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Full text of "Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society [serial]"

Dltti0ion of l^ealtb ZUalx% 
([|nit)et0itp of JBotti) Carolina 




This Book Must Not Be Taken 
from the Division of Health 
Affairs Buildings. 

This JOURNAL may be kept out TWO DAYS, 
and is subject to a fine of FIVE CENTS a day 
thereafter. It is DUE on the DAY indicated 
belovr; 



DiVI3iON OF HE.a,LTH AFF- 






THE 

BULLETIN 



OF 



The North Carohna 
Dental Society 

COMPONENT OF THE AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION 




CONTAINING THE 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

NINETY-SECOND ANNIVERSARY MEETING 

AT THE 

GEORGE VANDERBILT HOTEL 

ASHEVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA 

APRIL 26, 27, 28, 1948 



Vol. 32 AUGUST, 1948 

CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA 



No. 1 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

North Carolina History of Health Digital Collection, an LSTA-funded NC ECHO digitization grant project 



http://www.archive.org/details/bulletinofncdent32194849 



THE BULLETIN 

of 

The North Carolina Dental Society 

COMPONENT OF THE AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION 
CONTAINING THE 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

NINETY SECOND ANNIVERSARY MEETING 

At The 

George Vanderbilt Hotel 

asheville, n. c. 

April 26, 27, 28, 1948 

Vol. 32 AUGUST, 1948 No. 1 

Entered as second-class matter as a quarterly, September, 1944, at the post office, Charlotte, 
N. C, under act of August 24, 1912. Office of Publication, 415 Professional Building, 

Charlotte, N. C. 

Subscription $1.00 

OFFICERS 1947-48 

Dr. R. M. Olive, President Fayetteville 

Dr. C. W. Sanders, President-Elect Benson 

Dr. L. J. Moore, Vice-President St. Pauls 

Dr. Fred Hunt, Secretary-Treasurer Rocky Mount 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Dr. a. C. Current (1950) , Chairman Gastonia 

Dr. F. 0. Alford (1948) Charlotte 

Dr. S. L. Bobbitt (1949) Raleigh 

Dr. R. M. Olive (ex-officio) Fayetteville 

Dr. C. W. Sanders (e --officio) Benson 

Dr. Fred Hunt (ex-officio) Rocky Mount 

EDITOR-PUBLISHER 
Dr. L. Franklin Bumgardner Charlotte 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

Advisory Committee N. C. Medical Care Commission 

A. C. Current, Chairman 

W. E. Clark O. L. Presnell 

John A. McClung Darden Eure 

H. O. Lineberger T. W. Atwood 

J. C. Watkins E. M. Medlin 

Paul Jones Charles Eatman 

Wilbert Jackson G. Fred Hale, ex-offlcio 

Norman F. Ross Clyde Minges, ex-offlcio 

Resolution Committee 

E. M. Medlin, Chairman 
Worth Byrd Everett R. Teague 

Clyde Minges A. S. Cromartie 

P. P. Yates 

Dental Collegk Committee 

H. O. Lineberger, Chairman 
Wilbert Jackson J. Conrad Watkins 

Paul E. Jones G. Fred Hale 

C. W. Sanders 

Clinic Board of Censors 

K. L. Johnston, Chairman 
Darden Eure Geo. K. Patterson 

L. G. Hair T. M. Hunter 

J. R. Edwards 

Entertainment of Out-of-State Visitors Committee 

Charles Eatman, Ch^iirman 
J. A. Sinclair J. F. Duke 

Paul Fitzgerald, Jr. Clyde Minges 

Olin Owen Walter McFall 

Wilbert Jackson 

SUPEailNTENDENT OF CLINIC COMMITTEE 

Howard Branch, Chairmayi 
L. F. Bumgardner Gates McKaughan 

C. A. Pless Walter McFall 

W. W. Rankin 

Liaison Committee to the Dental Division of the Old North State 
Medical, Dental and Pharmaceutical Society 
C. A. Graham, Chairman 
S. B. Towler E. C. Click 

H. O. Lineberger D. C. Woodall 

Neal Sheffield L. J. Meredith 

H. K. Thompson A. H. Fleming 



Hospital Dental Service Comp-iittee 
J. C. Watkins, Chairman 
K. L. Johnson T. E. Sikes 

Thomas L. Blair T. A. Atwood 

Frank Zealy 

Advisory Committee for Veterans Administration Program 
P. B. Whittington, Chairman 
H. O. Lineberger Coyte Minges 

H. W. Gooding Everett R. Teague 

E. D. Baker J- T. Bell 

Kemp Lindsey 

Professional Relations Committee 
A. S. Bumgardner, Chairman 

E. C. Click M. C. Bissette 
Oscar Hooks R- Philip Melvin 
M. A. Waddell G. L. Hooper 

Advisory Committee N. C. Dental Hygienist Association 
D. L. Pridgen, Chairman 
L. F. Bumgardner W. T. Martin 

R. L. Tomlinson Ralph Coffey 

J. R. Edwards Burke Fox 

R. D. Tuttle 

Dental Caries Committee 

G. L. Overman, Chairman 
O. C. Barker K. L. Johnson 

Burke Fox Darden Eure 

F. E. Gilliam 

Arrangement Committee 
Ralph Coffey, Chairman 
Walter Clark Walter McFall 

W. J. Turbyfill Lawrence Paschal 

0. C. Barker W. R. Aiken 

C. C. Pless 

Entertainment Committee 
W. J. Turbyfill, Chairman 
Robert Hoffman S. P. Gay 

Carl Weaver S. E. Moser 

W. R. Aiken Stacy Hair 

W. K. Chapman 

Gold Committee 
Frank Davis, Chairman 
S. H. Steelman L- M. Daniels 

J. R. Fritz W. D. Yelton 

Nat Maddux J- M. Pringle 

W. J. McDaniels 



Housing Committee 
Moultrie Truluck, Chairman 
Geo. Carrell Ralph Falls 

Worth Byrd Newton Smith 

Pierce Roberts, Jr. 

Clinic Equipment Committee 
N. P. Maddux, Chairman 
Charles Candler L. T. Russell, Jr. 

Carter Philips Harold Book 

H. M. May J. A. Marshburn 

W. J. Hargrove 

Advisory Committee to the American Academy of Pediatrics 
L. M, Edwards, ChairTiian 
C. W. Sanders H. C. Carr 

T. W. Atwood Thomas L. Blair 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CALL Td ORDER, Piesidet R. M. Olive 11 

INVOCATION, Rev. W. Perry Crouch 11 

ADDRESS OF WELCOME, Mayor Clarence E. Morgan 12 

RESPONSE TO ADDRESS OF WELCOME, John R. Pharr, D.D.S.. . . 14 

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS, R. M. Olive, D.D.S 14 

REPORT OF NECROLOGY COMMITTEE, F. W. McCracken, D.D.S. . 25 

INTRODUCTION OF VISITORS, H. O. Lineberger, D.D.S 27 

REPORT OF DELEGATES TO AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIA- 
TION, Paul E. Jones, D.D.S 27 

REMARKS, Roy Norton, M.D 28 

LECTURE: "INTERPRETATION OF DENTAL ROENTGENO- 
GRAMS," LeRoy M. Ennis, D.D.S., F.A.C.D 30 

LECTURE: "PROBLEMS IN DENTAL EDUCATION OF IMME- 
DIATE CONCERN TO THE DENTAL PROFESSION," 
J. Ben Robinson, D.D.S., F.A.C.D., ScD 46 

REMARKS, J. E. John, D.D.S 60 

CALL TO ORDER, President R. M. Olive 62 

LECTURE: "THE MANIPULATION OF AMALGAM," 

Warren Willman, M.S., D.D.S 62 

LECTURE: "RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN DRUG THERAPY," 
E. C. Dobbs, D.D.S., F.A.C.D 79 

CALL TO ORDER, President R. M. Olive 91 

BUSINESS SESSION 91 

COMMITTEE REPORTS: 

PROSTHETIC DENTAL SERVICE 95 

EXHIBIT 95 

LIBRARY AND HISTORY 96 

RELIEF 97 

ADVISORY COMMITTEE N. C. MEDICAL CARE COMMISSION 98 
ADVISORY COMMITTEE N. C. MEDICAL CARE COMMISSION 99 

ETHICS 99 

PROGRAM 99 

STATE COUNCIL OF DENTAL HEALTH 

FINANCIAL REPORT 99 

SECRETARY'S REPORT 100 

NEW BUSINESS 101 

CALL TO ORDER, President R. M. Olive 106 

LECTURE: "FLUORIDES AND DENTAL HEALTH," 

John W. Knutson, D.D.S 106 

LECTURE: "THE CONTINUING THREAT OF COLLECTIVIST 
PLANNING," M. H. Petersen, Associate Administrator, 
National Committee of Dentists 114 



DISCUSSION 125 

CALL TO ORDER, President R. M. Olive 134 

REMARKS, W. O. Edwards, M.D 134 

GROUP DISCUSSION: 
Group I. 

Dr. Willman 135 

Group II. 

Dr. Ennis 142 

Group III. 

Dr. Dobbs 148 

Group IV. 

Dr. Knutson 157 

HOUSE OF DELEGATES: 

CALL TO ORDER, President R. M. Olive 164 

COMMITTEE REPORTS: 

DENTAL COLLEGE 164 

INSURANCE 166 

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 166 

EXECUTIVE 167 

PROFESSIONAL RELATIONS 167 

DENTAL CARIES 169 

STATE INSTITUTIONS 170 

STATE BOARD OF DENTAL EXAMINERS 171 

CLINIC BOARD OF CENSORS 179 

CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 180 

PUBLICITY 183 

ANNUAL BANQUET: 

PRESENTATION OF PRESIDENT'S EMBLEM 188 

TESTIMONIAL TO DR. FRED LORENZO HUNT 189 

REMARKS, Dr. Fred Lorenzo Hunt 190 

CALL TO ORDER, President R. M. Olive 191 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS: 
PresidentElect, 

Nominations 193 

Election 197 

Vice-President, 

Nomination 196 

Election 197 

Secretary-Treasurer, 

Nomination 198 

Election 198 

Board of Dental Examiners, 

Nominations 198 

Election 199 



Delegate to American Dental Association, 

Nomination 199 

Election 200 

Alternate Delegate to American Dental Ass'n., 

Nominations 200 

Election 200 

HOUSE OF DELEGATES: 

CALL TO ORDER, President R. M. Olive 201 

COMMITTEE REPORTS: 

LEGISLATIVE 201 

EDITOR-PUBLISHER 202 

LIAISON COMMITTEE TO THE DENTAL DIVISION OF THE 
OLD NORTH STATE MEDICAL, DENTAL, AND 

PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY 210 

RESOLUTIONS 211 

ADVISORY COMMITTEE N.C.D. HYGIENIST ASS'N 211 

GENERAL SESSION: 

CALL TO ORDER, President R. M. Olive 212 

INSTALLATION OF OFFICERS 212 

COMMITTEE APPOINTMENTS 215 

NEW BUSINESS 220 

FINAL ADJOURNMENT 230 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 
NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 



MONDAY MORNING SESSION 
April 26, 1948 

The opening session of the Ninety-Second Anniversary Meeting of the 
North Carolina Dental Society convened in the City Auditorium, Asheville, 
North Carolina, on Monday morning, April 26, 1948, and was called to order 
at nine-fifteen o'clock by the President, Dr. R. M. Olive of Fayetteville. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: The Ninety-Second Anniversary Meeting of the 
North Carolina Dental Society will please come to order. 

We are fortunate in having with us this morning Dr. W. Perry 
Crouch, formerly my pastor, but now pastor of the First Baptist Church 
of Asheville, North Carolina, who will deliver the invocation. Please stand. 

REV. W. PERRY CROUCH: Our Father, we are grateful to have a 
part in a meeting of men who are considering the welfare of human society. 
We are grateful for these who have dedicated their lives in the business 
of health. 

We pray, Our Father, as they meet in this session, that their minds 
may be alert to the truths of our time, and that the leaders, as they plan 
their program, may be conscious of the fact that we are living in a world 
that is different and new, a world that must have the best thinking of 
the best men that make it up. 

They are chaotic times, our Father, difficult times; they are times that 
demand our very best, and we pray that no part of it may be lost or 
wasted because of our complacence or indifference. 

Not only must the body be helped, not only must physical health be 
improved, but the men who do it must find out all the ways to live vigor- 
ously. We must find out how to get along with one another; we must find 
the great truths of life and eternity; we must find out how to live in all 
that that word means. 

Thy Son, our Lord, hath said, "I am come that you might have life 
and have it more abundantly," and so we pray, our Father, that this meet- 
ing may contribute toward abundant living and towards the welfare of the 
human body and towards the fellowship of the spirit of men. Bless every 
part of it, we pray, and may the spirit of God permeate, because we pray 
in the name of Jesus, our Lord. Amen. 



12 Bulletin No7-th Carolina Dental Society 



PRESIDENT OLIVE: Thank you, Dr. Crouch. 

We will now have the address of welcome by the Mayor of Asheville, 
Mr. Clarence E. Morgan. Mayor Morgan. (Applause.) 

MAYOR CLARENCE E. MORGAN: Members of the North Carolina 
Dental Association and honored guests: I am very happy to add my word 
of welcome to the welcome you have already received from the local com- 
mittee. When you have men like Dr. Walter McFall and Dr. Maddux tak- 
ing the leadership in any movement in our city, I am sure that all the 
details are looked after to the last degree. 

I believe this is the first time you have had the privilege, may I say, 
and we have had the honor, of your meeting in our city for about ten 
years. We are very happy that you found your way back here this year, 
and I hope that your stay with us is going to be very pleasant and also 
a very happy one, and I'm sure it's going to be a profitable one. 

I myself believe in conferences, conventions, and associations. I have 
had some active part in the association in my own business — association 
work, both on a regional and a national scale — and I know that our great 
leaders in any industrial or professional field can bring us some very worth- 
while information and knowledge that enables everyone ^f us to step up 
the efficiency of our work. 

In thinking about what I may say to you this mornins;, I was impressed 
with one fact that I had not thought of before. They say there are two 
things in life that are sure — death and taxes — but as I thought about my 
own experience in life, I'd say there are three, because my dental bill 
comes along just about as regularly as the taxes do. Nevertheless, I am 
grateful for the contribution that your profession has made to the happi- 
ness and welfare of my family. 

I don't know how much time the committee that has charge of your 
arrangements has allowed for your recreation while you are in our city. 
I hope those of you who like golf will have an opportunity to try out one 
or more of our five excellent golf courses. If time permits, you will want 
to drive up on some of our scenic highways. You know that Asheville is 
situated in the center of a 15,000 square mile mountain plateau, extend- 
ing from the Blue Ridge on the east to the Great Smokies on the west. I 
dare say you could stay with us three or four weeks and still not exhaust 
all the fine scenery and the very attractive places we have for you to see 
here in the mountains. 

I am glad that we have been able to greet you with good weather. 
We always have this kind of weather in Asheville unless Georgia or 
Tennessee or the Piedmont section interfere with out setup. Sometimes 
they slip a little bad weather in on us, but I want to assure you that we 
don't originate any bad weather in Asheville. When we have any bad 
weather, it creeps in on us from some other section. 



Containing the Proceedings 13 



Getting back to your place in your profession, I want to say that you 
are rendering our great state a very significant service in trying to assist 
the medical profession in caring for the health and welfare of our people. 
There are a lot of our people of the lower income brackets — I see them 
every day, and you do, too — that need dental care and need it badly, but 
they either have not been properly educated to the need and the necessity 
of that service, or they haven't felt that their financial condition was such 
that they could have the care that they needed. 

