana Distant, 1903, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 11, p. 366 

This species should not have been placed in Irantha. It cannot be properly assigned 
elsewhere, therefore I establish the following new genus to receive it : 

PARIRANTHA gen. nov. 

Size. Small. Antennae longer than head, pronotum and scutellum together. 
Head subequal in length to pronotum ; vertex wider than an eye ; ocelli widely 
separated ; antennophores nearer to apex of head than to eyes ; anteocular shorter 
than postocular, the latter globose then strongly constricted to base ; both with 
tubercles and spines ; basal segment of rostrum subequal in length to remaining 
segments together. Anterior pronotal lobe shorter than posterior lobe, the former 
with spines and tubercles, the latter rugose punctate ; humeral angles produced ; 
posterolateral and posterior margins of posterior lobe thickened. Scutellum triangular, 
as wide as long ; apex not produced. Hemelytra extending to apex of abdomen ; 



NEW SUBFAMILY. GENERA AND SPECIES OF REUDVIIDAE iii 

discal cell longer than wide ; base of internal cell of membrane equal in width to 
base of external cell. Anterior femora incrassate, nodulose and spinose ; median 
and posterior femora feebly incrassate subapically ; anterior femora moderately 
thick, feebly curved. Abdomen somewhat constricted basally. 
Type species, Parirantha doreyana (Distant). Text-figs. 79-80. 




Figs. 79-81. Parirantha doreyana (Distant), gen. nov. (79) Head and pronotum, dorsal 
view. (80) Idem, lateral view. Iranthoides belua (Miller), gen. nov. (81) Ovum. 



Parirantha doreyana (Distant) 

Colour. Pale testaceous (? spirit material). 

Structure. Spines on vertex and postocular erect, a little longer than spines on 
antennophores which are feebly curved and directed forwards ; vertex twice as 
wide as an eye ; ocellar interspace about twice as wide as space between an ocellus 
and an eye. 

Total length, 11-30 mm.; hemelytra, 6-6o mm.; greatest pronotal width, 2-50 mm. 

One ? (holotype), Dorey, Wallace (B.M. 65-13). 

Differs from Iran^a Stal, 1861, Stett. ent. Zeit. 22, p. 137 in the shape of the head 
which is relatively thicker, in the armature of the head and anterior femora and in 
the absence of tubercles on the connexivum and short spines on the tibiae. 

Irantha belua Miller, 1941, Journ. F.M.S. Mus. 18, pp. 368-370 

This species was incorrectly placed in Irantha (loc. cit.). Since it cannot be placed 
correctly in any other known genus, I propose the new genus Iranthoides for it. 

ENTOM. 8, 2. 6 



112 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

IRANTHOIDES gen. nov. 

Size. Small. Basal antennal segment shorter than head ; segment 2 less than half 
as long as basal segment. Head subequal in length to pronotum ; anteocular shorter 
than postocular, the latter globose then strongly constricted ; antennophores 
equidistant between eyes and apex of head ; ante- and postocular tuberculate and 
with erect spines on upper surface ; constricted part of postocular with few tubercles ; 
ocelli widely separated ; basal segment of rostrum subequal in length to segment 2. 
Pronotum about as wide as long ; anterior lobe shorter than posterior lobe, the former 
tuberculate, the latter rugose punctate ; humeral angles produced. Scutellum 
longer than wide, apex produced, spatulate, oblique. Hemelytra extending beyond 
apex of abdomen. Base of abdomen constricted ; external margin of connexivum 
tuberculate. Anterior femora incrassate, tuberculate and spinose ; anterior tibiae 
feebly curved ; median and posterior legs slender, the femora feebly incrassate 
apically. 

The ovum (text-fig. 81) (dissected), of Iranthoides belua is cylindrical, narrowly 
constricted at opercular end. Chorion smooth ; differentiated portion of chorion 
formed of fine fused filaments. Chorion brown ; differentiated portion whitish, 
i-6o mm. 

BUBIACORIS gen. nov. 

Size. Small. Basal antennal segment longer than head ; segment 2 less than half 
as long as basal segment ; segment 3 one-third longer than 2 ; segment 4 twice as 
long as 2 ; antennophores equidistant between eyes and apex of head with a spine 
basally ; anteocular shorter than postocular ; vertex wider than an eye, tuberculate ; 
ocelli widely separated, directed laterally ; postocular globose then narrowed to a 
distinct neck, both tuberculate ; basal rostral segment subequal in length to remain- 
ing segments together. Anterior pronotal lobe subequal in length to posterior lobe, 
tuberculate and with a median longitudinal sulcus basally ; posterior lobe reticulately 
rugose and with short carinae anteriorly ; humeral angles with a spine ; postero- 
lateral angles produced ; scutellum triangular, as wide as long, disc excavate and 
with apex truncate. Hemelytra extending to apex of abdomen ; base of inner 
cell of membrane narrower than base of external cell. Abdomen somewhat constricted 
basally. Anterior femora nodulose with i long spine on upper surface and several 
much shorter spines on lower surface subapically ; median and posterior femora 
feebly nodulose. Pleura with short, tomentose pubescence. 

Tjrpe species, Bubiacoris hicolor sp. n. Text-figs. 82-84. 

Buhiacoris bicolor sp. n. 

Colour. Basal segment of antennae piceous with 2 suffused brown annulations ; 
segment 2 piceous ; segments 3 and 4 brown. Head and thorax brown ; head and 
pronotum dorsally, scutellum black ; humeral angles and spines brown. Rostrum 
brown suffused with piceous. Abdomen pale stramineous. Corium piceous ; mem- 
brane infumate. Anterior legs piceous ; median and posterior coxae pale stramineous; 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 113 









Figs. 82-84. Buhiacoris bicolor gen. nov., sp. n. (82) Whole insect, dorsal view (antennae 
and legs omitted). (83) Head, pronotum, anterior coxa, trochanter and femur, lateral 
View. (84) Apex of pygophore, dorsal view, 



114 NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 

median and posterior femora and tibiae light brown, the former with dark brown 
suffusion apically ; tarsi piceous. Pubescence on pleura white. 

Structure. Basal antennal segment equal in length to head and anterior pronotal 
lobe together. Vertex with 2 moderately long conical tubercles and numerous 
low, rounded tubercles ; postocular with low, rounded tubercles, those on neck 
arranged annularly ; ocellar interspace almost as wide as vertex. Anterior pronotal 
lobe with 2 moderately long, subacute tubercles anteriorly, 2 shorter tubercles 
sub-basally ; other tubercles mostly very short, conical or rounded. 

Total length, ii-oo mm.; hemelytra, 6-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 2-00 mm. 
(excluding spines). 

One cJ (holotype). New Guinea, Lae, Bubia, 22. xi. 1956, E. S. Brown. 

Allied to Irantha Stal, 1861, Stett. ent. Zeit. 22, p. 137. Differs in having the head 
shorter in relation to pronotum, the postocular with the constricted portion about 
as long as the globose portion, the anterior pronotal lobe tuberculate, the posterior 
margin of the posterior pronotal lobe lacking setigerous tubercles, the base of the 
external cell of the membrane wider than the base of the internal cell, the anterior 
femora smooth and not minutely granulose and the anterior tibiae lacking minute 
spines on the lower surface. 

NO THOCLEPTES gen. nov.i 

Size. Small. Antennae relatively thick ; basal segment longer than head and 
constricted in basal fourth ; segments 2 and 3 together and segment 4 longer than 
basal segment. Head shorter than pronotum ; antennophores nearer to eyes than 
to apex of head ; anteocular shorter than postocular, the latter with a distinct neck ; 
ocelli relatively large, widely separated, somewhat elevated ; vertex wider than an 
eye ; transverse sulcus almost straight, situated behind eyes ; basal segment of 
rostrum subequal in length to segment 2. Anterior pronotal lobe smooth, shorter than 
posterior lobe, medially longitudinally sulcate for two-thirds basally and with a 
feeble median, transverse sulcus ; posterior lobe rugulose, except humeral angles 
smooth ; posterior margin very feebly concave ; prosternum not transversely striate. 
Scutellum with a Y-shaped carina ; disc depressed. Hemelytra extending just 
beyond apex of abdomen ; corium with abundant setae ; discal cell of corium longer 
than wide ; base of external cell of membrane narrower than base of internal cell. 
Anterior tibiae thick ; median and posterior tibiae slender ; all tibiae abundantly 
setose ; anterior femora feebly curved, somewhat incrassate towards apex ; tuber- 
culate ; median and posterior femora without tubercles ; all femora with sparse 
setae. 

Type species, Nothockptes collaris sp. n. Text-figs. 85-88. 

Nothocleptes collaris sp. n. 

Colour. Antennae, head and rostrum piceous. Pronotum yellow ; collar, 
anterior lobe laterally, propleural episternum, meso- and metapleural piceous ; 

* vodog = a bastard, KAeTiTej,- = a thief. 



NEW SUBFAMILY. GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 115 

scutellum, corium and abdomen yellow ; hemelytral membrane hyaline faintly 
infumate. Coxae dark yellow ; trochanters, femora and tibiae piceous. 

Structure. Vertex with a short, narrow, median, longitudinal sulcus basally ; 
ocellar interspace a little less wide than vertex ; ocelli directed outwards and for- 
wards feebly. Disc of scutellum very feebly depressed. Base of external cell of 
hemelytral membrane half as wide as base of internal cell. Setae on legs mostly 
long, on corium short. Tubercles on femora minute. 




Figs. 84-88. Nothocoris collaris gen. nov., sp. n. (85) Head, pronotum and scutellum, 
dorsal view. (86) Head and pronotum, lateral view. (87) Basal antennal segment. 
(88) Anterior leg. 



Total length, 7-00 mm.; hemelytra, 4-40 nam.; greatest pronotal width, 1-90 mm. 

One $ (holotype), Kenya, Nairobi, ix.1934, van Someren. 

AUied to Sphedanolestes Stal, 1866, Ofv. Vet.-Ak. Fork., pp. 284, 288. Differs 
in having the head considerably shorter than pronotum, width of eyes less than half 
that of vertex, antennophores nearer to eyes than to apex of head, the basal rostral 
segment subequal in length to segment 2, legs not very long and femora not nodulose 
but feebly tuberculate, and also in having the prostemal furrow non-striate and the 
basal antennal segment widely constricted basally. 



ii6 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 



Moto biplagiatus sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 89-92) 

Colour. Antennal segments i and 2 piceous ; segment 3 yellow, narrowly piceous 
basally ; segment 4 missing. Head, body and legs pale yellow ; legs and rostrum 
paler ; tylus, suffusion behind ocelli, brown ; postocular reddish. Anterior pronotal 
lobe dark yellow ; posterior lobe with 2 large, sublunate brown spots ; propleural 




Figs. 89-92. Moto biplagiatus sp. n. (89) Head and pronotum, dorsal view. (90) Idem, 
lateral view. (91) Anterior femur. (92) Ovum. 



episternum, meso- and metapleura with reddish brown suffusion. Scutellar disc 
dark yellow. Corium suffused with infumate except basally ; membrane faintly 
infumate. Connexival segments 5-7 with a narrow, marginal piceous spot. 

Allied to Moto rhodesianus Miller, 1950, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 120, p. 257, but 
differs in less robust habitus, coloration, less strongly tuberculate head and anterior 
pronotal lobe, the tubercles being also relatively smaller and in the armature of the 
anterior femora. 



NEW SUBFAMILY, GENERA AND SPECIES OF REDUVIIDAE 117 

Total length, 8-50 mm.; hemelytra, 5-50 mm.; greatest pronotal width, 2-00 mm. 

One $ (holotype), i ? (paratype), Tanganyika, Kinde, Uluguru Mts., Dec. 1930, 
W. V. Harris (B.M. 1950-96). 

Ovum (text-fig. 92). Cylindrical, somewhat obliquely rounded truncate basally ; 
narrower at opercular end ; apical margin of chorion with short, closely placed 
filaments ; operculum with longer, coarser filaments ; chorion smooth, except 
base minutely granulose. Chorion yellow ; chorionic and opercular filaments 
white, 1-20 mm. 




PLATE I 

Fig. I. Tiarodes waterstradti Breddin, 2i-oo mm. 

Fig. 2. T. acutangulus sp. n., 18-50 mm. 

Fig. 3. T. nemoralis sp. n., 19-00 mm. 

Fig. 4. T. erinnys Miller, 27-00 mm. 

Fig. 5. T. hieroglyphicus Miller, 27-00 mm. 

Fig. 6. T. jucundus sp. n., 31-00 mm. 

Fig. 7. T. juncturus Walker, 32-00 mm. 

Fig. 8. T. nobilis sp. n., 29-00 mm. 

Fig. 9. T. nigrirostris StUl, 32-00 mm. 

Fig. 10. T. lotus sp. n., 21-50 mm. 

Fig. II. T. opulentus sp. n., 25-00 mm. 

Fig. 12. T. pustulatus St&l, 27-00 mm. 

Fig. 13. T. sakai Miller, 20-50 mm. 

Fig. 14. T. ostentans sp. n., 28-00 mm. 

Fig. 15. T. scriptus sp. n., 27-00 mm. 

Fig. 16. T. sulaensis sp. n., 31-50 mm. 

Fig. 17. T. xantusi Reuter, 29-00 mm. 



Bull. B.M. (N.H.) Entom. 8, 2 



PLATE I 




J - 4 / 




\ 




I 





\ X. 




2 3 ^ ,^^ 







PLATE 2 

Fig. I. Tiarodes selangorensis Miller, i6-oo mm. 

Fig. 2. T. excellens sp. n., 16-50 mm. 

Fig. 3. T. hageni sp. n., 14-50 mm. 

Fig. 4. T. assamensis sp. n. 15-00 mm. 

Fig. 5. T. vorax Miller, 15-50 mm. 

Fig. 6. T. obyanus Distant, 12-00 mm. 

Fig. 7. T. taipingensis Miller, 17-00 mm. 

Fig. 8. T. mjobergi sp. n., 16-00 mm. 

Fig. 9. T. veneficus Miller, 15-50 mm. 

Fig. 10. T. dohertyi Miller, 12-00 mm. 

Fig. II. T. picturaius Distant, 10-00 mm. 

Fig. 12. T. dubius Renter, 14-00 mm. 

Fig. 13. T. propinquus sp. n., 16-00 mm. 

Fig. 14. T. convivus Miller, 17-00 mm. 

Fig. 15. T. similis sp. n., 14-50 mm. 

Fig. 16. T. ambulator sp. n., 14-00 mm. 

Fig. 17. T. browni sp.n., 11-50 mm. 

Fig. 18. T. bradleyi sp. n., 11-00 mm. 

Fig. 19. T. serenus Miller, 12-50 mm. 

Fig. 20. T. gracilis sp. n., 14-00 mm. 

Fig. 21. T. rabiosus Miller, 16-00 mm. 

Fig. 22. T. schultzei sp. n., 14-00 mm. 

Fig. 23. T. cameronicus sp. n., 15-50 mm. 

Fig. 24. T. varipennis sp. n., 13-50 mm. 

Fig. 25. T. elegans Stal, 1400 mm. 



Bull. B.M. {N II.) Enlom. 8, 2 



PLATE 2 







il 




«. 





'i^ 






«1 



^ 



«t. 



w 



11 




12 





1 




13* 



15 








U 



mi 



n 



19 



20 








21 



22 



23 



24 



n 



PLATE 3 

Fig. I. Tiarodes dux sp. n., i8-oo mm. 

Fig. 2. T. salvazai sp. n. i6-oo mm. 

Fig. 3. T. friihstorferi Breddin, i8-oo mm. 

Fig. 4. T. flavicans sp. n., 16-50 mm. 

Fig. 5. T. nebulosus sp. n., 15-00 mm. 

Fig. 6. T. miles sp. n., i6-oo mm. 

Fig. 7. T. nitidus Miller, 16.00 mm. 

Fig. 8. T. servus sp. n., 17-00 mm. 

Fig. 9. T. celebensis sp. n., i8-oo mm. 

Fig. 10. T. timorensis sp. n., 19-00 mm. 

Fig. II. T. obscuripes sp. n., 15-00 mm. 

Fig. 12. T. varicolor Stal, 19-00 mm. 

Fig. 13. T. helluo sp. n., 17-00 mm. 

Fig. 14. T. insulanus sp. n., 20-00 mm. 

Fig. 15. T. meldolae Distant, 19-00 mm. 

Fig. 16. T. vilis sp. n., 16-00 mm. 



Bull. B.M. {N.FI.) Enlom. 8, 2 






PLATE 3 










^•j 





6 




10 





* 







11 



12 





16 



PLATE 4 

Fig. I. Tiarodes biroi sp. n., 10-50 mm. 

Fig. 2. T., vexillarius sp. n., i6-oo mm. 

Fig. 3. T. dyak sp. n., 14-50 mm. 

Fig. 4. T. hilaris sp. n., 15-00 mm. 

Fig. 5. T. attrahens sp. n., i8-oo mm. 

Fig. 6. T. mouhoti sp. n., 17-00 mm. 

Fig. 7. T. versicolor (Laporte), 16-00 mm. 

Fig. 8. T. ovaHilus Miller, i8-oo mm. 

Fig. 9. T. bukit Miller, 22-00 mm. 

Fig. 10. T. rufithorax Reuter, 25-00 mm. 

Fig. II. T. mirandus Miller, 23-00 mm. 

Fig. 12. T. obscuripennis sp. n., 15-00 mm. 

Fig. 13. T. elongatus Miller, 21-00 mm. 

Fig. 14. T. brunneiventris sp. n., 20-00 mm. 

Fig. 15. T. cruentus Stal, 15-00 mm. 

Fig. 16. T. htzonicus sp. n., 15-50 mm. 

Fig. 17. T. amoenus Miller, 18-00 mm. 

Fig. 18. T. sumatrensis sp. n., 20-50 mm. 

Fig. 19. T. malayanus Distant, 22-00 mm. 

Fig. 20. T. simplex sp. n., 21-00 min. 



Bull. B.M. (N.H.) Entom. 8, 2 



PLATE 4 



t 





16 







ADDITIONS TO DESCRIPTIONS 
OF NEW OLETHREUTINAE AND 
CARPOSINIDAE IN THE BRITISH 

MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 



A. DIAKONOFF 




BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 3 

LONDON: 1959 



ADDITIONS TO DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW 

OLETHREUTINAE AND CARPOSINIDAE 

IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY) 



BY 



A. DIAKONOFF 



4- 



Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, The Netherlands 



Pp. 1 19-126 ; Plates 5-10 ; 2 Text-figures 




BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 3 

LONDON: 1959 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY) instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical Series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

This paper is Vol. 8. No. 3 of the Entomological 
series. 



Trustees of the British Museum, 1959 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Issued August, 1959 Price Eight Shillings 



ADDITIONS TO DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW 

OLETHREUTINAE AND CARPOSINIDAE 

IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY) 

By A. DIAKONOFF 

In 1950 I described ten new species of South Asiatic Olethreutinae and Carposinidae 
in the Bull. Brit. Mus. {Nat. Hist.), Ent. 1 : 273-300, Pis. 3-8, text-figs. 1-2. The 
types of the species were deposited in the British Museum (Natural History). At 
that time I was not able to give illustrations to the descriptions, except for figures 
of the genitalia of two species, viz., of Bactra coronata Diak. and B. monochorda Diak. 

Now at last, after a long delay, I am able to carry my original intention into effect, 
and publish the illustrations of the other eight species, together with descriptions 
and figures of their genitalia. 

I am indebted to Mr. J. D. Bradley, Department of Entomology, British Museum 
(Natural History), London, for his kind interest and help with this study. 

Some corrections have become necessary since the publication of my paper. 
A new genus is proposed below for the reception of one species of the Carposinidae, 
and two other species of this family are transferred to other genera, described since. 
The attribution of the three Olethreutinae to the genus Acroclita Lederer is somewhat 
dubious, and may remain so till a basic revision of the South Asiatic genera of the 
subfamily is carried out, which is my intention. Neither am I sure of the com- 
bination of the male and the female of Acroclita lithoxoa Diak : they might prove to 
belong to different species. 

I. Acroclita argyrophenga Diak. 

(PI. 5, fig. I ; PI. 7, fig. 13) 

{torn, cit., p. 276) 

Female genitalia. Eighth segment distinctly sclerotized; ventrite with a deep 
split, ending with an oval excision encircling ostium bursae. The ostium with a 
hyaline ventral wall, with the rim produced into a short, triangular lip, encircled by 
an annular, thickened, and sclerotized structure, open dorsally. Colliculum strongly 
sclerotized, short, irregular. Corpus bursae pear-shaped, upper edge with an inverted 
V-shaped ridge. Signa moderate, slender hooks on small round basal plates. (Male 
cornuti present, small and slender blades.) (Slide No. 2758, holotype.) 

Note. The holotype specimen is a female, not a male as stated in the original 
description. 

ENTOM. 8, 3. 7 



122 NEW OLETHREUTINAE AND CARPOSINIDAE 

2. Acroclita falcigera T>iak. 

(PI. 5, fig. 2 ; PI. 8, figs. i6, 17) 

{torn, cit., p. 278) 

Female genitalia. Eighth segment sclerotized. Sterigma modified, being a 
semi-oval plate, rounded below (rostrally), twice emarginate above (caudally). 
Ostium bursae, a transverse-triangular split, with a produced and emarginate ventral 
rim. Colliculum short, strong, subglobular, finely denticulate on the two sides 
above. Corpus bursae large, pear-shaped, with an inverted V-shaped sclerotization 
above. Signa, two aciculate spikes, one flattened, with two sharp edges, another with 
three. (SUde No. 2756.) 

3. Acroclita lithoxoa Diak. 
(PI. 5, figs. 3, 4 ; PI. 7, figs. 12, 14) 

{torn, cit., p. 278) 

Male genitalia. Tegumen slender, triangularly depressed. Uncus, a weak slender 
conus. Socius moderate. Tuba analis large and wide. Gnathos a slender, undulate 
band. Vinculum represented by an elongate, semi-ellipsoid sclerite on each side, 
interconnected mesially, and apparently articulating there. Valva simple, rather 
broad, cucuUus obliquely rounded and bristly, with a row of small marginal thorns 
towards dorsal angle. Juxta small, caulis rather short. Aedeagus moderate, cornuti 
a sheaf of slender sinuate spines. (Slide No. 2755, holotype.) 

Female genitalia. Eighth segment not sclerotized. Ostium bursae shaped as 
an elongate, longitudinal body, narrowed in middle and dilated at extremities, 
densely scaled (scales removed in mount) ; upper extremity of this body representing 
the ostium bursae proper, thickened, aciculate, supported by a subapical annular 
band. Colliculum strongly sclerotized, an irregular tube with several longitudinal 
folds. Corpus bursae pear-shaped, its wall modified (submalleate) . Signa, two slender, 
little-curved hooks, with rather large, ill-defined basal plates. (Slide No. 2757, 
allotype.) 

4. Blipta drachmophora (Diak.) comb. nov. 
(PI. 6, fig. 8 ; PI. 8, fig. 15) 
Meridarchis drachmophora Diak., 1950, torn. cit. 298. 

The present species is transferred to the genus Blipta Diakonoff, 1954 {Verh. Ned. 
Akad. Wet., Nat. (2) 49, No. 4 : 156) because of the close similarity of the male 
genitalia, and in spite of the following minor discrepancies of the external structure 
along with the more pronounced differences in the neuration of the hind wing. The 
following particulars should be added to the description of the genus Blipta. 

Labial palpus with median segment more rough in middle of upper and lower 
edges; terminal segment shorter than in the type of the genus. Fore wing with 



NEW OLETHREUTINAE AND CARPOSINIDAE * 123 

veins 3 and 4 very closely approximated at base, almost connate ; veins 8 and 9 
closely approximated and contiguous along basal portion. Hind wing with veins 3 
and 4 connate from angle ; 5 and 6 absent ; 7 to apex. 

Male genitalia. Tegumen rather high. Socius present in the shape of a large, 
lateral flap of tegumen, with a rounded process, directed caudad ; the flap edged 
throughout by a dense fringe of bristles. Uncus strong, shaped as a bird's head, 
rounded and with a ventral beak. Vinculum long, triangularly projecting. Valva 
with a short disc and a very narrow, long cucuUus ; sacculus distinct, at apex 
projecting with a strong, blunt and sclerotized point ; harpe, a moderate, slender, 
sclerotized, free arm, situated below base of costa of the valva, bristly at the top. 
Aedeagus broadly spoon-shaped, right side produced into a pointed blade, folded 
over disc, with a bristled subapical process on the inner side. (Slide No. 2749, 
holotype.) 

5. Mesodica dry as (Diak.) comb. nov. 
(PI. 6, figs. 10, II ; PI. 9, figs. 20, 21 ; PI. 10, figs. 23, 24) 

Meridarchis dry as Diak., 1950, torn. cit. 298. — Diakonoff, 1949, Treubia, 20 : 43. 

Male genitalia. Tegumen broad. Uncus, a long, little-curved, slender hook. 
Gnathos robust, two curved, pending arms, connected in middle, with ventral edge 
aciculate ; behind (dorsally) the connection, a semi-oval transverse sclerite. Valva 
oval, broad, semi-membranous, densely long-haired on the outer side (hairs removed 
in mount), basal external portion of valva forming a semicircular lobe, serving as 
attachment for a dense tuft of long hairs ; a remarkable and interesting development 
are the coremata on the ninth segment, visible on the right side of the photograph ; 
base of sacculus sclerotized, forming a short, marginal rod ending in a transverse 
flattened process (harpe). Vinculum rather strong, dilated. Aedeagus spoon-shaped, 
deeply bicuspidate, right cusp slender, each cusp edged on both sides by a fringe of 
strong bristles ; left cusp also with two longitudinal groups of bristles in the middle, 
viz., short spines at the left side, long spines at the right. (Slide No. 2752, 
holotype.) 

Female genitalia. Eighth segment forming a sclerotized double ring. Sterigma 
and ostium bursae not modified. Ductus bursae, a weak tube with a finely verrucose 
wall. Corpus bursae simple, tubular. Signa absent. (Slide No. 2753, allotype.) 

Note. The species is extremely close to Mesodica infuscata Diak., from Java, 
described in Treubia, 20 : 43, 1949. In that paper I also referred to the present 
species, a description of which was in press at the time. M. dryas differs from infuscata 
by the slightly different shape of the gnathos and by the presence of sclerotizations 
along the base of the sacculus in the former species, while a discal harpe is absent. 
Also the aedeagus in dryas has a different shape. 

It may be mentioned that the description of the gnathos in infuscata (I.e.: 44) is 
not quite correct, as the gnathos in that species is also entire and not paired. 



124 NEW OLETHREUTINAE AND CARPOSINIDAE 

6. Meridarchis ensifera Diak. 

(PI. 6, fig. 9 ; PI. 9, figs. i8, 19) 

{torn, cit., 298) 

Female genitalia. Ostium bursae concealed behind a large semi-oval membran- 
ous plate. Sterigma shaped as a smaller, submembranoiis, wrinkled body. Ductus 
bursae, a rather broad tube, with a verruculose wall. Corpus bursae simple, tubular 
anteriorly, abruptly dilated and pear-shaped posteriorly. Signa absent. (Slide No. 
2750, holotype.) 




Fig. I. Peragrarchis rodea (Diak.) gen. nov., ^, sketch of the head and the wing neuration 



PERAGRARCHIS gen. nov. 
(Text-figs. I, 2 ; PI. 5, fig. 7) 

Head with appressed scales, with rough tufts on vertex. Antenna 3/4, long-ciliate 
in male, ciliations 3, fine. Ocellus posterior. Proboscis weak. Labial palpus strongly 
ascending, palpi slightly divergent ; median segment dilated in middle by rough 
scales above and beneath ; terminal segment exposed, rather short, thick, rounded. 
Thorax without a crest. Abdomen normal. Posterior tibia with loose, fine and long 
hairs. 

Fore wing with tufts of raised scales on surface ; with vein 2 from near angle, 
3 and 4 closely approximated at base, from angle, 8 and 9 stalked, 10 from 3/4 of 
upper edge of cell, 11 absent. Hind wing with a cubital pecten ; vein 2 from towards 
angle, 3 and 4 connate from angle, 5 absent, 6 weak, parallel to 7, 7 to apex. 

Male genitalia. Uncus simple, pointed. Socius parietal. Saccus developed. 
Valva with a short disc and a strong sacculus ending in a dentate transverse blade 



NEW OLETHREUTINAE AND CARPOSINIDAE 125 

in a round impression ; cucuUus bipartite to the base, arms long and narrow. Aedea- 
gus very long, slender, dilated below middle ; point asjmimetrical, acute. 

Type of the genus : Meridarchis rodea Diakonoff, 1950, (^. 

A development of Meridarchis Zeller, 1867 ; very distinct by reason of the peculiar 
bipartite cucullus in the male and the absence of vein ii in the fore wing. 



Fig. 2. Peragrarchis rodea (Diak.) gen. nov., male genitalia. 

7. Peragrarchis rodea (Diak.) comb. nov. 

(Text-figs. I, 2 ; PI. 5, fig. 7) 

Meridarchis rodea Diak., 1950, torn. cit. 299. 

Male genitalia. Tegumen high, triangular. Uncus moderate, conical, pointed. 
Socius represented by a group of long bristles, implanted on the shoulder of the 
tegumen (" parietal "). Vinculum strong, with an elongate-oval saccus. Valvae 
fused along the basal portion of sacculi (loosened in mount ; marked in the figure 
by a x), sclerotized ; sacculus with a blunt, minutely denticulate, subapical ridge 



126 



NEW OLETHREUTINAE AND CARPOSINIDAE 



at apex, with a sclerotized, round excavation from which rises a transverse, dentate 
blade ; cucullus sclerotized, bipartite to the base, halves linear ; a submembranous, 
verruculose, rounded tumescence bearing a pencil of hairs on the outer side of valva, 
opposite base of sacculus. Aedeagus long and slender, moderately sclerotized, dilated 
before middle ; with two longitudinal patches of spines, right series short, with stout 
spines, left long, with several rows of small spines ; apex asymmetrical, acute, with 
a subapical, dense patch of moderate spines. (Slide No. 2751, holotype.) 

8. Picrorrhyncha atribasis Disk. 

(PI. 5, figs. 5, 6 ; PI. 10, fig. 22) 
{torn, cit., 300) 

Female genitalia. Ostium bursae a simple, membranous, truncate tube, with 
a subapical, inverted- V-shaped sclerite in ventral wall. Ductus bursae long, less than 
its upper half, with a broad and strong cestum, curved-up at the end ; ductus bursae 
beyond this (as far as corpus bursae) with verrucose wall containing roundish im- 
pressions. Corpus bursae simple, egg-shaped, with a long and narrow coUum. Signa 
absent. (Slide No. 2754, holotype.) 

The abdomen of the male allot5^e specimen was already missing at the time of the 
original description. 



Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 

Fig 
Fig. 6 
Fig. 7 



PLATE 5 

Acroclita argyrophenga Diak., holotype $. 

A.falcigera Diak., holotype $. 

A. lithoxoa Diak., holotype (J. 

The same, allotype $. 

Picrorrhyncha atribasis Diak., holotype $. 

The same, allotype (J. 

Peragrarchis rodea (Diak.), holotype (J. 



:PW59 



Bull. B.M. {N.H.) Entom. 8, 3 



PLATE 5 





4 w^ 




stvrt. 



k^^^^ 




PLATE 6 
Fig. 8. Blipta drachmophora (Diak.), holotype ^. 
Fig. 9. Meridarchis ensifera Diak., holotype $. 
Fig. 10. Mesodica dryas (Diak.), holotype ^. 
Fig. ii. The same, allotype $. 



Bull. B.M. {N.H.) Entom. 8, 3 



PLATE 6 




PLATE 7 
Fig. 12. Acroclita lithoxoa, female genitalia. 
Fig. 13. A. argyrophenga, female genitalia. 
Fig. 14. A. lithoxoa, msile genitaMa,. 



Btill. B.M. {N.H.) Eniom. 8, 3 



PLATE 7 





14 



\ 




PLATE 8 
P'lG. 15. Blipta drachmophora, male genitalia. 
Fig. 16. Acroclita falcigera, ovipositor and sterigma. 
Fig. 17. The same, bursa copulatrix. 



Bull. B.M. {N.H.) Entom. 8, 3 



PLATE 8 




i 




17 



'■^.. _ •> 



> \ 




PLATE 9 
Fig. 1 8. Meridarchis ensifera, ovipositor and sterigma. 
Fig. 19. The same, bursa copulatrix. 
Fig. 20. Mesodica dryas, aedeagus. 
Fig. 21. The same, male genitaha. 



Bull. B.M. {N.H.) Entom. 8, 3 



PLATE 9 




19 



t* 





PLATE 10 
Fig. 22. Picrorrhyncha atribasis, female genitalia. 
Fig. 23. Mesodica dry as, ovipositor and sterigma. 
Fig. 24. The same, bursa copulatrix. 



Bull. B.M. (N.H.) Entom. 8, 3 



PLATE 10 






24 




A REVISION OF THE TERMITES 

OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 

FROM THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

(ISOPTERA, TERMITIDAE, 

AMITERMITINAE) 



W. A. SANDS 




BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 4 

LONDON: 1959 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS 

AMITERMES FROM THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

(ISOPTERA, TERMITIDAE, AMITERMITINAE) 



BY 



W. A. SANDS. M.Sc.. F.R.E.S. 



Colonial Termite Ressarch Unit 



4i 

ilessarc 



Pp. 127-156 ; 6 Text-figures 




BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 4 

LONDON : 1959 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical Series. 

Parts appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

This paper is Vol. 8, No. 4 of the Entomological 
series. 



Trustees of the British Museum, 1959 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Issued August, 1959 Price Ten Shillings 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS 

AMITERMES FROM THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

(ISOPTERA, TERMITIDAE, AMITERMITINAE) 

By W. A. SANDS, M.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

The subfamily Amitermitinae is represented in the Ethiopian zoogeographical 
region by comparatively few genera, of which the most important are the tropi- 
copolitan Amitermes and Microcerotermes. The former is dealt with here, the revision 
being based mainly on the collections of the Colonial Termite Research Unit at the 
British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 

The generitype of Amitermes Silvestri is the South American A. amifer, but the 
genus is represented in all the main zoogeographical regions including Australia 
and the Palaearctic. The genus derives its name from the characteristically hooked 
soldier mandibles of most of its members. 

The revised list for the Ethiopian region consists of thirteen species, the synonyms 
of each being included in plain type : 

Amitermes acinacifer sp. nov. 
Amitermes braunsi Fuller (1922) 
Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri (1912) 
Amitermes hastatus (Haviland) (1898) 

Amitermes atlanticus Fuller (1922) 
Amitermes capicola Silvestri (1914) 
Amitermes gunni Fuller (1922) 
Amitermes kellyi Fuller (1922) 
Amitermes kenhardti Fuller (1922) 
Amitermes libertatis Fuller (1922) 
Amitermes londonensis Fuller (1922) 
Amitermes murraysburgi Fuller (1922) 
Amitermes runconifer Silvestri (1908) 
Amitermes schoombiensis Fuller (1922) 
Amitermes zuurbergi Fuller (1922) 

Amitermes importunus sp. nov. 
Amitermes lonnbergianus (Sjostedt) (191 1) 
Amitermes lacertosus Ghidini (1941) 

Amitermes messinae Fuller (1922) 
Amitermes harle)d Harris (1957) 

ENTOM. 8, 4. 8 



I30 A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 

Amitermes sciangallorum Ghidini (1941) 
Amitermes somaliensis Sjostedt (1927) 
Amitermes spinifer Silvestri (1914) 
■ Amitermes stephensoni Harris (1957) 
Amitermes truncatidens sp. nov. 
■ Amitermes unidentatus (Wasmann) (1897) 

Amitermes elongatus Silvestri (1914) 
Amitermes limpopoensis Fuller (1922) 
Amitermes macrocephalus Ghidini (1941) 
Amitermes meruensis (Sjostedt) (191 1) 

Three other species are removed from the Hst but not synonymized with others, 
namely : 

" Amitermes hechuana " Fuller (1922). This is only known from the alate caste. 
The cotype has been examined, and it does not belong to the genus Amitermes, but 
is a member of the subfamily Termitinae. 

" Amitermes paucinervius " (Silvestri) Fuller (1922). Silvestri's illustration indi- 
cates that this species does not belong to Amitermes, but is probably a member of 
the Termitinae. 

" Amitermes seminotus " (Silvestri) Fuller (1922). The imago-worker mandibles 
illustrated by Silvestri are not those of Amitermes, but more closely resemble those 
of some members of the Termitinae, such as Promirotermes. 

Sjostedt 's single record of Amitermes hastatus (Hav.) from Kilimandjaro, Tangan- 
yika is included in A. messinae Fuller, on the grounds that subsequent extensive 
collecting in the area has produced only this species, and A. hastatus is otherwise 
unknown north of the River Zambezi. 

The proposals now made for the reduction of a large number of species to synon5niis 
are based on a study of the wide range of variation encountered in this genus. Not 
only has variation in structure to be considered but also differences in the individual 
variability of different species. It has frequently been found that characters which 
can be used to separate two particular species may be completely unreliable in the 
rest of the genus. Conversely, more general use has been made of some characters 
previously only used in a limited way, such as the presence of spines on the anterior 
coxae of the soldier caste first mentioned by Silvestri in A. spinifer (1914). 

An account has been given by Hill (1942) of the wide range of variation in the soldier 
caste of an Australian species of Amitermes, and certain Ethiopian species have been 
found to be scarcely less variable. The head capsule shows a wide range of size 
and shape in plan view, but the profile is often more constant in outline. The 
mandibles commonly vary in size, thickness, in some cases in curvature, and in the 
degree of development of the median tooth. The variation in this tooth reaches the 
extreme of reversal of direction in one species, and in others, though fairly constant 
in position, varies from prominent to almost obsolete. 

The shape and size of the clypeus, labrum, and gula, the degree of emargination of 
the pronotum, and the number and proportions of the antennal segments are not 
reliable specific characters for the soldier caste of Amitermes. 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 131 

In the alate caste overall size, and the relative size and proportions of the eyes, 
ocelli, and fontanelle vary slightly. The fontanelle is depressed in some species, 
and in one this varies in degree from a flat surface to a deep, broad fossa. The degree 
and shape of the emargination of the posterior lobes of the meso- and metanota are 
not usable as specific characters. The variation in wing venation is such that the 
four wings of one specimen are often widely different. 

Key to the Alates 
Alates of the genus Amitermes, in Africa, are distinguishable by the following characteristics : 
labrum broader than long ; mandibles with apical tooth slightly shorter to slightly longer than 
first marginal ; eyes generally small, greatest diameter being shorter up to slightly longer than 
postclypeus ; fontanelle broad to elongate oval, usually centred on or behind a line joining 
posterior margins of eyes, depressed to a varying extent ; posterior margins of meso- and 
metanota broadly emarginate, forming obtuse angles. Small insects, head width 0-86-I-25 mm., 
wing length 8 •0-13-0 mm. 

1. Anterior margin of pronotum produced into a short emarginate median lobe (Text- 

fig. 2e) .......... A. messinae Fuller 

- Anterior margin straight or very slightly sinuate, entire or slightly emarginate . 2 

2. Posterior margin of head approximately semicircular, evenly rounded ... 3 

- Posterior margin of head not approximately semicircular, slightly sinuate immedi- 

ately behind eyes . . . . . . . .A. stephensoni Harris 

3. Fontanelle area slightly to much larger than ocellus ...... 4 

- Fontanelle area not larger usually smaller than ocellus ..... 5 

4. Smaller species, width of head across eyes i-oo mm.; diameter of eye 0-24 mm.; hind 

tibia up to i-oo mm. Fontanelle distinctly behind line joining posterior margins of 

eyes. Ocellus longer than half greatest diameter of eye . . .A. braunsi Fuller 

- Larger, head width over 1-04 mm. (mean 1-12) ; diameter of eye over 0-26 mm. 

(mean 0-30) ; hind tibia over 1-04 mm. (mean 1-20). Fontanelle on a line joining 
posterior margins of eyes. Ocellus one-third to two-fifths diameter of eye 

A. unidentatus (Wasmann) 

5. Anterior coxae with one to five stout spine-like setae in Une or group near middle of 

front surface. (Smaller, head width 0-86-0-93 mm.; eye 0-2 1-0-23 ; hind tibia 
0-82-0-93) • ............ 6 

- Anterior coxae without spine-like setae, ordinary setae may be present or very sparse. 

(Larger, head width over 0-95 mm.; eye 0-23-0-31 ; hind tibia 0-93-1-33) . . 7 

6. Frons with two diverging grooves anterior to fontanelle . .A. spinifer (Silvestri) 

- Frons flat or only faintly indented anterior to fontanelle . .A. somaliensis Sjostedt 

7. Left mandible with third marginal tooth protruding beyond cutting edge connecting 

it to first marginal ........... 8 

- Third marginal does not project beyond cutting edge connecting it to first marginal 

A. hastatus (Haviland) 

8. Larger, head width 1-18-1-25 nim.; hind tibia length 1-29-1-36 mm. 

A. lonnbergianus (Sjostedt) 

- Smaller, head width i-oo-i-ii mm.; hind tibia length 0-97-1 -14 mm. ... 9 

9. Greatest diameter of eye 0-24 mm. Postclypeus strongly inflated, length more than 

half width .......... A. braunsi Fuller 

- Greatest diameter of eye over 0-28 mm. Postclypeus moderately inflated, length 

not more than half width, usually less . . . . . . . . 10 

10. Frons with two diverging grooves anterior to fontaneUe, and slightly rugose ; oval 

part of fontanelle less than twice as long as broad ; postclypeus markedly paler 

in colour than rest of head . . . . . . A. truncatidens sp. nov. 

— Frons smooth ; oval part of fontanelle at least twice as long as broad ; postclypeus 

scarcely paler in colour than rest of head . . . .A. evuncifer Silvestri 



132 A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 

Key to the Soldiers 

1 . Spines present on anterior coxae (Text-fig. 6m) ...... 2 

- Spines absent from anterior coxae (Text-fig. 6n). (Thin colourless setae sometimes 

present in same position) .......... 8 

2. Tooth of mandible directed backwards in line of curve of inner margin . . 3 

- Tooth more or less erect, projecting strongly from inner margin .... 4 

3. Larger, head length i-o2-i-55 mm.; width o-yS-i-iS ; strong inward curve of outer 

margin of mandible commences at or proximal to median tooth A . messinae Fuller 

- Smaller, head length o-Sg-i-iS mm.; width o-74-o-9i ; strong inward curve of 

outer margin of mandible commences distal to median tooth A . spinifer Silvestri 

4. Mandibles elongate, almost straight, slightly elbowed with inflexed tips ; inner 

margin strongly sinuate from tooth to apex (Text-fig. 6a) . A . acinacifer sp. nov. 

- Mandibles hooklike ; inner margin a regular curve from tooth to apex . . 5 

5. Mandibles slender, minimum width behind tooth about one-sixth length . . 6 

- Mandibles stout, minimum Avidth behind tooth one quarter or more of length 

(Text-fig. 6h) ........ A. somaliensis Sjostedt 

6. Larger, head width over 0-95 mm.; head depth over o-8o mm. . A. stephensoni Harris 

- Smaller, head width over 0-91 mm.; head depth under 0-75 mm. .... 7 

7. Mandibles strongly hooked, tooth at mid-point between base and apex, usually 

obliquely truncated or rounded (Text-fig. 61) . . . A. spinifer Silvestri 

- Mandibles curved, not hooked, tooth distinctly behind mid-point between base of 

tooth and apex, usually triangular (Text-fig. 6g) . . A. sciangallorum Ghidini 

8. Tooth on mandible directed backwards in line of curve of inner margin (Text-fig. 

6c) .......... A. hastatus (Haviland) 

- Tooth on mandible more or less erect, projecting from inner margin ... 9 

9. Hind tibia i-i8-i-39 mm. long ...... A. lonnbergianus (Sjostedt) 

- Hind tibia up to 1-14 mm. long ......... lo 

10. Tooth of mandible very prominent, truncated, separated from inner margin in 

front by a sharp change of curvature (Text-fig. 6, b, d, k) . . . . 11 

— Tooth of mandible less prominent, separated from inner margin in front by a gradual 

change of curvature, seldom truncated (Text-fig. 6l) . A. unidentatus (Wasmann) 

11. Anterior lobe of pronotum shorter than posterior . . A. imporiunus sp. nov. 

— Anterior lobe of pronotum as long as or longer than posterior . . . . 12 

12. Vertex generally somewhat inflated behind fontanelle with change of curvature 

between this fold and dorsal surface of head (Text-fig. 5K). Mandibular tooth 
more or less transversely truncated (Text-fig. 6k) . . A. truncatidens sp. nov. 

— Vertex not inflated behind fontanelle, dorsal surface of head evenly curved from 

fontanelle to occiput (Text-fig. 5B). Mandibular tooth obliquely truncated or 
rounded (Text-fig. 6b) ....... A. evuncifer Silvestri 

{Note. Exceptions to couplet 12 will be found, these two species being very closely 
related and difiicult to separate.) 

A Note on Distribution 

The most noteworthy feature which has become apparent during revision of this 
very successful genus is the comparatively small number of species by which it is 
represented in the Ethiopian region. The list can be roughly subdivided into even 
smaller groups of species occurring in each of the main vegetation zones of the region, 
and in these zones different species occupy comparable ecological niches. As might 
be expected there is some degree of overlapping at the limits of distribution, but 
in each zone the fauna is limited to a few species of differing habits. 

The distribution of the Amitermes of the Ethiopian region is shown on the accom- 
panying map (Text-fig. i). 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 133 




Fig. I. Map of the distribution of the genus Amitermes in the Ethiopian zoogeographical 

region. 



AMITERMES Silvestri 
Amitermes acinacifer sp. nov. 

(Text-figs. 4A ; 5A ; 6a) 

Imago. Unknown. 

Soldier. Head capsule yellow to yellow-brown ; mandibles pale brown to chest- 
nut brown ; antennae and legs pale yellow, rest of body yellowish-white except 
where gut contents show through abdomen. 

Head in plan view, slightly longer than broad, sides curved, posterior margin 
regularly rounded. In profile, continuously curved from fontaneUe to occiput, curve 



Range in mm. 


Mean 


• 0-93-0-97 


0-96 


. 0-76-0 -82 


0-78 


0-6I-0-63 


o-6i 


o- 61-0 -64 


0-63 


032 




. 47-0 -49 


0-47 


0-70-0 -78 


0-73 



134 A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 

shallower in front. Mandibles elongate, almost straight, slightly elbowed with 
inflexed tips ; tooth within basal third, prominent, erect, directed slightly forwards ; 
inner margin strongly sinuate from base of tooth to apex. Antennae, 13-14 segmented, 
II, IV and V subequal, III half as long as these, or II and V subequal. III and IV 
subequal and half as long as these. Head capsule with sparsely scattered setae. 

Pronotum with regularly curved anterior border, not emarginate. Anterior 
coxae with 3-4 short stout spines grouped approximately in middle of front surface. 
Rest of legs with numerous spines and long setae. 



Length of head capsule 

Greatest width of head 

Width of head at base of mandibles 

Depth of head capsule 

Length of pronotum . 

Width of pronotum 

Length of hind tibia . 

Worker. Head yellow, antennae and rest of body yeUo wish-white. Third margi- 
nal tooth of left mandible does not usually protrude beyond cutting edge connecting 
it with first marginal. 

Described from numerous soldiers and workers from localities in the Northern 
Frontier Province of Kenya. 

This species differs completely in the form of the soldier mandible from any other 
known African species, and appears in this character to resemble the Australian 
genus Drepanotermes. 

Type locality. Kenya ; Marsabit district, 27 miles from Marsabit township 
on the Isiolo Road (Altitude 2,000 ft. approx.), 5.iii.53 (W. A. Sands, Coll., No. 442). 

Holotype soldier and paratypes in British Museum (Natural History). 

Other records. Kenya : Northern Frontier Province, 35 miles north of Uaso 
Nyero, and at Marsabit, on Mega and Moyale Roads, 1953 (W. A. Sands). 

All the records of this species are from dead wood ; the nest proper has not been 
discovered. 



Atnitermes braunsi Fuller 

(Text-figs. 2A ; 3A ; 4B) 

Hamitermes braunsi Fuller, 1922, S. Afr. J. nat. Hist. 3 (2) : 70-131, South Africa : Willowmore. 

Imago. Female : Colour uncertain due to fading in old specimen. 

Posterior margin of head almost semicircular; fontanelle as large as or larger 
than ocelli, with narrow pale extension anteriorly, partially depressed or nearly 
flat, centred distinctly behind a line joining posterior margins of eyes ; eyes about 
as long as postclypeus; ocelli large, broad, oval, separated from eyes by slightly 
less than own width ; postclypeus slightly longer than half breadth, inflated, anterior 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 135 

margin straight, posterior margin evenly convex; antennae 15 segmented, III 
shorter than IV, IV and V subequal. 

Pronotum narrower than head across eyes, anterior margin straight, sides broadly 
rounded, converging to sinuate posterior. 




Fig. 2. A-D and f-k, plan and side views of heads of images ; E, side and plan view of pronotum 

of imago of Amitermes messinae Fuller. 

A. Amitermes braunsi Fuller ; b. Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri ; c. Amitermes hastatus 
(Haviland) ; d. Amitermes lonnbergianus (Sjostedt) ; f. Amitermes messinae Fuller ; 
G. Amitermes somaliensis Sjostedt ; h. Amitermes spinifer Silvestri ; i. Amitermes 
stephensoni Harris ; j. Amitermes truncatidens sp. nov.; k. Amitermes unidentatus 
(Wasmann). 

ENTOM. 8, 4. fi§ 



136 A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 



: Mode, as female, except for slightly larger fontanelle. 





mm. 


Head width across eyes 


I -oo 


Greatest diameter of eye 


0-24 


Ocellus 


009x013 


Ocellus to eye 


O'oy-o-oS 


Width of pronotum 


0-78 


Length of pronotum 


0-47 


Length of hind tibia 


• 97-1 • 00 


Length of fore wing 


9-6 



Worker. Left mandible with third marginal tooth protruding beyond cutting 
edge connecting it to first marginal ; distance between first and third marginals 
greater, than that between apical and first marginal. 

Anterior coxae without spines. 

I>escribed from cotypes from type colony. The unique soldier is missing from the 
type series, and cannot be included in this revision. 

It is possible that A . importunus sp. nov. described in succeeding pages from soldiers 
and workers only may be the same species as A. braunsi Fuller. In the absence of 
the soldier type of the latter this cannot be confirmed, particularly since the worker 
left mandible of A. importunus is different in its proportions from that described 
above. 

Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri 

(Text-figs. 2B ; 33 ; 4c ; 5B ; 6b) 

Tertnes unidentatus Wasmann, 1897, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. 21 : 137-182, Gold Coast record only. 
Hamitermes evuncifer Silvestri, 1912, Ann. Mus. civ. Sior. nat. Genova, 45 : 211-255, Portuguese 

Guinea : Bolama, Rio Cassine. 
Hamitermes evuncifer var. heterocera Silvestri, 1914, Boll. Lab. zool. Portici, 9 : 3-146. 
Am,itermes unidentatus subsp. evuncifer Silvestri : Sjostedt, 1926, Ent. Tdskr., 47 : 238-246 

and Sjostedt, 1926, K. svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. (3), 3 (i) : 1-419. 
Amitermes (Amitermes) evuncifer Silvestri ; Emerson, 1928, Bull. Am,er. Mus. nat. Hist. 57 : 401- 

574- 

Imago. The following data and measurements must be added to Sjostedt's 
description : Fontanelle an elongate oval, often partially or entirely depressed, 
smaller than ocelli. Third marginal tooth of left mandible protrudes beyond cutting 
edge connecting it with first marginal ; distance between points of apical and first 
marginal less than distance between first and third marginal. 





Range in mm. 


Mean 


Width of head across eyes 


I -02-1 -11 


i-o6 


Eye, greatest diameter 


0-28-0-3I 


030 


Ocellus .... 


• 06-0 • 09 X • lO-O • 16 


0-08 X0-12 


Ocellus to eye 


o- 02-0 -07 


005 


Width of pronotum 


• 86-0 • 97 


089 


Length of pronotum 


0-54-0 -61 


0-59 


Length of hind tibia 


I •00-1-14 


1-07 


Length of fore wing 


8-00-10-7 


9-5 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 137 

Soldier. Range of variation in size much greater than previously recorded. 
Spines absent from anterior coxae. 





Range in mm. 


Mean 


Length of head capsule . 


I -14-1 -66 


1-42 


Greatest width of head 


I 02-1 30 


1-17 


Width of head at base of mandibles 


0-70-0 -87 


080 


Depth of head 


0-82-1 -00 


0-96 


Length of left mandible . 


0-61-0-75 


0-71 


Length of pronotum 


- 30-0 - 40 


0-35 


Width of pronotum 


0-61-0-75 


0-63 


Length of hind tibia 


0-78-1-11 


0-99 



Worker. Colour yellowish- white. Larger than preceding three species. Mandible 
similar to that of imago. 

A. evuncifer can only be distinguished from A. truncatidens sp. nov. with difficulty, 
in the alate caste by the smoother frons and in the soldier by the less inflated vertex 
and the slightly more obliquely truncated mandibular tooth. It is separable from 
A. importunus sp. nov. by the longer anterior lobe of the pronotum and the more 
evenly rounded head profile. 

A . evuncifer var. heterocera Silvestri is part of the normal range of variation, and 
not a distinct variety. 

Sierra Leone : Freetown, Bo, Kenema, 1958 (W. Wilkinson). 

Ghana : Kumasi, 1958 (W. Wilkinson) ; Aburi, Nkawkaw, 1955 (W. V. Harris). 

Nigeria : Over 150 records from Lagos beach and Bonny in the south to 50 m. 
from Maiduguri on the Fort Lamy road in the north 1955-58 (W. V. Harris, W. A. 
Sands and W. Wilkinson). 

Uganda : Bugondo, 1939 (P. R. Stephenson) ; Singo, Kalagala (Bulemezi), 
1949 (W. V. Harris) ; Moroto (Karamoja), 1952 (W. A. Sands) ; 25 m. N. of Atura, 
1955 (W. Wilkinson). 

Kenya : Kisumu, 1952 (W. A. Sands). 

Sudan : Um Kheirein, 1927 (W. P. L. Cameron) ; Kadugli, 1952 (R. C. H. 
Sweeney) . 

Eritrea : Gula, 1953 (W. J. Stower). 

This species has most commonly been collected from dead wood of all kinds, but 
its dark brown carton and earth mounds are also frequently encountered. It has 
often been recorded from the mounds of other genera of termites, particularly those 
of Cubitermes, Trinervitermes, Odontotermes and Macrotermes. 



Amitermes hastatus (Haviland) 
(Text-figs. 2C ; 3c ; 4D ; 5c ; 6c) 

Termes hastatus Haviland, 1898, /. Linn. Soc. {Zool.) 26 : 358-442, South Africa : Cape Province; 

Port Elisabeth. 
Hamitermes runconifer Silvestri, 1908, Denkschr. med.-naturw. Ges. Jena, 13 : 71-82. 
Hamiiermes [Hamitermes) hastatus (Haviland) ; Holmgren, 1912, K. svenska Vetensk. Akad. 

Handl. 48 (4) : 1-166. 



138 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 



Hamitermes hastatus var. capicola Silvestri, 1914, Boll. Lab. zool. Portici, 9 : 3-146. 
Hamitermes atlanticus Fuller, 1922, S. Afr. J. nat. Hist. 3 (2) : 70-131. 
Hamitermes capicola Silvestri ; Fuller, 1922, ibid. 
Hamitermes gunni Fuller, 1922, ibid. 
Hamitermes kellyi Fuller, 1922, ibid. 
Hamitermes kenhardti Fuller, 1922, ibid. 
Hamitermes libertatis Fuller, 1922, ibid. 

Hamitermes londonensis Fuller, 1922, ibid. 1 

Hamitermes murraysburgi Fuller, 1922, ibid. 
Hamitermes schoombiensis Fuller, 1922, ibid. 
Hamitermes zuurbergi Fuller, 1922, ibid. 

Amitermes hastatus (Haviland) ; Sjostedt, 1926, K. svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. {3) 3 (i) : 
1-4 19. 



h 



o 



*o 



/^ 



-s><^ 



k. 



-n^ 



L 



^ /► 



^> 



& 



's. ^ 



J 



i 

H 



C? 



J 



B 



p <.» ^ .<^ •»'• 







* 

6 

G 



O 



D 



,,^ VflS* 



Fig. 3. Fontanelle and adjacent pattern of pale markings on frons of imagos. 

Amitermes braunsi Fuller; b. Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri; c. Amitermes hastatus 
(Haviland) ; d. Amitermes lonnbergianus (Sjostedt) ; e. Amitermes messinae Fuller ; 
F. Amitermes somaliensis Sjostedt ; G. Amitermes spinifer Silvestri ; h. Amitermes 
stephensoni Harris ; i. Amitermes truncatidens sp. nov.; j, k. Amitermes unidentatus 
(Wasmann). 



Some additions to Haviland's description are necessary. 

Imago. Antennae may have 14 or 15 segments. An increased range of size vari- 
ation is now known. 

Range in mm. Mean 

0-95-I-I6 . 1-05 

0-23-0 -29 . 0-25 

o-oy-o- 10 xo- 10-0-14 . 0-08x0-11 

0-03-0-08 . o-o6 

o • 76-1 -04 . 0-89 

0-44-0-64 . 0-54 

0-93-1-25 . I 07 

8-00-I2-6 . IO-2 



Head width across eyes 
Greatest diameter of eye 
Ocellus . 
Ocellus to eye 
Width of pronotum 
Length of pronotum 
Length of hind tibia 
Length of fore wing. 



Soldier. Head capsule in plan view longer than broad, rounded rectangular 
to broadly ovoid, narrower at front. In profile, upper surface fiat or only slightly 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 139 

curved between fold above fontanelle and even curvature to occiput. Antennae 
13 to 15 segmented, proportions of basal segments variable. Anterior coxae without 
spines. 



Length of head capsule 

Greatest width of head 

Width of head at base of mandibles 

Depth of head 

Length of left mandible . 

Length of pronotum 

Width of pronotum 

Length of hind tibia 



Range in mm. 


Mean 


I -22-1 -61 


1-39 


I •00-1-29 


I- 10 


• 72-0 • 84 


0-76 


0-82-1 -04 


0-92 


0-68-0-86 


0-77 


0-32-0-40 


0-33 


0-57-0-75 


0-63 


0-80-1 -14 


0-94 



Worker. Third marginal tooth of left mandible not usually distinct from cutting 
edge separating it from first marginal. Anterior coxae without spines. These two 
characters enable the worker to be distinguished from all other species since the 
absence of coxal spines is usually associated with a distinct third marginal tooth. 

The cotypes of all the species listed in the synonymy except A. atlanticus have 
been examined, and authentic material of the latter has been used. There is a con- 
tinuous range of variation between the species, which are therefore all reduced to 
synonyms of A. hastatus (Hav.). There is, in fact, less variation in A. hastatus so 
constituted than occurs in the East African species A. unidentatus (Wasm.). 

The only species likely to be confused with A. hastatus is the East and Central 
African A . messinae Fuller, from which it is easily distinguished in the alate by the 
straight or slightly sinuate anterior margin of the pronotum and in the soldier by 
the absence of anterior coxal spines. The alates from the more northerly and easterly 
localities appear to be slightly larger than those from the extreme south, but material 
is too limited to establish whether or not a cline exists. 

South Africa : Port Elisabeth, and Simonstown, 1952 (W. V. Harris). Elgin 
Forest, 1954 (Balfour-Browne). 

The majority of the records in the literature are from temperate or subtropical 
South Africa, the only exceptions being those of A. runconifer Silvestri from SW. 
Africa and the Kalahari Desert. 



Amitermes importunus sp. nov. 
(Text-figs. 4E ; 50; 6d) 

Imago. Unknown. 

Soldier. Head capsule pale yellow, sometimes a little darker towards front and 
sides ; mandibles pale brown to chestnut brown, yellow-brown at base ; antennae 
pale yellow, rest of body yellowish-white except where gut contents show through 
abdomen. 

Head in plan view, distinctly longer than broad, sides straight to convex, parallel 
to distinctly convergent anteriorly ; posterior margin regularly rounded or with 
rounded posterior corners distinct. In profile, upper surface of head straight or 



140 A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 

weakly sinuate between slight swelling above fontanelle and sharper curve to occiput. 
Mandibles slender, slightly more than half as long as head, strongly hooked ; tooth 
at or slightly behind middle, prominent, erect, triangular to obliquely truncated, 
sometimes somewhat rounded ; inner margin a regular curve from base of tooth 
to apex, or slightly straighter near apex. Antennae 14 segmented, II and V subequal 
and slightly longer than IV, III twice as long as IV. Head setae few in number. 

Pronotum with anterior margin entire or weakly emarginate. Legs not markedly 
pubescent, anterior coxae without spines, though with one or two setae in same 
position. 



Length of head capsule 

Greatest width of head 

Width of head at base of mandibles 

Depth of head 

Length of left mandible . 

Length of pronotum 

Width of pronotum 

Length of hind tibia 



Range m mm. 


Mean 


I -04-1 61 


1-42 


0-90-1 -16 


I -08 


0-75-0 -89 


0-82 


• 77-1 - 00 


0-91 


0-68-0-86 


0.77 


0-32-0-43 


0-39 


0-61-0-75 


0-69 


0-89-1-04 


0-96 



Worker. Colour yellowish-white. Third marginal tooth of left mandible usually 
protrudes slightly beyond cutting edge connecting it with first marginal. Distance 
between points of apical and first marginal equal to, or greater than, distance between 
first and third marginals. 

Described from numerous specimens from localities in Nyasaland and Northern 
Rhodesia. 

Though somewhat similar to A. evuncifer and A. truncatidens, it can be distin- 
guished by the straighter profile of the upper surface of the head, and in the worker 
by the different proportions of the teeth of the left mandible. 

Type locality. Nyasaland : Central Province, 33 miles from Kasungu on the 
Lilongwe Rd., 18.ix.53 (W. A. Sands and W. Wilkinson, Coll. No. N. 470). 

Holotype soldier and paratypes in British Museum (Natural History). 

Other records 

Nyasaland : Various localities from Lilongwe northwards, all in Brachystegia 
woodland, 1953 (W. A. Sands and W. Wilkinson). 

Northern Rhodesia : Abercorn, 1948 (P. E. Glover) ; near Tunduma, 1953 
(W. A. Sands and W. Wilkinson) ; Ndola, Kafue River flood plain. Lake Bangweulu, 
1957 (W. G. H. Coaton). 

All the records are from the mounds of other genera, most commonly those of 
Cubitermes, but also from those of Odontotermes and Macrotermes. This entirely 
commensal habit distinguishes it from A. truncatidens, which occurs in the same 
localities, but is usually found in dead wood and in nests of its own construction. 

A. importunus appears to occupy a similar ecological niche in the savannah 
woodland south of the Congo Rain Forest block to that of A. stephensoni in the 
essentially similar Guinean zone to the north. 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 141 

Atnitertnes lonnbergianus (Sjostedt) 
(Text-figs. 2D ; 3D ; 4F ; 5E ; 6e) 

Eutermes lonnbergianus Sjostedt, 1911, Ark. Zool. 7 (18) : 1-3 Kenya : somewhat north of the 

Guaso Nyero. 
Amitermes lonnbergianus (Sjostedt) ; Sjostedt, 1926, K. svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. (3) 3 

(i) ; 1-419. . , . 

Amitermes lacertosus Ghidini, 1951, Bol. Soc. ent. ital. 73 : 30-34. 

Imago. Previously undescribed. 

Female, head dark chestnut brown. Area between eye and base of mandibles, 
and postclypeus, yellow-brown, the latter dusky in the middle. Labrum, antennae, 
ventral parts of thorax, legs, and abdominal sternites, yellow to yellow-brown, 
abdominal sternites sometimes darker laterally. Pronotum and abdominal tergites, 
dark chestnut brown. Meso- and metanota and pleura, brown. 

Posterior margin of head almost semicircular ; fontanelle oval, often with small 
narrow extension anteriorly, smaller than ocelli, more or less depressed, centred 
slightly in front of a line joining posterior margins of eyes (the only E. African 
Amitermes in which this is the case) ; eyes about as long as postclypeus ; ocelli 
large, broad oval, separated from eyes by about their own width ; postclypeus 




Left mandibles of worker castes. 



A. Amitermes acinacifer sp. nov.; b. Amitermes braunsi Fuller ; c. Amitermes evuncifer, 
Silvestri ; d. Amitermes hastatus (Haviland) ; e. Amitermes importunus sp. nov.; 
F. Amitermes lonnbergianus (Sjostedt) ; g. Amitermes messinae Fuller ; h. Amitermes 
sciangallorum Ghidini ; i. Amitermes somaliensis Sjostedt ; j. Amitermes spinifer 
Silvestri ; K. Amitermes stephensoni Harris ; L. Amitermes truncatidens sp. nov.; 
M. Amitermes unidentatus (Wasmann). 



142 A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 

about half as long as broad, inflated, anterior margin straight, posterior margin 
evenly convex ; antennae 15 segmented, IV and V subequal, III half these, II 
slightly longer than III, shorter than IV and V ; left mandible, third marginal 
tooth usually protrudes beyond the short cutting edge connecting it with first marginal 
apical tooth stout, slightly shorter or as long as first marginal. 

Pronotum distinctly narrower than head across eyes, anterior margin straight, 
sides broadly rounded, converging to distinctly emarginate posterior. 

Entire insect sparsely pubescent, intersegmental membrane of abdomen with 
shorter finer setae than rest of body. 

Male, indistinguishable from female, apart from sexual characteristics. 



Head width across eyes 
Greatest diameter of eye 
Ocellus . 
Ocellus to eye 
Width of pronotum . 
Length of pronotum 
Length of hind tibia 



Range in mm. 
I • 18-1-25 
0-27-0-3I 
o • 08-0 • I o X o • 1 2-0 • 1 4 
o • 08-0 • I I 
0-93-1 -02 
0-61-0 -64 
1-29-1-36 



Mean 
I -21 
0-29 
009x0-13 
0-09 
0-98 
0-62 
1-33 



Described from five pairs of dealated males and females from the type locality. 

MoRPHOTYPE LOCALITY. Kenya : Lolokwi, north of the Uaso Nyero, 7 . i . 53 
(W. A. Sands, Coll. No. 326). Morphotypes in British Museum (Natural History). 

Soldier. Tooth of mandibles varies from vestigial to well developed, broadly 
triangular. Range of measurements much greater than previously recorded. 



Range in mm. 


Mean 


I -43-1 -75 


i-6i 


I -29-1 -52 


1-40 


0-97-1-09 


I 03 


I -07-1 -29 


I-I7 


0-76-0-86 


0-82 


- 40-0 - 47 


043 


- 78-0 - 86 


0-84 


1-18-1-39 


1-30 



Length of head capsule 

Greatest width of head 

Width of head at base of mandibles 

Depth of head 

Length of left mandible . 

Length of pronotum 

Width of pronotum 

Length of hind tibia 

■ The variation in the mandibular tooth of the soldier shows a tendency to form a 
cline, with the tooth most strongly developed in specimens from Marsabit in Northern 
Kenya. The cotype of A . lacertosus Ghidini corresponds exactly to the most northerly 
specimens of A. lonnbergianus (Sjostedt) and the former species is therefore reduced 
to a synonym. 

Other records. Only a representative selection is given. 

Kenya : Turkana Province, Garamaroi, 1952 ; Northern Frontier Province, 
Marsabit, Isiolo, and near Garba Tula, 1953 ; Meru, Tana River (Grand Falls), 

1953 ; Mtito Andei, 1952 (W. A. Sands) ; 40 m. from Hola on the Garissa Road, 

1954 (W. Wilkinson) ; Malindi, Voi, 1950 (W. V. Harris). 

Tanganyika : Mwakijembe, Same, 1952 (P. B. Kemp) ; Sanya Plain, 1951 
(R. C. H. Sweeney). 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 143 

SoMALiLAND : Burao, 1952 (E. J. Van Ingen). 

This species is common in dead wood and dung in these locahties, but has only 
once been recorded from a low mound. The nest is probably usually subterranean. 
There are a few records from mounds of Cuhitermes spp., but this is a rare occurrence. 



Amitermes messinae Fuller 
(Text-figs. 2, E, F ; 3E ; 40; 5F ; 6, f, m) 

Hamitermes messinae Fuller, 1922, 5. Afr. J. nat. Hist. 3 (2) : 70-131, South Africa : Northern 

Transvaal, Messina. 
Eutermes hastatus (Haviland) ; Sjostedt, 1910, Wiss. Ergeb. Schwed. Zool. Expedn., Kilimandjaro- 

Meru, 1905-1906, 3 (15) : 1-28, Tanganyika : Kibonoto. 
Amitermes sp. I., Kemp, 1955, Bull. ent. Res. 38 : 125. 
Amitermes harleyi Harris, 1957, B.M.N.H. Rept. Exp. S.W. Arabia, 1421-433. 

Imago. Female, head and pronotum dark sepia brown, postclypeus only slightly 
paler, brown. Antennae pale brown, apices of segments yellowish- white. Labrum 
pale yellow. Thoracic sclerites (apart from pronotum), abdominal tergites and 
lateral parts of sternites sepia brown. Legs, femora pale, tibiae dusky at base, 
paler distally, tarsi pale, yellowish- white. Middle of abdominal sternites yellowish- 
white. Wings translucent pale brown, venation entirely sepia brown. 

Posterior margin of head almost semicircular ; fontanelle pale, broad oval, 
approximately equal in size to ocelli, slightly depressed, with narrow parallel-sided pale 
extension from anterior end, almost as long as rest of fontanelle ; eyes as long as 
or slightly shorter than postclypeus ; ocelli of medium size, separated from eyes 
by slightly more than own width ; postclypeus inflated, length about half breadth, 
posterior margin convex, arched in middle, straighter laterally, anterior margin 
straight ; antennae 15 segmented. III half as long as II, IV and V subequal, shorter 
than II, longer than III. 

Pronotum distinctly narrower than head across eyes, anterior margin produced 
into a short but distinct emarginate median lobe, sides broadly rounded, converging 
to slightly emarginate posterior. 

Entire insect finely pubescent, with pale setae, those of intersegmental membrane 
of abdomen shorter, curved, yeUow. 

Male, closely similar to female except that wings often slightly smaller. 



Head width across eyes 
Greatest diameter of eye 
Ocellus . 
Ocellus to eye 
Width of pronotum 
Length of pronotum 
Length of hind tibia 
Length of fore wing. 





Range in mm. 


Mean 


0-87-1 -02- 


0-99 




o- 21-0 -26 


0-24 




• 06-0 • 07 X • og-o • 10 


0-07 xo- 




0-07-0 -08 


0-07 




- 72-0 - 86 


0-80 




0-47-0-57 


0-53 




- 89-1 • 04 


lOI 




8-80-10-50 


9-60 



Soldier. Head capsule mainly pale yellow, sometimes darker, yellow- to red- 




Fig. 5. Plan and side views of heads of soldier castes. 

A. Amitermes acinacifer sp. nov.; b. Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri ; c. Amitermes hastatus 
(Haviland) ; d. Amitermes importunus sp. nov ; e. Amitermes lonnbergianus (Sjostedt) ; 
F. Amitermes messinae Fuller ; g. Amitermes sciangallorum Ghidini ; h. Amitermes soma- 
liensis Sjostedt ; i. Amitermes spinifer Silvestri ; j. Amitermes stephensoni Harris ; K. 
Amitermes truncatidens sp. nov.; l. Amitermes unidentatus (WasmannJ. 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 145 

brown at sides and in front of fontanelle ; mandibles yellow-brown to deep red- 
brown. Antennae, pronotum and legs, yellow, pronotum sometimes slightly darker 
in front ; rest of body yellowish-white except where gut contents show through 
abdomen. 

Head capsule in plan view distinctly longer than broad, variable in outline, 
approximating to rounded rectangular, posterior margin sometimes evenly rounded. 
In profile, continuously curved from fontanelle to occiput, curve shallower in front. 
Mandibles rather more than half as long as head, slender, strongly hooked ; tooth 
approximately in middle, backwardly directed in a continuous line with the inner 
margin anterior to it, not prominent ; inner margin a regular curve from tooth to 
apex inclusive. Antennae normally 14 segmented, II equals III and IV together, 
V longer than III and IV, shorter than II. Head capsule with scattered rather long 
setae, more numerous near fontanelle. 

Pronotum, anterior margin entire or slightly emarginate. Legs sparsely pubescent ; 
anterior coxae with one to four spines grouped in the middle of the front surface. 



Length of head capsule . 

Greatest width of head 

Width of head at base of mandibles 

Depth of head 

Length of left mandible . 

Length of pronotum 

Width of pronotum 

Length of hind tibia 

Worker. Colour yellowish-white. Third marginal tooth of left mandible not 
distinct from cutting edge connecting it to first marginal. Spines present on anterior 
coxae as in soldier. This character enables its separation from A. unidentatus, 
these two species being the commonest in many localities. Workers of A. acinacifer, 
A . acutidens and A . curvatus, which have similar coxal spines, are usually smaller. 

Specimens from all parts of East Africa have been compared with the holotype 
male and morphotype soldier from Messina. East African alates are very slightly 
larger than the type, but agreement is complete in both castes in aU other respects. 
The characteristic shape of the anterior margin of the alate pronotum has not been 
found in any other Ethiopian species including A. hastatus (Hav.) of which the soldier 
is somewhat similar. A . harleyi Harris agrees closely with specimens of A . messinae 
from Northern Kenya, and is therefore reduced to a synonym. 

A representative selection is given of the records available for this species. 

Kenya : Magadi, Nairobi, Voi, 1950 (W. V. Harris) ; Donyo Sapuk, 1952, 
Marsabit,, Meru-Tharaka Rd., 1953 (W. A. Sands). 

Tanganyika : Maswa, 1928 (W. V. Harris) ; Mwakijembe, Korogwe, Handeni, 
Arusha-Moshi Rd., 1951 ; Kihurio, Same, Mgera, 1952 (P. B. Kemp). 

Nyasaland : Lower Shire, 17 miles north of Port Herald, Bilila near Fort John- 
stone, Mpatamanga Gorge, 1953 (W. A. Sands and W. Wilkinson). 

Zanzibar : Paje, Ras Fumba, 1951 (W. V. Harris). 



Range in mm. 


Mean 


I 02-1 -55 


I 30 


0-78-1 -18 


096 


• 64-0 • 89 


0-79 


• 68-1 • 00 


0-84 


• 65-0 • 86 


080 


0-32-0-43 


0-39 


0-54-0-74 


0-64 


o- 68-0 -93 


0-82 



146 A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 

Aden : Western Aden Protectorate, Abyan in the Wadi Bana near Ga'ar, and 
Al Sura, south of Mudia, 195 1 (W. V. Harris). 

This species has been recorded from dead wood, dung, and on several occasions 
from the nests of other termites, particularly those of Macrotermes spp. 

The type locality, Messina on the Limpopo River, must be near the southern 
limit of the range, since this is an East African species. 



Amitermes sciangallorum Ghidini 
(Text-figs. 4H ; 50 ; 6g) 

Amitermes sciangallorum Ghidini, 1941, Bol. Soc. ent. ital. 73 (2) : 30-34, Ethiopia 
Amitermes sp. II (part) Kemp, 1955, Bull. ent. Res. 38 : 125. 



Murle 



Imago. Unknown. 

Soldier. The following additions to Ghidini's description are necessary. Head 
capsule in profile, continuously curved from fontanelle to occiput, top of head evenly 
curved. Mandibles slender, evenly and lightly curved from near base to apex ; 
tooth distinctly behind middle, prominent, erect, equilaterally triangular ; inner 
margin a regular curve from base of tooth to apex, or slightly shallower near base 
of tooth. Antennae 14 segmented. III and IV subequal, shorter than V ; II as long 
as III and IV combined. Head capsule with scattered setae. 

Pronotum with anterior border entire or slightly emarginate, anterior lobe large. 
Anterior coxae with 3-5 spines grouped on front surface. Rest of legs with setae 
and tibial spurs. 



Length of head capsule 

Greatest width of head 

Width of head at base of mandibles 

Depth of head 

Length of left mandible . 

Length of pronotum 

Width of pronotum 

Length of hind tibia 



Range in mm. 


Mean 


I • 04-1 • 07 


I 05 


• 84-0 • 88 


086 


o- 68-0 -72 


0-70 


• 68-0 • 72 


0-72 


• 72-0 • 78 


0-75 


036 




0-54 




0-70-0-75 


073 



Worker. Colour yellowish- white. Postclypeus slightly more swollen than in 
A. spinifer Silvestri. Third marginal tooth of left mandible usually protrudes 
slightly beyond cutting edge connecting it with first marginal. 

The soldier resembles A . spinifer in size and colour, but the mandibles are distinct. 
The head profile is similar to A . acinacifer, to which it is probably related. 

Tanganyika : Kumburu, Mwakijembe, Ngomeni, 1951 ; Kihurio, Mnazi, 1952 
(P. B. Kemp). 

Three of the four records are from dead logs and stumps, the fourth from a mound 
with Trinervitermes sp. and two other species of Amitermes. 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 147 




Fig. 6. a-l, left mandibles of soldier castes showing range of variation ; m, n, anterior coxae 
of soldier caste showing presence and absence of coxal spines. 

A. Amitermes acinacifer sp. nov.; b. Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri ; c. Amitermes hastatus 
(Haviland) ; d. Amitermes importunus sp. nov.; e. Amitermes lonnhergianus (Sjostedt) ; 
F, M. Amitermes messinae Fuller ; g. Amitermes sciangallorum Ghidini ; h. Amitermes 
somaliensis Sjostedt ; i. Amitermes spinifer Silvestri ; j. Amitermes stephensoni Harris ; 
K. Amitermes truncatidens sp. nov.; l, n. Amitermes unidentatus (Wasmann). 



148 A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 

Amitermes somaliensis Sjostedt 
(Text-figs. 2G ; 3F ; 41 ; 5H ; 6h) 

Amitermes somaliensis Sjostedt, 1927, Rev. zool. afric. 15 : 97-104, Somaliland : Villagio Duca 
Abruzzi. 

Imago. Previously undescribed. 

Female, head and pronotum sepia-brown, postclypeus paler, yeUow-brown. 
Antennae pale yellow-brown, labrum pale yellow. Thoracic sclerites, pronotum, 
excepted, legs, and small patches at lateral margins of abdominal sternites, pale 
yellow-brown, rest of abdominal sternites yellowish-white. Abdominal tergites 
pale sepia brown. Wings translucent pale brown, subcosta and radius sector largely 
pale yellow, radius sector sepia brown at base with narrow sepia brown streak 
running parallel to and touching posterior edge, throughout its length. Rest of 
venation brown. 

Posterior margin of head almost semicircular ; fontanelle pale, broad oval to 
almost circular, slightly smaller than ocelli, weakly depressed ; eyes as long as post- 
clypeus ; ocelli small, separated from eyes by own width or slightly less ; post- 
clypeus weakly inflated, length rather more than half breadth, posterior margin 
evenly convex, anterior margin straight ; left mandible with third marginal tooth 
distinctly protruding beyond sinuate cutting edge joining it to first marginal, apical 
equal in length to first marginal ; antennae 15 segmented, II equal to III and IV 
together, V longer than these but shorter than II, 

Pronotum narrower than head across eyes, anterior margin straight, sides broadly 
rounded, converging to slightly emarginate posterior. 

Pubescence of sclerites pale, fine, rather sparse and scattered, that of interseg- 
mental membrane of abdomen shorter, curved, evenly distributed, yellowish. 

Male, as female, except wings slightly shorter. 







Range in mm. 


Mean 


Head width across eyes . 


o- 86-0 -93 


089 


Greatest diameter of 


eye 


0-2I-0-23 


0-22 


Ocellus . 




• 07-0 • 08 X • 08-0 • 10 


• 07 X • 09 


Ocellus to eye 




• 04-0 • 08 


005 


Width of pronotum 




• 68-0 • 75 


0-73 


Length of pronotum 




0-43-0-50 


0-46 


Length of hind tibia 




0-82-0 -89 


0-85 


Length of fore wing 




8 • 20-8 • 90 


8-6o 



Described from two collections containing many alates from Marsabit, Northern 
Kenya. 

MoRPHOTYPE LOCALITY. Kenya : Marsabit, Northern Frontier Province, 
10.iii.53 (W. A. Sands, Coll. No. 486). Morphotypes in British Museum (Natural 
History). 

Soldier. A greater range of size variation than that recorded by Sjostedt is 
now known. Anterior coxae with 2-3 small spines. 



Range in mm. 


Mean 


i-o6-i-i8 


I 16 


0-78-0-86 


o-8i 


o • 66-0 • 72 


0-70 


• 68-0 • 72 


0-7I 


0-57-0-65 


058 


0-32 




0-52-0-54 


0-53 


• 68-0 • 70 


0-68 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 149 

Length of head capsule 

Greatest width of head 

Width of head at base of mandibles 

Depth of head 

Length of left mandible . 

Length of pronotum 

Width of pronotum 

Length of hind tibia 

All the specimens correspond exactly with Sjostedt's description of this species. 

Kenya : Northern Frontier Province, Marsabit, 1953 (W. A. Sands). 

Five samples were collected in this area, from the surface layers of mounds of 
Macrotermes bellicosus (Smeathman). This habitat agrees with the original record, 
and confirms the identity of the specimens. One soldier apparently of this species 
is recorded from southern Nyasaland, but it cannot be definitely identified in view 
of the discontinuity of the distribution involved. 



Amitermes spinifer Silvestri 
(Text-figs. 2H ; 30 ; 4J ; 51 ; 61) 

Hamitermes spinifer Silvestri, 1914, Boll. Lab. zool. Portici 9 : 3-146, Senegal : Dakar, Thi6s. 
Amitermes sp. II (part) Kemp, 1955, Bull. ent. Res. 38 : 125. 

Imago. Previously undescribed. 

Female, head and pronotum dark sepia brown, postclypeus paler, yellow-brown. 
Antennae brown, apices of segments yellowish- white. Labrum yellow. Meso- and 
metanota yellow, other thoracic sclerites yellow-brown. Abdominal tergites and 
lateral parts of sternites, sepia brown. Legs, femora yellow, tibiae yellow-brown 
at base, paler distally, tarsi yellow. Middle parts of abdominal sternites yellowish- 
white. Wings translucent, brown, venation sepia brown. 

Posterior margin of head almost semicircular ; fontanelle smaller than ocelli, 
very slightly depressed, with very small pale extension from anterior and between 
two short diverging shallow grooves ; eyes distinctly longer than postclypeus ; 
ocelli of medium size, separated from eyes by about half own width ; postclypeus 
inflated, length about half breadth or slightly less, posterior margin convex, arched 
in middle, straighter laterally, anterior margin straight or slightly concave ; antennae 
15 segmented, III half as long as II, IV and V subequal, shorter than II, longer than 
III. 

Pronotum distinctly narrower than head across eyes, anterior margin straight 
or slightly sinuate, sides broadly rounded, converging to very weakly emarginate 
posterior. 

Pubescence of sclerites pale, that of intersegmental membrane of abdomen curved, 
yellowish. 

Male, as female, except posterior abdominal sternites uniformly brown, inter- 
segmental pubescence of abdomen sparser, wings very slightly shorter. 



150 A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 



Head width across eyes 
Greatest diameter of eye 
Ocellus . 
Ocellus to eye 
Width of pronotum 
Length of pronotum 
Length of hind tibia 
Length of fore wing 





Range in mm. 


Mean 


o- 89-0- 91 


0-90 




o- 22-0 23 


0-23 




0-07-0 -09 xo- 10-0-13 


- 08 X • n 




• 02-0 - 04 


0-03 




• 68-0 • 77 


0-72 




0-43-0-47 


0-44 




0-82-0-93 


0-89 




7-7-8-I 


80 



Described from two series of alates and a separate queen from different localities 
in Nigeria. 

MoRPHOTYPE LOCALITY. NIGERIA : Northern Region, 30 miles from Lokoja on 
the Okene road, in mound of Cuhitermes sp., 8.iii.58 (W. A. Sands, Coll. No. 2092). 
Morphotj^es in British Museum (Natural History). 

Soldier. The following data and measurements must be added to Silvestri's 
description. Tooth of mandible highly variable, from backwardly directed in a 
continuous line with the inner margin anterior to it, to prominent, erect, directed 
slightly forwards, obliquely truncated and sharply pointed ; inner margin a regular 
curve from base of tooth to apex. 



Length of head capsule 

Greatest width of head 

Width of head at base of mandibles 

Depth of head 

Length of left mandible . 

Length of pronotum 

Width of pronotum 

Length of hind tibia 



Range in mm. 


Mean 


0-89-1 -18 


1-03 


0-74-0-91 


0-83 


0-58-0-68 


0-64 


0-61-0-72 


0-65 


0-61-0-72 


0-65 


0-29-0-32 


030 


0-47-0-54 


0-50 


- 68-0 • 75 


0-71 



Worker. Postclypeus flatter than in A. acinacifer. Third marginal tooth of 
left mandible not distinct from cutting edge connecting it with first marginal. 

The soldier mandibles of A. spinifer are the most variable of any African species, 
the range having been established from a large amount of material from East and 
West Africa. The type specimens have been examined and compared with similar 
series from Nigeria. They fall near to but not at the extreme of reduction of the 
mandibular tooth. 

Other records 

Sierra Leone: Freetown, 1958 (W.Wilkinson). 

Nigeria : 12 m. from Tula on Numan Road, Yola, Zinna, 22 m. from Beli on 
Jalingo Road, Samaru, 1957 ; and 20 m. from Yandev on Makurdi Road, 1958 
(W. A. Sands). 

Uganda : Moroto, and 40 m. from Moroto on Scroti Road, 1952 (W. A. Sands). 

Kenya : Kinango, Kwale, 1952 (P. B. Kemp), between Tharka and Meru, 1953 
(W. A. Sands). 

Tanganyika : Kumburu-Ngomeni, 195 1 (P. B. Kemp). 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 151 

This small species has been collected from the mounds of other genera, mainly 
those of Cubitermes, but has rarely been found in dead wood. 

Its distribution in Kenya and Tanganyika appears to be restricted to small areas 
of suitable savannah on the lower slopes of mountains or hills. 



