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North Carolina Dental Society 

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North Carolina Dental Society 

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be token from the 
Library building. 

JUL 14 196 f- 

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JUNE 6, 7, 8, 1933 

University of North Carolina 

Chapel Hill 

Vol. XVII AUGUST, 1933 No. 1 

Entered as Second-class matter as a quarterly September 26, 1931, at the 
postofflce, Raleigh, N. C, under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Subscription per year $1.00 


Dr. Wilbert Jackson, President Clinton, N. C. 

Dr. E. a. Branch, President-Elect Raleigti, N. C. 

Dr. H. E. Nixon, Vice-President Elizabetli City, N. C. 

Dr. D. L. Pridgen, Secretary-Treasurer Fayetteville, N. C. 

Dr. Fred Hale Raleigli, N. C. 


First District 

At Aslieville in November. 

Second District 

At Charlotte on October 23-24. 

Dr. Boyd Gardner of the Mayo Clinic and Dr. Walter McFall of 

Macon, Ga., are on the program. 

Third District 

At Greensboro, King Cotton Hotel, on November 13-14. 

Fourth District 

At Raleigh on December 3-4. 

Fifth District 

At Wilmington on November 6. 


Tuesday Mok>;i.\g Sessiox, June 6, 1933 Pa"-e 

Invocation by Rev. Albea Godbold 5 

Address of Welcome by Dr. Frank Graham ti 

Response to Address of Welcome by Dr. O. L. Presnell 1) 

President's Address by Dr. Wilbert Jackson 10 

Prayer by Dr. J. S. Belts of Greensboro 14 

Memorials 15 

Palter — Diagnosis With Special Reference to When Teeth Should 

be Extracted and When They Should be Treated by Dr. 

U. Gartield Rickert of Ann Arbor, Mich 25 

Paper — The Relation of Dentistry to the Individual as a Whole 

by Wm. deB. Macnider, M.D., of Chapel Hill 36 

Tuesday Eve^n'ing Session, S :30 o'Clock, June 6, 1933 

Meeting of House of Delegates : 

Report of Dental Relief Committee 41 

Report of Legislative Committee 42 

Report of Committee on Relations of Physicians and Dentists 46 

Report of Virginia-Carolina Clinic Committee 47 

Report of Exhibit Committee 48 

Report of Program Committee 49 

Report of Secretary-Treasurer 50 

Tuesday Evening Session, 9 :00 o'Clock, June 6, 1933 

Paper — Immediate Denture Service Using Treatment Plates by 

Dr. L. L. Sheffield of Toledo, Ohio 55 

Wednesday Morning Session, June 7, 1933 

Paper— Practical Root Surgery for the Average Practitioner by 

Dr. U. Gartield Rickert of Ann Arbor, Mich 67 

Paper — Traumatic Occlusion by Dr. Robert L. Dement of 

Atlanta, Ga 70 

Wednesday Xoon Session, June 7, 1933 
Meeting of House of Delegates : 

Report of Extension Course Committee 76 

Reix»rt of Resolutions Committee 78 

Report of Committee to Catalogue Amendments to the 

Constitution and By Laws 93 

Financial Statement of Editor-Publisher for 1932-1933 95 

Report of (ienerai Arrangements Committee 96 

Report of Dental College Committee 97 

Wednesday Evening Session, 6 :00 o'Clock, June 7, 1933 
Banquet 104 

Wednesday Evening Session, 9 :10 o'clock, June 7, 1933 

Elections 114 

Place of Next Meeting 132 


4 Bulletin North Carol ina Dental Society 

Thubsday Morning Session, June 8, 1933 Pa^e 

General Session 133 

Paper — Flaskless Casting, or a Metliod of Obtaining Unrestricted 
Investment Expansion by Dr. J. V. Turner of Wilson 

N. C 134 

Discussion 140 

Paper — Common Interests of Medicine and Dentistry by Dr. I. H. 

Manning of Chapel Hill ".. 146 

Paper — Activities of the American Dental Association by Dr. 

Harry Bear of Richmond, Va 150 

Paper — Practical Dentistry for Children by Dr. G. A. C. Jen- 
nings of Richmond, Va 155 

Paper — The Floor of the Maxillary Sinus and Its Dental, Oral 
and Nasal Relations by Dr. Wallace F. Mustian of 
Warrenton 162 

Thursday Noon Session, June 8, 1933 

Meeting of House of Delegates : 

Report of Committee on President's Address 171 

Report of State Institutions Committee 172 

Report of Committee on Re-instatement 173 

Reix)rt of Publicity Committee 178 

Report of Oral Hygiene Committee 179 

Report of Ethics Committee 179 

Report on Members in Arrears 180 

Report of the Entertainment Committee 182 

Report of Executive Committee 184 

Report of Clinic Board of Censors 186 

Report of Secretary of the Board of Dental Examiners 188 

Report of Golf Committee 195 

Paper — Nutritional Disturbance in Relation to Dental Disease 

by Dr. O. L. Presnell, Asheboro, N. C 196 

Paper— Some Problems of Etiology in Orthodontia by Dr. Fred 

Hale, Raleigh, N. C 199 

Thursday Afternoon Session, June 8, 1933 

Installation of Officers 206 

Committee Appointments, 1933-1934 209 

Membership of North Carolina Dental Society 213 

New Members 225 





Hill Music Hall, Chapel Hill, 
]SroRTH Carolika, Juke 6, 7, 8, 1933 

Morning Session 

The Convention was called to order at 10:00 a.m., by Dr. 
Wilbert Jackson, of Clinton, President. 

President Jachson: 

The Fifty-Mnth Annual Meeting of the I^orth Carolina 
Dental Society will now come to order. 

You will please stand while Dr. Godbold, of the Methodist 
Church of Chapel Hill, will lead the invocation. 

Reverend Alhea Godhold: 

Oh God, our Heavenly Father, we thank Thee that we are 
dependent upon a poAver not ourselves. We have not made the 
world in which we live. It Avas here when we came and Avill be 
here when we shall have gone. We thank Thee for the manifes- 
tations of goodness toward the children of men. We thank Thee 
for every gift and every power that has come to man. We thank 
Thee for the great advance in learning and in science, and 
especially do we thank Thee for the advance in medical science. 
We thank Thee that because men have devoted their minds to 
the understanding of the human body that they have been able 
to do away with a great deal of pain and suffering. We pray 
Thee for Thy benedictions ui)on this gathering hei'c at this time. 
We pray that througli this association and felloAvsliij) they shall 
come to a higher understaiidiiig of tlie great task wliicli is 
theirs. We jn-ay that Tliou will liolp every one of tlicni to be 

6 /lii/h'fiii Xorfh Carol iva Denial Socicli/ 

couseioiis at nil times of their high cause, the calling of serving 
men and making life easier and better and ha})pier for them. 
We pray Thee to help every one of them keep uppermost in 
their minds the high ideals of relationship with all men. May 
every one of them bear uppermost in his mind that he should 
do unto others as he would have them do unto him. We beseech 
Thee for Thy blessings upon this community, the great Uni- 
versity and upon our country. We ask this in the Master's 
name. ^Vmen. 

President Jacl'sun: 

We are indeed honored this morning to have with us the 
President of the Greater University of JSTorth Carolina, who will 
deliver the address of welcome. Dr. Frank Graham. (Applause.) 

Dr. Franl' Graham: 

Mr. President, members of the Nurtli C'antlina Dental Society: I 
appreciate tlie lienor and courtesy of your invitation to be here this to say just a brief word of welcome. The University of 
North Carolina appreciate.s deeply the value of your meeting in 
(.'Impel Hill. I think, after all, this Association and the University 
of North Carolina have much in common. In the tirst place, both of 
us, both the University and the Association, belong to North Caro- 
lina and this University belongs to you. Not only so. but this 
University and the dental surgeons of this State stand fundamentally 
for the same thing. The University stands here tinding the truth 
and telling the truth, however disagreeable that truth may be, and 
when I think of my friend. Dr. Jones, and Dr. Clark, and my other 
friends of your profession, I know what a dentist not only stands 
for. but does. The dentists tell us things that even our best friends 
do not tell us. 

The men of the profession of dentistry also represent the scientific 
spirit. I may illustrate that in a member of the medical profession 
on the faculty of the University. He works over here in a little 
lal)oratory, very meagerly equipped. "We do not have any appropria- 
tion for him for his scientific researches and yet he stays right here. 
Part of his work is down in a basement ; another part of his work 
is in a little cubby hole. Great universities of the world have called 
him. They have offered him magnificent salaries. Some of them 
more than double what we could ever pay him here. They have 
said to him. "If you come to us," these great universities of the East 
and of the great Mississippi Valley, "we will give you an associate 
prttfessor to stand on your right hand. We will give you an assistant 
professor to stand on your left hand, and we will give you a tech- 
nician to do much of your routine work as you project these great 
studies in your mind." All we give him here is a janitor that cleans 
his room at the end of the day. But, he stays here. He has been 
called to a great universitv in the East, to a irreat universitv on 

Confainiitg Ihe Proceedings 7 

Lake Erie. He has been called to one of tlie greatest medical niii- 
versities, situated iu the center of this continent. 

That man has the scientitic spirit. That is why we are meeting 
here today. One of the great American scientists said one day, "Bill, 
I just don't understand you. You owe some great things to your 
generation. You are one of the world's leaders in your particular 
microscopic field. Why don't you come to us so that you can give to 
the world what you owe to the world?" I might say incidentally 
that in spite of his meager equipment here, in spite of the fact he has 
to do that scientitic research work by the sweat of his own hands, 
the scientists of the five continents, with all their magnificent equip- 
ment, have not been able to match the results of the persistent and 
relentless dynamic researches of this plain man. And so, when this 
man said, "Why don't you come?" I think he showed not only the 
scientitic spirit that has brought you into this assembly, but also he 
showed something even bigger than a scientific spirit, which work 
is a part of the ministry of any great dentist, when he said these 
words, unconscious as he was of the revelation it was of the man, 
"Well, maybe I am a fool to stay on here, but you know, the 
MacNiders have been buying milk from the Sparrows in Orange 
County for sixty years, and I am not going to start buying milk from 
anybody else." (Applause.) 

And so this great scientist represents something of the spirit of this 
institution, which was provided for in the Constitution in that year 
iu which the Declaration of Independence was signed, when there 
was war in the land, revolution in the air, confusion everywhere, 
and with no assurance of any future, the people of North Carolina 
iu a Constitutional Convention in the year 1776 wrote it into the 
organic law that there should be a University of North Carolina. 
That is part of your tradition ; that is part of the treasure and tradi- 
tion of your State. It Avas born there, during the birth pangs of the 
nation, chartered in the year in which we ratified our Magna Charta, 
. 17S9. It opened its doors in 1795. That young boy from Wilmington, 
the first student to enter the University, came and was placed over 
here in Old East Building. One building. One professor. One stu- 
dent. That was the first state university in America to open its doors. 
(Jeorgia had been chartered before, but North Carolina opened first. 
And then it became one of the great southern universities to which 
boys came from Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, Mississippi and Arkansas, 
Tennessee, South Carolina, Alabama, to Chapel Hill. 

Then came the War. Sherman's army came this way. Kecoustruc- 
tion came, and this University was closed. It became stale, the 
faculty dispersed, the student body scattered. The University was 
closed; Five years it was closed. Now, as spectators of history, we 
can look back to those grim years when our University was iu the 
midst of ruin and deterioration. It was resolved that again there 
should be a University of North Carolina. On March 20, l.S7r». men 
like Zeb Vance and the rest sent word to Chapel Hill that the 
University would be opened again and the old bell in South Building 
which had not rung in five years, would ring again. It was a woman 
who inspired those men to go to Kaleigh and open this institution. 

8 Ilullctin Xorth Carolina Denial Society 

This woman climbecl up there and rang this bell. She had lost her 
husband years before, but in these forty years she had stayed on 
with her meager living to see that this place was opened again to the 
youth of North Carolina and when she got word from the boys she 
sent down there, sent from the mountains and from the tidewater 
shores, and from the piedmont section, that the University was to be 
opened again, she went up there and rang the bell, and I hope as 
you hear that bell ring you will catch something of tlie spirit not 
only of this University, but of the State of North Carolina that it 
is your lionor and your opportunity to serve, as in a scientific way 
you minister to the health and the strengtli of the people of this 
State. When you hear that bell ring, remember that for five years 
it did not ring, that same old bell, and then this woman went up 
there and rang it, standing way up there in the belfry by herself — 
the Spirit of North Carolina — ^and when she rang that bell. North 
Carolina was on the march again. 

And so Ave, in these days when the University lias been hit hard, 
when you have been hit hard, we can remember that we have come 
up before, you have come up before, and we are going to come up 
again in the spirit of the people of this State. You, in revolution, 
founded a University. You, in desolation, reopened it. There is 
courage and hope in the air of this place. The winds of the world 
blow through the open doors of this University. The winds of 
scientific research in dentistry blow through these doors that the 
truth might prevail in the spirit of Him who came that we miglit 
have life and that we might have it more abundantly. (Bell ringing.) 
Tliere is tlie bell I am talking about. When I think of the ministra- 
tions of the dentist to man, I not only think about him being that 
person who will tell you those things which your best friend will 
not tell you, but I tliink of tliat parable of the man who had been 
to all the springs in the world. He could not walk. He had great 
hope, as I understand it, but finally he came back not healed. Then 
a simple dentist went to him upon his call and pulled a tooth. That 
man "took up liis bed and walked," in the language of the parable. 

So, in these days, in this liour when your Convention meets here, 
this University bids you a glad welcome not only with the peals of 
this organ to which you have just listened, but also with the tradi- 
tion and spirit which is now in that bell as it rings out to you. 

Mr. President, I am sorry that I have to go away at this time, 
and I just want to say to you and througli you to all here that we 
are glad j'ou could come here. (Applause.) 

President Jackson: 

Thank you, Doctor Graham. We are sorry that Doctor Gra- 
ham has to go at this time, but we do appreciate more than we 
can tell him his presence here this morning, and we consider 
it a distinct honor and pleasure to have him with us. We will 
ask Dr. Presnell to respoiid to the address of welcome. Dr. 
Presnell. (Applause.) 

Containing the Proceedings 9 

Dr. 0. L. Presiielt, Ashehoro: 

Mr. President and gentlemen. There may have been some 
among us who, because of the fact we are so accustomed to meet- 
ing in some of the larger cities and resort places, felt a little 
bit skeptic about coming to Chapel Hill. But, after coming 
here and seeing the preparation made for our entertainment, 
and being received with such a cordial reception, I am sure the 
minds of all have been satisfied. It is delightful to come here, 
and I believe Chapel Hill is one of the most beautiful places in 
JN'orth Carolina. There is an environment here most appropriate 
for this occasion. We come together for fellowship and for the 
stimulation and improvement of our minds,, and the environ- 
ment in Avhich we meet has a great deal to do with our capacity 
to understand things. Here in this place surrounded by the 
monuments to learning, in the shadows of these walls, Ave find 
an environment which to my mind is most appropriate for this 
occasion. We have a peculiar situation. This morning we have 
a spirit of ownership that we have never experienced before. 
We are coming into our own possession. This University be- 
longs to you and to me. We are very proud of our University. 
We are mindful of the spirit of cooperation on the part of the 
University Extension Division in connection with our post- 
graduate work which was carried on here so successfully. We 
are proud of our forefathers whoi nearly a century and a half 
ago had a vision and laid the foundation for the establishment 
of this institution for the youth of our State. How surprised 
and gratified they might be if they could return and see the 
extent to which the University has grown, both physically and 
mentally. We would honor those men and all those Avho have 
followed them in the building and who have formulated policies 
and administered the affairs of the University until it now 
attains high rank and is one of the leading institutions in 
America. We are delighted to be Avelcomed by Frank Graham, 
as he is known through the State as Frank Graham, Avhich is a 
great tribute to the man. I am sure it is. I assure him it is a 
great delight for us to be here. (Applause.) 

President Jackson : 

Thank you Doctor Presncll. Doctor Nixon, ^\\\\ yon ])lc;ise 
take the chair? 

10 Bulletin North Carotina Dental Society 

Dr. //. E. Xixon, Elizabeth City: 

Ladies and gentlemeu, it is indeed a pleasure to hear at this 
time, the address by the President of the North Carolina Dental 
Society. Doctor Jackson. (Applause.) 


Mr. President, Fellow Members of the North Carolina Dental Society, 
Ladies and Guests : 

It has been a little more than two years since this organization, 
through its generosity, elected me to stand on the bridge and pilot 
the ship of dentistry in North Carolina through the uncertain waters 
of the past year. 

I doubted the wisdom of your selection and election at that time, 
for no one knew my limitations better than I knew them myself. 
Until this good hour I feel that someone else might have carried on 
in a more efficient way. Yet I am sure no man has loved the Society 
more or made its welfare a more paramount interest. 

In loyalty to my best impulses, I desire to express to this organiza- 
tion my sincere, heartfelt gratitude for the honor you conferred upon 
me when you elected me your President. 

Some of the sailing has been smooth but not all of it. To those 
who have stood by, helped and encouraged when grave dangers 
seemed to beset us, I wish to express my deepest appreciation. The 
assurance of your support and confidence has meant everything. 
Cheered on by your loyalty the business trip was transformed into 
one of genuine pleasure. The most difficult undertakings which at 
the time seemed real problems now can be recalled since they are 
matters of history as real pleasures rather than matters of duty. 

In the short time allotted to me for this would-be address, I shall 
not discuss the progress our Society has made over these fifty-nine 
years of its existence ; neither shall I discuss questions and problems 
that rightfully belong to the American Dental Association other than 
those that may be of interest to our Society. There are those who 
will appear on our program at a later hour who can and will deal 
with these questions to the satisfaction of everyone. I have chosen 
to discuss some of the problems that confront our own organization 
at this time. 

It has been my happy privilege this year, as your President, to 
attend a district meeting in every district in the State. I want to 
assure you that at the termination of this year, I shall long remember 
the cordial way in which I was received ; and the pleasant contacts 
which I made. I cannot say too much in praise of the district 
meetings held during the past year. Your Secretary and President- 
Elect have also attended every district meeting during the past year. 
They will attest the fact that many of the programs and clinics 
presented would have done honor to any State meeting. The interest 
manifested was marvelous. The way in which the fellows have kept 
their heads up and their feet on the ground to carry on is remarkable. 

I feel in fairness to our membership, you should know something 

Containing the Proceedings 11 

of tlie activities of your Legislative and Executive Committees. You 
will recall that the Legislature was in session for more than four 
months. It sought to change almost everything- except the twenty- 
tive-doUar privilege tax we have to pay. In fact, it was recommended 
by the joint committee of the Senate and House that the dental 
department of the State Board of Health be abolished and no 
appropriation made for the same. Then there came from the Char- 
lotte Dental Society a most urgent appeal for some legislation that 
would prohibit fraudulent advertising and soliciting of patients by 

During the last days of the Legislature there was introduced a 
bill that would license one man, Sharp, to practice dentistry who 
has not and cannot meet the requirements of the State Board of 
Dental Examiners. For more than twenty years our Society has had 
to contend with this man. The introduction of this bill made it 
necessary for these committees to make several trips to Raleigh and 
to spend days there if the high standard of requirements that has 
been set for us was to be maintained. Each time it was necessary 
to call members of the Society from all over North Carolina to come 
to Raleigh. Regardless of the inconvenience of the trip and the 
distance to be traveled not one call for help was made that was not 
heard. These committees with your help won every light. Without 
this cooperation from the membership, we could not have been so 
successful. These committees by painstaking efforts have succeeded 
in preserving our dental laws. Because of their wise and timely ac- 
tion our splendid organization has been maintained and we still hold 
a most honorable position among professions. This Society owes a 
debt of lasting gratitude to these men for the splendid work they 
have done this year for dentistry in North Carolina. 

In all things we have stood together, and from all these experi- 
ences of laboring together towards a common goal may I say that 
our Society presents a more solid phalanx for the causes our pro- 
fession represents. 

The grim reaper has wielded a cruel scythe during the year. Many 
of our finest and best, most loyal, useful and lovable men have been 
cut down. We stop and stand with bare and bowed heads to do them 
reverence. We treasure the memories of these noble men. During 
the year we have lost the last charter member of our Society, Dr. 
Jones of Winston-Salem. 

I pause to remind you that North Carolina has not been entirely 
free from the spirit that breeds state and panel dentistry. I am 
happy to be able to tell you that members of this Society, in some 
cities through their local organizations have organized and so per- 
fected clinics to care for the oral health of the indigejit that state 
and panel dentistry is practically impossible. 

I believe that if state or panel dentistry comes to this State it 
will be because you and I fail to grasp the opportunities jiresented 
to us to render a real service. 

It is impossible to so perfect a constitution and by-laws for any 
progressive organization that they will meet the needs for any defi- 
nite length of time. The by-laws under which our Society operates 

12 Bulletin Nortli Carolina Denial Sociely 

today were adopted in 192S. lu this short time it has been necessary 
to adopt several amendments to meet the changing conditions under 
which we must work. At the present time only the Secretary of the 
State Society is required to be bonded for the funds he handles. 
The Secretary is the only State Society officer who makes a report. 
If district secretaries had been required to make reiwrts also some 
misunderstanding between them and other members of the Society 
could have been prevented probably. In my opinion the district 
secretaries should be bonded for the funds they handle; and required 
to make an additional report to the chairman of the State Executive 
Committee. This report should contain a list of every member who 
has paid his dues, and a copy of the report should be sent to the 
State Secretary. 

It has been very evident this year to the Secretary-Treasurer, to 
the custodian of the relief fund, and to your President that the 
Society in some way should designate an approved depository for the 
Society's funds, including the relief fund. 

The laws which regulate the practice of dentistry in North Caro- 
lina have been considered among the best. We have had reasons to 
be proud of our laws as they appear on the statute books of North 
Carolina. Many states have been pleased to model their laws after 
ours. As perfect as they may have seemed, and as proud as we 
may have been to claim them among the best, the transitory period 
through which our profession has had to pass has proved that our 
laws might still be strengthened for the betterment of every ethical 
practitioner of dentistry. 

The variovis officers having realized the seriousness of the economic 
condition which has confronted everyone, have made every effort 
possible to help the fellows in the Society. Even though we think we 
have the best State Society at all, the fact remains that only about 
fifty per cent of the dentists in North Carolina are members of this 
organization. It is very necessary that something be done to interest 
these men who are not members, in the work of the North Carolina 
Dental Society. The principal reason they are not members is be- 
cause membership in our Society has not been made attractive 
enough. If our Society is to do the greatest good for the profession 
and the public it must make membership in the Society attractive. 

I quote from the report of the Committee on Reorganization of the 
American Dental Association, "The most important activity con- 
fronting the American Dental Association and its constituent state 
societies is the strengthening of the respective organizations by enlarg- 
ing their membership through unified effort. The maintenance of the 
different established departments of the American Dental Associa- 
tion ; the strengthening of the dental laws in the different states as 
well as necessary national legislation ; the necessary protective 
measure to be taken in preparation for whatever the future may 
have in store in the way of panel, contract, or State dentistry ; the 
realization of the objectives and high ideals of the dental profession ; 
all are dependent upon the size and efficiencj' of the different units 
of organized dentistry." 

I therefore recommend : 

Conhiining the Froceeclings 13 

(.1) The adoption by this Society of the plan of organization of 
the American Dental Association — by resolution rather than a change 
in our bj'-laws. 

(2) That the Legislative Committee make a special study of the 
dental laws as they now appear on -the statute books of North Caro- 
lina with a view to strengthening same. That the committee be 
empowered to employ such legal assistance as they may need to 
properly interpret the law and to assist in framing whatever bill 
in their opinion may be needed to make our law more effective ; that 
the committee make a report of their findings and recommendations 
at the next annual meeting of the North Carolina Dental Society. 

(3) That we amend the by-laws to provide for the Executive Com- 
mittee the power to designate an approved depository for the funds 
of the Society including the relief fvmd. 

(4) That we amend the by-laws to provide that the Secretary- 
Treasurer of the various districts must make a final report to the 
chairman of the Executive Committee within fifteen days after the 
annual meeting ; that said report shall contain a complete list of 
the members in his district from which he has collected dues, the 
year for which dues were collected, and the total amount collected. 

(5) That we amend the by-laws to provide that the Secretary- 
Treasurer of each district be bonded by the State Society to the 
amount of one thousand dollars. 

Whatever success that may come to this Society as a result of 
the past year's efforts will not be due to any effort of mine ; nor to 
the efforts of any one group of you, but rather to the cooperative 
spirit that permeates each member of this Society. 

I have no misgivings about the coming year for our organization. 
Because this Society is composed of men of knowledge, principle, and 
character ; and will be led by one who possesses every virtue of the 
highest type and is a gentleman of ability. I know and you know 
that Dr. Branch will only add laurels to his already bedecked 
crown. I pledge to him, to those who shall come after him, and to 
this Society my best efforts. 

In conclusion, may I say with humility and pride that this has 
been a most wonderful and inspiring year for me. With humility 
because I have not been able to render a more efiicient service to 
the Society. With pride, for having had the honor and satisfaction 
of being the President of a Society composed of men and women 
who know and do the right. Who are willing to be used to the last 
ounce of their energy in order to carry on in the name of an honor- 
able profession for an honorable people. Men and women who will 
live for and die by an honest conviction. 

Again I wish to thank all officers, committees, and others who 
have so earnestly helped by word or deed to make this meeting a 
success. I have not words to express my gratitude for your unfailing 
help and encouragement. I hope I may prove the sincerity of my 
appreciation for the honor you conferred on me, when you elected 
me your President, by ever rendering to this Society my best service. 

I thank j'ou. (Applause.) 

14 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. H. E. Nixon: 

I would like to ask the following to act as the Committee on 
the President's Address : Dr. John Wheeler, Chairman, Dr. 
Oscar Hooks, and Dr. Wallace F. Mustian. 

President Jackson, Avill you resume the chair ? 

President Jaclson: 

We will now have the report of the J^ecrology Committee. 

Dr. J. C. Wall- ins, W inston-Sal em : 

Mr. President and gentlemen, we have lost several of our 
honored and beloved members. They are as follows : Dr. J. Fred 
Hall from the Second District, also Dr. S. B. Bivens, and 
Dr. Kobert H. Jones. From the Third District, Dr. W. W. 
Kowe, Dr. J. H. Brooks, and Dr. C. W. Eegan. Fourth District, 
Dr. H. N. Walters, and Fifth District Dr. L. E. Gorham and 
Dr. C. E. Edge. 

Before we begin this memorial service, I will ask Dr. Joe 
Betts to lead us in prayer. 

Dv. J. S. Belts, Greensboro: 

Infinite God, the one Father of us all, in this silence may 
we find our song of praise. Our hearts and memories are moved 
over scenes and associates that are no more. Let this calm 
mellow our lives and hallow our thoughts, as above them cluster 
those HeaA^enly secrets Avhich the tongue cannot tell. These 
are treasured as a miser would treasure his own. Our departed 
members have labored through stress and strain and struggle 
and storm. They have loitered on the moonlit tide; they have 
rested, and they have waited, and in an expectant moment, the 
heavens opened and their souls entered into immortality. Let 
the special favor of Thy blessing and the sweet and comforting 
influences of the Holy Spirit be upon the lives of those whose 
hearts are bedewed with love and sympathy. When Thou cometli 
in the darkness, when Thy hand is severe, when the thorn 
enters the side, and our loved ones are smitten, then Thou art 
most gracious and full of compassion and love and mercy and 
tenderness. O loving Heavenly Father, in the arms of faith Ave 
bring all sorrowing hearts to Thee, Thou Avhose name is above 
every name, the one Avith a marred face, the pierced hand, 
and the wounded side; be Thou the DiAane Herald Avho goes 
before, proclaiming final peace and perfect happiness. Amen. 

Containing the Froceedings 15 

Dr. J. C. Watl-ins: 

I -will ask Dr. D. W. Holcomb to read the memorial to Dr. 
J. Fred Hall. Dr. Holcomb. 

Dr. D. W. Holcomb, Windon-Salem: 


July 9, 1904— May 4, 1932 

Memokial by Dr. D. W. Holcomb, Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Dr. J. Fred Hall was born at Yadkinville, N. C, July 9, 1904. 
The sou of W. A. and Isabel Williams Hall. His death occurred 
May 4, 1932, in the city of Winston-Salem, where he practiced his 

After graduating from the public schools of Yadkinville he entered 
Emory University preparatory to his training for the dental pro- 
fession. In 1922 he enrolled as a student at the Atlanta Southern 
Dental College and was graduated with honor from that institution 
in 1926. After taking the North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia 
Dental Boards he located in Winston-Salem and practiced there until 
his death. 

Dr. Hall was highly skilled in his profession and had given 
numerous clinics before the State, district and local societies, as well 
as societies in other states. But for his untimely death he would 
have undoubtedly been one of the leaders in the profession within 
a short time. 

Fred, as he was known by most of us, carried with him throughout 
life a genial smile and a hearty handshake for his fellow-man, making 
true and lasting friends with all whom he contacted. In memory, 
he stands today loved alike by his professional brethren and laymen. 
A verse written by Dr. Henry Van Dyke is remembered as fittingly 
applied to him, which reads as follows : 

"Who looks to Heaven alone 
To save his soul 
May keep the path, but 
Will not find the goal 
But he who walks in 
Love, may wander far. 
Yet God will bring him 
Where the blessed are." 

In memory fading naught, by the Grace of God, he has turned 
his face from the morning and stands looking down the western 
slope, happy and unafraid in the serene bliss of his Home over There. 

He is survived by his parents, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Hall of Yadkin- 
ville, N. C. Three sisters, Mrs. J. A. Rousseau of North Wilkesboro, 
N. C, Misses Ruth and Ann Hall of Yadkinville, and two brothers 
E. F. and C. W. Hall of Winston-Salem. 

16 Bidletin North Carolina Dental ^Society 

Dr. J. C. Watkim: 

Dr. Phin Horton will read the memorial to Dr. Robert H. 

Dr. FhinE. Horton, Win^ston-Saleni: 


July 23, 1850— May 8, 1933 

Memorial by Dr. Phin E. Horton, Winston-Salem, N. C. 

I esteem it a privilege to serve as the spokesman for my honored 
colleagues in voicing our appreciation of one whose death has 
brought not onlj- sorrow in losing a fellow-member, but a double 
sense of loss, because, in the passing of Dr. R. H. Jones of Winstou- 
Salem, we lose the last member of that wise and far-seeing group 
of men who met in Beaufort, North Carolina, fifty-eight years ago 
and organized the North Carolina Dental Society ; an organization 
which, more than any other factor, has contributed to the progress 
of the dental profession and to the spirit of cooperation among its 

Dr. Jones was born at Oak Grove Plantation, near Bethania, N. C, 
July 21, 1850, the son of Dr. Beverly Jones and Julia Conrad Jones. 
His youth was spent in the trying days of the Civil War and the 
more dreadful Reconstruction days which followed. In 1868 he went 
to the University of Kentucky, where he remained two years. Having 
chosen dentistry as his profession, he returned to North Carolina 
and entered the office of Dr. J. W. Hunter, at that time one of the 
foremost dentists in the South. Later he went to the Philadelphia 
Dental College, now the University of Pennsylvania, where he gradu- 
ated in 1875. He practiced in his old home in Bethania about four 

In 1879 Dr. Jones married Miss Sallie Fontaine Wayt of Reids- 
ville. From this union there were five children. After his marriage 
he moved to Martinsville, Virginia and remained there until after 
the death of his wife in 1888, when he returned to Winston- Salem. 
He is survived by his second wife, who was Miss Amelia Holland of 
Virginia, and four children. 

The Society he helped form has honored him in many ways. He 
was President in 1895. In 1897 he was made a member of the State 
Examining Board, succeeding Dr. Hunter. He held the position of 
Secretary of that Board for twelve years. Dr. Jones was a charter 
member of the Fourth Street Christian Church of Winston-Salem and 
a member of the board of finances of the Atlantic Christian College, 
which is the church school of that denomination in North Carolina. 
He was an elder in his church for sixty-six consecutive years. He 
was also a member of the I. O. O. F., the Knights of Pythias and the 
Scottish Rite Branch order of Free Masonry. 

Beyond any answerable argument the highest requisite to the 
fullest and finest development of what is noblest in man, is sincere, 
consistent, heartfelt piety. It is the surest incentive to the full 

Containing the Froceedmgs 17 

discharge of all duties toward mau, the truest aud most unfailing 
inspiration of honor, the strongest safeguard of personal integrity 
aud the most efficient aid in the pursuit and attainment of a strong 
and noble character. That Dr. Jones possessed this requisite, all 
of you who knew him well can fully attest. His uncompromising 
truthfulness, his self-control, his integrity of purpose, his determina- 
tion to follow the standards he thought right, leave a heritage that 
we, as members of the Society he helped found, may not only he 
proud of, but should strive to emulate. In his death the Society has 
lost a faithful worker who gave his time and his energy for the 
good of the Society. Our sense of loss is very keen and our appre- 
ciation for the unstinted service he gave through all the years is 

In closing I wish to bear my public testimonj' to the staunchness 
of his character, to his loyalty to familj^ friends and profession, to 
his uprightness and faithfulness to his ideals aud I trust that the 
mantle of his spirit may fall on us who are left. God grant that 
his memory, so inwoven with the history of the North Carolina 
Dental Society, may be an abiding benediction upon all its members. 

Dr. J. C. Watl-ins: 

Dr. Joe Betts will read a memorial to Dr. W. W. Howe. 

Dr. J. S. Betts, Greensboro: 


December 16, 1860 — December 12, 1932 
Memorial by Dr. J. S. Betts, Greensboro, N. C. 

The subject of this sketch, Walter Wheat Rowe, was born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., December 16th, 1860. He was the son of Dr. 
Joseph Walter Rowe and Maria Wheat Rowe of that city. He was 
graduated with honors at the University of Maryland in Baltimore 
in the class of 1881, the same year coming to North Carolina and 
locating in Greensboro, where he practiced dentistry for nearly a 
half century. 

On August 12th, 1886, Dr. Rowe was married to Miss Mary T. 
Dyson of Philadelphia, and to them were born two children, Nellie M. 
aud Joseph Walter. The daughter, Miss Nellie Rowe, is the capable 
and efficient librarian of the Greensboro Public Library ; the son, 
Jol>eph Rowe died in one of the base hospitals following his enlist- 
ment in the United States Navy during the World War. Mrs. Rowe's 
death occurred in 1907. 

Dr. Rowe was a faithful, loyal member of the North Carolina 
Dental Society and was regiilar in his attendance upon its meetings, 
being thoroughly in sympathy with and enthusiastically supporting 
every move of the organization looking to advanced standing among 
the professions and efficiency in serving the public. He was highly 
regarded by his fellow dentists as an ethical practitioner of the 
strictest sort. 

18 Jlii/lcliii Xorth Carolina Denial Sac/cli/ 

It was lar.wly due to his iutluouoe and eft'orts that the Guilford 
{'ouiitj- Dental Society was formed several years ago, and following 
one of tlie hist meetings he attended he was heard to remarlc that 
he was pleased to observe that the organization he helped to form 
was "still going strong.'" 

Dr. Kowe's interest and activities were not contined within the 
bounds and limits of his profession ; he took a lively interest in 
civic affairs, taking a pride in the welfare and growth of the city 
(if his adoption. Nor did his interest and activities stop there, he 
^^■as a most active and faithful and loyal member of the Baptist 
denomination, in whose behalf he gave long and efficient service, 
being deacon in the First Baptist Church in Greensboro at the time 
of his death. 

In the passing of Dr. liowe on December 12th, 1932, following a 
jjrief illness, the dental profession has lost a painstaking, careful, 
conscientious, and ethical practitioner ; the city of Greenslxiro a most 
worthy and useful citizen ; and the Baptist denomination a faithful 
and devoted member whose wholesome influence will be felt through 
the coming years. 

Dr. J. ('. Wall-ins: 

We Avill ask Dr. E. A. Wilkins to read the memorial to Dr. 
John H. Brooks, deceased. 

Dr. B. A. Will-in.^, Burlinglon: 


.June 26, 1865— May 4, 1932 

Memorial by Dr. R. W. Wilkins, Burlington, N. C. 

In view of the passing of Dr. John H. Brooks, a faithful, loyal 
member of the North Carolina Dental Society, from this life on May 
4, 1932, the Society wishes in this way to give brief expression of 
its appreciation of his manly qualities of character, and of tlie 
faithful service he rendered as a member of this organization. 

Dr. Brooks was born in North Alamance County on .Tune 26, 1865, 
and spent his boyhood days on the farm. He received his early 
education in the public schools in that section of the county. Later 
he entered school at Chapel Hill. After spending two years there he 
entered the Atlanta Dental College ; spending one year there, he 
entered a Dental College in Philadelphia. J'rom there he graduated, 
returning to Burlington and located there to practice his chosen pro- 
fession, and for over thirty years he was actively engaged in the 
practice of dentistry. 

In 1900 Dr. Brooks was married to Miss Flora Sellars and to this 
union two children were Iwiru. John H.. Jr., and Christine, all of 
whom survive him. 

This, our fellow-member, was a charter member of the Alamance- 
Caswell Dental Society and an early member of the North Carolina 
Dental Society; was regular and faithful in his attendance, and was 

Containing IJie Fruceedings 19 

ever ready to render any jservit-e possible in the proiTn>tit»ii of tlie 
interests and progress of tlie profession. 

During the years of liis association \Yith us, he manifested a keen 
interest in all the activities of the Society, and labored for the ad- 
vancement of the spirit of fellowship and cooperation among us. 

As a citizen, Dr. Brooks was quiet, unassuming, and was moved by 
a determination to carry on in his community in a way that would 
be helpful to all. He was clean in his habits and in his conduct. He 
believed in honesty and fair play in his dealing with his fellows. He 
sought no unfair advantage over other men. 

His was a high sense of honor which he endeavored to express in 
all the affairs of his life, a quality of character worthy of emulation 
on the part of all. Dr. Brooks united with the First Christian Church 
of Burlington in early life, and was later identified with many social 
and civic organizations, such as Director of the First National Bank, 
United Bank and Trust Company, May Hosiery Mill, and Sellars 
Manufacturing Company. 

The Society wishes to give this evidence of its deep sympathy to 
the members of his family in this time of their sorrow and loss, 
at the same time offering our services in any way that may be of 
comfort and encouragement to them through their trial and grief. 

Dr. J. C. WafMns: 

Dr. J. N. Johnson will read the memorial to Dr. Charles W. 
Regan. Dr. Johnson. 

Dr. J. N. Johnson, Goldshoro : 


ISSO^April 7, 1933 

Memorial by Dr. J. N. Johxson, Goldsboro, N. C. 

Dr. Charles Wyche Regan, a life member of this Society, after a 
long and lingering illness, from that dread malady cancer, fell on 
sleep at his home in Laurinburg, April 6th, 1933. 

Dr. Regan was born in Robeson County, the son of Joe Neal and 
Emma Matilda Regan, September 9th, 1879. He received his edaca- 
tion in the schools of his county, Waycross, Ga., and the Atlanta 
Dental College, graduating from the latter college in the class of 
1900. He located in Laurinburg in 1903, where he practiced for 
more than a quarter of a century. He was forced by failing health 
to retire several years ago. He was married September 5th, 1900, 
to Miss Anna Eliza McLean. He is survived by his wife and the 
following children : Annie McLean, Margaret, Matilda, Mary, Dickson 
and Bettie Sue. Two children, Hattie and Charles, preceded their 
father to the grave. Dr. Regan also leaves a brother, J. N. Regan, 
of Rockingham, and a sister, Mrs. S. B. Rozier of St. Pauls. 

Charlie, as he was affectionately known to the members of his 
profession, was of good old Scotch-Presbyterian ancestry, a heritage 
of which he was justly proud, and a member of the Presbyterian 

20 Jhilletbi Xorfh Carolina Dental Sociclj/ 

If I should seek to touch upon the many lovable traits of his 
character I would lay my hand upon his heart, I do not believe 
he had a selfish motive or a selhsh feeling, he both loved and 
enjoyed his fellow-man. Truly Charlie Regan was an lionored tenant 
of that ••house I)y the side of the road" — and gave himself to his 

As a dentist he was both a genius and an artist. To view the 
mouth and teeth of one of his patients was to see perfection in 
operative dentistry. But the tendency of his nature made his orbit 
erratic. He was meteoric rather than planetary, and flashed with 
irregular splendor a genius so graat that it was the envy and the 
admiration of his professional brethren. 

In his long struggle against the inexorable advances of an in- 
sidious and mortal malady, he did not falter nor repine. Rather he 
retreated with the aspect of a victor. With more than a heroe's 
courage, with more than a martyr's fortitude, he awaited the ap- 
proach of tlie inevitable hour, and went to that undiscovered coun- 
try. His sun has gone down, but it sank, amid the prophetic .splendors 
of an eternal dawn. 

Dr. J. ('. Tr«/A'/«.s.- 

Dr. Miistiaii will read the memorial to Dr. Harry JSI". Walters, 
deceased. Dr. Miistian. 

Dr. Walter F. Mustian. Warrenfon : 


April 28, 1875 — December 7, 1932 

Memorial by Dr. W. F. Mustian, Warrentox, N. C. 

Dr. Harry N. Walters was born in Wake Forest, N. C, in 1875, the 
son of a Wake Forest College Professor, Dr. W. T. Walters, and 
Isabella Olivia Wingate Walters. 

On December 7, 1932, he died most suddenly at his home in War- 
reuton of coronary thrombosis. 

His early training was received in the elementary schools of Dur- 
ham ; graduating later from Wake Forest College. 

In 1896 he received his degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery from 
the old Baltimore College of Dental Surgery. Practicing one year 
in Wake Forest, he moved his offices to Warrenton, N. C. In thirty- 
live years he built up one of the widest practices and maintained one 
of the best e(iuipi>ed dental offices in the State. 

In 1899 Dr. Walters married Miss Lala Thomas of Warrenton. To 
them was born one daughter, Miss Dorothy Walters, now librarian 
at William and Mary College. 

Dr. Walters never sought political attainments. He seemed content 
and happy to sijend his time and talents in general practice. Being 
of an ingenious turn of mind and possessing an exceptional skill, 
he has done much to enhance and raise the dental profession to a 

Containing the FroceecUngs 21 

higher plaue. His operations were of the liiiiliest order, and were 
reallj- works of art. 

He possessed a deep love for tliorougli-bred cats aud dogs ; although 
work is said by Mrs. Walters to have been his sole hobby. He was 
never happy unless working about his home or oftice. Long incessant 
hours and little recreation probably contributed to his early death. 

Dr. Harry N. Walters was a life member of the North Carolina 
Dental Society, a devout Baptist, a Kiwauian, and belonged to the 
Junior Order of Mechanics. He loved his home and family and 
appreciated his friends. The dental profession has lost one of its 
most valuable members. 

Dr. J. C. Wathins: 

Dr. A. C. Bone will read the memorial to Dr. L. R. Gorliam. 
Dr. Bone. 

Dr. A. C. Bone, RocJcy Mount : 


December 14, 1875 — March 9, 1933 

Memorial by Dr. A. C. Boxe, Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Dr. Louis Rhodes Gorham was born December 14, 1875, in Edge- 
combe County, North Carolina, and died March 9, 1933. He was 
the son of the late Henry Wise Gorham and Josephine George 
(Cherry) Gorham, both of Edgecombe County, North Carolina. Dr. 
Gorham was a direct descendant of Captain John Gorham, who 
came from England and arrived in Plymouth, Massachusetts, as a 
boy of about tifteen years of age in the year 1(335. Dr. Gorham was 
eighth in line of descendants of Captain Gorham, the pioneer an- 
cestor of all the Gorhams in the United States, who married Desire 
Howland in 1643, the eldest daughter of John Howland, the Pilgrim 
who came to New England on the Mayflower in 1620. 

He received his education in the schools of his countj', Trinity 
College (now Duke University), and the Baltimore College of Dental 
Surgery, graduating from the latter college in the class of 190(3. 
Upon graduating, he began practicing in Rocky Mount, where he 
continued up until the time of his death. He was a member of the 
National, State and Fifth District Dental Societies, of the Board of 
Stewards of the First Meth(jdist Church of Rocky Mount ; and for the 
past twenty-live years Superintendent of the Sunday School of his 
church. He married Miss Mary Bryan of Edgecome County, Decem- 
ber Hfci, 1907. Three daughters were born to this union, Margaret, 
Helen, and Josephine, all surviving him except Helen, who died in 

Dr. Gorham jcjined the North (Carolina Dental Society the year 
of his graduation and was a constant, loyal member until the time 
of his death. Coming from one of the best families in Edgecombe 
County, he grew up under the best Christian guidance, always striv- 
ing to uphold the stainless name of Gorham. Faithful, loyal, and 

22 Bulletin North Carolina Denial Society 

consecrated are tlie demoustratives that describe his church aflilia- 
tions, and to his family he embodied all the elements of a Christ- 
like life. What was true of him to his family was likewise true of 
his family to him. 

Dr. Gorham was loyal to his clientele, always having their wel- 
fare and interest at heart. Constantly doing his work with the 
utmost painstaking care, he was never satisfied unless he felt that 
he had done a piece of work the best way it could have possibly 
been done. This did not apply in one or even a few cases, but 
in every instance. He was liked by all who knew him casually and 
by those who came in contact with him often and knew him 
intimately, he was loved and held in the highest esteem by virtue 
of his unassuming, quiet, and sincere manner. 

Attesting to his popularity and friendship was the fact that ap- 
proximately thirty-tive members of his profession from nearby cities 
paid their last tribute to his memory by attending the last rites. Dur- 
ing the life time of his practice of dentistry, he was an inspiration 
to all the members of the profession with whom he came into con- 
tact because of his sincere and painstaking methods. I am sure 
that he has inspired me to be a better dentist and I think a better 
man as well. He was my friend. 

May his memory ever linger with us and help to guide us not 
only in the practice of our noble profession but in living our daily 
lives throughout all time. 

Dr. J. C. Wathins: 

Has Doctor Peeler Come in? (No response.) Mr. President, I 
move that the m.emorial to Dr. S. B. Bivens be incorporated in 
the proceedings of the Society. 

The motion was duly seconded and carried. 


May 26, 1890— January IS, 1933 

Memorial by Dr. George C. Hull, Charlotte, N. C. 

Dr. S. B. Bivens was born in Union County, N. C, on May 26th, 
1890. He died January 18th, 193.3, at the University Hospital, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, following an intra-cranial operation from 
which he did not recover. He is survived by his wife, who was Miss 
Lorena Marsh, also of Union County. 

Dr. Bivens received his preliminary education in the schools of 
Union County. He entered dental college at Southern Dental College, 
Atlanta, Georgia, in 1912, and finished his course in 1915. He began 
his practice in Marshville, North Carolina. In 1918 he became 
associated with Dr. P. C. Hull at Charlotte, North Carolina. He 
was practicing in Charlotte at the time of his death. 

In the death of Dr. Bivens the profession loses one of its members 
who was typically progressive, ethically honest and sincere, and who 
was ah^ays for anyone in the profession who was working for its 

Coniain'nicj llic Proceedings 23 

advaiu-ement. He was a member of the Board of Dental Examiners, 
being elected in 1931 and still a member at liis death. 

Dr. Bivens was a member of the Masonic fraternity ; a leader of 
the local Lions Club ; an active member of the First Methodist 
Church of Charlotte and he was honored by being a member of the 
Dental Key Fraternity. 

.S. B. as he was called by his intimate and closest friends, has 
crossed the river to join the good dentists who have preceded him. 
Me thinks that S. B. shall occupy in those invisible circles the same 
high and outstanding positions to which he ever aspired while with 
us. To his creator, in whom he had such Implicit faith and trust, 
we believe has graciously awarded him generousl.v with his posses- 
sions. "Were everyone to whom, while living, he did some kindness, 
to bring a blossom to his bier, S. B. would sleep today beneath a 
wilderness of flowers. 

S. B. was ever a progressive in his profession. The burden of his 
work and thought was health and prophylaxis. His labors should 
be an active and inspiring impetus to the profession as well as the 

Professor jNTelsoii Kennedy, organist, rendered a selection. 

President Jachson: 

I wish to tliaiik Professor Kennedy for the splendid musical 

At this time I Avish to recognize some of our visiting guests. 
Dr. Rickert, of Ann Arbor, Michigan, who will appear on this 
niorning's program. (Applause.) 

Dr. Burus of Atlanta. (Applause.) 

Dr. Sheffield of Toledo, Ohio. (xVpplause.) 

Dr. Hughes from Atlanta. (Applause.) 

I want to assure you that we are delighted to have you and 
extend to you the privileges of the floor. 

I would like to recognize Dr. Jones, of Chapel Hill, Chair- 
man of the Entertainment Committee. Listen carefully to the 
program as outlined by the Entertainment Committee. ( Ap- 

Dr. J. P. Jones, Chapel [{ill: 

1 want first to assure you that we are indeed happy to have 
you meet with us this year. If there is anything we can do for 
your comfort and entertainment, do not hesitate to let us know. 

Dr. Jones made some announcements regarding the enter- 
tainment of members and guests of the Society, and concerning 
the various eating ])]aces. 

24 Bulletin North Carolina Denial Society 

President Jaclison: 

I am pleased to recognize Mr. Kussell M. Grumman. If 
there is any one man in Chapel Hill who has Avorked hard to 
make our meeting in his community pleasant, it is he. He Avants 
to know what your troubles are, what you want, and he will 
help you in any way possible. Mr. Grumman. ("Applause.) 

Mr. Russell M. Grumman, Chapel Hill: 

I do not want to take much time from your meeting to make 
announcements, but I would like to carry out what your Presi- 
dent has just said. Please let your wants and needs be kDowu 
to us, and we will try to get you what you wish. It is our 
extreme desire to make this meeting as successful as possible 
under somewhat difficult circumstances. For one reason, you 
are not meeting in a hotel. We appreciate the fact that this 
may cause you some inconvenience. We shall try to conduct our 
dormitory room service on as nearly a hqtel basis as possible. 

President JacJcson: 

At this time I am pleased to recognize Dr. Lineberger. who 
Avill introduce our speaker. 

Dr. H. 0. Lineberger, Ealeigh: 

First, I would like to make a few statements regarding the 
program, as I am Vice-Chairman of the Program Committee. 
I want to call your attention to the program. We had a report 
from the Entertainment Committee. Their Avork has been fine. 
This year, following the usual routine, Ave had a meeting of the 
Program and ExecutiA^e Committees in an effort to find out 
Avhat Ave needed most, and then Ave went out to get the best man 
in the country in that line to give us a lecture about that 
particular subject. I feel sure that when this program is over 
you will agree Avitli me that Ave have to a great degree succeeded. 

You will note another thing in this program which is a change 
from the usual custom, and that is the matter of clinics. You 
Avill note that this afternoon we will haA^e our local clinics, to the State Society from the district societies. They 
are of a progressive nature. You will note that the Virginia 
representatiA^es will have progressive clinics, and then the in- 
vited guests Avill have their progressive clinics. There is just 
that little change and I hope you Avill note it, and I urge that 

Containing the Proceedings 25 

you will cooperate with the committee in charge of that de- 

Several years ago, there graduated from one of the leading 
universities of this country a man learned in the science of 
medicine. Soon after he went into the medical profession, it 
was recognized by some of the leaders of our profession that 
the talent of this man was sadly needed in our profession, and 
he Avas persuaded to change to the dental profession. He is now 
connected with one of our leading universities. Last year, at 
the American Dental meeting at Buffalo, I mentioned to our 
speaker today that we would like very much to have him come 
to Xorth Carolina and meet with our State Society at some 
future date. He very graciously replied he would be delighted 
to meet with us if the date was satisfactory. The Program 
Committee fortunately hit upon a date which was very satis- 
factory. Last Friday our speaker, the one who is next to appear 
before you, finished examinations at the University of Michigan 
at Ann Arbor and he and his good lady have taken it leisurely 
along down to iNTorth Carolina to be with us this morning. He 
has spoken in practically every section of this country and he 
has carried his message to many of other countries. I am sure 
you are going to be delighted and it is a pleasure and a privilege 
for me to present to you at this time our speaker. Dr. LT. Gar- 
field Rickert, of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Dr. 
Rickert. (AjDplause.) 




Mr. President and Members of the North Carolina Dental Society : 

As a member of the Michigan State Dental Society I bring you 
greetings from that dental organization. There are manj' things we 
have in common professionally, but for the first time in the history 
of our American political life we are both listed in the Democratic 
columns to support loyally a Democratic President. (Applause.) I 
might add that if you will exonerate us for having been so persist- 
ently in the Republican ranks, we will forgive you for the political 
blunder you made nearly five years ago. (Applause.) 

The hour is already late and I think I shall change my order of 
program somewhat. In my talk to you I hope to present three 
different aspects of the focal infection i)roblem, first an historical 
background with some additions which are essential for the support 
of the diagnosis and the methods applied, second, the mechanisms 
or ways in which teeth may produce disease far removed from the 
mouth, and third, clinical experiences in the treatment of the focal 

26 Bulletin North Carolina Denial Society 

iufection problem. lu a subsoyuout apiX!araiice before you I shall 
give you the applicatiou of the principles. Instead of following the 
usual practice in dentistry and giving my opinions of the problem, 
my second lecture tomorrow will be illustrated so that I can show 
you lantern slides to demonstrate why we have come to our conclu- 
sion, and in that way I may be able to help you recognize certain 
aspects of the problem, which are not yet entirely understood by 
any investigator. At the clinic tomorrow afternoon you will be 
allowed to ask me any questions you like. 

I am not going to give a complete history of this problem but 
shall begin with twenty years ago when dentistry had developed 
into one of the mechanical arts neither altogether a profession 
nor altogether a business. The development of the focal infection 
problem gave us new life. Uur profession had become somewhat 
dissatisfied because it constantly felt some social stigma. Our services 
were not recognized so appropriately as were those of medicine and 
law, but with the introduction of the focal infection problem den- 
tistry became more than a mechanical art. There is no need to 
review the changes following the introduction of the biological 
sciences into our profession. Recently Past-President Elliot of Har- 
vard made, in effect, the statement that in his seventy-five years 
of educational experience the most interesting development and prog- 
ress made by any profession had been made by the dental profession. 
It has come about because of the broadening influence the focal 
infection problem has had on the dentists. 

When this problem was introduced, the dentists, who had not 
been scientifically trained, gave opinions. The results of scientific 
experiments later showed that these opinions Avere based on fact. 
Today, however, we liave all been trained in the biological sciences 
to a certain extent. 

That there is a definite relationship between dental pathology 
and certain secondary effects has been proved, and no man who 
has been practicing dentistrj' with open eyes can deny it. It was 
perfectly natural that, with these new facts thrust into its posses- 
sion, the profession should run for a while as an engine without a 
governor belt, and as a result it "proved"' that practically every 
disease known to man had, in some way or another, a definite dental 
relationship. I want to leave with you and for your understanding 
a better picture of the mechanisms through which seccnidary effects 
take place. If I do nothing but leave that idea with you, I believe 
you will be in a better position to make saner diagnoses of the 
patients with whom you are confronted every day. 

The dental focal iufection problem would have been solved much 
earlier if the mechanism of the immediate relationship of dental 
pathology to certain secondary effects had been better understood. 
The dentist had generally ))elieved that systemic effects of dental 
diseases were always due to bacterial vietastascs. There are. how- 
ever, at least two other ways by which teeth may affect tissues far 
removed from the mouth. They are intoxication due to dental in- 
fection and aUcrgij, neither of which has to be initiated by bacti'rial 
activity. The mechanisms, briefly stated, then, include mcta.sfa-sis, 
intoxication, and allergy. 

Containing tlie Proceedings 27 


Tlie dentist has come to regard bacterial metastasis emanating 
from teetli much the same as tlie process involved in the swarming 
of bees. In the case of a hive of bees, when multiplication of worli- 
ers aud queens has reached a point where conditions become crowded, 
the young, active members and a queen emerge from the hive to 
seek new fields of activity. It may be the hole of a tree or the corner 
of a house, but it must be a new place. When such a place is 
found, a new colony is established. The dentist has come to regard 
apical infection in that way, namely, as a focus, crowded with 
organisms ; to him they are streptococci. The fact is that staphy- 
locci and even rod forms also occur. From this crowded focus a 
number of organisms emerge and by means of the circulatory system 
travel to a new, suitable field for localization, often a traumatized 
area of lowered resistance where a new focus, quite apart from the 
original dental focus, is established. These organisms, as is evident, 
may become greatly multiplied. 

It has been quite definitely proved that this procedure takes place, 
although not so frequently as many of the earlier enthusiasts be- 
lieved. It is, however, unlike the illustration of the swarming of 
bees in that the majority of dental foci of infection do not spread 
because they bubble over with numbers from within, but because 
they can find a more suitable field outside of the original focus. 
Then, too, the localized defensive mechanism, the granuloma, fre- 
quently gives protection and defense many times greater than the 
quarantines offered by the protective membranes of the mouth itself, 
esijecially with regard to pyorrhea pockets and traumatized areas 
about the teeth. Hence the operator must use judgment to determine 
where metastasis occurs before blindfoldedly extracting important 


The second mechanism through which the secondary elfects occur, 
that of bacterial toxins, is perhaps as important as true metastasis, 
although it is rather ditficult definitely to establish laboratory proofs. 
Perhaps the most common secondary effect of this type of involve- 
ment concerns the ej'e. In cases where direct metastasis (that is, 
when a vital part such as the vitreous humor is affected, for example, 
by gonoccoci, sight may be lost within a few hours) would be im- 
possible, marked changes may take place in the eye producing various 
forms of eye involvement, due perhaps to bacterial toxin sensitiza- 
tions (allergy). One of the most striking examples of this is corneal 
keratitis. We have been able to demonstrate cases of iritis which 
may have been the result of metastases of organisms of dental origin 
only is cases of pyorrhea, and they were superficial eye infections 
only. Other eye involvements depend either on metastases of toxins 
or on allergy. 


The third mechanism, that of allergy, is the most difficult one of 
all to demonstrate, yet there is overwhelming clinical evidence to 
show that some acticm such as that occurs. In our large dental 
clinic at the University of Michigan, we .sometimes have senior stu- 

28 Bullet 171 North Carolina Dental Society 

dents \A'ho, shortly before the end of the year, expose a \\tsi\. pulp 
durinp; cavity preparation. In such cases they are then required 
to remove the pulp and fill the canal before tlie cavity is filled. 
Since this necessitates a jireat deal of work and if the students 
have completed their (juotas of root surgery cases, it happens that 
they merely remove the pulp, seal in a bland dressing, put in a 
temporary cement filling and tell the patient to return a week or 
two later, at which time Commencement is over and the uuappre- 
ciative students (of which we all have a few) are graduated and 
gone. Then, when the clinic opens again in October, the patient may 
delay for some reason and not come in for a month or two. at 
which time we always note marked periapical changes from the 
radiograph. However, in a large number of cases no organisms can 
be found. In a few cases we could denote evidence of an associa- 
tion with the eye, or with joints in certain types of patients. Since 
the treatment of such teeth brings almost immediate relief, this 
condition, when taken from a considerable number of cases, gives 
strong evidence tliat teeth are the initiating cause, yet the cultures 
of many of these teeth liave given negative results. We have tried 
experimentally in animals to demonstrate this condition, but so far 
the results of our work are inconclusive. You will note tliat the 
amount of material used as antigen in laboratory animals for tlie 
sensitization of one tooth would be so small that it would be ditticult 
to obtain results unchanged chemically, and hence tlie experimental 
demonstration is a most delicate one. Dr. Weisberger from Harvard 
showed the possibility of its effect through the teeth by the Dale 
reaction on young female guinea pigs. We have verified this possi- 
bility with specific proteins. When the dissolved organic product 
of the tooth has been used, however, our results have not been 
conclusive. The most. then, that can be said is that Dr. Weisberger's 
work as verified by us substrntiates the possibility of a route tbrongh 
the teeth for sensitization. 

Since there are three different ways in which teeth may affect the 
eye, you will understand why those of us who have devoted much 
time to the study of the problem have not completely solved it. You 
will then ask. "What shall the general practitioner's procedure bo to 
control the problem?" In order to be convincing I shall give you 
first a brief history of our experimental and clinical studies to 
convince you why our methods are worthy of practical application. 

When tliis problem was first projected into the dental profession 
the dentist was unprepared to deal with a problem that requires 
scientific understanding for its intelligent control. As one might have 
anticipated, the majority of dentists can recall how patients here 
and there from their practices had improA-ements in general health 
following tlie extraction of teeth. Most frequently these spectacular 
cases were those where all the teeth were extracted in preparation 
for dentures. The explanation of these wonderful results is given 
below. Let it suffice here to say that where both vital teeth with 
degenerating pulps and pulpless teeth are extracted, all the causes 
are removed and. obviously, relief follows. With the projection, then, 
of this interesting biological relationship many dentists temperamen- 
tally unsuited and with inadequate training undertook to make in- 

Cuniaininy iltc Froceedings 29 

vestigatious aud reports wliicli so cluttered our literature that it 
coutaiued one of the raost amazing accumulations of pseudo-science 
ever acclaimed by any profession. These spectacular announcements, 
in most cases largely guesses coupled with observations of some of 
the individual general practitioner's cases, added tremendously to 
the confusion and all but discouraged to the point of extinction an 
important dental procedure, root canal surgery, valuable both to the 
public and to the profession provided of course that scientific and 
technical methods are applied in its practice. 

What do I mean by this? The abandonment of this practice 
would be a great loss to the profession and the public, a loss to the 
public in that dentistry would not be serving its patients as ade- 
quately as it should, and to the profession in that it would be casting 
aside the most interesting problem of research the profession has 
ever engaged in. As one dental dean has ably said, "I hope the 
problem will never be solved because it has such a stimulating effect 
on research and dentistry in general." Another reason why root 
surgery cannot be abandoned is that we must remain a self-respecting 
profession. I can show how tremendously more damage was done by 
the subtle effects of elaborate restorations which were required 
following the extraction of many teeth, which proves that our 
mechanics have not so far excelled our inadequate root surgery 
practices from the standpoint of health service. 

Several years ago I was speaking before a large dental audience 
to whom the essayist speaking just before me advocated the most 
elaborate dental restorations. His products were nationally adver- 
tized. One saw cuts of them in many of the dental journals. When 
I was introduced to this essayist he said, "Oh, you are the Rickert 
who is studying the focal infection problem. Well, you have my 
sympathy. By our method we extract the suspicious teeth and take 
no chances." I said nothing to answer him then, but in the oi>ening 
remarks of my lecture I referred to the above conversation and 
added, "My subject needs no apologies or no sympathies. When I 
think of the scientific strides made in dentistry during the past 
fifteen years, stimulated largely by the focal infection problem 
which supplied by far the greater part of our dental research ad- 
ventures, gave us our first biologic contact with medicine, and 
finally made us something more than crutch makers, my subject 
needs no apologies. In fact, I am trying to avoid the necessity 
for these golden barbed-wire entanglements that you have just 
observed in the slides of the last speaker." At that time that state- 
ment sounded harsh, but I already had had experience with these 
restorations and the effects they produced on the contiguous teeth 
when, as was too frequently the case, they were inadequately made. 
We have found vital pulp degeneration and their sequelae resulting 
in secondary affections equally if not more astounding than the 
secondary effects resulting from inadequate root surgery. I cannot 
quote the entire poem of Edgar Guest who has given so beautifully 
in verse a description of the wonderful things that dentists seem- 
ingly can do mechanically. What he did with his own beautiful 
entanglements he satiriciilly reveals in the last two lines of the 
poem, for he says, "My maid it shocks to find it in my collnr Ixix." 

30 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Societj/ 

Another interesting illustration is that of the dentist witli whom I 
traveled recently in the wilds of the far north. He had one of 
these entanglements, but not having a collar box with liim, he carried 
it in his pocket. After having lost it in the northern woods, he told 
me it cost liim nearly three hundred dollars. Now I liave seen so 
many of tliese tragedies that after tive years I have no regrets for 
the rather severe criticisms I made of the limitations of that kind 
of restoration and of tlie men wlio had not learned the technic. 
Thousands of these restorations are lying in collar boxes, or they 
are brought to the clinic, and we are asked what they are worth 
for scrap gold. Of course, it may be said that many of tliem are 
improperly made, which is true in view of the fact that the men 
who actually made most of them never saw the patients. It can be 
said of root surgery, too, tliat its downfall was due to inadequate 
practices, and not because the wrong men did the work. Failures 
are due to improper technic. In instances where teeth must be 
extracted, we believe that it is possible to make restorations which 
will not involve the adjacent teeth, but it requires a mechanical 
and a biological understanding of the case. In conclusion to this 
thought let me say that we have carried the problem to a point 
where we believe tliat if root surgery had been properly practiced 
in tlie majority of cases where extraction liad been resorted to by 
the trial and error metliod, root surgery would have given a much 
higher percentage of success with no greater risk of serious secondary 
sequelae. We have maintained for sometime that root surgery would 
liave remained the more popular way to treat if some method could 
have been found during more prosperous times whereby our patients 
could be wrapped in small packages and sent to the dental labora- 
tories. We are not speaking disparagingly of technicians because we 
know tliat some of the work they did was more satisfactorily done 
than was that of the dentists, a sad commentary emanating from a 
teacher of dental students. 

This brings us, tlien, to the question of vital degenerating pulps. 
Tliousands of Americans today are suffering from systemic affecticms, 
initiated from degenerating pulps as a result of appliances on vital 
teeth. This subject is suthcient for a lecture in itself, and we can 
deal with it only very briefly. We liave cultured many vital teeth. 
The etiological relationship of infected degenerated pulps consti- 
tutes at this time a far greater problem for the dentist than tlie 
pulpless tooth, first, because the number of pulpless teeth has been 
greatly reduced by the extraction orgy, wliieh almost eliminated 
the pulpless tooth menace, second, because the vital infected de- 
generating pulps are numerous at the present time because the 
restorations necessitated by the extractions caused so many more 
than existed previous to the orgy, and third, because they are very 
much more dithcult to locate. When I first studied the pulpless tooth 
problem, I found that only one in twelve persons between the ages 
of twenty-five and fifty who came into our clinic did not have, and 
never had had pulpless teeth. While no survey has been made re- 
ceutl}-, general observations indicate that not only has this ratio 
been tremendously reduced, but also that the degenerating conditions 
have been tremendously increased. This latter condition is ex- 

Containing the Proceedings 31 

tremely difficult to manage because the offeudins tooth is so much 
more difficult to locate. In the pulpless tooth the radiograph will 
tell us at least something of periapical pathology. Objectionable teeth 
may then be eliminated either by adequate root surgery or by extrac- 
tion. We do not advocate the trial and error method at all. The 
radiograph, however, gives assistance only to the more advanced 
cases of vital pulp degenerations. Our present management of the 
degenerating pulp problem, then, requires more promiscuous extrac- 
tion than pulpless teeth ever did. We are required in emergency 
cases to extract more frequently teeth that are innocent than we 
were with pulpless teeth which now can be readily located. 

When a physician, and I am not speaking of the garden variety 
but of a competent internist, has carefully examined your patient 
and insists that he finds nothing and leaves it up to you to remove 
dental foci of infection, then the dentist faces a difficult problem. 
Many times we have been compelled to remove pulps of two or three 
innocent teeth or to resort to extraction before we finally located the 
real offender. The teeth with vital degenerating pulps which are the 
easiest to locate are those which have occasional soreness, mild pulp- 
itis, with occasionally a brief twinge (almost a pleasant pain) 
lasting only an instant. In such cases marked improvement may 
have been noted in suspected secondary effects. An excellent radio- 
graph of certain advanced cases will show a halo about the root 
apex, much larger than the average granuloma, yet with just as 
definite a margin but much less in evidence, even in the best radio- 
graphs since the enveloping tissues are not completely destroyed. The 
clinical symptoms are not yet well determined. Certain forms of 
arthritis and neuritis and certain of the eye involvements have been 
found to be due to these cases. The citing of cases has been of 
such general practice that I shall refrain from doing so, for to me 
it has become as obnoxious as the patent medicine testimonials be- 
cause so many of them have been speculative and inconclusively 
proved. So I say to you North Carolina dentists that the larger 
problem the dentist has today is that of the vital pulp degeneration 
under large restorations. We are working as fast as we can in our 
laboratories to establish an insulating material against heat a)ul 
cold, cue that will be less insulting to our pulps, and less electro- 
dynamic than anything we have at the present time. In fact, 
we are forecasting dental materials more adequately suited to the 
needs of the teeth than those available today. We predict that 
within thirty years synthetic materials will largely replace the 
noble metals. 

The earliest symptoms of a rheumatic attack caused by an in- 
fected vital pulp degeneration may be a stiff neck which may be 
relieved gradually and move slowly to the gluteal muscles and finally 
may involve certain of the joints, especially the shoulders. When 
these symptoms are in evidence you are advised always carefull.\- to 
examine the pulps under large restorations. In my illustrated lec- 
ture I shall show you extreme cases where I would call it mal- 
practice to extract. On the othei- hand, I shall show extreme cases 
where I would consider it a])proximating malpractice to treat. Your 
diagnosis of treatuiciit nr (^xti-action must be derermiiicd by your 

32 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

being able to treat adequately by root surgery methods or, if you 
cannot, and are thinking in the best interests of the patient, by 
knowing of some practitioner who can treat the case properly. For 
cases whicli lie between these two operations, you must make your 
own decision. In no case should you undertake root surgery without 
a careful study of well-tried methods. I liave no grievance witli any- 
one who dislikes tliis work, or with anyone who will not do it, for he 
would not do it well with that attitude. You may liave the 
attitude toward it that I liave toward prosthetic dentistry. When as 
a student I made tlie two dentures required in the dental clinic, 
I swore that they would be my last, and I liave kept my pledge. 
The taking of impressions lias never appealed to me, but I have 
the greatest respect for that comi>etent group which is acliieving 
this public need. I say this to encourage those who have never 
given up and are willing to learn the scientific method of managing 
by less destructive measures tlian promiscuous practices. 

The conclusions that have been drawn in this report have been 
taken from a cliuical and experimental study of thousands of cases. 
When we first undertook this work fifteen years ago, we found it 
necessary to spend a number of years to develop satisfactory cul- 
turing methods, fen-, as you will understand, we were working in a 
field (the mouth) teeming with millions of organisms and to take 
a culture and to be sure tliat it is not contaminated requires the 
technique not only of an experienced bateriologist but of one familiar 
with oral bacteriology. We had been interested in the subject for a 
number of years but even witli that experience found it necessary 
to devote much time to the method of culturing. Today we are occa- 
siouall.v confronted with cases from which, in spite of all the dif- 
ferent methods used, we cannot obtain conclusive results. You can 
see, then, wliy I have little faith in the reports that come from 
dentists wlio say that tliey found an infected tooth and sent it to 
the laboratory which reported streptococci present. The amazing 
part of such reports is that if the result had been negative under 
such conditions of culturing one would have questioned the methods 
of the bateriologist. It would have been more unusual if he had 
not found streptococci. The work in our laboratory is not conclusive 
as to the number of streptococci present in the secretions of the 
mouth, but it indicates that more than 60 per cent of the organisms 
are streptococci. This coupled with the fact that a cubic centimeter 
of gingiva around the tooth may contain many millions of organisms, 
will enable you to visualize how diflicult it is to culture in the mouth, 
and how worthless a report of such a cvilture is, unless it has been 
made by a specially trained operator. One method that we use at 
the present time to culture is the window method where, after a 
thorough and controlled sterilization of the superficial tissues, we 
open a flap over the apex of the tooth. The second method, which 
is in cases where it is possible to use it, more satisfactory, is to 
culture through the pulp canal. This method lends itself adequately 
to perfect control. Our first pathological studies were made on 
extracted teeth and tlie percentage of po^iitive results was so tremend- 
ously high that we nearly abandoned as hopeless the practice of root 
surgerv. It was onlv after we had worked out these two safer 

Containing the Proceedings 33 

methods of culturiug that we observed that the pulpless teeth were 
not infected so frequently as was indicated by our earlier studies 
and by the studies of others who had worked on extracted teeth. 
When large numbers of cases cultured by the window method are 
compared with those cultured through the canal, the percentages of 
positive and negative are generally the same, but when compared 
with those of extracted teeth, for obvious reasons, there is no uni- 
formity of results. 

We are about to enter a new social and clinical order which will 
require that dentistry meet its obligation for continuous rendering 
of greater services to the patient. We cannot afford to jump from 
one thing to another unless we carefully test the practices that 
have had merit and abandon those without merit. Ways and means 
must be found to extend our services to a greater number of people. 
Our economic studies must be directed toward the mutual advantage 
of both patient and dentist. We must face the facts frankly ; in some 
instances our practices were governed more by the economic ad- 
vantage to the dentist rather than to the patient. Sound judgment 
will convince any man that both must profit or our case is lost. 

We have talked health service and too frequently have rendered 
anything but health service. The term is justifiable when actual 
health service is rendered, but we must not overlook the fact that 
the trades, too, are capitalizing on the significance of health service. 
Heating engineers are saying, "Do you know that three-fourths of 
the common colds are caused by inadequate heating systems?" Re- 
frigerator manufacturers are saying, "Protect the health of your 
family by proper refrigeration." The plumbers, too, come in for 
their share of profits from health and sanitation and are using the 
health service caption for the promotion of their interests. Recently 
I was requested to examine a bill sent to a physician in our city 
for dental services rendered to his son by a dentist at Princeton 
where the son was in the University. It read like this and covered 
one and one-half pages (the services rendered were for four inlays) : 

"The account of the bill of $150.00 for services rendered on four 
inlays may be itemized in this way : 

Date : Cavity preparation 2 hours $20.00 

Date : Wax impression % hour 5.00 

Date: Setting of inlay 1 hour 10.00' 

etc., etc. 

Each inlay was specifically itemized as the above illustration is. 
It appeared to me much like bills I have received which read 
something like this : 

"Date: 10 ft. %-inch pipe $ 8.00 

Date: 1 kitchen sink 15.00 

Date: 2 bibbs 6.00" 

One wonders whether the health services of the plumber may not 
soon be advanced to a state where he, too, will say, "To professional 
services rendered . . . $15.00." We are not ridiculing the term, 

34 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

but we want to remiud the profession that an increasingly wisei* pub- 
lic is analyzing our methods and that we must place our standards 
on terra firma. We must think of a high type of service, and our 
bills must be gauged by the quality and time used to render such 
services, time to be considered in the light of the number of years 
devoted to the practice. Dentistry is a most valuable service when 
capably rendered, and no dentist should hesitate to ask for adequate 

It is certainly not necessary now to extract single-rooted teeth of 
strategic importance. More than half of our complement of teeth are 
single rooted. In practically every instance such teeth may either 
be treated directly and the roots filled, or in the virulent cases they 
may be permitted to drain until soreness leaves, then sterilized and 
managed by root amputation. We have done many of these in our 
large clinics during the past sixteen years, and I assure you that 
no dental practice has given a higher "batting average" of successful 
operations than this one. In fact, the failures are much greater in 
the practice of all other specialties of dentistry. Root amputation 
has certain advantages over direct root surgery in that patients may 
come long distances and have the entire tooth treated in one day 
and again return to their duties, eliminating the tedious number of 
visits to the otfice required in straight root surgery and treatment. 
Dr. R. F. Sommer, who has been working with me for eight or 
ten years on this problem and who has charge of the operative 
end of it in our dental clinic, will submit the detailed root surgery 
procedure appended to this lecture. From it those of you who are 
interested in tliis work may get the technic. This technic has been 
appreciated by many dental students who, before we had the simpli- 
fied method, detested root surgery. This, coupled with the fact that 
during the depression many more patients who required either root 
surgery or extraction had from fifteen to twenty-five dollars than 
had from forty-five to sixty dollars, a comparative fee basis for 
the two operations, has increased its use. Too, many who have made 
a careful study of this work say that they have no work that is 
more interesting. It requires skill, but so do all other dental opera- 
tions, but the failures of some may not be so serious to the health 
of the patient as failures in root surgery. 