I have observed the local members of your great profession through 
the trying years of the war, and I know something of the tremendous load 
they carried. I know how hard it was to get an appointment. It used to be 
that I received calls regularly that my appointment time was up, but the 
times that I had to call and get the appointment time myself were certainly 
unusual because they generally kept me reminded when the proper time 
for me to show up for service with my dentist had come around. 

I might tell you one story this morning. Dr. Crouch wantsd to know 
if I had a new one. I told him no — I was going to tell the same one. One 
advantage we have in welcoming groups and conventions is that we gen- 
erally get new groups so that, if we want to use the same old jokes on 
them, we just go ahead and use them. I like this first because, let me say, 
it's clean, and second because I thought it was funny when I heard it be- 
cause the person who told it in my hearing first knew how to tell jokes 
in an interesting way. Not all of us are so gifted. 

But you can recall in your mind a period of some two years ago when 
our neighboring state of Georgia was having considerable difficulty in de- 
ciding who should be at the helm of government in that state. There seemed 
to be a little bit of confusion as to who was or wasn't going to be the 
governor. There were at least three claiming that position, and I think at 
one time I heard of a fourth one. Not only the great state of Georgia was 
confused about who was to be their governor, but I think the whole United 
States was confused about the situation in Georgia, and so I am not sur- 
prised at the colored man I heard about who was rather confused himself. 

This colored man was driving down one of Atlanta's main thorough- 
fares at a rather reckless rate of speed, disobeying all the speed laws. 
Finally, after pursuing him some three or four blocks, the traffic officer 
succeeded in overtaking him and he motioned him over to the side of the 
road. Then he came up and began to give the general line. Some of you 
maybe know how those fellows talk — I have heard one or two myself 
accidentally. He remonstrated with him, pointing out to him the fact that 
he was breaking the speed laws and endangering the lives of the people, 
etc., but it didn't seem to be making very much impression on the colored 
fellow. Finally, he said to him in desperation, "Here you are, driving sixty 
or sixty-five miles an hour. Don't you have a governor on that truck?" The 
colored man says, "Pardon me, boss, that's fertilizer you smell." (Laugh- 
ter.) 

I know you fellows don't want the dental profession to get in that 
condition, and that is the reason you're here. You're here to plan, to study. 



14 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



to find new and improved methods, so that you can go back to your respec- 
tive communities and serve your people better. 

I sincerely hope that your stay here among us is going to be so plea- 
sant that you will not wait ten years to return, but that you will return 
every opportunity that you have. (Applause.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Thank you, Mayor Morgan. 

We will now have the response to the address of welcome by Dr. John 
Pharr, of Charlotte, North Carolina. 

DR. JOHN R. PHARR: Mr. President, Mayor Morgan, Guests, Fel- 
low Members; on behalf of the North Carolina Dental Society, it gives 
me a great deal of pleasure to express our appreciation for your warm 
words of welcome, we know you mean them and that everything you say 
is true. How else could Asheville have achieved its reputation as host city 
to so many state, national and even international groups. 

We are not unmindful of the great amount of work that has been 
done by this fine group of dentist and their good wives to make this meet- 
ing a great success, every desire has been anticipated and provided for by 
this generous group. 

To you Mayor Morgan and your fine citizens and especially to the 
local dentist and their wives, we offer our deepest appreciation for your 
generosity and gracious hospitality, without which this meeting could not 
be a success. Thank you for inviting us and again for your assurance of 
welcome. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Our Vice-President, Dr. L. J. Moore, will now 
assume the Chair. 

VICE-PRESIDENT L. J. MOORE: We will now have the President's 
address by Dr. R. M. Olive of Fayetteville, North Carolina. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Mr. Vice-President, Members of the North 
Carolina Dental Society, and Guests: It is a pleasure to greet and wel- 
come you to our ninety-second annual meeting, not in the Eastern "Land 
of the Long Leaf Pine" as has been the case for the last few years, but in 
the beautiful "Land of the Sky" of Western North Carolina, where whole- 
some atmosphere and hospitality prevail, as just manifested by the Mayor 
of Asheville. 

Two years ago I realized very keenly the responsibilities entrusted 
to me and have sought diligently to acquaint myself with the duties of 
my office. I have done my best to uphold its traditions for the benefit of 
the many fine dentists in North Carolina whom it has been my privilege 
to serve. Twice during these two years I have attended all the five district 
meetings of the Society with an idea of meeting and knowing the dentists 



Containing the Proceedings 15 



in our State. The many contacts made during these years have given me 
a more profound admiration for my colleagues and fellow members and 
have given me an opportunity to learn from the other fellovv^ his problems 
and aspirations, 

A larger percentage of practicing dentists in North Carolina are mem- 
bers of the American Dental Association than is true of the practicing 
dentists of any other state. For several years, many of our members have 
held responsible posts in our National Association. During my term of 
office Dr. Clyde E. Minges vvras elected President-Elect of the American 
Dental Association. We are very proud of his record and of the recogni- 
tion he has received nationally. Prior to this time he had served several 
years as one of our trustees and had been an active delegate for many 
years. We are delighted to claim him as a member of the North Carolina 
Dental Society. 

I have been greatly interested in the w^ork of all the committees of 
the Society, in the affairs of the American Dental Association, and have 
actively participated in many of its functions. The w^ork of these com- 
mittees will be covered in detail by reports of committee chairmen before 
the House of Delegates. It is my purpose to review some of the problems 
in which I have taken an active part, to emphasize some of the contem- 
plated activities of our organization, and to report some things of impor- 
tance which have been accomplished by your officers and committeemen. 



DENTAL HEALTH EDUCATION 

I want first to review briefly some of the history of the North Caro- 
lina Dental Society so that we may have fresh in our minds the subject 
as I see it today and as it relates to the future. *In 1918 the North Caro- 
lina Dental Society recommended to the State Board of Health a state- 
wide dental health program. Dr. G. M. Hooper, (M.D.) Chief of the Bu- 
reau for the Medical Inspection of Schools for the North Carolina State 
Board of Health, placed Dentistry in the Public Health Program of the 
public schools of the State, This became the first state-wide dental program 
in the United States. Our State can also boast of being the first state in 
the Union to have a law, passed in 1931, placing a dentist on each county 
Board of Health. Much has been accomplished in the public schools by the 
State Board of Health Department of Oral Hygiene, under the direction 
of Dr. Ernest A, Branch, He was chosen full-time Director of Oral Hygiene 
for the Board of Health in 1929. The work he and his department have 
done is something of which we are very proud. I feel safe in saying that 
he has done more than any one person in our state to educate the school 
children and the public at large in the proper care of their teeth. Such 
strides have been made by our profession in Dental Health activities that 
our State now stands among the first in the Country in Public Health 
Dentistry. During this period we have had wonderful cooperation from 
the Medical Profession as a whole. 

*Eee Dr. Fleming's "History of North Carolina Dental Society." 



16 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



Even so, there are still great problems unsolved. Government records 
of World War II point out that there were a greater per cent of men re- 
jected for physical defects in North Carolina than in any other state in 
the Union. Since this has been brought to the public's attention, our health 
organizations have become more active and others have been organized to 
try to remedy this catastrophe. Among these are the State Board of 
Health, the Medical Care Commission, the North Carolina Hospital As- 
sociation, the Hospital Savings Association, and the North Carolina Good 
Health Association. But virhat about Dentistry? Most of these organiza- 
tions seem recently to have lost sight of the fact that dentistry plays an 
imporant part in the Health Program of our State. 

The North Carolina Good Health Association is the newest of these 
major organizations and its objective is to awaken the desire for better 
health and to improve health conditions generally. 

Five years ago a committee from the State Medical Society called 
on the Governor and appealed for a state-wide program to improve general 
health conditions. The Governor was strongly impressed with the state- 
ment of the Medical Society leaders. He appointed a 60 member survey 
commission of outstanding members of the medical profession, education, 
business, agriculture and labor to conduct an immediate follow-up study. 
After about a year of work, the Commission made its report to the Gov- 
ernor who presented it to the 1945 session of the General Assembly with 
his endorsement. 

The Committee's report listed three things as supremely needed to 
solve the North Carolina health problem. They were: "More doctors, more 
hospitals, and more non-profit hospital insurance." It showed that thirty- 
three of the 100 counties had no hospital facilities; that we ranked 42nd 
among the states in the number of hospital beds per 1,000 population, and 
45 in the number of physicians; that the death-rate of infants was lower 
in 37 other states than in North Carolina; and that a mother had a better 
chance of a surviving childbirth in 40 other states. 

But listen to this about North Carolina: More than half of all the 
young men in the State called for selective service had been rejected for 
physical unfitness! Yes, more than 40% of the white and 60% of the negro 
youths were turned down because of bad feet, bad teeth, bad eyes and 
other physical defects. Still no plan or purpose to provide better dental 
services was mentioned. 

That record was due mainly to the absence of proper health care and 
educational training was demonstrated by the amazing record of the North 
Carolina Baptist Orphanage. Records show that only three out of more 
than 3001 were turned down. Similar conditions existed in other orphan- 
ages of the State. Of the 1,154 orphans called for service, only 16 had been 
rejected. 

Why was this? The Governor's Commission explained it this way: 

"The boys of North Carolina orphanages are not coddled; they are 
not given luxuries but they do receive nutritious food and adequate hospital 



Containing the Proceedings 17 



care. This inexpensive program of medical and hospital attention resulted 
in a rejection rate of less than 1^/4% percent." Please compare this 1%% 
of rejections among young men in orphanages to over 50% among the 
general public. 

Upon recommendation of the Governor's Commission, the 1945 Legisla- 
ture passed the Hospital and Medical Care Bill, but failed to allocate suf- 
ficient funds to finance the full program. Shortly after this the Hill-Burton 
Hospital Construction Act was passed by the 79th Congress which allocated 
more money, the Federal Government putting up one-third, and the State 
and local government the remainder. 

The Medical Care Commission and the Good Health Plan became a 
reality when the Legislature of 1947 approved the proposal for their crea- 
tion. But Dentistry was again left out of the Health Program Plan. 

The first annual membership meeting of the North Carolina Good 
Health Association was held in Greensboro, July 11, 1947. Our State Plan 
was one of the first two in the nation to be completed and approved for 
federal support by Dr. Thomas Parran, Surgeon-General of the United 
States Public Health Service. It called for the appropriation of sufficient 
funds to match the anticipated Federal allotments, making a total of about 
$51,600,000. This report was read at this meeting by Dr. Parran, and was 
received with much enthusiasm. 

Since I was president of your Society, I was asked to serve as a mem- 
ber of the Advisory Committee to represent the dental profession, and na- 
turally the only dentist present, but the medical profession was represented 
from all parts of the State. We had talks from the medical profession, 
and many prominent leaders throughout the State interested in this health 
plan. During the day's session the theme of almost every talk was, "More 
doctors, more nurses, more technicians, and more hospitals," but no men- 
tion of dentistry. You imagine how I felt representing the dental profession 
for our State. 

Finally, when Dr. Parran read his report from the Government it 
included, physicians, dentists, nurses, technicians, and hospitals. According 
to this alloment of funds, dentistry was included in this health program 
by the Federal Government, but no mention of it by the Medical Care Com- 
mission or the Good Health Plan in North Carolina. 

I think all hospitals in North Carolina built under this plan should 
be equipped with dental departments. This will not be done unless we as 
dentists ask for and demand it. All United States Veterans' hospitals are 
supplied with dental departments. Certainly North Carolina's hospitals 
which are to be built under this set-up partly from Federal funds desig- 
nated for the purpose of including dental departments, should be provided 
with necessary state funds to match Federal allocations to include dental 
needs as well as the medical program. 

The next tentative program, sponsored by the Hospital Association, 
the Council on Public Education, the Good Health Association, and other 



18 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

medical organizations, was The First Annual North Carolina Health Educa- 
tion Conference, meeting- in Charlotte, November 12-13, 1947. I was asked 
to attend and to name four delegates from our Society. I was also furnished 
a copy of their tentative program. Almost every profession and practically 
every organization was asked to participate. Dentistry was left out of this 
tentative program entirely. This fact was tactfully but emphatically 
brought to their attention so that dentistry was included in the final program. 
Our profession was represented on this program by a dentist, Dr. A. C. 
Current, Gastonia, N. C, who spoke on the topic: "Better Health Today 
and Tomorrow through Dentistry." Dr. Current is chairman of our Execu- 
tive Committee and of the Advisory Committee of the North Carolina 
Medical Care Commission. I think I am safe in saying that our speaker 
and our part of the program received as much as, or more favorable com- 
ment than any organization represented, and there were about twenty-four 
speakers who participated on the program. 

In December of 1947, I received a suggested program of activities of 
the North Carolina Good Health Association for the calendar year of 1948. 
Throughout the whole program the association practically ignored the fact 
that dentistry is a factor of health in our State. This was immediately 
brought to the attention of Mr. H. C. Cranford, Executive- Secretary of the 
Good Health Association. The letters and telephone conversations are too 
lengthly and numerous to report. On January 19, 1948, I received a letter, 
a part of which I shall quote: "Your suggestion that we need more dentists 
in North Carolina be given greater stress throughout the program was 
adopted. I was instructed to edit the program accordingly. This is being 
done. I was also instructed to include 'dentists' when touching on the 
shortage of doctors, nurses, and technicians in any future pamphlets and 
news releases prepared by this office. 

"Your suggestion that item 4 of our plan include a proposal for the 
establishment of a dental school in North Carolina be inserted was not ac- 
ceptable to the committee. It is not our plan to make any substituions in 
the six-point plan until such time as the six original objectives have been 
realized. Unfortunately, none of them have been wholly accomplished as 
yet." Item 4, referred to in this paragraph of the Good Health plan is as 
I quote: "More doctors, more nurses and medical technicians by expand- 
ing the State's 2 year medical school to a standard 4-year school." No 
mention at all is made of the need for more dental care. I quote Mr. Cran- 
ford again: 

"It was suggested that the Dental Society prepare and submit to the 
Good Health Association a prospectus on the subject of North Carolina's 
need for a dental school. Members of our committee indicated that upon 
receipt of such a prospectus they would be glad to reconsider formal en- 
dorsement of your campaign to acquire a State dental college and inclusion 
of the objective in the Good Health Plan." 

"Your suggestion that Dr. Ernest A. Branch be included as a member 
of the Rural Health Educational Committee was approved, and Dr. Branch 
has since attended a meeting of this committee." 



Containing the Proceedings 19 



Mr. H. C. Cranford and the Association itself as an organization have 
been cooperative particularly since I received the above letter. Other 
letters have been received and efforts made indicating their willingness to 
cooperate in furthering our objectives along with theirs for Better Health 
in North Carolina. 

The North Carolina Medical Society was responsible for initiating 
such a needed health program in our State. We need more physicians, 
nurses, technicians, and hospitals. Naturaly some physicians are anxious 
to see a 3rd medical school established. We need more dentists and our 
first dental school in North Carolina. 

Lack of cooperation at first made things look rather gloomy, but to 
date it appears that we have a strong and dependable ally in the North Car- 
olina Good Health Association to help us with our health program and to 
assist in our Dental Education plans. 

A DENTAL COLLEGE IN NORTH CAROLINA 

As far back as 1926 proposed plans for Duke University included a 
dental school. In 1927 the North Carolina Dental Society, upon motion of 
Dr. J. Martin Fleming, pledged unanimous support of such a school, in 
case of its establishment. At that time a Dental College Committee was 
appointed to study the proposal and to encourage the establishment of such 
a school. In 1929 this Committee reported their hopes that a Dental School 
would be established at Duke University. Later, however, the idea was 
abandoned by Duke University, our Committee was discharged, and our 
hopes faded. 