Amitermes stephensoni Harris 
(Text-figs. 21 ; 3H ; 4K ; 5J ; 6j) 

Amitermes stephensoni Harris, 1957, B.M.N.H. Rept. Exp. S.W. Arabia : 421-433, Eastern 
Aden Protectorate, Saiun in the Hadhramaut. 

Imago. Previously undescribed. 

Female, head and pronotum dark sepia brown, postclypeus only slightly paler, 
yellow-brown. Antennae pale brown, apices of segments yellowish-white. Labrum 
yellow-brown. Thoracic sclerites apart from pronotum, abdominal tergites and 
lateral parts of sternites sepia brown. Legs, femora yellow-brown, tibiae brown, 
paler at tips, tarsi, including claws, yellow-brown. Middle parts of abdominal 
sternites pale yellow to yellow-brown, posterior segments sometimes uniformly 
brown. Wings, translucent, brown, venation mainly sepia brown, subcosta with 
paler streak along posterior edge, more noticeable towards wing tip. 

Posterior margin of head broadly rounded, not almost semicircular as in the other 
species, usually slightly sinuate immediately behind eyes ; fontanelle pale, broad 
oval, half as large as ocelli or less, with small parallel-sided pale extension from anter- 
ior end ; eyes as long as postclypeus ; ocelli of medium size, separated from eyes 
by slightly less than own width ; postclypeus inflated, length about half width or 
slightly more, posterior margin evenly convex, anterior margin straight ; left mandi- 
ble with third marginal tooth not distinct from cutting edge connecting it to first 
marginal ; antennae 15 segmented, II equal to III and IV together, IV and V subequal, 
slightly longer than III. 

Pronotum narrower than head across eyes, anterior margin straight, sides broadly 
rounded, converging to emarginate posterior. 

Pubescence of sclerites fine, pale, rather sparse and scattered, that of intersegmental 
membrane of abdomen very short, fine and pale. 

Male, as female, except posterior abdominal sternites uniformly brown, wings 
slightly shorter. 



Head width across eyes 
Greatest diameter of eye 
Ocellus 

Ocellus to eye 
Width of pronotum 
Length of pronotum 
Length of hind tibia 
Length of fore wing 





Range in mm. 


Mean 


I-OO-I-II 


I -06 




• 24-0 • 29 


0-27 




o-o8-o-09Xo-ii-oi3 


• 08 X • 1 2 




• 04-0 • 08 


0*07 




o- 82-0 '97 


0-91 




0-54-0-64 


0'6o 




0-97-I-I3 


I 05 




9 • 80-10 -o 


9 40 



152 A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 

Described from numerous specimens from Nigeria. 

MoRPHOTYPE LOCALITY. NIGERIA : Northern Region, 43 m. from Maiduguri 
on the Potiskum road, 31. v. 57 (W. A. Sands Coll. No. 8,1615), Morphotypes in 
British Museum (Natural History), 

Soldier. The new material of this species has necessitated some additions to 
Harris's description. 

Head capsule mainly pale yellow sometimes yellow-brown to brown at sides and 
in front of fontanelle. 

Head profile with upper surface straight or slightly curved between swelling above 
fontanelle and sharper curve to occiput. Mandibles over half as long as head, relative 
width in front of and behind tooth variable ; tooth at or slightly behind middle, 
prominent and erect, obliquely truncated, triangular or rounded ; inner margin 
usually a continuous curve from base of tooth to apex, sometimes slightly sinuate 
near tooth. 

Anterior coxae with at least one spine on front surface, often two or three. 



Length of head capsule 

Greatest width of head 

Width of head at base of mandibles 

Depth of head 

Length of left mandible 

Length of pronotum 

Width of pronotum 

Length of hind tibia 



Range in mm. 


Mean 


I-II-I-39 


1-28 


0-96-1 -17 


I -II 


0-72-0 -84 


0-78 


0-80-0-91 


0-87 


0-72-0-95 


0-86 


0-32-0-46 


0-40 


0.57-0-77 


0-68 


0-72-1-09 


0-89 



Worker, Left mandible similar to that of imago, except that the cutting edge 
between first and third marginals is sometimes slightly more concave. Spines are 
present on anterior coxae. 

These characters distinguish it from A. evuncifer which often occurs in similar 
situations. 

Though the type locality for this species is Aden, this must be the extreme east- 
ward end of its range, since it occurs in the Guinean and Sudan vegetation zones in 
Nigeria. 

Other records. Only a representative selection is given. 

Nigeria : Western Region, between Shagamu and Ijebu-Ode, 1957 ; Northern 
Region, Kaura Namoda, 1956 ; 10 m. North of Bida, Tula, Yola, 19 m. South of 
Beli, 22 m. from Lokoja on Kabba Road, 32 m, from Damaturu on Potiskum Road, 
1957 and 1958 (W. A. Sands). 

This species has only rarely been taken from dead wood ; in most cases it has been 
collected from the mounds built by other species or genera, mainly those of Macro- 
termes and Trinervitermes spp., but not uncommonly in Odontotermes and Cubitermes 
mounds. 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 153 

Amitermes truncatidens sp. nov. 

(Text-figs. 2j ; 31 ; 4L ; 5K ; 6k) 

Amitermes Hmpopoensis Fuller ; Harris, 1958, Explor. Pare. nat. Upemba Miss, de Witte, 52 (i) : 
1-26. 

Imago. Female, head and pronotum mainly sepia brown. Postclypeus and a 
somewhat diffuse streak from posterior margin of eye to back of head, paler, yellow- 
brown. Labrum, antennae, ventral parts of thorax, femora, tarsi and median parts 
of abdominal sternites, pale yellow. Lateral parts of thorax, tibiae and lateral parts 
of abdominal sternites, pale yellow-brown. Meso- and metanota and abdominal 
tergites, brown. 

Posterior margin of head almost semicircular, fontanelle oval, with small narrow 
pale extension anteriorly, slightly depressed ; frons with two small pale grooves 
diverging from near ventral end of fontanelle extension ; eyes about as long as 
postclypeus ; ocelli of medium size, separated from eyes by slightly less than own 
width ; postclypeus about half as long as broad, inflated, anterior margin straight, 
posterior margin evenly convex ; antennae 15 segmented, IV and V subequal, 
III shorter, II longer than these ; left mandible, third marginal tooth protrudes 
beyond cutting edge connecting it with first marginal. 

Pronotum narrower than head across eyes, anterior margin straight, sides slightly 
sinuate, converging to distinctly emarginate posterior. 

Entire insect finely pubescent, setae of intersegmental membrane shorter than 
others. 



Male, as female. 












Range in mm. 


Mean 


Head width across eyes . 


I -07 


— 


Greatest diameter of 


eye 


0-29-0 -30 


0-29 


Ocellus 




o- 08-0 -09 xo- 12-0 -13 


0-09x0-13 


Ocellus to eye 




• 05-0 • 07 


0-07 


Width of pronotum 




0-89 


— 


Length of pronotum 




050 


— 


Length of hind tibia 




I -07-1 13 


I -09 


Length of fore wing. 




9- 50-10-0 


9-67 



Soldier, Head capsule pale yellow ; mandibles yellow-brown at base, chestnut- 
brown at tips ; antennae pale yellow, rest of body yellowish-white except where 
gut contents show through abdomen. 

Head in plan view distinctly longer than broad, sides convex, converging slightly 
anteriorly ; posterior margin evenly rounded or nearly so. In profile, continuously 
curved from fontanelle to occiput, curve shallower in front. Mandibles slightly 
less than half as long as head, rather stout, strongly hooked ; tooth slightly behind 
middle, prominent, erect, transversely to obliquely truncated ; inner margin a 
regular curve from base of tooth to apex. Antennae 14-15 segmented, proportions 
of basal segments variable, II longer than III, IV or V. Head capsule almost devoid 
of setae except surrounding fontanelle. 

Pronotum, anterior margin entire or slightly emarginate. Legs almost without 



154 A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 



setae or spines except at distal ends of tibiae and tarsi ; anterior coxae without 
spines or setae. 



Length of head capsule . 

Greatest width of head 

Width of head at base of mandibles 

Depth of head 

Length of left mandible . 

Length of pronotum 

Width of pronotum 

Length of hind tibia 



Range in mm. 


Mean 


I -33-1 -61 


1-50 


I 07-1 -30 


I -20 


0-78-0 -90 


0-83 


0-9I-I-I2 


I 03 


• 64-0 • 74 


0-70 


0-32-0 -40 


0-36 


- 62-0 • 72 


0-67 


0-89-1-04 


0-97 



Worker. Indistinguishable from A . evuncifer Silv. 

A. truncatidens closely resembles A. evuncifer in all castes, and may ultimately 
prove to be a southern race of that species. In the present absence of intermediate 
forms it can be distinguished in the alate caste by the broader oval fontanelle, and 
the shallow diverging pale grooves on the frons. The soldier head capsule is more 
inflated above the fontanelle, and the mandibular tooth is usually more transversely 
truncated. 

Described from 22 alates and numerous soldiers from the type colony, and many 
soldiers from other localities. 

Type locality. Tanganyika : Nachingwea, 22 . x . 50 (W. V. Harris, Coll. 
No. 756). 

Holotype female, allotype male, morphotype soldier and paratypes in British 
Museum (Natural History). 

Other records. A representative selection is given. 

Nyasaland : Near Mpatamanga Gorge, Kasungu, 60 m. from Mzimba on Rumpi 
Road, Songwe River, 1953 (W. A. Sands and W. Wilkinson). 

Northern Rhodesia : Choma : Siamambo, near Kitwe, Lake Bangweulu, 
Lusaka, 1957 (W. G. H. Coaton), Barotseland, 1956 (E. N. Cooling). 

Southern Rhodesia : Salisbury, 1911 (G. A. K. Marshall). 

Angola : Munhango, 1928 (M. Burr). 

This species is common in dead wood, and in carton nests of its own construction, 
but has also been recorded from the mounds of various Macrotermitinae. 



Amitermes unidentatus (Wasmann) 

(Text-figs. 2K ; 3, J, k ; 4M ; 5L ; 6, l, n) 

Termes unidentatus Wasmann, 1897, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. 21 : 137-182, Bawi Island Zanzibar. 
Hamitermes {" Termes ") unidentatus (Wasmann) ; Wasmann, 191 o, Voeltzkow, Reise Ostafrika, 

3 : 117-127. 
Eutermes meruensis Sjostedt, 1911, Ent. Tidskr. 32 : 173-188. 
Hamitermes {Hamitermes) meruensis (Sjostedt); Holmgren, 1912, K. svenska Vetensk. Akad. 

Handl. 48 (4) : 1-166. 
Hamitermes elongatus Silvestri, 1914, Boll. Lab. zool. Portici, 9 : 3-146. 
Hamitermes limpopoensis Fuller, 1922, 5. Afr. J. nat. Hist. 3 (2) : 70-131. 



A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 155 

Amitermes unidentatus (Wasmann) ; Sjostedt, 1926, K. svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. (3) 3 (i) : 

1-419. and also Rev. zool. africaine, 14 (i) : 141-164. 
Amitermes (Amitermes) elongatus Silvestri : Emerson, 1928, Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 57 : 

401-574. 
Amitermes macrocephalus Ghidini, 1941, Bol. Soc. ent. ital. 73 : 30-34. 

Imago. Some additions to Sjostedt's description are necessary. 

Fontanelle, larger than ocelli, variable, flat to deeply depressed, sometimes 
very large, more than half diameter of eye ; postclypeus inflated, posterior margin 
convex, slightly sinuate laterally, anterior margin straight ; left mandible with 
third marginal tooth distinct, distance between apical and first marginal usually 
less than that between first and third marginals ; antennae 14-15 segmented. 





Range in mm. 


Mean 


Head width across eyes . 


I • 04-1 • 22 


I-I2 


Greatest diameter of eye 


0-26-0 -32 


0-30 


Ocellus .... 


• 07-0 • 09 X • 09-0 • 13 


0-08 xo- 10 


Ocellus to eye 


• 05-0 • 09 


0-07 


Width of pronotum 


• 86-1 • I I 


0-98 


Length of pronotum 


0-56-0 -75 


0-65 


Length of hind tibia 


1-04-1-33 


I -20 


Length of fore wing 


8-40-12-0 


lO-I 



Soldier. Highly variable in shape and proportions of head capsule and mandibles. 
In plan view, head usually approximates to rectangular ; in profile, continuously 
curved from fontanelle to occiput, curve shallower in front. Tooth of soldier mandible 
varies from prominent to vestigial. Anterior coxal spines absent in both soldier 
and worker. 

Length of head capsule 

Greatest width of head 

"Width of head at base of mandibles 

Depth of head 

Length of left mandible . 

Length of pronotum 

Width of pronotum 

Length of hind tibia 

The cotypes of A . elongatus Silvestri, A . limpopoensis Fuller, and A . macrocephalus 
Ghidini have been examined, together with topotypes of A. meruensis (Sjostedt) 
and a large quantity of material of A. unidentatus (Wasm.) including topotypes. 
They form a continuous range of variation, and therefore A. elongatus Silv., A. 
limpopoensis Fuller, A. meruensis (Sjost.) and A. macrocephalus Ghidini must be 
reduced to synonyms of A. unidentatus (Wasm.). Sjostedt's record of A. unidentatus 
from the Gold Coast {Ark. Zool. 18 (12) : 1-5) would appear to be anomalous in 
view of the known distribution of the species. The specimens have not been examined 
and cannot therefore be assigned to the correct species, but it has been disregarded 
in preparing the map of distribution of the genus. 

This species is distinguished from A. truncatidens sp. nov., A. evuncifer Silvestri, 



Range in mm. 


Mean 


I-I3-I-79 


1-55 


0-96-1-39 


I-I7 


0-72-0-93 


0-84 


0-75-I-II 


0-96 


• 66-0 - 90 


0-81 


0-32-0-47 


039 


0-57-0-84 


073 


0-87-1 -14 


I 03 



156 A REVISION OF THE TERMITES OF THE GENUS AMITERMES 

and A. importunus sp. nov. by the less prominent tooth of the soldier mandible ; 
from A. messinae Fuller and A. spinifer Silvestri by the absence of spines from the 
anterior coxae, in both soldier and worker castes. 

A representative selection from the large number of records of this species is given. 

Uganda : Toror Hills, Karamoja District, 1952 (W. A. Sands). 

Kenya : Malindi, Samburu, Shimba Hills, 1950, Voi, 1952 (W. V. Harris) ; 01 
Donyo Sapuk, Ngong Hills, 1952, Marsabit, Lolokwi, Uaso Nyero, Isiolo, Tharaka- 
Meru, 1953 (W. A. Sands). 

Tanganyika : Kirando, 1933 ; Uvinza, 1934 ; Mafia Is., 1937 ; Ngare Nanyuki 
(topotypes of A. meruensis (Sjost.)), Bomangombe, 1950 (W. V. Harris). Shinyanga, 
Tabora, 1948 ; Itigi, Singida, 1949 ; Babati, Tanga, 1950 ; Amani, 1951 ; Sama, 
Handeni, Mwakijembe, 1952 (P. B. Kemp). 

Zanzibar: Bawi Is. (topotypes of A. unidentatus (Wasm.)), Mangapwani, 1951 
(W. V. Harris). 

Ruanda Urundi : Nshiri-Kibungu, 1952 (W. V. Harris). 

Nyasaland : Localities from Salima southwards to Chiromo, 1953 (W. A. Sands 
and W. Wilkinson). 

Many of these records are from dead branches, tree stumps, and similar habitats. 
It also frequently constructs low hard mounds of a mixture of soil and carton. On 
a few occasions, it has been found in mounds built by other termites such as Cuhitermes 
and Pseudacanthotermes spp., but this is uncommon. It is the commonest and most 
widespread species occurring in East Africa. 



acknowledgments 

I wish to thank Dr. W. G. H. Coaton for sending type material from the Fuller 
collection from South Africa, and for his generous loan of material from his own 
collection from Northern Rhodesia. My thanks are also due to the Trustees of the 
British Museum (Natural History) for permission to examine types and other material 
in the termite collection. 

summary 

Examination of a large amount of material collected by members of the Colonial 
Termite Research Unit and other workers has led to the conclusion that the genus 
Amitermes is represented by 13 species in the entire Ethiopian zoogeographical region, 
and of these, three are new to science. In four species the imago is described for the 
first time. Three species are removed from the genus, having been found to belong 
to the subfamily Termitinae. 

The reduction of 17 species to synonyms is based on a study of the wide range of 
variation, which is described and discussed. Keys are provided to the known 
soldiers and alates. 

The distribution of the genus is characterized by the occurrence of comparable 
groups of a few species of similar ecological significance in the different vegetation 
zones of the region. 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY 
ADLARD AND SON, LIMITED 
BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 



THE WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES 

(TEPHRITIDAE-DIPTERA) 

IN THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM COLLECTION 




D. ELMO HARDY 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 5 

LONDON: 1959 



mff 



THE WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES 

(TEPHRITIDAE-DIPTERA) 

IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM COLLECTION 



BY 



D. ELMO HARDY I 

University of Hawaii, College of Agriculture, 
Agricultural Experiment Station, Honolulu, Hawaii 




Pp. 159-242 ; Plates 11-16 



^ 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 5 

LONDON: 19^9 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical Series. 

Parts appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

This paper is Vol. 8, No. 5 of the Entomological 
series. 



Trustees of the British Museum, 1959 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Issued November, 1959 Pnoe Thirty Shillings 



► 



THE WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES 

(TEPHRITIDAE-DIPTERA) 

IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM COLLECTION^ 

By D. ELMO HARDY 

CONTENTS 

Page 
Introduction ........... 159 

Alphabetical Arrangement of the Walker Species which I Studied, 

Original Combinations ......... 160 

Check List of the Walker Species Treated in this Paper, Corrected 

Combinations ........... 228 

List of the Walker Species of Fruit Flies which I Did Not Study . 238 
Francis Walker's Papers in which Fruit Flies are Described . .241 

Explanation of Figures ......... 244 

While at the British Museum (Natural History) during the summer of 1954 I studied, 
as thoroughly as possible in the time available, the types of the species which 
Francis Walker had described under genera of fruit flies and also the species of 
Tephritidae which I could find in the collection which Walker had described under 
other family combinations (subfamilies of Walker). My original plan had been to 
study the Walker species belonging in the subfamily Dacinae but after the work 
got under way it became obvious that his generic concepts were so confused and so 
much synonymy and changing of names was involved that I decided I should study 
as many of his species as possible. From the literature I have accumulated a list 
of 172 species which Walker described under genera which belong in the Tephritidae. 
I have studied 127 of these, plus four species described under Helomyza and Noeeta, 
and I am reporting on these in this paper. I am appending a list of the 51 species 
(all described as Trypeta, except for three as Tephritis and four as Helomyza) which 
I did not have an opportunity to study. Nine of these could not be found in the 
British Museum collection and the types may be lost. I have checked the National 
Museum of Victoria at Melbourne, Australia, and apparently none of these is present 
in that collection. 

Walker's fruit-flies were described under the family Muscidae and in the subfamilies 
Ortalides and Helomyzides. His generic, as well as family, concepts were somewhat 
confused and many of the species which he described as Dacus and Trypeta belong 
in the families Otitidae, Pyrgotidae, Chloropidae and Lauxaniidae ; some of his 
" Helomyzides " belong to various genera of Tephritidae. 

^ Published with the approval of the Director of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station as 
Technical Paper No. 429. 

ENTOM. 8, 5. 9 



i6o WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

It has been impossible to deal with most of Walker's species in the past and many 
of these have never been properly placed in the literature. It is hoped that this 
study will clarify most of the confusion which has existed regarding the species 
treated here. 

I am treating the Walker species in alphabetical order under the original generic 
combinations. I have attempted, as far as possible, to place each species in its 
correct generic combination and to record all synonyms which came to light as a 
result of this study. I am also presenting a check list of these species arranged 
alphabetically under their correct generic combinations. In order to place many 
of the species properly it has been necessary to do revisional studies on certain 
of the genera involved. These studies will be published following this paper. 

I am much indebted to Harold Oldroyd, Paul Freeman, and D. J. Clark of the British 
Museum (Nat. Hist.) staff, and to the late F. Van Emden of the Commonwealth 
Institute of Entomology for the constant help given me while making this study. 
The drawings have been made by my wife, Agnes Hardy ; these should add 
materially to the value of this study. 



ALPHABETICAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE WALKER SPECIES 
ACCORDING TO THEIR ORIGINAL COMBINATIONS 

Adrama consors Walker 
(PI. II, fig. I) 

1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 296. 

The type was not labeled. One specimen (sex?) is in the collection which might 
possibly be the type. It is labeled " East Indies, Bachan ", plus a handwritten 
label " consors ". The specimen is in poor condition, the abdomen is lost, the head 
has been broken off and glued on a card ; the legs and thorax are intact and the 
wings are good except one is broken at the tip. 

It does not belong to the genus Adrama Walker. The femora are without ventral 
spines ; vein R2 + 3 is not wavy ; the humeral bristle is absent and only the basal 
scutellar bristles are present (two scutellars). It is an Adramini and runs to Sosiopsila 
Bezzi in Hering's key (1941, Siruna Seva, 3 : 4) but is very different from any of the 
species in the British Museum collection. I see no distinct generic differences except 
possibly that the cubital cell in consors is produced into an acute lobe at lower apex 
and is but slightly produced in Sosiopsila. Also in the latter, the lower apex of cell 
ist M2 is farther from the wing apex (last section of vein M3+4 about equal in length 
to r-m crossvein) ; in consors it is very close to wing margin, scarcely one-half the 
length of the r-m crossvein. 

I am considering this under the new combination Sosiopsila consors (Walker) 
until the group can be more thoroughly studied. S. consors is a large, chiefly rufous 
species. It is very distinctive because of the presence of a very narrow brown costal 
band extending from the apex of subcosta to about middle of cell R5. The cubital 
cell is also chiefly yellow fumose (refer to PI. 11, fig. i). Thorax : Entirely rufous 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM i6i 

except for a pair of characteristic eye-like black spots, one on each side just before 
suture. The pleuroterga are covered with fine hairs. Head : Face entirely yellow. 
Front yellow with a large black spot above lunule. Apparently one pair of inferior 
fronto-orbital and one pair of superior fronto-orbital bristles present on the front. 
Antenna yellow, third segment about three times longer than wide. Arista short 
plumose, longest hairs scarcely more than width of basal portion of arista. Legs : 
All rufous to yellow, the middle tibia has one long and one medium-sized apical spur. 
Length : Wings, Q-o-q-s mm. 



Adrama selecta Walker 
(PI. II, fig. 2) 
1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 118. 

This is the type of the genus Adrama Walker. 

The type is apparently not in the British Museum collection. One male specimen, 
in good condition, is present from "New Guinea, Bachan, A. R. Wallace, B.M. 
1858-142"; the type was from " Aru Island" (Aroe). Another specimen (sex?), 
in poor condition, lacking both head and abdomen is labeled " New Guinea W. W. 
Saunders B.M. 1869-4". The latter had been determined as Adrama selecta by 
F. A. Perkins, University of Queensland. 

The male specimen which Perkins (1939, Univ. of Queensland Papers, Dept. Biol. 
1 (10) : 5) mentioned, " with the abdomen missing from Aru Is. {A. R. Wallace) ", 
as having been studied from the British Museum collection was probably the type. 
It is not known what happened to the specimen ; however, I was not able to find it 
in the collection. 

Enicoptera rufiventris Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 163. New 
synonymy based upon a comparison of the type of the latter with the Adrama 
selecta specimens in the British Museum collection. 

According to Osten Sacken (1881, Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 
di Genova, 16 : 474), Psila cruciata Walker (1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 
8 : 126) is a synonym of selecta. I was unable to find the type of cruciata in the British 
Museum collection and am unable to confirm this. 

A. selecta has been adequately described by Perkins {loc. cit.) but his wing photo- 
graph is not good. A rather distinct transverse band extends across the middle of 
the wing from the costal margin, over the r-m crossvein through the middle of cell 
1st M2, to vein M3 + 4 and the apical portion of the wing is more intensely fumose 
than is shown in Perkin's figure. The apical portion beyond the level of the m cross- 
vein is fumose, this fumosity fades out slightly in the apices of cells R5 and 2nd 
M2 (PI. II, fig. 2). 

The species is related to A . determinata (Walker) but is differentiated by having the 
propleura and sternum of thorax entirely rufous and by having two black spots on 
the face. 

Length : Wing, S-o-g-o mm. 



i62 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Callantra smieroides Walker 

i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 154. 

Walker's description indicated a female but the specimen in the collection labeled 
type and with Walker's handwritten label " smieroides " is a male. It is in rather 
poor condition, the wings and most of the legs are missing. The specimen is labeled 
" Macassar, Celebes, A. R. Wallace ". 

This is the type of Callantra Walker and the species has been correctly interpreted 
in the literature. For a description and figures refer to Hardy & Adachi (1954, 
Pac. Set. 8 (2) : 151-152). 

Dacus absolutus Walker 
1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 22. 

The type female from " Ceram, A. R. Wallace, 68-4 " is in good condition but the 
specimen is obviously teneral ; the ptilinum is still partly protruded. The mesonotum 
seems well colored but the wings are pale, the markings are not distinct. This 
apparently is a Dacus {Neodacus) and was not included in my revision (Hardy, 
1954, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 56 (1) : 5-23). It runs to couplet 5 but is quite different 
from any of the species treated. The costal band is rather faint (tenerality?), it appears 
to be rather narrow, extending just through the top margin of cell R3 ; it is not 
broad as in those which fit in couplet 7 and the mesonotum has but two postsutural 
yellow stripes. In this regard it keys to ajfmis Hardy, from India, but the costal 
band is not interrupted and no isolated wing spot is present, etc. 

Descriptive Notes on the Type 

Head : Front almost two times longer than wide, chiefly yellow, discolored with 
brown in the median portion and with two pairs of inferior fronto-orbital bristles. 
Face with a pair of moderately large, round black spots. The first two antennal 
segments are rufous, the third is reddish brown ; the third segment is slightly longer 
than the face. Thorax : Predominantly black in ground color, the mesonotum is 
rather densely gray pollinose with no evidence of longitudinal vittae. The lateral 
yellow stripes are very broad and extend to the hind margin of the mesonotum. The 
top margin of the pleura is almost entirely rufous from the humerus to the wing base, 
a slight discoloration of brown through the front margin of the mesopleura separates 
the yellow rufous coloring of the mesopleural stripe from being continuous with that 
of the humerus. Scutellum tinged with brown (it may be slightly discolored in this 
specimen), the apical portion appears to have a faint discoloration of brown but no 
distinct brown mark is present. Wings : As described above with no distinct brown 
costal band but with rather faint yellow fumosity extending along the costa to the 
apex of vein R4 + 5, this extends along the top margin of cell R3. The cubital streak 
is not pronounced, there is no distinct fumosity in this portion of the wing. The 
first two costal cells are entirely hyaline, the second is almost completely filled with 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 163 

microtrichia ; the first has microtrichia only in the apical portion. The r-m cross- 
vein is oblique, the lower end is situated near the apical one-third of cell ist M2. 
Vein Cui + ist A is about three-fourths as long as the attenuated portion of the 
cubital cell. Abdomen : Predominantly rufous, the first tergum is broadly blackened 
on the sides and discolored with brown on the median portion. The second has a 
band of brown to black extending from near the sides across the median part of the 
segment, this is less distinct in the submedian portions. The third tergum is largely 
rufous, is black on the sides and has a narrow band of black extending across the 
median portion. The other terga are entirely rufous except for a narrow longitudinal 
black vitta extending down the middle of the fifth. Ovipositor rather elongate, the 
basal portion, in situ, is approximately equal in length to segments three to five. 
Length : Wing, 8-4 mm. 

Dacus addens Walker 
i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 149. 

The type female is in good condition, it is labeled " Celebes, A. R. Wallace, B.M. 
1858-142 ". 

This is an otitid and is the type of the genus Conicipithea Hendel, 1914, Ahh. 
Zool-Bot. Ges. Wien, 8 (1) : 29. Refer to Hendel for a discussion of this species. 

Dacus areolatus Walker 
(PI. II, fig. 3) 

1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 295. 

The type female is in good condition, it is labeled " Batchian, A. R. Wallace 
68-4 ". This is a Dacus {Paradacus) Perkins, very distinct from all known species. 
It is closest to D. per plexus Walker but is smaller, lacks the median yellow vitta on 
the thorax ; the wings are quite differently marked ; the costal cells are clear and the 
wing apex is fumose through cell R5 (PL 11, fig. 3) ; the yellow mark on each meso- 
pleuron also does not extend to the humerus. 

Descriptive Notes on the Type 

Head: Front yellow, discolored with brown in the middle and with a large brown 
spot at the base of each bristle. Two pairs of inferior fronto-orbitals are present. 
The face has two pairs of brown spots, two moderately large, oval spots in the 
usual positions in the antennal furrows and two small spots in the upper portion of 
the furrows just below the antennae. Antenna entirely yellow, the third segment 
just slightly longer than the face. Thorax: Predominantly reddish brown with a pair 
of broad, postsutural yellow stripes extending just beyond the inner alar bristle. 
That portion of thorax between humeri and notopleura reddish brown. Scutellum 
yellow with a narrow black band across the base. Wings : Predominantly brown 
fumose. The first costal cell, basal half of second costal cell, the first basal cell, and 



i64 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

cell M, are hyaline. Cell M has a small brown area covered with microtrichia at the 
lower apical portion. The basal two-fifths of cell ist M2 is hyaline. M2 also has a 
moderately small hyaline spot on the upper portion just beyond the r-m crossvein ; 
directly in line with this, above, cell R5 has a rather elongate hyaline spot. The apical 
portions of cell 2nd M2 and cell M4 are hyaline. The posterior lobes of the wing 
are also hyaline. The first costal cell is entirely bare, the second has microtrichia 
in about the apical half (refer to PL 11, fig. 3). The abdomen is entirely rufous. The 
basal segment of the ovipositor is very elongate and tubular, it is longer than the 
remainder of the abdomen as seen in situ. The base of the ovipositor is parallel 
sided, it is as broad at base as at apex. 

Length : Body, 6-8 mm.; basal segment of ovipositor, 3-5 mm. 

Dacus basalis Walker 
1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1072. 

The type male is in the collection under the genus Plagiostenopterina Hendel 
(" Ortalidae " — Otitidae). The type is labeled " Australia, Northern Terr., Port 
Essington, B.M. 1842-1 ". It is in fair condition, the parts are intact except for 
lacking one middle leg ; the body is covered with a light film of fungus. 

The species is listed under the combination Plagiostenopterina basalis (Walker) 
by Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 49, and 1914, Abh. K. K. 
Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 8 (1) : 64). 

Dacus biarcuatus Walker 

(PI. II, fig. 4) 

1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 122. 
The type male labeled " New Guinea, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 " is in fair 
condition except that one wing is missing. This is a Dacus [Strumeta) Walker, 
and appears to be on the borderline between Strumeta and Neodacus. It has a pair 
of small prescutellar bristles, but these are much more poorly developed than is 
normal for Strumeta. It more closely resembles Dacus {Neodacus) curvifer Walker 
than any known Strumeta. The wing markings are quite similar (PI. 11, fig. 4). 
It is separated by the presence of the prescutellar bristles. The postsutural yeUow 
stripes are also very short, ending halfway between the anterior and posterior 
supraalar bristles. The mesopleural stripe is more narrow and does not extend along 
the entire upper margin of the mesopleuron. The femora are dark colored (brownish) 
on the apical halves and the species is also smaller in size. 

Descriptive Notes Based on the Type 

Head : Front about one-half longer than wide, chiefly yellow with a brown 
spot at the lower median portion which has an extended arm reaching up to the upper 
inferior fronto-orbital bristle and another arm reaching to the lower inferior fronto- 
orbital bristle. The superior fronto-orbitals each have a large brown spot surrounding 
the base, these extend almost to the middle line of the front. Face with a pair of 
large, round, black spots. First antennal segment entirely yellow, rather elongate. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 165 

almost equal in length to the second segment. The third segment is long and slender, 
approximately five times longer than wide and considerably longer than the face. 
Thorax : Mesonotum entirely black, faintly grayish poUinose with no distinct 
black or gray vittae. The postsutural yellow vittae are abbreviated and extend 
only about halfway from the suture to the hind margin of the mesonotum. The 
upper front corners of the humeri are brown ; the remainder is yellow. The yellow 
vertical stripe on the mesopleuron is rather narrow, it extends over approximately 
half the width of the segment and ends at the lower portion of the mesopleuron, 
not extending to the sternopleuron. Scutellum yellow with a rather broad, black 
band across the base, this is somewhat expanded in the median portion. From a 
direct dorsal view the black mark at the base extends almost one-third the length 
of the scutellum. Wings : Chiefly dark brown fumose. The costal cells are densely 
covered with microtrichia ; the markings are as in PI. 11, fig. 4. Legs: Femora 
chiefly brown. The front and middle pairs are yellow at their bases and apices. 
The hind pair is yellow at the base. The hind tibia is entirely brown. The middle 
is brown on the basal half. The front tibia is tinged with brown on the under portion 
at the base. The tarsi are entirely yellow. Abdomen: All black except for a reddish 
tinge at the apex of the second tergum and except for the rufous colored conjunctiva 
of the venter. 

Length : Wing, 7-0 mm. 

Dacus bicolor Walker 
1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1071. 

The type male is in fair condition, the specimen contains no locality nor collector 
label. This is an otitid and is in the collection under the genus Icteracantha Hendel. 
A notation is on the label to the effect that the species is a synonym of chalyheiventris 
(Wiedemann) and that Scelacanthina Enderlein is a synonym of Icteracantha. 

Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 55, and 1914, Ahh. K. K. Zool- 
Bot. Ges. Wien, 8 (1) : 8y) lists bicolor in synonymy with /. chalybeiventris. 

Dacus bilineatus Walker 
(PI. II, fig. 5) 

i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 150. 

Type female present in collection labeled " Celebes, Makassar, W. W. Saunders, 
B.M. 1868-4 "• The type is in rather poor condition, the abdomen and the apex of 
one wing are broken. This is a Trypetinae belonging to the genus Dimeringophrys 
Enderlein (1911, Zool. Jahr. 13 (3) : 452). D. ortalina Enderlein, the type of the 
genus (from Sumatra), is a new sj^nonym of D. bilineatus (Walker). 

The genus is characterized from other Trypetinae with four scutellar bristles by 
having just one pair of orbital bristles. It fits near Euphranta Loew and related 
genera by having the pleurotergite haired. The reduced chaetotaxy and the elongate 
third antennal segment would place this near the borderline of the tribe Adramini 
under the subfamily Dacinae and in Hering's key (1941, Siruna Seva, 3 : 4) it would 
run to Pseudosophira Malloch but the bristles of the front are quite different, the 



i66 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

pleurotergite is haired, vein R2 + 3 is straight and the cubital cell is distinctly 
pointed below (PI. 11, fig. 5), 

Descriptive Notes on the Species 

Head : Front about one-third longer than wide, measured from the lunule to 
the lower ocellus, and possessing just one pair of orbital bristles ; these are situated 
close to the anterior margin and are directed inward. The face is very gently concave 
and has a distinct moon-shaped groove across the median portion. The face and 
antennae are entirely yellow with no dark marks. The third antennal segment is 
elongate, three to four times longer than wide and rounded at the apex. The arista 
is moderately long plumose, the longest hairs are slightly longer than the width of 
the third segment. The palpi are yellow and are broad and rounded with rather 
numerous short, black hairs along the apex and the ventral margin ; the palpi are 
about one-half broader than the third antennal segment. The genae are narrow, not 
equal in width to the palpi. Thorax : Mesonotum about one-half longer than 
wide, predominantly rufous with a dark brown to black stripe extending down each 
submedian margin, just inside each humerus from the front to the hind margin. 
The median portion and the sides are rufous. The scutellum is entirely yellow. The 
humeri and notopleural calli are yellow, the humeral bristles are well developed. 
The pleura are chiefly brown to black. The upper hind corner of each mesopleuron 
is yellow. The notopleura are entirely black. I see no evidence of prescutellar 
bristles on the type and a very weak pair of dorsocentrals is developed. These are 
situated slightly in front of a line drawn between the posterior supraalar bristles. 
There are four strong scutellar bristles developed. Legs : The coxae are dark brown 
to black. The front femora are brown on the apices and bases, yellow in the middle. 
The middle femora and hind femora are brown on the bases and yellow on the apical 
halves. The tibiae are all brown to black. The tarsi are yellow to rufous with brown 
apical subsegments. The single spur at the apex of the middle tibia extends slightly 
over one-third the length of the basitarsus. Wings : As in PI. 11, fig. 5. Predominantly 
hyaline but with distinct yellow fumosity along the costa, in basal cells, and over 
the m crossvein. The first costal section is hyaline, the second is light yellow fumose 
and is densely covered with microtrichia. The cubital cell has a moderately acute 
lobe at its lower apex, this is slightly longer than the vertical section of Cui. The r-m 
crossvein is situated at the apical three-fifths of cell ist M2. Vein Ri is entirely 
setulose, the setae extend over vein R below the humeral crossvein. Vein R4 + 5 
is setulose well beyond the r-m crossvein. 

Length : Wing, 7-o-8'0 mm. 

Dacus brevistriga Walker 

i860. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n.s. 5 : 322. 

The type was not designated in the collection but a female specimen labeled 
" South Africa, Natal, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 " is apparently the type. 
It is in fairly good condition except for the presence of some debris on the body 
and for the loss of some of the bristles. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 167 

The type is a Dacus {Daculus) and does not seem to conform to the concepts of 
this species which I have seen in the Hterature. Bezzi (1924, Bull. Ent. Res. 15 (1) : 86) 
treated it in his key under his category " species of greater size ", with a broad costal 
band or large apical spot in the wing ; it would better fit in his group of smaller 
species with a rather narrow costal band and seems to fit Dacus katonae Bezzi {loc. 
cit.) amended to katonai by Munro (1935, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. 29 : 134, fig. 2). 
The Walker specimen in the collection fits Munro's figure of katonae. I cannot be 
sure of this synonymy since I have not had an opportunity to study enough material. 
Munro (1930, Bull. Ent. Res. 20 (4) : 392, and 1957, Brit. Mus. Ruwenzori Exped. 
2 (9) : 860) places D. asclepiadens Bezzi as a synonym of brevistriga. 

Length : Body, 6-o mm. 

Dacus concisus Walker 

1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 252. 

The type female is in rather poor condition, one wing being missing and the other 
is broken off before the apex, also the specimen is covered with debris. It is labeled 
" Dor, 68-4 ", evidently for Dorey, New Guinea. 

This species belongs to the genus Diplochorda Osten Sacken and is in the collection 
under the family " Ortalidae " (Otitidae). This genus has been placed in the family 
Phytalmiidae by most authors. Hering (1941, Siruna Seva, 3 : 3) places Diplochorda 
in the tribe Phytalmiini under the subfamily Dacinae, " Trypetidae " (Tephritidae). 
Hennig (1940, Arb. iiber Morph. und Tax. Ent. 7 (1) : 60) indicates that Diplochorda 
and related genera fit best into the fruit fly family (Tephritidae). Malloch (1939, 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (1-2) : 169, and 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. II, 
6 : 88) treated the Phytalmiinae and the AngituHnae (or Phytalmiini and Angitulini, 
if these were treated as tribes under Tephritidae and Otitidae respectively) under the 
family Phytalmiidae although he admitted that the group is obviously " composite 
in nature " and " is a difficult one to place in our present system of classification, 
possessing as it does several confusing characters ". He points out that the various 
genera possess characters which are borderline between the two families and which 
weaken the value of the characters used for separating them. Ste3^skal (1950, 
Wasmann Jour. Biol. 8 (1) : 93) says he believes " it unwise to abandon the family 
Phytalmiidae until more is known about the biology of its members, the forms 
involved and its nearest relatives ". I am following Hering in considering Diplochorda 
in the tribe Phytalmiini under the Dacinae. 

Dacus turgidus Walker (1865, Jour. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 134) is a synonjmi. This 
synonymy was recorded by Osten Sacken (1881, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 
16 : 487). 

Dacus confortnis Walker 

1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 34. 

No type had been designated but a female specimen, in good condition, labeled 
" conformis " in Walker's handwriting is apparently the type. It is from " Singapore, 
W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 ". 



i68 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

This is the type of Walker's genus Strumeta, which I treat as a subgenus of Dacus 
(see Hardy, 1955, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 48 (6) : 436) and is a synonym of Dacus 
(Strumeta) umbrosus Fabricius (see Hardy & Adachi, 1954, Pac. Set. 8 (2) : 184). 

Dacus contrahens Walker 

i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 151. 

The type male is in good condition except that the front margin of one wing is 
partly broken. It is labeled " Celebes, Macassar, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• 
This is an Otitidae belonging in the genus Pseudepicausta Hendel. It is treated 
under this combination by Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 64). 

Dacus curvifer Walker 

(PI. II. fig. 6) 
1864, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7 : 229. 

The type male is in good condition, it is labeled " Waigiou, A. R. Wallace. 68-4 ". 
Walker had indicated a female specimen in his description. 

This is a Dacus [Neodacus) Perkins and has been adequately described in my 
revision of this subgenus (Hardy, 1954, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 56 (1) : 8). Dacus 
speculifer Walker (1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 122) is a new synonym. 

I find considerable variation in the wing maculation in this species. Some speci- 
mens have a continuous hyaline mark extending from the wing margin at apex 
of cell 2nd M2, through cell R5 to vein R4 + 5 ; the type of curvifer is this way. 
Some also have a continuous hyaline streak extending from the wing margin at 
lower portion of cell M4 up through cell ist M2, near base ; through cell R to vein 
R4 + 5 below the r-m crossvein. Also a hyaline mark sometimes extends from 
vein R4 + 5 obliquely through cell ist M2, ending at vein M3 + 4 at about the apical 
one-third of the cell ; this is also the case in the type of curvifer (PL 11, fig. 6). 
The markings show definite intergradation between this pattern and the wing which 
I figured [loc. cit.) ; the type of D. speculifer Walker fits my drawing of curvifer. 

Dacus detertninatus Walker 

1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 133. 

The type male is in poor condition, and the wings are missing. It is labeled 
" Sarawak, Borneo, A. R. Wallace, ex coll. Saunders, 68.4 ". This belongs in the genus 
Adrama and the species is apparently widely distributed. A large series of specimens 
are in the British Museum collection and in the University of Hawaii collection 
from Borneo, Java, Philippine Islands, Malaya, Thailand, Burma, Ceylon, and India. 

Adrama austeni Hendel, 1912, Wien. Ent. Zeit. 31 : 12, is a new synonym ; based 
upon the comparison of the types of both in the British Museum collection. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 169 

This species is closely related to A. selecta Walker but is distinguished by having 
the propleura and sternum of the thorax largely polished black, rather than entirely 
rufous and the face with a single broad black spot above the epistoma, rather than 
with two black spots. The apical portion of the wing beyond a level of the m crossvein 
is brown and a transverse brown band extends through the r-m crossvein. 

Length : Wing, 8-0 mm. 

Dacus detrudens Walker 

1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 135. 

A specimen in the collection, sex unknown, is labeled " ? type ". It is in poor 
condition, the abdomen is broken off and only one antenna, one front leg, one middle 
leg and no hind legs are present. The pin contains a handwritten label " detrudens " 
plus " East Indies, Misol, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 ". This is in the collection 
under the genus Pseudepicausta (Otitidae). It is also treated under this combination 
by Hendel {1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 64). 

This specimen from Misol is apparently Walker's type although his specimen 
was supposed to be from the Island of Salwatty, New Guinea. The Misol specimen 
does not fit the original description, the face is all yellow, with no black band near 
the epistoma ; the wings have a brown band extending longitudinally from base 
to r-m crossvein and the antennae are yellow, not " piceous ". A male specimen in 
the collection under Dacus detrudens labeled " Sumatra, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 
1868-4" is more nearly like Walker's description ; it seems to fit in all respects 
except that the head is missing so I was unable to check these characters. 

Dacus devius Walker 

1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 250. 

Both of Walker's specimens, a male and a female, are present and both are labeled 
" type ". The male was the first mentioned and should be the type, it is labeled 
" N. Guinea, Dorey, B.M. 68.4 ". The allotype female is labeled " Dory 59-58 ". 
They both are in good condition except that the female is covered with debris. 

This is in the collection under the genus Antineura Osten Sacken (Otitidae). 
Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 41, and 1914, Ahh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. 
Ges. Wien, 8 (1) : 36) lists it as Antineura devia (Walker). 

Dacus diffusus Walker 
i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 153. 

Two specimens are in the collection under this name, neither is marked type. 
They are labeled " Celebes, nr. Macassar, A. R. Wallace, B.M. 1858-142 ". One is 
a female and was probably the specimen discussed by Walker ; it is in very poor 
condition, the head and abdomen are missing. The other specimen, a male, is in 



lyo WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

fair condition, one wing is gone and the specimen is obviously teneral. I have 
designated this specimen as a lectotype. 

These are teneral (almost completely pale) specimens of Dacus [Strumeta) umbrosus 
Fabricius. This is a new synonym. 

Dacus discipennis Walker 
(PI. II. fig. 7) 

1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 294. 

Walker indicated a female in the description but the unique specimen in the British 
Museum is a male labeled " Moluccas, Bachan, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• 
It is also labeled " discipennis ", apparently by Walker and is probably the type. 

This is a Dacus {Daculus) Speiser, looking more like Neodacus (but there is no 
evidence of anterior supraalar bristles) than any of the Daculus brown to me. 
It is very characteristic because of the wing markings, almost all brown with a 
hyaline longitudinal streak through the center (PI. 11, fig. 7) ; also because of the 
yellow coloring of the humerus being continuous with that of the notopleuron. 
Head : The front is entirely yellow, about one-half longer than wide and with three 
weak inferior fronto-orbital bristles present, the lower pair is rudimentary. The 
swollen portion of the front is not discolored and there is no discoloration at the bases 
of the bristles. The face is yellow with rather large, oval black spots in the antennal 
furrows. Antennae yellow, the third segment is slightly longer than the face. Occiput 
entirely yellow. Thorax : Mesonotum chiefly black with broad yellow vittae on the 
sides, the lateral margins are completely yellow to rufous, the portion between the 
humerus and the notopleural callus is yellow. The scutellum is yellow with a narrow 
black base. Wings : The first two costal cells are densely covered with microtrichia 
and are yellow-brown fumose, as is the remainder of the anterior portion of the 
wing. Wing with a longitudinal hyaline streak extending through the median portion 
from the base of cell M to the m crossvein (PL 11, fig. 7). Abdomen : Chiefly brownish 
red. The second tergum is yellow on the apical one-fourth to one-third. The fourth 
tergum has an indistinct yellow marking in the median posterior portion and the 
apex of the fifth tergum is yellow. The sides of the abdomen are gently rounded so 
that the ventral portion is concave. The sterna are contained within a rather deep 
concavity. 

Length : Wing, 8-8 mm. 

This species has been discussed by Hardy & Adachi (1954, Pac. Sci. 8(2) : 153). 

Dacus divergens Walker 

i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 149. 

The type male is in good condition, it is labeled " Celebes, nr. Macassar, coll. 
A. R. Wallace, B.M. 1858-142 ". 

This is an Otitidae, in the collection under the genus Philocompus Osten Sacken. 
Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 42, and 1914, Abh. K, K, Zool.-Bot, 
Ges. Wien, 8 (1) : 31) lists it under this combination. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 171 

Dacus emittens Walker 

i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 152. 

No type has been designated. Six specimens are in collection under this name 
labeled " Celebes nr. Macassar, A. R. Wallace, B, M. 1858-142 ". A female specimen 
labeled by Walker and fitting his description is probably the type. Of the six speci- 
mens only four are emittens, a female specimen of D. {Strumeta) cucurbitae Coquillett 
is in the series. Another male in the series appears to be D. (Strumeta) bryoniae 
Tryon (these specimens are the so-called varieties which Walker mentioned). 

This large species is a Dacus [Zeugodacus) Hendel and is readily recognized by its 
wing coloration. The broad costal band extends through all of cell R3 and expands 
at the apex into a large brown spot which fills all of the apex of the wing, except for 
the margin in the middle of cell 2nd M2. The band extends continuously across the 
m-cu crossvein through cell M4 almost to the cubital streak. The body color is 
chiefly rufous, the mesonotum has three postsutural yellow stripes. The basal 
segment of the ovipositor, in situ, is slightly longer than segments four and five 
combined. 

Length : Wing, 9-0 mm. 

The species has been described and figured by Hardy & Adachi (1954, Pac. Sci. 
8 (1) : 187-188). 

Dacus exigens Walker 
i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 151. 

The type male is in poor condition, the abdomen, one middle leg and one antenna 
are broken off and the face is covered with debris. It is labeled " Celebes, Macassar, 
W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "- 

It is an Otitidae, in the British Museum collection under the genus Pseudepicausta 
Hendel. Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 64) treats it under this 
name. 

Dacus expandens Walker 
1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 114. 

The type is a male, in good condition, labeled " Borneo, Aru Is. W. W. Saunders, 
B.M. 1868-4 "• Walker's original description indicated that he had a female specimen. 

This is a Dacus [Paratridacus) Shiraki and the species has been adequately described 
and figured (Hardy, 1951, Pac. Sci. 5 (2) : 140-141). 

Dacus expert us Walker 

1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 14. 

The type female is in very poor condition, the only part intact is one wing, one 
hind leg is present except for the apex of the tarsus ; the abdomen is gone and the 



172 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

thorax is almost so — only a shell remains on one side. The head is present but is 
covered with debris and the antennae are present but the aristae are broken off. 
The specimen is labeled " East Indies, Gilolo, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• 

This is an Otitidae and is in the collection under the genus Pseudepicausta Hendel. 
Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 64) lists it under this name. 

Dacus figuratus Walker 
(PI. II, fig. 8) 

1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 133. 

The type female is labeled " Borneo ", no collector or date is given. The specimen 
is in very poor condition, the head is missing, the wings have been broken off and are 
glued on a card, the legs and other characters are somewhat obscured by the way 
the specimen is mounted. 

I am unable definitely to place this to genus, it is a Trypetinae, very probably 
belonging to the genus Euphranta Loew, at least it appears to be a Euphrantini. 
The pleuroterga are covered with fine erect hairs. A weak sternopleural bristle is 
present, this is rudimentary and is pale in color. If one considers the sternopleural 
as lacking the specimen would seem to fit near Xanthotrypeta Malloch ; it is quite 
a different species, however, than the genotype {bimaculata Malloch). It could also 
possibly fit nesiT.Cyclopsia Malloch ; it is quite distinct, however, from the genotype 
{inaequalis Malloch) . 

Descriptive Notes on the Type 

Thorax : Almost entirely shining black on the dorsum with a broad yellow mark 
on the median hind portion, covering the area between the dorsocentral bristles, 
narrowing in the middle and extending anteriorly about three-fifths the distance to 
the suture. The median portion of the mesonotum has a broad gray fascia extending 
the entire length, the sutures are also gray. The scutellum has four strong bristles 
and is entirely yellow, except for its extreme base and except for the basal margins, 
on the sides. The metanotum is all black ; the humeri and notopleural calli, except 
for the lower edges, are yellow ; the lower portion of each notopleural callus is black. 
The pleura are polished black, except for the yellow propleura. Except for the yellow 
upper margin of each mesopleuron the yellow coloration is continuous with that of 
the humerus and is expanded on the posterior portion to cover almost half the length 
of the mesopleuron. A narrow longitudinal, yellow vitta extends across the top 
border of each sternopleuron and continues on into the yellow of the propleuron. 
Legs : Predominantly rufous, the middle and hind tibiae and tarsi are brown to 
black. Wings : As in PI. 11, fig. 8. The apical portion is dark brown fumose ; the 
anterior portion of the wing, from the subcostal vein to the brown apical mark, is 
intensely yellow fumose, this fumosity extends across the wmg over the r-m crossvein 
fading out in cell ist M2 (PI. 11, fig. 8). Vein Ri is setulose throughout its length, 
the setae extend down the node a short distance beyond the humeral crossvein. 
Only the basal portion of vein R4 + 5 is setulose, the setae extend about two-fifths 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 173 

to half the distance to the r-m crossvein ; there may be a few scattered setae beyond 
this point and the r-m. The stem of Rs is bare. Vein R2 + 3 is straight or nearly 
so. The cubital cell has a short, acute lobe at the lower apex, approximately equal 
to the length of the vertical portion of Cui (PI. 11, fig. 8). 
Length : Wing, 6-o mm. 

Dacus fulvitarsis Walker 
(PI. II, fig. 9) 

i860, Jovtr. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 153. 

No specimen can be found in collection labeled fulvitarsis and it is not in the 
card file. A specimen is in collection, however, labeled D. pallitarsis Walker " Celebes, 
Macassar, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4", which fits Walker's description of 
fulvitarsis. I can find no reference to a pallitarsis being described and feel that this 
is Walker's type of fulvitarsis. It is in rather poor condition, the antennae, hind 
legs and apical half of the abdomen are gone and the body is covered with considerable 
debris. This is a chloropid, genus? I cannot find it represented in the B.M. collection. 
It is almost entirely subshining black, the middle legs have the basal two tarsal 
segments yellow and the bases of the femora yellow. The bases of the front femora 
are faintly yellowish. The legs are otherwise black (the hind legs are missing). The 
front is subshining black, the face and occiput are conspicuously white pubescent. 
The wings seem to be characteristic (see PI. 11, fig. 9) ; they are slightly fumose 
in the apical portion and over the m crossvein. 

Dacus furcifer Walker 
(PI. 12, figs. ioa~c) 
1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 14. 

One male specimen in the collection is labeled " East Indies, Gilolo, W. W. Saunders, 
B.M. 1868-4", with Walker's label "furcifer" and is probably the type but it is 
not labeled as such. It is in good condition except for some debris scattered over 
the body. 

This is a borderhne species fitting between Euphrantini and Adramini. I consider 
it to be a Trypetinae related to the genus Euphranta Loew and under this genus 
it would fit in the subgenus Staurella Bezzi by the presence of prescutellar bristles. 
D. furcifer would seem to fit A drama Walker almost as closely as Euphranta except 
for the presence of moderately weak dorsocentral and prescutellar bristles, also by 
having only the front femora spinose (PI. 12, fig. 10&) and the base of R not setulose 
much below the humeral crossvein. This apparently represents a new genus and I 
am proposing the name Paraeuphranta. Paraeuphranta is distinguished from all 
Euphranta known to me by having the front femora spinose beneath ; by having 
three pairs of inferior fronto-orbital bristles almost evenly spaced, the upper pair 
is approximately the same distance from the lower superior fronto-orbital as from 

ENTOM. 8, 5. lO 



174 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

the second pair of inferior fronto-orbitals. In Euphranta two or three pairs of inferior 
fronto-orbitals may be present ; when the latter is the case the lower two pairs 
are situated closer together with the upper widely spaced and near the superior 
fronto-orbitals (PL 12, fig. loc). In Paraeuphranta the thorax, from dorsal view, 
is more elongate and narrow ; the width (measured at the humeri) is less than half 
the length, including the scutellum ; the proportions are 2 to 4-5. Euphranta have 
a more broad thorax, distinctly less than two times longer than wide ; the propor- 
tions are 2 to 3-5. 

The resemblance of Paraeuphranta furcifer to Euphranta {Euphranta) striatella (van 
der Wulp) — new combination — is most striking. {Note : striatella was described as a 
Lagarosia van der Wulp, 1891, Tijd. v. Ent. 34 : 213, pi. 12, fig. 14. This was synony- 
myzed with ^M^/imw/^a; by Malloch, 1939, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 4 (11) : 251. Euphranta 
nigra Enderlein, 191 1 Zool. Jahrb. 31 : 440, fig. q is 3. new synon}^!! of E. striatella, 
based upon the examination of specimens in the British Museum and by comparison 
of the original descriptions.) On the basis of wing venation there is very little 
difference between these. The costal band, however, in furcifer is broader at the 
wing apex, from end of R2 + 3 to about middle of cell R5 it is as broad as the oblique 
band from near apex of R2 + 3 to apex of Mi + 2 (PI. 12, fig. 10a). Enderlein 
shows no apical band on his drawing of the wing of nigra. In the specimen of nigra. 
in the British Museum collection a very narrow band is present along the cost a, 
extending approximately to the middle of cell R5. Enderlein states that his species 
is very close to van der Wulp's from Java but Enderlein presumed that Lagarosis 
striatella was an Otitidae. 

Notes Based Upon the Type 

Head : Front about two times longer than wide and possessing three pairs of 
inferior fronto-orbitals and one pair of superior fronto-orbitals (PI, 00, fig. loc). 
The front is entirely brown and the face is yellow with no markings ; it is concave 
in profile, with a rather marked transverse furrow across the median portion ; 
the lower margin is strongly produced so that the width of the face, measured at 
the epistomal margin, is approximately equal to the broadest portion of the occiput 
as seen in direct lateral view. The antennae are reddish brown, the third segment 
is rather slender, is three to three and one-half times longer than wide and extends 
slightly more than half the length of the face. The aristae are rather long plumose, 
the longest hairs are slightly greater than the width of the third antennal segment. 
The palpi are yellow-brown, slightly broader than the third antennal segment and 
are covered with short, black bristles on the ventral portion. Thorax : Subopaque 
brown, tinged with yellow on the humeri, propleura, and margins of scutellum, 
with gray pubescence on the sides of the mesonotum and along the suture. The 
presutural bristle is absent and the humeral bristles are well developed. The ptero- 
pleural bristle is present but is not as well developed as are the sternopleural and 
the mesopleural bristles. The pleurotergite is covered with fine, white hair. The 
scutellum has four strong bristles, the dorsal surface is thickly covered with short, 
recumbent black setae. The halteres are yellow- white. Legs : Dark brown to black. 
The front femora are slightly thickened and have four rather strong stout bristles 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 175 

or spines on the underside at apical one-third to two-fifths (PI. 12, fig. 106) ; other 
femora without strong bristles. Middle tibia with a single strong apical spur. Wings : 
As in PI. 12, fig. 10a. Vein Ri is setulose throughout its length. The setulae extend 
down the stem of R well below the humeral crossvein. Vein R4 + 5 is setulose 
only to the fork of R2 + 3. The radial sector is bare. Vein R2 -f- 3 is slightly 
undulated. The r-m crossvein is situated near the apical fourth of cell ist M2. 
The cubital cell has a short, acute point at lower apex, the length of this lobe is 
much less than the length of the vertical portion of vein Cui (PI. 12, fig. 10a). 
Abdomen : Entirely dark brown to black, long and slender ; all of the terga are 
distinctly longer than wide. The abdomen is equal in length to the combined head 
and thorax. 

Length : Wing, 8-4 mm. 

Dacus imitans Walker 

i860, Joiir. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 150. 

The type female is in the collection under the genus Plagiostenopterina Hendel 
(" Ortalidae " — Otitidae). It is labeled "Celebes, Macassar, A. R. Wallace, B.M. 
1858-142 " and is in fair condition except for lacking the abdomen. 

The species is listed under the combination Plagiostenopterina imitans (Walker) 
by Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 49). 

Dacus inaptus Walker 
i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 151. 

A specimen in the collection (sex?) is not labeled type but is apparently one of 
the specimens mentioned by Walker (he indicated a male and a female). It is labeled 
" Celebes, Macassar, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 ". 

This is an Otitidae obviously belonging in the genus Plagiostenopterina Hendel. 
This is a new combination, Hendel did not treat this species in his 1914, Gen. Ins. 
157. The species is closely related to P. enderleini Hendel (series in British Museum 
from the Solomon Islands and Papua) but differs by having vein R2 + 3 undulated 
and the first costal cell hyaline. In enderleini vein R2 + 3 is straight and the first 
costal cell is brown fumose. It also closely resembles P. aenea (Wiedmann) but the 
undulated vein R2 + 3 characterizes it. This character may be of generic importance, 
I found nothing else like this in the British Museum collection. 

Dacus incisus Walker 

i860, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n.s. 5 : 323. 

The type male is in poor condition although the specimen is fully hardened and 
the coloration is good. A portion of the thorax has been damaged by the pin and 
the two middle legs and one hind leg are missing. The type is labeled " Burma, 
ex coll. W. W. Saunders, 68-4 ". 



176 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

This is a Dacus {Strumeta) Walker. It is in the collection under the name Chaeto- 
dacus ferrugineus var. incisus and has been rather commonly treated in the literature 
as a possible synonym of D. dorsalis Hendel. D. incisus proves to be quite distinct 
from dorsalis and is also distinct from the species which I had previously considered 
to be incisus Walker. D. incisus actually fits closer to D. nigrotibialis (Perkins), 
from Malaya, because of the predominantly black femora : the front femora are 
all black (the middle legs are missing) and the hind femora are black on the apical 
third. It differs from nigrotibialis by having a black band across the middle of the 
face connecting the lateral spots ; by the much narrower costal band in the wing 
as well as in a number of other details. 

Descriptive Notes on the Type 

Head : The front is about one-half longer than wide ; two pairs of inferior fronto- 
orbital bristles are present. The vertex has a black band extending transversely 
between the upper inner margins of the eyes, through the upper ocelli. Thorax : 
The mesonotum is almost entirely subopaque black, the lateral yellow vittae are 
broad and extend to the hind margin of the mesonotum. The scutellum is entirely 
yellow except for a very narrow black base. The yellow mark on each mesopleuron 
is separated from the yellow of the humerus by just a narrow black streak. Wings : 
The first and second costal cells are entirely hyaline ; the second has microtrichia 
in the extreme apex. The costal band is very narrow, it does not extend into cell 
R3 except at the wing margin. The cubital streak is broad. Abdomen : The first 
tergum has a narrow band of black across its base and is otherwise yellow. The second 
tergum is chiefly yellow with a narrow basal black band, expanded in the middle, 
which extends about two-thirds the length of the segment down the middle line. 
Terga three and four are entirely dark brown to black. Tergum five is black at its 
base and has a narrow black vitta extending longitudinally down the middle. The 
shining areas are rufous, tinged lightly with brown. 

Length : Wing, 5-2 mm.; body, 6-o mm. 



Dacus inscriptus Walker 
1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 162. 

Walker's original description indicated that he had a female specimen. A unique 
specimen in the collection with a handwritten label " inscriptus " is a male. It is 
also labeled " Borneo, Ambong ". Walker's type was supposed to be from Amboyna. 
The specimen is in fair condition except that the antennae, mouthparts and head 
bristles are lost. The specimen fits Walker's description. 

This is a Trypetinae belonging in the tribe Euphrantini and the genus Cyclopsia 
Malloch. The type of this genus C. inaequalis Malloch is a new synonym of C. 
inscripta (Walker). 

This genus is almost borderline between the Euphrantini and the Adramini. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 177 

Dacus instabilis Walker 

1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 250. 

Walker indicated a female in his description but the unique specimen in the collec- 
tion, containing a handwritten label " instabilis " , is a male. It is also labeled 
" New Guinea, Dory, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• I believe this specimen is 
the type. 

This is an Otitidae belonging in the genus Lamprogaster Macquart. L. gracilis 
Hendel is a new synonym of L. instabilis (Walker), based upon a comparison of 
specimens in the British Museum collection. 

Dacus lateralis Walker 

1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 123. 

Walker indicated a male specimen in his description but the specimen under 
this name in the collection is a female. It is labeled " New Guinea, W. W. Saunders, 
B.M. 1868-4". This is probably the type. The specimen is in fair condition, the 
antennae are gone and some fungus is scattered over the body. 

This is a Trypetinae belonging in the genus Clusiosoma Malloch. C. biseriata 
Malloch (1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 426) is a new synonym, 
based upon the comparison of specimens in the British Museum collection. 

Dacus latifascia Walker 

1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 114. 

The type female is in fair condition except that one wing has been broken off 
and the other is folded over in the posterior region. It is labeled " Aru Is., A. R. 
Wallace, ex Saunders Coll. 68.4 ". 

This is an Otitidae and is in the collection under the genus Cleitamia Macquart. 
I am treating it under this combination. Bezzi (1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 3 : 74) said 
this species was "an Ortalid belonging to Xiria, according to Prof. Hendel" 
Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157) did not list the species under Cleitamia or Xiria. 

Dacus lativentris Walker 

1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 115. 

The type was not designated but evidently is the female specimen which is labeled 
"lativentris, Borneo, Aru Island, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4". The specimen 
is in poor condition, the abdomen and middle and hind legs are missing. 

This is an Otitidae and has not been identified in the British Museum collection. 
It is a Plagiostenopterina Hendel. I have compared this with the type and a series 



178 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

of paratypes (from Papua) of Plagiostenopterina orhitalis Malloch and find no way 
of separating them. Malloch's species is a new synonym of P. lativentris (Walker). 

Dacus lituratus Walker 

1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 251. 

The type female is in fair condition except that the middle legs, the aristae and 
the front margin of the left wing are broken off. It is labeled " New Guinea, A. R. 
Wallace, 62-91 ". 

This is an Otitidae belonging to the genus Cleitamia Macquart. Hendel (1914, 
Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. y;^, and Abh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien. 8 (1) : 
129 has listed it under the combination C. liturata (Walker)). 

Dacus longivitta Walker 

1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 115. 

The t5^e male is in the collection under Plagiostenopterina Hendel (" Ortalidae " — 
Otitidae). It is labeled " Aru, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 " ^^^ is in poor con- 
dition, the abdomen and one wing are missing and the other wing is broken. 

The species is listed under the combination Plagiostenopterina longivitta (Walker) 
by Hendel (1914, Ger Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 49). 

Dacus mutilloides Walker 

1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 115. 

The type female is in poor condition, the abdomen is missing and only one front 
leg, one hind leg, one antenna and one wing are present. It is labeled " Aru I., 
W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• 

This is an Otitidae and is in the collection under Pseudepicausta Hendel. Hendel 
(1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 64, and 1914, Abh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. 
Wien, 8 (1) : 116) lists it under this genus. 

Dacus? nigrilinea Walker 

1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 251. 

A female specimen is in the collection labeled " New Guinea, Dory, W. W. Saunders, 
B.M. 1868-4 ". It has not been designated but surely must be Walker's type. It is 
in poor condition, the parts are fairly intact except for missing one wing and one 
front leg but the thorax is half covered with fungus. 

This is a Dacinae, belonging to the tribe Phytalmiini and to the genus Phytalmia 
Gerstaecker. I have compared Phytalmia nigrilinea (Walker) with the type of 
P. wollastoni Edwards (1915, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 20 : 418, from Minika Riv., 
Neth. New Guinea) and Edward's species is a new synonym. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 179 

Dacus obtrudens Walker 
1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 116. 

The type male is in good condition, it is labeled " Aru Island, W. W. Saunders, 
B.M. 1868-4". 

This is an Otitidae belonging in the genus Pseudepicausta Hendel. Hendel (1914, 
Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 64) has placed this into synonymy with P. 
chalyhea (Doleschall) (1858, Naturk. Tijds. v. Ned. Indie, 17 : 125). 

Dacus pectoralis Walker 

1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 114. 

Type female present in good condition except that the antennae are broken off. 
It is labeled " Borneo, Aru, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• This is a Dacus 
(Strumeta) Walker. 

Note : Dacus pectoralis Walker (1861) is an African species and is treated separately 
from Walker's Indonesian species. 

Dacus f err ugineus var. ohscurata de Meijere (1911, Tijds. v. Ent. 54 : 373) is probably 
a synon3nn of D. pectoralis (1859), based upon a comparison with de Meijere's original 
description. I have not had an opportunity to study the type of ohscurata, it is 
supposed to be in the Zoologisch Museum, Amsterdam, but I have studied the de 
Meijere collection there and was unable to find the type. A female specimen labeled 
ohscurata is present from Insel Enkhuizen (Pulu Njamuk Ketjil) nahe Batavia. 
One female specimen in the collection under ferrugineus seems to be labeled " Briten- 
ron (spelling?) 2-14-18 v.d. Good, Ex lambok ". This is a specimen of D. dorsalis 
Hendel. 

The type of pectoralis (1859) seems to fit de Meijere's description of ohscurata 
in all details except for size. According to the original description the body of 
ohscurata is 5-5 mm. long and the wings are 5-0 mm. The measurements of Walker's 
type are 9-0 mm. for the body and 8-o mm. for the wings. Other specimens which I 
have considered to be pectoralis (Hardy & Adachi, 1954, Pac. Sci. 8 (2) : 179-180) 
measured 7-0 mm. for the body and 6-5 mm. for the wings. 

Descriptive Notes on the Type of D. pectoralis Walker (1859) 

Head : Two pairs of inferior and one pair of superior fronto-orbital bristles are 
present. The black facial spots are round and moderate in size. Thorax : The 
humeri are yellow, the hind corners are faintly discolored with brown. The meso- 
notum is predominantly black and lightly grayish pollinose, with three very faint, 
lightly shining, longitudinal vittae. No distinct yellow vittae are present but the 
areas normally occupied by the vittae are tinged slightly with red giving indication 
of slight narrow vittae (not readily visible except in certain lights). It may be that 
the vittae have been obscured by discoloration in the type. The scutellum is yellow 
with a narrow black band across its base. Legs : Front and hind femora yellow on 



i8o WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

basal portions and brownish at apices ; the middle femora are chiefly brownish red. 
The front and middle tibiae are yellow above and brownish below ; hind tibiae 
chiefly brownish. The tarsi are yellow-white. Wings : Costal cells yellow-brown 
fumose and covered with microtrichia. Costal band rather broad, extending almost 
to vein R4 + 5 except at the apex and base of cell R3. The cubital streak is broad 
and vein Cui -f ist A is about three-fourths as long as the attenuated portion of 
cell Cu. Abdomen : Predominantly black, reddish brown at apices of segments. 
The shining spots on the fifth tergum are brownish black. The basal segment of 
the ovipositor, in situ, is approximately equal in length to the fifth abdominal 
segment. 

Dacus pectoralis Walker 

1861, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n.s. 5 : 322. 

I apparently overlooked the type of this African species. According to Munro 
(1948, Bull. Ent. Res. 38 (4) : 620) it is a synonym of Dacus (Dacus) bivittatus cucu- 
marius Sack. The name is preoccupied by Dacus pectoralis Walker (1859) from 
Indonesia. 

Harold Oldroyd has confirmed that the type, from Natal, is in the British Museum 
collection in the series of D. bivittatus Bigot. He said that "it is in fairly good 
condition, though at some earlier time it has been attacked by pests and has a hole 
in the thorax and the abdomen ". 

Dacus perplexus Walker 
(PI. 12, fig. II) 

1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 14. 

Walker indicated a female as the type of this species, the unique specimen in 
the collection is a male labeled " East Indies, Gilolo, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 ". 
The handwritten label " perplexus " on the specimen was probably put on by Walker. 
The female specimen mentioned by Perkins (1939, Univ. Queensland Pap. Dept. 
Biol. 1 (10) : 33) in the National Museum, Melbourne, " collected by A. R. Wallace 
at Gilolo and labeled by Walker Dacus implexus, Gilolo — almost certainly this is 
meant to be perplexus " — is most probably the type. 

This is a Dacus (Paradacus) related to D. areolatus Walker, it is readily distin- 
guished from all known Dacinae by its unusual wing markings (PI. 12, fig. 11). 
Refer to description and figures by Hardy & Adachi (1954, Pac. Sci. 8 (2) : 156). 

Dacus pompiloides Walker 
1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 116. 

The type male is in good condition except for some fungus on the venter of the 
thorax. It is labeled " Aru Island, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 ". 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM i8i 

This is an Otitidae belonging in the genus Pseudepicausta Hendel. See Hendel 
(1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 64). 

Dacus pubiseta Walker 
1 861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 294. 

The type male is in good condition except for one broken antenna. It is labeled 
" Moluccas, Bachan, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• 

It is an Otitidae in the collection under the genus Antineura Osten Sacken. Hendel 
(1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 41, and 1914, Abh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. 
Wien, 8 (1) : 36) has treated it in this combination. 

Dacus sepedonoides Walker 

1864, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7 : 228. 

The type male is in good condition. It is labeled " Moluccas, Ceram, W. W. 
Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• This was described by Walker under his treatment of the 
species from Waigiou Island and it has been assumed that this was the type locality. 

This is an Otitidae belonging in the genus Lamprophthalma Portschinsky according 
to its placement in the British Museum collection. Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157) 
did not list this species. Bezzi (1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 3 : 79), et al. considered this 
to be a Dacus. 

Dacus sepsoides Walker 

1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 163. 

The type male is in fair condition except that the abdomen is missing. It is 
labeled " Moluccas, Amboina, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• 

This is an Otitidae, in the collection under the genus Elassogaster Bigot. Cephalia 
bicolor Bigot and Stenopterina unimaculatus Kertesz are listed as synonyms. Hendel 
{1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 52, and 1914, Abh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. 
Wien, 8 (1) : 82) lists it under this combination. 

Dacus sexmaculatus Walker 

1 871, The Entomologist, 5 : 344. 

Walker described a male from Harkeko, Egypt, but I am unable to find it in 
the collection, also there is no card for this species in the British Museum file. I 
presume the type to be lost and the species is unrecognizable from the original 
description. 

Dacus signatipes Walker 

1 861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 163. 

The type male is in good condition. It is labeled " Ambona [Amboina], W. W. Saun- 
ders, B.M. 1868-4". 



i82 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

This is an Otitidae, in the collection under the genus Elassogaster Bigot. Hendel 
(1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 52) listed it under this combination. 



Dacus sordidus Walker 
1 86 1, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 251. 

The type female is in fair condition, the antennae are missing, the apical third 
of one wing is gone and some debris is scattered over the body. The specimen is 
labeled "New Guinea, Dory, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4". It had not been 
labeled type but contained Walker's handwritten label " sordidus " and is evidently 
the type. 

This is an Otitidae, not classified in the British Museum collection. It belongs 
in the genus Elassogaster Bigot and it appears that E. varialis (Walker) is a new 
synonym. The only difference that I can see in these is that in varialis abdominal 
terga two and four are covered with short white pile while in sordidus the terga 
are covered with dark brown pile. I have not compared enough specimens to know 
whether or not this is of any significance. 

This species was not treated by Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157). 



Dacus speculifer Walker 

1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 122. 

The type male is in good condition. It is labeled " New Guinea, A. R. Wallace, 
B.M. 1862-91 ". 

This is a new synonym of Dacus {Neodacus) curvifer Walker, see notes under that 
species. 

Dacus squalidus Walker 
(PI. 12, fig. 12) 
i860, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n.s. 5 : 323. 

One specimen is in the collection, it has not been designated as the type but is 
probably one of the two ($ and c^^) specimens reported by Walker. It is in poor 
condition and I cannot even determine the sex ; the abdomen, one wing and some 
of the legs are missing and the thorax is covered with debris. It is labeled " India, 
W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• 

This is a Pjnrgotidae, it has not been correctly placed in the collection but appears 
to fit close to the genus Campylocera Macquart. It may possibly belong to this 
genus, the British Museum has a number of species under Campylocera but all are 
from Africa. The wing is as in PI. 12, fig. 12. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 183 

Dacus strigifer Walker 
1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 13. 

The typ^ (sex?) is in poor condition, the wings and the abdomen are missing. 
It is labeled " East Indies, Gilolo, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• 

It is in the collection under the genus Antineura Osten Sacken (Otitidae) and is 
treated in this combination by Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, 
p. 42, and 1914, Abh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 8 (1) : 37). 

Dacus strigifinis Walker 

1861, /owy. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 295. 

Walker indicated a female in his description but the unique specimen in the 
collection, labeled " strigifinis " by Walker, is a male. The pin contains the data 
" Moluccas, Bachan, Pres. by Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 ". 

This is a Dacus [Neodacus] Perkins, D. [Neodacus) lanceolatus (Perkins) (1939, 
U. Queensland Pap. Dept. Biol. 1 (10) : 22) is a new synonym, based upon a com- 
parison of the types in the British Museum collection. 

Dacus tertninifer Walker 
(PI. 12, fig. 13) 
i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 152. 

The type female is in rather poor condition, the abdomen and one set of legs 
are missing. It is labeled " Celebes, Macassar, W. W. Saunders, B.M, 1868-4 ". 

This is a Dacus (Zeugodacus) Hendel. It is a small species characterized by the 
all black face and by the wing markings. No distinct costal band is present, only 
the stigma (cell Sc) is yellow-brown fumose and an isolated yellow-brown spot 
is present at the apex of vein R4 -f- 5 (PL 12, fig. 13). The yellow mark on the meso- 
pleuron extends along the entire dorsal margin, continuous with the yellow humerus. 
The postsutural yellow vittae are very short and end at or slightly posterior to the 
anterior supraalar bristles. > 

Length : Wing, 4-5 mm. 

Dacus trivittatus Walker 
1849, List. Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1072. 

The type male is in fair condition, one wing is broken and there is some debris 
on the body. It is labeled " PhiHppine Is. purchd. fr. Mr. Wood, 45.49 ". 

This is an Otitidae, and is in the collection under the genus Stenopterina Macquart. 
P This properly belongs in the genus Plagiostenopterina Hendel. It has been listed 



i84 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

under the combination Plagiostenopterina trivittata (Walker) by Hendel (1914, 
Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 49, and 1914, K. K. Zool-Bot. Ges. Wien, 8 (1) : 65). 



Dacus turgidus Walker 

1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 134. 

The type male is in fair condition except that one wing is lacking. It is labeled 
only " S. 68.4 ", probably for Salwatty, New Guinea. 

A synonym of Dacus concisus Walker, now under the combination Diplochorda 
concisa (Walker) in the subfamily Dacinae, tribe Phytalmiini. 

Dacus varialis Walker 

1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 123. 

The type female is in good condition except that the head is gone. It is labeled 
" New Guinea, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• 

This is an Otitidae in the collection under Elassogaster Bigot, tit is listed under 
this genus by Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscaridae, p. 52). Elassogaster 
varialis (Walker) appears to be a new synonym of E. sordidus (Walker), see my 
discussion under that species. 

Dasyneura caudata Walker [nee Fabricius) 
1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1073. 

Two specimens are present which Walker had determined as " caudata? ". They 
are labeled " India, N. Bengal, Lieut. Campbell, B.M. 1842-25 ". They have also 
been labeled (evidently not by Walker) " Dasyneura caudata Walker " and one of 
them is marked " type ". This was not described as a new species by Walker, he 
thought he was describing caudata Fabricius. 

These are specimens of Dacus (Strumeta) cucurhitae Coquillett. 

Dasyneura nebulosa Walker 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1076. 

I could not find a Dasyneura nebulosa Walker in the collection but did find a 
Dacus nebulosus Walker. This fits Walker's vague description fairly well, as would 
a great share of all Dacus spp. A male specimen is labeled type " bred fr. follicles 
of Asclepias pubescens, Cape Colony, pupa found 26-II-1814, W. J. Burchell, 113 ". 
Two other specimens, bearing the same data, are also present. Walker's specimen 
of Dasyneura nebulosa apparently contained no locality or collector data. I am not 
certain that this is the specimen which Walker described, Dacus nebulosus may be a 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 185 

nomen nudum. There is apparently no way to be sure in this case and since Dasyneura 
nehulosa is unrecognizable from the description I believe it best to consider the above 
specimen of Dacus nebulosus as the type. 

I have written to Harold Oldroyd about this matter and he replied " the specimens 
you recorded as Dacus nehulosa are believed to be the type material of Dasyneura 
nehulosa Walker, 1849. According to a note in my copy of the ' List . . .', this 
material was transferred to Dacus by E. E. Austen on 5. X. 1904, and at the same 
time he entered the locality ' Cape Colony {W. J. Burchell) ' in the book ". 

This is a new synonjnn of Dacus {Didacus) fuscatus Wiedemann (1819, Zool. Mag. 
1 (3) : 28). The type, and the two specimens present, are discolored. The scutellum 
is reddish brown on the disc and rufous around the edge. The bright yellow margin, 
characteristic of most specimens of fuscatus, has been lost due to the discoloration. 
Cell 1st M2 has a slight hyaline streak through the middle in the type and is more 
fumose, as in typical fuscatus, in the other two specimens. 



Dasyneura tau Walker 
1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 ; 1074. 

The type male is in good condition. It is labeled " China, Foochow, G. T. Lay, 
c^, B.M. 1845-65 ". 

This is a Dacus {Zeugodacus) Hendel. Dacus hageni de Meijere (191 1, Tijds. 
V. Ent. 54 : 375) is a new synonym of Dacus [Zeugodacus) tau (Walker). Other 
names that will fall into synonymy under tau are as follows : Dacus caudatus var. 
nuhilus Hendel (1912, Suppl. Ent. 1 : 16) ; Zeugodacus caudatus Perkins (nee 
Fabricius) (1938, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 49 (11) : 139) ; Zeugodacus nuhilus 
heinrichi Hering (1941, Siruna Seva, 3 : 11) and Zeugodacus hezzianus Hering (1941, 
Arh. uher Morph. u. Tax. Ent. 8 (1) : 26). See Hardy & Adachi (1954, Pac. Set. 
8 (2) : 188-189). 

The type specimen is slightly more pale than is tjrpical for the species (it is either 
teneral or faded) but obviously fits within the range of variability for this species. 

For a description and figures of this species refer to Hardy & Adachi op. cit. : 
188-191. 

Enicoptera arcuosa Walker 
(PI. 12, figs, i^a-h) 
i860, Jour Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 156. 

Three males and one female are in the collection labeled " Celebes, nr. Macassar, 
A. R. Wallace, B.M. 1858-142 ". None is labeled type but all are obviously cotypes 
and one of the males is no doubt Walker's type. 

This is a Dacinae, tribe Adramini, belonging in the genus Neosophira Hendel 
(new combination). Neosophira ferruginea Hendel (1914, Ahh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. 
Ges. Wien, 8 (1) : 138) is a new synonym, based upon a comparison of Walker's 



i86 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

type with Hendel's description and figures (c/. PI. 12, fig. 14a with Hendel, 1914, 
Gen. Ins. 157, pi. 3, fig. 64). 

Neosophira arcuosa (Walker) is a well-defined species easily characterized from 
other Neosophira by the wing markings (PL 12, fig. 14a) as well as by other details. 
The development of the lower occiput and genae is especially peculiar, in some 
specimens a slender lobe is developed from the lower portion of the head which may 
be equal or longer than the third antennal segment ; in other specimens just a slight 
lobe is developed. 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Cotype Series 

Head : In direct frontal view the head is distinctly wider than long. The front 
is broader than long ; the superior fronto-orbital bristles are situated at the middle 
of the front and are almost as strong as the verticals. A black stripe extends down 
the median portion of the front to just above the lunule, an arm extends out on 
each side and runs obliquely to the eye margin just in front of the superior fronto- 
orbital bristles. The face is moderately concave on the lower portion and the epistoma 
is projected. The face has a large oval spot across the median portion at the lower 
third, this does not extend as far as the antennal furrows. The antennae are entirely 
yellow ; the third segment is about three times longer than wide and is rounded 
at apex. The arista is long plumose. The occiput is strongly inflated below, at its 
widest point it is approximately two-thirds the width of one eye. As mentioned 
above the genae are lobate, refer to PI. 12, fig. 146 for the extreme development of 
the genae in the male specimens at hand. Thorax : Entirely rufous except for a 
large black spot behind each humerus and for a narrow brown to black longitudinal 
vitta extending from just behind the suture to approximately opposite the postalar 
bristles, in line with the sides of the scutellum. Each mesopleuron has a narrow 
vertical, brown stripe near the hind margin. Wings : Venation very near that of 
distorta. The apical cell (cell R5) is not so strongly narrowed, however, at the apex 
it is greater in width than the length of the r-m crossvein. The cubital cell has a 
comparatively short pointed lobe at apex, it is less than the length of the vertical 
section of vein Cui (PL 12, fig. 14a). Abdomen : Entirely rufous in both sexes. 
The ovipositor has been broken off the female specimen at hand. 

Length : Body and wings, ii'0-i2-o mm. 



Enicoptera pictipennis Walker 

i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 155. 

The type male labeled " Celebes, nr. Makassar, A. R. Wallace, B.M. 1858-142 " 
is in poor condition ; the head has been broken off and has been glued to the bottom 
part of the nadel. 

This is a Neosophira Hendel, it has been compared with the type of A'^. distorta 
(Walker) and the synonymy recorded by Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157, Dipt. Muscari- 
dae, p. y^, and 1914, Ahh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 8 (1) : 139) has been confirmed. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 187 

Enicoptera? plagifera Walker 
(PI. 13, fig. 15) 

i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 156. 

Walker indicated that he described a female. The unique male specimen in the 
collection containing the handwritten label "plagifera" and the data "Celebes 
nr. Makassar, A. R. Wallace, B.M. 1858-142 " is no doubt the type, Walker was often 
confused on the sex of his specimens. 

This is a Trypetinae belonging in the genus Seraca Walker. Sophira histriga 
Walker {op. cit. : 160) is a new synonym, based upon a comparison of the types ; 
Walker's bistriga was based upon the female d^nd plagifera upon the male. Colobostrella 
ruficauda Hendel (1915, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. 13 : 429) is also obviously a synonym 
of plagifera, based upon comparisons with the original description and figure ; 
Malloch (1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 64 (3-4) : 446) had suggested that 
Colobostrella ruficauda was possibly a synonym of Sophira bistriga. Consequently 
the genus Colobostrella Hendel, based upon C. ruficauda, falls as a new synonym 
of Seraca Walker. 