One other notable contribution which has materially aided our 
diagnostic procedure is the international study of the causes of 
rheumatism. It has been noted that as far as dental infections are 
concerned, we have two tyi^es of patients : those to whom I have 
referred as hyiwstreptococci-susceptible and hyperstreptococci-suscep- 
tible. The committee studying the control of rheumatism has classi- 
fied these rather on the pathological evidence as atrophic (or 
rheumatoid) and hypertrophic. The atrophic type is more prevalent 
under the age of thirty-five and is frequently associated with infec- 
tion. That is where the dentist must cooperate with the physician 
to remove all ix)ssible foci of infection. This form is characterized 
clinically by an increased radiolucency even to the ligament origins 
while the hypertrophic, most frequently found among patients past 
thirty-five years of age, has a tendency to greater opacity to the 

C ontaining the Proceedings 35 

X-ray. At that age tbe bones and joints have increased calcification 
and metabolic differences, and the patients are usually victims of 
arthritis. Of course, even where the dentist has removed known 
infections as far as is possible, marked relief from these symptoms 
seldom occurs with the extraction of teeth. It was but a few years 
ago that we tried to cooperate with the physician who could not find 
the cause of the hypertrophic form and extracted many teeth on 
suspicion but with no permanent relief. The most that can be said 
of this type is that in certain cases infection might be a contributing 
influence, as in cases of patients with an hereditary background and 
evidence of streptococci susceptibility. When cooperating with the 
physician, the dentist must be more radical than he is with others. 
It would be to the interest both of the public and of the profession 
if the dentist would so prepare himself that he might intelligently 
make these diagnoses in conjunction with the physician. Both the 
patient and the physician would have greater respoct for us, and 
when I speak of the physician, I refer again to a competent internist, 
one who is not influenced by the results obtained from the last patient 
treated, either by radical or conservative methods. In Ann Arbor we 
have a happy relationship with trained internists, and the embar- 
rassing situations that have frequently been pictured to me by 
members of the profession elsewhere do not occur. When you see 
patients in whom you suspect some source of infection, you should 
have two or three trained internists to whom you can refer them for 
diagnosis. Don't just take the easiest course and say, "See your 
family physician" because in many instances the justice of the 
peace might as well make the diagnosis and you won't have the 
information that you require. You can say, "Your physician is all 
right, but this man knows what I want to determine." With a 
few years of experience in this direction, the unfriendly feeling that 
many dentists have when conferring with physicians will disappear. 
In many respects I am neither a bacteriologist nor a dentist but a 
research man, working on problems involving both the fields of 
medicine and dentistry. As a neutral observer, I can truthfully say 
that the dentists need have no embarrassment in discussing these 
problems in their field because, as a group, they are rendering just 
as efficient service as the physicians. What we are aiming for is an 
increased number of dentists who will think first of the patient's 
welfare and then have the courage to ask for an adequate, reasonable 
fee for value i-eceived. 

Let me say, then, in conclusion that I have been moved by your 
splendid enthusiasm and activity, and by your excellent hospitality. 
I leave your State with the highest regard for North Carolina den- 
tists and trust that I may have said something which you may apply 
in your practices to the advantage of your patients and to the honor 
of the profession. (Applause.) 

President Jackson: 

I will ask Dr. J. Martin Fleming to introduce our next 

36 Bulletin Norih Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. J. Martin Flemang, Raleigh : 

When I was a student at the University forty-five years ago, 
I frequently saw two boys playing in the yard of their paternal 
grandfather, on the site of the present post office. One would 
throw up a tin can and the other would shoot at it with a rifle 
(I was struck with the accuracy of their aim.) One of those 
boys made it his aim in life to know and learn all he could of 
the human kidney. The accuracy of his aim and accuracy of 
his research has brought him to a high place in the estimation 
of those who know him. It has given him an international 
reputation. It gives me pleasure to present to you Dr. "William 
MaclSTider. (Applause.) 

Wm.. deB. MacNider, M.D., Chapel Hill: 


I appreciate very much the privilege which the State Medical 
Society has extended to me in permitting me to be here on this 
occasion. I feel rather foolish in attempting to make any address 
or any talk after the magnificent statement which you ladies and 
gentlemen have just heard given you by Professor Rickert. I want 
to differ with him, and I think I can prove the points on which 
I differ. 

I want to talk about the development of medicine and that of den- 
tistry. Medicine started out in terms of generalization, trying to 
iniderstand the individual as a whole. Hippocrates, the father of 
medicine, and Galen, his worthy successor, and the Greeks. Romans, 
and all through the Middle Ages — they did not have specific infor- 
mation about the brain, or the mouth, or the teeth or kidneys, or 
the heart. They tried to obtain an understanding of the individual 
as a whole, the organism as a whole, and the older physicians ap- 
proached disease from the same point of view, which I think is 
the proper point of view, in order to see the whole story that 
develops in an individual who is sick. 

Then you know what happened to medicine. It required more and 
more information and it became more and more specific, and we 
developed specialists in the different branches of medicine. It has 
got to the place where the colleges can see but one thing, where the 
doctor can only see a sick individual in the terms of a si>ecialty. 
He does not see the organism as a Avhole. The si>ecialist does not 
see the sick man as an organism, or an animal. Something happens 
which makes the patient depart from what is his environment and 
become in an abnormal, or pathological, or sickened condition. The 
old physicians had that. They knew a great deal which we do not 
know. They were able to say that an individual was looking better 
or worse and not infrequently he looked better than he was worse. 
That is profound insight into the sick individual as a whole. 

Containing the Proceedings 37 

As I see it, deutistiy went iu just the opposite directiou. It com- 
menced as a specialty, a very strict specialty. I suppose at the 
commencement of dentistry it consisted primarily of extraction of 
teeth which were obviously in an advanced stage of caries or de- 
terioration. I can very well remember, and I am not old — because 
if I said I were old, I Avould not be very complimentary iu my 
remarks to Dr. Fleming — I remember very well the traveling dentist 
of this town. At first, he had the old pedal and wheel he used for 
his drilling, for taking out the decayed part and packing something 
into it. Dentistry did exactly the opposite thing from what medicine 
did. It branched out. It applied itself. It related itself to the indi- 
vidual as a whole and in my judgment it is the most outstanding 
advance that has been made in the medical or dental science in 
recent years. One of the most outstanding advances in dental science 
is the development dentists have made not so much in terms of treat- 
ment of the mouth and of the tooth, in its congenital and acquired 
form, I know nothing of that, but of the interest of dentistrj^ in 
the term of the individual organism as a whole and in terms of 
diseased teeth affecting the remote part of the body. I think a most 
interesting" thing in medicine, other than the action of digitalis in 
some types of heart diseases and the action of a few substances like 
that, is the major result which develops from the extraction and 
treatment of teeth. The relationship is amazing. It is a proper 
thing. The connection is one of the most dramatic things we 
know of. The most interesting part I can connect in representing 
the State Medical Society here this morning is one of the terms 
of focal infection. That is a thing that is tremendously over-ridden. 
It is usually, I think, an expression of ignorance. Doctors, years 
ago when they had no idea of what was going on, said it was a 
disturbance of the gastric organs. Then that wore off. People became 
simple enough to see through it. The doctor had to develop some- 
thing else. A splendid statement to make was that it was a meta- 
bolic disturbance. It is a mouth full. It is a splendid word. It 
doesn't mean much, but it covers up a multitude of ailments and 
probably a multitude of sins. Then came the disturbance of the 
hypogastrium. No one has any idea of what you are talking about, 
and you haven't either. 

My feeling is that focal infection is a tremendously over-worked 
affair. I think it requires splendid judgment with X-i'ay added, 
and general judgment, in order to say whether this tooth should 
come out and whether this thing should be done, or that thing 
should be done. It is a question of fine judgment of what is superior, 
in a very marked degree. There is certainly such a thing focal 
infection. The thing which has interested me very much is the fact 
that there are organisms found in the mouth, and that the mouth 
provides an area for these organisms to develop. I think Dr. Rickert 
has shown that pretty clearly. There is a variety of streptococcus 
which you can isolate from the mouth and other areas, and if you 
get these germs into the blood stream, one variety will affect the 
urine, another will pick out the heart muscles, and so on. It is the 
chemical environment. The culture must be favorable for its growth 
and development. Another will pick out the brain and produce a 

38 BuUetin North Carolina Dental Society 

brain abscess. The other will affect the uterus. I think there is 
such a thing as specific relationship between the different types of 
bacteria found in the mouth and found in teeth and different organs. 
In other words, focal infection is a very real thing and it is an 
extremely foolish thing. I think it has been over-ridden. You den- 
tists should guide the physician in that connection and keep it from 
being over-ridden. Do not extract teeth because some foolish indi- 
vidual who is ignorant wants them extracted. 

I am going to say something I have no right to say, because I do 
not know what I am talking about. It seems to me that when you 
extract teeth, it is foolish to curette. I know you think I am wrong, 
just as I think it is a foolish thing for a physician to do when he 
has opened a boil or abscess to curette. That is the most ridiculous 
thing I think a surgeon can possibly do. If you have a boil, a kind 
of fence is thrown up around the center of the boil and there is a 
barrier. That is the defense nature has put there against the 
extension of that infection. Nature put it there, put it there for a 
specific purpose, to wall off and localize that infection. The thing 
to do is to oi>en the soft place and gradually, by gentle pressing, 
get the pus out. Sometimes a doctor gets in a hurry, or is overly 
anxious, and after he cuts into the boil and presses what pus he can 
out, then he curettes it. What in the deuce they do that for, I cannot 
see ! They cannot remove all the bacteria. That is perfectly mechani- 
cal. They can't sterilize the area. If you use a germicide strong 
enough to kill all the bacteria, you destroy the cell tissue around the 
seat of the abscess. When you curette, you break through this 
barrier nature has provided and enable the bacteria to get into the 
blood stream through the capillaries and it is disseminated through- 
out the body. 

Right in this town, one of our most prominent citizens had that 
happen. He had a carbuncle. That was the treatment he received. 
He had a blood infection and there was an infection of the heart 
muscles and he was an ill man for months. 

I am not informed enough on the subject to be very specific, but 
I have been specially interested in the teeth during pregnancy. I 
think pregnancy is a wonderful state. A pregnant woman should 
have the finest care and consideration, physically and psychically 
and every other way, that it is possible to give. I think that is where 
a woman needs the most care. She needs every consideration. I 
do not care to say anything about it from the standpoint of diet, 
but I want to make this statement, and i)erhaps it may interest you 
and perhaps it may be of value : Not infrequently during pregnancy 
do teeth get in bad condition. Of course, you can handle any simple 
thing. When teeth are extracted, I should think that would be a 
questionable procedure. It seems to me that should an infection 
arise, it would be highly pertinent that it be kept local. 

There was a woman in this town, I will cite this case and then 
stop. She was seven months pregnant. She was the loveliest human 
being that I have ever seen. She had an infected tooth ; there is no 
question about that. The tooth was extracted, and then the area 
was curetted. She developed some slight fever. It was not sufficient 
fever to consult a physician. From history she must have had an 

Confaining the Proceedings 39 

incidental rliytbm every now and then. And in the seventh mouth 
she went into premature labor and gave birth to a dead child. The 
child had been dead several weeks, which was easily ascertained 
on account of its condition. Following the birth of the child, there 
was expelled from the uterus some two or three pints of pus. Fol- 
lowing contraction of the uterus, she had a general blood infection. 
On the fifth day of her infection, in studying the blood for malaria 
as a possible cause, on one slide area, I found seventy-two strepto- 
coccus. I have that slide now, showing the overwhelming tyi>e of 
infection she had. She lived seven weeks and averaged three and 
a half chills every twenty-four hours. The lowest temperature was 
103.2. The highest temperature, I do not know. 

It was very interesting to note that when some rabbits were used 
for an experiment, some streptococcus bacteria were cultured and 
injected through the ear of the rabbits and in a distinct number 
far above the majority they were able to infect the uterus of the 
rabbits. That resulted in dead foetus and premature birth. 

In conclusion, I will say it is always a joy to be with a group of 
people who are gaining information and who are broadening the 
scope of their understanding. As the doctor started from generaliza- 
tion and then specialized, he must now get back to the whole story. 
The dentist started in the opposite way. From being a specialist, 
localized, isolated, he is now seeing the relationship of his specialty 
to the organism as a whole, which I think is a very outstanding 
chapter in the science and art of medicine and dentistry. 

Mr. President, I appreciate your letting me be with you. (Ai> 

President Jackson: 

I wish to thank Dr. MacNider for the splendid address. I am 
sure we all enjoyed it. 

I am pleased at this time to recognize Dr. Sam Kent, Presi- 
dent of the Virginia Dental Society. (Applanse.) 

Dr. Sam Kent, Danville, Va.: 

Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, it is a pleasure to be 
with you. That goes without saying. 

I live in Danville and the neighboring town of South Boston 
has always tried to out-do us. It has been going back and forth 
for a long time. Finally, the South Boston papers were able 
to announce that Danville's iron bridge had burned. It was not 
long after that until our newspapers reported that we had 
a call for our fire department to go to South Boston, that the 
fire station had burned down. (Laughter.) 

In the same way, we take our hats off to North Carolina. 
You have led us and showed us the way to organize a society, 

40 BuUetin North Carolina Dental Society 

and how to organize your men all over the State, and especially 
in the small towns. "We have not kept up. Only recently the 
Legislature of Xorth Carolina was in session and you made it 
a great pleasure to come down from home to the North Carolina 
line, just three miles from town. (Laughter.) We also note 
that you put the unethical advertising man out of business, 
showing us the way again. We do not look upon you with envy, 
but with pride. I thank you. (Applause.) 

President Jackson: 

I am sure we are delighted to have you with us and hope 
that you can stay during the meeting. 

Dr. D. L. Pridgen, Fayetteville, Secretary: 

I have two telegrams here I would like to read. The first 
is from the Virginia State Dental Society and signed by Dr. 
A. M. Walsh, Secretary-Treasurer. It is as follows : 

"Dr. D. L. Pridgen, Secretary-Treasurer, 
North Carolina Dental Society, Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Greetings from the Virginia State Dental Association. 
A. M. Walsh, Secretary-Treasurer, 
Virginia State Dental xlssociation." 

I have here another telegram, this one from the American 
Dental Association. It is as follows : 

''Dr. D. L. Pridgen, Secretary North Carolina Dental Society, 
in Session University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 
N. C. 
The American Dental Association again greets you and ex- 
tends best wishes for most successful meeting. Your Society 
is also cordially invited to attend the Diamond Jubilee Meeting 
of this Association which is to be held in Chicago next August 
seventh to twelfth inclusive. Harry B. Pinnky." 

I would further call attention of the membership to the 
directory of the local clinics which you will find suspended 
from the doorway as you leave the building. The clinics this 
afternoon will begin promptly at two o'clock. You are requested 
to be on time. 

Containing the Proceedings 41 

President Jackson: 

Please consult the directory and govern yourselves accord- 

The meeting adjourned at 12 :55 o'clock p.m., Tuesday, June 
6, 1933. 


Meeting of House of Delegates 

The House of Delegates was called to order at 8 :30 o'clock 
p.m., by Dr. Wilbert Jackson, President. 

President Jackson.': 

The House of Delegates will come to order. What is your 
pleasure, gentlemen? 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming, Raleigh: 

I guess the roll call is the first order. 

President Jackson: 

We will omit the roll call. We have a quorum. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

I will not raise that question. 

President Jackson: 

Are there any committees ready to report at this time ? If so, 
we will hear you now. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming : 

I have right many reports in my system. If you will bear 
with me, I will go through with it as quickly as I can. I have 
here the report of the Relief 'Committee. 


Your committee in charge of tlie Dental Relief Fund reports on 
hand, as of June 1st, 1933, $1,300.61. Since the report was made at 
Elizabeth City the fund was augmented by $200.00— the annual 1932 
contribution from Dr. Maddux and the .$200.00, 1933 contribution 

42 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

from Dr. Pridgen. Six payments of $200.00 i>er year (1928 to 1933 
inclusive), have been made and interest on tlie same has amounted 
to $100.61. The fund has been in the North Carolina Bank and Trust 
Company, but by some stroke of good fortune it was transferred 
about a year ago to the Wachovia and is still intact. However, the 
committee desires that the House of Delegates designate a depository 
for it. We are beginning to have claims sent to us, but so far our 
position has been that it should only be used for needy dentists — 
those i-eally needing the creature comforts. One or two cases are 
being investigated. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. Martin Fleming, Chairman. 

F. L. Hunt, 

J. S. Betts. 

President Jachson: 

You have heard the report. What will you do with it ? 

It was moved, seconded, and carried that the report be 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

I have the report of the Legislative Committee. 


Your Legislative Committee has had more than the usual amount 
of work thrust upon them during the recent session of the Legisla- 
ture. First the report of the Reorganization Committee threatenetl 
the elimination of the dental work so successfully carried on by Dr. 
Branch under the State Board of Health. By the time we had that 
ironed out the Vvork was again threatened by a decreased appropria- 
tion to the health program. Probably our hardest fight was made 
on this one item of legislative work. We made common cause 
with the State Board of Health on this fight, determined to stand 
or fall with them. 

The so-called "Bowie Bloc" was against even a reasonable appro- 
priation for all health work, and that influence all but wrecked the 
program of the Appropriations Committee on the floor of the House. 
Our work was done quietly and by i^ersonal contact. We had no 
chance, then, to appear before any committee — but our work had 
much to do with the defeat of the reduction advocated by the "Bowie 

The Appropriations Committee named $225,000.00 annually for 
the health work. The Bowie plan reduced it to $163,000.00, and that 
passed the House on at least one reading, but before it finally passed 
its third reading, it had been "stepped up" to $211,000.00. The 
dentists of the State certainly had a part in that work. The Senate 
raised the appropriation to its original $225,000.00 and the difference 
was split in the conference committee and the final sum is $218,000.00 

Containing the Proceedings 43 

annually for all activities of the State Board of Health. This 
materially cripples all health work but does not eliminate any 

Following that Mr. Bowie wrote us a courteous letter suggesting 
that we allow his man Sharpe a limited license to practice in Ashe 
County and promised us if we would do that that he would not 
introduce the bill to license him, which bill has become "an old 
Spanish custom" with him. It has been introduced every two years 
"since the memory of man runneth not to the contrary." However, 
we wrote Mr. Bowie that we would fight him again, preferring a 
losing fight to any sort of a compromise. Rather than risk the 
usual fight, with its usual ridicule heaped upon him by the press of 
the State, the bill was not introduced in the House, but one Saturday, 
when most Senators were at home for the week-end, Senator McNeill 
of Ashe County introduced a similar bill by request, asking for im- 
mediate consideration and it had passed the Senate before we even 
knew it. However, it was, by motion, recalled from the House and 
withdrawn altogether. 

The only other legislation was fostered by the Charlotte Dental 
Society and the Charlotte dentists and their representatives in the 
two houses of the Legislature were largely resiwnsible for its passage. 
It is just a clause added and reads : "Or shall by himself or another 
solicit professional business" — and is added to that section of our 
present law which recounts the reasons why a man's license may be 
revoked. Of course, it is aimed at stopping the blatant advertising 
now going on in the larger cities of the State. It is the same clause 
which governs soliciting legal cases and has been invoked by the 
legal profession to the end that a few legal licenses have already 
been revoked. The thanks of the Society is due the Charlotte men 
for their cooperation — they came in a body to see it through. 

The nature of the work this year has been such that quite a 
number of dentists have had to be called to Raleigh on short notice, 
dentists who had the ear of their respective members of the different 
committees, and they have come gladly and frequently. Of course, 
we had every cooperation from all members of the Legislative Com- 
mittee — I have never worked with a more willing set of men. Of 
others who have helped, not members of the committee, it is hard 
to single out individuals, dozens came when phoned to, but probably 
the man who came farthest, came oftenest, stayed longest and did 
more personal work than any of us, is Dr. L. H. Butler of Hertford. 
It is only fair thus to recognize his help. The expense account for 
this work, $66.15, has gone through the prescribed channels and 
has been paid by the Secretary-Treasurer. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. Martin Fleming, 
Of the Legislative Committee. 

Dr. J. y. Johnson, Goldshoro: 

I move that the report be accepted and a vote of thanks 
accorded the Legislative Committee. 
The motion was seconded and carried. 

44 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. C. C. Bennett, Asheville: 

I Avould like to ask if that expense included payment to the 
Charlotte boys for the money they spent in connection with their 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

That expense has nothing to do with individuals other than 
the expense connected Avith the committee. If we started to pay 
the expenses of every man who came to Raleigh, I imagine the 
expense account would run up to several hundred dollars. 

Dr. C. C. Bennett: 

I am not referring to that, but as I understand it, they em- 
ployed some attorneys to draw this bill. They paid them per- 
sonally out of their own pockets. The State of North Carolina 
is getting the benefits of their work just the same as Charlotte 
and I do not think it is Charlotte's duty to pay the bill. I 
think our treasury should pay it. 

President Jacl'son : 

Do you make a motion to reimburse the Charlotte members 
for this money they spent ? 

Dr. C. C. Bemiett: 

I make a motion to reimburse the Charlotte dentists for every 
penny they spent. 

Dr. J. May-tin Fleming: 

What is the amount of that bill, so that we can consider it? 

Dr. J. N. Johnson: 

I am,end by making a motion that we have the bill presented, 
and further move that Dr. Bennett's motion lay over until 
the next meeting so we can consider the proposition in a 
business-like manner. I myself have spent not only a number 
of days, several days, with the Legislature, but also spent con- 
siderable of my own money not only in this Legislature, but 
also in preceding Legislatures and I would not like to burden 
the organization with that expense. This was a bill in which 
the Charlotte dentists were directly interested, and the expense 
was contracted without the consent of the Society or the Legis- 

Containing the Proceedings 45 

lative Committee, and I move that Dr. Bennett's motion lay 
over until this bill is made up and presented so that we can 
consider it in the proper light. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming : 
I second the amendment. 

Dr. Z. L. Edwards, Washington: 

I would like to ask if this request comes from any of the 
Charlotte delegation ? 

Dr. C. C. Bennett: 

Since I made that motion, I would like to explain that it did 
not come from Charlotte or from any Second District man. 
It came from me, personally, because I heard that they had a 
certain amount of expense. I would like to say further, in 
support of my motion, that this law is just as good for Asheville 
and the First District as it is for Charlotte and the Second 
District, and I think it is nothing but just that the I^orth 
Carolina Dental Association should spend the money along 
lines like that. I can't see how we can justify existence with 
money in any better way. I insist upon my motion being carried 
out. If any of the boys in Charlotte spent money for the good 
of dentistry in the whole State, I think we should reimburse 

Dr. F. 0. Alford, Charlotte: 

1 am from Charlotte. We had quite a bit of expense with 
this affair. It cost us two hundred and forty-seven dollars. I 
am not sure about that amount, but it was two hundred and 
forty-something. We are not asking the !North Carolina Dental 
Society to pay that. We did it on our own hook. If the State 
Society wants to pay it, that is all right. The Charlotte Dental 
Society paid the bill, and we are not asking reimbursement. 

President JacLson : 

Is there any further discussion of the motion or amendment ? 
(Pause.) The amendment to Dr. Bennett's motion was that 
Dr. Bennett's motion be tabled until the next meeting, at which 
time the bill will be filed and it will be taken up and passed 
on at that time. 

Those members favoring the amendment let it be known by 
standing. The Secretary will count. 

46 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Secretary D. L. Priclgen: 

President Jackson: 

Those against the amendment will stand. I declare that the 
amendment has prevailed. Dr. Bennett's m^otion is tabled until 
the next meeting of the House of Delegates, at which time the 
bill will be filed and taken up in the proper course of procedure. 

Dr. C. C. Bennett: 

I beg your pardon. I thought you meant to table my motion 
for a year, until the next meeting. The amendment is thor- 
oughly satisfactory to me. 

President Jackson: 

As I understand Dr. Bennett's motion, the Charlotte Dental 
Society paid a bill which was rightfully one of the North 
Carolina Dental Society. It was not to pay for trips to Raleigh, 
but to reimburse them, as I understand it, for money actually 
spent in getting together this legislation which assisted the 
Legislative Committee. Was that right, Dr. Bennett ? 

Dr. C. C. Bennett: 

Yes, sir. That is correct. 

President Jackson: 

Is there any further business to come before the House of 
Delegates ? 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

I have one more committee report in my system. It is the 
report of the Committee on Relations of Physicians and Den- 


Your committee has functioned to the very best of its ability. We 
were fortunate in haying two Sampson County men at the head of 
each organization, Dr. John B. Wright of the Physicians and Dr. 
Wilbert Jackson of the Dentists. We met together in Dr. Wright's 
office and decided that Drs. Wm. deB. MacNider and I. M. Manning 
were best qualified to speak before the Dental Society and Dr. Fi-ed 

Containing the Proceedings 47 

Hale and Dr. O. L. Pi'esnell were asked to present papers before 
the Medical Society. It was my pleasure to hear the deutal pai)ers 
before the physicians and you may rest assured their papers were 
well prepared and well received. The medical papers are yet to be 
presented at this meeting but thej' will measure up to a high stand- 
ard — we know the men. 

Possibly the only criticism is that too few men attend these 
sessions where these papers are read. Our initial aim was that we 
might have a real joint meeting of the professions at such times. 
Looking to that end we had about fifty men at Pinehurst at our 
flrst meeting, but the number has grown smaller each year with us, 
while the physicians have never come in any great numbers to hear 
their chosen representatives present their subjects to us. Possibly 
that has had its effect on our attendance with them. But we feel 
that the work should be encouraged and promoted because it will 
eventually lead to a closer cooperation and a finer understanding 
among us as professional men. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. Martin Fleming, Chairman. 

President Jackson: 

You have heard the report, what will you do with it ? 

Dr. P. E. Ilorton, W in-ston-Salem : 
I move that the report be adopted. 

Dr. H. L. Keith, Wiljnington: 
I second the motion. 
The motion was carried that the report be adopted. 

Dr. N'. Sheffield, Greensboro : 

I have here the report of the Virginia-Carolina Clinic Com- 

Y(jur committee wishes to report that our State Society was well 
represented at the Richmond meeting of the Virginia State Asso- 
ciation, with the following clinicians : Dr. L. G. Coble, Greensboro ; 
Dr. W. F. Clayton, High Point; Dr. F. O. Alford, Charlotte; Dr. 
H. Royster Chamblee, Raleigh ; and Dr. L. M. Daniels, Southern 

The Virginia Dental Association is ably represented at our fifty- 
ninth meeting by Dr. Carter Crafford, Norfolk, Va. ; Dr. G. W. 
Holliday, Richmond, Va. ; and Dr. J. E. John, Roanoke, Va. 

The committee feels that this interchange of clinicians is highly 
commendaijie and helps to bring the members of our profession in 
till' two states closer. Our clinicians were very much pleased with 
the reception accorded them by the Virginia Association. 

48 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

This committee heartily endorses this interchange of clinicians, 
and would recommend that this practice be continued. 

( Signed ) 

Neal Sheffield, 

E. N. Lawrence, 

Horace K. Thompson, 

Harry Keel, 

C. I. Miller, 

L. R. Thompson, 

J. E. Thomas. 

President Jackson: 

You have heard the report. What will you do with it ? 

Dr. J. E. L. Thomas, Tarhoro: 
I move that it be received. 

Dr. S. L. Bohlitt, Raleigh: 
I second the motion. 
The motion carried. 

President Jackson: 

I declare the report accepted. Are there other committees 
ready to report? That was the report of the Virginia-Carolina 
Clinic Committee. 

Secretary D. L. Pridgen: 

Mr. President and members of the Society : I have here 
the report of the Exhibit Committee : 


The Exhibit Committee begs leave to submit the following report : 
After much correspondence and many disappointments, your com- 
mittee succeeded in selling exhibit space to eleven exhibitors. 

Amount collected $184.25 

Amount due 72.00 

We wish to commend the exhibitors for their splendid displays, 
and to express our appreciation especially to Dr. H. O. Lineberger 
for his interview in our behalf with the Secretary of the American 
Dental Trade Association in Washington, D. C, and likewise, to 
Mr. Rowe of the Thompson Dental Company, for his numerous let- 
ters to the manufacturers. 

D. L. Pridgen, Chairman. 

W. T. Martin, Vicc-Chairtnan. 


A. S. Cromartie, 
A. C. Currant. 

Containing the Proceedings 49 

President Jaclson: 

You liave heard the report of Dr. Pridgen, Chairman of the 
Exhibit Committee. What will you do with it? 

Dr. J. N. Johnson, Goldshoro : 
I move that it be accepted. 

D7'. J. E. L. Thomas, Tarhoro: 
I second the motion. 
The motion carried, and the report was accepted. 

Secretary D. L. Pridgen : 

I have here the report of the Program and Clinic Committee. 


Your Program and Clinic Committee held a joint meeting with 
the Executive Committee at Raleigh, October 1st, for the discussion 
of program material and policies to be observed in the arrangement 
of our fifty-ninth annual program; and meetings were also held 
later at Burlington and Durham. 

Complying with the wishes expressed in previous meetings of the 
Society and by various individual members, a more prominent place 
has been accorded the report of the Resolutions Committee ; and 
likewise, to the local clinicians, whose clinics have been arranged 
progressively, thus giving to them the audience deserved. 

We feel that we have been fortunate in bringing to you visitors 
of outstanding merit and qualifications, and to them we wish to 
express our appreciation. 

We trust that our efforts have met with your approval, and that 
you have found the program interesting and instructive. 

For the benefit of the next Program Committee we suggest that 
you use the questionnaire which will be found on page 31 of your 

D. L. Pridgen, Chairman. 

H. O. LiNEBERGEB, Vice-Chairmau. 

Ralph F. Jarrett, 

C. C. Bennett, 


M. T. McMillan. 

President Jachson : 

You have heard the report. What will you do with it ? 

Dr. H. L. Keith, Wilmington: 

I move that we accept the report, and that the Committee be 

50 BuUetin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. N. Sheffield, Greensboro: 
I second the motion. 
The motion carried and the report was adopted. 

Secretary D. L. Pridgen: 

I have here the Financial Report, if yon will hear it at this 

President Jachson: 

Secretary D. L. Pridgen: 

(Editor's Note: The audit of the Certified Public Accountant is 
substituted for the reix)rt read by the Secretary-Treasurer, as it 
includes his report as read, and in addition receipts and disburse- 
ments up to July 20, 1933.) 

Rocky Mount, N. C, August 1st, 1933. 
Dr. Z. L. Edwards, Chairman Executive Committee, 
North Carolina Dental Society, 
Washington, North Carolina. 
Dear Sir : 

In accordance with your instructions, we have audited the recorded 
transactions of D. L. Pridgen, D.D.S., Faj-etteville, North Carolina, 
Secretary and Treasurer of the North Carolina Dental Society, for 
the period from June 28, 1932, to July 20, 1933, and as a result 
thereof, we submit herewith our report, consisting of the following 
described statements : 

Exhibit A — Statement of Receipts and Disbursements — 
for the i)eriod from June 28, 1932, to July 20, 1933. 

Schedule 1 — Reconciliation of Account with the Branch 
Banking and Trust Company, Fayetteville, North Carolina — 
July 20, 1933. 

All receipts of record appear to have been properly accounted for, 
and all disbursements supported by canceled checks. 

All district secretaries cooperated in confirmation of their col- 
lections except the First District Secretary. The four district secre- 
taries are to be commended for their prompt cooperation. 

Invoices and miscellaneous expense bills should be submitted with 
other records for auditor's examination. 

The records of the Secretary-Treasurer were neatly and accurately 

Respectfully submitted, 

Greathouse and Butler, 
By F. L. Greathoxjse, 
Certified Public Accountant. 

Containing the Proceedings 51 


For the Period from June 28, 1932, to July 20, 1933 



District Receipts: Annual Members 

First District $ 600.00 $ 4.00 $ 604.00 

Second District 950.00 40.00 990.00 

Third District 900.00 40.00 940.00 

Fourth District 660.00 36.00 696.00 

Fifth District 670.00 40.00 710.00 

$8,780.00 $ 160.00 

Total District Receipts $3,940.00 

Miscellaneous Receipts: 

Rebate 1932 President Medal $ 5.50 

Exhibit 1932 60.00 

Exhibit 1933 Meeting, Chapel Hill, N. C 258.75 

Sale of Banquet Tickets 303.50 

Interest on Savings Account 15.00 

Total Miscellaneous Receipts 642.75 

Total Receipts $4,582.75 

Balance June 28, 1932 1,529.64 

Total Receipts and Balance $6,112.39 


American Dental Association: 

Proportionate Part of Dues from Members : 

Annual Dues $1,192.00 

Life Members 156.00 $1,348.00 


Salary — Secretary-Treasurer $ 150.00 

Salary — Editor-Publisher 150.00 

Salaries — District Secretaries : 125.00 

Telephone and Telegraph 23.95 

Printing 1932 Proceedings 533.80 

North Carolina Dental Relief Fund 200.00 

Clinicians' Honoraria and Expense 468.61 

Banquet and Entertainment Expense 296.15 

Postage 43.95 

Legislative Committee 66.15 

Stationery, Printing and Supplies 97.90 

Floral Designs — Deceased Members 30.00 

Secretarial Work— Chaix?! Hill 25.00 

52 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Labor, Drayage, etc., Chapel Hill .$ 28.60 

Express 2.70 

Multigi-apliing 4.90 

Premium — Boud of Secretary-Treasurer 7.50 

President's Medals — Two 25.00 

Floor Plans— Exhibit Space 3.00 

Convention Badges 15.08 

Labels to Advertise Annual Convention 5.78 

Refund of Advance Payment Dues of 

Deceased Members 4.00 

Refund — Ehibitors' Deposit 2.50 

Audit 20.00 

Binding Correspondence of Former 

Secretary-Treasurer 24.00 

Check Tax— June, 1932 .24 

Service Charge and Tax on Checks 2.26 

Total Expense $2,356.07 

Total Disbursements $3,704.07 

Balance— ZvLlj 20, 1983: 
On Deposit : 

Branch Banking and Trust Company — 

Checking Account $ 893.32 

Branch Banking and Trust Company — 

Savings Account 1,515.00 

Total Balance $2,408.32 

Total Disbursements and Balance $6,112.39 

Schedule 1 

Reconciliation of Account With Branch Banking and Trust 
Company, Fayetteville, North Carolina, July 20, 1933 

Balance as per Bank Statement— June 27, 1933 $1,325.09 

Deposits During July as Follows: 

July 1 $ 30.00 

July 8 25.25 

July 10 41.00 

July 14 14.00 110.25 

Less — Outstanding Checks: 

June 14— No. 81 $ 4.00 

June 21— No. 90 416.00 

June 23— No. 91 25.02 

June 24— No. 92 80.00 

July 8— No. 93 4.00 

July 10— No. 94 6.00 

Containing the Proceedings 53 

July 16— No. 95 •$ 4.00 

Julv 20— No. 96 1.00 

July 20— No. 97 2.00 $ 542.02 

Balance— July 20, 1933— Checking Account $ 893.32 

Balance— Savings Account— July 20, 1933 1,515.00 

Total Balanc^July 20, 1933 $2,408.32 

I would like to explain this discrepancy in the figures of the 
report I have just read and the figures in the report of the 
Exhibit Committee. The difference is $24.00, and that is the 
$24.00 I have collected since I came down here. 

I would like to say that we bought two President's medals 
at this time due to the fact that they were two for twenty-five 
dollars, whereas we have been paying eighteen dollars each 

President Jaclcson: 

You have heard the report of the Secretary-Treasurer. What 
will you do with it? 

Dr. J. H. Hurdle, Mehane: 

I move the report be accepted. 

Dr. C. C. Bennett, Asheville: 
I second the motion. 

Dr. P. E. Jones, Farmville: 

I would like to amend the motion by adding the words "and 

President Jachson: 

The amendment is accepted without a vote. We will place the 
words "and complimented" at the end of Dr. Hurdle's motion. 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

Dr. P. E. Horton, Winston-Salem: 

I believe you said that you have a general session at nine 

President Jackson: 

We are going to start right away, Avithout objection. 

54 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. P. E. Horton: 

I liave a matter to bring up at the next meeting, but we will 
go into the general session now, and I will bring that up later. 

President Jackson: 

I don't want to shut anybody off. 

Dr. P. E. Horton: 

Not at all. I can bring this up later just as well. 

President Jachson: 

The next meeting of the House of Delegates is tomorrow at 
twelve o'clock. We stand adjourned. 

At. 9 :00 o'clock p.m., the House of Delegates adjourned. 


Evening Session 

The meeting was called to order at 9 :00 p.m., by President 
Wilbert Jackson. 

President Jachson : 

The Convention will come to order. At this time I am pleased 
to recognize Dr. John Wheeler, who will present our next guest 

Dr. John H. Wheeler, Greensboro: 

Mr. President, the North Carolina Dental Society always 
finds it a great pleasure and privilege, and especially great 
benefit, in its annual meetings to bring some men who are 
outstanding in some particular line of work in our chosen pro- 
fession to speak to us along their specialty. I think that is the 
way we learn best. There is no teaching, I think, equal to 
that of visual teaching. I have found it a great personal 
pleasure to listen to these men during the years that they have 
been coming to us and to see how much more some one man 
could know about some one thing than any of us could know 
about so many things. And yet, those of us who must know 
quite a little bit about a great many things Avill find our learn- 

Containing the Proceedings 55 

ing and knowledge improved by listening to that man who 
knows so much about some particular thing. There is no re- 
flection on him because he knows more about a lot of things 
than we know. (Laughter.) I am a specialist myself. I assure 
you it is a pleasure to introduce to this audience the man Avho 
has recognized the value of restoration of natural organs that 
have been lost. 

May I take time here to say this word: I am sure Dr. 
Shefiield will agree with it. I look upon mastication as a 
function of the human body. I think it is a function that 
deserves to be classed with some of the automatic functions. 
Mastication is not an automatic function, not in its strict sense. 
Of course, you can masticate without thinking about it. We 
can inhibit that function at will. I do think mastication is a 
function of the body, just as much so as the kidneys, heart, or 
lungs, and such as that. In this period of years that are just 
immediately behind us, how many I do not know, probably 
twelve or fifteen or maybe a little bit more, we have been 
forced to relieve our patients of these organs of mastication to 
quite a considerable extent, much more than most of us would 
have liked. The health of the individual demanded it. 

We have with us tonight a man who has specialized in this 
restorative work. Having read his articles and knowing of him 
personally as I do, I am perfectly safe in telling you that you 
have a treat in store for you. It is now my pleasure to intro- 
duce to you Dr. L. Langdon Shefiield, a graduate of ISTorth- 
western University, and a man who has specialized in this par- 
ticular field for about thirteen years. Dr. Sheffield, we are 
delighted to have you. (Applause.) 

Dr. L. Langdon Sheffield, D.D.S., Toledo, Ohio: 

Mr. President, members of the ISTorth Carolina Dental So- 
ciety, ladies and gentlemen : After an introduction such as Dr. 
Wheeler has given me, I think I have something to live up to. 
I thank you. Dr. Wheeler, for your kind words. 


By L. L. Sheffield, D.D.S., Toledo, Ohio 


Impression taking and making treatment plates before extracting. 
Restoring facial dimensions and contour. Anticipated surgery of 
the mouth applied to the cast in laboratory. Tooth arrangement to 
maintain or restore natural appearance. Making duplicate edentulous 

56 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

cast for the exodontist. Outline of service rendered to the patient 
during first two weeks after insertion. Prognosis. 

In appearing before you today and in the clinic to follow, I wish 
to describe and exhibit a service and technic to you that has been 
of mutual benefit to my patients and myself; showing you that there 
may be quite as much inspiration and initiative in the making of 
artificial dentures as in any other of the restorative phases of our 
branch of the healing arts. 

It is very desirable to be able to send patients from your office 
immediately after extraction, fitted with presentable substitutes 
for the natural organs. You thereby relieve your patient the humilia- 
tion and embarrassment of appearing in the family and among 
friends edentulous, with the comforting assurance that the treatment 
plates will stay in position, to say nothing of the resulting benefits to 
the practitioner in reputation and well earned increase in fees. 

While I may claim to be reasonably familiar with all the various 
systems and methods offered to the profession, that which I shall 
attempt to give you is not any one of them, but is the natural 
result of selection from and modification of all of them to suit the 
needs of an every-day practice. 

At the present time there is a demand for immediate denture 
service. Just why this demand should come at this time is more 
than I can make out unless it is that some one gave a paper or a 
clinic on the subject and started the old ball rolling. Immediate 
denture service is nothing new. When I first entered a dental office 
to serve my apprenticeship in 1895, my preceptor was giving imme- 
diate denture service to i>eople who were before the public, and who 
felt as though they could not be detained from business while the 
gums were healing. That was before the days of oral surgery as 
practiced at the present time. My preceptor was content to pinch 
off protruding interdental alveolar processes with a forcep, and 
let it go at that. I have recently seen clinics at which there were 
casts and dentures shown that looked for all the world like those 
that he made thirty-eight years ago. Since that time, there have 
been many improvements in oral surgery so that mouths prepared 
by the exodontist today are ready immediately to receive dentures 
(or treatment plates, as I shall call them). The following is the 
procedure as practiced by the essayist. 

After the preliminary talk to the patient, outlining the service 
in detail, the cost, and how and when to be paid, the patient's head 
is measured with the Waverin Trutype tooth guide, and the classifi- 
cation of the tooth (whether square, tapering, or ovoid) is de- 

Measure the width and length of the natural centrals with calipers, 
and record in millimeters, making due allowance for mechanical 
abrasion. Use the Trubyte mould book under the patient's typal 
form, and make the tooth selection. If the patient is a lady, show 
her, by selecting smaller laterals, that her feminine characteristics 
may be brought out. 

Then make the shade selection by referring to the book "Color in 
Teeth." Here you may pick out the blond or brunett, as the patient 
may be. From that refer to the underscored shade suggestion. Then 

Containing the Proceedings 57 

with a tooth from the shade guide, make the shade selection, and 
record. Let your patient help. She will be vitallj' interested. The 
psychology of the whole thing upon the patient is good. Her case 
is receiving special attention. 

Before the extraction is done, a sectional impression is taken 
with Dresch Impression Material, and a cast made of some hard 
material, preferably Castone. 

In the taking of the impression, use an S. S. White brittania 
metal tray of the angle pattern, which has had the labial and buccal 
sides cut away, leaving only the palatal and occlusal portions. First 
take the impression of the roof of the mouth, lingual, occlusal, and 
incisal surfaces of the teeth, chill with ice-water, and remove from 
the mouth. Trim off all compound that extends buccally and labially 
beyond the buccal and labial surfaces of the teeth. At this time, 
with a tracing stick, trace more compound on the impression, 
completely covering the palatal surface, extending far enough back 
to include the tuberosity and hamular notch, and filling level full the 
imprints made by the teeth. Reheat this entire surface with the 
mouth blow pipe, paying particular attention to get the surfaces to 
be occupied by the teeth deeply heated, because this insertion 
is to get an accurate impression of the soft tissues. In this insertion, 
the force applied to the impression tray in the roof of the mouth 
is directly upward toward the bridge of the nose. Chill the palatal 
surface first, then the surface over the occlusal surfaces of the 
teeth. Before the impression is entirely chilled, loosen it slightly 
(but do not rock it), press back into place, and thoroughly chill be- 
fore removing from the mouth. This loosening is to relieve the 
compound that penetrates the interstices between the teeth. Other- 
wise tender teeth are unnecessarily hurt. The slight distortion is in 
between and at the necks of the teeth. These areas are obliterated 
anyway at the time of extraction and trimming. 

Remove the impression, and trim off all compound that extends 
buccally and labially beyond the buccal and labial surfaces of the 
teeth. Cut notches in the labial and buccal borders of the compound, 
cover with white mineral oil, and insert in the mouth. With another 
piece of soft warm compound, take the impression of the buccal 
surface, to and including the cuspid tooth. Take the impression 
of the opposite buccal surface in the same manner, and thoroughly 
chill with ice-water. Then with another piece of soft warm com- 
pound, take the impression of the labial surface of the teeth and 
gums, allowing for an overlap at the cuspids ; at this time, mark 
the median line because the space between the centrals is not 
always in the median line. The overlapping at the cuspids will 
assist, together with the notches previously mentioned, in assembling 
the pieces. 

At this time, put the finishing touches to the distal border of 
the upper impression. It is done in the following manner : With 
an indelible pencil, mark around distally of the tuberosities and 
mesially of the hamular process in the depth of the hamular notch 
in an uneven curve to the posterior palatine depressions, then con- 
tinuing across the median line to the same areas on the opposite 
side of the mouth. Insert the palatal portion of the impression to 

58 Bulletin North, Carolina Dental Society 

get a transfer of the marking in ttie mouth on the impression. Then 
l)ostclam well with linger adaptation. 

Over the area distal to the tuberosity, and the line locating the 
hamular notch, and extending about two-thirds of the way from 
the tuberosity to the median line, lay on a piece of half-round, nine- 
gauge soft black wax, securely attaching it to the impression with a 
hot spatula. While this wax is slightly warm, reinsert the impression 
in the mouth, and press firmly into place. If this causes pain, it 
will usually be because the wax encroaches upon the hamular process. 
To remedy, push the soft wax slightly forward with the thumb, and 
insert again until there is no distress to the patient. You will then 
have an imprint of the distal portion of the tuberosity in the wax. 
DO NOT compress the gum tissue covering the distal iwrtion of the 
tuberosity, for it will distress the patient later. The soft tissue 
spanning the hamular notch may be depressed with the wax a 
distance of a millimeter or more without causing distress. The 
remaining hard area across the distal border of the impression at 
the median line should be covered by a piece of number 28 gauge 
casting wax about 5 millimeters w'ide joining the wax that was 
used in the hamular notch. This is to compensate for the shrinkage 
of the vulcanite causing a lack of adaptation in that area. This 
treatment of the distal border of the impression is painstaking and 
exacting, but this is totally eclipsed by the satisfactory results ob- 
tained for the patient and reputation for the operator. 

Now reassemble the parts of the impression and sear together 
by means of a hot spatula. Then they can be poured up with 
Castone the same as any other impression. Label the cast with 
the patient's number. From this cast, make a duplicate cast of 
Castone, number it, and set away for future use. This cast is a 
very valuable guide in the arrangement of the artificial teeth on 
the treatment plate under construction. 

By using a bolo gauge, the distance from cuspid to cuspid may 
be obtained and used to advantage in placing the teeth in the new 
denture. The cast will give their positions in the arc of the circle. 

From the cast, information may be obtained concerning the general 
inclination of the long axes of the teeth as regards the median line, 
whether the teeth are mesially or distally inclined from a line drawn 
perpendicular to the occlusal plane. The same information, regard- 
ing any of the other teeth that remained when the primary im- 
pression was taken, likewise may be obtained and used in placing 
the teeth in the new denture. At least it gives a general idea 
regarding the original position and posing of the teeth. 

Occasionally, too, a patient (or relative) will say of the finished 
denture, "These teeth don't have so pleasing an appearance as my 
own" ; and right then is the time when you can shake hands with 
yourself if you have a cast made from a primary impression that 
you can show her, for your patient positively forgets how her 
own teeth looked, and has a very exaggerated imagination regarding 

(Remove some of the hindrances of impression taking by filling 
spaces between converging teeth with comix)und.) 

Containing the Proceedings 59 

The lower impression is taken in a brittania metal tray of the 
S. S. White varietj' of the angle pattern which has the buccal and 
labial sides cut away. Place enough Dresch impression material in 
the tray (stick it on loosely) to take the lingual, occlusal, and 
incisal surfaces of the gums and teeth on one side of the mouth 
extending across the median line to the cuspid on the opposite side. 
In the molar region of the opposite side, place a small piece of com- 
pound on the tray for an occlusal rest to keep the bare tray from 
resting on the teeth ; this will also provide room for the needed 
comiwund later on. Insert the tray (when the compound is warm) 
partly to place, just to get an equalization of the compound ; remove 
and chill enough to make the compound stiff. This hard, cold com- 
pound is the impression tray. 

With a mouth blow pipe, warm the surface of the compound that 
approximates the teeth and gums, and also the occlusal rest on the 
opposite side of the tray; temper in water at 130 degrees, insert 
in the mouth, and press firmly into place, then chill with ice water. 
Now remove from the mouth, trim off all compound that extends 
bucally and labially beyond the occlusal and incisive edges of the 
teeth, chill the compound, and remove from the tray. Cut notches 
in the linguo-occlusal surfaces, cover with Squibb's mineral oil, and 
replace in the mouth. In the same empty tray, place sufficient com- 
pound to take the linguo-occlusal and incisive surfaces of the 
remaining teeth including the section of impression previously taken. 
Chill well with cold water. Loosen the impression on the side that 
was taken first by slipping a thin spatula between the compound 
of the first and second sections. When the second section has been 
removed, trim off all of the impression material bucally and labially 
beyond the occlusal and incisive edges of the teeth. Cut notches in 
the edge of the compound, and cover with Squibb's mineral oil. 

Replace sections one, and also number two which is on the tray, 
in the mouth. Take suitably sized pieces of compound, and take the 
impressions of the buccal surfaces of the teeth extending to the 
middle of the cuspid teeth. Now chill with water. Remove from the 
mouth, trim off the known excess, see that the compound is cut 
smooth at the cuspids, and also that it is of suitable thickness with 
notched edges. Cover with Squibb's mineral oil. Reinsert the im- 
pression including the buccal sections in the mouth. 

Now take the remaining labial section from cuspid to cuspid 
including the under surface' of the handle of the tray. Use enough 
compound (a piece as big as your thumb will do). Press firmly into 
place, and against the tray handle. Chill thoroughly, and remove 
from the mouth. The tray handle, and the notches in the ixn-tions 
of the impression previously taken, greatly assist in assembling. Now 
sear together with a hot spatula, and pour in the Ca stone. In addi- 
tion, make a duplicate cast, label it with the patient's number, and 
set away for future use. 

At this time, determine how much it is advisable to open the 
bite in addition to that existing at the present time. Most mouths 
are sadly closed up, and need the space between the nose and the 
chin lengthened from two to six millimeters. Sixteen millimeters is 
normal in recent extraction cases, from the crest of the upper ridge 
at the median line, to the crest of the lower at the median line. 

60 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

This closure is due usually to the loss of posterior teeth, either 
upper or lower or both. The upper anterior teeth are usually one or 
more millimeters forward of their original positions. This condition 
is many times accompanied by excessive over-bite and over-jet. At 
this time take the central occlusion, allowing for the additional 
vertical distance, and mount the upper and lower cast in the proi>er 
relation on the frame, using a face bow. See that the set nut holding 
the iucisal guide pin of the articulator is sufficiently tightened to 
maintain the desired distance until the treatment plates are finished. 

With the above data and a picture of the patient taken at .some 
previous time when all teeth were present, we are ready to set up 
the teeth. In arranging the teeth, care should be used in their 
posing, using as much of the irregularities found in the natural 
dentures as deemed advisable, such as: forward or backward inclina- 
tion, deviation toward or from the median line, prominence of 
cuspids, the arc of a circle made by the natural teeth, the distance 
from cuspid to cuspid, or general relation of the incisal edges of the 
centrals to the laterals and cuspids. In addition to this, all teeth 
may be placed the desired distance distally. The patient will appre- 
ciate your efforts if the general posing is in keeping with his 
natural teeth. 

Before setting up the teeth, all surfaces of the casts, except 
where the teeth are, should be fitted with base plate wax. This hav- 
ing been done, one tooth at a time (beginning with a central), is 
cut off ; the cast surface so exposed, is covered with a small piece 
of thin tinfoil, and the artificial tooth mounted in its stead (or as 
near as your decided change will permit). Then wax it in position 
to the wax base plate. The tinfoil keeps the newly added wax from 
sticking to the cast. 

After the set-up is completed, the wax treatment plate can be 
removed, and the surgerj' of the plaster cast completed by removing 
the uneven places representing the inter-dental bone spicula after the 
plaster teeth were cut off, and in addition, about two millimeters of 
tissue at the labial and buccal gingival border. Make a duplicate 
of this edentulous cast, and send it to the exodontist so he can give 
intelligent cooperation when extracting and preparing the mouth. 
The impression for duplicate casts may be taken after the wax 
is boiled out of the flask just prior to packing. 

The technic is as follows : Cool the flask enough so that the com- 
pound will not stick to the cast. Place a roll of warm comiwund 
around the labial and buccal sides of the cast, pressing it firmly 
into place, and allowing the compound to extend to the crest of 
the ridge. Chill thoroughly. Cover the compound with mineral oil. 
Cover the remaining portions of the cast with another piece of 
soft, warm compound. Press it firmly into place. Chill this piece 
completely. Give this newly added compound a dressing of mineral 
oil. Now cover the previously placed comix)und with a saucer shaped 
piece of compound, and press this firmly into place. After com- 
pletely chilling the entire mass of compound, remove one piece at a 
time, and assemble. Sear the edges of overlapping compound to- 
gether with a hot spatula, and pour with plaster. 

Containing the Proceedings 61 

Use plenty of care in posing the teeth on the treatment plates 
because you will be called upon to duplicate them in the dentures 
which will take their places. In treatment plates for the taper and 
square tj'pes, I put on only six anterior teeth ; for the ovoid type, 
it is necessary to put on eight teeth. This is due to the display of 
teeth the ovoid type makes when smiling. The place, occupied by 
the bicuspid and molar teeth, is made of vulcanite built to the length, 
height, and width of the posterior teeth. The smooth vulcanite places 
representing the occlusal surfaces of the teeth answer all purposes of 
teeth for the time being. 

The treatment plates are now completed, and the patient is ready 
to have the teeth removed. Send the duplicate casts of the edentulous 
case to the exodontist, and instruct him to extract the teeth, and 
smooth the gums. (That sounds better to the patient than any thing 
you may say about surgery of the mouth.) Smoothing the gums 
consists of in addition to extracting: the lifting of the periosteum; 
the removing of the inter-dental spicula of process and about two 
millimeters of the alveolar process at the labial, buccal, and gingival 
border ; the smoothing of any undue prominences of the process 
(such as protruding tuberosities that would interfere with the 
seating of the treatment plate). The same surgical treatment is 
given to the mandible. After the teeth are all set up, the wax plate 
may be removed from the cast, and the exodontist's surgery to the 
area may be applied to the cast with a knife. Then make a dupli- 
cate of the mandibular cast to send to the exodontist, afterwards 
replacing the wax denture, and finishing the case. 

As soon as the bleeding has stopped, insert the treatment plates. 
If there is a discrepancy between your surgical treatment of the 
cast in the laboratory and that actually performed by the exodon- 
tist, 3'ou may trace compound in the treatment plate to fill in the 
discrepancy. This compound may be worn for weeks if necessary. 
Tell the patient that the treatment plates act as a bandage to cover 
up the tender gums, exclude the air, and lessen the pain, and are 
not to be removed for any cause until he or she visits the office 
next day when you will remove them. When the patient arrives 
the next day, these treatment plates are then removed, placed imme- 
diately in a solution of sodium perborate, and allowed to remain 
for a few minutes (5 minutes). By this time, all mucous and sticky 
substances have been loosened from the plates, and are floating 
on the surface of the solution. The solution with the foreign ma- 
terial may be then poured off, the plates rinsed, scrubbed with soap 
and cool water, and placed again in a fresh solution of sodium 
perborate. In the meantime, the patient is given a glass of the 
same luke-warm solution with which to rinse the mouth. Then swab 
the gums with cotton in order to remove the scarf skin and debris. 
Now is the time to look for peripheral soreness, and trim and polish 
the plates if necessary. Reinsert the treatment plates, and dismiss 
the patient with instructions to wear continuously until the next 
day, when you will care for the mouth again as before. After the 
third day, the patient may be trusted to care for the mouth at 
home, but see the mouth every third day for at least two more 
sittings. By that time, all the stitches will have disappeared, and 

62 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

the gums will have assumed a pink, healthy appearance with the 
attending tenderness much reduced. 

The patient can chew his boiled vegetables (mashed i>otatoes) and 
soft foods (bread and milk), and mix them with saliva. This is 
in itself a great aid to digestion. In three weeks, the patient can do 
justice to a well cooked stew, and he will tell you all the things 
that he can do with them. 

After the gums have healed so that there is no chance for infec- 
tion, give this additional instruction to the patient: rub the entire 
area covered by the dentures with the thumb and fingers until the 
gums squeak; (this will loosen the accumulated scarf skin) ; then 
finish by rinsing the mouth with the patient's favorite mouth wash. 

The mouth toilet just described will, in many cases, eliminate 
the offensive breath that is noticeable in some patients who are 
otherwise fastidious and immaculate. This bit of information is 
graciously received by the patient. 

In the clinic that follows, there will be shown much of the 
technic that was given here in my lecture, including a service 
selling talk and a tide-over service that is of benefit to the dentist 
as well as the patient, and that is quite in line with the present 
financial conditions. 

Outline of the Clinic 

1. Service selling talk. 

2. Primary impression taking. 

3. Immediate denture making. 

4. Cast preparation. 

5. Duplicate denture construction. 

6. Insertion of immediate dentures. 

7. Instructions to patient. 

8. Care of the mouth. 

Advantages of Immediate Denture Service 

The advantages of immediate treatment-plate-insertion are many, 
because they : 

1. Cover up the tender gums. 

2. Exclude the air. 

3. Lessen the pain. 

4. Avoid infection from fingers and food. 

5. Enable the dentist to open the mouth (bite) the desired distance 

immediately. (The patient has no idea how dentures should 
feel, and consequently, generally accepts anything he is given.) 

6. Make a rest for the mandible. 

7. Keep the cheeks from sagging and becoming tired. 

8. Keep the jaws from closing too closely, thereby preventing the 

straining of the tempero-mandibular joint. 

9. Keep the patient from getting in the habit of going edentulous. 
10. Give the wearer personal appearance, and enable him to attend 

to business without loss of time during the time his regular 
dentures are being made. 

Containing the Proceedings 63 

11. Do away with the necessitj' of learning how to talk plainly 

when edentulous, and again learning how to talk with dentures. 

12. Keep the lips from shrinking. (Without immediate dentures, 

the upper lip will shrink one-fourth inch in length from the 
nose to the Vermillion border in three weeks. The patient will 
lose the Cupid's Bow, and the lips will become a straight line 
and look severe.) 

13. Prevent wrinkles. 

14. Teach the patient how to wear dentures before getting them. 

15. They are, due to mouth conditions, more bulky than the regular 

plates will be. 

16. Do not traumatize the gums due to the fact that the smooth 

occlusal plates do not interlock like teeth. 

17. Awaken the natural mastication movements necessary because 

the anterior teeth do not contact. 

18. Make limited mastication possible. 

19. Make the change to dentures from treatment plates most 

acceptable. (I compare this to the taking off of storm shoes 
to put on house slippers.) 

20. Relax the lips by continued function, making it possible to 

make the teeth on the new dentures the correct length with a 
permanency of appearance that would be otherwise impossible. 

21. The treatment plates may be kept for use in case of emergency. 

22. Obviate the making of temporary dentures, at a small fee, with 

which the patient is too often satisfied. 

23. Make possible another fee for the rebasing which gives a new 

fit to the dentures. (This fee you are justified in making be- 
cause it takes the place of a fee for temporary dentures.) 

24. Make possible the waiting for, and making of, the regular den- 

tures at full price. 

I thank you. (Applause.) 

President Jackson: 

I wish to thank Dr. Sheffield for this splendid presentation. 
Again let me remind you to have your questions ready for Dr. 
Sheffield's clinic tomorrow afternoon. Do not forget that Dr. 
Camalier will talk tomorrow morning at breakfast on the 
"Dental Education of the Public." I am sure you are all in- 
terested in just that. The trip to Chapel Hill would be worth 
while if you did not get any more than Dr. Camalier's lecture 
tomorrow morning. 

Since the morning general session we have had some friends 
and guests to arrive from other states and I am pleased to 
recognize at this time Dr. Harry Bear, of Richmond. (Ap- 
plause.) Dr. Guy Harrison. (Applause.) Dr. Jennings, of 
Richmond. (Applause.) Are there other guests? We would be 
glad for yoii to stand at this time. 

64 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

You will pardon me, but I am thinking at this time of some 
familiar faces that you and I are accustomed to seeing at our 
m.eetings, and if they were physically able to get here, we 
would most probably see them tonight. They are not here. We 
miss them because they have meant much to I^orth Carolina, 
meant more to the Society as a whole. When you and I were 
much younger than we are, we heard their names connected 
with many of the most recent restorations. They were the 
pioneers of the profession. They are not with us tonight. It 
is no fault of theirs. I am referring to Dr. Charlie Alexander 
of Charlotte and Dr. White of Elizabeth City. Their hearts 
and souls are with us. They are sick, and not able to be here. 
Pardon me for bringing it up myself, but I think the Secretary 
should send them a telegram. 

Dr. F. 0. Alford, Charlotte: 

Mr. President, I make a motion that the Secretary send our 
love and appreciation to Dr. Charles Alexander and to Dr. 
White of Elizabeth City. 

Dr. Neil Sheffield, Greensboro : 

I would like to include Dr. J. S. Wells, of Reidsville. 

Dr. J. C. Watkins, Winston-Salem: 

We should include Dr. H. K. Foster, of Greensboro. 

Dr. T. E. SiJces, Greensboro: 

I would like to include Dr. H. Y. Murray. 

Dr. P. E. HoHon, Winston^ Salem: 

We should send one to Dr. E. G. Clicke, of Elkin. 

President Jachson: 

We must not forget Dr. Dennis Keel. 

The motion was seconded and unanimously carried. 

Is there anything further to come before the I^orth Carolina 
Dental Society at this meeting? (Pause.) If not, I declare 
the Society adjourned until tomorrow morning, eight o'clock at 
Swain Hall. 

The meeting adjourned at 10 :05 p.m., Tuesday, June 6, 1933. 

Containing the Proceedings 65 


Morning Session 

This being a breakfast meeting, the Convention was called to 
order bj President Wilbert Jackson at 8 :35 o'clock, a.m., but 
a few minutes thereafter adjourned to the regular Convention 
Hall on account of the acoustics in Swain Hall. 

President Jachson : 

The Convention will come to order. 

I made the remark some time ago at a meeting of the Pro- 
gram and Executive Committees that if the President or some 
officer of the North Carolina Dental Society should ask some 
one to do something, and he did not do it, I would know right 
away that he was the wrong man, that he was not a member of 
the North Carolina Dental Society. I have not been skeptical 
about this breakfast at all. You always come. I am happy to 
see you here this morning. It shows a real interest, and I 
assure you that you will be repaid. 

There were some announcements concerning the program for 
the remainder of the day, and concerning the entertainment of 
members and guests. 

At this time I am pleased to present to you Dr. John Mc- 
Clung, who will introduce our guest speaker. 

Dr. J. A. McClung, Winston-Salem: 

Mr. President, dentists, and friends of the North Carolina 
Dental Society, I am happy to see so many faces here this 
morning. It is rather surprising to know you can get up so 
early. I know that every one has been delighted with the 
progress of the excellent program we have enjoyed so far. 
We have had so many outstanding speakers on our program, and 
today we have still another. This one really needs no introduc- 
tion, because he is nationally known. He is a Trustee of the 
American Dental Association, and he is also President of the 
National Association of Dental Examiners. He comes to us 
from the National Capital and I am quite sure he has a message 
of still another "New Deal." It gives me great pleasure to 
present Dr. C. Willard Camalier, of Washington, D. C. (Ap- 

66 Bulletin XortJi Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. C. Willard Camalier, D.D.S., F.A.C.D., Washington, D. C: 
President Jackson, Dr. McClung, members of the North Caro- 
lina State Dental Association : I appreciate very much indeed 
being invited to your session this morning. I also appreciate the 
large turn-out that yo\x have. It seems quite a compliment to 
a man to have so many people come out early in the morning 
and I do appreciate it. I am going to talk to you a short while 
this morning. Dr. Jackson has limited me to thirty minutes. 
I had planned to talk three hours, but President Jackson wants 
to close on time, and I will have to restrict myself. (Laughter.) 
It gives me a special pleasure to be here this morning. While 
I come from Washington, my name sounds like it might be 
from the middle of France. My grandmother was born in 
Elizabeth City and my mother was born there. When we took 
up the matter of our vacation, my wife and daughters said that 
they preferred going to Elizabeth City in preference to the 
World's Fair. (Applause.) So, you see, I feel like I am one 
of you. I have come back home. When my old friend. Dr. 
Lineberger, wrote me and sent me the invitation to speak to you 
this morning, I gladly accepted. 

■'Editor's Note: Dr. Camalier bad made arrangements with Dr. 
C. N. Jolmson, editor of the .Journal of the American Dental Associa- 
tion, to have his paper appear in that periodical. It is the policy of 
the Journal of the A. D. A. not to use an article that has previously 
appeared in print. Tlie North Carolina Dental Society does not want 
to either embarrass Dr. Camalier or interfei-e with the policy of tlie 
Journal : ratlier it is our desire to cooperate. Therefore, we re- 
linquish our rights to use this article in our proceedings so that it 
may enjoy a wider distribution in the Journal : we believe such a 
course to be of greater advantage to all concerned.'' 

President Jaclson: 

I wish to thank Dr. Camalier for his splendid presentation. 
I hope you will all benefit thereby. He is a good sport. He 
threatened to talk three' hours, and then quit five minutes ahead 
of the time we allotted him. (Laughter.) 

At this time I am pleased to recognize Dr. Crafford, of the 
Virginia Dental Society. (Applause.) And Dr. Simmons. (Ap- 
plause.) We extend to you the courtesies of the floor. These 
people from Virginia are excellent folks, and they are going to 
start their clinics promptly at eleven o'clock. Be sure and be on 
time. I would like to recognize Dr. Guy Harrison. (Applause.) 
Dr. Holliday, of Richmond. (Applause.) 

Containing the Proceedings 67 

I am sure you remember with pleasure tliat most interesting 
speaker of yesterday morning. He will speak to us again this 
morning. It is our pleasure to again hear Dr. Rickert. 

Dr. U. Garfield Ricl-ert, D.D.S., F.A.C.D., Ann Arbor, Mich.: 


The mauagemeut of pulp involved teeth, infected or noninfected, 
should not be looked upon as a highly specialized branch of operative 
dentistry but rather as a very necessary form of procedure which 
may be satisfactorily handled by the average operator. The results 
obtained through the various technics advocated by the outstanding 
dental schools have proved themselves so satisfactory as to need no 
apology. The technic in use in the clinic of the University of Michi- 
gan School of Dentistry differs very little from that described by 
Dr. Rickert in a symposium printed in Dental Cosmos for March and 
April, 1928. 

In brief the technic is as follows : 

I. Extirpation of vital pulps: 

a. Novocain is used for anesthesia. (Infiltration or block.) 

b. Rubber' dam is used only in cases incapable of keeping dry 

with cotton I'olls. 

c. Pulp chamber is opened sutficiently to give free access to all 


d. Pulp is removed with a barbed broach of suitable size. 

II. Enlarging canals : 

a. Kerr hand root reamers No. 1 to No. 6, properly marked for 

length from radiograph, are used in their respective 
Note: Never try to hurry enlargement by starting with 
larger reamers. Start with No. 1 and continue to No. 5 
or No. 6 in proper sequence. 

b. A canal reamed to No. 6 may be smoother with No. 6 file. 

III. Sealing Canals : 

a. A trial gutta percha cone approximately fitted for length 

and diameter is sealed into the canal and X-rayed. 

b. If cone is correct, it is rolled in a thick, creamy mixture 

of Kerr's root canal sealer and carried into place with a 
slight pumping motion to exclude air droplets. 

c. The first cone is forced to the side of the canal with a Kerr's 

No. 3 root spreader and additional cones are added each 
time the spreader is withdrawn. 
Note: Rotating the spreader before withdrawing will pre- 
vent points from pulling out, and leave a convenient 
opening for inserting the next point. 

d. When no further points can be added, the loose ends are all 

cut off with one sweep of a large hot spoon excavator. 

68 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

IV. Sealing canals with open ends : 

(Jvertilliug may result in undeveloped root ends in young 

patients, or open foramena in adults, unless the opening 

is tirst closed. 
This may be done as follows : 

a. Select a plugger that will pass to within 5 mm. of the apex 

and mark this distance on the plugger. 

b. A stH^'tiou of gutta percha, 3 mm. long, equal in diameter to 

the end of the plugger is tacked to it by heating the 

c. Roll this section in Kerr's sealer and carry to place as indi- 

cated by marker, and X-ray. 

d. The marker may be corrected on a size smaller plugger for 

the distance still to be tilled and the section sealed. 
Note: It is far safer to place the tirst section 2 or 3 mm. 
short of the apex, on account of possible errors in root 
length on the X-ray. If measurements were taken from 
a foreshortened X-ray, for example, the section would be 
carried beyond the apex. 

e. After the open apex is sealed, the remainder of the canal 

may be tilled as previously described. 

V. Treatment of teeth showing apical translucency : 
1st precaution : 

Never attempt to approach the apex of a contaminated canal 
the tirst time the tooth is opened. Toxic material is apt 
to be forced beyond the apex and pain and swelling will 
generally occur. 
1st treatment : 

Formo-cresol sealed into pulp chamber with a kK)se plug of 
cotton and sandarac varnish will constitute the tirst 24 
hours of treatment, 
liud treatment : 

Careful removal of % of canal contents with J and J ab- 
sorbent points or barbed broach followed by another 
2-1-hour dressing of formo-cresol and cotton and san- 
darac varnish seal. (Clean broach and flame before re- 
entering canal.) 
ord treatment : 

Careful removal of remainder of canal contents, with J and 
J absorbent points or broach and seal in treatment of a 
chlorine solution with temporary stopping. 

A canal may be regarded as ready to till when the following 
conditions exist : 

1. No soreness of any kind. 

2. The last dressing should be dry. 

3. There should be no odor coming from canal. 

4. The canal should be properly enlarged and smoother to receive 
the tilling material. Ammonical AgNOs should be reduced in all 
multirooted posterior teeth. 

Containing the Proceedings 69 


Dissolve AsNOi crystals in cone. 28% ammonia until an amber 
cloudy solution is obtained. 

Place a dry i>ai)er point in each canal, and moisten the points with 
solution just made. 

Allow to remain in canal 3 to 5 minutes. 

Remove points, again carry dry points into canal, and moisten with 
eugenol and seal with temporai-y stopping for 24 hours. 

Note: In case unreduced AgNOs should be carried beyond the 
apex, extreme soreness will follow. Therefore, paper points should 
be carefully placed. A canal should never be filled immediately after 
AgNOs reduction in order to be sure no irritation has been set up. 

Anterior Teeth Showing Periapical Destruction 

Where considerable destruction of the pericementum has occurred 
in anterior teeth, it has been found highly satisfactory to resort to 
apectomy immediately following complete sealing of the canal. Com- 
plete bone regenerations have occurred in all cases where the canal 
tilling was perfectly condensed. 

President Jaclson-: 

I wish to thank Dr. Rickert again for his splendid addresses. 

Dr. John Wheeler is recognized at this time to make an an- 
nouncement regarding the meeting of the Resolutions Com- 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler, Greensboro: 

I want the Resolutions Committee to meet me here imme- 
diately following the program this morning, for a few minutes. 
So that you will know who you are, I will read the names of 
the members of the Committee : P. R. Falls, F. O. Alford, A. T. 
Jeanette, and W. L. McRae, and J. Martin Fleming. 

Jresident Jackson: 

We are very sorry that Dr. Dement's train was late this morn- 
ing. Dr. Rickert very kindly consented to exchange time wdth 
him, and Dr. Dement has just arrived. We wall ask Dr. J. A. 
Sinclair to introduce him. 

Dr. J. A. Sinclair, Asheville: 

Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen : After listening to Dr. 
Rickert deliver his splendid address, I will not discourse on 
diagnosis and focal infection. He has simplified to a great 
extent that question. Perhaps some of you who have recently 
read Dr. Kizer's article in the American Journal on his proce- 

70 liulletin yorfh Carolina Denial Sociefij 

dure in the treatment of periodontal lesions, you would think 
perhaps it is a most complicated treatment, and that perhaps 
it is not worth while to attempt it. I assure you that we have 
today a man who is well qualified to present this subject. He 
is President of the Southern Academy of Periodontia, and has 
been for several years. I am sure he will give each and every 
one of you a most complete simplified treatment of periodontal 
lesions. We are fortunate in having Bob Dement with us today 
and if you will pay strict attention, he Avill simplify things. It 
is a great pleasure to present to you Dr. Dement. (xVpplause.) 

Dr. Robert L. Demerit, D.D.S., Atlanta, Georgia: 

Mr. President and Dr. Sinclair, ladies and gentlemen : I am 
sorry I am late this morning. I guess I owe you an apology to 
begin with, but if you have a croAv to pick, pick it with the 
Southern Railroad and not with me. I was on time, but they 
were not. We left Atlanta last night five minutes late. We 
got into Greensboro this morning an hour late, and when I got 
there they said I could get here as quickly on a train as I could 
by automobile, and I took the train. Here I am, very late. 

The program sets forth the subject of "Periodontia" and that 
is too broad to go into in the time allotted to me. To my mind, 
one of the most outstanding subjects that conies under this 
head, is that of Traumatic Occlusion. I have limited my paper 
to that subject, and I hope that this change is entirely satis- 


In approachiniti the subject chosen for this paper it is witli tlie 
realization that it is a point iu tlie practice of dentistry which is 
receiviu.i^ more and more attention from tlie general practitioner, as 
well as from those who specialize in the various branches, and which 
has become a debatable subject with many. 

There are those wlio believe Traumatic Occlusion to be a result of 
Periodontoclasia, and there are also those who are just as thoroughly 
convinced that Traumatic Occlusion is the cause of Periodontoclasia. 
Regardless as to whicli came first, "the chicken or the egg," Trau- 
matic Occlusion is going to be with us as long as we practice den- 
tistrj', in any of its branches, and it is a condition to be reckoned 
with if we are to practice successfully. There is liardly an operation 
upon the teeth which does not have a direct bearing uix)n the occlusal 
relationship — Orthodontia, Exodontia, fillings, occlusal and inter- 
proximal ; bridgework t)f all kinds, and the natural wear of the 

For a number of years, wlien patients have presented with teeth 
slightly loose, and .suffering from trauma in their relationship with 

Containing the Proceedings 71 

the antagonizing teeth, it has been considered good i>ractice to grind 
them until this excessive stress was relieved, and the tooth put at 
rest, but not until the great work of Dr. Paul R. Stillman and Dr. 
John O. McCall, of New York, on Traumatic Occlusion, about twelve 
or fourteen years ago, did we begin to realize the importance of 
an early recognition and relieving of this condition. 

AYhat is Traumatic Occlusion? 