Not until our Pinehurst meeting of May 5, 1947, was this matter dis- 
cussed again in our State Association. At this meeting we had invited Dr. 
Harlan H. Horner, Secretary of the Council on Dental Education of the 
American Dental Association, to appear on our program. His subject was 
"Evolution of Dental Education Licensure in the United States." Dr. Horner 
was invited also to appear before the North Carolina Dental Society's 
Advisory Committee of the Medical Care Commission, at which time a small 
group of us discussed some of our dental education problems in the State, 
and the committee came away vdth the idea that something should be done 
as soon as possible. Accordingly, a resolution was presented to and ap- 
proved by the House of Delegates providing that a committee be appointed 
to study this situation in all details and to seek the Council on Dental 
Education of the American Dental Association in assembling facts concern- 
ing the sort of plant, equipment, faculty, capital, et cetera, needed in the 
establishment of an outstanding Dental school in our State. 

After a lot of thought I named what I considered an able Dental Col- 
lege Committee to do everything possible to carry our major objective to 
a successful conclusion. This Committee has met several times and each 
time Dr. Lineberger, the Chairman, has invited the officers of the North 
Carolina Dental Society to meet with them. On several occasions other 
members of the Society who were interested and capable of rendering 
service to the committee were present as well. 



20 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. Horner has been consulted by mail several times and in conversa- 
tion at our American Dental Association Meeting in Boston. He had planned 
to visit us again with the idea of advising us about a survey of North Car- 
olina. Finally he advised us to secure the services of Dr. John T. O'Rourke, 
Dean of the Post Graduate School and department of research of Tufts' 
Dental College, Boston, Massachusetts. Dr. O'Rourke has been on the 
Council of Dental Education of the American Dental Association since the 
beginning of the Council, approximately nine years, and has recently made 
a dental survey of the State of New York. He was Dean of the University 
of Louisville School of Dentistry for twenty-six years, prior to accepting 
his present position. His past experiences in this type of work led us to 
invite him to come to North Carolina and make a survey of our needs for 
a dental school. After writing a detailed report he returned with it March 
14, 1948, when the committee spent a day studying it with him. Copies of 
the final report will be furnished at this meeting. 

The Dental College Committee will make a report before the House 
of Delegates and Dr. O'Rourke is here to summarize his report, and answer 
any questions pertaining to it. 

My careful study of this whole subject, along with the officers of the 
Society, convinces me of the very great need of a Dental School in North 
Carolina. The shortage of dental personnel and the increase of dental needs 
were recognized before the war. Now the trend of applications for dental 
training is on the increase. All North Carolinians seeking dental training 
must find it outside the State. From 1937 to 1946 an average of 113 North 
Carolina students have been enrolled in dental schools of the United States. 
At present about 250 are receiving pre-dental training in North Carolina 
and a large number have completed this training, while a smaller percent- 
age than ever are being admitted to the dental schools. 

Most of our students for years past, for some reason, were enrolled in 
two institutions; Atlanta Southern, now Emory University Dental School, 
and the Dental School of the Medical College of Virginia. The third largest 
enrollment was in the University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Balti- 
more. The remaning students were scattered rather widely in schools 
throughout the United States. 

THE PROSTHETIC DENTAL LABORATORIES AND TECHNICIANS 

The dental laboratories are essential to and are a definite adjunct of 
the dental profession. Recent careful study has been made of licensures 
for technicians, accreditation for laboratories, establishing a code of ac- 
ceptable standards for workmanship and materials, and the elimination of 
illegal practice by laboratories — problems in which the dental profession 
has had basic interest. 

The committee on Prosthetic Relations, later changed to the Pi-osthetic 
Dental Service Committee, in their report to the House of Delegates of the 
North Carolina Dental Society in May 1940, made certain suggestions for 
improving the relationship between the Dentists and the Dental Laboratory 



Containing the Proceedings 21 



and Dental Technicians. These suggestions were approved by both the 
North Carolina Dental Society and the Dental Laboratories. The outbreak 
of World War II halted the plans temporarily. 

At about the same time the American Dental Association created a 
Prosthetic Dental Service Committee. Our representatives have from the 
beginning worked very closely with the National Committee. A plan for 
the accreditation of Dental Laboratories was submitted to the House of 
Delegates at the American Dental Association meeting at Miami. The plan 
was approved and it was suggested that each state appoint a Prosthetic 
Dental Service Committee to cooperate with the American Dental Associa- 
tion Committee. 

A member of the North Carolina Dental Society, Dr. H. 0. Lineberger, 
served as chairman of the American Dental Association Prosthetic Dental 
Service Committee last year. All state Prosthetics Dental Service Com- 
mittee chairmen were invited to attend a meeting with the American Dental 
Association Committee in Chicago in June 12-15, 1947, for a work confer- 
ence. Practically every state sent a representative, and today every state 
has a Prosthetic Dental Service Committee and is actively participating 
in accrediting plan for the Dental Laboratories. 

In 1947, by action of the House of Delegates, the committee on Pros- 
thetic Dental Service became a duly elected Standing Committee of the 
North Carolina Dental Society, thus providing the committee a continuity 
of membership to study all phases of the prosthetic problem. Dr. H. 0. 
Lineberger has been most active and largely responsible for the existence 
and work of the committee, both locally and nationally. 

During this year the Prosthetic Dental Service Committee has ac- 
complished much in our State, and the committee is constantly receiving 
applications for accreditations. 

MEDICAL-DENTAL RELATIONS 

In 1946 Dr. Sterling V. Mead, President of the American Dental 
Society, created the Medical-Dental Relations Committee of the American 
Dental Association. The purpose of the Committee was to foster mutual 
interests between the medical and dental professions. The American Medical 
Association was advised of the creation of this National Committee and 
in turn the Board of Trustees of the American Medical Association created 
a Medical Dental Relations Committee. This is the first time there has 
been such a National Committee created by both professions, as far as the 
committee has been able to ascertain. 

For many years there has grown an intimate spirit of cooperation be- 
tween the medical profession and the dental profession in North Carolina. 
In 1918 and in 1928 resolutions were voted by the Dental Society express- 
ing appreciation to Dr. J. T. Burrus, President of the Medical Society, and 
Dr. Laughinghouse, Secretary of the State Board of Health, for expres- 
sions of tehir desire for the continuance of such relationship between the 
two professions. 



22 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



At the last meeting of the House of Delegates of the State Medical 
Society in May 1947, the following resolution was adopted: 

"Since the medical and dental professions have a common interest in 
the extension of health services, it would be mutually advantageous to 
achieve a closer degree of cooperation than has existed in the past." 

"Therefore be it resolved that the president of the Medical Society of 
the State of North Carolina appoint a suitable committee to meet with one 
from the North Carolina Dental Society to discuss and recommend to their 
respective societies measures which will accomplish this end." Seven mem- 
bers of the Medical Society were appointed, and the list sent to your presid- 
ing officer and secretary-treasury of the North Carolina Dental Society. Our 
chairman of the Professional Relationship Committee was notified of the 
action of the Medical Society and he in turn invited a representative from 
the North Carolina Medical Society to attend this annual meeting and the 
invitation was accepted. In some sections of the State there are a few local 
medical and dental societies jointly organized that meet at regular intervals 
to discuss their inter-related problems and scientific subjects of interest 
to both professions. In some sections, I am sorry to say, there still exists 
lack of harmony, cooperation, and understanding between these two profes- 
sions. This lack of cooperaion exists too generally. Some of the better in- 
formed men of the medical profession have expressed a willingness and 
have made efforts to cooperate professionally. They recognize the fact that 
dentistry is a highly specialized field and that a dentist is better prepared 
to serve in his own field than a physician is to serve in some field of 
medicine in which he has not specialized. 

Some of the blame for misunderstanding lies at the feet of both the 
dental and the medical professions and some is due to lack of education 
on the part of the public. Among both professions are men who would have 
the public believe that they are about as wise as God Almighty. Our hope 
lies in the fact that there are also many fine, ethical, studious, and unsel- 
fish men in these professions who are angels of mercy whose primary 
purpose is to minister to the sick and suffering, to restore their patients 
to health and happiness, and to do what they can to prevent illness of every 
sort. I know of no nobler .calling than a profession guided always by such 
high ideals. 

We who are in the dental profession must share the blame for such 
misguided opinions as the medical profession and the public have concern- 
ing us. Both of them will have more respect for us if we are ethical at all 
times and if we stay in our field of specialization, and most certainly they 
should show us the same ethical courtesy. Why should a dentist call in a 
physician to diagnose and treat certain dental conditions that are entirely 
foreign to his field? Why should any one of us call a physician to write 
a prescription for the relief of pain suffered by our patients, or ask either 
him or a nurse to come and give a hypodermic for same. 

Have we not been taught pharmacology in our schools of dentistry ? 
Have not we learned how to give a hypodermic ? We are privileged to re- 



Containing the Proceedings 23 



ceive a narcotic license for such from the United States Department of In- 
ternal Revenue. Were we not taught to give an injection of novocain for 
the extraction of a tooth? Why not call a physician or a nurse for that 
purpose ? It is just as ridiculous to call on them for many other purposes 
as it would be for that. When a dentist admits that he is only a "tooth 
filler" and a "tooth puller," he invites both the physician and the public 
to minimize his profession. Certainly, a dentist should not make a routine 
of examining or treating coronary conditions, taking blood pressure, mak- 
ing urinalysis, treating and removing tonsils, et cetera. The physician 
should consult us and we should consult them when the field is inter-related. 

GENERAL ANESTHETICS IN DENTISTRY 

Both medical and dental students have had at their graduation, little 
or no experience, in giving general anesthetics. Many dentists, however, 
call in their physician to administer the anesthetic, using the dentist's 
nitrous oxide machine. Unless he has taken a special course in anesthetics, 
the physician does not know as much about its use, as the dentist should 
know. 

Members of the dental profession know that Horace Wells, a dentist, 
was the discoverer of anesthesia; that William T. G. Morton, a dentist, 
first demonstrated ether anesthesia and was the first in anesthesiest, that 
Thomas W. Evans, a denist, introduced nitrous oxide anesthesia to Europe 
and was responsible for the method of liquifying it in iron tubes for trans- 
portation. Carlton and Gothenberg, dentists, introduced into surgical 
practice the use of ethyl chloride. Teter and Heidbrink, dentists, were early 
manufacturers of nitrous oxide anesthesia apparatus and did much educa- 
tional scientific research in promoting the use of the anesthetic. 

Dentists as a rule have not seized as they should the opportunities for 
training and research in the use of general anesthetics. The technique of 
using a local anesthetic has made the dentist less dependent on general 
anesthesia. However, there is no single type of anesthetic that is best 
suited for all cases and conditions. Even if the dentist has not had adequate 
training to qualify him to use efficiently the proper anesthetics, he is not 
to be excused; for there are graduate courses and others should be offered, 
and will be when there is demand for them. Various dental societies should 
form sections and create committees on general anesthesia in order to 
promote programs of training for their members who are interested in the 
practice of general anesthesia. 

HOSPITAL DENTAL SERVICE 

A mutually satisfactory list of "Basic Standards of Hospital Dental 
Service Required of Approved Hospitals" has been prepared by the Hospital 
Dental Service Committee in cooperation with the Council of professional 
Practice of the American Hospital Association. This was approved in 1947 
by the American Dental Association. Hospitals in many cities have been 
inspected already and hospital dental staff groups have made plans to set 
up the basic standards required. 



24 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

The Hospital Dental Service Committee is aiding dental societies in 
securing the appointment of a dentist to membership on the State Com- 
mission engaged in surveying the need for additional hospital facilities. 
The 79th Congress passed an act allocating funds for making state surveys, 
building new facilities, and enlarging old ones. Upon my request. Governor 
Cherry has appointed Dr. Thomas Blair of Winston-Salem as a member of 
the commission conducting the survey. This committee has an opportunity 
to render a great service by seeing to it that adequate dental departments 
are included in the enlargement program for hospitals. 

DENTAL SOCIETY DUES 

Recently much study and consideration have been given to the idea of 
increasing the revenue of our Society by accepting the American Dental 
Association's plan of life membership. If a recommendation to this effect 
should be adopted by our Society, there should also be an increase of dues 
to provide adequate funds to meet recent increases in cost of operation. 
Such a plan was approved by the Charlotte Dental Society of Fifty-seven 
members October 21, 1947. Many other members throughout the State have 
approved the idea, while some others have expressed their disapproval. 

My successor, Dr. C. W. Sanders, has given this subject more study 
than I have and is working on a plan which I feel sure will be acceptable 
to the membership as a whole. I recommend, therefore, that we study this 
important subject and give our incoming president our cooperation in every 
way possible. 

RECOMMENDATIONS: 

1. That we support the action of both the American Dental Associa- 
tion and the American Medical Association for greater cooperation between 
the two professions, and that we for this purpose change the name of our 
present "Professional Relations Committee" to the "Medical-Dental Rela- 
tionship Committee," as it is called by the American Dental and Medical 
Association. 

2. That a committee be appointed to be known as "The Advisory Com- 
mittee to the North Carolina Good Health Association." 

3. That a committee be appointed on General Anesthesia to encour- 
age and assist those interested in forming clubs for post-graduate study 
of general anesthesia. 

4. That the Extension Course Committee to encourage more general 
participation in post-graduate study be reappointed. 

5. That the president be requested to furnish several days prior to 
the State meetings in the future copies of his address to the president- 
elect and the vice-president. 

Finally, I want to thank Dr. Ralph Coffey, members of the General 
Arrangements Committee, sub-committeemen and the First District, who 
have been our hosts, for helping to make this meeting a success. I shall 



Containing the Proceedings 25 



never forget their fine spirit of unselfish cooperation in making their part 
of the program as nearly perfect as possible. 

Many members have contributed substantially to the accomplishment 
of much this year for better dentistry in North Carolina. I would like to 
call the names of all those who have worked faithfully at the tasks en- 
trusted to them, but that would be impossible. I do feel that I would be 
unjust and selfish not to mention by name a few members who have been 
most helpful to me during my term of office. I want to thank especially 
Dr. C. W. Sanders, president-elect; Dr. A. C. Current, chairman, and other 
members of the Executive Committee; Dr. H. O. Lineberger, chairman, and 
members of the Dental College Committee; Dr. R. Fred Hunt, Secretary- 
treasurer and chairman of the Program Committee; Dr. Franklin Bum- 
gardner, editor-publisher; Dr. J. W. Branham, chairman of the Exhibit 
Committee; and the membership of the Society as a whole who are inter- 
ested in, and willing to lift to higher standards our profession in North 
Carolina. 

VICE-PRESIDENT MOORE: I now appoint a committee: Dr. Paul 
Fitzgerald, Sr., Dr. C. W. Sanders, and Dr. C. C. Poindexter, to report on 
the President's address. 

The President will now take over. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Thank you. Dr. Moore. 

The next on the program is the report of the Necrology Committee 
by Dr. F. W. McCracken of Sanford, North Carolina. 



REPORT OF NECROLOGY COMMITTEE 

DR. Mccracken : Mr. President, Members of the North Carolina 
Dental Society, friends; We are gathered here to speak a word for those 
who have gone from our midst. Our Profession and Society are a heritage 
from those, who with high ideals and noble purpose endeavored to pass 
on to us something we could cherish. 

As we do honor to these noble souls, we keep unbroken a custom in 
which we do homage, not only to the departed, but also to ourselves, for 
we show that we appreciate the efforts, sacrifices and contributions made 
by them to our profession. 