S. plagifera is related to 5. extranea (de Meijere) (1914, Tijds. v. Ent. 57 : 193, 
pi. 5, fig. 7) but the wing markings are distinctly different, as shown in PI. 13, fig. 15 
and in de Meijere's fig. 7 {loc. cit.) and the thoracic markings are quite different : 
plagifera has four black spots on the mesonotum, extranea has five, etc. 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type 

Head : With one pair of inferior fronto-orbital bristles situated near the lower 
fourth of the front and with two pairs of superior fronto-orbitals, the lower pair is 
situated slightly above the middle of the front, the upper pair is weak and is situated 
just below a level with the ocelli. No ocellar bristles are present on the specimen at 
hand and the postvertical bristles are rather weak, they are about equal in size to 
the outer verticals. The front has a few small hairs scattered above and below the 
inferior fronto-orbital bristles. The front is about as wide as long, entirely yellow 
with the bristles as noted above. Face flat, almost straight in profile ; entirely 
subopaque black. The upper portions of the genae are black, the portion adjoining 
each eye margin is yellow and densely gray pubescent. The occiput is entirely 
yellow, the lower portion is slightly puffed, at its broadest point it is about one-half 
as wide as the eye. The antennae are yellow-brown, the third segment is about 
two and one-half to nearly three times longer than wide and is rounded at apex. 
The arista is long plumose on both sides, the longest hairs are considerably greater 
than the width of the third segment. Thorax: Predominantly bright yellow to 
rufous. Presutural, humeral, dorsocentral and prescutellar bristles are present. 
The dorsocentrals are situated just slightly in front of a line drawn between the 
postalars. The mesopleura are entirely black except for each upper margin which is 
yellow. The sternopleura are black except for the upper hind cornes and the hind 
margins which are narrowly yellow, sternopleural bristles are lacking. The meso- 
notum has a large black spot behind each humerus extending almost to the suture. 



i88 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

The hind portion of the mesonotum is entirely shining black, and a black vitta 
extends anteriorly from, each side almost to the suture, in line with the dorsocentral 
bristles. The metanotum is black on the sides and yellow in the middle. The scutel- 
lum is entirely yellow, the disc is rather thickly covered with short, suberect, brown 
to black hairs ; it has four strong bristles and one weak pair of secondary bristles. 
Legs : The front coxae and femora are black. The middle femora are predominantly 
shining black, tinged with rufous on the posterior and dorsal surfaces. The hind 
femora are dark brown to black ventrally and over apical third, the dorsal portion 
of the basal two-thirds is yellow. The front tibiae and tarsi are almost entirely 
black, those of the middle and hind legs are yellow. The front femora each have a 
row of five to six moderately strong posteroventral bristles extending down the apical 
third. The mid-tibia has only one strong black spur at apex. Wings : As in PI. 13, 
fig. 15, with two transverse hyaline marks ; the first extending from the costa 
just beyond apex of vein Ri to just beyond the r-m crossvein ; the second (distad) 
mark extends from near the apex of vein R2 + 3 to vein M4 + 5 just before the 
m crossvein. The wing is otherwise brown to yellow-brown fumose (the basal two- 
fifths is predominantly yellow, lightly tinged with brown. The apical portion is 
predominantly brown), refer to PI. 13, fig. 15. The setae on vein Ri extend over the 
node to the humeral crossvein. R4 + 5 is setulose from near the base to the apical 
fourth of the last section of the vein, the setae are rather sparse. The stem of Rs is 
bare. Vein R2 + 3 is just slightly undulated, but is gently curved upward so that 
the fourth costal cell is approximately equal in length to the fifth ; the proportions 
being 55 to 48. The cubital cell has a short, acute point at apex below, approximately 
equal to the length of the vertical section of vein Cui. The r-m crossvein is situated 
distinctly beyond the middle of cell ist M2, at about the apical three-fifths of the 
cell. The last section of vein Mi + 2 is about half again longer than the preceding 
section, the proportions are 39 to 54. The m crossvein is bent outwardly in the 
median portion. Abdomen : The abdominal terga are predominantly black on the 
sides, yellow down the median portion ; the apices of two, three, four, and the 
apical one-half of five, are entirely yellow. The venter is yellow to rufous. 
Length : Body, 9-2 mm.; wings, 8-55 mm. 

Enicoptera rufiventris Walker 

1 861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 163. 

Type male in good condition is in collection from " Moluccas, Amboina, W. W. 
Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• 

This is a synonym of Adrama selecta Walker, see notes under that species. 

Enicoptera tortuosa Walker 
(PI. 13, fig. 16) 
i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 155. 
A male and a female are in the collection labeled " Celebes ", the male labeled 
" Macassar ", the female labeled " near Macassar " A. R. Wallace, B.M. 1868-142 "; 
both are in good condition. The male specimen is evidently Walker's type. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 189 

This species has been correctly placed by Walker but it has received no attention 
in the literature except for mention by Hering (1938, Deutsch. Ent. Zeits. 1938 : 412) 
along with E. flava Macquart as " nicht geklarten Arten ". Hering (1938, loc. cit. 
and 1937, Phil. Jour. Sci. 63 (1) : 105-108) followed the change of spelling " Heni- 
coptera" as used by Loew (1873 Monogr. Dipt. N. Amer. 3 : 21). Hendel (1914, 
Wien. Ent. Zeit. 33 : 78) also used this spelling. Loew gave no reason for making 
this change and I am using the original spelling Enicoptera, as did Walker (i860, 
loc. cit.), Osten Sacken (1882, Berl. Ent. Zeits. 23 : 232), Malloch (1939, Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 441) et al. 

E. tortuosa appears to be characterized from other known Enicoptera by the 
predominantly rufous thorax with no black vittae on the mesonotum and by having 
no black markings on the scutellum. 

Descriptive Notes on the Type 

Head : Entirely yellow to rufous except for the brown eyes, with no dark markings 
on the front or the face. Three pairs of moderately strong inferior fronto-orbital 
bristles and two pairs of superior fronto-orbitals present. Ocellar bristles very weak ; 
postvertical bristles moderately developed, about equal in size to the superior 
fronto-orbitals. Front broad, as wide as long. Third antennal segment approximately 
four times longer than wide and almost equal in length to the face. Arista long 
plumose, the longest hairs are greater than the width of the third segment. Thorax : 
Predominantly yellow to rufous, with black markings on the front portion of the 
mesopleura, the major portion of the sternopleura, and the hypopleura. The upper 
portions of the pteropleura are tinged with brown. The humeri are entirely yellow, 
each notopleural callus is predominantly so with only its upper border brown. The 
area between the humerus and the notopleural callus is brown and the area immediate- 
ly above it, in front of the suture, is brown to black. The hind margin of the meso- 
notum is also black. There are no prescutellar bristles and one pair of dorsocentrals 
is developed, these are slightly in front of a line drawn between the inner posterior 
supraalars. The scutellum is all yellow and has four moderately strong marginal 
bristles. The metanotum is entirely black except for a faintly rufous mark in the 
median portion. Wings : As in PI. 13, fig. 16. Legs : Entirely yellow to rufous 
except for the brown to black coxae. Abdomen : Rather long and slender, parallel 
sided. The first tergum and the median portions of the other terga are yellow, the 
sides are yellow-brown. The second tergum is more distinctly brown in color than 
are the other. Ovipositor reddish brown, the basal portion, in situ, is approximately 
equal in length to the last four visible abdominal segments. 

Length of type male : Wing, 12-8 mm.; body, 14-4 mm. Female : Wing, ii-2 
mm.; body, 10 -8 mm. (not including ovipositor). 

Helomyza optatura Walker 
1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 116. 

The type female, from New Guinea, has been examined and the synonymy with 
Themaroides quadrifera Walker has been confirmed. Bezzi (1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 

ENTOM. 8, 5. II 



igo WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

3 : 76) said Czerny found these to be synonyms when he examined the types in 
1904. 

Helomyza quadrifera Walker 

(PL 13, fig. 17) 

1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 246. 

Helomyza optatura Walker, 1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 116. 

The types of both of these are in the collection, from New Guinea ; Walker 
described the male as quadrifera (he called it a female in his description) and the 
female as optatura. Osten Sacken (1881, Enumer. Dipt. Malay Arch. Genova, p. 459) 
thought these were distinct but as pointed out by Bezzi (1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 
3 : 76) Czerny examined the types in 1904 and found them to be synonyms. Themara 
ampla Doleschall nee Walker (1859, Nat. Tijds. Ned. Indie, 17 : 154) is also a synonym, 
as was pointed out by Osten Sacken (1882, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, p. 19). 
Doleschall's species was a nomen nudum and would not have priority over quadrifera. 

This is a Trypetinae and is the type of the genus Themaroides Hendel (1914, 
Wien. Ent. Zeitung, 33 : 77). The concepts of this genus need to be clarified somewhat. 
It was treated by Malloch (1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 64 (3-4) : 416) but 
does not run well in his key. He keys it in the group which has vein R2 + 3 (2nd 
vein) undulated ; actually vein R2 + 3 is straight or nearly so. The striking generic 
characters seem to be that the two pairs of inferior fronto-orbitals are situated close 
together on the lower part of the front and the lower superior fronto-orbital bristle 
is situated at the lower one-third to one-fourth of the front, very near the inferior 
fronto-orbitals. 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type 

Six strong scutellar bristles are present. The entire body is very thickly covered 
with short black, suberect, setae. Head : Entirely yellow, except for the brown 
eyes. Hendel says the face is strongly convex in profile ; actually I would consider 
it rather gently convex and receding below ; the epistomal margin is not at all 
developed. The third antennal segment is very short, it is scarcely longer than wide 
and does not extend to the middle of the front. The front measured from 
lower ocellus to the lunule is about one-third longer than wide. The genal bristles 
are strongly developed. There are no distinct bristles on the sides of the face or 
the oral margin. Legs : The front femora each have a row of rather strong postero- 
ventral bristles and a row of posterodorsal bristles. The middle and hind femora 
each have a row of short, black bristles along the anterior surface. The middle 
tibiae each have a row of four moderately strong posterodorsal bristles near the 
middle and two strong, equally developed spurs at apex. Thorax entirely rufous. 
The dorsocentral bristles are situated about halfway between the postalars and 
anterior supraalars. Wings as in PI. 13, fig. 17. Abdomen : First three terga and 
median part of fourth yellow to rufous ; the remainder black except for a faint 
spot of rufous in the middle of the fifth. Ovipositor black, the basal segment in 
situ is equal in length to segments five and six. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM igi 

Length : Q-o-g-s mm. 

One specimen, labeled " Hollandia " is in the Zoological Museum, Amsterdam, 
determined as " Rioxa quadrifera Walk." by de Meijere. 

Noeeta latiuscula Walker 

1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 133. 

The type male is in good condition, except for fungus on the abdomen. It is 
labeled " Borneo, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 ". 

This is an Otitidae falling in the subfamily Plastotephritinae, genus Rhegniatosaga 
Frey (see Frey, 1930, Notulae Ent. 10 : 63 and Frey, 1932, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(10) 9 : 256 for a discussion of the subfamily, in latter and for a description of the 
genus and type species in the former). R. insignis Frey is a new synonym. I have 
compared the type in the British Museum collection. Frey's description, 1930 
loc. cit. and PI. 11, fig. 8 are adequate. Noeeta latiuscula Walker was in the British 
Museum collection as a fruit fly under the genus Carphotricha Loew. 

Polyara insolita Walker 
1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 123. 

The type apparently is not in the collection. A male and a female are on hand. 
The female is in poor condition and has a small round label with what appears 
to be " Mysol " written on it. The male is in good condition and has a label contain- 
ing what might possibly be a capital M, it also has a handwritten label of Walker's 
" insolita ". 

This is the only known species in the genus Polyara Walker and is very easily 
recognized by the pecuHar wing venation. Vein R2 + 3 has two spur veins on the 
underside extending almost to vein R4 + 5 and has one spur vein on the upper 
side which connects with vein Ri. The apical portion of vein Mi + 2 is curved 
upward, greatly narrowing cell R5. The head is very broad ; in both sexes it is 
distinctly wider than the thorax. The front measured from the lower ocellus to 
the lunule is almost twice as wide as long. There are two pairs of superior fronto- 
orbitals situated on the upper third of the front, and one pair of very weak inferior 
fronto-orbitals situated near the lower margin of the front. The entire front is 
covered with short, erect, dark colored hairs. The ocellar bristles are rather small, 
they are approximately equal in length to the hairs, or bristles, of the occipital row. 
The face is very broad, in profile it is almost flat and receded below ; the epistoma 
is not at all produced. The third antennal segment is approximately three to three 
and one-half times longer than wide ; is gradually tapered toward the apex and is 
rounded apically. The arista is rather long plumose, the longest hairs are considerably 
greater than the width of the third segment. Six scutellar bristles are present. 
The dorsocentrals and prescutellars are well developed. Two pairs of dorsocentrals 
are present, one is located behind the postalars, just before the scutellum and in 
line with the basal scutellar bristles, the second pair is just behind a line drawn 



192 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

between the anterior supraalars. The ovipositor is very elongate. The basal portion, 
in situ, is approximately equal in length to the remainder of the abdomen plus the 
thorax. Malloch (1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 417, 418, pi. 11, 
fig. 4) has adequately described this genus and species. 

Rioxa? bimaculata Walker 

i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 164. 

A synonym of Ptilona confinis (Walker). The type is present in the collection 
from Amboina. 

Rioxa confinis Walker 
185/, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 132. 

The type female, from Sarawak, Borneo, is in fair condition. This species is a 
Trypetinae, fitting in the tribe Euphrantini and in the genus Ptilona van der Wulp. 

Ptilona confinis (Walker) is somewhat variable in coloration and wing markings 
and has apparently been described in the literature under a number of different 
names. I have confirmed the synonymy of Trypeta hasifascia Walker (from Macassar)' 
and Rioxa bimaculata Walker (from Amboina), based upon a comparison of the types, 
in the British Museum collection. This synonymy was first reported by Kertesz. 
(See Hendel, 1915, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. 13 : 446.) 

I am also placing Ptilona armatipes Hering (1953, Siruna Seva, 8 : 4, fig. 4) from 
Fukien, China, as a new synonymy of P. confinis (Walker). The only differences 
that I can see in these (comparing with Hering's description and figure) is that 
Hering shows two hyaline marks near the apex of cell ist M2 ; in Walker's type 
there is just one. Hering also shows two round marks in the middle of cell M4, 
in Walker's specimen these are confluent. I feel that these are variable characters 
and are of no taxonomic value. 

I also believe that it is probable that Ptilona brevicornis van der Wulp (1880, 
Tijds. V. Ent. 23 : 185, pi. 11, fig. 7), the type of the genus from Java and Ptilona 
nigriventris Bezzi (1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 3 : no, pi. VHI, fig. 20), from India are 
synonyms of P. confinis. Both of these have been recorded as widely distributed 
throughout much of the oriental region and Indonesia. Chen (1948, Sinensia, 
18 : 84) placed P. nigriventris Bezzi in synonymy with P. brevicornis van der Wulp 
and commented that it is a widely distributed, rather variable species and that the 
coloration differences in the abdomen and wing used by Bezzi were probably indi- 
vidual variations. The variability in the wing pattern of " nigriventris Bez." has 
been discussed by Munro (1935, Arb. Uber Phys. und angew. Ent. aus Berlin-Dahlem, 
2 (3-4) : 259-260). According to Hendel (1915, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. 13 : 446) 
Kertesz had labeled specimens of nigriventris as " Rioxa confinis Walk." Hennig 
(1941, Ent. Beihefte aus Berlin-Dahlem, 8 : 125) says that P. nigriventris is possibly 
a synonym of " Rioxa confinis Walk." 

One specimen is in the collection, from Mailum, Negros, Phil. Isl., which compares 
very well with the type of confinis. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 193 

Rioxa formosipennis Walker 
1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 252. 

A male and a female are in the collection labeled " Dory, New Guinea, 59-58 ". 
Both contain Walker's handwritten label "formosipennis " and are obviously the 
specimens which Walker had before him. The male should be considered as the 
type. 

This is a Trypetinae and is the type of the genus Neothemara Malloch (1939, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 11, 4 : 253). It is a well-defined species related to N. 
mtiltistriga (Walker) new combination, but is distinguished by having just one 
hyaline mark through cell Ri and no hyaline mark at the apex of cell R3 (see Malloch, 
1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) pi. XI, fig. 10). In multistriga cell Ri 
has two hyaline marks and cell R3 has one. Also the mesonotum of formosipennis 
has a pair of dark stripes down the middle and the scutellum has a black spot on 
each side. In multistriga the mesonotum has two pairs of black spots and the 
scutellum is all yellow. 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type 

Head : The front is yellow with a vertical stripe extending the entire length 
from the ocellar triangle to the front margin. Thorax : Predominantly yellow with 
a pair of black vittae extending down the mesonotum from about halfway between 
the prescutellar and the dorsocentral bristles to the inner scapular bristles, in line 
with the prescutellars. Also, a black vitta is present on each side extending from the 
inner margin of the suture to the hind margin of the mesonotum and extending 
inwardly to the prescutellar bristles and a narrow stripe is present down each side 
of the mesonotum from the outer scapular bristles, just above the humerus, extending 
down over the notopleuron and over the wing base. The pleura are all yellow except 
for a longitudinal stripe extending from each propleuron to the pteropleuron. The 
sternopleuron has a black streak along its top margin. The scutellum is yellow 
with a moderately large black spot on each side of the disc. Legs : Entirely yellow 
except for brownish discolorations at the apices of the hind femora and at the 
apical under portions of the middle femora. Wings : As in Malloch's figure {loc. cit.). 
A hdomen : The basal two segments of the abdomen are yellow ; the third and fourth 
segments are black with the apical one-third to one-fourth yellow. The fifth segment 
is dark brown to black with a narrow yellow apex. The basal segment of the 
ovipositor is black ; it is approximately one-third to one-half times longer than the 
fifth abdominal segment. 

Length : Wing, 7-6 mm. 

Note : Specimens of N. formosipennis were found in the Zoological Museum, 
Amsterdam, from New Guinea, which had been determined as " Scholastes cinctus " 
by de Meijere. Malloch (1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 434) recorded 
it from Wewak, New Guinea. 



194 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Rioxa lanceolata Walker 
(PI. 13. fig. 18) 
1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 35, pi. II, fig. 3. 

The specimen labeled "type, Singapore, A. R. Wallace, Saunders coll. 68.4" 
is a male. Walker had indicated a female in his original, this was no doubt an error. 
The type is in fair condition but most of the bristles have been broken off. Two 
other specimens are present from Sarawak, Borneo. 

This is the type of the genus Rioxa Walker. This group has been rather badly 
confused in the literature and Rioxa setts, lat. apparently contains several possible 
genera. I plan to revise this complex in the near future. Based upon R. lanceolata 
the Rioxa sens. sir. are differentiated from related groups by having the subcostal 
vein arcuate and the apex of Sc slanted gradually to the costa. Also by having 
vein Ri extending almost to apex of vein R2 + 3 (PL 13, fig- 18). Walker's fig. 
{loc. cit.) is accurate but the dark coloration on the front margin of the wing has 
obscured the details of the venation so the above given characters have apparently 
been overlooked. In Malloch's key (1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 
416) R. lanceolata would fit the first statement in couplet 7 " first wing- vein excep- 
tionally long, ending in the costal vein above level of upper extremity of the outer 
cross-vein ..." (characteristic of Cheesmanomyia Malloch). R. lanceolata would 
not, however, properly run to couplet 7, it runs to couplet 11 (from couplet 6) by 
having only veins Ri and R4 + 5 partly setulose above. In most respects it is 
entirely different from Cheesmanomyia. 

This species is readily differentiated from other Rioxa by the wing maculation 
and venation (PI. 13, fig. 18). 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type 

Head : Front approximately as wide as long, with two pairs of inferior fronto- 
orbital bristles located on the lower fourth of the front and with two pairs of superior 
fronto-orbitals ; the lower pair is situated slightly below the middle of the front. 
Face gently concave in profile, with a brown protuberance on each side of the epistome 
(the upper angle of the gena). Thorax: The prescutellar bristles are at, or very 
slightly behind, a line drawn between the posterior supraalars and the dorsocentrals 
are slightly behind the anterior supraalars. Six strong scutellar bristles are present. 
No distinct scapular bristles are present. The mesonotum is yellow with a narrow 
black vitta extending the full length, in line with the dorsocentral bristles and extend- 
ing over the sides of the scutellum. The thorax is rather broad, as in other so-called 
Rioxa, not counting the scutellum it is slightly longer than wide. Wings : The 
subcostal vein is bowed upward at about its middle portion and does not curve 
sharply upward at the apex as in t3q3ical Tephritidae ; the apical portion slants 
obHquely into the costa (PI. 13, fig. 18). This characteristic certainly would suggest 
that this not a true fruit fly ; however, the species has all other characteristics of 
fruit flies, all of the normal bristle, wing characters, etc. of true Tephritidae. Vein 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 195 

Ri is very elongate, it ends in the costa at a point beyond the m crossvein, very 
near the apex of vein M3. The fourth section of the costa is not quite half as long 
as the r-m crossvein (PI. 13, fig. 18). Vein Ri is setulose throughout its length to 
the node. Vein R4 + 5 is setulose to its base but the stem of Rs is bare. Vein 
R4 + 5 curves upward at the extreme apex so that the apical cell of the wing (sixth 
costal section) is rather broad, it is approximately two times wider than the fifth 
costal section. The r-m crossvein is situated at about the apical fourth of cell ist 
M2. The cubital cell has a short but acute lobe at its apex (PI. 13, fig. 18). Abdomen : 
Black on the sides and over the entire fifth segment and yellow down the median 
portion of segments one to four. 

Seraca abbreviata Walker 
(PI. 13, figs, iga-c) 
1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 117. 

The type female labeled " New Guinea " is in poor condition, the head is gone, 
some of the legs are missing and the thorax is damaged. Two cotypes containing 
the same data as the type are in good condition. 

This is a Rioxina Hering and the type of this genus, Rioxa de-beauforti de Meijere 
(1906, Nova Guinea Dipt. 5 (1) : 94, fig. 17), is a new synonym of R. abbreviata (Walker). 
The genus is monotypic. The species is readily distinguished from other fruit flies 
by the wing markings. The entire costal margin and the apical two-fifths of the 
wing is dark brown fumose, only the posterior basal portion of the wing is yellowish 
to subhyahne (PI. 13, fig. 19c). 

Descriptive Notes on the Type 

Head : Two pairs of rather strong fronto-orbital bristles are present, the lower is 
situated at the middle of the front. There are also two pairs of inferior fronto- 
orbitals, one strong pair and one rudimentary pair situated immediately below ; 
the lower bristles are about as strong as the postvertical bristles, which are also 
rather poorly developed. There are no ocellar bristles on the specimens at hand. 
Front and face entirely yellow except for a vertical black stripe extending from the 
epistome up the middle part of the face about two-thirds its length. The middle of 
the face is gibbose, rather markedly convex. The antennae are rufous to yellow, 
the third segment is rather small, it is about two times longer than wide and extends 
scarcely one-fourth the length of the face. The arista is long plumose, the longest 
hairs are one-half or more the width of the third segment. The occiput is greatly 
narrowed above, inflated below ; at the widest point it is about equal to half the 
width of the eye (PI. 13, fig. iga). The occiput is entirely yellow. Thorax: Pre- 
dominantly yellow, with a median black vitta down the mesonotum from about level 
with the hind margins of the humeri to the scutellum. The sides of the mesonotum 
are black. The pleura have two longitudinal black stripes, one extending in line 
with the propleural spiracle and the other across the upper portion of each sterno- 
pleuron. The sternopleural, humeral and presutural bristles are well developed. 



196 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

The dorsocentral bristles are situated about halfway between the anterior supraalars 
and the posterior supraalars. Scutellum all yellow, except for the extreme apex, 
which is brown ; six strong marginal bristles are present and the dorsal surface is 
rather thickly covered with suberect short black setae. Legs : Chiefly yellow, 
middle and hind femora tinged with brown on their dorsal surfaces. Front femora 
each with two strong ventral bristles just beyond the middle (PI. 13, fig. 196). Wings : 
As in PL 13, fig. 19c. Node of R and stem of Rs bare. Abdomen : First three terga 
yellow except for the brown lateral margins. Terga four and five entirely dark 
brown to black. Sternum and genitalia yellow to rufous. 
Length : Wing, lo-o mm.; body, 9-2 mm. 

Seraca signata Walker 

i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 165. 

The type female is labeled " Mak.", no doubt for Makassar, Celebes. It is in fair 
condition, the wings are damaged but the details of the venation and coloration are 
evident. It was in the collection under the genus Rioxa. 

This species belongs in the genus Sophira Walker (new combination) and is related 
to 5. quadripunctata Malloch (1939, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 4 : 255), from the 
Solomon Islands and is differentiated by having the wings subhyaline, slightly 
yellowish ; the posterior portion of the wing nearly hyaline and by having the apex 
of the stigma (cell Sc) brown ; rather than having the wings chiefly yellow, intensely 
so at base and on anterior portion ; the posterior portion broadly gray-brown 
fumose and the subcostal cell yellow as in quadripunctata. It also differs by having 
the sixth tergum of the female entirely yellow ; rather than with two black spots 
on the sixth tergum. S. signata is somewhat more slender in build and the ovipositor 
base is shorter than in quadripunctata ; being equal to segment five plus the visible 
portion of six, rather than equal to segments four plus five. It is also related to 
5. holoxantha Hering (1941, Siruna Seva, 3 : 21) but differs by having black spots 
on the fifth tergum rather than having the abdomen entirely yellow. 

5. signata is an almost entirely pale species, except for a black spot on each side 
of the fifth tergum of the abdomen. The costal and basal cells of the wing are almost 
hyaline. The r-m crossvein is situated at the apical two-thirds to three-fourths 
of cell ist M2. The narrow brown costal band is continuous from just beyond the 
tip of vein Ri to the apex of vein Mi + 2. 

Seraca signifera Walker 
(PI. 14, fig. 20) 

i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 165. 

The type male labeled " Celebes " is in fairly good condition. This is the type of 
the genus Seraca Walker. 

Colobostrella Hendel (1914, Wien. Ent. Zeit. 33 : 79 — type of genus, C. rujicauda 
Hendel) and Zoosina Hering (1941, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. 34 : 68— type of genus 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 197 

Anastrepha extranea de Meijere) are new synon3mis of the genus Seraca Walker, 
based upon the study of specimens in the British Museum collection and in the 
Museums at Leiden and Amsterdam (de Meijere's collection) ; also Colobostrella 
Yuficauda Hendel is a new synonym of Seraca signifera. I have also confirmed the 
synonymy of Kamhangania de Meijere (1914, Tijd. v. Ent. 57 : 196 — type of genus, 
K. metatarsata de Meijere), this latter synonym (with Colobostrella) was reported 
by Hendel (1915, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. 13 : 428). Malloch (1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 445) questioned this synonjmiy. 

This species is readily distinguished from other known Seraca by the dark colora- 
tion of the body, the presence of only two longitudinal vittae on the mesonotum 
and by the wing pattern as shown in PI. 14, fig. 20. 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type 

Head : Predominantly yellow, except for the eyes and the upper occiput and 
vertex which are reddish brown. The strong pair of superior fronto-orbital bristles 
is placed at the middle of the front, a tiny rudimentary pair is situated above these. 
The front is almost as wide as long, measured from the lower ocellus to the lunule. 
The face is nearly straight in profile but from a direct frontal view the median 
upper three-fourths is raised into a keel. At the lower one-fourth of the face is a 
slight transverse depression, the portion extending below this to the epistoma is 
flat. From a lateral view the occiput is rather strongly narrowed above and inflated 
on the lower portion, at its broadest point it is over half as wide as the eye. Thorax : 
Yellow-brown with two submedian black vittae extending the entire length of the 
dorsum, in line with the dorsocentral bristles. The notopleura are dark brown to 
black. The upper margins of the mesopleura are brown ; the pleura are otherwise 
not marked with brown to black. The dorsocentral bristles are located rather close 
to a line drawn between the inner supraalars. Wings as in PI. 14, fig. 20. Vein Ri 
is haired to its base. The node of R has setae only to the humeral crossvein and 
R4 -|- 5 is setulose to its base. The stem of Rs is bare. Vein R2 + 3 is slightly 
undulated as shown in PI. 14, fig. 20. Cubital cell with a rather short, acutely pointed 
lobe at apex, the lobe is about equal in length to the vertical portion of Cui. Abdomen: 
Largely subshining black on the sides of the terga and yellow to rufous down the 
median portions of terga one to four. Fifth tergum all black. The sternum is 
entirely yellow to rufous. The genitalia are black. 

Length : Wing, 875 mm. 

Soita psiloides Walker 
(PI. 14, figs. 2ia-b) 
1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 136. 

The type male is in the collection in fair condition except that one wing and some 
bristles are broken off. It is labeled only with an " S. " (probably for Salwatty) 
on a small round card plus Walker's handwritten label "psiloides ". This is the 



ig8 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

type of the genus Soita Walker {op. cit., p. 135). In Malloch's key (1939, Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 : 441) it runs best to couplet 9, with the genus Ichneumonosoma 
de Meijere. There are, however, a few hairs on the pleurotergite so it runs imper- 
fectly past couplet 2. It is obviously quite a different genus from Ichneumonosoma. 
That group lacks sternopleural and prescutellar bristles and has but one pair of 
inferior fronto-orbital bristles and one superior fronto-orbital ; also the ocellar 
bristles are absent. Soita have sternopleurals and prescutellars ; also a tiny pair 
of ocellar bristles and two pairs of superior fronto-orbitals. 

Based upon the type the generic characters of Soita are as follows : Thorax : 
Long and slender, mesonotum about two times longer than wide. The sternum is 
densely setose, thickly covered with short to rather elongate, yellow-brown hairs 
and bristles. Only two scutellar bristles are present, these are obviously very long 
and strong (they are broken from the specimen at hand but I presume they would 
be equal in size to the inner posterior supraalar bristles). The pleurotergite has a 
few conspicuous hairs, about four or five situated on the lower portion. In this 
regard it would key out in the tribe Euphrantini but I question its relationship to 
this group. It would be best to modify Malloch's key to handle those genera with 
but two scutellar bristles {Ichneumonosoma and Soita) in couplet 2. The prescutellars, 
outer postalars, the mesopleural and sternopleural bristles are yellow-brown ; 
the other main bristles of the thorax are black. The dorsocentral pair is very strong 
and is situated just behind the suture, approximately in line with the notopleural 
bristles ; the dorsocentral and the sternopleurals are approximately two-thirds as 
long as the mesonotum. The scutellars and possibly also the humerals and the 
presuturals may also be very strongly developed (they are broken on this specimen) . 
Head : Rather peculiarly shaped, the vertex is very flat, not at all developed and 
not visible in direct lateral view. One pair of inferior fronto-orbital bristles is 
developed on the lower third of the front. There are two pairs of superior fronto- 
orbitals, the lower is at the middle of the front and is very flat, broad, and strap-like 
(the bristle is broken from one side and the apex of the other bristle is broken) ; 
it is apparently longer than the front and is equal in width to about two-fifths the 
width of the third antennal segment (PI. 14, fig. 21a). The ocellar bristles are rudi- 
mentary, very tiny. The third antennal segment is three and one-half to four times 
longer than wide and is longer than the face. The arista is short plumose. Legs : 
The front femur has a row of five or six rather strong, yellow-brown posteroventral 
bristles and two moderately developed yellow-brown posterior bristles just below 
the middle. The middle femur has two rather strong, black preapical bristles on 
the posterior surface. The middle tibia has a row of strong, black posterodorsal 
bristles and a ring of three strong, black bristles and two brown, moderately developed 
bristles at the apex. The hind femur has five rather weak, yellow-brown, antero- 
dorsal bristles on the apical two-fifths. The hind tibia has a row of moderately 
developed, brown, anterodorsal bristles and one black, rather weak, ventral bristle 
at the apex. Wings : As in PI. 14, fig. 21b, with vein Ri setulose from just below 
the humeral crossvein. Vein R4 + 5 is entirely setulose, the stem of Rs is bare. 
The base of vein Cui and vein Mi + 2, from the r-m crossvein, is rather strongly 
setulose to approximately two-thirds the distance to the m crossvein. The cubital 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 199 

cell has a short, acute lobe at apex below (PL 14, fig. 21b). Abdomen : The sterna 
of the abdomen are densely covered with short, recumbent yellow-brown hairs as 
are the terga, and two black bristles are situated near the apex of each sternum. 
The fifth tergum obviously has a row of very strong black bristles around its apex 
(these are broken from the specimen at hand). Abdomen long, slender and straight 
sided, in the type the segments are considerably longer than wide ; the fifth tergum 
is nearly two times longer than its greatest width. 

Specific characters : In addition to the above, the species is entirely yellow to 
rufous with no dark markings except for the brown eyes and the brown ocellar 
triangle. The apex of the third antennal segment and the tips of the palpi are tinged 
with brown. The wings are faintly yellowish fumose. The subcostal cell is yellow, 
tinged with brown. There is also a brownish fumose spot at the lower apex of cell 
ist M2 covering the lower portion of the m crossvein and the tip of vein M3 + 4. 
The fourth costal section is two times longer than the fifth and the r-m crossvein 
is situated near the middle of cell ist M2 (PI. 14, fig. 216). 

Length : Wing, 8-o mm.; body, lo-o mm. 



Sophira bipars Walker 
(PI. 14, fig. 22) 

1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 23. 

Walker indicated a female in his description but the unique specimen in the collec- 
tion is a male labeled " bipars " in Walker's handwriting. It is from " Moluccas, 
Ceram." This is probably the type. Walker may have been confused regarding the 
sex. The specimen is in good condition. 

This belongs to the genus Hemilea Loew (new combination) and is closely related 
to H. praestans (Bezzi) (1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 3 : 141, pi. X, fig. 51) from India. 
The only difference which I can find is that in bipars the brown marking of the wing 
fills up nearly all of cell ist M2 and about half of cell 2nd M2 ; rather than these 
cells being mostly hyaline as shown in Bezzi's figure {loc. cit.). Bezzi figures and 
describes two hyaline streaks along the costa just beyond vein Ri. S. bipars has 
only a small hyaline spot just beyond the apex of Ri (PI. 14, fig. 22). Bezzi also 
said that the sides of all of the abdominal segments, except the last, are " broadly 
reddish "; in bipars the last three terga are entirely shining black and the basal 
two terga are rufous. 5. bipars differs from H. dimidiata (Costa) (1837, Atti Accad. 
Sci. Napoli, 4 : 12, pi. i, fig. 7) by lacking the brown fasciae (five) down the meso- 
notum. It is also slightly larger in size and the base of the abdomen is all rufous 
rather than being largely black and rufous only on the sides. 

In addition to the above the head (except for the eyes), antennae, entire thorax 
and legs are rufous to yellow. The venter of the abdomen is entirely yellow. The 
wings are as in PI. 14, fig. 22. 

Length : Wings, 6-o mm. x 2 mm. at the widest point ; body, 5-2 mm. 



200 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Sophira bistriga Walker 

i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 160. 

A female specimen labeled " Celebes, Makassar " and containing Walker's hand- 
written label " bistriga " is apparently the type. 

This belongs in the genus Seraca Walker and is a new synonym of S, plagifera 
(Walker). 

Sophira concinna Walker 
(PI. 14, figs. 2^a-c) 
1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 132. 

Walker indicated a female in his original description but the specimen in the collec- 
tion labeled " Borneo, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 " is a male. It is not labeled 
type but has Walker's handwritten label " concinna ". 

This fits the concept of the genus Seraca Walker in most respects and is probably 
best treated under this name until the concept can be further clarified. Hering 
(1952, Treubia, 21 (2) : 271) treated this as a Colobostrella. The sternopleural bristle 
is well developed, almost as strong as the humeral and because of this it will not 
fit Malloch's concept of this genus (as Colobostrella, 1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 
Wales, 64 (3-4) : 441) but would run to Gastrozona Bezzi ; it differs considerably 
from the latter genus. It may be necessary to erect a new genus or subgenus for 
concinna and possibly other related species. 

Descriptive Notes on the British Museum Specimen 

Head : As in PI. 14, fig. 23^, as seen from lateral view. One pair of inferior fronto- 
orbital and two pairs of distinct superior fronto-orbital bristles are present. Front 
also with a row of ten or more fine, pale brown hairs (most of these very short) 
extending down each side in line with the inferior fronto-orbital bristle. Thorax : 
Predominantly yellow with four brown stripes extending longitudinally down the 
mesonotum. The pleura each have a broad brown vertical stripe extending from 
each side of the mesonotum between the humerus and notopleural callus over the 
mesopleuron to the sternopleuron, expanding to cover the entire sternopleuron and 
the hypopleuron. The presutural bristle is rather small, it is about equal in size 
to the posthumeral bristle. The pleurotergite is bare. Legs : The front femur has 
no hairs or bristles on the under portion. The middle basitarsus is curved and the 
proportions of the segments of the tarsus, as seen from dorsal view, are as in PI. 14, 
fig. 23&. Wings : Predominantly brown except for a hyaline transverse stripe 
across the middle and except for a hyaline mark extending longitudinally from the 
wing base through cell M, the base of ist M2 and to the wing apex through middle of 
cell M4 ; this becomes somewhat fumose near the wing margin (PI. 14, fig. 23c). 
Vein R2 + 3 has one undulation in the median portion. The fifth costal section is 
about two-thirds as long as the fourth, the proportions are 37 to 56. The r-m cross- 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 201 

vein is situated slightly before the middle of cell ist M2. The proportions of the 
last section of vein Mi + 2 to the preceding section is about 33 to 45. Abdomen : 
Yellow, with four broad brown vittae, one on each side, and two submedian, extending 
the full length, 

Sophira distorta Walker 
(PI. 14, figs. 24^-6) 
1857, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n.s. 4 : 230. 

The type male is labeled " Celebes, Mdme Pfeiffer, B.M. 1855-22 ". It is in rather 
poor condition, the head has been partially eaten away. A female specimen in the 
collection labeled " Celebes, Menado, Mdme I. Pfeiffer, B.M. 1855-22 " is in good 
condition. 

This is the type of the genus Neosophira Hendel and Enicoptera pictipennis Walker 
(i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 155) is a synonym. 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type 

A large, predominantly yellow to rufous species with black markings only on 
the front and face. Head : The front is as broad as long and has a broad, black 
stripe extending down the middle from the vertex to the lunule. One pair of moder- 
ately small, superior fronto-orbital bristles is developed, these are about equal in 
size to the small bristle on the hind portion of the mesopleuron. The face is slightly 
convex on the upper portion and is rather deeply concave at about the lower third, 
with the epistoma strongly projecting (PI. 14, fig. 24a). The median portion of the 
face (the area of the concavity) has a transverse black mark extending into the sides of 
the antennal furrows. Only one pair of bristles is present on the back of the head, 
these are the inner verticals ; the outer verticals and postverticals are lacking. There 
are no ocellar bristles on the specimens at hand. The upper occiput, behind the 
eyes, has a row of rather fine, brownish hairs ; no distinct bristles are developed 
in this occipital row. There are no genal bristles developed and no bristles are present 
along the sides of the oral margin. The genae are approximately one-third the height 
of the eye. The first antennal segment is yellow, the second is yellow except for 
the black dorsal surface. The third segment is yellow basally and brown to black 
toward the apical portion, it is about two and one-half to nearly three times longer 
than wide and is rounded at apex. The arista is long, plumose, the longest hairs 
are considerably greater than the width of the third segment. Thorax : With 
no prescutellar, dorsocentral, humeral, presutural, sternopleural or pteropleural 
bristles. The pleurotergite is bare. The mesonotum and scutellum are densely 
covered with fine, suberect, brown hairs. The scutellum has four marginal bristles. 
Legs : The hind two pairs of femora are long and slender, they are approximately 
equal in length to the combined lengths of the first four abdominal segments. The 
legs are completely unarmed, with no bristles, except at the apices of the middle 
tibiae. Each middle tibia has one long and one short apical spur. Wings : With 
very characteristic venation (PI. 14, fig. 246). The subcostal vein slopes gently into 



202 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

the costa. Vein Ri is very elongate and reaches the costa at a point considerably 
beyond a level with the m crossvein. Vein R2 + 3 is undulate, it has one upward 
curve at about the middle. The last section of vein Mi + 2 is rather sharply curved 
upward toward apex, greatly narrowing the apical cell. The r-m crossvein is situated 
near the apical one-fourth to two-thirds of cell ist M2. The cubital cell has a narrow, 
sharply pointed, lobe at apex, this is longer than the vertical section of vein Cui. 
Vein Ri is setulose from the humeral crossvein approximately to its tip. The other 
veins are bare except for about eight to ten setae along the basal portion of vein 
R4 + 5. The wing markings are as in the PI. 14, fig. 24b. Abdomen: Entirely 
rufous in female and with terga two to four discolored with black in the median 
portions in the male. The abdomen is densely covered with suberect fine yellow 
to brownish pile. The ovipositor is yellow, the basal segment (in the specimen at 
hand) is almost equal to the length of terga three to five. 

Length : Body of both sexes 14-4 mm.; wings of male, 14-8 mm.; wings of female, 
15-7 mm. 

Sophira punctifera Walker 

1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 15. 

The female specimen is not marked type but has the Walker handwritten label 
" punctifera " and " Moluccas, Gilolo ". It is probably the specimen which Walker 
described. 

This belongs in the genus Hexacinia Hendel. Hexacinia multipunctata Malloch 
(1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 438, pi. 11, fig. 13) is a new synonym. 
Enderlein (191 1, Zool. Jahrb. 13 (3) : 433) treated Sophira punctifera Walker as 
a synonym of Acinia stellata Macquart, 1851 (this name is preoccupied and radiosa 
Rondani must be used). This synonymy is not correct. 

Malloch's description, and figure, of this species (as multipunctata) are adequate. 
It is distinguished from other known Hexacinia by having three hyaline spots 
along the wing margin in cell Ri and by having only the extreme apex of cell R5 
hyaline. 

Sophira venusta Walker 

(PI. 15, fig. 25) 

1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 35. 

Two female specimens are in the collection, neither is marked type but one from 
" Singapore, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 " has Walker's handwritten label 
" venusta " and is probably the type. The other specimen is labeled " Molucca, 
A. R. Wallace, B.M. 1855-9 "■ 

This is the type of the genus Sophira Walker and is distinguished from other 
known species by having four longitudinal brown streaks on the wings (PL 15, 
fig- 25). 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 203 

The genus Sophira has been characterized by the presence of six scutellar bristles 
and by the lack of a sternopleural bristle. This can be slightly misleading, the geno- 
type has small, rudimentary, secondary scutellars. These are easily overlooked 
and if the bristles are broken off the bases may be difficult to discern. Shiraki (1933, 
Mem. Fac. Set. Agric. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 8 (2) : 320) characterizes the genus as 
having all yellow bristles and "having three very oblique bands" in the wings. 
The type of the genus has all black bristles except for the secondary scutellars 
which are pale yellow and the wings lack oblique bands. Shiraki's diagnosis pertains 
to the genus Tritaeniopteron de Meijere ; I have published a review of the genera 
Sophira and Tritaeniopteron see Hardy, 1957, Proc. Haw. ent. Soc. 16(3) : 366-378. 

Descriptive Notes Based on the Type 

Wings : Predominantly yellow fumose with a brown band extending from end 
of subcostal vein, filling all of cell Sc, and extending along the costa about halfway 
through the apex of cell R3. A narrow brown streak also extends over veins R4 -f- 5, 
Mi + 2, and M3 + 4, as in PI. 15, fig. 25. Thorax and abdomen : Predominantly 
yellow. The pleura each have a vertical stripe of black extending from the lower 
part of the sternopleuron to the upper margin of the mesopleuron ; this extends 
onto the mesonotum at the suture. The mesonotum also has a narrow black stripe 
on each side, in line with the outer scapular bristles, extending as far as the anterior 
supraalar bristles. Behind the dorsocentral bristles the mesonotum is black. The 
first abdominal tergum is yellow. The second has a black transverse band near its 
base. The third and fourth terga each have a moon-shaped black band extending 
across the basal margin in the middle and curving posteriorly toward the posterior 
lateral margins of the segment. The fifth tergum has an oblique black stripe on 
each side, extending from the posterolateral margin to the base of the segment. 

Strumeta concisa Walker 
(PI. 15, figs. 26a-h) 
1864, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Land. 7 : 227. 

Walker indicated a female in the original description but the unique specimen 
in the collection bearing the handwritten label "concisa" is a male. It is from 
" Dutch East Indies, Waigeu Is., W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 " ^^^ is in good 
condition except that some bristles are lost. This specimen is very probably the 
type. 

I have placed Strumeta Walker as a subgenus under Dacus Fabricius (Hardy, 
1955, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 48 (6) : 436) and the species name is preoccupied by 
Dacus concisus Walker (1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 252). 

Strumeta concisa apparently belongs to an undescribed genus and I am herein 
proposing the generic name Curvinervus n. gen. and am changing the species name 
to walkeri. 

This is a Trypetinae with a very characteristic wing venation and I am unable to 
place it in any of the known genera. In MaUoch's key (1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 



204 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Wales, 64 (3-4) : 415 and 441) it fits in group III by having four scutellar bristles 
and it runs, very imperfectly, in the first part of couplet 7 to Enicoptera Macquart. 
It shows no actual relation to this group, however, and is radically different. Vein 
R2 + 3 (second vein) has three upward loops rather than one, it is not fused with 
vein Ri and has a strong appendix on the upper side of the third loop (PI. 15, fig, 
266). It also differs from Enicoptera by having the fourth costal section (cell Ri) 
slightly longer than the fifth section (cell R3), rather than not over one-fifth as long ; 
the apical cell (cell R5) is expanded at the wing margin, rather than strongly narrowed 
and the section of vein Mi + 2 before the r-m crossvein is nearly straight, rather than 
strongly bent downward (c/. with PI. 13, fig. 16). 

Description of the Species Based Upon the Walker Specimen 

Head : The front, measured from the lower ocellus to the lunule, is as wide as 
long. One pair of incurved, rather small, inferior fronto-orbital bristles is situated 
at the upper fourth of the front ; on one side a rather weak secondary superior 
fronto-orbital bristle is developed, it is about equal in size to the ocellar bristles. 
The ocellars are comparatively weak. The face is entirely yellow with no dark 
markings and is moderately concave in profile. The occiput is rather swollen at 
the lower portion, at its broadest point it is almost one-half as wide as the eye. 
The front is rather thickly covered with rather long hairs, these are almost as strong 
as the ocellar bristles and from a lateral view this may give the impression that there 
are numerous inferior fronto-orbital hairs (PI. 15, fig. 26a) ; many of these are in 
the area directly above the inferior fronto-orbitals but are equally scattered across 
the middle portion of the front. The antennae are yellow, the third is tinged with 
brown. The third segment is rather broad and is rounded at the apex, it is slightly 
less than two times longer than wide. The arista is short plumose, the longest 
hairs are less than half the width of the third segment. Thorax : Chiefly yellow, 
tinged with brown on the mesonotum behind the humeri, and extending over the 
notopleural calli ; also the hind portion of the mesonotum is brown. The presutural 
bristles are lacking. The humeral bristle is rather weak, not quite as long as the 
inferior fronto-orbitals. The pteropleural and sternopleural bristles are rather 
weak, are brown to yellow in color and about equal in size to the inferior fronto- 
orbitals. The scutellum is yellow and has four bristles, it also has a tiny, pale- 
colored seta on each side in the position of the secondary scutellars. The metanotum 
is dark brown, tinged with yellow in the median portion. The pleurotergite is bare. 
The entire pleura and legs are clear yellow. Legs : The middle tibia has a single 
strong spur at the apex. The femora are all very slender and are armed with some 
slender pale hairs, but no bristles, beneath. Wings : Predominantly brown fumose 
with four small hyaline spots along the anterior margin of the costa, with another 
round hyaline spot near the upper middle of cell R5, with a narrow transverse 
hyaline mark extending from the end of the subcostal vein to the basal part of 
M4 -f 5, and also with some hyaline markings along the posterior border of the wing. 
Venation and coloration as in PL 15, fig. 26b. Vein R2 + 3 is very strongly undulated 
and has an appendix on the upper side of the vein. Ri is setulose only to the humeral 
crossvein. The stem of Rs is bare. The apical portion of the cubital cell is developed 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 205 

into a narrow acutely pointed lobe. This is slightly longer than the vertical portion 
of vein Cui. Cui + ist A curves downward slightly on its course to the wing margin. 
The wing is comparatively long and slender, almost three times longer than wide. 
Abdomen : Basal two segments entirely clear yellow, the base of the third segment 
is narrowly yellow. The abdomen is otherwise polished black on the dorsum, yellow 
on the venter. 

Length : Wing, 6-o mm. 

Strumeta conformis Walker 
1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 34. 

No type had been designated but a female specimen, in good condition, labeled 
" conformis " in Walker's handwriting is apparently the type. It is from " Singapore, 
W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• 

This is the type of Walker's genus Strumeta which I treat as a subgenus of Dacus 
(Hardy 1955, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 48 (6) : 436) and conformis is a synonym of 
Dacus (Strumeta) umbrosus Fabricius (Hardy & Adachi, 1954, Pac. Sci. 8 (2) : 184). 

Strumeta helomyzoides Walker 

1864, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7 : 220. 

One male specimen is in the collection labeled " Moluccas, Misol* Is.", it is not 
labeled type but is probably the male specimen which Walker described. The speci- 
men is in good condition. 

This is a Trypetinae belonging in the genus Themarohystris Hendel. T. erinaceus 
Hendel (1914, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. 13 : 433), the type of the genus, is a new 
synonym of T. helomyzoides (Walker). Based upon the comparison of Walker's 
type with Hendel's description and with specimens in the British Museum collection ; 
refer to Hendel [loc. cit.) and to Malloch (1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 
422) for descriptive details of this species. 

Strumeta repleta Walker 
(PI. 15, fig. 27) 
1 86 1, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 296. 

The type had not been designated but a female specimen with the handwritten 
label " repleta " from " New Guinea, Bachanf, A. R. Wallace, B.M. 1858-142 " is 
obviously the type. 

This is a Trypetinae belonging in the genus Neothemara Malloch (new combination) . 
It belongs in the group which have vein Cui setulose before the downward curve 
and seems to fit closest to iV. exul (Curran) (1936, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 22 (1) : 27) 

* Misspelling for Mysol. 
t Misspelling for Batchian. 

ENTOM. 8, 5. 12 



2o6 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

but the wing maculation is very different (c/. PI. 15, fig. 27 with Malloch, 1939, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 4 : 254, pi. XI, fig. 15), and the legs are predominantly 
black rather than rufous. 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type 

Thorax : Predominantly yellow with a pair of black stripes extending longi- 
tudinally from the inner scapular bristles to about a level with the dorsocentral 
bristles, in line with the scapulars. Another longitudinal stripe is present on each 
side, beginning just behind the suture and extending to the hind margin, in line 
with the lateral margins of the scutellum and continuing as a black line across 
the hind margin of the mesonotum. Also a short black longitudinal stripe is present 
on each side, extending from the presutural bristle to the front margin of the thorax 
just above the humerus, and another short, black stripe extends across the noto- 
pleural callus to the wing base. The pleura have a narrow black longitudinal vitta 
from each propleuron extending to the middle of the pteropleuron, this is interrupted 
slightly at the hind margin of the mesopleuron ; the black portion on the ptero- 
pleuron is just a spot. The upper half to two-fifths of each sternopleuron is also 
black. The scutellum is all yellow except for a narrow black band across the base. 
The metanotum is black. Legs : The femora are all brown to black except for a yellow 
streak down the dorsum and except for rather narrow yellow apices. The tibiae 
and tarsi are entirely yellow. A hdomen : The first two terga are entirely yellow ; 
the third is chiefly black with a narrow yellow base and a narrow yellow apex. 
The fourth tergum is broadly yellow at the base and apex ; brown on the sides and 
with two brown spots near the middle. The fifth tergum is yellow at the base and 
apex, with two spots in the middle which are narrowly joined at the center and on 
the sides to the brown spots covering the lateral margins. The ovipositor is black, 
the basal portion, in situ, is approximately equal in length to segments four and 
five. 

Length : Wing, 6-4 mm. 

Themara ampla Walker 
1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 33, pi. i, fig. 5. 

The type male is labeled " Singapore, ex coll. W. W. Saunders, 68-4 " and is 
in fair condition. Four other specimens are in the collection from Borneo and 
Sumatra. 

This is the type of the genus Themara Walker and as pointed out by Walker 
{op. cit., p. 134) the species is a synonym of Achias macuUpennis Westwood (1848, 
Cab. Orient. Ent. p. 38, pi. 18, fig. 4). 

This fits the concept of Themara proposed by Hendel (1928, Ent. Mitt. 17 (5) : 355) 
except that he said the pteropleural bristle is lacking ; in the type species this 
bristle is rather well developed. Hendel places considerable generic importance 
upon the presence or absence of setae along vein M3 + 4 and the portion of vein 
Cu before the downward curve (collectively spoken of as Cu by Hendel and 5th 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 207 

vein by Malloch et al.). Malloch does not use this as a generic character (for Themara) 
but separates Themara from Neothemara Malloch by having just one pair of inferior 
fronto-orbital bristles and by having the secondary scutellars short and the radial 
sector bare. The latter is not correct, setae are present on the Rs in the type species. 
The first character might also be misleading since the type of T. ampla (and some 
other specimens) has two pairs of inferior fronto-orbitals placed close together on 
the lower one-fourth of the front ; one of these is rather weakly developed and this 
is apparently abnormal, other specimens I have examined have but one pair. Malloch 
also indicated that the mesopleural hairs are much stronger in Neothemara than in 
Themara ; I see no differences in these hairs in comparing the types of both genera. 
The best characters which I see for separating Themara from Neothemara are the 
following : in Themara the lower superior fronto-orbital bristles are situated slightly 
below the middle of the front, while in Neothemara they are situated distinctly 
above the middle. Themara normally has but one distinct inferior fronto-orbital 
bristle, only four strong scutellars, vein R2 + 3 is distinctly undulate and M3 + 4 
and the straight basal section of Cu are setulose. In Neothemara two well-developed 
inferior fronto-orbitals and six strong scutellars are present, vein R2 + 3 is but 
slightly curved and veins M3 -f 4 and the base of Cu are setulose only in N. exul 
(Curran) and N. repleta (Walker). 

The very broad head (stalked eyes) of the male is probably one of the distinctive 
characters of T. m^culipennis although the extent of development of the sides of 
the head varies considerably in different individuals. From the wings I see no way 
to differentiate T. microcephalus Hering (1938, VII Intern. Kongr. fiir Ent. 1 : 175) ; 
Hering said, however, that the head of the male is not widened in that species. 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type of T. ampla Walker 

Head : The aristae are long plumose. The secondary inferior fronto-orbital 
bristles lie close to and are much smaller than are the principal bristles. The front, 
measured from the lower ocellus to the lunule, is distinctly wider than long. The 
ocellar bristles are very weak, hairlike. The face is somewhat receded below. The 
epistoma is not at all produced. Thorax : Entirely rufous except for a black spot 
on the hind portion of the mesonotum, in front of the scutellum. The hind margin 
of the scutellum is also blackened and the metanotum is predominantly dark brown 
to black. The scutellum has four strong marginal bristles and a pair of weak secondary 
bristles. Wings : Walker's fig. 5, pi. i, is ample for the wing markings. Vein Ri 
is setulose just to its base, there are no setae on the node. The radial sector is setulose 
and R4 + 5 has setae almost to its apex. Vein M3 + 4 is setulose almost to its 
apex and the basal portion of vein Cui has setulae to the point where it meets 
the m-cu crossvein. Vein R2 -f- 3 is rather strongly undulated and bends upward 
on its apical portion so that the fifth costal section is almost as long as the fourth. 
The r-m crossvein is situated approximately at the apical one-fifth of cell ist M2. 
The cubital cell has a sharp pointed, rather slender, apical lobe below. This is slightly 
longer than the vertical section of vein Cui. Abdomen : The first tergum is entirely 
yellow. The base and apex of the second and the apex of the third are yellow, the 
remainder of the terga are black. The venter is entirely yellow to rufous. Ovipositor 



2o8 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

yellow. The basal segment, in situ, is just slightly longer than the fifth abdominal 
tergum. 

Length : Wing, 8-8 mm.; body, 8-4 mm. 

Trypeta alvea Walker 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1027. 

The type male is in poor condition, it was listed by Walker as being from " Austra- 
lia, from the Rev. J. Wenham's collection". The locality is obviously an error, 
this is a synonym of Eurosta comma Wiedemann from the United States. 

Trypeta amplipennis Walker 
(PI. 15, fig. 28) 

i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Land. 4 : 159. 

The type female, labeled " Celebes, Macassar, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 " 
is in fairly good condition except that the wings are partially broken. 

This is a Tephritinae belonging in the genus Platensina Enderlein (see Munro, 
1947, Mem. Ent. Soc. So. Afr. 1 : 216). P. amplipennis (Walker) is very close to 
P. malaita Curran (P. duhia Malloch is a synonym of malaita), the only differences 
which I find are in the pattern of the spots in the wings and these are obviously 
quite variable. The basal cells are completely yellow-brown fumose in amplipennis 
and are hyaline in malaita. In amplipennis the subcostal cell is entirely dark colored 
and the hyaline spots over the wing differ as shown by comparing PL 15, fig. 28 
with fig. I of Curran (1936, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 4th ser. 22 (1), plate i). 

In addition to the above notes : Thorax : Gray pollinose with three rather distinct, 
pale brown, longitudinal vittae extending down the middle, one central and two 
in line with the dorsocentral bristles. The pleura are rufous in ground color. Legs : 
Entirely rufous. Wings : As above and as in PI. 15, fig. 28. Abdomen : Polished 
black, faintly rufous on the sides of the first tergum. Ovipositor shining black, 
the basal portion, in situ, is about equal in length to the last three visible abdominal 
segments. 

Length : Wing, 5-4 mm.; width of wing, at broadest point, 2-8 mm. 

I have compared the types of Platensina Enderlein, 191 1 {sumhana Enderlein) 
and Tephrostola Bezzi, 1913 {acrostacta Wiedemann) and have confirmed the synonymy 
of these genera (see Shiraki 1933, Mem. Fac. Sci. Agric. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 8 (2) : 
386). 

Trypeta antiqua Walker 

1852, Ins. Saunders. 1 (4) : 378. 

The type is not in the British Museum collection. Two specimens from Mesopo- 
tamia are here under the name Trupanea antiqua (Walker), determined by " G. A. 
K, M." Walker's type was from the East Indies. I cannot be sure that these are 
correctly identified. I am unable to place Walker's species except to say that it is 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 209 

no doubt a Tephritinae. Bezzi (1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 3 : 67) said antiqua Walker 
" is said to be an Ensina, and probably belongs to that genus or to Trypanea ". 

The specimens in the collection do fit Walker's description but that, of course, 
is very vague and is inconclusive. The specimens at hand are characterized by the 
very faint yellow-brown markings in the wing, consisting of a more or less continuous 
series of spot-like marks extending from the costa at apex of cell Ri to vein Mi + 2, 
about two-fifths the distance beyond the m crossvein and back up to the costa 
near the middle of cell Ri. A spot is present at the top and at the bottom of the m 
crossvein, another extends across the r-m cross vein, and another faint spot extends 
through cell Ri directly beneath the apical portion of the subcostal cell. Also, 
a very faint spot is situated on vein M3 + 4 at its apical three-fifths. The subcostal 
cell is faintly yellow hyaline, yellow-brown at its apex. The first and second costal 
cells are completely hyaline as is the remainder of the wing except for the mentioned 
spots. 

Trypeta approximans Walker 

(PI. 15, figs. 2^a-h) 
i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 160. 

Walker indicated only a female specimen in his original description but the 
specimen labeled type is a male from " Celebes, Macassar, A. R. Wallace, B.M. 
1858-142 ".A female from the same locality is also present labeled " W.W. Saunders, 
B.M. 1868-4 ". Both are in poor condition largely due to the way they are pinned, 
the nadel obscures most of the characters of the mesonotum. 

This species is in the collection under the genus Acidia Robineau-Desvoidy 
but apparently represents an aberrant Tephritinae and seems to belong to an 
undescribed genus. I am proposing the name Curticella n. gen. for approximans 
Walker. 

I am unable to place this in any genus known to me. It seems to best fit in the 
Tephritinae because the front is covered with the flat, squamose, white hairs typical 
of members of this su^Dfamily and under high magnification the bristles of the occipital 
row are much thicker than is normal in other subfamilies ; these bristles are all 
black, however, not pale colored as in typical Tephritinae. Curticella apparently 
is most closely related to Tephrella Bezzi and would run here in Malloch's key 
(1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 455). It differs from Tephrella in a 
number of important respects : All of the head bristles are black, those of the occipital 
row are short and thick ; the ocellar bristles are very weak, hairlike ; the third 
antennal segment is rather long and slender, four or five times longer than wide and 
extends almost to the oral margin. The arista is short, but distinctly, pubescent. 
The genae are about one-third as high as the eye (PI. 15, fig. 29^). The subcostal 
vein enters the costa at a point about opposite the basal fourth of cell ist M2 so that 
the third costal section (cell Sc) is extremely short, about one-sixth as long as second 
section, and vein R2 + 3 slants upward rather sharply so that the fifth costal 
section is about as long as the fourth and nearly two times longer than the sixth 
(PI. 15, fig. 2gb). In Tephrella (which I have examined) at least some of the head 



2IO WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

bristles are yellow, those of the occipital row are entirely yellow. The ocellar bristles 
are very strong, extending nearly two-thirds the length of the front. The third 
antennal segment is short and rounded, it is scarcely one and one-half times longer 
than wide. The arista is bare. The genae are narrow. The third costal section is 
distinctly more than half as long as the second. Vein Ri enters the costa at a point 
about opposite the middle of cell ist M2. The fifth costal section is about one-half 
as long as the fourth and is scarcely longer than the sixth. 

Description Based Upon the Type 

Head : From direct frontal view it is just slightly wider than long. In profile 
it is nearly two times higher than long (PL 15, fig. 29a). The front is about one-third 
longer than wide, is reddish, tinged with brown in the central portion and is black 
along the orbits, the vertex, and in front of the ocellar triangle ; the sides are rather 
densely gray pubescent from a point about opposite the lower superior fronto- 
orbital bristles. Three pairs of inferior fronto-orbitals and two pairs of superior 
fronto-orbitals are present ; these are moderately weak, not well developed. The 
face is straight in profile, it is dark brown to black in ground color and rather densely 
gray pubescent. The occiput is shining dark brown, the lower portion is expanded 
and is approximately half the width of the eye (PI. 15, fig. 2ga). The antennae are 
brown. Thorax : Shining black. The mesonotum and the sternum for the most 
part are completely obscured by the nadel. There are obviously two pairs of dorso- 
central bristles present, the anterior pair is situated approximately in line with 
the anterior supraalar bristles. Only the two basal bristles are developed on the 
scutellum. The halteres are entirely yellow. Legs : The femora are dark brown 
to black. The tibiae and tarsi, except for the brown apical subsegments of the hind 
two pairs, are entirely yellow. Wings : As described above and as shown in PI. 15, 
fig. 2gb. The r-m crossvein is situated near the apex of cell ist M2. The wings 
have one hyaline mark extending from the costa through the second costal cell ; 
two hyaline wedge-shaped marks from costa extending through cell Ri ; a round 
hyaline dot in cell R5 just beyond the m crossvein ; another hyaline dot in cell 
ist M2, approximately beneath the m crossvein and three hyaline streaks from the 
margin, one extending through cell second M2 near the hind margin to the m cross- 
vein, and two streaks through the apex of cell M4 ; cell M4 also has a small hyaline 
dot at its base. The posterior lobes of the wing are subhy aline. Abdomen: Entirely 
shining black. In the female the sixth abdominal segment is almost as long as the 
fifth. The ovipositor is polished black, the basal segment is almost equal in length 
to the segments three to six. 

Length : Body and wings, 2-6 mm. 

Trypeta atilia Walker 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1021. 

The type male from " China, Foochow ", is in good condition. 
This is a Trypetinae belonging to the genus Sphaeniscus Becker. It is a synonym 
of 5. sexmaculatus (Bezzi) and I have treated this as an Oriental and Pacific subspecies 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 2H 

under the combination Sphaeniscus sexmaculatus atilia (Walker). See Hardy (1955, 
Pac. Sci. 9 (1) : 78) and Hardy & Adachi (1956, Ins. Micronesia, 14 (1) : 20) for 
descriptions and figures of this subspecies, Trypeta melaleuca Walker (1864, Jour. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7 : 238) is a synonym. The synonymy was first reported by 
Osten Sacken (1881, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 16 : 459), see also Hardy 
[loc. cit.) for other synonymy. 

Trypeta basalts Walker 
1852, Ins. Saunders. 4 : 380. 

The type, from Brazil, is in the collection under Trypeta. This is a Tephritinae 
apparently belonging in the genus Xanthaciura Hendel. Hendel (1914, Ahh. Ber. 
K. Zool. Anthrop. Mus. Dresden, 14 : 46) and Aczel (1949, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 
7 : 254) both list this under the combination Xanthaciura ? basalis (Walker). 

Trypeta basalis Walker 

1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 120. 

The type male is from Aru Island. This is an Otitidae and belongs in the genus 
Rivellia Robineau-Desvoidy. The name basalis is preoccupied by Trypeta basalis 
Walker (1852, Ins. Saunders. 4 : 380), from Brazil and I am proposing the name 
Rivellia distobasalis n. name for this species from Aru. 

This species seems to be closely related to R. radiata Hendel. It differs by having 
the legs predominantly yellow, rather than entirely dark brown to black ; by having 
the hyaline mark in the second costal cell extending across the wing to vein Mi + 2, 
rather than extending only through the base of cell Ri ; also by having the hyaline 
mark at the basal portion of the subcostal cell extending transversely through the 
wing, beyond the confines of the brown markings, to vein M3 + 4, rather than this 
mark extending just to vein R4 + 5. In radiata cells R, M and the basal half of 
cell ist M2 are entirely brown. 

Trypeta basifascia Walker 
i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 158. 

The type female from " Makessar " is in fair condition. This species belongs in 
the genus Ptilona van der Wulp and is a synonym of P. confinis (Walker). 

Trypeta cluana Walker 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1019. 

The specimen labeled type " Australia, Pres. by the Ent. Club, B.M. 1844-12 " 
is a female. Walker indicated a male and a female in his original description, I 
cannot find the male specimen in the collection. A. N. Bums has informed me 



212 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

that a specimen is in the National Museum of Victoria from New South Wales, this 
may be Walker's male. 

This is an Otitidae and is in the collection under the genus Celetor Loew and is 
placed as a synon3nii of C. caerulea (Macquart) (1846, Dipt. Exot., Suppl. 1 : 212, 
pi. 18, fig. 15). The above synonymy was recorded by Hendel (1914, Ahh. K. K. 
Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 8 (1) : 247). 

Trypeta contraria Walker 
(PI. 15, fig. 30) 
1 H52, Ins. Saunders. 4 : 385, pi. VIII, fig. 7. 

The type male is in the collection labeled " India, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 ". 
The original description said the type was from the " East Indies ". It is in very 
poor condition, the body and wings are covered with debris and the majority of 
the bristles are broken off. It is extremely difficult to see the important details and 
I cannot definitely place this to genus. In Bezzi's key (1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 3 : 90) 
it seems to fit his concept of Acidia Robineau-Desvoidy but his concept, is in large 
part, obviously erroneous. I have compared it with the t5rpe of the genus Acidia 
[cognata Wiedemann) and it definitely does not fit in this genus. There are no 
propleural bristles or strong hairs developed as in Acidia and it appears that a 
sternopleural bristle is present ; Acidia lacks sternopleurals. 

Descriptive Notes on the Type 

Head : Front broad, about equal in width to its length. There appear to be three 
pairs of inferior fronto-orbital bristles and two pairs of superior fronto-orbitals. 
The anterior superior fronto-orbital is situated near the upper two-fifths of the front. 
The ocellar area of the head is damaged and I cannot check the ocellar bristles. The 
bristles of the occiput are apparently all black. The face is slightly raised down the 
median portion and is vertical in lateral view ; the epistoma is not projecting. Head 
entirely yellow to rufous except for the reddish brown eyes. The eyes are oval in 
shape, slightly higher than long. The antennae are yellow to rufous, the third 
segment is about two times longer than wide and is rounded at apex. The arista 
appears to be pubescent. It is covered with debris, and the hairs could have been 
rubbed off. Thorax : Entirely rufous with black bristles and with an abundance of 
black recumbent hairs over the mesonotum. The humeral, presutural and sterno- 
pleural bristles are well developed. The scutellum has four strong bristles, there is 
no evidence of a secondary pair. Legs : Entirely yellow to rufous. Front femur 
with three black bristles on the underside near the apex, two of these are slightly 
longer than the greatest width of the femur. Wings : Predominantly brown, with 
two wedge-shaped hyaline marks from about the middle of the costal margin ; one 
starts at the costa just beyond the apex of vein Ri and extends as a narrow triangle 
through the radial cells into the apical fourth of cell ist M2 ; the second begins 
at the costa at about the middle of cell R3 and extends just beyond vein 
R4 + 5. There is also a small hyahne spot at the wing apex in cell 2nd M2. Vein 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 213 

Ri is setulose to a level opposite the humeral crossvein. Vein R4 + 5 has about 
six short black setae at its base just beyond the fork ; it has just one black bristle 
beyond this point, this is situated just before the r-m crossvein. Vein R2 + 3 is 
straight, or nearly so. The cubital cell has a very short lobe at apex below, its 
length is much less than the length of the vertical portion of the vein Cui (PI. 15, 
fig. 30) . A hdomen : Yellow to rufous on the basal segments with brown discolorations 
extending over the apical two terga. This is interrupted by yellow down the middle 
line and on the extreme lateral margins. The venter of the abdomen is entirely 
yellow. The genitalia are all yellow. 
Length : Wing, 6-8 mm. 

Trypeta cylindrica Walker 

1852, Ins. Saunders. 4 : 380. 

The original description says the type was from the " East Indies ", the specimen 
marked " type " in the British Museum collection is labeled " India, W. W. Saunders, 
B.M. 1868-4 "• It is in very poor condition. 

This is an Otitidae but I am unable to place it to genus, I find nothing like it in 
the collection. The species has completely hyaline wings and yellow legs. The thorax 
and abdomen are predominantly shining blue-black. The scutellum and halteres 
are yellow. The humeri each have a yellow streak through the middle. The upper 
portion of each sternopleuron has a yellow spot. The legs are entirely yellow. The 
head is chiefly yellow, the back part of the occiput is polished black and the front 
has a brown streak down each side. The face has a median brown to black spot 
below. The first two antennal segments are black ; the third is yellow, is approxi- 
mately two times longer than wide and is rounded at the apex. The thorax is rather 
densely covered with recumbent white pile. The wings are so covered with debris 
that it is very difficult to follow the venation. 

Length : Body, 5-25 mm. 

Trypeta dertona Walker 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1027. 

The type female is in poor condition and contains no locality or collector labels. 
This is a synonym of Eurosta comma (Wiedemann), from the United States. 

Trypeta doclea Walker 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1035. 

The type female, labeled " Australia,? collector " is in good condition. 

This is an Otitidae belonging in the subfamily Platystominae and fitting in the 
genus Pogonortalis Hendel. P. barbifera Hendel (1914, Abh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 
8 : 144) is a synonym of P. doclea (Walker). I have compared Walker's type with a 
series of Pogonortalis barbifera determined by Hendel from Sydney, N. S. Wales 



214 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

and from several localities in Queensland and they compare perfectly. See Malloch 
(1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (1-2) : 120) for the synonymy. 

Trypeta dorsiguttata Walker 

1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 119. 

The type male is labeled " East Indies, Aru Island, A. R. Wallace, ex coll. W. W. 
Saunders, 1868-4 "• It is in fair condition except that one wing is missing. 

This is a Lauxaniidae apparently belonging in the genus Sapromyza Fallen. 
Platystoma basale Walker (i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 148), from " Makes- 
sar ", is a new synonym based upon a comparison of the types. 

Trypeta elitnia Walker 
(PI. 15, fig. 31) 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1033. 

The type female is in poor condition, it is covered with fungus and debris. It is 
labeled " Philippine Islands, Purch, of Woods, B.M. 1845-49 ". 

Walker described this as a Trypeta belonging in his group Anomoia. Anomoia 
Walker has been badly confused in the literature and no clear concept of this group 
has been proposed to date. I have made a rather detailed study of Anomoia and 
related genera and am preparing a revision which should clarify the generic concepts. 
In light of my study I would place the species in question under the new combination 
Anomoia {Euleia) elimia (Walker). This is a synonym of Anomoia [Euleia) fossata 
(Fabricius) (1805, Syst. Antl., p. 320, as Tephritis fossatus). See Shiraki (1933, 
Mem. Fac. Sci. Agric. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 8 (2) : 169). This fits my concept of 
Hendelina Hardy (change of name for Pseudopheniscus Hendel — this will be a new 
synonym of Anomoia (Euleia) Walker). In my key to the known Pacific species 
(Hardy, 1951, Pac. Sci. 5 (2) : 179-180) it runs to couplet 2 and would separate 
at this point by having the first two costal cells of the wing predominantly hyaline 
and by having an oblique streak extending through cell R5. It is a rather small 
predominantly subshining black species. The front is entire yellow, measured from 
the lower ocellus to the lunule it is slightly more than one-half longer than wide. 
There are three pairs of inferior fronto-orbital bristles and two pairs of superior 
fronto-orbitals. The face is entirely yellow. The antennae are yellow, the third 
segment appears to be slightly tinged with brown (the coloration is mostly obscured 
by the fungus growth). The thorax, scutellum, and halteres are entirely black. The 
legs are predominantly brown. The abdomen is entirely subshining black. The ovi- 
positor is black, the basal segment, in situ, is about two-thirds as long as the fifth 
abdominal segment. Wings with a brown streak extending out along vein Cui -}- ist 
A almost to the wing margin (PI. 15, fig. 31). 

Length : Body and wings, 3-6 mm. 

Osten Sacken (1882, Deutsche Ent. Zeits. 26 : 227) said " Ortalis regularis Dol. 
3 Bijdr. 47 (Amboina) is the same species ". I cannot confirm this. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 215 

Trypeta ferruginea Walker 

1852, Ins. Saunders. 1 (4) : 387. 

The original description said the species was described from the " East Indies ". 
The type female is in the collection labeled " India W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• 
It is in fairly good condition. 

This is a Pyrgotidae and apparently belongs to the genus Tephritopyrgota Hendel 
(new combination) ; this does not seem to fit any species which I can find in the 
British Museum collection. 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type 

A moderately large almost entirely rufous species. Head : All yellow to rufous 
with no brown to black spots. The upper portions of the occiput are indistinctly 
colored with brown. Thorax : With four moderately strong marginal bristles on 
the scutellum, plus the numerous hairs on the disc. Just two pairs of dorsocentral 
bristles are developed, these are situated rather close together near the hind portion 
of the mesonotum ; the hind pair of bristles is situated slightly in front of a line 
between the postalars and they are about equal in size to the postalars and to the 
scutellar bristles ; the front pair of dorsocentrals is rather small, more hairlike, 
not more than two times longer than the longest hairs on the mesonotum. The meso- 
notum is predominantly red, tinged with brown and has three median, yellow, 
longitudinal vittae extending the full length. The humeri and the front margin 
of the mesonotum are also yellow and a yellow spot is situated on the sides just 
above the anterior supraalar bristle and behind the suture. Wings : Predominantly 
dark fumose, rather indistinctly spotted with hyaline marks. A rather broad hyaline 
mark extends from the costa just beyond the apex of vein Ri to vein Mi + 2. The 
spot extends rather indistinctly through most of cell ist M2 but is discolored with 
irregular pale brownish spots. The ovipositor is longer than the entire abdomen. 

Length : Body, excluding ovipositor, g-2 mm.; ovipositor, 3-2 mm. 

Trypeta impleta Walker 

1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 120. 

The type female is present from Aru Island. This is a Lauxaniidae apparently 
belonging to the genus Sapromyza Fallen. 

Trypeta lativentris Walker 
(PI. 16, fig. 32) 

i86o. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 158. 

The type male is in fairly good condition. It is labeled " Celebes, Macassar, 
W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "■ 

This is a Trypetinae belonging to the genus Xarnuta Walker. It is related to 
X. morosa de Meijere (1914, Tijds. v. Ent. 57 : 198, pi. 5, fig. 10), but differs by having 



2i6 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

the costal cells dark brown fumose (not with second cell largely hyaline) ; by having 
no hyaline streak through the middle of the wing inside the r-m and m crossveins, 
and the other wing markings are quite different (compare PI. i6, fig. 32 and de 
Meijere's fig. 10). Vein R2 + 3 is wavy in lativentris and in de Meijere's figure of 
morosa it is straight. The r-m crossvein in lativentris is situated at the apical third 
of cell ist M2, not before the middle of the cell and the wing is also narrower, more 
pointed. 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type 

Head : The front is rather narrow, it is slightly more than two times longer than 
wide and has three rather strong, downcurved, inferior fronto-orbital bristles and 
two pairs of superior fronto-orbitals. The front and face are entirely yellow, the 
former is tinged slightly with brown. The genae are discolored with brown. The 
antennae are yellow, tinged with reddish brown, the third segment is slightly more 
than twice as long as wide and extends over half the length of the face. The arista 
is very short plumose, the longest hairs are not more than one-fourth the width of 
the third antennal segment. Thorax : Predominantly subshining brown to black. 
The humeri, upper front margins of sternopleura, the hypopleura and the lateral 
margins of the mesonotum, from the suture to the sides of the scutellum, are yellow. 
Eight strong scutellar bristles are present and the disc is densely covered with short, 
recumbent setae. The scutellum is predominantly yellow, faintly brownish tinged 
on the dorsum. Wings : As in PI. 16, fig. 32, almost completely brown. The costal 
cells are brown and are densely covered with microtrichia. The radial vein is setulose 
almost to the base of the wing. The stem of the radial sector is bare. Vein R2 + 3 
is moderately undulate. Abdomen : Short and broad, scarcely longer than wide. 
It is almost entirely rufous with brownish discolorations in the middle of the terga. 
The lateral margins are densely covered with moderately strong, black bristles and 
hairs. 

Length : Wing, 5-5 mm.; body, 6-o mm. 

Trypeta lutescens Walker 

1857, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 4 : 41. 

The type is labeled " Amazon, Brazil ". This is a new synonym of Hexachaeta 
eximia (Wiedemann) (1830, Auss. Zweifl. Ins. 2 : 477) based upon examination of 
specimens in the British Museum collection. 

Trypeta tnelaleuca Walker 

1864, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7 : 238. 

The type male is labeled " Ceram, E. Indies, W. W. Saunders, 1868-4 " ^^^ is 
in good condition. 

This is a synonym of Sphaeniscus sexmaculatus atilia (Walker), see under Trypeta 
atilia Walker. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 217 

Trypeta multistriga Walker 
(PI. 16, fig. 33) 
1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 119. 

The type female labeled " East Indies, Aru Island, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 " 
is in poor condition ; the head is missing. 

This apparently belongs in the genus Neothemara Malloch (new combination), 
it fits Malloch's concept (1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 433) by 
having the radial sector setose (stem of the second and third vein). Except for this 
character it would fit fairly close to Rioxa Walker and Acanthoneura Macquart. 
Neothemara multistriga (Walker) is related to A^^. formosipennis (Walker) but differs 
by having two hyaline spots in cell Ri and one in cell R3 (PL 16, fig. 33, cf. Malloch, 
loc. cit., fig. 10) ; by having two pairs of brown to black spots on the mesonotum, 
between the presutural and scapular bristles, rather than with a pair of dark stripes 
and by having the scutellum all yellow, rather than with a black spot on each side. 

Descriptive Notes on the Type 

Thorax : Very distinctly marked, principally yellow, with the following brown 
to black marks : two small submedian spots situated behind the inner scapular 
bristles ; a short black stripe extending over the lower portion of each notopleuron ; 
a narrow brown stripe situated above the wing base extending from the suture to 
the anterior corner of the thorax ; a moderately large submedian spot on each 
side behind the suture and a narrow longitudinal black stripe beginning at the level 
of the anterior supraalar bristle and extending on a line with the dorsocentral bristle 
to the hind margin of the mesonotum where it is extended along the margin. Wings : 
As in PI. 16, fig. 33. Vein R2 + 3 is just slightly undulated. 

Trypeta mutyca Walker 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1036. 

The type male is in good condition, it is labeled " East Indies, Moulmein, Purch. 
from Archdeacon Clerk, B.M. 1843-431 ". 

This has been placed in the genus Rioxa Walker by Bezzi (1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 
3 : 112) ; it properly belongs, however, in Acanthoneura Macquart (new combination) 
and is a new synonym of Acanthoneura vaga Wiedemann (1830, Auss. Zweifl. Ins. 
2 : 490) based upon a study of specimens in the British Museum collection. 

This is a predominantly yellow species. The abdomen is brown with the apices 
and anterior median portions of terga one to three broadly yellow, the yellow marking 
of the first segment extends longitudinally down the middle of the abdomen to the 
apex of the third. For the wing pattern see Bezzi, loc. cit., figs. 22-23. 



2i8 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Trypeta nigrifascia Walker 
(PI. i6, fig. 34) 
i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 158. 

The type male labeled " Celebes Makessar, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 " is 
in fair condition. 

This belongs in the genus Carpophthorella Hendel (new combination) and is 
related to C. magnifica Hendel, from Formosa. It differs by having the legs all 
rufous and the thorax rufous except for the black hind margins of the mesonotum ; 
rather than having the middle and hind femora brown on their apical portions and 
the thorax shining black. 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type 

Head : Front nearly two times longer than wide with six rather strong black 
inferior fronto-orbital bristles and two superior fronto-orbitals. Head entirely 
yellow except for the eyes. Arista long plumose, the hairs are much longer than 
the width of the third antennal segment ; the third segment is about three times 
longer than wide and is rounded at apex. Thorax : Almost entirely rufous. Meso- 
notum with a broad, shining black, band across the hind portion and covered with 
short yellow hairs, the bristles are all black. The pleura are entirely yellow to 
rufous with no dark markings. The scutellum is yellow and the metanotum is 
black. Legs : Entirely yellow. Wings : As in PI. 16, fig. 34. The basal portion of 
the radial cell is haired slightly in front of the humeral crossvein. The radial sector 
is bare. The costal margin has a hyaline spot at the middle of cell Ri and another 
at the middle of cell R3. Vein R4 + 5 is strongly bent upward in the middle between 
the r-m crossvein and the apex (PI. 16, fig. 34). The cubital cell has a rather long lobe 
at the lower apex, this is approximately three times the length of the vertical section 
of vein Cui. Abdomen : Entirely rufous with no dark markings, rather thickly 
covered with recumbent, short yellow to rufous hairs and with a clump of black 
bristle-like hairs on the lateral margins of the second tergum and a few scattered 
bristles at the sides of the other terga. 

Length : Wings, 6-4 mm.; body, 6-o mm. 

Trypeta poenia Walker 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1025. 

The type female is in fair condition, one wing is missing. It is labeled " Australia, 
? collector ". 

This is a Tephritinae belonging in the genus Tephritis Latreille (new combination). 
Tephritis pelia Schiner (1868, Reise Novara, Zool. 2, i abt., B. Diptera, p. 271) is 
a new synonym. Based upon a study of material in the British Museum collection. 
For a rather complete description and wing figure (as T. pelia) refer to Malloch 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 219 

(1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 461-462, pi. XI, fig. 24). Walker's 
type fits this description in all details. 

Trypeta pornia Walker 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1039. 

The type female is in poor condition, it is badly rubbed, most of the bristles are 
gone and a portion of the thorax has been damaged by the nadel. It is labeled just 
" [18] 44 : 105 ". According to the original description this specimen was from " Port 
Stephen, New Holland " (Australia). 

This is a Rioxa Walker sens. lat. and is the subgenotype of Rioxa {Dirioxa) Hendel. 
I have confirmed the synonymy of TryPeta musae Froggatt (1899, Agr. Gaz. N. S. 
Wales, 10 : 501) by comparison of specimens in the British Museum collection. 
The Rioxa complex has been badly confused in the literature and needs revision. 
From the studies I have made towards this end it is obvious that Dirioxa Hendel 
is a good genus, quite distinct from Rioxa. It actually fits much closer to Acantho- 
neura Macquart and is differentiated by having two pairs of inferior fronto-orbital 
bristles, rather than one ; by having the disc of the scutellum entirely bare, rather 
than with at least a few short hairs on the sides and by having the arista haired 
only on the top edge, rather than being plumose. 

In view of my findings I am treating this species under the new combination 
Dirioxa pornia (Walker) . 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type 

Head : Besides the two pairs of inferior fronto-orbital bristles there are two pairs 
of superior fronto-orbitals, all are moderately strong. The lowest superior is situated 
just above the middle of the front, the upper inferior is situated just below the middle. 
The ocellar bristles are small, rather hairhke. The front is straight on the upper 
two-thirds, as seen in direct lateral view ; the lower portion is moderately produced 
into a small bump on each side above the oral margin. The oral margin is also 
slightly produced. The occiput is moderately swollen below, at its broadest point 
it is about half as wide as the eye. There are no strong bristles on the sides of the face, 
only a few short, inconspicuous hairs. The genal bristles are about the size of those 
in the occipital row. The third antennal segment is slightly less than two times longer 
than wide and is rounded at apex. The under portion of the arista is bare except for a 
few short, pubescent-Hke hairs near the base ; the upper portion is long haired. 
Thorax : Two pairs of dorsocentral bristles are present ; the hind pair is rather 
weak and is situated near the hind margin of the mesonotum in line with the pre- 
scutellar bristles ; the front pair is situated about halfway between the anterior and 
posterior supraalars. The mesopleura each have two bristles on the hind margin. 
The pleurotergite is bare. The mesonotum is rather thickly covered with short, 
recumbent, dark colored setae but the scutellum is entirely bare except for the 
six marginal bristles ; the intermediate pair is about as strong as the inner postalars. 
Legs : The front femur has a row of three moderately strong bristles on the postero- 
ventral surface at apical third. The middle tibia has just one strong black apical 



220 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

spur. Wings : Vein Ri enters the costa at a point approximately opposite the 
r-m crossvein. The third section of the costa is approximately two-thirds as long as 
the second. The r-m crossvein is situated at the apical two-thirds of cell ist M2. 
The fourth section of the costa is two times longer than the fifth. The cubital cell 
has a moderately developed, pointed lobe at apex below, this is slightly longer 
than the vertical section of vein Cui. Vein Ri is setulose to its base, the node is 
entirely bare. Vein R4 + 5 is setulose to its base. The radial sector is bare. The 
other veins are devoid of setae. Vein R2 -f 3 is entirely straight. For further 
details and for drawings of the wings and the ovipositor see Hardy (195 1, Pac. Sci. 
5 : 185). 

Trypeta retorta Walker 

1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 16. 

The type female is in good condition. It is labeled " East Indies, Gilolo, W. W. 
Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 "• 

This species belongs in the genus Carpophthorella Hendel (new combination) 
and is apparently related to C. setifrons Malloch because of the more numerous 
inferior fronto-orbital bristles (eight pairs) and the uniformly brown costal margin 
of the wing, with no hyaline marks before the apex of vein R2 + 3. It differs from 
setifrons by having the middle and hind femora chiefly brown to black, rather than 
all rufous ; by having the thorax predominantly black, rather than rufous ; by 
having the first two abdominal terga yellow, in the female, and the other terga 
all black, rather than having all terga black on the sides and hind margins and other- 
wise rufous ; also it differs by having the ovipositor equal in length to abdominal 
segments three to five inclusive, rather than equal to segment four plus five. 