In "Clinical Periodontoclasia," published by Stillman and McCall, 
the definition for Traumatic Occlusion is given as "an abnormal 
occlusal stress which is capable of producing, or has produced, an 
injury to the Periodontium," or the supporting structures of the 
teeth. In all of my reading and study, I have not been able to find 
a better definition. The blood supply to the pericementum, or peri- 
dental membrane, comes through minute capillaries given off from 
the gingiva, alveolar process, and apical vessels. When there is an 
excessive stress placed on a tooth, or teeth, and this stress is allowed 
to remain indefinitely, the supporting structures of the teeth become 
infiamed, as a result of this irritation, and the tone of the tissue 
being lowered, the bacteria, common to so-called Pyorrhea Alveolaris, 
always present in the mouth, invade the tissues, overpower the 
forces of resistance and as a result there is a breaking down of the 
tissue, a pus formation, and we have Pyorrhea Alveolaris, or what 
some refer to as Pericementoclasia. 

Another very common and annoying, as well as painful condition 
occurring in many teeth, from Traumatic Occlusion, is a sensitive- 
ness at the cervical border. There are many cases where a very 
pronounced trauma may exist which will not present this condition 
of sensitiveness, but where sdch a condition does exist, it is wise 
to examine for Traumatic Occlusion, as a probable cause. There 
have been many cases of sensitiveness treated with silver nitrate, 
formalin, ammonium bifluorids compound, or something of the sort, 
then there has been a recurrence of the sensitiveness on account of 
failure in diagnosis. In relieving Traumatic Occlusion in these 
cases, the irritation is removed and sensitiveness disappears, without 
the use of any of the agencies so commonly used to cauterize the 
minute nerve filaments in the tooth structure. 

The type of Periodontoclasia known as Alveoloclasia, has as its 
primary etiological factor Traumatic Occlusion. The tooth may be- 
come extremely loose on account of the absori)tion of the inner wall 
and crest of the Alveolus, due to the constant irritation, or excessive 
pressure from the opposing tooth, or teeth, without having lesions 
or pus pockets to form, but after relieving this pressure by grinding 
off the high spots and putting the tooth at rest (like putting a 
broken arm in a sling), it soon becomes tight and useful, and if the 
adjustment is made carefully, the tooth may remain indefinitely and 
serve the owner well. 1 have seen some of these cases where the 
teeth would have an easy movement of over a sixteenth of an inch 
or more, and then after proi>er adjustment, would be as tight and 
firm as any otlier tooth, and even be used successfully for bridge 

72 BuUeiin North Carolina Dental Society 

This daj' aud time, wlien there are so many men in the dental 
profession, tsiking the oral diagnosis of the physician and extracting 
teeth because they are, commonly called, "dead," and because the 
physician advises that the tootli be removed, instead of making his 
own diagnosis, we should be very careful to test the vitality of the 
tooth showing a rarified area at the ai^ex, where there is no indica- 
tion of a root canal tilling. Very often we And these areas resulting 
from Traumatic Occlusion, and if the occlusion is relieved, the area 
will clear up and show a normal condition in sixty or ninety days. 
I have had many patients with such areas to clear up perfectly and 
remain so. 

A very interesting case presented recently at my office of a man 
about forty-five years of age. He was short in stature, and had a 
very heavy bite. He was complaining of a severe pain in the molar 
region of the lower left side. On examination, I discovered an alloy 
filling recently placed on the buccal side of the third molar, but after 
questioning the patient, eliminated the tilling as a possible cause. 
The gingival tissues appeared very healthy, and from the i)eriodou- 
tium there was nothing to indicate trouble, so to begin with, we 
radiographed this area, to see what we might, or might not find. 
On examination of the radiograph, we discovered a pronounced thick- 
ening of the pericementum at the apex of the third molar. Realizing 
these areas might occur on teeth suffering from non-occlusion, as well 
as those in Traumatic Occlusion, we tested digitally, to see if we 
could detect any movement of the tooth when the teeth were brought 
together, and then marked the relationship of the teeth with articu- 
lating paper. There were no facets worn on the teeth (the occlusion 
in this area, in fact, all over the mouth, had been adjusted about 
three years previously), but since there was a missing first molar, 
which had not been replaced by a bridge, the teeth had drifted aud 
the upper third molar was driving the lower third distally and also 
heavily into its alveolus. To avoid removing more tooth structure 
than was absolutely necessary, we proceeded to grind very carefully, 
removing a small amount at a time. After the first grinding, the 
patient said it felt better, and he believed that was the cause of the 
trouble. A few days later, he came back reporting more pain, but 
not as severe. AVe ground a little more, and then on a later visit, 
a little more and more again. He is now comfortable and thankful 
he did not have to lose the tooth. 

Food-wedging is one of the most potent irritants the Periodontist 
has to deal with in tl>e treatment of vertical, or complex, perio- 
dontitis, or Periodontoclasia. This condition is brought about by teeth 
being driven apart, at the contact point, during mastication, by a 
tooth or teeth in the opposing arch. This results not only in an 
injury to the gingival tissue in the interproximal space from the 
wedging of food, but also causes an injury to the entire periodontium 
of the tooth or teeth. Bj' properly adjusting the occlusal relationship, 
this food-wedging can very often be relieved, but at times, when teeth 
have lost much of their alveolar support, we find adjusting occlusion 
insulficient, and inlays, even interlocking inlays, have to be re- 
sorted to. 

Containing the Proceedings 73 

Causes of Traumatic Occlusion 

Traumatic Occlusion, through irritation, produces a lowering of 
tissue tone throughout the i>eriotloutium of the tooth, and thus invites 
an invasion of the pyogenic organisms. These organisms are found 
in the human mouth at about six hours of age and are present 
throughout life. It matters not how hard we try, these organisms 
cannot be eliminated from the mouth, but will remain there, ever 
awaiting an opiwrtunity to invade and break down the tis^-ues. 

Traumatic Occlusion may be produced in several ways: (1) By 
mal-occlusion, teeth striking at an incorrect angle. (.2) Inharmonious 
wear, which results from the character of food eaten this day and 
time, and the way we use our teeth. (3) Drifting, after extraction or 
from wearing of contact points. (4) Restorative defects, such as 
tilliugs, crowns, bridges, and dentures, failing in an harmonious 
occlusal relation with the opposing teeth. (5) Abnormal cogenital 
tooth form, abnormal shape of occluding surfaces, abnormal position 
or number of cusps. (6) Habits of occlusion. 

How TO Detect Traumatic Occlusiox 

Up until the time Drs. Stillman and McCall did their outstanding 
^vork on Traumatic Occlusion, we only recognized this condition 
where a tooth moved perceptibly in the socket, but now we endeavor 
to prevent such conditions by early recognition and correction of 
occlusal defects. 

There are several aids to the detection of Traumatic Occlusion, 
^■uch as, X-ray, transillumination, facet formation, study models, roll- 
ing of gingival margin, etc. The X-ray and transillumination will 
show the thickening of the pericementum and maybe, in extreme 
cases, the rarified areas at the apices of teeth. These conditions are 
then to be checked, as you would facet-formation, by digital exami- 
nation. In making the digital test, the index linger of the right 
hand is allowed to rest very lightly across two or more teeth, as a 
rule, in the upi>er arch, so as not to come in contact with the teeth 
of the opposing arch. The arches are brought together three or four 
times in rapid succession, with a snap, and the tooth suffering from 
Traumatic Occlusion will be moved out of line, more or less, by the 
impact. This reveals to the operator the tooth receiving the excessive 
stress, but it does not indicate where the tooth, or teeth, should be 
ground to relieve the stress. The articulating paper is then placed 
between the teeth in question and the patient asked to close tightly, 
and if necessary, rub the teeth together with a very slight movement 
of the mandible. This marks the ix)int where the teeth are coming 
in contact and from a knowledge of mechanics, the operator de- 
termines the point, or i>oiuts, to be ground for relief. 

In some cases the presence of Traumatic Occlusion may be detected 
macroscopically, that is when the teeth are brought Ajgcther with 
a snap, the tooth or teeth are driven out of line in the arch and it 
is very easily seen. 

In the normal gingival tissue there is an even contour from the 
buccal fold to the gingival border, the marginal gingiva terminating 
in a knife-like edge which clings closely to the tootli. The color of 

74 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

the ginjjival tissue runs from a deep piuk, at the buccal fold, to a 
pale piuk in the alveolar, cemeutal and marginal gingiva. When 
Traumatic Occlusion begins, the gingival tissue, on account of the 
irritation, becomes inflamed and there is noted, in the marginal 
gingiva, a rounding of the border, or what is sometimes referred to 
as a "bellying out" of the gingival border. This is one of the early 
signs of Traumatic Occlusion, and, along with facet formation is an 
indication that treatment should be begun for its relief before 
periodontal lesions begin, and the tooth becomes loose. 

How TO Relieve Traumatic Occlusion 

The maxilla, mandible, teeth, tongue, cheeks and lips form the 
masticating mechanism and since this is a piece of machinery, we 
must be mechanics or understand mechanical principles in order that 
we might properly adjust the machine. I can think of no other 
operation in dentistry which requires more painstaking care, with 
patience and perseverance, than does the adjusting of the occlusal 
relationship. There is no operation in dentistry which is fraught 
with more danger to the masticating mechanism than the operation 
of adjusting the occlusal relation. 

There are three different ways of adjusting the occlusal relation- 
ship : With orthodontia appliances ; building up or opening the bite 
with crowns, inlays and bridges, or by grinding the teeth into 
proper adjustment. In some cases all three can be used to advantage. 

In grinding, after getting study models, where necessary, and 
studying the conditions to determine the mechanics of the case ; with 
articulating paper, the contacting points between the teeth in the 
arches are marked to determine the exact point, or points, to be 

In grinding, we use slow-cutting small stones, unless there is quite 
a bulk of tooth structure to be removed, to avoid over-grinding. The 
grinding is done under a stream of water to avoid pain from over- 
heating. The stones are kept moving constantly in order that we might 
not grind to flat surfaces, but keep the surface contoured. At all times, 
try to maintain correct anatomical form of the tooth on mesial, 
buccal, distal and lingual for proper food deflection, and on the 
occlusal surface for proper food escapement. After the use of 
stones the teeth should be ix)lished thoroughly with very fine polish- 
ing discs, and finished with Burlew wheels in order to maintain a 
more smooth and comfortable action of the teeth in mastication 
during the various oscillating movements of the mandible. 

Since it takes five millimeters of wear in the region of the central 
incisors to compensate for one millimeter of wear in the region of the 
third molar, it is advisable to begin adjusting of the occlusal relation- 
ship with the six anteriors and gradually work back to the posterior 
teeth. Relieving the stress in centric occlusion first, then in eccentric 
occlusion. There is comparatively little pressure exerted in eccentric 
occlusion, but in centric occlusion some investigators have estimated 
that the average person exerts from one hundred and fifty pounds, 
or more, in the region of the anterior teeth, to three hundred pounds, 
or more, in the region of the third molar, so the injury to the 

Containing the Proceedings 75 

periodoutium, Avlieve traumatic occlusion exists, in centric occlusion, 
is much greater and should be very thoroughly balanced. 

In relieving occlusion in the anterior, where the posterior teeth 
are present, and with a normal over-bite, there should be enough 
space, or over-jet, between the upper and lower teeth, when the 
arches are brought together in normal centric occlusion, to pass a 
strip of ordinary writing paper without tearing. On the various 
excursive movements of the mandible, if possible, relieve all tripping 
of anterior teeth. In grinding the anterior teeth all of the spot 
marked by the articulating paper is ground, while in the posterior 
of the mouth, the grinding is done, as a rule, on the margin of the 
marks and in a way to relieve binding of fiat surface against flat 
surface. In other words, we endeavor to restore the normal contour 
of the cusps or occlusal surface and produce an easy, harmonious 
action in mastication. 

After adjusting the relationship as closely as possible in this way, 
with ordinary pink base plate wax, softened slightly with hot water, 
have the patient bite into it, using quite a bit of pressure. Where 
the teeth are striking hardest, the wax will be perforated, then by 
checking back with thin articulating paper, these spots may be 
marked and by checking spots with wax, we may determine exactly 
where to polish for a complete finishing of the case. 

In some very difficult cases it is also recommended that pumice 
be incorporated in chewing gum and have the patients do their own 
grinding. The objection found to this, is the danger of wearing more 
facets, and the Lord didn't intend having flat surfaces working 
against each other in mastication, but instead, the surfaces are sup- 
posed to be round, or somewhat contoured. 

After thoroughly adjusting the occlusion, leaving the tooth sur- 
faces well polished, the condition should be checked from time to 
time, especially for the flrst year, as there will be a slight drifting, 
more than likely, and it may be necessary to readjust slightly in a 
few spots. Then the relationship should be checked at less frequent 
intervals since there is bound to be wear and drifting going on all 
of the time. 

I thank you. (Applause.) 

President Jackson: 

I thank you, Dr. Dement, for this sj)lendid presentation. 

Mr. Russell M. Grumman was recognized and made some 
announcements on behalf of the Entertainment Committee. 

We are running thirty minutes behind, due to no fault of 
ours. You will go immediately to the clinics. Those clinics 
will progress every thirty minutes. This afternoon at two 
o'clock you will have the progressive clinics again. Be on time 
at those clinics, and give the clinicians a chance to present their 
clinics orderly. Dr. John is located in up stairs room number 
nine. Dr. Holliday is in the rehearsal room as you go out of 


76 BuJletin North CaroUyia Denial Society 

the auditorium. Dr. Crafford is on the other side of the hall. 

The House of Delegates meets at twelve o'clock, in the audi- 
torium. Be here for that meeting, by all means. You will go 
to the clinics. 

The meeting adjourned at 11 :30 o'clock, a.m., Wednesday, 
June 7, 1933. 


Meeting of House of Delegates 

The meeting of the House of Delegates was called to order at 
12 :00 o'clock noon, by President Jackson. 

President Jachson: 

The House of Delegates will please come to order. What is 
your pleasure? Are there any committees to report? Has any- 
body anything to oiler? 

Dr. E. B. Howie, Raleigh: 

I would like to read the report of my committee. This is 
the report of the Extension Course Committee. 


On account of the unprecedented economic conditions, tliere have 
been no activities on the part of the Extension Course Committee. 

We recommend that a similar committee be appointed for the 
coming year for we are of the opinion tliat something worth while 
can, later on, be developed. 

E. B. HowLE, Chairman. 
J. M. Johnson, 

D. F. Keel, 

A. H. Fleming, 

E. A. Branch. 

Dr. Z. L. Edwards, Washington: 
I move that the report be accepted. 

Dr. C. C. Bennett, Asheville: 
I second the motion. 
The motion was unanimously carried. 

Containing the Proceedings '?< 

Dr. E. B. Howie: 

It has come to my attention that some of the secretaries of 
the districts feel that some of the members who have been de- 
prived of their membership by reason of nonpayment of dues 
could be persuaded to come back into the Society provided we 
offered them some inducement to come back, and I would like 
to make a motion that the secretaries of the various districts 
be appointed as a committee to look into the matter and report 
back to the next meeting of this body their findings for action 
at that time. 

Dr. C. T. ^Yells, Canton: 
I second the motion. 

President Jackson: 

Is there any discussion? 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

Dr. A. T. Jeanette, Washington: 

This is the report of the Eesolutions Committee. First I want 
to read you a letter written to Dr. Pridgen by Dr. H. E. 
Friesell : 


School of Dentistky 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Office of the Dean ,r n -ioqq 

May 9, IdSd. 

Dr. D. L. Pridgen, 

Secretary North Carolina Dental Society, 

Fayetteville, N. C. 

Dear Dr. Pridgen: .,. ^ ■, , ,. 

The Commission on Medical Education recently published a book 

with which you are no doubt familiar. It devoted two pages to 

dentistry and came to the conclusion that dentistry should be de- 
veloped under medical education. 

I am enclosiug copy of a resolution passed by the Pennsylvania 
State Dental Society last week, covering this matter. A resolution 
similar in purport was recently passed by the Dental Educational 
Council and also the American Association of Dental Schools at its 
Chicago meeting. The dental profession should respond to this 
unfounded attitude of certain representatives of the medical pro- 
fession, and I think it would be well if you could have a similar 
resolution adopted by the North Carolina State Dental Society which 
I understand meets at Chapel Hill about the second week m .June. 

78 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

If you can't do this yourself, would you turn it over to someone else 
and see that it is acted upon? 

If your Society does act favorably upon it, I can furnish you with 
the addresses of the various Deans and other authorities mentioned 
in the resolution to whom copies of your State Society's action should 
be sent. 

Cordially yours, 

(Signed) H. E. Fkiesell. 

We have liere a formal resolution. I will read it. 

Whereas, a commission representing the Association of American 
Medical Colleges, and known as the Commission on Medical Educa- 
tion, which has been conducting a study of medical education, has 
published in book form a "Final Report of the Commission on Medi- 
cal Education," and 

Whereas, on pages 216-217 of said Final ReiX)rt the Commission 
records its opinions that "dentistry should be developed under 
medical education," and 

Whereas, no evidence is available of any effort on the part of the 
Commission to discuss this subject with an existing similar com- 
mission, known as "The Committee on Survey of the Dental Curricu- 
lum," with the American Association of Dental Schools, or with any 
authoritative body, interested in and familiar with, dental education 
or "dentistrj%" and 

Whereas, the conclusions of the Commission on Medical Education 
concerning dentistry are most astonishing : 

Therefore, be it Resolved, that the North Carolina Dental Society 
in annual session convened does hereby unanimously disapprove of 
the actions and suggestions of the Commission on Medical Education, 
for the subjugation of the dental profession. Such suggestions are 
neither impressive nor persuasive ; are hopelessly illogical, would 
degrade dentistry and demoralize dental service, and 

Be it Further Resolved, that copies of this resolution be sent to 
the Council on Medical Education of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, to the members of the Commission on Medical Education, to 
the American Association of Dental Schools, and to the deans of the 
medical and dental schools in North America, and to leading journals 
in medicine, dentistry, and other health-service professions. 

J. H. Wheeler, 
P. R. Falls, 
F. O. Alford, 
A. T. Jeanette, 
W. L. McRae. 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler, Greenslioro: 

Do you want to act on these items individually or hear them 
all first? 

President Jaclson: 

We had better act on them separately. 

Containing the Proceedings 79 

Dr. J. E. Wheeler: 

Your committee recommends t]ie adoption of tliat form that 
Dr. Jeanette has just read. Dr. Guy has expressed that in one 
sentence that tells the whole story. He says, "Independence with 
inter-dependence." There is no reason under the shining sun at 
this late day, after spending years building up a profession, 
we should have to come in and take a part of our education 
from them. You all know Dr. Guy. The two professions have 
been developed separately, realizing they are dependent one 
upon the other. I see absolutely no reason why we should con- 
form to the recommendations of the report placing us in subjec- 
tion in any way to training from the medical profession. I move 
the adoption of the resolution. 

President Jachson: 

You have heard the motion. Is there any discussion ? 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming, Raleigh: 
I second the motion. 
The motion was unanimously adopted. 

Dr. A. T. Jeanette: 

I have here a letter from the American Dental Association 
to Dr. Pridgen. The letter is as follows: 

March 10, 1933. 

Dr. D. L. Pridgen, 
Fayetteville, North Carolina. 
Dear Doctor Pridgen : 

The Organization and Membership Committee recently held its 
first meeting to further discuss the membership plan adopted by the 
House of Delegates at the Buffalo meeting. A copy of this plan was 
sent you some time ago in order that you might become acquainted 
with the details of it. While the plan appears lengthy and complicated 
its actual operation is quite simple. 

We wish to call your attention to the fact that a standing resolu- 
tion covering your participation in the membership contest will be 
just as effective as an amendment to your constitution and by-laws. 
Some of the states prefer to use such a resolution rather than to 
change their constitutions. 

We shall be glad to know of any further action taken by your 
State in regard to the membership plan. 

With kindest regards, 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) H. B. Pinney, 
Secretary, Organization and, Membership Committee. 

80 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler: 

Mr. President, I have read that plan, and I believe the sixteen 
pages can be boiled down to this : If I make an error, somebody 
correct me. This is a contest for members in the American 
Dental Association. They have not yet decided just how this 
contest will be conducted. It is possible that they will divide 
the members of the American Dental Association into two sec- 
tions. One section will consist of those societies having five 
hundred members and over. The other will have five hundred 
or less, but the scaling of the points will be judged according 
to a pro rata membership basis. For instance, North Carolina 
has five hundred members. If New York has five thousand 
members, and North Carolina should gain one hundred and 
New York two hundred, North Carolina would far exceed 
New York in the prorata membership gain. The idea of this 
is that they want this done and done right away if we are going 
to do it, which I feel sure we will. If you are going to make 
a resolution, the resolution can be nullified at any time. If we 
make it as an amendment to the constitution, it will have to 
lay over for a year before anything can be done. The American 
would like to have action right away. I think that the plan 
contemplates that any new members coming in will not be 
charged any dues for the first year. Suppose we get thirty and 
suppose we lose fifteen of that thirty. That leaves us with a 
gain of fifteen. I think the plan is worth while. I do not knoAv 
just what our membership is, but I do know that approximately 
fifty per cent of the men practicing dentistry in the State are 
members of this Society. If we can get half of the other fifty 
per cent, you see what it would mean to us. If we can build up 
the membership of the Society, then I think we ought to carry 
out Dr. Howie's motion. The committee recommends the adop- 
tion of the resolution to follow the American plan. 

Dr. A. T. Jeanette: 

Dr. Wheeler, could I interrupt here? I wanted to make it 
clear that you recommended the adoption of a resolution rather 
than doing this by changing the by-laws? I believe that would 
come in the same thing you were talking about. We submit that 
to the House of Delegates. 

Containing the Proceedings 81 


Whereas : The American Dental Association by formal action of 
the House of Delegates in annual session, assembled September 12- 
16, 1932, adopted a definite plan to increase and maintain its mem- 
bership and that of its Constituent State Societies ; and 

Whereas : The House of Delegates adopted the necessary amend- 
ments to the Constitutional and Administrative By-Laws of the 
American Dental Association to provide for a Standing Committee 
on Organization and Membership to direct the operations of this 
plan which involves the establishment of an annual membership 
contest between the Constituent State Dental Societies (as shown 
by the description of the plan herewith attached) ; and also, provides 
a method of coordinating all of the Dental Colleges, the Boards of 
Dental Examiners and Constituent Dental Societies of all the States 
with the Home Office of the American Dental Association to make 
the membership plan efCective; and 

Whereas : The North Carolina Dental Society is a duly authorized 
constituent state unit of the American Dental Association and is 
favorable to any constructive measures that will enhance the effec- 
tiveness of organized dentistry ; Now therefore be it 

Resolved : That North Carolina Dental Society in annual session 
assembled, officially approves the annual membership contest plan of 
the American Dental Association as herewith attached, and pledges 
the loyal cooi>eration of this Society to a successful realization of 
all the features of the plan ; and be it further 

Resolved : That in order to insure the effectiveness of the co- 
operation of this Society the following specific items are recom- 
mended for adoption : 

1. That necessary admendments to the Constitution and By-Laws 
of this Society be adopted to provide for the cancellation of any 
membership fee and the remission of the annual dues of this Society 
to initially licensed dental graduates for the remainder of the year 
of issue, of the dental license and the next year succeeding the year 
the dental license is issued, and that the district component societies 
of this Society be urged to cancel their membership fees, and remit 
their annual dues to initially licensed dentists for a like period of 

2. That the Bulletin of this Society be mailed complimentary to 
newly licensed dentists for a period of time approved by the Execu- 
tive Committee of this Society. 

3. That the Secretary of the North Carolina State Board of Dental 
p]xa miners be requested to annually supply a complete list of licensed 
dentists practicing dentistry in this State, and also, annually supply 
a complete list of newly licensed dentists immediately after the dental 
licenses have been issued, to the General Secretary of the American 
Dental Association, and to the Secretary of this Society. 

4. That this Society establish and maintain an annual member- 
ship contest between the component district dental societies of this 
State, and that each annual membership campaign be held the latter 
part of each calendar year. Also, that this membership contest 
involve the same factors as provided for in the national membership 

82 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Socielj/ 

t'oati'st iiiulcr tlu' auspices of the American Dental Association, viz. : 
tbe i>ercentajie of dentists secured witliin tlie time limit as fixed by 
tlie officials of this Society and the official representatives of the 
respective district component dental societies of tliis State. 

5. Tliat this Society herewith authorizes an annual conference of 
official rei>resenta fives of its district component societies with (tfflcials 
of this Society to insure unity of action in the annual membership 

6. That established dentists, eligible for membership be given 
guest's privileges of one annual meeting of this Society before being 
solicited to become members. 

7. Tliat a list of newly licensed dentists in this State be published 
each year in the official Bulletin of this Society and that locations 
selected for practice by the new dentists be published in the State 
Society Bulletin as news items. 

8. That a list of the district comiwnent societies of this State 
arranged in the order of their percentage standing in the membership 
contest be published in each issue of the official publication of this 

9. That the officials of this Society be instructed to cooperate in 
every way with the Committee on Organization and Membership of 
the American Dental Association to insure the success of the annual 
membership contest ; and be it further 

Resolved, That this Resolution be recorded in the minutes of tliis 
Societ.v and a copy thereof be mailed to the Secretary of the Com- 
mittee on Organization and Membership of the American Dental 
Association at the Home Office in Chicago. 

President Jacl'son : 

You have heard the recommendation of the Resolutions Com- 
mittee. Is there any further discussion? 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler: 
I move its adoption. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 
I second the motion. 

Dr. F. 0. Alford, Charlotte: 

If we are going to do that, take in men not members, it seems 
to me that it should include suspended members. 

President Jacl'son: 

The doctor made a motion to take care of that. It will be 
taken in mind. 

Containing the Proceedings S3 

Dr. F. 0. Alford: 

I don't think it is right to take in a man never a member of 
the Society or paid dues to the Society unless you make some 
jDrovision for the suspended members too. 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler: 

These are all new men coming out of college. We have this 
point of contact from the senior year in college. The point of 
contact is for the purpose of reaching through from the dental 
college until the time they are in the American Dental Asso- 
ciation. These men suspended, I do not see that they are entitled 
to a year's dues. 

Dr. F. 0. Alford: 

We discussed that at the meeting just now. I understood that 
would include all the men practicing in the State. 

President Jachson : 

I understand it includes only the men coming out of dental 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler: 

I understood it to include the men practicing in the State 
who have never been members of the Society. 

President Jackson: 

I made a study of it, and I think that it only includes the new 
men who have just graduated. The dues are limited to the first 
year, the remaining part of this year and next year. I under- 
stand that the new men practicing the profession will be taken 
into the Society. These men are coming out of the dental col- 
leges every year. As I understand it, the colleges will furnish 
the names to the State societies as they are graduated, and 
we can maintain an unbroken chain of contact from the dental 
school on' into the Society. I understand this is for the new 

Dr. F. 0. Alford: 

That was my opinion. We decided over there that this applied 
to all the men practicing. That is in accord with the resolution 
we prepared and tabled last year for action at this meeting. 

84 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. J. N. Johnson: 

Just what does that year iuchule? Does that mean that those 
graduates get a year's dues from this meeting, or just what? 
Does it mean for fi^-e or seventeen months? 

President Jaclson: 

I understand that they are to be accorded membership for 
the remaining part of this year and for next year. 

Dr. P. E. Jones, Farmville: 

Right in that connection, I M'ant to find out this : Who pays 
the American the dues for next year for those men we are 
going to carry? As I understand the proposition as presented 
on the floor of the American Dental Association, they expect 
us to pay the dues for the year. They are asking us to carry 
those fellows for seventeen months while they only carry them 
for six months. I think there is a discrepancy in there, and we 
ought to check into that. 

President Jack-son: 

It is not exactly clear, the whole thing. I cannot carry the 
Avhole thing in my head. If these are carried along, should the 
North Carolina Dental Society pay the dues to the American, 
which is four dollars? Then would the district components 
remit to the State Society? If they pay the four dollars which 
is paid them for the Journal and membership in the A. D. A., 
would that have to be done by the House of Delegates? 

Dr. P. E. Jones: 

We are obligated, because the by-laws say we have to have 
membership in the J^orth Carolina Society to have membership 
in the American. 

Dr. P. E. Morton, Winston-Salem: 

I was just thinking about that. We ought to think about this : 
Have we a right to do away with our Constitution and By-Laws 
by resolution when we drive into such a thing Dr. Paul Jones 
is talking about ? We can do that, but do we have to put up 
four dollars to carry them in the American, when the American 
is requesting this action? 

Containing the Proceedings^ 85 

Dr. P. E. Jones: 

I think it is all right to do that for a half year, if that is 
necessary, but I do feel like it is asking too much of us if they 
are asking us to pay for the whole seventeen months. 

President Jackson: 

I am frank to tell you that I do not believe the House of 
Delegates will do it. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

You have a motion to accept that. I will make a motion that 
the details be left to the Executive Committee because we won't 
get into a controversy like that. 

President Jackson: 

You have heard the naotion stated and discussed. Is there 
any further discussion? (Pause.) 

The motion was carried. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

I move that the details of the working out of the plan be left 
to the Executive Committee but let them know we are opposed 
to carrying them in the Anaerican. 

Preside tit Jackson: 

The Executive Committee is now composed of Dr. Z. L. 
Edwards, Dr. Clayton, and Dr. Olive. I do not know whom 
Dr. Branch will appoint, but I feel that these are men that will 
use their good judgment in this matter. I think you can leave 
this question to them, and they will take care of it in a manner 
of which you will api:)rove. 

Dr. H. L. Keith, Wilmington: 

May I ask if you passed this motion, the first motion, that 
would carry with it Ave should have to permit this thing Ave 
have been discussing? 

President Jackson: 

The motion of Dr. Fleming prevailed, and the details will be 
left to the Executive Committee. 

86 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. A. T. Jeanette: 

I have a letter here from the American Dental Association 
signed bj the Business Manager for the Association, Dr. L. T. 
Claridge. I will read it to you. 

May 12, 1933. 
Dr. D. L. Pridgen, 
Fayetteville, North Carolina. 
Dear Dr. Pridgen : 

You no doubt have read the editorial on "Mail Order Dentistry" 
which appeared in the May issue of the Journal. On the following 
pages you will find a reproduction of newspaper articles and adver- 
tisements which show the development to date. 

Nothing could better illustrate what could happen if advertising 
were universally adopted by the dental profession. It would seem 
that the development of "Mail Order Dentistry" thoroughly sustains 
the stand that has always been taken against such practice by the 
profession at large. 

We would like to invite your attention to the proposed plan ex- 
plained on pages A16-A17 of the May issue relative to advertising 
api>earing in the Journal. We would appreciate your comment and 
support, if this plan meets with your approval, by bringing it to the 
attention of the membership whenever possible. 

It would seem that it would require but little effort on the part 
of the membership to make this plan effective and definitely beneficial 
to the profession. 

Yours very truly, 

By (Signed) L. T. CLARmoE, 

Business Manager. 

I read this to you to be answered by the Secretary. We 
recommend that it be answered by the Secretary of the Asso- 

President JacTcson: 

Do you recommend that it be answered favorably, as he 
Avants you to answer it, or that the answer be against it ? 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler: 

The letter does not carry very much except asks us to agree 
with their plan as set out in the Journal. A lot of you fellows 
have seen this stuff. It is sent out by what we call the ^'Mail 
Order Dentists." They send you some modeling compound and 
you press that around your teeth and send it back and send 
them a check for about three ninety-eight and they send you 

Containing the Proceedings 87 

a plate gaiaranteed to fit. As I understand this, the American 
ia trying to get something started to prevent this. As I under- 
stand it, they want to get our endorsement. We practically did 
that down at Elizabeth City last year Avhen we hopped on this 
advertising business that was oj^posed by the committee of the 
A. D. A. If anybody wants to know how we feel about adver- 
tising, they ought to come to ISTorth Carolina and find out. We 
do not condone it in any fashion. Our State body is doing the 
best work it ever did in the recent fight against the fellow in 
Asheville. I suggest that Ave refer this letter to Dr. Pridgen 
to answer and say that the jSTorth Carolina Dental Society 
will do everything it can to help stop this type of advertising. 

Dr. C. C. Bennett, Asheville: 

I took it on myself to get hold of a sample of this advertising- 
just to see what it really was and just what they are using. I 
ordered some of it. They are using Truebyte molds, shade 
guides, and everything. I wish it were possible to call upon 
the manufacturers of these teeth to interfere in some way with 
their advertising. They are sending out circulars with the 
Truebyte teeth and forms and everything. I would like for our 
Secretary to write to the manufacturers of these teeth and ask 
them to take some action demanding that they not use this 
particular method. It might do some good. 

President Jackson: 

Do you make that as a motion? 

Dr. A. T. Jeanette: 

There was not a motion. I will make that motion, that the 
Secretary investigate it. If I understand it correctly, they 
have these shade guides and molds copyrighted and if this cut- 
throat gang is using them, then they have the right to step 
in and cut out the jjractice. I move that the Secretary call the 
matter to the attention of the manufacturers and see if they 
will make an effort to stop it. 

Dr. C. C. Bennett: 

I second the motion. 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

88 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. A. T. Jeanette: 

It seems that some of the recommendations made in the 
President's Address would come under the Resolutions Com- 
mittee. The first one has been already taken care of. The 
second is that the Legislative Committee make a special study 
of the dental laws as they now appear on the statute books of 
ISTorth Carolina M'ith a view to strengthening same. That the 
committee be empowered to employ such legal assistance as 
they may need to properly interpret the law and to assist in 
framing whatever bill in their opinion may be needed to make 
our law more effective; that the committee make a report of 
their findings and recommendations at the next annual meeting 
of the North Carolina Dental Society. Third, that Ave amend 
the By-Laws to provide for the Executive Committee the power 
to designate an approved depository for the funds of the Society 
including the relief fund. Fourth, that we amend the By-Laws 
to provide that the Secretary-Treasurer of the A^arious districts 
must make a final report to the chairman of the Executive 
Committee within fifteen days after the annual meeting; that 
said report shall contain a complete list of the members in his 
district from which he has collected dues, the year for AA'hich 
dues were collected, and the total amount collected. Fifth, that 
we amend the By-Laws to provide that the Secretary-Treasurer 
of each district be bonded by the State Society to the amount 
of one thousand dollars. 

President JacTxSon: 

Dr. J^ixon, Avill you take the chair ? 

Dr. A. T. Jeanette: 

Dr. Wheeler, I believe we decided to submit these to the 
Society for action? 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler: 

Yes. What Avas the first one ? 

Dr. A. T. Jeanette: 

The adoption of the plan of the A. D. xV., by resolution rather 
than changing the By-Laws. 

Containing the Proceedings 


Dr. J. H. Wheeler: 

We have passed on that. Will you read the second recom- 
mendation again? 

Dr. A. T. Jeanetfe: 

That the Legislative Committee make a special study of the 
dental laws as they now^ appear on the statute books of North 
Carolina with a view to 'strengthening same. 

President Jaclson: 

Mr. Vice-President: You know Dr. Johnson is quite an 
active man on the Legislative Committee and my hat is off to 
every member of that Legislative Committee and they did not 
fall "down a time. They did everything and did it well. As I 
told you yesterday morning in my address, we thought we had 
a perfect set of laws. I have talked to Dr. Jarrett of Charlotte 
about this thing, and we found that we needed only eight words 
added to only one section of our dental laws to make them more 
effective. My point was this : Our laws seem to be perfect, but 
we found one place where by adding eight words, our law was 
materially strengthened. The Legislative Committee did its 
work and did it well, but they did not have a lawyer to help 
them and point out where the changes could be made in our 
law to strengthen it. I am not reflecting on any member of that 
committee, or upon the committee as a whole, or any of its 
work, which I think has been splendid, but these men have not 
had the means whereby to employ a lawyer to look into these 
things and bring them to our attention. A special situation con- 
fronted the dentists in Charlotte. Those boys down there saw 
something had to be done and went out and hired a lawyer and 
he told them where they could add eight words and get the 
results they wished. If we can strengthen our laws, we ought 
to do it. i think the committee ought to investigate our laws 
and if we can make them better, we should do it, but if they 
are as good as they can be made, then we should leave them 
alone. (Applause.) 

Dr. C. C. Bennett, Asheville: 

After having gone through with this thing in regard to Dr. 
Owen, we find that after the Board has made up their decision, 
that in our law there is no method of appeal. In other words, 
the man whose license is revoked is not supposed to be able or 

90 Bulletin Norih Carolina Denial Society 

does not have any definite time as to when he can perfect 
his appeal to the court. So, having lived through this thing, 
that our law at the present time is a deplorable thing Avith which 
to attempt to govern dentistry. The Board of Examiners re- 
voked this man's license. He has from now on to perfect his 
appeal. He does not have to give bond for the expense they 
have been put through in the event he loses. I think our law 
should be gone over thoroughly. We •have a very poor thing 
with which to convict a man and let him go right on practicing, 
with no limit to the time in which he should perfect his appeal, 
I want to see this resolution passed. 

Dr. E. B. Howie, Raleigh: 

I was in that fight with Dr. Bennett in Raleigh. I think that 
when we get through with this case we will probably know 
where we stand. We have no law at all to go on. That has 
come up two or three times in recent years. Our laws in some 
way ought to more definitely define just what is practicing 
dentistry and just what is laboratory work. Our statute is 
shadowy along that line. Just how far the laboratory man 
may go without getting into the field of actually practicing 
dentistry is very shadowy and there are some other points that 
come up which should be made more clear. For instance, the 
prosecution of a man for irregular practice of dentistry is a 
criminal prosecution. But any action the court might take 
about revoking the license is a civil action and ^'•ou get into a 
mass of legal technicalities on those civil actions. In other 
words, Dr. Bennett spoke about the matter of appeal. So far as 
I see it, the only Avay we could force action on a man continuing 
to practice after his license has been revoked, would be a 
criminal action against him, and you have to fight it all around 
again. If you get the law to study it, I think you could do right 
much with it. I think dentistry should be clearly defined. I 
think we should get a good lawyer to tell us just what is wrong. 
When you get that done, you will have a better law than you 
have now. 

Dr. H. E. Nixon: 

Is there any other discussion ? 

The motion was made, seconded, and unanimously carried. 

Dr. A. T. Jeanette: 

I have one more resolution. 

Containing the Proceedings 91 

"Be it Resolved, that for the benefit of the members of the North 
Carolina Dental Society, that the Society issue each member a 
certificate of membership annually suitable for framing, together 
Avith a membership card upon the payment of annual dues." 

We had in mind in making this resolution that if you go into 
the average physician's office you find a good many certificates 
hanging around. You find one from the American Medical 
Association, and this and that, and the other. It really gives 
you a feeling of comfort when you get in there. I feel like it 
would be helpful to the Society to have a certificate to frame. 
We put this in the form of a resolution from the Resolutions 

President Jackson: 

You have heard the resolution. What will you do with it? 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

I have been back in membership in the Society further than 
most of you. We used to have such a rule. We had a nice certifi- 
cate hanging up in the office. We found it was taking the place 
of the license. When the sheriff came by to inspect the license, 
they pointed to the certificate and said, "I have it." But I 
think our annual check-up by renewal of the license would be a 
stop to the danger of that. I move the adoption of the resolution. 

Dr. J. T. LasJey, Greensboro: 
I second the motion. 

President Jackson : 

Is there any further discussion ? 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler, Greensboro : 

Following up Dr. Fleming's history, Avhich is very wise, 
wouldn't it be the proper thing to do to print in big red letters 
across the face of the certificate, 1933, just as the renewal 
license comes to us? 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

That would mean the issuance of a new o<ie each year. 

92 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler: 

Each year. We could print across the first certificate "1933.*' 
That would be in great big letters and it would only follow that 
it was to be used in 1933. This was brought out in the com- 
mittee meeting and we thought that we could haA^e the annual 
renewal and help prevent any imposition on the renewal license. 
We just felt that this would be quite an advantage to the 
individual dentists. If you go into the office of a specialist, an 
eye, ear, nose, and throat man, or a surgeon, you will find that 
he has taken special courses and has done this and done that. 
I know men who have ten or twelve certificates framed and 
hanging in his operating room, not out in the waiting room, but 
the consultation room. Those things are rather impressive. They 
show that a man is keeping up. Sheffield had a man come in 
his office a few weeks ago and in talking with him and while 
he was making an examination the man asked if he was a 
member of the North Carolina Dental Society. Sheffield told 
him that he was. He asked if Dr. So-and-so Avas a member, 
and Dr. Sheffield told him that he was not. Then he said, "He 
is never going to do any more work for me." Just about the 
time Sheffield got all puffed up over the remark, the man went 
on something like this, "I wouldn't let him do any more work 
for me. If he didn't belong to the Society, I couldn't sue him." 
(Laughter.) That was the patient talking, that Avas his idea, 
but back of that idea was this : He had respect for organized 
dentistry. If Sheffield had his certificate up there, it Avould 
impress this man. It does not cost much. I think it is a good 
thing, and it is not advertising. 

President Jackson: 

Any further discussion? (Pause.) You have heard the mo- 
tion. What will you do with it ? 

It was seconded and unanimously carried that the motion be 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

A committee was appointed last year to catalogue the amend- 
ments to the Constitution and By-Laws. It is tAvo or three pages 
long. I don't think it necessary to read it. The motion as 
originally made and passed was to catalogue the amendments 
and turn them over to the Editor-Publisher to be published in 
the Bulletin. Your committee has gone over the proceedings 

Containing the Proceedings 93 

since 192S and catalogued each amendment and stated wliere 
it ought to go. I offer it at this time. I don't think there is 
any use to read it. I do not ask its adoption, but ask that it be 
turned over for publication, as provided in the original motion. 

President Jackson: 

You haA^e heard the report of the Committee to Properly 
Catalogue the Amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws. 
What will you do with it? 

Dr. P. E. Horton, Winston-Salem: 

I move that it be published as requested. 

Dr. J. N. Johnson, Goldshoro: 
I second the motion. 
The motion was unanimously carried. 

President Jachson: 

The report will be made a part of the proceedings. 


The present Constitution and By-Laws was adopted in Charlotte, 
April 16th, 1928, and therefore only those amendments and changes 
which have been adopted since that time are relative. 

The first amendment was to Article IX, section 2 of the By-Laws, 
and related to the election of delegates to the American Association. 

Our By-Laws provided as follows : "The names of the nominees 
shall be placed on a board (black-board) and each member shall 
vote for three of said nominees. The three who receives the highest 
number of votes shall be declared the delegates, the next three 
highest shall be alternates." 

The amendment was simply to strike all this out and elect these 
as other officers are elected. (See page 255 of the 1929 Proceedings.) 

At the same meeting, on the recommendation of Dr. Self in his 
President's Address, we changed our law to enable us to elect one 
delegate for three years, one for tw'o years and one for one year. 
One term to expire each year, and that is now the law and should 
be written at the end of Article IX, section 2, of By-Laws. (See 
page 208 of the 1929 Proceedings.) 

At the meeting, 1929, section 1 of Article VIII of the Constitution 
was repealed and the following put in its place : Section 1, "That 
the State be divided into five districts their geographical boundaries 
corresponding to those designated in 1921, regardless of the number 
of dentists included. With the consent of those directly involved, 
the President and Executive Committee may transfer sections of 

94 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

adjacent districts when in the interest of the North Carolina Dental 
Society." (See page 263 of the 1929 Proceedings.) 

In 1930 following a suggestion of President Wheeler the duties 
of the Secretary-Treasurer were divided and the othce of Editor- 
Publisher was created. 

Article IV of the Constitution reads as follows : "The officers of 
this Society shall serve for one year or until their successors are 
elected and installed. Tliey shall consist of a President, President- 
Elect, Vice-President, Secretary-Treasurer, and shall be elected by 
ballot, as provided for in Article IX of the By-Laws" (and adding) 
'•and an Editor-Publisher who shall be elected by the Executive 
officers of this Society, namely. President, President-Elect, Vice- 
President, Secretary-Treasurer and the Executive Committee." 

And then to meet this change Article I, section 4, which treats 
of the duties of the Secretary-Treasurer is changed to read : "He (the 
Secretary-Treasurer) shall be chairman of the Program-Clinic Com- 
mittee and the Exliibit Committee. He shall receive an annual 
salary of $350.00 and shall give bond." And then this further section 
was added relative to the Editor-Publisher : "The Editor-Publisher 
shall publish the annual proceedings within four months following 
the annual meeting (publish) at least two bulletins and any other 
notices and publications the Executive Committee may deem neces- 
sary. His salary shall be $350.00 per annum, provided the executive 
officers may withhold same in their discretion, if the proceedings 
fail to be published within the time limit prescribed by the Consti- 
tution and By-Laws. (See pages 181 and 182 of the 1930 Proceed- 
ings.) And then along the same subject refer to page 165 of 1931 
Proceedings and you will find, in a report on the recommendations 
set forth in President Paul Jones' Address where it was votetl to 
make the salary of each of these officers $150.00 instead of $350.00. 

Other changes recommended by the President, Dr. Jones, in his 
annual address, and later adopted to become a part of the Constitu- 
tion and By-Laws, are as follows: Under Article I of the By-Laws, 
prescribing the duties of the President this is added : "That the 
incoming President appoint the Executive Committee as follows : 
one member for three years, one member for two years and one 
member for one year, so that beginning with our 1932 annual meet- 
ing, the incoming President shall appoint one member of the Execu- 
tive Committee for three years and name the chairman." (See page 
164 of the 1931 Proceedings.) 

One other change was made i-elating to duties of Secretary- 
Treasurer. Article I. section 4, By-Laws : "That we amend the By- 
Laws to provide that the outgoing Secretary-Treasurer make, in 
addition to the reiwrt now required, a final report to the Executive 
Committee within thirty days after the annual meeting, this to be 
published in the Proceedings. That the books, vouchers, checks, stubs 
and all pai>ers having to do with the finances of the Society, shall 
be delivered to tlie Executive Committee who shall have them audited 
by a licensed C. P. A., at the exi^ense of the Society and delivered 
to the incoming Executive Committee within two months of adjourn- 
ment of the annual meeting." (See page 165 of 1931 Proceedings.) 

Containing the Proceedings 95 

At the 1931 meeting, iutroduced by Dr. Ralph Little, an amend- 
ment was added as follows : "Be it provided that any ten members 
of the House of Delegates may file a minority reiwrt dissenting from 
action of House of Delegates and appeal to the general session of 
the Society." (This amendment should probably become section 5 of 
Article II of the By-Laws.) 

In conclusion: Some of these changes appear as regular amend- 
ments to the Constitution and By-Laws, while others appear as 
changes voted on recommendation of some President as presented 
by him or modified by the Society and then adopted. Changes com- 
ing in this manner, we have voted to regard as equivalent to a change 
in Constitution and By-Laws. (See page 174 of the 1932 Proceedings.) 


W. T. Martin, 

J. Martin Fleming. 

President Jackson: 

Is there any other report? 

Dr. G. Fred Hale: 

May I have the privilege of submitting at a later date a 
final report of the Editor-Publisher for 1932-33, to be incor- 
porated into the Proceedings? So far the Bulletin has made 
its own way, and the account for this fiscal year will about 
break even. 

Dr. P. E. Norton: 

I move that the request be granted. 

Dr. J. N. Johnson: 

I second the motion. 

The motion was unanimously carried. 



FROM JULY 25, 1932, TO AUGUST 1, 1933 


Jul. 25— Balance in Bank $ 44.16 

Oct. 24 — Dividend from Commercial Nat'l Bank.... 6.70 

Nov. 4 — Thompson Dental Company 15.00 

Nov. 4 — Rothstein Dental Laboratory 15.00 

Dec. 1— Raleigh Dental Laboratory 25.00 

Dec. 1 — Merrimon Insurance Agency 15.00 

96 BuUetin North Carolina Dental Society 


Mar. 21— Harris Dental Company .$ 15.00 

Max-. 21 — Rotlistein Dental Laboratory 15.00 

Apr. 8 — Raleigh Dental Laboratory 25.00 

Apr. S — Merrimon Insurance Agency 7.50 

May 5 — Fleming Dental Laboratory 15.00 

May 5 — Thompson Dental Company 15.00 

May 5 — The Minimax Company 8.00 

May 11— Chapel Hill Local Ads 20.00 

May 29— Raleigh Dental Laboratory 25.00 

Jun. 2 — Powei-s & Anderson 15.00 

Jun. 2 — Harris Dental Company 8.00 

Jun. 2 — Rothstein Dental Laboratory 15.00 

Jun. 5— The Dentists' Supply Co 25.00 

Jun. 14 — Fleming Dental Laboratory 8.00 

Jun. 14— Pycope 8.00 

Jun. 22 — Thompson Dental Company 15.00 

Jun. 23— Samuel French & Sons 15.00 $ 375.36 



Sep. 11— Cash, Stamps $ 3.00 

Oct. 19 — Mailing Bulletin 5.57 

Dec. 1— Bynum Printing Co 100.00 


Jan. 10— Cash, Stamps 3.00 

Apr. 8— Cash, Stamps 3.00 

Apr. 8— Bynum Printing Co 50.00 

May 13— Bynum Printing Co 47.38 

May 29— Cash, Stamps $3.00; Phone $4.17 7.17 

Jun. 24— Bynum Printing Co 125.00 

May 11 — American Association of Dental Editors 5.00 

Check Tax 18 $ 349.30 

Balance in Bank August 1, 1933 $ 26.06 

Secretary Pridgen: 

I have the report of the General Arrangements Committee, 
which was handed to me. 


The first separate meeting of the General Arrangement Committee 
was held in Durham on March 20th, at which time general plans 
were discussed. Later a full committee meeting was held in Chapel 
Hill. At this meeting Mr. R. M. Grumman was present. Four dormi- 
tories were selected as rooming quarters, a hall for general sessions 
and rooms for progressive clinics, group clinics, and exhibit spaces 
were decided upon. At this meeting Mr. Grumman made detailed 
notes of our requirement and offered valuable suggestions. Since 

Containing the Proceedings 97 

this time he has enthusiastically arranged numerous details neces- 
sary. Your committee wishes to take advantage of this opportunity 
to express our appreciation of Mr. Grumman's untiring and compe- 
tent assistance in making the arrangements for this meeting, how- 
ever successful it may be. 

Respectfully submitted, 

L. M. Edwards, Chairman. 

President Jachson: 

You have heard the report. What will jou do with it? 

Dr. F. 0. Alford, Charlotte: 
I move that it be adopted. 

Dr. J. T. Lasley, Greensboro : 
I second the motion. 
The motion was unanimously carried. 

Secretary Pridgen: 

I have the report of the Dental College Committee. 


Your committee has been mindful of the importance of the task 
assigned to them, but in their judgment the economic condition has 
been such that no constructive work could be undertaken. 
Respectfully submitted, 

J. A. Mc Clung, 


A. C. Bone, 

J. H. JUDD. 

Dr. J. N. Johnson: 

I move that the report be accepted. 

Dr. N. Sheffield, Gree7ishoro : 
I second the motion. 
The motion was unanimously carried. 


Secretary Pridgen: 

I have the cases of one or two members I would like for the 
House of Delegates to dispose of. Dr. L. W. Henderson, who 
formerly practiced at Pinehurst and who moved to Virginia in 
1931. The Executive Committee has recommended that he be 
transferred to the Honorary List. 

98 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Socieltj 

Dr. H. Kemp Foster, who joined the Society in 191-i has 
paid dues consecutively through 1931. He is now in the Base 
Hospital of the U. S. Government at Macon, Georgia. 

Dr. J. S. Wells, who has paid twenty-four consecutive years. 
He is now permanently and totally disabled. 

Dr. W. F. Maderis, who has quit practicing, I don't know 
how long. He was in good standing at the time he quit practic- 
ing. All these members the Executive Committee has recom- 
mended be placed on the Honorary List. 

President Jachson: 

We Mall take the case of Dr. L. W. Henderson first. 

Dr. P. E. Horton: 

I move the adoption of the recommendation. 

The motion was seconded and unanimously carried. 

Secretary Pridgen: 

Dr. H. Kemp Foster. Joined in 1914 and paid through until 
1931, and is now confined to the hospital. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

Was he in active practice in 1932 ? 

Dr. J. T. LaMey: 

He was in active practice, but he was in poor health. 

Dr. J. Mali in Fleming: 

I make a motion that he be transferred to the Honorary List. 

Dr. E. B. Hoivle: 

I would like to offer an amendment or substitute motion : 
That Dr. Foster's dues be reniitted until such time as he is able 
to resume active practice. With your permission, I will make 
that a motion. 

President Jackson: 

You have heard the motion. 

The motion was seconded and unanimouslv carried. 

Containing the Proceedings 99 

Secretary Pridgen: 

Dr. J. S. Wells, of Reidsville, paid for twenty-four years. He 
is now permanently and totally disabled. 

Dr. J. T. Lasley: 

Through the generosity of the Greensboro Society we have 
presented Dr. Wells with his 1933 card and we wish to do the 
same in 1934. So, if he has paid for twenty-four consecutive 
years, I will see that he gets his 1934 card. 

Dr. J. N. Johnson: 

I move that we date the time of his application back one year 
and make him a life member. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

I am sorry to differ with that, but I think that our twenty- 
five payment law should be inviolate in our Society. Dr. Wells 
has not paid but twenty-four years, and we must not forget that 
if we make one exception it will lead to another, and I am 
afraid that we will soon have the last five years being remitted. 
I think Dr. Lasley's solution is best. Let his friends guarantee 
payment of the twenty-fifth year, and then he will have paid 
the twenty-five years and complied with our constitutional 
requirement. It is just like swimming the English Channel. He 
hasn't done it yet. 

Dr. C. C. Bennett: 

I don't think anybody would ask to remit the last five years, 
but if they did, then we could object to it. I think we should 
do this. I do not think the boys should be called on to pay this. 
I think the Society should be as good a friend to the man 
after twenty-four years in good standing as his District Society 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

I had rather contribute to it myself than to break our twenty- 
five year law. 

President Jackson: 

Is there a motion before the House? 

100 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. C. C. Bennett: 
^o, sir. 

Dr. E. B. Howie: 

I move that we accept the oifei- of Dr. Lasley. 

President Jackson: 

Is there further discussion. 

The Floor: 
The question ! 
The motion was unanimously carried. 

President Jachson: 

The friends of Dr. Wells in Greensboro will pay his dues for 
1934 and that will make his twenty-five years. 

Secretary Pridgen: 

Dr. W. F. Maderis quit practicing and was in good standing 
at the time he quit. 

Dr. Paul E. Jones: 

I move he be put on the Honorary List. 

Dr. E. B. Howie: 

There is some question about these men being put on the 
Honorary List. The Constitution and By-Laws state definite 
conditions. We must put them on some kind of list. We can't 
put them on the Honorary List. We are making a mistake there. 
We have a suspended list we put members on for nonpayment 
of dues. 

Dr. Paul E. Jones: 

He was a member of the jSTorth Carolina Dental Society. 
We ought to be fair to him. When he quits practicing that 
Avould indicate that he expects to quit paying dues to the North 
Carolina Dental Society. We will have to fix some way to get 
out of this without putting him on the honorary list. 

Dr. P. E. Horton: 

This man liA^ed in Winston-Salem for a number of years. 
He was an associate of Dr. McClung and one of the best opera- 

Contain'nu] the Proceedings 101 

Tors I know of, and he has simply gone into another field. He 
still likes to associate with dentists, and is very fond of den- 
tistry. I have talked to him, and he has told me that he would 
like to come to a dental meeting. I don't know what disposition 
you care to make, but that is that. I am quite sure he will be 
a credit to the dental profession regardless of what position 
he holds or on what list you put him. 

Dr. E. B. HoivJe: 

We could make some kind of a list to put him on. For in- 
stance, Dr. Henderson. I don't believe we should put him on the 
Honorary List. We could have some kind of list, say a Retired 
List, or have some other kind of list. 

Dr. H. K. Keith: 

I move that we have an Inactive List and that this gentleman 
be placed on that list. 

Dr. J. Martin- Flem-ing: 

Together with Dr. Henderson. I second the motion. 

President Jackson: 

You have heard the motion. Is there any further discussion. 

Dr. P. E. Morton: 

If those men come to attend a meeting Avill they be members 
or guests. 

President Jackson: 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

The Constitution says you must pay for tAventy-five consecu- 
tive years. If he has paid eight years, can he come back to the 
Dental Society and pay his dues for seventeen more years and 
still be in the twenty-five consecutive year class ? 

Dr. E. B. Howie: 

He has to start all over again. 

102 I) II I let in Aorth Carolina Dental Societt/ 

Dr. L. H. Buller, Hertford: 

There should be some differentiation some way or other. For 
instance, as I understand it, Dr. Wells has paralysis. He is 
hopelessly incapacitated and he cannot help it. He had nothing 
to do with it. As to the other fellow, it is a matter of selecting 
an appropriate list to put him on. I do not know how it is 
to be worked out. I am not going to try to work that out. 
We should not put this man who has paid his dues and is now 
incapacitated on the same list with a man who steps aside for 
another vocation. 

President Jackson: 

We have a list for Dr. Wells. We are going to put him in 
the twenty-five-year class next year. Dr. Maderis is put on a 
Retired List. I get your point, and appreciate it. 

The motion was carried. 

It is one o'clock. Shall we quit or stay longer? 

Dr. F. 0. Alford: 

At Durham when we had the meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee, Dr. ]^orthington was invited to come explain some- 
thing to us. He is Editor of the Journal of Southern Medicine 
and Surgery, and he talked to us on whether he should include 
a section for the dentists. We invited him to appear before the 
House of Delegates. Dr. Northington is here today and I think 
we should hear him at this meeting. 

President JacJcson : 

How much time does Dr. JSTorthington want ? I want to make 
myself perfectly clear. I want everybody here to get a courteous 
hearing. I am equally anxious to keep within our time. If it is 
agreeable, we will be pleased to hear him for five minutes. 

A motion to hear Dr. JSTorthington for five minutes was made, 
seconded and carried. 

Without further formalities, we will hear Dr. Northington. 

Dr. J. M. Norihington, M.D., Charlotte: 

I am delighted to have the invitation to speak to you on 
a matter of vital concern. All of us understand the mutual 
dependence of the physician on the dentist, the dentist on the 
physician, and the patient on both. Self-preservation is the 
first law of nature. Very likely the dentists did not follow as 

Containing the Proceedings 103 

carefully as the physicians did the activities of the commission 
to study the costs of medical care. After five years of study 
and expenditure of a million dollars it brought in a report 
recommending that all services, physicians, dentists, druggists, 
and nurses, be put on a basis of pay either by taxes or by 
insurance. It takes no stretch of the imagination to know what 
that would mean to men practicing the healing art. We must 
see sick people, or people pretending they are sick, to be called 
at any time, and the salaries fixed by some bureaucratic organi- 
zation, and I cannot conceive of the maintenance of your pro- 
fession or mine on any basis of integrity. I simply believe, as 
I told the Medical Society, that it would not be but ten years 
under an organization like that before a lot of people, a class 
of young men much like paper hangers, carpenters, would 
be on the same standing with us, and the dentists would be 
going into other fields of endeavor. 

As a means of keeping an active and energetic laison between 
the two professions, it would be the very best means if we 
could have a monthly reminder of the fact that this report has 
been made. I am not urging this upon you at all. If we can 
get the dentists and pharmacists and the nurses to go into this 
thing with us, we will have a paper that will keep the minds 
of the members of all those professions upon the subject. By 
that method we can strengthen our defense of that move. With 
united effort we can keep it so our sons and sons-in-law can go 
into dentistry and medicine and practice them as an honorable 

I might tell you that the members of this commission were 
not what they should have been. They had a medical doctor 
on there that had not practiced, for twenty years. A group of 
the men on there, including two dentists, filed a minority report. 
They also had the President of Stanford University on that 

I might tell you that if you wish to have the members of your 
Society receive the Journal on the same terms as those organiza- 
tions who now receive it, it is two dollars per member per year, 
the dental and scientific papers of your Society to go in along 
with the papers from the Medical Associatioii. If you wish to 
have some individual mailing to each member done, then we 
could arrange for that in pamphlet form. If you should care 
to consider this proposition, I would be very glad to make you 
the offer, and have you consider it. (xVpplause.) 

lOrl: Bulletin AortJi Carolina Dental Society 

President Jackson : 

Thank you, Dr. ISTorthingtoii. I appreciate your invitation. 
What will you do? It is eight minutes past one o'clock. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 
We will take it up later. 

President Jackson: 

The House of Delegates adjourned at 1 :10 o'clock p.m., 
Wednesday, June 7, 1933. 



The Banquet Session was called to order by President Jack- 
son at 6 :30 o'clock p.m., at Swain Hall. 

President Jackson: 

I wish to present to you at this time our Toastmaster, Mr. 
E. B. House, of Chapel Hill. 

The visitors and guests were given recognition. 

The Toastmaster: 

There is a late-comer to North Carolina. He is our speaker 
this evening. He belongs to you as a professor of law in our 
neighboring institution, Duke University, in its distinguished 
Law School, where, through the Department of Legal Research, 
he is making a name not only for that school, but for this 
section of the country in that tyjDe of work. He belongs to 
you by rights. He is a native of Tennessee, and as a son of 
Tennessee he is naturally a grandson of North Carolina. And 
then, by way of Princeton, his Alma Mater, he is there a son 
of an institution that is a sort of grandmother to civilization 
in the entire South. If you will read our history, you will find 
that a number of good Scotch Presbyterians came down into 
Piedmont South and built up a civilization. To those of you 
who are familiar with that chapter of our history, you know 
what Princeton means. By way of Harvard, he has acquired 

Containing the Proceedings 105 

distinguished manner in a high class of intellectual character, 
which he is going to exhibit here. Harvard is a great laAv school. 
But above all other things he is a Scotchman, a "Mac" and he 
is one of your people, and he belongs to you. He is identified 
with the people and the spirit of jSTorth Carolina. 

I think that is a good introduction. (Laughter.) It is time 
for me to get out of the way. Ladies and gentlemen, I want 
to introduce to you our distinguished guest and speaker, Dr. 
Malcolm McDermott, of the Duke University Law School. 

Prof. Malcolm McDermott, Duke University. Durham-, X. C: 

Mr. Toastmaster, ladies and gentlemen: During the course of the 
evening- our Toastmaster lias asserted that the question with the 
American iieople was whether or not they should dine or be enter- 
tained. I rather assumed that the question before America today 
is one that has come down from classic literature : "To beer or not 
to beer!" (Applause.) 

I appreciate deeply this very hearty welcome and generous intro- 
duction, and I am exceedingly happy to be here on this occasion. 
Particularly so in view of the fact that, as has been pointed out, 
I hail from Tennessee. For I am aware, my friends, that since 
certain incidents at Asheville, it is an old custom in North Carolina 
not to allow Tennesseans to run at large in this State. After review- 
ing the history of our two States, I find that this feeling runs back 
to an early date. I discovered it only recently. Perhaps you have 
not discovered it yet. (Laughter.) You may recall that on the 
Tennessee border, just before you get into Tennessee, there is one 
of the natural wonders called the Hot Springs. You may have visited 
them. It seems that back in the days of the pioneer frontiersmen, 
an old North Carolinian packed his goods and chattels in the old 
covered wagon and determined to go across the Smokies and seek 
his wealth in the valley of the Tennessee. He started out. It was 
a long and tedious and hard journey. They became sick and the 
Indians beset them. They were all longing for their old home. Thus 
distraught they finally came one evening to pitch camp beside the 
spring. The old fellow knelt down on his knees to take a whaff of 
the water. When the water touched his lip, it burned. This was 
the last straw. The old man jumped about ten feet in the air and 
shouted, "Boys, turn them horses around and get going back to 
Carolina! Hell ain't a quarter of a mile from here .^" (Much 
laughter.) That used to be my State, but if you feel that way about 
Tennessee, just remember that is was once a part of North Carolina. 
You gave it to ns. You are responsible for what we are. (Applause.) 
I want to thank the Committee on Arrangements here at the ontsec 
for making one feel at home with a group of dentists by having this 
National Emblem of your Soc-iety hanging above my head. I feel 
perfectly at home. I have had my share of punishment sitting in a 
dentist's chair with him drilling in my teeth with an instrument 

106 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

just iibout that size, and making just about tliat noise. (Laugliter.) 
Some of you whose memories go back as far as mine, will recall 
about the time Edward YII was about to be crowned King of Eng- 
land, he was suddenly seized with an attack of appendicitis. The 
great crowds waited for the coronation ceremony. Finally the Prince 
recovered. It was decreed that there should be a ceremony in 
Westminster Abbey celebrating the recovery of .the Prince. It seems 
tliat over there in the Abbey they have a hymn book. This is a 
remarkable hymn book. In the first part it has the regular hymns, 
and in the baclv it has what they call the appendix. The story goes 
tliat on this occasion tlie Archbishop of Canterbury arose and 
announced, "We will now sing 'Sweet Peace' in the Appendix." 
(Laughter.) My story is not altogether without point. I am frank 
to say to you I think an after-dinner speech is very much like an 
operation for appendicitis. The analogy is right much the same. 
You are liable to be seized at any time, and most likely to be 
afflicted right after a meal. It is something that is tacked on to 
an otherwise good program like an appendix, which the doctors say 
is useless. It is there, and it has got to come out. They tell you 
the operation is exceedingly painful. You can get this consolation, 
it is not as painful when you are asleep, and if any of you can sleep 
without an anaesthetic, you have my permission! (Laughtei-.) 

I was greatly flattered when I received from the News Bureau at 
Chapel Hill a letter asking for advance notices on my distinguished 
oration of this evening. It concluded in this fashion : If you plan 
to advance a new theory about dentistry, be sure and indicate the 
fact and explain in some detail. For the benefit of myself and my 
fellow indigent lawyers, I have one theory for dentistry to promul- 
gate : If you can work up some form of penniless dentistry, it will 
be exceedingly ix)pular among the members of my profession. 

I was reading the other night the biography of Martin Van Buren, 
The Man in the Era. You may liave read it. It is well worth 
reading. In that book, I found some interesting history concerning 
the manner in which the people of upper New York State used to 
handle their courts and judges. When the judges decided a case 
contrary to public poinion, the crowd just waited for him outside 
of the court room and gave him a good drubbing, if he decided the 
case contrary to their whims and notions. I read that with indigna- 
tion, as any lawyer would do. I said to my friend the next morning 
that I was certainly glad we had made some progress, because here 
in New York State less than a century ago the i)eople used to assault 
their judges when they did not decide cases to suit the public notions. 
I told him that I felt encouraged and I was well-pleased, if I may 
confide in you, when he agreed with me. But imagine my chagrin 
when I opened the paper the following morning and read of the 
dastardly thing which occurred in the State of Iowa when the judge 
was taken out and subjected to a most embarrassing indignity, 
downright violence. It was one of the most infamous things that 
has occurred in America in this generation. I hope it has sunk 
into the hearts and minds of the American citizenship. I cannot 
think of that thing without a feeling of shame creeping over me. 
Now, listen: You can't charge that up to the Bolshevists or the 

Containing the Proceedings 107 

Commuuists or aliens who just recently came into this country. That 
damnable thing occurred in the heart of America, in a State that 
boosts the lowest rate of illiteracy of any State in the Union, by 
pure-bred Americans it was done. And it tells you and me the story, 
the very unpleasant story, that there is a lot of the brute still left 
beneath this veneer and civilization that we like to boast abtmt. It 
is breaking forth every now and then. I saw it during the World 
War. I talked with men who knew this to be a fact : That tm 
transports which carried American soldiers, if a fellow became un- 
pleasant or did something that antagonized a certain group on board, 
the next morning he Avould be missing. Somewhere in the Atlantic 
he had been grimly dropped overboard. I tell you that beneath 
the veneer of civilization we are accustomed to boast of in this 
country, we have got a terrific problem. We might as well face it, 
unpleasant as it may seem to you, and the more we face reality in 
days like these, the more the truth is driven home to us. 

I am interested in this subject for this reason : On all hands in 
America today we are hearing — don't misunderstand me, I am not 
making a campaign speech — we are hearing that a new deal is com- 
ing, and the idea is that somehow the thing has got to be shuffled 
up and redealt and a new distribution worked out, and then forsooth 
we will all be happy. Well, God pity you. The determination of 
Americans today seems to be the ideal of 1929, and getting us back 
to whei-e we were in 1929. You have heard it and I have heard it. 
We hear that if we get our stock market going again all will be 
happy. We degenerated into a race of gamblers in this country 
and you know it ! When we lost, we squealed and shed crocodile 
tears over our own misfortune. We gambled and speculated and 
could not understand why the game did not keep up. These ai-e 
unplesant facts, but I want you to let them sink into your hearts 
and minds here tonight for the purpose of determining whether or 
not we are living today in this dark time with the ideals of getting 
back to that same old gambling orgy. If that is so, if that is all 
we have in mind, if that is all America holds in store today. I say 
to you we are all going to be more miserable than we have yet 

I have a very brief message to bring to you here tonight. It is a 
great privilege for a lawyer to be able to speak to a group of dentists, 
I take it, Mr. Toastmaster. I might have begun by saying this is 
going to hurt you a little bit. But no. It is going to hurt you more 
than that. I think the lawyers and dentists have much in common. 
In the first place, they both belong to the most maligned professions 
that I know of. The public never tires of telling jokes about the 
lawyers and dentists. In the second place, we have the most unai>pre- 
ciative clients of any group. When a lawyer wins a case, what does 
a client sayV "All right. It is his business." When the lawyer loses 
a case, what is said? "You old dub! Don't you know any better 
than that?'' When a client comes in to you Avith a great pain in 
his jaw, and you extract the tooth and the pain is gone, he is 
liable to be gone, too ! A young dentist told me once he was very 
anxious to get his fee. When he finished the extraction, he said, 

JOS BuUetin North Carolina Dental Society 

"This tooth will cost you five dollars." The man shot out at the 
door and said, "Keep the damned -thing ! I didn't want it anyway !" 
( Laughter.) 

There is a deeper bond between the lawyer and dentists. They are 
thinking men and they are good citizens. I am not trying to flatter 
you. I have a great many among your profession in my old home, 
in Tennessee, men whom I love dearly, men whom I have come to 
know intimately, and I find them substantial, thinking men. That 
is why I address these remarks to you tonight. We are living in one 
of the most remarkable eras that America has ever experienced. 
I think the next few months are going to determine in a large 
measure what is to be the outcome of this great effort to rectify 
conditions under which we have been laboring. Will a new deal 
solve the problem? I tell you it will not. I stand here to plead 
not for a new deal, but for a new foundation, a new foundation for 
American life. You deal the cards out and let each fellow take his 
bunch and what good is it going to do after he takes them out. He 
builds on a foundation that is going to fall just as this one has 
fallen. Why, it is nonsense, my friends. What have I to build on? 
I am not a preacher, I am a lawyer. You are professional men and 
you have a contact with the every day life. W^hat are we building 
on in this country? You know. We boosted the booms with, values 
that never existed and the bubble bursted, and the truth has been 
driven home once more that you cannot float a substantial business 
structure in thin air, and the higher you project it, the greater is 
the fall thereof. My friends, we staked our all on material values 
and material things. We got the fool notion in this country that we 
could subtract character from every department of human life and 
it has been proved here in our eyesight that it cannot be done. You 
subtract character from banking in this country, and what do you 
get? You know what you got! You saw it! A thing you and I 
could not have dreamed would have (X-curred one year ago. Every 
bank in the land was locked. Why? Because men lost faith in 
the character of their fellow men. You subtract character from the 
home life of America and what do you get? You get high, destruc- 
tive living. We have a generation of vipers gx-owing up in our very 
midst who are breaking their parents' hearts. Subtract character 
from the governmental official life of the country, and what do you 
get? You know what we get ! Corruption in high places, selfishness, 
and selfish motives seizing down on the every day life of our people. 
It has besmirched the pages of our national history. Tell me in 
the name of common sense what good a new deal is going to do if 
we are going back on that same foundation ! Thinking men and 
women of America, the time has come when you and I have got 
to preach it to our children, and our children's children, and to 
all the men and women of America, that there is only one foundation 
on which the national life of this country can be made to stand — 
old-fashioned, rugged honesty and decency ! You know what we tried 
to do in this country. We built a great temple to the God of Mam- 
mon, and when we got it up to a great height, we delighted in dancing 
around and chanted its bigness and security and greatness, and lo 
and behold— it collapsed at our very feet. The fragments lie strewn 

Containing the Proceedings 109 

about us j-et, a monument to our folly. The call is not to a new deal. 
The call is to a new foundation upon which to erect a national 
edifice that can stand and can serve all mankind, and one that shall 
be dedicated to goodness rather than to greed, and to service rather 
than to selfishness. That is the call to American manhood, and I 
believe that the thinking men and women of this countrj^ will see this 
truth, and if a new deal is come, we shall see to it that a new 
foundation shall be laid upon which to build our new life in this 
land! (Applause.) 

The Toast master: 

I am sure tliat on behalf of tlie Society and the g'uests who 
have assembled here, that I may thank you, Dr. McDermott. I 
am sure we all agree with him. 

'Sow, I believe we come to the presentation of the President's 
Emblem. I believe that there is a good deal of speaking con- 
nected with this, so I surrender the floor to Dr. Joe Betts, who 
will perform that ceremony. 

Dr. J. S. Betts, Greensboro, N. C: 

Mr. Toastmaster, members of the North Carolina Dental Society, 
our distingushed guests and visitors, ladies and gentlemen : 

Prior to our meeting at Elizabeth City last year, many of us had 
never gone into the extreme Eastern Section of our State, where 
history began in North Carolina. When the time came in carrying 
out our program, as it comes to each of our meetings, to select the 
next meeting place and our fellow dentists here, your efficient Dr. 
Jones, brought us a cordial invitation to meet at Chapel Hill, some 
of us wondered whether we would be doing the wise thing to accept 
the invitation. In the language of one whose name has not been on 
the public tongue very much in recent months, we thought it would 
be a "noble experiment." And I believe the fine young fellow who 
took the reins of government at that time realized that it was 
something of a "noble experiment." When he mounted the rostrum 
after accepting the gavel, he delivered a ringing patriotic speech the 
like of which some of our distinguished political ancestors back 
yonder could not have exceeded. He rang true to himself, and to our 
ancestry. He said, "We must not fail in having the best meeting at 
Chapel Hill in our history. Fellows stand by me!" We did stand 
by him. 

Mr. Toastmaster, I think this is one of the best meetings we have 
ever had. It was bound to be such, coming to this distinguished 
atmosphere, to these classic surroundings. 

In going back over the track of the years, memory recalls several 
red-letter days that have come into my life ; none of those high spots 
do I prize hiore highly than the one that came to me a few minutes 
ago when the Secretary asked me to present this President's Emblem 
to our retiring President. I am very fond of this young fellow, 
Wilbert Jackson, as all of us are. He has about him — developed in 

110 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

the large — that all-too-rare quality of directive efficiency. He took 
the reins of government and I won't say he surprised us all, but I 
will say that he rose to the occasion. He attended every district 
meeting arousing more enthusiasm than we thought was possible. 
He wrote letters and got in touch with key men here and yonder. 
He said in those letters, "Fellows, don't fail me ! Come to this 
meeting !" And we have had a wonderful meeting. It gives me a 
great deal of pleasure to present to you, Dr. Jackson, in the name 
of the North Carolina Dental Society, this President's Emblem ; and 
I hope that you will carry it with you until the last day j'ou live. 