We can pay them true tribute by our eflforts to emulate the great 
ideals for which they labored. 

I believe that God who brought us here, and who cares for us while 
here, will never desert us in the bodiless existence we shall spend in his 
presence. I believe we shall know more about the future when God reveals 
it to us, and until that time we should walk and work on, unafraid, believ- 
ing that the last turn of life's road will be the best. 



26 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



Heaven is not reached by a single bound, 
But we build the ladder by which we rise 
From the lowly earth to the vaulted skies, 
And we mount to its summit round by round. 
Truly these men died, yet shall they live. 

The Lords Prayer in unison. 



DR. C. G. FUQUAY 
1896-1948 

On Saturday, January 3, 1948 at about five o'clock in the afternoon. 
Dr. and Mrs. C. G. Fuquay of Coats, were fatally injured near Sanford 
when their car was crashed into, head on, with the car driven by Dewey 
McNeill. 

They were taken to the hospital in Sanford where they both passed 
to the great beyond, Mrs. Fuquay at seven o'clock, and Dr. Fuquay an hour 
later. Double funeral services were held on Monday January 5th at the 
First Baptist Church in Coats, burial was in the Coats Cemetery. Dr. Fu- 
quay was born in Lee County, in 1896, was educated at Coats High School, 
and the University of North Carolina. He completed his education at the 
Atlanta Southern Dental College in Atlanta, Georgia in 1919, after which 
he located in Coats and practiced until the time of his death. 

He was a member of the 4th District, North Carolina Dental Society, 
American Dental Association, Pvt. Co. A.S.A.T.C, Ft. McPherson, Georgia, 
1917-1918. At the time of his death he was Vice-President of the Harnett 
Company Medical Association. Dr. Fuquay was elected without opposition 
to Harnett County Board of Education in the last election, and was serv- 
ing his first term at the time of his death. He had championed the cause 
of education and better schools in his community and the county for many 
years, he was a member of the American Legion, Masonic Body, Coats 
Fellowship Club, Baptist Church, of which he was a Deacon, and various 
other organizations. He was one of the organizers of the Fellowship Club. 

Surviving Dr. and Mrs. Fuquay is one son, Cecil Fuquay, a senior at 
Wake Forest College. 

Dr. Fuquay was retiring in his manner, highly respected and loved 
by all who knew him. He was a Christian Gentleman in every respect. 
Surely our loss is Heaven's gain — J. R. Edwards. 

DR. MACON H. HEWITT, JR. 
1912-1948 

Dr. Macon H. Hewitt, Jr., was born in Forest City July 10, 1912. Was 
educated at Cool Springs High School, Forest City and the University of 
North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Graduated from Atlanta Southern Dental Col- 
lege in 1934. Did post graduate work at Forsyth Dental College in 1934 



Containing the Proceedings 27 

and 1935. Was a member of the First District Dental Society, North Car- 
olina Dental Society and the American Dental Association. 

Located in Marion in 1935 where he enjoyed a successful and lucra- 
tive practice until his untimely death January 17, 1948. He was interested 
in religious and civic welfare of the town and county. 

In his passing Marion has lost an upright citizen and Dentistry has 
lost a faithful servant. — B. A. Dickson. 

Beautiful music was rendered, a solo "Holy City," was given by Mr. 
Jolliff with Mr. Starnes at the piano. 

CROSSING THE BAR 

Sunset and evening star, 

And one clear call for me! 
And may there be no moaning of the bar 

When I put out to sea, 
But such a tide as moving seems asleep. 

Too full for sound and foam, 
When that which drew from out the boundless deep 

Turns again home. 
Twilight and evening bell, 

And after that the dark! 
And may there be no sadness of farewell. 

When I embark; 
For tho' from out our bourne of Time and Place 

The flood may bear me far, 
I hope to see my Pilot face to face 

When I have crost the bar. 

The hymn, "Jerusalem," was then rendered by Mr. JolliflF. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Thank you. Dr. McCracken. 

We will now have the introduction of visitors by Dr. H. 0. Lineberger. 
(Dr. Lineberger then introduced the visitors w^ho had registered, stat- 
ing that the full list would be printed in the proceedings.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Thank you, Dr. Lineberger. 

Dr. Paul Jones, of Farmville, will now introduce our new member to 
the State Board of Health, Dr. Roy Norton. 

DR. PAUL JONES: Mr. President and fellow members of the North 
Carolina Dental Society: I have one or more duties to perform while I 
am here. I am going to try to get off two numbers on the program, for 
Dr. Olive is a little bit crowded for time. 

Someone of your delegates is supposed to make annually a report 
of the meeting of the House of Delegates of the American Dental Associa- 
tion. 



28 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



I am sure that all of you, by now, know what oui' chief objective at 
the last meeting of the House of Delegates at the American Dental Asso- 
ciation meeting was, and we achieved our goal, as you have probably heard. 
Let the report of the House of Delegates stand just for that. 

Of course, I have a number of volumes here that I would like to call 
your attention to, and there are several very important things that are 
now pending before the House of Delegates of the American Dental Associa- 
tion that mean a lot to you as members of the North Carolina Dental 
Society. I would like to have the opportunity sometime to comment on those 
to the Society, because I think you will be interested in what the action 
of your delegates shall be at the next meeting of the House of Delegates. 

I might review the reports of committees and things of that nature. 
I assure you that your delegates were not absent when they should have 
been present at the last meeting, and that has been my experience during 
all the years that I have been a delegate from North Carolina. So much for 
that report. 

Now, I have a happy privilege to perform. I know in doing so that I 
am presenting a man to this group who is going to have many contacts 
with you as members of the health profession, and I am sure that dentistry 
is going to have a great friend in this servant of the people of North 
Carolina. 

Dr. Norton has established himself in the health field already, not 
only in North Carolina, but in the nation. He is a veteran of World War I 
and made an enviable record in World War II as a health administrator 
in the Army in various assignments over at Fort Bragg. He is especially 
to be commended for the wonderful work he did over at Fort Bragg, and 
he is now with the Tennessee Valley Authority, which comprises fifteen 
counties in North Carolina, I'm told, in his work. 

I am happy to present Dr. Roy Norton of the Tennessee Valley 
Authority. 

DR. ROY NORTON : Dr. Jones, ladies and gentlemen: I am just as 
happy as I can be that I am planning to get back altogether in North 
Carolina. As Dr. Jones has said, in my work now with the Tennessee Val- 
ley Authority we work in seven states about one hundred twenty-two 
counties, and about fifteen counties, do form part of the Tennessee River 
watershed, so I haven't been altogether out of North Carolina. 

I have been a bird hunter, but I started walking around here this 
morning. I don't know whether the rest of you have the same, idea, but I 
wanted to drop in at the Health Department of Western North Carolina 
District Sanitation Office, and I think I walked about two miles trying to 
get back around here this morning. I really had a workout. I can get around 
in the country a whole lot better than I can in a town, and I'll admit that 
to start with. 



Containing the Proceedings 29 

One of the best friends that I had when I was a little fellow was a 
dentist, Dr. Luther Gibson in Laurinburg. I don't know whether any of you 
know him or not. He is one of the greatest men I have ever known. He 
was one of the men that helped me to find out, even when I was a child, 
that I didn't have to be afraid of the dentist. 

I think that's one of the grand jobs that Dr. Branch's group of dentists 
have been doing in North Carolina — getting out and working with these 
young people. They learn not to be afraid of the dentist who works on 
them when they are little in school; then they know they don't have to be 
afraid of the dentist when they get a litle bit bigger and need to have their 
mouths taken care of. 

Those of us in the Army found out that dental health was one of the 
things that is most important, oral health, in really building sound bodies, 
and we found more defects in the teeth and in the mouth, that dentists 
could have taken care of if they had had the opportunity. 

I am glad now that we have an opportunity to do some more preventive 
work (apparently, it seems promising, at least) with the fluorides, and I 
understand that you have a discussion of that on this program. 

But all that works in with the fact that the dentists have been pro- 
gressing, have pushed forward. I will have to admit, being an M.D., that 
you are not as much tied dovm by tradition and by the shackles of what 
somebody did — our grandparents, or even further back. You are not nearly 
so tied down as some of us doctors are, and that helps you to be progres- 
sive, it helps you to keep up with the things that are going on and not to 
be afraid to step out and do things that ought to be done as we see the 
thing today. 

I had an opportunity also to know dentists better when I was in local 
health work in Rocky Mount. The dentists in Dr. Branch's office and the 
local dentists there — Dr. Minges, Dr. Hunt, and the others — were all good 
friends and they did a fine job. I had an opportunity to know about the 
work when I was with the State Health Department and got to visit with 
Dr. Branch and Miss Mercer and the dentists on his staff at that time. I 
had an opportunity to work with the dentists when I was teaching in the 
School of Public Health over in Chapel Hill, and I had the privilege of 
discussing some of the general health administrative programs with the 
dentists in that group. 

It's been a great privilege, as I say, to know dentists from the time 
when I first got to know Dr. Luther Gibson right up to the present day, 
and I know that you have worked with the Public Health program. I know 
you are preventive health-minded, and I know that I can count on you, and 
I assure you that you can count on me, so that we can work together for 
better, healthier citizens in North Carolina. (Applause.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Thank you. Dr. Norton. 

Some of you probably haven't heard that Dr. Norton has taken Dr. 
Reynolds' place on the State Board of Health, and we feel that we have a 



30 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



dependable ally with Dr. Norton. We are confident that we have a very 
strong organization planned for medicine and dentistry cooperating to- 
gether. 

In the next part of the program, we have Dr. LeRoy Ennis from 
Pennsylvania, who will be introduced by Dr. Poindexter. 

DR. C. C. POINDEXTER: Mr. President, members of the State 
Society, and guests: The first speaker this morning has appeared on our 
state program at least once before. As a teacher and author, he has had 
a great deal to do with the present standards, high requirements, for 
dental study. He is favorably known wherever dentistry is taught and 
wherever it is practiced. 

Aside from his teaching responsibilities, carrying on specialty pro- 
grams, he is interested in the affairs of dental organizations. Years ago, 
his state recognized him as a leader. He is a Past President of the Pennsyl- 
vania State Dental Society and continues to serve on the most important 
committee assignments, obviously, with the American Dental Association. 
He is now and hafe been a tnistee of the American Dental Association for 
several terms. 

It is seldom indeed that we have a man of such high caliber, or one 
better informed, to speak to us. He is Professor of Radiology at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania; also Professor of Radiology at the Graduate 
School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and he has many 
other professional connections in Philadelphia. 

We are happy to have him, and I am honored to present Dr. LeRoy M. 
Ennis of the University of Pennsylvania. (Applause.) 

DR LEROY M. ENNIS: Dr. Poindexter, Mr. President, and ladies and 
gentlemen: I want to congratulate the President and all who had anything 
to do with it, because, generally, when I am asked to speak at eleven 
o'clock, I get here about quarter to twelve, and then somebody comes up 
and says, "We have a very important dinner for Senator or Congressman 
So-and-so, and he is going to speak, and we can't hold him up." This is 
the first time that I am going to really get started ahead of time. 

I want, first of all, to bring to you tidings of your good friend, Clyde 
Minges. Dr. Minges is very sorry he can't be here, but certain conditions 
have arisen. I think this is the first time he missed a meeting of the State 
Dental Society since he graduated. He is with you in spirit, and he wishes 
the meeting all the success in the world. 

This morning, we are going to talk on the "Interpretation of Dental 
Roentgenograms" from a point of view of the average practitioner. In 
other words, we are not going into highly scientific stuff, but we will give 
you something you will be able to take back into the office and put into 
actual use. 

I am going to talk, first of all, about burns — x-ray burns. I am talking 
about x-ray burns because of the fact that there are so many among the 



Containing the Proceedings 31 



dental profession today that it is getting to be very pathetic. I am not 
going to spend much time on it, but I just want to warn you of the condi- 
tion that exists. 

At the present time, we have in the city of Philadelphia about seven- 
teen men undergoing treatment for x-ray burns simply by being a little 
careless, holding films in the patients' mouths or allowing themselves to 
come in contact with the x-ray, which is highly dangerous and certainly 
incapacitating for you in your work if you allow it to continue. In other 
words, I am warning you (and I will show you a few slides of this condi- 
tion) not to hold films in the mouths of patients, not to get in contact 
with the x-ray, for the simple reason that it is affecting you and affecting 
your person. 

There is another condition that we have to contend with and that is 
osteoradionecrosis. I am warning you about that because of the fact that 
there is so much of that going on, and there is a lot of it going for the 
simple reason that today there are many cases of malignancies of the 
mandible which are being treated by deep x-ray therapy or by radium. Now, 
this osteoradionecrosis is caused by the fact that, when you treat these 
cases with radium or deep x-ray therapy, you break down the blood supply 
considerably. In other words, if you actually go into the periosteum of the 
bone, strip this off the same as you would a piece of lamb-bone after the 
lamb has been cooked and cooked, the blood supply is cut down extremely 
so that the entire area is just a beautiful spot for infections, so that, by 
tearing the strip, shortly after treatment, deep x-ray therapy, radium 
therapy, or malignancies of the mouth, immediately it opens up into your 
cancellous network of the mandible, an area which is a beautiful incubator 
for all bacteria, so that you will get this necrotic condition. 

While that condition exists, it takes a considerable length of time after 
treatment before it is really safe to remove any teeth in the mouth, so 
that if you have patients who are going to undergo treatment of this 
type, it is your duty to put that mouth in as healthy a condition as you 
possibly can, anticipating anything that might happen over a period of six 
or seven years so that it will not be necessary to break down the mucous 
membrane of that mouth for quite a considerable length of time after 
treatment by either radium or deep x-ray therapy. In that way, you elimi- 
nate the possibility of this necrotic condition. 

(Slide 1.) The first slide this morning shows this condition. Here we 
have the hand of a dentist showing the first stage of x-ray burn. The 
fingernails become cracked and very brittle. (You will note there is com- 
paratively little on the hand which has not been in contact with x-ray.) 
That is about the first thing that happens when you have subjected your- 
self to a considerable amount of radium or x-ray. After this, the fingers 
become swollen, break down, with the result that, in due time, you get a 
necrotic condition. 

(Slide 2.) The first spot, probably, that you find breaking down, of 
tissue, is that the second tip of the index finger does so — the curvature 



32 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

of the joint of the finger. That is because of the fact that all of these 
people have combinations of lead, with the result that you get a consider- 
able amount of filtration of the rays, and that is a very weak spot here 
at the second joint, and there (indicating) it is broken in this case. Skin 
graft has been placed about eight or nine years after. 

(Slide 3.) This next case is one in which this condition has continued 
on where we have a necrosis to such an extent that it is breaking down 
into a malignancy. The condition of this individual started to break down 
around 1935. For two years he had undergone treatment for this x-ray 
burn. The physician that he took these fingers to didn't know it, and he 
was being treated for all kinds of infection. Finally, it got to the point 
where it was so painful he finally came in to Dr. Saler in Philadelphia 
who had quite an experience with this. At that time, he examined it and 
found it to be malignant. By the time he came in, there was a swelling 
of the axillary. 

Slide 4.) Here's what it looked like when he first arrived. This is in 
1937. Here is the biopsy; found to be malignant. 

(Slide 5.) Here he is. This individual slide will show one side of the 
finger, and on the same slide you see what happened to him at the end 
of that year. In other words, he lost his index finger, and this is what 
happened in 1937. The next slide (slide 6) will show this case in 1940. 

The reason I show you this is because of the fact that so much radia- 
tion has been absorbed by this individual that he is still permeated with it. 