Carpophthorella magnifica Hendel (1915, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. 13 : 449) is obviously 
very close to, if not the same as, retorta. The differences seem rather trivial and 
may be of no value. C. magnifica seems to differ by having only six to seven pairs 
of inferior fronto-orbital bristles rather than eight pairs and by having the brown 
marking on the costal margin not so intense and with a hyaline spot present just 
beyond the apex of vein Ri and another indistinct spot in cell R3 (Hendel, loc. cit., 
pi. IX, fig. 15). 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type 

Head : Front nearly two times longer than wide with eight black inferior fronto- 
orbital bristles. Head entirely yellow except for some brown discolorations at the 
upper portion of the occiput behind the upper corner of the eyes. Thorax : Meso- 
notum chiefly shining black, with a black median portion, triangular in shape, 
extending to the front margin between the inner scapular bristles. The front portion 
and the portion between the black central mark and the sides are yeUow-red tinged 
with brown. The humeri are yellow. The notopleura are black. The mesonotum is 
covered with short, black hairs ; the bristles are all black. The humeri and the pleura 
are chiefly pale pilose, the former have a few short black hairs on the upper portions. 
The propleura and the upper three-fifths of the mesopleura, the hypopleura and the 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 221 

pleurotergites are yellow ; the remainder of the pleura are brown. The metanotum 
is dark brown to black with two rufous spots. Wings : Almost identical with those 
of C. setifrons Malloch (1939, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 4 : pi. XI, fig. 21). The wings 
are also very similar to those of C. nigrifascia (Walker, i860) but are much darker 
colored and the pale areas along the costa are indistinct. It is possible that these 
details are insignificant and nigrifascia may be the male of retorta. Legs : The entire 
front legs and all tibiae and tarsi are yellow to rufous. The front femora are rather 
thickly bristled, they have a row of rather strong yellow bristles on the ventral 
surface with a few black bristles intermixed and have scattered black bristles inter- 
mixed with a few yellow-brown ones around the lateral and dorsal surfaces. The 
mid and hind femora are almost entirely dark brown to black with two rows of 
black and brown bristles intermixed extending over the ventral surface. Abdomen : 
Entirely black except for the first two terga which are yellow with a narrow black 
posterior border on the second. The ovipositor is black ; the basal portion in situ 
is equal in length to terga three to five. 
Length : Wings, 7-25 mm. 

Try pet a roripennis Walker 
1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 131. 

The type female is in very poor condition, the head, abdomen and most of the 
legs have been broken off and the wings are bent downward so that it is difficult 
to see aU of the details. The type is labeled " East Indies, Aru Island, W. W. Saunders, 
B.M. 1868-4". 

This is a Lauxaniidae which I cannot place to genus because so many of the 
structural details are missing. It is probably a Sapromyza Fallen, although I can 
find but two dorsocentral bristles. It is somewhat like Sapromyza cirrhicauda 
Bezzi as figured by Bezzi (1928, Dipt, of the Fiji Islands, p. 130). The wing is dark 
brown, densely covered with small yellow to hyaline spots, rather evenly scattered 
over the entire wing surface and in the following arrangement : Cell Ri contains 
9 spots ; cell R3 about 22 spots ; the basal section of cell R5 before the r-m crossvein 
contains 3 pale spots and the apical portion contains 17 ; cell ist M2 contains 
about 12 pale spots ; second M2 has 5 and cell M4 has 8 distinct spots. The apical 
portion of cell R5 is entirely clear (a hyaline mark extends over the narrow apical 
margin) . The thorax is almost entirely dark brown with the anterior median portion 
of the mesonotum rufous, lightly tinged with brown ; this pattern extends out at 
the sides into a brown spot behind each humerus, and extends posteriorly a short 
distance toward the suture. On this specimen I find but two pairs of dorsocentral 
bristles and one pair of prescutellar bristles. The scutellum has four strong marginal 
bristles and the disc is densely covered with short, black recumbent setae. The humeri 
are yellow rufous in ground color, lightly tinged with brown. The sides of the 
metanotum are rather faintly tinged with yellow to rufous. The pleurotergite and 
metanotum are brownish yellow. The legs which are present are all brown to black 
except for the yellow-white tarsi. 

Length : Wing, 4-8 mm. 
ENTOM. 8, 5. 13 



222 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Trypeta rudis Walker 
1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. I : 133. 

The type female labeled " Borneo, W, W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 " is in very 
poor condition. The wings are missing, the thorax is damaged by the nadel and 
the entire body is covered with debris. 

This is a Trypetinae belonging in the Euphrantini and apparently fitting in 
Euphranta {Staurella) Bezzi (new combination), I cannot be positive of this placement, 
however, because of the poor condition of the specimen. The following details 
would seem to fit it under my concept of the above group. The head has one pair 
of superior fronto-orbital bristles situated at upper third of the front and two pairs 
of inferior fronto-orbitals, the upper pair situated fairly close to the superiors. 
The pleurotergite is covered with fine, pale hairs. Prescutellar bristles are present. 
The dorsocentrals are situated slightly behind a line drawn between the anterior 
supraalars. The humeral and sternopleural bristles are present but there is no 
presutural bristle. 

In addition to the above characters : 

Head : Front about one-half longer than wide, and slightly discolored with brown 
in the median portion. The face is entirely yellow and distinctly concave from lateral 
view. The first two antennal segments are yellow, tinged with brown. The third 
is yellow and is approximately four times longer than wide, almost equal in length 
to the face. The arista is plumose, the longest hairs are nearly equal to the width 
of the third antennal segment. All head bristles are black. The genal bristle is 
very strong, it is equal in size to the inferior and superior fronto-orbitals. Occiput 
dark brown to black except on the upper median portion. Vertex entirely yellow. 
Thorax : Predominantly dark brown to black with a yellow mark beginning on 
the upper third of the mesopleura and extending onto the mesonotum over the suture, 
these marks extend approximately one-third the distance across the mesonotum 
on each side. Mesonotum also with a yellow spot on each side just in front of the 
prescutellar bristle. (This may be a continuous yellow spot, the thorax is damaged 
at this place.) Scutellum with four strong marginal bristles and with a dark brown 
to black spot at its base extending nearly half the length, the remainder is yellow. 
Metanotum black. Legs : Front femora each with a brown spot on posterior surface 
near apical third, otherwise femora all yellow. The middle and hind tibiae and tarsi 
are brown ; the front are yellow, lightly tinged with brown. Abdomen : Predomi- 
nantly dark brown to black ; the basal portion of the first tergum is yellowish ; 
the sides and apical corners of the fourth tergum are yellow ; the fifth is predomi- 
nantly yellow with a brown to black spot in the middle ; the sixth tergum is all 
yellow. Ovipositor yellow, broken on the type. 

Length : Body, not including ovipositor, 7-25 mm. 

Note : Walker described the wings as " nearly limpid, with two brown bands, 
the interior one abbreviated hindward ; veins black, testaceous at the base ". 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 223 

Trypeta sarnia Walker 
1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1029. 

The type female is labeled " Locality?, ex coll. W. W. Saunders ". 

This is a Tephritinae belonging to the genus Paracantha Coquillett. It is in the 
British Museum as a synonym of " Carphotricha culta Wiedemann (1830, Ausser. 
Zweifl. Ins. 2 : 486). This is the type of the genus Paracantha and the synonymy 
has apparently not been recorded in the literature. Walker's specimen probably 
came from the United States, the species ranges through southern U.S. 

Trypeta culta Loew (1862, Smiths. Inst. Misc. Coll. 6 (1) : 58, 94, pi. 2, fig. 19) 
(= Paracantha cultaris Coquillett, 1894, Can Ent. 26 : 72) is evidently a distinct 
species and ranges through Mexico, Central America and the Pacific coast of America. 



Trypeta signifacies Walker 
(PI. 16, fig. 35) 

1 861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 165. 

The type male labeled " East Indies, Moluccas, Amboyna, W. W. Saunders, 
B.M. 1868.4 " is in good condition except that the head is missing. 

This is an Otitidae, apparently belonging in the genus Dasyortalis Hendel. It 
does not, however, fit any of the species in the British Museum collection. The 
mesonotum and scutellum are black, faintly metallic blue-green. The pleura are 
dark brown ; the upper margin of the mesopleura and the upper portion of the 
pteropleura are yellow. The front and middle femora are brown above, yellow on 
the venter. The hind femur is all brown except for the narrow apex. The tibiae 
and tarsi are yellow. The abdomen is entirely shining black. Wings as in PL 16, 
fig. 35. The subcostal vein curves up sharply at a right angle at its apex (tephritid- 
like). Vein Ri is setulose to its base. The radial sector is not setulose. Vein R4 + 5 
is setulose throughout and the base of vein Cui has setae over its entire length to 
the m-cu crossvein. The cubital cell is truncate at apex (PI. 16, fig. 35). 



Trypeta sinica Walker 
1857, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 4 (5) : 229. 

The type specimen is evidently from the " Amazon, Brazil ", Walker was in 
error when he recorded the type as being from China. This is in the collection 
as a synonym of Hexachaeta eximia (Wiedemann) (1830, Ausser. Zweifl. Ins. 2 : 477), 
this is apparently a new synonym. 



224 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Trypeta Stella Walker 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1030. 

The type male labeled " India, N. Bengal, Lieut. Campbell, B.M. 1812-25 " is in 
good condition. One paratype labeled " India, W. W. Saunders, B.M. 1868-4 " 
is in poor condition, it is covered with fungus. 

This is a Tephritinae belonging in the genus Platensina Enderlein, 191 1 {Tephrostola 
Bezzi, 1913 is a synonym) and stella Walker is a new synonym of P. acrostacta 
(Wiedemann) (1824, Anal. Entom. 54 : 119), based upon a comparison of specimens 
in the British Museum collection. For an adequate description (as Tephrostola 
acrostacta (Wiedemann) refer to Bezzi (1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 3 : 153, pi. X, fig. 57). 

Trypeta stellipennis Walker 
(PL 16, fig. 36) 
i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 159. 

Walker indicated a male and a female in his original. The specimen marked 
type is a male labeled " Macassar, Celebes, A. R. Wallace, ex coll. Saunders 68.4 ". 
It is in good condition. Two other specimens are in the collection under stellipennis 
from " Ternate " and " near Macassar, A. R. Wallace, 58.142X ". The latter two 
were incorrectly placed and are specimens of Hexacinia punctifera (Walker). 

T. stellipennis is a Trypetinae belonging in the genus Hexacinia Hendel (new 
combination). This was treated as a synonym of Acinia stellata Macquart by Ender- 
lein (1911, Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 31:433). This synonymy is not correct. {Note: 
Hexacinia radiosa (Rondani) is the correct name for stellata Macquart since Acinia 
stellata is preoccupied.) 

Hexacinia stellipennis is related to H. stigmatoptera Hendel, from the Philippine 
Islands, and differs as follows : By having nine or more brown to black spots on 
the pleura, rather than pleura with no distinct spots ; by having the wing bases 
entirely brown fumose, no distinct hyaline spot at the base of cell Ri ; by having 
the hyaline spot beyond the middle of cell Ri rectangular in shape (PL 16, fig. 36) ; 
rather than having the wing base subhyaline and marked quite differently from above; 
and also by having the fifth tergum of the male entirely rufous, rather than all black 
except for a yellow spot in the middle. For details of the wings see PL 16, fig. 36. 

Length : Wing, 6*o mm. 

Trypeta subocellifera Walker 

1839, Jour. Proc Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 120. 

The type male is in poor condition, the abdomen and one hind leg are missing. 
It is labeled "East Indies, Aru Island, A. R. Wallace, ex coll. W. W. Saunders, 
68.4". 

This is a Lauxaniidae in the collection under Sapromyza Fallen. 5. pulcherrima 
Kertesz (1900, Termes. Fuzetek, 23 : 258) is listed as a synonym. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 225 

Trypeta transiens Walker 

(PI. 16, fig. 37) 
1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 164. 

The type is in such poor condition that the sex cannot even be ascertained, the 
abdomen, one wing, the hind legs, one middle leg and a portion of the thorax are 
missing. It is labeled " East Indies, Moluccas, Amboina Island, W. W. Saunders, 
B.M. 1868-4". 

This is a Trypetinae belonging in the genus Euphranta Loew. It is distinct from 
anything in the British Museum collection or any species known to me. It is charac- 
terized by the wing markings as shown in PI. 00, fig. 37 ; the hyaline mark at the 
tip of cell R5 bisecting the yellow-brown fumose band around the wing tip character- 
izes this from other species. 

Descriptive Notes Based Upon the Type 

Head : Three pairs of rather well-developed inferior fronto-orbital bristles are 
present on the right side of the front, on the left side four pairs are present (an extra 
bristle is developed near the lower part of the front). The frontal bristles more 
nearly place this in Malloch's genus Cyclopsia, in his key (1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 
Wales, 64 (3-4) : 441) it would run to this genus except that the inferior fronto- 
orbitals are not weak. The upper pair, however, is well spaced from the superior 
fronto-orbital bristles, the distance between these two bristles is almost as great 
as that between the superior fronto-orbitals and the vertical bristles. The front is 
about one-third longer than wide, measured from the lower ocellus to the lunule 
and is predominantly black, the lower margin is yellow ; the upper orbits are also 
yellow. The vertex is yellow, as are the face, genae and lower occiput. The basal 
antennal segment is rufous ; the third segment is reddish brown. The arista is 
short plumose, the longest hairs are about equal to half the width of the third antennal 
segment. The third is about two and one-half times longer than wide and extends 
approximately to the oral margin, the apex is rounded. Thorax : Predominantly 
dark brown to black in ground color ; chiefly gray poUinose on the dorsum, especially 
down the median portion and over the suture and the hind portion. The median 
posterior portion of the mesonotum is yellow, just before the scutellum. The noto- 
pleural callus and the humeri, except for the front margins are yellow ; the anterior 
portion of each humerus is brown ; the hypopleura are yellow ; the pleura are 
otherwise brown. The pleurotergite is densely covered with long, fine hair. The 
scutellum is all yellow and has four strong, marginal bristles. The dorsocentral 
bristles are placed about halfway between the anterior supraalar and the inner 
posterior supraalar bristles. The prescutellar bristles are lacking and there are no 
presutural bristles. Legs : The front legs are predominantly rufous, lightly tinged 
with brown on the tibiae and tarsi. The middle legs are chiefly brown to black, the 
dorsal surface and the apical third of each femur are yellow, the apex of the tibia 
and the basitarsus is tinged with yellow. Wings : As in PI. 16, fig. 37. The setae 



226 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

on vein Ri extend a considerable distance beyond the humeral crossvein (about 
one-third the distance to the base of the vein). R4 + 5 is setulose to just beyond the 
r-m crossvein. The radial sector is bare. The r-m crossvein is situated at about the 
apical three-fifths of cell ist M2. 
Length of wing : 6-o mm. 

Trypeta tubifera Walker 
1857, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 4 (5) : 230. 

The type female is labeled " China, B.M. 68,4" but this is obviously an error. 
This is an Anastrepha Schiner and has been treated under this combination by Stone 
(1942, U.S.D.A. Misc. Pub. 439:49). He said that "the species most closely 
resembles certain Antillean species, and it is not improbable that it actually came 
from the West Indies ". 

Refer to Stone {loc. cit.) for a description of the species and for figures of the wings 
and the ovipositor (pi. 8, fig. D and pi. 23, fig. D). 

Trypeta tucia Walker 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1021. 

The tjrpe female is in very poor condition, the head, abdomen and some of the 
legs are missing and the thorax is covered with fungus. It is labeled " India, N. 
Bengal, ? collector ". 

This is a Trypetinae belonging in the genus Sphaeniscus Becker {Spheniscomyia 
Bezzi, 1913, was an invalid emendation. See Hardy, 1955, Pac. Set. 9 (1) : 77) and 
is a synonym of S. quadrincisa (Wiedemann) (see Bezzi, 1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 
3 : 147). Bezzi discusses this species and figures the wing (pi. X, fig. 52). 

Urophora fasciata Walker 
(PI. 16, fig. 38) 

1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 134. 

The female specimen in the collection labeled " Type?", " SAR " [for Sarawak, 
Borneo] and with the handwritten label "fasciata" is obviously the type. It is 
in fair condition except that the antennae are missing. 

This is a Trypetinae which apparently belongs in the genus Gastrozona Bezzi, 
as defined by Malloch (1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64(3-4) :442). I see 
no way to separate Carpophthoromyia borneensis Hering (1952, Treubia, 21 (2) : 283, 
fig. 12) from Gastrozona fasciata (Walker) (new combination) and on the basis of 
Hering's description and figure I consider them synonymous. At the present time 
I see no real justification for considering this species in Carpophthoromyia until 
the group can be more thoroughly studied. Gastrozona may prove to be a synonym 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 227 

of Carpophthoromyia ; the only good structural differences which I have noticed 
are that the ocellar bristles are small, poorly developed and the arista is long plumose 
in the Gastrozona which I have studied, from the Orient and Pacific, and the ocellar 
bristles are very strongly developed and the arista short haired in the specimens 
of Carpophthoromyia which I have seen, from Africa. The two groups also differ 
strikingly in body coloration and wing markings. I do not consider the characters 
used by Hendel (1914, Wien. Ent. Zeit. 33 : 80) of particular importance in separating 
these two. 

Descriptive Notes Based on the Type 

Head : Two pairs of inferior fronto-orbital and two pairs of superior fronto-orbital 
bristles present. All of the frontal bristles are strong, the upper inferior fronto- 
orbital is situated near the middle of the front ; the lower superior fronto-orbital is 
at the upper third of the front. The ocellar bristles are very tiny, hairlike. The front 
is about one-third times longer than wide and is entirely yellow. The face is all 
yellow and is very slightly concave in profile. A brown spot is present on each of the 
genae. The epistoma is just slightly protruded. The lower portion of the occiput 
is puffed, at its broadest point it is approximately two-thirds as wide as the eye ; 
the occiput has a brown to black spot at each upper corner along the eye margin. 
Thorax : Mesonotum entirely polished blue-black. The dorsocentral bristles are 
situated on a line between the anterior supraalars. The prescutellar bristles are 
situated on a line with the postalars. The humeri are largely dark brown to black 
with a narrow ring of yellow around the margins. The mesopleura and hypopl^ura 
are yellow ; the pleura are otherwise dark brown to polished black. The scutellum 
is yellow with a black spot on each side of the margin just below the lateral bristles 
and with a black spot at apex just below the apical bristles. Metanotum entirely 
black. Legs : The front legs, except the coxae, are entirely yellow to rufous. The 
middle femora are predominantly brown, the hind femora are largely yellow, dis- 
colored with brown at the apical third. The tibiae and tarsi are all yellow. The 
middle tibia has two large black spurs at the apex. Wings : The extreme base 
of the wing is hyaline. The veins are white. The remainder of the wing is predomi- 
nantly dark brown fumose with a hyaline streak originating at the hind margin 
in the anal cell, extending across the cubital vein, the median veins up to vein 
R4 -f- 5 and then bent downward and extending back to the wing margin through 
cell 2nd M2 ; another hyaline streak extends obliquely through the apex of cell R5 
(PI. 16, fig. 38). Cell Ri has three hyaline spots on costal margin and a thin hyaline 
streak is present along the costa in cell R3 and at apex of Ri. Vein Ri is densely 
haired to the node and a few setae extend below this point about halfway to the 
base. Vein R4 + 5 is setulose to its base. The radial sector is bare. Vein M3 -f 4 
is bare but vein Mi + 2 has scattered setae extending from the base to the r-m 
crossvein. Vein R2 + 3 is straight, or nearly so. Vein R4 + 5 is rather arcuate on 
the last section. The fifth section of the costa is slightly more than half the length 
of the fourth. The cubital cell has a slender, rather elongate lobe at its apex below 
(PI. 16, fig. 38). Abdomen : Predominantly shining black, rather thickly covered 
with gray pollen. The apex of the second tergum is yellow. The third is all black, 



228 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

the fourth and fifth are yellow in ground color, the apical halves of the fourth and 
fifth are densely covered with white pubescence and white pile. The sixth tergum is 
black with a narrow rim of yellow at the apex. Ovipositor black, the basal portion, 
in situ, is equal in length to segments three to six. 
Length : Wing, 7-0 mm. 



Xarnuta leucotelus Walker 
(PI. 16, fig. 39) 
1857, Jour. Pfoc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 28. 

The type male labeled " Singapore, A. R. Wallace, 55-9 " is in fair condition. 
Two other specimens are in the collection, one from " Aru Island, A. R. Wallace, 
58-48 " and one from " Java, Hon. E. Ind. Coy, 51. 112 ". 

This is the type of the genus Xarnuta Walker and was described as a " Helomy- 
zides". The species is very well defined, it is distinguished from other known 
Xarnuta by the evenly brown fumose wings, with no evidence of transverse fasciae 
or hyaline spots, except for the hyaline apex of cell R5 (extreme apex of wing) (PI. 
16, fig. 39). The hind angle of the wing is slightly paler colored than the remainder, 
varying from yellow-brown, in the type, to yellow fumose in one of the other specimens. 
The wings are very broad. The radial vein is setulose well in front of the humeral 
crossvein. Body almost entirely rufous, with three rather faint narrow vittae 
extending down the median portion of the mesonotum, one central and two sub- 
median ; these extend from near the front margin to the dorsocentral bristles. Also 
another faint stripe is present on each side extending from behind the suture to the 
hind margin. The generic characters are as described for X. lativentris (Walker). 

Length : Body, 7-25 mm.; wings, 67 mm. 



CHECK LIST OF THE WALKER SPECIES TREATED IN THIS PAPER, 
CORRECTED COMBINATIONS 

FAMILY CHLOROPIDAE 

Genus? fulvitarsis (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. II. fig. 9) 

Dacus fulvitarsis Walker, i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 153. 
Dacus pallitarsis Walker, cabinet name. 

FAMILY LAUXANIIDAE 
Sapromyza dorsiguitata (Walker), n. comb. 

Trypeta dorsiguitata Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 119. 

Platystoma basale Walker, i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 148. New synonymy 

based upon a comparison of the type in the British Museum, from " Makessar ", with 

the type of dorsiguttata. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 229 

Sapromyza impleta (Walker), n. comb. 

Trypeta impleta Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 120. 

Sapromyza subocellifera (Walker) 

Trypeta subocellifera Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 120. 
Sapromyza pulcherrima Kertesz, 1900, Termes. Fuzetek, 23 : 258. 

Sapromyza roripennis (Walker), n. comb. 
Trypeta roripennis Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 131. 

FAMILY OTIDIDAE 

Antineura devia (Walker) 
Dacus devius Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 250. 

Antineura pubiseta (Walker) 
Dacus pubiseta Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 294. 

Antineura strigifer (Walker) 
Dacus strigifer Walker, 1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 13. 

Celetor caerulea (Macquart) 

Tephritis caerulea Macquart, 1846, Dipt. Exot., Suppl. 1 : 212, pi. 18, fig. 15. 
Trypeta cluana Walker, 1849, List. Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1019. 

Cleitamia latifascia (Walker), n. comb. 
Dacus latifascia Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 114. 

Cleitamia liturata (Walker) 
Dacus lituratus Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 251. 

Conicipithea addens (Walker) 
Dacus addens Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 149. 

Dasyortalis signifacies (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 16, fig. 35) 
Trypeta signifacies Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 165. 

Elassogaster sepsoides (Walker) 
Dacus sepsoides Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 163. 

Elassogaster signatipes (Walker) 
Dacus signatipes Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 163. 

Elassogaster sordidus (Walker), n. comb. 

Dacus sordidus Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 251. 

Dacus varialis Walker, 1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 123. New synonymy. 

Genus? cylindrica (Walker) 
Trypeta cylindrica Walker, 1852, Ins. Saunders. 4 : 380. 

Icteracantha chalybeiventris (Wiedemann) 

Trypeta chalybeiventris Wiedemann, 1830, Ausser. Zweifl. Ins. 2 : 479. 
Dacus bicolor Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1071. 



230 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Lamprogasier instabilis (Walker), n. comb. 

Dacus instabilis Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Land. 5 : 250. 

Lamprogaster gracilis Hendel, 1914, Abh. K. K. Zool-Bot. Ges., Wien, 8 (1) : 225. New 
synonymy. 

Lamprophihalma sepedonoides (Walker), n. comb. 

Dacus sepedonoides Walker, 1864, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7 : 228. 

Philocompus divergens (Walker) 
Dacus divergens Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 149. 

Plagiostenopterina basalis (Walker) 
Dacus basalis Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1072. 

Plagiostenopterina imitans (Walker) 
Dacus imitans Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 150. 

Plagiostenopterina inaptus (Walker), n. comb. 

Dacus inaptus Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 151. 

Plagiostenopterina lativentris (Walker), n. comb. 

Dacus lativentris Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 115. 

Plagiostenopterina {Stenopterosoma) orbitalis Malloch, 1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 
64 (1-2) : 114. New synonymy. 

Plagiostenopterina longivitta (Walker) 
Dacus longivitta Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 115. 

Plagiostenopterina trivittata (Walker) 
Dacus trivittatus Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1072. 

Pogonortalis doclea (Walker) 

Trypeta doclea Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1035. 
Pogonortalis barbifera Hendel, 1914, Abh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 7 (1) : 144. The type 
of the genus Pogonortalis Hendel. 

Pseudepicausta chalybea (Doleschall) 

Herina chalybea Doleschall, 1858, Naturk. Tijds. v. Ned. Indie, 17 : 125. 
Dacus obtrudens Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 116. 

Pseudepicausta contrahens (Walker) 

Dacus contrahens Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 151. Placed in this combina- 
tion by Hendel (1914, Gen. Ins. 157 : 64). 

Pseudepicausta detrudens (Walker) 
Dacus detrudens Walker, 1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 135. 

Pseudepicausta exigens (Walker) 
Dacus exigens Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 151. 

Pseudepicausta experta (Walker) 
Dacus expertus Walker, 1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 14. 

Pseudepicausta mutilloides (Walker) 
Dacus mutilloides Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 115. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 231 

Pseudepicausta pompiloides (Walker) 
Dacus pompiloides Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 116. 

Rhegmatosaga latiuscula (Walker), n. comb. 

Noeeta latiuscula Walker, 1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 133. 

Rhegmatosaga insignis Frey, 1930, Not. Ent. 10 : 63, fig. 8. The type of the genus Rhegmato- 
saga Frey. New Synonymy. 

Rivellia distohasalis, n. name. 
Trypeta basalis Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 120. Nomen bis ledum. 

FAMILY PYRGOTIDAE 

Campylocera? squalida (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 12, fig. 12) 

Dacus squalidus Walker, i860, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n.s. 5 : 323. 

Tephritopyrgota ferruginea (Walker), n. comb. 
Trypeta ferruginea Walker, 1852, Ins. Saunders. 4 : 387. 

FAMILY TEPHRITIDAE 

Acanthoneura vaga (Wiedemann) 

Trypeta vaga Wiedemann, 1830, Ausser. Zweifl. Ins. 2 : 490. 

Trypeta mutyca Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1036. New synonymy. 

A drama determinata (Walker) 

Dacus determinatus Walker, 1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lomd. 1 : 133. 

Adrama austeni Hendel, 1912, Wien. Ent. Ztg. 31 : 12. New synonym. Based upon the com- 
parison of the type male, allotype female and a series of 19 specimens from Borneo 
and a large series of specimens from Borneo, Java, Malaya, Philippine Islands, Thailand, 
Burma, Ceylon, and India. 

Adrama selecta Walker 
(PI. II, fig. 2) 

Adrama selecta Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 118. Type of the genus 
Adrama Walker. 

Enicoptera rujiventris Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 163. New synonymy. 
Psila cruciata Walker, 1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 126. A synonym according to 
Osten Sacken (1881, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 16 : 474). 

Anastrepha tubifera (Walker) 
Trypeta tubifera Walker, 1857, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 4 (5) : 230. 

Anomoia (Euleia) fossata (Fabricius), n. comb. 

Tephritis fossatus Fabricius, 1805, Syst. Antl., p. 320. 

Trypeta elimia Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1033. 

Callantra smieroides Walker 

Callantra smieroides Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 154. The type of the 

genus Callantra Walker. 
Callantra smieroides Bezzi, 1916, Bull. Ent. Res, 7 : 120. 



332 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Carpophihorella nigrifascia (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 1 6, fig. 34) 

Trypeta nigrifascia Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 158. 

Carpophihorella retorta (Walker), n. comb. 
Trypeta retorta Walker, 1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 16. 

Clusiosoma lateralis (Walker), n. comb. 

Dacus lateralis Walker, 1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 123. 

Clusiosoma biseriata Malloch, 1939, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 426. 
New synonymy. 

Curticella [N. Genus] approximans (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 15, figs. 2ga-b) 

Trypeta approximans Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 160. The type of the 
new genus Curticella Hardy. 

Curvinervus [N. Genus] walkeri, change of name 
(PI. 15, fig. 2.6a-b) 

Strumeta concisa Walker, 1864, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7 : 227. The type of the new 
genus Curvinervus Hardy. 

Cyclopsia inscripta (Walker), n. comb. 

Dacus inscriptus Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 162. 

Cyclopsia inaequalis Malloch, 1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 445. The type 
of the genus. New synonymy. 

Dacus {Neodacus) absolutus Walker, n. comb. 
Dacus absolutus Walker, 1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 22. 

Dacus (Paradacus) areolatus Walker, n. comb. 
(PI. II, fig. 3) 
Dacus areolatus Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 295. 

Dacus {Strumeta) biarcuatus Walker, n. comb. 
(PI. II, fig. 4) 
Dacus biarcuatus Walker, 1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 122. 

Dacus {Dacus) bivittatus cucumarius Sack 

Dacus cucumarius Sack, 1908, Ber. Senckenb. Naturf. Ges., p. 10. 
Dacus pectoralis Walker, 1861, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n.s. 5 : 322. 

Dacus {Daculus) brevistriga Walker, n. comb. 

Dacus brevistriga Walker, i860. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n.s. 5 : 322. 

Dacus katonae Bezzi, 1924, Bull. Ent. Res. 15 (1) : 86. Probable synonym. 

Dacus asclepiadens Bezzi, 1924, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 19 : 468 (synonym according to Munro, 

1957, Brit. Mus. Ruwenzori Exped. 2 (9) : 860). 
Leptoxyda brevistriga Malloch, 1932, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 10, 10 : 300. 

Dacus {Strumeta) cucurbitae Coquillett 

Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, 1899, Ent. News, 10 : 129. 

Dasyneura caudata Walker, nee Fabricius, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1073. 
New synonymy. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 233 

Dacus [Neodacus] curvifer Walker 
(PI. II, fig. 6) 

Dacus curvifer Walker, 1864, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7 : 229. 

Dacus speculifer Walker, 1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 122. New synonymy. 

Dacus [Daculus) discipennis Walker 
(PI. II, fig. 7) 
Dacus discipennis Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 294. 

Dacus [Zeugodacus) emittens Walker 
Dacus emittens Walker, i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 152. 

Dacus {Paratridacus) expandens Walker 
Dacus expandens Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 114. 

Dacus (Didacus) fuscatus Wiedemann 

Dacus fuscatus Wiedemann, 1819, Zool. Mag. 1 (3) : 28. 

Dasyneura nehulosa Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1076. New 

synonymy. 
Dacus nebulosa Walker, nom. nud. 

Dacus {Strumeta) incisus Walker, n, comb. 
Dacus incisus Walker, i860, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n.s. 5 : 323. 

Dacus {Strumeta) pectoralis Walker 

Dacus pectoralis Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 114. 

Dacus ferrugineus var. ohscurata de Meijere, 191 1, Tijds. v. Ent. 54 : 374. A probable 
synonym. 

Dacus {Paradacus) perplexus Walker 
(PI. 12, fig. II) 

Dacus perplexus Walker, 1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 14. 
Dacus implexus Walker, cabinet name. 

Dacus sexmaculatus Walker, sp. indet. 
Dacus sexmaculatus Walker, 1871, The Entomologist, 5 : 344. 

Dacus [Neodacus) strigifinis Walker, n. comb. 

Dacus strigifinis Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 295. 

Neodacus lanceolatus Perkins, 1939, Univ. Queensland Papers, Dept. Biol. 1 (10) : 22, pi. i, 

fig. I. New synonymy. 
Dacus {Chaetodacus) albolateralis Malloch, 1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 413, 

pi. XI, fig. 2. 

Dacus [Zeugodacus) tau (Walker), n. comb. 

Dasyneura tau Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1074. 

Dacus hageni de Meijere, 191 1, Tijds. v. Ent. 54 : 375. New synonymy. 

Dacus caudatus var. nubilus Hendel, 191 2, Suppl. Ent. 1 : 16. 

Zeugodacus caudatus Perkins, nee Fabricius, 1938, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland, 49 (11) : 139. 

Zeugodacus nubilus heinrichi Hering, 1941, Siruna Seva, 3 : 11. 

Zeugodacus bezzianus Hering, 1941, Arb. Vber Morph. u. Tax. Ent. 8 (1) : 26. 

Dacus [Zeugodacus) terminifer Walker, n. comb. 
(PI. 12, fig. 13) 

Dacus terminifer Walker, i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 152. 



234 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Dacus (Strumeta) umbrosus Fabricius 

Dacus umbrosus Fabricius, 1805. Syst. Anil., p. 274. 

Strumeta conformis Walker, 1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Land, i : 34. 

Dacus diffusus Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 153. New synonymy. 

Dimeringophrys bilineatus (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. II, fig. 5) 
Dacus bilineatus Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 150. 

Dimeringophrys ortalina Enderlein, 1911, Zool. Jahrb. 13 (3) : 452. The type of the genus. 
New synonymy. 

Diplochorda concisa (Walker) 

Dacus concisus Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 252. 

Dacus turgidus Walker, 1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 134. Recorded by Osten 
Sacken (1881, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 16 : 487). 

Dirioxa pornia (Walker), n. comb. 

Trypeta pornia Walker, 1849, List. Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1039. 

Trypeta musae Froggatt, 1899, Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales, 10 : 501. The type oi Dirioxa Hendel. 

Enicoptera tortuosa Walker 
(PI. 13, fig. 16) 

Enicoptera tortuosa Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 155. 

Euphranta? jigurata (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. II. fig. 8) 

Dacus figuratus Walker, 1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 133. 

Euphranta {Staurella) rudis (Walker), n. comb. 
Trypeta rudis Walker, 1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 133. 

Euphranta transiens (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 16, fig. 37) 
Trypeta transiens Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 164. 

Eurosta comma (Wiedemann) 

Trypeta comma Wiedemann, 1830, Ausser. Zweifl. Ins. 2 : 478. 

Trypeta alvea Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1027. 

Trypeta dertona Walker, 1849, loc. cit. 

Gastrozona fasciata (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 16, fig. 38) 

Urophora fasciata Walker, 1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 134. 

Carpophthoromyia borneensis Hering, 1952, Treubia, 21 (2) : 283, fig. 12. New synonymy. 

Genus? (near Acidia) contraria (Walker) 
(PI. 15, fig. 30) 

Trypeta contraria Walker, 1853, Ins. Saunders. 4 : 385, pl. VIII, fig. 7. 

Hemilea bipars (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 14, fig. 22) 

Sophira bipars Walker, 1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 23. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 235 

Hexachaeta eximia (Wiedemann) 

Trypeta eximia Wiedemann, 1830, Ausser. Zweifl. Ins. 2 : 477. 

Trypeta lutescens Walker, 1857, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 4 : 41. New synonymy. 

Trypeta sinica Walker, 1857, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 4 (5) : 229. New synonymy. 

Hexacinia punctifera (Walker), n. comb. 

Sophira punctifera Walker, 1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6:15. 

Hexacinia multipunctata Malloch, 1939, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 64 (3-4) : 438, pi. 
11, fig. 13. New synonymy. 

Hexacinia stellipennis (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 16, fig. 36) 

Trypeta stellipennis Walker, i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 159. 

Neosophira arcuosa (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 12, figs, i^a-b) 

Enicoptera arcuosa Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 156. 

Neosophira ferruginea Hendel, 1914, Abh. K. K. Zool-Bot. Ges. Wien, 8 (1) : 138. New 
synonymy. 

Neosophira distorta (Walker) 
(PI. 14, figs. 2^a-b) 

Sophira distorta Walker, 1857, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n.s. 4 : 230. Type of genus Neosophira 

Hendel. 
Enicoptera pictipennis Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 155. 

Neothemara formosipennis (Walker) 

Rioxa formosipennis Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 252. The type of the 
genus Neothemara Malloch. 

Neothemara multistriga (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 16, fig. 33) 
Trypeta multistriga Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 119. 

Neothemara repleta (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 15, fig. 27) 

Strumeta repleta Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 296. 

Paracantha culta (Wiedemann) 

Carphotricha culta Wiedemann, 1830, Ausser. Zweifl. Ins. 2 : 486. 

Trypeta sarnia Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1029. New synonymy. 

Paraeuphranta [N. Qenns] furcifer (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 12, figs, loa-c) 
Dacus furcifer Walker, 1862, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6:14. Type of Paraeuphrante Hardy. 

Phytalmia nigrilinea (Walker), n. comb. 

Dacus? nigrilinea Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 251. 

Phytalmia.'' wollastoni Edwards, 1915, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 20 : 418. New synonymy. 

Platensina acrostacta (Wiedemann) 

Trypeta acrostacta Wiedemann, 1824, Anal. Entom. 54 : 119. 

Trypeta stella Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1030. New synonymy. 



236 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Platensina amplipennis (Walker) 
(PI. 15, fig. 28) 

Trypeta amplipennis Walker, i860, Jouy. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 159. 

Polyara insolita Walker 

Polyara insolita Walker, 1859, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 123. The type of the genus 
and only known species. 

Ptilona confinis Walker 

Rioxa confinis Walker, 1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 132. 

Rioxa? bimaculata Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 164. 

Trypeta basifascia Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 158. 

Ptilona brevicornis van der Wulp, 1880, Tijds. v. Ent. 23 : 185, pi. 11, fig. 7. New synonymy. 

This is the type of the genus Ptilona van der Wulp. 
Ptilona nigriventris Bezzi, 1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 3 : no, pi. VIII, fig. 20. 
Ptilona armatipes Hering, 1953, Siruna Seva, 8 : 4, fig. 4. New synonymy. 

Rioxa lanceolata Walker 
(PI. 13, fig. 18) 

Rioxa lanceolata Walker, 1857; Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 35, pi. II, fig. 3. The type 
of the genus Rioxa Walker. 

Rioxina abbreviata (Walker) 
(PI. 13, figs. i9fl-c) 

Seraca abbreviata Walker, 1865, Jotir. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 117. The type of the genus 

Rioxina Hering. 

Rioxa de-beauforti de Meijere, 1906, Nova Guinea Dipt. 5 (1) : 94, fig. 17. New synonymy. 

Seraca concinna (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 14, figs. 23a-c) 
Sophira concinna Walker, 1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 132. 

Seraca plagifera (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 13, fig. 15) 

Enicoptera? plagifera Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 156. 

Sophira bistriga Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 160. New synonymy, 

plagifera is given page priority. 
Colobostrella ruficauda Hendel, 1915, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. 13 : 429. New synonymy. 

Seraca signifera Walker 

Seraca signifera Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 165. The type of the genus 

Seraca Walker. 

Colobostrella ruficauda Hendel, 1914, Wien. Ent. Zeit. 33 : 79. 

Soita psiloides Walker 
(PI. 14, figs. 2ia-b) 

Soita psiloides Walker, 1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 136. The type of the genus 
Soita Walker. 

Sophira signata (Walker), n. comb. 
Seraca signata Walker, i860, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 165. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 237 

Sophira venusta Walker 
(PI. 15, fig. 25) 
Sophira venusta Walker, 1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 35. The type of the genus 
Sophira Walker. 

Sosiopsila consors (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. II, fig. I) 

Adrama consors Walker, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 296. 

Sphaeniscus quadrincisa (Wiedemann) 

Trypeta quadrincisa, 1824, Anal. Entom., p. 55. 

Trypeta tucia Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1021. 

Sphaeniscus sexmaculatus atilia (Walker) 

Trypeta atilia Walker, 1849, List. Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1021. 
Trypeta melaleuca Walker, 1864, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7 : 238. 

Tephritis poenia (Walker), n. comb. 

Trypeta poenia Walker, 1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1025. 

Tephritis pelia Schiner, 1868, Reise Novara, Zool. 2, i abt., B. Diptera, p. 271. New synonymy. 

Themara maculipennis (Westwood) 

Achias maculipennis Westwood, 1848, Cab. Orient. Ent., p. 38, pi. i8, fig. 4. 
Themara ampla Walker, 1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 33, pi. i, fig. 5. The type of 
the genus Themara Walker. 

Themarohystris helomyzoides (Walker), n. comb. 
Strumeta helomyzoides Walker, 1864, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7 : 220. 
Themarohystris erinaceus Hendel, 1914, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. 13 : 433. New synonymy. 
The type of the genus Themarohystris Hendel. 

Themaroides quadrifera (Walker) 
(PI. 13, fig. 17) 

Helomyza quadrifera Walker, 1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 246. The tjq^e of the 

genus Themaroides Hendel. 
Helomyza optatura Walker, 1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 116. 
Themara ampla Doleschall, nee Walker, 1859, Nat. Tijds. Ned. Indie 17 : 154. Nomen nudum. 

Trypeta antiqua Walker, sp. indet. 
Trypeta antiqua Walker, 1852, Ins. Saunders. 4 : 378. 

Xarnuta lativentris (Walker), n. comb. 
(PI. 16. fig. 32) 

Trypeta lativentris Walker, i860. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 158. 

Xarnuta leucotelus Walker 
(PI. 16, fig. 39) 

Xarnuta leucotelus Walker, 1857, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 28. The type of the 
genus Xarnuta Walker. 

Xanthaciura? basalis (Walker) 

Trypeta basalis Walker, 1852, Ins. Saunders. 4 : 380. 

ENTOM. 8, 5. 14 



238 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

LIST OF WALKER SPECIES OF FRUIT FLIES WHICH I DID NOT STUDY 
The types are in the British Museum, unless otherwise indicated. 

Helomyza meritoria Walker 

1864, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7 : 218. Mysol. 

Bezzi (1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 3 : 75) said Czerny had studied the type in the British Museum 
collection and said it "is not a Helomyzid, but a Trypaneid ; from the wing-pattem it 
seems to be related to Rioxa ". 

I was unable to locate the type when I was at the British Museum in 1954 but Mr. D. J. 
Clark of the Diptera section has since located it and said that it runs to this genus in 
Malloch's key (1939 : 417). 
H. nivistriga Walker 

1861, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 246. New Guinea. 

'Bezzi (1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 3 : 76) said " Czerny in 1904, after examination of the type 
in the British Museum, has stated that this is not a Helomyzid, but a Trypaneid, and I 
think that it is probably a Rioxa " . 

I was unable to locate the type in 1954 but Mr. D. J. Clark has since found it. He reported 
that the head was missing and that he could not be certain of the genus but that he thinks 
it is not a Rioxa. 

H. ortalioides Walker 

1865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 116. 

According to Bezzi (1913, Mem. Ind. Mus. 3 : 77) " Czerny, after examining the type in 
London, states that it is a Trypaneid ". 

H. stelliplena Walker 
1865, op. cit. : 117. 

This may possibly be a fruit fly. It is listed in the card file at the British Museum under 
" Trypetidae genus?" but I did not study the type. Mr. Clark reports that the head is 
missing. 

Tephritis mellea Walker 

1837, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 17 : 358. BrazU. 

T. quinquefasciata Walker 

1837, op. cit. : 357. South America. 

T. unicolor Walker 

1837, op. cit. : 358. Port Famine, Straits of Magellan. 

Acz61 (1949, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 7 : 311) has placed this under the combination Trypanea 

unicolor (Walker). 

Trypeta acidusa Walker 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1014. Jamaica. 

Stone (1939, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 29 : 349) placed this under the combination Lucuma- 

phila acidusa (Walker). [Tephritidae.] 

T. adatha Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1032. Congo. 

T. aesia Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1006. Galapagos Isl. 

Acz61 (1949, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 7 : 281) lists this under the combination Euaresta aesia 

(Walker). 

T. aex Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1037. Brazil. 

Hendel (1914, Abh. Ber. K. Zool. Anfhrop. Mus. Dresden, 14 : 23) listed this under the 

combination Hexachaeta? aex (Walker). 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 239 

T. aira Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1023. Congo, 

T. alhida Walker 

1852, Ins. Saunds. 4 : 384. S. Australia. Type not present in British Museum. 

T. alhovaria Walker 

1852, op. cit. : 383, pi. 8, fig. 4. Senegal? 

Listed by Hendel (1914 Abh. K. K. Zool-Bot. Ges. Wien, 8 (1) : 364) as a synonym of Engi- 

stoneura maerens (Fabricius) (1775, Ent. Syst. 4 : 349) ; family Otitidae. 

T. alcinoe Walker 

1849, op. cit. : loio. Loc? 

T. arcuata Walker 

1852, op. cit. : 383. United States. 

Listed by Hendel (1914, Abh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 8 (1) : 18) as a synonym of Tritoxa 

flexa (Wiedemann) (1830, Ausser. Zweifl. Ins. 2 : 384) ; family Otitidae. 

T. argus Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1033. Bahia. 

T. avala Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1020. Jamaica. 

T. brevivitta Walker 

1865. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 124. New Guinea. 
T)rpe not present in British Museum. 

7". cassara Walker 

1849, List Spec. Dipt. Ins. coll. Brit. Mus. 4 : 1026. Peru. 

Acz61 (1949, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 7 : 286) lists this under the combination Paroxyna cassara 
(Walker). Paroxyna Hendel (1927) is a synonym of Stylia Robineau-Desvoidy (1830) 
(See Hardy & Adachi, 1956, Insects of Micronesia, 14 (1) : 21) so the correct name should be 
Stylia cassara (Walker) (new combination). 

T. conferta Walker 

1852, Ins. Saunds. 4 : 379. Columbia. 

T. cornifera Walker 

1849, op. cit. : loii. Loc? 

T. cornigera Walker 

1849, op. cit. : loio. N.A.? 

T. cosyra Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1042. Congo. 

T. cronia Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1039. N. Holland. 

Hendel (1914, Abh. Ber. K. Zool. Anthrop. Mus. Dresden, 14 : 23) Usts this under the com- 
bination Hexachaeta? cronia (Walker). 

T. cyana Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1031. Sierra Leone. 

T. dinia Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1040. Jamaica. Hendel (1914, loc. cit.) Hsts this under the combination 
Hexachaeta? dinia (Walker). 

T. diversata Walker 

1-865, Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 124. New Guinea. 
Type not present in British Museum. 

T. divisa Walker 

1852, op. cit. : 381. Brazil. 



240 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

T. donysa Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1007. Loc? 

T. duhia Walker 

1852, op. cit. : 379. Cape. 

T. ethalea Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1015. Para. 

Tjrpe not present in British Museum. 

T. excepta Walker 

1852, op. cit. : 387. Brazil. 

Type not present in British Museum. 

T. flexuosa Walker 

1852, op. cit. : 382. Cape Coast. 

T. hysia Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1016. Sierra Leone. 

T. laeta Walker 

1852, op. cit. : 388. Brazil. 

Type not present in British Museum. 

T. lutescens Walker 

1857, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 4 (5) : 229. Amazon. 

T. mevarna Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1023. Florida. 

T. mixta Walker 

1852, op. cit. : 385. East Indies. 
Type not present in British Museum. 

T. narytia Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1020. Florida. 

T. oborinia Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1041. Congo. 

T. ocresia Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1016. Jamaica. 

This is an Anastrepha Schiner, see Stone {1942, U.S.D.A. Misc. Pub. 439 : 24). 

T. pantherina Walker 

1852, op. cit. : 386. Brazil. 

T. parallela Walker 

1852, op. cit. : 381. Cape. 

Type not present in British Museum. 

T. polygramma Walker 

i860. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n.s. 5 : 326. Natal. 

T. quadrigutta Walker 

1852, op. cit. : 386. S. America. 

Acz61 (1953, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 13 : 155) treats this under the combination Polymorphomyia 
quadrigutta (Walker) [Tephritidae] . He had earher (1949, op. cit. 7 : 267) placed it under 
Pseudeutreta quadrigutta (Walker). 

T. scutellata Walker 

1852, op. cit. : 384. Senegal? 

T. tritea Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1034. Sierra Leone. 



WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 241 

T. varia Walker 

1852, op. cit. : 382. S. America. 
Type not present in British Museum. 

T. viana Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1006. Loc? 

T. voneda Walker 

1849, op. cit. : 1028. Bahia. 



FRANCIS WALKER'S PAPERS IN WHICH FRUIT FLIES ARE DESCRIBED 

1836 

Descriptions of the British Tephritites. Ent. Mag. 3 : 57-85. 

1837 

Descriptions, etc. of the Insects collected by Captain P. P. King, R.N., F.R.S., in the 

Survey of the Straits of Magellan. Diptera. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 17 : 357-358. 
1849 

List of the Specimens of Dipterous Insects in the collection of the British Museum, 4 : 1 005-1 042 

and 1071-1077. 
1852 

Insecta Saundersiana : or characters of undescribed Insects in the collection of W. W. 

Saunders. Diptera 4 : 378-388. 

1857 

Catalogue of the Dipterous Insects collected at Singapore and Malacca by Mr. A. R. Wallace, 
with Descriptions of New Species. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 28-35. 

1857 

Catalogue of the Dipterous Insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo, by Mr. A. R. Wallace, 
with Descriptions of New Species. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1 : 132-134, pi. i. 

1857 

Characters of undescribed Diptera in the collection of W. W. Saunders. Trans. Ent. Soc. 

Lond. n.s. 4 (5) : 229-231. 

1859 

Catalogue of the Dipterous Insects collected in the Aru Islands by Mr. A. R. Wallace, with 
Descriptions of New Species. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3 : 114-121 and 131. 

i860 

Catalogue of the Dipterous Insects collected at Makessar in Celebes by Mr. A. R. Wallace, 
with Descriptions of New Species. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 4 : 149-160 and 165. 

i860 

Characters of undescribed Diptera in the collection of W. W. Saunders. Trans. Ent. Soc. 
Lond. n.s. 5 : 322-323 and 326. 

1861 

Catalogue of the Dipterous Insects collected in Amboyna by Mr. A. R. Wallace, with 
Descriptions of New Species. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 162-165. 

1861 

Catalogue of the Dipterous Insects collected at Dorey, New Guinea, by Mr. A. R. Wallace, 
with Descriptions of New Species. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 246, 250-253. 

1861 

Catalogue of the Dipterous Insects collected at Manado, Celebes, and in Tond, by Mr. A. 
R. Wallace, with Descriptions of New Species. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5 : 262, 290-291. 

1861 

Catalogue of the Dipterous Insects collected in Batchian, Kaisaa and Makian, and at Tidon 
in Celebes, by Mr. A. R. Wallace, with Descriptions of New Species. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. 
Lond. 5 : 294-296. 



242 WALKER TYPES OF FRUIT FLIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

1862 

Catalogue of the Dipterous Insects collected at Gilolo, Temate, and Ceram, by Mr. A. R. 

Wallace, with Descriptions of New Species. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6 : 13-16, 22-23. 
1864 

Catalogue of the Dipterous Insects collected in Waigiou, Mysol, and North Ceram by Mr. 

A. R. Wallace, with Descriptions of New Species. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7 : 220-221, 

227-229, 237-238. 
1865 

Descriptions of New Species of the Dipterous Insects of New Guinea. Jour. Proc. Linn. 

Soc. Lond. 8 : 116-117, 122-125. 
1865 

Descriptions of some New Species of Dipterous Insects from the Island of Salwatty, near 

New Guinea. Jour. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 8 : 134-136. 
1871 

List of Diptera collected in Egypt and Arabia by J. K. Lord Esq., with descriptions of the 

species new to Science. Entomologist. 5 : 344. 




PLATE II 

Fig. I. Sosiopsila consors (Walker). Wing. 

Fig. 2. Adrama selecta Walker. Wing, drawn from type of Enicoptera ruftventris Walker, 

new synonym. 

Fig. 3. Dacus (Paradacus) areolatus Walker. 

Fig. 4. Dacus {Strumeta) biarcuatus Walker. Wing. 

Fig. 5. Dimeringophrys bilineatus (Walker). Wing. 

Fig. 6. Dacus (Neodacus) curvifer Walker. Middle section of wing of type. 

Fig. 7. Dacus {Daculus) discipennis Walker. Wing. 

Fig. 8. Euphranta? figurata (Walker). Wing. 

Fig. 9. Chloropidae, Genus? fulvitarsis (Walker). Wing. 



Bull. B.M. [N.H.) Entom. 8, 5. 



PLATE lu 




Euphranta figurata 



9 Chloropidoe 

Gsnus ? fulvitarsis 



Fig. 


lO. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13- 


Fig. 


14. 



PLATE 12 

Paraeuphyanta furcifer (Walker), a. wing; b. front femur; c. head. 
Dacus {Paradacus) perplexus Walker. Wing. 
Campylocera? squalida (Walker). Wing. 
Dacus {Zeugodacus) terminifer Walker. Wing. 
Neosophira arcuosa (Walker), a. wing ; b. head. 



Bull. B.M. {N.H.) Entom. 8, 5. 



PLATE 12. 




I4a Neosopnira orcuosa 



PLATE 13 

Fig. 15. Seraca plagifera (Walker). Wing. 

Fig. 16. Enicoptera tortuosa Walker. Wing. 

Fig. 17. Themaroides qiiadrifera (Walker). Wing. 

Fig. 18. Rioxa lanceolata Walker. Wing. 

Fig. 19. Rioxina abbreviata (Walker), a. head ; b. front femur ; c. wing. 



Bull. B.M. (N.H.) Entom. 8, 5. 



PLATE 13. 




PLATE 14 

Fig. 20. Seraca signifera Walker. Wing. 

Fig. 21. Soita psiloides WaWier. a. head ; 6. wing. 

Fig. 22. Hemilea bipars (Walker). Wing. 

Fig. 23. Seraca concinna (Walker), a. head, lateral view ; b. middle tarsus ; c. wing. 

Fig. 24. Neosophira distorta (Walker), a. head, lateral view ; b. wing. 



Bull. B.M. {N.H.) Entom. 8, 5. 



PLATE 14. 




24o Neosophira distorta 



PLATE 15 



Fig. 


25- 


Fig. 


26. 


Fig. 


27. 


Fig. 


28. 


Fig. 


29. 


Fig. 


30. 


Fig. 


31- 



Sophira venusta Walker. Wing. 

Ctirvinervus walkeri Hardy, a. head ; h. wing. 

Neothemara repleta (Walker). Wing. 

Platensina amplipennis (Walker). Wing. 

Curticella approximans (Walker), a. head ; b. wing. 

Genus? near Acidia, coniraria (Walker). Wing. 

Anomoia {Euleia) fossata (Fabricius). Wing. 



Bull. B.M. (N.H.) Entom. 8, 5. 



PLATE 15. 




3) Anomoia (Euleia) fossoto ^ ^^'"^"^^^'^ 



PLATE 16 



Fig. 


32. 


Fig. 


33- 


Fig. 


34- 


Fig. 


35. 


Fig. 


36. 


Fig. 


37- 


Fig. 


38. 


Fig. 


39. 



Xarnuta lativentris (Walker). Wing. 
Neothemara muUistriga (Walker). Wing. 
Carpophthorella nigrifascia (Walker). Wing. 
Dasyortalis signifacies (Walker). Wing. 
Hexacinia stellipennis (Walker). Wing. 
Euphranta transiens (Walker). Wing. 
Gastrozona fasciata (Walker). Wing. 
Xarnuta leucotelus Walker. Wing. 



Bull. B.M. [N.H.) Entom 8, 5. 



PLATE 16. 




• T-rrrr'T-r-f^^'''' XOmutQ iBUCOtelUS 



DELPHACIiJAE FROM THE 
LESSER ANTILLES 

(HOMOPTERA : FULGOROIDEA) 



R. G. FENNAH 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 6 

LONDON : 1959 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 
(HOMOPTERA : FULGOROIDEA) 



BY 

R. G. FENNA 



Commonwealth Institute of Entomology 




Pp. 243-265 ; 9 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 6 

LONDON: 1959 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical Series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

This paper is Vol. 8, No. 6 of the Entomological 
series. 



Trustees of the British Museum, 1959 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Issued October, 1959 Price Seven Shillings 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 
(HOMOPTERA : FULGOROIDEA) 

By R. G. FENNAH 

This report is concerned primarily with the Delphacidae of the Lesser Antillean 
archipelago in the West Indies, though opportunity is also taken to comment on 
a few species of interest in adjacent territories. 

Only five species in this family have so far been reported from this area. In 1833 
Westwood described Delphax saccharivora from Grenada and Barbados, and in 
1907 Kirkaldy recorded the occurrence of Peregrinus maidis (Ashm.) in Barbados. 
Muir (1918) described Delphacodes nigrifacies and D. mardininae (= D. havanensis 
(Cwfd.)) from Martinique and D. erectus nigripennis {nee Cwfd.) (= D. humilis 
V. D.) from Guadeloupe. Twenty additional species are listed below, and five of them 
are described as new : two new species are also described from Trinidad, T.W.I. 

In the Lesser Antilles the Delphacidae include a higher proportion of widespread 
species than do other families of Fulgoroidea, and accordingly it is possible to surmise 
the source and distribution of most species from the reports of Crawford (1914), 
Van Duzee (1907), Muir & Giffard (1924, 1926), Fennah (1945) and Caldwell & 
Martorell (1950), the last including the records of Osbom (1935). 

The survey by Caldwell & Martorell of the Puerto Rican Delphacidae is useful in 
indicating possible gaps in the Lesser Antillean collection. The latter, which consists 
almost entirely of material taken by the writer, was built up from samples collected 
in a small number of localities which, even in sum, do not satisfactorily represent 
the full ecological range of Delphacid habitats in each island. Only in St. Lucia 
was sampling satisfactory in this respect, but even there it was inadequate with 
reference to possible seasonal change of population. Nevertheless, as shown in 
the tabular synopsis of distribution of species, the more extensive collecting in 
this island resulted in a more comprehensive list. 

The fulgoroid faunas of the principal islands of the Lesser Antillean archipelago 
tend to be similar, though modified by impoverishment in South American elements 
northward and a more gradual impoverishment in Central American and Greater 
Antillean elements southward. Thus, within limits, it is reasonable to infer the pre- 
sence of certain genera in islands where they have not yet been reported. 

The columns in the distributional synopsis of Delphacidae are arranged from left 
to right in the same order as the islands (except Antigua) occur from south to north, 
so that it can readily be seen which omissions are most probably attributable to 
incomplete collecting : among the most obvious are those of Peregrinus maidis 
(Ashm.) from the Montserrat list, Delphacodes teapae Fowl, from the Grenada list, 

ENTOM. 8, 6. 8 



246 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 



and of Saccharosydne saccharivora (Westw.) and of Punana from the St. Vincent 
and Nevis lists respectively. 

The species of Eucanyra (or Ugyops), Punana and Burnilia known to the writer 
are found in forest associations, and do not normally feed on grasses. Whereas 
Punana was taken in fair numbers, and Burnilia sparsely, and others of each were 
seen but not captured, no example of Ugyops has been found in the Lesser Antilles. 
Two species occur in Puerto Rico, and one in Trinidad, this being clearly related to 
one of the Puerto Rican species. In this particular genus it is not warrantable to 
assume that Ugyops is present in the intervening islands, as exploration of its potential 
habitat has been fairly thorough. 

Distributional List of Lesser Antillean Fulgoroidea 



'u 
H 

X 



.y c 






b en 
O Q 



■> >^ -^ 

"A tn < 



X X 



X X 



Ugyops flagellata Fenn. 
Punana dolon* 
P. dominicana* 
Burnilia spinifera Fenn. 
Stobaera sp. . 
Saccharosydne saccharivora 

Westw. 
S. ornatipennis Muir . 
Neomalaxa flava Muir 
Peregrinus maidis (Ashm.) . 
Pissonotus hrasilensis Muir . 

Phrictopyga contorta (Muir) 

P. semele* . . . x 

P. nugax* . . .X 

Euidella afasciata C. & M X . . . . 

Chloriona kolophon Kirk x . . X 

C. wallacei Muir . X . . 

C. cubana Cwfd. . X . . . . 

Delphacodes humilis V. D X 

D. albinotata (Cwfd.) X . . 

D. axonopi Fenn. 
D. balboae M. & G. 
D. havanae M. & G. 
D. havanensis Cwfd. 
D. propinqua Fieber 
D. floridae M. & G. 
D. teapae FowL 
D. nigrifacies Muir 



D. venilia* 
D. philyra* 
D. iaxartes* 



X X 



other areas 



XXX 



Barbados. 

Brazil. 

Puerto Rico, Brazil. 

Barbados. 

BraziL 

Brazil, Puerto Rico. 



Puerto Rico. 

Widespread. 

Cuba, Br. Honduras. 

Venezuela, Cuba. 

Guadeloupe. 

Mexico. 

Mexico, Ecuador, Br. Guiana. 
Cuba, Guatemala, Br. Guiana. 
Martinique, Cuba, Puerto Rico. 
Widespread. 
Florida. 

Ecuador to southern U.S.A. 
Martinique, Costa Rica, Br. 
Guiana. 



(* Described below as new.) 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 247 

Two species described from Venezuela by Lethierry, Araeopus conspersineruis 
and Dichoneura simoni, stated to be akin to Delphax, are still unplaced in genera as 
currently recognized in this family. The first is dealt with below : Dichoneura, 
on the other hand, has no place in the Delphacidae. A specimen standing imder this 
name in the Lethierry collection in the Paris Museum agrees with the original 
description, and is a tropiduchid closely allied to the Colombian Cixius rufimacula 
Wlk. and also close to, and possibly congeneric with, Colgorma diluta (Stal). 

Key to Subfamilies and Tribes of Lesser Antillean Delphacidae 

1 . Post-tibial spur subulate or spine-like, devoid of lateral teeth . . . Asiracinae 

- Post-tibial spur with teeth on posterior margin (Delphacinae pars) .... 2 

2. Post-tibial spur convex on both sides, occasionally flattened on one surface, marginal 

teeth not exceeding 17 . . . . • • • • • • Alohini 

- Post-tibial spur concave on one surface, marginal teeth commonly exceeding 17 

Delphacini 

Subfamily Asiracinae 
Key to West Indian Genera of Asiracinae 

1 . Antennae long, both segments broad, flattened and foliaceous . . Copicerus Swartz 

- Antennae not foliaceous ........... 2 

2. Antennae long, narrowly cylindrical, frons elongate . . Ugyops Gu^rin-M^neville 

- Antennae not long or not cylindrical, frons rather broad ..... 3 

3. Frons with two carinae enclosing a median area ; antennae not compressed 

Peniagramma Van Duzee 

- Frons ecarinate or with a feeble median carina, antennae laterally compressed Punana Muir 

Genus UGYOPS Guerin-Meneville 

Gu^rin-Meneville, 1834, Voy. aux Indes Belanger, 1 : 477. Haplotype, Ugyops percheronii 
Gu^rin-M^neville, ibid.: 478. 

After examining material of this genus from almost all parts of its tropical range, 
the writer considers that the current division of the natural group of Central American 
species into three full genera, Ugyops, Eucanyra and Epihidis, is unwarranted. 

Ugyops flagellata (Fennah) 

Eticanyra flagellata Fennah, 1945, Proc. U.S. nat. Mtts. 95 : 426. 

Anal segment about twice as long as broad, telson scarcely one-third as long as 
anal segment. The longer aedeagal spinose process comparatively stout, not fila- 
mentous. 

Two ^, I $, Trinidad, T.W.I. , Central Experiment Station, near Arima, La 
Reunion section Mar. 1950, R. G. Fennah, in cacaofield. The most distinctly marked of 
these specimens has a frons with nine pale round spots on each side of the median 
carina, and four pale round spots near each lateral margin in the distal half ; the 
clypeus is stramineous except apically, where it is fuscous. Caldwell & Martorell 
list three species from Puerto Rico, Lf. osborni Mete, U. occidenialis Muir and U. 

ENTOM. 8, 6. 8§ 



248 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 



isolata C. & M.; the more obvious differences between these species and U. flagellata 
are as follows. In U. flagellata the median carina of the frons is single and sharply 
defined in its distal half, and single, though broadening basad, in its basal half; 
even near the base of the frons no concavity is developed in the raised median area. 
The shape of the head in profile is near to that of U. occidentalis, as is also the tegminal 
coloration, but the markings on the frons are quite different. The genitalia do not 
agree precisely in any one feature with those of any of the Puerto Rican species, 
and the only close similarity which exists is in the aedeagal structure of U. flagellata 
and U. osborni. The genital styles of U. flagellata resemble those of U. osborni, 
and differ from those of the other two species in so far as they are produced caudad 
in a lobe at their base. This appears as a quadrate projection when the style is 
viewed from the side. 

Genus PUN AN A Muir 
Muir, 1913, Proc. Hawaii ent. Soc. 2 : 249. Orthotype, Punana brunnea Muir, 1913, loc. cit.: 249. 

Punana dominicana sp. n. 

(Text-fig. I, a-d) 

Width of vertex across basal margin slightly greater than twice length in middle 
line to apex of head. 





Fig. I. Punana dominicana sp. n.: a, pygofer and anal segment, left side ; b, aedeagus, 
distal portion, right side ; c, aedeagus, distal portion, dorsal view ; d, genital styles. 



Frons with lateral margins diverging from base to level of antennae, thence 
incurved to frontoclypeal suture, length in middle line about equal to width at 
widest part. Pronotum in middle line about as long as vertex. 

Yellowish-testaceous ; distal two-thirds of frons and lower surface of body, 
except genitalia, ivory-white to stramineous. Two shallowly arcuate transverse 
marks on vertex, median area and lateral margins of clypeus, antennae in part. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 249 

a spot on femora at apex, two spots on protibiae and mesotibiae, and three on 
post-tibiae, and all tarsi at base, fuscous. Tegmina hyaline, faintly tinged with 
yellow, veins concolorous, heavily studded with fuscous granules, each bearing a 
fuscous seta, a linear mark at middle of commissural margin of clavus, a small 
suffusion near the apical angle and another near the anal angle, and a spot on M 
at nodal line, fuscous. Wings hyaline. 

Anal segment of male moderately short, asymmetrical, with right lower margin 
feebly sinuate, left lower margin produced ventrad at middle in a delicate spinose 
process. Pygofer very slightly asymmetrical, lateral margins angulately produced 
caudad. Aedeagus narrowly tubular and shallowly curved in basal half, produced 
on right near junction with flagellum in a thin triangular lobe ; flagellum comprising 
a pigmented process from which depends on the right side a pellucid lamina not 
quite extending to its tip ; an unpigmented lamina on left side of flagellum strongly 
produced to left apically in a tapering flattened process, directed ventrad on lower 
surface of flagellum near its middle. Genital styles sinuate, broadest in basal half, 
shaped as figured. 

Male : length, 4-5 mm.; tegmen, 5-0 mm. Female : length, 5-1 mm.; tegmen, 
5-0 mm. 

Holotype male and 3 ^ and 6 $, Dominica, T.W.I. , Greenhill Estate, June 1940, 
R. G. Fennah. This species is distinguished by the bold fuscous and brown markings 
and by the shape of the male genitalia. It seems to be nearest to P. caribbensis 
Caldwell & Martorell, but differs in the shape of the genital styles. In the aedeagus 
the elements are approximately similar but are reversed — the long apical lateral 
extension is definitely to the left side, not to the right. The right apical process 
is porrect, not decurved. The anal segment is differently shaped from that of P. 
caribbensis. 

Punatia dolon sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 2, a-d) 

Width of vertex across basal margin exactly twice length in middle line to apex 
of head. Frons with lateral margins diverging from base to above level of antennae, 
then feebly converging for some distance, finally strongly incurved to suture, length 
in middle line equal to or slightly exceeding maximum width. Pronotum in middle 
line slightly shorter than vertex. 

Stramineous ; yellowish-brown on basal half of frons and anterior surface of 
antennae. Faint yellowish-brown markings on vertex and mesonotum as in P. 
dominicana. Lower surface of body, including clypeus and male genitalia, pallid ; 
banding on legs as in P. dominicana, but faint. Tegmina yellowish-hyaline, veins 
concolorous, granules narrowly outlined with yellowish-brown. Wings hyaline 
with veins concolorous. 

Anal segment of male moderately short, bilaterally symmetrical or practically so, 
lower margin in side view concave basally and deeply convex distally. Pygofer with 
each lateral margin broadly produced caudad in a convex lobe. Aedeagus narrowly 
tubular and shallowly curved in basal half, produced laterad in a rounded lobe near 



250 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 



junction with flagellum ; flagellum comprising a tapering curved pigmented process, 
from which a pellucid membrane hangs down along the right side as far as the apex, 
though a little separated from the pigmented portion near its tip ; on left side the 
pigmented process is produced to left distally in a parallel-sided transparent process 
which is truncate apically where it bears a pair of slender reflexed spinose processes. 
Genital styles sinuately curved, broadest in basal half, shaped as in figure. 

Male : length, 4-4 mm.; tegmen, 3-9 mm. 

Holotype male, St. Kitts, T.W.I. , Sept. 1943, R. G. Fennah. 




A 




Fig. 



2. Punana dolon sp. n.: a, anal segment, left side ; b, aedeagus, right side ; 
c, aedeagal flagellum, dorsal view ; d, right genital style, posterior view. 



This species differs from P. dominicana in the proportions of the frons and vertex, 
and in the shape of every element of the male genitalia. It would seem to belong 
to the P. caribbensis group but cannot be confused with any other species. A single 
female from Montserrat, T.W.I. (Jan. 1939, R. G. Fennah) has the same cephalic 
proportions as the male from St. Kitts and is provisionally assigned to this species. 
The ground coloration is similar to that of the St. Kitts male, but all the brown 
coloration is a little darker, though not nearly so dark as in P. dominicana. 



Subfamily Delphacinae 

Tribe Alohini 

Key to the Alohini of the New World 

1. Antennae with basal segment cylindrical, long or short ...... 2 

- Antennae with basal segment more or less flattened ...... 3 

2. Vertex four times as wide as long. Antennae with basal segment little, if any, longer 

than broad ........... Synpteron Muir 

- Vertex not wider than long. Antennae with basal segment much longer than broad 

Burnilia M. & G. 

3. Antennae with basal segment long, narrow, parallel-sided, with a longitudinal carina 

Sparnia Stal 

- Antennae with basal segment subtriangular or sagittate . . . Stobaera St&l 

Genus BURNILIA Muir & Giffard 
Muir & Gifiard, 1924, Hawaii Sug. PL Ass. ent. Bull. 15 : 7. Orthotype, Delphax picHfrons St&l. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 



251 



Burnilia pictifrons (Stal) 

Delphax pictifrons St&l, 1864, Stett. ent. Zeit. 25 : 50. 

One c^, 3 ?, Venezuela, E. Zulia, Perija, Rio Negro, Kumana Hoya, 600 m., 20th 
Dec, 1950, La Salle. 

Burnilia spinifera Fenn. 
Fennah, 1945, Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. 95 : 429. 

Burnilia spinifera antillana ssp. n. 

(Text-fig. 3. A, b) 

Vertex longer in middle line than broad at base (1-3 : i), base twice as broad as 
apex, lateral margins straight, apex projecting markedly beyond eyes, base posterior 





Fig. 3. Burnilia spinifera antillana ssp. n.: a, male genitalia, posterior view 

B, the same, right side. 



to middle of eyes. Frons longer than broad at apex (i-8 : i), basal two-thirds of 
lateral margins straight, diverging, slightly arcuate on apical third, disc slightly 
concave in middle, median carina simple, distinct ; median carina of clypeus promi- 
nent. Antennae reaching approximately to apex of clypeus, second segment longer 
than first (2-6:1). Post-tibial spur with 15-17 teeth. 

Stramineous ; lateral margins of vertex and frons narrowly piceous, frons tra- 
versed medially by a white band which is bordered basally and apically with piceous, 
the basal piceous band wider than the apical ; a white spot, bordered fuscous- 
piceous, on each lateral pronotal lobe ; second antennal segment dark on anterior 
surface, a small dark mark at apex of all femora. Tegmina hyaline, slightly tinged 
yellowish, veins concolorous. Wings hyaline with concolorous veins. 



252 DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 

Anal segment of male rather short, a little deflexed apically, anal foramen at apex, 
apical margin transverse. Pygofer long, laterodorsal angles each strongly produced 
caudad for more than length of anal segment, narrowly rounded distally, lateral 
margins sinuate, weakly convexly produced at middle ; medioventral process long, 
parallel-sided, deeply bifid ; diaphragm extensive, dorsal margin short, subrec- 
tangulately excavate, with a straight slender spinose process arising on each side 
of middle, directed dorsad ; lateroventrally a small slender spine, lying almost 
anterior to genital styles, directed dorsocaudad. Genital styles moderately long, 
rather broad, laterally compressed, strongly curved in side view, in posterior view 
apposed basally then diverging, moderately decurved at apex and bluntly pointed, 
a spinose process arising mesodorsally curved almost parallel with apical portion 
of style. Aedeagus very slender, cylindrical at least in distal part where it lies against 
diaphragm, acuminate at apex. 

Male : length, 47 mm.; tegmen, 4-1 mm. Female : length, 4-9 mm., tegmen, 5-1 
mm. 

Holotype male of subspecies and 2 $, St. Vincent, T.W.I. , Mome Garu, Aug. 1941, 
R. G. Fennah, on Heliconia sp. This subspecies differs from the t3^ical subspecies 
in minor points of coloration, and markedly in the male genitalia, where the upper 
lateral spines on the diaphragm are absent (present in the typical subspecies) and, 
the genital styles are rounded at the apex, not obliquely truncate. One female, 
Dominica, T.W.I. , Saltoun, May 1941, R. G. Fennah, is assigned to this species. 

Burnilia belemensis Muir 

Muir, 1926, Hawaii Sug. PL Ass. ent. Bull. 18 : 5. 

One $, 5 n3miphs, Venezuela, Yaracuy, Marin, 125 m., 6th July, 1951, H. E. Box. 
The clypeus and mesonotum of the adult are lighter in hue than the coloration given 
for the tjrpical population. 

Genus SPARNIA Stal 
St&l, 1862, Handl. svensk. Vet. A had. 3 (6) : 6. Haplotype, Sparnia praecellens Stal. 

Sparnia praecellens Stal 
St&l, 1862, Handl. svensk. Vet. A had. 3 (6) : 6. 

Three $, Venezuela, E. Zulia, Perija, Rio Negro, Kumana Hoya, i, 100 m., 22nd 
Dec, 1950, La Salle. 

Genus STOBAERA Stal 

St&l, 1859, Berl. ent. Z. 3 : 327. Haplotype, Delphax concinna St&l, 1854, Ofvers. vetensk Akad. 
Fork., Stockh. 11 : 246. 

Osborn has reported Stobaera tricarinata Say from Cuba (1926, Sci. Contr. Trop- 
PL Res. Found. 2 : 358) and from Puerto Rico (1929, /. Dept. Agric. P.R. 13 : no), 
but Caldwell & Martorell were unable to confirm the latter. The presence of a species 
of the genus in St. Lucia, however, lends a little support to the Puerto Rican record. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 



253 



Stobaera sp. 

(Text-fig. 4, A, b) 

Median carina of frons not forked, nor thickened basally. Frons not quite as 
broad at base as at apex, lateral margins parallel, frons narrowed between eyes. 
Eyes reniform, deeply excavate. Antennae with basal segment about as long as 
second, and fully twice as broad as second. Post-tibial spur with five teeth on margin. 

Apex of clypeus, rostrum, mesoscutellum, fore and middle legs distad of tro- 
chanters, hind legs entirely, and anal segment of female pallid cream or white. 
Remainder of head and body more or less uniformly testaceous, tinged with red, 
antennae, basal margin of frons, apical margin of vertex and a W-shaped band 
across middle of vertex darker than remainder. Tegmina with granulation con- 
colorous with veins, corium yellowish-testaceous, transparent, a suffusion along 
costal margin to node, fuscous, membrane fuscous except for a rounded-triangulate 




Fig. 4. Stobaera sp.: a, antenna ; b, vertex and left eye. 



area between node, M.^^^ and apical angle ; veins concolorous. Wings hyaline with 
faintly stramineous veins. 

Female : length, 3-4 mm.; tegmen, 3-6 mm. 

One $, St. Lucia, T.W.I., Choiseul, 5th May, 1939, R. G. Fennah. This appears 
to differ from all described species by its coloration and by the number of teeth 
on the post-tibial spur. It is preferable that it should remain unnamed until the 
genitalia of a male can be examined, and the description be amplified. 

In 1890 Lethierry described a delphacid from Venezuela under the name Araeopus 
conspersinervis (Lethierry, 1890, Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 10 : 151). His description 
is brief, and the generic assignment implies the presence of antennae like those of 
the European D. crassicornis Panz. In the known delphacid fauna of the circum- 
caribbean area only Punana and Stobaera and N eoperkinsiella have such antennae, 
and only the first two have tegmina with pallid veins bearing dark granules. Of 
these only Stobaera has a tricarinate mesonotum and tegmina reaching far beyond 
the apex of the abdomen. The original description cites the frons as being tricarinate: 
this is here taken to mean that the lateral margins are carinate in the same manner 
and degree as the median carina. The generic characters of Stobaera alone fit the 
description given, and it must be considered possible that A. conspersinervis is a 
member of this genus. 



254 DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 

Tribe Delphacini 
Key to the Delphacini of the Lesser Antilles 

1. Antennal segments each with a longitudinal black stripe. Aedeagus short, with a 

very long, slender coiled subfilamentous appendage ...... 2 

- Antennal segments devoid of such a stripe. Aedeagus tubular, even if narrow ; 

appendage, if present, not coiled and not very long ...... 3 

2. Antennae reaching to frontoclypeal suture, second segment longer than first 

Saccharosydne Kirk. 

- Antennae reaching to apex of clypeus, segments of equal length . . Neomalaxa Muir. 

3. Head with eyes distinctly narrower than pronotum, so that outline of body tapers 

strongly cephalad from base of tegmina. Frons with median carina forked some 
distance before base ........... 4 

- Head with eyes not or only little narrower than pronotum ; bodily outline only 
weakly tapering cephalad from base of tegmina. Frons with median carina simple, 

or forked very close to base, only rarely forked between eyes .... 5 

4. Postfemora only as long as post-tibiae from base to second lateral spine. Antennae 

pale, with segments dark at base and at apex .... Peregrinus Kirk. 

- Postfemora clearly surpassing second lateral spine of post-tibiae, not much less than 

total length of post-tibiae. Antennae fuscous .... Pissonotus Van Duzee 

5. Basal metatarsal segment longer than second and third together. Profemora con- 

siderably longer than procoxae ....... Euidella Puton 

- Basal metatarsal segment not or only little longer than second and third. Profemora 

only a little longer than procoxae ......... 6 

6. Vertex a little longer than broad. Head and thorax usually with a white median 

dorsal stripe. Lateral carinae of pronotum straight, reaching hind margin 

Chloriona subg. Sogatella Fenn. 

- Vertex not longer than broad, no white medial stripe on head and thorax. Lateral 

carinae of pronotum curved, not reaching hind margin . . Delphacodes Fieber 



Genus SACCHAROSYDNE Kirkaldy 
Kirkaldy, 1907, Hawaii Sug. PL Ass. ent. Bull. 3 : 139. Orthotype, Delphax saccharivora Westw 

Saccharosydne saccharivora (Westw.) 

Delphax saccharivora Westwood, 1833, Mag. nat. Hist. 6 : 413. 

One (J, Jamaica, T.W.I. , Hope, Mona House, Nov. 1940, R. G. Fennah. One (^, 
I ?, Grenada, T.W.I., Oct. 1943, R. G. Fennah. Two ?, St. Lucia, T.W.I., Mar. 
1939, R. G. Fennah. Urich (Urich, 1912, West Indian Bulletin, 12 : 390) recorded 
this species (as Stenocranus saccharivora) in Trinidad, and the writer has confirmed 
its presence. Four mutilated specimens, Venezuela, Tacarigua, Carabobo, 420 m., 
P. Guagliumi, May 1950 ; Carabobo, Urama 20 m., 17th Aug., 1950, H. E. Box. 

Saccharosydne ornatipennis Muir 

Muir, 1926, Hawaii Sug. PI. Ass. ent. Bull. 18 : 14. 

One ? and one mutilated specimen, St. Lucia, T.W.L, Roseau, 4th Sept., 1935, 
H. E. Box. These interesting captures were seen by the writer in St. Lucia in 1936 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 255 

and are now in the British Museum. They agree well in the structure of the head 
and in the venation with two of Muir's series from Brazil. 



Genus NEOMALAXA Muir 
Muir, 1918, Proc. Hawaii ent. Soc. 3 : 426. Haplotype, Neomalaxa flava Muir. 

Neomalaxa flava Muir 
Muir, 191 8, Proc. Hawaii ent. Soc. 3 : 427. 

Post-tibial spur with 15 or 16 teeth. 

Twenty-five (^, 29 9 and 38 nymphs, St. Lucia, T.W.I. , Quilesse, 21st Feb., 
1941, R. G. Fennah, abundant on grass. Fifteen (^, 18 $ and 64 nymphs, Dominica, 
T.W.I. , June 1939, R. G. Fennah. Muir (Muir, 1926, Hawaii Sug. PL Ass. Ent. Bull. 
18 : 15) has reported this species from Trinidad. One mutilated specimen, Venezuela, 
Maracay, 450 m., 12th Dec, 1949, H. E. Box. 

Genus PEREGRINUS Kirkaldy 

Kirkaldy, 1904, Entomologist, 37 : 175. Orthotype, Delphax maidis Ashmead. 

Peregrinus maidis (Ashm.) 
Delphax maidis Ashmead, 1890, Psyche, 5 : 323. 

Two (^, 5 9, Grenada, T.W.I. Oct. 1943, R. G. Fennah ; 2 c^, 7 $ and 31 nymphs, 
St. Vincent, T.W.I. , Agricultural Station, Mar. 1941, R. G. Fennah ; 2 c? 8 $ and 
I nymph, St. Lucia, T.W.I., May 1939, R. G. Fennah ; i cJ, Dominica, T.W.I. , 
July 1939, R. G. Fennah ; 34 c?, 51 ? and 15 nymphs, Antigua, T.W.I. , Aug. 1945, 
R. G. Fennah ; 10 ^, 16 $, Nevis, T.W.I. , i6th Jan., 1942, R. G. Fennah ; 20 3*, 
35 9 and 150 nymphs, St. Kitts, T.W.I., Basseterre, 7th Sept., 1943, R. G. Fennah 
on sorghum ; 4 (J, 3 9, Jamaica, T.W.I. , Hope, Mona House, Nov. 1940, R. G. 
Fennah. 

Genus PISSONOTUS Van Duzee 

Van Duzee, 1897, Bull. Buff. Soc. nat. Sci. 5 : 236. Orthotype, Pissonottts marginatus Van Duzee, 
loc. cit. : 236. 

Pissonotus brazilensis Muir 

Muir, 1926, Hawaii Sug. PI. Ass. ent. Bull. 18 : 19. 

Five c^, 4 9, St. Lucia, T.W.I. , May 1939, R. G. Fennah. 

Genus PHRICTOPYGA Caldwell 
Caldwell & Martorell, 1950, /. Agric. Univ. P.R. 34 : 170. Orthotype, Kelisia contorta Muir. 



256 DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 

Phrictopyga contorta (Muir) 
Kelisia contorta Muir, 1926, Hawaii Sug. PL Ass. ent. Bull. 18 : 24. 

Post-tibial spur with about 24 teeth, not 13 to 16 as in type series. 

One ^, Jamaica, T.W.I. , Mona House, Nov. 1940, R. G. Fennah. The genus extends 
eastward to Puerto Rico, but no representative has yet been found in the Lesser 
Antilles. 

Phrictopyga semele sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 5, A-E) 

Head with eyes distinctly narrower than pronotum. Vertex longer than broad 
at base (i-2 : i), apical margin transverse, a little produced at middle, basal margin 





Fig. 5. Phrictopyga semele sp. n.: a, male genitalia, posterior view ; b, the same, left 
side ; c, apex of aedeagus, dorsal view ; d, the same, posterior view ; e, apical half of 
left genital style, ventral view. 



level with middle of eyes, fully as wide as an eye in same line. Frons twice as long 
as broad, slightly broader at apex than at base, lateral margins shallowly convex ; 
antennae reaching to base of clypeus, first segment scarcely longer than broad, 
second segment twice as long as first. Pronotum with lateral carinae straight, 
diverging caudad, nearly but not quite attaining hind margin. Basal metatarsal 
segment longer than second and third together, spur about half as long as basal 
metatarsal segment, rather narrow, with about 20 teeth on posterior margin. 

Pallid stramineous ; vertex, pronotum and mesonotum medially creamy- white ; 
intercarinal areas of frons, a stripe on each side bordering pallid median band of 
pronotum and mesonotum, and three spots on each side of pronotum laterad of 
discal carinae, testaceous-fuscous. Tegmina hyaline, slightly tinged yellow, a dilute 
fuscous mark overlying each apical vein at margin. Wings hyaline, veins concolorous. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 257 

Anal segment short, ring-like, apical margin shallowly concave, lateroapical 
angles strongly produced laterocaudad and ventrad in a pair of stout spines. Posterior 
opening of pygofer distinctly broader than long, anal emargination not deep, latero- 
dorsal angles not produced, lateral margins shallowly convex, ventral margin 
medially produced dorsocaudad in a narrowly triangular process shortly bifurcate 
at its apex, diaphragm rather large and deep, pigmented in median portion which is 
biconvex on its dorsal margin and is acutely produced caudad in its middle line. 
Aedeagus not long, laterally compressed, in side view with ventral margin longer 
than dorsal, a flange dorsally on each side bearing three teeth, a row of three widely- 
spaced teeth along oblique apical margin ; orifice terminal on lower surface. Genital 
styles rather narrow and directed laterocaudad in basal half, broader and directed 
dorsad in apical half, apical margin convex-truncate with inner angle acute, outer 
angle obtusely rounded. 

Male (macropterous) : length, 2-6 mm.; tegmen, 2-8 mm. Female (macropterous) : 
length, 3-0 mm.; tegmen, 4-0 mm. 

Holotype male and 4 ^ and 3 $, Trinidad, T.W.I. , St. Augustine, Apr. 1934, 
R. G. Fennah, on Axonopus compressus. This species is near P. fuscovittata (Muir) 
but differs in the shape of the spines on the anal segment, of the aedeagus, and of the 
genital styles. The post-tibial spur has fewer teeth than fuscovittata, which has 
25 to 27. 