President Jackson : 

Mr. Toastmaster, Dr. Betts, members of the ^orth Carolina 
Dental Society, and guests : I accept this emblem with humility 
and pride. With humility because I have not been able to render 
a more efficient service. With pride for having had the oppor- 
tunity of serving the noblest bunch of men on God's green 
earth. I thank you. (Applause.) 

The Toastmaster: 

The Chair recognizes at this time Dr. S. R. Horton. I think 
Lineberger wanted to talk, but they got together and compro- 
mised on Horton. 

Dr. S. R. Horton, Raleigh: 

Mr. Toastmaster, distinguished guests, and ladies : I will 
have to get back at E.. B. These fellows that do not speak as 
often in public as they do in private cannot get back at others 
so easily on our feet, but we know how to get him all right. 

I presume that our teaching of boys in their youth has been 
handed down through all the ages, not to show any affection 
for their male companions, and growing more and more reticent 
as they grow older about showing this affection Avill be followed 
to the end of time, but I have my doubts about the Avisdom of it. 
There is hardly an emotion so genuine as the devotion of a man 
to his fellowman. There is an unselfish quality to such a 
devotion that makes it stand out from the other emotions. 
I well remember an incident which happened during my school 
days. I got into an argument and was not foresighted enough 
to have any backing. This argument Avent on for some time 
and it finally got to the place where somebody's face Avas going 
to be knocked off. I did not have a friend, not a friend. They 
AA'ere closing in on me, and about that time I saAv a little bit of 

Containing the Proceedings 111 

a man pressing through the crowd on the street and I tell you I 
do not think I ever saAV anybody I was as happy to see as that 
little bit of a man. He was my friend, and though he did not 
have the body and strength to throw into the cause that a 
big man might have, he had the heart of a friend, and I think 
I could have licked the whole bunch. This little fellow's courage 
set something inside me on fire. I walked out of that crowd 
with shoulders up, and I was a brave boy. 

You know, I have often thought that if we showed our fellow- 
man a little more of our feeling while we are still here together, 
the world would be a better place in which to live. You know, 
there is but one time in a man's experience when he can abso- 
lutely do that frankly and personally, and apparently normally 
at the time, and that is when you have had a drink or two 
together, and since my friend Martin Fleming here will never 
take a drink with us, we have not had the opportunity of telling 
him just how much we love him, and I have this little emblem 
here tonight, an emblem of honor which the dentists of the 
State of I^orth Carolina wish to present to him. They give 
this little emblem to Dr. Martin Fleming to show him a little 
something of the love and appreciation the dentists of Raleigh, 
iN'orth Carolina, bear toward him. (Applause.) 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming, Raleigh: 

Mr. Toastmaster : Dr. Horton has described not what "he 
was, but what he should have been." I thank him. 

The Toastmaster: 

In this connection, the Chair recognizes Dr. J. IST. Johnson. 

Dr. J. N. Johnson, Goldshoro: 

Thirty-one years ago I became a member of this Society. My 
relation with the activities of the organization over this period 
of years leaves me with a keen knowledge of the events in its history 
that have advanced the dental profession from a class of highly 
organized mechanics to a more highly organized and respected 

A quarter of a century ago our professional status was very low. 
Under the statute we were not privileged to write a prescription. 
Many dental colleges then required no standard of predental educa- 
tion, only a few actually enforced it. A dental college was advertising 
in the press of the State for young men to leave the farm and make 
a fortune in dentistry. You can imagine, as a profession, whither 
we were drifting. 

112 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Greater devotion toward the correction of these evils hath no man 
performed tlian he, whom we, in behalf of the North Carolina Dental 
Society, would honor tonight. Turning back the pages of the passing 
years I see him, a young man, handsome, possessing a brilliant well 
trained mind, fearless yet modest; but as hard as chilled steel when 
it came to enforcing the law that elevated the standards of the 
dental profession. 

Twenty-five years ago, in recognition of his valuable contributions 
to his profession, he was elected President of this Society. Twenty- 
four years ago he was elected to the most imiwrtant iwsition on 
your Examining Board. The Board was reorganized around him as 
its Secretary. He immediately urged fourteen Carnegie units as the 
standard requirement for entrance to a dental college. But this 
required a statutory enactment. He threw his heart and soul into 
the drafting of the necessary bill, and then as a member of your 
Legislative Committee he came from his distant city (at his own 
expense) to attend the General Assembly. Here after a day of 
useless effort on the i>art of the committee, as a whole, to find some 
one to introduce the bill, he would not be defeated, but remained in 
Raleigh over night and as he traveled from room to room in the old 
Yarborough Hotel the eloquence with which he presented his cause 
pledged enough members of that Legislature to pass the bill. When 
the 'bill was ratified, with that Secretary on the job, "church Avas 
out" with the half-baked dental colleges, not without argument, 

Tonight, I see in the fine personnel of this Society the result of 
fourteen Carnegie units, and there are fewer and better dental 
colleges in the United States that are tuniing out better educated 
dentists. This same young man conceived in his mind the plan 
of districting the State — the result you see in your wonderful district 
societies. I wish that I was sufficiently talented to write the saga 
of Fred L. Hunt, who served nearly 20 years as the Secretary of 
your Examining Board. Unfortunately, he is not with us tonight, 
and it gives me a great deal of pleasure to present to one of his 
very best and dearly beloved friends. Dr. W. F. Bell, this Past- 
President's Medal, and ask that you deliver it to Dr. Hunt with our 
love and appreciation of his many years of service and express to 
liim our affection to him as a man. (Applause.) 

Dr. W. F. Bell, Asheville: 

Mr. President, members of the North Carolina Dental So- 
ciety: Dr. Hunt is not with us tonight through any choice of 
his. If he could possibly have been here, you would see him 
here at this meeting. Dr. Hunt's health has not been very 
good for the last few years and he was not able to be here. It 
is a great honor and privilege for me to take this medal back 
to Dr. Fred, and I assure you he will get it just as quickly as I 
arrive in Asheville. (Applause.) 

Containing the Proceedings 113 

The Toastmaster: 

I wish to recognize at this time Dr. JSTeal Sheffiekl. 

Dr. N. Sheffield, Greensboro: 

Mr. Toastmaster, ladies aud gentlemen : It is a great pleasure 
•to m.e to have the opportunity tonight to confer an honor 
upon a man who is outstanding in the State of North Carolina. 
This man, back in the early years, did more than anyone I know 
when this Association was young. He rose up and was recog- 
nized at once as a leader. This man was called to lead this 
organization back in 1904 or 1905. He held the office and 
executed the duties with great distinction. Later he was called 
to serve as Secretary. He did not stop there. He went on and 
served for many years on the Board of Dental Examiners. 
Some Avriter has said that if we want roses, we should plant 
some rose bushes. This man has been planting rose bushes along 
the pathway of the younger dentists. He is a man who the wise 
have found worth while to seek his counsel. He is a man of 
Avhom dentistry is very proud. His friends in Greensboro felt 
we might in a small way hand to him just a small rose from 
one of the bushes he has planted by our wayside, and without 
speaking further it gives me great pleasure to present a 
President's Medal, which has been given by his friends in 
Greensboro, to Dr. J. S. Betts of Greensboro. (Applause.) 

Dr. J. S. Betts: 

Mr. Toastmaster, let me say a word. They are putting over 
things on me. Thank you from the bottom of my heart ! 

The Toastmaster: 

We come to the time for the presentation of the golf prizes. 
In this connection I will recognize Dr. D. T. Carr, of Durham 
and Chapel Hill. Both of us claim him. 

Dr. D. T. Carr, Durham: 

We have eight prizes, donated by the different dental supply 
houses and laboratories. The first prize is won by Dr. George 
Hull of Charlotte. (Applause.) 

The second prize is won by Dr. J. S. Spurgeon of Hillsboro. 
It is given by the Ealeigh Dental Laboratory of Ealeigh. 

114 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Sociefi/ 

This prize is won by Dr. J. W. Branham. This one goes 
to Dr. F. N". Pegg of Denton. It is donated by the Harris Dental 
Company of jSTorfolk, Virginia. 

This prize is for Dr. C. A. Graham of Eamseur. This one is 
for Dr. Claude Hughes. It was given by Powers and xinderson. 

I thank you very much. (Applause.) 

Dr. J. P. Jones made some announcements concerning the 

Dr. II. 0. Lineherger, Raleigh: 

I think you should introduce the young lady to your left. 

The Toastmaster: 

1 wanted to do that earlier in the evening, but I was enjoying 
the longest uninterrupted spell of conversation I have ever had. 
(Laughter.) This is Mrs. House. (Applause.) 

President Jachson: 

I wish to thank Mr. House most kindly for his entertainment 
this afternoon. He is a most excellent toastmaster. (Applause.) 

The banquet session adjourned at 9 :00 o'clock p.m. 



The meeting was called to order at 9:10 o'clock p.m., in Hill 
Music Hall, by President Jackson. 

President Jaclson: ' 

In North Carolina we have what is known as the Australian 
Ballot. The North Carolina Dental Society is going to exercise 
that privilege tonight. Only one member will be allowed to 
vote at a time. 

There was an announcement concerning the manner of voting. 
Let me remind you that if you have not paid your dues, you 
will not be allowed to vote. The secretaries of the districts are 
sitting right at the door. Do not embarrass yourself and your 
secretary by coming down to vote if you have not paid your 
dues. He will not hesitate to stop you, but do not embarrass 
him by making that necessary. 

Coniaining the Proceedings 115 

Dr. Harry Keel, Winston-Salem: 

While we are waiting here, let me take this up. You fellows 
know that JDr. Jones recently died. His family has left in my 
hands a lot of proceedings of the State Organization and some 
other things. These Avere to be given to the State Society pro- 
vided they want them. I also have several old books that pertain 
to dentistry to go into the collection if the North Carolina 
Dental Society wants them. 

President Jackson: 

You have heard this matter presented. What is your pleasure ? 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

I believe I am a crank on the preservation of records. Some 
years ago Dr. Spurgeon, Dr. Tucker, Dr. Davis, and myself 
had complete files on the proceedings of the Society. Since 
that time fire and different things have cut it down until we 
now have only two to three complete sets of books and I believe 
the Society should accept these gladly from Dr. Jones' family 
and probably have this one complete set, because probably in a 
few years, we cannot complete another one. I move that Ave 
accept the offer of Dr. Jones' family and receive the books. 

Dr. P. E. Morton, Winston-Salem: 

I would like to ask him in whose name these things are to be 
kept. I want to second his motion and ask that question. 

President JacTcson: 

Dr. Zachary is the Librarian for the Society and she would 
have charge of them. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

Davis and myself have complete files of these proceedings. 
Davis has expressed a desire that upon his death his set go to 
Duke University. I expressed a desire that Avhen I go, my set 
shall go to the University of JSTorth Carolina. 

Dr. P. E. Horton: 

In Winston-Salem we have what is known as the Wachovia 
Historical Society and in view of the fact Dr. Jones lived in 
Winston-Salem, I would like to put in a bid for the Wachovia 

Historical Society for the disposition of that set. 

116 Bu^h'tin North Carolina Dental Societij 

Dr. Harry Keel : 

I am sorry, but there is probably a little selfish motive on my 
part. I am perfectly willing to turn them over to-the North 
Carolina Dental Society. Otherwise they are mine, according to 
the wishes of the Jones family. I would particularly like to 
keep them and preserve the record. I could not let them go any 
other way. I Avant them unless the Society decides to accept 

Dr. P. E. Horton: 

Dr. Keel is the boss under the circumstances. 

Dr. H. 0. Lineherger, Raleigh: 

"Was the motion seconded that the Society should accept these 
books ? 

President Jacl^son: 
Was it? 

The Floor: 

Dr. H. 0. Lineherger: 

If we are to have a Library, I think it very fitting that the 
iSJ"orth Carolina Dental Society should take these and enter them 
in our Library. 

PresideU't Jachson: 

Is there any further discussion? (Pause.) Are you ready 
for the question? 

The Floor: 


The motion was unanimously carried. 

President Jackson: 

N'ominations are in order for President-Elect of the North 
Carolina Dental Society. 

Dr. E. B. Howie made an announcement regarding the man- 
ner of voting. 

Containing the Proceedings 117 

Men, make your nominating speeches short and to the point. 
This is not a joke, and we Avant to handle it in a business-like 
manner. Do I hear a nomination for President ? 

Dr. P. E. Horton, Winston-Salem: 

In compliance with your request, I will make my nomination 
speech very short. I want to say that the man I am going to 
nominate is an operator of recognized ability. He is a man 
who has been in practice quite a long while. He is a man 
Avhose integrity is unimpeachable. He is a man who will fill 
the position, I am sure, with credit. That man is none other 
than Dr. L. M. Edwards of Durham. 

Dr. Harry Keel, Winstoiv-Salem: 

May I say a word? It happened to be my privilege a few 
years ago to be associated with Dr. Edwards. He is an operator 
and a dentist, and a man that can't be beat. I know, because 
I was very close to him. He is a man that is always willing 
to stop and take time to help a young man along. I learned more 
in dentistry in the few months I was with Dr. Edwards, than 
I ever learned before. He was always ready to stop and come 
in and help me. Gentlemen, if you elect Dr. Edwards tonight 
as your next President-Elect, I am sure you will never regret 
it. He is a man who will give time and effort to the affairs of 
our' Association. I am sure you will be repaid if you elect Dr. 
Edwards. I second the nomination. 

Dr. Ralph Jarrett, Charlotte: 

As a member of the North Carolina Dental Society and one of 
the younger men, I would like to say that I have had the pleas- 
ure of seeing some of Dr. Edwards' work, and I find that it 
has been an inspiration to me, and I have always looked up to 
him with an attitude very much like this, "If I could be that 
good, I would be satisfied !" 

Dr. D. K. Loci-hart, Durham: 

I would like to say that I have practiced dentistry across the 
street from Dr. Edwards for the last fifteen years. It is with a 
great deal of pleasure that I endorse his nomination. 

Dr. Henry C. Carr, Dui'ham: 

Seventeen years ago I moved to Durham to practice dentistry. 
I went to see Dr. Edwards and the others. They gave me a 

118 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

warm welcome and assured me that they were delighted to have 
me come to Durham and that they were always glad to have 
honest competition. Since that time I have practiced side by 
side with Dr. Edwards, and I find him to be a straight-shooter. 
He is one of the best dentists in North Carolina. He turns out 
good work. ISTothing gives me more pleasure than to endorse Dr. 
Edwards of Durham for election to this position. 

Dr. I. R. Self, Lincolnfon: 

I have known Dr. Edwards for about thirty-one years. I 
finished one year before he did, and I want to endorse his 
nomination and election. 

Dr. S. L. Bohhitt, Raleigh : 

I move that the nominations be closed. 

Dr. Ralph Jarrett: 
I second the motion. 

Dr. J. N. Johnson: 

I would like to amend that motion, with the permission of the 
man who seconded it, to read that the Secretary be instructed 
to cast the vote of the Society for Dr. Edwards. 

Dr. Ralph Jarrett: 

I second the motion, with the amendment. 

Secretary Pridgen: 

It gives me great pleasure to cast the unanimous vote of the 
North Carolina Dental Society for Dr. L. M. Edwards of Dur- 
ham for President-Elect of the Society. (Applause.) 

President JacJcson: 

I am j)leased at this time to recognize Dr. EdAvards. Will 
you stand up? (Applause.) 

The next order of business is the election of a Vice-President. 
jSTominations are in order for a Vice-President. 

Dr. Paul E. Jones, Farmville: 

We have been having a most wonderful time in Chapel Hill. 
There are two young fellows in Chapel Hill who have worked 

Containing the Proceedings 119 

hard to make our stay pleasant. I would like to take this 
opportunity to nominate Dr. J. P. Jones of Chapel Hill for 

The Floor: 

President Jade son: 

Are there other nominations? 

Dr. Harry Keel, W inston^Salem : 

I move that the nominations be closed and that the Secretary 
cast the vote for Dr. J. P. Jones, of Chapel Hill. 

Dr. Henry C. Carr, Durham: 
I second the motion. 
The motion unanimously carried. 

Secretary Pridgen: 

It gives me great pleasure to cast the unanimous vote of the 
iN'orth Carolina Dental Society for Dr. J. P. Jones of Chapel 
Hill for Vice-President. 

President JacTcson: 

Dr. Jones, I am pleased to recognize you. (Applause.) 

The next in order is the nomination of Secretary-Treasurer. 

Dr. A. Pitt Beam, Shelby: 

I would like to make a nomination speech, and I will make 
it very, very short. It gives me a great deal of pleasure to 
renominate for reelection our last efficient and capable Secre- 
tary, Dr. Pridgen. (Applause.) 

The Floor: 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

I move that the nominations be closed and that the Secre- 
tary — that the President cast the unanimous vote of the Society 
for Dr. Pridgen. 

120 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. Neal Sheffield: 
I second the motion. 
The motion was unanimously carried. 

Dr. E. B. Hoiole, Raleigh: 

Mr. President, I move that the Election Committee be dis- 
charged! (Laughter.) 

President Jackson: 

If we don't get some action in ten minutes, I'll discharge 
the committee. 

Quite a few flowers have been strewn today, some not so 
Avorthily bestowed — I am talking about myself. Dr. Fleming — 
but with all due respect to everybody and the work done by 
everybody in the North Carolina Dental Society in the past 
year, there could not have been one who could have done 
better than LeRoy Pridgen. If one of you had written to 
LeRoy Pridgen and did not receive an answer, you might just 
have known that Roy didn't get it. He has not laid down on a 
single job. He has not failed to function at a single place at a 
single time in any instance. If he has, I don't know it, and 
I don't believe you do. It is one of the greatest pleasures 
of my life to cast this, my vote and your vote, and the vote 
of this Society for LeRoy Pridgen, unanimously again, for the 
Secretary of the North Carolina Dental Society. I knov that 
Dr. Branch will benefit by having LeRoy Pridgen as his 

I believe that takes care of all the officers of the Society. 
The next in line for election is two members of the State Board. 
Dr. S. B. Bivens died in February and the first in order will 
be a successor to Dr. Bivens, deceased. Nominations are in 
order for a successor to Dr. Bivens on the State Board. 

Dr. W. D. Gihhs, Charlotte: 

I would like to place a nomination for a man Avhom I think 
most suitably qualified in every respect to fill the vacancy 
created by the most untimely death of our fellow tOAvnsman, Dr. 
Bivens. I have in mind the name of a man whom I think has 
honored dentistry in North Carolina. I think of peculiar signifi- 
cance is the fact that the dentists of Charlotte, and I understand 
this is one of the few occasions if not the only occasion, that 
the dentists of Charlotte have been unanimous in their desire 

Containing the Proceedings 121 

that this man should succeed our beloved aud lamented fellow- 
townsman, Dr. Bivens, whom the All-wise Providence saw fit to 
remove before the completion of his office. I would like to 
add just a little personal touch to the man whom I propose 
to nominate. It has been my peculiar pleasure and distinct 
privilege to have known him for some six or seven years, and 
in regard to the service he has rendered the North Carolina 
Dental Society, I have had the pleasure of being with him in 
almost every district in North Carolina, and therefore, I am a 
personal witness to the service he has rendered in North Caro- 
lina. I have been with him throughout the State. He has 
rendered many services to dentistry. His modesty will not 
permit him to say it. We went down to the Legislature with 
the other men. It was under his leadership and his own expense 
we took steps to strengthen the law. It made our law a splendid 
law, one that makes the practice of dentistry ethical in North 
Carolina. The law that we had previously, although an excellent 
law, did not have the teeth in it that it should have had. This 
man saw that. He was one of the first to see it. It was said 
it could not be put through because of red tape and legislative 
delay. That is the law to curb advertising and the unethical 
procedure of soliciting practice in North Carolina. Few of us 
realize the debt we owe this man for that service alone. The 
law was put through and — I do not mean to give him sole 
eredit — ^he was instrumental and I am sure he was the leading 
force in it. We owe him many other debts. He has given liber- 
ally in his service to the North Carolina Dental Society. 

I think that in the office of the Examiner the man we select 
to examine the future dentists coming into our State should 
have distinct qualifications. I think above all, this man should 
be qualified. It is true that it is a political office. However, he 
should have qualifications for the office. The man I am going to 
nominate tonight — I know many men qualified by nineteen 
consecutive years that I have been a member of the North 
Carolina Dental Society, but there are few who can exceed 
him in his ability as a student of dentistry. He stands first 
place in dentistry, both in theory and in the practical part, 
and I think that in the selection and election of this man whom 
I hope you will elect that you will not only honor him for the 
office, but I want to say very frankly that he honors you in the 
office. Sometimes the office honors the man and sometimes the 
man honors the office. I have found him such a lovely character 
that I would like to say more. He is a personal friend, but I 

122 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

realize what the President has said. I think, though, that when 
a town of sixty dentists comes unanimously to the conclusion 
that there is one man they want, it is about as strong a recom- 
mendation as he could have. It gives me peculiar pleasure and 
it is a privilege to place the name of Dr. Ealph Jarrett of 
Charlotte for nomination to succeed our fellow townsman, Dr. 
Bivens. (Applause.) 

Dr. V. E. Bell, Raleigh: 

This is one of the happiest occasions of my life. The man I 
will nominate tonight, I have known for seventeen years. I 
was in school with him and roomed with him. I know him to 
be one of the most loyal, sincere, and reliable men I have 
ever come in contact with. Anything that you give this fellow 
to do, he will do it, and do it well. He accomplishes what he 
starts to do. It gives me great pleasure to present the name 
of Dr. 0. L. Presnell, of Asheboro. (Applause.) 

President JacJcson: 

Are there other nominations? 

Dr. D. B. Mizell, Charlotte: 

I feel very happy, because it gives me great pleasure to 
second one nomination that has been placed before this Society. 
This man has worked hard. He has given unlimited time to 
the organization of dentistry in this State. He has been tested, 
tried, and has proved himself worthy and capable. This man 
whose nomination I wish to second here is a man of honor, a 
man of ability, one whom all can trust. I Avish to second the 
nomination of Dr. Ralph Jarrett. 

President Jaclson: 

Are there other nominations? 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler, Greeiishoro : 

I want to second the nomination of Dr. Presnell of Asheboro. 
I have known Dr. Presnell intimately for a number of years 
and have studied him quite closely. He did not know I Avas 
studying him. He has all the qualifications that it takes to make 
a State Board Examiner. He has poise. He has ability. He 
never gets rattled and he has that peculiar something that I 
Avould like to term foresight. He is constantly looking ahead to 
see what is best for his chosen profession. Recently he appeared 

Containing the Proceedings 123 

before the State Medical Society as our representative, and tie 
was received most cordially and his effort before that Society 
has caused very much favorable comment. I can enumerate 
many things I know about this man, but I will not take your 
time to do that. I simply want to add my hearty endorsement 
to the nomination of Dr. Presnell of Asheboro. 

Dr. John Sivaim, Ashehoro : 

I was never on the floor of the ]Srorth Carolina Dental Society 
in my life until now, but I just had to get up and say a word 
for Dr. Presnell. He is on one end of the hall and I am on the 
other, the same hall, the same building. He has a key to my 
door, I have one to his. If there is anything I need, I get it. 
He does the same way. I know him personally and very well, 
and I want to endorse him for this nomination. 

Dr. A. S. Bumgardner, Charlotte: 

I believe Dr. Presnell is from the Third District. He is a 
fine man. I have nothing but the best regards for Dr. Presnell. 
We are from the Second District. We elected a President-Elect 
from the Third District. We elected a Vice-President from the 
Third District, and now the Third District is asking for a 
man on the Board from their district. We must get proper 
representation in ISTorth Carolina. We did not ask for any 
other man. We are solid behind one man. We are not after 
all the jobs. We agree with you people in the Third District 
that you have a good man. We have a good man, too. We just 
ask that you cooperate. We cooperated with you, and that is 
all we could ask of you. We don't mind giving and taking, 
but we don't want you to take it all, boys. 

Dr. Geo. C. Hull, Charlotte: 

Mr. President, it gives me great pleasure to endorse the nomi- 
nation of Dr. Jarrett. I was in college with Dr. Jarrett and I 
happen to know a little bit of the bringing up of Dr. Jarrett. 
I feel like Dr. Jarrett is particularly qualified to fill the Ex- 
aminer's chair and another thing, Mr. President : No one has 
mentioned it, as you will remember, and Dr. Neal Sheffield 
kept talking about a preceptor. I don't believe a man in the 
room has ever had a preceptor that has done as much for 
dentistry in N'orth Carolina as it has been Dr. Jarrett's privilege 
and Dr. Charles Alexander. If there is a man in the Society 

124 BulJetin Norih Carolina Dental Society 

better qualified to carry on not only in theory but in practice 
and not only to fight the unethical, the advertising men, but to 
stand solidly behind the ethical man, I don't know of him. 

Dr. R. M. Olive, Faijetteville: 

It seems all the speakers for this nomination are from Char- 
lotte. I would like to add a word from another district, another 
town. I agree with Dr. Amos Bumgardner, that it seems like 
we are taking things away from the Second District and Char- 
lotte. It is true that the other man is a good man. I haven't 
had the opportunity, of course, of coming in contact with a 
practitioner as I have with Dr. Ealph Jarrett. I know the 
Charlotte men quite well, and they are all good men. You won't 
find a better man than Ralph Jarrett. There is not a straighter 
shooter than Ralph. He will lend dignity to his local society 
and to our State organization. I wish to second his nomination. 

It was moved and seconded that the nominations be closed. 

The motion was carried and the members were instructed to 
be prepared to vote. 

Secretary Pridgen: 

Before we begin to vote, I would like to suggest that Dr. 
Mizell be accorded the privilege of naming someone to vote for 
him, on account of being crippled. 

President Jackson: 

We will allow Dr. Mizell to cast his ballot by writing the 
name of his candidate upon a piece of paper. It will be counted. 

The members voted. 

I declare the ballot closed. The committee will give us the 
results, and make it snappy. 

Nominations are in order for the place now held by Dr. D, E. 
McConnell on the Board. 

Dr. J. N. Johnson, Goldshoro : 

I would like to put in a nomination for a young man who 
stands mid-way on the threshold of life, at that age wherein his 
mind is seasoned by a sufficient number of years to make him 
worthy and qualify him not only as an examiner, but as a 
practitioner. He is a man, he is a gentleman, he is without an 
equal that I know of, and certainly he has no superiors. He 
has the voice of a gentleman, the actions of a gentleman. The 
brain within his cranium is well qualified to execute the duties 

Containing the Proceedings 125 

of examiner. I say to you with all sincerity that the most 
important position of any within the gift of this organization 
is that of your Exam.ining Board. It is the guardian gate of 
the profession. It stands between you, and not only you but 
the people, and observes the law, and judges the temperament 
of young men who apply for license, and to judge wisely and 
Avell is indeed a thing to be considered when you make a man an 
Examiner. I put in his nomination. He is not an old man. 
He is not a young man, but a man well qualified. Dr. William 
r. Bell of Asheville, ISTorth Carolina. 

President Jackson: 

At this time we will hear the report of the Election Com- 
mittee. Dr. Howie. 

Dr. E. B. Howie, Raleigh: 

Gentlemen, we declare that Dr. Ralph Jarrett has been 
elected. (Applause.) 

President Jackson: 

I declare Dr. Ralph Jarrett elected. Are there other nomi- 
nations ? 

Dr. S. R. Norton, Raleigh: 

I would like to second the nomination of Billy Bell of Ashe- 
ville for the Examining Board. I think he is tempermentally 
and intellectually qualified for this position. That is about 
all you can say of any man. I think he is dependable. I believe 
if he is put on the Examining Board he is going to fill his 
niche with honor and he is going to reflect honor on this Society. 
Dr. Billy Bell has some particularly close friends, and they 
know him well. He is true blue and well worth your confidence. 

President Jackson: 

Are there any other nominations? 

Dr. R. A. Little, Asheville: 

Ladies and gentlemen : With all due respect to my friend 
Billy Bell and I don't think I have any better friend, there 
comes a time in the affairs of the Society and the State Board 
of Dental Examiners when there must be fire. I want to say 
in this last proposition we had coming before the State Board 
of Dental Examiners there M^as no man who stood more staunch 

126 BuUetin North Carolina Denial Society 

for what was right than the man I am going to nominate to 
succeed himself, Dr. D. E. McConnell of Gastonia. At the 
time when we needed men who have backbone, he was there. 
This was not an easy fight, gentlemen. This was not a thing 
you could pass over easily. There are some men in this house 
who know something about what we went through with up in 
Asheville. I would not do a thing that would hurt my friend 
Billy Bell in his race for the Board of Dental Examiners. I 
know he is a good man. There is no better in the State of 
jSTorth Carolina. But I do know that no man has done his duty 
more nobly than Dr. McConnell of Gastonia and I think that 
this Society owes it to him to reelect him to this position. I 
know that Dr. McConnell went out of his way to help us in 
this case, and we have got numerous cases like that in xVsheville. 
There are men probably in North Carolina in this Dental 
Society who do not know as much about that as you men who 
have been on the State Board. It is a hard proposition for men 
to face. This man came down before the State Board and made 
his own argument. I felt sorry for him. I feel sorry for him 
now. He made a plea that would almost bring tears to your 
eyes, and if you would believe what he said about it, you would 
be bound to turn him loose, and yet Dr. D. E. McConnell was 
one man who stood staunch with the committee from xlsheville 
in prosecuting this man. I nominate Dr. D. E. McConnell of 

Dr. Harry Keel, W Inst on- Sal em : 

I would just like to endorse the nomination of Dr. Bell. 
Talking about fair play that Dr. Little started oif with : You 
fellows that like to bird hunt and go fishing will appreciate 
this. Dr. Bell is a man that if you go hunting, and you both 
shoot at a bird, he never hits it. You always hit it. He is the 
fairest man in the world. I don't think there is any question 
about it at all. There is not a man in our Society more qualified 
to examine young men than Billy Bell. He is a man that wants 
to give everybody a fair deal. I endorse his nomination. 

President Jacl'son : 

I declare the nominations closed. You will prepare to vote. 

The members voted. 

The next in order for nomination is one delegate to the 
American Dental Association in Chicago. 

Containing the Proceedings 127 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler, Greensboro: 

I am nominating our present President to represent ns. I 
think lie is the proper man to do it. 

llie Floor: 

Br. J. Martin' Fleming, Raleigh : 

I move that the nominations be closed and that Dr. Wheeler 
be instructed to cast the Tote of the Society. 

Dr. Fleming put the question and the motion was unanimously 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler: 

I take pleasure of casting the unanimous vote of the Society 
for President Jackson. (Applause.) 

President Jachson: 

I don't believe the election was right. I think it is all wrong. 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler: 

You are elected. Shut up! (Laughter.) 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

We Avill do it over if you say so. 

President Jaclson: 

The next order is the nomination and election of three alter- 
nates to the A. D. A. meeting. Each delegate is elected for 
three years. We have two already. At this time we must elect 
three alternates in the event that some delegate should be sick 
and could not go. 

Dr. R. A. Little, Asheville: 

I would like to place a nomination for Dr. 'Nat Maddux 
of Asheville. He is going, I know that. 

Dr. C. E. Minges, Rocky Mount: 

I would like to place the name of Dr. Paul Jones, the man 
who has religiously attended the National meeting for several 

128 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Jresident Jaclvson : 

There is one other nomination. 

Dr. R. M. Olive, Fayetteville: 

I would like to nominate Dr. C. C. Poindexter of Greensboro. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming, Raleigh : 

I move that the nominations be closed and the Constitution 
suspended, and that these three men be elected unanimously. 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

President Jaclson: 

I declare these three men elected alternate delegates to the 
A. D. A. meeting. 

"We will now have the report of the Election Committee. 

Dr. E. B. Howie, Raleigh: 

Your committee wishes to report that Dr. Bell of Asheville 
has been elected to the Board of Dental Examiners. (Applause.) 

President Jachson : 

Dr. Bell having received a majority of the votes, I declare 
him duly elected to the Board of Dental Examiners. 

The next order is the selection of the place for the meeting in 
1934. Long speeches won't get the Convention. Tell us where 
you want to go. 

Dr. R. A. Little, Asheville: 

It is a time-honored custom of folks from Asheville to invite 
you up there. We can get a real rate out at the Grove Park Inn 
and can make that headquarters. Don't let the name scare you. 
We can get a good rate and we want you to come up to Asheville 
again and we will be glad to have you. I move that the nomi- 
nations be closed and that we go to Asheville. 

Dr. I. R. Self, Lincolnton: 

I second the nomination that we go to Asheville. 

Dr. Ralph Jarrett, Charlotte: 

I would like for this Society to meet in Charlotte next year. 
It is a good place, suburb of Gastonia. (Laughter.) 

Containing the Proceedings 129 

Dr. D. B. Mizell, Charlotte: 

I second the motion that we meet in Charlotte. 

President Jaclson: 

Asheville and Charlotte. Any other towns? 

Dr. H. L. Keith, Wilmington: 

The TVilniiugton dentists invite this Association to meet at 
Wrightsville Beach next summer. 

Dr. R. A. Little, Asheville: 

Will you Asheville dentists please refrain from voting for 
Wrightsville Beach as usual? (Laughter.) 

Secretary Pridgen: 

I have numerous invitations here. I have an invitation from 
my home town. "Please present to Convention on behalf of 
the Chamber of Commerce and the people of Fayetteville a 
warm-hearted invitation to hold next year's Convention here." 

I have a telegram from Charlotte Chamber of Commerce 
inviting us to go there, and also have a letter from the Chamber 
of Commerce there. 

Here is one from the Asheville Chamber of Commerce uring 
us to meet at Asheville. 

We have another one from Pinehurst, the Carolina Hotel, 
urging us to meet over there. 

Here is one from the Oceanic Hotel at Wrightsville Beach, 
urging us to meet there. 

Here is another one from the Wilmington Lions Club. The 
Wilmington Chamber of Commerce wants us to meet there. 

Here is one from the Seashore Hotel at Wrightsville. 

The Tide Water Power Company wants to ride us over to 
the beach. 

The town of Wrightsville Beach wants to look after us. 

The Walker Taylor Insurance Company wants to insure us 
while we are there. 

President Jaclson : 

I would like to remind you that time the date of meeting 
will be set by the Executive Committee. Your Executive Com- 
mittee did not have anything to do except to come to Chapel 
Hill when they could take care of us. We came just as soon 
as they could accommodate us. 

130 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Sociefj/ 

Dr. J. C. Watl-ins, Winstoii-Salem : 

I move that we go to Wrightsville Beach if the Executive 
Committee will fix an agreeable date for the meeting. 

Dr. Neal Sheifield, Greensboro: 

Since there has been no invitation from Greensboro, I would 
like to read a telegram : "Greensboro Chamber of Commerce, 
Merchants Association, and city officials cordially invite the 
JNTorth Carolina Dental Society to hold its next meeting here. 
Assure adequate facilities and full cooperation toward making 
meeting thoroughly successful." It is signed by the Chamber 
of Commerce, the Merchants Association, Roger W. Harrison, 
Mayor, and by the Chief of Police. 

President Jaclcson: 

Are there any other invitations? (Pause.) Let's vote on it. 

Dr. II. 0. Lineherger, Raleigh: 

I think the I^orth Carolina Dental Society is entitled to a 
little information as to prices. I haven't a thing in the world 
against Asheville, but I don't think it is fair for us to go to 
their city and have the hotel people put up the rates for the 
members of the Society and make them pay one dollar more 
instead of one dollar less, and then tell us the reason is that 
we used the ballroom, I think we should have an understanding 
about that. 

Dr. R. A. Little, AsheviUe: 

May I remind Dr. Lineherger we are kind of used to having 
conventions come to Asheville. As a matter of fact we have some 
come there with fifteen hundred to two thousand men. No 
hotel in Asheville has ever gone up on any rate for conventions 
and I want to assure you that regardless of what you might 
think about it, we can get a good rate at the Grove Park Inn, 
one of the leading hotels in the South. I can tell you it will be 
lower than the rate you would pay at Pinehurst. I know that 
for a fact. I did not come down here with any descriptive 
literature and telegrams from the various ministerial bodies 
inviting you up there, but I am sure the Chief of Police of the 
town would be glad to see you. The mayor would too, and vari- 
ous other people. People are used to coming to Asheville; and 
we put on a big show for them when they do come. 

Containing ilie Proceedings 131 

Dr. P. E. Horton, Winston-Salem: 

I move that the whole question be left to the discretion of the 
Executive Committee and that it have full power to act. 

Dr. J. X. Johnson, GoJdsboro: 

Before that motion goes into effect, I would like to read a 
telegram I received : "Hotel Goldsboro extends invitation to the 
Dentists Association to meet here in 1934. They will be charged 
a minimum rate. There is ample accommodation for head- 
quarters and banquet." We trust that you will meet with us. 
I want to say that we haven't got a Chief of Police down there, 
but old J. ]Sr. Johnson is down there and, by gosh, he extends 
a cordial invitation from the bottom of his heart. If you come 
down there, I will see that you have a good time. I will even 
see that old J. Martin Fleming gets a grapefruit! (Laughter.) 

Dr. A. H. Fleming, Louishurg : 
I second Dr. Horton's motion. 

President JacTcson: 

You have heard Dr. Horton's motion and Dr. Arthur Flem- 
ing's second. It was that the meeting place and time for the 
meeting be left up to the Executive Committee. Is there any 
discussion ? 

Dr. A. H. Fleming, Louishurg: 

I am opposed to that, due to the fact that these things come 
up on the floor and they should be settled on the floor. If we 
have to pay high rates, sleep in a boarding house, or sleep in a 
barn, let's decide this thing here and now, and know just where 
we do go. 

Dr. P. E. Jones, Farmville: 

I doubt the wisdom of that procedure. Were I on the Execu- 
tive Committee, I would not wish that thrust upon me as a 
member. This body of men is supposed to select a meeting place. 
It is our duty under the By-Laws to select a place. Don't push 
an additional obligation and responsibility upon the Executive 
Committee. I think it would not be fair to push it off on them. 
I make that amendment to the motion. 

132 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. R. A. Little, Asheville: 

May I remind the Chair that there is no choice in this mat- 
ter. We have to select the place. The Executive Committee 
may change it, but Ave must decide on the place here. 

President JacJcson : 

I will rule with Dr. Little. 
We will j)roceed to vote. 

Dr. R. A. Little, Asheville: 

I move that we vote on the last place first. Vote starting at 
the bottom and go up. 

President Jachson: 

We will vote on Goldsboro first. All those in favor of having 
the meeting at Goldsboro will please stand and be counted. 

Dr. J. N. Johnson, Goldshoro : 

I am not asking you to go there just for the pleasure of asking, 
but inviting you from the bottom of my heart. We won't charge 
you six or seven dollars a day. We can sleep and feed you on 
two dollars a day, and give you just as good a time as anybody. 

President Jackson: 

That man called John Johnson can select one of the best 
steaks you ever bit into. 

The next place to Goldsboro was Fayetteville. Stand and be 

The next place was Pinehurst. Stand and be counted. 

As many in favor of going to Greensboro will please stand. 

All in favor of going to Charlotte will please stand. 

All those in favor of going to Wrightsville Beach Avill please 
stand up and be counted by the Secretary. (Applause.) Kemain 
standing until counted. 

All that favor going to Asheville please stand. 

Dr. R. A. Little, Asheville: 

Thank you, brother. I thank you. 

Dr. J. Martin Flemi7ig: 

Inasmuch as Wrightsville Beach had the majority of the 
votes, I move that we make it unanimous. 

Coniaining the Proceedings 133 

The Floor: 

President JacJcson: 

You have heard the motion. 

The motion was put and unanimously carried. 

What is your pleasure at this time ? 

Tlie Floor: 
Adjourn ! 

Dr. J. W. Whitehead, Synithfield: 

I move that we take up a collection to buy Dr. Pliin Horton a 
bathing suit. so he can go in the surf! (Laughter.) 

President Jaclcson: 

The meeting of the House of Delegates is called off until 

At 10 :35 o'clock p.m., "Wednesday, June 7, 1933, the meeting- 


General Session 

The meeting was called to order at 9 :05 o'clock a.m., at Hill 
Music Hall, by President Wilbert Jackson. 

President Jachson: 

The North Carolina Dental Society Avill please come to order. 
I will ask Dr. Pridgen to introduce our next speaker. 

Secretary Pridgen: 

Mr. President, members of the Society, ladies and gentlemen : 
It has been my privilege to knoAV our next speaker some seven- 
teen or eighteen years. We were class-mates at dental college. 
I remember him as one of the outstanding members of that 
class. I recall even then his interest in the field of dentistry 
about which he M'ill talk to you this morning. That interest 

134 fhilleiin North Carolina Denial Socieh/ 

lias continued tliroughout these years until he has developed a 
special technique for dental casting which in my opinion is a 
most valuable contribution to dental science. I take great pleas- 
ure in i^resenting Dr. J. V. Turner, of Wilson. 

Dr. J. V. Turner, D.D.S., Wilson: 


Mr. President, members, ami guests of the North Carolina Dental 
Society : 

As a preamble to my paper, I wish to state, as did Dr. Taggart 
in his paper, '"Investment Materials.'' read before the Chicago Dental 
Society and printed in the July, 1927, issue of the Journal of the 
American Dental Association, that I have interests in the field of 
dental manufacture and am a practicing dentist ; and like him, I 
come, not in the role of manufacturer but as a dentist, to bring to 
my fellow practitioners the results of many years of effort to im- 
prove inlay casting. However, I am conscious of the embarrassment 
that this dual role imiwses ; and, in defense of my position, I wish 
to state that I am a manufacturer only because there was no other 
way to get this technic across to you. Not until rejected by all 
manufacturers did I turn to this field myself, and then onl.v to make 
the necessary material available. Due to the radical departure from 
accepted casting procedure, it was necessary that I assume the 
financial as well as the professional responsibilit.v for the technic 
that I now bring; and, whatever the motive you may ascribe, I am 
sincere in the hope that my findings may prove to be a contribution 
to the art. 

The imrpose of this paper is to set forth the development of a new 
technic termed "Flaskless Casting" and call your attention to some 
of the features embodied therein. This technic is for inlay or single 
tooth restorations. There is a great distinction between this field 
and that of larger castings ; for in the field of removable bridgework 
we have tissue displacement, tooth movement, and some degree of 
elasticity or spring in the appliance itself, which does not necessitate 
the exactitude of adaptation required of the inlay and three-quarter 
crown. In the field of single tooth restorations we must adapt a 
rigid, unyielding cast to a tooth of virtually rigid, unyielding struc- 
ture, without even one compensating varial)le that may come to our 
rescue : and yet, the degree of success in this work largely depends 
upon the degree of adaptation secured. 

While successful inlay work requires the observance of known 
fundamentals at the chair, this paper is limited strictly to a con- 
sideration of laboratory procedure alone. 

In the laboratory, we strive to secure a good casting with smooth 
surfaces that ma.v be accurately adapted to the prepared tooth. 
The importance of this effort is revealed in the great amount of 
research work done in this field and the space given to this subject 

Containing the Proceedings 135 

iu our dental literature. Despite the progress made, there is uo 
other phase of our profession so torn with conflict of opinion as 
that of inlay casting. The maze of technics submitted is sufficient 
evidence that simplification is clearly to be desired. 

The great casting problem has been that of obtaining sufficient 
expansion to compensate for the shrinkage encountered. We have 
three expansion factors at our command ; namely, wax, setting, and 
thermal, but recognize that internal stresses may accompany them. 
Too, working with many variables tends to confuse and make 
tedious the technic ; hence the recent trend has rightly been toward 
the development of sufficient expansion in the thermal expansion of 
the investment alone, and this goal has been reached in the technic 
I now submit. 

In experimental work, I preferably use a die of my own design, 
which is simply a cylinder hole one-quarter inch in diameter through 
a piece of steel of the same thickness. The design of my die is 
such that it allows accurate micrometer measurements of both 
the wax pattern and the resultant casting. 

Working iu the laboratory, with all equipment and materials at 
room temperature, I eliminated the wax shrinkage that takes place 
when the pattern is invested at lower than mouth temperature ; but 
I observed a shrinkage that has not been given the recognition that 
its constancy and degree warrant. While this shrinkage has been 
mentioned in dental literature, prevalent opinion erroneously holds 
that the wax pattern, in correct procedure, may be perfectly adapted 
to the tooth structure. In their paper "A Specification for Inlay Cast- 
ing Wax,"* the authors, Taylor, Pafteubarger and Sweeney of the 
Bureau of Standards, outline the direct inlay process for making 
wax patterns and immediately following, we find this statement : 
"This proce'dure, if properly carried out, should give a wax pattern 
which is the exact size of the cavity at mouth temperature." This 
is error. In the laboratory, cylinder wax patterns were made in a 
room temperature of 96 degrees Fahr., which, immediately upon 
their removal from the die, revealed a minimum shrinkage of .25 
per cent. This adaptation shrinkage, as I term it, must be even 
greater in the mouth, for in using the die, pressure was exerted 
at both ends in an ideal manner not allowed at the chair. We have 
then a shrinkage in the wax pattern before it is removed from the 
tooth, of at least .25 per cent except, of course, in the crown or like 
preparations that do not permit this shrinkage. 

To the known gold shrinkage of 1.25 per cent must be added the 
.25 per cent adaptation shrinkage of wax, and a further wax shrink- 
age if invested at lower than mouth temperature. All of this 
gives a total shrinkage greater than the maximum thermal ex- 
pansion found in any investment material now available. The 
problem, then, was to secure greater thermal expansion iu the 
investment material. 

Experiment revealed that increased expansion could lie obtained 
by increasing the density of the mix; and with the knowledge that 
the core formation around the wax pattern gives the greatest density 

-Jounifil. A. I). A., .January, 1931. 

136 BuUetin Norih Carolina Dental Society 

obtainable, I sought some means for giving this core unrestricted 
thermal expantjiou and obtained it by investing the core in dry sand, 
using a closed end flask with suflicient investment above to form the 
necessary sprue and crucible. The core, freed in this manner, at 
red heat down the sprue, gave castings that were not only large 
enough, but there was actual over-expansion. 

Convinced then that, with restriction removed, thermal expansion, 
adequate for our needs, could be obtained, a casting machine was 
designed that would allow the complete removal of the casting ring 
which is known to restrict investment expansion. 

Experiments were then made with high expansion investments, in 
which two castings would be made under identical conditions, except 
that in one case the ring would be removed, and this flaskless case 
would reveal an expansion approximately 1 per cent greater than 
that of the casting made in the ring. It was also revealed that, 
when the core was used, restriction was imiwsed by the thin outer 
mix, even with the ring removed, this being due to the outer invest- 
ment having less expansion than the core. In addition to this prob- 
lem, cracking or checking was encountered when the unsupported 
investment was subjected to high temperatures ; this, to the extent 
of making the technic impracticable. 

To overcome these problems, a new investment material was 
developed and a silica comix)und formulated to increase expansion 
and prevent checking in the outer investment. In making the core, 
the investment material is used alone ; but for the outer or supporting 
investment a mixture of equal parts of investment material and 
silica compound is used ; and this must be worked as stiff as putty 
so that it has to be tamped, rather than poured, around the core. 

This enormous increase of silicon content, together with the 
density secured in working it stiff, produces an outer investment 
of such expansion that it imposes no restriction upon the core and 
one that will stand up under high temperatures without cracking 
or checking in the least. There need be no fear of rupture or cracking 
under casting pressure ; for it is dithcult to crush this dense material 
with the laboratory tongs, even after the cast has been made. In 
fact, this block of unsupported investment will withstand practically 
as much abuse from dropping and rolling around as though the 
ring were around it. 

While dimensional expansion has been the goal sought in technics 
submitted, it is evident that in inlay work there are three distinct 
types that require variation in expansion. The first type is the simple 
inlay which is limited to one surface of the tooth and, being entirely 
surrounded by tooth structure, must be slightly less than dimensional 
to seat properly. The second type includes inlays involving more than 
one surface, and, for these, dimensional expansion is indicated. The 
third type embraces all overlay preparations — such as full or three- 
quarter crowns and orthodontic bands. Castings of this type obviously 
require slight over-expansion. These types are represented by the 
three steel dies shown (Fig. 8). 

When using the technic and material submitted, the dense core 
formation, at bright redness down the sprue, gives slight over- 

Containing the Proceedings 137 

expansion. With tlie linown fall in temperature, ascertained by Dr. 
W. S. Rice.t as being approximately one degree Fabr. per second, 
that takes place in tbe mold when removed from the oven, the 
operator may, by tbe simple expedient of timed delay, secure any 
amount of reduced expansion desired. This, however, must be de- 
termined by each operator, due to the variables found in speed of 
work, reducing fiame, etc. My rule is to cast simple inlays when 
the sprue approaches dull redness, compound inlays at cherry red- 
ness, and overlay preparations . at bright, glowing redness down the 

In this technic, a properly formed core is fundamental. My method 
is to place four drops of water in a clean plaster bowl, adding 
enough investment to make a mix just too stiff for pouring. This is 
spatulated by hand and spread thin upon the side of the bowl to 
avoid air bubbles ; after which it is scraped off upon one edge of 
the spatula, vibrated to the end, and delivered to the wax pattern, 
and vibrated to surround it in the usual manner ; then the core is 
quickly rotated in dry investment and quickly withdrawn to vibrate 
until moisture flashes upon the surface. This procedure is repeated 
until moisture cannot be brought to the surface. The core is then 
laid aside until the outer mix is made. 

The outer investment, composed of equal parts of silica compound 
and investment material, is mixed thick, almost to the point of 
crumbling, never thinner than putty. Using the fingers, place, in 
a well oiled sectional ring seated on an oiled glass or metal base, 
enough of this mixture to fill the ring about one-third. Make an 
indentation in the center in wliich the core, by means of the sprue, 
is seated (Fig. 2), and add the rest of the investment until the 
ring is completely filled. The mass is then solidified by exerting 
pressure uiwn the surface with the thumbs (Fig. 3) until moisture 
appears at the base and the mixture feels more plastic. After setting 
takes place, the crucible is formed by trimming out to desired 
depth around the sprue (Fig. 4), and applying a coating of crucible 
paint (Fig. 5) to fix any loose grit and prevent iwssible contamina- 
tion. The sprue and sectional ring are then removed (Fig. 6), and 
the case is heated up in the usual manner for casting. The cross- 
section (Fig. 7)) shows the position of the core, crucible, etc., in a 
case properly invested. 

This technic seems to be a solution for many of our casting prob- 
lems. When considering its scientific relationship to the art, it is 
evident that the immediate formation of the core around the wax pat- 
tern reduces distortion from this source to a minimum. Also, this core 
of maximum density and minimum porosity must necessarily pro- 
duce .smooth castings unexcelled in this respect. Further, in addition to 
the elimination of wax and setting expansion, the expansion utilized 
is freed from all iwssible stresses by the removal of the ring and the 
restriction formerly imposed by the outer investment. Full compensa- 
ti(m for all shrinkage encountered, is provided by means of the ex- 
pansion variable deemed most desir.ible, namely, the thermal ex- 
pansion of the investment ahnie. 

fRice, "Dimensional Dental Casting," Journal, A. D. A., July, 1931. 


Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

When cousiclered as a "time saver, it is evident that the simple 
steps outlined ma.^' be performed quiclily and easily by anyone. 
The time .si)ent with weighing devices, mechanical spatulation and 
slow setting at exact temperature is conserved in this technic that 
avoids all such procedure. Too, the removal of the ring allows more 
i-apid heating up. and greatly facilitates the removal of the invest- 
ment after the cast is made. 

From an economic standpoint, the technic dispenses with weighing 
devices, mechanical spatulators, casting rings, crucible formers, as- 
bestos lining, water bath equipment and special wax eliminators and 
ovens. In fact, the oidy equipment required, aside from the machine 
and ring used in all technics, is your plaster bowl and spatula. 

Conta'm'wg the Proceedings 


Fig. 6 

President Jachson: 

We wish to thank Dr. Turner for the splendid presentation 
of his paper. We are going to divert from the usual procedure 
at this time and have discussions of the paper by our own men. 
I will call on Dr. John Johnson. 

Dr. J. N. John.'ion, (Jokhhoro: 

Mr. President: Tlie great artist is he who with tlie nn'iiiis :it hand 
can expi-ess a greater thought or, given the same niatt-rials. can do 
a better piece ot work tlian those about him have Wvn able to 

140 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Iimumerable apples had fallen on the heedless heads of men 
before Newton, seeing an apple fall, fixed for all time the law of 
gravitatit)n. Everybody knew that a weight suspended by a cord 
would swing until brought to a stop by wind resistance and friction ; 
but it remained for Galileo, watching a lantern swinging in the 
cathedral at Pisa, to discover the simple principle of the pendulum. 

We have in our own State a dentist, who, with the ordinary means 
at hand, has given to our profession the simple but perfect technic 
of flaskless casting. Here is a man who will go down in dental 
history as a great genius. Why? For this reason: While others 
have belabored with scientific instruments galore and equipment 
without end, this man, with his plaster bowl and spatula and a 
micrometer, has developed a technic that gives us every degree of 
expansion desired in our inlay work and at the same time a technic 
that is not beyond the grasp of any dentist. 

My interest in the work Dr. Turner is doing was intensified by 
questions concerning his technic that were asked by some of the 
leading men of the Middle West and North while attending the 
Buffalo meeting of the American Dental Association last September. 
I have had too many failures, like my audience, not to be sufficiently 
interested to investigate this great work in casting, developed by my 
fellow North Carolinian, a brother dentist, and a member of my 
district and State Society. I say, unhesitatingly, that his technic is 
based on the fundamental and unchanging laws of physics, as illus- 
trated by the slides he has shown and that wathin a short scope 
of time, not only his State, but the eyes of the dental world will be 
focused upon his accomplishments. I make this unreserved state- 
ment after having experimented with every method of casting, and 
my opinion is based on the results that I have obtained. 

I agree, in principle, with all that Dr. Turner has set forth in his 
paper. Any dentist who works for fifteen years to accomplish the 
perfection of a method that, in application, overcomes the greatest 
of difficulties, is worthy of having his name in the Dental Hall of 

The benefits of this technic will reach down to enrich every dentist 
in the world and will be the heritage of the dental profession for all 
time to come. (Applause.) 

President Jaclcson: 

At this time, I wish to present Dr. Paul Jones in a discussion 
of this paper. 

Dr. P. E. Jones, Farmville: 

Mr. President and Fellow Members of the North Carolina Dental 
Society and Guests : I have listened to Dr. Turner's paper with a 
great deal of interest, having had a great deal of exijerience in cast 
fillings and crowns (to which his technique particularly applied), 
and more unsolvable problem, in this field than most any other branch 
of dentistry, to which I have applied any special effort. I have re- 
cently had the opportunity to study, as well as experiment with the 

Containing the Proceedings 141 

technic and materials, and the procedure lie lias just outlined. I have 
done this in comparison with several of our most popular inlay in- 
vestment materials, and the results obtained by the proper applica- 
tion of prescribed technic recommended for each material, as near 
as, I Avas able to interprete and follow. I went into this comparison 
with the full determination, to prove or disprove, to my own satis- 
faction, the contention of Dr. Turner, I remember a conversation 
I had with one of my professional friends in which I was telling 
him about the Turner technique and materials, and the fun that I 
was getting out of experimenting with them. I told him that I was 
sure that I had him whipped on the contentions that the ring 
restricted the expansion of the mold as I had found that on heating 
up investment of some of the materials, I could expand the ring, 
enough to slip entirely otf of the investment and doubtless some of 
you have had the same experience. However, I found on further 
investigation that this had no significance when I compared the 
resulting casting. I would like to draw your attention to the unusual 
simplicity of the technique of Dr. Turner. In fact it is so simple 
that it permits of very little cause for discussion and is extremely 
desirable in comparison with the other complicated procedures which 
to say the least "are time consuming and tedious. It is admitted 
that much progress has been made in inlay, casting and technique 
in the last few years, but most of them have been so complicated 
and involved the purchase and installation of a great deal of minute 
scientific apparatus that only a specialist could accurately operate, 
making them unavailable, and of no value to the busy general 
practitioner of today. The larger part of all dental castings will 
always have to be done in offices carrying on a general practice. 
Therefore a simplified speedy and result producing technic that is 
readily adapted to the needs of and easily mastered by the general 
practitioner of dentistry, is greatly to be desired. This simple technic 
outlined by Dr. Turner comes nearer solving for me the perplexing 
problem of a sure fit casting than any I have yet tried. I prefer to 
complete and set all my castings at one sitting where practical, 
and I must have an investment material that I can mix quickly 
that sets rapidly and will permit of fast heating to the desired 
degree for casting, without cracking. I can save at least fifteen or 
twenty minutes with the Turner investment over any other. The 
second in time required to manipulate is standard, third whip mix 
and SSW. Fourth R. R. Gray and fifth and last Kerr's Cristobalite. 
I find however, that I can make the most accurate casting with the 
Turner investment, second with cristobalite, third R. R. Gary, 
fourth standard, fifth whip mix and SSW, so it seems when I 
consider all the advantages and disadvantages of the aforementioned 
materials. I shall have to limit my field at least for the present to 
Turner Flaskless and Kerr"s Cristobalite, and I much prefer Turner 
Flaskless as it is much simpler more quickly manipulated and not 
fraught with the danger of blowing up as is cristobalite if heated 
too fast or too quickly. I believe Dr. Turner has outlined the most 
simple result producing technic yet advanced and certainly one that 
is easily and quickly performed by anyone, interested in improving 
his casting. I have been using one of the Turner casting machines 

142 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

for a number of years and prefer it over all others as it is of the 
simplest ix)ssible design and allows the shortest lapse of time in 
casting since the cast is merely placed on the machine as it would 
be on any flat surface and as quickly. The machine is readily 
adapted to use with the other materials and technic as I have pointed 
out above. I should like to ask the question as I note that there is 
considerable difference in the weight of the materials used in making 
the outer investment, the compound being decidedly the heaviest 
and I should like to ask the essayist if he means by weight or 
volume. When he says use equal parts of these materials ; also 
since these materials are furnished separately. I should like to 
know if there is any objection to mixing up, say a quantity ahead 
for convenience, or must they be combined in each case just before 
using. (Applause.) 

I would like to ask Dr. Turner if the size and extent of his core 
that he invests in this outer investment makes any difference in the 
resulting casting or expansion in the heat-up? 

President Jachson: 

Dr. Clyde Minges will read his discussion. 

Dr. C. E. Minges, Rocky Mount: 

Some time ago I attended a group meeting of the Fifth District 
of the North Carolina Dental Society, at Wilson, N. C, and as a part 
of the program, was invited to Dr. Turner's office to witness a 
demonstration of his flaskless casting technic. At the conclusion 
of the demonstration. Dr. Turner asked if I would take some 
materials (I have been using a Turner Casting Machine for some 
time) and make a few experimental castings. With considerable 
doubt in my mind, I agreed to do this, but stated to him that, 
inasmuch as he had shown the good points of his technique, the 
purpose of my experiments would be to discover the defects and bad 
features in it. 

After making several excellent castings, I outlined this flaskless 
technique to my office assistant and to a laboratory technician of our 
city. I requested them to make several experimental castings and 
report to me. Their reports were very enthusiastic, and the castings 
they exhibited were indeed excellent. 

In giving this technique to them, I stressed the iwint that the 
important thing was to get a good solid core regardless of method, 
and told them that it was immaterial to me whether they vibrated 
the material to the end of the spatula, as outlined by Dr. Turner, 
or applied with brush as advocated by others. They tried both 
methods with gratifying results. My thought, in requesting them to 
digress from the technique outlined, was that whereas Dr. Turner's 
method might be ideal in his hands, other operators may prefer and 
employ different methods. In this connection I should like to ask 
Dr. Turner, if, in his opinion, the operator can safely vary the 
technique for making the core, or must he conform strictly to the 
technique outlined wherein a mix too stiff for pouring is vibrated 

Containing the Proceedings 143 

to end of spatula and transferred to the pattern. Another digression 
from the old order of things is that Dr. Turner rolls his core in dry 
investment while condensing, whereas other technicians advocate 
sprinkling or dusting the investment on the pattern between periods 
of vibration. I should like to ask Dr. Turner if, in his opinion, there 
is any material ditference between these two methods. 

I have purposely limited my discussion to the practical appeal 
of this new technique. While there are scientific advantages that 
flaskless casting obviously affords over other methods, I say to you 
that this technique should commend itself to you from an economic 
and time-saving standpoint. As Dr. Turner has pointed out, and my 
experiments bear out his assertions, you save the expense of re- 
placing burned out rings ; you save on the amount of investment 
used ; and you save further in the reduced equipment expense that 
this technique makes possible. 

To those of you who may be skeptical as to the strength of the 
mass after the ring is removed, let me immediately allay your fears. 
After a flaskless case has thoroughly set, you can drop it from a 
point above your head to the floor without damage. I have tried this 
many times and have never succeeded in breaking one. In fact, I 
contend that this safety from mold fracture is an outstanding fea- 
ture ; for, should the outer part be broken away, you can reinvest 
the core and go right on with the cast. How many of you have 
dropped an ordinary ring casting in the act of transferring the case 
from the oven to the machine, resulting in the cracking of the invest- 
ment within the ring, and as a consequence have several rough 
feather-edged processes extending from your inlay, making it neces- 
sary to do the whole job over? This has happened to me many times. 

Gentlemen, I am not a prophet, nor am I the son of a prophet, 
but I do hazard the prediction that in the years ahead this technique, 
given by Dr. Turner, will be heralded throughout the civilized world 
as the greatest advancement made in inlay casting since Dr. Taggart 
gave us the inlay. Dr. Turner has worked tirelessly and unselfishly 
for many years, and has given to us and to dentistry something to be 
proud of. His name will go down in dental history among the 
immortals, and I am glad to be among the first to proclaim him. 

President Jachson : 

Thank you, Dr. Minges. I am going to ask Dr. Howie at this 
time to present his discussion. 

Dr. E. B. Howie, Raleigh : 

I believe Dr. Simjoson of Richmond was to discuss this paper, 
and he could not be here. He sent his discussion, and with your 
permission, I will read Dr. Simpson's discussion of the paper. 

"The essayist has presented a paper that is a credit to himself, 
his State, and his profession. It shows the result of years of careful 
research and common sense. The defects of other techniques have 

144 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

been reduced, and we have in his machine, his split rinss. his 
materials, and his technique a coordination that is a real benefit. I 
invented and used the first perpendicular centrifugal casting machine, 
but abandoned it because the essayist's machine is easily superior 
to any other type for inlays and crowns. His idea of flaskless casting 
should supersede all others in the hands of careful men. I am 
grateful debtor to Dr. Turner because he has made my inlay work 
easier and better."' (Applause.) 

Gentlemen, I do not know that I can add anything to the ex- 
cellent discussion of this paper which you have already had. I 
do wish to thank Dr. Turner for this presentation of the subject. 
I was very much impressed by the modest way in which he 
presented the subject. He does not claim he has a perfect 
technique and does not claim that he can make a perfect casting. 
A perfect casting will be made when all variables have been 
perfectly coordinated. These variables differ from time to time 
and place to place, and if ever there is a perfect casting made, 
it will be done when the individual dentist takes into considera- 
tion the peculiar conditions that surround the office in which you 
have made that casting. 

Dr. Turner has been working on this idea for years. He has 
been most modest in his claims. I feel that Dr. Turner is due 
the confidence and support of this organization. (Applause.) 

President Jacltson : 

Thank you, Dr. Howie, We Avill ask Dr. Turner to please 
close the discussion. 

Dr. Turner, Closing: 

I am grateful for the interest manifested in my technic and paper. 
I especially want to thank those w^ho have discussed the pai^er, for 
the kind references, and for the work they have done in the investiga- 
tion of this technic prior to the meeting. These men have labored 
in this for the sole purpose of arriving at truth. And, aside from 
any relative merit of this technic, they have rendered an unselfish 
service to their profession in the hours given to the study of this 
technic in their laboratories and in study club work. 

Answering, broadly, the questions asked, I wish to state that I 
claim no monopoly of method concerning this technic, which really 
allows many variations of expression. As Dr. Minges stated, the 
important thing is the dense core formation around the wax pattern. 
I see no objection to applying the investment with the bi-ush rather 
than vibrating to place. Vibration allows the use of a thicker mixture 
than the brush ; and my observations lead me to employ a mix just 
as thick as I can conveniently vibrate to place. About the only 

Containing the Proceedings 145 

difference between rolling the core in dry investment and sprinkling 
tlie investment on is that the rolling operation is quicker. In fact, 
this rolling in dry investment must be done very quickly and with- 
drawn promptly, lest the rapid extraction of water from the core 
produce spaces or roughness. With the average operator, sprinkling 
the investment on between periods of vibration may prove to be the 
better of the two methods. 

The proportion of the two materials used for the outer investment 
should be equal parts by volume. There is no objection to mixing a 
quantity ahead for convenience, since these materials are furnished 
separately for their wider scope of usefulness. 

Dr. P. E. Jones, Farmville: 

I would like to ask if it makes any difference whether von 
made up this investment each time, or whether you could mix 
some and keep it for another time. 

Dr. J. v. Turner: 

It really makes no material diiference. You may mix any 
amount that you desire. You should make a distinction between 
the ordinary mix and the outer mix. 

In closing, I want to say that I have a technique that I have 
worked out. It is simple, and I hope that in the hands of the 
average operator it will assist him to overcome some of his cast- 
ing problems. (Applause.) 

President Jackson: 

Thank you, Dr. Turner. I wish to recognize Dr. Spurgeon 
at this time to present the next speaker. 

Dr. J. S. Spurgeon, HiUshoro: 

Mr. President, our next speaker needs no introduction to 
North Carolina dentists. However, I do msh to say that as 
Dean of the Medical Department of the University of North 
Carolina, he and his other workers in Chapel Hill are not 
surpassed in their effort or in the work they are doing, and 
they are not surpassed in the instruction they are giving. I 
hear many of his former students speak of him Avith love and 
affection for the inspiration gathered as they listened in to his 
classes, and this alone has endeared him to them by a bond of 
affection to the end. Dr. Manning will now speak to you. 

146 Bulletin 2sorih Carolina Denial Sociely 

Dr. I. E. Manning, M.D., Chapel Hill: 


It is my privilege to briug to the North Carolina Dental Society 
greetings and best wishes of the North Carolina Medical Society, and 
I wish to express my appreciation of this opportunity to talk to you 
on some matters which I conceive to be of common interest to the 
two professions. In spite of the ruling of the courts that "dentistry 
and medicine are separate and distinct in fact and in law and that 
a physician is not a dentist nor a dentist a physician," it is becoming 
more and more obvious to those in touch with the trends of modern 
medicine and dentistry that the bonds that bind the two professions 
into one are growing stronger and stronger and that they are united 
in the conuuon purpose of providing a complete health service to the 
people who are in need of such service. We are beginning to see the 
individual as a physiological and pathological unit. We recognize 
that every organ is a part of the whole, that health is the sum total 
of a properly balanced functioning of all organs, and disease the 
consequence of an imbalance which may begin in any one organ or 
area. Modern medicine is, I believe, based on this assumption and 
the practice of medicine — and I include dentistry — in all of its 
phases, is assuming more and more the character of a cooperative 
effort to restore the individual to normal health by any means avail- 
able. If I am permitted to visualize a set-up for an adequate medical 
service I should make the general practitioner of medicine — the 
family physician — the central figure, the keystone of the organization 
v.-ith dentists and all other specialists his friends and coworkers. 

The medical profession views with satisfaction the movements 
instituted by the dental profession — to improve the quality of its 
service now and in the future. I refer not only to the program you 
have instituted for the improvement of your schools, but perhaps 
the more ditficult program of getting over to those now in active 
practice the more recent and improved procedures. Dentistry, like 
medicine, has made miraculous progress during the past twenty 
years. The restorative and reparative work of the dentists per- 
formed on those wounded in the World War was a revelation to those 
of us who have a limited opportunity to learn of your accomplish- 
ments. New conceptions of the cause of disease, new methods of 
diagnosis and treatment, new inventions in materials and machinery 
have made our work more accurate and of finer quality, but much 
more complex and difficult. The task of discriminating between the 
essentials and nonessentials, between those methods that are sound 
and are likely to be of permanent value and those that are unsound 
in practice is as staggering in its magnitude in dentistry as it is in 
medicine, but there is nothing more fundamental to real progress. 
I wonder sometimes how much of the practice of medicine and den- 
tistry is not being directed by the wholesale drug and supply houses? 
I wonder at the same time if those of us who are engaged in teach- 
ing are really training the younger generation into habits of sound 
thinking? Or are we over-stimulating their imaginations by a promise 

Containing the Proceedings 147 

of a rapid rise to fame through some stroke of geuius, or plain 
blah, rather than by the laborious process of painstaking investiga- 
tions guided by sound thinking and sound scientific methods? Re- 
search has become a fetish in this country — especially in medical 
schools, and while I would not for a moment minimize the value of 
research done by qualified men, much of it is unsound and is making 
extremely difficult the task of the teacher and those who would give 
to the profession the best in modern practice. With all the mass of 
literature, materials and machinery, conflicting observations and 
experiences, it has become difficult to "steer a straight course." 

Medicine as a whole during the past twenty years has been the 
beneficiary of philanthropists and all of those who are philanthropi- 
cally or charitably disposed. Millions of dollars of private and 
public funds have been spent in the construction and equipment of 
hospitals and medical schools, some of which are on a most luxurious 
scale, and for medical research. The result is that not only has the 
cost of medical education become almost prohibitive, but medical 
service has been set up on a most costly scale. I quote from Dr. 
Harvey Gushing in a recent article, "Medicine at the Cross Roads," 
in which he is defending the general practitioner, the practical 
physician : 

"There has been much idle talk, too, regarding scientific medicine 
and the modern scientific doctor. For hasn't he, or mostly his 
technicians, taken our blood pressure, our electrocardiograms, our 
basal metabolic rate, lumbar-punctured us, ophthalmoscoi>ed us, ven- 
tricelogramed us. X-rayed us from top to toe, studied under the 
microscope everything we can expel for him besides drawing off 
our blood for some purposes, looked into our orifices and sinuses, 
tickled the soles of our feet, charted our calories, our calcium, phos- 
phorus and nitrogen intake and output'/" 

And after some pertinent illustration of where the doctor might use 
his head more and his laboratory less, continues: 

"As a matter of fact it will be a great shock to laymen (and I 
suspect to some physicians) to learn that a great part of what is 
called scientific medicine is a fetish and wholly unscientific." 

Whether we agree entirely with all of this or not, the fact is that 
the laboratory has been tremendously abused and its use has added 
very much to the cost of medical service. The practice of medicine 
has been set up on too extravagant a scale : there is too much 
overhead. In 90 per cent of his patients the physician can make 
for himself the necessary laboratory tests with an equipment that 
should cost not more than $200, including a microscope. 

To what extent dentistry has shared in these lavish benefactions 
and extravagances, I do not know, but I have reason to believe it 
has not entirely heeded the injunctions of Dr. Pritchett in his in- 
troduction to the rer>ort of Dr. Geis, on Dental Education, in which 
he writes : 

"The recommendations made in this report do not contemplate 
the education of a group of dental practitioners at such a level, 
whether of training or of cost of education, as will make the dentist 
inaccessible to the man of small means. ... To train up a 

148 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

generation of physicians or dentists or nurses wliose service is so 
costly as to be out of the reacli of tlie self-respecting man of modest 
means who desires to pay his way would be a dismal mistake in 

I think we are or have been definitely on the road of doing all 
of these things. I believe we should make our educational processes 
less expensive. 

Moreover the business of practicing medicine and dentistry, like 
all other business, needs to be reorganized on a more economical 
program. Threatened on the one hand with (State medicine and on 
the other with socialized medicine the two professions need to take 
their business into their own hands and reorganize it to meet not 
only the exigencies of the present but what appears to be the 
conditions of the immediate future. If any one can think for a 
moment that we will return to those unusual affluent conditions of 
the twenties he lias indeed a vivid imagination. There are too many 
specialists in both medicine and dentistry. In the retrenchments 
which seem to me imperative we must hold on to the fundamentals, 
the essentials of sound medical and dental practice and consolidate 
the gains we have made, but that we need to eliminate some of the 
nonessentials — some excess baggage that we have acquired, is obvious. 
I know of no more serious or difficult task confronting the two 
professions and none that demands stronger leadership than this. 
I feel very strongly that physicians and dentists should assume 
responsibility for an adequate health service to the people, and 
should undertake to provide such service as economically as is 
consistent with a fair return for such service. 

I hasten to say that I do not think that the two professions should 
assume the financial burden of a health service to the indigent, the 
improvident, the underpaid or unemployed. This is a community 
burden and a community problem and each community should accept 
it and tind some adequate solution for it. Already the public has 
asked too much free service of both physicians and dentists ; it has 
gotten into the habit and I am sure the habit is growing of expecting 
them to labor for love and "to think not of what they shall eat nor 
of what they shall wear." The web of socialized medicine is in the 
weaving and physicians and dentists do not need to lose their tempers 
in protest or resentment, but to go deliberately about their own busi- 
ness in an intelligent way. (Applause.) 

President Jacl'son: 

On behalf of the North Carolina Dental Society, I wish to 
thank you, Dr. Manning, for this paper. We are delighted to 
have you with us. At this time I am pleased to recognize the 
Chairman of the Executive Committee, Dr. Z. L. Edwards. 

Dr. Z. L. Edwards, Washington: 

Gentlemen, in keeping with the established custom of our 
organization, your Executive Committee wishes to recomm.end 

Containing the Proceedings 149 

three men for honorary membership in our Society. My atten- 
tion was called to it yesterday. I was under the impression 
that Dr. Harry Bear of Eichmond was already an honorary 
member. So, your Executive Committee wishes to recommend 
for honorary membership Dr. Harry Bear, Dr. U. Garfield 
Riekert, and Dr. L. Langdon Sheffield. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming, Raleigh: 

I don't know how Dr. Harry Bear has escaped this thing so 
long. If I had asked any member of the Society if Dr. Bear 
was an honorary member, I believe any one would have told 
me he was. You can imagine my surprise when I found that 
he was not. It would seem like we are doing now what we 
should have done long ago. 

President Jackson: 

Thank you, Dr. Fleming. What will you do with this report ? 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 
1 move w^e accept it. 

Dr. A. S. Bumgardner, Charlotte: 
I second the motion. 
The motion Avas unanimously carried. 

President Jackson: 

At this time I am pleased to recognize Dr. Bear. I will ask 
Dr. Bear to come forward without an introduction. We all know 
him, and we are delighted to have you with us. Dr. Bear. We 
feel honored by your j)resence. 

Dr. Harry Bear, D.D.S., Richmond, Va.: 

It was not necessary to make me an honorary member. I have 
been coming here for a number of years, and I have felt per- 
fectly at home. The only time I have recognized that I am 
not a member is when you start roping off some of us to keep 
us from voting. That is the only time I know that I am not a 
member of the ]\^orth Carolina Society. I assure you I am 
grateful for this honor. 

150 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 


Harry Beak, D.D.S., F.A.C.D., Richmond, Va., Dean and Professor 

of Exodontia, Medical College of Virginia, 

School of Dentistry 

It is very gratifying to have this opportunity of meeting with the 
North Carolina Dental Society in this historic spot. Chapel Hill. As 
the first State University in the United States, the University of 
North Carolina has by tradition and present achievements an enviable 
position among the higher institutions of learning. In an atmosphere 
such as this, the greatest good can emanate. 