He hasn't touched any radium or x-ray that I know of since 1936, 
and here it is, in 1940, recurring on the second finger. The index finger 
has been removed, and here it is on the thumb. He has about one-fourth of 
his index finger, and here is on the other hand. 

Now that is all I am going to talk to you about on x-ray burns. If 
that does not convince you, gentlemen, to stay away from this, that there 
is no necessity of holding films in the mouth, I don't know what will. If 
you have to do it, get somebody else to do it, and even relieve them by 
going out and spending a dollar and a half for an instrument to hold it 
in the mouth. The patient can hold them in her mouth. It won't force you 
to have your digits removed and breaking out with it. 

(Slide 7.) Now we get an interpretation of x-ray. 

One of the problems, the outstanding thing we have to deal with 
today in the interpretation of reoentgenograms, is the breaking down in 
the minds of the profession that fact that the area has a pathological lesion 
or infection. We have plenty of lesions that we find in the mouth due to 
normal structures and others are due to a condition that we do not know 
much about, certainly not pathological. It repairs itself. One of those most 
commonly known is the periapical ossifying fibroma. 

We find this mostly occurring on the mandibular sockets. It is the six 
mandibular sizes of the teeth that are mostly affected. I have seen it affect 



Containing the Proceedings 33 



the molar teeth, the mandible; I have seen it affect the maxillary teeth, 
but generally you will find those six lower anterior teeth. It shows in the 
roentgenogram over the apex of the root of the tooth, as you see here. . . 

(Indicating) That is one of the factors under any type of vitality 
testing — whether it be heat, whether it be electricity, or whether it be to 
the point where you take the tooth out of the mouth and have a micro- 
scopic examination of the pulp. 

What actually happens here, I think, is that we have a similarity of 
conditions at the apex of the root of the tooth which is similar to that of 
the formation of the nebulus. It starts out by a perforation of the perios- 
teum at the apex of the root of the tooth, which causes the inflammatory 
condition of the breaking down of the bone. It has nothing whatsoever to 
do with the tooth. Later on, we have a building up of cement, depending 
on what is stimulated at that particular time. 

But the main point here is (we probably all like to have the money 
that it costs) that it costs more for the teeth that are extracted through- 
out the United States just for this condition. I have had men come and 
say they are glad I know something about that just because the x-ray 
shows this area. 

One of the greatest troubles is that we do not see this thing to begin 
with. By the time we get it, it is either repairing itself or it is in full 
bloom. If we know this, we can watch these cases, and get a little history 
on them. 

(Slide 8.) Here is what would happen. This goes a little further than 
that which you previously saw, in which we have these large radio cysts. 

These teeth are all vital. Hyperthyroidism does not play any part. 
There is practically nothing we know of that we can pin it down to. It has 
been said that it happens in the negroes more than in white men. Since 
this work was done in New York, in the Bronx, where a great percentage 
of the patients up there were negroes, it is impossible to use that as an 
authoritative criterion. We do know, however, that it happens to women 
more so than it does to men. 

Two things may happen. First of all, you get this rarefaction of 
bone at the apex of the root of the tooth. As I said before, the teeth are 
vital; the patient is perfectly healthy. The only way to overcome it is 
by general radiological examination of the mouth. There is no discolora- 
tion of the teeth. Upon x-ray, we find that this has been going on for 
quite a time, and repair has started. We have, at the apex of the root of 
the tooth, around the periphery of the area, new bone building in, which 
means that it has rambled its full length of the loss structure, and now we 
are trying to build up. 

Over here, we have this very fine cancellated network starting to 
build up, with the result that when the periphery starts to build, we know 
bone is going to build in there. If we find, like we do in this particular case, 



34 Bulletin North Cai-olina Dental Society 



that the calcification starts at the apex of the root, you can put it down 
pretty surely that you are going to have a cementoma later on in life — 
that is, cementum growing at that particular point. So, you can have, 
following in the original loss of bone, either normal bone replaced by a 
little fiber underneath, cancellated structure, or cementoma, which is cystic. 

(Slide 9.) Here, we have it a little further advanced toward the re- 
paired side. At one time, this was all a very large radiolucent area, and, 
probably, if we ex-rayed it at that particular time, you would probably 
pull out all the teeth, and that would be the end of that. 

Here we have a new bone building around, very fine, laying down the 
pattern much different than that of the surrounding bone of that area 
entirely. 

(Slide 10.) Here it is completely repaired. In other words, all this 
is new bone here, and you are back almost to a normal condition. In other 
words, I think that would probably pass censorship on a great number 
of the interpreting film routines. This now has built in. The network of 
bone is much different from the surrounding bone, but it is nothing more 
than this case of radio-osteitis there caused by the inflammatory condition, 
and this, then, is repaired. 

(Slide 11.) (This covers much more territory than this lantern.) This 
is a case in which we found, or were able to get, views of a year apart. 
When the patient first came in, we had this picture — this canine, and it 
was even down here on the pre-molars. But notice this lower anterior 
region. These are nutrient canals here, bringing the blood supply up here 
in between the teeth and the anterior region. 

(Slide 12.) A year later, this is the same one. You can see the de- 
struction here is much greater a year later than it was in that previous 
picture. But still, if you leave it alone, the thing will repair, because we 
find over here, in the canine, there is quite a difference there. That has 
repaired. This area on the lower pre-molar is repairing. So we had, while 
there was a breaking down in one part of the mouth, a construction in 
the other. 

(Slide 13.) This is the same case that you just saw, only down here 
in the pre-molar area, there is a change. This is the case when it first 
appeared in 1945, and calcification here in the area is not very large, in 
the area on the canine and the pre-molar here; nothing has been done here, 
and the next slide will show it one year later. 

(Slide 14.) You now note that this is all filled in. The area of the 
canine is filled in; there is much more sclerotic bone — sclerosis. You have 
rarefaction here on the opposite side, but it is much closer to the ridge 
than it was in the original picture. In other words, it seems to be approach- 
ing the ridge, filling in here, (indicating) while, in the center of the man- 
dible, there is a terrific breaking down. 



Containing the Proceedings 35 



These patients that we have are pretty hard to get back, and we are 
hoping to get this woman back to check again. We expect to find all this 
area (indicating) filled in. 

(Slide 15.) This is a case in which, for the first time, we were ever 
able to pick a case out before anything happened and then find it happen- 
ing. There is the patient in 1945, when a full mouth x-ray was taken. 
Everything is lovely here. Here is the same patient in 1947. Now, these 
teeth are just as hard today as they were then. Something had gone wrong 
because of the stimulation of growth down here around the canine. Some- 
thing has gone wrong that stimulated the growth of periosteum at the 
apex of the root of the tooth, that causes fibroid structure and loss of 
bone. We hope to show that this thing all healed back to this condition, 
or maybe a little more dense — the bone will be a little more dense — or we 
will have a cementum for it. 

(Slide 16.) This is a particular case in which we are aiming to 
actually go in here and find out what was going on. Up to this point, you 
have seen bone regenerated. Here you see cementum being built in here 
at a particular point. We were able to cut this right out in one large piece. 
It is from a colored woman of about 45 or 48. We were able to cut this 
out because we told her that if we got this piece out we would make her 
beautiful. We sent it to the prosthetic department. She was perfectly happy 
because she had her teeth sent back. 

We take a section right through that tooth, and the next slide shows a 
micrograph section which was cut out. (Slide 17.) Now we are going to 
cut the section right through here, and you will see what we find. These 
teeth are all vital even though they look very bad in that particular film. 

(Slide 18.) Here we find in the apex of the root of the tooth perios- 
teum an inflammatory condition through here; new bone building up. 
Down here, there are small pieces of large parts of cementum and small 
pieces of cementum being formed within this area which, in time, will 
probably all join together, and you will have one large cementum here 
in this particular region which explains, of course, why we get the cemen- 
toma here in that part of the mouth. 

(Slide 19.) Here we have one canine in which a cementoma is form- 
ing. Notice the calcification is taking place at the apex of the root of the 
tooth. The tooth is perfectly vital. We have this periphery very well 
organized in the center and at the apex of the tooth, practically. We have 
this calcification taking place which is indicative of the fact that, in the 
future, you may expect to have a cementoma there. 

(Slide 20.) We have again, in the lower anterior region, a cementoma 
being formed over the apex. There is a large rarefied area around her 
teeth; quite a bit of trauma here. Down here, (indicating) you find this 
large mass of cementum being formed in this area. 

(Slide 21.) Here we have an occlusal taken at the anterior portion of 
the mouth. Teeth all vital. We find this large area of cementum being 



36 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



formed throughout the entire area; hyperplastic cemsntum over all these 
roots. 

(Slide 22.) And so we take these areas, and we find these areas, such 
as this — cystic odontomas, cementomas, nothing more than a mass of 
cementum — caused by the fact that you have a lot of fibroid tissues around 
the area. It is not a cystic condition at all — simply fibroid tissue around 
to continue on. If you didn't have any breaking into the oral cavity, it 
would probably fill in with cementum. 

(Slide 23.) Here we have one which is all in one piece, with this so- 
called cystic area around, which, as I said, is not cystic — no epithelial 
tissue there at all. It is nothing more than a mass of fibroid tissue around 
this mass of cementum and probably the end result of that which I have 
just shown you. 

(Slide 24.) As I told you in the beginning, this is approximately 
similar to that of the so-called fibroid tumors. Starting here (indicating), 
we have a joint cell fibroma. These so-called fibroid tumors calcify. Every 
one will calcify. The only reason that it is commonly thought that they 
do not calcify is the fact that one of the patients with one of the small 
fibroid tumors along the gingiva immediately removed it. But when you 
are working in clinics, you find the class of people that are scared to 
death, frightened of the surgical knife, and they don't want anything cut, 
so the result is they tolerate this for a long time, and we are able to 
pick them up. 

Here we find one beginning to calcify. Here is this large fibroid tumor 
with calcification taking place within the area. 

(Slide 25.) Here is one in a woman about 54 years old. You see a 
large area which was extremely hard, and the tissue was thin over it. 
Just a small touch with an instrument punctured it and it would bleed. It 
was very, very thin. That is a calcified fibroma, only hers is in the gingiva. 
The next slide will show this area, the calcification out here. 

(Slide 26.) This is the x-ray of that case I just showed you. It shows 
a large amount of calcification, and it is also calcifying internally. In other 
words, when they start to calcify, they go internally as well as externally, 
with the result, in this particular case, angulosis of the bone from this 
vast bone, both inwardly and outwardly, from this stimulation of this 
fibrous tissue there. 

(Slide 27.) Here we have more anterior region where you see the 
separation of the anterior teeth loose as though we have a fracture here 
(indicating.) Actually, you have a large epulis here of fibroid tumor, which 
is calcifying, and the next slide will show this tumor removed, showing 
the calcification taking place within this fibrous mass. 

(Slide 28.) Here is the limit of your tumor, and, in time, the whole 
thing will calcify, just as much as you saw in the original case. 



Containing the Proceedings 37 



(Slide 29.) Here we have the lower anterior region. This is bone 
causing separation of the lower anterior teeth — nothing more than a 
calcified fibroma, calcified epulis, in which you find the bony material try- 
ing to go down into the mandible, and also this entire area, which is just 
a slight amount of tissue, or the pressure of that calcified. 

(Slide 30.) Here we have the upper anterior reginal displacement. 
This is a large calcification of your epulis. The thing that happened can 
happen at the apex of the root of the tooth. 

(Slide 31.) You will find that out if you take a photomicrograph of 
these fibroid tumors. Here's one in early bone formation. When you see 
these areas over a portion of the roots of the anterior teeth or, for instance, 
or for that matter, any teeth of the mouth, and these teeth respond per- 
fectly to vitality tests, and the teeth are in good condition — some of them 
haven't any fillings whatsoever — don't be too anxious to remove those teeth 
because you will find that, in time, it will heal up as you have seen here, 
and you have done a service instead of a disservice by removing them. 

(Slide 32.) Now, the next thing I am going to talk to you about this 
morning is the value of x-raying these edentulous areas before the removal, 
before the destruction of anything artificial. 

We have found (and Dr. Ford at the Mayo Clinic, as well as any clinic 
that ever worked on this has found) that about 23% of all the edentulous 
areas, edentulous mouths, must have some surgical work done before 
dentures should be made. That runs anywhere down from simple residual 
root to malignancy. I don't care whose practice it is, who the surgeon is 
that has done the work on the patient; I care nothing for anybody's reputa- 
tion as a surgeon; I will still say that 23% of the cases you, he, or she, 
whoever it happens to be, will need some surgical attention to their mouths, 
because we can have residual cysts that form after surgery, the original 
surgery is done, and we can have malignancies for all types of malforma- 
tion. 

Here we have a case of an edentulous mouth. We have a root up here 
(indicating). The technic that we use is the use of two occlusal films. That 
is our first step. The reason we use these occlusal films is because we can 
cover the entire waterfront with two exposures. We took the floor of the 
mandible; at the maxilla on the other. 

We examine those films. If we find anything in those films that indi- 
cates there may be something wrong there, we take a small film and 
localize the condition questioned. Then, if surgery is necessary, surgery 
follows. 

In the localized condition for surgery, especially residual roots, I don't 
say that all residual roots should come out, nor all impacted teeth should 
come out because of the fact that sometimes you will find the patients 
wearing dentures over the impacted teeth for ten or fifteen years. Then 
if you tell them they have to have it out, they will wonder what is the 
matter with you because they have worn them for fifteen years. It isn't 



38 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



necessary to take all those things out, but I think the patient should be 
told what is there, and then it is up to them. If anything happens, it won't 
be blamed on you. 

When we go to localize these conditions and go into the mouths of 
edentulous areas for roots or things of that sort, it is pretty hard to tell 
just exactly where they are. We do that with an indelible pencil, and it is 
a very simple technique. We place the film in the mouth and take an in- 
delible pencil and mark on the tissue with the indelible pencil the anterior 
border of your film. We then develop our small localized film, measure 
back from the anterior border of the film to where the culprit lies, and 
then we take that measurement and transfer it from our indelible pencil 
mark to within one or two millimeters of approximately where that root or 
condition is resting in the mouth. That makes it very simple. It doesn't 
cost you anything — I think it will cost about five cents for the pencil. 

This is an edentulous mouth, especially the maxilla, and we find numer- 
ous things, such as you see here. For instance, here we have the maxillary 
sinus. That starts a cystic condition, that is, the palatine extension of the 
maxillary sinus, and that can go anywhere. It shows the very small parti- 
tion separating the right or left maxillary sinus from each other, known 
as the palatine extension of the maxillary sinus. In this particular case, 
we have just a small fragment back here. 

(Slide 33.) Here is a technic which we use. We put it in the mouth 
with the occlusal part, bring the tube in here at about eighty degrees, and 
our central ray passes down through the upper third of the nose, giving us 
a film such as you see there. 

(Slide 34.) Here we have a case with a large sinus again. We have 
a root over here, and this patient is suff'ering from an infected sinus, and 
we picked it up through the occlusal film. That patient needs more than 
just a denture in his mouth. You may place one that may fit perfectly, 
and then there is stimulation here because of a terrific amount of reaction 
under that denture to this infected sinus. All this would be blamed on 
your work instead of on the original cause. Here, before a denture should 
be made, this thing should be looked after and the root removed. 

(Slide 35.) Here, it has found two impacted third molars — completely 
impacted within an edentulous mouth. You can go all the way back on this 
third molar and pick up this region very easily. Here is that whole thing 
along the one particular film. 