Phrictopyga nugax sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 6, a-f) 

Head with eyes distinctly narrower than pronotum. Vertex longer than broad 
at base (about 1-5 : i), basal margin about as broad as apex, apical margin sinuately 
transverse, slightly produced at middle, basal margin just distad of middle of eyes, 
as wide as an eye in same line. Frons longer than broad (about 2-3 : i), slightly 
broader at apex than at base, lateral margins shallowly convex. Antennae reaching 
slightly beyond base of clypeus, first segment distinctly longer than broad, second 
segment longer than first (about 1-5 : i). Pronotum with lateral carinae straight, 
diverging caudad, almost but not quite reaching hind margin. Basal metatarsal 
segment longer than second and third together, spur about three-quarters of length 
of basal metatarsal segment, narrowly triangular, with 21-25 teeth. 

Pallid stramineous ; vertex, pronotum and mesonotum medially, creamy-white ; 
intercarinal areas of frons and clypeus and anterior part of genae and a mark in each 
field of pronotal disc fuscous ; abdomen dorsally castaneous, except along middle 
line ; abdomen ventrally, pygofer and genital styles lighter castaneous. Tegmina 
hyaline, a mark between M and Cu to apex, a linear mark in clavus at base and a 
mark near apex of commissural margin of clavus, dilute fuscous. Wings hyaline, 
veins concolorous. 

Anal segment short, ring-like, apical margin transverse, devoid of spinose orna- 
mentation. Posterior opening of pygofer a little longer than broad, anal emargi- 
nation moderately large, laterodorsal angles only feebly produced, lateral margins 
in side view feebly triconcave, ventral margin medially produced dorsocaudad in 



258 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 



a broadly triangular process, acute at its apex, not bifid ; diaphragm rather broad, 
pigmented throughout its median portion, dorsal margin evenly and shallowly 
convex. Aedeagus narrowly cylindrical, slightly compressed laterally, directed 
caudad, eight or nine teeth forming a double row on ventral margin below orifice 
which lies on left dorsally. Genital styles moderately long, sickle-shaped, almost 
parallel-sided at base, then strongly curved laterad then mesad, and feebly recurved 
a little at bluntly pointed apex. 

Male (macropterous) : length, 3-0 mm.; tegmen, 3-6 mm. 





D 



Fig. 6. Phrictopyga nugax sp. n.: a, male genitalia, right side ; b, the same, posterior 
view ; c, aedeagus, left side ; d, the same, dorsal view ; e, dorsal margin of middle 
part of diaphragm ; f, genital style, lateral view. 

Holotype male, Trinidad, T.W.I. , St. Augustine, Apr. 1941, R. G. Fennah, on 
Axonopus compressus. This species is perhaps nearest to P. fuscovittata Muir but 
differs in having the anal segment unarmed and the medioventral process of the 
pygofer, the aedeagus and the genital styles differently shaped. 



Genus EUIDELLA Puton 

Puton, 1886, Cat. Hemipt. Faune Palearctique : 72. Logotype, Delphax basilinea Germar, 
1821, Mag. Ent. 4 : 105. 

Euidella afasciata Caldwell 
Caldwell & Martorell, 1950, /. Agric. Univ. P.R. 34 : 190. 

One (^, St. Lucia, T.W.I. , Choiseul, 5th May, 1939, R. G. Fennah. 



Genus CHLORIONA Fieber 

Fieber, 1866, Verh. zool. bot. Ges. Wien. 16 : 522. Logotype, Delphax unicolor Herrich-SchafEer, 
1835, Nom. Ent. 1 : 66. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 259 

Subgenus SOGATELLA Fennah 

Fennah, 1956, Ins. of Micronesia, 6 (3) : 115. Orthotype of subgenus, Delphax furcifera Horvath, 
1899, Term. Fuzetek. 22 : 372. 

Chloriona (Sogatella) kolophon (Kirk.) 

Deiphax kolophon Kirkaldy, 1907, Hawaii Sug. PI. Ass. eni. Bull. 3 : 157. 

One c^, Jamaica, T.W.I. , Hope, Mona House, Nov. 1940, R. G. Fennah. One cJ, 
Montserrat, T.W.I. , Jan. 1939, R. G. Fennah. One (^, St. Lucia, T.W.I,, Choiseul, 
5th May, 1939, R. G. Fennah. Nine cJ, 2 $ Venezuela, Maracay, 4th, 6th June, 
1951, H. E. Box. 

Chloriona (Sogatella) wallacei (Muir) comb. n. 
Sogata wallacei Muir & GifEard, 1924, Hawaii Sug. PI. Ass. ent. Bull. 15 : 13. 

One (^, Jamaica, T.W.I. , Hope, Mona House, Nov. 1940, R. G. Fennah. One c^, 
Dominica, T.W.I. , Goodwill Estate, May 1941, R. G. Fennah. 

Chloriona (Sogatella) cubana (Crawford) comb. n. 

Dicranotropis cubanus Crawford, 1914. 

Eleven ^, St. Lucia, T.W.I. , Choiseul, 5th May, 1939 ; Union Experimental 
Station, Nov. 1939, R. G. Fennah. One c^, Venezuela, Maracay, 450 m., 20th June, 
1951, H. E. Box. 

Chloriona (Sogatella) approximata (Crawford) comb. n. 

Megamelu^ approximatus Crawford, 1914, Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. 46 : 622. 

One <^, I ?, Peru, Pativilca Valley, loth Sept., 1949, H. E. Box, on sugarcane. 

Chloriona (Sogatella) orizicola (Muir) comb. n. 

Sogata orizicola Muir, 1926, Hawaii Sug. PI. Ass. ent. Bull. 18 : 27. 
Two (^, Venezuela, Maracay, 4th June, 1951, H. E. Box. 

Chloriona (Sogatella) nautica (Muir) comb. n. 
Sogata nautica Muir, 1926, Hawaii Sug. PI. Ass. ent. Bull. 18 : 26. 
One ^, Venezuela, Maracay, 4th May, 1951, H. E. Box. 

Genus DELPHACODES Fieber 

Fieber, 1866, Verh. zool. bot. Ges. Wien, 16 : 524. Logotype, Deiphax mulsanti Fieber, 1866, loc. 
cit. : 526. 



26o DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 

Delphacodes hutnilis (Van Duzee) 
Liburnia humilis Van Duzee, 1907, Bull. Buff. Soc. nat. Sci. 8 : 48. 
One (^, Montserrat, T.W.I., Dec. 1938, R. G. Fennah. 

Delphacodes albinotata (Crawford) 
Megamelus teapae alhinotatus Crawford, 1914, Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. 46 : 619. 
One c^, Dominica, T.W.I. , June 1939, R. G. Fennah. 

Delphacodes axonopi Fennah 
Fennah, 1945, Proc. U.S. nat. Mtis. 95 : 434. 

One c^, St. Lucia, T.W.I. , Union Experimental Station, Nov. 1939, R. G. Fennah. 
One (^, Venezuela, Maracay, 4th June, 1951, H. E. Box. 

In the aedeagus of this species the orifice is quite definitely on the left side and is 
bounded on its basal margin with four or five teeth. 

Delphacodes halboae Muir & Giffard 

Muir & Giffard, 1924, Hawaii Sug. PI. Ass. ent. Bull. 15 : 36. 

One ^, St. Lucia, T.W.I. , Choiseul, 5th May, 1939, R. G. Fennah. One ^, Vene- 
zuela, Maracay, 4th June, 1951, H. E. Box. 

Delphacodes havanae Muir & Giffard 

Muir & Giffard, 1924, Hawaii Sug. PI. Ass. ent. Bull. 15 : 37. 

One (^, Jamaica, T.W.I. , Hope, Mona House, Nov. 1940, R. G. Fennah ; 4 c^, 
Trinidad, T.W.I. , St. Augustine, Oct. 1952, R. G. Fennah, on Axonopus compressus. 
Five (J, 2 $, Venezuela, Maracay, 450 m., 31st May, 4th, 20th June, 1951, H. E. Box. 

Delphacodes havanensis (Crawford) 
Megamelus albidens havanensis Crawford, 1914, Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. 46 : 622. 
One cJ, St. Lucia, T.W.I. , Choiseul, 5th May, 1939, R. G. Fennah. 

Delphacodes propinqua Fieber 

Delphax propinqua Fieber, 1866, Verh. zool. hot. Ges. Wien, 16 : 525. 

Twenty-five ^, 46 $, and 15 nymphs, Montserrat, T.W.I. , Plymouth, Feb. 1940, 
R. G. Fennah. Two ^, Dominica, T.W.I. , Saltoun, June, 1939, R. G. Fennah. 
Six ^, 8 $, St. Lucia, T.W.I. , Choiseul, 5th May, 1939, R. G. Fennah. One ^, i $, 
St. Vincent, T.W.I. , Three Rivers, Sept. 1941, R. G. Fennah. One (^, Grenada, 
T. W.I., Tempe Valley, Oct. 1943, R. G. Fennah. Five c^, 4 ?, Trinidad, T.W.I. , St. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 261 

Augustine, 29th Nov., 1938, E. McC. Callan, on Axonopus compressus. Two ^, 
Venezuela, Maracay, 450 m., 20th June, 1951, H. E. Box. 

Delphacodes fioridae Muir & Giffard 

Muir & GifEard, 1924, Hawaii Sug. PL Ass. ent. Bull. 15 : 33. 

D. fioridae puertoricensis Caldwell 

Caldwell & Martoreli, 1950, /. Agric. Univ. P.R. 34 : 185. 

One (^, Montserrat, T.W.I. , Plymouth, Jan. 1939, R. G. Fennah. 

Delphacodes teapae (Fowler) 

Liburnia teapae Fowler, igo^, Biol. Cent.-Amer. Homopt. 1 : 135. 

Three <^, Montserrat, T.W.I. , Plymouth, Jan. 1939, R, G. Fennah. Eight ^, 
6 $, Dominica, T.W.I. , Copt Hall, June 1939, R. G. Fennah. Thirteen (^, 10 ?, 
St. Lucia, T.W.I. , Choiseul, 5th May, 1939, R. G. Fennah. Three <^, St. Vincent, 
T.W.I. , Mar. 1941, R. G. Fennah. Fifteen ^, 12 $, and 6 nymphs, Trinidad, T.W.I. , 
St. Augustine, 20th Dec, 1950, R. G. Fennah, on Axonopus compressus. 

Delphacodes nigrifacies Muir 

Muir, 191 8, Proc. Hawaii ent. Soc. 3 : 428. 

One c^, I ?, Montserrat, T.W.I. , Plymouth, May 1941, R. G. Fennah. Twenty- 
five c^, 31 9, Dominica, T.W.I. , Greenhill, July 1939, R. G. Fennah. Ten (^, 6 $, 
St. Lucia, T.W.I. , Volet-Quilesse Road, Nov. 1939, R. G. Fennah. Seventy-one 
^, 43 $ and 52 nymphs, St. Vincent, T.W.I. , Three Rivers, Sept., 1941, R. G. Fennah. 
One (^, 2 $, Venezuela, Maracay, 450 m., 4th, 20th, June 1951, H. E. Box. 

Delphacodes venilia sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 7, A-c) 

Head with eyes as broad as pronotum. 

Vertex quadrate, as long as broad at base, apex a little narrower than base, 
transverse but angulately produced at middle, base distad of middle of eyes. Frons 
longer than broad (2:1) widest at middle, lateral margins arcuate. Antennae 
reaching nearly to middle of clypeus, second segment twice as long as first. Pronotum 
with lateral carinae concave, not reaching hind margin. Post-tibial spur with 13 
teeth. 

Stramineous ; frons and clypeus between carinae, basal segment of antennae, 
pleurites of thorax, abdominal tergites in part, genital styles and pygofer except 
dorsally, dilute yellowish-brown, posterior lateral margins of pygofer pallid or creamy. 
Tegmina (brachypterous) hyaline faintly tinged yellowish, apical margin pallid. 
Female coloured similar to male. 



262 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 



Anal segment of male very short, ring-like, apical angles each strongly produced 
ventrad in a stout curved spinose process, the processes well separated basally. 
Pygofer with laterodorsal angles strongly and broadly produced caudad, incurved 
at apex in a small blunt process ; diaphragm very narrow at middle, heavily pig- 
mented, dorsal margin slightly elevated at middle and median area slightly produced 
caudad, the armature polished. Aedeagus moderately long, slightly upcurved 
distad, orifice on left at apex, about five teeth round upper margin of orifice, descend- 
ing slightly on left side, a row of teeth on each side ventrolaterally. Genital styles 
rather long, rather strongly produced caudad basally, where they meet in middle 
line, evenly shallowly concave on inner margin, outer margin angulately convex, 
apical margin sinuate, with inner angle narrowly produced, outer angle broadly 
acute. 

Male (brachypterous) : length, 2-o mm.; female (brachypterous) : length, 2-5 mm. 






Fig. 7. Delphacodes venilia sp. n.: a, male genitalia, posterior view ; b, aedeagus, left 
side ; c, middle portion of diaphragm. 

Holotype male and 20 <^, and 13 $, Montserrat, T.W.I. , near Plymouth, May 
1940, R. G. Fennah. This species differs from D. axonopi Fenn. and D. nigra Cwfd. 
in the shape of the armature of the diaphragm, in the absence of a projection on the 
inner margin of the genital styles and in colour ; from D. propinqua also it differs 
in the shape of the armature of the diaphragm and of the genital styles. It appears 
to be this species which Caldwell & Martorell have reported from Puerto Rico under 
the name Delphacodes nigra (1950 : 183). It differs from D. boxi M. & G., from British 
Guiana, in the shape of the armature of the diaphragm and in coloration. 



Delphacodes philyra sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 8, A-c) 

Head with eyes not as broad as pronotum. Vertex a little longer than broad 
(about I -I : i), anterior margin transverse, slightly produced at middle, lateral 
margins weakly concave, apical margin as long as basal, basal margin distad of 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 



263 



middle of eyes, frons longer than broad (2-4 : i), as wide at apex as at base, lateral 
margins weakly arcuate, frons widest at middle ; antennae reaching to base of 
clypeus, basal segment distinctly longer than broad, second segment about i-6 
times length of first ; ocelli prominent, supra-ocellar organ distinct, rostrum reaching 
to post-coxae, penultimate segment longer than apical. Pronotum in middle line 
about three-quarters of length of vertex in middle line, lateral discal carinae concave, 
not reaching hind margin. Basal metatarsal segment longer than other two segments 
combined, spur moderately broad with 18 teeth on margin. 





C 



"5^^^^^ 






Fig. 8. Delphacodes philyra sp. n.: a, male genitalia, left side ; b, aedeagus, dorsal view ; 

c, armature of diaphragm. 



Castaneous-fuscous ; an ovate area on genae yellowish, antennae, rostrum and legs 
pallid stramineous. Tegmina fuscous, a hyaline area between node and apical 
angle. Wings hyaline, tinged fuscous with fuscous veins. 

Anal segment of male short, broadly ring-like, lateroapically distinctly tumid, 
lateroapical angles each produced lateroventrad in a blunt lobe minutely and irregu- 
larly denticulate on its distal margin. Pygofer with posterior opening distinctly 
longer than broad, anal emargination small, laterodorsal angles not at all produced, 
lateral margins in side view very shallowly convex, almost straight, diaphragm 
with dorsal margin very shallowly concave, very weakly further excavate in median 



264 DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 

quarter of its width, armature in form of a quadrate boss projecting caudad, dorsally 
transverse, ventrally produced ventrad as a median ridge, heavily pigmented 
throughout. Aedeagus rather short, strongly laterally compressed, almost foliate, 
ventral margin in profile concave, dorsal margin convex, five teeth on ventral 
margin near base, 14 fine teeth dorsally extending from right dorsal margin at apex 
to left dorsal margin one-quarter from base, a minute tooth or irregularity on edge 
of orifice ; orifice terminal. Genital styles in posterior view rather broad and short, 
inner and outer margins concave, apical margin sinuate, outer angle broadly pro- 
duced, inner angle narrowly produced, rounded at tip. 

Male (macropterous) : length, 2-6 mm.; tegmen, 3-0 mm. Female (macropterous) : 
length, 2-8 mm.; tegmen, 3-3 mm. 

Holotype male and 36 (^ and 24 $, St. Lucia, T.W.I. , Mome Fortunee, Feb. 1940, 
R. G. Fennah. This species closely resembles D. teapae Fowl, and D. nitens M. & G., 
but can be separated easily from both. From D. teapae it differs in the vertex being 
longer than broad, and its posterior compartments being infuscate, not paler than 
the anterior part. The side of the head above the eyes is wide enough to accom- 
modate an ocellus in philyra, but definitely too narrow to do so in Z). teapae. The 
post-tibial spur of D. philyra has 18 teeth, that of D. teapae 13. In the genitalia 
the laterodorsal areas of the anal segment are distinctly tumid in D. philyra, and 
the processes are subtriangular and moderately long ; in D. teapae the laterodorsal 
areas are not at all tumid and the processes are short. The aedeagus has a different 
arrangement of spines, and the armature of the diaphragm is quadrate dorsally 
and linear ventrally in D. philyra, but of equal width throughout in D. teapae. 
From D. nitens it differs in its generally paler hue, in the shape of the processes of 
the anal segment, and of the armature of the diaphragm, in the spinose ornamenta- 
tion of the aedeagus and in the shape of the genital styles. Caldwell & Martorell 
(1950, pi. 21, dy) figure an anal segment as a variant of D. teapae, and record that 
some specimens had the vertex wholly brown, and that some approached D. nitens. 
It seems probable that the present species was represented in this material. If 
this were so, it would suggest that this species belongs with the Greater Antillean 
and perhaps Central American fauna, since the writer has taken long series of D. 
teapae in Trinidad but has not found a single specimen of D. philyra. 

Delphacodes iaxartes sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 9, A-c) 

Head with eyes not quite as wide as pronotum. Vertex quadrate, broader than 
long, anterior margin sinuate, a little produced at middle, posterior margin slightly 
distad of middle of eyes. Frons twice as long as broad, widest at level of lower 
margin of eyes, lateral margins diverging from base to level of lower margin of eyes, 
thence almost straight, very feebly converging distad, apical margin of frons as 
wide as basal margin ; median carina forked at base. Antennae not reaching beyond 
base of clypeus, basal segment as long as broad, second about twice as long as first. 
Pronotum with lateral carinae concave, not attaining posterior margin. Post-tibial 
spur with 18 teeth. 



DELPHACIDAE FROM THE LESSER ANTILLES 



265 



Stramineous ; carinae of frons faintly bordered, with yellowish brown. Tegmina 
hyaline, tinged yellow, veins concolorous. 

Anal segment of male very short, ring-like, a pair of short spinose processes, 
set well apart, arising from apical margin and lying refiexed cephaloventrad close 
against lower side of anal segment. Pygofer moderately long, dorsolateral angles 
strongly produced caudad and incurved mesad distally, lateral margins oblique, 
shallowly concave, a slight angular convexity on each side separating lateral margins 
from ventral margin, which is concave ; diaphragm broad laterally, narrow medially, 
V-shaped, a stout vertical pigmented and sclerotized ridge developed submedially 
on each side and produced dorsad from near upper margin as a peg-like process, 




Fig. 9. Delphacodes iaxaries sp. n.: a, male genitalia (without aedeagus), posterior 
view ; b, the same, right side, with incurved apex of dorsolateral angle shown separ- 
ately ; c, genital styles, posteroventral view from right, showing caudal projection 
at base of style. 



each Ipng directly behind the corresponding genital style, median part of diaphragm 
not at all pigmented or sclerotized. Genital styles long, rather strongly quadrately 
produced caudad where they meet in middle line near base, thence rather narrow, 
tapering to obliquely-truncate apex in posterior view, 'inner margin shallowly 
sinuately concave, outer margin angulately convex near base, then shallowly concave 
to apex, outer apical angle obtuse, inner apical angle acute. 

Male (brachypterous) : length, 2-6 mm. 

Holotype male, St. Lucia, T.W.I. , Union Experiment Station, Nov. 1939, R. G. 
Fennah. The aedeagus of this specimen is unfortunately missing, but the other 
elements of the male genitalia are quite unlike those of any species known to the 
writer, and the ornamentation of the diaphragm appears to be unique. 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY 
ADLARD AND SON, LIMITED, 
BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 



' #' 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE 

ETHIOPIAN REGION: A REVISION, 

WITH NOTES ON THE SEXUAL 

DIMORPHISM SHOWN BY THE 

GROUP (ORTHOPTERA: 

TETTIGONIIDAE) 



D. R. RAGGE 




BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 7 

LONDON : i960 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN 

REGION: A REVISION, WITH NOTES ON THE 

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM SHOWN BY THE 

GROUP (ORTHOPTERA: TETTIGONIIDAE) 



BY 

D. R. RAGGE 



H 




Pp. 267-333 ; 148 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 7 

LONDON: i960 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding . to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

This paper is Vol. 8, No. 7 of the Entomological 
series. 



Trustees of the British Museum, i960 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Issued March, i960 Price Twenty Shillings 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN 

REGION: A REVISION, WITH NOTES ON THE 

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM SHOWN BY THE GROUP 

(ORTHOPTERA : TETTIGONIIDAE) 

By D. R. RAGGE 



CONTENTS 



Introduction 
Acknowledgments 
Material 
Treatment 
Sexual Dimorphism 
Key to the Genera 
Horatosphaga Schaum 
Peronura Karsch . 
Prosphaga gen. n. 
Conchotopoda Karsch 
Lamecosoma gen. n. 
References 



Page 
269 

^73 
274 
274 
274 
276 
278 
320 
322 
325 
331 
333 



SYNOPSIS 

The African genera of the Phaneropterine group Acrometopae are fully revised. The names 
for these genera are reduced in number by new synonymy from fourteen to three, and in addition 
two new genera are described. Keys are given to the genera and species. It is shown that the 
two sexes of several of the species have hitherto been placed in different genera and in many 
cases in different species. Fourteen specific names have been newly synonymized and nine new 
species are described. 

INTRODUCTION 

This revision covers all the species of Phaneropterinae which have been described 
or included in Horatosphaga Schaum, Conchotopoda Karsch, Peronura Karsch, 
Plegmatoptera Karsch, Pantolepta Karsch, Rhegmatopoda Brunner, Pachypyga 
Karsch, Etithyphlehia Schulthess, Thaiimatoxenia Kirby, Keniacola Sjostedt, 
Schulthessinia Sjostedt, Pachypygiana Strand, Eupantolepta Bolivar, and Plegmatia 
Uvarov. Of these generic names, all but the first three are newly synomymized : 
Rhegmatopoda Brunner with Conchotopoda Karsch, and the remaining ten with 
Horatosphaga Schaum. 

The group-name Acrometopae is used here in the sense in which it was used by 
Brunner (1891, p. 5). It is not pretended that it is a satisfactory taxonomic unit, 
but it has nevertheless a use of convenience for a group of Phaneropterinae which 

ENTOM. 8, 7. 9 



270 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

probably had a monophyletic origin. This group may be characterized by the lack 
of a fore coxal spine, biconchate fore tibiae, sloping fastigium of the vertex, reduced 
or vestigial hind wings in the female, and at least some stridulatory modification 
of the male fore wings outside the stridulatory organ itself (i.e. modifications anterior 
or distal to the cubital and anal areas). In the case of the European genus Acrome- 
topa Fieber the basal part of the radial area of the male fore wings is somewhat 
modified in connection with stridulation, but in the remaining Acrometopae, which 
are all African, it is the basal regions of areas MA and Cu^a which are primarily 
involved (though in Horatosphaga Schaum the entire male fore wings typically 
show a modified, web-like venation). In Peronura Karsch the male fore wings 
are too reduced to show this specialization clearly, but some basal modification 
of area MA is still apparent. Lamecosoma gen. n. is not a very close relative of the 
other genera of Acrometopae, but has clear affinities with the group and is included 
here for convenience. 

Perhaps the chief feature of interest of the group is the high degree of sexual 
dimorphism shown by many of the species. It is in the genus Horatosphaga Schaum 
that the difference between the sexes reaches its greatest expression. The inter- 
sexual differences in this genus are often of the same order as differences between 
genera in other Phaneropterinae. The shape of the head, pronotum, and hind 
femora, is in several species quite different in the two sexes, and the venation of the 
male fore wings often bears no resemblance to that of the female. 

It is because of these great differences (enhanced by geographical variation) 
that the forty-three specific names hitherto known in the African Acrometopae 
were divided amongst fourteen generic names, eleven of which are here newly 
synonymized. In two of the most common and widespread species of Horatosphaga 
Schaum {H. serrifera Schaum and H. leggei (Kirby)) the two sexes have been placed 
in different genera, and this is also true of the less widespread species H. somali 
(Schulthess). A brief history of the chaotic state of affairs which has resulted from 
this type of confusion is given below. 

The genus Horatosphaga was erected by Schaum in 1853 for a female specimen, 
which he named H. serrifera. No further species of the group was described until 
1887, when Karsch erected the genus Conchotopoda for a new species C. helcki Karsch. 
In the following year Karsch erected the genus Peronura for two new species 
P. clavigera Karsch (subsequently selected as type species by Kirby, 1906) and 
P. hildehrandtiana Karsch (see p. 320) . 

During the next thirty-five years nine further generic names were proposed for 
African Acrometopae, but only the three genera mentioned above are given separate 
status in this revision. In 1888 Karsch erected the two further genera Plegmatoptera 
and Pantolepta. Plegmatoptera Karsch was based on P. reticulata Karsch, known 
only by the unique female holotype. This species clearly belongs to Horatosphaga 
Schaum and the holotype is quite possibly a female of one of the species of this genus 
which are known only by males (e.g. H. regularis (Bolivar), see p. 307) ; the exact 
identity of this species will remain obscure until undoubted males are available. 
Pantolepta Karsch was based on P. heteromorpha Karsch, which is undoubtedly 
congeneric with H. serrifera Schaum. 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 271 

Rhegmatopoda was erected by Brunner in 1891 for Horatosphaga leptocerca Stal, 
1876. For reasons stated on p. 326, however, it has become clear that Rhegmatopoda 
Brunner is a synonym of Conchotopoda Karsch. 

In 1893 Karsch erected the genus Pachypyga for a new species P. inclusa Karsch. 
The claims for separate status of this genus rest solely on the male genitalia. How- 
ever, the enlarged male tenth abdominal tergite and subgenital plate of P. inclusa 
Karsch merely represent an intermediate stage between the relatively simple type 
of male genitalia found in H. senifera Schaum, for example, and the highly modified 
tenth abdominal tergite and subgenital plate of the males of such species as 
H. ruspolii (Schulthess) and H. diminuta (Chopard). The male cerci are of exactly 
the same type in all these species and the females differ by no character of taxonomic 
importance at the generic level. The wing-venation of all these species shows clearly 
their close affinities with each other, and in my opinion it would be most inadvisable 
to segregate these different stages of male genitalic development into different genera. 
This progressive enlargement of the tenth abdominal tergite and subgenital plate 
of the males is closely similar to the trend shown by Phaneroptera Serville, in which 
every intermediate stage is shown and in which again the females show no parallel 
development of taxonomic significance (see Ragge, 1956, p. 213). Enlargements of 
various parts of the male genitalia are not uncommon in the Phaneropterinae and, 
though providing excellent specific characters, do not form a suitable basis for 
segregating species into genera. 

In 1898 Schulthess erected the genus Euthyphlehia for a new species E. parallela 
Schulthess. This specific name is, however, a synonym of Horatosphaga hetero- 
morpha (Karsch) (see p. 298), the type species of Pantolepta Karsch, and the name 
Euthyphlehia Schulthess must therefore be rejected. The genus Thaumatoxenia 
was erected by Kirby in 1909 for Th. leggei Kirby ; this species clearly belongs to 
Horatosphaga Schaum, being closely related to its type species H. serrifera Schaum. 
Keniacola Sjostedt, 1912, was based on K. gracilis Sjostedt, which is also without 
doubt congeneric with Horatosphaga serrifera Schaum. In the same paper in which 
Keniacola Sjostedt was erected, Sjostedt proposed the new genus Schulthessinia 
for Conchotopoda ruspolii Schulthess. Sjostedt 's grounds for regarding this species 
as being generically distinct were solely the much modified male genitalia, and it was 
this character alone which was described in the original description of the genus. 
This genitalic development takes the extreme form mentioned in the last paragraph 
above, and to which the male genitalia of Horatosphaga inclusa (Karsch) and 
H. crosskeyi sp. n. (p. 318) form an intermediate stage ; for the reasons stated in the 
same paragraph this character cannot be regarded as being of generic value, and 
Schulthessinia Sjostedt is therefore synonymized in the present work. 

The genus Eupantolepta was erected by Bolivar in 1922 for a new species 
E. regularis Bolivar. As will be shown on p. 307 the exact status of this species is still 
in some doubt, but it is quite certain that it represents a normal and unmodified 
member of the genus Horatosphaga Schaum. 

Finally, two new names have been proposed for genera of African Acrometopae 
whose original names were preoccupied. Unfortunately both these original names 
are synonymized here with Horatosphaga Schaum, so that the new names must 



272 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

also be added to the synonymy of this genus. Tlie first is Pachypygiana Strand, 1921 , 
which was to replace Pachypyga Karsch, 1893 (preoccupied by PachyPyga Steinheil, 
1873, Coleoptera), and the second is Plegmatia Uvarov, 1940, which was proposed 
in place of Plegmatoptera Karsch, 1888 (preoccupied by Plegmatoptera Spinola, 
1839, Hemiptera). 

It is a remarkable fact that all the generic synonyms discussed above were based 
on relatively unspecialized species of Horatosphaga Schaum, which few modern 
workers would deny are congeneric. Even in the species where the male genitalia 
have become greatly modified, the facies is identical to the species with more 
generalized genitalia. For example, if one takes males of the three species Horato- 
sphaga elongata (Rehn) (normal genitalia), H. crosskeyi sp. n. (modified genitalia), 
and H. ruspolii (Schulthess) (highly modified genitalia), they might almost be taken 
to be the same species if the genitalia were ignored : the wing-venation (usually the 
best specific character), pronotum, femoral armature, coloration, and dimensions, 
are all very similar. There are, however, a number of aberrant species which fit 
much less readily into Horatosphaga Schaum, though having closer affinities with 
this genus than with any other genus of Acrometopae. These species are H. nuda 
sp. n., H. meruensis (Sjostedt), H. nomima (Karsch), H. montivaga (Sjostedt), and 
H. elgonis (Chopard). The second of these species was described in Plegmatoptera 
Karsch and the last three in Peronura Karsch. In the males of all these species the 
fore wings are somewhat reduced and the hind wings are rudimentary. The 
characteristic web-like venation shown by the male fore wings of Horatosphaga 
Schaum has been almost or entirely lost and the general appearance (partly as a 
result) has diverged from the usual generic facies. All these species, however, show 
indisputable evidence in the male wing-venation of their derivation from stock more 
typical of Horatosphaga Schaum : they all show, either clearly or in a reduced state, 
the basal modifications of areas MA and Cuj^ which are characteristic of that genus, 
whilst not showing the fold at the base of the medial vein which characterizes 
Conchotopoda Karsch. 

In the case of H. nuda sp. n. and H. meruensis (Sjostedt) the basal region of the 
male fore wings is quite normal for Horatosphaga Schaum, only the more distal part 
having become reduced. In H. nomima (Karsch) and H. montivaga (Sjostedt) (which 
are closely interrelated) the reduction of the fore wings is more advanced and the 
basal vein-pattern has begun to be obscured. In H. elgonis (Chopard) the reduction 
also affects the whole of the fore wings, but the male genitalia are considerably 
modified and this species has evidently arisen quite independently from H. nomima 
(Karsch) and H. montivaga (Sjostedt). If, therefore, these forms with reduced fore 
wings were given separate generic status, it would be necessary to put them in three 
different genera, all of which would have to be given new names. These genera 
would be almost impossible to define, both in relation to each other and in relation 
to the restricted concept of Horatosphaga Schaum. It is, moreover, quite possible 
that further species will be discovered showing various other stages of wing-reduction, 
in which case the small gaps which might now provide grounds for generic separations 
would quite probably be bridged. In this revision the five species under discussion 
have, therefore, all been included in Horatosphaga Schaum. The genus, as it then 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 273 

stands, admittedly contains a rather heterogeneous assemblage of species, at least 
as far as the males are concerned, but it is the author's view that this is at present 
unavoidable. 

The segregation of the remaining African Acrometopae is also a matter of some 
difficulty. The species calaharica Karny and splendens sp. n. seem to represent 
relics of a form ancestral to both Conchotopoda Karsch and Horatosphaga Schaum, 
and I have erected for them the genus Prosphaga gen. n. This genus is clearly more 
primitive than any of the other African Acrometopae, the male fore wings showing 
neither the fold at the base of M which is diagnostic of Conchotopoda Karsch, nor the 
web-like pattern of cross-veins which characterizes Horatosphaga Schaum, and the 
general facies of this sex not having developed the extremely attenuate form of 
Lamecosoma gen. n. That Prosphaga gen. n. is not an offshoot from Horatosphaga 
Schaum which has partially lost the wing-specializations of the latter genus is shown 
by the fact that in the female fore wings of P. calaharica (Karny) the base of MP is 
well developed, as is usual in the Tettigoniidae ; in Horatosphaga Schaum the basal 
part of MP (before its fusion with Cuja) is either lost or represented by an oblique 
cross- vein. 

I have erected the genus Lamecosoma gen. n. for a remarkable new species tenuis 
sp. n. As mentioned earlier this species shows clear affinities with the other African 
Acrometopae, but the relationship has been obscured by the extreme attenuation 
of the body and limbs. 

Kirby (1906) listed nine genera of African Acrometopae, containing a total of 
nineteen species. In the present work five genera are recognized, containing a total 
of thirty-three definite species and two whose status remains uncertain. Two 
genera and nine species are new. There are eleven generic synonyms and fourteen 
definite specific synonyms ; all these are newly established. Four further specific 
names are probably synonyms but cannot at present be definitely established as 
such. The total number of specific names involved in the African Acrometopae 
is now fifty- three. 

Access was gained to all the existing type specimens except for four in the Museo 
Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa ; photographs, drawings, and descriptions of 
these four types were sent through the great kindness of Dr. F. Capra. The holo- 
type of Conchotopoda helcki Karsch is lost. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I must extend my most sincere thanks to the following specialists who have spared 
time and energy to send me type specimens and other material from their respective 
museums : 

Mr. P. Basilewsky, Dr. M. Beier, Dr. L. Chopard, Mr. A. J. Hesse, Professor 
C. H. Lindroth, Dr. A. Malaise, Mr. P. J. Osborne, Dr. J. A. G. Rehn, and Mr. H. 
Schiemenz. 

My sincere gratitude is also due to the following workers, who have most kindly 
sent me specimens which they have collected personally : 

Mr. and Mrs. R. W. Crosskey, Mr. A. E. King, and Mr. J. A. Whellan. 

Finally I wish to thank Miss P. M. Stock for her practical assistance. 



274 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

MATERIAL 

In addition to the collection of African Acrometopae in the British Museum 
(Natural History) material was lent by the sources listed below, through the courtesy 
of the specialists acknowledged above. 

Musee du Congo Beige, Tervuren ; Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna ; Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris ; South African Museum, Cape Town ; Univer- 
sitetets Zoologiska Institution, Lund ; Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Stockholm ; 
University Museum, Oxford ; Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia ; Zoo- 
logisches Museum of the Humboldt-Universitat, Berhn. 

TREATMENT 

The general treatment adopted is the same as in my revision of Phaneroptera 
Serville (Ragge, 1956) and most of the remarks given on pp. 208 and 209 of that 
paper apply here. The wing-vein nomenclature used (see Text-fig. 2) is that of 
Ragge (1955). Statements about the relative lengths of the fore and hind wings 
assume that these organs are flexed. In all cases except Peronura clavigera Karsch 
the expression " total length " refers to the distance from the most anterior part of 
the head to the tips of the flexed wings (whichever pair extends furthest backwards) ; 
in P. clavigera Karsch, which is very brachypterous, this measurement has to take 
the tip of the subgenital plate as its posterior termination, and is therefore of limited 
value. 

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM 

The confusion in which the African Acrometopae have always been has resulted 
mainly from the high degree of sexual dimorphism shown by the group. In the more 
typical species of Horatosphaga Schaum the differences between the sexes are of the 
order of generic differences in other Phaneropterinae. It has thus been most 
difficult to associate the males with the females in any one species, and in some 
species this still remains to be done. 

In the more common species series of both sexes were available which had been 
collected at the same time and place : in these cases the association of the two 
sexes was comparatively simple. In other cases, in which the species have been 
poorly collected and, especially, in which the females have become markedly 
brachypterous, the correlation of males with females was extremely difficult and is 
still in some doubt. 

This is particularly true of the two species H. somali (Schulthess) and H. ruspolii 
(Schulthess), in both of which the males are fully winged and the females are 
apparently very brachypterous. The head, pronotum, and legs, also show quite 
large differences, and in fact the two sexes seem to have lost any resemblance to 
each other. In neither of these species have series of specimens containing both 
sexes and bearing identical data been available. The females have been associated 
with the males tentatively, on the grounds of being collected in the same locality and 
showing certain resemblances in coloration. 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 



275 



Some of the more usual differences between the sexes in Horatosphaga Schaum 
may be seen in Text-fig. i. It will be noticed that the head of the female is 
" stretched " downwards in comparison with the male, and the vertex, in con- 
sequence, is more prolonged and slopes more steeply to the frons. The pronotum 
is not so distinctly selliform as in the male and does not have the inflated region 
(" humeral sinus ") in the posterior region of each lateral lobe. The female has more 
robust legs than the male, this being particularly noticeable in the case of the hind 
femur. The tympanic auricles of the fore tibiae are also not inflated in the way that 
the male ones are. The fore wings of the female are coarse in texture and have not 
undergone the very characteristic, rather web-like modification in venation shown 





Fig. I. Horatosphaga media sp. n., male (above) and female. 



by the male fore wings. As in all the Acrometopae the female has no hind wings, 
whereas in the male of the species illustrated, H. media sp. n., and of many other 
Acrometopae, the hind wings are fully developed. Although the general body-size 
of the female is greater than that of the male in the Acrometopae, both the hind 
femora and fore wings are almost always smaller than their male counterparts. 

As can be seen from the foregoing remarks the differences between the sexes are 
considerable, and in other groups of Phaneropterinae would suggest that different 
genera were involved. Many of the genera of Acrometopae which have been hitherto 
recognized were known by only one of the sexes ; the other sex was often presumed 
to be similar. It is because of this that Chopard (1954), in the most recent key to 
the African genera of Phaneropterinae, characterizes six genera of Acrometopae as 
having the hind wings " bien developpees dans les deux sexes ", whereas in fact the 
females of all these genera are now known to have no hind wings. 

In spite of the great intersexual differences the females of some species show a 
tendency to follow the same evolutionary trends as the males. For example, in 



276 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

H. heteromorpha (Karsch) both sexes are rather attenuate, and indeed this is the 
only species of Acrometopae in which the female fore wings are longer than those of 
the male. Where the males have reduced fore wings their hind wings are either much 
abbreviated or absent, and the resemblance between the sexes is much closer. In 
species such as H. meruensis (Sjostedt), H. montivaga (Sjostedt), and H. elgonis 
(Chopard), in which the fore wings are reduced and various other modifications 
have taken place, the females resemble the males quite closely and the correspondence 
between the sexes is unmistakable. The reduction of the wings in the male sex 
is often accompanied by a change in shape of the head, pronotum, and legs, towards 
the female type. Thus the pronotum tends to lose its selliform shape, the vertex 
slopes more steeply, the hind femora become more robust, and the inflation of the 
tympanic auricles is less pronounced. It is probable that the selliform pronotum 
and less robust legs are associated with the ability to fly and that the difference 
in the degree of inflation of the tympanic auricles is due to the fact that only the 
males stridulate. 

Key to the Genera 

Females are unknown in Lamecosoma gen. n., and in Conchotopoda Karsch and Prosphaga 
gen. n. this sex is in each case known by only one specimen of one species. It is therefore 
impossible at present to include the female sex in the key to genera, especially as the females 
are so lacking in characters of taxonomic significance. It should be noted, however, that 
females with fore wings barely longer than the pronotum, or even shorter, belong to Peronura 
Karsch, and that the females of Lamecosoma gen. n. probably have fore wings more than seven 
times longer than their maximum width. Any female specimen of Acrometopae not belonging 
to these two genera and coming from between latitudes 5° N. and 20° S. is almost certainly a 
member of the genus Horaiosphaga Schaum ; this also applies to any West African female. 

Males 

1. Fore wings less than twice the length of the pronotum ...... 

Peronura Karsch (p. 320) 
-. Fore wings more than twice the length of the pronotum. ..... 2 

2. Body very attenuate, as in Text-fig. 3, the fore wings more than seven times longer 

than their maximum width ...... Lamecosoma gen. n. (p. 331) 

-. Body less attenuate, not as in Text-fig. 3, the fore wings less than seven times longer 

than their maximum width .......... 3 

3. Basal region of M in the right fore wing developed into a heavily sclerotized posterior 

fold, forming a pocket next to the stridulatory organ, as in Text-fig. 4, and appearing 
as an opaque patch when the fore wing is extended, as in Text-figs. 5-10. 

Conchotopoda Karsch (p. 325) 
-. Basal region of M in the right fore wing not modified as above, and not appearing as an 

opaque patch when the fore wing is extended ....... 4 

4. Rs of the fore wings (or its branches) ending at, or slightly in front of, the tip of the 

wing, as in Text-figs. 11-40. Cross-veins of area MA arranged in a regular, closely 
parallel fashion, or, if arranged irregularly, hind wings absent .... 

Horaiosphaga Schaum (p. 278) 
-. Rg of the fore wings (or its branches) ending slightly behind, not actually at, the tip 
of the wing, as in Text-figs. 41 and 42. Cross-veins of area MA not arranged in a 
regular, closely parallel fashion. Hind wings fully developed .... 

Prosphaga gen. n. (p. 322) 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 
COSTAL AREA (C) ^S Sc 



277 




MA 



AREA Cu,a 



ANTERIOR MEDIAL AREA (MA) 



MP+Cu 



la 



Fig. 2. Diagram showing the arrangement of the principal veins and areas in the male 
fore wing of a typical member of the African Acrometopae. 




Fig. 3. Lamecosoma tenuis gen. et sp. n., male. 




Fig. 4. The basal part of the right male fore wing of Conchotopoda belcki Karsch. 



278 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 



HORATOSPHAGA Schaum, 1853 

Horatosphaga Schaum, 1853, Ber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1853 : 777. Type species, by 

monotypy, Horatosphaga serrifera Schaum, 1853. 
Plegmatoptera Karsch, 1888, Berl. ent. Z. 32 : 429. Type species, by monotypy, Plegmatoptera 

reticulata Karsch, 1888. Syn. n. 
Pantolepta Karsch, 1888, Berl. ent. Z. 32 : 429. Type species, by monotypy, Pantolepta hetero- 

morpha Karsch, 1888. Syn. n. 
Pachypyga Karsch, 1893, Berl. ent. Z. 38 : 124. Type species, by monotypy, Pachypyga inclusa 

Karsch, 1893. Syn. n. 
Euthyphlebia Schulthess, 1898, Ann. Mus. Stor. nat. Genova, 39 : 204. Type species by mono- 
typy, Euthyphlebia parallela Schulthess, 1898. Syn. n. 
Thaumatoxenia Kirby, 1909, Trans, zool. Soc. Lond. 19 : 65. Type species, by monotypy, 

Thaumatoxenia leggei Kirby, 1909. Syn. n. 
Keniacola Sjostedt, 1912, Ark. Zool. 7 (38) : 13. Type species, by monotypy, Keniacola gracilis 

Sjostedt, 1 91 2. Syn. n. 
Schulthessinia Sjostedt, 1912, Ark. Zool. 7 (38) : 15. Type species, by original designation, 

Conchotopoda ruspolii Schulthess, 1898. Syn. n. 
Pachypygiana Strand, 1921, Ent. Z. 34 : 106. Nom. n. for Pachypyga Karsch, 1893 (nee Stein- 

heil, 1873). . Syn. n. 
Eupantolepta Bolivar, 1922, Voy. M. Rothschild E. Afr. Anim. Art. 1 : 200. Type species, by 

monotypy, Eupantolepta regularis Bolivar, 1922. Syn. n. 
Plegmatia Uvarov, 1940, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (11) 6 : 116. Nom. n. for Plegmatoptera Karsch, 

1888 (nee Spinola, 1839). Syn. n. 





9 10 

Figs. 5-10. The right male fore wing of (5) Conchotopoda belcki Karsch ; (6) C. leptocerca 
(Stal) ; (7) C. crassicauda sp. n. ; (8) C. grallatoria (Stal) ; (9) C. parva sp. n. (Orange 
Free State) ; (10) C. parva sp. n. (Pretoria). 



Diagnosis. c^. Basal part of area MA of fore wings developed into longi- 
tudinal concavity with reduced venation, as in Text-fig. 43 ; area Cuj, basally 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 



279 




Figs. 11-24. The right male fore wing of (11) Horatosphaga serrifera Schaum (Nyasa- 
land) ; {12) H. serrifera Schaum (Northern Rhodesia) ; (13) H. serrifera Schaum 
(Angola) ; (14) H. leggei (Kirby) (Belgian Congo) ; (15) H. leggei (Kirby) (Tanganyika) ; 
(16) H. gracilis (Sjostedt) ; (17) H. linearis (Rehn) ; (18) H. longipes (Bolivar) ; 
(19) H. heteromorpha (Karsch) (Northern Kenya) ; (20) H. heteromorpha (Karsch) (Mom- 
basa) ; {21) H. media sp. n. ; (22) H. stylifera (Karny) ; (23) H. stuhlmanni (Karsch) 
(Rutshuru) ; (24) H. stuhlmanni (Karsch) (Mahagi Port). 



>8o 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 



enlarged, as in Text-fig. 43. Cross- veins of fore wings (especially in costal and anterior 
medial areas) arranged in closely parallel fashion, forming web-like pattern, except 
in few brachypterous species. Rg of fore wings (or its branches) ending at tip of 
wing. Fastigium of frons reaching almost to top of antennal scrobes. Tympanic 
auricles of fore tibiae often inflated. 




Figs. 25-40. The right male fore wing of (25) Horatosphaga somali {Schulthess) ; (26) 
H. magna sp. n. ; (27) H. elongata (Rehn) (Usumbura) ; (28) H. elongata (Rehn) 
(Kahondo) ; (29) H. regularis (Bolivar) ; (30) H. concava sp. n. ; (31) H. mula sp. 11. ; 
(32) H. nieruensis (Sjostedt) ; (33) H. nomima (Karsch) ; (34) H. rnontivaga (Sjostedt) ; 
{35) fi- elgonis (Chopard) ; (36) H. ruspolii (Schulthess) ; (37) H. diminuta (Chopard) ; 
(38) H. vicina (Chopard) ; (39) H. inclusa (Karsch) ; (40) H. crosskeyi sp. n. 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 



281 



$. No known diagnostic character. 

Description. (^. Fastigium of irons reaching almost to top of antennal 
scrobes. Fastigium of vertex compressed, sloping to frons, sulcate above. 




SPUEN 



42 

Figs. 41 and 42. The right male fore wing of (41) Prosphaga calaharica (Karny) ; (42) 

P. splendens sp, n. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Fore coxae without spine. Tympanic 
auricles of fore tibiae often inflated. Cross- veins of fore wings (expecially in costal 
and anterior medial areas) arranged in closely parallel fashion, forming web-like 
pattern, except in few brachypterous species. Basal part of area MA of fore wings 
developed into longitudinal concavity with reduced venation, as in Text-fig. 43 ; 




Fig. 43. Dorso-lateral view of the head, pronotum and basal part of the fore wngs of 

Horatosphaga media sp. n. 



area Cuj^ basally enlarged, as in Text-fig. 43. R^ of fore wings (or its branches) 
ending at tip of wing. 

$. As male except for following characters. Fastigium of vertex sloping 
steeply to frons. Pronotum sometimes with lateral carinae in metazona. Tym- 
panic auricles of fore tibiae not inflated. Fore wings unmodified. Hind wings 
rudimentary. 



282 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

Discussion. It is in males of the genus Horatosphaga Schaum that the stridulatory 
speciaUzations of the fore wings which typify the Acrometopae reach their fullest 
expression. A general picture of these modifications may be gained from Text- 
fig. I. It will be seen that a longitudinal groove has developed at the base of area 
MA and that the cross-veins of areas C and MA have become arranged in a closely 
parallel fashion. 

It is also in this genus that the sexual dimorphism which is shown by all the 
Acrometopae reaches its extreme form. The type of intersexual differences shown 
by the more typical members of Horatosphaga Schaum is shown in Text-fig. i. In 
species such as H. somali (Schulthess) and H. ruspolii (Schulthess), in which fully 
winged males are associated with brachypterous females, the difference is further 
enhanced, and indeed the two sexes bear little resemblance to each other. 

At the present stage of our knowledge of the genus, where a number of species 
is known by the male sex only and in which several species doubtless remain to be 
described, it would be premature to segregate the species into formal groups. More- 
over, it is possible that when further material permits a more extensive study of the 
group it will be found desirable to put some of the species into distinct genera. In 
an attempt, however, to give some idea of the interrelationships of the known species 
of Horatosphaga Schaum, I give below a list of them grouped according to their more 
obvious affinities. 

{a) Typical members of the genus : 

H. serrifera Schaum 

H. leggei (Kirby) 

H. gracilis (Sjostedt) 

H. linearis (Rehn) 

H. longipes (Bolivar) 

H. heteromorpha (Karsch, 

H. media sp. n. 

H. stylifera (Karny) 

H. sttihlmanni (Karsch) 

H. somali (Schulthess) 

H. magna sp. n. 

H. elongata (Rehn) 

H. regularis (Bolivar) 

H. concava sp. n. 

{b) Species in which the males have no hind wings and narrow, reduced fore 
wings : 

H. nuda sp. n. 

H. meruensis (Sjostedt) 

(c) Species in which the males have no hind wings and broad, reduced fore wings : 

H. nomima (Karsch) 
H. montivaga (Sjostedt) 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 283 

{d) Species in which the males have no hind wings, reduced fore wings, and a 
somewhat enlarged tenth abdominal tergite : 

H. elgonis (Chopard) 

{e) Species in which the males (which may or may not have hind wings) have a 
greatly enlarged, usually knob-like, tenth abdominal tergite : 

H. ruspolii (Schulthess) 
H. diminuta (Chopard) 
H. vicina (Chopard) 
H. inclusa (Karsch) 
H. crosskeyi sp. n. 

Distribution (Text-fig. 44). Although Horatosphaga Schaum covers the whole 
of tropical Africa except for the dry northern fringe formed by the Sahara Desert, 
it is nevertheless typically an East African genus. Of the twenty-four known species 
only two {H. inclusa (Karsch) and H. crosskeyi sp. n.) occur west of the 10° E. line of 
longitude. The majority of the species are confined to British East Africa and. 
Rhodesia, and many of these to quite small areas within these regions. Five species 
{H. somali (Schulthess), H. magna sp. n., H. ruspolii (Schulthess), H. diminuta 
(Chopard), and H. vicina (Chopard)) occur only in the semi-desert area of eastern 
Africa, north of the equator, and a further species, H. heteromorpha (Karsch), 
extends only a little further south. H. stylifera (Karny) is apparently confined to 
South West Africa and Angola, and the widespread species H. serrifera Schaum 
extends southwards into the more northerly part of South West Africa. The tropic 
of Capricorn probably marks the approximate southern limit of the genus ; the 
Acrometopae occurring south of this tropic all belong to either Conchotopoda Karsch 
or Prosphaga gen. n. 

Key to the Species 

Due to the fact that the females of many of the species lack features of diagnostic importance 
this key is based entirely on males. If it is necessary to identify female specimens which are 
not associated with males, reference should be made to the illustrations of the female fore 
wings (Text-figs. 81-98) and ovipositors (Text-figs. 99-119). This should narrow the field 
considerably, and comparison with the measurements and distribution of the species thus 
suggested may well produce a fairly certain identification. In some of the species, however, a 
definite identification is impossible in the absence of the male sex. 

Species which could agree with either half of any one of the couplets given below are keyed 
out twice. 

1. Tenth abdominal tergite greatly enlarged, as in Text-figs. 45-55 .... 2 
-. Tenth abdominal tergite not as in Text-figs. 45-55, unmodified or only slightly 

enlarged ............. 7 

2. Hind femora less than 21 mm. in length. Genitalia as in Text-fig. 53 

H. elgonis (Chopard) (p. 312) 
-. Hind femora more than 21 mm. in length. Genitalia not as in Text-fig. 53 . . 3 

3. Tenth abdominal tergite as in Text-figs. 45-52. (East African species) . . 4 
-. Tenth abdominal tergite as in Text-figs. 54 and 55. (West African species) . . 6 

4. Hind wings fully developed . . . . . H. ruspolii (Schulthess) (p. 313) 
-. Hind wings greatly reduced or rudimentary ....... 5 

ENTOM. 8, 7. 10 



a84 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 




THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 



285 



5. Median length of the pronotum more than 65 mm. . . H. vicina (Chopard) (p. 316) 
-. Median length of the pronotum less than 6-5 mm. . H. diminuta (Chopard) (p. 315) 

6. Genitalia as in Text-fig. 55. Rg of the fore wings usually bifurcate 

H. crosskeyi sp. n. (p. 318) 
-. Genitalia as in Text-fig. 54. Rg of the fore wings unbranched H. inclusa (Karsch) (p. 317) 

7. Hind wings absent or vestigial .......... 8 

-. Hind wings well developed or at least half the length of the fore wings . . . ii 





49 



50 



SI 



52 




53 



54 



55 



Figs. 45-55. Horatosphaga Schaum. 45-50. Lateral view of the male tenth abdominal 
tergite of H. ruspolii (Schulthess) from (45) Turkana, (46) south of Lake Rudolph, 
(47) El Carre, (48) Lak Telangor, and (49 and 50) Damassa. 51 and 52. Lateral 
view of the male tenth abdominal tergite of H. diminuta (Chopard) from (51) Moyale, 
and (52) Marsabit. 53-55. Lateral view of the male genitalia of (53) H. elgonis 
(Chopard) ; (54) H. inclusa (Karsch) ; (55) H. crosskeyi sp. n. 



8. Fore wings broad, as in Text-figs. 33 and 34, about three times longer than their 

maximum width ............ 9 

-. Fore wings narrower, as in Text-figs. 31 and 32, about four times longer than their 

maximum width ............ 10 

9. Pronotal disc strongly verrucose. Fore wings with black spots 

H. montivaga (Sjostedt) (p. 311) 
-. Pronotal disc not verrucose (though rather rugose). Fore wings without black 

spots .......... if. nomima (Karsch) (p. 311) 

10. Fore wings shaped as in Text-fig. 32 ; R bifurcate in the proximal half of the wing 

H. meruensis (Sjostedt) (p. 310) 
— . Fore wings shaped as in Text-fig. 31 ; R unbranched or bifurcate in the distal half 

of the wing .......... H, nuda sp. n. (p. 309) 



286 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

11. Hind wings protruding a little beyond the fore wings, when at rest, or at least 

extending to the same point .......... 13 

— . Hind wings considerably shorter than the fore wings, when at rest . . . 12 

12. Venation of the fore wings as in Text-fig. 18. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 62. 

(Kenya Highlands) ...... H. longipes (Bolivar) (p. 295) 

— . Venation of the fore wings as in Text-fig. 28. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 70. 

(Edward-Kivu rift-valley) . . H, elongata (Rehn) (brachypterous form) (p. 306) 

13. Rs of the fore wings unbranched, as in Text-figs. 17, 19, or 30 . . . . 14 
— . Rs of the fore wings bifurcate, not as in Text-figs. 17, 19, or 30 , . . . 17 

14. Tenth abdominal tergite markedly emarginate posteriorly, as in Text-fig. 79 

H. concava sp. n. (p. 308) 
— . Tenth abdominal tergite unmodified ......... 15 

15. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 61 . . . . . H. linearis (Rehn) (p. 294) 
— . Subgenital plate as in Text-figs. 63 or 70 . . . . , . . . 16 

16. M of the fore wings running closely parallel to Rg for some distance and then suddenly 

diverging from it, as in Text-fig. 19 . . . H. heteromorpha (Karsch) (p. 296) 

— . Fore wings not as in Text-fig. 19 . . . . . H. elongata (Rehn) (p. 306) 

17. Subgenital plate with a protuberance on each side near the tip, as in Text-figs. 65 or 69 18 
— . Subgenital plate tapering evenly, or almost so, or smoothly parallel-sided, not as in 

Text-figs. 65 or 69 ........... 19 

18. Total length more than 50 mm. Venation of the fore wings as in Text-fig. 26. 

(East Africa) ........ H. magna sp. n. (p. 304) 

— . Total length less than 50 mm. Venation of the fore wings as in Text-fig. 22. (Angola 

and South West Africa) . . . . . . H. stylifera (Kamy) (p. 301) 

19. M of the fore wings running closely parallel to Rg for some distance and then suddenly 

diverging from it, as in Text-fig. 20 H. heteromorpha (Karsch) (southern form) (p. 296) 
— . Fore wings not as in Text-fig. 20 ......... 20 

20. Total length less than 35 mm. Venation of the fore wings as in Text-figs. 16, 23, or 28 21 
— . Total length more than 35 mm. Venation of the fore wings not as in Text-figs. 16, 23, 

or 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 

21. Venation of the fore wings as in Text-fig. 16 (Kenya Highlands) 

H. gracilis (Sjostedt) (p. 294) 
— . Venation of the fore wings as in Text-figs. 23 or 28. (Edward-Kivu rift-valley) . 22 

22. Fore wings broad, their venation as in Text-fig. 23. 

H. stuhlmanni (Karsch) (southern form) (p. 301) 
— . Fore wings narrower, their venation as in Text-fig. 28 

H. elongata (Rehn) (brachypterous form) (p. 306) 

23. Fore wings unusually transparent, their venation as in Text-fig. 25. (Ethiopia, 

Somaliland, or Somalia) . . . . . H. somali (Schulthess) (p. 303) 

— . Fore wings of the usual texture for the genus, their venation usually rather different 

from Text-fig. 25. (Not known from the countries mentioned) ... 24 

24. Anterior medial area of the fore wings broadened in the middle, its cross-veins strongly 

arched towards the wing- tip, as in Text-figs. 14, 15 and 24 .... 25 

— . Anterior medial area of the fore wings only slightly or not at all broadened in the 

middle, its cross-veins not arranged as in Text-figs. 14, 15 and 24 ... 26 

25. Stridulatory rib of the left fore wing very prominent and more than 3 mm. in length. 

Venation of the fore wings as in Text-fig. 24 . . H. stuhlmanni (Karsch) (p. 301) 

— . Stridulatory rib of the left fore wing not particularly prominent and usually less than 
3 mm. in length. Venation of the fore wings as in Text-figs. 14 or 15 

H. leggei (Kirby) (p. 291) 

26. Venation of the fore wings as in Text-fig. 21 ; Rg usually dividing nearer the base 

than the tip of the wing. ...... H. media sp. n. (p. 299) 

— . Venation of the fore wings not as in Text-fig 21 ; Rg dividing in the distal half of 

the wing ............. 27 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 



287 




Figs. 56-78. Ventral view of the male subgenital plate of (56) Horatosphaga serrifera 
Schaum (Northern Rhodesia) ; (57) H. serrifera Schaum (South West Africa) ; (58) 
H. serrifera Schaum (Nyasaland) ; (59) H. leggei (Kirby) ; (60) H. gracilis (Sjostedt) ; 
(61) H. linearis (Rehn) ; (62) H. longipes (Bolivar) ; (63) H. heteromorpha (Karsch) ; 
(64) H. media sp. n. ; (65) H. stylifera (Karny) ; (66) H. stuhlmanni (Karsch) (Mahagi 
Port) ; (67) H. stuhlmanni (Karsch) (Rutshuru) ; (68) H. somali (Schulthess) ; (69) 
H. magna sp. n. ; (70) H. elongaia (Rehn) ; (71) H. regularis (Bolivar) ; (72) H. concava 
sp. n. ; (73) H. nuda sp. n. ; (74) H. meruensis (Sjostedt) ; (75) H. montivaga (Sjostedt) 
(if. nomima (Karsch) is similar) ; (76) H. ruspolii (Schulthess) ; (77) H. diminuta 
(Chopard) ; (78) H. vicina (Chopard) . 



V/ rros \y MON 



79 80 

Figs. 79 and 80. Dorsal view of the male tenth abdominal tergite of (79) Horatosphaga 
concava sp. n. ; (80) H. montivaga (Sjostedt) {H. nomima (Karsch) is similar). 



288 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

27. Hind femora more than 30 mm. in length ... H. serrifera Schaum (p. 288) 
— . Hind femora less than 30 mm. in length ........ 28 

28. Venation of the fore wings as in Text-fig. 24 ; stridulatory rib of the left fore wing 

very prominent and more than 3 mm. in length . H. stuhlmanni (Karsch) (p. 301) 

— . Venation of the fore wings as in Text-figs. 27, 28, or 29 ; stridulatory rib of the left 

fore wing not particularly prominent and usually less than 3 mm. in length . . 29 

29. Venation of the fore wings as in Text-figs. 27 or 28. (Eastern Belgian Congo) 

H. elongata (Rehn) (p. 306) 
— . Venation of the fore wings as in Text-figs. 29. (Not known from Belgian Congo) 

H. regularis (Bolivar) (p. 307) 

I. Horatosphaga serrifera Schaum, 1853 

Horatosphaga serrifera Schaum, 185^, Ber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1853 : 778. Holotype $, 
Mozambique {Peters). In the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin. 

Pantolepta vosseleri Karny, 1910, Denkschr. med.-naturw. Ges. Jena, 16 : 52. Ten ^ syntypes, 
South west Africa : Okahandja (Dinter). One (J syntype, South west Africa : Kung- 
Buschmannland [Lubhert). All in the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt-Universitat, 
Berlin. Syn. n. 

Pantolepta multivenosa Chopard, 1935, Mem. Mus. zool. Univ. Coimbra (i) 85 : 2. Holotype (J, 
Mozambique: Nova Chupanga, nr. Chemba, ii.1929 (Lesne). In the Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Syn. n. 

Diagnosis. <J. Venation of fore wings as in Text-figs. 11, 12, and 13. Hind 
femora with dorsal ridge at apex, ending in small spine. Subgenital plate as in 
Text-figs. 56 and 57. 

$. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 81. Hind femora with dorsal ridge 
at apex, ending in small spine. Ovipositor as in Text-figs. 99 and 100. 
Measurements 

Males 

Total length (20) : 44-8-50-9, mean 48-31. 
Median length of pronotum (20) : 5-6-6-9, mean 6*37. 
Length of hind femur (20) : 3I-6-37-8, mean 35-44. 
Length of fore wing (20) : 35-8-42-6, mean 39-02. 

Females 

Total length (20) : 36-0-45-5, mean 40-54. 
Median length of pronotum (20) : 6-4-7-6, mean 7-05. 
Length of hind femur (20) : 29-7-35-3, mean 33-50. 
Length of fore wing (20) : 28-5-35-3, mean 32-02. 
Length of ovipositor (20) : 9-0-14-7, mean 12-58. 

Discussion. This species shares with H. leggei (Kirby) and H. gracilis (Sjostedt) 
the small spine at the tip of the hind femur, though this character is occasionally 
rather feebly developed in the present species. The males of H. serrifera Schaum 
may be distinguished from these two species by the venation of the fore wings, and 
the females differ from those of H. leggei (Kirby) by their much longer fore wings 
and larger ovipositor. (The female sex of H. gracilis (Sjostedt) is as yet unknown.) 

H. serrifera Schaum shows distinct geographical variation, and doubtless it will be 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 



289 




97 



98 



Figs, 81-98, The right female fore wing of (81) Horatosphaga serrifera Schaum ; (82) 
H. leggei (Kirby) ; (83) H. linearis (Rehn) ; {84) H. longipes (Bolivar) ; (85) H. hetero- 
morpha (Karsch) ; (86) H. media sp. n, ; (87) H. stuhlmanni (Karsch) ; (88) H. somali 
(Schulthess) ; (89) H, »na^«a sp, n, ; {go) H.nudas^.n. ; (91) H. m«yM«wst5 (Sjostedt) ; 
(92) H. montivaga (Sjostedt) ; (93) H. elgonis (Chopard) ; (94) H. ruspolii (Schulthess) ; 
(95) H. diminuta (Chopard) ; (96) H. vicina (Chopard) ; (97) H. inclttsa (Karsch) ; (98) 
H. crosskeyi sp. n. 



ago 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 



possible to delimit subspecies when more material is available. In males of the 
typical form, probably occurring over a large part of the low grass savanna and open 
woodland of Mozambique, Rhodesia, Angola, and south-eastern Belgian Congo, 
the venation of the fore wings is of the type shown in Text-figs, ii and 12. In the 
much drier semi-desert areas of South West Africa and the coastal fringe of southern 
Angola, however, the venation of the male fore wings takes the form shown in 
Text-fig. 13, with area R extending further towards the wing-base. Females from 
this part of Africa have a considerably smaller ovipositor (Text-fig. 100) than those 




^ 



115 



116 



117 





118 



119 



Figs. 99-119. Lateral view of the ovipositor of (99) Horatosphaga serrifera Schaum 
(Northern Rhodesia) ; (100) H. serrifera Schaum (South West Africa) ; (101) H. leggei 
(Kirby) ; (102) H. linearis (Rehn) ; (103) H. longipes (Bolivar) ; (104) H. heteromorpha 
(Karsch) (Kenya, Mombasa) ; (105) H. heteromorpha (Karsch) (Kenya, Marsabit) ; 
(106) H. heteromorpha (Karsch) (Ethiopia, Harar) : (107) H. media sp. n. ; (108) 
H. stuhlmanni (Karsch) ; (109) H. somali (Schulthess) ; (no) H. magna sp. n. ; (in) 
H. nuda sp. n. ; (112) H. meruensis (Sjostedt) ; (113) H. montivaga (Sjostedt) ; (114) 
H. elgonis (Chopard) ; (115) H. ruspolii (Schulthess) ; (116) H. diminuta (Chopard) ; 
(117) H. vicina (Chopard) ; (118) H. inclusa (Karsch) ; (119) H. crosskeyi sp. n. 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 291 

of the typical form (Text-fig. 99). If further material shows that delimitation of 
subspecies would be useful, this deserticolous form would take the name vosseleri 
Karny, 1910 (type locality : South West Africa). 

Examination of a syntype of Pantokpta vosseleri Karny and the holot5TDe of P. 
multivenosa Chopard has convinced me that these specimens are conspecific with the 
holotype of H. serrifera Schaum. The association of males with females in this 
species has been greatly facilitated by a long series of both sexes collected by Burr 
in Northern Rhodesia. 
Material examined 

$ holotype. One ^ syntype (Kung-Buschmannland) of Pantolepta vosseleri 
Karny. ^ holotype of P. multivenosa Chopard. 

Kenya : Rabai, iv-vi.1928 {van Someren) (4^, 1$) ; Belgian Congo : Albert- 
ville, i . 1919 (Mayne) {2,^) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Nyasaland : Zomba, 1947 (Lennon) 

(i^) ; , 31.iii.1913 {Neave) (1$) ; Northern Rhodesia : Luano Valley, Chi- 

sorwe, i-iv.1928 {Burr) (6i(^, 29$); Southern Rhodesia: Queque ( ) {1^) 

(S. A. Mus.) ; Angola : Quirimbo, v. 1934 {Jordan) (i (^) ; Amboim, 22 .iv. 1927 {Burr) 
(i^) ; (i(^) ; South West Africa : Okahandja, ii-iii.1928 {Turner) {1^, 1$). 

In the British Museum (Natural History) unless otherwise stated. 

Distribution. This species is distributed throughout tropical Africa south of 
the equator. 

2. Horatosphaga leggei (Kirby, 1909) comb. n. 

Thaumatoxenia leggei Kirby, 1909, Trans, zool. Soc. Lond. 19 : 65. Lectotype (J, Uganda : 

E. Ruwenzori, Mubuku Valley, 6,000 ft., xii.1905 {Legge & Wollaston). One ^ syntype, 

Uganda: E. Ruwenzori, Mubuku Valley, 6,000 ft., 13.1.1906 {Legge & Wollaston). Both 

in the British Museum (Natural History). 
Horatosphaga robusta Rehn, 1914, Wiss. Ergebn. Zentral-Afrika-Exp. 5 : 156. Holotjrpe ?, 

Belgian Congo : 90 km. west of Albert-Nyanza, 1,600 m., forest {Grauer). In the Zoo- 

logisches Museum of the Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin. Syn. n. 
Conchotopoda ampHpennis Rehn, 1914, Wiss. Ergebn. Zentral-Afrika-Exp. 5 : 165. Holotype ^, 

Belgian Congo: Lake Kivu, Idjwi I., ix.1907 (Schubotz). In the Zoologisches Museum 

of the Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin. Syn. n. 
Peronura affinis Bolivar, 1922, Voy. M. Rothschild E. Afr. Anim. Art. 1 : 198. Holotype $, 

Kenya: Escarpment, viii-ix.i904 {Rothschild). In the Museum National d'Histoire 

Naturelle, Paris. Syn. n. 

Diagnosis. ^. Venation of fore wings as in Text-figs. 14 and 15 ; cross-veins 
of area MA strongly curved outwards. Hind femora with dorsal ridge at apex, 
ending in small spine. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 59. 

$. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 82. Hind femora with dorsal ridge at 
apex, ending in small spine. Ovipositor as in Text-fig. loi. Pronotum with well- 
developed lateral carinae in metazona. 

Measurements 

Males 
Total length (20) : 37-5-49-2, mean 44-45. 
Median length of pronotum (20) : 47-6-2, mean 5-41. 
Length of hind femur (20) : 23-5-30-3, mean 27-80. 
Length of fore wing (20) : 29-6-40-2, mean 35-50. 



aga THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

Measurements — {cont.) 

Females 

Total length (20) : 28-3-34-2, mean 31-43. 
Median length of pronotum (20) : 4-8-5-9, mean 5-41. 
Length of hind femur (20) : 20-5-27-I, mean 23-92. 
Length of fore wing (20) : 22-8-28-0, mean 24-72, 
Length of ovipositor (20) : 7-3-9-5, mean 8-54. 

Discussion. This is the most common species of Horatosphaga Schaum in the 
highlands of British East Africa and eastern Belgian Congo. The males may be 
easily recognized by the broad fore wings with the strongly arcuate cross- veins in the 
anterior medial area. The short ovipositor with very small serrations and the rela- 
tively broad fore wings serve to distinguish the females from the other East African 
species of the genus, 

I have selected and marked one of the syntypes of H. leggei (Kirby) as a lectotype ; 
this specimen was marked as " type " by Kirby, but his selection of it as type was 
not published. The holotypes of H. robusta Rehn, Conchotopoda amplipennis 
Rehn, and Peronura affinis Bolivar, were examined and found to be conspecific 
with the lectotype of H. leggei (Kirby), 

Material examined 

(J lectotype and ^ syntype. $ holotype of H. robusta Rehn. ^ holotype of 
Conchotopoda amplipennis Rehn. $ holotype of Peronura affinis Bolivar. 

Uganda: Ruwenzori Range, Kilembe, 4,500 ft., xii . 1934-i , 1935 [Edwards) {2^, i $); 
Namanve, 17. ix, 1933 [Johnston) (2 ($) ; Bugoma Forest, Bunyora, 5.vi,i935 
[Johnston) (i ^) ; Bugoma Forest, vi.1933 [Johnston) [2 c^, 2 $) ; Mabira Forest, 
vi.1934 [Johnston) (4 ^) ; Mabira Forest, vi-ix.1913 [Gowdey) [2 ^, 2 $) ; Mabira 
area, v. 1938 [Taylor) (3 $) ; Mubende, 18. x, 1933 [Johnston) (1$); Kigezi, 
X.1934 [Buxton) (i (^, I $) ; Kigezi, Kashenji, 7,000 ft,, hill scrub, xi.1935 [John- 
ston) (i $) ; Sczibwa Falls, 16. iv. 1933 [Johnston) (i ^) ; Kawanda, 3.11.1940 
[Hargreaves) (i c^) ; Entebbe, viii.1912 [Wiggins) (i ^) ; Kampala, 18.1.1935 
[Hargreaves) (i $) ; Kampala, 20.vii.1934 [Hargreaves) (i $) ; Masaka, Kalisizo, 
18. V. 1935 [Johnston) (i $) ; Tero Forest, vii.1912 [Gowdey) (i <^, 3 ?) ; Kenya : 

Nairobi, 6,000 ft. [Andrews) (i ^) ; Kaimosi, iii-iv.1932 ( ) (i $) ; Songhor, 

ix.1917 [Dry) (i $) ; Tanganyika: Tshibinda, 21-27, viii,i93i [Mackie) [2 <^, 
9$); Rukwa Valley, 23. ii. 1957 [Whellan) [1 ^) \ Old Shinyanga, at light, 
iv-vi . 1953 [Burtt) (8 S) ', Bukoba, ix . 1921 [Miller) [2 $) ; Belgian Congo : 
Djugu, Ituri Forest, open edge of forest, cleared ground, 5.x. 1935 [Johnston) 
(i ^) ; Mt. Ruwenzori, Kalunge, 7,200 ft., 6.vii.i935 [Breda) (i S) '> Ruwenzori, 
Kalonge, vii , 1937, [Bredo) (i c^, i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Ruwenzori, Kalonge, 
2,050 m., viii,i932 [Burgeon) (2 ^, i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kalonge, Riv. 
Mushuva, 15. xii. 1949 [Marlier) (i (^, i $) (Mus. Congo Beige); Lac Kivu, 
Rwankwi, iv-v , 1948 [Leroy) [2 ^) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Costermansville, 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 293 

1951 {Bomans) (i c^, i ?) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; W. Kivu, Kashusha, 1937 {Van- 
delannoite) (17 ^, 4 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Kabwe, 23. xi. 1932 {Burgeon) 
(i cJ) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Tshibinda, xi . 1927 {Seydel) (i ^) (Mus. Congo 
Beige) : Kivu, Kapanga, 1952 {Froidehise) (i S) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, 
Lulenga, 24. ix. 1932 [Burgeon) (2 ^) (Mus. Congo Beige); Kivu, Kamisimbi, 
2 1, vi. 1938 {Hendrickx) (i (J) (Mus. Congo Beige); Kivu, Tshibinda, 2.xii.i932 

[Burgeon) (i ^) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Terr. Kabare, Katana, xii . 1954 ( ) 

(i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Terr. Kabare, Lwiro, x.1953 ( ) (i ^, 2 $) 

(Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Lubero, 10. xii. 1935 [Bredo) (2 ^, 4 $) (Mus. Congo 
Beige) ; Kivu, Kirrenyi, 1924 [Saceghem) [1 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Kahuzi, 
15 -v. 1938 [Hendrickx) [1 ?) (Mus. Congo Beige); Kivu, Mt. Kahuzi, ix.1951- 
ii.1952 [Bomans) [1 ^, i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; NE. Kivu, La Matura, iii.1928 
[Seydel) [1 ?) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Buseregenye, 1930 [Luja) [1 $) (Mus. 
Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Goma, 10. ii. 1937 [Bredo) (2 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, 
Niamlagira, 2,700 m., 29. ix. 1932 [Burgeon) [2 $) (Mus. Congo Beige); Kivu, 
Bwito, 1,700 m., ix.1934 [Marlier) (i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Lwiro-Katana, 

i-ii.1954 ( ) (i ?) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Mulungu, 1939 [Hendrickx) 

(2 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Lubero, Mulo, 1,960 m., vi-vii.1953 [Celis) 
(i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Kapanga, 1952 [Froidehise) (i $) (Mus. Congo 
Beige) ; Kivu, Loashi, 1,350 m., 28-30 . ix . 1949 [Laurent) (4 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; 
Kivu, Masisi, 1938 [Le Moult) (3 ^, 3 $) (Zool. Inst. Lund) ; Kibali-Ituri, Geti, 
1934 [Scops) (i cJ) (Mus. Congo Beige); Kibali-Ituri, Kilo, 18. x. 1930 [Soleil) 
(i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Ituri, Kilo, 1930 [Soleil) (i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; 
Ituri, Lubero, 1928 [van Riel) (i ^) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Ituri, Lubero, 1,900 m., 
1928 [van Riel) (i ^) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Ituri, Bulembo, xii. 1928 [van Riel) 
(i (J) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Buta, 1937 [Hutsehaut) (2 ^, i ?) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; 
Volcan Sabinjo, Bunagana, 1935 [Bredo) (9 (J, 5 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Volcan 
Nyamlagira, 5.1. 1936 [Bredo) (2 ^) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Rutshuru, v. 1938 
[Ghesquiere) [1 ^, i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Rutshuru, 15. v. 1936 [Lippens) 
[1 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Mongbwalu, 1937 [Harford- J or dens) [2 ^) (Mus. Congo 
Beige) ; Kamogobe, 8.111.1936 [Lippens) [1 ^) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Lake Tangan- 
yika, Nyanza, 28. xii. 1932 [Burgeon) [1 (^) (Mus. Congo Beige); Kilo, i.1940 
[Maristes) (i (J) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Ruanda, Rutovu, For^t du Rugege, 2,350 m., 
20-23.1.1953 [Basilewsky) (3 c^, i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Beni [Borgerhoff) 
[2 ?) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Mombassa, viii . 1932 [Burgeon) (i $) (Mus. Congo 
Beige) ; Masisi- Walikale [Bonnevie) (3 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Lesse [Bonnevie) 
(2 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Region des Lacs [Sagona) (3 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; 
Dungu, 1912 [Hutereau) (i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Urundi, Kanyinya, 1,500 m., 
xii. 1947-1.1948 [Dames de Marie) (i ?) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Urundi, Muyeha, 
1,700 m., 13.vii.1952 [Laurent) [2 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Nyongwe, For^t Rugege, 
2,000 m., viii. 1949 [Laurent) (i $) (Mus. Congo Beige). 

In the British Museum (Natural History) unless otherwise stated. 

Distribution. H. leggei (Kirby) ranges over all the higher parts of British East 
Africa and eastern Belgian Congo. It is not yet known from south of the Rukwa 
Valley or from anywhere below 1,500 ft. 



294 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

3. Horatosphaga gracilis (Sjostedt, 1912) comb. n. 

Keniacola gracilis Sjostedt, 1912, Ark. Zool. 7 (38) : 14. Holotype ^, Kenya : Mt. Kenya, 
Urwald, 21.iii.1911 [Ldnnherg). In the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Stockholm. 

Diagnosis. ^. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 16. Hind femora with 
dorsal ridge at apex, ending in small spine. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 60. 
5 unknown. 

Measurements 

Males 
Total length (3) : 32-3-33-4. mean 32-87. 
Median length of pronotum (4) : 4-4-5 -o, mean 4-70. 
Length of hind femur (3) : 18-5-21-0, mean 19-83. 
Length of fore wing (4) : 24-2-26-4, mean 25-40. 
Discussion. This species may be distinguished from H. leggei (Kirby) and 
H. senifera Schaum, which also have the small spine at the tip of the hind femur, 
by its much smaller size and the venation of the male fore wings. 

Material examined 

^ holot5rpe. 

Kenya : Mt. Kenya, viii-x . 1927 {Insoll) (2 c^) (British Museum (Natural 
History)) ; Kiambu, 1936 [Anderson) (i ^) (Zool. Inst. Lund). 

Distribution. This species is so far known only from a small area of the high- 
lands of central Kenya. It is probably confined to high ground and quite possibly 
shows a preference for the temperate forest vegetation associated with the localities 
mentioned above. 

4. Horatosphaga linearis (Rehn, 1914) comb. n. 

Conchotopoda linearis Rehn, 1914, Wiss. Ergehn. Z antral- A frika-Exp. 5 : 167. Holotype (J, 

Uganda : Mpororo, i.vii.1907 (Schubotz). In the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt- 

Universitat, Berlin. 
7 Pachypyga karschi Rehn, 1914, Wiss. Ergebn. Zentral-Afrika-Exp. 5 : 161. Holotype $, 

Belgian Congo : Ruanda, Lake Mohasi, 29 . vii. 1907 [Schubotz). In the Zoologisches Museum 

of the Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin. (See below.) 

Diagnosis. ^. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 17 ; R^ unbranched. 
Hind femora with feebly developed dorsal ridge at apex, usually ending in small 
point. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 61. 

$. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 83. Hind femora with feebly developed 
dorsal ridge at apex, usually ending in small point. Ovipositor as in Text-fig. 102. 
Fore wings often with dark spots along basal half of anterior margin. 
Measurements 

Males 

Total length (11) : 33-I-37-8, mean 35-58. 
Median length of pronotum (9) : 3-5-4-6, mean 4-23. 
Length of hind femur (9) : 24-6-27-8, mean 26-33. 
Length of fore wing (11) : 24-1-27-3, mean 25-84. 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 295 

Females 

Total length (5) : 267-29-5, mean 27-90. 

Median length of pronotum (6) : 4-6-5-4, mean 5-01. 

Length of hind femur (5) : 21-8-24-2, mean 23-30. 

Length of fore wing (6) : 20-5-24-0, mean 21-95. 

Length of ovipositor (6) : 10-1-11-3, mean 10-68. 
Discussion. The venation of the fore wings and the shape of the subgenital 
plate are characteristic of the male of this species. The female sex may be dis- 
tinguished from H. stuhlmanni (Karsch) by the fore wings and the ovipositor, which 
are both more slender, but does not seem to differ from H. longipes (Bolivar) by any 
constant character. 

The holotype of Pachypyga karschi Rehn appears to differ from females of 
H. linearis (Rehn) by only the narrower fore wings. The high variability of the 
species suggests the possibility that this specimen is also a female of H. linearis 
(Rehn), but the material available at present is inadequate to establish a definite 
synonymy. 
Material examined 

(J holotype. $ holotype of PachyPyga karschi Rehn. 

Belgian Congo: Ruanda, Kagera, Gahinga, 26-30. iv. 1937 (Bredo) (5 c^, 
2 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Goma, 10. ii. 1937 {Bredo) (i $) (Mus. Congo 
Beige) ; Uganda : Ankole, Lwasamaire, upland grassland, 22. xi. 1935 {Johnston) 
(2 (^, I $) ; Bulemezi, Luwero, rough tuft grass, 7 . xi . 1935 {Johnston) (i ^) ; 
Ankole, Lutobo, rough ground, xi . 1935 {Johnston) (i ^) ; Ankole, Bukinda, rough 
ground, 27. xi. 1935 {Johnston) (i $) ; Mbarara, i.1934 {Johnston) (i $) ; Tan- 
ganyika : Old Shinyanga, Boma, 4.iv.i935 {Burtt) (i <^). 

In the British Museum (Natural History) unless otherwise stated. 

Distribution. The data listed above suggest that this species is most abundant 
in the mountainous area to the east of Lake Kivu, though also occurring in southern 
Uganda and northern Tanganyika. 

5. Horatosphaga longipes (Bolivar, 1922) comb. n. 

Peronura longipes Bolivar, 1922, Voy. M. Rothschild E. Afr. Anim. Art. 1 : 197. Holotype $, 
Kenya : Naivasha, 1906 {Rothschild). In the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

Diagnosis. ^. Hind wings not extending beyond fore wings, when at rest, 
though at least half their length. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 18. 
Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 62. 

^. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 84. Ovipositor as in Text-fig. 103. 
Fore wings often with dark spots along basal half of anterior margin. 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (i) : 29-5. 

Median length of pronotum (2) : 5-5-5-6, mean 5-55. 

Length of hind femur (2) : 23-5-25-7, mean 24-6. 

Length of fore wing (2) : 22-6-25-3, mean 23-95. 



296 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

Measurements — (cont.) ^^ , 

Total length (7) : 24-6-28-9, mean 27-56. 

Median length of pronotum (7) : 5*i-5-7, mean 5-55. 

Length of hind femur (7) : i9'i-23-6, mean 21-71. 

Length of fore wing (7) : 17-8-22-4, mean 21-01. 

Length of ovipositor (7) : 9-7-11-6, mean 10-76. 
Discussion. Males of this species may be distinguished from the brachypterous 
form of H. elongata (Rehn) (of which females are so far unknown), which has hind 
wings of a similar size, by the subgenital plate, the venation of the fore wings, and 
the inflated tympanic auricles. The shape of the male subgenital plate is a character 
shared only by H. linearis (Rehn) (apart from the much more southerly species 
H. stylifera (Karny)), and it is possible that these two species represent parallel 
montane developments from a more widespread common stock. 
Material examined 

$ holotype. 

Kenya : Lake Elmenteita, 14.vii.1950 (Uvarov) (i ^, 2 $) ; Eb Urra, iv-v. 
1900 (Betton) (i (^, 2 $) ; Gelegele R., vi.1913 {Luckman) (i $) ; Aberdare Mts., 
Ngobit, 7,000 ft., xi,i945 (Buxton) (i $). 

All in the British Museum (Natural History). 

Distribution. This species is probably confined to the Kenya Highlands. 

6. Horatosphaga heteromorpha (Karsch, 1888) comb. n. 

Pantolepta heteromorpha Karsch, 1888, Berl. ent. Z. 32 : 430. One ^ lectotype and one $ 

syntype, Kenya: Mombasa, xii.1876 (Hildebrandt). In the Zoologisches Museum of the 

Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin. 
Plegmatoptera hoehneli Brunner, 1891, Additamenta zur Monographic der Phaneropteriden, 

p. 44. Holotype $, Tanganyika : Kilimanjaro {Hoehnel). In the Naturhistorisches 

Museum, Vienna. Syn. n. 
Euthyphlehia parallela Schulthess, 1898, Ann. Mus. Stor. nat. Genova, 39 : 205. Holotype (J, 

Ethiopia: Dolo, v. 1893 (Ruspoli). In the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa. 

Syn. n. 
Pantolepta kilimandjarica Sjostedt, 1909, Wiss. Ergehn. Schwed. Zool. Expdn. Kilivnandjaro, 

Meru, 1905-06, 17: 132. Lectotype <?, Tanganyika: Mt. Meru, Ngare na nyuki, i.1906 

(Sjostedt). Probably over thirty syntypes of both sexes, some from Tanganyika : Mt. 

Meru, Ngare na nyuki, ix. 1905-i. 1906, others from Tanganyika : Kilimanjaro, Kibonoto, 

1,800 m., xi. 1905-iv. 1906. Lectotype and most of syntypes in the Naturhistoriska Riks- 

museum, Stockholm; one ^ syntype (Tanganyika: Mt. Meru, Ngare na nyuki, xi.1905 

{Sjostedt) ) in the British Museum (Natural History). Syn. n. 
Plegmatoptera gracilis Bolivar, 1922, Voy. M. Rothschild E. Afr. Anim. Art. 1 : 198. Holotype <J, 

Kenya : Loroghi Mtns., 1905 [Rothschild). In the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 

Paris. Syn. n. 