In common with the other sciences, dentistry has developed through 
the centuries. The first organized efforts which culminated in proper 
professional recognition occurred in this country in 1839 with the 
establishment of the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, the first 
dental school in the world. The years 1839 and 1840 were epoch- 
making in the history of dentistry, for during this brief period, in 
addition to the founding of the Baltimore School, the American 
Society of Dental Surgeons was brought into existence, and the 
Arnerican Journal of Dental Science was established. 

It is of interest to this group to call attention to the first dental 
practitioner in North Carolina to hold a dental degree. In the second 
graduating class of the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery in 1842 
there were three men — two from Virginia and Dr. W. R. Scott of 
North Carolina. Dr. Scott, who was also a graduate in medicine, 
practiced at Raleigh for a number of years. He was an eminent 
practitioner and the recipient of many honors conferred by the 

Among the organizations which have influenced the practice of 
dentistry are the National Association of Dental Examiners and the 
American Dental Association. The National Association of Dental 
Examiners held one of its annual meetings in Asheville, North Caro- 
lina in 1903 and Dr. V. E. Turner, of Raleigh, was president of this 
organization in 1901. The American Dental Association also held 
one convention in this State which met at Asheville in 1903. 

In all the states of the Union there are state dental societies. 
Uniting the state societies as a parent organization, is the American 
Dental Association, which was organized in 1859. This association 
has grown by leaps and bounds and now has an enrollment of 32,500 
members. It is readily apparent that the greatest progress in any 
field of endeavor is not due so much to individual effort as it is 
to the combined efforts of groups similarly engaged. This was well 
illustrated at the recent meeting of your State Legislature when the 
organized dental groups of North Carolina expressed themselves in 
no uncertain terms and the strength of their organizations were 
recognized. Membership in a society is not sutficient, for every indi- 
vidual must give some time and effort for the benefit of all con- 
cerned. Dr. G. V. Black once said that "No dentist can, under present 
conditions or the conditions that will probably prevail in the future, 
do himself or his community justice without becoming an active 
member of a dental society and taking an active part in its work." 

Containing the Proceedings 151 

There are fourteen major activities of the American Dental Asso- 
ciation and these will be discussed briefly : 

1. Puhlicatioii of the Journal: Through the medium of the Journal 
scieutilic articles of a desirable character are presented. General 
and pertinent information about the practice of dentistry is also 
disseminated. With the addition of an associate editor, recently en- 
gaged, it is planned to extend the sphere of usefulness of the Journal. 

'1. Annual Meetings: It is needless to dwell upon the importance 
and significance of the annual meetings. The scientific sessions per- 
mit of a free discussion of the procedures in dental practice. The 
latest knowledge concerning our profession is usually presented at 
these meetings. In addition, there is the advantage of meeting old 
friends and making new ones and the knowledge thus gained by 
informal conferences. 

3. Bureau of Pudlic Relations: "Offers suggestions and counsel in 
the promotion of State and community dental health programs. 
Supplies educational material such as reprints, lectures, talks, post- 
ers, slides, films, etc., to dentists, teachers, nurses, and other public 
health workers. Gives advice and assistance in developing talks and 
lectures pertaining to dental hygiene for various types of audiences."' 

4. Lihrary Bureau: "Circulates dental books, and package libraries 
to members. . . . Answers questions pertaining to dental litera- 

5. Bureau of Chemistry: This department carries on investigations 
regarding dental remedies. Careful analyses are made and inquiries 
concerning the uses of drugs are answered. 

6. Council of Dental Therapeutics: This is a very important 
agency of the A. D. A. The Council "passes upon the therai)eutic 
claims of proprietary remedies." The reports of findings are pub- 
lished in the Journal. The scientific and educational value of the 
Council's activities are commended to you for your earnest supiwrt. 
The profession at large should encourage to the utmost this con- 
structive and far-reaching work. 

7. Judicial Council: This body "interprets and enforces the code 
of ethics. Prevents detrimental practices. Receives and decides 
questions of ethics." 

8. Dental Educational Council: This Council is composed of repre- 
sentatives of the National Association of Dental Examiners, Ameri- 
can Association of Dental Schools, and the American Dental Asso- 
ciation. It has exerted considerable influence in establishing stand- 
ards of dental education. The Council inspects the dental colleges 
and classifies these institutions. 

9. Committee on Dental Indexing: A valuable piece of work has 
been done in the collection of dental literature. This committee pub- 
lishes a dental index of all articles in the English language per- 
taining to dentistry. 

10. Committee on Legislation and Correlation: The general activ- 
ities of this committee are known to you. Its function is to kt>ep in 
contact with proposed legislation which in any way affects the dental 
profession. Under the able chairmanship of the veteran leader, Dr. 
Homer C. Brown, of Columbus, Ohio, this committee has rendered a 
very valuable service to the profession at large. The many accom- 

152 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

plishments of this important committee are too numerous to mention. 
We are daily tlie recipients of benefits and protection because of the 
legislation which has been perfected. 

11. Relief Fund Commission: This commission in ccjoperation with 
similar agencies from the state societies offers financial aid to in- 
digent dentists. Since the establishment of this fund considerable 
financial assistance has been rendered to dentists in all parts of the 
United States. 

12. Research Commission: "Receives application for assistance in 
research pertaining to dentistry. Passes on the relative merits of the 
application ; as to its problems, facilities, and researcher. Awards 
grants to promote research." 

13. Committee on the Costs of Medical Care: You are familiar 
with the general report submitted by the committee under this name. 
The American Dental Association assisted in this five-year study. 
There were three dentists on the general committee. One dentist 
signed the majority report and also signed a supplementary state- 
ment concerning the practice of dentistry. The views expressed liere 
are contrary to the generally accepted position of dentistry. The 
other two dentists submitted what is now referred to as Minority 
Report Number II. From all that has been written and said on this 
subject it is apparent that the individual dentist should seek to keep 
informed on this vital issue in order that he may be intelligently 
prepared to meet any changes which may be a natural evolutionary 
procedure in the practice of dentistry. 

14. Group Insurance: The American Dental Association has ap- 
proved a form of group insurance. Its interest is to offer to its 
members life insurance protection at a minimum cost. 

In addition to the above, the A. D. A. has recently sponsored a 
survey of dental health activities in this country. This study will be 
conducted by the United States Public Health Service. The plan 
has been perfected and field workers are now carrying on their 
investigation. The result of this survey will be published for the 
benefit of the profession and the public. 

The outline which has been submitted summarizes briefly the 
extensive operations and purposes of the American Dental Associa- 
tion. All of these advantages are offered to the members of the 
dental profession at $4.00 a year. Economically speaking, the cost 
of this service is but a fraction more than one cent a day. 

If there ever was a need for membership in a dental society, it 
is even more pertinent at the present time. There are in North Caro- 
lina 887 registered dentists. At the 1932 meeting of the A. D. A. you 
were credited with 304 paid members. There is a splendid opportunity 
for inci-easing the membership in this State organization. Each 
component society should exert every effort to bring into its fold 
all ethical practitioners in their districts. I commend for your con- 
sideration in this connection, the "Indiana Plan of Organization." 
This makes a particular appeal to the younger members of the 

All societies have certain rules regarding deliilquent meml>ers. 
There are, of course, the chronic members who are always desultory 
in the payment of their dues. These should be treated according to 

Containing the Proceedings 153 

your coustitutioual provisions. Tliere are ottier members, however, 
wlio are deserving of consideration. As these are unusual times, I 
would urge j-ou to be indulgent and tolerant with your membership. 

Now, it is my privilege to extend to you an official invitation to 
attend the 75th Annual Meeting of the American Dental Association 
in Chicago, August 7th to 12th, 1933. This meeting will be held in 
conjunction with the Chicago Centennial Dental Congress. It is 
planned to make this one of the finest dental conventions ever held. 
Judging by the activities of the Chicago group and knowing what 
has already been accomplished, I have no doubts about the fulfillment 
of all expectations. All sessions of the convention and the exhibits 
will be held in the Stevens Hotel. 

There is an added attraction to a visit to Chicago at that time 
which is the Contury of Progress Exposition. Dentistry will be well 
represented with a series of exhibits in the Hall of Science Building. 
This will portray dentistry as an important phase of health service. 
You are urged to make plans to attend this great meeting. 

I want to express my appreciation for your courtesy in inviting 
me to appear on your program. It is always a pleasure to meet with 
you. My presence at this time as trustee of the A. D. A. from the 
Fifth District, which includes North Carolina, carries an added 
responsibility. Please be assured that it will be my purpose at all 
times to represent the wishes of my constituents and the dental 
profession as a whole. (Applause.) 

Dr. Bear showed some slides of the World's Fair at Chicago 
and extended a cordial invitation to attend the A. D. A. meeting 
in Chicago. 

President Jackson: 

Thank you, Dr. Bear, for your splendid address. It was very 

Dr. U. Garfield Richert, Ann Arbor, Midi.: 

Having the distinction of being a member of your great 
organization, I ask the privilege of the floor. I want to show 
you that I appreciate the honor shown in making me a member 
of your State Society. There is just one other thing I want 
to say. As much as I detest it, I have seen during the past few 
years the necessity for new blood and a new deal in the Ameri- 
can Dental Association. I have seen certain political maneuvers 
that I resent to protect certain vital things coming before the 
dental profession. I agree perfectly with Avhat the Dean has 
said. I want to see men head the profession Avho are looking 
forward instead of men in the highest chambers of the organiza- 
tion Avho are politicians. The power of the organization has 
fallen into the hands of certain individuals in the American 

154 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dental Association. Unless we call on men of integrity that 
we can trust and men that have the interest of the profession 
at heart, we cannot go forward. 

I happen to be a member of the House of Delegates and am 
sincerely interested in having our representative as trustee from 
this District. The politicians came and said they did not want 
any Deans. They do not want any brains. I want to put in the 
thinking element in America, the men whose judgment we can 
rely on. I am enthusiastic in my endorsement of Dr. Harry 
Bear. I want to say that, because it is due him. I am glad 
that he has been placed on the Board of Trustees. I thank you. 

President Jachson: 

I wish to thank you, Dr. Rickert. I assure you that we appre- 
ciate your remarks. 

Dr. L. Langdon Sheffield, Toledo, Ohio: 

I wish to express my thanks and appreciation of the honor 
your Society has bestowed upon me by making me an honorary 
member. I have had a wonderful time down here, and I Avill 
take home with me many happy, pleasant memories of being 
here. (Applause.) 

President Jachson: 

Thank you. Dr. Sheffield. I want to assure our visiting 
clinicians that it has been a pleasure to have you, and we have 
enjoyed your visit. You have brought us some wonderful infor- 
mation, and instruction. We have been delighted to have you 
and I hope you will come our way again. 

At this time I want to recognize Dr. G. Fred Hale of Raleigh, 
who will present our next speaker. 

Dr. G. Fred Hale, Raleigh : 

Members of the North Carolina Dental Society : First I want 
to thank Dr. Bear for his liberal remarks and to say that such 
comments make the task of serving the Dental Society much 
more pleasant. 

Permit me to present to you my friend and your friend, and 
the benefactor of children, Dr. G. A. C. Jennings of Richmond, 
a member of the faculty of the Medical College of Virginia. 

Containing the Proceedings 155 

Dr. G. A. C. Jennings, D.D.S., Riclimond, Ta.: 

About a moutli ago I received a letter from your committee 
asking me to present the subject of children's dentistry. I read 
the letter hurriedly and immediately accepted the invitation, 
rather a selfish motive on my part. I thought mostly of what 
a good time I was going to have meeting friends. My presenta- 
tion, therefore, is perhaps not what it might be. 

]^ot much sooner had I received this invitation and accepted 
it, than our mutual friend Dr. Harrison — I must tell you this 
right now : I took Dr. Harrison back to Eichmond and on the 
trip back we talked about everybody in North Carolina and 
practically every subject. When we finally pulled up in front 
of the Fifth Street Building in Eichmond, Dr. Harrison said, 
"Jennings, do you know we pretty nearly broke a record." I 
said, ''J^o." He said, "Before I get out of the car, I want to 
tell you a nice little joke. We haven't told a joke since we left 
Ealeigh." He told me a nice little joke. I am sorry I can't 
repeat it here. Anyway we kept from breaking a record. 


The beginner in any mechanical work does not at once arrive at 
the best, and most practical methods. But, if he is an observing 
person, he soon falls into a definite order of procedure which he may 
adhere to more or less rigidly. 

I must admit that I am of rather a lazy type, and oftentimes 
have spent hours of folly to avoid minutes of labor. This has 
been true since my hoyhood days, when I was always contriving some 
apparatus to lessen the labor of my chores. 

This trait has clung to me, and even in the practice of dentistry, 
I find myself studying the subject of simplification at the exijense 
of every' thing except pain to the patient, and functional service 
to the organ. 

It is from this angle that I shall discuss my methods of caring 
for the teeth of children. 

I wish to make myself clearly understood in the beginning of this 
brief discussion, I am not attempting to be scientific, and shall not 
picture any "Utopia" to those who are over enthusiastic. Because 
we all have failures, and at times lose faith and wonder if our 
efforts are worth while. 

It has l>eeu my privilege to have heard and read, many discussions 
on the subject of dentistry for children. Most of them have high 
ideals and picture a beautiful future for preventive dentistry. AH 
have very forcefully impressed the necessity for dentistry for chil- 
dren, and I am sure that any reader of current dental literature 
has been converted to the idea. Many articles have been idealistic 
and advocated some one technique or another as a panacea. All of 

156 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

them are good, no doubt, in the author's hands, and it is not my 
purpose to discredit any of them; inlays with the slice preparation, 
silver amalgam, copper amalgam, kryptex, and cements of various 
kinds. All of these are good, and to the man who uses any of them 
with a large degree of success I wish to pay honor and tribute. But, 
to the man who deliberately refrains from treating children's teeth, 
and does not advise the parent of the necessity of such treatment, 
I have little regard for his credit to the dental profession. 

My discussion, which I prefer to call "Shop Talk on Dentistry for 
Kids," is just a simple narrative of the routine procedure in my 
office. I feel so close to all my friends here in North Carolina, I am 
sure you will not think me egotistical, for I only wish to convey to 
you the technique which has proven most successful in my hands. 

I can best present my subject by taking up various steps of pro- 
cedure under separate headings, and I have chosen office environment 

Office Eis'vironment 

Today children are being given more consideration in every line 
of endeavor than ever before. The barber, for instance, has seen the 
necessity of appealing to them, and his shop has been made attractive. 
Schools, stores, and theatres have studied their desires and are 
catering to them. So we, as professional men, must give them like 
consideration. In your reception rooms small fui'niture is most at- 
tractive to the adult, as well as the child. Have at least one or 
two chairs for the little ones, so they may feel that they are ex- 
pected and can be made comfortable. Have a toy, or books which 
will amuse them. Though it is not necessary that they be elaborate. 
Your operating room need not be touched. Simplicity and neatness 
is all that is required. 

Child Psychology 

Child psychology should be applied at all times, and particularly 
the first visit. I always know the child's first name and greet him, 
calling him by name. I frequently meet the new patient in street 
clothes, as the operating coat appears too professional. There is an 
ottoman in my child's play room that I invariably use to sit on 
while talking to the little patients. When I am seated my eyes are 
about on a level with theirs. A suitable conversation is stai'ted, and 
I offer to guess his weight by lifting him. I weigh the child in the 
operating room later. When the patient is in the dental chair I in- 
spire confidence by being truthful, generous with explanation, and 
allowing him to know and see what is to be done. 

Small children like to be amused, even after they are seated in 
the operating chair. However, they are more interested in what is 
going to be done to them than anything else at that moment. Conse- 
quently, I have devised a plain mirror which is attached to a head 
strap, similar to those used by the Rhinologist. This mirror can 
easily be adjusted by either myself or the child so that perfect 
visibility for the patient may be obtained. Most of the time I operate 
from behind the chair. The child can see what is taking place even 

Coniainlng ihe Proceedings 157 

-when I operate with the mouth mirror, (indirectly). I explain to 
the child in understandable words just what I intend to do, and he is 
allowed to see the operation. My patients know when a cavity is free 
from decay nearly as quickly as I do. They are explained the causes 
and see the necessity for what little pain that might be attached 
to the particular phase of dentistry I am doing. With the child in 
this mental attitude I usually have perfect cooperation. 

Cavity Prepabations 

I use short shank burs and a miniature contra angle hand-piece 
most of the time. The cavity preparations I shall describe are for 
amalgam restorations, as I use them mostly. 

Cavity preparation for the Class I and Class V cavities in the 
deciduous teeth. Much the same technique is followed as described 
by Black for the permanent ones. The only exception being beveling 
the cavity margins. A greater bevel is required due to the anatomy 
of the deciduous teeth, the enamel being thin and brittle. 

Class II cavities. With a No. 34 inverted cone bur I start in the 
occlusal pit, either the mesial or distal, as the case may be, and 
with a swaying motion cut down through the dento-enamel junction. 
From this point, with the same instrument I cut through mesial or 
distal, depending upon the cavity, to the carious portion of the tooth. 
Then, with hand instruments ; chisels, hatchets, and excavators, often- 
times remove all decay without further use of a bur. The occlusal 
step must be broad and wide. Large Fissure burs and stones are 
used for this purpose. The margins of the cavity are placed well 
buccally and lingually for prevention and high upon the incline 
plains. The gingival seat must be shallow due to the horn of the 
pulp. Strength and anchorage are secured by the occlusal step and a 
bulk of filling material is required. 

The Class III cavities are seldom treated, except in the cuspids, 
and using the same technique as for permanent teeth. With the 
incisors I use a Joe Dandy, or safeside disk, and polish the surface 
flush with the base of the cavity, so as not to collect food. Contact 
points normally are lost by bony development. 

Class IV cavities. The same as above. 

I use cotton rolls with the Ivory type holder, and the saliva ejector 
to maintain dryness. The rubber dam is seldom used. There are 
many tinger manipulations one can use to advantage. Oftentimes 
in preparing a cavity in the lower arch for children, the anterior 
teeth are loose, and in getting a rest for the finger of the operating 
hand, you may use these tender teeth, and cause much discomfort to 
the patient. With the mouth mirror held firmly between the thumb 
and forefinger, the little finger supporting the chin, the middle finger 
may rest on the soft tissue just above the fold of the muccous mem- 
brane, and be used as a rest very satisfactorily, for all the teeth 
on one side, and to the sec-ond deciduous molar on the other. This 
same finger may hold a small cotton roll. 

158 Bulleiin North Carolina Dental Society 


In Class II, or compound cavities, I always use a matrix. Various 
Icinds of matrices are on the market. Most of them are made of thin 
steel. No douht you have selected the one that appeals to your indi- 
vidual requirements. I think I have tried most of them from the 
looks of my cabinet. Most of these matrices require a matrix holder, 
and very few small children will tolerate them. They are dithcult 
to place on the deciduous tooth, due to the anatomy, and the little 
tongues will invariably push them off just at the most inopportune 
moment. The .saliva glands in young children are very active and it 
is necessary to allow the child to expectorate often. For this reason, 
I do not use any matrix that requires a holder on very young 

I have titted bands made of German silver, and soft solder, but 
this takes too much time. I have used wedges of wood, cotton or 
gutta-purcha to hold matrix material in place, but not very satis- 
factorily. At the present time I am using only one type for young 
patients. The most satisfactory matrix in my hands is a seamless 
uoncorrosive band. These bauds may be secured from the supply 
house in various sizes. I use sizes varying from No. 10 to No. 15. 
These usuallj- serve all the purposes from the deciduous molars. 
These bands are cut so that three matrics can be obtained from each 
baud. The band selected is always larger than the tooth, and with 
a pair of flat beak pliers it is pinched on the surface which is to be 
the buccal. Thus giving the band some spring so it will stay on the 
tooth momentarily. The band is contoured and trimmed so as not to 
injure the investing tissues, and placed under the free margin of the 
gum where necessary and the patient is allowed to close in natural 
occlusion. The band is removed and trimmed again if the patient 
cannot close comfortably. Then with a pair of serrated straight 
beak pliers the band is pinched and pulled until it fits snugly around 
the neck of the tooth and a lap fold is made, always carrying the 
fold away from the cavity. A rough serrated instrument is used 
to force the matrix into a neat fold. A ball shaped burnisher may 
be used to establish a contact point. Sometimes a hole is drilled at 
the desired contact point with a No. 4 round bur. Dry cotton may 
be inserted, buccally and lingually, if the band stands off at the 
gingival. Wooden wedges may be used, gutta percha, or even dental 
floss ligatures may be tied around the band at the neck of the tooth 
with a surgeon's knot. 

Now we are ready to place the amalgam. Any amount of condensa- 
tion can be accomplished and the child can occlude as often or as 
forcefully as he likes without fear of destroying your restoration. 
This matrix can remain on the tooth until the next sitting, and is 
advisable sometimes, because amalgam does not crystalize quickly. 
When the matrix is satisfactorily placed with a snug fit at the 
gingival there is no discomfort in leaving it until the next appoint- 
ment, provided it is burnished around the surface of the tooth. 

Containing fJie Proceedings 159 

Filling Materl\.l 

The filling materials used mostly in my office are liigli standard 
Silver Amalgam, Copper Amalgam, and occasionally Copper Cement. 
Cement is used as test fillings and where the tooth is expected to be 
lost within a period of a few months. 

All cavities are sterilized either with Phenol, Silveruitrate and 
Eugenol or Ammoniated Silvernitrate and Formalin. 

In cavities free from discolored dentine Phenol is used, and Silver 
Amalgam is inserted. 

In cavities with solid discolored dentine, Eugenol and Silvernitrate 
are used and a Copper Amalgam base over which is inserted a Silver 
Amalgam, all accomplished at the same sitting. 

In cavities where the removal of leathery decay may cause an 
exposure, I use ammoniated Silvernitrate and Formalin, followed 
with a test filling of cement. After sufficient time has elapsed, a 
Silver Amalgam may replace the cement. 

With the matrix in place, as I have described above, the amalgam 
may be placed. With one hand holding the mouth mirror, and 
supporting the chin, if a lower tooth, the filling may be condensed 
as thoroughly as desired. In finishing the fillings, the young patient 
wants to spit out the small scraps of amalgam, which fall on the 
tongue, as rapidly and often as they accumulate. In the upper arch, 
catch the fragments on the mirror, in the lower arch force the scraps 
to the buccal. The child will tolerate this procedure. The inlayed 
mirror is used to an advantage with the upper teeth. It retains the 
scraps. The child may occlude as forcefully as they desire. This 
aids in carving the occlusal which is very essential. The matrix band 
may be left on until the next sitting, as the child is not any too 
cautious in exerting occlusal force on the newly placed filling. 
Amalgam fillings may be polished easier by the use of plug-finishing 
burs and Burlew Discs. 

Cavities of greatest consequence occur on the proximal surfaces of 
the deciduous molars and due to the broad, fiat contact ix)iuts. X-ray 
is of great aid in determining early caries. 

Oftentimes in preparing a comiwund cavity on the distal of a first 
deciduous molar, we find a small cavity on the mesial of the second 
molar, if the cavity is below the normal contact point. That is, if 
there is sufficient bulk of enamel occlusally to withstand chewing 
force, and provided the X-ray shows the presence of a second 
bicuspid tooth. 

I oftentimes prepare a simple proximal cavity. The unfilled cavity 
of the first deciduous molar will allow accessability. Such cavities 
are always filled with Copper Amalgam for the following reasons: 
Lack of occlusal force, and areas that are not self-cleansing, and the 
deposit of copper salts will tend to prevent the recurrence of decay. 
Whenever there are compound approximal cavities on the first 
and second deciduous molars, I always fill the second deciduous molar 
first, and place a Zinc Oxide and Eugenol filling in the first molar. 
On the next visit the filling is polished at the gingival and proximal 
before the filling is inserted in the first molar. My reason is this : 
the first bicuspid usually erupts two or three years before the second, 

160 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

and there is a smooth contact point for it to rest against, which 
may prevent it from decaying. 

In placing restorations in the deciduous teeth there are two 
things I hope you will remember, if you forget everything else I have 
said. First, most of the deciduous teeth that you till should be 
retained by the child longer than you expect the best sylicate tilling 
to last which you place for your adult patients, and just as great 
a service is rendered, thus justifying an equivalent fee. Second, 
many deciduous teeth have no permanent successor, and unless you 
know there is one, you should place your filling with all the perma- 
nency that you expect of the restorations for your adults. 

Okal Prophylaxis 

In cleaning teeth for young children I prefer the use of the rubber 
cup to the brush. The patient tolerates it better, because it does not 
scatter the dentifrice all over the mouth, and is not as irritating 
to the investing tissues. 

Children during the eruption of the permanent teeth neglect their 
mouths because of tender gums, and sore teeth. Particularly during 
the eruption of the six-year molars, and after their eruption a 
thorough scaling of second deciduous molars is very essential. I make 
it a practice to give a tooth brush demonstration to all patients over 
six years of age. 


The removal of deciduous teeth is not always easy. I have divided 
deciduous extractions into four groups. Those teeth where the roots 
have completely absorbed. Teeth with roots partially absorbed, broken 
down teeth and teeth in which no absorption has taken place. 
The first class is very simple, oftentimes just breaking the con- 
tinuity of the margin of the gum will release the vacuum and tooth 
is simply removed. I always paint the tooth with mercurochrome and 
have the child expectorate calling attention to the fact that they 
"spit pink." Thoroughly dry the tooth and then apply iodine and 
acconite, and with the beaks of cotton pliers flow Phenol around 
the free margin of the gum, then with a large spoon excavator 
remove the tooth. The mercurochrome is used only for its psycholog- 
ical effect, for when the blood comes he still is just spitting pink. 

The second class — teeth with roots partially absorbed. The child's 
age must be considered, and thus the development of the succeeding 
permanent tooth, depending upon this, you may determine the amount 
of bony attachments to the roots, either infiltration, or conductive, is 
used, according to the patient. If your experience has taught you 
that in a child seven years and six months old the first deciduous 
tooth which normally should be lost at the age of nine, has little 
bony attachments to the roots, infiltration is all that is necessary for 
a painless extraction. But the age is not the only guide, as the 
dentition varies in different children. 

In teeth with the roots fully developed, conductive or general 
will give best results. I have given conductive to children three and 
a half vears of age with success. Broken down teeth and abnormal 

Containing the Proceedings 161 

absorption is the most difficult type. Conductive is most satisfactory 
and great care must be used with the elevators. I use them bucco- 
lingually mostly. Seldom anteriorly or posteriorly, the finger being 
used as a fulcrum, and the apex of the root is exposed before the 
elevator is applied. Large spoon excavators are used for this purpose 
mostly. ( Applause. ) 

Dr. Jennings showed some slides, covering some of the pro- 
cedures as mentioned in his paper. 

President Jachson: 

Thank you for the splendid presentation of your paper, Dr. 

xlt this time I will ask Dr. Ernest Branch to present our 
next essayist. 

Dr. E. A. Branch, Raleigh: 

I think one of the most fortunate things we have in our 
organization in this State was a few years ago when we had an 
extension course at the great JSTorthwestern University and at 
the University of North Carolina. At that time many men in 
this State were given an opportunity to find that they needed 
more training of an intensified nature. Among those who de- 
cided that was the essayist at this time. Dr. Wallace Mustian. 
Dr. Mustian was not altogether satisfied to quit with that 
extension course, but went to JSTorthwestern and stayed last year, 
and while there he gathered a great deal of benefit to himself 
and benefit to the jNTorth Carolina Dental Society, and at this 
time he is going to give you an opportunity to benefit in some 
of the things he has learned. Dr. Mustian. (Applause.) 

Dr. Wallace F. Mustian, D.D.S., M.S.D.: 

Mr. President, fellow members of the North Carolina Dental 
Society, it gives me great pleasure as a member of this organiza- 
tion to appear to you this morning, especially at the end of the 
program. I realize it is very difiicult to maintain your attention 
as the last thing on the program. Without further comment 
I will go direct to my first paragraph, and I would also like 
for you to keep in mind the views which have been shown upon 
the screen. 

162 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 


By Wallace F. Mustian, D.D.S., M.S.D.* 

Warrenton, North Carolina 

A realization of the importance to the dentist of an accurate 
knowledge of the relations of the maxillary sinus floor prompted 
this study. 

Possibly no part of our bony anatomy presents as many anatomical 
variations as the maxillary sinus. It seems that almost any variation 
in size and shape consistent with the boundaries of the maxilla and 
certain articulating bones including tlie teeth may exist. With this 
in mind, this work was primarily undertaken for the purpose of 
making and recording anatomic observations that would be of value 
to the Dentist, Oral Surgeon and Rhinologist. Standardized operative 
procedure in the presence of marked anatomical variations may lead 
to unpleasant and even dangerous results. 

The object of this study was to determine what were the relations 
of the floor of the maxillary sinus, and wliat were the possible types 
and frequency of variations from the usual in the floor; also, the 
application of this knowledge to practical purposes. 

For the purpose of this research, four thousand observations were 
made on one hundred human maxillary sinuses. Materials were ob- 
tained from the anatomic laboratory of Northwestern University 
Dental School. The subjects, all past middle life, had had practically 
no dental care except an occasional emergency extraction. 

No attempt was made to select the specimens so as to show certain 
specific conditions because we wished to show averages. 

All of the specimens were well preserved, saggital sections of the 
face bones excluding the mandible. Numerous cuts and sections were 
made at different locations, thereby, exix)sing the sinus in the most 
advantageous locations, and showing its relations to the nasal, fossa, 
l^alate. zygoma, concha, median and lateral walls of the nose, the 
alveolar ridge, also the tooth relations to the floor. 

The subject of the maxillary sinus is not new because Galen, a 
Greek physician in the year of 139-201 knew of it. N. Highmore, an 
English anatomist, in 1851 gave what was considered the first de- 
scription of the cavity. He discovered this sinus by the extraction of 
a left canine tooth. In as much as this tooth rarely comes into 
relationship with the floor, the sinus in this case must have been 
exceedingly large. 

*Abstracted from a portion of a thesis submitted to the faculty 
of Northwestern University Dental School in partial fulfillment for 
the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Dentistry. 
August, 1932. 

*Read before the Fourth District Dental Society of North Carolina, 
Raleigh, N. C, November 23, 1932. 

*Read before the North Carolina Dental Society at Chapel Hill, 
June S. 1933. 

Confaining the Proceedings 163 

Cowper in 1701 exposed the sinus through a tooth socket and later 
the mode of making entry into the sinus through a socket was given 
his name. Zukerkandl\ in 1S93, was next to make a thorough study 
of the sinus. Since then J. Parsons Schaeffer=, Cryer^ and SkillemS 
with others haA^e given the maxillary sinus careful study. 

Anatomic Description of Floor of Maxillary Sinus 

Their description of the maxillary sinus and especially the floor is 
brief. They give no indication of the variability of floor. Few 
maxillary sinuses correspond exactly to the classical presentation 
as found in most text books. 

Morris"' description of the anatomy of the floor of the sinus varies 
in no great essential to that found in other text books on anatomy. 
It follows: "The floor of the sinus is usually very uneven due to 
the prominences corresponding to the roots of the molar teeth. In 
most cases the bone separating the teeth from the sinus is very thin 
and occasionally the roots project into it. The teeth which come into 
closest relationship with the sinus are the first and second molars. 
But the sockets of any of the teeth lodged in the maxilla may, under 
diseased conditions communicate with it. As a rule the cavity of the 
sinus is single, but occasionally specimens are seen in which it is 
divided by long septa into chambers, and it is not uncommon to find 
recesses separated by bony processes." 

It was found that the topography of the floor of the sinus usually 
corresponds to one side of a kidney if one end was somewhat sharp- 
ened and the other flattened. The sharpened end would be like the 
anterior part of the sinus floor while the flattened end would re- 
semble the posterior. The hilum or concavity of the kidney to that 
of the nasal wall, while the lateral border or convexity, would fit 
roughly into the zygomatic prominence. The lowest part of the floor 
was usually found to be over the second molar area. From this 
point the floor rises more abruptly in the anterior direction than 
it does in the posterior. It is usually oval from side to side but 
occasionally where it dips down between the buccal and palatal roots 
of the molars or into a sharp edentulous alveolar (ridge) process, 
it may be more constricted or V shaped. It may occasionally burrow 
under the floor of the nose leaving the lateral wall of the nose 
to form a distinct ledge. 

Partial septa-forming Gothic-like arches may arise from the nasal 
and lateral walls and form deep pockets or depressions in the floor 
and alveolar process. The resorption of the floor of the sinus 
about the roots of the teeth or between the bifurcations of the molar 
teeth often leave the roots of these teeth projecting into the floor 
in conical shaped projections or distinct eminences on the walls. In 
a few cases no bone was observed over portions of the roots. They 
were covered only by the muco-periosteum lining the cavity. 

In our study there were no landmarks to aid in determining the 
form or size of the antra before they were exposed. No definite reason 
can be given for their size and shape. The shape of the palatal arch 
gave no information as to the formation of the sinuses. Often in 
heads showing narrow constricted arches the sinuses were found to 

164 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

be usually large, and eveu extended into different processes to vari- 
able depths. 

Underwood" has stated "that a surgeon can pronounce with toler- 
able accuracy the size of the cavity, the level of the floor, and the 
presence and extent of septa." However, he does not explain his 
methods of arriving at this deduction. 

Limits of the IYoor and Its Tooth Relations 

Our observations confirm those of Shea', Jackson^ Boyne', Schaef- 
fer^, ZukerkandlS and others relative to the teeth in the sinus region. 
The question of what teeth are directly under the floor of the max- 
illary sinus is a very important one. It was found all the teeth in 
the true maxilla, could be under the sinus region, but seldom does 
this happen. In other words, according to our observations, the sinus 
floor could extend in an anterior-posterior direction from a point 
half-way between the lateral incisor and cuspid to the infra-temporal 
wall (heel of the tuberosity) of the maxilla. In the specimens 
studied, no sinus floor extended as far forward as the lateral incisor, 
but three specimens came forward to a space half-way between the 
lateral and cuspid. Two of these were edentulous. 

In the remainder of the specimens the sinus cavity began anteri- 
orly in the following order, as compared to the teeth : twenty-six 
times it began over the cuspid, sixteen times half-way between the 
cuspid and first bicuspid, ten times at a point over the first bicuspid, 
twenty-three times between the bicuspids, eight times it began over 
the second bicuspid, eleven times between the second bicuspid and first 
molar, and three times over the first molar. In seventy-five per cent 
of the cases, the sinus floor will begin between the cuspid and second 
bicuspid tooth. In twenty-flve per cent of the cases, at points from 
the second bicuspid to the first molar excepting the three cases which 
began mesial to the cuspid. 

The posterior wall of the sinus ended at the infra-temporal wall 
of the maxilla in ninety-seven per cent of the specimens. This wall 
was found very thin. In most cases almost paper thin. The deduc- 
tion from these observations would be, that the sinus floor usually 
extends from the second bicuspid to the infra-temiwral wall of the 

Our smallest sinus was in an edentulous maxilla. It began be- 
tween the bicuspid area and ended just distal to the second molar. 
In two specimens the posterior wall of the sinus ended directly over 
the third molar. 

Tooth Relations to the Floor 

The position which the roots of the teeth occupied to the floor of 
the sinus varied considerably. For example, the apical ends of the 
roots varied as much as 20 millimeters in their extremes as com- 
pared to the floor of the sinus. Certain specimens will show as much 
as 10 millimeters of process between the apices of the roots of the 
teeth and the floor of the sinus. Other specimens will show where 
the floor of the sinus descended to the bifurcation of the molars 
leaving the roots of the teeth 10 millimeters above the floor in the 

Containing the Proceedings 165 

walls of the siuus. Auy degree of variation or difference on either 
side of these extremes is possible. 

It was found that the second molar roots occupied positions in 
the walls of the sinus more frequently than any other tooth. More 
than twice as frequent as the roots of the second bicuspid and the 
first and third molars. The cuspid and first bicuspid roots did not 
appear in the walls of the sinus in the specimens. The second 
bicuspid occurred in the palatal wall twice and in the buccal wall 
five times. The order of the roots of the other teeth as to their 
positions in the walls of the sinus above the floor are : the second 
molar, the first molar, and the third molar respectively. The average 
height which the palatal roots appeared in the palatal process was 
3.9 millimeters. The thin cortical bone lining the maxillary sinus 
was the only bone separating these roots from the muco-periosteal 
lining of the sinus in most cases. 

The second molar formed more conical projections in the floor of 
the maxillary sinus than anj^ other tooth. We found that the second 
molar formed forty-six prominences, the third molar twenty-two, 
the first molar sixteen, and the second bicuspid eleven. The cuspid 
and the first bicuspid were not projected into the sinus as conical 
projections. These mounds or elevations of the roots seemed to be 
caused by resorption of the floor of the siuus about the roots of the 
teeth. Sometimes the resorption of the wall of the sinus would take 
place on three sides of the root only, leaving the roots of the teeth 
left on the walls as distinct pillow-like projections. At other times 
the resorption of bone apparently took place equally on all sides of 
the roots leaving finger-like projections from the floor with little 
or no cortical bone covering them at places. 

The nerves and blood vessels coursing down from the walls and 
rising up in a funnel-like manner to and entering the apex of the 

Pneumatization of Maxiixa 

Pneumatization of the maxilla and its processes varies consider- 
ably. This variation governs the size of the sinus. It was found that 
the sinus could extend into any of the processes of the maxilla and 
even into the zygoma, concha, or palate bone. The most frequent ex- 
tension was into the alveolar and zygomatic processes. 

Blair^^ makes the statement that he has seen the palatal process 
pneumatized to the midline. In the one hundred cases examined 
in our study, only one extended as far as 7 millimeters under the 
floor of the nose or two-thirds of the distance to the midline. This 
specimen also showed a large canal for drainage of the anterior 
ethmoidal cells directly into the maxillary sinus. 

This peripheral enlargement of the cavity often leaves partial 
septa, bony ridges and projections of varying heights on the floor 
of the cavity, thus forming distinct pockets or depressions in many 

Septa on the Floor 

In a great percentage of the cases there was found some obstruc- 
tion on the floor of the sinus. The septa were invariably found over 
the teeth and they ran normally in a medio-lateral direction. The 

166 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

septa averaged 4.2 millimeters and some were found as high as 10 
millimeters. It is evident that a pocket on the floor of at least 10 
millimeters might occur. Dependent drainage or the removal of a 
foreign body from one of these pockets offers a real problem. Real- 
izing this, Chevalier Jackson" stated that "these compartments often 
require individual treatment." 

In an analysis of the findings, it was found that two-tliirds of all 
septa were located over three teeth. The order of frequency was : 
the second molar, the first molar and the second bicuspid tooth 

Cryer^ has been unable to find complete septa in the antra, although 
Morris'^, Boyne", W. Grube by Zukerkandl\ and others report finding 
the maxillary sinus thus divided. Schaeffer'' believes when multiple 
maxillary sinuses occur, they are probably developed from two 
primary pouches or extensions from the middle meatus of the nose. 

In the specimens studied, one sinus was divided into two distinct 
and separate cavities except for a small opening in the center of the 
septum about the size of a pin head. 

If the septa on the fl(jor of the sinus are left by the unequal 
resorption of the floor about the root, one should find the root of a 
tooth usually located in the septum or directly under it. 

Changes in the Floor After Extraction 

From the observations made one arrives at the conclusion that the 
floor of the maxillary sinus is not materially affected by the removal 
of the teeth. It was found that the floor contracts in width and 
length, and the conical projections receded. The floor does not appear 
to be raised or lowered, nor does the partial septa always disappear 
in edentulous cases. 

It appears that the alveolar process is affected by tooth extraction, 
because apparently its chief purpose is to support the teeth. After 
their removal its function ceases, therefore, the tendency is for 
resorption. Some of the specimens showed only two or three milli- 
meters of tissue remaindiug of what was formerly the alveolar ridge. 
This resorption went on apparently without changing the position or 
contour of the floor of the sinus. 

Alveolar Route of Entry Into Sinus 

Exploring the antrum by the alveolar route, there was found to be 
on the average 10.3 millimeters of bone between the floor of the sinus 
and the alveolar crest in the cases that have teeth in the molar 
region. In the edentulous about 8 millimeters of bone is encountered.. 
The extremes are quite variable. In the full denture group the 
thickest was 19 millimeters, the thinnest 3 millimeters. Compared 
to the edentalous group the thickest was 21 millimeters and the 
thinnest was 2 millimeters. The deductions are that the alveolar 
route of entry into the maxillary sinus is not desirable, because of 
the variations in thickness of the alveolar process. Other reasons 
are the irregularities on the floor, and the increased probability of 
mixing oral flora with that of the nose alreadv found in the sinus. 

Containing the Proceedings 167 

Relationship of the Canine Fossa to Maxillary Sinus 

A depressed canine fossa which seems to approximate the lateral 
\Yall of the nose may be deceptive. It has been found in such cases 
the sinus may extend forward in a tongue-like extension under the 
canine fossa, or, perhaps it may stop abruptly just distal to the 
fossa. To enter the maxillary sinus through the canine fossa, the 
antero-buceal surface of the zygomatic prominence is tlie preferable 
ix)int of entry. The opening should be made high enough to aA'oid 
injury to the superior dental plexus of nerves and the apices of the 
teeth. This point is below and distal to the infra-orbital foramen. 
No injury would result to the vessels and nerves emerging tlierefrom. 
Entrance gained here would expose the sinus in a most advantageous 
position since the cavity is wider, and is nearer the center. This 
position would give visibility and access to most of the septa and 
iwckets located on the floor of the sinus. 

A fairly safe rule to follow is that when the canine fo.ssa and the 
lateral wall of the nose are closely approximated, the cuspid and 
bicuspid teeth do' not bear a direct relation to the maxillary sinus. 
In such cases a broach puslied through the teeth may penetrate into 
the canine fossa or the lateral wall of the nose. An attempted open- 
ing into the sinus from the canine fossa would usually result in an 
opening into the nose. 

Drainage of Sinus 

For deixjndent drainage of the sinus the customary naso-antral 
window is not always sufficient. For this method to work satis- 
factorily the floor of the sinus must be on a level equal to or above 
that of the inferior meatus of the nose. Blum" says "the lowest part 
of the sinus is usually on the same level as the nasal floor." A. 
Logan Turner" says, "after the extraction of the permanent teeth 
the floor of the sinus occupies a lower level than that of the nasal 
floor." Chevalier Jackson'* made the statement, "the usual point 
of entrance from the inferior nasal fossa is an imiwrtant factor 
when dependent drainage is considered because generally the floor 
of the sinus is caudal to that of the nose, and often half of the 
extent of the sinus is below that of the inferior meatus." 

J. Parsons Shaeffer'' believes, "the relation of the floor of the 
sinus to that of the nose depends largely upon the degree of hollow- 
ing out of the alveolar process." Boyne" observed that the floor of 
the sinus was below that of the nose in 93 per cent of his forty-three 
specimens. In the specimens studied the sinus was below that of 
the nose in seventy-nine of the cases. 

Other Observations and Conclusions 

The tuberosity of the alveolar process was usually the porous 
part of the alveolar border. It usually could be punctured with 
little difficulty by a sharp instrument. This process was found to be 
supiKjrted by the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone in fifty-three 
per cent of the specimens. The porosity and lack of support ex- 
plains why the tuberosity is often fractured during the extraction 
of the maxillary third molar. 

168 BuUetin North Carolina Denial Society 

Only three uuerupted teeth were located in the tuberosity. They 
were third molars. In eac-h instance their roots were projected into 
the floor of the sinus as conical projections ; one to the extent of 10 
millimeters. The removal of these teeth would have exi>osed the 
sinus cavity or left only a thin membrane separating the socket from 
the sinus. 

The Cowper method of entering the antrum by the extraction of a 
tooth and through its socket is somewhat obsolete. WE MUST NOT 

It is possible for the whole cortical plate of bone over this tooth 
to come out in its extraction. In fact, this happens in many instances, 
because the intervening bone over the bifurcation of the fangs is 
sometimes paper thin and fractures easily. Unless pathology is pres- 
ent, sucli an accident is usually of no consequence. The lining mem- 
brane of the sinus would not often be punctured, unless careless 
probing or needless curretment was indulged in. 

In the extraction of the teeth that are well up in the walls of the 
sinus, extreme care is necessary in case of root brealiage. It is pos- 
sible to force the root fragment up between the muco-periosteum and 
the sinus wall, or even into the sinus. If the floor is covered by 
pockets or deep depressions, the root could become lost and require a 
radical oi^eration for its removal. 

Teeth occupying such intimate relations to the floor of the sinus 
would require special care and consideration in the treatment of their 
pathology and repair. The roentgenogram gives us more information 
relative to the anatomy adjacent to the maxillary sinus than perhaps 
any other clinical method of study. One cannot interpret what is 
written on a film unless we know normal anatomy, its variations and 
liow the normal changes with disease. 

From the anatomical facts as found and presented, is it not sur- 
prising that maxillary sinusitis may be of dental origin in many 
cases? Of the one hundred sinuses examined, fifty were diseased. 
Twelve were positively identified as being in direct continuity with 
tooth patliology. 

In conclusion, since the maxilla is built about the maxillary sinus, 
a better knowledge of the relations of this sinus, and its floor will 
enable one to understand the surgery of the maxilla and its alveolar 
border. This includes the extraction of the teeth of the upper jaw, 
neuralgia and foci of infection. This is especially true of diseases 
originating in the teeth ov alveolar border but involving the sinus. 
Correct anatomical knowledge of this cavity is of vital importance 
for proper interpretation of roentgenograms. 


'Zukerkandl, E. Normale Und Pathologische Antomie Der Nasen- 
hole. 1. Band. 1893 (Wien Und Leipzig). 

^Schaeffer, J. Parsons. The Sinus Maxillaris in Man. Amer. Jnl. 
Anat. Vol. 10, p. 313-368. 

Containing the Proceedings 169 

''Cryer, M. H. Internal Anatomy of the Face. 1016. (Lea & Fei- 
bijier. ) 

^Skilleni. R. H. Accessory Sinuses of the Nose. 1!)20. (J. B. 
Lippincott. ) 

■^Morris' Human Anatomy by Jackson, 6th Ed. 1921. (Blaekstone.) 

"Underwood, A. S. Some recent Researches on the Anatomical and 
Pathological Conditions of the Maxillary Sinus in Relation to the 
Teeth. Jnl. Laryg. Nov. 190S, p. 260. 

■Shea. J. J. Influence of Periodontal Infection on the Nasal Sinus. 
Jnl. A. D. A.. Feb. 1932, p. 251-255. 

^Jackson, Chevalier and Geo. Coates. The Nose. Throat. Ear and 
Their Sinuses. 1921. (W. B. Saunders.) 

'Boyne, Hatty N. A Study of Forty-Three Maxillary Sinuses. North- 
western University Dental School Master Thesis. 1924. 

"Blum, Theodore. The Oral Surgeons Position in Diseases of the 
Maxillary Sinus. Dental Outlook, April, 1931. 

"Turner, A. Logan. Diseases of the Nose, Throat, and Ear. 2nd 
Ed., 1927. (Wm. Wood & Co.) 

"Blair, V. P. Surgery and Diseases of the Mouth and Jaws. 1917. 

Dr. Mustian shovped slides which well illustrated his lecture 
and brought more forcibly to mind the complexities and van- 
abilities of these parts. 

President Jackson: 

I wish to thank you Dr. Mustian for your splendid paper as 
you have presented it. 

There was an announcement concerning the meeting of the 
House of Delegates. 

I have just been reminded of the fact that we have not for- 
mally recommended to Governor Ehringhaus that Dr. J. JST. 
Johnson should be reappointed on the State Board of Health. 
Is there a motion or resolution or something that will place him 
in proper line for this reappointment ? 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

In view of the changes that have taken place before the 
North Carolina Board of Health and in vicAv of the appropria- 
tion for health work being cut down to almost nothing, I think 
that it would be an injustice for dentistry to recommend any- 
body at all except Dr. Johnson to succeed himself on the State 
Board of Health. I have been to see the Governor three times 
and carried endorsements from practically every district in the 
State, and carried the official endorsement of the officers to the 
Governor. While we have every reasonable assurance to believe 
that the Governor will reappoint him, he has not committed 

170 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

himself. These endorsements of Dr. Johnson have all gone in, 
but it seems that the appointment is still open, and I know it 
will be the pleasure of this Society to give the unanimous en- 
dorsement to Dr. J. N. Johnson to succeed himself. Therefore, 
I move that the Secretary be instructed to write the Governor 
and tell him that it is the unanimous hope of this Society that 
he will reappoint Dr. J. jN^. Johnson to succeed himself. 

Dr. E. B. Hoivle, Raleigh: 
I second the motion. 

President Jachson: 

Is there any discussion? (Pause.) We will vote on the 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

I wish to thank Dr. Martin Fleming for Avhat he has done on 
behalf of Dr. Johnson. I assure you tliat the Society appre- 
ciates it. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

I Avould like to have that sent to the Governor at once. 

President Jacl'son: 

Is there anything else to come before the general session ? 
(Pause.) If not, I declare the general session adjourned. 

At 12 :25 o'clock, p.m., the general session adjourned. 


Meeting of House of Delegates 

The House of Delegates was called to order at 12 :25 o'clock 
p.m., Thursday, June 8, 1933, by President Wilbert Jackson. 

President JacJcson: 

The House of Delegates will come to order. What is your 
pleasure ? 

Confaining the Proceedings 171 

Dr. J. H. Wheeler, Greemhoro: 

The Committee on the President's Address has the folloAving 
to report. I Avas still under the impression that the report 
should be made at the general session, but I hope von will accept 
it as a special message to the House of Delegates. 


The fine message of our President reflects the same spirit that 
he has manifested through the two years as President-Elect and 
President. He has given unstintingly of his time and thought for the 
advancement of dentistry. He has presided with fairness and cour- 
tesy to all and has opened and closed the sessions on time. We 
heartily commend his message for your careful perusal and for your 

Your committee referred recommendations one and two to the 
Resolutions Committee for submission to the House of Delegates. 
These were passed. We also advocate the adoption of recommenda- 
tions three, four, and five. 

J. H. Wheeler, Chairman, 
Wallace F. Mustian, 
Oscar Hooks. 

President Jackson: 

You have heard the report. What will you do Avith it ? 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming, Raleigh: 
I move that the report be adopted. 
The motion was seconded and unanimously carried. 

Dr. C. E. Minges, Ro'cky Mount: 

I have a resolution I would like to read. 

"By the untiring efforts of Dr. Branch, North Carolina stands out 
as foremost in the nation in Oral Health Work. This committee 
wishes to commend Dr. E. A. Branch for the efficiency of the Oral 
Health Department and the incomparable health program fostered 
by him. 

"Listening to the fine paper read before the Society by Dr. Cama- 
lier, President of the National Board of Dental Examiners, outlining 
tentative Dental Education for the information of the public; we 
respectfully submit the following resolution : 

"That all public dental education be released through a properly 
constituted state health organization, viz. : The Dental Division of 
the State Board of Health." 

172 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

President Jachson: 

You have heard the report of the Resolutions Committee. 
What will you do with it? 

Dr. E. B. Howie, Raleigh: 

I move that it be adopted. 

The motion was seconded by Dr. ISTeal Sheffield and unan- 
imously carried. 

President Jaclson : 
Is there another one? 

Dr. C. E. Minges: 

That is all except the one about Dr. J. IST. Johnson, and that 
has already been taken care of. 

President Jachson: 

Any other committee to report? 

Dr. V. E. Bell, Raleigh: 

Your State Institutions Committee respectfully submits tlie fol- 
lowing report : 

So far as we can ascertain, the dental work is being taken care 
of in the following institutions : 

State Hospital (Raleigh), State Prison, State Sanatorium, School 
for the Blind, Orthopedic Hospital, Caswell Training School, State 
Hospital (Goldsboro), Samarcand, Jackson Training School, State 
Farm Colony. 

The following institutions do not have adequate dental service : 

State Hospital (Morganton), School for Deaf and Dumb. 

The committee would like to recommend that the services of a 
dentist be secured to take care of the work in these two institutions 
in Morganton. 

Victor E. Bell, Chainnait. 
J. R. Edwards, 
Oscar Hooks, 


' John R. Phair. 

President JacJcson: 

You have heard the report, what will you do with it? 

Dr. P. E. Jones, Farmville: 

I move that the report be adopted. 

The motion was seconded by Dr. C. I. Miller and unan- 
imously carried. 

Containing the Proceedings 173 

President Jackson: 

Are there any other reports. 

Dr. J. T. Lasley, Greensboro: 

The report of the committee composed of the secretaries of 
the districts to recommend a change in the By-Laws for back 
dues has been handed to Dr. Pridgen. 

"Members who liave been dropped from the list shall be reinstated 
with the payment of the current year's dues and a penalty of five 
dollars ($5.00). The five dollars ($5.00) to be divided: three dollars 
($3.00) to the State Secretary, and two dollars ($2.00) to the District 
Secretary ; and that this shall be in effect for a period of one year, 
beginning January 1, 1934, and ending January 1, 1935, unless the 
Executive Committee sees fit to make it permanent." 

Secretary Pridgen: 

"We, the secretaries of the District Societies in JSTorth Caro- 
lina, recommend the following members in arrears in excess of 
one year be allowed to pay the current dues and a five dollar 
penalty for reinstatement." 

Dr. J. T. Lasley: 

I have another resolution, but I understand Dr. Pridgen has 
the same thing. 

President Jackson : 

You have heard the recommendations of the secretaries of 
the various districts, what will you do with it? 

Dr. J. N. Johnson, Goldsboro: 

It seems like that rather burdens the Society with an in- 
debtedness to the ISTational. 

President Jackson : 

Pardon me, Dr. Johnson, but the idea was to get them rein- 
stated in the State Society. If they should pay the twelve dol- 
lars back dues, the National does not get any of that twelve 
dollars. It only gets the dues as of today. That is my under- 
standing, and that was our understanding. I do not know why 
they recommended five dollars to the district and State. 

Gentlemen, you have the recommendation. What is your 
pleasure ? 

174 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. J. N. Johnson: 

I move that it be adopted. 

President Jachson: 

Is it necessary that there be a change in the Constitution and 
By-Laws to do this? 

Dr. N. Sheffield, Greenshoro : 

I would like to ask when this would go into effect. 

President Jachson: 

January 1, 1934, as I understand it. Would it be necessary 
to change the Constitution and By-Laws? 

Dr. N. Sheffield: 

I would say it Avould. 

Dr. J. T. Lasley: 

"We discussed that, and understand that the Constitution and 
By-Laws will not have to be changed. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

You appointed me on a committee to catalogue the changes 
made in the Constitution and By-Laws since 1928, and in look- 
ing over those changes, reading page by page each year, I find 
somewhere in there we have voted that a resolution introduced 
would, if adopted, become a part of the Constitution. In that 
paper I handed in I state on what page and what year you will 
find any motion was passed and my idea is that we keep all 
those things in form, and when we rewrite the Constitution 
we will put it in. It looks like things are developing so rapidly 
that we will have to rewrite the Constitution about every six 
to ten years. We are almost to the place now where we Avill 
have to rewrite it to keep things straight. Have I made myself 

Dr. P. E. Horton, Winston-Salem: 
Is that expressing a time limit ? 

Dr. J. Mar-tin Fleming: 

]^o. I don't know that I understand your question. 

Containing the Proceedings 175 

Dr. P. E. Horton : 

I haven't asked a question. This resolution renders some o£ 
our Constitution and By-Laws not in effect. I just want to know 
if there is a time limit on that resolution. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

It will remain in force until we take other action, as I under- 
stand it. 

Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, Greenville: 

As a member of this committee, I did not concur in the reso- 
lution. I have always been governed by the majority, but this 
morning I would like to voice a minority report. I have been 
quite a stickler for the status quo. I think that the penalty is 
not too great. I want to give you one or two reasons if you 
will bear with me a moment. I have been Secretary probably 
longer than some of you men who act as a District Secretary. I 
have found those men who drop out of the Dental Society do 
not do it primarily or very often for financial reasons. I have 
found in my experience that they have developed some contacts 
which pull them away and they gradually drop out. I grant 
that those men need the Society and that the Society needs those 
men. I don't think we are going to get very many men in by 
reducing the penalty to five dollars. I think the most men we get 
in for a year will probably drop out again, and I think, gentle- 
men, we should put a premium on membership in the North 
Carolina Dental Society. 

President Jackson: 

You have heard the official minority report of Dr. Fitzgerald. 
Are you ready for the question ? We will consider the minority 
report first. 

Dr. P. E. Jones, Farmville: 

It seems we ought to have some more discussion of this 
proposition. This is really a major change in the rules and 
regulations we have been abiding by. Personally, I differ with 
Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, though neighbors and the best of friends, 
but there is too large a barrier between membership in the 
ISTorth Carolina Dental Society and some fellows we are always 
fussing with ourselves about not having among us and if we 
can lower the barrier and bring in some of these fellows Avithout 

176 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

hurting our pride and integrity, I think it should be done, but I 
certainly do not think we should decide this question right off 
the bat Mathout some deliberation. I think we ought to have 
more discussion. Personally, I think that the five-dollar figure 
is probably the right figure to place it at. I am in favor of the 
majority report. 

Dr. E. B. Howie, Raleigh: 

I feel like Dr. Phin Horton's suggestion is very good. I think 
the majority report should be adopted on this resolution and we 
add that we should try it this year and see if the results are 

President Jackson: 

Dr. Lasley, would the committee add that to the majority 

Dr. J. T. Lasley, Greensboro: 

Personally, this was more or less in line Avith the membership 
drive now on with the ISTational Dental Association. That is 
what prompted us to think about this. I believe that the plan 
would be of benefit in my district. I do not know about the 
situation in Dr. Pitzgerald's district. His friends may be more 
prosperous than they are in my district. I am continually hear- 
ing that the penalty is too high. That is what prompted us to 
draw up this resolution. As for myself, I would be glad to in- 
clude Dr. Howie's suggestion in the resolution. 

Dr. P. E. Horton, Winston-Salem: 

This is a question of finances, pure and simple. The fellows 
up our way are not making much, and that is the excuse they 
give us for not coming back in the Society. I second Dr. 
Howie's suggestion that it run for one year. 

Dr. F. 0. Alford, Charlotte: 

In Charlotte we have a bunch of young men who have been 
suspended, and they all say they would like to come back into 
the Society, but that the penalty of twelve dollars is too much. 
I believe if we reduce the penalty to five dollars, we will be able 
to get those fellows back in. I think Dr. Howie's plan is a 
mighty good one. It suits me if it suits the other secretaries. 

Coniaining the Proceedings 111 

Dr. J. E. L. Thomas, Tarhoro: 

I would like to make an observation. Paul Jones Avas Presi- 
dent one year, and lie put on a membership campaign and we 
never had any trouble in getting members. The majority of 
those members dropped out. They will begin to drop out again 
when the dues again become due. I am fully convinced that 
money has nothing to do with it. I don't believe it has a thing 
to do with it, so far as individual dentists are concerned. If 
you make it for one year and it does not become effective until 
January 1 of next year, and runs to January 1, 1935, after 
you have the State meeting, what are you going to do then ? 

President Jachson: 

Take it up at the next State meeting. 
Is there any further discussion ? 

Dr. X. Shejfleld, Greensboro: 

1 feel this way. If there is anything Ma-ong with the dues, 
that they should have been changed for the entire membership. 
That cannot be done without changing the Constitution and 
By-Laws. I do not feel that reducing the penalty to five dollars 
will make any great difference. I believe that the man who is 
out is more or less out by his own choice, and I have in mind 
several men who claim that they haven't got the twenty-four 
dollars. If you will look around you, you will find that they 
belong to the Country Club and two or three dance clubs, and go 
out and spend a hundred and fifty dollars for other things, but 
still they cannot afford membership in the State Society. I 
think it is nine-tenths indifference. 

Dr. C. I. Miller, Albemarle: 

I am bound to concur with Dr. Neal Sheffield. In our own 
locality I see that. Men are on the border line and they have 
time to take off two to three weeks in the summer in the moun- 
tains or on a fishing trip, and belong to the Country Club and 
play golf two to three days a week, and I do not believe it will 
help things much by letting the bars down. 

President Jackson: 

Any further discussion. (Pause.) We will vote on the amend- 
ment limiting it to one year first. Do you care to incorporate 
that in your report? 

178 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. J. T. Lasley: 
We accept that. 

President Jaclson: 

The question is the adoption of the minority report. Those 
in favor say "Aye," those opposed "No." Please stand and 
be counted by the Secretary. Those in favor. Those opposed. 

I declare the minority report lost. 

Those in favor of adopting the resolution with the amend- 
m.ent that it shall only be effective from January 1, 1934, to 
January 1, 1935, say "Aye." 

I declare the resolution adopted. Is there any other report ? 

Dr. F. 0. Alford, Charlotte: 


The Publicity Committee wislies to submit the following report : 

Beginning in October, 1932, fourteen dispatches went over the 
Associated Press and the United Press. Beginning about two months 
prior to the meeting twenty-nine articles were released through the 
University News Bureau. This service covered 45 morning and after- 
noon newspapers throughout the State, also the three press associa- 

One three column cut carrying eleven photographs of the officers 
and speakers from the State was used Sunday, June 4th. One three 
column cut carrying six photographs of out-of-state speakers was 
used last week. One one column cut of principal officers was used 
each day during the meeting. 

The committee wishes to express their sincere appreciation to Mr. 
R. W. Maddry, the University News Bureau, the Associated and 
United Press and the newspapers throughout the State for co- 
operating with us in this publicty movement. 
Respectfully submitted, 

F. O. Alfokd, Chairman. 

President JacA'son: 

You have heard the report. What will you do with it ? 

Dr. P. E. Jones, Farmviile: 

I move we adopt it. 

The motion was seconded by Dr. C. I. Miller and unan- 
imously carried. 

Containing the Proceedings 179 

Dr. E. A. Branch. Raleigh: 


Lectures ou mouth health have been delivered in every section of 
the State to approximately 250,000 people by the Division of Oral 
Hygiene of the State Board of Health. 

E. A. Bkanch, Chairmuii. 

President Jackson: 

You have heard the report what will you do with it? 

Dr. X. Sheffield, Greensboro : 

I move that we adopt it. 

The motion was seconded by Dr. J. Martin Fleming and unan- 
imously carried. 

Secretary Pridgen: 

I have the report of the Ethics Committee. 


Your Ethics Committee has been prepared during the year to 
hear any cases involving the question of Ethics on the part of any 
member of the North Carolina Dental Society. To this date no 
charges of a violation of the Code of Ethics have been tiled with 
this committee. 

Respectfully submitted, 

H. L. Keith, Chairman. 
J. C. Watkins, 
J. C. Whitehead. 

President Jackson: 

What Avill you do with the report? 

Dr. P. E. Hart on, Winston'Salem: 

I move that the report be adopted. 

The motion was seconded by Dr. J. T. Lasley and unan- 
imously carried. 

Secretary Pridgen : 

I have here the list of members who should be suspended for 
nonpayment of the year's dues. 


Bulletin North Carolina Dental Socteti/ 

Your Seeretary-Treasurei- wishes to report that the followins: 
members were one year in arrears on January 1, 19oo, and are 
therefore to be suspended : 

First District 

Dr. J. F. Campbell 
Dr. W. K. Chapman 
Dr. A. P. Cline 
Dr. W. E. Furr 
Dr. J. L. Geer 
Dr. I. K. Grimes 
Dr. B. F. Hall 
Dr. O. H. Hester 

Dr. H. W. .Jordan 
Dr. W. J. Miller 
Dr. Matt McKrayer 
Dr. W. P. MeCiuire 
Dr. H. S. Plaster 
Dr. H. L. Robertson 
Dr. L. E. Wall 
Dr. .]. E. Whisnant 

Dr. F. R. Wilkins 

Second District 

Dr Geo. S. Alexander 
Dr. C. A. Blackburn 
Dr. R. C. Flowers 
Dr. R. A. Frye 
Dr. H. C. Herring 
Dr. W. C. Houston 
Dr. C. C. Keiger 
Dr. O. B. Kirbv 

Dr. (J. L. Kreuger 
Dr. Rosebud Morse 
Dr. H. R. Pearman 
Dr. ,T. R. Secrest 
Dr. R. R. Shoaf 
Dr. B. C. Taylor 
Dr. L. A. Taylor 
Dr. H. B. Sapps 

Dr. J. W. Zimmerman 

Dr. Geo. G. Herr 
Dr. J. G. Hickerson 
Dr. O. W. Holloway 

Third District 

Dr. G. G. Scott 
Dr. C. N. Stone 
Dr. D. A. Walters 

Fourth District 
Dr. W. G. Nimocks 

Dr. .John I. Gale 

Fifth District 

Dr. M. D. Bissett 
Dr. R. S. Turlington 

It has ))een customary for several years to permit the Secretary- 
Treasurers to make a final effort to collect these delinquent dues 
before the members are othcially suspended. An extension of thirty 
days is therefore requested for this purpose. 

Your Secretary-Treasurer wishes to report that the following mem- 
bers were entitled to Life Membership on January 1, 1933, by virtue 
of having paid annual dues for twenty-tive consecutive years : 

Dr. A. S. Cromartie, Fayetteville. 
Dr. J. H. Dreher, Wilmington. 

D. L. Pridgen, Sccretarif-Trcasurcr. 

Containing the Proceedings • 181 

I would like to ask that we be given thirty days in Avhich to 
see if we cannot get some of these fellows to pay. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

I move that thirty days be allowed. 

Dr. C. C. Bennett, Asheville: 

I understand that Dr. Burrus has been transferred to the 
Second District. Second or Third? 

Dr. S. L. Bohlitt, Raleigh: 

Third. He paid from the Third District. 

Dr. J. T. Lasley: 

He paid one year's dues yesterday. 

Dr.E.B. Howie: 

Dr. P. L. Pearson of the Fourth District has retired from 
active practice. I move we put him on the inactive list. 

The motion Avas seconded and unanimously carried. 

President Jackson: 

Dr. Pearson will be placed on the retired list. 

Dr. P. E. Jones, Farmville: 

I notice that Dr. Bland is listed in the Third District. He is 
at this time in the Fifth District. He is in attendance and his 
dues are paid. 

President JacJcson: 

The question is the passage of Dr. Martin Fleming's motion 
to allow thirty days time to Secretary Pridgen. 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

xVre there any other reports? 

Dr. F. 0. Alford, Charlotte: 

Dr. J, S. Hoffman of Charlotte was in good standing at the 
time he gave up practice. I did not get a chance to bring that 
up yesterday. I would like to make a motion that Dr. Hoffman 
be put on the inactive list. 

182 - Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

Were his dues paid up when he quit? 

Dr. F. 0. Alford: 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 
I second the motion. 
The motion was unanimously carried. 

Dr. J. P. Jones, Chapel Hill: 

I would like to make the report of the Entertainment Com- 


At a meeting of the Durham-Orange Society iu January it was 
decided to give a barbecue to the Society as a whole, to be paid 
for entirely by the members of this unit. This has been carried out 
iu detail through the Entertainment Committee, being scheduled at 
six o'clock at University Lake, on Tuesday, June 6. 

For Wednesday morning the committee planned trips about the 
campus and gardens of Chapel Hill for the ladies. This was arranged 
through the cooperation of the Chapel Hill Garden Club under the 
directions of Miss Josie Pritchard and Mrs. Grumman to whom we 
wish to express our thanks. We also desire to express our apprecia- 
tion to the members of the Durham-Orange Society for furnishing 
automobiles with drivers to carry the ladies on this trip. 

Wednesday afternoon we planned a tea under the supervision of 
Mrs. Frank Graham and the ladies of the Durham-Orange Society 
to take place at the President's Home. We wish to express our ap- 
preciation to Mrs. Frank Graham, Mrs. J. P. Jones, Mrs. R. R. Clark, 
and the other ladies for their cooperation and work in making this 
part of the entertainment possible. 

Wednesday evening at 6:30 we planned the annual banquet at 
Swain Hall, with a delightful meal and excellent entertainment. We 
wish to extend our thanks to the following for their hearty coopera- 
tion in helping to make this occasion successful : R. B. House, Toast- 
master, Mrs. Wettach of Chapel Hill for singing, O. F. Richardson 
for leading group singing. Dr. J. S. Hooker for piano accompaniment, 
Patterson Sisters of Chapel Hill for singing and dance numbers- 
all at no expense to the Society. We engaged the Carrboro String 
Band and Lamar Stringfield Trio at a nominal sum for music for this 

Wednesday evening at 10:00 p.m. we planned the annual dance 
to take place at the Carolina Inn with music being furnished by 
Jelly Leftwich and his orchestra. Favors for the ladies have been 
obtained for this occasion. The dance is to be given as compli- 

Containing the Proceedings 183 

mentary to those purchasing banquet tickets — to others there is a 
charge of 50 cents to help in part defray expenses. 

Thursday morning at 10:30 we have planned talkies at the Caro- 
lina Theatre through the very generous offer of the manager, E. C. 
amith, to whom we wish to express our great appreciation. This 
invitation was extended by Mr. Smith to the ladies and Society 
as a whole — at no expense to the Society. The picture was a first 
class one, entitled "I Love That Man" starring Nancy Carroll and 
Edmund Lowe. 

I wish to report also work in regards to the special issue of the 
Chapel Hill Weekly paper that was sent to each member of the 
Society in the State. This will also probably be reported under the 
Publicity Committee. Acting under Drs. Alford and Jackson I was 
allowed an expense of $5.00 towards paying for postage for such a 
project. Consulting Mr. Graves, the editor, he agreed to do this 
provided I could sell enough advertising to justify his entering into 
such a scheme, whereuix»n I sold the specified amount and he put 
out this partial special issue to every dentist in the State. This 
paper was mailed on Thursday night June 2, and should have reached 
every man in the State by Saturday. I wish to express to the fol- 
lowing concerns in Chapel Hill, appreciation for helping to make this 
project possible : MacMillan Motor Company, University Service Sta- 
tion, Strowd Motor Company, Johnsou-Prevost Dry Cleaners, Caro- 
lina Smoke Shop, and University Barber Shop, also to Mr. Maddry of 
the Publicity Department of the University. 

J. P. Jones, Chairman. 

President Jackson: 

Yon have heard the report. What Avill you do with it ? 

Br. P. E. Jones, FarmviUe: 

I move that it be accepted. 

The uiotion was seconded by Dr. F. O. Alford and luian- 
imously carried. 

Dr. J. P. Jones: 

I would like to give this expense incurred by the Entertain- 
ment Committee. To date we have paid telephone, $4.00 ; print- 
ing, $7.25; the tea, $15.00;. orchestra, $75.00; Carolina Inn for 
the dance, $10.00; string band, $4.00; mailing papers, $5.00; 
a bill of $6.00; incidentals, $12.00. I do not remember the 
number of tickets we sold to the banquet, but the total expense 
of the banquet, including everything is $319.90. 

Dr. J . Martin Fleming: 

I was rather struck with the report Dr. Pridgen made of the 
members who were entitled to become life members by reason 

184 Bulletin North Carolma Dental Society 

of twenty-five consecutive years payment. In tlie last few years, 
there have been some names in there that did not belong there. 
I would like to make a motion that the Secretary investigate all 
those names on the twenty-five year plan and see if they all 
belong there. 

Dr: J. S. Betts, Greensboro: 

I would like to second the motion. 

President Jaclson : 

Is there any discussion? 

Secretary Pridgen: 

I would like to say that some of you who have served in this 
office realize that is a rather big task. I am willing to do it. 
I will state that somie of the records in the years gone by were 
run so it is practically impossible to tell what they mean. I will 
try it, however. 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

Br. Z. L. Edwards, Washington: 

I have the report of the Executive Committee. 


The first meeting' of the Executive Committee was held at Eliza- 
beth City before the adjourument of our 1932 Convention. At this 
time a tentative date for the 1933 Convention was set and Dr. Fred 
Hale was reelected to succeed himself as Editor-Publisher. The 
date set at first was not satisfactoiy but was the best tliat could 
be secured at that time due to the necessity of waiting until Summer 
School at the University closed. Your President, Dr. Jackson, real- 
izing that a date in July or August would not be as desirable a time 
to hold our Convention as would be a date early in June, made a 
special trip to Chapel Hill to request the University authorities 
to give us a date immediately following commencement and before 
the opening of the summer school session. To this request the 
University officials readily responded with a willingness and spirit 
of cooperation that impressed us with their desire to serve our every 

The next meeting was held jointly with the Program Committee 
at the Carolina Hotel, Raleigh, N. C. At this time the finances and 
program for our 1933 Convention were discussed and a tentative 
budget was adopted. It was the consensus of opinion of the members 
of these committees that the North Carolina Dental Society being 
more or less a service organization, should continue to serve its 
members by giving them the benefit of their dues in arranging the 

Containing the Proceedings 185 

best program possible with the amouut of funds available. This we 
feel has been done. 

We desire to commend the able and constructive leadership of our 
President, Dr. Wilbert Jackson, during the past j^ear. He has not 
only shown his ability to serve but has demonstrated many times 
his desire and willingness to render unselfish service. 

Our Secretary, Dr. D. L. Pridgen, deserves commendation for the 
able manner in which he has performed the duties of his office. He 
has shown both initiative and efficiency. 

The office of Editor-Publisher is one of the most important offices 
in the society, and to i^erform its duties with efficiency requires the 
ability, tact and diplomacy of a man that makes his selection not 
an easy task. Your committee desires to express its sincere appre- 
ciation to the present incumbent. Dr. Fred Hale, of Raleigh, for the 
efficiency with which he has served the Society in publishing its 
proceedings and editing the Bulletin. 

Time does not permit our mentioning the names of every man 
who has served so ably his Society this year, but we do desire to 
make special mention of the good work of the Chairman of the 
Legislative Committee, Dr. J. Martin Fleming. He was the guardian 
angel of our legislative activities and being ever alert kept the 
members of his committee informed and was ready to call them into 
session whenever circumstances required it. 

The General Arrangements and Entertainment Committee have 
provided as nearly as possible for our every comfort and convenience. 
The University authorities have cooperated with us to the fullest 
extent, and the citizens of Chapel Hill have at all times been 
most cordial and hospitable. 

Our Publicity Chairman, Dr. F. O. Alford, of Charlotte, through his 
untiring efforts ■ and the cooperation of the Press have given this 
meeting splendid publicity. 

We, your committee, commend the efforts of these and the services 
of each and every one who have contributed to the success of this 
meeting for your consideration. 


Z. L. Edwards, Chairman. 
W. F. Clayton, 
K. M. Olive. 

President Jaclson : 

You have heard the report of the Executive Committee. What 
will you do with it ? 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

I move that it be accepted. 

The motion was seconded by Dr. P. E. Jones, and unan- 
imously carried. 

Dr. J. S. Betts, Greensboro: 

I have the report of the Clinic Board of Censors. 

186 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

The Clinic Board of Censors begs leave to reixjrt that the clinics 
presented at this meeting were gratifyingly numerous, as well as 
meritorious to a very high degree. 

We are exceedingly delighted to have again had with us a group 
of clinicians from our sister State to the North of us. They brought 
to us, as usual, clinics from which we gained many valuable points 
to aid us in giving better health service to the public. 