(Slide 36.) Here we have a residual root over here, and down here 
we have a supernumerary tooth. That is a supernumerary lying there, and 
evidently lying in the median line. In other supernumerary teeth, some- 
times, you will find as we find here, the absorption of that root taking 
place. Very often, when you find this supernumerary tooth, you must 
definitely localize that condition. Don't think for one instant that you can 
go right in and remove that supernumerary tooth, if you so intend to do. 
That could go under the anterior nasal spine — it may be anywhere — so 



Containing the Proceedings 39 



that, when you try to take out a thing of this sort, you must resort to a 
direct linal plate in order to get the elevation or position of the supernu- 
merary tooth within the palate itself. It is pretty difficult to know just 
where they are. 

(Slide 37.) Here we have two supernumerary teeth. A root here and 
here the supernumerary teeth. They don't look any more like teeth than I 
do, but they are supernumerary teeth, and if you took small films at differ- 
ent angles, you would see them a little broader than that, but actually 
what you see here is the narrow portion of the teeth, not completely 
developed, very, very, incomplete, with the result that the question arises 
of whether to take them out or leave them in. You will probably find you 
would leave them in, because they had been in for years and causing no 
trouble. 

(Slide 38.) Here is a case of cyst. Now you would think that the 
patient would complain of the swelling of the mouth and this condition, 
yet there was no complaint. Simply was pulled into the office because of 
the routine procedure in taking x-rays in these edentulous mouths, the 
reason for it being that it ran up into the maxilla. You see, the lateral wall 
is destroyed here and part of the anterior nasal spinal. All of the destruc- 
tion goes up into the nose, and if you looked into the nose, you could see 
large bulbous projections extending up there. But it had not gone through 
the alveolar, and, therefore, no swelling. 

Definitely, there is a cyst, and a root out here, a large residual root cyst 
in the mouth of that individual. 

(Slide 39.) You can readily realize what would happen here if a den- 
ture were made over that without removing this thing. 

(Slide 40.) Here is an individual who has been complaining a number 
of years about trouble in his mouth. We take these x-rays on having new 
dentures made. He had a new set of dentures and he said they didn't fit 
because they were made just shortly after he had his teeth out. We took 
these x-rays and found this radio-packed mass within the sinus. So we go 
for more (slide 41), and we take a lateral view of the head, and here is 
this mass. That is the mass you saw in the previously shown film. 

(Slide 42.) Here is another case — Kelly's paste. We have had three of 
those cases in the last two or three years. In one, it was so fresh, you 
could smell it in this boy's mouth. But, as had happened here, when we 
take out these teeth, plus your immediate impressions, sometimes you get 
the alveolar extension of the maxillary sinus coming right down to the 
crest of the ridge, and, in extracting those teeth, you get a definite open- 
ing, as you all know, into the maxillary sinus. If you take an impression, 
take the Kelly's paste, shove that up in there, naturally, all that paste goes 
into the sinus, and the result is this. 

(Slide 43.) Here is another condition which is found in this; it is 
rather prevalent in certain types of individuals. Here is a case of arteri- 
osclerosis that you pick up in diagnosis with x-ray, and you see this snake 



40 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

in the grass out here. There is a calcified artery out in the soft tissues of 
the cheek, commonly known as a pipe stem artery. You see them in the 
long arteries of the femura of the arm. You will find that it doesn't look 
like a pipe stem. Immediately you see that, you know that the patient is 
developing a case of arteriosclerosis. All of the arteries will become cal- 
cified, or the walls will calcify, as you see here. 

(Slide 44;) In the lower jaw, you will find this mass going up into 
the cheek. Now, you are liable to think that it is artefact in the film. It is 
not. It is definitely one of the arteries — it is arteriosclerosis imbedded in 
the cheek. 

(Slide 45.) Here is another one, very torturous, which is nothing, as 
I said before, other than arteriosclerosis. There is nothing you can do 
about it. 

(Slide 46.) This next slide shows two cases of people who walked 
immediately from the street into a clinic and had dentures made. This is a 
case of carcinoma of the maxillary. I know this is carcinoma because the 
doctor told me. Outside of that, I wouldn't know. Don't let anybody tell 
you they can look at an x-ray and tell you what type of a malignancy 
that is. The individual who makes the final diagnosis on these cases is the 
pathologist, not the radiologist. They will insist on having these specimens 
go to a competent pathologist, and then, if the radiologist is really honest, 
he will immediately find out from the pathologist what this was and pins 
on it what the label is. I am explaining to you how I know that this is a 
carcinoma, because I know some of you are going to ask me how I know it. 

That looks as though it is molar; it could be localized osteomyelitis; it 
is certainly not a cyst, but it is some condition within the bone that needs 
a very thorough investigation as far as x-ray is concerned. Then, you can 
get a biopsy and have them give a report on it immediately as to what it is. 

In this particular case, the point I want to bring out is the fact that 
there was clinical evidence that this thing wasn't going on, as yet, but in 
about a month, or two or three months, it would have been. 

(Slide 47.) This is one in which this patient had been to a dentist and 
had teeth extracted here. Here are the teeth sockets, and, along here (in- 
dicating) is another case of malignancy of the maxilla. I point out to you 
the fact that this patient had just had some teeth out. I won't say any- 
thing about the wealth of this patient or his social position in life, or 
anything of that of the dentist. We know that the patient came to a clinic 
after he had been to a private dentist, and probably could not afford what 
the dentist wanted for a set of teeth, and therefore went to the clinic. 

(Slide 48.) This slide will show the clinical condition. Here was the 
mouth after a biopsy had been taken. You can see the teeth have just been 
taken out. This was the case after the biopsy had been taken. This is 
showing it after operation. A denture was made and the patient was com- 
ing along very, very fine, and in general checkup, there was no metastasis 
happening at that time. 



Containing the Proceedings 41 

(Slide 49.) Here we have this condition of caries of impacted teeth. 
You have a canine here, a residual root here. 

(Slide 50.) There is quite a history to this fellow. He had been suffer- 
ing' from a number of things. He had been treated for a period of two 
years, starting out with just a slight pain in the head. His physician, in 
treating him, never thought there was anything wrong with his teeth 
because he had no teeth — all of his teeth were extracted — but the thing 
kept getting progressively worse and worse. 

Finally, on x-ray examination, checkup, we find that this tooth here 
had ordinary caries. In other words, he had been suffering from an ordinary 
toothache, not from any disease which was obscured. Here we have com- 
mon ordinary caries of a grounded tooth in an edentulous mouth. How does 
this happen ? 

(Slide 51.) Here is a similar caries condition occurring because there 
had been definite communication with the oral cavity. Here we have one 
here in the canine. We have it with a definite inclination out here to the 
outer surface. It was probably coming from the periphery around that par- 
ticular tooth. If all these teeth were extracted, it would probably clean up, 
but there would still be that communication with that tooth, and hat is com- 
mon, as you well know, that these impacted teeth are in communication 
with portions of other teeth, and when the teeth are extracted, they are 
in communication with the oral cavity. 

(Slide 52.) We have another condition which is really not of dental 
origin, but the dentist finds it more often than the physician, and that is 
mucosity of the maxillary sinus. 

These are supposed not to cause any trouble, but these conditions which 
I show you here have definitely given rise to neuralgic pains throughout 
the head. 

Here was this truck driver, 220 pounds, and everything was done to 
try to find out what was wi'ong. Finally, we went down to the fioor of the 
sinus. Right here you will see a radial passage which should not be there. 
We took a different view of this — three-quarters through the area — (slide 
53) and here it is shown much better. Here you find this very sharply 
defined convexity within the wall of the sinus. These are carrying blood 
vessels to the nerve, and, evidently, in this particular individual, pressure 
was being exerted in which, the moment that was opened into and the 
mucous fluid removed, it was relieved — the pressure relieved — and the pain 
stopped. These are not infectious, but do contain the mucous fluid which 
is rather thick. When you x-ray them, of course, you get quite a dispersion 
of the x-ray which gives you the radio passage in here instead of nothing 
at all, as it would be if it was just the ordinary sinus. 

(Slide 54.) Here we find two — one here, edentulous, one in the media 
wall from the sinus. They can be anywhere in the sinus. In other words, 
they can be on the roof or posterior wall, media wall, the fioor, or the 
anterior wall. Generally, when you find them on the dental films, you will 



42 Bulletin North Carolivxi Dental Society 

find them rising from the mucous membrane from the floor of the maxillary 
sinus. 

(Slide 55.) Here we have one which is in an edentulous mouth — very 
large sinus; you can see it running around there. You know that these 
don't come right out and say, "Here I am." When you are taking this type, 
you have to study them. You can't look at them in sunlight or in the light 
of an incandescent lamp and say that there is nothing there. You will very 
often have to study them for a while and see the shadows and wonder 
why this is here, and your job is then to reason logically why that condi- 
tion is there, and prove it. 

Here you find it well defined. You will always find mucus in the sinus 
a very well defined area, and it is the dentist who finds it because the 
physician doesn't take x-rays of the patient in the mouth the way we do. 
You will find that cyst there. 

(Slide 56.) Here is a picture of that operation of that particular 
case. You can see the cyst in here. It is a bloody picture. Actually that 
cyst would have a translucent appearance if you could get that blood away 
from it. It is definitely filled with a mucous substance. 

(Slide 57.) Now we get to the mandible and the technic we use for 
taking films on the mandible. In the x-ray, we have the head back so that 
the film is practically perpendicular. We shoot in here perpendicular to 
the film. That, then, gives us the entire mandible so that we can take 
the whole works on these two films. 

(Slide 58.) Here is what we get. We see an enlarged cyst. I want to 
show you what you are supposed to look for. Time is growing short, and 
we will run these through rapidly. 

(Slide 59.) Here you find two large stones. It is blurry in here — 
wrong technic — so we take another view of this position, bringing them 
up where they belong. In other words, angle this backwards. We do not 
come in perpendicularly, as you can readily see by the next slide. 

(Slide 60.) Here you find at least two stones in the floor of the mouth, 
rather long. Don't try to take that out, either. Some individuals do find 
hylide bone rises very high. 

(Slide 61.) Sometimes these stones are very deep, and when you take 
a film you find nothing, absolutely nothing, there. That does not say the 
case is negative — remember that. When you find swelling in the person's 
subtonsillary region, in the submaxillary region, and swelling in a little 
posterior, you take an occlusal view — don't say that the thing is negative. 
We place the film in the mouth, throw the head back, and direct our rays 
at the jaw through the swelling here at a very difficult angle. We twist 
the head around so that the rays go through the swelling. 

Remember always, on any tooth to which x-rays are aimed, you must 
have a film behind it; you must have a tooth out here (indicating); send 
the ray through the area you want to take^ and you are a successful radi- 
ologist. 



Containing the Proceedings 43 



Here we have a stone rather elongated, distorted. We know it isn't in- 
fectious — it is a stone. Here is a stone after removal. 

This is to show you how you don't have lateral places — you take this 
film and it's negative; don't be satisfied — take it at a different angle. 

(Slide 62.) Here is a stone that is deep. It is rather deep down here 
in the body of the maxilla, in the body of the submaxillary gland. Notice 
this mouth is slightly open, and, therefore, we have thrown the body of 
the mandible down over it. That is taking one in direct lateral view. 

Let me explain to you that we are very much mistaken in our ter- 
minology when we speak of these lateral plates of the jaws. The average 
lateral plate that we take is what we like to term "oblique lateral." It's 
a complete angle, in other words. Lateral means that you come directly per- 
pendicular as in this. This is a lateral plate of the head. 

(Slide 63.) The next particular case is very interestin<?- because there 
were dentures made on this case. There was no clinical evidence. That is 
the point I would like to bring out to you, in that lots of times we have 
these stones in any size and shape, and you would be surprised at the 
number of stones you will pick up that, clinically, there is no evidence 
that such a thing is there, and that you probably wouldn't pick up until 
you put a denture in. 

This case had a partial upper and full lower denture. There was no 
evidence of any trouble until the denture was made, and the lower denture 
wouldn't stay in. Every time he opened his mouth, the thing popped up. He 
kept going back to the dentist, and he kept cutting and cutting until the 
denture was of no value. On x-ray we find (this was before we had a rule 
that everything had to be x-rayed) that this is the thing that was caus- 
ing the denture not to fit after it had been made. You would think that, 
in taking the impressions, they would find that stone, but they did not. 
There was absolutely no evidence that that was there. 

(Slide 64.) These stones can be multiple. You see any number of 
them here. I have never counted them. This one showed no clinical evidence 
or any symptoms at all that there was anything wrong, except that we 
had taken films internally and found a couple of small stones in the floor 
of the mouth. I show you this case because I have a similar case almost 
identical to this. The films are down at Johns Hopkins Hospital. 

That particular case happened to be the wife of a salesman of x-ray 
equipment who was entirely edentulous. Before this, she had what was 
diagnosed as tic douloureux. She had every tooth taken out, and she was 
about ready to commit suicide. She had no trigger point — could not pick 
it up — and, on x-ray, we found a mouth similar to this. Finally her hus- 
band requested the plates and took them down to Johns Hopkins, and they 
operated on her. 

These stones were deep, over near the lid of the mouth. There was 
absolutely no clinical evidence; you couldn't even pick them up clinically, 
and the moment they took those things out the entire trouble cleared up. 



44 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



Evidently, there had been some pressure from this mass within the mouth 
over against some nerve. It might have been the sub-lingual or some other 
nerve which was causing these radiating pains across the side of the face 
and causing the entire trouble, but no x-ray had ever been taken. 

(Slide 65.) This is another case, and happened to be a salesman for 
S. S. White. I think he had been one of their super-salesmen, one who had 
been with them about thirty-five years. 

He had a very peculiar ailment. He would go into a restaurant and 
sit down and order a steak; then he would decide he couldn't swallow it, 
get up and walk out, and leave the steak. People began to believe he was 
a little balmy. He would take a friend into a saloon, order a beer, and then 
wouldn't drink it. The next night, he'd drink it, and maybe the next night, 
could not drink it. If you had a good friend that acted like that, you would 
say that there was something crooked there, that he must be a little balmy. 

This had gone on for about nine years. He had had x-rays, everything 
possible, to find out what was wrong. Finally, somebody sent him to me, 
and I found that it was a temple mandibular joint. I still don't know the 
cause — I never heard of a temple mandibular joint that would keep any- 
body from swallowing. 

We took an examination of that joint and found this (slide 66). We 
took the opposite side, and here is the stone moved up here. Remember, 
on one day, it was down here; the other side was here — same stone. Nat- 
urally, one side would move due to the projection of it. 

(Slide 67.) We took another view of this, a direct lateral, and we 
found the stone back here. That is wrong, completely wrong, because we 
have the sending rays. 

(Slide 68.) We make him stick his head out, and find the stone right 
down the trachea, in the soft part of the submaxillary gland, and here is 
the litle stone here. 

(Slide 69.) This slide is an oblique lateral. This is the stone down in 
the hyloid, and this is the size of the stone over here. It shows a little 
difference in shape, but that is due to the angle. 

They operated on this fellow, and there was a very funny thing — there 
was a tract, a groove, cut in there, where, during the operation, the fellow 
swallowed, the stone shot laterally and hooked over the hyloid bone. In 
other words, this stone moved and would hook onto the hyloid and he 
couldn't swallow, and then it would break loose from that and he could 
swallow. That is what had gone on for nine years. He had been in any 
number of offices, being a dental salesman, had been in any number of 
physicians' and radiologists' offices. I don't know why this hadn't been found 
in all those years. It may have been found and nothing thought of it, but 
there it is. It is one of these conditions that really was picked up by these 
lateral views of the mouth. 



Containing the Proceedings 45 



(Slide 70.) Here is another case of a young girl about twenty-four 
years old. I am not trying to sell these lateral views, but I think one of 
the most important things that you can take in the general radiological 
views of your patient is this. Just ten or eleven or fourteen films inside 
of the mouth doesn't mean an examination. 