Diagnosis. ^. Venation of fore wings as in Text-figs. 19 and 20. Hind 
femora often with dorsal ridge at apex, sometimes ending in small spine. Sub- 
genital plate as in Text-fig. 63. 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 297 

$. Fore wings, when flexed, usually extending well beyond hind knees ; venation 
as in Text-fig, 85, Hind femora often with dorsal ridge at apex, sometimes ending 
in small spine. Ovipositor as in Text-figs. 104, 105, and 106. 



Measurements 

Males 



Total length (20) : 3i'5-43-3, mean 38-32. 
Median length of pronotum (19) : 4-I-5-0, mean 4*51. 
Length of hind femur (20) : 23'3-29'5, mean 26-36. 
Length of fore wing (20) : 23-3-32-I, mean 28-64. 



Females 

Total length (15) : 35-I-43-6, mean 38-47. 
Median length of pronotum (18) : 4-6-6-1, mean 5-20, 
Length of hind femur (14) : 22-6-30-1, mean 25-21. 
Length of fore wing (15) : 29-2-35-8, mean 31-87. 
Length of ovipositor (19) : 7-4-10-1, mean 8-64, 

Discussion. Males of this species may be easily recognized by the venation of 
the fore wings, especially the manner in which R^ and MA run closely parallel for an 
appreciable distance before MA bends rather suddenly towards the hind margin. 
The females are characterized by the long fore wings, which usually extend well 
beyond the hind knees. 

This species shows remarkable individual and geographical variation, and it is 
difficult with the material available at present to distinguish between these two 
components of its variability. The degree of attentuation is very variable ; this is 
shown best by the shape of the fore wings and their venation, and, in the female, 
by the shape of the pronotum and ovipositor. The most attenuate forms come from 
the northernmost part of the range, in Ethiopia and British Somaliland. Here, 
Rg is typically unbranched in the male fore wings (Text-fig. 19) and those of the 
female are extremely long and narrow ; in the latter sex the pronotum is relatively 
attenuate and the ovipositor (Text-fig, 106) longer and more slender than in more 
southerly specimens. The opposite extreme is shown by material from the vicinity 
of Mombasa : Kg is often branched in the male fore wings (Text-fig, 20), and in the 
female the pronotum, fore wings, and ovipositor (Text-fig. 104), are much less 
attenuate. The difference between the extreme forms of ovipositor (cf. Text-figs, 
104 and 106) is extraordinary and in other Phaneropterinae would suggest a generic 
distinction. Material from other parts of the range is generally intermediate 
between these two forms. Geographical variation is also shown by the terminal 
spine of the hind femur, which is well developed in the Mombasa specimens, poorly 
developed in material from most areas, and quite absent in specimens from the 
northernmost localities. Two female specimens collected at 7,000-8,000 ft. on 



298 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

Mt. Mem had relatively shorter fore wings than the remaining females, which were 
all from lower altitudes. 

Though sometimes obscured (and sometimes enhanced) by individual variation, 
the geographical effect is nevertheless a real one, and when more material is available 
it will doubtless be possible to delimit subspecies. The cause of the variation is 
almost certainly climatic, the more attenuate specimens coming from the most dry 
part of the range and the opposite extreme from the wettest. 

In view of the foregoing remarks, it is easy to understand why this species should 
have been named five times. Ruwenzori provides the type locality for two of these 
names, and the remaining three are widely spread over the remainder of the range, 
including the localities of the two extreme forms mentioned above. The holotypes 
were examined in every instance except EuthyphleUa parallela Schulthess ; in the 
latter case Dr. Capra of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa, very kindly 
supplied a description of the relevant characters and a photograph of the fore wing. 
There can be no doubt that all five names refer to the same species. 

I have selected and marked a male lectotype of this species. I have also selected 
and marked a lectotype from among the syntypes of Pantokpta kilimandjarica 
Sjostedt ; this specimen already carried a red type label. 
Material examined 

$ lectotype. $ holotype of Plegmatoptera hoehneli Brunner. (^ lectotype 
and two female syntypes of Pantolepta kilimandjarica Sjostedt. ^ holotype of 
Plegmatoptera gracilis Bolivar. 

Ethiopia : Harar, 12. vi, 1955 (Uvarov) (i (^, i $) ; Wambar Mariam, Mt. 
Zuquala, c. 7,000 ft., dry grass, 28.x. 1926 {Scott) (i c^) ; Geldi, 30.viii.1949 
{Bellehu) (i (^) ; nr. Valencheti, at light, 11, v. 1948 {Guichard) (i ^) ; British 
SoMALiLAND : Burao distr., El Humah, 18. x. 1935 {Peck) (i (^, i $) ; Hargeisa, 
4,100 ft., dry season, x.1932 {Taylor) (i ^) ; Somalia : Mogadiscio, 5.vi.i955 
{Uvarov) (i ^) ; Kenya : Makindu, 1.111.1954 {Waloff) (i S) ; Marsabit, vi . 1934 

(L. R. R. V. E.) (3 (^, 3 ?) ; Mombasa, Shimba Hills, iv.1955 ( ) (i ^) (National 

Museum of Southern Rhodesia) ; Mombasa L, Kilindini, v-vi.1955 (Brown) (i ^, 
I $); Mandera distr., Damassa, 03° 04' N., 41° 20' E,, desert grass and thorn-bush, 
17.xii.1944 {Kevan) (5 (^, i $) ; Moyale distr., Yasere, 03° 30' N., 38° 35' E., thorn- 
bush, 14. vi. 1946 {Kevan) (i cJ, i $) ; Moyale, N.F.D., cultivation, 8-10. vi. 1947 
{Kevan) (i (J, i $) ; Marsabit, N.F.D., upland grassland, 26,11.1944 {Kevan) 
(i $) ; Marsabit, Chopa Gof, 02° 25' N., 38° 03' E., scrubby bushes, 13. vi. 1946 
{Kevan) (i $) ; Samburu distr., vi.1944 {Opiko) (i $) ; Mtito Andei, nr. Lushoto, 
10. ii. 1955 {Haskell) (i ^) ; Tanganyika : Kilimanjaro, 1916 {West) (i ^, i $) 
(S. A. Mus.) ; Kilimanjaro, 3,000-5,000 ft., x. 1884 {Johnston) (2 ^,2 $) ; Mt. Meru, 
7,000-8,000 ft., i.1938 {Cooper) (i (^, 2 $) ; Morogoro, 1931-32 {Thompson) (3 ^) ; 
Songea, Litembo, 1,500 m., 20. ix. 1952 {Lindemann & Pavlitzki) (i ^) (Zoologisches 
Staatssammlung, Munich). 

In the British Museum (Natural History) unless otherwise stated. 

Distribution. This species occurs over most of the acacia semi-desert area of 
eastern Africa. It occurs on Kilimanjaro and has been found at a height of 7,000 ft. 
on Mt. Meru. 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 299 

7. Horatosphaga media sp. n. 

Holotype ^, Northern Rhodesia : Lusaka, x-xii.1956 (King). In the British 
Museum (Natural History). 

Diagnosis. (J. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 21, R^ usually bifiu^cating 
nearer base than tip of wing. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 64. 

$. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 86. Ovipositor as in Text-fig. 107. 

Description. (^. Fastigium of vertex sloping to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Fore femora with about 6-12 external 
spinules. Tympanic auricles of fore tibiae more or less strongly inflated. Mid 
femora with about 13-17 external spinules. Fore and mid femora usually with 
dorsal ridge at apex, often ending in small point. Hind femora with variable number 
of minute ventral spinules ; terminal dorsal spine rarely present. Hind tibiae 
with about 25-45 external dorsal spines. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 21 
Rg usually bifurcating nearer base than tip of wing. 

Tenth abdominal tergite very slightly enlarged. Supra-anal plate rounded, 
flap-like. Cerci moderately robust, apex sharply incurved and pointed. Sub- 
genital plate as in Text-fig. 64. 

General coloration green. Top of head, antennae, disc of pronotum, stridulatory 
organ, hind edge of fore wings, and top of abdomen, usually reddish brown. Legs 
often partly reddish brown, especially above. 

$. Fastigium of vertex sloping steeply to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae or showing tendency towards their formation, 
especially in posterior half. Armature of legs as in male, except that terminal 
dorsal spine of hind femora is more often present. Tympanic auricles of fore tibiae 
not inflated ; tympanic apertures slit-like. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 
86. 

Ovipositor as in Text-fig. 107 ; margins crenulate in distal half. 

General coloration green. Anterior margin of fore wings whitish with reddish 
submarginal band ; posterior margin sometimes reddish. Abdomen often with 
series of dark red spots on each side. 
Measurements 

Males 

Total length (20) : 40-0-47-8, mean 43-95. 
Median length of pronotum (20) : 4-7-5-9, mean 5-14. 
Length of hind femur (20) : 23-7-32-3, mean 28-53. 
Length of fore wing (20) : 30-0-37-8, mean 33-76. 

Females 

Total length (20) : 33-9-42-4, mean 37-77. 
Median length of pronotum (20) : 5-4-6-9, mean 5-84. 
Length of hind femur (17) : 24-4-30-4, mean 27-59. 
Length of fore wing (20) : 26-3-34-7, mean 30-88. 
Length of ovipositor (20) : 9-4-13-1, mean ii-io. 

ENTOM. 8, 7. II 



300 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

Variation. There is much variation in the armature of the legs. The degree 
of inflation of the tympanic auricles of the male fore tibiae is variable. The point 
at which Rg bifurcates in the fore wing varies a little in the male, and considerably 
in the female. There is much variation in the length of the ovipositor. 

Discussion. The venation of the fore wings and the genitalia serve to distin- 
guish both sexes of H. media sp. n. (Text-fig. i) from the other members of the genus. 

In view of the fact that many of the species of Horatosphaga Schaum have been 
described several times under different names, it seems strange that the present 
species, apparently quite common throughout Rhodesia, southern Belgian Congo, 
and south-west Tanganyika, should have remained undescribed ; possibly the 
reason lies in the fact that very little of its range has ever been German territory, 
and that the principal past workers on the group have been German. 

H. media sp. n. shows a certain amount of geographical variation. The most 
striking instance of this is the inflation of the tympanic auricles of the males, which 
is much more marked in the northern part of the range than in the southern part. 
When more material is available it may be possible to delimit subspecies. 

Material examined 

(J holotype ; i ^ paratype, same data as holotype ; 4 ^ and i $ paratypes. 
Southern Rhodesia : 5-6 miles east of Lusaka, iii-vi . 1956 [King) ; i ^ paratype. 
Southern Rhodesia : Salisbury distr., Marlborough, i.1952 (Lockbill) ; i ^ para- 
type. Southern Rhodesia: Salisbury distr., Widdecombe Park, 14.1.1950 
(Whellan) ; i ^ paratype, Southern Rhodesia : Salisbury distr., Widdecombe 
Park, 28.1.1948 (Whellan) ; i $ paratype. Southern Rhodesia : Salisbury distr., 
Widdecombe Park, 4.111.1950 {Whellan); i $ paratype. Southern Rhodesia: 
Salisbury distr., Hatfield, 27.11. 1952 (Whellan). 

Tanganyika : Tukuyu, 5,084 ft., ii.1924 (Miller) (2 ^) ; Tukuyu, 21.viii.1924 
(Miller) (i c?) ; Belgian Congo : Katanga, xii.1927 (Burr) (2 c?) ; Elisabethville, 
iv.1939 (Brddo) (2 c^) (Mus. Congo Beige); Elisabeth ville-Lubumbashi, v. 1929 
(Seydel) (2 c^) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Elisabethville, xi.1911 (Miss. Agric.) (1 ^) 
(Mus. Congo Beige) ; Jadotville, 1948 (Adelaide) (1 (J) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kinda, 
v-xii.1914 (Charliers) (1 ^, 3 $) (Mus. Congo Beige); Lubumbashi, 20. v. 191 1 
(Stappers) (1 (^) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kasenga, xii.1937 (Bredo) (1 ^, i $) (Mus. 
Congo Beige) ; Chunda, 20.xii.1907 (Neave) (i ^) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Gandajika, 
xi-xii:T95o (Francquen) (2 ^, 3 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kaniama, 1931 (Massart) 
(i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Nyangwe (Mayne) (i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Sankuru, 
Gandajika, 1953 (Francquen) (2 $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Sankuru, Gandajika, 
30. vi. 1950 (Francquen) (i $) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Lualaba, Kolwezi, iv.1954 
(Gilbert) (i ?) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Lualaba, Kolwezi, 15. iv. 1953 (Gilbert) (1^) (Mus. 
Congo Beige); Urundi, Bururi Makamba, 11-13.xii.1949 (Laurent) (i $) (Mus. 
Congo Beige); Angola: Moxico distr., R. Luena, Katula, 18. v. 1927 (Burr) 
(i (^, I $) ; Moxico distr., Busaco, 25. vi. 1927 (Burr) (i (J); Moxico distr., R. 
Camasamba, trib. of R. Lumeje, 11. vi. 1927 (Burr) (i $) ; Kalukembe, xii.1932 
(Miss. sc. Suisse) (i $) ; Northern Rhodesia : Congo Border, Kipushi, 9.iv.i928 
(Evans) {1 <^) ; Congo Border, Tshinsenda, 27.viii.1928 (Evans) (1 (S) ; Kipushi, 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 301 

2.1.1928 (Burr) (i ?) ; Southern Rhodesia: Salisbury, 1894 {Marshall) (i c^) 
(S. A. Mus.) ; Salisbury, 5,000 ft., ii-vi.1900 (Marshall) (2 (J) ; Salisbury, 5,000 ft., 
X.1899 [Marshall) {1 <^) ; Salisbury, 1905 (Marshall) (1 ^) ; Salisbury, ii.1901 
(Marshall) (1 $) ; Salisbury (Dodds) (i 9) (S. A. Mus.) ; Salisbury, 27.V.1912 

( ) (i ?) (coll. Whellan) ; Salisbury, light trap, 7-8. ii. 1957 (Whellan) (i ^) 

(coll. Whellan); Salisbury, Hatfield, on Aloe plant, 30.1.1957 (Whellan) (i $) 
(coll. Whellan). 

In the British Museum (Natural History) unless otherwise stated. 

Distribution. H. media sp. n. is distributed over much of Rhodesia, south-west 
Tanganyika, southern Belgian Congo, and the extreme east of Angola. The northern- 
most record is based on a female from Urundi, but the occurrence of this species 
at this latitude cannot be definitely established in the absence of the male sex. 

8. Horatosphaga stylifera (Kamy, 1910) comb. n. 

Pantolepta stylifera Kamy, 1910, Denkschr. med.-naturw. Ges. Jena, 16 : 51. 

Holotype ^, South- West Africa : Windhoek (Gentz). In the Zoologlsches 
Museum of the Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin. 

Diagnosis, c^. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 22. Subgenital plate 
as in Text-fig. 65. 
9 unknown. 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (5) : 40-5-42-9, mean 41-96. 

Median length of pronotum (5) : 4-6-5-2, mean 4-87. 

Length of hind femur (4) : 25-7-29-5, mean 27-70. 

Length of fore wing (5) : 30-9-34-4, mean 32-72. 
Discussion. The subgenital plate of the male of this species is approached in 
shape by that of H. linearis (Rehn) and H. longipes (Bolivar) , but the wing- venation 
is quite different and the terminal dorsal spine of the hind femora is almost or entirely 
absent. 

Material examined 

cJ holotype. 

South- West Africa : Tsumeb, 1924 (Brown) (1 (S) (S. A. Mus.) ; Okovango, 
Kuring Kuru, 11 . 1923 (Dickman) (i ^) (S. A. Mus.) ; Angola : Tchitunda ( ) 

(2 (?); 

In the British Museum (Natural History) unless otherwise stated. 
Distribution H. stylifera (Karny) is probably confined to South West Africa 
and Angola. 

9. Horatosphaga stuhlmanni (Karsch, 1896) comb. n. 

Conchotopoda stuhlmanni Karsch, 1896, Stettin ent. Ztg. 57 : 329. Holotype ^, Uganda (?) : 
Buginda, 11.vii.1894 {Stuhlmann). In the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt-Univer- 
sitat, Berlin. 



302 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

Horatosphaga (?) kasindina Rehn, 1914, Wiss. Ergebn. Zentral-Afrika-Exp. 5 : 160. Holotype $, 
Belgian Congo : Kasindi, i.igoS, In the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt-Univer- 
sitat, Berlin. Syn. n. 

Diagnosis. ^. Venation of fore wings as in Text-figs. 23 and 24 ; stridulatory 
rib of left fore wing long and conspicuous. Subgenital plate as in Text-figs. 66 and 
67. 

?. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 8y. Ovipositor as in Text-fig. 108. 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (10) : 3i-7-4i'5, mean 34'5o. 
Median length of pronotum (10) : 4-6-5-5, mean 5-09. 
Length of hind femur (10) : 23-5-28-5, mean 25-78. 
Length of fore wing (10) : 23-9-33-9, mean 26-91. 

Females 

Total length (13) : 29-4-35-8, mean 31-70. 
Median length of pronotum (12) : 5-0-6-7, mean 5-62. 
Length of hind femur (12) : 22-0-26-2, mean 23-85. 
Length of fore wing (13) : 23-3-27-3, mean 24-39. 
Length of ovipositor (13) : 9-3-11-4, mean 10-33. 

Discussion. The males of this species may be recognized by their wing-venation 
and the simple form of the subgenital plate. The females have relatively broader 
fore wings than H. linearis (Rehn) and H. longipes (Bolivar), and these organs lack 
the dark spots shown by the latter (and often the former) species ; this sex may be 
distinguished from H. leggei (Kirby) by the much longer ovipositor. 

Male specimens from the more southerly parts of the range (south of the equator) 
have very much shorter wings than is the case further north (cf . Text-figs. 23 and 24) ; 
the females show a similar tendency, though much less well marked. It will doubt- 
less later be possible to delimit a southern subspecies, but the material available at 
present is quite inadequate for this purpose. 

The holotype of H. kasindina Rehn was examined and found to be taxonomically 
indistinguishable from females of H. stuhlmanni (Karsch). It is rather unfortunate 
that this specimen comes from a locality almost on the equator, where the males 
may be intermediate in wing-length between the two forms mentioned above. 
If, therefore, the southern form is later given a subspecific name, it would be desirable 
for it to be given a new name and to be based on a male holotype from the vicinity 
of Lake Kivu. 

Material examined 

cJ holotype. $ holotype of Horatosphaga kasindina Rehn. 
Belgian Congo : Mabende, between Beni and Rutshuru, xii.1935 {Br€do) 
(4 (^. 5 ?) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Rutshuru, v. 1937 {Ghesguihre) (i ^) (Mus. Congo 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 303 

Beige); Kivu, Buseregenye, ix.1929 {Luja) (2 c^, i $) (Mus, Congo Beige); 
Rutshuru, 8. V. 1936 {Lippens) (i ^) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Lake Kivu, Rwankwi 
(Leroy) (i $) (Mus, Congo Beige) ; Lake Albert, Kasenyi, savannah bush, viii.1935 
{Johnston) (i $) ; Semliki Valley, Geti Falls, open bush, x.1945 (Johnston) (i $) ; 
Semliki Valley, Atibu Falls, open bush, x.1935 (Johnston) (i $) ; Mahagi Port, 
short grass plains near lake, 28. ix. 1935 (Johnston) (1 (^, 1 $). 

In the British Museum (Natural History) unless otherwise stated. 

Distribution. This species is apparently confined to the Albert-Edward-Kivu 
rift-valley. 

10. Horatosphaga somali (Schulthess, 1898) comb. n. 

Peronura Somali Schulthess, 1898, Ann. Mus. Stor. nat. Genova, 39 : 200, Holotype$, Somalia: 
Lugh, iv-v . 1 893 {Ruspoli) . In the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa. 

Rhegmatopoda peeli Burr, 1900, Proc. zool. Soc. Land. 1900 : 44. Holotype ^, British Somali- 
land : Whardi Datal, 26.vii.1895 (Peel). In the University Museum, Oxford. Syn. n. 

Diagnosis. ^. Fore wings of transparent texture ; venation as in Text-fig. 
25. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 68. 

$. Fore wings much reduced ; venation as in Text-fig. 88. Ovipositor as in 
Text-fig. 109. 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (7) : 38-5-43-4, mean 41-49. 
Median length of pronotum (7) : 47-5-8, mean 5-19. 
Length of hind femur (5) : 26-6-29-4, mean 27-48. 
Length of fore wing (6) : 29-5-33-9, mean 32-75. 

Females 

Total length (3) : 25-2-26-8, mean 26-07. 
Median length of pronotum (2) : 6-0-6-6, mean 6-30. 
Length of hind femur (3) : 26-0-27-7, mean 26-90. 
Length of fore wing (3) : 18-2-18-7, mean 18-40. 
Length of ovipositor (3) : 8-6-8-8, mean 8-70. 

Discussion. The extreme transparency of the male fore wings of this species is 
approached only by H. magna sp. n. and H. serrifera Schaum. The former of these 
two species is much larger than H. somali (Schulthess) ; the latter of the two is not 
known from north of the equator and differs in wing- venation, male subgenital 
plate, and ovipositor. 

Females of this species often have a white band along the anterior margin of the 
fore wing ; the veins are sometimes brown in colour, thus contrasting with the 
general green colour of the remainder of the wing. The brown coloration of the 
wing-veins is also shown by some female specimens of H. diminuta (Chopard) and 
H. ruspolii (Schulthess), and is usually associated with brown pigmentation along 
the top of the head and pronotum. This type of colour variation seems to be 
connected with deserticolous habits. 



304 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

Dr. F. Capra of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa, has very kindly sent 
me a photograph and description of the female holotype of this species. The 
extreme similarity between the females of H. diminuta (Chopard), H. ruspolii 
(Schulthess), and the present species, made it difficult to be certain which species 
this holotype represents. The sexual dimorphism shown by the genus has, further- 
more, made it no easy task to associate female specimens with the male holotype of 
Rhegmatopoda peeli Burr (which was available for study) . A very careful comparison 
has, however, been made, and the synonymy of the latter species with H. somali 
(Schulthess) was established on this basis. 

Material examined 

^ holotype of Rhegmatopoda peeli Burr. 

British Somaliland : Bohotlewein, 26.x. 1952 {Stephenson) (i ^) ; Hand, 
8° 28' N., 45° 38' E., 2,500 ft., night, 25 .v. 1932 [Taylor] (i <J) ; Hargeisa, 5 • vi. 1957 
[Roffey] (i ^) ; Las Anod, 16 . xi . 1935 {Peck) (i ?) ; Somalia : Lugh Ferrandi, 
II. xi. 1953 {Popov) (i (?) ; Ethiopia: Danot, 25. xi. 1953 {Popov) (3 ^) ; N. 
Ogaden, El Rago, 26. xi. 1953 {Popov) (2 $). 

All in the British Museum (Natural History). 

Distribution. H. somali (Schulthess) is confined to the acacia semi-desert of 
eastern Africa. 

II. Horatosphaga magna sp. n. 

Holotype (J, Ethiopia: Ogaden, nr. Scillare, 23. xi. 1953 {Popov). In the 
British Museum (Natural History). 

Diagnosis. ^. Fore wings exceeding 50 mm. in length ; venation as in 
Text-fig. 26. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 69. 

$. Fore wings exceeding 40 mm. in length ; venation as in Text-fig. 89. Ovi- 
positor as in Text-fig. no. 

Description. <J. Fastigium of vertex sloping to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Fore femora with about 10-15 external 
spinules. Tympanic auricles of fore tibiae moderately to strongly inflated. Mid 
femora with about 11-18 external spinules. Fore and mid femora usually with 
dorsal ridge at apex, not ending in point. Hind femora with about 10-20 external 
spinules ; terminal dorsal spine absent or almost so. Hind tibiae with about 20- 
40 external dorsal spines. Fore wings of shiny and rather transparent texture ; 
venation as in Text-fig. 26. 

Tenth abdominal tergite unmodified. Supra-anal plate flap-like, rounded or 
tending to be triangular. Cerci moderately robust, apex incurved and pointed. 
Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 69. 

General coloration green. Top of head, antennae, disc of pronotum, greater 
part of legs, stridulatory organ, and parts of abdomen, reddish brown. 
$. Fastigium of vertex sloping steeply to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae, though showing tendency towards their for- 
mation posteriorly. 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 305 

Armature of legs as in male, except that all femora often have terminal dorsal 
points and hind femora have about 17-23 external spinules. Tympanic auricles 
of fore tibiae not inflated ; tympanic apertures slit-like. Venation of fore wings 
as in Text-fig. 89. 

Ovipositor as in Text-fig. no ; margins crenulate in distal half. 

General coloration green. Top of head, antennae, disc of pronotum, and parts of 
legs, with variable amount of reddish brown (sides of pronotal disc sometimes black). 
Anterior edge of fore wings usually whitish, especially near base. 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (4) : 56-9-6i-2, mean 58-92. 
Median length of pronotum (4) : 7- 1-7-9, mean 7-54. 
Length of hind femur (5) : 35-9-40-0, mean 38-36. 
Length of fore wing (4) : 46-2-50-7, mean 48-42. 

Females 

Total length (4) : 48-1-57-8, mean 51-30. 
Median length of pronotum (4) : 8-3-9-1, mean 8-77. 
Length of hind femur (4) : 35-9-40-6, mean 38-58. 
Length of fore wing (4) : 36-6-46-4, mean 40-65. 
Length of ovipositor (4) : 12-9-14-3, mean 13-70. 

Variation. There is much variation in the armature of the legs. The degree 
of inflation of the tympanic auricles of the male fore tibiae is variable. The extent 
to which the terminal dorsal point of the female femora is developed varies greatly, 
and it is possible that this feature may be sometimes present in males. The male 
subgenital plate is rather variable in shape. The coloration varies greatly : the 
brown colouring is sometimes almost absent. 

Discussion. H. magna sp. n. is the largest known species of the genus. The 
males have the general appearance of a much larger version of H. somali (Schulthess) ; 
apart from size, the venation of the fore wings enables the males of these two species 
to be easily distinguished (cf. Text-figs. 25 and 26). The fore wings of the females 
of H. magna sp. n. are well developed, unlike the reduced female fore wings of 
H. somali (Schulthess). 

This species appears to be quite closely related to H. serrifera Schaum ; the chief 
differences lie in the male subgenital plate and the shape of the female fore wings. 
It seems very likely that H. magna sp. n. has developed comparatively recently from 
a deserticolous subspecies of H. serrifera Schaum. The range of the latter species 
extends over the whole of the low grass savanna and dry woodland of south and 
central Africa, but reaches its northernmost point at the southern limit of the semi- 
desert of eastern Africa. As far as is known at present, the two species are com- 
pletely allopatric. 



3o6 the acrometopae of the ethiopian region 

Material examined 

(J holotype ; 3 (^ and 2 $ paratypes, same data as holotype ; i ^ paratype, 
Ethiopia : Danot, 25. xi. 1953 {Popov). 

Kenya : Marsabit, Chopa Gof, 02° 25' N., 38° 03' E., scrubby bushes, 13. vi. 1946 
{Kevan) (2 $). 

All in the British Museum (Natural History). 

Distribution. H. magna sp. n. probably occurs over a large part of the acacia 
semi-desert area of eastern Africa. 

12. Horatosphaga elongata (Rehn, 1914) comb. n. 

Conchotopoda elongata Rehn, 1914, Wiss. Ergebn. Zentral-Afrika-Exp. 5 : 163. Holotype <J, 
Belgian Congo : Usumbura, xi-xii. 1907 (von Stegmann & Stein). In the Zoologisches 
Museum of the Humboldt-Universitat, Beriin. 

? Horatosphaga (?) kandti Rehn, 1914, Wiss. Ergebn. Zentral-Afrika-Exp. 5 : 167. Holotype $, 
Belgian Congo : Lake Kivu (Kandt). In the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt- 
Universitat, Berlin. (See below.) 

Diagnosis. ^. Venation of fore wings as in Text-figs. 27 and 28. Hind femora 
with dorsal ridge at apex, usually ending in spine or point. Subgenital plate as 
in Text-fig. 70. 

$ unknown (but see below) . 
Measurements (mostly unavailable due to poorness of material) 

Males 

Median length of pronotum (2) : 4-8-5-5, mean 5-15. 
Length of hind femur (2) : 25'4-28-3, mean 26-85. 

Discussion. This species occupies a rather anomalous position in the genus. 
Although quite a large amount of material of Horatosphaga Schaum has been available 
for study from the provinces of Kivu, Ruanda, and Urundi, no specimens have been 
found which correspond exactly with the holotype (locality : Usumbura) or paratype 
(locality : Lake Kivu) of H. elongata (Rehn). Four male specimens from this part 
of Belgian Congo, however, differ only by their shorter wings, and probably represent 
a rather brachypterous form of the species. In the fore wings of three of these 
specimens (from Uvira and Costermansville, Kivu, and Nyangwe, Ruanda) Rg is 
unbranched ; in the fourth (from Kahondo, Kivu) this vein is branched, though not 
so distinctly as in the holotype and paratype (cf. Text-figs. 27 and 28). 

The simple form of the male subgenital plate of this species is approached by 
H. stuhlmanni (Karsch). In view of the fact that the latter species already shows 
considerable geographical variation in wing-length, it is just possible that H. elongata 
(Rehn) is another extreme variant of it. 

As the female holotype of H. kandti Rehn bears the same data as the male paratype 
of H. elongata (Rehn), and these two specimens are the only ones of the genus 
collected on this expedition to do so, it seems quite likely that the former specimen 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 307 

is a female of the present species. However, this female specimen is indistinguishable 
from females of H. linearis (Rehn), which are also known from the same locality, 
and it is quite impossible to establish a definite synonymy at this stage of our know- 
ledge of the group. 

Material examined 

(J holotype ; $ paratype, Belgian Congo : Lake Kivu (Kandt) (same depository 
as holotype). $ holotype of H. kandti Rehn. 

Belgian Congo : Kivu, Uvira, xii.1952 {Basilewsky) (i ^) (Mus. Congo Beige); 
Kivu, Kahondo, 29. v. 1938 {Hendrickx) (i (^) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Kivu, Coster- 
mansville, 1951 {Bomans) (i c^^) (Mus. Congo Beige) ; Ruanda, Nyangwe, viii- 
xi.1946 [Scholl) (i ^) (Mus. Congo Beige). 

Distribution. The known distribution of this species is confined to the pro- 
vinces of Kivu, Ruanda, and Urundi. 



13. Horatosphaga regularis (Bolivar, 1922) comb. n. 

Eupantolepta regularis Bolivar, 1922, Voy. M. Rothschild E. Afr. Anim. Art. 1 : 200. Holotj^pe 
(J, Kenya : south of Lake Rudolph, 1905 {Rothschild). In the Mus6um National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

Diagnosis. (J. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 29. Subgenital plate as 
in Text-fig. 71. 
$ unknown. 

Measurements 

Males 
Total length (i) : 42-2. 
Median length of pronotum (i) : 5-3. 
Length of hind femur (i) : 25-0. 
Length of fore wing (2) : 29-4-32-7, mean 31-05. 

Discussion. This species resembles H. elongata (Rehn) in its wing-venation, 
and is equally puzzUng in its status. Although a few specimens from various 
localities in eastern Africa bear quite a close resemblance to the holotype, none 
corresponds exactly and only one specimen, from Kenya, can be regarded with any 
confidence ".s being conspecific. The possibility that these two specimens represent 
a form of H. elongata (Rehn) cannot be ruled out. A third specimen, from the 
Rukwa Valley, Tanganjdka, may also belong to this complex, and rather suggests 
that the group may be confined in distribution to the rift-valleys of eastern Africa. 

It is just possible that the holotype of Plegmatoptera reticulata Karsch, 1888 
(type locality ; Lake Tanganyika) is a female of this species. H. regularis (Bolivar) 
is the only species of the genus occurring in this part of Africa of which the female is 
not yet known, and the dimensions of the holotype of P. reticulata Karsch, which are 
given below, conform quite well with this possibility. 



3o8 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

Plegmatoptera reticulata Karsch, 1888, Berl. ent. Z. 32 : 429. Holotype ?, Tanganyika : 
Lake Tanganyika (Reichard). In the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat, 
Berlin, 

Measurements of holotype (total length unmeasurable). 
Median length of pronotum : 5-7. 
Length of hind femur : 28-9. 
Length of fore wing : 25-0. 
Length of ovipositor : iS-o. 

Material examined 

(^ holotype. 

Kenya : , 18.xi.1919 ( ) (i c^) (British Museum (Natural History)). 

Distribution. The two known specimens of this species are from Kenya. 



14. Horatosphaga concava sp. n. 

Holotype ^, Uganda : Gulu, v. 1925 {Carpenter). In the British Museum 
(Natural History). 

Diagnosis. ,^. Tenth abdominal tergite enlarged, markedly emarginate 
posteriorly (Text-fig. 79). Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 30 ; R^ unbranched. 
Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 72, with rounded lobes. 
$ unknown. 

Description. ^. Fastigium of vertex sloping to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Fore femora with about 7-8 external spinules. 
Tympanic auricles of fore tibiae moderately inflated. Mid femora with about 8-12 
external spinules. Fore and mid femora with dorsal ridge at apex, ending in small 
point or spine. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 30 ; Rg unbranched. 

Tenth abdominal tergite enlarged, markedly emarginate posteriorly (Text-fig. 79). 
Supra-anal plate rounded, flap-like. Cerci moderately robust, apex incurved and 
pointed. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 72, with rounded lobes. 

General coloration green, with red-brown markings on fastigium of vertex, sides of 
pronotal disc and top of abdomen, and with red-brown spots on pronotal disc and 
abdominal tergites. Tips of cerci dark brown. 
$ unknown. 

Measurements 

Male 
Total length : 35-2. 
Median length of pronotum : 4-9, 
Length of fore wing : 28-2. 
Variation. The two known specimens of this species do no differ from each 
other in any important respect. 

Discussion. The excised tenth abdominal tergite is found elsewhere in the genus 
only in the two brachypterous species H. nomima (Karsch) and H. montivaga 
(Sjostedt). The hind legs were missing in both the available specimens. 



the acrometopae of the ethiopian region 309 

Material examined 
(J holotype. 

Sudan : Gell River Post, 70 miles from Bahr-el-Gebel, 5° 54' N., 30° 45' E., 
1923 [Moysey) (i c^) (British Museum (Natural History)). 

Distribution. H. concava sp. n. is quite possibly confined to southern Sudan 
and the extreme north-west of British East Africa. 

15. Horatosphaga nuda sp. n. 

Holotype ^, Sudan : Imatong Mtns., Kippia, 9,000 ft., 10. ii. 1936 {Johnston). 
In the British Museum (Natural History). 

Diagnosis. ^. Fore wings less than 25 mm, in length, tapering to more or less 
acute tip ; venation as in Text-fig. 31. Hind wings rudimentary. Subgenital 
plate as in Text-fig. 73. 

$. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 90. Ovipositor as in Text-fig. iii. 

Description. ^. Fastigium of vertex sloping steeply to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Femora unarmed. Tympanic auricles of 
fore tibiae hardly inflated. Fore and mid femora with slight dorsal ridge at apex, 
not ending in point ; hind femora without terminal dorsal spine. Hind tibiae 
with about 14 external dorsal spines. Fore wings tapering to more or less acute 
tip ; venation as in Text-fig. 31. 

Tenth abdominal tergite unmodified. Supra-anal plate rounded, flap-like. 
Cerci relatively long, moderately robust, apex sharply incurved. Subgenital plate 
as in Text-fig. 73. 

General coloration probably green. Disc of pronotum brown. 
$. Fastigium of vertex sloping steeply to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Femora unarmed or with few very small 
ventral spinules. Tympanic auricles of fore tibiae not inflated ; tympanic apertures 
slit-like. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 90. 

Ovipositor as in Text-fig. iii ; margins crenulate in distal half. 

General coloration probably green. Disc of pronotum brown. Anterior margin 
of fore wings whitish. 

Measurements Males 

Total length (2) : 25-0-25-6, mean 25-30. 
Median length of pronotum (i) : 5-3. 
Length of hind femur (i) : 19*2. 
Length of fore wing (2) : i9*9-20-8, mean 20*35. 

Females 

Total length (5) : 2/^-/^-27-^, mean 26-24. 
Median length of pronotum (4) : 5-3-5-4, mean 5-32. 
Length of hind femur (6) : 17-6-19-7, mean 18-85. 
Length of fore wing (5) : 18-0-20-8, mean 19-68. 
Length of ovipositor (5) : 11-7-12-7, mean 12-30. 



3IO THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

Variation. Some females have a few very small ventral spinules on all three 
pairs of femora : others have no femoral armature. The femora of the male holo- 
type are all unarmed, but it is likely that some males have some very small femoral 
spinules as in the females. 

Discussion. The complete, or almost complete, absence of femoral armature is 
shared within the genus only by H. meruensis (Sjostedt) ; the males of these two 
species also correspond in their rudimentary hind wings. The venation of the fore 
wings enables both sexes of the two species to be distinguished from each other. 

A male specimen from Karamoja, Uganda, was found to differ from the holotype 
of H. nuda sp. n. only in having the femora armed with spines, as is usual in the 
genus. Other differences are extremely slight, and it seems quite possible that the 
two specimens are conspecific. If this is so the lack of femoral armature in the 
holotype may well be a subspecific character. This problem can only be settled 
when more material is available and the relation between the individual and geo- 
graphical components of the variation can be assessed. 

Material examined 

(J holotype ; 2 $ paratypes, same data as holotype ; 4 $ paratypes, Sudan : 
Imatong Mtns., Kippia, 9,500 ft., 11,1936 {Johnston). 

All in the British Museum (Natural History). 

Distribution, This species is known definitely only from the type locality. 
The discussion above, however, suggests that the range may include northern 
Uganda. 

16. Horatosphaga meruensis (Sjostedt, 1909) comb. n. 

Plegmatoptera meruensis Sjostedt, 1909, Wiss. Ergehn. Schwed. Zool. Expdn. Kilimandjaro, 
Meru, 1905-06, 17: 130. Lectotype ^, Tanganyika: Mt. Meru, Ngare na nyuki, i.1906 
{Sjostedt). 4 (J syntypes and 3 $ syntypes, at least one of which is from Tanganyika : 
KiUmanjaro, Kibonoto, i-iv. 1906 ; those not from this locaUty are from locality of lectotype. 
Lectotype and most of syntypes in the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Stockholm. 

Diagnosis. ^. Fore wings less than 25 mm. in length, tapering to slender 
tip ; venation as in Text-fig. 32. Hind wings rudimentary. Subgenital plate as in 
Text-fig. 74. 

$. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 91. Ovipositor as in Text-fig. 112. 

Measurements Male 

Total length : 22-4. 
Median length of pronotum : 4-3. 
Length of hind femur : 20-4. 
Length of fore wing : 18-9. 

Females 

Total length (2) : 25-I-27-2, mean 26-15. 
Median length of pronotum (2) : 4-2-4-7, mean 4-45. 
Length of hind femur (2) : i9-o-20-4, mean 19-70. 
Length of fore wing (2) : 20-4-21-6, mean 21-00. 
Length of ovipositor (2) : 9*5-9'5, mean 9-50. 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 3" 

Discussion. The characteristics of H. meruensis (Sjostedt) and its relationship 
to H. nuda sp. n. are discussed under that species. 

I have selected and marked a male lectotype from among the syntypes of this 
species ; this specimen already carried a red type label. 

Material examined 

^ lectotype ; 2 ? syntypes, same data as lectotype. 
Distribution. Known only from the type localities. 

17. Horatosphaga nomima (Karsch, 1896) comb. n. 

Peronura nomima Karsch, 1896, Stettin ent. Ztg. 57 : 327. i $ syntype, Tanganyika: Mpwapwa, 
5.vi.i89o [Stuhlmann) ; 2 $ syntypes, Tanganyika: Mpwapwa, 7.vi. 1890 (5^MA/ma««). 
Both in the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt-Universitat, BerUn. 

Diagnosis. ^. Tenth abdominal tergite emarginate posteriorly (similar to 
Text-fig. 80). Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 33. Subgenital plate as in 
Text-fig. 75. 

$ No material available. 

Measurements 

Male 

Total length : 307. 

Median length of pronotum : 5-8. 

Length of hind femur : 25-2. 

Length of fore wing : 24-0. 
Discussion. The emarginate tenth abdominal tergite of the male of this species 
is found elsewhere in the genus (apart from the fully winged H. concava sp, n.) 
only in H. montivaga (Sjostedt) ; it differs from the latter species in lacking the 
verrucose pronotal disc and the black spots on the fore wings. 

A male specimen in the British Museum (Natural History) from Mroke, Tangan- 
yika, probably belongs to this species, though being of quite considerably larger 
size (median length of pronotum : 7-0 ; length of hind femur : 30-0 ; length of 
fore wing : 25-4). 
Material examined 

^ syntype. 

Distribution. This species, though known for certain only from the type 
locality, probably occurs over a large area of Tanganyika. 

18. Horatosphaga montivaga (Sjostedt, 1909) comb. n. 

Peronura montivaga Sjostedt, 1909, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Zool. Expdn. Kilimandjaro, Meru, 
1905-06, 17: 129. Lectotype cj, Tanganyika: Kihmanjaro, Kibonoto, iii.1906 {Sjostedt). 
4 (J syntypes and 3 $ syntypes, at least one of which is from Tanganyika : Mt. Meru, 
xii. 1905-i. 1906 ; those not from this locality are from locality of lectotype. Lectotype and 
most of syntypes in the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Stockholm. 

Diagnosis. (^. Tenth abdominal tergite emarginate posteriorly (Text-fig. 80). 
Fore wings with small dark spots ; venation as in Text-fig. 34. Subgenital plate as 
in Text-fig. 75. Pronotal disc markedly verrucose. 



312 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

$. Fore wings with small dark spots ; venation as in Text-fig. 92. Ovipositor 
as in Text-fig. 113. Pronotal disc markedly vernicose. 

Measurements 

Male 
Total length : 27-4. 
Median length of pronotum : 6-0. 
Length of hind femur : 29-0. 
Length of fore wing : 20-5. 

Female 
Total length : 29-5. 
Median length of pronotum : 6'3. 
Length of hind femur : 24-9. 
Length of fore wing : 23-4. 
Length of ovipositor : 13-9. 

Discussion. The vernicose pronotal disc is unique in the genus. 

H. montivaga (Sjostedt) may possibly be a subspecies of H. nomima (Karsch), 
which it closely resembles in every feature of taxonomic importance except the 
vernicose pronotal disc and spotted fore wings. It is, however, quite impossible 
to settle this matter with the material at present available. 

I have selected and marked a male lectotype from among the syntypes of this 
species ; this specimen already carried a red type label. 

Material examined 

^ lectotype ; i $ syntype, Tanganyika : Kilimanjaro, Kibonoto, 1,000- 
1,200 m., 22. iv. 1906 (Sjostedt). 
Distribution. Known only from the type localities. 

19. Horatosphaga elgonis (Chopard, 1938) comb. n. 

Peronura elgonis Chopard, 1938, Mem. Mus. Hist, nat., Paris, 8 : 119. Holotype cj, Kenya : 
Mt. Elgon, Elgon Saw Mill, 2,470 m., 1932-33 {Mission Scientifique de I'Omo). In the Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

Diagnosis. ^. Tenth abdominal tergite much enlarged, forming hood over 
supra-anal plate (Text-fig. 53). Subgenital plate large and robust, as in Text-fig. 53. 
Fore wings less than 20 mm. in length, not reaching hind knees ; venation as in 
Text-fig. 35. Hind wings rudimentary. 

$. Hind femora less than 21 mm. in length. Venation of fore wings as in 
Text-fig. 93. Ovipositor as in Text-fig. 114. 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (5) : I7-9-24-4, mean 2076. 
Median length of pronotum (5) : 3-9-4-I, mean 3-96. 
Length of hind femur (5) : I7-4-20-2, mean 18-70. 
Length of fore wing (5) : i4-o-i9-3, mean i6-oo. 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 313 

Females 

Total length (4) : 22-5-25-2, mean 23-92. 
Median length of pronotum (4) : 4-2-5-I, mean 4-61. 
Length of hind femur (4) : i6-9-i9-8, mean 18-25. 
Length of fore wing (4) : 17-0-19-0, mean 17-92. 
Length of ovipositor (4) : 6-2-6-9, mean 6-60. 

Discussion. The tenth abdominal tergite of the male is unique in the genus, 
being much enlarged but not forming the knob-like structure shown by H. ruspolii 
(Schulthess), H. diminuta (Chopard), and H. vidua (Chopard). The only other 
species of Horatosphaga Schaum which have an enlarged tenth abdominal tergite 
are H. inclusa (Karsch) and H. crosskeyi sp. n., which are West African and have 
well-developed hind wings in the male. Females of H. elgonis (Chopard) may be 
recognized by their small size and short ovipositor. 

This species is a rather aberrant member of the genus, but the basal structure of 
the male fore wings shows (though in a state of advanced reduction) unmistakable 
signs of the modifications of areas MA and Cui^ which are characteristic of Horato- 
sphaga Schaum. 

Material examined 

(^ holotype ; i $ paratype, Kenya : Mt. Elgon, heath zone, 3,500 m., 1932-33 
{Mission Scientifique de lOmo) (same depository as holotype). 

Kenya: Mt. Elgon, heath zone, 10,500-11,500 ft., ii.1935 {Edwards) {1 3) \ 
Aberdare Range, Mt. Kinangop, 9,000 ft., 25.x. 1934 {Edwards) (i S) \ Uganda : 

Mt. Elgon ( ) (i $) ; Butandiga, 11. i. 1930 {Har greaves) (i (^, i $) ; Kidongole, 

3.xii.i9io {Gowdey) (i $) ; N. W. Monjeri (?), 6,000-7,000 ft., 23-27. xii. 1926 
{Hancock) (i (^). 

Distribution. It is clear from the data given above that H. elgonis (Chopard) 
is a mountain species. Its known distribution is confined to the Aberdare Range 
and the vicinity of Mt. Elgon. 

20. Horatosphaga ruspolii (Schulthess, 1898) comb. n. 

Conchotopoda ruspolii Schulthess, 1898, Ann. Mus. Stor. nat. Genova, 39 : 204. Holotype ^, 
Kenya: Balessa, 10. x. 1893 {Ruspoli). In the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa. 

} Peronura rivae Schulthess, 1898, Ann. Mus. Stor. nat. Genova, 39 : 201. Holotype $, 
Ethiopia : Dolo, v. 1893 {Ruspoli). In the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa. (See 
below.) 

Horatosphaga trochlearis Bolivar, 1922, Voy. M. Rothschild E. Afr. Anim. Art. 1 : 199. Holo- 
type ^, Kenya : south of Lake Rudolph, 1905 {Rothschild). In the Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Syn. n. 

IPeronura viridis Chopard, 1954, Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 105 : 318. Holotype ?, Kenya : 
Isiolo distr., Bambota, 00° 20' N., 38° 20' E., desert scrub, 6.vi.i946 (Kevan). In the 
British Museum (Natural History). (See below.) 

Peronura samhuru Kevan, 1954, Trans R. ent. Soc. Lond. 105 : 320. Holotype ^, Kenya : 
Samburu. Barsalinga Drift, xi.1946 [Hamilton). In the British Museum (Natural History). 
Syn. n. 



314 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

Diagnosis. c^. Tenth abdominal tergite greatly enlarged and completely 
concealing supra-anal plate, as in Text-figs. 45-50. Subgenital plate large and 
robust, as in Text-fig. 76. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 36. 
$ unknown (but see below). 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (10) : 3y-y-44-y, mean 39-96. 
Median length of pronotum (9) : 4'7-5-7, mean 5-06. 
Length of hind femur (5) : 247-28-4, mean 26-34. 
Length of fore wing (10) : 29-4-35-2, mean 31-11. 

? Females (see below) 

Total length (2) : 25-0-26-6, mean 25-80. 
Median length of pronotum (i) : 5-9. 
Length of hind femur (i) : 29-3. 
Length of fore wing (2) : 17-9-19-0, mean 18-45. 
Length of ovipositor (2) : 9-8-10-3, mean 10-05. 

Discussion. The males of this species may be recognized by the genitalia and 
fully developed wings. The only other species of Horatosphaga Schaum with this 
type of male genitalia are H. diminuta (Chopard) and H. vicina (Chopard), which 
have reduced fore wings and rudimentary hind wings. 

The shape of the male tenth abdominal tergite of this species varies enormously. 
The series illustrated in Text-figs. 45-50 shows the gradually increasing development 
of the lateral lobe at the expense of the distal lobe. The extremes, Text-figs. 
45 and 50, might well be regarded as distinct species in the absence of the four 
intermediate forms. The holotype of Peronura samburu Kevan agrees almost 
exactly with that of H. trochlearis Bolivar (Text-fig. 46) in the shape of this structure. 
The holotype of H. ruspolii (Schulthess) is intermediate in this respect between 
Text-figs. 45 and 46. A photograph, drawings, and a description of the latter 
specimen were kindly provided by Dr. F. Capra, of the Museo Civico di Storia 
Naturale, Genoa, and there is no doubt that these three holotypes are conspecific. 

Although the female of H. ruspolii (Schulthess) is not yet known for certain, it 
is very probable that a female specimen (Text-figs. 94 and 115) bearing very similar 
data to the male from El Carre (collected the day before only a few miles away, 
and with similar coloration) belongs to this species. A further female bearing the 
same data as a male from Damassa, except for date, is probably also of this species. 
These females (which are very similar to females of H. diminuta (Chopard)) correspond 
closely with the female holotype of Peronura rivae Schulthess, a photograph and 
description of which were kindly supplied by Dr. Capra ; a definite synonymy, 
however, cannot be established until more material is available. This is also true 
of the female holotype of Peronura viridis Chopard, which is very probably either 
the present species or H. diminuta (Chopard). 



the acrometopae of the ethiopian region 315 

Material examined 

(^ holotype of H. trochlearis Bolivar. $ holotype of Peronura viridis Chopard. 
(^ holotype of Peronura samburu Kevan. 

Ethiopia : Ogaden, El Carre, 05° 51' N., 42° 06' E., 3,000 ft,, scrub, 4.vi.i947 
{Kevan) (i (J) ; Ogaden, nr. El Mara, 05° 48' N., 42° 07' E., 2,000 ft., thorn-bush, 
3.vi.i947 {Kevan) (i $) ; Somalia : Damassa, 03° 09' N., 41° 20' E., desert grass 
and thorn-bush, 19.xii.1944 {Kevan) (2 (^) ; Damassa, 03° 09' N., 41° 20' E., 
desert grass and thorn-bush, 24. v. 1947 {Kevan) (i $) ; Kenya : Wajir, desert 
grass and thorn-bush, 7.1.1945 {Kevan) (i ^) ; Garissa distr., Lak Telangor, 00° 
30' N., 39° 18' E., desert grass and thorn-bush, 26.1.1944 {Kevan) (i (J) ; Uganda : 
Turkana, 1934 {Buxton) (4 c^). 

All in the British Museum (Natural History) . 

Distribution. The known range of this species is confined to an area of steppe 
and semi-desert associated with the northern border of Kenya. 

21. Horatosphaga diminuta (Chopard, 1954) comb. n. 

Peronura diminuta Chopard, 1954, Trans. R. eni. Soc. Lond. 105 : 319. Holotype ^, Kenya : 
Moyale, open bush, 15. vi. 1946 {Kevan). In the British Museum (Natural History). 

Diagnosis. c^. Tenth abdominal tergite greatly enlarged and completely 
concealing supra-anal plate, as in Text-figs. 51 and 52. Subgenital plate large and 
robust, as in Text-fig. 77. Fore wings not reaching hind knees, usually less than 
25 mm. in length ; venation as in Text-fig. 37. Hind wings greatly reduced or 
rudimentary. 

$. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 95. Ovipositor as in Text-fig. 116, 
less than 12 mm. in length. 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (10) : 26-3-32-0, mean 30-14. 
Median length of pronotum (14) : 4-7-6'i, mean 5-55. 
Length of hind femur (15) : 22*7-28'2, mean 25-59. 
Length of fore wing (13) : 18-9-25-7, mean 22-92. 

Females 

Total length (10) : 20-5-26-1, mean 23-00. 
Median length of pronotum (11) : 5-6-6-6, mean 6-03. 
Length of hind femur (8) : 23-4-27-8, mean 25-29. 
Length of fore wing (11) : 13-3-17-8, mean 15-19. 
Length of ovipositor (10) : 9-8-10-8, mean 10-39. 

Discussion. In the nature of the male genitalia this species is approached 
only by H. vicina (Chopard) and H. ruspoln (Schulthess). The latter species, 
however, is fully winged, and H. vicina (Chopard) is much larger. The similarity 
between H. vicina (Chopard) and H. ruspolii (Schulthess) is so close that it is quite 

ENTOM. 8, 7. 12 



3i6 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

possible that they represent brachypterous and macropterous forms of the same 
species. 

Material examined 

^ holotype ; i $ paratype, same data and depository as holotype. 

Kenya : Moyale, open bush, 15. vi. 1946 {Kevan) (5 ^,2 $) ; Moyale, cultiva- 
tion, 8-10. vi. 1947 (Kevan) (7 cJ, 3 ?) ; Moyale distr., Yasere, 03° 30' N., 38° 
35' E., thorn-bush, 14, vi. 1946 (Kevan) (2 $) ; Moyale, 1954 (Clifford) (1 (J, i $) ; 
Marsabit, vi.1934 (L.R.R.V.E.) (4 <^, i $). 

All in the British Museum (Natural History). 

Distribution. This species is known only from a very small area of Kenya, 
on or near the northern border. 

22. Horatosphaga vicina (Chopard, 1954) comb. n. 

Peronura vicina Chopard, 1954, Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 105:318. Holotype $, Kenya: 
Marsabit, Chopa Gof, 02° 25' N., 38° 03' E., scrubby bushes, 13. vi. 1946 {Kevan). In the 
British Museum (Natural History). 

Diagnosis. c^. Tenth abdominal tergite greatly enlarged and completely 
concealing supra-anal plate, similar to Text-figs. 51 and 52. Subgenital plate 
large and robust, as in Text-fig. 78. Fore wings not reaching hind knees, but usually 
more than 25 mm. in length ; venation as in Text-fig. 38. Hind wings greatly 
reduced or rudimentary. 

$. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 96. Ovipositor as in Text-fig. 117, 
more than 12 mm. in length. 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (3) : 32-0-35-2, mean 33-50. 
Median length of pronotum (3) : 6"9-7-i, mean 7-02. 
Length of hind femur (3) : 29-2-3I-4, mean 29-97. 
Length of fore wing (3) : 25-0-26-9, mean 25-97. 

Females 

Total length (2) : 23-5-27-0, mean 25-25. 

Median length of pronotum (2) : 7-2-7-4, mean 7-30. 

Length of hind femur (i) : 25-4. 

Length of fore wing (2) : 14-8-17-0, mean 15-90. 

Length of ovipositor (i) : 13-3. 

Discussion. This species differs from H. diminuta (Chopard) only in being con- 
siderably larger. The general high degree of variability in the genus suggests the 
possibility that H. vicina (Chopard) is a large form of H. diminuta (Chopard). How- 
ever, no intermediate specimens are so far known and it is impossible to draw 
definite conclusions at present. (For a possible synonymy of H. vicina (Chopard) 
with Peronura hildehrandtiana Karsch see p. 320.) 



the acrometopae of the ethiopian region 317 

Material examined 

$ holotype ; i (^ paratype, same data and depository as holotype. 
Kenya : Marsabit, Chopa Gof, 02° 25' N., 38° 03' E., scrubby bushes, 13. vi. 1946 
(Kevan) (3 <^, 1 ?). 
All in the British Museum (Natural History). 
Distribution. Known only from the type locality. 

23. Horatosphaga inclusa (Karsch, 1893) comb. n. 

Pachypyga inclusa Karsch, 1893, Berl. ent. Z. 38 : 125. One ^ syntype and 5 $ syntypes, 
French West Africa : Bismarckburg, xi-xii.1890 (BiiUner). In the Zoologischcs Museum 
of the Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin. 

Diagnosis. c^. Tenth abdominal tergite greatly enlarged and completely 
concealing supra-anal plate, as in Text-fig. 54. Cerci swollen in basal half. Sub- 
genital plate large and robust, as in Text-fig. 54. Fore wings not reaching hind 
knees, usually less than 26 mm. in length ; venation as in Text-fig. 39. 

$. Fore wings less than 25 mm. in length ; venation as in Text-fig. 97. Ovi- 
positor more than 10 mm. in length, shaped as in Text-fig. 118. 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (2) : 29'3-33-2, mean 31-25. 

Median length of pronotum (2) : 4-8-5-4, mean 5-10. 

Length of hind femur (i) : 26-9. 

Length of fore wing (2) : 22-4-26-I, mean 24-25. 

Females 

Total length (4) : 30-0-32-1, mean 31-00. 
Median length of pronotum (4) : 5-7-6-3, mean 6-00, 
Length of hind femur (4) : 26-7-29-0, mean 27-88. 
Length of fore wing (4) : 21-6-24-6, mean 23-52. 
Length of ovipositor (4) : 12-6-14-0, mean 13-38. 

Discussion. The nature of the male genitalia of this species is approached 
only by that of H. crosskeyi sp. n., in which, however, the tenth abdominal tergite 
is bilobed and the fore wings are more than 25 mm. in length. Females of 
H. inclusa (Karsch) may be distinguished from those of H. crosskeyi sp. n. by the 
much larger ovipositor. 

Material examined 

I ? syntype. 

French West Africa : Bismarckburg, i.1891 [BUttner) (i $) (Nat. Mus. 
Vienna); Ghana: Northern Territories, Sarkwalla, 4-7.xi.1915 {Simpson) {2^, 
2 $) (British Museum (Natural History)). 

ENTOM. 8, 7. I2§ 



3i8 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

Distribution. Though known only from the locaHties mentioned above, it is 
probable that H. inclusa (Karsch) also occurs over a large area to the west of Ghana. 
To the east it is apparently replaced by H. crosskeyi sp. n. 



24. Horatosphaga crosskeyi sp. n. 

Holotype ^, Nigeria : Niger Province, Diko, 8 miles north of Abuja, iv.1956 
{Crosskey). In the British Museum (Natural History). 

Diagnosis. (^. Tenth abdominal tergite greatly enlarged and completely 
concealing supra-anal plate, as in Text-figs. 120-122. Cerci moderately swollen 
in basal half. Subgenital plate large and robust, as in Text-fig. 55. Fore wings 
usually reaching hind knees, more than 25 mm. in length ; venation as in Text-fig 40. 
$. Fore wings more than 25 mm. in length ; venation as in Text-fig. 98. Ovi- 
positor less than 10 mm. in length, shaped as in Text-fig. 119. 






120 121 122 

Figs. 120-122. Dorsal view of the male tenth abdominal tergite of Horatosphaga crosskeyi 
sp. n. from (120) Song, Adamawa Province ; (121) Diko, Niger Province ; (122) Azare, 
Azare Province. 



Description. ^. Fastigium of vertex sloping to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Fore femora with about 7-13 external 
spinules. Tympanic auricles of fore tibiae hardly inflated. Mid femora with about 
9-13 external spinules. Fore and mid femora with dorsal ridge at apex, ending 
in point. Hind femora with about 9-12 external spinules ; terminal dorsal spine 
absent. Hind tibiae with about 25-40 external dorsal spines. Venation of fore 
wings as in Text-fig. 40. 

Tenth abdominal tergite greatly enlarged and completely concealing supra-anal 
plate, as in Text-figs. 120-122. Cerci moderately swollen in basal half, apex curved 
inwards. Subgenital plate large and robust, of variable form, as in Text-fig. 55. 

General coloration green. Antennae, disc of pronotum, stridulatory organ, hind 
margin of fore wings, and top of abdomen, usually red-brown. 
$. Fastigium of vertex sloping steeply to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Armature of legs as in male. Tympanic 
auricles of fore tibiae not inflated ; tympanic aperture slit-like. Venation of fore 
wings as in Text-fig. 98. 

Ovipositor as in Text-fig. 119, margins crenulate in distal half. 

General coloration green. 



the acrometopae of the ethiopian region 319 

Measurements 

Males 
Total length (20) : 33-4-4I-8, mean 36-92. 
Median length of pronotum (20) : 4-8-5-8, mean 5*18. 
Length of hind femur (20) : 22-6-28-4, mean 25-09. 
Length of fore wing (20) : 26-7-32-8, mean 28-94. 

Female 
Total length : 35-9. 
Median length of pronotum : 5-4. 
Length of hind femur : 24-5. 
Length of fore wing : 27-5. 
Length of ovipositor : 8-8. 

Variation. There is variation in the armature of the legs. The venation of the 
fore wings varies somewhat, R^ occasionally being unbranched. The tenth abdomi- 
nal tergite shows enormous variation in shape (cf. Text-figs. 120-122). The intensity 
of the red-brown pigmentation of the males varies greatly : some specimens are 
almost entirely green. 

Discussion. The shape of the tenth abdominal tergite of the male of this species, 
though showing great geographical variations, is unique in the genus. Females 
may be distinguished from the only other West African species of Horatosphaga 
Schaum {H. inclusa (Karsch)) by the shorter ovipositor and longer fore wings. 

In some respects H. crosskeyi sp. n. seems to represent the West African equivalent 
of H. ruspolii (Schulthess) : the males are similar in general appearance and wing- 
venation, and show a similar great variation in the shape of the tenth abdominal 
tergite. Also, H. inclusa (Karsch) is a closely related brachypterous derivative of 
H. crosskeyi sp. n. in much the same way as H. diminuta (Chopard) is related to 
H. ruspolii (Schulthess). Doubtless all four of these species have evolved compara- 
tively recently from a common ancestor differing (in the male) from the more typical 
members of the genus in having an enlarged tenth abdominal tergite. 

Material examined 

^ holotype ; i c^ paratype, Nigeria : Niger Province, Diko, nr. Abuja, at 
light, iv-x.1956 {Crosskey) ; i ^ paratype, Nigeria : Niger Province, Diko, 
nr. Abuja, at light, xii. 1956-1.1957 {Crosskey) ; i ^ paratype, Nigeria : Niger 
Province, Minna, a1 light, viii.1955 {Crosskey) ; i (^ paratype, Nigeria : Niger 
Province, Minna, at light, vi.1955 {Crosskey) ; 2 ^ paratypes, Nigeria : Niger 
Province, Minna, xi.1954 {Crosskey) ; i ^ paratype, Nigeria : Niger Province, 
Minna, at light, vii.1955 {Crosskey) ; 5 ^ paratypes, Nigeria : Adamawa Pro- 
vince, Song, 45 miles north of Yola, vii.1958 {Crosskey) ; 3 ^ paratypes, Nigeria : 
Kabba Province, Lokoja, v. 1958 {Crosskey) ; i $ paratype, Nigeria : Niger 
Province, Abuja, vi.1955 {Crosskey). 

Nigeria : Azare, x.1928 {Lloyd) (4 ^). 

All in the British Museum (Natural History). 

Distribution. This species is known only from Nigeria, where it is widely 
distributed in the Northern Provinces. 



320 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

PERONURA Karsch, 1888 

Peronura Karsch, 1888, Berl. ent. Z. 32: 426. Type species, by subsequent selection (Kirb}-, 
1906, p. 391), Peronura clavigera Karsch, 1888. 

Diagnosis. ^. Fore wings reduced to small lobes less than twice length of 
pronotum ; area MA somewhat concave basally. Fastigium of frons reaching almost 
to top of antennal scrobes. Tympanic auricles of fore tibiae not inflated. 
$. No known diagnostic character (but see remarks below). 

Description. ^. Fastigium of frons reaching almost to top of antennal scrobes. 
Fastigium of vertex compressed, sloping steeply to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Fore coxae without spine. Tympanic 
auricles of fore tibiae not inflated. Fore wings reduced to small lobes less than 
twice length of pronotum ; area MA somewhat concave basally. Hind wings 
rudimentary. 

$. As male except for area MA of fore wings, which is unmodified. 

Discussion. The very reduced fore wings of this monotypic genus provide the 
only non-sexual character to distinguish it from Horatosphaga Schaum. The male 
cerci, however, are markedly different, taking the long, acuminate form shown in 
Text-fig. 123 ; the female, moreover, has a pair of tubercles at the base of the ovi- 
positor, protruding from an enlarged eighth abdominal tergite. Although these 
genitalic characters are striking, they may prove to be of importance at the specific 
level only, and are not therefore put forward as generic characters here. In the 
males the lateral pronotal lobes differ in shape from that typical of Horatosphaga 
Schaum in having no backward prolongation, but some of the brachypterous species 
of that genus tend to be intermediate in this respect. Ignoring sexual characters 
Peronura Karsch closely resembles some of the brachypterous species of Horatosphaga 
Schaum, and it would perhaps have been unwise to give it separate status if that 
genus had not already been in an uncomfortably cumbersome state. As things 
stand, however, it is advisable to regard Peronura Karsch as a distinct, though 
poorly defined, genus within the Acrometopae. 

The species P. hildehrandtiana Karsch was included by this author as a second 
species of Peronura Karsch in his original description of the genus. The status of 
this species, still known only by the unique female holotype, must remain in doubt 
until males are available. P. hildehrandtiana Karsch does not have the tubercles 
at the base of the ovipositor which characterize P. clavigera Karsch, nor does it show 
the enlargement of the eighth abdominal tergite : its appearance in fact seems more 
suggestive of its belonging to Horatosphaga Schaum. There is a pronounced point 
at the tip of the hind femora of the type shown by many species of Horatosphaga 
Schaum and the fore wings, though reduced, are more than twice the length of the 
pronotum. It is quite possible that P. hildehrandtiana Karsch is the same species 
as H. vicina (Chopard) (p. 316), from which it differs only by the terminal spine on 
the hind femur (which is known to undergo marked geographical variation in the 
Acrometopae) and the shape of the subgenital plate (more significant but difficult 
to appreciate as the subgenital plate of the holotype of P. hildehrandtiana Karsch 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 321 

has been opened out — ^presumably in an attempt on the part of the original author 
to find the tubercles which characterize P. clavigera Karsch). Clearly, the status 
of this species cannot be clarified until more material is available. The data and 
measurements of the holotype are given below. 

Peronura hildehrandtiana Karsch, 1888, Berl. ent. Z. 32 : 427. Holotype ?, Kenya : Mom- 
basa, xii.1876 {Hildebrandt). In the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt-Universitat, 
BerHn. 

Measurements of holotype. 

Total length : 27-2. 

Median length of pronotum : 7-4. 

Length of hind femur : 28-6. 

Length of fore wing : 17-7. 

Length of ovipositor : 14-2. 

Distribution (Text-fig. 44). Peronura Karsch (in the restricted sense used here) 
has so far not been found outside Kenya, where it appears to show a preference 
for the drier parts. It does not apparently extend into the driest north-eastern 
part of the country. 

Peronura clavigera Karsch, 1888 

Peronura clavigera Karsch, 1888, Berl, ent. Z. 32 : 427. Two $ syntypes, Kenya : Mombasa 
xii.1876 {Hildebrandt). In the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin. 

Diagnosis. ^. Cerci long and acuminate, as in Text-fig. 123. Subgenital 
plate as in Text-fig. 124. 

$. Ovipositor with pair of large tubercles at base, protruding from enlarged 
eighth abdominal tergite, as in Text-fig. 125. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 126. 






W 



126 

124 125 

Figs. 123-126. Peronura clavigera Karsch. (123). Dorsal view of the left male cercus. 
{124) Ventral view of the male subgenital plate. (125) Lateral view of the ovipositor 
and associated structures. (126) Ventral view of the female subgenital plate. 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (4) (see remarks on p. 274) : I77-23-4, mean 19-88. 
Median length of pronotum (4) : 5'0-57, mean 5-25. 
Length of hind femur (3) : 20-2-25-5, mean 22-27. 
Length of fore wing (4) : 4-8-5-2, mean 4-97. 



322 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

Measurements — (cont.) 

Females 

Total length (12) (see remarks on p. 274) : 20-o-26'8, mean 23-06. 
Median length of pronotum (12) : 5-i-6'3, mean 571. 
Length of hind femur (10) : 20-3-24-7, mean 22*29. 
Length of fore wing (11) : 4-2-6-5, mean 4-96. 
Length of ovipositor (12) : io-o-i3-o, mean 11-85. 

Discussion. As mentioned when discussing the genus, the genitalia of both sexes 
of this species are very characteristic. The tubercles at the base of the ovipositor 
(which are rarely absent, possibly through damage) are in fact probably unique in 
the Tettigoniidae ; their function is quite unknown. 

Material examined 

One $ syntype. 

Kenya : Lake Baringo, east, (Ford) (i c?) ; Samburu distr., vi.1944 [Opiko) 
(i cJ, 2 9) ; Chyulu Hills, 5,200-5,600 ft. {Coryndon Museum Exp.) (2 c^, 5 $) ; 
Nairobi, vi.1928 {van Someren) (i $) ; Sultan Hamud to Makindu, 20-21.1.1954 
{Waloff) (i $) ; Mambre Estate, 26. v. 1932 {Lewis) (i $) ; N. Kamaba distr. 
{Dimdas) (i ?). 

All in the British Museum (Natural History). 

Distribution. As given for the genus. 

PROSPHAGA gen. n. 

Type species : Pantolepta calaharica Karny, 1910. 

Diagnosis. cJ. Antennal scrobes reaching above fastigium of frons, as in 
Text-fig. 133. Branches of Rg of fore wings ending slightly behind, not actually 
at, wing- tip (Text-figs. 41 and 42). Pronotum selhform. Cross- veins of fore wings 
arranged irregularly ; areas MA and Cuj^ tending to develop basal concavities as in 
Horatosphaga Schaum, but condition is not as advanced as in that genus. Tympanic 
auricles of fore tibiae not inflated. 

$. Antennal scrobes and tympanic auricles as in male. 

Description. cJ. Antennal scrobes reaching above fastigium of frons, as in 
Text-fig. 133. Fastigium of vertex compressed, sloping steeply to frons, sulcate 
above. 

Pronotum selliform, without lateral carinae. Fore coxae without spine. Tym- 
panic auricles of fore tibiae not inflated. Cross-veins of fore wings arranged irregu- 
larly ; areas MA and Cuj^ tending to develop basal concavities as in Horatosphaga 
Schaum, but condition is not as advanced as in that genus. Branches of R^ of 
fore wings ending slightly behind, not actually at, wing-tip (Text-figs. 41 and 42). 

Subgenital plate flattened and upcurved. 
$. As male except for wings and genitalia. Hind wings rudimentary. 

Discussion. The venation at the base of the male fore wings shows that this 
genus is closely related to Conchotopoda Karsch and Horatosphaga Schaum ; indeed, 
in P. spiendens sp. n. area Cuj^ shows the typical form of Horatosphaga Schaum, 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 323 

though the base of area MA has not developed completely the concavity shown by 
that genus. Males of Prosphaga gen. n. (Text-fig. 127) diifer from those of Horato- 
sphaga Schaum in lacking the web-like arrangement of the cross-veins, and the more 
prominent antennal scrobes of the former genus enable both sexes of the two genera 
to be distinguished. The basal pocket shown by the right male fore wing of Con- 
chotopoda Karsch is not developed in Prosphaga gen. n. (For additional remarks 
concerning Prosphaga gen. n. see p. 273.) 

Distribution (Text-fig. 44). This genus is so far known only from Ethiopia 
and the eastern side of the Kalahari Desert. Both these regions have a considerably 



Fig. 127. Prosphaga splendens gen. et sp. n., male. 

drier climate than the intervening area of central Africa, and it is very likely that 
Prosphaga gen. n. has a discontinuous distribution. 

Key to the Species 

As the female sex of one of the two species of this genus is unknown, this key is based on 
males only. The difference in the apex of the hind femora, however, doubtless applies to both 
sexes. 
I. Hind femora ending in a dorsal point. Total length less than 55 mm. (South 

Africa) ......... P. calaharica (Karny) (p. 323) 

-. Hind femora without a terminal dorsal point. Total length more than 55 mm. 

(Ethiopia) P. splendens sp. n. (p. 324) 

I. Prosphaga calaharica (Karny, 1910) comb. n. 

Pantohpta calaharica Karny, 1910, Denkschr. med.-naturw. Ges. Jena, 16 : 52. Holotype (J, 
South Africa: Bechuanaland, Kalahari, Ku Gudie, nr. Pitsani, i.1905 {Schultze). In the 
Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin. 

Diagnosis, c^. Hind femora ending in dorsal point. Tenth abdominal 
tergite produced somewhat posteriorly, as in Text-fig. 128, forming broad hood over 
most of supra-anal plate. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 129. 

$. Hind femora ending in dorsal point. Ovipositor as in Text-fig. 130. Vena- 
tion of fore wings as in Text-fig. 131. 



324 the acrometopae of the ethiopian region 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (3) : 37'3-52'3. mean 46-43. 
Median length of pronotum (3) : 5-2-5-8, mean 5-50. 
Length of hind femur (2) : 33'3-33'6, mean 33-45. 
Length of fore wing (3) : 36-0-40-1, mean 38-10. 

Female 
Total length : 31-0. 
Median length of pronotum : 6-32. 
Length of hind femur : 34-3. 
Length of fore wing : 25-3. 
Length of ovipositor : 10-4. 






126 



129 



I30 




131 





133 



Figs. 128-133. Prosphaga gen. n. 128-131. P. calaharica (Karny), (128) dorsal 
view of the male tenth abdominal tergite and supra-anal plate, (129) ventral view of the 
male subgenital plate, (130) lateral view of the ovipositor, and (131) right female fore 
wing. 132-133. P.'splendens sp. n., (132) ventral view of the male subgenital plate, 
and (133) anterior view of the dorsal part of the head. 

Discussion. The terminal point of the hind femora enables this species to be 
easily distinguished from P. splendens sp. n. 

Material examined 

^ holotype. 

South Africa : Transvaal, junction of Crocodile and Marico rivers, ii . 1918 
(Tucker) (2 ^, 1 ?) (S. A. Mus.). 
Distribution. Known only from the eastern side of the Kalahari Desert. 



2. Prosphaga splendens sp. n. 

Holotype (^, Ethiopia : Wardere, 7-9. xi. 1952 (Stephenson). In the British 
Museum (Natural History). 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 325 

Diagnosis. c?. Hind femora without terminal dorsal point. Tenth abdominal 
tergite somewhat enlarged, otherwise unmodified. Subgenital plate as in Text- 
fig- 132. 

$ unknown. 

Description, (^. Fastigium of vertex sloping steeply to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Fore femora with about 5-8 external spinules. 
Mid femora with about 10-12 external spinules. Fore and mid femora with dorsal 
ridge at apex, not ending in point. Hind femora with about 14-21 external spinules ; 
terminal dorsal spine absent. Hind tibiae with about 30-35 external dorsal spines. 
Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 42. 

Tenth abdominal tergite somewhat enlarged. Supra-anal plate rounded, flap- 
like. Cerci robust, apex incurved and pointed. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 132. 

General coloration green. Top of head, disc of pronotum, stridulatory organ, 
hind edge of fore wings, and parts of legs, dark brown. Top of abdomen black. 
Base of costal area of fore wings whitish. 
$ unknown. 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (8) : 6i •4-70-0, mean 66-6o. 
Median length of pronotum (7) : 7-7-8-5, mean 8-20. 
Length of hind femur (8) : 39-6-44-8, mean 42-28. 
Length of fore wing (7) : 46-9-55-0, mean 52-00. 

Variation. The armature of the legs is somewhat variable. There is a certain 
amount of variation in colouring, especially in the extent of the brown colour. 

Discussion. This species is separated geographically from the only other known 
species of the genus, P. calaharica (Karny), by most of tropical Africa ; it may be 
distinguished from it by the lack of the terminal dorsal point on the hind femora. 
Material examined 

cJ holotype ; 2 ^ paratypes, Ethiopia : Wardere, 24. xi. 1953 {Popov) ; 2 ^ 
paratypes, Ethiopia : Wardere, 29. xi, 1953 [Popov) ; 3 ^ paratypes, Ethiopia : 
Ual Ual, 19. xi. 1953 [Bellehu). 

All in the British Museum (Natural History). 

Distribution, Known only from eastern Ethiopia. 

CONCHOTOPODA Karsch, 1887 

Conchotopoda Karsch, 1887, Ent. Nachr. 13 : 44. Type species, by monotypy, Conchotopoda 

belcki Karsch, 1887. 
Rhegtnatopoda Brunner, 1891, Additamenta zur Monographic der Phaneropteriden, p. 44. 

Type species, by monotypy, Horatosphaga lepiocerca Stal, 1876. Syn. n. 

Diagnosis. c^. Basal region of M or right fore wing developed into posterior 
fold, forming pocket next to stridulatory organ (Text-fig. 4). Branches of Rg of 
fore wings ending on posterior wing-margin, rather than at wing-tip. Antennal 
scrobes reaching same level as, or slightly above, fastigium of frons, which often has 



326 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

acute tip. Cross-veins of fore wings arranged irregularly ; areas MA and Cui 
tending to develop basal concavities as in Horatosphaga Schaum, but condition is 
not as advanced as in that genus. Tympanic auricles of fore tibiae not inflated 
or only slightly so. 

$. No known diagnostic character. 

Description. ^. Antennal scrobes reaching same level as, or slightly above, 
fastigium of frons, which often has acute tip. Fastigium of vertex sloping steeply 
to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae, not as markedly selliform as in Prosphaga 
gen. n. Fore coxae without spine. Tympanic auricles of fore tibiae not inflated 
or only slightly so. Cross- veins of fore wings arranged irregularly ; areas MA and 
Cuja tending to develop basal concavities as in Horatosphaga Schaum, but condition 
is not as advanced as in that genus ; basal region of M of right fore wing deve- 
loped into posterior fold, forming pocket next to stridulatory organ. Branches 
of Rs of fore wings ending on posterior wing-margin, rather than at wing-tip. 

Subgenital plate not as markedly upcurved as in Prosphaga gen. n. 
$. As male except for fore wings and genitalia. Hind wings rudimentary. 

Discussion. Males of this genus are characterized by the basal pocket of the 
right fore wing, which is doubtless concerned physiologically with stridulation. 
The pronotum is much less markedly selliform than in Prosphaga gen. n. As in the 
latter genus the venation of the base of the male fore wings shows a relationship to 
Horatosphaga Schaum, but the base of area MA has not developed completely the 
concavities shown by Horatosphaga Schaum. 

The female of this genus is known in one species only, C. crassicauda sp. n. It 
apparently shows no characters of diagnostic importance at the generic level. 

The type species of this genus is clearly congeneric with Horatosphaga leptocerca 
Stal, the type species of Rhegmatopoda Brunner ; these two species both have the 
characteristic basal pocket on the right fore wing of the male, and differ by no 
character of significance at the generic level. Rhegmatopoda Brunner is therefore 
synonymized here with Conchotopoda Karsch. 

Distribution (Text-fig. 44). Conchotopoda Karsch is known only from South and 
South West Africa. So far none of the species has been recorded from Cape Province 
except C. grallatoria (Stal), which has "Caffraria" as its type locality. 

Key to the Species 

As the female sex is known in only one of the species, this key refers to males only. 

1 . Hind wings well-developed .......... 2 

-. Hind wings rudimentary ........... 4 

2. Fore wings more than four times longer than their maximum width, as in Text-figs. 

6 and 7 ............. 3 

-. Fore wings less than four times longer than their maximum width, as in Text-fig. 5 

C. belcki Karsch (p. 327) 

3. Cerci as in Text-fig. 135 . . . . . . . C. leptocerca (Stal) (p. 328) 

-. Cerci as in Text-fig. 136 . . . . . . . C. crassicauda sp. n. (p. 328) 

4. Median length of pronotum more than 5-5 mm. . , . C. grallatoria (Stal) (p. 330) 
-. Median length of pronotum less than =)-^ mm. ... C. parva sp. n. (p. 330) 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

I. Conchotopoda belcki Karsch, 1887 



327 



Conchotopoda belcki Karsch, 1887, Ent. Nachr. 13 : 44. Holotype ^J, South West Africa : 

Damaraland [Belck). Lost. 
Pantolepta morsei Karny, 1910, Denkschr. med.-naturw. Ges. Jena, 16 : 53. One $ syntype, 

South West Africa : Windhoek (Techow) ; i ^ syntype, South West Africa : Kung- 

Buschmannland {Liibbert). In the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt-Universitat, 

Berlin. Syn. n. 



I 




u 



135 



136 



137 



Figs. 134-138. Dorsal view of the left male cercus of (134) Conchotopoda belcki Karsch ; 
(135) C. leptocerca (Stal) ; (136) C. crassicauda sp. n. ; (137) C. grallatoria (Stal) ; (138) 
C. parva sp. n. 



Diagnosis, c^. 
as in Text-fig. 139. 

$ unknown. 
Measurements 



Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 5. Subgenital plate 



Males 
Total length (i) : 43-6. 

Median length of pronotum (3) : 5-4-6-0, mean 5-87. 
Length of hind femur (3) : 29-6-32'2, mean 30-83. 
Length of fore wing (3) : 30-3-34-7, mean 32-83. 





\aJ 



I40 



141 




Figs. 139-143. Ventral view of the male subgenital plate of {139) Conchotopoda belcki 
Karsch ; (140) C. leptocerca (Stal) ; (141) C crassicauda sp. n. ; (142) C. grallatoria 
(Sjostedt) ; (143) C. parva sp. n. 



Discussion. Males of C. belcki Karsch may be easily distinguished from the only 
other two fully winged species of the genus, C. leptocerca (Stal) and C. crassicauda 
sp. n., by the much broader fore wings. 

The holotype of C. belcki Karsch is lost, but the present species (to which the 
holotype of Pantolepta morsei Karny belongs) is the only species of Acrometopae 



328 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

known to occur in South West Africa which shows a combination of the following 
characters mentioned in the original description. 

1. The branches of R^ end on the hind margin of the fore wing (not at the wing- 
tip, as in Horatosphaga serrifera Schaum and H. stylifera (Karny) ). 

2. Rj is branched near the wing-tip (not unbranched, as in H. serrifera Schaum and 
H. stylifera (Karny)). 

3. The fore wings are broader than in Acrometopa Fieber (those of C. leptocerca 
(Stal) being considerably narrower than in Acrometopa Fieber). 

It would be very desirable to have a neotype for C. helcki Karsch, but I have no 
suitable specimen available at present. 
Material examined 

One ^ syntype (Windhoek) of Pantolepta morsei Karny. 

South Africa : Transvaal, Barberton (Edwards) (i S) (S. A. Mus.) ; Transvaal, 
Barberton (Rendall) (i <^) (British Museum (Natural History)). 

Distribution. This species is know only from South West Africa and Transvaal, 
but doubtless also occurs in Bechuanaland and perhaps other parts of South Africa. 

2. Conchotopoda leptocerca (Stal, 1876) comb. n. 

Horatosphaga leptocerca Stal, 1876, Fork. Kongl. Vetensk. Stockh. 33 (3) : 59. Holotype ^, 
South West Africa : Damara {de Vylder). In the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Stock- 
holm. 

Diagnosis. ^. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 6. Cerci as in Text-fig. 
135. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 140. 
$ unknown. 

Measurements 

Male 
Total length : 36-1. 
Median length of pronotum : 4-1. 
Length of hind femur : 23-9. 
Length of fore wing : 28-0. 

Discussion. This species may be distinguished from all the other members 
of the genus except C. crassicauda sp. n. by the combination of fully developed 
hind wings and slender fore wings. It may be separated from C. crassicauda sp. n. 
by the shape of the male cerci and the rather broader fore wings. 
Material examined 
(J holotype. 

Distribution. C. leptocerca (Stal) is known definitely only from the type 
locality. 

3. Conchotopoda crassicauda sp. n. 

Holotype ^, South Africa : Transvaal, Pietersburg, 1904 {Faure (?) ). In 
the South African Museum, Cape Town. 

Diagnosis. ^. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 7. Cerci as in Text- 
fig. 136. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 141. 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 329 

$. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 144. Ovipositor as in Text-fig. 145. 

Description. c^. Antennal scrobes reaching above fastigium of frons, which 
has acute tip. Fastigium of vertex sloping steeply to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Fore and mid femora without external 
spinules and without dorsal ridge at apex. Tympanic auricles of fore tibiae not 
inflated ; tympanic apertures slit-like. Hind femora sometimes with about 1-2 
ventral spinules. Hind tibiae with about 27 external dorsal spines. Venation of 
fore wings as in Text-fig. 7. 

Tenth abdominal tergite unmodified. Supra-anal plate transverse. Cerci as in 
Text-fig. 136. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 141. 

Coloration green except for brown patch on stridulatory organ and sometimes 
few brown markings on legs and abdomen. Pronotum sometimes with dark spots. 
$. Antennal scrobes reaching slightly above fastigium of frons, which has acute 
tip. Fastigium of vertex sloping steeply to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Fore femora without external spinules. 
Fore tibiae as in male. Mid femora with about 2-3 external spinules. Fore and 
mid femora without dorsal ridge at apex. Hind femora with about 4 external 
spinules. Hind tibiae with about 25-30 external dorsal spines. Venation of fore 
wings as in Text-fig. 144. 

Ovipositor as in Text-fig. 145. 

Coloration green. 




144 145 

Figs. 144 and 145. Conchotopoda crassicauda sp. n. (144) Right female fore wing. 
(145) Lateral view of the ovipositor. 

Variation. The armature of the legs is variable, and it is possible that some 
males have external spinules on the fore and mid femora. 

Measurements 

Males 
Total length (i) : 34-9. 
Median length of pronotum (i) : 4-8. 
Length of hind femur (i) : 26-6. 
Length of fore wing (2) : 24'9-28-o, mean 26-45. 

Female 

Total length : 33-5. 
Median length of pronotum : 5-2. 
Length of hind femur : 22-6. 
Length of fore wing : 26-4. 
Length of ovipositor : 9-2. 



330 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

Discussion. This species is closely related to C. kptocerca (Stal), from which it 
differs in the rather narrower fore wings and in the shape of the male cerci. Males 
of C. crassicauda sp. n. may be distinguished from the remaining species of the genus 
by the combination of fully developed hind wings and narrow fore wings. 

The female specimen bears no data but it can be regarded as being conspecific 
with the males. All three specimens come from the same batch of South African 
material, however, and it seems likely that the one species is involved. 
Material examined 

^ holotype. 