The clinics brought us by Doctors Rickert, Dement, and Sheffield 
were most interesting, instructive, and were witnessed by large 

Especially well did our own clinicians meet the opportunity and 
demands of the occasion. Your committee approves of the action 
of your President and his associates in selecting suitable and capable 
clinicians from our membership to appear on the A. D. A. program 
at the Chicago meeting. The reason these selections and appoint- 
ments were so made was due to the fact that the Program Committee 
of the A. D. A. pressed for the names of the clinicians in order to 
include them in the printed programs about to go to press. 
Respectfully submitted, 

J. S. Betts, 
J. W. Whitehead, 
A. Pitt Beam, 
A. D. Barber, 
J. M. Holland, 
H. E. Nixox. 

President Jaclson: 

You have heard the report. What will you do with it. 

Dr. A. Pitt Beam, Shelby: 

I move that the report be accepted. 

Dr. D. E. McConnell, Gastonia: 
I second the motion. 
The motion was unanimously carried. 

President Jachson: 

Are there any other reports? 

Dr. Z. L. Edwards, Washington: 

This is not a report, but I would like to call to your atten- 
tion the resolution which we adopted a few minutes ago in 
deciding the time. I believe the time was set to begin January, 
1934, and run to January, 1935. Do you realize if you set 
it beginning then and running twelve months, you are having 
an interval of six months before any official body ^N\\\ meet 

Containing the Proceedings . 187 

to take action to say whether or not it has been a success or 
failure, i^ow, in order to be exact about that, don't you think 
we should do something about that time ? 

Dr. G. L. Hooper, Erivin: 

We decided that we would put it at a distinct date, so that 
there would be no come back against us. Between January and 
the next meeting, we can find out just what is going on. 

Dr. E. B. Howie: 

Men cannot be taken back until the meeting of the District 
Society, and that would apply on next year. We will know 
by the time of the next State meeting Avhether or not it is a 

President Jackson: 

Dr. Edwards, don't you think Dr. Howie's explanation satis- 

Dr. Z. L. Edwards: 
Yes, sir. 

President Jackson: 

Are there any other reports. 

Dr. E.B.Howie: 

I had intended making a report on behalf of the State Board 
of Dental Examiners and I had intended making that report 
a A^ery full report of the actions of the Board in regards to the 
recent hearing of Dr. J. E. Owens, because I felt like it would 
be of considerable interest to the dentists of the State. In view 
of the fact that the hearing of Dr. Owen's case was only com- 
pleted last Tuesday, and I have not been able to get up that 
full report, I would like to be able to write the report up and 
mail it to the Secretary later. 

Preside nt Jackso n : 

Without objection that will be done. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

I move that Dr. Howie be granted that privilege. 
The motion was seconded and unanimously carried. 

188 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 


The following is the report of the transactions of the North Caro- 
lina State Board of Dental Examiners to the Governor as of Janu- 
ary 1, 1933: 

"To His Excellency, J. C. B. Ehkinghaus, 
Governor of North Carolina, 
Raleigh, N. C. 
Dear Sir : 

In accordance with the provisions of the Dental Law, I beg leave 
to hand you, herewith, a report of the proceedings of the North 
Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners for the year 1932 A. D. 

A special meeting of the Board was held in Elizabeth City at the 
Virginia Dare Hotel, on Tuesday, May third, all members being 
present. There being no business, the Board adjourned until the 
annual meeting at Raleigh. 

At the annual meeting of the North Carolina Dental Society at 
Elizabeth City, Dr. C. E. Minges of Rocky Mount was elected a 
member of the Board to succeed Dr. W. T. Martin of Raleigh and 
Dr. H. C. Carr of Durham to succeed Dr. J. S. Betts of Greensboro. 
These new members were duly commissioned by Governor O. Max 

The fifty-second annual meeting of the Board for the purpose 
of examining applicants for license to practice dentistry in this 
State, was held in Raleigh on June 27, 28, 29 and 30, 1932, all mem- 
bers being present, President J. S. Betts, presiding. 

Thirty-one applicants having complied with the requirements of 
the Board were declared qualified and were permitted to take the 
examinations. Written examinations were held in the State Capitol 
Building ; the clinical work at the State Prison. We desire especially 
to acknowledge the many courtesies extended to us by the prison 
authorities, by reason of which the efficiency of the examinations 
was greatly enhanced. 

At the regular business meeting, the Secretary's reiwrt to the 
Governor as of January 1, 1932, was read and accepted. The 
minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

It was voted that a special meeting of the Board for the purpose 
of tabulating the grades be held at the King Cotton Hotel in Greens- 
boro at 6 :30 o'clock p.m. Saturday, July 16th. 

The Secretary reported the following indictments : 

(1) Dr. W. O. McGill of Asheville who paid the required applica- 
tion of twenty dollars ($20.00) when faced wdth a warrant for 

(2) Dr. R. D. Mahood of Henderson who left the State to prevent 
service of warrant for arrest. 

(3) Mr. Harold Foster who was prosecuted for practicing den- 
tistry in the ofiice of Dr. J. E. Owen of Asheville without license. 
Mr. Foster was convicted in city court and fined twenty-five dollars 

Containing the Proceedings 189 

($25.00) aud costs. He api^ealed to the Superior Court, bond being 
fixed at two hundred dollars ($200.00). 

(4) Dr. M. R. Waddill of Fair Bluff, who is described hy our at- 
torney as being very old, claims to have been practicing prior to 
1879. In view, therefore, of the fact that his practice, at present, 
is very limited and that the date of his beginning practice could not 
be definitely determined, our attorney deemed it unwise to proceed 
further, especially since Dr. W. A. Taylor of North Wilkesboro, who 
initiated the action against Dr. Waddill concurs. 

Dr. John A. McClung was elected President ; Dr. E. B. Howie, 

In July the Superior Court upheld the verdict of the Asheville 
City Court, in regard to Mr. Harold Foster. Appeal was made to 
the North Carolina Supreme Court, but the appeal was not com- 
pleted. The fine and the costs were thereupon paid by the bondsman. 
Dr. J. E. Owen. 

A special meeting of the Board was held at the King Cotton Hotel 
in Greensboro at 7 :00 o'clock p.m. Saturday, July 16, 1932. At this 
meeting results of the recent examinations were tabulated and it 
was found that the following applicants for dental license, having 
made grades of SO or more had passed and were, thereupon, issued 
license to practice dentistry except Dr. C. R. Graves whose license 
was issued later upon presentation of his diploma : 

Agoos, Bernard S Thomasou, Ga. 

Atwood, Theodore, W Durham, N. C. 

Banks, Paul C. (Col.) Burlington, N. C. 

Bowling, William W Durham, N. C. 

Brooks, Herman L Monroe, N. C. 

Butler, Hubert E Athens, Ga. 

Cook, Demiis S Lenoir, N. C. 

DeHart, Velner L Floyd, Va. 

Denton, Ernest C Whitakers, N. C. 

Eure, Darden J Eure, N. C. 

Ewers, James B. (Col.) New York, N. Y. 

Froneberger, H. D Bessemer City, N. C. 

Graves, C. R. (Col.) Elizabeth City, N. C. 

Haines, Harold B Altoona, Pa. 

Heartwell, Chas. M., Jr Lawrenceville, Va. 

Kendrick, Vaideu B Charlotte, N. C. 

Kendrick, Zebulon V Charlotte, N. C. 

Long, T. E Roxboro, N. C. 

Miller, W. L. T. (Col.) Greensboro, N. C. 

Nichols, George C Sylva, N. C. 

Parker, William E Suffolk, Va. 

Pringle, James M Lawsonville, N. C. 

Shepard, Robert P Southern Pines, N. C. 

Turner, Joseph H Chase City, Va. 

Wells, Samuel P., Jr Holly Hill, S. C. 

Whittington, P. B., Jr Greensboro, N. C. 

190 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

The followiug failed : 

Baynes, Phillip S Roxboro, N. C. 

Boykiii, A. E. (Col.) Raleigh, N. C. 

Crotts, H. K Wiuston-Saleiu, N. C. 

Mumford, Bruton L Kiuston, N. C. 

Wariuer, Wm. H., Jr Ruffin, N. C. 

After disposing of minor routine matters, the Board adjourned at 
10 :00 o'clock p.m. 

Attached hereto is the financial statement from January 1, 1932, to 
January 1, 1933, as compiled by the Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. E. B. 
Howie and audited by R. C. Carter and Company, Certified Public 
Accountants, of Raleigh, N. C, showing a balance in the Wachovia 
Bank and Trust Company of Raleigh, of two hundred, fourteen dol- 
lars and fifty-three cents ($214.53). 

Attention is called to the receipt of a dividend of seventy-three dol- 
lars and twenty-three cents ($73.23) paid by the closed Commercial 
National Bank of Raleigh, leaving a balance due of two hundred, 
ninety-two dollars and ninety-four cents ($292.94). It is expected 
that a part of this may be recovered." 

Raleigh, North Carolina 

Cash Receipts and Disbursements 

From January 1, 1932, to December 31, 1932 

Balance January 1, 1932 $ 360.17 


Licenses 833 @ $ 1.00 $ 833.00 

Examination Fees 31 @ 20.00 620.00 

Penalties 13 @ 5.00 65.00 

Reinstatement 5 55.00 

Certificates 3 @ 5.00 15.00 1,588.00 

Total $1,954.17 

Per Diem and E-riJOises: 

Betts, Dr. J. S $58.88 

Biveus, Dr. S. B 74.53 

Howie, Dr. E. B 66.63 

Martin, Dr. W. T 60.43 

McClung, Dr. J. A 74.-33 

McConnell, Dr. D. E 73.78 $ 408.58 

Salaries, Secretary and Assistant $ 200.00 

Postage. Stationery, Printing, etc 371.11 

Examination Expense 206.79 

Attorney's Fees 164.00 

Containing the Proceedings 191 

Audit !f 25.00 

National Association Dues 25.00 

Travel 24.70 

Luncheons 15.00 

Bad Checks— Not Redeemed 6.00 

Taxes on Checks .52 $1,446.70 


Commercial National Bank (Closed) $ 292.94 

Wachovia Bank and Trust Company 214.53 $ 507.47 

Pursuant to accusations against Dr. J. E. Owen of Asheville by 
the dentists of the First District, the Board on Tuesday, June 6th, 
revoked the license of Dr. Owen. Appeal has been made to the 
Superior Court. Space permitting a full report of this case will be 
published in a future Bulletin. 

EespectfuUy submitted, 

E. B. HowLE, Secrefai-ij-Treasurer. 

President Jackson: 

Is there anything else to come before the House o£ Delegates? 

Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, Greenville: 

I would like to ask for a ruling from the Chair. Two years 
ago the subject came up relative to life members and the four 
dollars fee. I brought before the members of our Executive 
Committee of the district and Ave decided that a life member, 
whether he paid the four dollars or not, should be accorded the 
privileges of the State meeting. I wanted that question settled 
because down in our district I have a man who does not wish 
to take the Journal and does not wish to pay the four dollars. 
We still bring him into our State meeting and extend him all 
the courtesies. What can he do to avoid paying the money over 
to the Fifth District. They are good dentists, and I want to 
know Avhat to do about this. 

President Jackson: 

I am not making a ruling, but giving you an opinion of my 
own. I think they should be accorded the privileges of the 
State meeting. If they do not want the Journal , and yet they 
are interested in the profession, and have paid twenty-five years, 
I think they are still members of the State Society and are 
members of the component District Societies. 

192 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. Paul Fitzgerald: 

Just another point on that. When these men do not pay their 
American dues, we have no membership card. That pocket 
card gives them admission to the District, State, and xVmerican 
Society meetings. We are often held up for that. 

President Jackson: 

I think the Secretary of the district should issue a receipt 
and pass. I Avill hold, as President of the North Carolina Dental 
Society that when a dentist has paid twenty-five consecutive 
years and becomes a life member, that due to the fact he does 
not want to pay four dollars to the American the rest of his 
life, does not bar him from active membership in the J^ortli 
Carolina Dental Society. If I am wrong, I stand open for 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

That is right, but I think you will have to have a resolution 
changing the Constitution and By-Laws. 

President Jachson: 

I don't think so. Such a member is exempt from dues witb 
this exception of the four dollars to the Aemrican Dental Asso- 
ciation. I do not think you can shut him out of here because 
he does not pay that four dollars. 

There is one other thing I want to incorporate in this mat- 
ter : Some districts are charging their life members two dollars 
dues. I think if they are entitled to life membership without 
dues, and I think they are due a refund. If they just want to 
give the two dollars, of course there is no law against it. 

Is there any other report? 

Dr. S. R. Horton, Raleigh: 

As the usual thing the men were picked for the clinics. There 
has been much interest manifested in the clinics, and we are 
grateful to the clinicians. 

President Jackson: 

You have heard the report of Dr. Horton's committee. "What 
will you do with it? 

It was moved, seconded, and unanimously carried that the 
report be accepted. 

Confaining the Proceedings 193 

President Jaclson: 

The report is adopted. Is there anything else to come before 
the House of Delegates. 

Dr. F. 0. Alford, Charlotte: 

Did we decide what to do about the offer Dr. jSTorthington 
made us in his talk the other day? We should take some action 
on that. 

President Jaclson: 

Thank you, Dr. Alford. We were about to get by that. I am 
not rushing, but we have got to get away from here. What will 
you do with the proposition as submitted to the Society by Dr. 
Xorthington ? Action was deferred until this meeting of the 
House of Delegates. I await your discussion. 

Dr. E. B. Hoivle, Raleigh: 

We went into something like that on one occasion. We turned 
matters over to somebody and it turned out very unsatisfactory. 
With a membership of approximately four hundred, we w^ould 
have to pay to this organization like it is, a right good amount 
of money. We would have to turn over to them approximately 
one thousand dollars. Let's leave it up to them to print their 
papers. We could not print our proceedings, and would have to 
pay them a thousand dollars also. I move that we decline the 

Dr. P. E. Jones, Fannville: 
I second the motion. 

riseident Jaclson: 

Xs there further discussion? 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 
Question ! 
The motion was unanimously carried. 

President Jaclsoyi: 

Is there anything else to come before the House of Delegates? 

Dr. P. E. Jones: 

Yesterday we deferred until today our decision as to Avhat 
interpretation we would put on the plan of reorganization of the 

194 BuUetin North Carolina Dental Socictij 

American Dental Association. I believe the plan was Ave were 
to carry the new men for a year and a half from the time they 
took the Board. My understanding of the plan was we had 
to pay the American for the next year's dues. We deferred that 
until today. 

President Jaclvson: 

We adopted the resolution Avith that plan not clear. 

Dr. P. E. Jones: 

It was clear that we give our dues for a year and a half. It 
was not clear in my mind as to the four dollars. I think it is 
clear in our minds what Ave are going to do about it. 

President Jackson: 

Dr. Pridgen says it Avas left to the Executive Committee Avith 
full poAver to act on the matter. 

Dr. P. E. Jones: 

I make a motion that the House of Delegates go on record 
as opposed to paying the American four dollars dues for our 
men unless we haA'e to carry them. We Avill carry men as long 
as they will and no longer. 

Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, Greenville: 

I suggest some report from the Executive Committee and then 
Ave can act on Dr. Jones' motion. 

Dr. P. E. Jones: 

My understanding is that we go on record as favoring the 
plan, but opposed to carrying the men in the ISTational. 

President Jackson : 

Dr. Jones, in the Indiana plan they must pay the four dol- 
lars, not us. The student must pay the four dollars and not us. 

Dr. P. E. Jones: 

I don't like that much. 

President Jackson : 

I don't either, but Ave Avent on record leaving that up to the 
Executive Committee. 

Containing the Proceedings 195 

Dr. Paul Fitzgerald: 

What about the districts? I know a district cannot make anv 
ruling "which contradicts a ruling' of the State, and how about 
the district dues for that year. I would like to have a ruling 
of the Chair for the following year. 

President Jackson: 

That was my understanding. The districts would remit the 
dues. Let me get you clear. You want a ruling from the Chair 
as to whether to collect dues from the men who are reinstated. 

Br. Paul Fitzgerald: 

Xo, sir, the new man. Does the District Society collect dues 
from the new men? 

President Jackson: 

1^0 dues are collected from these men by the State Society or 
by its component parts under the Indiana plan. That was not 
really the Indiana plan. We thought it up and while we were 
working on it, they stole our thunder. 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 

What provision was made for designating a depository for 
the funds of the Society. Was that left to the Executive 
Committee ? 

President Jackson: 

Yes, sir, Dr. Fleming. 

Perhaps we had better let the record show that the motion 
was made, seconded, and carried to omit the discussion concern- 
ing the Charlotte affair from the proceedings. 

Dr. J. 8. Spurgeon, Hillshoro: 

I have here the report of the Golf Committee. 

Chapel Hill, N. C, June 7, 1933. 
Be it Resolved, by the North Carolina State Dental Society, that 
we hereby express our thanks and appreciation for the courtesies ex- 
tended to the members of our Association who used the golf course 
and club house privileges in the playing of our annual golf tourna- 
ment, and be it further 

Resolved, that a copy of this resolution be sent to Mr. Hill by the 

Dan Care, Chairman. 

196 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

President Jackson : 

You liaA^e heard the report, Avhat Avill you do Avith it < 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming: 
I move its adoption. 
The motion was seconded and unanimously carried. 

President Jaclson: 

The motion is carried. A copy will be sent to Mr. Hill by the 

Dr. E. B. Hoivle, Raleigh: 

Dr. Presnell and Dr. Hale appeared before the Medical 
Society of North Carolina and presented splendid papers, and 
we would like to incorporate them in the proceedings. 

Dr. C. I. Miller, Albemarle: 
I second the motion. 

President Jachson : 

It has been moved that the papers of Dr. Presnell and Dr. 
Hale read before the Medical Society be published in the 1933 

The motion was put and unanimously carried. 

President Jachson: 

Is there anything else to come before the House of Delegates I 
(Pause.) If not, I declare the House of Delegates adjourned. 

At 1 :35 o'clock p.m., Thursday, June 8, 1933, the House of 
Delegates adjourned. 



O. L. Pkesxell, D.D.S., Aslieboro, N. C. 

In our efforts toward the couservatiou of health we have come to 
attach very great importance to focal infections as contributing 
factors to degenerative diseases. With the increasing mass of clinical 
evidence which has emphasized the removal of foci of infection, the 
trend of modern thought has often assumed the attitude that de- 
generating tissue in any part of the body, when found to be infected, 
had its principal, if not only cause in the entry into that tissue of bac- 
teria, and that with the removal of the focus of infection all con- 

Containing the Proceedings 197 

tributiui,' factors would be eliminated. The many disappointments 
Avliieli liave followed treatment based wliolly upon tliis hypothesis 
would suggest tliat there are factors, other than bacterial, of equal 
or greater importance in their contribution to tlie degenerative 
process, and whicli demand proportionate consideration. 

It is of great significance tliat quite universally new dental tissues 
are deemed to be the most common locations of focal infections tliat 
are considered to be causative of degenerative processes. This is 
explained by the fact that dental caries and periodontal disease are 
tlie most prevalent of all diseases among civilized people, that the 
tissues of the oral cavity are at all times exposed to outside influ- 
ences, and that any break in the continuity of these tissues opens an 
avenue for the invasion of pathogenic organisms into the body. 

While dental diseases are frequently found associated with other 
degenerative processes, and while they undoubtedly do contribute 
to functional and organic disorders, functional and organic disease 
may lead directly to tooth destruction. Furthermore in the light 
of our present knowledge, stress may be laid upon the fact that 
dental disease is a symptom of a systemic disturbance, that it is 
but one part of a disease picture brought about by a general func- 
tional upset, and that there are other parts of the picture which 
are a result of the same disturbance and which together with the 
dental disease form a complete picture which is itself indicative of 
the primary cause. 

We can no longer consider dental caries and periodontal disease 
as being produced by purely local factors. We must discard neglect 
and lack of cleanliness as the primary cause, because we find excel- 
lent teeth in healthy mouths that have never known a tooth brush 
or the care of a dentist. Again we see widespread caries and gingival 
disturbance in a mouth in which prophylactic measures are dili- 
gently employed. Bacterial action cannot be considered the ])rimary 
factor because the organisms associated with dental caries are 
found abundantly in the mouths of both the susceptible and the 
immune. While we do not possess a complete knowledge of the 
etiology of dental caries the great amount of research which has 
been done by a host of workers indicates quite conclusively that its 
prevention or control depends primarily upon adequate nutrition. 

Price, Davis and others report an 85-90 per cent success in the 
control of caries, a general physical improvement, and a marked 
decrease in susceptibility to minor infections, in large groups of 
children, through correction and reinforcement of the diet. While 
there is not a uniformity of opinion among these investigators as 
to the stress which they place upon any particular nutritional or 
activating element, we cannot fail to be impressetl with the uni- 
formity of their clinical results. Some workers consider a deficiency 
of the fat-soluble vitamins as being the most important factor in 
the production of caries. Others place the emphasis upon a vitamin 
C deficiency. Still others upon a mineral deficiency alone or in 
combination with a deficiency of certain vitamins. A comparative 
study of their experimental and clinical data would indicate that 
there is no single agent which ahtne is responsible for the degenera- 
tion of dental tissues, rather that the degenerative processes are a 

198 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

result of a constitutional imbalance which is itself incited by a 
deprivation of one or more of the agents required for normal cell 
function, and that bacterial action becomes a contributing factor 
only after tissue resistance has been lowered. This is more readily 
understood when we observe the resixnise of tissue cells to nutri- 
tional changes. 

First we would consider the normal cell, created for a specific 
purpose, dependent in its ability to function normally upon being 
nourished by a normal blood. In the absence of the required nutri- 
tional and activating elements we would not expect a normal func- 
tioning of that cell. If the cell fails to function normally degenera- 
tion occurs. When foods have been tested in living animals, it has 
been found that some very delinite effects on the cells are obtained. 
For example. Howe observes that a deficiency of vitamin A has a 
pronounced effect uix)n the odontoblasts, the dentin forming cells, 
causing them to lay down bone instead of dentin. This results in 
a less dense and less resistant calcification of the tooth structure. 
Another strikingly characteristic change which follows this deficiency 
of vitamin A is that glandular and duct epithelium in great part of 
the body is replaced by a nonsecretory type. Glands thus become 
unable to perform their proper function, and, in the case of the 
salivary glands the character of the saliva is changed. As a normal 
saliva is a prerequisite in the maintenance of healthy oral tissues, 
any alteration in its character ccmtributes to a lowered resistance 
of these parts. 

Another striking change in the odontoblasts occurs when animals 
are fed on diets deficient in vitamin C In from five to seven days 
the odontoblasts may be seen to have stopped forming dentin and the 
dental pulp to have shrunken away from the formed dentin. In a 
few more days the dentin begins to be resorbed or liquefied. The 
rapidity with which these cells resume activity after receiving a 
supply of vitamin C is remarkable, for upon the administration of 
orange juice new dentin formation begins within twenty-four hours. 
AVhat really happens is that during a deficiency of vitamin C the 
cells in the connective tissues of the body cease to form intercellular 
substance. The early degeneration of the formative cell.s will make 
structural defects occurring during this period permanent. Further 
than this a hyi>eremia may be induced by the deficiency or by the 
degenerative process. Animal experimentation and clinical observa- 
tion have shown that the blood supply of the pulp is a prime factor 
in dental calcification or decalcification. Cahn makes this state- 
ment : "Produce a definite hyperemia of the pulp and the dentin 
and enamel undergo decalcification." 

Scurvy is definitely associated with a vitamin C deficiency. While 
a true case of scurvy is rarely encountered these days, it is easy to 
believe that a latent, unrecognized scorbutic condition is very preva- 
lent. Inflammatory conditions of the gums ranging from a mild 
gingivitis to advanced pyorrhea are to be found in the mouths of 
a majority of the people of today. Excepting those cases of traumatic 
origin these can safely be considered as manifestations of a mild 
type of scurvy. The infection and pus in pyorrhea are secondary 

Containing the Proceedings 199 

factors whicli eutor the picture only after the primary degenerative 
process has begun. 

Not only for the building and repair of calcified structures, but 
for the maintenance of normal defense against dental and systemic 
disease, an adequate supply of calcium and phosphorus are necessary 
in the blood stream. Sherman states that the average American 
diet is deficieut in these minerals. Furthermore the actual inges- 
tion of an adequate amount does not guarantee its normal utiliza- 
tion. Calcium in particular demands a mildly acid condition t)f the 
intestine for its absorption. Vitamin D has been found to be abso- 
lutely necessary to mineral assimilation and fixation. Since a mini- 
mum amount of minerals are necessary for our daily metabolic 
processes in healtli, and an increased amount in disease, if the 
required quantities are not supplied from the foods, whether from 
a lack of calcium and phosphorus in the foods or a lack of activa- 
tors to make them available, a draft will be made upon the storage 
in the bones and teeth. This condition constitutes an important 
factor in the development of dental and systemic disease, both by 
disturbing organ function and by lessening the body's capacity to 
fight infection. 

It is well known that poorly calcified teeth are associated with 
rickets. Hess states that in eiglity per cent of all cases of rickets 
there is a high blood calcium and a low blood phosphorus. Hawkins 
and others find that in active caries the same blood picture is found. 
In systemic pyorrhea, however, the calcium-phosphorus balance of 
the blood is the reverse of tliat found in caries, that is, a low 
calcium and a high phosphorus. Price finds a correlation between 
the mineral balances of the blood and of the saliva. That the estab- 
lishment of a normal mineral ratio of the blood is followed by a 
normal mineral ratio of the saliva. As the resistance to dental 
disease is governed largely by the protective influence of the saliva, 
and as the character of the saliva reflects the character of the blcx)d 
which is itself governed directly by nutrition, we have in malnutri- 
tion a disturbance of our most imix)rtant defensive forces. 

It is not my purpose to discuss in detail the many phases of 
nutrition, rather that this brief presentation of a few of the patho- 
logic conditions which may result from nutritional deficiencies alone 
may serve to direct attention to the tremendous importance of the 
nutritional factor in the development of dental diseases and other 
degenerative processes. 

Kead before the North Carolina Medical Society. Raleigh, N. C, 
April in. 1933. 


P.y G. Fred Hai.e, D.U.S., Raleigh, N. C. 

Even the best would feel embarrassed by following a man as 
eminent in the field of medicine as Dr. McCrae : how must such an 
amateur as myself suffer in a like situation. I am encouraged by 
the knowledge that one's efforts, when directed with sincerity of 
jmrpuse, are tolerated sympathetically. Then, too, I am further made 
to feel more comfortaljle I)y appearing before a body, among many 

200 BuUetin North Carolina Dental Society 

of whom I have had a most pleasant i)rofessional relati<)ii8hii> in a 
problem of common interest. 

Before we go into the discussion of tlie etiology of malocclusion 
and irregularities of the teeth, let me make my position clear by 
saying that there is much not detinitely known of the etiology of 
such deformities. True, we associate with it certain conditions, but 
that is about as far as we have gotten. We have evidence to support 
certain opinions, but absolute knowledge is often lacking. We recog- 
nize the effect without always knowing the cause and begin a difficult 
treatment under a handicap. 

For classification let us divide the dento-facial deformities into 
three main divisions : 

First : Where the antero-posterior relationship of the jaws are 
correct, but there is a narrowing of the arches and crowding of the 
anterior teeth. 

Second : Where there is a posterior relation of the lower jaw to 
the upper and a protrusion of the upper anterior teeth. 

Third : Where there is an anterior relationship of the lower jaw 
to the upper, thereby producing prognatism. 

If there are those of you who entertain the idea that all dento- 
facial deformities are the result of purely local causes, will you 
please permit me to undertake to relieve your mind of such an 
attitude? There are certain types of malocclusion which we believe 
to be the result of pernicious habits and other local influences, but 
these are only a part of the picture — such causes will fail to be of 
much concern to you, but the broader etiological factors will court 
your interest and stir your imagination. 

We believe, from the light of recent research problems and long 
clinical ol)servation, that etiology of malocclusion and irregularities 
of the teeth must be solved along broad biological lines. Quoting from 
H. S. Jennings "The development of an individual is brought about 
by the interaction of a great number of separable substances, existing 
as minute particles, their interaction with each other, with other 
parts of the cell and with material taken from the outside. Some- 
thing is known of the result of altering only a single one of the 
thousand different substances present in the original cell and by 
altering several or many. Some combinations of them give imperfect 
individuals, feeble-minded, deformed, monstrous ; other give normal 
individuals ; other superior individuals ; there are combinations giv- 
ing every intermediate types." Unless our concept is broad enough 
to grasp the siguiflciince of this statement, we will continue to look 
upon the mouth as a part separate and distinct from the whole, 
and subject to different laws of growth and demanding different 
ideals of treatment. Whatever is done in the mouth, whether surgery, 
restorations or orthopedic correction of dento-facial deformities, our 
mind must be saturated with the knowledge that we are dealing 
with a biological and physiological part of biological and physiolog- 
ical whole, subject to the same general laws of growth plus environ- 
mental influences found nowhere else in the body. 

A few years ago Prof. M. C. Brash, eminent anatomist at the 
University of Edinburgh, made a thorough survey of orthodontic 
literature, upon invitation of the orthodontic profession of (ireat 

Containing the Proceedings 201 

Britain. He said "from the evidence so far submitted, far too mucli 
importance lias been placed on such etiological factors as thumb 
sucking, nasal obstructions, adenoids, cusp relation and other strictly 
local factors." 

Learned men have joined their clinical observations with research 
experiences in the last few years and we are beginning to see through 
some of the fog that obscured our vision. Drs. Stockard and Johnson 
are working on problems of genetics at Cornell University. Drs. 
Gregory and Hellmau are working on problems of growth of the 
bones of the face and skull at the American Museum of Natiiral 
History; Dr. C. C. Howard and a group of physicians at the Good 
Samaritan Endocrine Clinic in Atlanta, are working on endocrine 
problems and T. Wingate Todd, F.R.C.S., is working on growth 
problems at Western Reservie University. Time does not permit 
the detail elaboration of the work done by various groups throughout 
the country. 

Coming a little nearer to the subject which the title of rhis paper 
requires that I discuss, we will divide the etiology of malocclusion 
and irregularities of the teeth into two main divisions — local and 

Under local etiological factors, we will tabulate the following : 

1. Pernicious habits, which play their harmful role so slowly and 
treacherously that the effects are not noticed by the parents until 
considerable damage has been done. Finger sucking, lip sucking, and 
tongue habits are the most common of these dangerous habits. 

2. Nasal Obstructions : Produce mouth breathers which interfere 
with normal muscular function, ^^hich in turn interfere with normal 
growth. Some one said "function determines form" which statement 
I believe to be only partially true, otherwise we could produce about 
whatever physical type of man desired. All generalities have to be 
met with modification. Adenoids, the chief offender in children pro- 
duce the typical "pinch face" expression, upper anterior teeth pro- 
truding, lower anterior teeth retruding, producing that receding chin 
or "Andy Gump" type of individual. As the mouth breathing proceeds 
we believe the hard palate increases in height thereby producing 
change in the nares and neighboring structures. The rhinologist and 
orthodontist here have a problem in common, demanding sympathetic 
cooperation if either is to be successful in treatment. 

3. Deciduous teeth : Baby teeth should have the most careful at- 
tention. The early loss of deciduous teeth nearly always induces a 
disharm-'my in oral growth. Teeth drift to approximate each other in 
the same arch, and this means the impaction of permanent teeth. The 
ofttime sequalae to impacted teeth is too well known to you to 
elaborate here. 

4. Permanent teeth : The retention of permanent teeth is of the 
utmost importance if one's occlusion is to be maintained and th(> 
health of the mouth preserved. The loss of one permanent tooth 
usually immediately jeopardizes the usefulness and life of tive other 
permanent teeth in the immediate vicinity. The care with which the 
contour of a tooth is restored, when once a cavity appears, has much 
to do with the future occlusion, usefulness and health of the mouth. 

Under general etiological factors we will tabulate the following: 

202 BuUefin North Carolina Dental Socieiij 

1. Syphilis : There is not only a very definite and typical mal- 
occlusion and jaw deformity noted in congenital syphilis, but there is 
also a typical type of tooth produced. 

2. Malnutrition : Wliere skeletal development did not reach its full 
possibilities, there is often created a disharmony between tlie size 
of the teeth and the supporting bone, producing thereby a mal- 
occlusion of the teeth. 

o. Eudocriues : As these glands influence the general skeletal 
growth, so do they also influence the growth of the jaws. The 
clinical pictures of these patients come vividly before your eyes, 
especially cretinism, progeria and acromegaly. As there is a modi- 
fied or distorted skeletal growth in these people, so there is also 
deviations from the normal in jaw growtli and conformation. 

4. Rickets : Meallanby of England and Howe of Boston demon- 
strated malformed jaws and irregular teeth in experimental animals 
by producing rickets. Hatheld of Boston examined about 500 children 
giving ii history of rickets, and found no greater prevalence of mal- 
occlusion than from a like group with negative history of rickets. 
One can see, liowever, that the teeth and their supporting structures 
could enter into the clinical picture. 

5. Genetics : Within the last few years there has been sufficient 
research in experimental animals, coupled with clinical observations, 
to force the opinion that inheritance plays a large role in producing 
irregularities and malocclusion of the teeth. Whether we inherit 
small supporting bone and large teeth, or conversely, i>er se, or 
whether we inherit a certain endocrine balance or imbalance, which 
in turn produces certain disharmonies, we are not sure. Drs. Wtf>ckard 
and Johnson at the Cornell Experimental Farm have produced from 
very small to very great dento-facial anomalies in interbreeding 
dogs. This work will be published very shortly. 

These are briefly what we believe to be some of the etiological 
factors in producing dento-facial disharmonies. Not until we look 
anatically and critically at all the possibilities and consider the 
mouth and its neighboring structures as vitally correlated with the 
problems which affect the whole, can we hope to be rewarded with 
any degree of satisfaction which comes from a service well done. 
We might be happier if we embraced the suspicion that whatever 
affects the health and happiness of the growing child, might also 
affect the teeth, the supporting and neighboring structures, which 
in turn might vitally affect the health and happiness of the adult. 

I have not so much intended to push in the background of the 
picture the local causative factors, as I have hoped to remind you 
of those whose origin Avere intrinsic, harmonic or pathological. It 
seems to me that we must pay respect to all the possible influences 
operating to produce an imperfect individual, and not lose our heads 
over one possible link of evidence. 

Through the process of trial and error, through unnumbered years, 
we have arrived at a certain type of teeth and certain type of sup- 
porting structure in the human family to meet certain requirements 
for masticating, for enunciating and for esthetics; any modification 
reduces the efficiency accordingly, and leaves in its wake a physic, 
physical or pathological impress that flows on into later life. 

Containing the Froceedinga 203 


1. Types of malocclusion. 

2. Local causes of malocclusion. 

3. General causes of malocclusion. 

4. Treated cases. 

I make no claim for originality of tliouglit in this presentation — 
the literature is fertile in support of these opinions, and my clinical 
observations are, I should say, the average of an orthodontic practi- 
tioner. I am not presumptuous enough to think that this paper has 
added one bit of knowledge to your profession, whose literature is 
studded with beautiful gems from your leading thought. 1 do hope, 
however, that interest has been stimulated in a subject that is as 
much your concern as it is our problem. If we, in mutual co- 
operation, do not handle these children they are most likely to be 
potential patients of the psychiatrist and internist. You who have 
so wonderfully labored in eradicating contagious diseases, I hope will 
now turn some of your talents to a less spectacular, but none-the-less 
much needed drive to eradicate diseases of mouth origin. May those 
of us who are particularly interested in orthodontics feel that a finer 
concept is to relieve inhibitions and prevent disease rather than to 
undertake to straighten crooked teeth. We must project our vision 
far beyond the condition of the moment — to the adult at 25 or 30, 
and present him to the world with as little physical and mental 
handicap as humanly possible. 

I thank you very much for the opportunity of appearing before 


Brash, J. C. : "The Aetiology of Irregularity and Mallocclusion of 
the teeth." 

"The Growth of the .Jaws, Normal and Abnormal, in Health 
and Disease." 

Gregory, Wm. K., and Hellman, Milo : "Paleontology of the Human 
Dentition." International Journal of Orthodontia, Oral Surgery 
and Radiography, July, 1929, Vol. XV, No. 7, page 642. 

Howard, C. C. : "Glandular Influences Considered in Skeletal De- 
velopment, Featuring Orthondontic Tyiies." International 
Journal of Orthodontia, Oral Surgery and Radiography, March, 
1925, Vol. XI, No. 3, page 214. 

"The Value of General Clinical Surveys in Orthodontic 
Diagnosis." International Journal of Orthodontia, Oral Sur- 
gery and Radiography, July, 1926, A^ol. VII, No. 7. page 613. 

"The Physiologic Progress of the Bone Centers of the Hands 
of Normal Children Between the Ages of Five and Sixteen 
Inclusive ; Also a Comparative Study of Both Retarded and 
Accelerated Hand (^rowth of Children Whose (General Skeletal 
Growth is Similarly Affected." International Journal of Ortho- 
dontia, Oral Surgery and Radiography, Vol. XIV, No. 11 and 
No. 12, November and December, 1928. 

204 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

"A I'liase of Skeletal GroAvtli as Influenced by the Sex 
Hoi'mones." International Journal of Orthodontia!, Oral Sur- 
j^ery and Radiography, July, 1932, Vol. XVIII, No. 7, page Go9. 
Jeuuings, H. S. : "The Biological Basis of Human Behavior." 
Johnson, A. LeRoy : "Basic Principles of Orthodontia." 
Todd, T. Wingate: "Recent Studies in Development of the Face." 
International Journal of Orthodontia, Oral Surgery and Radio- 
graphy, December, 1929, Vol. XV, No. 12, page 1157. 

Read before the North Carolina Medical Society, Raleigh, N. C, 
April IS, 1933. 


General Session 

Tlie General Session was called to order at 1 :35 o'clock p.m., 
by President Wilbert Jackson. 

President Jacl'son: 

The General Session will come to order. 

I wish to recognize Mr. Russell Grumman. Will you please 
come forward ? 

Mr. Grumman, these men are going to miss you so much that 
I wanted them to see you again and have you say something 
to them. We Avant to say something to you. (Applause.) 

Mr. Russell j\I. Grumman, Chapel II ill: 

Gentlemen, it has been a real pleasure to meet you personally, 
and for the University also, to have you with us these few 
days. Sj)eaking for myself, I don't think I have had men it 
Avas more pleasure to work with than your men. It has been a 
real treat, and I enjoy working with people, and I have found 
your people very agreeable. I think you have made a splendid 
impression upon the University and I want to commend the 
men for the Avay you have treated our property, particularly 
the observance of the rvile in this room about smoking, Avhich 
is a regulation we have no control over. Mr. Hill donated this 
building with the request that no smoking be permitted in it. 
We appreciate your cooperation. I hope that you have enjoyed 
your stay. From the remarks made to me and others on the 
campus, I judge you have. You seem to be most interested 
in your work. 

Coniaining the Proceedings 205 

Dr. Jackson, before I sit down I would like to take this 
occasion to remind the House of Delegates and the Society 
as a whole that any time you desire to resume your Extension 
Course, the Extension Division of the University of North Caro- 
lina stands ready to cooperate with you in every way. We have 
been waiting for you to make this move. Speaking from the 
viewpoint of the University and particularly the Extension 
Division, we feel that your course was one of the most successful 
and most valuable and important courses we have been able to 
conduct in several years. It means a great deal to the Univers- 
ity, as we know you men are going forward in your profession 
of dentistry, but more important than either of those things 
is the significance that dentists have come here to learn things 
which will make them better fitted to serve the public. We are 
all interested in the public welfare and these courses certainly 
add their part in improving the public welfare in ISTorth Caro- 
lina. I say again, please call on us if you feel that you can 
continue with your courses. We shall be glad to cooperate with 
you at any time. Please know that we have enjoyed thoroughly 
having you with us during your Convention. It has been a real 
inspiration to see such a group as you assemble and take such 
an interest in the meeting. The clinics, the scientific discussions, 
were unusually well attended. I think the campus atmosphere 
has helped some and there is a certain advantage that nature has 
had which you needed for the occasion. This is not the best 
place in which to meet, but we want you to come back and meet 
with us as soon as you can. (Applause.) 

President JacJcson: 

Thank you, Mr. Grumman. Mr. Grumman, on behalf of the 
j^orth Carolina Dental Society I want you to know we appre- 
ciate thoroughly each effort that has been made for us as a 
Society, as individuals, and we would like for you to convey a 
special message to Mrs. Grumman because she has been instru- 
mental in helping you to put over this splendid work, and we 
just know that you could not have done it all by yourself, and 
we want her to know that Ave appreciate her efforts. 

Mr. Russell J\L Grumman: 

I Avill see that she gets that message. 

206 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

President Jachson: 

I hope as jou liope that some time we can come back to 
Chapel Hill. I Avish we could come about the first of April, 
when it wasi warm, but not too warm, and we could have had 
more pleasant weather. We all know, however, that this is the 
most imusually hot weather for this time of year. We have had 
a wonderful time and regardless of all the little things, we have 
had an excellent time. I want to assure you that our expecta- 
tions have been far surpassed. 

Dr. F. 0. At ford, Charlotte: 

I hate to delay things. Mr. Grumman has done wonderful 
things and I appreciate it. There is another man here who 
has done real work. As Chairman of the Publicity Committee, 
I would like to recognize Mr. Maddry, Director of the Pub- 
licity Bureau here in Chapel Hill. (Applause.) 

Mr. Maddry, Chapel Hill: 

I have enjoyed this meeting very much and I feel I liave 
learned something about dentistry that I did not know before. 
I enjoyed the talk yesterday morning very much. When you 
talk about teeth moving an eighth of an inch one way or an- 
other, and you can tighten them up so they are tight as some- 
body's hat band, I think that is pretty wonderful. I have 
enjoyed visiting your Convention and I am glad to cooperate 
with you in the future in any Avay that I can. (Applause.) 

President Jachson: 

Is there anything else to come before the General Session I 
(Pause.) If not, I Avill ask Dr. Clayton and Dr. Phin Horton 
to escort the President-Elect to the rostrum. 

Dr. P. E. Horton, Winston-Salem: 

On behalf of the North Carolina Dental Society, it pleases 
me to present to you Dr. Branch to succeed you in office, and 
Ave commend him to yoi;r tender mercies. Dr. Branch. 

President Jachson: 

Dr. Branch, I am about to surrender to you a gavel. I can 
only bespeak for you the cooperation of the most loyal bunch 
of men it has been my privilege to knoAv. I am sure their 
confidence and trust has not been misplaced, and I can speak 

Containing the Proceedings 207 

for tlie jSTorth Carolina Dental Society the greatest year in its 
history. If I may be of service to you and the I^orth Carolina 
Dental Society at any time, any place, I shall count it a 
privilege to do so. I am looking for great things from you as 
leader. I hand you this gavel and surrender my office to you. 

Dr. E. A. Branch, Raleigh: 

It is customary to say that this is the happiest moment of 
my life. I shall not make that statement. I am not happy. I 
could not be happy realizing the responsibility, but I do say 
I am greatly pleased for having this privilege. It is going to be 
a love feast, because that is the greatest thing there is, love, and 
I know of no place where you would find more of it than in 
the !N"orth Carolina Dental Society. It is an association of men 
of one mind, one thought, and one purpose, but the greatest of 
that is purpose. It is in the hearts of the dentists of jSTorth 
Carolina. That purpose is not one of selfishness, but it is a 
purpose of service, service to their own people. That is our 
privilege and opportunity. We are headed into the next year, 
ana at the close of this next year, Ave will be one more year 
closer to the goal. I thank you. (Applause.) 

President Branch : 

I believe the next order is the installation of the Vice- 
President. Dr. Paul Fitzgerald and Dr. D. T. Carr to present 
the Vice-President at this time, if you please. 

Dr. J. P. Jones was escorted to the rostrum. 

Dr. Jones, it is a great pleasure to have you as Vice-President 
this year. (Applause.) 

Dr. J. P. Jones: 

I appreciate this honor. I have been delighted to have you at 
Chapel Hill this year, and I hope we can have you back for a 
meeting next year. I thank you. (Applause.) 

President Branch: 

Dr. ISTixon, will you and Dr. Miller present the Secretary. 

Dr. D. L. Pridgen was escorted to the rostrum. 

Dr. Pridgen, I feel that I am fortunate in having you as my 
right-hand man. I shall lean on you heavily. I trust you will 
do all in your power to support me. I am glad to have you. 

208 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Secretary Pridgen : 

I will do my very best. (Applause.) 

President Branch : 

What else is there to come before us ? 

The Floor: 

Installment of the President-Elect. 

Presideiit Branch : 

Dr. Paul Jones, will you and Dr. Minges present Dr. Ed- 
wards ? 

Dr. L. M. EdAvards, President-Elect, Avas escorted to the 

Dr. Edwards, this is indeed a pleasure to recognize you. 

Dr. L. M. Edwards, Durham: 

I know you are all tired. It is late noAv. In 1935 you will 
probably hear so much of me I am going to be kind and say 
nothing more than two things: Eirst, appreciation for this 
honor and second, the aAve AA'ith AA^hich I accept the responsibility 
for this honor. I realize that the success of any meeting depends 
largely on the committees and the cooperation of the body as a 
whole Avith the committees. I just hope that Avith that co- 
operation, the meeting in 1935 Avill cause nothing of regret. I 
thank you. (Applause.) 

President Branch : 

Is there anything noAv before the announcement of the com- 
mittees for the next year ? 

Dr. E. B. Hoivle, Raleigh: 

It has been customary to present the ucaa^ members of the 
Board elected at this meeting. 

President Branch: 

1 think you are right. Is Dr. Ealph Jarrett in the hall < Is 
Dr. Billy Bell here? 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming, Raleigh: 

Inasmuch as both are gone, I moA^e that Ave proceed and not 
present anybody by proxy. 

Containing the Proceedings 209 

President Branch : 

Gentlemen, for good and sufficient reason, I wish the privilege 
of delaying the appointment of the committees for just a bit. 
I prefer to confer with the men and have them accept the 
chairmanship, at least, of the committees before they are ap- 
pointed. I hope you will approve that. However, I do wish 
to say at this time that I want to announce that Dr. Z. L. 
Edwards will be Chairman of the Executive Committee. Dr. 
jSTeal Sheffield will be the new member of the committee, and 
of course, Dr. E. M. Olive will carry over. 

The meeting, as you know, is at Wrightsville, and I want to 
make Dr. H. L. Keith Chairman of the General Arrangements 
Committee and he select those he Avishes to serve and I would 
like to ask Dr. Junius D. Smith to be Chairman of the Enter- 
tainment Committee, and he to. select those to serve with him. 
The other committees I ask the privilege of naming later and 
you will be notified through mail as individuals and the Society 
notified "within a few weeks. I hope that meets with your 

Is there anything else to come before us? (Pause.) 

Dr. J. Martin Fleming, Raleigh: 
I move we adjourn sine die. 

President Branch : 

If there is no other discussion, we stand adjourned. 

Thus, at 2 .-05 o'clock p.m., Thursday, July 8, 1933, the Fif ty- 
J^inth x\nnual Meeting of the ISTorth Carolina Dental Society at 
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, adjourned si7ie die. 

COM M ITTEE S— 1933-34 
Executive Committee 

Z. I.. Edwards, Chairman (1934) Washington 

R. M. Olive (1935) Fayetteville 

Neal Sliefiield (1930) Greensboro 

Program-Clixic Committee 

D. L. Piidgen, Chairman Fayetteville 

W. D. Gibbs, V ice-Chairman Charlotte 

.T. W. Whiteliead Smithlicld 

J. E. Hwindell Kalciiih 

R. P. Molvin Winston-Salem 

210 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Sociclij 

Ethics Committee 

J. Martin Fleming, Chainnan Raleij;li 

J. W. Wliiteliead Smitlilield 

J. C. Watkins Winstou-Salem 

Legislative Committee 

J. N. Jolinstm (1937) Goldsboro 

Z. L. Edwards ,1934) Wasliington 

E. B. Howie (1930) Raleigli 

P. E. Jones (1936) Farmville 

H. O. Lineberger (1938) Raleigli 

Oral Hygiene Committee 

Paul Fitzgerald, Chairman Greenville 

C. S. McCall Forest City 

Neal Slieflield Greensboro 

C. C. Bennett Asbeville 

B. C. Taylor Landis 

Pitt Beam Shelby 

Jessie L. Zachary Raleigh 

State Institutions Committee 

Everett Smith, Chairman Raleigh 

J. R. Edwards Fuquay Springs 

Oscar Hooks Wilson 

J. L. Ashby Mount Airy 

John R. Pharr Charlotte 

Victor Bell Raleigh 

Military Committee 

I. H. Hoyle, Chmrman Henderson 

S. E. Mosely Gastonia 

E. G. Click Elkin 

V. M. Barnes Wilson 

Liability Insurance Committee 

J. H. Wheeler, Chainnan Greensboro 

T. A. Wilkins Gastonia 

D. B. Mizell Charlotte 

J. A. Jernigan Dunn 

A. L. Wooteu Raleigh 

Membership Committee 

L. M. Edwards, Chainnan Durham 

Paul Fitzgerald Greenville 

Charles S. McCall Forest City 

Containing the Proceedings 211 

F. O. Alford Charlotte 

G. L. Hooper Eiwiii 

J. T. Lasley Greensboro 

Exhibit Committee 

D. L. Pritlgeu, Chairman , Faj^etteville 

W. T. Martin Raleigh 

Sam L. Bobbitt Raleigh 

A. S. Cromartie Faj^etteville 

Clyde E. Minges Rocky Mount 

Dental College Committee 

J. E. Swindell, Chairman Raleigh 

R. Philip Melvin Winston-Salem 

A. C. Bone Rocky Mount 

Wallace D. Gibbs Charlotte 

Clinic Board of Censors 

Ralph Little, Chairman Asheville 

J. W. Whitehead Smithfield 

A. P. Beam Shelby 

A. D. Barber Sanford 

J. M. Holland Statesville 

H. E. Nixon Elizabeth City 

Resolutions Committee 

J. H. Wheeler, Chairman Greensboro 

J. C. Watkins Winston-Salem 

P. R. Falls Gastonia 

A. T. Jennette Washington 

W. L. McRae Red Springs 

Necrology Committee 

J. S. Betts, Chairman Greensboro 

C. D. Bain Dunn 

W. D. Gibbs Charlotte 

H. E. Story Charlotte 

Everett L. Smith Raleigh 

Howard Branch Raleigh 

W. T. Martin Raleigh 

N. P. Maddux Asheville 

S. R. Horton Raleigh 

Carolina-Virginia Clinic Committee 

Paul E. Jones, Chairman Farmville 

E. N. Lawrence Raleigh 

H. K. Thompson Wilmington 

Harry Keel Winston-Salem 

212 lUilletin Xorfh Carolina Denial Soclei ij 

C. I. Miller Albemarle 

Alfred Seliultz Greenville 

J. E. L. Thomas Tarboro 

Committee on Entertainment of Visitors 

J. A. Sinclair Asheville 

J. H. Wheeler Greensboro 

J. M. Fleminji Kaleigh 

J. S. Simrgeon Hillsboro 

J. C. Watkins Winston-Salem 

H. E. Story Charlotte 

I'riii.iciTY Committee 

E. O. Alford. Chuirmaii Charlotte 

J. O. Broughton Wilmington 

H. L. Keith Wilmington 

L. J. Meredith Wilmington 

Guy Pigford Wilmington 

W. T. Smith Wilmington 

E. Weathersbee Wilmington 

Golf Committee 

C. A. Thomas. VhaiDnaii Wilmington 

J. O. Brovighton Wilmingtim 

James H. Smith Wilmington 

Entertainment Committee 

Junius C. Smith. Chairman Wilmington 

H. K. Thompson Wilmington 

B. R. Morrison Wilmington 

General Arrangements Committee 

H. L. Keith. Chairman Wilmingtcm 

B. li. Morrison Wilmington 

L. J. Meredith Wilmington 

Extension Course Committee 

E. B. Howie, Chairman Raleigh 

J. N. Johnson Goldsboro 

Dennis Keel Greensboro 

A. H. Fleming Louisburg 

T. r. Williamson Charlotte 

Committee on Relations of Physicians and Dentists 

J. M. Fleming, Chairman Raleigh 

J. S. Betts Greensboro 

E. B. Howie Raleigh 

F. L. Hunt Asheville 

W. M. Robey Charlotte 

Containing the Froceedings 213 

Superintendent of Clinic Committee 

Guy Pigford, Chairman Wilmington 

L. E. Buie Lemon Siirings 

L. J. Dupree Kinston 

W. F. Mustian Warrenton 

Dewey Bosemau Wilson 

James H. Smith Wilmiugt(m 


First District 

*A. D. Abei-uathy Granite Falls 

W. R. Aiken Asheville 

L. P. Baker Kings Momitain 

*0. C. Bai'ker Asheville 

*A. P. Beam Shelby 

*W. F. Bell Asheville 

*C. C. Bennett Asheville 

A. W. Bottoms Canton 

*W. W. Carpenter Hendersonville 

H. H. Carson Hendersouville 

W. E. Clarke Asheville 

*Dennis S. Cook Lenoir 

Dean H. Crawford Marion 

E. M. Cunningham Biltmore 

*A. C. Currant Gastonia 

J. E. Derby Try on 

B. A. Dickson Marion 

H. C. Dixon Shelby 

A. C. Edwards Laundale 

P. R. Falls Gastonia 

S. P. Gay Waynesville 

S. J. Hamilton Burnsville 

Carl Hardin Brevard 

C. Highsmith Gastonia 

Lyman J. Hooper Asheville 

J. Spencer Howell Morganton 

Ralph R. Howes Forest City 

F. L. Hunt Asheville 

H. A. Karesh Lincolnton 

*A. A. Lackey Fallston 

O. Preston Lewis Kings Mountain 

J. B. Little Hickory 

*R. A. Little Asheville 

*N. P. Maddux Asheville 

*L. H. Mann Asheville 

James A. Marshburn Black Mountain 

H. M. May Aslieville 

214 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

M. N. Medford Waynesville 

E. D. Moore Gastonia 

O. L. Moore Lenoir 

0. S. Moore Belmont 

*S. E. Moser Gastonia 

*Clias. y. McCall Forest City 

*D. I']. McCounell Gastonia 

C. H. MeCracken Aslaeville 

J. K. Osborne Slielby 

J. M. Parker Asheville 

Geo. K. Patterson Aslieville 

C. M. Peeler Shelby 

Cecil A. Pless Asheville 

Ralph Ray .• Gastonia 

W. C. Raymer Newton 

*J. F. Reece Lenoir 

*I. R. Self Lincolnton 

*J. A. Sinclair Asheville 

S. H. Steelmau Maiden 

C. W. Stevens Hickory 

Paul W. Troutman Hickory 

B. C. Thomasson Bryson City 

R. C. Weaver Asheville 

*C. T. Wells Canton 

J. Ij. West Franklin 

T. A. Wilkins Gastonia 

*P. W. Winchester Morgauton 

J. A. Young Newton 

*C. B. Yount Hickory 

Second District 

C. L. Alexander Charlotte 

*F. O. Alford Charlotte 

T. I. Allen Charlotte 

*Fred J. Anderson Winston-Salem 

*John L. Ashby Mount Airy 

J. E. Banner Mount Airy 

=^Carl A. Barkley Winston-Salem 

*J. R. Bell Davidson 

Grove C. Bernard Kaunapolis 

A. Mack Berryhill Charh)tte 

*J. P. Bingham Lexington 

*A. R. Black Charlotte 

Daniel B. Boger Charlotte 

1. A. Booe Mocksville 

*H. L. Brooks Monroe 

*A. S. Bumgardner , Charlotte 

J. D. Carlton Salisbury 

John W. Carlton Spencer 

G. K. Carter Taylorsville 

E. C. Choate Mocksville 

Containing the Proceedings 215 

E. G. Click Elkiii 

AV. J. Courad Winstou-Salem 

Yeruou H. Cox Wiustou-Salem 

R. W. Crews Thomasville 

W. L. Ci'ipliver Lexiiigtou 

*W. Clyde Current Statesville 

H. C. Daniel Salisbury 

S. C. Duncan Monroe 

*K. H. Ellington Salisbury 

W. L. Ezzell, Jr Concord 

P. L. Feezer Lexington 

Burke W. Fox Charlotte 

J. M. Gaitlier Boone 

*W. D. Gibbs Charlotte 

*J. H. Guiou Charlotte 

*E. S. Hamilton Charlotte 

E. B. Harrell Elkin 

*A. P. Hartman Winston-Salem 

*J. F. Hartness Mooresville 

*Frank K. Haynes Charlotte 

Gary Heeseman Charlotte 

H. R. Hege Mount Airy 

H. C. Henderson Charlotte 

*L. O. Herring Charlotte 

*0. R. Hodgin Thomasville 

*D. W. Holcombe Winston-Salem 

*J. M. Holland Statesville 

*R. H. Holliday Thomasville 

*P. E. Horton Winston-Salem 

H. H. Houck Pineville 

*Geo. C. Hull Charlotte 

*Wm. A. Ingram Monroe 

*Rali)h F. Jarrett Charlotte 

*F. G. Johnson Lexington 

*0. L. Joyner Kernersville 

*H. L. Keel Winston-Salem 

James L. Keerans Charlotte 

*V'. B. Kendrick Charlotte 

W. L. Kibler Charlotte 

J. W. Kirk Salisbury 

*A. R. Kistler Monroe 

*G. A. Lazenby Statesville 

Sam Levy Charlotte 

*W. C. Logan Winston-Salem 

J. G. Marler Yadkin ville 

*Guy M. Masten Winston-Salem 

*R. Phillip Melvin Winston-Salem 

F. C. Mendenhall Winston-Salem 

*Daniel B. Mizell Charlotte 

E. Brown Morgan Ccmcord 

T. Duke Morse Winston-Salem 

216 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

*D. O. Moutgomery Statesville 

*J. A. McCluug Wiuston-Salom 

J. M. Neel Salisbury 

*J. H. Nicholson Statesville 

Eva Carter Nissen Wiustou-Salem 

*C. M. Parks Winston-Salem 

li. M. Patterson Concord 

Kalph E. Petree Charlotte 

John li. Pharr Charlotte 

*A. J. Pringle Lawsonville 

R. L. Ramsay Salisbury 

*R. L. Reynolds Lexington 

*W. M. Robey Charlotte 

*Grady L. Ross Charlotte 

*Rali>h Schmucker Charlotte 

W. A. Secrest Winston-Salem 

*C. F. Smithson Charlotte 

*Wade A. Sowers Lexington 

*R. E. Six)on Winston-Salem 

*Harold^ E. Story Charlotte 

*L. E. Taylor Charlotte 

W. A. Taylor North Wilkesboro 

*W. C. Taylor Salisbury 

C. L. Thomas Mount Airy 

*Roy Lee Thompson Winston-Salem 

*L. P. Trivette Mooresville 

M. L. Troutman Kannapolis 

*R. D. Tuttle Winston-Salem 

C. U. Voils Mooresville 

V. V. Voils Mooresville 

*C. H. Wadsworth Concord 

D. T. Waller Charlotte 

*J. C. Watkins Winston-Salem 

*G. E. Waynick Winston-Salem 

B. H. Webster Charlotte 

*C. D. Wheeler Salisbury 

*T. P. Williamson Charlotte 

K. M. Yokely Winston-Salem 

J. W. Zimmerman Salisbury 

Third District 

A. D. Adams Durham 

P. Y. Adams High Point 

*J. S. Betts Greensboro 

*R. W. Brannock Burlington 

*Daniel T. Carr Durham 

*Henry C. Carr Durham 

*R. R. Clarke Chapel Hill 

*W. F. Clayton High Point 

*L. G. Coble Greensltoro 

J. Cecil Crank Greensboro 

Containing fJio Proceedings 217 

*A. ^y. Craver Gireiisboro 

*Lel;m(l M. Daniels Southern Pines 

*H. A. Edwards Greensboro 

*L. M. Edwards Durham 

*K()seo M. Farrell Pittsboro 

*W. I. Farrell Troy 

*L. M. Foushee, Jr Burlin,i;ton 

E. A. Frazier High Point 

*J. S. Frost Burlington 

H. Kemp Foster Greensboro 

*.T. M. Gardner Gibson 

F. E. Gilliam Burlington 

*C. A. Graliam Ramseur 

*J. J. Hamlin High Point 

John N. Hester Reidsville 

*K. H. Holden Durham 

*N. T. Holland Durham 

*Jack H. Hughes Roxboro 

*J. H. Hurdle Mebane 

J. E. Holt Greensboro 

A. H. Johnson Greensboro 

*J. P. Jones Chapel Hill 

*Dennis F. Keel Greensboro 

G. E. Kirkman Greensboro 

C. D. Kistler Randleman 

*J. T. Lasley Greensboro 

Charles T. Lipscombe Greensboro 

*D. K. Lockhart Durham 

*R. E. Long Roxboro 

*J..R. Meador Reidsville 

*E. M. Medlin Aberdeen 

'•■Charles Ivy Miller Albemarle 

*J. S. Moore Reidsville 

H. y. Murray Burlington 

Charles W. McAnally Madison 

*S. H. McCall Troy 

*E. P. McCutoheon Durham 

*A. A. McDuffie Candor 

*Gates McKaughan Kernersville 

* William Roy McKaughan High Point 

=-'R. T. Nichols Rockingham 

*Carl P. Norris Durham 

*L. G. Page Yanceyville 

-H. M. Patterson, .'Jrd Burlington 

*Charles C. Poindexter (Jreensboro 

*E. F. Pope Albemarle 

*0. L. Presnell Asheboro 

*A. P. Reade Durham 

*E. E. Richardson Leaksvillo 

*J. B. Richardson High Point 

G. R. Salisbury Asheboro 

218 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Societrj 

J. C. Seuter Albemarle 

*E. W. Sliackleford Durham 

*S. W. Shaffer Greensboro 

*B. B. Shamberger Star 

*N. Sheffield Greensboro 

*R. P. Shepard Southern Pines 

*T. Edgar Sikes Greensboro 

*H. A. Smathers Greensboro 

*L. T. Smith Reidsville 

*J. S. Spurgeon Hillsboro 

*John Swaim Asheboro 

*C. H. Teague Greensboro 

*Herndon W. Thompson Hamlet 

E. A. Troxler Greensboro 

E. J. Tucker Roxboro 

J. I. Uuder\yood Durham 

J. S. Wells Reidsville 

Chas. M. Wheeler Greensboro 

*J. H. Wheeler Greensboro 

*P. B. Whittington Greensboro 

*R. A. Wilkins Burlington 

*B. W. Williamson Hamlet 

*J. F. Williamson Wadesboro 

*W. L. Woodard Sanatorium 

*G. N. Yates Durham 

*L. H. Zimmerman High Point 

*T. R. Zimmerman High Point 

Fourth District 
*C. E. Abernathy Raleigh 

R. T. Allen Lumberton 

*B. L. Aycock Princeton 

*C. D. Bain Dunn 

*A. D. Barber Sanford 

J. B. Bardin Chadbourn 

*Victor E. Bell Raleigh 

*S. L. Bobbitt Raleigh 

*E. A. Branch Raleigh 

*W. Howard Branch Raleigh 

*J. W. Branham Raleigh 

E. H, Broughton Raleigh 

*C. H. Bryan Apex 

*J. K. Bryan Oxford 

*J. R. Butler Dunn 

*L. E. Buie Lemon Springs 

W. E. Campbell Littleton 

N. G. Carroll Raleigh 

*H. R. Chamblee Raleigh 

*R. D. Clements Raleigh 

*J. F. Coletrane Zebulon 

*A. S. Cromartie Fayetteville 

Containing the Proceedings 219 

H. R. Cromartie Raeford 

R. C. Daniels Soutliport 

*I. H. Davis Oxford 

*J. R. Edwards Fuquay Springs 

Paisley Fields Boardmau 

*S. J. Finch Oxford 

*A. H. Fleming Louisburg 

*J. M. Fleming Raleigh 

C. G. I\iquay Coats 

*L. G. Hair Fayetteville 

*G. Fred Hale Raleigh 

*C. C. Hatch Sanford 

*G. L. Hooper Erwin 

*S. R. Horton Raleigh 

*E. B. Ho\yle Raleigh 

*I. H. Hoyle Henderson 

*E. W. Hunter Sanford 

*J. K. Hunt Jonesboro 

J. H. Ihrie Wendell 

*Wilbert Jackson Clinton 

*J. A. Jernigan Dunn 

*J. C. Johnson Raleigh 

*K. L. Johnson Raleigh 

*J. H. Judd Fayetteville 

*E. N. Lawrence Raleigh 

E. G. Lee Clinton 

*H.' O. Liueberger Raleigh 

*W. T. Martin: Raleigh 

L. M. Massey Zebulon 

*L. J. Moore St. Pauls 

*W. F. Mustian Warrentou 

*F. W. McCracken Sanford 

*H. McK. McDiarmid Raeford 

*S. R. McKay Lillington 

*W. L. McRae Red Springs 

*R. M. Olive Fayetteville 

W. J. Payne Clayton 

*D. L. Pridgen Fayetteville 

*W. W. Rankin Raleigh 

*C. W. Sanders Benson 

*E. L. Smith Raleigh 

D. T. Smithwick Louisburg 

*R. M. Squires Wake Forest 

*R. W. Stephens Apex 

*J. E. Swindell Raleigh 

W. W. Taylor Warrentou 

*M. F. Townsend Lumberton 

*R. A. Turlington Clinton 

A. D. Underwood Raleigh 

F. H. Underwood Carthage 

*S. R. Watson Henderson 

220 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

*J. W. Whitehead Smithtield 

*A. L. Wooten Raleigh 

*W. F. Yates Chadbouru 

*T. L. Young Raleigh 

* Jessie R. Zaehary Raleigh 

Fifth District 

*A'ernon M. Barnes Wilson 

*0. J. Bender Jacksonville 

*A. B. Bland Walhice 

*A. C. Bone Rocky Mount 

*Dewey Bosemau Wilson 

*J. O. Broughton Wilmington 

*J. W. Brown Rich S(iuare 

*L. H. Butler Hertford 

F. G. Chamblee Spring Hope 

*H. W. Civils New Bern 

F. H. Coleman Wilmington 

P. B. Cone Williamston 

Geo. Dennis Wallace 

*J. H. Dreher Wilmington 

*D. W. Dudley Kinston 

*J. F. Duke Washington 

*L. J. Dupree Kinston 

*A. C. Early Aulander 

J. R. Edmundson Wilson 

*Z. L. Edwards Washington 

*Paul Fitzgerald Greenville 

C. H. Geddie Goldsboro 

*E. C. Grady Elm City 

S. W. Gregory Elizabeth City 

W. S. Griffin Edenton 

*W. L. Hand New Bern 

M. M. Harris Elizabeth City 

*W. I. Hart Edenton 

*Oscar Hooks Wilson 

*R. F. Hunt Rocky Mount 

*A. T. Jeannette Washington 

B. McK. Johnson Wilmington 

C. B. Johnson New Bern 

J. N. Johnson Goldsboro 

*Paul E. Jones Farmville 

*H. L. Keith Wilmington 

*J. M. Kilpatrick Robersonville 

A. C. Liverman Scotland Neck 

*S. E. Malone Goldsboro 

M. B. Massey Greenville 

AV. C. Mercer Ahoskie 

*L. J. Meredith Wilmington 

*C. E. Minges Rocky Mount 

Containing the Proceedings 221 

B. R. Morrison Wilmingtou 

*M. T. McMillau Goldsboro 

*H. E, Nixon Elizabeth City 

*J. H. Oldliam Wilmington 

*G. L. Overman Goldsboro 

William Parker Elizabeth City 

*Z. Y. Parker New Bern 

Guy E. Pigford Wilmington 

*J. G. Poole Kinston 

S. D. Poole Goldsboro 

*C. G. Powell Ahoskie 

*W. T. Ralph Belhaven 

*C. R. Riddick Ayden 

* James H. iSmith Wilmington 

* Junius C. Smith Wilmington 

*M. R. Smith Harrellsville 

*W. T. Smith Wilmington 

*T. W. Smithsou Rocky Mount 

*A. M. Schultz Greenville 

*Herbert Spear Kinston 

J. W. Stanley Wilmington 

E. W. Tatum Mount Olive 

*C. A. Thomas Wilmingtou 

*J. E. L. Thomas Tarboro 

*H. K. Thompson Wilmington 

R. L. Tomlinsou Wilson 

*J. V. Turner Wilson 

*R. Weathersbee Wilmington 

W. J. Ward Weldon 

W. M. Ward Roanoke Rapids 

E. R. Warren Goldsboro 

J. Frank West Roanoke Rapids 

J. H. White Elizabeth City 

*A. P. Whitehead Rocky Mount 

*R. E. Williams, 5th Goldsboro 

*0. L. Wilson Kinston 

J. H. Yelverton Wilson 

W. 1). Young Snow Hill 

The above list corrected to July 25, lOoo. 

* Indicates members attending Chapel Hill meeting. 

Total registration Chapel Hill meethig including visitors, o76. 


B'uUetin Norih Carolina Denial Society 


1875-76 *B. F. Ai-riugton 

1876-77 *V. E. Turner 

1877-78 *J. W. Hunter 

1878-79 *E. L. Hunter 

1879-80 *D. E. Everett 

1880-81 *Isaiali Simpson 

1881-82 *M. A. Bland 

1882-83 *J. F. Griffith 

1883-84 *W. H. Hoffman 

1884-85 *J. H. Durliam 

1885-86 J. E. Matthews 

1880-87 *B. H. Douglas 

1887-88 *T. M. Hunter 

1888-89 *V. E. Turner 

1889-90 *S. P. Hilliard 

1890-91 H. C. Herring 

1891-92 C. L. Alexander 

1892-93 *F. S. Harris 

1893-94 *C. A. Rominger 

1894-95 *H. D. Harper 

1895-96 *R. H. Jones 

1896-97 J. E. Wyche 

1897-98 *H. V. Horton 

1898-99 C. W. Banner 

1899-1900 A. C. Liverman 

1900-01 E. J. Tucker 

1901-02 J. S. Spurgeon 

1902-03 *J. H. Benton 

1903-04 J. M. Fleming 

1904-05 *W. B. Ramsey 

1905-06 J. S.. Betts 

1906-07 J. R. o'sborne 

1907-08 *D. L. James 

1908-09 F. L. Hunt 

1909-10 J. C. Watkins 

1910-11 A. H. Fleming 

1911-12 P. E. Horton 

1912-13 *R. G. Sherrill 

1913-14 C. F. Smithson 

1914-15 J. A. Sinclair 

1915-16 1. H. Davis 

1916-17 *R. O. Apple 

1917-18 R. M. S(iuires 

1918-19 J. N. Johnson 

1919-20 W. T. Martin 

1920-21 J. H. Judd 

1921-22 W. M. Robey 

1922-23 S. R. Horton 

1923-24 *R. M. Morrow 

1924-25 J. A. McClung 

1925-26 H. O. Lineberger 

1926-27 B. F. Hall 

1927-28 E. B. Howie 

1928-29 1. R. Self 

1929-30 J. H. Wheeler 

1930-31 Paul Jones 

1931-32 Dennis Keel 

1932-33 Wilbert Jackson 

3933-34 Ernest A. Branch 



Adair, R. B Atlanta. Ga. 

Austin, J. L Chattanooga. Tenn. 

Beadles, E. P Norfolk. Ya. 

Bear, Harry Richmond. Ya. 

Bland, C. A Charlotte. N. C. 

Bogle, R. B Nashville, Tenn. 

Byrnes, R. R Atlanta Southern Dental College, Atlanta, Ga. 

Callahan, P. E McRae, Ga. 

Carroll, Delia Dixon Raleigh, N. C. 

Cason, W. L Athens, Ga. 

Collins, Clara C Atlanta, Ga. 

Cooi>er, George M Raleigh, N. C. 

Containing the Proceedings 223 

Cowerdeii, L. M Hot Spriugs, Va. 

Cuthbertson, C. W Washington, D. C. 

Dale, J. A Nashville, Tenu. 

Eby, Joseph D .54 East 62ncl St., New York, N.Y. 

Foster, S. W Atlanta Southern Dental College, Atlanta, Ga. 

Goldberg, E. H Beiinettsville, S.C. 

Gorman, J. A Ne^Y Orleans, La. 

Hardin, W. R U. S. P. H., Atlanta, Ga. 

Harrison, G. R Richmond, Va. 

Hartzell, Thomas B 716 Donaldson Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Heatwole, T. O Baltimore, Md. 

Hill, Thomas J Cleveland, Ohio 

Howard, Clinton C Atlanta, Ga. 

Howe, Percy R Boston, Mass. 

Huff, M. D Candler Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. 

Hughes, C. N Grant Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. 

Johnson, H. H Macon, Ga. 

Kelsey, H. L Baltimore, Md. 

King, Otto U 5 N. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Lambert, W. E Atlanta, Ga. 

Maves, T. W 501 Donaldson Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Malone, R. W U. S. Navy 

Milner, H. A Aiken, S. C. 

Moore, S. W Baltimore, Md. 

Neil, Ewell Doctor's Bldg., Nashville, Tenn. 

Netherlands, Frank Asheville, N. C. 

Nodine, Alonzo M London 

Price, Weston A 8926 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohi(( 

Quattlebaum, E. G Columbia, S. C. 

Rickert, U. Garfield Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Ruhl, J. P New York, N. Y. 

Russell, A. Y University of Maryland, Baltimore, Md. 

Rutledge, B Florence, S. C. 

Sheffield, L. Laugdon Toledo, Ohio 

Silverman, S. L Fourth Natl Bank Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. 

Simpson, R. L Richmond, Va. 

Summerman, D. H Philadelphia, Pa. 

Smith. A. E Chicago, 111. 

Spratley, W. W Richmond, Va. 

Star, E. L Philadelphia, Pa. 

Stevenson, Albert H 376 5th Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Stewart, H. T New York, N. Y. 

Stone, A. E Philadelphia, Pa. 

Strickland, A. C Anderson, S. C. 

Tench, R. W New York, N. Y. 

Thompson, Webb Spartanburg, S. C. 

Tileson, H. B Louisville, Ky. 

Turner, C. R University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Visanska, S. A Atlanta. Ga. 

224 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Whitaker, J. D Indianapolis, Ind. 

Wliite, J. A Williamstou, N. C. 

Wooding, C. E Winston-KSalem, N. C. 

Wriglit, John B Raleigh, N. C. 