Here is a young girl with an intralocular cyst. Here two cysts were 
forming. At this particular time that was taken, that could be taken out 
very easily and save her from future loss of the jaw bone, but this lateral 
won't take in that whole side. 

(Slide 71.) I show you this one because it is one of the very few 
cases in which there are impacted teeth and adamantinoma. In this parti- 
cular patient, there was swelling, and x-rays were taken, and you could 
see the tooth down here. 

(Slide 72.) A lateral jaw was taken, and this shows his large adaman- 
tinoma here affecting the whole mandible, going up into it, ascending, al- 
most. It is an adamantinoma, or whatever you want to call them, with this 
impacted tooth lying down in the base of that area. 

(Slide 73.) And here we find one the same type out here in the canine. 
This was taken in an occlusal view, occlusal film at about 45 degrees 
and coming up through the canine area, being pushed out by the premolars. 
In this case, I make note of the fact that there is an adamantinoma being 
formed at that point. 

It is now twelve o'clock, ladies and gentlemen. I thank you for your 
very kind attention. (Applause.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Thank you. Dr. Ennis. 

I now recognize Dr. A. C. Current, Chairman of the Advisory Com- 
mittee to the Medical Care Commission, who has an announcement to make 
at this time. 

DR. A. C. CURRENT: If you will take the history of mankind, study 
it from the angle of the great medical men through all the ages, you will 
find that nations have risen and fallen because they failed in their progress 
to keep their progress balanced at some point; they failed to measure up. 

Great writers and thinkers will tell you that if we progress, if we 
have culture, we must progress along diverse lines and we must progress 
along those lines at the same time. 

When people all over the United States come to our fair land, view 
our highway system, moving rapidly from the north side to the eastern 
coming here; when they see our magnificent hospital setup from the east 
to the west, and when they see three great medical schools, A-1 schools, 
throughout our state, and not one cent contributed in any way whatso- 
ever to educate dentists within our state, people are going to say, "Where 



46 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

is your dental training? Are you progressing along a balanced line of 
progress?" 

It gives me great pleasure to be wholeheartedly in favor of seeing 
what we can do about this thing of getting dental education within our 
state. I want to say that we are deeply grateful for these men here on 
our program, and the men who are going to appear on our program, that 
come from other dental schools throughout the country. Certainly every 
man in this room is indebted to some dental school and the effort of some 
other state for the education he has in dentisti'y today. 

I said all that to say this — there is underway a basic movement to find 
out just how far behind we are here, how much it is needed, and so on. 
Whether it will amount to anything or not, what will be the outcome, I 
do not know, but we have money to do this thing, and your officers of this 
Society for this year, including your Executive Committee, are willing to 
make a contribution of at least ten dollars per capita to this movement, 
which is a fairly nominal amount. However, if every member of organized 
dentistry, particularly of licensed dentistry, in our state, should do the 
same thing — give ten dollars each — we would have some ten thousand dol- 
lars in our treasury with which to put this basic survey across and see 
whether it can be done. 

You are not obligated to do this, but if you are interested in your 
future, interested in seeing dentistry progress along with the other move- 
ments in our state, you have the opportunity to give at least ten dollars, 
and all above that you want to give. 

I will accept your money if you want to see me, or turn it over to 
Fred Hunt, and you will receive a receipt from him for whatever you 
give. If you want to have a part in this worthy idea I ask you to see 
either myself or Fred Hunt, and give above ten dollars to the cause of 
investigating the need for dental education in North Carolina. (Applause.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: We have come to one of the highlights of the 
program today. Dr. Wilbert Jackson will introduce our next speaker. Dr. 
J. Ben Robinson. 

DR. WILBERT JACKSON: It is my pleasure at this time to present 
to you the Past President of the American Dental Association, past Chair- 
man and member of the Council on Dental Education, and one who has 
served American dentistry for years, and is still serving most acceptably 
in every branch in which he has an opportunity to serve. 

He is Dr. J. Ben Robinson, Dean of the University of Maryland School 
of Dentistry, who will address you. 

DR. J. BEN ROBINSON : Mr. President, Dr. Jackson, members of the 
North Carolina Dental Society, and friends: I am very happy to be here 
today to speak to you people about a subject which, in my judgment, is 
vital to the profession at large and to each of you individually. 



Containing the Proceedings 47 

I come to North Carolina with a great deal of pride in the host of 
friends whom I have among you, men with whom I have been associated 
for many years, and a large group of practitioners in this state whom it 
was my very great pleasure and privilege to work with for a period of 
four years during their days of studentship in the Dental School at the 
University of Maryland. 

But I am particularly proud for three specific reasons. I am going to 
mention the first one now. You never know a man until you live with him, 
and I happen to know your President. I lived with him for three years. I 
lived in the same room with him for three years. We graduated in the 
same class from the University of Maryland, as room-mates. I learned 
then, and I know from subsequent activities of his, that he is a gentleman 
of sterling character, a man whom you honored in making your President, 
and a man who has honored you in that office. 

In the second place, I want to congratulate North Carolina for the 
work that it has done for the dental profession, nationally, in your local 
achievements, the contribution that your people have made to the onward 
movement of dentistry on the national level. Your State Board of Dental 
Examiners gave to the Council on Dental Education a distinguished mem- 
ber who is rendering an outstanding service for dental education in the 
United States. Today, he is the chairman of the Council on Dental Educa- 
tion of the American Dental Association, of which, in my judgment, there 
is no more important office in American dentistry, and. again, you people 
in North Carolina have honored yourselves in electing Wilbert Jackson to 
your State Board, and he has conferred great distinction upon you because 
of the fine work he has done on the Council of Dental Education of the 
American Dental Association, of which he is currently the chairman. (Ap- 
plause.) 

And thirdly, I want to congratulate you on the achievement of another 
member of your profession. You have coming up shortly a President of the 
American Dental Association, the first President, since Dr. Turner fifty 
years ago, from North Carolina. 

Clyde Minges isn't here, and I can make these statements with reck- 
less abandon, if I may. 

I served as President of the American Dental Association at a time 
when Clyde Minges was on the Board of Trustees. In all my experience, 
I have never seen any individual manifest greater interest, greater intel- 
lectual honesty, greater concern for his profession than Clyde Minges did. 
He has represented this Society to your credit in every position in which 
he has been placed. He has been duly honored, and properly so, by Ameri- 
can dentistry in making him the President of the American Dental Associa- 
tion. 

And so I congratulate this association for having coming up a Presi- 
dent of the American Dental Association who was elected strictly on the 
basis of merit and review of his .contributions to American dentistry. 
(Applause.) 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



My topic, as it is set up in your program, will be subjected to a cer- 
tain amount of variation. After stating to the chairman of your Program 
Committee that I would discuss current problems in dental education, I 
finally reduced my thinking to one phase of the total problem, and I have 
selected to discuss before you at this time the topic, "The Problem of 
Dental Manpower in the United States." 

I elected this particular problem for discussion because of its current 
importance and meaning to the people of the United States, and because 
I felt that my efforts to bring out some of the important phases of this 
problem would be helpful to you people in North Carolina as it is believed 
it has been helpful to our people in Maryland. 

I have selected this because, recently, the question of dental man- 
power in the United States has come sharply to our thinking. This problem 
has been freely discussed by students of the social aspect of dental service. 
Next Saturday, a government-sponsored conference will open in Washing- 
ton for a discussion of the question of dental personnel in the United 
States, and the means of financing dental education in order to produce 
people competent to provide that dental service to which society seems to 
be entitled. 

The second point — this problem is currently being emphasized by the 
large number of young men who are seeking admission to dental schools. 
This pressure has the appearance of a great need for opportunities to in- 
crease the demand for additional dental manpower. 

I think we should discuss those suggestions to determine their validity, 
to guide us, not just in North Carolina, but in every state of the United 
States, with respect to the future of this profession of ours, for which we, 
as a profession, are totally responsible for all of its activities. 

You men here sometimes are impelled to think that your responsibili- 
ties are limited to the services which you render the patient that presents 
himself at your office. You are completely responsible for the general con- 
trol of your profession, and you are completely responsible for educational 
standards and for the meeting of educational needs throughout the United 
States. 

Educational schools are not the property or the inherent domain of 
educators. We are, let me say, specialists in a particular phase of profes- 
sional activity, and we are responsive to your needs, and, unless we know 
what you want, it's difficult sometimes for us to determine the course that 
we should take. 

The Council on Dental Education has given the matter some thought — 
not sufficient thought, not to an exhaustive point — but to a point that it is, 
at the moment, in a position to answer some of the questions that several 
of the states are asking about the matter of dental manpower. It has come 
to certain conclusions based on the number of applications for admissions 
to dental schools, and, on the basis of these data, the Council made guarded 
and speculative suggestions as to the possible need of greater facilities for 
educating dentists. 



Containmg the Proceedings 49 

Don't forget that I say that they made "guarded and speculative sug- 
gestions." I am referring to this because the next issue of the Journal of 
the American Dental Association, I understand, will carry a statement by 
the Council with respect to dental schools in the United States, and I have 
feared since we had the meeting in February in Chicago and have learned 
that this matter will be discussed in our Journal that there will be a mis- 
understanding growing out of it because of the authoritative position of 
the Council on Dental Education and the strength that any of its recom- 
mendations carry. And so I say, "Don't take those recommendations too 
seriously, excepting as I have interpreted them to you as guarded and 
speculative suggestions, not recommendations." 

As we have gone forward, there has been a great deal of discussion 
about dental manpower and about dental needs, the need for more dental 
care in the United States. In many of these discussions, the ideal has 
been considered at the expense of realities. The ideal, in my judgment, is 
essential. An ideal, after all, is, in essence, an impractical thing. An ideal 
is something toward which we move, but which we never attain, but our 
efforts, under the urge of improving our general status, cause us to advance 
toward that ideal. But in so doing, we must take into consideration the 
practical aspects of the problem that Confront us. 

We have thought more of what ought to be done, perhaps, and not 
too carefully of what we can do to establish the ideal in a democratic 
country where men are free to choose what they want and how they may 
acquire it. 

There is an old Chinese proverb that I like to refer to and that people 
might do well to consider constantly, and it is this: "You can have what 
you want if you will pay for it." No matter which way it goes, right or 
wrong, you can have it, but you must pay for it. You pay for it in differ- 
ent terms as you vary in your relation to what we regard as right con- 
duct, but, nevertheless, you can have what you want if you want to pay 
for it. So, if you want the ideal, or nearly the ideal, we can have it, if we 
want to pay for it. 

The dental profession and dental educators are deeply concerned about 
an adequate supply of dental manpower. That brings into the discussion 
the question of, "What do we mean by adequate?" By "adequate" we 
mean that supply of manpower which will provide complete care for all 
those who want it and who can and will pay for it. That's pretty narrow, 
but it's a fact, because if we provide personnel capable of producing an 
excess quantity of oral health care and there is no available consumer, we 
run into a situation that, in my judgment, is even more difficult than to 
have a demand that cannot be satisfied. We won't like it, but we want to 
be careful that we hit the bull's-eye just as nearly as possible. 

This statement suggests the problem of supply and demand in dental 
care. Supply and demand in oral health care is not an arbitrary matter 
with which we concern ourselves. The principle of supply and demand 
operates in the broad field of economics, and it operates in every activity 



50 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

in which production is involved. We are involved in the production of oral 
health care, and so I say that the question, then, of manpower falls into 
the picture of the question of supply and demand. 

The question of supply, at the moment, raises the oft-discussed issue 
of the shortage of dental supply, or the short supply of dentists, that 
which we have to contend today. The short supply is involved with the 
question of what dental needs are. 

Our conception of oral health needs comprehends the total volume of 
oral defects. In our several discussions, whenever we may go and head the 
mass oral health needs discussed, we think in terms of a vast amount of 
dental ills which must be taken care of, the total ills of the total public 
which require the intervention of dental skills. This gross need, when 
contemplated, causes us to think in terms of satisfying that gross need. 
Hence, the appearance, the illusion, if I may use the term, of a vast short 
supply of dentists. 

And so we want to think, then, in terms of some of the definitions that 
we would have to have in mind as we go forward in discussion. 

The widespread occurrence of. dental ills or gross needs for oral health 
care and the demand for oral health care are two quite separate problems. 
We have thought about a total of the dental ills and of total care for all 
the oral health needs of all of the people rather than the manner of satisfy- 
ing those particular wants. Let us get some definitions so that we will 
understand each other a bit better as we go forward. 

What do we mean by demand? There is a potential social demand, or 
oral health demand, a potential social demand, from which these people are 
suffering to which we address ourselves and which, we know, should be 
satisfied in the total, but there are so many varying and important factors 
involved that the thought of attacking the total front is literally out of 
the question. But let us think, then, of the potential demand — that is, the 
total possibility that might rest upon us in the event the American people, 
all of them, should want all of their dental work done. 

Within that potential demand is what we call "an effective demand." 
An effective demand for oral health care is the need for care plus a desire 
for the care, plus an ability to pay for the service. There is your effective 
demand; there are three things entering into the formula to set up that 
effective demand, and you know pretty generally what that is. 

I say we know that because, after all, the oft-repeated statement that 
twenty-five per cent of the people of the United States are receiving dental 
care is speculative, and I don't believe that it has been demonstrated, but, 
for purposes of our discussion, let us say that it is that amount, that there 
is an effective demand in the United States on the part of twenty-five per 
cent of the total population for oral health care. That is part of the poten- 
tial demand; that is the group of people who need dental care; that is the 
group who want dental care; that is the group which can pay for dental 
care. 



Containing the Proceedings 51 

Then there is another group, who, for want of a better term, I refer 
to as the "latent demand." This is the group in society with which we are 
deeply concerned, and that is the element of our society which needs dental 
care, wants dental care, but can't pay for it. In other words, if the economic 
factor were adjusted with this group, they would go over into the effective 
demand and increase the pressure upon the profession. That could be 
catapulted over on to us through some type of pre-payment plan or some 
type of insurance plan, or some other means by which the American people 
might decide that they want to take care of the oral health needs of the 
people. 

There is another group that we do not look upon often, but one which 
I think you ought to think about a great deal. I will see fit to call that, for 
want of a better term, "emergency demand," that group in our population, 
great or small as the case may be, who want dental care only as an emer- 
gency relief measure. You know what I mean, and there are many of them, 
I know, from observation. Statistically, I have no information whatever 
concerning them. 

These situations create the demand upon us for a greater manpower. 

I would like to refer to one other thing with respect to the effective 
demand. Effective demand is not a constant thing. It is variable — it fluctu- 
ates up and down. At one time, you have more than you can do as dentists; 
at another time, you sit around in some office over in the office building. 
In New York, you drive around in taxicabs, when situations are such that 
that effective demand goes down. 

What are some of the things that cause it ? First, the reduced purchas- 
ing power of the community; hard times — that's a good word. Lay educa- 
tion, health education — that increases health consciousness and causes the 
people to desire greater health care. 

There is another factor involved, and one which we hope will come 
into being shortly, which has, to the moment, only been speculative and 
suggestive, but now seems to be something of a reality, about which you 
will hear much tonight, presented, I am sure, in a splendid fashion — the 
reduction or the control of the incidence of oral disease. That, if we should 
be able to take a step forward in that direction, will have some effect, 
but not enough to frighten you, as it frightened the senior class of the 
University of Maryland. They came to me and wanted to know if it was 
worthwhile for them to continue out the year and get their diploma. They 
thought that the sodium fluorides would be putting them out of business, 
and what was the use of going on? I disuaded them on that, and I am 
quite sure that the speaker tonight will say that this will not happen. 
I said to the senior class, "If this comes about, it will be a Godsend, but 
it will do many other things. It will stimulate, actually stimulate, the in- 
terest of the public in the values of dental health care, and, on these upper 
age levels which are constantly rising, you will still have a great deal more 
than you can possibly do." 