One cJ and i $ without data (<^ in the British Museum (Natural History) ; 
$ in the South African Museum). 
Distribution. Known only from the type locality, 

4. Conchotopoda grallatoria (Stal, 1856) comb. n. 

Phaneroptera ? grallatoria, Stal, 1856, Fork. Kongl. Vetensk. Stockh. 13 : 170. Holotype ^, 
South Africa : Caffraria (Wahlberg). In the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Stockholm. 

Diagnosis. (^. Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 8. Subgenital plate 
as in Text-fig. 142. Hind wings rudimentary. 
$ unknown. 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (2) : 25-8-29-8, mean 27-80. 

Median length of pronotum (2) : 6-0-6-3, mean 6-15. 

Length of hind femur (i) : 29-8. 

Length of fore wing (2) : 21-1-24-1, mean 22-60. 
Discussion. This species differs from males of C. kptocerca (Stal), C. crassicauda 
sp. n., and C. bekki (Karsch), by its lack of hind wings, and from C. parva sp. n. 
by its much larger size. 
Material examined 

(^ holotype. 

South Africa : Zululand, Nagana Res. Lab., 1922 {Curson) (i c^) (British 
Museum (Natural History)). 
Distribution. Known only from Caffraria and Zululand. 

5. Conchotopoda parva sp. n. 

Holotype (^, South Africa : Orange Free State, Witzieshoek, 6,100 ft., 22. ii. 
1929 [Scott). In the British Museum (Natural History). 

Diagnosis. ^. Venation of fore wings as in Text-figs. 9 and 10. Subgenital 
plate as in Text-fig. 143. Hind wings rudimentary. 
5 unknown. 

Description. cJ. Antennal scrobes reaching slightly above fastigium of frons, 
which has acute tip. Fastigium of vertex sloping steeply to frons, sulcate above. 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 331 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Fore and mid femora without external spinules 
and without dorsal ridge at apex. Tympanic auricles of fore tibiae not inflated ; 
tympanic apertures slit-like. Hind femora with a variable number of ventral 
spinules. Hind tibiae with about 20-25 external dorsal spines. Venation of fore 
wings as in Text-figs. 9 and 10. Hind wings rudimentary. 

Tenth abdominal tergite unmodified. Supra-anal plate broad, rounded, flap- 
hke. Cerci as in Text-fig. 138. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 143. 

General coloration probably green, with dark spots on top of head, pronotum, 
and parts of femora. 
$ unknown. 

Variation. The holotype of this species has about 13 ventral spinules on each 
hind femur, whereas in the specimen from Pretoria the hind femora are unarmed. 

Measurements 

Males 
Total length (i) : 24-6, 
Median length of pronotum (i) : 4-9. 
Length of hind femur (2) : 20-2-22'9, mean 21-55. 
Length of fore wing (2) : 20-3-2i-i, mean 2070. 
Discussion. This species shares with C. grallatoria (Stal) the lack of hind wings 
but differs from that species in its much smaller size, narrower fore wings, and lack 
of armature on the fore and mid femora. 

The specimen from Pretoria has quite considerably narrower fore wings than the 
holotype and further material may well show that this species varies geographically. 
Material examined 

(J holotype. 

South Africa : Pretoria {Distant) (i c^) (British Museum (Natural History)). 
Distribution. Known only from Witzieshoek and Pretoria. 



LAMECOSOMA gen. n. 

Type species : Lamecosoma tenuis sp. n. 

Diagnosis. c^. Body very attenuate, total length about twelve times maxi- 
mum width of pronotum. Lateral pronotal lobes about three times longer than their 
maximum depth. Fastigium of frons extending upwards slightly beyond fastigium 
of vertex. Tympana of fore tibiae each partially obscured by ventral operculum, 
which is not inflated. Hind wings rudimentary. 
$ unknown. 

Description. cJ. Fastigium of frons extending upwards slightly beyond 
fastigium of vertex. Fastigium of vertex somewhat compressed, narrow, sulcate 
above. 

Pronotum elongate, without lateral carinae, lateral lobes about three times longer 
than their maximum depth. Fore coxae without spine. Tympana of fore tibiae 
partially obscured by ventral operculum, which is not inflated. Legs attenuate, 



332 THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 

hind femora about eighteen times longer than their maximum vertical width. 
Hind wings rudimentary. 
$ unknown. 

Discussion. This genus (see Text-fig. 3) appears to be quite closely related to 
Horatosphaga Schaum and Peronura Karsch. Although the venation at the base of 
the fore wings does not conform to the pattern typical of Horatosphaga Schaum, 
its nature does give a slight suggestion of it. The facies of the body also shows 
an affinity with Horatosphaga Schaum and a derivation from common stock seems 
very likely. The male cerci are of the same type as those of Peronura Karsch. 

Although the female sex of this genus is not known for certain, a female specimen 
from Morogoro, Tanganyika, may well belong to Lamecosoma gen. n. It is very 
similar in general appearance to males of L. tenuis sp. n. and has the slightly greater 
size which would be expected of a female. Two more females from the Chyulu 
Hills, southern Kenya, may also belong to this genus. These specimens are again 
of similar facies, but are rather smaller and could not therefore belong to L. tenuis 
sp. n. All three of these female specimens have a relatively long, gently upcurved, 
ovipositor. 

Distribution (Text-fig. 44). This genus is known only from the type locality 
of L. tenuis sp. n., but may well occur over a large part of East Africa. 

Lamecosoma tenuis sp. n. 

Holotype ^, Northern Rhodesia: Kipundu, 21.1,1938 (Bredo). In the 
Musee Royal du Congo Beige, Tervuren. 

Diagnosis. (^. Subgenital plate as in Text-fig. 146. Cerci as in Text-fig. 147. 
Venation of fore wings as in Text-fig. 148. 
$ unknown. 





148 

146 147 

Figs. 146-148. Lamecosoma tenuis sp. n. (146) Ventral view of the male subgenital plate. 
(147) Dorsal view of the left male cercus. {148) Right male fore wing. 

Description. (^. Fastigium of vertex sloping to frons, sulcate above. 

Pronotum without lateral carinae. Fore femora with about 10-14 external 
spinules. Mid femora with about 13-20 external spinules. Fore and mid femora 
with dorsal ridge at apex, ending in spine or point. Hind femora with about 19-22 
external spinules ; terminal dorsal spine absent. Hind tibiae with about 20-35 
external dorsal spines. Fore wings covered almost entirely with dense archedictyon ; 
venation as in Text-fig. 148. 



THE ACROMETOPAE OF THE ETHIOPIAN REGION 333 

Tenth abdominal tergite emarginate posteriorly. Supra-anal plate rounded, 
flap-like. Cerci as in Text-fig. 147. Subgenital plate relatively large, shaped as 
in Text-fig. 148. 

General coloration green. Top of head, part of antennae, disc of pronotum, 
stridulatory organ, hind edge of fore wings, and parts of legs, reddish brown. 
$ unknown. 

Measurements 

Males 

Total length (3) : 4i-i-43-9, mean 42-77. 

Median length of pronotum (2) : 6-2-6'3, mean 6-25. 

Length of hind femur (3) : 29-8-30-7, mean 30-27. 

Length of fore wing (3) : 33-6-37-1, mean 35-17. 
Discussion. In its high degree of attenuation this species resembles Tylopsis 
Fieber ; it differs, however, from this genus in lacking the fore coxal spine and in 
having rudimentary hind wings. Both the fore wings and the pronotum, moreover, 
are considerably more attenuate. 

Remarks concerning a possible female of this species are given above in the 
discussion of the genus. 

Material examined 

^ holotype ; i ^ paratype, same data as holotype (British Museum (Natural 
History)); i ^ paratype. Northern Rhodesia: Kipundu, 19.1.1938 [Bredo) 
(Mus. Congo Beige). 
Distribution. Known only from the type locality. 

references 

Brunner von Wattenwyl, C. 1891. Additamenta zur Monographic der Phaneropteriden. 

Vienna : Brockhaus. 
CiioPARD, L. 1954. La reserve naturelle int^grale du Mont Nimba. Fasc. II. Pt. III. 

Orthopteres Ensiferes. Mem. Inst, frang. Afr. noire, 40 (2) : 25-97. 
KiRBY, W. F. 1906. A synonymic catalogue of Orihoptera 2, pt. i. London : British Museum 

(Natural History). 
Ragge, D. R. 1955. The wing-venation of the Orihoptera Saltatoria. London : British Museum 

(Natural History). 
1956. A revision of the genera Phaneroptera Serville and Nephoptera Uvarov (Orthoptera : 

Tettigoniidae), with conclusions of zoogeographical and evolutionary interest. Proc. 

zool. Soc. Lond. 127 : 205-283. 




// 



NEW SIPHONAPTERA FROM 
EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN 

COUNTRIES 




F. G. A. M. SMIT 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY - Vol. 8 No. 8 

LONDON: i960 



NEW SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN 
MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 



BY 

F. G. A. M. SMIT 



% 



Pp- 335-366 ; 41 Text-figures 




BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 8 

LONDON: i960 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series, corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

This paper is Vol. 8, No. 8 of the Entomological 
series. 



Trustees of the British Museum, i960 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Issued March, i960 Price Ten Shillings 



NEW SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN 
MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 

By F. G. A. M. SMIT 

Twelve new species or subspecies of fleas, from Egypt, Israel and Iran, are des- 
cribed below. The material from Egypt (Sinai) and Israel, largely collected by 
Dr. M. Costa as a basis for his studies for his doctoral thesis, was kindly submitted to 
me for study and description by Prof. O. Theodor of the Hebrew University, 
Jerusalem. The holotypes, allotypes and several paratypes of these new fleas, as 
well as specimens of known species, were generously presented to the British Museum 
collection of fleas at Tring by Professor Theodor, to whom I am deeply indebted 
for this valuable donation. I am also very grateful to Dr. Costa for his great enter- 
prise in collecting fleas in Israel, a country which is zoogeographically of great 
interest since its fauna contains elements of African, European and Asian origin, 
apart from endemic species. 

Dr. G. Bouvier, Director of the Galli-Valerio Institute at Lausanne, very kindly 
presented some fleas, one of them new to science, which were collected by Dr. F. 
Schmid in Iran. 

The material of the two new subspecies of Nosopsyllns sarinus was already in the 
collection of fleas at Tring. 

Ctenocephalides arabicus multispinosus subsp. n. 

(Text-fig. i) 

Type material : Male holotype, female allotype and i (^, i $ paratypes from 
Wadi Karkara, Israel, from Procavia capensis syriaca, 3.viii.i957 [M. Costa). 

Description : The only detectable difference from the nominate subspecies 
(which was described from Wasil in the Yemen, Arabia, from Procavia capensis 
jayakari) is that the new subspecies has 6 or 7 spines in the genal ctenidium in the 
male (Fig. i) and doubtless also in the female, though the two available specimens 
of this sex both have 7 genal spines on each side of the head. In the original des- 
cription (Jordan, 1925 : 97, repeated by Hopkins & Rothschild, 1953 : 142) it is 
stated that C. arabicus has one to three genal spines, but re-examination of the type 
series (i <^, 4 $) showed that in some of the specimens one or two spines are broken 
off and that the number of genal spines is actually 3 or 4 (in three specimens 3 on 
each side, in the other two 3 on one side of the head, 4 on the other). Jordan 
(1925 : 97) gives the number of spines in the pronotal ctenidium as 9 in the male, 
II or 12 in the female. Actually, in the male it is clear that a dorsal spine is broken 

ENTOM. 8, 8. 13 



338 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 

off and that the number is therefore lo. Only one of the four females has ii pronotal 
spines, the other three specimens all have 12 spines. In C. arabicus multispinosus 
there are 10 pronotal spines in the male, 12 in the female. These appear to be the 
normal numbers ; the sexual difference in these numbers is worth noting. 

Remarks : It is most unusual to evaluate differences in the number of spines of a 
genal ctenidium as being of no greater than subspecific significance, but in the genus 
Ctenocephalides there is a strong tendency for this ctenidium to become vestigial 
and the number of spines is in this instance obviously of no great phylogenetic 
importance. 




Fig. I. Ctenocephalides arabicus multispinosus subsp. nov. 
Preantennal part of head (holotype). 



Xenopsylla dipodilli sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 2-7) 

Type material : Collected by M. Costa from Gerbillus [Dipodillus) dasyunis : 
male holotype and 2 (^, 2 $ paratypes from Wadi Nafkh, Israel, 11. iv. 1955, female 
allotype from Qasr Mahalla (Raman), Israel, 12. iv. 1955 ; 2 c^ 2 $ paratypes from 
Wadi Raman, 25.x. 1954 ; i 1^ paratype from Eilath, Israel, 12. iv. 1954 ; i cJ para- 
type from Ras ez Zuweira, Israel, 3.111,1955; i (^, i $ paratypes from Ein el 
Kudeirath, Sinai, Egypt, 30. xi. 1956. Collected by O. Theodor from Meriones 
crassus : 1 ^ paratype from Wadi Jureir, Negev, Israel, i.iv.1955. 

The following paratypes, all collected by Dr. H. Hoogstraal of the U.S. Navy 
Medical Research Unit at Cairo, are in the collection of Col. R. Traub, who generously 
invited me to study them and to incorporate their data in this description : i (^ from 
Yemen, Arabia, 4000 ft., from a gerbil, 17.1,1951 ; i $ from Yemen, 3700 ft.. 



SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 339 

from a gerbil, 20.1.1951 ; 2 $ from St, Catherine's Monastery, Sinai, Egypt, 
5000 ft., from Gerhillus calurus, 16. v. 1953; 3 $ from Wadi El Sheikh, nr. St. 
Catherine's Monastery, 5000 ft., from Gerhillus [Dipodillus) sp., v. 1953 ; i ^ from 
the same locality, from Meriones sp., 19. v. 1953 ; i $ from El Raba, nr. St. Cathe- 
rine's Monastery, 5000 ft., from Gerhillus calurus, 17. v. 1953. 

Diagnosis : This new species is nearest related to Xenopsylla nuhica (Rothschild, 
1903) and differs from it by the following features : [a) a considerably smaller eye, 
[h) a more rounded antennal clava, (c) absence of a tooth-like projection on the 
anterior part of the ventral margin of the hind femur, {d) the penultimate notch of 





Figs. 2-4. Xenopsylla dipodilli sp. nov. 2. Head {^ paratype from Wadi Nafkh). 
3. Aedeagal apodeme (holotype). 4. Sternum VII and spermatheca (allotype). 



the hind tibia bears three setae, {e) fewer setae in the tergal rows, (/) while the male 
genitalia are almost identical with those of X. nuhica, the spermatheca of the female 
differs considerably from that of the latter species. A related species, X. nesokiae 
loff, a parasite of Nesokia indica in Central Asia, also has a small eye, but its 
aedeagus is like that of X. astia Rothschild. 

Description. Head (Text-fig. 2) : Eye small ; antennal clava globular (in X. 
nuhica it usually has a tapering apex, especially in the male) ; occipital groove in 
male as shallow as in X. nuhica, not extending on to the pronotum. Thorax : vir- 
tually as in X. nuhica. Legs (Text-fig. 7) : two strong setae posteriorly near apex 
of hind coxa instead of the three usually present in X. nuhica ; ventral margin of 
hind femur smoothly rounded anteriorly, without a sharp tooth-like projection 
such as is present in X. nuhica ; two setae ventro-apically on outer surface of hind 
femur ; penultimate notch of hind tibia bearing three setae, as against two in 



340 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 




Figs. 5-7. Xenopsylla dipodilli sp. nov. ^. Processes of clasper (holotype) . 6. Processes 
of clasper (paratype from Wadi Nafkh). 7. Hind femur and tibia (allotype). 



X. nuhica ; longest seta of first hind tarsal segment reaching to or a little beyond 
apex of second segment ; longest seta of second hind tarsal segment reaching to or 
beyond middle of fifth segment. Abdomen : terga III-VI with a row of 6-8 setae 
on each side in both sexes (in X. nuhica 9-12). In other respects the unmodified 
abdominal segments resemble those of X. nuhica. 

Male (Text-figs. 3, 5, 6) : Modified segments and genitalia virtually identical 
with those of X. nuhica ; processes of clasper as in Text-figs. 5 and 6 ; aedeagal 



SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 341 

apodeme as in Text-fig. 3. The aedeagus may differ in some small details, but in 
mounted specimens of X. nubica the apical portion of this structure is distorted in 
various ways and on the basis of available material I cannot make out with cer- 
tainty what the normal arrangement would be like. 

Female (Text-fig. 4) : Terminal segments almost as in X. nubica. Bulga of 
spermatheca forming an almost hemispherical expansion opposite the orifice of the 
duct, its lower margin fairly straight ; base of hilla not broader than the bulga and 
only slightly ventricose ; the dark coloration extends to beyond the middle of the 
hilla. On the whole the spermatheca is reminiscent of that of X. brasiliensis (Baker) 
rather than that of X. nubica. 

Length : ^ i| mm., $ i|-2 mm. {X. nubica : ^ i|-2 mm., $ 2-2| mm.). 

Ctenophthaltnus {Euctenophthalmus) congener tenuistigmatus subsp. n. 

(Text-figs. 8, 9) 

Ctenophthalmus congener Roths, {nee Rothschild, 1907). Costa, 1954. Bull. Res. Council 
Israel 4 (3) : 293-296 [locality not mentioned, but Prof. O. Theodor informed me that the 
202 (^ and 149 $ recorded in Costa's paper were collected at Ginegar in the Plain of 
Esdraelon, south of Nazareth, Israel]. 

Type material : Collected by M. Costa from Microtus guentheri : male holotype 
and 2 ^ paratypes from Mishmar Haemek, Israel, 4 . i . 1953 ; female allotype and 
I cJ, 2 $ paratypes from Mishmar Haemek, 10. i. 1953 ; i c^, i $ paratypes from 
Mishmar Haemek, 2.1.1953 ; 11 c^, 11 $ from Ginegar, Israel, 6.viii.i947 (i c?. i ?). 
22.viii.1947 (2 ^, 2 ?), 23. viii. 1947(2 (^), 4.ix.i947 (i ^, i $), 7.ix.i947 (2 (^, 2 $), 
3.x. 1947 (3c^, 5 ?). 

Description : This new subspecies is closely related to C. congener allousei 
Hubbard, 1956 (from Kurdistan, Iraq), and differs from it by [a) the pronotum 
being longer in relation to the length of the pronotal spines, {b) a longer dorso- 
posterior margin of the fixed process of the clasper (Text-fig. 8), with four long setae 
situated along this margin as against three in C. congener allousei, (c) a considerably 
smaller spiracular fossa of tergum VIII of the female (Text-fig. 9) (In certain genera 
there seems to be a correlation between the size of the spiracular fossae (especially 
the one on tergum VIII) and the humidity of the fleas' habitat — the size of the 
fossae becoming greater with an increase in the relative humidity.) The movable 
process of the clasper (Text-fig. 8) is on the whole apically broader than in C. congener 
allousei, but there is some variation in this width and in some specimens the process 
is almost identical with that of the latter subspecies. 

Length : ^ 2 mm., $ 2I mm. 

Ctenophthalmus (Euctenophthalmus) iranus persicus subsp. n. 

(Text-figs. 10-13) 

Type material : Male holotype and female allotype collected at Kazvin, Iran, 
from a burrow of Meriones persicus, in 1955, by F. Schmid. 

Diagnosis : The male of this new subspecies is distinguishable from that of 



342 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 





Figs. 8-9. Cienophthaltnus (Euctenophthalmus) congener ienuisiigmatus subsp. nov. 8. 
Clasper and sternum IX (holotype). 9. Sternum VII, segment VIII and spermatheca 
(allotype). 



i 

i 



SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 343 

C. iranus iranus Argyropulo, 1935 (from Azerbaijan*) by {a) the ventral emargina- 
tion of the posterior margin of sternum VIII, (6) the much narrower dorsal portion 
of the movable process of the clasper which is longer than that of the nominate 
subspecies, (c) the more strongly pronounced sclerotic dorso-posterior angle of the 
movable process, {d) the relatively shorter distal arm of sternum IX. The female 
appears to be indistinguishable from that of the nominate subspecies. It should be 
noted that I have not seen any specimens of the nominate subspecies, so I am relying 
on Argyropulo's description and figures for the differences between the subspecies. 




Fig. 10. Cienophthalmus [Enctenophthalmus) iranus persicus subsp. nov. Clasper and 

sternum IX (holotype). 



Description : Labial palp reaching to about four-fifths the length of the fore 
coxa. Pronotal ctenidium with 18 spines in the male, 16 in the female ; these spines 
are slightly longer than the pronotum. Longest seta of second hind tarsal segment 
not quite reaching the middle of the fourth segment. Terga I-IV with one marginal 
spinelet on each side in both sexes (although in the female the spinelet is absent on 
one side of tergum IV). Numbers of setae in the main row on each side of terga I-VII 
in the male : 5, 7 or 8, 7, 7, 6, 7, and 6 respectively, in the female : 5, 7 or 8, 7, 6, 6 
or 7, 6 and 4 respectively. Basal abdominal sternum with a pair of ventral setae in 

* Argyropulo (1937 : 105) gives the latitude and longitude of the localities (the neighbourhood of the 
villages Kalakhana and Kyal'zyaz) from which he obtained material as 38°39' N., 66°E. ; the longitude 
must be incorrect since it would indicate a place in Uzbekistan and it is perhaps a slip for 46°E. 



KNTOM. 8, 8 



I3§ 



344 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 




Figs. 11-13. Ctenophthalmus [Euctenophthalmus) iranus persicus subsp. nov. 11. Phallo- 
some (holotype). 12. Sternum VIII (holotype). 13. Terminal abdominal segments 
and genitalia (allotype). 



I 



SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 345 

the male, with a vertical row of 2 or 3 setae in the female ; sterna III-VII with a 
main row of four setae each side in the male, sterna III-VI with a main row of 
five setae in the female. 

Male (Text-figs. 10-12) : Two or three small setae in front of the spiracular fossa 
of tergum VIII. Posterior margin of sternum VIII (Text-fig. 12) minutely serrate, 
smoothly rounded and ventrally slightly emarginate. Fixed process of clasper 
(Text-fig. 10) with four large and about a dozen smaller setae ; the narrow ventral 
lobe without a small dorso-apical seta ; acetabular seta large, inserted well away 
from the margin. Movable process elongate, its anterior margin strongly bulging 
just above the acetabular portion ; the dorso-anterior angle greatly drawn out so 
that the upper part of the movable process is shaped like a sugar-loaf, at the base 
of which the dorso-posterior angle forms a strongly sclerotized squarish projection ; 
the group of setae on and near the posterior margin is placed rather low down at a 
projection of the margin and consists of only three setae (in the majority of species 
of the genus this group invariably consists of four setae) : fovea small and circular ; 
seven sensilla along the dorso-anterior angle. Distal arm of sternum IX (Text-fig. 
10) short and broad, with numerous short setae in its apical half. Phallosome as 
in Text-fig. 11. 

Female (Text-fig, 13) : Posterior margin of sternum VII forming a large bluntly 
triangular lobe ; the lower setae of the main row are placed quite near the posterior 
margin. Tergum VIII with 2 or 3 setae over and above the spiracular fossa ; pos- 
terior margin of this tergum broadly rounded, without a sinus ; four or five genital 
setae on the inner surface. Apical part of sternum VIII narrow. Ductus bursae 
very long, much longer than the dorsal pronotal spines. Spermatheca of the usual 
type, as shown in Text-fig. 13. 

Length : ^ ^ 2\ mm. 

Ophthalmopsylla (Ophthalmopsylla) volgensis palestinica subsp. n. 

(Text-figs. 14-16, 21) 

Type material : Male holotype and female allotype from Beer Hafir, Israel, 
irom. Jaculus jaculus, 25.iii,i957 {M. Costa). 

Diagnosis : At once distinguishable from the seven known subspecies of 0. 
volgensis by {a) the middle seta of the ocular row being situated much nearer the 
lower than the upper ocular seta (in the other available subspecies this seta, is placed 
midway between the upper and lower setae of the row), {b) the great reduction of the 
frontal row of setae, which is reduced to only one small seta in the male and none 
in the female (in the other subspecies the frontal row consists of at least three setae). 
In the latter respect females of the new subspecies resemble those of 0. praefecta 
sspp. (in which the row is present in the male), but in other characters the new form 
is a typical representative of the volgensis-conxple^. The genitalia of the male differ 
to some extent from those of the other subspecies, but this is not the case in the 
female, which is therefore indistinguishable from other subspecies in the structure 
of the terminal abdominal segments and genitalia. 



346 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 

Description : Chaetotaxy of head (Text-fig. 14) as described in the diagnosis. 
Pronotal ctenidium with 20 spines in the male, 22 in the female. Outer lateral 
surface of hind tibia with lo-ii setae in the male, 8-10 in the female. Posterior 
margin of hind tibia with one short but stout seta between the penultimate group 
of two setae and the fifth group of setae from the base. Metanotum with two 
marginal spinelets on each side in both sexes. Terga I-IV with one marginal 
spinelet each side (in the female only on one side of tergum IV, the spinelet being 
absent on the other side). Numbers of setae in the main row on each side of terga 
I-VII in the male : 4, 7, 7, 7, 7, 5 or 6 and 5 or 6 respectively, in the female : 4 or 5, 
7, 7 or 8, 7, 7, 7 and 6 respectively. Basal abdominal sternum with, apart from a 




Fig. 14. Ophthalmopsylla {Ophthalmopsylla) volgensis palestinica subsp, nov. 

Head (holotype). 



ventral seta, i or 2 lateral setae per side in the male, 2 such setae in the female. 
Sterna III-VII in the male with the following numbers of setae each side : 3, 2 or 
3, 3, 3, and 3 ; sterna III-VI in the female with 3, 3 or 4, 3 and 4 setae respectively. 
Male (Text-figs. 15, 16) : Sternum VIII (Text-fig. 15) of the same peculiar 
structure as in the other subspecies. Tip of fixed process of clasper reaching a little 
beyond the middle of the anterior margin of the movable process ; corpus of clasper 
and manubrium virtually as in other subspecies. Movable process of clasper broad, 
widest in its middle, with a rounded posterior margin ; the two spiniform setae 
at the hind margin not close together, while the seta above the upper spiniform is 
not transformed into a spiniform (as is the case in the nominate subspecies, for 
instance) : chaetotaxy of movable process as shown in Text-fig. 15. Distal arm of 
sternum IX (Text-fig. 15) straight, even its tip hardly at all upturned ; ventrally 



i 



SIPHCJNAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 347 




Fig. 15. Ophthalmopsylla {Ophthalmopsylla) volgensis palestinica subsp. nov. 
Clasper and sterna VII-IX (holotype). 



this arm forms a fairly large triangular lobe which bears half a dozen setae. Aedeagus 
as in Fig. 16. Thus far no use had been made of the structure of the aedeagus in 
separating the subspecies of 0. volgensis. Text-figs. 17-20 show the aedeagi of the 
four other subspecies of which I have material available for study* ; note the differ- 
ences in [a) the degree of sclerotization of the dorsal margin, [h) shape and place of 
attachment of the dorso-apical membranous lobe, (c) the shape of the ventral 
lateral lobe, and {d) the structure of the hamulus. 

Female (Text-fig. 21) : All characters of the terminal segments and of the genitalia 
are shown in the figure, which obviates a detailed description. 

Length : c^ 2 J mm., $ 2f mm. 

* My grateful thanks are due to Dr. M. A. Mikulin, of the Antiplague Research Institute at Alma-Ata, 
for having sent us specimens of O. v. intermedia and O. v. transcaspica, and to Col. R. Traub for material 
of O. V. arnoldi which was collected by Dr. H. Hoogstraal of the U.S. Navy Medical Research Unit No. 3. 



348 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 






Figs. 16-20. Aedeagus of subspecies of Ophthalmopsylla {OphthcUmopsylla) volgensis : 
16. O. V. palestinica (holotype). 17. O. v. volgensis Wagner & loff (from western Kaza- 
khstan). 18. O. V. arnoldi Wagner & Argyropulo (from the Van Province, Turkey). 
19. O. V. intermedia Argyropulo (from Byet-Pak-Dala, eastern Kazakhstan). 20. O. v. 
transcaspica Zagniborodova & MikuUn (from the Kazandshik rayon, Turkmenia). 



SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 349 




Fig. 21. Ophthalmopsylla [Ophthalmopsylla) volgensis palestinica subsp. nov. Terminal 
abdominal segments and genitalia (allotype). 



Nosopsyllus (Nosopsyllus) sarinus aryanus subsp. n. 
(Text-figs. 24, 26) 

Type material : Male holotype, female allotype and i cJ i $ paratypes from 
Abadan, south-west Iran, from rats, 1936 [D. C. Rennie). 

Description : This new subspecies differs from the nominate subspecies N. sarinus 
sarinus (Jordan & Rothschild, 1929) (from Adana, Turkey) only in genitalic struc- 
tures. 

Male (Text-fig. 24) : The fixed process of the clasper is longer than in N. s. sarinus 
(Text-fig. 22) and the movable process is widest at about the middle, not in its apical 



350 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 




Figs. 22, 23. Nosopsyllus {Nosopsyllus) sarinus sarinus (Jordan & Rothschild, 1921). 
22. Clasper, sternum IX and aedeagal hamulus (lectotype). 23. Sternum VII and 
spermatheca (paratypes). 



of the movable process in ssp. aryanus. Distal arm of sternum IX (Text-fig. 24) 
portion ; the two strong setae at the posterior margin are situated at a lower level 
than in the nominate subspecies because of the greater length of the apical portion 
with a very long and narrow dorsal submarginal sclerotization, characteristic for 
the species, and one minute apical subspiniform seta. Aedeagal hamulus (Text-fig. 



SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 351 

24) with a narrow and rather long apical part, more or less as in the other two 
subspecies. 

Female (Text-fig. 26) : Posterior margin of sternum VII forming a short, broad 
and very blunt lobe, below which the straight margin meets the ventral margin at 
an angle approaching a right angle. In N. sarinus sarinus (Text-fig. 23 a-c ; the 
corresponding figures in the original description are not perfectly correct) the 
posterior margin of sternum VI forms a much more strongly projecting and narrower 
lobe, below which the margin meets the ventral margin at an acute angle. There are 
no striking differences in the ductus bursae or in the spermatheca. 

Length : (^ 2-2 J mm., $ 2^-3 mm. 

Nosopsyllus (Nosopsyllus) sarinus parthius subsp. n. 
(Text-fig. 25) 

Type material : Male holotype from Mahun, 6000 ft., about 20 miles S.S.E. of 
Kirman, Iran, vii-x. 1950, from Mus musculus, collected by a member of the Oxford 
University Expedition to Persia. 

Description : This subspecies, only known from the male sex, also differs from 
the two related forms only by genitalic structures. 

Male (Text-fig. 25) : The fixed process of the clasper is about the same length as 
that of N. sarinus aryanus, but is more upright and therefore looks longer. The 
movable process is longer and narrower than that of the other two subspecies and 
the angle of the anterior margin, not far from the pointed apex, is much more 
prominent because the margin between the angle and the apex is concave. Sternum 
IX and aedeagal hamulus not much different from those of N. s. sarinus and 
N. s. aryanus (Text-fig. 25, cf. Text-figs. 22 and 24). 

Length : <j 2J mm. 

Genus NOSOPSYLLUS Jordan, 1933 
Nosinius subgen. n. 

Distinguishable from the nominate subgenus and from subgenus Gerhillophilus 
by [a) the larger number of pronotal spines (26 or 27 as against an average of 20 
in all other species), {h) the more numerous pseudosetae under the mesonotal collar 
(9 or 10 as against an average of 6 in all other species), (c) the first pair of lateral 
plantar setae being shifted on to the plantar surface more or less in between the 
members of the second lateral pair (in some species of the other subgenera there is 
a tendency towards this shift), [d) the more numerous setae on the abdominal 
segments ; one or two setae of the tergal main rows are situated below the level 
of the spiracle in the male, two or three in the female, {e) the subequal length of the 
three antesensilial setae in the female (in all other species the upper seta never 
reaches much beyond half the length of the middle seta, and the lower seta is always 
at least a little shorter than the middle one). 

Type of subgenus : the new species described below. 



352 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 





Figs. 24, 25. Clasper, sternum IX and aedeagal hamulus of : 24. Nosopsyllus (Noso- 
psyllus) safinus aryanus subsp. nov. (holotype). 25. Nosopsyllus (Nosopsyllus) 
sarinus parthius subsp. nov. (holotype). 



SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 353 




Fig. 26. Nosopsyllus {Nosopsyllus) sarinus aryanus subsp. nov. Sternum VII, 
ductus bursae and spermatheca (allotype). 



Nosopsyllus (Nosinius) sinaiensis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 27-30) 

Type material : Male holotype, female allotype and i (^ paratype from the 
Libne Junction, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, from Gerhillus gerbillus, xii.1956 {M. 
Costa). 

Diagnosis : The new species is immediately distinguishable from all other known 
members of the genus by the characters mentioned in the description of the sub- 
genus. 

Description : Head (Text-fig. 27) : Frontal tubercle about in the middle of the 
frons in the male, while in the female (in which the exact dorsal end of the frons 
cannot be determined with certainty owing to the much lower point of implantation 
of the antennae) the tubercle is situated at a corresponding distance from the oral 
angle. In front of the antennal fossa, above the well-developed eye, a row of two 
setae (absent in the female) and a number of minute ones. Ocular row in both sexes 
consisting of three setae of which the central one is thinner and much shorter than 
the outer ones. Labial palp reaching to about the apex of the fore coxa. The anten- 



354 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 



nal fossa is dorsally bordered by a row of 19-20 small setae in the male and 12-14 
in the female. Postantennal region with one long seta above the middle of the clava. 
The occipital row consists in the male of five setae each side, of which the lowest is 
large and is separated by a gap from the more dorsal ones ; there is an additional 
seta near the dorsal margin just in front of the uppermost seta of the occipital row. 
In the female the occipital row consists of six setae each side and the gap between 
the lowest seta and the next is much smaller than in the male. 

Thorax : Pronotum (Text-fig. 27) with a row of usually 12 setae on the two sides 
together in both sexes. Pronotal ctenidium with 26 or 27 slender spines in the male, 
26 in the female ; these spines are a little longer than the pronotum. Mesonotum 
with two rows of setae, apart from the anterior patch of numerous small setae, most 



'""••■'■©••• IV 






27 

Figs. 27, 28. Nosopsyllus {Nosinius) sinaiensis sp. nov. 27. Head and pronotum 
((J paratype). 28. Fifth hind tarsal segment (^ paratype). 



of which are covered by the pronotal spines ; the first row consists of four or five 
small setae on each side, the main row of six setae. A row of 9 or 10 pseudosetae 
each side under collar of the mesonotum. Mesepisternum generally with 10-12 
small and two larger setae in the male, in the female with 17 or 18 small ones and 
two or three larger ones. Mesepimeron with six or seven setae. Metanotum also 
with two rows of setae which are dorsally preceded by a few small setae ; the first row 
consists of six or seven setae each side, the main row of five or six ; the margin of the 
collar of the metanotum bears one spinelet on each side. The metepisternum has 
two large and usually one small setae, and the metasternum one ; the metepimeron 
bears 7-9 setae in the male, 9-10 in the female. 

Legs : Longest seta of second hind tarsal segment reaching to or a little beyond 
the apex of the fourth segment. First pair of lateral plantar setae of all tarsi (Text- 



SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 355 

fig. 28) shifted on to the plantar surface and placed more or less in between the 
members of the second lateral pair. 

Abdomen : Terga I-VII with two rows of setae and also with one or a few 
additional small setae in front of the most dorsal ones of the anterior row ; the main 
row consists in the male of 6, lo, lo or ii, lo or ii, ii, ii and ii setae per side, 
in the female of 6, 12, 11 or 12, 11, 11, 10 or 11, and 9 or 10 setae respectively. The 
posterior margin of terga I-III bears one spinelet on each side in the male (on one 




Fig. 29. Nosopsyllus {Nosinius) sinaiensis sp. nov. Clasper, sternum IX and 
aedeagal hamulus (holotype). 



side of tergum II two spinelets in one specimen), in the female tergum I bears two 
spinelets each side, tergum II only one, and the remaining terga have none. 

In both sexes three antesensilial setae of which in the male the upper is about one- 
sixth the length of the middle seta, while the lower is extremely minute ; in the 
female the three setae are of subequal length. 

Basal abdominal sternum of the male with one ventral seta each side, sterna 
1 1 I-VII with a row of four or five setae ; in the female the basal sternum bears, 
apart from the ventral seta, a lateral patch of 6 or 7 slender setae, while sterna 
III-VI bear on each side an irregular row of 13 or 14, 8, 9 or 10, and 8 or 9 setae 
respectively. 



356 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 

Male (Text-fig. 29) : Tergum VIII large, its dorsal margin with 4 or 5 setae ; 
on the lateral surface of the tergum 14 to 18 setae and 7 or 8 small setae above the 
spiracular fossa. The vestigial sternum VIII as in Text-fig. 29. Fixed process of 
clasper very prominent, symmetrical and much longer than broad ; the lower 
margin of the corpus of clasper strongly and symmetrically rounded. Manubrium 




Fig. 30. Nosopsyllus {Nosinius) sinaiensis sp. nov. Terminal abdominal segments and 

genitalia (allotype). 



considerably broader than is usual in species of Nosopsyllus. Movable process 
smoothly curved, very narrow and of uniform width throughout, with only one 
strong seta at the posterior margin, besides several smaller ones. Proximal arm of 
sternum IX slightly concave anteriorly and convex posteriorly, rather narrow ; the 
distal arm broad and bearing before the deep ventral constriction two subspiniform 
setae and 8 thin ones ; the part of the distal arm beyond the constriction has a 
distinct hump of the dorsal margin and there are numerous small setae none of 



SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 357 

which is really spiniform or subspiniform. Aedeagal hamulus large, shaped as 
shown in Text-fig. 29. 

Female (Text-fig. 30) : The lower third of the posterior margin of sternum VII 
is almost straight and forms a right angle with the ventral margin ; above this 
straight portion the margin is concave ; on each side of this sternum an irregular 
row of 9-11 large and 7-8 smaller setae. Tergum VIII bears 18-20 small setae on the 
dorsal area (the patch extending to a little below the spiracular fossa), a row of 4 or 
5 long setae, preceded by 4 or 5 shorter ones, below the sensilium, and on the ventral 
and apical area of this tergum 17-19 larger and smaller setae and 2 or 3 genital 
setae. The anal stylet is about 3I times as long as basally broad and bears, apart 
from the long apical seta, two slender and one minute preapical setae. Ductus 
bursae and spermatheca (Text-fig. 30) of the shape characteristic for the genus, the 
spermatheca relatively very small. 

Length : ^ 3J mm., $ 4 mm, (larger than any other known species of the 
genus). 



Nosopsyllus (Gerbillophilus) iranus attenuatus subsp. n. 
(Text-figs. 31, 32) 

Type material : Male holotype, female allotype and 2 ^ paratypes from Dan, 
Israel, from Meriones tristrami, 1 .iv.1954 {M. Costa) ; i $ paratype from Dan, from 
Apodemus sylvaticus (accidental occurrence), i. iv.1954 (M. Costa) ; 2 c^, 4 $ para- 
types from Tel Amal, Israel, from Meriones tristrami, 15. ii. 1953 (M. Costa). 

Description : This new subspecies differs from N. iranus iranus Wagner & 
Argyropulo, 1934 (from Azerbaijan and Nakhichevan, mainly on Meriones bog- 
danovi) by the following characters : {a) two setae (instead of three) of the second hind 
tarsal segment reach well beyond the apex of the fourth segment (in the females 
sometimes only one), (&) the manubrium is relatively longer, (c) the fixed process 
of the clasper (Text-fig. 31) is much narrower than in the nominate subspecies, 
(d) the movable process is relatively shorter and does not reach much beyond the tip 
of the fixed process, [e) the apex of the distal arm of sternum IX is narrower, (/) the 
tip of the sclerotized part of the hamulus projects a little beyond the finely hirtose 
membranous ventral lobe. There are apparently no sharp differences between the 
two subspecies in the female terminal abdominal segments and genitalia (Text-fig. 
32, cf. Text-fig. 34), but the lobe of the posterior margin of sternum VII is apparently 
more truncate, on the average, in ssp. attenuatus than in the nominate subspecies. 

Length : <^ 2|-2f mm., $ 2^-3 mm. 

Remarks : Nosopsyllus iranus iranus was described from specimens from 
Belyasuvar, Azerbaijan, where it was collected in considerable numbers from nests 
of Meriones bogdanovi and a few specimens from Rattus norvegicus (which live there in 
close associated with the gerbils) (Wagner & Argyropulo, 1934 : 222). Although the 
original material contained specimens of both sexes, the female was not described, 
but in 1935 Argyropulo gives a short diagnosis and figures of that sex (pp. 163, 164, 



358 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 




Figs. 31, 32. Nosopsyllus {Gerbillophilus) iranus attenuatus subsp. nov. 31. Clasper, 
sternum IX and aedeagal hamulus (holotype). 32. Sternum VII, ductus bursae and 
spermatheca (a, allotype) and outlines of sternum VII of three paratypes {b from Dan, 
c and d from Tel Amal). 



SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 359 

figs, 34a, 36b, 37a), as well as a more complete figure of the male terminalia (figs. 6, 
35 No. i), and adds as localities Dash-Burun, Leonarkh and Nakhichevan. Argyropulo 
and Yavrumov (1937 : 8i, 82) give additional records of A^. iranus from the Mil'skaya 
steppe, Azerbaijan (Stantsia Begmanly/ Araks, on Pallasiomys erythrourus ; Stantsia 
Tropicheska, on Meriones bogdanovi), the southern part of the Muganskaya steppe, 
Azerbaijan, and from the Nakhichevan A. S. S. R. (Nakhichevan, Dzhul'fa and 



Fig. 33. Nosopsyllus {Gerbillophilus) iranus iranus Wagner & Argyropulo (from Kazvin, 
Iran). Clasper, sternum IX and aedeagal hamulus. 

Ordubad, on Meriones sp.), and they suggest that this species might be more properly 
placed as a subspecies of the North African Nosopsyllus henleyi — an opinion with 
which I cannot concur. 

I have not seen any material of N. iranus from Transcaucasia, and have relied 
for the diagnosis of the new subspecies, described above, entirely on the original 
description and on Argyropulo's figures which have the appearance of being accurate, 
though somewhat sketchy. 

A few years ago I received through the courtesy of Dr. G. Bouvier one male and 



36o SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 

one female of a Nosopsyllus collected at Kazvin, Iran, from a burrow of Meriones 
persicus, in 1955 by Dr. F. Schmid. I identify this pair tentatively as belonging to 
Nosopsyllus iranus iranus Wagner & Argyropulo and give here figures of the struc- 
tures of taxonomic importance of these Iranian specimens (Text-figs. 33, 34). There 




Fig. 34. Nosopsyllus {Gerbillophilus) iranus iranus Wagner & Argyropulo, 
(from Kazvin, Iran). Sternum VII, ductus bursae and spermatheca. 



are a few discrepancies between some characteristics of this pair and the published 
description, but they are rather small and probably come within the range of in- 
dividual variation : in the Kazvin specimens (a) the mouthparts forming the probos- 
cis reach to the apex of the fore trochanter (to about the middle of the trochanter 
in the specimens from Azerbaijan and from Israel), (b) the manubrium is relatively 
longer, (c) the fixed process of the clasper is somewhat narrower than in the nominate 



SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 361 

subspecies and its dorso-posterior margin is slightly concave, not straight as shown 
in Argyropulo's figures ; however, this difference may well be unimportant since 
it is stated in the original description that the shape of the fixed process is variable. 
The species N. iranus is clearly a parasite of gerbils of the genus Meriones. 



Nosopsyllus (Gerbillophilus) henleyi israelicus subsp. n. 

(Text-fig. 35) 

Type material : Male holotype from Revivim, Israel, from Meriones tristrami, 
25.iii.1954 (M. Costa). 




Fig. 35. Nosopsyllus {Gerbillophilus) henleyi israelicus subsp. nov. 

and aedeagal hamulus (holotype). 



Clasper, sternum IX 



Description : This new subspecies is nearest related, as might be expected on 
geographical grounds, to N. henleyi henleyi (Rothschild, 1904), from Bir Victoria, 
about 300 miles north-west of Cairo, in the Western Desert Province of Egypt. Apart 
from the somewhat greater length of the upper antesensilial seta (which is almost 
one-third the length of the middle seta), the new subspecies differs only by details 
of the genitalia from the nominate subspecies, from A^^. henleyi mauretanicus (Jordan 
& Rothschild, 1912) (in Algeria) and from N. henleyi oranus (Jordan, 1931) (in Algeria 
and Morocco). 

Male (Text-fig. 35) : Tergum VIII as in the other subspecies. Manubrium of 
clasper fairly broad ; fixed process almost as in the nominate subspecies ; movable 
process widest just above the middle, beyond which the process narrows gradually ; 



362 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 

the two strong setae at the posterior margin of the movable process are placed at a 
lower level than in the nominate subspecies. Sternum IX as in Text-fig. 35 ; as in the 
other subspecies the more apical setae on the distal arm are modified into small 
spiniforms and subspiniforms. Aedeagal hamulus with a weakly sclerotized but 
rather broad apical lobe. 
Length : ^ 2f mm. 

Nosopsyllus (Gerbillophilus) theodori sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 36-38) 

Type material : Male holotype and i (^ paratype from El Hadhira, Israel, from 
Meriones crassus (holotype) and Acomys russatus (paratype) 20,xii.i954, {0. 
Theodor) ; female allotype and 5 (^ 3 ? paratypes from Wadi Jureir, Negev, Israel, 
from Meriones crassus (allotype and 4 (^, 2 $ paratypes) and Gerhillus [Dipodillus) 
dasyurus (i (^, i $ paratypes), i,iv.i955 [M. Costa) ; i (^ paratype from Wadi 
Nafkh, Israel, from Gerhillus {Dipodillus) dasyurus, 11. iv. 1955 [M. Costa) ; i (J, i $ 
paratypes from Raman, Trias, Israel, from Meriones calurus (^J) and M. crassus (9), 
18.iii.1956 (M. Costa) ; i (^, 3 $ paratypes from Ras ez Zuweira, Israel, from 
Gerhilhis [Dipodillus) dasyurus (i ^, 2 $) and Acomys cahirinus (i $), 3,111.1955 
(M. Costa) ; i (^ paratype from Shirta, Israel, from Gerhillus [Dipodillus) dasyurus, 
23. xi. 1957 [M. Costa) ; 1 ^ paratype from Wadi Adjad, Israel, from Gerhillus 
[Dipodillus) dasyurus, 16. xi. 1957 [M. Costa) ; i (^, i $ paratypes from Beerotayim, 
Israel, from Meriones crassus [(^) and Gerhillus [Dipodillus) dasyurus ($), 25.iii.1957 
(M. Costa). 

Description : It is difiicult to assess the relationship of this and the following 
new species to any of the known species of the subgenus ; there are, as far as I can 
make out, no species which are particularly closely related to them. There is a great 
need for a revision of the genus Nosospsyllus. 

Labial palp reaching to the middle of the fore trochanter. Pronotal ctenidium 
consisting of 20-23 spines which are distinctly longer than the pronotum. Longest 
seta of first hind tarsal segment subequal in length to this segment ; longest seta 
of second hind tarsal segment reaching to about the middle of the fifth segment, 
and a second seta reaching to about the apex of the fourth segment or a little beyond. 
The first three abdominal terga with one or two marginal spinelets each side. 
Spiracular fossae of terga II-VII very small, only slightly larger than the alveoli 
of the larger tergal setae. Upper antesensilial seta in the male about one-third the 
length of the middle seta, the lowest seta minute or absent ; in the female the upper 
seta is about one-third the length of the lower, while the latter is distinctly shorter 
than the middle seta. 

Male (Text-figs. 36, 38) : Tergum VIII (Text-fig. 38) of medium height, with a 
dorso-posterior angle of about 90°. Manubrium of clasper (Text-fig. 36) straight and 
fairly narrow ; fixed process very narrow, the posterior margin of the clasper below 
it strongly sinuate ; movable process narrow and straight, with a prominent pointed 
angle at the middle of the anterior margin ; chaetotaxy of the movable process as 



SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 363 




Figs. 36, 37. Nosopsyllus {Gerbillophilus) theodori sp. nov. 36. Clasper, sternum IX 
and aedeagal hamulus (holotype). 37. Sternum VII, ductus bursae and spermatheca 
[a, allotype) and outlines of sternum VII of three paratypes {b and d from Wadi Jureir, 
c from Ras ez Zuweira). 



364 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 

shown in Text-fig. 36. Apical part of distal arm of sternum IX broad, its dorsal 
margin strongly angulate ; only a few apical setae are slightly thickened, none is 
spiniform. Aedeagal hamulus with a non-protruding sock-shaped sclerotization, 
as shown in Text-fig. 36. 

Female (Text-fig. 37) : Posterior margin of sternum VII with a fairly narrow but 
well-developed blunt lateral lobe ; chaetotaxy as in Text-fig. 37. Ductus bursae of 
medium length ; spermatheca as shown in Text-fig. 37. 

Length : ^ 2-2^ mm., $ 2^-3 mm. 




Figs. 38, 39. Tergum VIII of male of : 38. Nosopsyllus [Gerhillophilus) theodori sp. nov. 
(paratype from Raman). 39 N. (G.) pumilionis sp. nov. (holotype). 



Nosopsyllus (Gerbillophilus) pumilionis sp. n. 

(Text-figs. 39-41) 

Type material : Male holotype, female allotype and i $ paratype from Ein- 
Radian, Israel, from Dipodillus nanus, i.ii.1953 (M. Costa) ; i ^ paratype from 
Ein Radian, Israel, from Jaculus jaculus, 15. iv. 1955 (M. Costa) ; i c^, 3 ? paratypes 
from Tureibe, Israel, from Meriones crassus, 2.iv.i956 (M. Costa). 

Description : A fairly close relative of N. theodori and, apart from somewhat 
larger abdominal spiracular fossae and a shorter upper antesensilial seta in the male 
(length of this seta only one-fourth that of the middle seta), only distinguishable 
from it by the modified terminal segments. 

Male (Text-figs. 39, 40) : Tergum VIII (Text-fig. 39) much higher than in the 
previous species, its ventral margin strongly convex and the dorso-posterior angle 
obtuse. Manubrium of clasper (Text-fig. 40) relatively shorter and broader than in 
N. theodori ; fixed process narrow as in that species, but the margin of the clasper 
below it only feebly sinuate ; movable process widest in the apical half, with a sharply 



SIPHOXAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 365 




Figs. 40, 41. Nosopsyllus [Gerbillophiliis) piimilionis sp. nov. 40. Clasper, sternum IX 
and aedeagal hamulus (holotype). 41. Sternum VII, ductus bursae and spermatheca 
[a, allotype) and outline of sternum VII of paratype {b). 



366 SIPHONAPTERA FROM EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES 

pointed angle at the middle of the anterior margin ; chaetotaxy of movable process 
as shown in Text-lig. 40. Distal arm of sternum IX fairly narrow and straight, 
none of the small setae on the apical portion of this arm markedly thickened. 
Aedeagal hamulus with a long apical lobe, which projects far beyond the general 
outline of the structure (Text-fig. 40). 

Female (Text-fig. 41) : Posterior margin of sternum VII with a blunt lateral lobe 
which is much broader than in A'^. theodori. Ductus bursae fairly long ; spermatheca 
as in Text-fig. 41. 

Length : ^ 2\ mm., $ 3 mm. 



REFERENCES 

Argyropulo, a. I. 1935. Short keys to the fleas of Transcaucasia, [in Russian], Trav. 
Inst. Microbiol. Azerb. 5 (i) : 119-216, figs. 1-82. 

1937. OJ^ ^ ^^6w species of Ctenophthalmus (Aphaniptera) from Zuvand, [in Russian]. 

Trud. Azerb. Fil. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Zool. Ser. 20 : 105-110, figs. 1-2. 

& Yavrumov, V. A. 1937. Materials to the knowledge of ectoparasites of the Caucasus. 

II. Fleas of the western part of the Mil'skaya steppe, [in Russian], Trud. Azerb. Fil. 
Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Zool. Ser. 20 : 79-86. 

Hopkins, G. H. E. & Rothschild, M. 1953. -^*^ illustrated catalogue of the Rothschild collection 

of fleas (Siphonaptera) in the British Museum. London. Vol. i. 
Jordan, K. 1925. New Siphonaptera. Novit. zool. 32 : 96-112, figs. 1-46. 
Wagner, J. & Argyropulo, A. I, 1934. Aphanipterenfauna des Aserbeidschan (ostlicher Tail 

Transkaukasiens) nebst Bemerkungen iiber die Gattung Nosopsyllus Jord. Z. Parasitenk. 

7 : 217-232, figs, i-ii. 




PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY 
ADLARD AND SON, LIMITED, 
BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 



STUDIES IN PONTANIA 
(HYM, TENTHREDINIDAE) 




ROBERT B. BENSON 



BULLETIN OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 9 

LONDON: i960 



STUDIES IN PONTANIA 
(HYM., TENTHREDINIDAE) 




BY 

ROBERT B. BENSON 

British Museum (Natural History), London 



Pp- 367-384 ; 8 Text-figures 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. 9 

LONDON: i960 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series, corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

This paper is Vol. 8, No. 9 of the Entomological 
series. 



Trustees of the British Museum, i960 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Issued March, i960 Price Seven Shillings and Sixpence 



STUDIES IN PONTANIA 
(HYM., TENTHREDINIDAE) 

By ROBERT B. BENSON 



CONTENTS 

Introduction ....... 

Key to Species Groups ...... 

The joergenseni Group, with Two New Species 

The viminalis-crassipes Group, with Two New Species 

Poniania dolichura (Thomson) ..... 

The Species in Their Groups .... 

Changes in the North American Catalogue . 
(a) Species to be excluded from Pontania 
(6) Species to be transferred to Pontania from Euura 
{c) Species to be added to Pontania 
Arctic Species of Canada and Lapland Compared 
References ........ 

I. INTRODUCTION 



Page 
369 
370 
371 
373 
380 
380 
381 
381 
382 
382 
382 
384 



Two of the most formidable difficulties in studying Pontania O. Costa have, 
until recently, been to know how to define the genus and how to deal with the 
viminalis and crassipes complexes. 

At the generic level I have recently (Benson, 1958) drawn attention to the deep 
" antennal hollows " (between each antennal socket and its nearest orbit) which 
normally serve to distinguish Euura and Pontania from Nematus etc., apart from their 
generally much smaller size, often bi-coloured stigma, and the fact that their larvae 
feed in galls or leaf-edge-rolls on Salicaceae instead of openly on a wider range of 
plants. 

Euura and Pontania also differ biologically from each other : Euura larvae live 
in bud or stem galls ; Pontania in leaf galls or leaf-edge-rolls. Euura can normally be 
separated from Pontania by the complete absence of vein 2rm in its forewing and 
in the female also usually by its characteristically short saw-sheath with an apical 
spine and its long rigid cerci. Unfortunately the vein 2rm is sometimes entirely 
absent in Pontania even in both wings, but I have never seen this in other than 
dwarf males or obviously abnormal specimens in which there is usually some 
indication of the missing vein. 

This treatment of Pontania and Euura differs from the one that has been applied 
recently to the North American fauna (Ross, 1951). In part 7(c) below I have therefore 
listed the North American species known to me that must be transferred from Euura 
to Pontania. 

The viminalis and crassipes complexes are dealt with below in part 4. I have for 
a long time now been accumulating material of these two complexes reared from 



ENTOM. 8. 9. 



14 



370 STUDIES IN PONTANIA 

galls found on a wide range of Salix species. The study of this material has led me 
to realise : 

(i) that these two complexes are not separate entities but form one continuous 
group ; (2) that both Pontania viminalis L. and P. crassipes Thomson are more 
variable and polyphagous species than was once thought and each must now embrace 
a number of synonyms ; and (3) that though this has led to the sweeping away of 
several supposed splinter species it has also confirmed the status of others and 
brought to light others previously unknown. 

I have constructed a provisional key to the species groups of the genus for the 
whole world and have placed as many as possible of the described species at least 
tentatively into their groups (parts 2 and 7). I have also keyed the world species 
of the joergenseni group (part 3) and summarised what is known about the distri- 
bution and host range of P. viminalis and related species (part 4) and of P. dolichura 
(part 5). Finally I have drawn up a comparison between the arctic Pontania 1 
collected at Churchill on the west of Hudson Bay in North Canada in 1956 with 
those I collected at Abisko, in Swedish Lapland in 1948 and 1954 (part 8). 

Unfortunately except in the saws of the leaf-rollers (section A) the genitalia of 
this genus have not yet shown good differences at the species level. 

In 1956, when I had a Leverhulme Research Fellowship to study sawfiies in North 
America, I was able to examine many of the types of Kincaid, Marlatt, MacGillivray, 
and Rohwer through the kindness of the following : Dr. J. Gates Clarke (U.S. 
National Museum, Washington), Mr. G. P. Holland (Division of Entomology, Science 
Service, Ottawa), and Dr. Herbert H. Ross (Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana). 
I am also specially indebted to Dr. Rene Malaise of Stockholm for freely letting me 
examine the types and other Pontania material in his collections from Lapland and 
Kamtchatka, to Dr. Kjell Ander for letting me examine the Thomson types at 
Lund in 1948, to Dr. F. Kiihlhorn for allowing me to examine the Potania material, 
including the type of P. hungarica Enslin and of Amauronematus camtschatcalis 
Enslin in Enslin's collection under his care at Miinchen, and to Prof. Dr. J. de 
Beaumont (Lausanne) for lending me the types of Pontania auberti Zimgiebl and 
P. enslini Zirngiebl. Species of which I have seen types are marked below with 
an asterisk (*). 

In addition to the Pontania material that my wife and I collected in North 
America in 1956 and in various parts of Europe during the last thirty years, many 
people have kindly sent me living galls from which I have been able to rear material. 
In particular, I am indebted to Mrs. Eva Beckett of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, 
for her intelligent co-operation in gathering and sending me large quantities of 
fresh galls on various named Salix from the Canadian tundra in 1956 and 1957. 



2. KEY TO SPECIES GROUPS 

Sawsheath in lateral view at least slightly emarginate below apex, often tumid 
basally with an apical thorn and always shorter than hind femur. Inner anterior 
tibial spur often enlarged so that it is more than half as long as basitarsus. Larvae 
in rolled leaves or leaf -edges of Salix and Populus. Section A . . . 



STUDIES IN PONTANIA 371 

- Sawsheath in lateral view evenly rounded below the apex and sometimes longer 

than hind femur. Inner anterior tibial spur not more than half as long as 
basitarsus. Larvae in leaf galls on Salix or Populus ..... 3 

2 (i) Antennal hollows (between each antennal socket and nearest orbit) dull and pilose 

leucosticta group 
Antennal hollows shining and glabrous ..... leucapsis group 

3 (i) Underside of mesothorax usually with a glabrous pleuro-stemal line. Cenchri 

smaller and separated from each other by at least more than i^ times the width 
of one. Hind tibial spurs often longer than apical width of tibia. Antennal 
hollows often glabrous. Mesoscutellum scarcely convex .... 4 

- Underside of mesothorax pilose without glabrous pleuro-sternal line. Cenchri 

larger and closer together than i^ times the width of one. Hind tibial spurs broad, 
curved and less than | apical width of tibia. Antennal hollows dull and pilose. 
Mesoscutellum clearly convex. Gall bean-shaped, transected by leaf blade. 
(Benson 1954, fig- 8). Section B vesicator group 

4 (3) Ovipositor rounded at apex in lateral view and often shorter than hind femur + 

trochantellus. Inner orbits medially often not subcarinate. Cerci in $ often 
reaching back as far as apex of sawsheath ....... 5 

- Ovipositor acute at apex in lateral view and about as long as hind femur + 

trochantellus. Inner orbits medially subcarinate. Cerci of ? not reaching back 
nearly as far as apex of sawsheath. 

Gall coffee-bean shaped, attached to lateral leaf vein and transected by leaf so 
that almost as much appears above as below the leaf-blade (Benson 1954, 
fig. 7). Entirely parthenogenetic. Section C. . . . . proxima group 

5 (4) Antennal hollows glabrous, and/or frontal area clearly raised and demarcated 

from orbits and/or upper head covered with minute tubercles. Ovipositor shorter 
than hind tibia ; and, in dorsal view, sawsheath acuminate at apex even if broad 
basally. Galls irregular pea-or pear-shaped or cuspidate, attached to midrib on 
underside of leaf with usually only a small scar appearing above the leaf-blade 
but in some species up to \ the gall may be above the leaf-blade. Section D . 6 

- Antennal hollows pilose. Frontal area obsolete. Temples without tubercles. Ovi- 

positor about as long as hind tibia and, in dorsal view, sawsheath is bluntly 
rounded apically with nearly parallel sides. 

Gall vermiform, projecting more on upper than lower side of leaf, parallel 
with main vein and often paired (Benson, 1954, fig- i)- Section E. (monotypic) 

dolichura group 

6 (5) Antennal hollows dull and pilose. (See part 3) . . . joergenseni group 

Antennal hollows shining and glabrous. (See part 4) . viminalis-crassipes group 

3. THE JOERGENSENI GROUP WITH TWO NEW SPECIES 
Key to joergenseni Group 

I Head above covered with tubercles and frontal area raised but not clearly defined. 

Sawsheath as in Benson 1958, fig. 627 ....... 2 

Head without tubercles in the frontal area which may be clearly defined . . 4 

2(1) Stigma with only apical margin infuscate. Legs reddish yellow with coxae and ± 
hind and middle femora infuscate. Mesopleura dull with dense coriaceous surface 
sculpture. Each hind ocellus about its own diameter from the occipital carina. 
Northern and alpine ........••• 3 

Stigma with apical half ± infuscate. Legs reddish yellow with only hind coxa infus- 
cate. Mesopleura shining between hairs. Each hind ocellus about i^ times its 
own diameter from the occipital carina. Temperate Europe. On Salix aurita L., 
S. caprea L., and S. cinerea L joergenseni Enslin 



372 STUDIES IN PONTANIA 

3 (2) Mesothorax below evenly pilose without glabrous stemo-pleural line. Clypeus 

excised apically to about i its total length. Ovipositor shorter than hind femur 
without trochantellus. Northern and alpine Europe. ? On Salix aurita L., etc. 

tuberculata (Benson) 

- Mesothorax beneath with a broad glabrous stemo-pleural line. Clypeus only 

slightly emarginate in front to less than ^ its total length. Ovipositor about 
as long as hind femur -f- trochantellus. Northern Canada. On Salix arctophila 
Cockerell .......... arctophilae sp. n. 

4 (i) Head and thorax with at least mesopleura smooth and shining ... 5 

- Head and thorax dull with continuous surface coriaceous sculpture. Arctic 

Northern Canada. On Salix myriillifolia Anders . . . myrtillifoliae sp. n. 

5 (4) Frontal area of head clearly defined, and, together with front lobe of meso- 

notum, dz dull with surface sculpture. Sawsheath in dorsal aspect 

2-3 times longer than broad, and acute in lateral aspect. W. temperate 

N. America ......... devincta MacGillivray 

- Frontal area of head scarcely defined, and, together with whole of mesonotum 

smooth and shining. Sawsheath in dorsal aspect about as broad as long and 
blunt in lateral aspect. Temperate Europe. On Salix incana L. 

kriechbaumeri Konow 



Pontatiia myrtillifoliae sp. nov. 

Colour. $. Black with the following parts brown to yellowish-white ; mouth- 
parts, clypeus, ± hind orbits obscurely, hind corner of pronotum, tegula, legs 
(except for ± bases of coxae, bases of femur, apex of hind tarsus) and cerci. Wings 
hyaline ; basal I of stigma and venation at base of wings white ; rest of stigma and 
rest of venation brown. 

MiCROSCULPTURE. Head (including antennal hollows) and thorax dull and 
densely covered with coriaceous sculpture though this becomes obsolete on the 
mesosternum. Abdomen transversely alutaceous. 

Pubescence. Head (including antennal hollows) and thorax clothed all over with 
pubescence, though this becomes sparser on mesosternum. 

Antenna about as long as stigma + C of forewing, and 3rd segment about as long 
as greatest measure of eye. Head with frontal area not clearly defined but convex 
and notched in front. POL = OOL. Each hind ocellus about as far from the 
occipital carina as its own diameter. 

Mesonotum with medial suture ± obsolete behind. Legs with hind tarsus about as 
long as tibia. Front and hind inner tibial spurs about h as long as basitarsus. Hind 
basitarsus about as long as 3 following tarsal segments. Ovipositor about as long 
as hind femur + trochantellus. Sawsheath in dorsal view about f as broad as apex 
of hind tibia and tapering behind (Text-fig. 5) ; and in lateral view broadly rounded 
at apex. Saw of normal gall-making type (cf. Benson, 1958, figs 642-3). Length 4 mm. 

Canada, Manitoba, Churchill, 6 $ (including holotype), 24-26. vi. 1956, 2 $, 
3-4. vii. 1956. On Salix myrtillifolia Anderss., [R. B. Benson] (Holotype and 
paratype at Ottawa, rest of material in British Museum). 



STUDIES IN PONTANIA 373 

Pontania arctophilae sp. n. 

$. Colour. Black with following parts brown to yellowish-white : mouthparts, 
front of clypeus, ± tegula, legs (except coxae, bases of femora, and apical tarsal 
segments which are fuscous). Wings hyaline ; stigma yellowish-white with brownish 
apical margin ; venation brown except at base of wings and C and Sc of forewing 
which are brownish-white. 

MiCROSCULPTURE. Head and thorax above dull with rough surface which is 
developed into numerous small tubercles on temples and frontal region of head and on 
pronotum ; mesopleura coriaceous in upper f but below together with mesostemum 
impunctate and shining ; abdomen shining with but inconspicuous transverse aluta- 
ceous sculpture. 

Pubescence. Head including antennal hollows, meonotum and upper f of meso- 
pleura and abdomen densely and finely pubescent. Sternopleural line broadly 
glabrous. Mesosternum sparsely pubescent. 

Antenna about as long as C of forewing and segment 3 little longer than shortest 
measure of an eye. Head with clypeus medially excised to about \ its depth. 
Frontal area clearly defined and slightly convex medially, though the front wall 
between this and the antennal fovea is scarcely notched. POL : OOL as i.o, : 0'65 ; 
Hind ocelli about as far from occipital carina as their own diameter. Thorax with 
medial suture of mesonotum ± obsolete behind. Hind tarsus a little shorter than 
tibia (o"8 : i.o.), with basitarsus about as long as 3 following tarsal segments together. 
Inner front and hind tibial spurs a little longer than apical width of hind tibia. 
Abdomen with ovipositor about as long as hind femur + trochantellus. Sawsheath 
prow-shaped in lateral view and in dorsal view is long and acuminate behind, 
extending about twice as far back as the short cerci (Text-fig. 6). Saw of 
normal gall-making type (cf. Benson, 1958, figs. 642-3). Length 3 -5-4 '5 mm. long. 

Canada, Manitoba, Churchill, 36 $ 25.vi-8.vii.1956 (including holotype 8.vii,56. 
ovipositing on Salix arctophila Cockerell) [R. B. Benson] (Holotype and paratype 
at Ottawa, rest of material in British Museum). 

4. THE VIMINALIS-CRASSIPES GROUP WITH TWO NEW SPECIES 

Pontania viminalis L. has long tibial spurs (inner spur of hind tibia longer than 
apical width of tibia (Text-fig. i)) and an irregular pea-shaped gall attached to one 
side of the mid-vein on the underside of the leaf with only a small scar appearing on 
the upper side of the leaf. P. crassipes Thomson on the other hand has short, often 
curved and scale-like, but very variable, tibial spurs at most clearly shorter than 
apical width of tibia (Text-fig. 4). And its pea-shaped gall attached to one side of the 
mid-vein on the underside of the leaf is transected by the leaf-blade so that often 
as much of the gall is above the leaf as below. Between these two are a number of 
species such as P. arctica MacGillivray (Text fig. 3) and P. salicis-pisum Thomas of 
North America in which these characters are intermediate ; the inner hind tibial 
spur is more or less as long as the apical width of the hind tibia and the gall, 
though mainly on the underside of the leaf, may have a large and conspicuous scar 
on the upperside. 



374 




STUDIES IN PONTANTA 
4 






3 arct. 



crass. 



vim. 





beck. 




arctop 




Figs. 1-4. Hind tibial spurs in : i, Pontania viminalis ; 2, P. beckettae ; 3, P. arctica ; 

and 4, P. crassipes. 

Figs. 5-8. Sawsheath from above in : 5, P. myrtillifoliae ; 6, P. arciophilae ; 7, P. beckettae ; 

and 8, P. glabrifrons. 



i 



STUDIES IN PONTANIA 375 

Pontania viminalis (L.) 

Cynips viminalis Linne, 1758, Syst. Nat. (loth Ed.) p. 554, No. 10. 
*Pontania hungarica Enslin, 1918, D. ent. Zt. Beih. 1917 : 733-4, syn. n. 
* Pontania samolad Malaise, 1920, Ent. Tidskr. 40 (2-4) : 11 7-9, syn. n. 
*Pontania harrisoni Benson, 1940, Ent. mon. Mag. 76 : 91-4, syn. n. 

When I was in Swedish Lapland in 1954 I collected long series of forms of P. 
viminalis showing every gradation of stigma colouring from those with an infuscate 
apex to those entirely yellowish-white. 

The forms with the palest stigma are not distinguishable from the type of P. 
samolad which I am therefore treating as a synonym of P. viminalis. Likewise we 
found occasional specimens of Arge fuscipes expansa (Klug) and of Priophorus 
pallipes (Lep.) with an entirely pale stigma ; and from high altitudes in Switzerland 
I have already recorded similar forms of Amauronematus alpicola Konow and 
suggested that they had some connection with the poorer development of melanin 
pigments at low temperatures under arctic and montane conditions.^ 

It is also clear to me now that Pontania hungarica and P. harrisoni are no more 
than highly coloured forms of P. viminalis. As I find now they are more character- 
istic of Central and Southern Europe (Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Jugoslavia and Asia 
Minor) they are probably associated with higher temperatures during some critical 
stage of their development, and I presume that the specimens I reared from Scottish 
galls were affected by the central heating of my room here ! The more extensively 
yellow-marked forms of viminalis are superficially very similar to the palaearctic 
P. collactanea (Forster) (on Salix repens L.) and P. arcticornis Konow (on Salix 
phylicifolia L. etc.) and the nearctic P. salicis-pisum (Thomas), P. hospes (Walsh) 
and P. petiolaridis Rohwer. P. viminalis however can be distinguished at once 
from all these species by its longer antennae (3rd antennal segment longer than 
shortest measure of an eye instead of shorter than this length). 

Salix purpurea L. is the main host-plant in Central Europe but I have examined 
specimens reared from galls on the following species : Salix phylicifolia L., 5. 
nigricans Smith, S. lapponum L., 5. hastata L., 5. daphnoides VilL, S. fragilis L., and 
S. viminalis L. 



Pontania glabrifrons sp. n. 

9 Colour. Black with the following parts yellow to yellowish-white : gena, most 
of clypeus from the front, ± underside and apex of antenna, i upper outer orbits 
very slightly and a fleck adjoining top of eye, ± apex of tegula, apices of femora, 
and tibiae and tarsi of all legs. Abdomen at extreme apex and below i obscurely 
brown. Wings hyaline ; stigma uniformly yellowish-shite ; venation yellowish to 
brownish-white. 

Antenna short, about 6/7 as long as C of forewing with segments 3, 4 and 5 
subequal and longest than shortest measure of eye. 

^ 1955. -Ew^- mon. Mag., 91 : 105. In the same way it is evident that Eunra lappa Malaise 1920 is a 
synonym of the common Iiuura mucronata Hartig. syn. n. 



376 STUDIES IN PONTANIA 

Head glabrous and shining on face, inner orbits below, antennal hollows and the 
ridge above them, and the temples beside the frontal area. Surface sculpture 
mainly restricted to parts of the raised frontal area, the very narrow upper orbital 
margin, the temple above the eyes and the outer orbits which are finely coriaceous. 
Clypeus medially emarginate to about | its total length. Malar space about equal 
to distance between antennal sockets. Frontal area with raised lateral walls but 
the medial concavity is confluent with the antennal furrow in front. POL=OOL. 
Each hind ocellus about as far from the occipital carina as its own diameter. 

Thorax shining with irregular coriaceous sculpture ± developed on the middle 
and front lobes of the mesonotum. Medial suture of these lobes obsolescent. 
Mesothorax below with normal pubescence and glabrous stemo-pleural line. 

Legs normal. Inner hind tibial spur shorter than apical width of tibia (Text-fig. 2). 
Hind tarsus about 9/10 as long as hind tibia. Wings normal. Abdomen with 
coriaceous sculpture ± developed above. Ovipositor about as long as hind tibia. 
Sawsheath from above large, broader than apex of hind tibia, tapering behind 
where it reaches back a little further than the cerci ; and clothed with backwardly 
projecting setae (Text-fig. 8). Saw similar to that of P. viminalis (cf. Benson, 1958, 
fig. 642). Length 4-6-5 mm. (^ as $ but there is more brown on the face, between 
the antenna and on the lower inner orbits, though the hypopygium is piceous and the 
stigma is brownish-white. Antenna as long as C + | stigma of forewing. 

Sweden, Torne Lapmark : Tome Trask district, 7 $ (including holotype) and 
13 cJ reared from galls on Salix lanata L., gathered in ix.1948 (/. E. & R. B. 
Benson) ; Abisko, on Salix lanata, 9 ^, 41 $, ii-i6.vi,i954, 3 S> ^3 ?. 17-22. vi. 
1954. I (^» 4 ?, 25-30. vi. 1954 (/. E. & R. B. B.) ; Bjorkliden, 6 ?, 24.vi.1954, 
I $, 2 $, 3.vii.i954, i $, 8-9. vii. 1954 (/. E. & R. B. B.) ; Riksgranzen, 3 $, 
2-12. vii. 1954 (/. E. & R. B. B.) ; Tornham, 3 ^, 4. vii. 1954 (/. E. & R. B. B.) ; 
Salkvaara, i $, lo-ii. vii, 1955 (/, P. S. Pringle) (Holotype and paratypes in the 
British Museum ; paratypes also at Stockholm and Helsingfors). 

This species superficially resembles some of the forms of P. viminalis with a 
pale wing stigma but is distinguished at once by its short tibial spurs ; it is also 
distinguished from viminalis and all the species with short spurs by the highly 
polished head, especially the lower inner orbits, the ridge above the antennal sockets 
and the sides of the frontal area. Furthermore, in the female the broad sawsheath 
(Text-fig. 8) distinguishes it from any other known Pontania. 

When my wife and I visited Swedish Lapland with Dr. Erlandsson's party after 
the International Entomological Congress at Stockholm in 1948 we found the galls 
of this species in profusion. It was the commonest and most conspicuous Pontania 
gall at Abisko that year. 

Almost every plant of Salix lanata was adorned with them. They are large 
cherry-like galls attached to the mid-rib on the underside of the leaf but with a 
conspicuous red scar on the upperside ; and furthermore they were made even more 
conspicuous because each leaf that bore a gall had yellowed from the apex to the 
gall, though the base of the leaf remained green. Unfortunately the galls were 
evidently not quite mature and from over a hundred galls we only managed to rear 
20 flies. When however we visited Lapland again in 1954 we had no difficulty in 



STUDIES IN PONTANIA 377 

finding adults of this species still in profusion, mainly feeding at the catkins or 
ovipositing in the buds of Salix lanata, but never on any other Salix. 



Pontania arctica (MacGillivray) comb. n. 

Euura arctica MacGillivray, 1919, Rept. Canad. Arct. Exped. 1913-18, 3 : 5G, $. 

Euura abortiva MacGillivray, 1919, op. cit. : 4G, (teneral ? specimen with unexpanded wings) 

syn. n. 
Pontania delicatula MacGillivray, 1919, op. cit.: 8G, $ syn. n. 

[The above three specimens reared from the same batch of galls on Salix reticulata L.!] 
Pontania deminuta MacGillivray, 191 9, op. cit.: 9G (teneral $ with unexpanded wings and 

asymmetrically distorted hind tarsi), syn. n. 
Pontania reticiilatae Malaise, 1920, Ent. Tidskr., 40 : 109, syn. n. 

A series of specimens of this species emerged in 1957 and 1958 from galls collected 
at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada by Mrs. Eva Beckett in September, 1956 and 1957, 
on the leaves of Salix reticulata L.^ 

The galls are pea-shaped and attached to the mid-vein near the base of the 
underside of the leaf, but with a large scar up to about \ the size of the gall visible 
on the upperside. I also collected adults of this species at Churchill in 1956 including 
some ovipositing on 5. reticulata. 

Pontania reticulatae Malaise, reared from galls on Salix reticulata in Swedish 
Lapland, is almost certainly the same species. For though a paratype of Malaise's 
species, which I have before me, has the surface of the frontal area of the head 
smooth and shining whereas the Canadian specimens all have the whole of the upper 
side of the head dull with dense fine coriaceous sculpture, a specimen I caught wild 
in Lapland in 1954 at over 2,000 feet has its head sculpture like the Canadian 
specimens. It should however be remarked that in Lapland and Switzerland the 
galls were not transected by the leaf-blade as in the Canadian race, but are attached 
to the underside of the leaf with only a small flat scar visible on the upper side. 

The species is characterised by its dark body colour (all black except for the 
yellowish mouthparts, ± clypeus, temporal flecks, tegula, trochanters, apices of 
femora, tibiae and tarsi), yellowish-white wing-stigma, ± coriaceous head sculpture, 
medially channelled front part of frontal area, short antenna (shorter than distance 
from tegula to transverse part of Sc along C of forewing ; and 3rd segment about 
as long as shortest measure of an eye), short spurs (inner hind tibial spur scarcely 
as long as apical width of hind tibia) (Text-fig. 3) , and narrow sawsheath in dorsal view 
with strongly backwardly projecting setae. Size 5-6 mm. Specimens from Churchill 
are being deposited at Ottawa. 

^ The packets of galls on Salix reticulata were sent from Canada in the same parcels as packets of galls 
on other species of Salix. And when the parcels were opened in London some prepupae had already 
left their galls and were crawling about in the wrapping of the parcels. When, therefore, some adults of 
I^ontania arctica IsiteT emerged irora galls on Salix cordifolia Pursh. (16), S. discolor Muhl. (14), 5. calli- 
carpaea Trautv. (5) and S. planifolia Pursh. (2) it is assumed that they were strays. This assumption 
may of course be wrong. Actually only 20 emerged from galls on 5. reticulata. Likewise although 
P. beckettae sp. n., emerged predominantly from galls on S. planifolia (54) there were 29 from 5. discolor 
and 28 from S. reticulata. 



378 STUDIES IN PONTANTA 

Pontania beckettae sp. n.^ 

9. Black with the following parts orange ; mouthparts, labnim, clypeus, 
interantennal area, entire orbits as well as most of genae and temples, apical segments 
of antennae below, pronotum, tegula, and legs (except coxae, ± underside of femora, 
and extreme apices of tibial and tarsal segments) abdomen beneath and apical 
tergite above. Wings hyaline ; venation brownish-white ; stigma brownish-white, 
slightly infuscate apically. 

Head with fine dense coriaceous surface sculpture developed above. Antennal 
hollows glabrous. Malar space about as long as distance between antennal sockets. 
Frontal crest slightly notched medially but not channelled. POL=OOL. Hind 
ocelli each i| times its own diameter from the occipital carina. Antenna only about 
as long as C of forewing from tegula to fork of Sc ; 3rd segment shorter than shortest 
measure of eye. 

Thorax shining with obsolescent surface sculpture, i coriaceous on mesonotum. 
Medial mesonotal suture obsolescent behind. Legs with hind tarsus as long as or 
slightly shorter than tibia (i-o to 0-9 : i-o). Inner hind tibial spur slightly longer 
than apical width of tibia (Text-fig. 2). Abdomen with ovipositor about as long as 
femur (+ trochantellus). Sawsheath in lateral view prow-shaped, entire, reaching 
about twice as far beyond apex of abdomen as cerci ; in dorsal view narrowly taper- 
ing behind with the apical lateral setae set outwards so that those on one side 
form almost a right angle with those on the other side (Text-fig. 7). 

Saw typical for gall-maker (cf. Benson, 1958, fig. 642). Length 5-6 mm. cJ differs 
from $ in being more extensively black on the head (the inner orbits and temples 
often being ± suffused with black) and pronotum (which is entirely black except 
for the hind angles). The stigma and wing venation are piceous. Antenna about 
as long as C of forewing + | stigma ; 3rd segment about as long as the shortest 
measure of an eye. 

Canada, Manitoba, Churchill, 41 $ (including holotype), 13 (^ ex galls on Salix 
planifolia Pursh., 29 ex galls on S. discolor Muhl, i $ ex gall on S. glattca L., 
25 ?, 3 3> 6x galls on 5. reticulata L. {see footnote on p. 377) coll. ix.1957 
{Eva Beckett); 11 $, i (^, 24.vi-4 vii. 1956 {R. B. Benson) (Holotype and (^ and $ 
paratypes at Ottawa; rest of the material in the British Museum). 

The galls of this species are very similar to those of P. arctica, pea-shaped and 
attached to the mid-vein on the underside of the leaf, with a conspicuous scar on 
the upperside. Of North American species this is most similar to P. crassipes 
Thomson {see below), and P. salicis-pisum Thomas (on Salix discolor Muhl., etc.) 
which, however, have very short often curved tibial spurs (the inner hind tibial 
spur being much shorter than the apical width of the tibia as in Text-fig. 4). 

The new species is obviously closely related to the widespread northern palaearctic 
P. arcticornis Konow (on Salix phylicifolia L. etc.) and the two may very well later 
be considered to be geographical races of the same species. The dark northern 

^ I have great pleasure in dedicating this species to the distinguished field naturalist, Mrs. Eva Beckett, 
well known to most of the man}' naturalists who have visited Churchill during the last two or three 
decades. 



STUDIES IN PONTANIA 379 

forms of p. ardicornis that I have collected in Lapland and seen from Kamtchatka^ 
are very similar in colour and structure to the new species. 

But P. arcticomis is a smaller insect (c. 4-5 mm.) with invariably pale yellow wing 
stigma and venation, and longer tibial spurs (inner hind tibial spur much longer than 
apical width of tibia). More southern races of P. arcticomis are easily distinguished 
by their extensively yellow head with obsolete surface sculpture, deep medial 
channel to frontal crest, and yellow apex of antenna. 

It is interesting that the main host plants of these two species, Salix phylicifolia 
and planifolia, should also be very closely related to each other. 

Pontania crassipes (Thomson) 

*Nematus crassipes Thomson, 1871, Hym. Scand. : 162. 

*N. herbaceae Cameron, 1875, Proc. nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow, 2 : 304-7 (on Salix herbacea L.). 

* Pontania ora Kincaid, 1920, Wash. Acad. Sci. Proc. 2 : 354, syn. n. 

*P. atrata MacGillivray, 1919, Rept. Canad. Arct. Exped. 1913-18, 3G, p. 6G (on Salix arctica 

Pall.), syn. n. 
*P. lorata MacGillivray, 19 19, op. cit. p. 8G (on Salix arctica), syn. n. 
*P. polaris Malaise, 1920, Ent. Tidskr. 40 (2-4) : 112 (on Salix herbacea and S. polarisWhib.), 

syn. n. 
*P. lapponica Malaise, 1920, I.e. (on Salix lapponum L.), syn. n. 
*P. enslini Zirngiebl, 1937, Festschrift zum 60 Geburtstage von Prof. Dr. Embrik Strand, 3 : 337. 

syn. n. 
*P. arbusculae Benson, 1941, Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 10 (8) : 134-135 {Salix arbuscula L.). 
*P. algida Benson, 1941, I.e. {Salix herbacea), syn. n. 
*P. aquilonis Benson, 1941, I.e. (S. herbacea), syn, n. 

In 1 941 I treated this very variable species as a complex comprising two species 
groups distinguished by different hair patterns on the sawsheath correlated with the 
presence or absence of a pattern of dark flecks in the larvae. Since then I have 
collected and seen much more material from Scotland, Lapland, Switzerland and 
Canada. Among this material I have found many specimens which it is impossible 
to assign to either of these groups on the basis of the hair pattern on the sawsheath. 
Furthermore, such characters as the mean size, development of punctation, emargin- 
ation of clypeus, comparative length of ovipositor and leg-segments, obsolescence of 
medial mesonotal suture, appear to vary from colony to colony and to be of little 
account. 

When we further investigate the black flecking of the larvae we find that there 
has been confusion between larvae and prepupae ; larvae are greenish-white and 
develop a pattern of black flecks in later stages (cf. Benson, I.e., fig. 3) ; but prepupae 
on the other hand are brownish-grey in colour with the black flecks obsolete or at 
most indicated by tiny specks (cf. Malaise, 1920, I.e., fig. 13a). 

The chief characters for separating this species from other members of the 
viminalis-crassipes group are its short curved tibial spurs (the inner hind spur much 
shorter than the apical width of the tibia), its short antenna (in $ only about as long 
as C of forewing from tegula to fork of Sc ; in ^ little longer than C) its almost 

1 Described as *Amauronemalus camlschaicalis Enslin, 1927. Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad., Leningrad, 
it : 376, = Pontania arcticomis Konow 1904, syn. n. 



38o 



STUDIES IN PONTANIA 



entirely black head and body colour and colourless stigma. The pea-shaped galls 
are attached to the mid-vein of the leaf and transected by the leaf blade so that 
^ to 1^ of the gall is above the leaf. Its host-plant range is now known to include the 
following arctic willows : Salix herbacea L., 5. polaris Whlb., 5. arctica Pall., 5. 
retusa L., 5. arbuscula L., 5. mysinites L} and S. lapponum L. 

5. Pontania dolichura (Thomson) 

*Nematus dolichurus Thomson, 1871, Hym. Scand. : 164. 

*N. femoralis Cameron, 1875, Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow, 2 : 295. 

Pontania dolichura (Thomson) Konow, 1890, Deuts. ent. Z., 34 : 245. 

P. sp. cfr. pedunculi Hartig, Malaise, 1931, Arkiv. for Zoolog. 23A (8) : 35. 

P. femoralis Cameron, Malaise, 1931, I.e. (Gall). 

*P. robbinsi Benson, 1935, Trans, ent. Soc. Lond. 83 : 26. 

Nematus (P.) dolichura (Thomson) Benson, 1954, /• -Soc. Brit. Ent. 4 (9) : 208, fig. i (Gall). 