First Distkict 

F. L. Hunt AsheviUe 

J. B. Little Hickory 

D. E. McConnell Gastonia 

J. R. Osborne Shelby 

J. M. Parker AsheviUe 

Second District 

C. L. Alexander Charlotte 

J. E. Banner Mount Airy 

J. D. Carlton Salisbury 

J. W. Carlton Spencer 

E. G. Click Elkin 

W. J. Conrad AVinston-Salem 

H. C. Daniel Salisbury 

H. C. Henderson Charlotte 

P. E. Horton Winston-Salem 

J. G. Marler Yadkinville 

R. L. Ramsey Salisbury 

W. M. Robey Charlotte 

C. F. Smithson Charlotte 

J. C. Watkins Winston-Salem 

Third District 

J. S. Betts Greensboro 

W. F. Clayton High Point 

N. T. Holland Durham 

C. T. Lipscombe Greensboro 

D. K. Lockhart Durham 

R. T. Nichols Rockingham 

C. P. Norris Durham 

E. E. Richardson Leaksville 

L. T. Smith Reidsville 

J. S. Spurgeon Hillsboro 

E. J. Tucker Roxboro 

J. H. Wheeler Greensboro 

Fourth Distriit 

R. T. Allen Lumberton 

N. G. Carroll Raleigh 

A. S. Cromartie Fayetteville 

I. H. Davis Oxford 

Containing the Proceedings 225 

J. M. Flemiug Raleigh 

A. H. Fleming Louisburg 

J. H. Judd Fayetteville 

F. W. McCrackeu Sauford 

G. B. Patterson Fayetteville 

R. M. Squires Wake Forest 

R. W. Stephens Ai^ex 

Fifth District 

O. J. Bender Jacksonville 

J. H. Dreher Wilmington 

J. R. Edmuudson Wilson 

Oscar Hooks Wilson 

J. X. Johnson Goldsboro 

S. E. Malone Goldsboro 

W. T. Smith Wilmington 

J. W. Stanley Wilmington 

J. H. Wliite Elizabeth City 

J. H. Yelverton Wilson 


L. V. Henderson Virginia 

W. F. Maderis Charlotte 

H. Kemp Foster, U. S. Government Hospital Macon, Ga. 

P. L. Pearson Apex 

J. S. Hoffman •. Charlotte 


H. L. Allen Henderson, N. C. 

V. A. Black Charlotte, N. C. 

R. T. Byerly Cooleemee, N. C. 

C. D. Eatman Bailey, N. C. 

E. L. Eatman Bailey, N. C. 

W. M. Fowler 3316 Peachtree Road, Atlanta, Ga. 

W. R. Hiuton, Jr Greensboro, N. C. 

R. N. Hunt Lexington, N. C. 

J. D. Kiser Charlotte, N. C. 

E. B. Mackie Granite Falls, N. C. 

S. C. Marks Acme, N. C. 

W. M. Mathcson Mount Gilead, N. C. 

W. T. Oliver Chatham. Va. 

G. W. Price Whitakers. N. C. 

J. P. Reeco Lenoir. N. C. 

A. M. Telfer 415 Linwood Ave.. Rldgewood. N. J. 

W .J. TurbyfiU Asheville, N. C. 

H. E. Weeks Tarboro, N. C. 

G. W. Yokeley Winston-Salem. N. C. 



Vol. XVII OCTOBEE, 1933 No. 2 

Entertcl as Second-class matter as a quarterly September 2G, 1931, at the 
postofRce, Raleigh, N. C, under Act of Augrust 24, 1912 

Subscription per year $1.00 


DR. E. A. BRAXCH, President Raleigh 

DR. L. il. EDWARDS, President-Elect Durham 

DR. J. P. JONES, Vice-President Chapel Hill 

DR. D. L. PRIDGEN, Secretary-Treasurer Fayetteville 

DR. G. FRED HALE Raleigh 


DR. Z. L. EDWARDS. Chairman (1934) Washington 

DR. R. M. OLIVE (1935) Fayetteville 

DR. XEAL SHEFFIELD (1936) Greensboro 


You will find in this Bulletin an invitation to attend a course 
of lectures and demonstrations on ''Study of Cancer" at Wake 
Eorest College on December 1st and 2nd. This courtesy to the 
dental profession comes from the Committee on Cancer of the 
North Carolina Medical Society through the good office of Dr. 
C. C. Carpenter, head of the Department of Pathology of Wake 
Forest College. 

These lectures and demonstrations are to be given by physicians 
and surgeons eminent in the field of cancer research, study and 
practice. Among them are Dr. Joseph C. Bloodgood of Baltimore, 
Dr. Hubert A. Royster, of Raleigh, Dr. J. S. Horsley of Rich- 
mond, Dr. J. W. Cox of the American Society for the Control of 
Cancer, Dr. J. P. Rousseau of Winston-Salem, Dr. I. M. Procter 
of Raleigh. 

The incidence of cancer is on the increase and the oral cavity 
shares its burden of frequency. It is hoped that the dental pro- 
fession in North Carolina will avail themselves of this unusual 
opportunity to become better informed about cancer. 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

The dental profession of Nortli Carolina greatly a})i)reeiates the 
Avork that Dr. Carpenter has been doing in the field of Pathology, 
and especially the interest that he has taken in pathology of the 

Mark off December 1st and 2nd in your appointment book and 
plan to attend the Conference on Cancer at Wake Forest College. 
Cancer of the mouth is not uncommon. We must better equip 
ourseh'es to recognize its presence in its early stage and save 
hundreds of lives that are needlessly sacrificed because oui- knowl- 
edge is incomplete. 


Does the dental profession fully comprehend the magnitude of 
its task? If so, is the quality of the service rendered consistent 
Avith the knowledge we profess to have? 

As important as the restoration of a part to normal function is, 
do we properly evaluate that service in the prevention of disease'^ 

Do we and our patients look upon the oral cavity as a biological 
and physiological part of a biological and physiological whole, 
subject to the same laws of groAvth, development and disease as 
the whole? 

Can we visualize the result of the patient's neglect and our own 
indifferent service? 

Do Ave know as much about pathology as Ave do about amalgam? 

What is your concept of dental service ? 

Will you take notice of the advertisers appearing in this issue, 
most of Avhom have consistently contributed to defraying the ex- 
penses of this periodical.. Your attention is directed to them for 
Avhatever consideration you may feel justified in giving. 




The Committee oa Cancer of the North Carolina Medical Society in- 
vites you to attend a two-day for the study of cancer, to be 
held at Wake Forest College, School of Medicine, on December 1st and 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

I'lul, lS)oo. Three sessions will be held daily, from l():(Mt to 12:00 in the l* :00 to 4:00 in the afternoon, and S :00 to 10:00 in the evenin,ti. 

The clinic will be conducted by Dr. Joseph C. Blood^ood of the Johns 
Hopkins Hospital and Medical School. In addition tu Dr. Bloodgood, 
Dr. J. S. Horsley of Richmond. Dr. Hubert A. Koyster of Raleigh. Dr. 
J. P. Rousseau of Winston-Salem. Dr. J. W. Cox of the American Asso- 
ciation of Cancer Control and Dr. Ivan M. Procter of Raleigh will ap- 
pear on the program. 

You are invited to bring to the clinic any case that would be of 
interest, and any that you would like to have help in diagnosis or treat- 
ment. Do not hesitate to bring the case even if the patient cannot 
appear, or, if you do not feel it advisable for the patient to be present. 
You will be asked t<» present the case, after which it will be considered 
by a diagnostic committee composed of a surgeon, internist, radiologist 
and pathologist. The diagnostic committee will then present it to the 
oijen meeting and to Dr. Bloodgood for opinions. You should bring 
microscopic slides. X-ray pictures or lantern slides of the cases. Special 
consideration will be given the diagnosis of border line cases, with 
special reference to transillumination of the breast. Dr. Bloodgood will 
bring with him lantern slides and clinical records of a sufticient number 
of cases to keep us busy even if no cases are brought by the individual 
physicians. Hence, we will not lack sutficient material. 

Another feature of the meeting will be a display of the exhibit used 
by the American Society for the Control of Cancer at the Chicago World 
Fair. This exhiltit includes thirty to forty wax models with complete 
clinical records of each case ; lantern slides and films, illustrating 
diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. The Committee on Cancer feels 
unusually fortunate in securing this exhibit since many other states 
made an attempt to secure it. North Carolina was placed first on the 
list and it is to come here directly from Chicago. 

The committee will make all arrangements for your comfort while 
attending the meeting if you will only give us a cliance. Meals will 
not cost over tifty cents and a room for the night may be secured for 
you that will not cost over one dollar. Instead of having to .go to some 
distant city at a much greater cost, you can attend this meeting at a 
minimum cost and without a great loss of time. 

Very truly yours. 

C. C. Carpenter, M.D.. 
For the Committee on Caiieer. 


Study of Cancer 

Wake Fori'st College. Scliool of Medicine 

Friday. December 1, VXiS 

10:00 a.m. Lecture and Lantern Slide Demonstration — Dr. Joseph C. 
Bloodgood. Baltimore. Md. 
2:00 p.m. Lecture ;ind Lantern Slide Demonstr.ition — Dr. Bloodgood. 

Special Discussion ot Malignancy of the Oral Cavity. 
.S:(M( p.m. Lecture and Lantern Slide Demonstration. 

Tumor of the Breast— Dr. H. A. Royster. Raleigh, N. C. 
ilalignaiicy of the Stomach — Dr. J. S. Horsley, Richmond. 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

Saturday, Decemhek -!. ID.'to 

l(>:0(t a. 111. Lecture and Lantern Slide Demonstration — I»r. Blood.s^ood. 
Lecture and Demonstration of Transillumination of the 
Breast — Dr. J. W. Cox, American Society for the Con- 
trol of Cancer. 
2:0!» i).m. Lecture and Lantern Slide Demonstration. 

X-ray Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignancy — Dr. J. P. 

liousseau. Winston-Salem, N. C. 
Use of Radium in Malignancy — Dr. I. M. Procter, lialeigh. 
N. C. 
8:<K>i>.m. Special Lecture and Lantern Slide Demonstration — Dr. 


Those of you who haA^e been keeping up with the deliberations 
of the American Dental Association will recall that for the last 
few meetings, the feasibility of a survey of mouth health condi- 
tions of the school children of the United States has been discussed. 
At the recent meeting in Chicago it was definitely decided to put 
on this survey in every state in the Union, and that it be done 
by the practicing dentists in their own localities and neighbor- 

We have been saying for a long time that eighty-five per cent 
of the school children needed dental attention and we believe we 
were right but we would like to know what the condition is today. 
Some of the other states who do not have as reliable information 
as we have would like to know their condition also. This Avill 
afford them an opportunity to know and it Avill give us more 
reliable information about our own condition and at the same 
time we can find out as to the conditions in other parts of the 
country. Erom this survey we will be able to tell just how badly 
neglected six-year molars really are. This is just one instance of 
the mouth condition that will be revealed. There will be many 

If you are really interested in the future welfare of our citizen- 
ship and of dentistry, I know of no better way in Avhich you can 
render service to both than in cooperating with this movement. 
District directors have been appointed who will direct the survey 
in their respective districts. Dr. C. C. Bennett in the First Dis- 
trict ; Dr. Ralph Jarrett, in the Second District ; Dr. jSTeal Sheffield 
in the Third District ; Dr. H. O. Lineberger in the Fouth District ; 
and Dr. Z. L. Edwards in the Eifth District. County directors are 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 7 

being appointed as rapidly as possible and will be notified of tlieir 
appointment right away. Each of jou will be asked to give tAvo 
day's time in the schools of your county. These will be assigned 
you in conference with your county director. This Avork will be 
done on Tuesday and Thursday of the same Aveek all OA^er the 
State. In this AA^ay, you aa^II be out of your office only tAvo days 
and the same tAA'o days aa^II be used by eA'eryone else and the 
AA'hole job AA'ill be completed and over in the tAvo days' time, 
instead of draAving it out over a long period. Blanks for the 
examinations AA'ill be furnished. This Avill be a ''labor of love" on 
the part of the dentists, and Avithout remuneration. 

Reports from different sections of the country indicate that there 
is a hearty response and enthusiasm on the part of the dentists and 
I am sure those of us in North Carolina Avill enter into it just as 
willingly and enthusiastically as those in other parts of the country. 

E. A. Branch, 
Director Division of Dentistry. State Board of Health. 


SomeAvhcre I recently read the statement that there is no or- 
ganization functioning on the Worth American continent Avhicli 
has not had a membership loss in the trying years behind us. I 
am happy, however, to be able to refute this assertion. In spite of 
the depression and other obstacles through Avhich Ave have passed, 
there has been an increase of membership in the jSTorth Carolina 
Dental Society; and it Avas a source of a great deal of satisfaction 
Avhen I recently received a letter from the A. D. A. congratulating 
the Society upon this feat. 

But AA'hy should this be the case, Avhen the opposite, by all 
reasoning, might have been expected ? As I consider this question, 
there are many things suggested as contributing factors. Foremost 
among these, hoAvever, is district organization and efficiency. 

I attended every district meeting last year, and their programs 
Avere unusually good, and Avell attended. Some of them Avould have 
done credit as a State Society program. This, of course, did not 
just happen. But it was as the result of much thought and woi'k 
on the part of the district officers and committees. Too often, 
their labors are unnoticed and unsung, yet they are the very back- 
bone of the N^orth C^arolina Dental Society. They cannot be 
]n'aised too highly for the unselfish service Avhich they render. 

8 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

But what about the iudividual nieiubcrs throughout the State? 
It is true that there is almost no member of the Society Avho, 
if he made a sincere personal effort, could not bring one desirable 
member into the Society. It is the old question of personal re- 

As we enter into another year, I feel that we can do so with 
optimism. Never has there been such a day of organization. 
Under the I^. R. A. every important (and some not so imi)ortant) 
line of endeavor in the nation has become organized. And at this 
time when there exists so many problems vitally affecting the 
future of our profession, it behooves us to keep up our morale, 
recruit to war-strength, and maintain the highest possible mem- 
bership. Let us all pull together and duplicate this increase for 
another year. 

D. L. Pbidgen, ISecrefary-Treainircr. 

Xorth Carolina Dental Socicii/. 

Washin.u'toii, D. V.. October I'l. 1933. 

To E-nviitirc Officers. TrKshcx. Committer on Lcyisldtioii 

and Corrcldti'iii. (iiid Others: 
My deak I locTOKs : 

The developments in eoiuieetion with the Dental Laboratory Code 
have been so rapid and eontiie-tins that it has been practically impos- 
sible to keep up with all the changes, but we respectfully submit the 
following in order that you may be promptly advised that the hearing 
closed last miihiight. 

<Jn the loth. Dr. ISrownson and ( thers fr<pm ("alifornia wired reijut'st- 
ing that 1 telegraph the State t-^ociety ottieers, asking them to wire 
(ieneral Johnson for a forty-tive day postponement. From teleplione 
and wire information. 1 realized telegrams of this nature had been sent 
to all the >>tate Societies Secretaries. Very soon thereafter Dr. Cole 
phoned that the hearing was scheduled for the L'Oth. eontirming my 
information, and urged that I arrive in Washington on the ITth if 
possible, and arrangements were made accordingly. In this phone con- 
versation he advised of the receipt of a wire from the California group, 
but it was agi-eed that we should postpone making a specitic request 
until after a conference which was called for Tuesday night. 

This cpiestion was so serious that I advised President AVherry of con- 
ditions and he made a wire in(piiring if I thought it wcmld I»e advisaltle 
for liim to come to Washington. I promptly wired, "Your presence 
will be most helpful. When will you reach Washington V Further 
telegrams passed between us as well as between he and Dr. Camalii-r. 
and he reached Wa.shington by plane in time to attend the conference 
Tuesday night. I also wired Dr. Pruden to join us, and cnly regret that 
distance made it impractical for Dr. Brownson to come. The following 
were present: President AVherry. ^'ice-President Harvey. Drs. Cole. 
Pruden. Robinson, P>rown, Camalier, Messner, Wyman, lOrickson, and 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

Simkius, President. Vice-President, and Secretary of the District of 
Columbia Dental Society. We thoroughly canvassed the entire situation 
and about midnight a telegram was formulated and sent to the secre- 
taries of all the State Societies. The response was very prompt and 
general ; for instance, a Secretary of one of the Deputy Administrators 
told me at the preliminary hearing on Thursday that they had received 
telegrams frt)m forty-six states, and. in many instances, a great number 
were received from each, and we all appreciate this cooperation. The 
overwhelming appeals which had reached all of us were to oppose the 
Laboratory Code in its entirety, and our plan as developed Tuesday 
night was in support of this procedure. However, after we came in 
closer contact with the problem, it was generally recognized that a code 
would probably be adopted. It also became evident that the proposed 
code could not be withdrawn, neither was there any possibility of 
securing a postponement as had been suggested, but rather that we were 
face to face with an immediate serious problem. However, our program 
Tuesday night was developed as being opposed to a Code, but we insisted 
that certain provisions of the proposed code be drastically modified in 
the event that the N. R. A. overruled our position. 

On Wednesday we contacted several of the officials and our reaction 
was that they considered the dental laboratory an industry and subject 
to codal regulations. We were fortunate in conferring with Colonel 
Lea, Assistant Administrator to General Johnson, and ^lajor Paddock 
late Wednesday afternoon, as this gave us a better insight into the 
attitude of the administration. Both Majors Paddock and Dickinson 
were present at the preliminary hearing which lasted all day Thursday, 
and the final hearing which commenced at 10 :00 o'clock yesterday and 
closed at midnight. There were many and varied arguments presented, 
and every member of our group commented on the fair and etficient 
manner shown by the officials during both the preliminary and final 
hearings. Labor had several representatives present and made some 
unreasonable and impossible demands. In view of the activities of 
Dr. Brownson and Dr. Palmer, and their associates, we sent them night 
letters, and I incorporate the wording of one of these, inasmuch as it 
was agreed upon by several of us following the closing of the case last 

"Hearing completed. Case closed at midnight. Decision will not be 
reached for probably two weeks. Have been unable to report earlier 
as the critical situation changed hourly. Large labor representation 
injected unreasonable and impossible demands. Our protests against 
code favorably received but unanimous opinion of group is that a code 
is inevitable due to administrative policy. After a week of intense 
strife we are confident that profession will not suffer materially. Presi- 
dent Wherry's presence was a dominant factor in results. Thanks fov 
your cooperation."' 

The two most controversial questions at the close of the hearing 
related tf> the pay and hours of the technicians and administration of 
Code. I feel justified in saying that provision will be made for at least 
a skeleton service uji to noon on Saturdays, and that nothing will b3 
contained in the Code that will in any way interfere with private 
practice, or a dentist's technicians. Tlie question of the one man 
laboratory was a serious problem, but I think this will be amply safe- 
guarded. Drs. Wherry, Camalier, Cole, and Brown spoke at the hearing. 
I wish that every member of the dental profession could have heard 
the appealing and forceful presentation by Dr. Wherry. It was a master- 
piece and most favorably received. 

10 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

The foregoing should present the strongest possible argument for 
stimulating a concerted campaign for increasing our membership. 
Respectfully submitted. 

Homer C. Brown, Chairman, 
Committee on Legislation and Correlation, 
American Dental Association. 


Died at his home in Myers Park, Charlotte, N. C, October 13, 
1933, in his seventy-second year, from an illness of several months 

Dr. Alexander was born in Mecklenburg County, February 12, 
1861, the son of Dr. xlnzi and Martha Wilson Alexander. His 
father before him was a dentist. 

He received his D.D.S. degree from the Baltimore College of 
Dental Surgery and soon afterwards established an office in Char- 
lotte, where he continued to practice until a few^ months before his 

Dr. Alexander was a natural born dentist, having inherited some 
of this ability from his father, who was outstanding in the pro- 
fession in his time. He has many inventions and methods, which 
are used throughout the world today. Among these are the hood 
crown and the inlay. 

He was President of the N"orth Carolina Dental Society 1891- 
92 ; President of the Southern Dental Association ; Vice-President 
of the American Dental Association; and a Fellow of American 
College of Dentists. 

He was twice married, first to Miss Sue Odom. To this union 
two children were born, Mrs. Floyd Simmons and Mr. Odom 
Alexander, both of Charlotte. His second marriage was to Mrs. 
Evelyn Burwell Tyson, widow of the late Thomas B. Tyson, of 
Carthage, N. C, who survives him. 

His remains Avere interred in Charlotte, October 15, 1933. 

F. O. Alfokd. 


Dr. John IST. Hester of Reidsville and Miss Sue Howard Proffitt 
of Roanoke, Va., on October 21, 1933. Dr. Hester is the son of 
the late Dr. J. N. Hester of Reidsville. 

Dr. W. Howard Branch of Raleigh and Miss Lois Watts Saun- 
ders of Bedford, Va., on August 24, 1933. 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 11 



First District 

President, Dr. Cary T. Wells, Canton, ^T. C. 

Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. Clias. S. McCall, Forest City, N. C. 

Second District 

President, Dr. J. L. Ashby, Mt. Airy, IsT. C. 

Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. F. O. Alford, Charlotte, E". C. 

Third District 

President, Dr. JSTeal Sheffield, Greensboro, N". C. 

Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. J. T. Lasley, Greensboro, IST. C. 

Fourth District 

President, Dr. S. L. Bobbitt, Raleigh, N". C. 

Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. G. L. Hooper, Erwin, IST. C. 

Fifth District 

President, Dr. J. E. L. Thomas, Tarboro, IST. C. 

Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, Greenville, IST. C. 


First District 
At Asheville, l^ovember 8th and 9th. 

Second District 
At Charlotte, October 23rd and 24th. 

Third District 
At King Cotton Hotel, Greensboro, November 13th and lltli. 

Fourth District 
At Carolina Hotel, Raleigh, December 4th and 5th. 

Fifth District 
At Cape Fear Hotel, Wilmington, November 6th. 

12 'The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 




Using lauteni slides and a blacliboard for his illustrations, Dr. Boyd 
Gardner, internationally known dentist, this morning addressed the 
members of the Second District Dental Society of North Carolina in 
convention here as the main feature of the full day's program. 

Dr. Gardner is head of the Mayo clinic. Rochester. Minn., and is past 
president of the American Association of Oral Surgeons. He holds the 
rank of lieutenant commander in the United States Nav.y. He is well 
known throughout the world in the dental profession. 

"Toda.v's Opportunit.v in Dentistry" was the topic of Dr. Gardner's 
address this morning at the Hotel Charlotte. He told of the importance 
(if keeping the bones of the mouth in good health, and the value of a 
Hrm bone structiire to good teeth. One of the biggest dangers of the 
attempt of some women to maintain a slim tigure is that they will omit 
articles of food from their diet that contain minerals essential to the 
good health of the bimes of the body. Dr. Gardner pointed out. Dr. 
Gardner explained to the dentists that it is their duty to advise their 
patients concerning their diets. 

Following Dr. Gardner's lecture. Dr. Ralph Jarrett, of Charlotte, 
discussed "New Denture Material." Later, Dr. Walter McFall, chief 
of the dental statf of the Macon hospital, conducted a clinic explaining 
children's dentistry. 

The feature event of the afternoon sessions was another talk by Dr. 
Gardner when he spoke on the "Extraction of Teeth" with special 
reference to ditttcult extractions emphasizing the advantages of the use 
of the mallet and chisel. 

At 3 :3() o'clock this afternoon the final session of the two-day meeting 
was held. Dr. C. M. Parks, who has held the position of president-elect 
thr(Jughout the last year, was installed as president of the Second 
District. Dr. John L. Ashby. of Mount Airy, is the retiring president, 
and Dr. Frank O. Alford, of Charlotte, is president-elect. 

]More than 200 dentists were in the city for the occasion, with a 
luimber coming here from South Carolina to hear the lectures by well 
known dentists. 

F(.llowing a banquet at Hotel Charlotte, a business session was held 
and the following new officers were elected : Dr. C. M. Parks, president ; 
Dr. C. H. Nicholson, of Statesville, vice-president; Dr. D. W. Holcomb. 
of Winston-Salem, secretary and treasurer; Dr. Harry Keel, of Winston- 
Salem, new meml)er of the executive committee; and Dr. T. P. William- 
sou, of Charlotte, Second District editor of the Bulletin. The Char- 
lotte association, of which Dr. D. B. Mizell is president, acted as host 
at the banquet last night, and the arrangements were under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Harold Story. 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 13 


Xeal yUEFFIELD, D.I)..S.. Prcsidoif 

The various committees are rouuding out tiiial plans for our Third 
District Dental Meetiu.s;: whicli will be held at the Kin^ ('otton Hotel, 
(ireensboro. N. V.. on November 13-14. 

The afternoon of November 13, will be devoted to jidlf with Dr. L. G. 
Coble, of Greensboro, as chairman of tliat committee. Tlie Country 
Clul) course will be available to the members and the event promises 
to be a real treat for those who care to enter the tournament. At- 
tractive prizes have been secured. 

The meetin.ij: proper will begin Mtmday evening with a banquet. At 
this session the mayor will extend the otficial greetings from the city. 
.Several entertainment features are being planned. Dr. Samuel F. Kav- 
enel, of Greensboro will read a pai)er which will deal with diet and 
calcium assimulation in children. Dr. Kavenel appeared before our 
society several years ago and all that have heard him will look for- 
ward to this phase of the program. An informal dance will follow the 
banquet and program. 

Koth morning and afternoon sessions Tuesday promise to be very 
interesting. Several papers will be given by local essayists. Dr, S, S. 
Jaffe. of Washington, 1). C., will be the principal speaker. Dr. Jaflfe's 
subject will be. '"Immediate and Full Denture Service." Dr. Jaffe is a 
man of national reputation and his clinics at the National Dental Asso- 
ciation proved to be the most interesting in his tield. The afternoon 
session will ])e devoted to the local clinics. The committee has been well 
pleased with the response of the loc*al clinicians and this feature 
l»romis('s to be instructive and well worth your time. 

While the ladies have always been welcome to our meetings we are 
extending, this year a cordial invitation to the wives to be present. 
The committee is striving to arrange a variety of entertainment for the 
visiting ladie.s — the banquet and dance Monday evening and bridge Tues- 
day morning. We are expecting the largest attendance that we have 
ever had and without your presence the attend.mce cannot be KHt per 


Did y(.u realize that the luimber of non-members of the dental pro- 
fession is e(|ual to that of the members of the National Dental Associa- 
tion? For this reason, the National Association is s])ons()ring a mem- 
bershii* campaign for 1!)34. and to cofiperate with this move the State 
Society saw tit to pass the following temporary amendment to our By- 
Laws as follows: For one year (that is from .January 1, 15)34, to .lanu- 
aiy 1. 1U:',~>) suspended memliers can be reinstated by the ])ayment of 
the cun-ent year's dues together with a fine of five dollars (instead 
of twelve dollars as heretofore). This is just an experiment: and the 
By-Laws concerning reinstatement will prevail on .Tanuiiry 1. li).'!;"). un- 
less the Society sees ht to renew the resolution at our 1!»34 meeting. 

The discussiitn of this resolution also ln-ought out the ]>oint that if 
a niendier were to ap|)ly for r(>iiistatement at one of the district meet- 

14 21ie Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

iiigs this fall, the clues collected should pay his 1934 dues instead of 
just the remaining; few months of this year. I believe that policy has 
been generally followed heretofore, both as regards new meml>crs and 
reinstated members. 

We hope that you will cooperate with us in building up our mem- 
bership with Desirable Men. Dr. W. F. Clayton of High Point is chair- 
man of the membership committee, and I am sure he will be glad to 
receive the names of any that you may propose for new or reinstated 

By way of emphasis, let us make this our motto : "Bring a new mem- 
ber to Greensboro with you November 13-14." We will iiromise you 
that we will show you a good time, and at the same time you will enjoy 
one of the very best rounded out professional programs. 

J. T. Lasley, Third District Sccrctarij-TrcasHrcr. 



Hotel Carolixa, Raleigh, N. C. 

December 4th and 5tii, 1933 

December 4Tn 

6 :30 Banquet — Toastmaster, Carl Goersch. 

7 :30 Entertainment. 

8:30 Motion Pictures: "Peristalsis of (iastro-Intestinal Tract" — J. D. 

Highsmith, M.D., F.A.C.S., Fayetteville. N. C. 
9:15 "A Few Helpful Points on Condensites" — Ralph F. Jarrett, 
D.D.S.. Charlotte. N. C. 

December oth 
9 :00 Registration, 
9:30 Meeting Called to Order. 

Invocation — Dr. J, Powell Tucker, First P.aptist Church. Ral- 
eigh, N, C. 
Recognition of Visitors. 

Greetings from N. C. Dental Society — Dr. E. A. Branch. Presi- 
dent, Raleigh, N. C. 
Greetings from Director of Districts — Dr. !>. M. l^d wards. Presi- 

dent-EIect. Durham. N. C. 
Greetings from State Secretary — Dr. D. L. Pridgen. Si>cretary- 

Treasurer, Fayetteville, N. C. 
President's Address. 
New Members. 
Election of Officers. 
10:30 "Oral Surgery," Illustrated with Lantern Slides and Motion 

Pictures— S. L. Silverman. D.D.S., F.A.C.D.. Atlanta, Ga. 
11:30 "Orthodontic Problems of Interest to the General Practitioner" — 

G. Fred Hale, D.D.S., Raleigh, N. (\ 
12:00 "Some Interesting Points on National jNIeeting" — W. T. Martin. 
D.D.S., Raleigh, N. C, 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 15 

11':!") "National Mouth Health Survey" — H. O. Lineberiier, D.D.S., 

Kaleigh, N. C. 
12 :30 Lunch. 
2:00 "Maintaining a Professional Vision" — A. H. Fleming, D.D.S., 

Louisburg, N. C. 
2 :30 Clinics : 

'\Some Helps in Casting Small Inlays"— J. H. Judd. D.D.S.. 

Fayetteville, N. C. 
"Bridge Work— A New Method With an (_)ld Tooth"— J. K. Ed- 
wards, D.D.S.. Fuqiiay Springs, X. C. 

The time for the annual meeting of the Fourth District is drawing 
nigh. As we look back over the time that has elapsed since we last 
met, we can see whether or not the N. R. A. program has done for us 
all that we had hoped. We must admit that things are looking brighter ; 
confidence in institutions and in individuals is being restored, and more 
people have jobs. Government aid will soon enable the banks to thaw 
some of the frozen assets of the country so that money may be borrowed 
to start up new enterprises, thus increasing the buying and tixiug power 
of the ijeople. The fixing ix)wer, or investment in repairs is needed 
nowhere more than for the teeth that have been so sadly neglected in 
the past tw(j or three years. Certainly the economic future promised 
by the Blue Eagle organization will make it possible for us to carry 
out a better program in preventive and corrective dentistry. 

In order to serve our people best we must attend our dental meetings, 
rub elbows, match wits, and compare dental skill. By cooperation and 
mutual help we share our best, enjoy the fellowship of each other, widen 
our range of service, and perfect our technique. Thus while developing 
this spirit of fraternity we sharpen our sense of gratitude to each other 
for the help we have received, and realize a kindlier feeling in our 
hearts for our patients — because we know that we have served them 
well and have no regrets or cause to be ashamed of the service we have 
done. It has been said, "If you would make a friend of an enemy, ask 
him to do you a favor." And this truth that one feels a more friendly 
interest in those whom he does a kindness applies everywhere. Our 
work will go smoother if we develop this feeling for our patients by 
giving them the best service that we can offer. When we are as in- 
terested in doing well what we are paid to do, as we are in getting 
paid for what we do, then our patients will be pleased and we will 
be happier. 

Our dental meetings are planned to increase such satisfaction cm 
tile part of both the dentist and the patient. A good program has been 
prepared f(n- this session of the Fourth District. We cannot affcu'd to 
miss the opportunities offered, to cool our friendship by absence, to 
lose our sense of gratitude, or let our technical skill grow less keen. 

So boys, come to the Fourth District meeting December 4tli and nth 
with a hearty handshake, a warm heart, and an eager mind to inspiri' 
and be inspired for the great task we have before us of saving 1('<'tli 
and improving health. 

K. M. SgriHEs. 

16 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 


The Fifth District Dental Society is headed for Wilminutou on No- 
vember sixtli for the annual meeting which will be lield in the Capt* 
Fear Hotel. This is scheduled to be the best district meetiu.i,' we have 
had for years. 

The program committee owes uuich to its chairman Dr. H. L. Ki'ith 
for his efforts to make this a strictly Fifth District meet and has 
arranged one of the most intei-esting imtgrams we have evi>r luid. Our 
district always turns out in a body for the meetings and this year we 
feel will be no exception. 

Dr. J. N. Johnson assures me that he is going to attend the district 
meeting this year (he has never missed one). And by the way. I was in 
Gene Howie's office some time ago wlien some ladies came in. Geiiie 
was telling them about his friends and especially about Dr. Johnson, 
wliat a student and traveler he is. so handsome and quite a ladies' 
man. one of them interrupted t(> say that she had met Dr. Johnson, 
(Jene says. "Zat .so. jevver hear him shoot the Bull'.'" She modestly 
replied "I didn't know that he was a liig game hunter also." 

We all know that John is still hunting '"Big (iame" when it comes to 
the interests of the dental profession of North Carolina. 

The Wilmington Dental Society will entertain all visiting dentists 
with an oyster roast on Sunday evening, November fifth. We will leave 
from the Cape Fear Hchtel at 7:30 o'clock. Boys, it's up to us to whet 
up our appetites and be there on Sunday afternoon, we do not want to 
disappoint tliat Wilmington liunch. they are practicing up for the big 
meeting of the North Carolina Dental Society in 1934. 

So come on, let's go. 

Paul Fitzgekald, ASVc/c/r/n/. 


Cape I"ear Hotel 

Monday, November (i, IJloo 

<) :3() A. M. 

Meeting Called to Order by the President. J. E. L. Thomas. D.D.S., 
Tarboro, N. C. 

Invocation. Dr. K. F. Keever. Pastor St. Paul's Lutheran Church. Wil- 
mington, N. C. 

Address of Welcome. W. T. Smith. D.D.S.. Wilmington. N. C. 

Response, O. L. WilsdU. D.D.S.. Kinston. N. C. 

Roll Call. 

Reading of Minutes. Paul Fitzgerald, D.D.S., Secretary, (ireenville. N. C 

President's Address. J. E. L. Thomas, D.D.S.. Tarboro, N. C. 

lntro<luction of (Juest and Visitors. 

10 :15 A. M. 

E. A. Branch. D.D.S.. President of North Carolina Dental Society, 
Member State Board of Health. 

llie Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 17 

10 :3() A. M. 
'X-K:iy lutcriirctatidu" — T. E. Sykes. D.D.S.. (irtH'^nslxiro. N. ('. 

11 :00 A. M. 
Gexeral Clixics 

'Fractuir of Maiidihle"' — (i. L. Ovevman, D.IXS.. (Jdldsboro, X. ('. 

•Flaskless t'astin,i;"— J. V. Turner. D.D.S.. Wilson. N. (\ 

"A Practical Method of Takin.i; a Mandibular Impression for Full 
Denture" — B. McK. Jolmson. D.D.S., (Jreenville, N. V. 

"Kadio.iiraiilis of Fracture Case of Mandible i^liowin<i' Necrosis and 
Sequestrae. Followed by ('omi>lete Keseneration and Consoli- 
dati(m"— ('. A. Thomas'. D.D.S.. Wilmington. N. ('. 

•Koot Canal Techuic"— R. F. Hunt. D.D.S.. Rocky Mount. X. C. 

1 :00 P. M. 



2 :00 P. M. 

"Periodontia"— W. ] >. (;il)bs. I ).!).«., Charlotte. X. C 

Report of Committee. 

Report of Secretary-Treasurer. 

Untinislied Business. 

Xew Business. 

Election of Otlicers and Place of Meetiui 



Dr. J. S. Wells of Reidsville is able to be itp again after a 
stroke of paralysis about three mouths ago. Dr. Wells has given 
up his practice on account of illness. 


Denture Specialization 

Professional Building 

Dental Protective Insurance 

The Group Liability Protective Policy for the North 
Carolina Dental Society is issued by The ^^tna Life 
Insurance Company of Hartford, Connecticut, a Com- 
pany with assets of over four hundred million dollars. 

Write us regarding coverage and the charge for this 
protection. You will be surprised at the low cost of this 


tieiieral Agents 



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The painstaking attention to details results 
in an artistic restoration as well as one that 
will be comfortable. 

Maximum satisfaction- is ovr desire and aim. 

p. O. Box 1740 1616 K Street, N. W. 





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$16.00 $2.00 


This statement is proven by satisfied customers 
among the leaders in the dental profession. 

Natural tooth characteristics duplicated with 
skill and precision. 

Correspondence Invited 

Manley a. Sparks 


V. <). Box 77() 
First Nationul liaiik Building Atlanta, Georgia 

RoTHSTEiN Dental Laboratories 

ivish to thank 

The Dental Profession 

in the State of North Carolina 

that \re hare been privileged to plaij a major pari 

in the construction' of pi'osthetic restorations 

for the past twenty-five years. 


P. O. Box 1740 1616 K Street, N. W. 




Dr. W. J. Conrad 

A man loved and honored alike by both 
the iwofession and the public. 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Denial Society 


Dr. William Joseph Conrad Avas born July 7, 1856, on a large 
plantation near Lewisville, ]^. C. For generations his ancestors 
were outstanding and upright, noted for their piety and Christian 
character. His father, Augustus Eugene Conrad was one of the 
most progressive farmers, and foremost in introducing the most 
modern implements for his tenants. He was especially active in 
the early development of Forsyth County, being for years chair- 
man of the County Commissioners. In his home, noted for its 
Southern hospitality, Dr. Conrad spent a happy childhood with 
his three sisters and one brother. 

He received his early education at local schools and under 
private tutors which were provided at the home for the family and 

He then entered the Kernersville Academy, in those days a noted 
school, which attracted quite a number of boarding pupils. After 
this he completed his education at Emory and Henry College in 

He became a dental student under the late Dr. C. J. Watkins 
and in the fall of 1876 entered the Pennsylvania Dental College, 
from which he graduated in the spring of 1878. 

For several years Dr. Conrad successfully practiced dentistry 
in Virginia, and built iip a large and appreciative practice. How- 
ever, in 1888 he yielded to the urgent request of his preceptor, 
moving to Winston-Salem, where the tAvo, with a large practice 
Avere associated until 1900, the year in Avhich his associate died. 
Since then. Dr. Conrad has practiced for thirty-three years, enjoy- 
ing a large and A^ery desirable j^ractice. 

On July 26, 1881, Dr. Conrad joined the jSTorth Carolina State 
Dental Society, since which time he has been a continuous active 
member for some fifty-three years Avhich gives him the longest 
membership in the society. Dr. Conrad has ahvays been an ardent 
student of dentistry, Avorking long hours endeavoring to perfect 
himself in the different phases of dentistry. Whatever he thought 
Avas for its advancement or betterment was never too great an 
effort for him to gladly undertake. As a result of this concen- 
trated application, his natural mechanical ability, and his love for 
his profession. Dr. Conrad for years has been one of our most 
skillful operators. Practicing in those early days. Dr. Conrad Avas 
proficient in all branches of dentistry and did his part in the 
development of the diff'erent specialties. X-rays sliow up bis root 

6 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

canal work of years ago in favorable comparison with the modern 
technique. His amalgam and gold work during all these years is 
admired by those who see it, while his skill in the use of cohesive 
gold is rarely equaled. For many years his work will be admired 
when seen by dentists. 

One of the outstanding virtues of Dr. Conrad is his humble 
modesty. He will be surprised and regretful when he sees this 
written about him. 

While in former years he has written excellent j^apers and 
given some splendid clinics, he has never cared for office or pre- 
ferment, always declining honors, and preferring to honor others. 
For years he was an active attendant and interested member of 
our dental societies, especially the Old Southern and the Old 
American Associations, later the JSTational Dental Association, and 
the Southern Branch of the JSTational Dental Association, and 
lastly the American Dental Association. 

Dr. Conrad is an ideal Christian. His best efforts and pleasures 
have been along religious lines in and near Winston-Salem. He 
was a charter member and secretary of the local Y. M. C. A., and 
has been very active in the development of the First Baptist 
Church, also in the organization of the Broad Street (now Brown 
Memorial) and other Baptist churches. For twenty-five years he 
was Superintendent of his Sunday School, and for forty-three 
years one of the most active deacons, leading in all forms of church 
activities and today, still active, is loved dearly, highly respected 
and honored by his church. It is indeed a benediction to know and 
love this quiet unassuming fellow dentist and man of God. Keen 
to appreciate their significance yet undisturbed by all the changes 
going on about him, he continues along his pilgrimage surrounded 
by his family and friends who wish for him many more years of 
life and happiness. 



Vol. XVII JANUARY, 1934 No. 3 

Entered as Second-class matter as a quarterly September 20, ' 1931, at the 
postofRce, Raleigh, N. C, under Act of August 24, 1912 

Subscription per year $1.00 


DR. E. A. BRANCH, President Raleigh 

DR. L. M. EDWARDS, President-Elect Durham 

DR. J. P. JONES, Vice-President Chapel Hill 

DR. D. Li. PRIDGEN, Secretary-Treasurer Fayetteville 

DR. G. FRED HALE •. Raleigh 


DR. Z. L. EDWARDS, Chairman (1934) Washington 

DR. R. M. OLIVE (1935) Fayetteville 

DR. NEAL SHEFFIELD (1936) Greensboro 


On February 20th and 22nd about 700 dentists in North Caro- 
lina will undertake to examine the mouths of 200,000 school chil- 
dren in this State, tabulate their findings and make the reports 
through the prescribed channels to the State Board of Health, 
Division of Dentistry. 

This is a Public Health Service of the first magnitude. It is 
to be hoped that this mass educational program will result in a 
material decrease of tkose systemic diseases in children, the etiology 
of which originate only too often in the mouth. 

The Mouth Health Program in North Carolina enjoys an 
enviable record. The Old North State was the first in the Union 
to put on a State-wide Mouth Health Program. We were among 
the first to have a dental member of the State Board of Health. 
We are the only State in the Union to have a dentist on every 
County Board of Health by law. 

Through the interest, energy and foresight of Dr. J. M. Parrott, 
Secretary of the State Board of Health and Dr. J. N. Johnson, 
dental member of the State Board of Health, there was established 
a department of Oral Hygiene on equal footing with other de- 

8 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

partments of the State Board of Health. Xorth Carolina was 
again the pioneer in Mouth Health work. 

Envious of our record in Public Health work and appreciative 
of the fine cooperation of the State Board of Health, let us again 
push a little further the frontier of dental service and broaden 
the knowledge of its relation to general health. 


This BuLLETix would not be complete without an expression 
of our appreciation to Dr. A. T. Allen, State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, his Department, his Superintendents, his Super- 
visors and his Teachers, for the very splendid cooperation they 
have given us in jjutting over this Mouth Health Survey in the 

We hope that we can arouse sufficient interest not only to erase 
from the mouth of every school child in North Carolina any 
damaging mouth infections, but that Ave may also sufficiently im- 
press our people so as to prevent a recurrence. When once the 
devastating influence of diseased teeth and diseased supporting 
structures are thoroughly understood and appreciated is it not to 
be hoped that North Carolina will have fewer repeaters in the 
schools ? 

We trust that our eftorts in this endeavor, yours and ours. 
Dr. Allen, will be of benefit to the children in our State. 


The Raleigh Dental Society has again contributed 100 per cent 
to the Dental Relief Fund. This is the fourth consecutive year 
that every member of the Raleigh Society has done his bit. May 
the editor hope to have jeports from other component societies 
of Avhat thev are doina; in this connection? 


The Mouth Health Survey to be conducted by members of the 
North Carolina Dental Society in the schools of the State is to 
determine how many children need dental attention, how many 
have had dental attention, and the number who have never received 
any dental attention at all, as well as find those who have lost 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

six-jear molars. When tliis information is gathered and given back 
to the dentists they are going to be astonished, but the parents are 
going to be ahirmed. The parents Avho are able to take care of 
their child's mouth, need nothing more than to be told that their 
child needs dental attention. This will be done. It is our purpose 
to send such notices through the mail. 

The day has arrived when we are going to have to pay more 
attention to children's teeth than we ever have and if the parent 
is sent this notice and the child should come to you for treatment, 
we trust that you will give him the very best possible service and 
every consideration. Some of us are continuing to say: "These 
are baby teeth. Let them alone, they will soon drop out." Some 
of us may not say that in plain words, but it is inferred from the 
language we use and by our acts. These all mean the same thing 
and the day is fast approaching when mothers are not going to 
take this as a satisfactory answer, but are going to demand the 
answer and proper attention. 

We are depending upon you to make this activity a success. 
We know you will do it. 

Ernest A. BrajStch, 
President North Carolina Dental Society. 


Subject: Integrating Dental Service and Health Instruction. 

Purposes and Types of Dental Services 

In twenty-four cities and counties the Dental Clinics are noAv 
being conducted by State school dentists under supervision of Dr. 
Branch. In all cities and counties of the State, the State Dental 
Society on February 20 and 22, 1934, Avill make a State School 
Dental Survey. The purpose of both activities is to arouse new 
interest in the importance of healthy teeth and gums. 

Materials and Instruction 

How well the purpose is accomplished depends upon the quality 
of the teaching. The Dental Clinic is a real situation offering 
opportunity for vitalizing the mastery of needed information on 
the health of teeth and gums, the improvement of health habits, 

10 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

and the creation of wholesome attitudes. I am therefore sending 
you under separate cover the following suggestive materials re- 
lated to these problems for the use of your teachers : 

(1) Getting Ready for and Following Up the Dental Clinic. 

(2) How Do You Rank on Your Dental Health Information? 

(3) Publication List of the American Dental Association. 

I shall appreciate your letting me know how helpful this ma- 
terial is and your suggestions for improvements. 

Some Standabds for Holding Successful Dental Clinics 

1. Principal and teachers know date of clinic far enough in 
advance to notify and secure cooperation of parents. 

2. As convenient, well-lighted room, as possible, made available 
for individual consultation. 

3. Children anticipate pleasantly the event and cooperate. 

4. Regular school work proceeds without interruption. (JSTote: 
It is understood, however, that consultation with the school dentist 
constitutes a period of health instruction and should be so counted.) 

5. The results for each child are recorded on his health card or 
on attached dental card. 

6. The parents of each child are notified of the child's dental 
status. (To tell them good news as well as the bad, is important.) 

Sincerely yours, 


state Department of Puhlic Instruction. 

Editor's note : This is a reprint of a letter that went to the 
school authorities throughout the State from the office of the State 
Department of Public Instruction. 


Perhaps it is natural for each Program Committee to feel that 
it is going to put on just a little better program than have the 
preceding committees. Anyway, your present committee is as- 
suming just that attitude as we progress in the selection of ma- 
terial for our 1934 meeting at Wrightsville Beach. And I do not 
believe that we are egotistical in the appraisal of our work. We 
cannot, of course, at this early date give you a full and complete 
outline of our program, as some of our negotiations are not yet 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 11 

concluded. However, in order to give you an idea as to what you 
may expect, we are pleased to announce that the following men 
will be on our program : 

Dr. Thomas Conner, of Atlanta, Gra., who holds the chair of 
Exodontia in the Atlanta-Southern Dental College, one of the 
outstanding exodontists of the South and a clinician of exceptional 
ability, will present an illustrated lecture and clinic on some phases 
of exodontia. Di-. Conner has many "boosters" throughout the 
country, and if he is only half as good as they say he is, he will 
then be plenty good. 

Dr. Sidney S. Jaffe, Washington, D. C, a Prostlietist, well 
known to those who have attended recent meetings of the A. D. A., 
and Avhose presentation was so favorably received at the meeting 
of our Third District last fall, will present — well, let me quote 
him. He says, "I would like to present a new phase of denture 
work this time — a method of obtaining stability and absolute com- 
fort in flat lower mouths which have absolutely no ridge. I have 
been experimenting with this type of work for some time and now 
feel that I can present it to the profession as being of special 
value in this field. It is based on an entirely new principle, and 
as far as I know it is quite new. At least, I have never known 
any one to use the method, nor have I come across any reference 
to it in dental literature. I am quite enthusiastic about it, for I 
find that even patients with fairly good ridges all claim the use 
of this principle makes ordinarily comfortable dentures a great 
deal more comfortable." Now, who will miss that, even if he has 
to be brought in on a stretcher 'i 

Dr. Harry Lyons, Eichmond, Va., highly recommended by his 
fellow Virginians, who teaches Oral Pathology and Therapeutics 
at the Medical College of Virginia, will give an illustrated talk 
on some phase of Periodontology. This should be interesting to 
the general practitioner, as it will include something that they 
can utilize in practice, as well as enter into a discussion of the 
pathology of this field. 

From the State Medical Society Ave Avill have Dr. P. P. McCaiu, 
an internationally known authority on Tuberculosis, who will dis- 
cuss Tuberculosis in Children, with some reference also to Vin- 
cent's infection, a subject Avhich should interest every dentist. Dr. 
C. C. Carpenter, Professor of Pathology at Wake Forest College, 
will also be with us, and I am sure Avill give us something Avell 
worth while. 

12 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

Tlie committee trusts tliat its efforts thus far uieets witli the 
approval of the members of the Society. 

D. L. Pridgen, 
Secretary-Treasurer iA". C. Dental Society. 


So many inquiries have been received about the distribution of 
this fund that it is thought best to publish, for general informa- 
tion, the rules set forth by the American Dental Association 
governing its distribution. These rules are as follows : 

Relief Fund of the Americax Dental Association 

"Any member of the American Dental Association wlio has paid dues 
for at least five years and whose ethical record is clear is eligible for 
relief. Of course it must be understood that inasmuch as no member 
pays into the fund more than a dollar or two a year he can't expect 
to be pensioned for life be he ever so unfortunate. The fund is strictly 
a Relief Fund to tide over a peritid of time and nuist not be confused 
with a pension that would cost each memlier many dollars yearly to 

When relief is sought by a member he or his friends should write to 
the Secretary of the Relief Commission. Dr. John H. Cadmus, l.So Xorth 
Wabash Avenue, Chicago. Illinois. He will promptly send a relief appli- 
cation form. The applicant or his sponsor must answer carefully every 
question. (The questionnaire is always strictly confidential. No pub- 
licity is ever given concerning the recipients of relief.) 

The completed application is then sent to the Secretary of the mem- 
ber's State Society for its consideration. The State Society officers 
investigate the application and decide if they wish to make a grant 
and if so for what amount. Payments are seldom made in a lump. 
In most cases the grant is divided into montlily payments over a six 
or twelve months' period. 

The State or Local Society must agree to give as much as the A.D.A. 
Fund is asked for. 

The application properly signed by the State or local society should 
then be forwarded to the Secretary of the Relief Commission. 

All State or Local Society checks for relief should be made payable 
to applicant, mailed to John H. Cadmus_ Secretary, 185 North Wabash 
Avenue, Chicago, where they will lie recorded. The.v will then be for- 
warded, together with A.D.A. Relief Fund checks, direct to applicant. 

If an applicant has been a member in good standing for many years 
and has through adversity dropped from membership he is still eligible 
for relief. 

The aim of the Relief Commission is to send relief to every needy 
member who asks for it. But every member in practice today must of 
necessity do his full share to build up the Relief Fund so no member 
need ever be refused a few dollars to help him in an extreme emer- 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 13 

The rules are very simple, but the questionnaire is compre- 
heusiA'e in that it takes in all phases of your finances and other 
personal information and no application is passed except after 
the most careful investigation of all information obtainable. 

It is not always a pleasant task to refuse an applicant but the 
only safeguard the fund can possibly have is through thorough 

Our State fund now amounts to about $1,330.00, $1,200.00 
being principal and $330.00 beiug interest should Ave have to be- 
gin drawing upon it in the near future it would be our hope to 
at least preserve the principal intact. 

J. Martin Fleming. 


A committee from the Ealeigh Dental Society, after several 
years study and after discussing our problems with nationally 
known relief agencies, submitted the following plan as a solution 
to our local dental relief problem. The plan has been working one 
year and has the unanimous support of our membership. 

The Ealeigh Dental Society Health-Service 

Personnel : 

Members of the Ealeigh Dental Society. 


To render emergency relief and health service to the indigent of 
Ealeigh and Wake County. (By emergency relief is meant the 
relief of acute pain and treatment of oral foci of infection.) 

Health-Service Committee: 

A committee named from the Ealeigh Dental Society shall be 
known as the Health-Service Committee and shall have charge of 
the health service and relief program of the Ealeigh Dental 

Hoio Patients are to he Referred and Assigned: 

All patients shall be. investigated and referred to the Health- 
Service Committee by the Associated Charities and the Wake 
County Welfare Department. 

14 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

A written request for dental service must be presented by each 
patient to the Health-Service Committee. The Committee shall 
then refer the patient to some member of the Society. The dentist 
renders the necessary service, free of remuneration. 

The patient then signs the original request form, stating that 
the service has been satisfactorily rendered. 

The form is then returned by the dentist to the Health-Service 
Committee, where all records are filed. 

Funds — Hoiv Collected and Disposed of: 

Once each month the Health-Service Committee shall furnish 
the Associated Charities and the Wake County Welfare Depart- 
ment an itemized statement of all patients referred, the nature 
of the relief rendered and the amount due for the dental service 
rendered. The fee agreed uj)on is one-half that allowed by the 
North Carolina Industrial Commission for similar service. 

All funds received shall be retained as a Relief Fund. 

Blanks Used in Referring Patients: 


The Raleigh Dental Society Health-Service 



Has been investigated and is referred to the Raleigh Dental 
Society Health-Service for necessary emergency relief. 

Referring Agency 

Signed by 

Dr , you are hereby authorized 

to render necessary emergency relief for the above patient. 

Signed Secretary, 

Raleigh Dental Society Health-Service Committee. 

The following emergency relief service has been rendered : 

Signed Dentist 

This is to certify that I have received necessary emergency 
dental service. 

Signed Patient. 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 15 

The blanks used in referring patients are printed in triplicate. 
The original is kept by the referring agency. The other tAvo are 
taken by patient to the committee secretary. The secretary fills 
in the name of the dentist to whom the patient is referred, he keeps 
one blank for his files and instructs the patient to carry the other 
with him to the dentist as authority for the work. When the 
operation is completed the blank, properly signed by both patient 
and dentist, is returned by the dentist to the secretary. 

The colored dentists of Raleigh use the same system, hoAvever 
their blanks are all marked "Colored Division." They have their 
own secretary and retain their own funds. 

Plans are uoav on foot to form a County Society and extend our 
plan to eA'ery dentist in the county. 

This plan is workable in every county in the State and it keeps 
the control in the dental profession. We believe the dentist and 
not the Welfare Agent should control dentistry. 
Respectfully submitted, 


J. Martin Fleming, 


W. Howard Branch, 


Editor's note : In each succeeding issue of the Bulletin there 
will appear a page filled with just such interesting and stimulating 
ideas as you find here. Every man in the State is invited to send 
in his interpretation of "Professional Spirit." 


^ Our D.D.S. degree signifies accomplishment, a degree of prepara- 
tion, but it fastens upon us a responsibility — an obligation to use 
our education in the never ending acquirement of greater prepara- 

Let us fulfill this obligation to its utmost. Let us do honor to 
our profession by accepting the challenge to keep abreast of the 
times, to read and study, to maintain contact with other pro- 
gressive dentists, to labor hand in hand to prefect established 
principles and develop noAv ideas, to cast aside professional jeal- 
ousy and selfishness. May Ave through mutual effort strive to 
elevate our profession, try to improve on each operation, help 

16 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

those who need help, give our best to organized dentistry, thus 
providing a better, more substantial foundation on Avhieh to build 
a successful professional life. 

Frank O. Alford. 

Dentists must assume vigorous leadership in combating the 
reactionary influences Avithin the profession just as energetically 
as they combat vicious influences from without. 

Wallace F. Mustian. 

The practical application of a firm belief in the high order of 
my vocation, in that it affords not only a means of livlihood but 
also an opportunity to serve by alleviating suffering and lessening 
disease exemplifies the true professional spirit. 

W. T. Smith. 

Quoting Emerson : "Rather let me do my work so well that 
other idlers, if they choose, may compare my texture Avith the 
texture of these and find it identical with the best." 

J. H. Wheeler. 

An ideal professional spirit towards which each member of this 
body of ethical men can and should Avork, can be no better ex- 
pressed than in the Avords of the Master "Do unto others as you 
would they should also do unto you." 

Ralph Little. 

When dentistry realizes that excellence lies in approximation 
to par, rather than defeat of an opponent, foxy old inferiority 
complex will be dormy at the first tee. 

Gene Howle. 

Fellows, our hats are off to the men of our profession who 
have the real Professional Spirit. It is possessed by men who have 
the general welfare and health of their patients foremost in their 
hearts. It is admired and respected by every walk of life. It has 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 17 

the earmarks of cultured professional gentlemen. This is not 
ahvays a gift from on High but is an admirable trait that can 
be acquired. Those who have acquired it, haA^e done so through 
the love of the profession, constant and diligent study, improve- 
ment in technique and by attending dental meetings, and asso- 
ciating Avith other professional men. Let us all strive to cultivate 
a real Professional Spirit so that Dental Health Service may be 
even more appreciated in JSTorth Carolina. 

John A. McClung, D.D.S. 


Yesterday, Avliile awaiting to fill an engagement with a friend 
Avho Avas to meet me at an up-tOAvn barber shop, one of those 
"For White Only" shops maintained solely by ISTegroees, the 
following Avas heard and seen. 

A middle-aged, rather poorly dressed but intelligent looking 
Avoman came in leading behind her an over-petted but painfully 
neglected boy about nine years old. Besides enough hair on his 
head for tAvo boys his size, he had an intensely inflamed sty on 
the upper lid of the left eye. It gave evidence of need for instant 
attention and shoAved that it long since should have received medi- 
cal aid. The whole loAver lid Avas a mass of herpes labialis. 

When he had been seated in the chair, a big fat ISTegro barber 
appeared and took a peep at the bad eye. After touching it Avith 
his uuAvashed hand he remarked, "It's 'bout ready to open, ain't 
hit ?" 

Said the Avoman, 'T believe so, Avould you take him to a doctor? 
I didn't know Avhat to do." 

"i^aw, uaw," said the N^egro, "Jest take a pin and open hit 
yourself." That seemed to suffice for the eye trouble. 

Then the mother said to the child, "Has your tooth stopt hurting 
yet." To which a negatiA^e answer Avas given and she rejoined, 
"Well, AA^e'll putt somethin' in it Avhen you get back to the house." 

By means Avhich are too difficult to describe here, that child's 
mouth Avas later examined casually. It Avas one of those putrid 
mouths Avhich often folloAvs a case of measles, for the child Avas 
then convalescing from that malady. The tAVO mandibular six- 
year molars revealed disastrous cavities. Seven other teeth were 
decayed. The child had visited a dentist last summer. It was 
learned by further questions that someone other than the pathet- 

18 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

ioally ignorant mother had not properly fulfilled his duty toward 
that child, who is a bright little fellow. 

Gentlemen, this is just one of the many thousands of problems 
which face us as dentists. Shall we pussy-foot the child's dental 
needs, or shall we face them with the best that is in us, cour- 
ageously and Avitli integrity. 

R. Philip Melvin, Chairman Program 
Committee Section of Children's Dentist nj. 

Dr. Wallace F. Mustian of Warrenton is spending some time in 
the Oral Surgery Clinic of Bellevue Hospital, Xew York City. 

Dr. Frank O. Alford of Charlotte, has been invited to appear on 
the program of the Seventieth Annual Winter Meeting of the 
Chicago Dental Society to be held in Chicago February 2<3th to 
March 1st. 


The Chicago Dental Society 

Invites Every A.D.A. Member to Attend its 

' Seventieth Annual Mid-Winter Meeting 

to be held at 

The Stevens Hotel 

February 26, 27. 28. and March 1. 1934 

An Opportunity for a Practical 

Mid-Winter Holiday— Make the Most of it ! 

The Tennessee State Dental Association will hold its sixty-seventh 
annual meeting April 26th, 2Tth. and 2Sth. 1934. Patten Hotel. Chat- 
tanooga, Tennessee. — Dr. E. J. Justis. Secretary. 

Twentieth Session of the Thomas P. Hinm:in Midwinter Clinic, At- 
lanta Biltmore Hotel. Atlanta. <ia.. March 12-13. 1934. Membership 
fee $10.00. 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 19 


March 19, 20, 21st, 1934 

Shokeham Hotel Washington, D. C. 

The District of Columbia Dental Society will be host to the members 
of the State Societies of Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, West 
Virginia and Virginia. 

Three days of intensive instruction on Dental Caries, Children's 
Dentistry, Pyorrhea Alveolaris, Prostethics and other selected phases 
of modern dentistry by the outstanding men of both Canada and the 
United States. 




Every member of the North Carolina State Dental Society will be 
glad to learn that a new booklet on "The Care of Children's Teeth" is 
being distributed by the Bureau of Public Relations, American Dental 
Association, 212 East Superior Street^ Chicago, Illinois. This booklet 
is thirty-two pages in length, it is written in lay language, and it is 
graphically illustrated with eighty photographs of actual cases and 
models. It is the most up-to-date and authentic book of its kind ever 
published. Furthermore, it has the distinction of being the first publi- 
cation issued by organized dentistry to bear the approval of both the 
American Dental Association and the United States Public Health 

Dentists will find it indispensable in their private practices. In fact, 
they will probably want to give one to the parents of every child patient. 
Hygienists, nurses, school principals, and others interested in health 
work will find it an excellent text and reference book. 

A brief description of this new booklet, its table of contents, and a 
few of its illustrations, appears in the December issue of the Journal 
of the American Dental Association. An editorial concerning it also 
appears in the same issue. Copies will be supplied by the Bureau of 
Public Relations at cost of printing and mailing. Single copies sell for 
10c, 12 copies— $1.00, 50 copies— $4.00, 100 copies— $7.50, 500 copies— 

20 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 



First District 

President A. C. Current 

Presideiit-Elect J. F. Reece 

Vice-Presideut D. H. Crawford 

Seeretary-Ti-easurer C. S. McCall 

Editor S. E. Moser 

'A. C. Current 

Delegates .< 

R. A. Little 
S. E. Moser 
J. A. Young 
C. S. McCall 

Second District 

President C. M. Parks 

President-Eleet F. O. Alford 

Vice-President J. H. Nicholson 

Secretary-Treasurer D. W. Holcomb 

f Burke W. Fox 
Harry Keel 
E. S. Hamilton 

C. M. Parks 

D. W. Holcomb 


Third District 

President C. I. Miller- 

President-EIect T. E. Sikes 

Secretary-Treasurer J. T. Lasley 

Editor..... E. M. Medlin 

TT. E. Sikes 

Delegates J ^- T- Lasley 

O. L. Presnell 

D. K. Lock HART 

Fourth District 

President I. H. Hoyle 

President-EIect G. L. Hooper 

Vice-President J. W. Branham 

Secretary-Treasurer L. J. Moore 

Editor R. M. Squires 

fl. H. Hoyle 
L. J. Moore 

Delegates -l j. w. Whitehead 

A. H. Fleming 
Wilbert Jackson 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 21 

Fifth District 

President H. K. Thompsox 

Presideut-Elect Paul Fitzgerald 

Vice-Presideut O. J. Bender 

Secretary-Treasurer W. L. Hand 

H. K. Thompson 
W. L. Hand 
Delegates _J j. x. Johnson 

H. L. Keith 
H. E. Nixon 



It isn't necessary for me or anyone else to waste time in formulating 
an argument in favor of unity or organization. The power of organi- 
zation is already a known and admitted fact, and right now the Presi- 
dent of the U. S. A. is using all his faculties in an effort to harmonize 
the forces of a hundred and twenty million people. He well knows 
that it is only through an organized mcvement that the principle of 
square dealing in business relations throughout the length and breadth 
of our country can be established. No matter how big you are or how 
high your ideals may be. Organized Dentistry can help you and will 
help you whether you join in its activities or whether you choose to 
remain outside. On the other hand, it doesn't matter how little you 
may feel or how remote ma.v be your geographic location, you can still 
be a help to Organized Dentistry : and Organized Dentistry needs you. 

Dentistry as it stands today, recognized as one of the leading scientific 
professions, has come to merit this position through the pioneers of 
organization plus the efforts of those who have carried on to this good 
day ; and we can only hope to move to still higher planes of achievement 
b.v a continuation of cooperative effort. It is my sincere wish that every 
ethical practicing dentist in Western North Carolina, who is not already 
a member of our District and State Society, will .ioin and become active 
in the activities of our Society. Not so much because of the Society's 
need of your support. l>ut more particularly because of the benefits you 
will receive 1)y being an active member of Organized Dentistry. 

It is with a great deal of pride and appreciation that I mention some 
of the new life and energy that is being manifest in local organizations 
throughout our District. Tlie counties of Burke. Caldwell, and Catawba 
are organized under a Tri-Country Organization that meets monthly, 
and it was my happy privilege to attend one of these meetings when 
one of the local dentists put on a clinic that would do honor to any 
State meeting. The city of Asheville has a Study Club of more than 
twenty in memliersliip which promises much in the way of progressive 
organization in that part of our territory. You will hear pleasantly in 

22 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

the future of the activities in and around Asheville. The cild (iaston 
County Dental Society has been aroused from her jicneral anesthetic. 
Slie lias been completely reorganized and placed on a basis of monthly 
activity. In fact we reserve the riiiht to meet more often than once a 
month, particularly when the oysters are extra lu'ood. Rutherford County 
once had the most active society in our District, and we have every 
reason to believe that it will soon be on a very active basis again. Some 
mighty good men are putting out some extra good dentistry in those 
parts and you are going to hear more from these men as the days 
come and go. 

May I take this opportunity to express to the membership of the 
First District my appreciation of the renewed activity which is already 
being manifest, and to assure each and every dentist in our District 
of my willingness to cooperate in any way possible in any and all 
activities which have for their purpose the promotion of better and 
broader dental service to Western North Carolina. We do not wish for 
any one to think that we are selfish in saying so much about our in- 
terests in the First District for we believe that what ever helps our 
District will help the whole, and we believe further that the outside 
world helps those who help themselves. 

Many thanks Mr. Editor for the invitation to liring a few thoughts 

from the First District. 

A. C. Current, 

President First District. 

What is all this talk about Panel Dentistry? What is all this talk 
about State and Insurance Dentistry? Is all this propaganda coming 
from those who have oratorical or journalistic aspirations, or is it a 
serious and potent problem confronting the dental and medical pro- 
fessions? Is it possible that our legislative bodies would step in and 
enact laws on our statute books that will perilously approach or be 
comparable to the dole system? Is it ix)ssible or even probable that our 
governing bodies would install a system that would suppress or dis- 
courage individual initiative? Is it possible that during these social 
and economic revolutionary changes that are taking place, that we are 
going to make "human leeches" out of what was once a self-reliant 
people? If all this is possible or probable, then is there anything that 
can be done to forestall its coming? These are questions that you and I 
and every other serious-minded dentist must seriously consider. If 
you have not been reading and studying these potential problems, then 
it is high time that you familiarize yourself with these possibilities. 
In the short space allotted to me, it would be impossible to answer 
even the first two questions, assuming that I could. 

With respect to State dentistry, the tremendous impetus given to this 
recent matter of appropriating huge sums of money for medical and 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 23 

dental services lias resulted in what luinlit he termed as "adA-erse mass 
psychology." In other words, this same lay public who reads an occa- 
sional newspaper or magazine has been made C( nscious of the existence 
of the "'Committee on the Cost of Medical Care."" They overlook the 
fact that there is a large precentage of physicians and dentists who do 
not make a decent living cut of their profession. 

The physicians were the first to bear the brunt of this adverse pub- 
licity and we as dentists sat back in smug complacency and decided 
that they must solve their own problems : however, it did not take us 
long to decide that whatever affected them would ultimately affect us 
and that we share a common fate. As has been stated, we are under- 
going s:me revolutionary changes in this country and there is a 
socialistic tendency that can be felt in the atmosphere. We have all 
been led to believe that this Avord was not near so dangerous as we 
once thought. We hear on the street corner and in every place of 
public gathering about the matter of "equitable public distribution.'" 
There are certain social and economic laws that must necessarily be 
thrown into the "junk heap," and conversely, there are certain social 
and economic laws that have been responsible for our rapid and pro- 
gressive development and should not even be modified. 

This might be termed as Utopia, but it is my firm conviction that in 
the not too distant future, labor will receive a wage sufficient to cover 
all expenditures, and one which will guarantee a decent standard of 
living ; and then it will be possible for him to pay his own dental and 
medical bills, thus retaining his self-respect. 

This brings us to one thing : Already the reverberations of social 
legislation as a permanent thing is to be heard. This condition always 
follows an economic depression. The matter of public rights together 
with private and professional rights are questioned. We can only 
protect ourselves from this wave of social legislation by standing as an 
organized profession. American dentistry has been placed on a high 
standard and her progressive development commands the admiration 
(jf the whole world. The best dentists in the world are right here in 
America. Our colleges today are accepting prospective students more 
or less on probation in order to ascertain whether or not they have a 
natural aptitude for dentistry. All of which is for the best interest 
of the dental profession. This was all brought about by orfianized 

Right now is the time for the next great epoch of American dentistry 
to open. It is not problematical or conjectui-al — it is here. Harmony 
should prevail in our profession and a better spirit of cooperation 
should be more and more manifest. Dr. Ernest Branch has .just given 
the '"call to arms." Will you respond? 


Editor First District. 

24 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 


The Mouth Health Snr\'ey about to be put on in the sehools of North 
Carolina is to my mind a wonderful thinj; for dentistry. I wonder if 
tlie dentists appreciate its ma.i,'nitude? Every sehoolhouse door in tlie 
State is to be tlirown open to our profession for two d;iys, February 20th 
and 22nd and the minds and attention of nine hundred and fifty thou- 
sand to cue million children will l)e directed to the relation of an 
unclean mouth to systemic disease. 

The above is not out of line with the splendid program which has 
been put on by the State Board of Health durin.£r all these years. 
Dentists on the staff of the Healtli Department have traveled from 
one end of this State to the other preaching and teaching to our cliil- 
dren, our parents, our teachers, superintendents, health authorities, and 
to those who control the purse strings of our various counties, the im- 
portance of Mouth Health. I am not telling you anything new Avhen 
I say that the State Board of Health cannot in any way begin to meet 
the demand that has already been created. The State of North Carolina 
does not have the money to carry on in the way this worlv must be done 
if the program is to be a success. North Carolina should not have to do 
more than she has already done for tlie dentists to begin to realize 
that this very moment is an opportune time for them to shoulder the 
responsibility which is all their own, take up the flag where the Health 
Department cases because of its finances, and render a great service to 
the one million children in our schools. 

Shall we sit idly by and expect to be fed from a silver spoon and 
not be willing to do something to bring success to this great work? 
The Dental Division of the State Board of Health consciously or un- 
consciously, has placed the challenge up to our profession, and as I review 
this situation, their next great work is to educate our profession to 
their new respousiliilities. I wish I knew the solution to this problem, 
but I do not. The only thing I might say is that I would be glad of an 
opportunity to help work out a plan. 

The Mouth Health Survey that is about to be made furnishes a great 
opportunity for the dentists of the State to contact this great number 
of young people in the interest of their liealth. Thousands and thou- 
sands of these children are in need of dental attention, and are going 
to be advised to consult their dentist. When mothers bring their chil- 
dren to our offices, will it be iwssible to convince them that these 
teeth are not "just baby teeth," and are not of vital importance to the 
welfare of the future of those little patients? The mothers will not be 
deceived and allow themselves to be taken advantage of any longer, 
but will seek refuge where proper consideration can be given to those 
in need of dental attention. The very best service we can offer is none 

too good for this great cause. 

C. C. Bennett. 
Director Mouth Health Siirvei/ First District. 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 25 


Tho iiast few years has been a period of the greatest economic unrest 
that the world has experienced in a long time. It has been a period 
during which we have been more or less at sea, not Icnowing what to 
expect next. It has been a period of pessimism and despair a^s to what 
tomorrow might bring. In the meantime, we have been willing to drift 
aimlessly along the line of least resistance. Everv business ^and pro- 
fession, including dentistry, has been affected thereby. But with the 
coming of the year 19:14. the future seems t.^ hold something better in 
store for us. There is a determination in the hearts of the American 
people to forget the past and face the new year with a spirit of co- 
operation, hope and oi.timism. We. as a profession, must catch this 
spirit and strive, not .iust to maintain the high standard which we have 
attained, but to push on to still greater heights. 

The dental profession has had a phenomenal growth, and has made a 
Avonderful progress since it was organized. This growth and progress 
must be maintained if we. as an organization, hope to survive. No indi- 
vidual can stand still. He must either progress or retrograde, and the 
same as true of an organization. If our Society continues to progress 
it can only be done through organization and a closer cooperation of 
every member of the dental profession in North Carolina. 

Every profession today is organized. In these organizations vou will 
find the most progressive and wide-awake men in that profession 
In this State our professicm has developed into a great organization 
the North Carolina Dental >Society. Membership in this Society should 
be one of our most valued possessions. No licensed dentist should over- 
look the fact that the present high standard of our profession in this 
State IS the direct result of the organized effort of this Society It is 
not only a privilege, but it is our duty to organized dentistrv'to give 
our wholehearted support to our National. State and District Societies 
^U' should do this as a token of our appreciation for what thev have 
meant to ns a.,.1 f,.r what they are ( for us everv dav. Dentistry 
IS <air bread and meat, and any effort or time given to organized den- 
tistry could not be spent to a better advantage, or with the hope of 
Ijetter returns on the investment. 

Then the question arises as to how we can best repav this <.bligati(m 
to our profession. II ,an be done by helping to buibl a bigger and 
better North Carolina Dental Society. This effort must begin with the 
District Societies. They are links in Ihe chain, and no chain is stronger 
than Its weakest link. In order to build them into stronger components 
of the State As.sociati.m. it is imperative that we as members be 
ACTIVE meml>ers. 

In addition, it is our duty to ask every <.lhi,,,l non-member to join 
our Society, and show him why h.' can't afford to remain outside. 
Ao member of our profession can remain unto himself and gain that 

26 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

degree of success which is uiiide iK)Ssihh' tlinmgh tlie interchange of 
ideas with his fellow dentist. This interchange comes chiefly through 
association and contact one with another at the meetings. Every ethical 
practitioner in this State should he a member of this Society for two 
good reasons : flrst. it will help him keep in touch with the new and 
progressive ideas in dentistry, thereby making him a better dentist, and 
second, the Societ.v needs his moral supix)rt and cooperation. 

With these thoughts in mind, let's put our shoulders to the wheel, 
give the best there is in us and make 1934 the most successful year 
the North Carolina Dental Society has ever had. 

r. M. Parks. 
Prcxidciif Sccund District. 

The motto of one of our well known civic organizations is this: "He 
prottts most who serves l)est." It would be well if the dental and other 
allied professions would pause and consider just how this motto or 
slogan miglit be suitabl.v applied to them as a whole. 

In order to serve best we must have the knowledge and background 
to render this service. The dental science of today is not the dental 
science of yesterday or ten .vears ago. It is constantl.v evolving to 
greater and better accomplishments by experimentation and .scientific 
research. We are trul.v one of the great allies of the healing art. 

How may we avail ourselves of the opportunity of obtaining this 
knowledge and of passing it on to our patients? Only by i>ersonal 
contact with the men who are giving their time and their lives to this 
work of research. Where do we see and hear these men? At our dis- 
trict, State and national meetings. If we have done this then we might 
fittingly apply the above motto to ourselves as a profession. 

I would especially urge at this time that all members who are in 
arrears to the society and all who are eligible for reinstatement pay up 
their dues immediately. By doing so you are benefiting yourself and 
aiding in the work of promoting a better and greater society. 


Secretarii-Treasurer Second District. 


The Third District Dental Society held Its Thirteenth Annual Meeting 
in Green.sboro. N. C, at the King Cotton Hotel. November 13th and 
14th, and In man.v respects considered the most successful in its history. 
Genuine cooperative spirit could be seen written on every face despite 
the turbulent times. 

The meeting was ably presided over by the President, Dr. Neal 
Sheffield of Greensboro^ and started off with plent.v of enthusiasm, 
beginning with a banquet with more dentists and their wives attending 
this feature of the program than any District Meeting I have ever 
attended. The instructive paper cm "The Role of Diet and Nutrition in 
the Production of Dental Caries," was enjoyed b.v all. I can truthfully 
say that I have never seen a group of dentists anywhere show as much 
interest in any subject as was accorded Dr. S. S. Jaft'e, D.D.S., of Wash- 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 27 

iiigton. D. C. on "Complete Fvill Denture Technique" and "Immediate 
Denture Service." I know the men of tlie Third District are pressing 
ahead, and with tlie cooperative spirit prevailing, tliere is notliing but 
success ahead. So come on boys, and let's get off to a good start for 
bigger and better things for the year 1934. 