The characteristic galls of this species in North Britain and Scandinavia are mainly 
on Salix phylicifolia L. and 5. nigricans Smith and occasionally on 5. arbuscula L., 
5. lapponum L., 5. myrsinites L. and 5. lanata L. On the European continent this 
is a familiar species on Salix purpurea L., on the sand dunes on the north coast of 
Holland and Germany and in alpine valleys in Switzerland and Austria, where in 
addition to the Salix already mentioned it has also been recorded from Salix glabra 
Scop., 5. incana Schrank and 5. retusa L. (Dittrich, 1924, Zoologica Stuttgart, 61 : 
623 and fig. 37). Malaise (I.e.) records its galls from Kamtchatka on 5. sachalinensis 
R. Schmidt, but whereas the adult specimens in his collection named " dr. femoralis 
Cameron " proved to belong to P. arcticornis, his P. dolichura bore a label, " cfr. 
pedunculi ". 

At Churchill on Hudson Bay in Canada I found the galls commonly in June and 
July, 1956, on Salix planifolia Pursh. 



6. THE SPECIES IN THEIR GROUPS 



Section A 

leucosticta group 

*acuminata Marlatt, E. nearctic. 
*acutiserra Lindqvist holarctic. 
*anglica (Cameron), palaearctic. 
*auberti Zirngiebl, N. Africa. 
*borealis (Marlatt), N. nearctic. 
*coriacea (Benson), holarctic. 

cressoni Marlatt, W. nearctic. 

leucosticta (Hartig), Europe. 

pallicornis (Norton), E. nearctic. 

parva (Cresson), W. nearctic. 
*piliserra (Thomson), Europe. 
*populi Marlatt, E. nearctic. 
*purpureae (Cameron), Europe. 

scotaspis (Forster), Europe. 



*sibirica Malaise, E. Siberia. 
*terminalis Marlatt, E. nearctic. 
*tundra Kincaid, N. nearctic. 

leucapsis group. 

*agama Rohwer, nearctic. 
*albopicta Malaise, E. Siberia. 

bozemani Cooley, nearctic. 
*excavata Marlatt, holarctic ( — *apici- 
frons Malaise, *carinifrons Benson, 
*destricta MacGillivray. and *mega- 
cephala Rohwer, syn. n.) 
*leavitti Rohwer, nearctic. 
leucapsis (Tischbein), palaearctic. 
nevadensis (Cresson), W. nearctic. 
*peninsularis Kincaid, Alaska. 



^ Frequent on Salix myrsinites at luchnadamph in Sutherland, Scotland in June, 1958. 



STUDIES IN PONTANIA 



3S1 



*pepii Ross, W. nearctic. 
*popuella Ross, W. nearctic. 
*puella (Thomson), Europe. 
*robusta Marlatt, E. nearctic. 



unplaced species {leucosticta or leucapsis 
group) 

leucostoma Rohwer, W. nearctic. 
mariana Ross, W. nearctic. 
marlitti Ross, W. nearctic. 
melanosoma Rohwer, W. nearctic. 
mellina (Cresson), W. nearctic. 
pectoralis Marlatt, E. nearctic. 

Section B 

iii. vesicator group. 

*bruneri Marlatt, W. nearctic. 
*pustulator Forsius, N. Europe. 

vesicator (Bremi), Europe. 

sp. Japan. 

Section C 

iv. proxima group. 

*bridgmanii (Cameron), Europe. 
proxima (Lepeletier), Europe introduced 

into N. America 
*triandrae Benson, Europe. 

Section D 

V. joergenseni group (see part 3 above) 

*arctophilae Benson sp. n., N. nearctic. 
devincta MacGillivray, E. nearctic. 
joergenseni Enslin, Europe. 



kriechbaumeri Konow, Europe. 
*myrtillifoliae Benson sp. n., N. nearctic. 
*tuberculata (Benson), Europe. 

vi. viminalis-crassipes group (see part 4 
above) 

arcticornis Konow, N. palaearctic. 
*arctica (MacGillivray), arctic, circum- 

polar. 
*beckettae Benson sp. n., N. nearctic. 

brachycarpae (Rohwer), W. nearctic. 

californica Marlatt, California. 
*consors Marlatt, E. nearctic. 
*crassipes (Thomson), arctic circumpolar. 
*glabrifrons Benson sp. n., arctic Europe. 

gracilis Marlatt, E. nearctic. 

hoppingi (Ross), W. nearctic. 

hospes (Walsh), W. nearctic. 

lucidae Rohwer, E. nearctic. 

pedunculi (Hartig), Europe. 

petiolaridis Rohwer, E. nearctic. 

salicis-pisum (Thomas), E. nearctic. 

viminalis (L.), Europe. 

Section E 
vii. dolichura group. 

*dolichura (Thomson), N. holarctic. 

Unplaced species 

atriventris Marlatt, W. nearctic. 
daedala MacGillivray, E. nearctic. 
dedecora MacGillivray, E. nearctic. 
placenta Norton, Labrador. 
stipata MacGillivray, Alaska. 
truncata, Marlatt, California. 
utensis Rohwer, W. nearctic. 



7. CHANGES IN THE NORTH AMERICAN CATALOGUE 

Under this heading I am tabulating the changes put forward in this present 
paper to the North American Hst of Pontania (Ross, 1951), including here the results 
of some type studies I made in N. America in 1956 and of some collecting on the 
Canadian tundra the same year : 

(a) Species to be excluded from Pontania : 

"^ Pontania amentivora Rohwer — Amauronematus amentivorus (Rohwer), 

comb. n. 
*P. delicatula MacGillivray = *P. arctica (MacGillivray), syn. n. 
*P. deminuta MacGillivray = *P. arctica (MacGillivray), syn. n. 



382 STUDIES IN PONT A NI A 

*P. devinda MacGillivray = *P. excavaia Marlutt, syn. n. 
*P. glinka Kincaid = Nematus glinkus (Kincaid), comb. n. 
*P. hyalina (Norton) = P. proxima (Lepeletier), syn. n. 
*P. megacephala Rohwer = *P. excavata Marlatt, syn. n. 
*P. popofiana (Kincaid) = Nematus popofianus (Kincaid) comb. n. 
*P. quadrifasciata (MacGillivray) = Amauronematus quadrifasciatus (Mac- 
Gillivray), comb. n. 

(b) Species transferred to Pontania from Euura : 

*Euura abortiva MacGillivray = * Pontania arctica (MacGillivray), syn. n. 
*E. arctica MacGillivray. 
*E. borealis (Marlatt). 
*£". bruneri (Marlatt), 

E. calif ornica (Marlatt). 

E. hoppingi Ross. 

E. hospes Walsh. 
*E. or a (Kincaid) = * Pontania crassipes Thomson. 
*E. resinicola (Marlatt). 
*E. salicis-pisum (Thomas). 

(c) species to be added to Pontania : 

* Pontania acutiserra Lindqvist, 1948, Not, ent., 28 : 66-9. Holarctic. 

*P. arctophilae Benson, sp. n. (see above). Arctic Canada. 

*P. beckettae Benson, sp. n. (see above). Arctic Canada. 

*P, coriacea (Benson), 1953, Ent. mon. Mag. 89 : 150-1. Holarctic. 

*P. crassipes (Thomson) (see above). Holarctic. 

*P. dolichura (Thomson) (see above). Holarctic. 

*P. myrtilifoliae Benson, sp. n. (see above). Arctic Canada. 

*P. peninsularis Kincaid from Amauronematus (though *Pontania islandica 

Kincaid, given as a synonym of this species, is really distinct and a 

true Amauronematus). 
P. proxima (Lepeletier), 1825, Mon. Tenthr.,ip. 67 = P. hyalina (Norton), 

syn. n. Europe introduced into N. America with its host-plant 

Salix fragilis L. 



8. ARCTIC SPECIES OF CANADA AND LAPLAND COMPARED 

Of the 9 species of Pontania I found at Churchill on the west coast of Hudson Bay, 
lat. about 58° 44' N., in N. Canada in June- July, 1956, and the 10 I found at Abisko, 
on the Torne Trask, lat. about 68° 21' N. in Swedish Lapland in 1948 and 1954, 
5 species were common to both areas ; all of these 5 I have also found in Switzerland 
and 3 in Britain. Though I failed to find P. coriacea at Churchill, my wife collected 
specimens of it at Lake Louise, Alberta ! Churchill is on the edge of lowland tundra 



STUDIES IN PONTANIA 



383 



and all 9 species were found actually on the tundra ; Abisko though much further 
north is yet situated in birch forest with mountain tundra only above about 2,000 
feet altitude. 



acutiserra 

coriacea . 

tundra 

excavata . 

arctophilae 

myrtillifoliae 

tuberculata 

arctica 

arcticornis 

beckettae 

crassipes , 

glabrifrons 

viminalis . 

dolichura 



Churchill 


Abisko 


Also in 


Also in 


(N. Canada) 


(Lapland) 


Britain 


Switzerland 


+ 


+ 


+ 


— 


+ 
+ 
+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


— 


+ 


+ 
+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 
+ 
+ 


+ 


+ 


— 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 



This high holarctic proportion of species represented in the Abisko region (60%) 
and in the Churchill region (nearly 55%) is comparable with the 60% of circumpolar 
species in the Canadian arctic butterfly fauna (Freeman, 1958), but does not appear 
at species level in the Salix to which the Pontania spp. are attached, possibly partly 
because botanists have not yet accepted generally the zoological concept of the 
geographical subspecies. The 19 species of Salix found in the Churchill district were 
listed by Ritchie (1956) as follows : reticulata L., vestita Pursh. var. erecta Anderss., 
anglorum Cham., arctophila Cockerell, glauca L., with var. acutifolia (Hook) Schneider, 
desertorum Richards, callicarpaea Trautv., cordifolia Pursh. var. tonsa Fern., brachy- 
carpa Nutt. var. antimima (Schneider) Raup., and var. mexiae Ball, myrtillifolia 
Anderss., adenophylla Hook., calcicola Fern. & Wieg., alaxensis (Anderss) Cov., 
Candida Flugge, bebbiana Sarg., pedicellaris Pursh. var. hypoglauca Fern., planifolia 
Pursh., pellita Anderss., and arbusculoides Anderss. 

Only two of these, reticulata and glauca, occur also at Abisko. Apart from these 
the 12 Salix recorded from the Abisko district by Fries (1919) are : pentandra L. 
(introduced), nigricans Smith, phylicifolia L., arbuscula L., hastata L., lapponum L., 
lanata L., myrsinites L., herbacea L. (holarctic but absent from Churchill district) 
and polaris Wg. 25% of the Abisko Salix are thus holarctic and nearly 17% occur 
at Churchill. And all except lanata and polaris of the Abisko species occur also in 
central Europe ; and all except glauca and polaris in Britain. 

If, however, these Salix spp. are placed in their species-groups as given by Rehder 
(1940) it is found that 5 of the 9 groups represented at Abisko (56%) occur also 
among the 8 at Churchill (where they form 63%). 



ENTOM. 8, 9. 



15 



384 STUDIES IN PONTANIA 

9. REFERENCES 

Bknson, R. B., 1954. British sawfly galls of the genus Nematus {Pontania) on Salix (Hymeno- 
ptera, Tenthredinidae). /. Brit. Ent. Soc, 4 : 206-11, figs. 1-9. 

1955. Sawflies of the high Swiss Alps (Hymenoptera Symphyta). Mem. Soc. R. d'ent. 

Belgique, 27 : 74-81. 

1958. Tenthredinidae Nematinae in R. ent. Soc. Lond. Hanbks Ident. Brit. Ins. 6, 

Hym., 2c, : 147, 197-209. 

Freeman, T. N. The Distribution of Arctic and Subarctic Butterflies, Proc. 10th Int. Cong. Ent. 
Montreal, 1 : 659-72. 

Fries, C. E., 1919. Floran inom Abisko nationalpark, Arkiv. for hotanik, 16 (4) : 29-31. 

Rehder, a., 1940. Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs hardy in North America. 2nd 
edition, New York, pp. 82-1 11. 

Ritchie, J. C, 1956. The native plants of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Can. J. Bot., 34 : 295-7. 

Ross, H. H., 1951, in Muesebeck, C. F. W., Krombein, Karl V., and Townes, Henry K., Hymen- 
optera of America north of Mexico, Synoptic Catalogue. U.S. Dept. Agric, Agricultural 
Monograph, No. 2 : 46-51. 




PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY 
ADLARD AND SON, LIMITED 
BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING 







THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE 

(COCCOIDEA : HOMOPTERA) OF THE 

SOLOMON ISLANDS 




D. J. WILLIAMS 



BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 8 No. lo 

LONDON: i960 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE (COCCOIDEA: 
HOMOPTERA) OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 



BY 



D.J. WILLIAMS ; 

Commonwealth Institute of Entomology 



Pp- 385-430 : 19 Text-figures 




BULLETIN OF 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 

ENTOMOLOGY VoL 8 No. 10 

LONDON : i960 



THE BULLETIN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY), instituted in 1949, is 
issued in five series corresponding to the Departments 
of the Museum, and an Historical Series. 

Parts will appear at irregular intervals as they become 
ready. Volumes will contain about three or four 
hundred pages, and will not necessarily be completed 
within one calendar year. 

This paper is Vol. 8, No. 10 of the Entomological 
series. 



Trustees of the British Museum, i960 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Issued March, i960 Price Fifteen Shillings 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE (COCCOIDEA: 
HOMOPTERA) OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 

By D. J. WILLIAMS 



INTRODUCTION 

The Solomon Islands stretch for nearly looo miles between lat. 5° and 12° S. and 
long. 154° and 165° E. and in the present report the island of Bougainville is con- 
sidered along with them. The total land area is about 17,000 square miles, and the 
terrain is mountainous rising to an elevation of 8,000 ft. in Guadalcanal. Notwith- 
standing their extent and individual size, and the promise of a rich insect fauna 
in the natural vegetation, the amount of collecting which has been done so far in 
the islands is not large compared with that on many other smaller island groups 
in the Pacific, and as far as the Coccoidea are concerned, and the Pseudococcidae 
in particular, has been extremely small. 

HISTORY 

In 1929 Cockerell described Trionymus malaitensis on the basis of a collection 
made by H. S. B. Young. One year later Laing added two species Heterococcus 
painei and Neosimmondsia hirsuta based on specimens taken by R, H. Paine and 
H. W. Simmonds respectively and in 1934 Green described a further species Pseudo- 
coccus leveri collected by R. A. Lever. Thus up till the present time, with the addition 
of a cosmopolitan species, our knowledge of the family in this area was confined 
to five species in four genera. 

The present report is based mainly on a study of extensive collections made in 
the islands by E. S. Brown between 1954 and 1956 and on material collected by 
B. A. O'Connor. Sixteen species are now added to this list, twelve of them are new 
and their taxonomic treatment has necessitated the recognition of seven new genera. 

There is little known so far of the Coccoidea of New Guinea but collections at 
hand indicate that there is a closer relationship of the fauna of the Solomon Islands 
to that of the islands of the Bismarck Archipelago than to the fauna of the main 
island of New Guinea. In fact none of the Solomon Islands' genera of Pseudococcidae 
has yet been foimd in New Guinea, apart from the cosmopolitan genera, but further 
collecting may prove otherwise. However, Mutahilicoccus simmondsi (Laing) 
described from New Britain is now known throughout the Solomon Islands and speci- 
mens are also at hand from Tartua in New Ireland. Another species, Palmicola 
hrowni sp. n. has been collected from most of the Solomon Islands and specimens 
are at hand from the Admiralty Islands and New Britain. 

ENTOM. 8, 10. 16 



388 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 

The collection records of the Pseudococcidae show the species to be distributed as 
follows : — 

DISTRIBUTION LIST OF SOLOMON ISLANDS' PSEUDOCOCCIDAE 





> 

bo 

o 
PQ 


'a5 

en 
>^ 








2 

o 

I 


M 

1— 1 
u 

1 

o 


other Localities 


Criniticoccus ficus* 












X 






tectus* 








X 










theobromae* 


X 


X 














Dysmicoccus brevipes 










X 






Cosmopolitan 


Exilipedronia sutana* 










X 








Ferrisiana virgata . 


X 














Cosmopolitan 


Laingiococcus painei 










X 


X 


X 




Laminicoccus cocois* 














X 




Maculicoccus malaitensis . 




X 




X 


X 


X 


X 




Mollicoccus guadalcanalanus* . 










X 








Mutabilicoccus artocarpi* 








X 










simmondsi . 






X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


New Britain, New Ireland 


Neosimmondsia hirsuta . 








X 




X 






Palmicola browni* 


X 








X 


X 


X 


New Britain, Admiralty Is. 


Paraputo kukumi* . 










X 








levari 








X 


X 


X 


X 


Fiji 


Pedrococcus tinahulanus* 










X 








Planococcus citri 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Cosmopolitan 


Pseudococcus adonidum . 










X 






Cosmopolitan 


solomonensis* 




X 




X 










Trionymus chalepus* 










X 









* Described as new. 



Moreover, it is interesting that Paraputo leveri (Green) is now known from Fiji 
and Laminicoccus cocois sp. n. is very close to L. vitiensis (Green & Laing), another 
Fijian species. 

From the many species collected by E. S. Brown in the Solomon Islands it is 
evident that the mealybugs constitute a large part of the endemic fauna and from 
our scant knowledge it seems safe to state that the same is true for the remainder 
of the Pacific area. Fijian collections show a large endemic mealybug fauna and 
Zimmerman (1948) shows that the mealybugs appear to be the only group of Coc- 
coidea to have developed an endemic complex in Hawaii. Serious collecting in the 
lesser known areas of the Pacific should prove both interesting and valuable and 
is essential before a comprehensive conclusion on distribution can be drawn. 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 389 

Of the new genera discussed below, Mtitahilicoccus is known from the Bismarck 
Archipelago, the genus Laminicoccus from Hawaii and Fiji and Palmicola with a 
wider distribution will probably be found throughout the Pacific ; material is at 
hand from as far afield as Malaya. 

The species discussed here are probably only a small proportion of those still 
to be discovered. It is unfortunate that none have been collected in Choiseul, 
the least known of the larger islands, or in the Santa Cruz Islands. 

Unless otherwise stated all the material has been collected by E. S. Brown. 

The types of all new species are deposited in the British Museum (Natural History). 



Key to Genera 

1 Legs with a denticle on the claw, either well developed or small at apex, cerarii 

absent ............. 2 

- Legs without a denticle on the claw, cerarii present or absent ... 3 

2 (i) Antennae 9-segmented, quinquelocular pores numerous on dorsum and venter, 

with a transversely elliptical circulus within the borders of the fourth segment, 
tubular ducts on dorsum absent, anal ring situated twice its diameter from 
apex of body ....... Laingiococcus Morrison 

- Antennae 7-segmented, without quinquelocular pores on dorsum and venter, 

circulus absent, tubular ducts on dorsum larger in diameter than multilocular 

disc pores, anal ring situated at apex of body . . . MoUicoccus gen. n. 

3 (i) Anal ring situated one or more times its diameter from apex of body, antennae 

6-segmented ............ 4 

- Anal ring situated at apex or at most a short distance from apex of body, 

antennae 6-8-segmented . ......... 5 

4 (3) Cerarii present, each with numerous setae .... Paraputo Laing 

- Cerarii absent ......... Neosimmondsia Laing 

5 (3) With a distinct anal bar present either separate or joined to dorsal sclerotization 

of anal lobes ............ 6 

- Without an anal bar or if there is any sclerotization on ventral anal lobes it is in 

the form of a triangular or quadrate plate ...... 9 

6 (5) Each cerarius with 2 conical setae which, except on anal lobes are all of similar 

size, dorsal setae small and slender .... Planococcus Ferris 

- Not with this combination of characters ....... 7 

7 (6) Cerarii recognizable or unrecognizable, cerarian setae of varying sizes either 

similar or different in shape to dorsal setae, not borne on sclerotized plates 

Mutabilicoccus gen. n. 

- Cerarii borne on sclerotized plates ........ 8 

8 (7) With 18 pairs of cerarii, cerarian setae slender with some dorsal setae same 

size as cerarian setae ....... Exilipedronia gen. n. 

- With 17 pairs of cerarii, cerarian setae stout, dorsal setae of different size to 

cerarian setae ........ Pedrococcus Mamet 

9 (5) With 14-17 pairs of cerarii ......... 10 

- With I or 2 pairs of cerarii ......... 14 

10 (9) With a concentration of minute ducts around the posterior coxae Palmicola gen. n. 

- Without a concentration of minute ducts around the posterior coxae . . n 

11 (10) With some cerarii with more than 5 setae . . . . . . . 12 

- With no cerarii with more than 5 setae . . . . . . . 13 

12 (11) Cerarii borne on sclerotized plates, all dorsal setae shorter than anal ring setae 

Laminicoccus gen. n 



390 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDEA OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 




CI 

o 
'o 

CO 






THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 391 

— Cerarii not borne on sclerotized plates except possibly on anal lobes, most dorsal 

setae as long as or longer than anal ring setae . . Criniticoccus gen. n. 

13(11) With oral rim ducts on dorsum ..... Pseudococcus Westwood 

— Without oral rim ducts on dorsum ..... Dysmicoccus Ferris 

14 (9) With some dorsal ducts enlarged, each with orifice surrounded by a sclerotized 

area bearing setae . ...... Ferrisiana Takahashi 

— Without such ducts ........... 15 

15 (14) Ventral surface with numerous minute disc pores, dorsal setae stout, legs stout 

Maculicoccus gen. n. 

— Ventral surface without minute disc pores, dorsal setae slender, legs slender 

Trionymus Berg 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 

Criniticoccus gen. n. 

Type of genus Criniticoccus ficus sp. n. 

Recognition characters. Pseudococcidae with 8-segmented antennae ; legs 
normal without a tooth on claw ; anterior and posterior ostioles present ; cerarii 
numbering 17 pairs, these with up to 12 conical setae especially at anterior and 
posterior ends, some of them rarely with less than 5 and always accompanied by 
auxiliary setae, anal lobe cerarii each with a group of up to 7 conical setae or with 
but 2 setae ; dorsum with long setae, in the known species these as long as or longer 
than anal ring setae. Tubular ducts of oral collar type always present on venter 
and usually present on dorsum although in the type species there is but i pair, 
ducts of oral rim type present around margin in one species ; multilocular disc 
pores present around vulva ; ventral side of anal lobes with an area of sclerotization 
as large as or larger than anal ring ; circulus well developed lying across fold of 
fourth and fifth segments ; anal ring cellular, apical or at most removed a very 
short distance from apex, with 6 setae. 

Notes. This genus comes very close to the genus Dysmicoccus Ferris but differs 
in a few characters which seem to warrant the erection of a new genus. There are 
always some cerarii with 5 or more setae and one species has a few oral rim ducts 
on the dorsum, characters never found in Dysmicoccus. The setae seem to be much 
longer than normally found in Dysmicoccus and in each case they are as long as 
or longer than the anal ring setae. 

The three species included in the genus may be separated by the following key : — 

1. Anal lobe cerarii each with 2 conical setae ........ 2 

- Anal lobe cerarii each with about 7 conical setae of various sizes, dorsal surface 

with numerous setae and usually with only a single tubular duct near each tenth 
cerarius ficus sp. n. 

2. With a few oral rim ducts around the anterior margin, circulus very large 

theobromae sp. n. 

- Without oral rim ducts on dorsal surface but with number of small oral collar ducts 

around entire margin and a few in midregion .... tecius sp. n. 



392 THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 

Criniticoccus ficus sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 2) 

Habit. Collected between the fruits of Ficus sp., tended by Iridomyrmex myrme- 
codiae, San Cristobal, Kira Kira, 21. iv. 1955 and 20.vii.1956. 

Recognition characters. A broadly oval species measuring about 27 X 2-1 
mm. Antennae 8-segmented. Legs normal, femur rather stout, hind femur and tibia 
with translucent pores. Circulus well developed. Ostioles with inner edges of lips 
sclerotized and lips with a few setae and trilocular pores. Anal ring with 6 setae 
which are about the same length as its diameter. Cerarii numbering 17 pairs, anal 
lobe cerarii each with 7-10 conical setae of different sizes, with a few trilocular 
pores surrounded by a faint sclerotized area. Penultimate cerarii each with about 
10-13 conical setae of various sizes on a lightly sclerotized area, the other cerarii 
diminishing in size anteriorly, each with 5-10 conical setae, the usual number being 
7. Dorsal setae numerous, mainly long and slender and about the size of anal ring 
setae. Trilocular pores rather numerous. Simple circular pores present nearly the 
same size as a trilocular pore, numerous. A single tubular duct with oral collar 
usually present near each tenth cerarius. 

Ventral surface with a large area of sclerotization on anal lobes, larger in area 
than anal ring and containing numerous setae and a pair of long stout apical setae. 
Ventral setae slender, not so long as those on dorsum. Multilocular disc pores 
arranged around the vulva only, there being about 8-12 anterior to the vulva and 
about 5 posteriorly. Tubular ducts in transverse rows on segments 6 and 7, and also 
in groups lateral to the multilocular disc pores on segment 8, there being also one 
or two ducts to each segment anteriorly and on head, the lateral ducts tending to be 
slightly larger than those in the transverse rows. Trilocular pores and simple circular 
pores rather numerous and evenly distributed. 

Criniticoccus tectus sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 3) 

Habit. Abundant on the fruits of Theobroma cacao tended by Iridomyrmex 
myrmecodiae and always covered by a carton, Malaita, Su'u, i.vi.1955. 

Recognition characters. Shape broadly elliptical measuring 3-0 X 2-5 mm., 
anal lobes well developed. Antennae 8-segmented. Legs normal, posterior pair 
with numerous translucent pores on each femur and tibia. Circulus large and well 
developed. Ostioles present with one or two long setae and a few trilocular pores 
on each lip. Anal ring with 6 setae only slightly longer than its diameter. Cerarii 
numbering 17 pairs ; anal lobe cerarii with two large conical setae and numerous 
trilocular pores surrounded by an area of sclerotization ; anterior cerarii each with 
2-8 conical setae of various sizes and i or 2 auxiliary setae surrounded by a few 
trilocular pores, the smaller cerarii tending to occupy the thorax and anterior 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 



393 



^ 



u 



^ 



^ 



' r<<^.>'i^K'>^\^' !hi 






f 







A 



■;rt-\:\V.VvA;i^\\\..!v^.-;Yv.v- 




Fig. 2. Criniticoccus ficus sp. n. 



ENTOM. 8, lO. 



394 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 




Fig. 3. Criniiicoccus tectus sp. n. 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 395 

abdominal segments. Dorsal setae of various sizes but mainly long and slender 
and longer than anal ring setae, in well defined rows on abdomen but split up and 
tending to form groups on thorax and head. Dorsal tubular ducts of one size with 
a well developed collar, in small marginal groups and in single rows on thoracic and 
anterior abdominal segments. Trilocular pores rather numerous. 

Ventral surface with a pair of apical setae nearly twice as long as anal ring setae, 
on a more or less quadrate sclerotized area bearing 3 or 4 slender setae and a few 
trilocular pores. Ventral setae not numerous, usually more slender and shorter 
than dorsal setae, Multilocular disc pores confined to about 6 on the pre vulvar 
segment and a group of 2-6 posterior to the vulva. Tubular ducts of two sizes but 
smaller than those on dorsum, a small type of duct situated in transverse rows 
on midregion of segments 5-8 and a larger type present in groups around the margins, 
which become less numerous anteriorly. Trilocular pores numerous and evenly 
distributed. Vulva of an indefinite shape with noticeable internal folds. 



Criniticoccus theobromae sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 4) 

Habit. On the fruits of Theobroma cacao tended by Technomyrmex detorquens. 
The ants build carton shelters over them and the colonies are situated down the 
length of the fruit in the grooves. The species has been collected in the following 
areas: — Santa Ysabel, Holokama, 21. ii. 1956, E. S. Brown (Type material). 
Bougainville, Numa Numa i.iv.1956, J. J. H. Szent-Ivany. 

Recognition characters. Body broadly ovate measuring about 2-7 X 2-0 mm. 
Antennae 8-segmented. Legs normal, femur rather stout, translucent pores on 
femur and tibia. Circulus quite large, very noticeable in lateral aspect by hanging 
underneath the body and distorting the neighbouring segments when flattened on 
the slide. Ostioles present, well developed. Anal ring removed a short distance 
from apex of body, with 6 setae these only slightly longer than diameter of ring. 
Cerarii numbering 17 pairs, anal lobe cerarii with 2 stout conical setae and a cluster 
of trilocular pores surrounded by a more or less oval sclerotized area. Anterior 
cerarii each with 5-1 1 conical setae of various sizes but usually with 2 which are 
larger than the others. Dorsal setae mainly long and slender in most cases being 
as long as or longer than anal ring setae. Tubular ducts with a narrow oral rim, 
arranged singly behind the frontal cerarii and usually on the inner side of the thoracic 
and anterior abdominal cerarii there being usually about 5 pairs altogether. An 
occasional duct with oral collar sometimes present on the mid-thoracic region. 
Trilocular pores distributed evenly over surface. 

Ventral surface with a well defined sclerotized area extending inwards from the 
anal lobes, containing about 8 setae including a long pair of apical setae, this area 
about same size or slightly larger than area of anal ring. Ventral setae mainly 
slender and for the most part are shorter than those of dorsum. Multilocular disc 
pores confined to a row of 5-10 on the eighth segment and another 5-10 posterior 
to the vulva. Tubular ducts of two sizes both with oral collar ; a smaller type 



396 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 




6 & 



\>-M', riTyy . ■■ ■ ■ <'■'■/./.'• K I 

f .-^-^f ■.■//■'/■//■::■■ ■ 

U-.- ■■;■'■ -ry-'^-':'; i-.j- 'f.f 

i'. • . • . / \ •-.*•• • • •'/■ i 



h 



if- ■'■■'' 



■/•/ 



/.'/■/■ 



y/-i. 



ffrk 






■I. t 



I: I 



/■;>:-:■''■ 



^ 







ti- 



ll 



fJ.\ 



■MMf- 



i'i- 



•/./ 



/Ay- 



;./;/•/.; 



./•/• 



& 4] 



'^'"m. 






.X^T'' 



' ' • ' . . \ .. . • 



\ * 



\ . 'v 



v\ 



VV\, 



•\ 



■v\-\ 



"^^: 






y;.\ 



VA^A -TS 



\ * * \ \. 






;v.'v-^-> 



•ytn-'::A:*A- 



A:^:^\; 



^^ 



i\«V^ 






o 



•k: 



a 



Fig. 4. Criniticoccus tkeobromae sp. n. 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 397 

situated in transverse rows in the median areas of segments 6-8 although there 
are sometimes a few such ducts on the fifth segment ; a larger type is arranged in 
groups around the margins from the anal lobes to the head, becoming less numerous 
anteriorly. Trilocular pores not numerous. 

Dysmicoccus Ferris 

Dysmicoccus Ferris, 1950, Atlas of Scale Insects of North America. 5 : 53. 

This genus differs from Pseudococcus Westwood in lacking dorsal oral rim ducts. 
A number of species of Pseudococcus from the Pacific area have a reduced number 
of these ducts and in occasional specimens they are absent entirely. The genera 
are herein considered to be distinct until a revision of the whole group may show 
otherwise. In its present form Dysmicoccus comes close to Criniticoccus to which 
it differs in having cerarii with less than 5 setae and with the dorsal setae shorter 
than the anal ring setae. 

Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) 

Dactylopius brevipes Cockerell, 1893, Entomologist, 26 : 267. 

Pseudococcus cocotis (Maskell), Pagden & Lever, 1935, Brit. Solomon Is. agric. Gaz., 3 : 18 

(misidentification) . 
Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Ferris, 1950, Atlas of Scale Insects of North America, 5 : 59. 

Guadalcanal : Kukum, Annona muricata I3,viii.i954, Cyperus sp. 22. ix. 1955 ; 
Rua Vatu, Pandanus sp. 5.iv.i955, Cocos nucifera roots associated with Pheidole 
megacephala ; Kokumbona, pineapple 6 . xi . 1954. 

Specimens at hand collected and recorded by Pagden & Lever (1935) as Pseudo- 
coccus cocotis (Maskell) from coconut have been misidentified and are undoubtedly 
specimens of Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) . 

Exilipedronia gen. n. 

Type of genus Exilipedronia sutana sp. n. 

Recognition characters. Pseudococcidae with 18 pairs of cerarii each with 
up to 10 conical setae and borne on a sclerotized area or plate ; dorsal setae of 
various sizes ranging from conical and similar to cerarian setae, to small and slender, 
often with one or two trilocular pores at the bases but not surrounded by sclerotized 
areas ; anterior and posterior pairs of ostioles well developed ; circulus present ; 
antennae 6-segmented ; multilocular disc pores on venter only ; tubular ducts of 
oral collar t5^e on venter ; ventral side of anal lobes with a well developed anal 
bar continuous with dorsal sclerotization ; anal ring cellular with 6 setae ; legs 
slender, claw without a denticle. 

Notes. This genus differs from Pedronia Green in possessing 18 pairs of cerarii 
all on sclerotized plates with the cerarian setae much more slender and numbering 
up to 10. In Pedronia the cerarian setae are in pairs and quite stout and not borne 
on sclerotized areas. Species at present placed in the genus Pedronia do not appear 



398 THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 

to be congeneric with the tjrpe. The nearest approach to Exilipedronia seems to be 
Pedrococcus Mamet but all the species in this genus have dorsal setae or cerarii on 
sclerotized areas. 

Exilipedronia sutana sp. n, 

(Text-fig. 5) 

Habit. A mealybug covered with white wax living in lines down the midribs 
of an unknown tree, Guadalcanal : Sutakiki River, 26 . vi . 1956 and Suta 29 . vi . 
1956. 

Recognition characters. Body elongate-oval, length of mounted specimens 
about 2-5 mm., anal lobes well developed. Cerarii numering 18 pairs each borne 
on a sclerotized plate and possessing 4-10 conical setae of various sizes, the largest 
cerarii on anal lobes and head and becoming progressively smaller towards thorax. 
Antennae 6-segmented. Legs short and slender, posterior coxae with a few trans- 
lucent pores. Circulus well developed. Ostioles with 2-4 small conical setae on 
each lip and with inner edges of lips sclerotized. Anal ring with 6 setae which are 
about twice as long as diameter of ring. Dorsal setae mainly conical and similar 
to those of cerarii, differing in size, lying in transverse rows and occasionally between 
the cerarii, often with one to three trilocular pores at base, never borne on sclerotized 
areas ; other dorsal setae small and slender, not numerous. Trilocular pores sparse. 

Ventral surface with an anal bar which is continuous with the sclerotized area on 
dorsal surface of anal lobes. Apical setae long and stout, longer than anal ring setae, 
Multilocular disc pores few there being usually a pair on the sixth abdominal segment, 
5-6 on the seventh segment, 4-10 on the eighth segment and 4-8 posterior to the 
vulva, altogether there are scarcely more than 25. Tubular ducts small, of oral 
collar type, situated in submedian area of segm.ents 6-8 in numbers of 2-3 on each 
segment. They are more numerous around the submargin of head and thorax also 
anterior to the clypeus and between the anterior coxae and labimn. Trilocular 
pores sparse. 

Ferrisiana Takahashi 

Ferrisiana Takahashi, 1929, Trans, naf. Hist. Soc. Formosa, 19 : 429. 

Ferrisiana Takahashi, Ferris, 1950, Atlas of Scale Insects of North America, 5 : 88. 

The cosmopolitan species belonging to this genus has been found on only two 
occasions in Bougainville. Although it may be present in the Solomon Islands it 
does not seem to have gained a foothold. 

Ferrisiana virgata (Cockerell) 

Dactylopius virgata Cockerell, 1893, Entomologist, 26 : 178. 

Ferrisiana virgata (CockereU), Ferris, 1950, Atlas of Scale Insects of North America, 5 : 93. 

Collected at Bougainville, Kieta, on Erythrina sp. 1935 and on Leucaena glauca 
17.viii.1938 by J. L. Froggatt. 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 



399 



o 



--a, 




Fig. 5. Exilipedronia sutana sp. n. 



400 THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 

Laingiococcus Morrison 
Laingiococcus Morrison, 1945, /. Wash. Acad. Sci., 35 : 54. 

Recognition characters. Pseudococcidae with anal lobes removed a short 
distance on the dorsal surface so that the angles formed by the margins of the penulti- 
mate segment appear as anal lobes ; anal ring lying about twice its diameter from 
apex of body, with a double band of pores and 6 setae ; antennae 9-segmented ; 
legs long and slender, claw with a distinct denticle ; cerarii absent ; setae on dorsum 
and ventral margin, numerous, stout and stiff, of various sizes, other setae slender ; 
quinquelocular disc pores on dorsum and venter ; multilocular disc pores on ventral 
side of abdomen only ; tubular ducts of oral collar type very few on ventral surface ; 
circulus transversely elliptical situated within boundaries of the fourth segment ; 
labium 2-segmented. 

Notes. Morrison (1945) erected this genus for Heterococcus painei Laing and 
stated that it differed widely from the other genera of the Heterococcus group. Al- 
though Laing has described the labium as unsegmented and the anal ring with only 
one pore band, both are normal. The dorsal and ventral surfaces have a number 
of trilocular pores but this character would not normally exclude the genus from the 
Heterococcus series because these pores are often present in the genus Heterococcus. 
However, the absence of cerarii and the shape of the setae do not suggest a close 
relationship to this group. 

Laingiococcus painei (Laing) 

(Text-fig. 6) 

Heterococcus painei Laing, 1930, Bull. ent. Res., 21,: 20, 21. 

Laingiococcus painei (Laing), Morrison, 1945, /. Wash. Acad. Sci., 35 : 54. 

Habit. Described originally from the Solomon Islands (no locality given) on 
coconut. Notes given by E. S. Brown show that the insect is without mealy wax 
and the body colour ranges from yellow to brown or even pinkish and often found in 
dense groups near ants' nests where they are tended by the ants or found within 
the nests. Guadalcanal : Tenaru, Ficus sp. 10.viii.1954, unknown vine, i2.viii. 
1954, coconut, 12. V. 1955; Kukum, coconut 20.vii.1954; Rua Vatu, Ficus sp, 
23. vi. 1954; Rua Sura Is., on a shrub 17.viii.1955 ; Mamara, Ficus septica 
30.vii.1955. Russell Is.: Pepesala, Ficus sp., 7.vii.i954. San Cristobal: 
Kira Kira, Ficus sp., 20.vii.1956. Kolombangara : Karikana, Maesa sp. In 
nearly all cases the mealybugs are tended by Oecophylla smaragdina. 

Recognition characters. Adult female ovate measuring approximately 
2'i X 1-8 mm. Anal lobes on dorsal surface, removed a short distance from posterior 
margin so that the angles formed by the lateral margins of the penultimate segment 
appear as anal lobes. Antennae 9-segmented. Legs normal, claw with a well developed 
denticle. Circulus transversely elongate situated within the boundaries of fourth 
segment. Ostioles absent. Anal ring with a double row of pores, situated about 
twice its diameter from apex of body, with 6 setae, these slightly longer than diameter 
of ring. Cerarii absent. Dorsal surface with niunerous setae of various sizes ranging 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 



401 




ENTOM, 8, 10. 



Fig. 6. Laingiococcus painei (Laing) 



i6§§ 



402 THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 

from short and slender to long and stout, the latter tending to be more numerous 
around margins. Quinquelocular disc pores scattered over entire dorsal surface. 
Trilocular pores sparse but evenly distributed. 

Ventral surface with slender setae in midregion but replaced laterally by stouter 
setae similar to those on dorsal surface. Multilocular disc pores on all segments 
posterior to circulus, confined to midregion in more or less single transverse rows on 
the posterior edges and on anterior edges of sixth to eighth segments. Tubular 
ducts few in number there being one or two in each of submedian areas of segments 
7-9. Quinquelocular disc pores uniformly distributed except on the intersegmental 
lines. Trilocular pores sparse but present on all segments and noticeable in small 
groups of 3-4 around spiracular openings. 

Notes. The name mentioned by Lever (1933) as Phenacoccus horridus Green 
is a nomen nudum and refers to this species. 

Laminicoccus gen. n. 

Type of genus Tylococcus giffardi Ehrhom. 

Recognition characters. Pseudococcidae with body broadly oval ; cerarii 
numbering 17 pairs and borne on distinct sclerotized plates, cerarii each with 6-10 
or more conical setae ; body setae all slender ; legs normal, claw without a denticle ; 
anterior and posterior ostioles present ; circulus present or absent ; anal ring with 
2 rows of pores and 6 setae ; tubular ducts on dorsum and venter, more numerous 
around margins, either with small oral rim or of oral collar type ; multilocular 
disc pores mainly on ventral side of abdomen. 

Notes. This is a distinctive genus by the presence of cerarii with numerous 
conical setae surrounded by definite sclerotized areas. It may be confused with 
some genera of the Phenacoccus series, for instance Rastrococcus Ferris has cerarii 
borne on sclerotized plates but in this genus there is also a denticle on the claw 
and the antennae are 9-segmented. Some species of the genus Puto Signoret may 
be confused with species of the genus Laminicoccus. The genus Puto normally 
contains species with cerarii on sclerotized plates, with 9-segmented antennae 
and with a denticle on the claw. At least two species are without the denticle and 
one of these, Puto aipinus Balachowsky has 8-segmented antennae. These species 
and all other similar species of genera in the Phenacoccus series have either dorsal 
cerarii or minute lanceolate setae on the dorsal surface and the genus Laminicoccus 
has species with slender setae. 

Apart from the type the following new species and Pseudococcus vitiensis Green 
& Laing described from Fiji are included in the genus and may be separated by 
the following key : — 

1. Circulus present, tubular ducts of oral collar type only . ..... 2 

- Circulus absent, tubular ducts small each with a narrow oral rim . giffardi (Ehrhorn) 

2. Multilocular disc pores on posterior edges of segments only totalling about 70-go, 

tubular ducts in midregion of seventh and eighth segments . . cocois sp. n. 

- Multilocular disc pores on anterior and posterior edges of seventh and eighth segments, 

total number in region of 140-170, tubular ducts in midregion of abdomen on 

fifth to eighth segments ...... vitiensis (Green & Laing) 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 403 

Laminicoccus cocois sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 7) 
Habit. Collected from the terminal bud of coconut, Ontong Java, Pelau, 

3-ii-i955. 

Recognition characters. Shape of adult female broadly oval, approximately 
2-5 mm. in length. Antennae 8-segmented. Legs normal, each posterior leg with 
translucent pores on the coxa, femur and tibia. Circulus of moderate size, round. 
Ostioles present, each with two or three setae and a few trilocular pores on lips. 
Anal ring with 6 setae, these about twice as long as diameter of ring. Cerarii number- 
ing 17 pairs, each borne on a distinct sclerotized plate ; anal lobe cerarius with 
7-8 conical setae of various sizes and a cluster of trilocular pores on a sclerotized 
plate which is about same size as anal ring ; other cerarii each with 6-8 conical 
setae except the two anteriormost which often have up to 11 setae ; the sclerotized 
plates becoming smaller towards thorax. Dorsal setae not numerous, all slender. 
Tubular ducts of oral collar type situated around the margins in small groups. 
Trilocular pores evenly distributed. 

Ventral surface of each anal lobe with a triangular sclerotized area and a long, 
stout, apical seta. Ventral setae of various sizes, all slender. Multilocular disc 
pores confined to posterior edges only of fifth to eighth segments and also to a group 
posterior to vulva, there being 2-4 on fifth segment, in single transverse rows on 
sixth and seventh segments and in a double row on eighth segment, altogether there 
are about 70-90 pores. Tubular ducts similar to those on dorsum in small groups 
around the margin from the anal lobes to a point lateral to the first coxae ; other 
tubular ducts of smaller diameter sparse, in the midregions of seventh and eighth 
segments and also occasionally in the submarginal area. Trilocular pores not 
numerous. 

Notes. This species comes very close to L. vitiensis (Green & Laing) described 
from Fiji. It differs from the latter in having a row of multilocular disc pores at 
the posterior edge only of segments 7 and 8, whilst in L. vitiensis these segments 
have rows at the anterior edges also. A few other differences with L. vitiensis and 
with the type of the genus are noted in the key. 

Maculicoccus gen. n. 

Type of genus Trionymus malaitensis Cocker ell. 

Recognition characters. Broadly oval species of Pseudococcidae with 
8-segmented antennae ; with anterior and posterior pairs of ostioles. Legs rather 
stout without a denticle on claw ; circulus present, well developed ; cerarii confined 
to the two posterior pairs or to anal lobes only, with up to 7 conical setae ; dorsal 
setae mainly long and stout. Anal ring lying a short distance from apex of body, 
cellular, with 6 setae ; multilocular disc pores about the vulva only ; tubular ducts 
of oral collar type on ventral side of abdomen ; median areas of venter with numerous 
irregularly shaped disc pores each with granular surface and smaller than a multilo- 
cular disc pore ; ventral side of anal lobes with a well defined sclerotized area. 



404 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 




Fig. 7. Laminicoccus cocois sp. n. 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 405 

Notes. In his original description of the type species Cockerell had some doubt 
as to whether it was correctly placed in the genus Trionymus. It seems to have little 
in common with this genus as the circulus is quite large and the dorsal setae are 
mainly long and stout or bristle-like. Furthermore the ventral surface is beset 
with numerous disc pores, none of these characters being common to Trionymus 
and therefore a new genus has been erected for the single species. At this stage when 
so few genera are known in the Pseudococcidae it is difficult to give any relationship 
with this genus to any other. 



Maculicoccus malaitensis (Cockerell) 
(Text-fig. 8) 
Trionymus malaitensis Cockerell, 1929, Entomologist, 62 : 90, 91. 

Habit. Cockerell described this species from Malaita on coconut. It seems to 
infest a number of plants. The insect is brown to brownish yellow, naked except 
for a few white flecks at the posterior end, occurring in compact masses and in each 
case tended by Oecophylla smaragdina. 

Guadalcanal : Trench's beach, Ilu and Marau on unidentified trees. San 
Cristobal : Waimamura, Inocarpus edulis, 20. iv. 1955 ; Malau and Three Sisters 
on unknown shrub. Santa Ysabel : Holokama, Theobroma cacao, 17. ii. 1956. 
Shortland Is.: Loping Estate, Cocos nucifera, H. T. Pagden, 25. iv. 1934. 

Recognition characters. Body broadly ovate, anal lobes developed ; attaining 
a size of 2-0 x 1-5 mm. Antennae 8-segmented. Legs well developed, stout. Circulus 
present, rather large and lying between fourth and fifth segments. Lips of ostioles 
with numerous trilocular pores but without setae, inner edges of lips sclerotized 
and peculiarly short. Anal ring lying at a distance of about half its diameter from 
the posterior margin, with 6 setae which are a little longer than diameter of ring. 
Cerarii confined to either the two posterior segments or in one case to the anal 
lobes only, anal lobe cerarii each consisting of 6-7 conical setae of various sizes 
surrounded by numerous trilocular pores. Penultimate cerarii each with 3-5 conical 
setae and a few trilocular pores. Dorsal surface with long robust setae especially 
near margins and midregion, interspersed with shorter and more slender setae. 
Trilocular pores absent in some of submedian areas of posterior abdominal segments 
but elsewhere evenly distributed. 

Ventral surface of anal lobes with a long stout pair of apical setae and a more or 
less quadrate sclerotized area. Ventral setae of various sizes, slender in midregion 
but becoming more robust and longer towards lateral margins where they are similar 
to those on dorsum. Multilocular disc pores few there being usually 2-3 on eighth 
segment near vulva and 2-3 posterior to vulva, the total number being rarely more 
than 4 or 5. Tubular ducts on segments posterior to circulus, on the fifth segment 
there is a small median group and posteriorly they become more numerous to the 
eighth segment lying in transverse rows at the posterior edges, there being also a 
small group on each anal lobe. Median areas of thorax and anterior abdominal 
segments thickly beset with irregularly shaped disc pores, intermediate in size 



4o6 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 




Fig. 8. MacuHcoccus malaitensis (Cockerel 1) 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 407 

between trilocular and multilocular disc pores, the usual shape being oval with a 
granular surface. Trilocular pores with a uniform distribution. 

Notes. The specimens collected at Shortland Islands differ from the others in 
possessing a single pair of cerarii only but as all the other characters are the same 
this character alone does not seem to be of specific difference. 



Mollicoccus gen. n. 

Type of genus Mollicoccus guadalcanalanus sp. n. 

Recognition characters. Pseudococcidae with poorly developed anal lobes ; 
cerarii absent ; antennae 7-segmented ; legs slender, claw with a small denticle 
near apex ; ostioles present as a poorly developed posterior pair only ; circulus 
absent ; dorsal setae sparse, mainly long and moderately stout ; multilocular disc 
pores present on venter only, dorsal tubular ducts of oral collar type quite large, 
diameter greater than that of multilocular disc pores ; ventral tubular ducts of 
smaller diameter than multilocular disc pores ; anal ring cellular with 6 setae ; 
ventral surface of anal lobes with a small area of sclerotization. 

Notes. The absence of cerarii and the presence of large ducts on the dorsum, 
each with a diameter greater than a multilocular disc pore serve to distinguish 
this genus from others in the Phenacoccus series. 

Mollicoccus guadalcanalanus sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 9) 

Habit. External appearance not known. Collected from carton shelters made 
by Iridomyrmex myrmecodiae on the leaves close to the petiole attachment of a small 
unidentified tree. Guadalcanal: Tinahula River, 22. iii. 1955. 

Recognition characters. A small, fragile, oval species measuring approximately 
1-4 X i-o mm., anal lobes poorly developed. Antennae 7-segmented. Legs normal, 
rather small, claw with a small denticle near apex. Circulus absent. Ostioles repre- 
sented by a small, posterior pair with about 3 trilocular pores on each lip but without 
setae. Anal ring with 6 setae, these nearly twice as long as diameter of ring. Cerarii 
absent. Dorsal surface with few setae, these mainly long and stout. Tubular ducts 
of a distinctive type present on all segments, each duct of oral collar type with a 
diameter greater than that of a multilocular disc pore, distributed in lateral groups 
of 2-4 on the last 3 segments, in more or less single transverse rows on the anterior 
abdominal segments and becoming more numerous and scattered on the thorax 
and head. An occasional small tubular duct present on margins. Trilocular pores 
sparse. 

Ventral surface with a small area of sclerotization on each anal lobe and a pair of 
long apical setae. Ventral setae slender, shorter than those on dorsum, not numerous. 
Multilocular disc pores confined mainly to abdomen where there are about 6-8 on 
the anterior edge of each segment, a few also present between second and third 
pairs of coxae. Tubular ducts of three sizes all of oral collar type ; a large type 



4o8 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 



^ 




^ 



Fig. 9. Mollicoccus guadalcanalanus sp. n. 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 409 

approaching in size the large ducts on dorsum is situated on the anal lobes and 
sometimes on the eighth segment, there being scarcely more than 8-10 in all. A 
small type of duct present in midregion of abdominal segments often interspersed 
with a slightly larger type, the latter more common laterally, other ducts sparsely 
distributed on thoracic margins and between coxae. Trilocular pores sparse. 



Mutabilicoccus gen. n. 

Type of genus Farinococcus simmondsi Laing. 

Recognition characters. Broadly oval species of Pseudococcidae with antennae 
6-8-segmented ; legs normal, without a denticle on the claw ; anal ring situated 
at apex of body, cellular, with 6 setae ; anal bar well developed on ventral side of 
anal lobes ; anterior and posterior ostioles present ; cerarii variable, either with 18 
pairs, each with 2 long stout setae similar to dorsal setae, with numerous, long, 
stout setae, the groups recognizable by the concentrations of trilocular pores, or 
forming a more or less continuous band with setae of similar width at the base but 
varying from short and conical to longer than anal ring setae and stouter than body 
setae ; multilocular disc pores on venter of abdomen only ; tubular ducts on venter 
only. Circulus present or absent, when present rather large and well developed. 

Notes. This genus has been erected because the type species bears little resem- 
blance to Farinococcus Morrison redefined by Ferris (1955) or to similar genera. 
It differs in having the anal ring at the apex of the body and in having peculiar 
cerarii. In Farinococcus the cerarian setae are small and conical and the body setae 
are minute whilst in Mutabilicoccus the cerarian setae are much larger and either 
the same size as the dorsal setae or if larger they show considerable variation in 
length. It is not certain whether the new species described below is congeneric 
with the type but it has been placed here for the time being pending the discovery 
of similar species. The two species may be separated as follows : — 

Cerarii forming a more or less continuous band, the setae although of similar width 
at the base varying in length from small and conical to longer than anal ring setae, 
always stouter than dorsal setae ...... artocarpi sp. n. 

Cerarii either recognizable as 18 pairs with paired setae of same size as dorsal setae or 
forming a continuous band varying in size and merging with the dorsal setae, 
in which case their presence can be detected by the concentrations of trilocular pores 
(see accompanying diagrams) .... . . simmondsi (Laing) 



Mutabilicoccus artocarpi sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 10) 

Habit. Taken from the aerial roots of Artocarpus incisus tended by Iridomyrmex 
myrmecodiae. Malaita : Hauhui, 8 . ix . 1954. 

Recognition characters. Shape broadly oval, largest available specimens 
measuring approximately 3-0 X 2-0 mm. Antennae 7-8-segmented. Legs nonucd, 
rather small for size of body, posterior coxae with a few translucent pores. Circulus 



4IO 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 



^ 




"F^^ 



^ 



'■■^'M^] 



,. ,/.■•/■•,■/ .■;■.'/■•.■■■■■'" 





Fig. io. Mutahilicoccus artocarpi sp. n. 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 411 

absent. Ostioles well developed, the inner edges of the lips sclerotized. Anal ring 
with 6 setae which are about twice as long as its diameter. Cerarii distinct on the 
abdomen, each comprising numerous trilocular pores and numerous setae of very 
different sizes ranging from small and conical to long and stout, the latter often 
longer than anal ring setae but all having more or less same diameter at base ; 
anterior cerarii in a more or less continuous zone with similar setae to those on abdo- 
men ; other setae in the cerarii, presumably auxiliary setae, are long and slender 
and similar to dorsal setae which often approach length of anal ring setae. Dorsal 
pores of trilocular type only, somewhat numerous. 

Ventral surface of each anal lobe with a long, stout apical seta and a distinct 
anal bar. Ventral setae all slender but not as long as those on dorsum. Multilocular 
disc pores in single transverse rows in midregion of posterior edges of segments 
4 to 8 and also in a small group posterior to vulva. Tubular ducts in lateral groups 
of 6-12 on segments 7 and 8. Trilocular pores not numerous, evenly distributed. 



Mutabilicoccus simtnondsi (Laing) comb. nov. 
(Text-figs. II, 12) 
Farinococcus simmondsi Laing, 1925, Bull. ent. Res., 16 : 54. 

Habit. Described by Laing from New Britain, Kokopo on coconut. Notes 
given by E. S. Brown show that the external appearance exhibits considerable 
variation ranging from greyish white with a darkish centre to a form covered with 
a yellow granular wax. There is some correlation between these extremes and the 
forms described below, as the former is a characteristic of the typical form and the 
yellow with the atypical form. Furthermore the specimens of the white form are 
often abundant in colonies whilst the specimens of the yellow form are more scattered 
and in a few cases were taken singly. The species has been collected from the Solomon 
Islands as follows : — Guadalcanal : Kukum, coconut, tended by Oecophylla 
smaragdina and Anoplohpis longipes 20.vii.1954, 27.x. 1955; Tenani, coconut, 
tended by Iridomyrmex myrmecodiae 19. v. 1955; Mamara, coconut, tended by 
Iridomyrmex myrmecodiae 29.x. 1954, 6.vi.i956; Ilu, Areca sp., tended by Irido- 
myrmex myrmecodiae i.vii.1956 ; Lunga, coconut, tended by Pheidole megacephala 
18.vii.1956; San Cristobal: Makua, coconut, tended by Iridomyrmex myrme- 
codiae I. V. 1955 ; New Georgia : Tusamine, on an unknown shrub, 30. ix. 1954 ; 
KoLOMBANGARA : Kerikaua, coconut, tended by Oecophylla smaragdina 2.x. 1954 ; 
Russell Is.: Pepesala, coconut, 5.ix.i955 and Fai Ami, 9.ix.i955 both tended 
by Oecophylla smaragdina ; Malaita : coconut, B. A. O'Connor 12. v. 1950. 

Specimens are also at hand from Tomalabatt Plantation, Tatau, New Ireland 
collected by J. J. H. Szent-Ivany 13.vii.1955. 

Recognition characters. Shape broadly oval measuring approximately 
1-8 X 1-3 mm. Antennae 6-segmented, the third segment about as long as the fourth 
and fifth together. Legs normal, slender, of moderate length, posterior coxae with 
a few translucent pores. Circulus present. Ostioles with 2-3 setae and a few trilocular 
pores on each lip and with inner edges of lips sclerotized. Anal ring situated at 



412 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDEA OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 




^ 



Fig. II. Mutabilicoccus simmondsi {'Lsiing). (Typical form) 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 



413 



^ 



^'' 




Fig. 12. Muiabilicoccus simmondsi (Laing). (Atypical form). 



414 THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 

apex of body, with 6 setae which are twice the length of diameter of ring. In the 
typical form of this species (Text-fig. ii) dorsal setae of various sizes but mainly 
long and stout becoming more numerous laterally in the positions of the cerarii 
where with difficulty it is possible to distinguish i8 main groups with a concentration 
of trilocular pores at the bases. Other dorsal setae often with 2-3 trilocular pores 
at bases. In the atypical form of this species, (Text-fig. 12), the number and sizes of 
the dorsal setae are much reduced but again there is no difference in shape between 
setae occupying the normal positions of the cerarii to the other setae although the 
18 pairs of groups are more easily discernible and the abdominal groups are surrounded 
by lightly sclerotized areas. Other forms of the species show many intermediate 
conditions, there being a complete range between one extreme and the other. In 
all cases there is a rather large area of sclerotization about the anal lobes. 

Ventral surface with a distinct anal bar and bar seta and a pair of long, stout, 
apical setae. Ventral setae of various sizes, all slender in midregion but replaced 
laterally by longer or stouter setae similar to those on dorsal surface. In the typical 
form the latter setae are quite numerous around the margins but are much reduced 
in number and size in the atypical form. Multilocular disc pores in all forms rather 
constant being arranged in more or less single transverse rows on posterior edges of 
segments 3-8 and becoming more numerous posteriorly, a group also situated 
posterior to vulva. Tubular ducts of oral collar type in small marginal groups on 
posterior abdominal segments and also around anterior pair of coxae. Trilocular 
pores sparse. 

Notes. There is considerable variation in the size and distribution of setae in 
material at hand and were it not for intermediate forms the two specimens herein 
illustrated would be placed in different species. Where there is a decrease in the 
lengths of the setae there seems to be a corresponding decrease in number of setae 
but the overall pattern of the multilocular disc pores and other characters remains 
constant. 

Neosimtnondsia Laing 

Neosimmondsia Laing, 1930, Bull. ent. Res. 21 : 19. 

Recognition characters. Subcircular species of Pseudococcidae with 6-seg- 
mented antennae ; legs normal, claw without a denticle ; circulus rectangular ; 
anterior and posterior ostioles present ; anal ring lying about its own length from 
apex of body, cellular with 6 setae ; cerarii absent ; setae long and slender, as long 
as or longer than anal ring setae ; trilocular pores abundant ; multilocular disc 
pores on ventral surface numerous on abdomen and thorax ; tubular ducts on 
venter only. 

Notes. This genus bears a similarity to Cryptoripersia Cockerell and to Mizococcus 
Takahashi. In both these genera, however, there is a single pair of cerarii. The 
nearest genus is Pilococcus Takahashi described in 1928 with P. miscanthi as the only 
included species and differing to Neosimmondsia in having 8-segmented antennae 
instead of 6-segmented and in having multilocular disc pores on the abdomen only. 
Further study may show that Neosimmondsia should be S3aionymized with Pilococcus. 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 415 

Neosimmondsia hirsuta Laing 

(Text-fig 13) 
Neosimmondsia hirsuta Laing, Bull. ent. Res. 21 : 19, 20. 

Habit. Laing described this species from Malaita on coconut and it has since 
been collected only once by E. S. Brown at San Cristobal, Santa Catalina on 
coconut, 23. iv. 1955. 

Recognition characters. A subcircular species with an approximate diameter 
of 2-3 mm., anal lobes poorly developed. Antennae 6-segmented, Legs normal but 
coxae rather long in comparison with remainder of limbs, posterior coxae with a 
few translucent pores. Circulus present, small and rectangular. Ostioles well 
developed, wide. Anal ring lying about its own length from apex of body, with 6 
setae which are slightly longer than ring. Cerarii absent. Dorsal setae numerous, 
slender and mainly long, often as long as or longer than anal ring setae. Trilocular 
pores abundant. 

Ventral surface with a long, stout pair of apical setae and a small, more or less 
triangular sclerotized area on the inner side of each anal lobe. Ventral setae all 
slender, of various sizes but mostly long. Multilocular disc pores numerous across 
midregions of segments posterior to circulus and also posterior to vulva, anterior to 
circulus they are numerous in the submedian areas particularly around the coxae. 
Tubular ducts few, there being small groups in the submargins of segments 7 and 8 
and a few lateral to posterior coxae and also posterior spiracles. Trilocular pores 
numerous. 

Palmicola gen. n. 

Type of genus Riper sia palmarum Ehrhorn. 

Recognition characters. Oval or broadly oval species of Pseudococcidae with 
posterior end of body rounded, anal lobes poorly developed ; antennae 6-7- 
segmented ; cerarii numbering 14-17 pairs each with up to 7 conical setae of various 
sizes or with but 2 setae of same size, accompanied by i or 2 auxiliary setae ; legs 
normal, claw without a denticle, posterior coxae with a few minute ducts which 
are extended to the surrounding areas of the derm ; circulus present, rather small 
in the known species ; anterior and posterior ostioles present ; multilocular disc 
pores present or absent on dorsum, always present on venter from apex of abdomen 
to head ; ventral tubular ducts with oral collar on abdomen only, anal ring at apex 
of body, cellular with 6 setae. 

Notes. The distinctive features of this genus are the minute ducts surrounding 
the posterior coxae, a character which is shared with Pseudantonina Green but the 
latter seems to be far removed from Palmicola in possessing quite large posterior 
coxae, at most only 2 pairs of cerarii, and having minute legs and antennae. 

The two species Pseudococcus oceanicus Takahashi and Ps. oceanicus var. kentiae 
Takahashi seem to belong to the genus but these have not been seen by the writer. 
Two other species still known under the genus Pseudococcus as Ps. cocotis Mask. 



4l6 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 



^ 




^ 



Fig. 13. Neosimmondsia hirsuta Laing 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 417 

and Ps. saipanensis Shiraiwa seem to come close to the species of Palmicola but 
are excluded for the time being because they lack the minute ducts around the pos- 
terior coxae. 

The genus seems to be confined to the plant family Palmaceae and will probably 
be found throughout the Pacific. Specimens of P. palmarum (Ehrh.) are at hand 
from Sepang in Malaya and it is possible that this or related species may be found in 
Indonesia and the Philippine Islands. 

The new species may be separated from the t5^e by the following key : — 

Antennae normally 6-segmented, cerarii numbering 14-15 pairs, each cerarius 

with up to 6 or more setae ....... palmarum (Ehrhom) 

Antennae 6-8-segmented, cerarii numbering 17 pairs each with 2 setae or sometimes 

with 3 in the head region ........ browni sp. n 

Palmicola browni sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 14) 

Habit. A white powdery mealybug taken from various parts of coconut trees 
but especially on the terminal bud, the bases of young leaves and unopened spadix 
sheaths. It has been collected from the following localities : — Guadalcanal : 
Kukum, 12.viii.1948, B. A. O'Connor, same locality tended by AnoploUpis longipes, 
E. S. Brown, 20.vii.1954, (holotype) ; Lunga, 18.vii.1956 tended by Pheidole 
megacephala ; Bougainville: Numa-Numa, i.vi.1956; Rennell : Lavanggu, 
23. xi. 1955; Russell Is.: Butete, 5.ix.i955; San Cristobal: Boroni and 
Waimarai, 14.x. 1955, associated with Pheidole megacephala. 

Specimens are also at hand collected by J. L. Froggatt in 1937 from New Britain 
(without locality) and Admiralty Is., Manus. 

Recognition characters. Length approximately 2-6 mm. Shape broadly 
elliptical, anal lobes moderately developed, posterior margin rounded. Antennae 
6-8-segmented, the fusion of the segments in the 6-segmented condition taking place 
in the third and terminal segments. Legs normal, slender, posterior coxae with a 
few minute tubular pores, these pores also extending to the surrounding membranous 
areas anterior and posterior to jimction of coxae and ventral derm. Circulus present, 
shape varying from subcircular to quadrate and lying between fourth and fifth 
segments. Ostioles with narrow lips and a few trilocular pores, rarely with setae 
but inner edges of lips sclerotized. Anal ring with 6 setae, these about twice as 
long as its diameter. Cerarii numbering 17 pairs each consisting of a pair of short 
stout conical setae usually of same size but often of different sizes, anterior cerarius 
often with three conical setae, all cerarii with small clusters of trilocular pores. 
Dorsal setae of moderate length, all slender. Multilocular disc pores sparse, being 
confined to anterior abdominal segments, thorax and head Ijring at anterior and 
posterior edges of segments. Trilocular pores not numerous. 

Ventral surface with a pair of long apical setae. Other ventral setae slender and 
similar to those on dorsum. Multilocular disc pores present in all regions, in no 
definite arrangement on head and thorax but on abdomen they lie in transverse 
rows at anterior and posterior edges of segments. Tubular ducts small and sparse, on 



4i8 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 




Fig. 14. Palmioola browni sp. n. 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 419 

the sixth and posterior segments only, lying in single transverse rows. Trilocular 
pores evenly distributed, 

Paraputo Laing 
Paraputo Laing, 1929, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 4 : 473. 

Type of genus Paraputo ritchei Laing = Ripersia anomala Newstead. 

Recognition characters. Pseudococcidae with broadly oval body, anal 
lobes either protruding or poorly developed, antennae 6-segmented ; legs usually 
rather short and stout, claw without a denticle ; anterior and posterior ostioles 
well developed ; circulus usually well developed ; anal ring l5ang on dorsal surface 
at a distance of one to two times its diameter from apex of body, cellular with 6 
setae ; cerarii numbering up to i8 distinct pairs or reduced in number to the posterior 
abdominal segments or joined on entire margin forming a more or less continuous 
row, when distinct each cerarius composed of numerous conical setae ; dorsal 
setae usually short although in one species they are nearly as long as anal ring 
setae, always rather abundant ; trilocular pores quite numerous on dorsum and 
venter ; multilocular disc pores on venter only ; tubular ducts confined to ventral 
abdominal areas either sparse or numerous but always in large or small groups on 
submargins of posterior segments. With or without a small area of sclerotization 
on ventral anal lobes. 

Notes. This genus has been redefined after a recent study of the type species 
(Williams 1958). The two following species are referred to the genus in possessing 
6-segmented antennae although one of them is known with 7-segmented antennae. 
Ferris (1955) redescribed the genus from immature specimens and if he had had 
available some adult females it is doubtful whether he would have erected the genus 
Cataenococcus as this differs only in possessing 8-segmented antennae. As other 
species are known with 7 segments it seems reasonable to assume that Cataenococcus 
will be reduced to a synonym of Paraputo. 

The two Solomon Islands species and the type from Africa may be separated by 
the following key : — 

1. Cerarii reduced in number to 11-13 pairs, being missing on the thorax, anal lobes 

protruding, with distinct ventral clusters of tubular ducts on the submargins of 
segments 7 and 8 ........ anomala (Newstead) 

- Cerarii complete around the margins as 18 distinct pairs or forming a more or less 

continuous row ............ 2 

2. Cerarii numbering 18 distinct pairs, dorsal setae about same length as cerarian setae 

without an area of sclerotization on anal lobes ..... leveri (Green) 

Cerarii numbering 18 pairs but these often connected by conical setae, dorsal setae 
and auxiUary setae nearly as long as anal ring setae, ventral surface of anal 
lobes with a distinct area of sclerotization ..... kukumi sp. n. 

Paraputo kukumi sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 15) 

Habit. Taken from the aerial roots of coconut, Guadalcanal, Kukum, i4.viii. 
1948, B. A. O'Connor. External appearance not known. 



420 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 



^ 




Fig. 15. Paraputo kukumi sp. n. 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 421 

Recognition characters. A broadly oval species attaining a length of 2-o mm., 
older specimens becoming more rotmid, anal lobes poorly developed. Antennae 
6-segmented. Legs short and stout, posterior coxae with a few translucent dots. 
Circulus present, in specimens available it is distorted but apparently it is rather 
small. Ostioles moderately developed, lips with a few setae and trilocular pores. 
Anal ring situated about its own length from apex of body, with 6 setae, these 
slightly longer than diameter of ring. Cerarii present in a more or less continuous 
row aroimd margin although it is possible to define i8 groups of setae which are 
connected by other cerarian setae. Cerarian setae small and conical, numerous and 
with long auxiliary setae which do not appear to be constant in number or position. 
In the three specimens available many of the cerarian setae are missing so that the 
accompanying diagram must be regarded as tentative although the cerarian setae 
have been drawn from the pattern of the setal bases. Dorsal setae mainly long and 
slender, many approaching size of anal ring setae. Trilocular pores somewhat 
numerous. 

Ventral surface with a noticeable triangular sclerotized area on each anal lobe 
containing a few setae and trilocular pores. Setae slender, varying in size but mainly 
similar to those on dorsum. Multilocular disc pores on all segments posterior to 
circulus, fifth and sixth segments with 4-7, seventh segment with 13-16, eighth with 
about 30 pores, there being also a group of about 9-12 posterior to vulva. Tubular 
ducts of oral collar type confined to abdomen in midregion in transverse rows and 
in lateral groups on third to seventh segments and also in lateral groups on eighth 
segment, becoming more numerous posteriorly. Trilocular pores numerous and 
evenly distributed. 

Notes. This species has been described from three specimens which are not in 
perfect condition. The more or less continuous row of cerarian setae and the long 
dorsal setae serve to distinguish the species. 

Paraputo levari (Green) {comb, nov.) 

(Text-fig 16) 

Pseudococcus leveri Green, 1934, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (X) 13 : 473, 474. 

Habit. A mealybug covered with white wax and usually associated with ants, 
described originally without locality from the Solomon Islands on coconut. It 
also feeds on other hosts and specimens are at hand from Fiji on Bischoffia javanica 
collected by B. A. O'Connor 23. xi. 1957. Guadalcanal: Kukum, coconut, 
14. viii. 1948, B. A. O'Connor, aerial roots of coconut with Iridomyrmex myrmecodiae, 
4.x. 1956, E. S. Brown; Tenaru, coconut roots tended by Pheidole umbonata 
31.vii.1954, with Iridomyrmex myrmecodiae, 5. viii. 1954, Ficus septica tended by 
Iridomyrmex myrmecodiae 24. iv. 1956; Rua Vatu, coconut roots associated with 
Ireneidris myops, 25.x. 1956, Ficus sp. roots tended by Technomyrmex detorquens, 
19 . xi . 1954. Malaita : Baunani, coconut roots tended by Ireneidris myops, 
10. xi. 1954, Rendova : Ficus sp. tended by Technomyrmex detorquens 8.x. 1954. 
San Cristobal : Ugi, Three Sisters, Boroni and Waimamura, all on coconut tended 



422 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 




5^^x•/.■^;>•.'^•/;.•f:;:'/V.^•.• .':•'. 



^ 



!.■'■■ •,.,•>■> .\-> • •.•\->-<vy'.-'^vv-rN- vv.- 




Fig. 1 6. Paraputo leveri (Green). 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 423 

by Pheidole megacephala ; Waimamura, Inocarpus edulis tended by Oecophylla 
smaragdina, all April 1955 ; Kira Kira, Ficus sp. with Iridomyrmex myrmecodiae 
20 . viii . 1956. Russell Is.: Fai Ami, coconut roots, 9. xi. 1955. Ngella : Votilau, 
coconut roots, 10. xi. 1956. 

Recognition characters. Young adult females elongate oval, sides subparallel, 
older adults more rounded, attaining a length of 3-8 mm. Antennae 6-7-segmented, 
Legs short and stout, posterior coxae with translucent pores. Circulus rather large. 
Ostioles well developed with numerous setae and trilocular pores, inner edges of 
lips sclerotized. Anal ring situated about twice its length from apex of body, with 
6 setae, slightly longer than diameter of ring. Cerarii numbering 18 pairs, small 
on thorax, each comprising 3-4 conical setae but large on head and abdomen, anal 
lobe and penultimate cerarii each with up to 12 conical setae and numerous trilocular 
pores. Dorsal surface with numerous short setae, these slightly longer but more 
slender than cerarian setae. Trilocular pores abundant. 

Ventral surface with numerous slender setae tending to be longer than those on 
dorsum. Multilocular disc pores on all segments posterior to the circulus, in more or 
less single transverse rows at posterior edges of segments and in a small cluster of 
4-5 posterior to vulva. Small tubular ducts in groups of up to 15 between anal 
lobes and near posterior lateral margins as far as fifth segment, fifth to seventh 
segments also with single transverse rows in midregion. Trilocular pores numerous. 

Pedrococcus Mamet 
Pedrococcus Mamet, 1942, Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. B, 11 : 79. 

Mamet erected this genus for four species from Mauritius with Pedronia greeni 
Mamet as type. Since then another two have been added all from the Malagasian 
area. According to Mamet it differs from Pedronia in having the dorsal conical 
setae on small sclerotized areas and with one or two trilocular pores at the bases. 

The genus Pedronia Green has been redescribed by Mamet (1942) from specimens 
of P. strohilanthis Green the t3rpe species. It has been shown that none of the setae 
or cerarii is situated on sclerotized areas but in specimens at hand some of the dorsal 
setae have one or two trilocular pores at the bases. Another species P. strohilanthis 
tenuispina Green seems to be referable to Pedrococcus because from the single speci- 
men at hand the lateral and dorsal setae aie situated on sclerotized areas. A revision 
of the whole group is needed to clarify the position. 



Pedrococcus tinahulanus sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 17) 

Habit. Collected from a small tree in the carton shelters made by Iridomyrmex 
myrmecodiae on the underside of the leaves. Guadalcanal : Tinahula River, 
22.iii.1955. 

Recognition characters. Shape of adult female broadly oval measuring 
approximately i-8 mm. long. Antennae 7-segmented. Legs normal, the posterior 



424 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 




Fig. 17. Pedrococcus tinahulanus sp. n. 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 425 

coxae with a few translucent pores. Circulus present, round and rather small. 
Ostioles with narrow membranous lips containing two or three trilocular pores 
and an occasional seta, inner edges of lips sclerotized. Anal ring with 6 setae these 
about twice as long as diameter of ring. Cerarii numbering 17 pairs each borne 
on a sclerotized plate. Anal lobe cerarius with 2 stout conical setae, with a few 
trilocular pores and accompanied by a few slender setae on a sclerotized plate which 
is about twice the size of anal ring. Anterior cerarii each with a pair of stout conical 
setae except the anteriormost which has up to four, the cerarian setae about 2-3 
times as long as diameter at base and accompanied usually by one or two long, 
stout setae. Trilocular pores in the cerarii arranged mainly around bases of setae. 
Dorsal setae of various sizes, there being a few small conical setae arranged in trans- 
verse rows each about i|-2 times as long as basal diameter and with about three 
trilocular pores at base surrounded by a lightly sclerotized circular area. Longer 
setae but of smaller diameter interspersed with the small conical setae and each 
with one or two trilocular pores at base, other setae present small and slender. 
Trilocular pores sparse. 

Ventral surface with a long, stout pair of apical setae each attached to a small 
sclerotized anal bar. Ventral setae of different sizes but all slender. Multilocular 
disc pores in single transverse rows in midregion of segments posterior to circulus, 
not numerous, at most there being about 40 altogether. Tubular ducts present in 
small numbers of 2-4 in midregion of segments 6-8 and also more numerous in 
groups between first pair of coxae and between first and second pairs of coxae. 
Trilocular pores sparse. 

Notes. This species comes closest to Pedrococcus longisetosus Mamet described 
from Mauritius but differs in having the dorsal conical setae shorter in relation to 
the marginal conical setae. The slender dorsal setae in P. tinahulaniis are also 
shorter than those of P. longisetosus. 

Planococcus Ferris 

Planococcus Ferris, 1950, Atlas of Scale Insects of North America, 5 : 164. 

Only one species has so far been collected in the Solomon Islands and this is a 
cosmopolitan species. Species are at hand from New Guinea from genera related 
to Planococcus and it is possible that these or similar species may yet be found in 
the Solomon Islands. 

Planococcus citri (Risso) 

Dorthesia citri Risso, 1813, Ann. Mus. Hist. nat. Paris, 30 : 416-418. 

Planococcus citri (Risso), Ferris, 1950, Atlas of Scale Insects of North America, 5 : 165. 

Planococcus citri (Risso), Ezzatt & McConnell, Univ. Maryland Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. A-84 : 65. 

Guadalcanal: Honiara, Tomato, B. A. O'Connor, 9.viii.i948; Kukum, 
Tephrosia sp., E. S. Brown, 28.vii.1954, custard apple tended by Technomyrmex 
detorquens, 19.1.1955 ; Tenaru, Senecio sp. with Iridomyrmex myrmecodiae, 5.viii. 
1954, Mimosa pudica, 29 . vi . 1954 and Macaranga sp. tended by AnoploUpis longipes, 



426 THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 

18.xi.1954. Russell Is.: Banoka, Tomatoes, B. A. O'Connor, July 1933; Fai 
Ami, Sonneratia sp., E. S. Brown, 9 . xi . 1955 ; Yandina, Theobroma cacao, 12 . v . 1955. 
Mala IT A : Auki, Theobroma cacao with Technomyrmex detorquens, 4.ix.i954; 
Rongofano, 28. v. 1955. San Cristobal : Kira Kira, Theobroma cacao, 20.vii.1956 ; 
Three Sisters, Malaupaino, Cocos nucifera, B. A. O'Connor, 13. v. 1934. Santa 
YsABEL : Holokama, Theobroma cacao tended by Technomyrmex detorquens and 
Oecophylla smaragdina 17. ii. 1956 ; Huhurangi, Theobroma cacao tended by Anoplo- 
lepis longipes, 18. ii. 1956. Bougainville: Buka, Theobroma cacao with Techno- 
myrmex detorquens, 29. v. 1956; Kieta, Coffea sp. J. L. Froggatt, 19. ix. 1937, 
17.viii.1938. New Georgia: Arundel, Morinda citrifoUa tended by AnoploUpis 
longipes, 4.x. 1954. Rennell : Nanggan, a legume tended by Iridomyrmex myrme- 
codiae, 24. xi. 1955. Ngella : Tulazi, Annona muricata, R. A. Lever, 28.vii.1934. 

Pseudococcus Westwood 

Pseudococcus Westwood, 1840, Intr. Mod. Class. Ins. Syn. Br. Ins. 2 : 118. 
Pseudococcus Westwood, Ferris, 1950, Atlas of Scale Insects of North America, 5 : 170. 

Ferris erected the genus Dysmicoccus to cater for those species which were similar 
to Pseudococcus but without oral rim ducts. Some of the Pseudococcus species known 
throughout the Pacific area have a reduced number of oral rim ducts and at times 
reduced to a single duct only. Whether the presence or absence of oral rim ducts 
is sufficient for generic separation can only be found after further species have been 
studied. The two species from the Solomon Islands can be identified from the follow- 
ing key :— 

With, at most, a single oral rim duct behind each of the first and tenth cerarii 

solomonensis sp. n. 
With usually 3 oral rim ducts of different sizes near most cerarii . adonidum (Linnaeus) 

Pseudococcus adonidum (Linnaeus) 

Coccus adonidum Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., Ed. 12, 1 : 740. 

Pseudococcus adonidum (Linnaeus), Ferris, Atlas of Scale Insects of North America, 5 : 174. 

Taken on one occasion only at Guadalcanal, Kukum, Kokumbona River, 
on Ficus septica tended by Iridomyrmex myrmecodiae. 

Pseudococcus solomonensis sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 18) 

Habit. Taken from the fruits of Theobroma cacao where the ants, Technomyrmex 
detorquens, had built carton shelters over them, the colonies situated mainly down 
the length of the fruit in the grooves, Santa Ysabel, Holokama, 21 .ii. 1956. Tended 
also by the same ant in the axis of a bunch of fruit of wild banana, Malaita, Rongo- 
fano, 28. V. 1955. 

Recognition characters. Body broadly oval attaining a length of 3-5 mm. 
Antennae 8-segmented. Legs normal, posterior pair with numerous translucent 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 



427 




Fig. 18. Pseudococcus solomonensis sp. n. 



428 THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 

pores on each femur and tibia. Circulus well developed. Ostioles with 2-3 small 
setae and a few trilocular pores on each lip. Anal ring with 6 setae which are nearly 
twice as long as diameter of ring. Vulva of an indefinite shape with internal folds. 
Cerarii numbering 17 pairs ; anal lobe cerarii each with a pair of stout conical 
setae accompanied by a cluster of trilocular pores and about 6 slender setae, sur- 
rounded by a sclerotized area about same size as anal ring. Anterior cerarii each 
composed of 2 conical setae except some of anterior cerarii which have 3, each 
surrounded by a group of trilocular pores and 3-5 auxiliary setae. Dorsal setae 
not numerous, of various sizes but all slender. Tubular ducts of oral rim type, at 
most represented by 2 pairs, an anterior pair behind the first cerarii and another 
pair next to the tenth cerarii, one pair of these often missing or missing on one side of 
the body only, occasionally absent entirely. Trilocular pores evenly distributed. 

Ventral surface of body with a wide curved sclerotized area on anal lobes. Apical 
setae long and stout. Ventral setae slender and not numerous. Multilocular disc 
pores situated about the vulva only, there being scarcely more than about 15 
altogether. Tubular ducts of oral collar type of two sizes, a small type situated in 
midregion of segments posterior to circulus, these sparse in transverse rows except 
on seventh segment where they are more numerous. A larger type situated around 
margins, there being usually a pair on the seventh and eighth segments and singly 
on some of the other segments. Trilocular pores sparse. 

Notes. The species belongs to a group known from the Pacific area with a 
reduction in number of oral rim ducts and multilocular disc pores and also possessing 
a vulva with a sclerotized folding similar to that of Pseudococcus floriger Ferris. 



Trionymus Berg 

THonymus Berg, 1899, Comun. Mus. nac. B. Aires, 1 : 78. 

Trionymus Berg, Ferris, 1950, 1953, Atlas of Scale Insects of North America, 5 : 251, 6 : 482. 

This genus usually occurs on grasses and some other monocotyledons but there are 
a few exceptions including the following species which has been collected from 
Ficus copiosa. In the Solomon Islands Ficus often seems to be an alternative host 
to those species which normally feed on coconut. According to E. S. Brown these 
are not chance records due to proximity because many of the collections from Ficus 
were made at great distances from the nearest coconut trees. It seems possible 
that the following species may yet be found on coconut, a more natural host. 

Trionymus chalepus sp. n. 

(Text-fig. 19) 

Habit. Collected on Ficus copiosa and tended by Iridomyrmex myrmecodiae 
which stroke them with the antennae, Guadalcanal, Tenaru, 5.viii.i954. 

Recognition characters. A small oval species measuring approximately 
3*2 X 2-0 mm. Antennae 8-segmented. Legs short and slender, the posterior coxae 
with a few translucent pores. Circulus small and round. Ostioles present with 



THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 



429 



Xv^ 



^--.. 




.^ 



id 



d 



Fig. 19. Trionymus chalepus sp. n. 



430 THE PSEUDOCOCCIDAE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 

3-4 setae and a few trilocular pores on each lip. Anal ring with 6 setae nearly twice 
as long as its diameter. Cerarii represented by a pair on anal lobes only, each with 
2 short, conical setae, a few trilocular pores and 3 auxiliary setae. Dorsal setae 
rather long and slender. Multilocular disc pores numbering about 10 in a single 
row at posterior edge of eighth segment only. Tubular ducts small, arranged in 
small groups of 2-4 on margins of fourth to eighth segments and a few in midregions 
of segments 6-8. Trilocular pores few, evenly distributed. 

Ventral surface with apical setae only slightly larger than anal ring setae. Setae 
not numerous, all slender and tending to be shorter than those on dorsal surface. 
Multilocular disc pores abundant on abdomen posterior to circulus, arranged more 
or less in double transverse rows at posterior edges of segments 6-8 ; groups of up 
to 7 situated on margins as far as prothorax, other occasional pores present near 
coxae. Small tubular ducts, numerous, in transverse rows on fourth and posterior 
segments and also in marginal groups anterior to prothorax, a few also present 
in mid-thoracic region. Trilocular pores evenly but sparsely distributed. 

Notes, This species has been described from three specimens only. In the distri- 
bution of the multilocular disc pores and ventral tubular ducts, it comes close to 
Trionymus festucae (Kuwana) but differs in possessing a larger circulus and fewer 
tubular ducts on the dorsum. The tubular ducts in T. festucae are very short whereas 
in T. chalepus they are of more normal length. 

REFERENCES 

Ferris, G. F. 1955. On Some Genera of the Pseudococcidae. Microentomology , 20 : 1-6. 
Lever, R. A. 1933. Entomologist's Annual Report for the Year 1931-32. Brit. Solomon Is. 

agric. Gaz., 1 : 5. 
Mamet, R. 1942. Pedronia strobilanthis Green Redescribed (Homoptera, Coccoidea : Pseudo- 
coccidae). Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 11 : 149-152. 
Morrison, H. 1945. The Mealybug Genus Heterococcus Ferris and some of its Relatives. 

/. Wash. Acad. Set., 35 : 54. 
Pagden, H. T. & Lever, R. J. A. W. 1935. Insects of the Coconut Palm and the Present 

Position of the Coconut Problem in the British Solomon Islands Protectorate. Brit. Solomon 

Is. agric. Gaz., 3 : 18. 
Williams, D. J. 1958. The Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae : Homoptera) described by W. M. 

Maskell, T. D. A. Cockerell, R. Newstead and E. E. Green from the Ethiopian Region. 

Bull. Brit. Mus. {Nat. Hist.) Ent., 6 : 217-219. 
Zimmerman, E. C. 1948. Insects of Hawaii, 5, Homoptera : Sternorhyncha. University of 

Hawaii, Honolulu. 





PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY 
ADLARD AND SON, LIMITED 
BARTHOLOMEW PRESS, DORKING