Let's all fight as one mighty giant for organized dentistry. I mean 
real honest organized dentistry. The need for organized dentistry along 
constructive lines is growing with each passing day. I want to urge 
upon all who have grown "luke warm" to come forward, renew your 
covenant and take up the fight. Attend your District and State Meetings. 
The Society needs you and you need the Society more. You young men 
who are just starting will make a serious mistake to undertake the 
practice of dentistry without .ioining your Society. Fall in line and have 
a part in placing dentistry in its rightful place as one of the great 
healing arts. 

But remember my chief desire is quality and not quantity. We must 
have quality to endure, and quantity is a fine thing to add. Every 
dentist has within his grasp the shaping of his own destiny. He can 
rise or fall by his own hands. He must recognize his duty to liis 
patients. The dentist who fails to recognize his duty to those he serves, 
or to his fellow men generally, will find himself discarded altogether 
too early in life. 

C. I. Miller, 
Presideiif Third District. 


We should be aware of the fact that the eyes of the dental profession 
of the various states are focused on us as we go forth in preiiaration 
for tlie Mouth Health Survey in North Carolina. This is one of the 
most gigantic tasks ever undertaken liy organized dentistry and we 
sliould see to it that this program is put over in such a manner that 
other states which are to follow will have a high mark at which to aim. 

North Carolina is a leader in the dental profession and it is due, in 
a great degree to the willingness and the spirit of co()peration which 
permeates our dental organizations. In order to make this la-ogram a 
.success as a whole each district, county and individual must do their 
share. This will not l»e ;i burden on any individual and will furnish 
a wealth of information concerning the dental conditions prevalent 
among the schf>ol children who will be the citizens of tomorrow. 

We are very proud of the progress made in the Third District in 
preparation for the coming surve.A'. All of the counties are organized 
and the directors are determined that their county will make a good 
showing in the final ttdnilations of the survey. At a recent meeting 
of the county directors held in Burlington practically all the counties 
of our district were represented and with them several county superin- 
tendents and other interested hiymen were present. If there is any man 
in the district that is not familiar with the procedure of this examina- 
tion, get in touch with your county director who will have this informa- 
tion for you. He will give you a school assignment and the necessary 
examination blanks and tongue depressors. 

This survey has created more interest among the school iieoi)ic and 
the P. T. A. organizations than any pli.-ise of health work in .'i long 
time. The people of our State will bo thinking in terms of dentistry 

28 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

on February 20. and I'L'nd. Various communities will expect to see 
their dentist in the line up for this survey, and I am sure that every 
dentist will be anxious to take part in this work. 

Neal Sheffield, 
Director Month Health Surveij Third District. 


Our hard boiled task-master — the public — is daily throwing down a 
new challenge to us. Our master is demanding cheai>er dental service 
from us as private practitioners or State or Federal Dentistr.v is "Just 
around the corner." To prove this fact you have but to get a group 
of dentists together and start a discussion on this subject. Immediately 
you are struck with the fact that each communit.v has, in some way, 
demonstrated this trend. 

The only permanent thing on earth is CHANGE. We must change 
with everything else. This issue must be met. The public is demanding 
a New Deal from us. Cheaper dentistry means our economic end. That 
is eutirel.v imixtssible, with the present set up. We are barel.v existing, 
comparatively speaking, as it is. 

Scattered throughout North Carolina, are men with ideas about this 
problem. Our State has Iteen fortunate in leading the way several times 
in things dental. Is it hoping for too much, that out of our state will 
come the beginnings of an organization which will accept this challenge 
and furnish a solution V Would it not be a good idea for the powers 
that l»e to get a representative group (►f men together from all i>arts 
of the State for a length.v discussion of this prolilemV Such a discussion 
would prove conclusively the necessity for a united front, aggressively 
organized, to meet this issue and furnish an answer. Will we do it? 


P)-csid()it Fourth District. 


Democrac.v does not provide an ideal government. But it is the best 
we have been able to work out so far. and it does offer to everybody 
the opiX)rtunit.v and the responsibility of governing. Nothing can re- 
main fixed and settled. In our institutions as in our government, new 
situations arise, bringing new problems, real and imaginary. These 
we must solve with best advantage to the largest number, and adjust 
ourselves to the changes as graciously as possible. 

Change sometimes seems deplorable, and never means perfection ; it 
is, however, the price of progress. Conditions unforeseen, perhaps un- 
controllable, demand a New Deal. But even in the New Deal, everyone 
cannot have his way. Working together necessitates choosing what is 
best upon the whole, agreeing upon fundamentals, ignoring personal 
opinions, and compromising minor differences — even if it does hurt 

All of us realize that the chaotic condition of the farming industry 
in recent years has been largel.y due to a laclc of cooperation. But even 
today, when the government is making a supreme effort to help the 
farmers, we often wonder if it can succeed because thev are reluctant 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 29 

to couiwrate with the letter and the spirit of tlie law. The iwrcentage 
of success ill government, institutions, and professions depends upon 
the united efforts of the whole working together for the good of all. 

Let us come closer home, and be specific in applying these observa- 
tions and truths concerning change and cooperation. To examine free 
the mouths of the school children in our State, is a noble undertaking. 
But since this enterprise is sponsored by tlie North Carolina Dental 
Society, only the ethical members in good standing can be asked to help. 
May I venture a suggestion? There are a number of good, ethical 
dentists in the State who have suffered their dues to the Society to 
lapse, but who should cooperate with us in this service to the children. 
We have endured a depression, many of us have been "up against if 
financially, and some of our memliers have felt it necessary to discon- 
tinue their membership. Now, because of economic conditions, we have 
considerably reduced the expense of our Society. Can we not also 
reduce the dues as early as possible? Thus we should extend a cordial 
invitation to all worthy dentists of our State to swell our organized 
ranks. In this way we may enlist a larger number of united helpers in 
this proix)sed service to the children of our commonwealth. We shall 
also strengthen our organization, and "provoking one another to good 
works," raise our individual standards, and maintain the ideals of 
the profession. 

R. M. Squires. 
Editor Fourth District. 


The Fourth District began its final organization drive for the Mouth 
Health Survey in an enthusiastic fashion with a meeting of all county 
directors in the southern porti<ni of the district in Fayetteville on Thurs- 
day evening, January. 4th. and a similar meeting of county directors 
in the northern section at Henderson, Saturday evening, January 6th. 
Every county in the district save two was represented and all present 
showed a keen interest in the great work we are endeavoring to do. 
The discussions brought out many helpful points which will lie included 
in the final instructions to be mailed out soon. 

All County Directors have reported that they have, or will in a few 
days, c(tmplete their county organization. In some cases all dentists in 
a county are to work in one group, in others two, three and four are 
grouping together to make teams. 

It is encouraging to note the lienefits already derived from this cam- 
liaigii in the great number of reenstatements to membership of former 
memljers in the society. It is also noted that quite a few are joining 
our ranks for the first time. This increase in our membership shows 
very clearly that the "New Deal" is not only working in industry 
but is aiding in establishing more unanimously the high ethical stand- 
ards always fostered by organized dentistry in North Carolina. 

To sum it all up. every ethical dentist in North Carolina sees in this 
State-wide campaign which we are putting on, an opportunity to render 
a real service to the dental profession and to ])lace on record the true 
dental condition of our school children. Once we have obtained this 
information it is my definite conviction that organized dentistry can 
and will suggest a solution to our many iiroblems, A solution which 
will be satisfactory and mutually licliiful to the profession as well as the 


Fourth District Director Mouth Ileutth Hurvey. 

30 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 



The opportunities for deeds which the world accounts great and 
;,'lori<»us do not come to many. But all of us may fiive dignity and 
nobility to our less glamorous tasks by the willingness, earnestness and 
sincerity with which we perform them. 

On February the 20th and 22nd the members of the North Carolina 
Dental Society are prei)aring to go to the school liimses and examine 
the mouths of as many school children as is humanly possible to do in 
those two days. 

The gnmnd work has been well laid by our ab'.e and energetic leader, 
Dr. E. A. Branch, who has visited every district in the State and given 
instructions as to the details and plan of procedure. 

I am happy to say that here in the Fifth District we have no slackers. 
If the letters and pledges of eooperati(m which I have received are an 
indication of the willingness on the part of the members t(> render this 
service, I firmly believe that on the morning of February 20th our 
representati(m will be one hundred per cent in attendance. For fear 
that I may appear boasting the loyalty of my own district unduly. I am 
wil ing to venture the opinion that the members of the North Carolina 
Dental Society as a whole will close their oltices on those days and do 
the ji b in a way that will reflect credit on Organized Dentistry in North 

As members of an organization that stands first in the nation as a 
pioneer in Mouth Health w<nk : as members of a profession that has 
fewer advertisers than any State in the Union : as members of a society 
that has siX)nsored and had placed uiK)n our statute books more pro- 
gressive legislation for the protection of organized dentistry and the 
benefit of the public at large, I emphasize in saying that we could ill 
afford to cast a reflection upon the proud heritage which we are 
(>njoying today by withholding our loyalty and wholehearted supiM)rt 
of such an important health activity. The accomplishments and the 
jiioneering spirit of some of the older men in our profession should 
awaken our sense of respitnsiliility to the needs of the hour, and inspire 
us to give Dr. E. A. Branch the cooperation that his leadership de- 
serves. The challenge is before us. How shall we answer it? 

Z. L. Edwards. 
Director Mouth Health t<arrei/ Fifth Distriet. 

Nineteen hundred and thirty-three passed off with a struggle — many 
of us thought it would never end. It did. however, pass on. and natur- 
ally left (luite a few scars. But if .vou make a close survey, you will 
find that the dental profession with its back to the wall, fought 
valiantly and served its fellowmen in an enviable manner. Had we not 
been organized, many practitioners would have fallen for the lack of 
encouragement, thinking that they were the only humans who had 
to withstand such hardships. Look around and see if the men out of 
the Society aren't worse off than the hardest struck member. 

Our organization has a silent force about it that is constantly 
working. It does that becaxise many people know the dental profession 
as a harmonious unit. This recognition is growing every day. but more 
stimuli aie needed now than at any time in the history of the profession, 
in order that this forward growth may bo kept up. 

Fleming Dental Laboratory 

Te ephone 407 /^C^^^^TCBT^. P. O. Box 1283 





Kothstcin UcnturCS are as close to the natural 
teeth as human skill can make them. 

Years of experience, conscientious technicians, the 
finest equipment and utmost fidelity to your specifica- 
tions are sure to give you a restoration that Avill meet 
with your approval. 

A Trial Will Convince You 


P. O. Box 1740 » >> 1616 K Street, N.W. 


Dr. W. T. Smith 

whose gent an y, cultui^e, ability and ideals of 

conduct have been a source of inspiration 

to the profession in this State. 



Vol. XVII MAY, 1934 No. 4 

Entered as Second-class matter as a quarterly September 26, 1931, at the 
postofflce, Raleigh, N. C, under Act of August 24, 1912. 

Subscription per year $1.00 


DR. E. A. BRANCH. President Raleigh 

DR. L. M. EDWARDS. President-Elect Durham 

DR. J. P. JONES, Vice-President Cliapel Hill 

DR. D. L. PRIDGEN, Secretary-Treasurer Fayetteville 

DR. G. FRED HALE Raleigh 


DR. Z. L. EDWARDS, Chairman (1934) Washington 

DR. R. M. OLIVE (1935) Fayetteville 

DR. NEAL SHEFFIELD (1936) Greensboro 


The City of Wilmington will be host to the JSTorth Carolina 
Dental Society on June 18, 19, 20, 1934. This is a city as rich 
in history as it is genteel in character. The Cape Fear country 
is studded with landmarks of Colonial development, evidences of 
hardships and monuments of progress, small cabins and stately 
homes, romance and tragedy, success and failure; all blended into 
the life drama of this country. "Orton" conjures up a romantic 
past where the art of living flowered, where leisure developed 
a gentility and culture that the modern world is about to erase. 
Fort Fisher is synonymous with heroism and bravery. The last 
defender of the South to give way to greatly superior land and 
naval forces — a region where the impossible was accomplished in 
blockade running to longer maintain an exhausted Confederacy. 
Study the history of the lower Cape Fear country and then bring 
the family with you to Wilmington. The modern Wilmington 
offers you Wrightsville and Carolina beaches; beautiful drives 
through long leaf pine forests and along avenues of moss covered 

6 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

oaks ; an unsurpassed hospitality ; old homes, where the shadows of 
the heaux and belles of another age whisper the life of a vanishing 
era ; modern homes built by the captains of industry but presided 
over Avith the charm of the fifties. Come to Wilmington ! 


The arrangement and completion of this Program for our 60th 
Annual Meeting, and the preparation for the meeting in Wilming- 
ton, represents a considerable outlay of time, energy and money 
on the part of the Program and General Arrangements Committees. 
In addition to the expense of membership general to all of us they 
have had to bear the burden of travel, correspondence and time, 
•w'ith no thought of reward except your attendance at this meeting. 

Eminent speakers and clinicians are coming to Wilmington, 
June 18, 19, and 20, for your enjoyment and benefit. Read your 
Program then make your arrangements and pack up for a three 
day stay. 


Since it is the opinion of the Program Committee and the 
President of our Society that the Golf Committee should not 
undertake to arrange for a tournament this year, we will not have 
our annual Golf Tournament. However, the Golf Committee has 
secured the privilege of the golf course of the Cape Fear Country 
Club and the Municipal Golf Course, two very excellent courses 
for those desiring to play. So golfers bring along your clubs. 

C. A. Thomas, Chairman. 

J. H. Smith, 

J. O. Broughton, 




August 6-10, 1934 

Vacation in Saint Paul at a Truly Scientific Meeting 

Dr. Ernest A. Branch 

President of the North Carolina 
Dental Society 

Dr. D. LeKov Pkidgen 

Secretary of the North Carolina 
Dental Society 

I)R. L. M. Edwards 

Presi(lent-(-Iect of the North Carolins 
Df-ntal Society 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 


The Program Committee has been untiring in its efforts to 
provide a program for the meeting in Wilmington whieh will be 
of interest to every practitioner of dentistry in the State. We 
trust you will study this program and believe that you, too, will 
see that you will be greatly benefited by attending the meeting 
and hearing these subjects discussed by those who know what they 
are talking abovit. It will help you to be a better dentist. 

Then too, there is the social side to be taken into consideration. 
You will have an opportunity to renew old acquaintances and 
to make new ones. You can sit down and talk over your troubles 
with your friends — which will hel]i you even though they may not 
be able to offer a constructive solution. Sometimes it is helpful 
to hear our own selves talking, and while we are talking we some- 
times reach a solution of our problems. Anyway, you Avill need 
to be at the meeting and we expect a good attendance. 

We do not have complete figures for the Mouth Health Survey 
as yet, but we hope to have them by the time for the meeting. 
These should be of great interest to you. 

E. A. Branch, 
President North Carolina Dental Society. 


By Homer C. Brown, D.D.S., F.A.C^.D., Chairman. Commitiee 

on Legislation and Correlation, American Dental 

Association, Columbus, Ohio 

The history of dentistry as a profession dates from 1840. Many 
factors have contributed to its phenomenal progress during this 
period, such as organizations, education, legislation, literature, 
research, discovery and invention ; however, without depreciating 
the influence of any of these I think a fair analysis will recognize 
legislation as the most important. 

The legal status of all questions is definitely determined through 
legislation and court decisions. For instance, the Baltimore Col- 
lege of Dental Surgery was chartered by the General xVssenibly of 
Maryland, February 1, 1840, and the Ohio College of Dental 
Surgery by the General Assembly of Ohio, January 21, 1845. 
These were the first dental educational institutions, and it is 
assumed that all others were subsequently authorized by law. Also, 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 9 

on December 31, 1841, Alabama enacted the first legislation to 
regulate the practice of dentistry, which Avas then administered 
by physicians. In 1867 Kentucky enacted a dental law and the 
folloAving year similar legislation was enacted in ISTeAv York and 
Ohio. Subsequently every State and territory enacted legislation 
until today dentistry is recognized as an important phase of 
health service throughout the world. 

The first Federal legislation was enacted by Congress, February 
2, 1901, creating an Army Corps of 30 Contract Dental Surgeons, 
which Avas amended March 3, 1911, providing a commission rank 
of First Lieutenant. The National Defense Act of June 3, 1916, 
increased this rank up to and including Major, and on October 6, 
1917, legislation Avas enacted granting dental officers equal status 
Avith medical ofiicers in the Army. This Avas generally accepted as 
the greatest achievement in the history of the dental profession, 
as it raised the status of dentistry in governmental services and 
increased its recognition by the allied professions and the public. 

A Xavy Dental Corps Avas authorized by Congress, August 22, 
1912, and on July 1, 1918, Avas granted equal status with the 
Medical Ofiicers. Subsequently a favorable status Avas authorized 
for Dental Officers in IT. S. Public Health Service, Veterans and 
Indian Bureaus. While the direct benefits resulting therefrom 
were limited to these officers, and those they served, yet indirectly 
their infiuence Avas favorably refiected on every practitioner of 
dentistry. This, also, stimulated an increased interest in all phases 
of dental practice and encouraged many to acquire neAv and im- 
proved equipment, etc. 

The interests of the profession and the public Avere safeguarded 
by successfully opposing unreasonable duties on dental instruments 
in the Tariff Acts of 1922 and 1930. The 1922 Act provided a 35 
per cent ad valorem duty on dental instruments and a 45 per cent 
on surgical. The 1930 Act retained the 35 per cent dental duty 
but increased the surgical to 55 per cent. These Tariff Acts Avere 
under consideration for approximately tAvo years each and required 
most careful attention. The manufacturers advocated both an ad 
valorem and specific duty Avhich ranged from 75 to 300 per cent. 
Thus it Avill be observed that a great saving has accrued as a result 
of this prolonged activity. 

Assisted the Researcli Commission in developing the Cooperative 
Research Program at the National Bureau of Standards and 
in securing increased Federal appropriations for this important 

10 I'he Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

Secured a modification of the Prohibition Regulations ])erniit- 
ting dentists to obtain the same amount of spirituous liquors, for 
office administration, as was authorized for physicians. 

Secured legislation relating to two International Dental Con- 

Assisted in develoi)ing plans for providing dental service in tlie 
Civilian Conservation Corps. 

Our committee cooperated with others in securing the fol- 
lowing : 

(1) A reduction of tax on alcohol from $4. IS to $2.09 per 

(2) A reduction of narcotic license fee from $3.00 to $1.00. 

(3) The coordinating of all governmental health activities in 
the U. S. Public Health Service and promoting jNTational Institute 
of Health legislation. 

(4) A deduction of the expense in attending professional meet- 
ings from Income Tax reports. 

(5) Restoring term "Dental Service" versus "Stomatological 
Service" in Navy. 

(6) The promotion of the Dental Health Survey Program. 

(7) A modification of the embargo on gold and of the regula- 
tions requiring affidavits quarterly in its purchase. Also, in pro- 
tecting, insofar as was possible, the dentist's interest in the recent 
Executive Orders relating to gold. 

(8) Uniform narcotic State legislation and in formulating nar- 
cotic regulations. 

(9) Reasonable interpretation regarding the application of N. 
R. A. to dentistry. 

(10) Participated in the Dental Laboratory Code controversy 
in an effort to safeguard the interests of the profession and the 

We cooperated with others in successfully opposing the fol- 
lowing : 

(a) In 1920 and 1921 two attempts were made to j)lace an 
excise tax of $10 an ounce on new mined gold. 

(b) An excise tax of 10 per cent on precious metals used in 
dentistry in the 1932 Revenue xVct. The regulations, as drafted, 
placed a 10 per cent tax on the entire fee of restorations in which 
precious metals were used. 

(c) An excise tax of 10 per cent on dental proprietary prepara- 
tions. A 5 per cent tax was agreed to as a compromise by the 
Conference Committee. 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 11 

(d) ]Nron-serviee connected jjension legislation. 

(e) Boiler inspection legislation in the District of Columbia, 
including vulcanizers, autoclaves, etc. 

Furthermore, we have cooperated with the officers of many of 
the State Societies in their legislative problems. For instance, 
nineteen states have recently enacted Sales Tax legislation and 
others may be forced to take similar action. Our efforts have 
been directed in an attempt to exempt professional health services 
from the application of these Sales Taxes. This especially applies 
to dental restorations wherein tangible personal property, such as 
gold, teeth, vulcanite, etc., is employed. In some instances the 
tax officials have held that the entire fee was taxable and the 
dentist required to collect and report same. 

State legislatures ordinarily meet every two years, but because 
of economic conditions many of these have been called into Special 
Session by their Governors. Thus, it behooves the State Society 
Officers to be constantly alert and prepared to meet any emer- 
gencies that may arise. One of these may result from the general 
sentiment that some readjustments will be necessary in the ren- 
dering of professional health services; therefore, it is imperative 
that the professions shonld assume the leadership in this solution, 
rather than permitting welfare and other groups, with radical 
views, to destroy the personal relationship existing between the 
professional man and his patient, which is a long and highly 
cherished tradition. 

In the final analysis, organized dentistry should assume the 
active leadership in whatever readjustments may be necessary, and 
every ethical practitioner should consider it a duty to participate 
m any constructive program which will better protect his interests. 
609 Hartman Building, April 16, 1934. 

(Written for members of the American Association of Dental 

Editor's Xote:— The American Association of Dental Editors is an 
organization of dental editors of non-proprietarv Dental Journals— the 
Journals of ()rj,-anizod Dentistry, representini,' the American Dental 
Association and all of its component parts. The ambition of this or- 
pnization is to give dental journalism a higher standard, and remove 
It from any .suspicion of private interests. These publications (local 
District. State and National) have as their object the dissemination 
ot scientihe data from investigated and accepted sources; to initiate 
and manitam the highest ideals of the profession ; to broaden the scope 
of Its usefulness to the ilentists and public alike. By this organization 
we get the cooperation of eminent men throughout the country. 

L)K. Walteu (\ McBride 

Dr. ('. ('. Carpenter 

Dr. Thomas Conner 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Dr. Bissell B. Palmer 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 13 

Walter C. McBride, D.D.S., was graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Micliigaii in 1922. He has practiced pedodontia 
since leaving school and was associated the year after gradu- 
ation with the Detroit Board of Health. At present he is 
head of the Children's Department of the University of 
Detroit Dental School. He was one of the organizers and 
the first president of the American Society for the Promo- 
tion of Dentistry for Children ; editor of the Detroit Dental 
Bulletin ; associate editor of the Michigan State Dental 
Journal ; contributing editor of the International Journal 
of Orthodontia and Dentistry for Children and author of 
Juvenile Dentistry, which was published in 1932. He will 
appear on the program Tuesday morning, June 19th, dis- 
cussing "The Business Phase of Dentistry for Children." 

C. C. Carpenter, xV.B., M.D., is Professor of Pathology at Wake 
Forest College. Dr. Carpenter has been much interested in 
pathology of the oral cavity and will address the Society 
on Monday morning, June ISth, on "Malignancy of the 
Oral Cavity." 

Thomas Conner, D.D.S., Vanderbilt University 1915, lectures 
to the Senior Class of the Atlanta Southern Dental College 
on Exodontia, is a member of the national, state and local 
dental associations and a member of the American Society 
of Oral Surgeons and Exodontists. Practice limited to 
Exodontia, Oral Surgery and Diagnosis since 1921 in At- 
lanta, Georgia. He will appear on the program Monday 
evening, June 18th, discussing "Operative Procedures in 
Oral Surgery." 

Bissell B. Palmer, D.D.S., F.A.C.D., is President of the Ameri- 
can College of Dentists and is also chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Dental Journalism for that organization. He 
will appear on the program Tuesday morning, June 19th, 
discussing "Socio-Economics of Health Sci'vice." 


14 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

( M ):MMITTEEt^— 1933-.'54 

Executive Com mittee 

Z. L. Edwards. Vhniiiiuni (1934) Waslnn,i,'ton 

R. M. Olive (1935) Fayettoville 

Neal Sheflield (1936) Greensboro 


D. L. Pridgeii. Chairman Fayetteville 

W. D. (xibbs. Vice-Chaiiviaii Charlotte 

J. W. Whitehead Smithfield 

J. E. Swindell Raleii^h 

R. P. Melvin Winston-Salem 

ETiiits Committee 

J. Martin Fleminii-, Chairman Ralei,iih 

J. W. Whitehead Smithfield 

J. C. Watkins Winston-Salem 

Legislative Committee 

J. N. Johnson (1937) Goldsboro 

Z. L. Edwards (1934 ) Washin^'ton 

E. B. Howie (1935) Raleigh 

P. E. Jones (1936) Farmville 

H. O. Lineberger (1938) Raleigh 

(3ral Hygiene Committee 

Paul Fitzgerald, Chairman Greenville 

C. S. McCall Forest City 

Neal Sheffield Greensboro 

C. C. Bennett Asheville 

B. C. Taylor Landis 

Pitt Beam Shelby 

Jessie L. Zaehary Raleigh 

State Institittions Committee 

Everett Smith, Chairman Raleigh 

J, R. Edwards Fuquay Springs 

Oscar Hooks Wilson 

J. L. Ashby Mount Airy 

John R. Pharr Charlotte 

Victor Bell Raleigh 

Military Committee 

I. H. Hoyle, Chair yuan Henderson 

S. E. Mosely Gastonia 

E. G. Click. Elkin 

V. M. Barnes Wilson 

Liability Insurance Committee 

J. H. Wheeler, Chairman Greensboro 

T. A. Wilkins Gastonia 

D. B. Mizell Charlotte 

J. A. Jernigan Dunn 

A. L. Wooten Raleigh 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 15 

Membership Committee 

L. M. Edwards. Chdinnaii Durham 

Paul Fitzserald (irei'iiville 

Charles S. McCall Forest City 

F. O. Alford Charlotte 

G. L. Hooper Erwin 

J. T. Lasley Greensboro 

Exhibit Committee 

D. L. Prid.^eii. Chdirnuiii Fayetteville 

W. T. Martm !.. Raleigh 

Sam L. Bobbitt Raleigh 

A. S. Cromartie Fayetteville 

Clyde E. Minges Rocky Mount 

Dental College Committee 

J. E. Swindell. Vhdirmuii Raleigh 

R. Philip Melvin Winston-Salem 

A. C. Bone Rocky Mount 

Wallace D. Gibbs Charlotte 

Clinic Boakd of Cexsoks 

Kal]ili Little. Chairman Asheville 

J. W. Whitehead Smithheld 

A. P. Beam Shelby 

A. D. Barber Sant'ord 

J. M. Holland Statesville 

H. PI Nixon Elizabeth City 

Resolutions Committee 

J. H. Wheeler, Chairman Greensboro 

J. C. Watkins Winston-Salem 

P. R. Falls Gastonia 

A. T. Jennette Washington 

W. L. McRae Red Springs 

Neckology Committee 

J. S. Betts, Chairman Greensboro 

C. D. Bain Dunn 

W. D. Gibbs Charlotte 

H. E. Story Charlotte 

EA-erett L. Smith Raleigh 

Howard Branch Raleigh 

W. T. Martin Raleigh 

N. P. Maddux Asheville 

S. R. Horton Raleigh 

Cakolixa-Virgima Clinic Committee 
Paul E. Jones, Chairman Farnivillc 

E. N. Lawrence Raleigh 

H. K. Thompson Wilmington 

Harry Keel Winston-Salem 

C. I. Miller Albemarle 

Alfred Schultz (Jreenville 

J. E. L. Thomas Tarboro 

16 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

Committee on Entertainment of A'isitoks 

J. A. Sinclair Aslu'villc 

J. H. Wlieeler (Jreciisltoro 

J. M. Flemins H:ilri.i,'li 

J. S. Spnrgeon Hillslwiro 

,7. (". AVatlvius Winstoii-Salcm 

H. E. Story Cliarlottc 

Puri.icity Committee 

F. O. Alford. Chili mum Cliarlottc 

J. (). liroii.tihton WilniiiiL^tdii 

H. L. Kcitii Wihiiiii-tou 

L. J. Meredith Wilmini^loii 

(iuy Pif;ford Wilmiii.utoii 

W.T. Smith Wilmiiiiitou 

K. Wcathersbee Wilinin«toii 

(JOLF Committee 

C. A. Thomas. ChuiniKin Wiliiiiimtoii 

J. (). Broushton Wilmin.trtoii 

James H. Smith Wilmiiiirtoii 

Entertainment Committee 

Juiiiii.s C. Smith. Ch<iinn(iii Wilmin.titon 

H. K. Thompson Wilmin.t^'ton 

K. R. Morrison Wilminj^ton 

(General Arrangements Committee 

H. L. Keith. Chairman Wilmin.nt<pn 

B. R. Morrison WiUiiin,iit()n 

L. J. Meredith Wilmini^fon 

P^xtension Course Committee 

E. B. Howie. Chairman Ralciiih 

J. X. Johnson Goldsboro 

Dennis Keel Greensboro 

A. H. Fleming Limishurji 

T. P. Williamson Charh)tte 

Committee on Relations of Physicians and Dentists 

J. M. Flemin.!?. Chairman Ralei.udi 

J. S. Betts (Jreenslioro 

E. B. Howie Raleijih 

F. L. Hunt Asheville 

W. M. Robey Charlotte 

Superintendent of Clinic Committee 

Guy Pit^ford. Chairman Wilniin.nton 

E. E. Buie Lemon Springs 

L. J. Dupree Kinston 

W. F. Mustian Warrenlon 

Dewey Boseman Wilson 

James H. Smith Wilniington 

Board of IOxaminers 

E. B. Howie Raleigh 

John A. McClnng Wiiiston-Salcm 

Clyde E. Minges Rocky Mount 

Ralph Jarrett Charlotte 

Henry C. Carr Durham 

W. F. Bell A.sheville 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 17 

HOUSE OF dp:legates 

Officers of the Society 

Ernest A. Branch. President Raleish 

L. M. Edwards. Presideut-EJrcf Durham 

J. P. Jones. Vice-President Chapel Hill 

D. L. Pridgen, Secretarii-Treasurer Fayetteville 

Executive Committee 

Z. L. Edwards. Chairman Wasliin.eton 

R. M. Olive Fayetteville 

N. Sheffield Greensboro 

Ethics Committee 

J. Martin Fleming. Chairman Raleigh 

J. C. Watkins Winston-Salem 

J. W. Whitehead Smithtield 

Board of Examiners 
Jno. A. McClung Winston-Salem 

E. B. Howie Raleigh 

First District 

A. C. Current (Jastonia 

R. A. Little Asheville 

S. E. Moser Gastonia 

J. A. Young Newton 

C. S. McCall Forest City 

Second District 

Burke W. Fox Charlotte 

E. S. Hamilton Charlotte 

Harry Keel Winston-Salem 

C. M. Parks Winston-Salem 

D. W. Holcomb Winston-Salem 

Third District 

C. I. Miller Albemarle 

T. E. Sikes Greensboro 

J. T. Lasley Greensboro 

0. L. Presnell Asheboro 

D. K. Lockhart Durham 

Fourth District 

1. H. Hoyle Henderson 

L. J. Moore St. Pauls 

J. W. Whitehead Smithtield 

A. H. Fleming Louisburg 

Will)ert .Tackson Clinton 

Fifth District 

H. K. Thomi)Son Wilmington 

W. L. Hand New Bern 

J. X. Johnson (iohlsboro 

H. L. Keith Wilmington 

H. E. Nixon Elizabeth City 

Delegates to A. D. A. 

1. Clyde E. Minges 

2. Wilbert Jackson 

3. (To be p:iected) 

1)1!. P. P. McCain 

Dr. Robert K. Brow.n 

Dr. Harry Lyons 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 19 

Robert K. Brown, D.D.S., M.S., F.A.C.D., 1919 University 
of Michigan School of Dentistry. M.S., in Psychology, 
University of Michigan 1928. Fellow International Col- 
lege of Dentists 1929. Professor of Operative Dentistry 
and Director of the Operative Clinic at the same institu- 
tion. He will appear on the program Monday morning, 
June 18th, discussing "The Effect of New Information 
on the Manipulation of Alloys in Amalgam Restorations." 
Dr. Brown will appear on the program Monday evening, 
June 18th, discussing "The Amalgam Restoration." Dr. 
Brown will again appear on the program Wednesday morn- 
ing, June 20th, discussing "Personality Measurements." 

Harry Lyons, D.D.S., Medical College of Virginia. He is a 
member of the American Academy of Periodontology and 
the International Association for Dental Research, also 
Professor of Periodontia and Oral Pathology at the Medical 
College of Virginia. He will appear on the program Tues- 
day morning, June 19th, discussing "Technical Procedures 
in Periodontology." 

P. P. McCain, A.B., M.D., F.A.C.D., is President of the North 
Carolina Medical Society and is Superintendent and Medi- 
cal Director of the State Sanatorium. Dr. McCain Avill 
appear on the program on Wednesday morning to discuss 
"Child Tuberculosis." 


20 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 


Monday, June 18th 

AT 3 :00 P.M. 

Automobile trip for the ladies, carrying you to the Dow Chem- 
ical Company (the only plant in the world that extracts bromine 
from the ocean). From there you visit historic old Fort Fisher 
which defended your State during the Civil War. Then on to 
Kure's Beach, Wilmington Beach, Carolina Beach and back to 

Monday, June 18th 

AT 8 :00 P. M. 

For those interested : there will be a baseball game at Bellamy 
Park beginning at 8 :00 o'clock, Monday night, Wilmington vs. 

Tuesday, June 19th 

AT 11 :00 A.M. 

Bridge-luncheon on the ocean front porch of the Seashore Hotel 
at Wrightsville Beach. Ladies Avill please meet in the Cape Fear 
Hotel lobby at 10 :00 a.m. Beach car will be chartered to take you 
down and bring you back at 3 :00 o'clock. 

Tuesday, June 19th 

AT 6:30 P.M. 

Banquet at the Cape Fear Hotel. Ladies especially iftivited. 
Music will be furnished by Eric Peterson and his lO-piece or- 
chestra. (During the past season this orchestra played at Auby's 
Lagoon, Miami Beach, Florida, and the Rineland Gardens in New 
York.) Now playing at the Harbor Island Casino, Wrightsville 

Tuesday, June 19th 

AT 10:00 P.M. 

North Carolina Dental Society Ball at Harbor Island Casino. 
Eric Peterson will entertain you and will have with him several 
big time acts — Irma Davies, Rudolph and Chiquita, the Reynolds 
Sisters and others. 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 21 

Wednesday, June 20th 
AT 9 :30 A. M. 
Dr. R. K. Brown of Ann Arbor, Michigan, will give a lecture 
on "Personality Measurements," to which all of the ladies are 
cordially invited to attend. 



The registration desk will be located on the mezzanine floor 
of the hotel, and registration Avill begin at 8 :00 o'clock Monday 
morning. The system of registration that was adopted last year 
will be used again this year, viz. : members will register with their 
respective district secretaries, who will be present for that purpose 
and for collecting dues from any who might have overlooked 
that detail. Then, when the registration card, approved by the 
district secretary, is presented at the desk indicated, a badge will 
be issued. No one ivill he admitted to the convention hall or the 
clinic rooms unless wearirig this badge in full sight. 

Visiting members of the American Dental Association may 
secure badges upon registering and presenting their 1934 member- 
ship cards. 

Badges will be issued to representatives of firms exhibiting at 
the meeting. 

Members may register and secure badges for their wives and 
members of their immediate families by filling out a card and 
afiixing their signature. 

General Sessions and Essayists 

All general sessions will be held in the ballroom of the hotel, 
and out of courtesy to our essayists, members are urged to be in 
their seats on time and remain until the meeting is adjourned. 

It has been decided to omit the usual formal discussions, the 
Program-Clinic Committee agreeing with Dr. Thomas of Chicago 
that — "A man believed to be an authority on a subject can make 
his theme effective and convincing without extra aid. He can be 
happy without the flattery that usually goes with the first para- 
graph and the misunderstanding that usually fills the rest." 

A brief classroom discussion, with questions and answers seems 
a more practical method of bringing out desired information, and 
our schedule is arranged with this in view. 

22 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Denial Society 

Local Clinics 

At this meeting a different arrangement will be tried with our 
local clinics on Monday afternoon. You will observe that they 
have been divided into four sections. The sections will be located 
in separate rooms, and will operate simultaneously according to 
published schedule. Each clinic of these sections will be given 
only once. Thus members may see one section in its entirety, or 
choose those clinics of the different sections which they wish to 
see and move from the clinic in one section to the next section. 
All these clinics will begin promptly according to the program 

Progressive Clinics 

Our progressive clinics will be staged as heretofore on Tuesday 
afternoon. Clinic cards for these will be issued to each member 
and visiting dentist upon registration. 


Our annual banquet has always proven a most enjoyable part 
of our convention, and this year will be no exception. Tickets 
will be on sale at the registration desk, and all who desire to 
attend are urged to purchase tickets on Monday. This will be our 
only means of determining the number for whom to provide. 

Chairmen of Committees will please make their reports to the 
House of Delegates in writing. This will save both time and 

Your cooperation in all the above will be of material aid, and 
will facilitate considerable detail. 


Seashore Hotel — American Plan, Wrkjhtsville Beach 

Two to the room, one bed, without bath $3.50 each per day 

One to the room, without bath $4.00 each per day 

Two to the room, one bed, with bath $4.00 each per day 

One to the room, M'ith bath $5.00 each per day 

Two to the room, two beds, with bath $4.50 each per day 

All corner rooms $1.00 above quoted prices. 

Hotel Cape Fear — Wilmington 

Single Rooms $2.50 to $3.50 

Double Rooms $3.50 to $6.00 

Hotel Wilmington — Wilmington 

Rooms without bath $1.75 

Rooms with bath $2.25 and $2.50 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 23 


JSToRTH Carolina Dental Society 

Hotel Cape Fear 
Wiliuin.utoii, N. C 

June 18, 19. 20, 1934 

Monday Morning, June 18th 

8 :00 A. M. 
Registration — (Mezzanine) Hotel Cape Fear. 

9 :30 A. M. 
Opening Session — (Ball Room). 

Invocation Rer. A. T. Braiitleii. Wilmington, N. C. 

(Pastor, Trinity Methodist Church) 

Address of Welcome . . Hon. John J. Buriieii. Wilmington. N. C. 

( City Attorney ) 

Response to Address of Welcome — 

Curl P. Xorris. Z).Z>.»s'.. Durham, N. C. 

President's Address . . Er)iefit A. Br<nich. D.D.S.. Raleigh. N. C. 

Report of Necrology Committee — 

J. S. Betts, D.D.S., Chairman. Greensboro, N. C. 

10 :30 A. M. 
"Malignancy of the Oral Cavity" — 

C. C. Carpenter, M.D., Wake Forest, N. C. 

11:00 A. M. 
"The Effect of New Iivformatiox ox the Manipulation of 
Alloys in Amaujam Restorations" — 

N. K. Broun. D.D.8., M.S., Ann Arbor. Mich. 
( University of Michigan ) 

(This lecture will cover the important things which have clinical 
significance that have developed in the field of amalgams since speci- 
fications were adopted b> tlie American Dental Association in 1929.) 

12 :15 P. M. 
Meeting of House of Delegates. 

1 :00 P. M. 
Lunch Hour. 


24 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

Monday Afternoon, Jtne 18tm 

2 :00 P. M. 


Each of thost' clinics will be given only once. 

You may select the ones which appeal most to you. 

Section on Crown and BRin(;E-woKK 

Dr. ,T. E. Swindei^l. Chdirnimi 

(Sun Porch) 

2 :00 P. M. 
"Ma>'ipitlation of Amalgam from a Practical Stanupoint" — 

J. R. Bell. IJ.D.S., (liarlotte, N. C. 

3 :00 P. M. 
"Wrought Wire Clasps axd Matrix Clasps for 

Partial Dentures" . ./. P. Bingham. D.D.S.. Lexinjiton, N. C. 

4 :00 P. M. 
"Repair Work on P"'ixed Bridges" — 

W. L. Hand. D.D.t^., New Bern, N. C. 

Section on Children's Dentistry 

Dr. R. Philip Melvin. Chainnan 

(Dining Room, on Mezzanine Floor) 

2 :00 P. M. 
"Treating the Child Patient With Special Reference to 

Space Maintainers" . Wdltvr K. Clark. D.D.I^.. Asheville, N. C. 

2 :30 P. M. 
"Education of the Child Patient to Dental Needs" — 

M. R. ^Smith. D.D.S.. Raleigh, N. C. 

3 :0;3 P. M. 

"The Pollock Fixed-Removahle Orthodontia Appliance 

Featuring the Recurrent Loop for Both Arches" — 

Geo. r. Hull. D.D.S.. Charlotte, N. C. 

3 :30 P. M. 
"Some Etiological Factors in Malocclusion and Oilvl 

Deformities" .... G. Fred Hale. D.D.S.. RaU'liih, N. C. 

4:00 P. M. 
"Ethyl Chloride as a General Anesthetic for Children" — 

R. M. Olive. D.D.H.. Fa.vetteville. \. C. 


The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 25 

Section on Prosthetic Dentistry 

Dr. J. W. Whitehead, Chairman 
(Ball Room) 

2 :00 P. M. 

"Thermo-plastic Denture Bases" — 

E. M. Mcdlin, D.D.S., Aberdeen, N. C. 

3 :00 P. M. 

"A Practical Method of Taking an Edentulous Mandibutlar 

Impression" . . . H. M. Johnson. D.D.S., Greenville, N. C. 

4:00 P.M. 
"Taking the Bite for Full Dentures" — 

R. L. Simpson. A.M.. D.D.S.. F.A.C.D.. Richmond, Va. 

(This is a clinical lecture presenting a method by which the follow- 
ing^ may be easily established : 

1. How wide to open the bite 

2. Length of lower teeth 

3. Length of upper teeth (approximately) 

4. Median line 

5. Centric relation 

6. Occlusal plane 

7. Angle of occlusal plane (approximately) 

8. Balanced occlusion 

9. Why no bite block can indicate width of six anterior teeth. 

"Without the use of anatomical articulator, face bow, Gothic arch 
tracing, condyle path tracing, and with no immediate re-basing.) 

Section on Periodontia 

Dr. Wallace D. Gibbs, Chairman 
(Studio, on First Floor) 

2 :00 P. M. 
"DuNLOP Method of Treating Pyorrheia Pockets" — 

C. D. Bain, D.D.S., Dunn, N. C. 

2 :30 P. M. 
"Periodontal Treatment for the (General Practitioner" — 

A. Pitt Beam, D.D.S., Shelby, N. C. 

3 :00 P. M. 

"The Relationship of Impacted Teeth to Periodontoclasia 

and Vincent's" . . Harold E. Htori/. D.D.S., Charlotte, N. C. 

3 :30 P. M. 
"Some Etiological Factors in Periodontia and Some Case 

Treatments of Interest to the General Practitioner" — 

John L. Ashhy, D.D.S., Mount Air.v, N. C. 

y I S I T T II E K X H I B 1 T S 

26 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

Monday Evkmkg, Jtne ISrir 

8:15 P.M. 

"Operative Pko( edukes in Oral Surgery'" — 

Thomaa Conner, D.D.S.. Atlanta. Ga. 

(Motion pictures and lanlern slirles will be presented to portray the 
operative procedure in cj sts, malignancies, and exodontia, i 

9:30 P.M. 

"The Amalgam Restoration" — 

/?. K. Broini. D.D.S.. M.S.. Ann Arbor. Mich. 

(This lecture will describe the application to clinical practice of the 
findings discussed in Dr. Brown's first lecture Monday morning. It 
will cover the necessity for changes in cavity preparation, the use of 
cavity liner to obtain the best results, and the advisability of using the 
amalgam inlay. ) 

Tuesday Morning, June 19th 

9 :00 A. M. 

"The Business Phase of Dentistry for Children" — 

Walter C. McBride. D.D.S., Detroit. Mich. 

(This lecture embodies an intimate discussion of the fee question 
including estimates, mtthods of collection, an analysis of income 
sources, and suggested practice builders and maintainers. ) 

10:15 A.M. 

"Technical Procedures in Periodontology " — 

Harrii Lijonx. P.D.S.. Uiclimond, Ya. 
(Medical of Virginia.) 

This presentation will be an illustrated discussion of the rational 
therapy of chronic periodontoclasia. The procedures advised will be 
based on fundamental principles of periodontal pathology. These will 
be illustrated by original photo-micrographs of human material. The 
establishment of normal dental function will be described in detail. 
X-Ray studies of treated cases showing bone regeneration will be pre- 
sented and the method of treatment described. 

1 1 :00 A. M. 


Bissell B. Palmer, D.D.S.. F.A.C.D.. New Yorlv City, 

(This lecture will review the background of social legislation affect- 
ing the health services; current trends; the importance of primary 
patterns; dangers in the situation; state dentistry; insurance den- 
tistry; the importance of a progressive attitude, and a plan that may 
lie a possible solution of the problem.) 

1 :00 P. M. 
Lunch Hour. 


The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 27 

Tuesday Afternoon, June 19th 

2 :00 P. M. 

PRO(iRESsiVE Clinics, Visiting Clinicians 

(Admission by Card) 

2 :00 P. M. 

Section I — Dr. Walter V. McBride (Sun Puieh). 

Section II — Dr. Thomas Conner (Dining Room, on Mezzanine). 

Section III— Dr. E. K. Brown (Ball Room). 

3 :00 P. M. 
Section I — Dr. Thomas Conner. 
Section II — Dr. R. K. Brotcn. 
Section III— £>/-. Walter C. McBride. 

4:00 P.M. 
Section I — Dr. R. K. Broirn. 
Section II- -Dr. Walter C. McBride. 
Section III — Dr. Thomas Conner. 

In the Progressive Clinics Dr. Conner will discuss osteomyelitis, frac- 
tures, exodontia, and post-operative treatment. He will also be glad 
to give his opinion on x-rays brought in b5^ the dentists attending 
his clinic. 

Dr. McBride will give a lecture clinic on "Operative Procedures in 
Children's Dentistry," considering treatment of vital and non-vital 
deciduous teeth, cavity preparation, sterilization, matrices, filling 
materials, extraction and space maintenance, and the care of fractured 
anterior teeth. 

Dr. Brown's subject will be "Clinical Procedures in Making an 
Amalgam Restoration." The amalgam technic as used at the School 
of Dentistry, University of Michigan, will be presented in the fol- 
lowing sequence: 

1. Cavity preparation 

2. Use of matrices 

Z. Selection and manipulation of the alloy 

4. Condensing, packing, and adapting the amalgam to the cavity 
to make a tight plug 

5. Carving and contouring the restoration 

6. Final finish and polishing 

7. Subsequent care. 

5 :00 P. M. 
Meeting ov House of Delegates. 

Tuesday Eveninc;, June 19th 

6 :30 P. M. 

Banquet — Main Dininji Room of the Cape Fear Hotel. 

Toastmaster — Mr. Ray Fiinderhurk. Wilmington, N. C. 
(Superintendent New Hanover County Schools) 

Present ATio.x of Pkesii)Ent".s Emiu.em. 
Music : Eric Petersen and his orchestra. 


28 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

8 :30 P. M. 
(Ienekal Session — 

Election of Officers. 

Election of Two Members to the Board of Examiners. 

Election of Delejiate and Alternates to A. 1>. A. 

Election of Place for Xext Meetintr. 

10:00 P.M. 

Dance: Harbor Island (".isino, Wriglitsville — 

Erie Peterson Orcheatra. 

Wednesday Morning, Ji'ne 20th 

9 :00 A. M. 
'Childhood Tuberculosis" . P. P. McCain. M.D.. Sanatorium, N. C. 

9 :30 A. M. 

'Person AMTY Measurements" — 

R. K. Brown. D.D.t<.. M.8.. Ann Arbor, Mich. 

(This lecture gives the results of a live-years' study on what traits 
of personality appear to be essential for the successful practice of 

It presents a method by which an individual may have himself 
analyzed in regard to these traits and how he may institute a pro- 
gram for self-improvement. 

Examples will be cited depicting actual cases and the possible bene- 
fits that could arise to the individual if he applied the findings of 
this study in an attempt to integrate his personality.) 

10:30 A.M. 

"The Value of Blood IOxamination in Oral Lesions" — 

./. A. Sinclair, D.D.S., Asheville, N. C. 

(This paper will deal with infection, resistance, and immunity; and 
something will be said regarding the pyorrliea pocket — the reason why 
a pyorrhea pocket heals after extraction of the tooth, and the result 
of the extraction of too many infected teeth at one time.) 

11:30 A.M. 
Meeting of House of Delegates. 
Geineral Session. 
Installation of Officers. 


The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 29 


First District 

President A. C. Current 

President-Elect j. F. Reeee 

Vice-President D. H. Crawford 

Secretanj-Trrasin-er C. S. McCall 

Editor S. E. Moser 

Second District 

President C. M. Parks 

President-Elect F. O. Alford 

Vice-President ; j. u Nicholson 

Secretary-Treasurer D. W. Holcomh 

Third District 

President C. I. Miller 

President-Elect X. E. Sikes 

Secret ani-Treasnrer j '£ Lasley 

l^^iior ";e. M.Medliii 

Fourth District 

President I. h. Hovle 

President-Elect G. L. Hooper 

Vice-President j ^r Branham 

Secretary-Treasurer j^ j i\Xoore 

^^''^'"' Z'ZZ^Zr. m' Squires 

Fifth District 

President H. K. Thompson 

President-Elect Paul Fitzs-erald 

Vice-President O. J. Bender 

Secretary-Treasurer ^x i^ Hand 

Ifn Mlemoriam 




Williamston Greensboro 


February 4, 1872— May 16, 1934 

By still water they would rest 
In the shaddw of the tree. 
After battle, sleep is Itest, 
After noise, tran(iuility. 

— Alfred Lard Tennyson. 

30 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 



111 the sprinjitime when nature buds forth in all her }?randeur and 
beauty, in the spriiijitime when a youiifr man's fancy turns to love, 
in the spriii.i;:time when so many things of rare charm and beauty claim 
our attention that only a bare minimum who have drifted into the 
narrowest rut can think of the same thing long at a time — but who 
wants to think of the same thin.!; all the time? In the springtime 
is when all dentists should be thinking about the approaching State 
meeting and making ready to attend. I for one am getting real hungry 
for the time, in fact I am al»out ready to offer a motion that we make 
our State meeting a semi-anmial affair. It seems too long between 
meetings. Some one is going to say. he means it seems too long between 
drinks. You may have the privilege of putting your own construction 
on what I mean but here is what I do earnestly and sincerely mean ; 
YOU as a practicing dentist in the First District ow'e it to yourself 
to attend our State meeting. It isn't a duty it is a privilege and most 
all of us know from regular attendance in the past that it is one of 
the rare treats of the year to which we are always looking forward. 
Come on boys let's all get ready to go to Wrightsville Beach. We are 
getting more and more convention wise here in the First District and 
I regret that time and space does not permit adequate comment on 
some of the things that are taking place around these parts. I would 
like to say however that my last article in the Bulletin was con- 
siderably in error as regards the Rutherford County Dental Society. We 
stated that it is coming into its own again, when as a matter of fact 
this society weathered the storm in grand style and has never failed 
to function on a very commendable scale. I trust the boys up there 
will accept my apology. 

Let me say again that I am looking for all you boys in the First 
restrict down at Wrightsville ; not for any selfish motive, not for a 
show from our district but to enjoy the fellowship, friendship, social 
entertainment, and professional edification all of which this occasion 
will furnish in abundance. 

A. C. Current, 
President First Distriet. 


The sixtieth annual meeting of the North Carolina Dental Society 
is just ahead of us. It will be held in Wilmington, .Tune 18th, 19th, and 
20tli. Your officers and committees have prepared a program that will 
be well worth the time and expense for you to attend. They have 
worked hard to make this meeting both profitable and entertaining for 
you. Why not express your appreciation to them by being in attendance 
the full three days? It will do you good to come out and associate with 
your fellow dentist. Get his ideas about things. They may not be worth 
a darn, but it will be food for thought anyway. And the interchange of 
ideas is the foundation of all progress. 

You know a worth-while meeting cannot be put on without a certain 
amount of necessary expense. This expense is paid chiefly from the 
dues that you and I pay to the Society. So let me urge you. if you have 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 31 

not paid your dues, to do so now. Don't wait until you get to Wilming- 
ton to do it. It is iin added liardsliii) on your district secretary, (iive 
liim a "break." He would like to be able to attend the lectures and 
clinics, and not spend half his time collecting dues. Mail him a check 

The Second District, at the present time, stands about "fifty-tifty." 
In other words, about half the normal membership has paid. Among 
those who have not paid, there are several who will come up for 
suspension at Wilmington unless they "ante up." Let me especially 
urge them to pay up and avoid suspension. The "bargain rate" of 
seventeen dollars for reinstatement was passed for one year only, and 
may not be extended. Furthermore, the payment of twenty-five consecu- 
tive years entitles a member to life membership in the State and 
District Societies. He cannot pay ten years, become suspended and 
continue for fifteen more years. He must then begin all over again. 
This point should be worth serious consideration. Membership in the 
North Carolina Dental Society should be one of our most valued 
pos.sessions, and especially should life membership be something worth 
striving for. So let's pay our dues to the organization that has done 
so much for our profession in this State, and attend the annual meet- 
ing in June. It will be time and money spent for the advancement of 
yourself and your profession. The Wilmington boys are expecting you. 
Don't fail them. C. M. Parks/ 

President Second District. 

The annual meeting of the North Carolina Dental Society will be 
held within the next few weeks at Wilmington. Now is the time tt) 
start planning this event. 

We, as purveyors of better health and mouth hygiene, should take 
inventory of our stock and knowledge of the profession and remember 
the things wherein we have fallen short of the best service we might 
have rendered our patients. With this in mind we will find at our 
meeting just the things we need most. 

The Program Committee is exerting its best efforts to obtain essay- 
ists and clinicians who can give us a program in keeping with the high 
standard the society has always maintained. It would be almost unfair 
to yourself and patients should you miss this meeting. 

The Entertainment Committee is planning some unique features 
that will be enjoyed by all of us and which you will be sorry if you 
miss. Also there are two beaches nearby, so don't forget to include 
your swimming suit when you pack your belongings. 

The district secretaries may continue to accept dues from suspended 
members on the compromise basis up to the time of the meeting at 
which time the offer will expire. 

Let's get busy fellows and plan to attend this meeting. 

D. W. HoLCOMB, Secretary-Treasurer, 

Second District Dental Society. 


There are many things for which we should be thankful at this time. 
First, we are graduiilly recovering from the depression which has 
almost stifled the aspirations of the strongest. But the American people 
are not quitters, the harder they are pressed, the harder they fight. 
To beat a retreat is foreign to the red-blooded American. So it behcjoves 
us to back our great President in his eaiiiest desire to bring this 

32 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

Kei>uV)lic out of the confusion and distrust to whicli we have fallen 
into. A newer and hri^hter day for all. 

Then we haA'e cause to be thankful that Providence has been so 
charitable toward us duriufi the past year. Few have been taken from 
our ranks to answer the last call. 

Thirdly, within the next fifty days we will meet in one body with 
the other four districts in Wilmington. This is to be a itrreat meeting 
and it cannot lie accomplished without combined interest and coiipera- 
tion of every member of the North Carolina Dental Society. I want 
to emphasize the importance of all members of the Third District to 
attend all these meetings. Make your arrangements now to go to 
Wilmington. June 18-20. and help make this meeting the best in the 
history of the Association. You need tlie break from the daily grind. 
Tlie contacts and fellowship will stimulate you and you will return 
feeling better for having had a part in the great forward movement to 
keep our profession abreast with the times. There are conditions and 
forces in this country tliat will tear down the high ideals of the pro- 
fession, and the best weapon to tight these forces is organized and 
enlightened dentistry. You will be a more enthusiastic tighter if you 
attend all the district and State meetings possible. There is nothing 
lost by leaving your office for a few days. There is always something 
worth while in every program, so pack up, stock up. and go to Wil- 
mington with your enthusiasm 100 per cent, and then there will be no 
retrogression from the ideals and purposes for which the North Caro- 
lina Dental Society has fought so untiringly. 

Charles J. Miller. 
President Third Distriet. 


This article is a form of an invitation to North Carolina dentists 
to meet in Pinehurst in 1935. My first reason for extending it this way 
is that while up before the session I miglit forget some of the many 
advantages and second, time does not permit lengthy oral invitations. 
Another reason is that I prefer doing otlier things at the meeting to 
soliciting votes for a convention place. 

The statement that it is no farther from Manteo to Murphy than 
it is from Murphy to Manteo sounds very good. I think once in a while 
it is all right to meet in extreme sections but on the wliole I believe you 
will agree with me that the meeting place should be more or less 
centrally located for better results. 

Mr. Emery wiio is in charge of conventions asked the other day why 
the dental society didn't meet in Pinehurst anymore, making the re- 
mark that State bankers had met here for seven consecutive years and 
physicians practically every year during that time. My reply was that 
possibly tlie rates had something to do with it. He reminded me that 
rates have been reduced, two in room. $7.00. The physicians are getting 
a special rate this year with a slightly restricted menu for $6.00. The 
Berkshire Hotel and Holly Inn. both American plan, give rates of $r».00 
per day. They are located within 3 blocks of the Carolina. 

Y^ou get the same advantages in Pinehurst as you do in our cities 
witliout the disadvantages. 

The question of sentiment as to a meeting place is fine. I know of 
no place in the State where that i-eason is more appropriate than Pine- 
hurst. The pioneers who took a strip of our State covered with black- 

The Bullet hi of the Xorfh Carolina Dental Society 33 

jacks and converted it to one of tlie most beautiful spots to be found 
are due a debt of gratitude. They have made it a life's business to -nve 
visitors who came here a good time. have heard about an.l 
Msited Aorth ( arolina on account of Pinehurst. 

I un.semshl.v believe the North ('arolina Dental Societv would do well 
to meet in Pinehurst in 1935. 

p]. M. Medlin, 
Editor, Third District. 

We are looking forward to this I)eing one of our best vears 

The Third District entered 1934 with the largest membershin i„ its 
history, and with a united effort, we plan to go forward 

Dentistry in North Carolina has undertaken and accomplished many 
things in the past few years which have attracted nation-wide attention 
Among these I will mention only two : Its laws and its united effort iii 
the Dental Health Survey. I have not heard the total number of chil- 
dren examined in the State, but judging from the total in mv own 
county. I will be safe in saying that North Carolina will lead the' states 
m the number of children examined— taking it on the per capita basis 

well, springtime is with us again and with spring comes our State 
meeting and it is time to begin planning to take that trip to Wilming- 
ton and the State meeting which is to be held in .Tune. As a littfe 
tip to you. It IS going to l)e something that will be of interest to us as 

specialisr'"''''^'^'""""' ''"'^ ^"'''"''' '^"""■''^' ^'' ^'"''^ "^'^ attention of'the 

Spejiking about the things we have accomplished in the North Caro- 

ina Dental Society. I would like to call to'your attention one of the 

things we have not accomplished, and that is the collection of the dues 

^HnT-." '"T, "' ■^■"" ''''-''' '^"•^■•^ ^™"1^ «i^^ »^^ local secr,^ta-es 
a tip as to how this can be done, I am sure you will be given a --reL? 
ovation. However, let me suggest that you pay your dues before the 
Stae meeting this year-maybe that suggestion will solve our questi n 
,ii. , ? ' Carolina Dental Society has always had excellent presi: 
dents, but I venture to say that it has never had <me that has cone 
TvP . t;:; T""" I'^"" I>^-- Emest Branch. And don't you fojget we 
haAe a sec-i-e ary down at Fayetteville who has never m ssed a chance 
to forward dentistry in North Carolina. Let us make up ou • m ds 
right now to show these two leaders in dentistry in N tlCaS' 

!^ WnmhJSInr """""^ '"'•"■'^ "^- ='^^""""- '''' ^^"^- ^^ 

•1. T. Lasley, 
Third District >iccretury. 



I don-t know where or when (mr State meeting will be held, or what 
the boys have planned. But it is a safe guess that we shal netT a 
some interesting place, at a good time in the balmv davs of i,>rin*V 
and that he program will be attractive and helpful. 'l an going /ol^'t' 
some of the oth(.-s write about that. I want to tell vou h,„ ',. 
encouraging observation. ■ ^ '"' 

Twenty-one .vcars ago a friend of mine, principal of <,ne „f the small 
high schools of Wake County, invitc.l me t.. examine the mouths.'f 

34 The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 

his school children. This was pioneer work around here in those days, 
sponsored by no State Board of Health or organized educational or 
dental authority. I hired a horse and buggy and drove the ten miles 
to the country school. My wife, who was a young bride then, went 
with me to tabulate my findings. It was a rather strenuous but interest- 
ing day. Before examining each child"s mouth, I washed my instru- 
ments in a sterilizing sdlution and my hands in water — and came near 
scrubbing the skin (iff my hands before the day was over. We drove 
home through the spring twilight: but by working all day. I had 
examined the mouths of the children in that school. 

During the recent examination of the school children, a fellow dentist 
and I examined the mouths of the pupils of two schools. The delight- 
fully encouraging observation which I record is this : The recent ex- 
amination reveals the fact that the mouth conditions of these school 
children is from 50 to 100 per cent better than the conditions of those 
mouths examined twenty-one years ago. 

Many factors have contributed to this happy change : discoveries, 
made during the World War and since, concerning the etfect of mouth 
conditions on general health : work of the State Board of Health, 
through the press and in schools : more skillful and conscientious den- 
tistry, and missionary efforts of dentists and others who desire to pre- 
serve the natural organs of mastication : research and education along 
the lines of proper foods for health and tooth Iniilding. One thing I 
know : Somebody has been rendering a wonderful service to humanity. 
I do not believe it is an exaggeration to say that the teeth and the 
mouths of the young people of today are 100 per cent better than were 
the youths of a generation ago. Does this say anything for organized 
dentistry ? 

Personally I am encouraged by our achievements, and feel proud of 
the fact that I have had a part in a work worth while. And, fellows 
I want to see every one of you at our State meeting — to encourage, to 
cooperate, to teach, to learn, to inspire, to be inspired, and in every 
way possible to promote the humane and noble work of our profession. 

R. M. Squires. 


S( me say we are emerging from the depression and I hope they are 
correct. So far we have escaped revolution, but there have been deep, 
grave, and, I fear, lasting changes in the country's socialistic make-up. 

People have been given so much that individual beggars have given 
place to group beggars, who are going to be much more difficult to deal 
with than their less arrogant brothers. The spirit is : "From him that 
have, it shall be taken.'" The time is drawing near when organized 
dentistry will have to dance to such a tune. 

The educational program in our schools came at the worst possible 
time. It enlightened the people to the dental need, but offered no way 
of supplying them. Then every would-be social worker, probably with 
money and nothing to do, felt the heart pangs of altruism; and the 
high-pitched talk of exhorbitant dental fees gently faded into a quiet 
simple little murmur, "Let the dentists do the free work, they're robbers 

So now we are faced with several propositions : namely, socialized 
dentistry, panel dentistry, pay clinic, and Federal bargaining. 

The Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society 35 

Our school dental work is socialized dentistry. The operators are 
employees of the State. Now if this system were enlarged to care for 
all the people, it would place us iu another tax jam. A tax jam is a 
peculiar thing in that it is not sweet to the taxpayers. There shall be 
no State dentistry. 

The panel system of dentistry is not unlike health insurance. It 
would lower dental costs, because the insurance companies would set 
the fees for each operation. A dentist would not luivc to join the ]iauel : 
he could cling to the shabb.v remains of his private practice and let 
his family starve, or join the C. ^y. A. 

The pay clinic is the real v,olf at our door. True, it will give 
cheaper dentistry, and I might add inferior dentistry. These clinics 
will employ numerous dentists at low wages. The private practitioner 
will have to compete with clinic prices. Very few could long do so. 
This will mean a general use of the clinic. Such a system would prob- 
ably reach more people under present economic conditions. In case the 
clinic should need more dentists than could be hired, then it would 
probably shorten the dental curriculum. It certainly could not wait five 
or six years for some to graduate, and none could afford to invest much 
in an education without a brighter future in the profession. There is 
one bright side to the mass clinic work. The dentists could at least 
join some of the trade labor unions, draw up a code, and work now 
and then. 

I have left Federal bargaining for the last, because I think it ought 
to be on the tail-end of everything. The government has appropriated, 
spent, and thrown away millions and millions of dollars for every 
wild-cat scheme on all sides of the earth. It has handed money to 
banks, railroads, insurance companies, every conceivable type of enter- 
prise, both private and public, but it has never seen fit to appropriate 
a dime to a profession which has so much to do with the health and 
happiness of one hundred and twenty million Americans, For us it 
says fifty cents a treatment — for the business man, it says you are 
assured your profit. 

There is only one hope for organized dentistry — get organised. 
Dentistry cannot afford to flirt with any plan that 'will more readily 
place dental attention on a lowered scale or fee. The whole plan of 
Federal aid is fast leading us to a socialistic state, and dentistry in 
particular to panel or clinic system. If we ever accept as a bod.v the 
present fee basis offered by the government there will be only one more 
step before we shall lose control of our own system, and organized 
dentistry will be a myth. The heritage of a great and noble profession 
calls us to arms. 

These things we must prevent. Our dental meetings are held for the 
good of the profession. A member cannot do his part by proxy. Every 
man in the Fifth District should attend in loyalty to Organized den- 
tistry, and through courtesy to the other four distrh-ts, since we are 
entertaining the State Society in Wilmington on June IS to 20. The 
program will be splendid, the city fanned by the sea breezes, and the 
beaches will be as alluring as ever. 

As your ]>resident, I welcome every man in all the other districls 
to Wilmington, and I urge you to come help entertain them. 

H. K. Tmompso.\, 
I'rr.sidoif Fifth IHslrict. 

36 The BuUetin of the North Carolina Dental Society 


(Editor's note: The correspondence below is self explanatory, and is 
given for the information for the profession in the State, which they 
may pass on for the benefit of their patients, neighbors and friends.) 


April li.-;. 1034. 
Mr. C. 1). MeCulleii. Claim No. m-2m 

Faisoii. X. C. 

Dear Mr. McCullen : 

We haA'e completed the investi.ijatioii of your elaim and we tiiid that 
you were given aid by Dr. Davidian on March 18. Followintr that 
time you were attended by Dr. J. N. Johnson, dentist. 

Our policy provides that for us to have liability, the insured must 
be attended by a physician or surgeon at least once every seven days. 
As you had ouly one date l)y a medical doctor, we could have liabilit.v 
for only one week of disabilit.v. 

Such an accident as yours comes under Part IV of the policy which 
pays at the rate of $100 per month for total disability. Your claim 
amounts to $23.33 for which our draft is being sent. 

Sincerely yours, 

C. C. Myeks. Auditor of Claims. 


(iOI.DSBOKO. N. (".. 

Mav ISth, l!t34. 

Dr. John S. Wheeler. 

Chairman Liability Insuranct' Committee. X. C. I). S. 

Greensboro, X. C. 

Dear John : 

I am enclosing a letter under date of April 23rd. from the American 
Protective Insurance Company. Kansas City. Mo., to Mr. C. D. McCullen, 
Faison, N. C. 

You will note that the American Prottn-tive Insurance Company does 
not rate the Doctor of Dental Surgery a surgeon specializing in the 
treatment of injuries to the jaws and teeth. 

Physicians and surgeons do not make interdental splints — even the 
laity is advised of that — and an increasing number of fracture cases 
are coming directly to the dental surgeon, therefore, I am calling your 
attention to the clause in the policy of the American Protective Insur- 
ance Company, discriminating against the dental surgeon, in order that 
.vou ma.v. for publication, give the information to the editor of tlie 
Bulletin- of the North Carolina Dental Society and to the editor of 
the Journal of the American Dental Association. 

Mr. McCullen was injured in an automobile accident March ISth, 
9:00 p.m. near the Johnston County Hospital, Smithfleld, N. C., where 
he received tirst aid from Dr. Davidian. He was brought to my ottice 
at !• :0() a.m. March 19th, bleeding profusely — had been bleeding all 
ni.ght — from a hemorrhage along the line of a fracture in the left 
maxilla, four teeth were knocked out of their .sockets. 

Mr. McCullen carried accident insurance in two companies. I tilled 
ovit both claims for two weeks liability, one of the companies i)aid the 

The Bulletin of Ihe XorUi Carolina Dental Society 37 

two weeks liability promptly, but the Americau Protective Insnrauce 
Company, because Mr. McCulleu was not seen by a physiciau-surijeon 
except on the night of the accident is responsible for onlv one weeks 

Fraternally yours. 

J. N. Johnson, D.D.S. 

Mr. Dan C Boney. 

Commissioner of In.surance, State t)f North Carolina. 

Kaleigh. N. C. 

Dear Mr. Boney : 

Would you be so good as to advise me if the American Protective 
Insurance Company of Kansas City. Mo., is licensed to do business in 
the l^tate of North Carolina? 

Sincerely yours, 

G. Feed Hale. 


Insurance Department 

Dear Sir : 


I acknowledge receipt of your inquiry concerning the American 
Protective Insurance Company. Kansas City, Mo. 

This concern is not licensed to do business in North Carolina and no 
contract of insurance that it might issue would be enforceable in the 
courts of this State. I strongly recommend that citizens of our State 
refrain from purchasing insurance of any form from companies other 
than those properly licensed. 

Yours very truly. 
Dan C. Boney. In.suraiK-e Commis.sioiier. 


American Dental Association 

212 E. Sui>erior St., Chicago, 111. 

Recently Developed Material, So New That It Has Not As Yet Been 
Included In Our Regular Educational Lists 

"The Care of the Teeth" Booklet. 32 pages of authoritative dental health 
information : written in lay language. Richly illustrated with 
SO photographs of actual cases. Approved by the American Dental 
As.sociation and the United States Public Health Service. The 
t.ype of material dentists want to give their patients. Educators 
and pul)lic health workers can use it as teaching material in 
schools. Single cojiies. lOc: li.' copies, $1.(X) ; 50 copies. $4.00; 100 
copies, $7.50; .)00 copies. $25.00; 1.000 copies. $45.00. (See Journal 
of the A. I). A., Deceml)er, 103;!.) 

Practical Tooth Brti.shiiig Chart. I'rinted in two colors (size 22 x 2S in. i. 
It demonstrates a practical tooth brushing method for children 
and adults. This good looking chart supplies a long felt want for 
.schools, dispensaries and private offices. Price, 50c. (See Journal 
of the A. D. A., February, 1033.) 

38 The BuIIetm of the North Carolina Dental Society 

First Grade Educational Leaflets. Six leaflets designed for first grade 
work. Each lesson printed on 8 x 11 inch drawing paper. The 
wording is adapted to first grade vocabulary. The simple artistic 
draAA'ings are to be colored by the children. This material will 
enable educators to coordinate the teaching of dental health with 
that of art and reading. Single set of six leaflets. 5c ; 25 sets, 
50c. (See Journal of A. D. A., March, 1934.) 

ycicsijaper Articles. Written as a semi-continued story "John. Mary 
and Jack,"' in 52 installments. Each installment contains a dental 
health lesson. Approved by the American Dental Association and 
the United States Public Health Service. Distributed free to 
component societies for insertion in local newspapers. (See 
Journal of A. D. A., April. 1934. ) 

Xew Motion Picture "Nature — Builder of Teeth" — 16 m.m. shows the 
development of teeth from birth to adulthood. Explains the part 
played in facial development by the erupting forces of teeth, also 
elfect of nutritional disturbances and illness on tooth develop- 
ment — mottled teeth, normal and abnormal occlusion, are por- 
trayed. Written lecture accompanies film. Price, $25.00. Rental 
fee. .$1.0<J per showing plus express charges. 


Harris Dental Company Norfolk, Va. 

Rotlisteiu Dental Laboratory Washington, D. C. 

Woodward Pi'ostlietic Company Greensboro, N. C. 

Raleigh Dental Laboratory Raleigh, N. C. 

]^ovocol Chemical Mfg. Co., Inc., and Dental Items 

of Interest Publishing Company, Inc. Brooklyn, J^. Y. 

Powers & Anderson Dental Company Richmond, Va. 

Pyeope, Inc Joplin, Mo. 

Thompson Dental Company Greensboro, N. C. 

Ray-Lyon Company Atlanta, Ga. 

Eberhart-Conway Company Atlanta, Ga. 

Fleming Dental Laboratory Raleigh, N. C. 

R. D. Webb Dental Mfg. Co Atlanta, Ga. 

"George Popper Stones and Burs." 

The above firms have gone to considerable trouble and expense 
to attend our meeting, and it is therefore requested that our 
members give them the consideration which they deserve. Register 
with them, and give them an opportunity to show their products. 

The BuUetin of the North Carolina Dental Society 


We wish to take this opportunity to thank the various commer- 
cial interests who have advertised with lis in this and other issues 
of the Bulletin. Their cooperation has aided us in furthering 
the activities of organized dentistry and in making more efficient 
our service to the people of the State. 

"iljp Houar bi} ttjr g-Usp nf tljp Soab" 




^e Verfect VowderforDentures 



Three o'clock in ihe afternoon may not be a convenient 
time to use Ipana, but at this hour the vitality of mouth 
tissues is at a low ebb — the tissues are tired. 

The entire oral cavity is benefited by Ipana. It not only 
cleans the teeth and brings out their natural brilliance, 
but its stimulating effect wakes up lazy gums. Ipana 
tones and strengthens them and the tingling after feel is 
highly refreshing to tired soft tissues whether it be in 
the afternoon, morning or night. 




The regular elimination of waste products is a necessary 
adjunct to prophylaxis in treating certain oral disturb- 

Calcareous deposits, salivary debris, thick ropy saliva 
yield to the corrective influence of Sal Hepatica. 

Sal Hepatica is a mild effective laxative and eliminant. 
It follows up prophylactic treatment of the "vestibule" 
with a healthy cleansing of the intestinal tract. 





A Well Desi 

gned Tooth 








Brushing T 



A S 


t Amount 

of Time 






service to your patient sh 
his instruction in the 
care of his mouth 

ould include 










Richmond, Virgdma 
Charlotte and Winston-Salem, North Carolina 

Eberhart-Conway Company 

"Since 1900 the South's Standai«d Laboi-atory" 


P. 0. Box 1737 :- : Atlanta, Georgia 


Harris Dental Company 

( Incorporated ) 


Medical Arts Building, Medical Arts Building, 





Jefferson Bldg. Arcade Bldg. 





Prosthetic Specialists for the Dental Profession 

■ H ■ 

610 North Carolina Bank Bldg, 


WILMINGTON, North Carolina 


The North Carolina 
Dental Society 


JUNE 18-19-20, 1934 
H. N. CALLAHAxN, - - - Manager 


Seashore Hotel 

Wrightsville Beach, N. C. 

'^ Better Than Ever'' 

Ail dentists are invited to stop witli us 
wtiile down for tiie convention. We offer 
you reasonable rates, good food, good serv- 
ice, and rooms right on the ocean with best 
of bathing. 


Harold H. Jeter, Manager 




We wish to take this opportunity to 
thank the profession for their patronage 
in the past, and may our future rela- 
tions be as pleasant.