52 Bulletin North Cai'olina Dental Society 

Let me talk to you just a minute about adequate dental manpower. I 
attempted to define it a little while ago as that supply of manpower which 
can satisfactory care for the effective demand of the public for oral health 
care. This demand, as I said, varies according to the desire for dental serv- 
ice in response to lay and health education. 

One of the most striking phenomena, in my judgment, on public educa- 
tion, today, on the kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school levels, 
is the consciousness of the public for the need for physical education and 
health education. They have come to realize that health, in large part, is a 
way of life, and that it is an individual responsibility, and that the individ- 
ual can do much about it. 

Locally, in our community, we are now spending infinitely more on 
health education and physical education than was spent two years ago, 
looking toward an ultimate improvement of the health of the people 
through a knowledge of how to live as well as how to get well after you 
become ill. 

I said a moment ago that continued high purchasing power has much 
to do with the demand for dental care. Regionally, in different areas, the 
general level of the culture of the people has much to do with the demand 
for dental services. 

We have a certain strength of dental manpower with which to start 
which is being added to regularly by the output from dental schools. On the 
basis of current figures, it is, we might say, adequate, but there are a 
number of factors that present themselves that influence the total amount 
of manpower, that are apt to take away from what we now have, and I 
refer particularly to what I see fit to call "claimant agencies." The growth 
of publicly supported oral health programs will, in the future, claim many 
many years of service by members of the dental profession. 

In every part of the United States, this important phase of our pro- 
fessional responsibility is receiving added support and impetus, and moving 
forward in such a way as to take care, at the base, of the oral ills of the 
children, and to bring them to adulthood in such oral health condition that 
we will do away, finally, with this large backlog of health care which is 
imposed upon us. 

May I refer to a situation which has developed in my home town? 
This will be news to you, I know. It's a recent announcement. 

A number of years ago, our governor appointed a state planning com- 
mission. (In this day of planning, we are out planning everything now!) 
That seemed to an essential activity, a need in the state that ought to be 
satisfied, and so this committee was appointed. They appointed a sub-com- 
mittee on medical care. That sub-committee on medical care appointed a 
committee on medical care for Baltimore city. 

It recently submitted its report. There was one dentist and eight phy- 
sicians on the sub-committee that unanimously organized a health program 



Containing the Proceedings 53 

in the public and parochial schools of Baltimore that would provide com- 
plete dental care for every kindergarten and primary student in the entire 
school system of Baltimore. It set up the costs of the project; it went to 
the medical committee of the State Planning Commission. They considered 
it seriously, took into account its costs and its possibilities, and unani- 
mously approved it. It then went to the State Planning Commission. The 
State Planning Commission studied it and came up with unanimous ap- 
proval on it. It went to the Governor of the State of Maryland; he went 
over it carefully and approved it. It is now on the desk of the Health Com- 
missioner of Baltimore city to approve the plan it would take when we 
begin it. 

We will need sixteen dentists to start the project; we think that will 
take care of it, and, from there, we will move forward. 

It is creating a great deal of interest of the type that, in our judg- 
ment, is going to be tremendously effective. 

Incidentally, I did ask the Baltimore City Dental Society to send this 
report of the commissioner for approval before they would go down with 
their committee to the Health Commissioner to get his approval of the 
budget. 

As a member of the Board of School Commissioners, I think I can 
promise you there will be favorable action so that we can go to the Health 
Commissioner with the things we want. 

That is the type of thing that's coming forward in this country. You 
may call it socialized dentistry, and I don't object even to that term, except 
that I do want to get into the picture the thought that, in no way, will the 
democratic rights of the people be violated. That program that we are 
putting in in Baltimore makes it optional with the student. We won't try 
to force anything, but we will try to offer an opportunity in the demo- 
cratic way. 

Will it hurt the practices of the dentists of Baltimore? The Baltimore 
City Dental Society approved it unanimously, and feel it is a good thing. 

Another one of the claimant agencies are the military services, the 
Army and the Navy, that are currently making advanced demands on our 
total manpower. For instance, the authorized strength of the Navy now, 
I believe, is about 1,050. The authorized strength of the Army is 1800. If 
Universal Military Training should come about, it will make further in- 
roads, increasing the authorized strength of the Army from 1800 probably 
to 2800. The Army is out seeking dental interns, all of which takes away 
from the man years of our profession, in order to enter into these very 
necessary activities. The expansion of the Veterans Administration, the 
expansion of the activities of the United Public Health Service — all of 
them are essential activities that must be provided for by the total output 
of dentists. 

And so we have, then, the problem of maintaining the current supply 
to civilian dentists, because all of the things that I am talking about now 



54 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

as claimant agencies are groups which literally require that every person 
enrolled in that group receive this care, and that intensifies or increases 
the amount of health care that is necessary to be provided to the public. 

The supply of dentists if affected by the number of dentists to be 
graduated under the prevailing educational conditions, the facilities that 
are now afforded. It depends on the increase in the auxiliary personnel to 
increase the volume of services, total volume of services, rendered by the 
dentists, his own effort plus those who work with him, and the other factor, 
reverting again to what I said a while ago, is the reduction of dental ills 
through preventive measures and controls. 

There isn't a real shortage of dentists, in my opinion. There isn't a 
real shortage of dentists, considering the supply of dentists and the demand 
for dental services. Some offices are busier than they want to be. But, over 
in Maryland, where I interviewed some of our better dentists from various 
types of practices from the Medical Arts to the farthest point in East Bal- 
timore, I find the situation is easing materially and rapidly, and there is 
a belief among most of them that an additional number of dentists is not 
needed currently to satisfy the demand. 

We have come to think that there has been a reduction in college 
output in the past thirty or forty years. Let me give you some figures on 
this. We will begin with the year 1919, and I take that year because that 
was the last year in which the dental schools of the United States 
graduated dentists with high school graduation and three years of dental 
curricula. Immediately after that, we went to the four years of dental 
curricula. Immediately after that, we went to one year of college and four 
years of dental curricula; immediately after that, two years of college 
work and four years of dental curricula; or, from 1917 to 1938, we doubled 
the time it takes to produce a dentist, and there were some interesting 
figures growing out of that. 

For instance, in 1919, the dental schools of the United States gradu- 
ated 3,587 dentists. That's the last three-year class. In the first four-year 
class, in 1921, there were 1,795 dentists, or a reduction of 50%. In 1929, 
the last graduating year of the four-year plan, there were 2,442. In 1930, 
the first class under the one-four plan, there were 1,561, or a loss of 36%. 
In 1939, the last year of the one-four plan, there were 1,794, and, in 1940, 
1,757, only a small falling off. 

That condition, at the end of the two-four period and the end of the 
one-four period, was brought about especially by the very difficult depres- 
sion of the 30's, about which all of you know. 

Out of that, we have come (at least some of us, in our discussions, 
have come to believe) to believe that we have fallen off tremendously, as 
far as dentistry is concerned. We have gone back. During the decade from 
1930 to 1939, there was a reduction. 

But let's take from 1900 to 1940 and see what the figures are. The 
total population of the United States, from 1900 to 1940 increased 73%. 



Containing the Proceedings 55 



The total dental population of the United States, from 1900 to 1940, in- 
creased 38%. It is difficult to realize that. It was for me. When I reviewed 
these figures, I couldn't quite realize that that was true, but it actually is. 

But there is more to it than that, in terms of potential manpower at 
the moment. A lot of things have happened in the forty years, almost 
fifty years, now, that are most significant with regard to the future and 
with regard to this manpower. I allude to three things — the dental techni- 
cian, the dental assistant, and the dental hygienist. 

What have those agencies done since 1900 ? I don't know how many 
dental technicians there were in the United States in 1900 — all I know is 
that there were very few. I began the practice of dentistry in 1914, and 
there were only two or three technicians in that town at the time, and all 
of them were associated with dental supply houses. 

What has happened, then, has been a tremendous increase in this 
country of dental technicians and a tremendous advance in the use of the 
technician by the dentist, the delegation of certain responsibilities in the 
processing of artificial appliances that has made it possible for the dentist 
to save I don't know how many manhours per year. 

Let me indicate to you somewhat by figures what exists. As I said, I 
don't know how many technicians there were in the United States in 1900, 
but, in 1941, there were 15,250 technicians, and then came the World War, 
and 7,700 technicians were taken out of the dental laboratories and put 
into the services. Of course, the dental commercial laboratories could not 
take that, and so they proceeded at once to train 8,900 additional persons 
to replace them, and, during the World War, there were approximately 
9,500 technicians trained by the several branches, so that we come up to 
1945, in the United States, with 33,650 dental technicians, and 70,601 
dentists. 

And, in addition to that, the Departments of Education of many states 
have not stood up against the organization of schools for the training of 
dental technicians, and neither have the professions. I saw a report a 
little while ago on the state of New Jersey, where they are training 500 
technicians. A survey was made of the needs of the state to get the demand 
for the technicians, and they needed one in the entire state of New Jersey! 
Still, they continued to increase our dental technicians. 

It is estimated that 65% of all dentists have all appliances made by 
technicians. I refer to this because this is a tremendous contribution to 
the output of the dentists in the service to the people, and it is very sig- 
nificant with respect to an increase, indirectly, to the total dental manpower 
in the United States. 

Dental assistants have grown almost as great, and, according to cer- 
tain figures that I have seen, apparently the dental assistant is used in 
about the same proportion as the dental technician — about 65% — and there 
is a great manhour saving to the dentist by such an arrangement. 



56 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



Now we come to the dental hygienist, which came into our profes- 
sional activity in 1913, and, by 1940, there were 575 hygienists in practice 
in the United States. There was an uneven distribution of these, but, in 
the overall, it contributed to this total manpower that we are talking about. 
Eighty-three per cent of them are employed in the eastern and north central 
states; 10% of them, only, in the south. Sixty-five per cent of them are 
employed in dental ofl!ices; 25% in our schools; 4% in Health Departments. 

Miss Esther Wilkins, an authority among our hygienists, states that 
the average hygienist does 1,325 prophylaxes a year, consuming forty-five 
minutes in the operation, and this, of itself, adds in the dental office 975 
chair hours to the annual output of the dentist. This is a tremendous in- 
crease in dental manpower. The addition of the hygienist will go materially 
foi^ward in improving the volume of service which we can render. 

We are coming into a period immediately ahead of us where we are 
going to take over and attempt to test out, in the interests of society, the 
values of sodium fluoride, and yet dental hygienists cannot perform that 
operation in many of the thirty-nine states in which they are legalized to 
practice. They ought to be legalized to do it if they are qualified to do 
the things which we say they can do. It offers a great opportunity, as I 
say. I don't have to tell you fellows that — all of you know it. There is a 
fellow sitting back there laughing at me now. I have always been opposed 
in principle to the hygienist — I still am — but this doesn't get me anywhere. 
I happen to be a minority. 

Now, let's get right down home and talk for just another moment. 
Let's talk just a bit about the matter of increased production of dentists 
by the dental schools of the United States. I am perfectly willing to admit 
the necessity for it, even though some of the arguments in favor of it 
seem to be quite debatable, but I'm willing to admit the necessity for in- 
creased production. 

During that decade between 1930 and 1940, there was a definite reduc- 
tion. From here on, there is going to be a great increase in the number 
of dentists sent out from the dental schools of the country. Where we 
had an average, let's say, (I don't know it exactly) from 1930 to 1940, of 
2,000, we are going to have an average of not very far off of 3,000 the rest 
of the way. It will be under that, but not too far off; there will be a great 
increase. 

I had to take this matter up with the leading dentists of the state of 
Maryland just a little while ago because the Dental School of the University 
of Maryland is set up to take care of 110 freshmen, and we could have 
filled that class from the state of Maryland, and, in four years' time, we 
could have graduated 110 men to begin the practice of dentistry in the 
state of Maryland, whereas, our average has been 25 for many years, with 
a dental school in our midst. Whereas, our replacement needs are 21 den- 
tists, we could still have 110 men. The profession said, "This is going to 
cause trouble. What are you going to do?" I said, "What are you going to 
do? I can't take all the responsibility." My own authority is not sufficient 
to withstand attacks that might be made. 



Containing the Proceedings 57 



So, we did make a very careful study on it on a basis of gross figures. 

The demand for places in dental schools must not be confused with 
the demand for dental services, or the large numbers of applicants. Last 
fall, there were 10,313 applicants to the dental schools, of which 2,942 
admissions were offered. Out of 10,313 applications, there were 2,942 
admissions ! Here is a whole group of young men who are disappointed 
because they want to study dentistry. Some of them should, but some of 
them should not. 

One of the things that we overlook is the fact that all of these people 
who are applying to study dentistry are not qualified to be admitted to 
study dentistry, and I made a study. I took those five states that sent us 
the largest number of applicants, and they were: North Carolina, West 
Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Connecticut. I took all of the applica- 
tions, and I applied to the applicants our standards for admission — two 
years of college work, with all the prescribed requirements on the quantita- 
tive side. On the qualitative side, a 2.5 grade point average, which means 
half-way between an A and a B — 2 is C, 3 is a B, and 2. .5 is half-way 
between the two. 

With that criterion, I think it justified on these grounds that what the 
dental profession needs is a highly intellectual group of young men who, 
along with being intellectual, are practical. (Applause.) I submit that. 

And so we fixed our standards, to find that of this large number, and, 
may I say there were around a little over 600, 35% were qualified to 
study dendistry. 

The G.I. Bill of Rights takes admissions from the finest group of young 
men that it has ever been my privilege to interview and whose records 
have been reviewed by me. At the same time, it has stimulated some of the 
lamest youngsters I have ever seen who try to get into dentistry. 

But, 35% were qualified. I remember I discussed that with Dr. Horner, 
and I guessed 50%, but I was too high. 

What about North Carolina? This: In 1947, you had 375 applications, 
or 304 applications. There were 1.8 applications for each applicant. Forty 
were admitted to dental schools, but, on the basis of my estimate, 105 were 
eligible. Forty were admitted — sixty-five didn't get into dental school. I 
thought that might be of interest to you. I worked these figures as I worked 
them for my state of Maryland as we discussed the problem there. 

This poses a question which I can't answer, but you can. If these 105 
applicants had been admitted and graduated from dental school, could 
your state absorb them on graduation? 

And that poses another question — how many dentists do you estimate 
are required to meet the effective demand for oral health care in your 
state? 

I got some interesting figures. I wrote to the Secretary of the State 
Board of Dental Examiners, and I am going to throw these figures out 



58 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



for you people to think about. I don't know what to do about them. I know 
what should be done in Maryland, but I want them to tell me. I don't want 
to take the responsibility of having a State Board saying, "Robinson said 
this." I want them to tell me. I will go on and share the responsibility, 
but I don't want to take it all. 

From 1930 to 1942, you people in North Carolina licensed 321 dentists, 
or 24.7 per year. In 1946, North Carolina had, in the dental schools of the 
United States, 138 students, or 34.5 per year. Now, with these facts before 
you, in 1947, you have 40 students enrolled in dental schools in the fresh- 
man class, or an increase of the average of 16% above your normal. How 
much further above that can you go? What do want us in Maryland to 
do? Do you want us to take up more students, to push it up to 50 from 
your state? 

There are practical things to consider. You have a total of 1,055 den- 
tists in North Carolina. About 24 are lost annually by death and retire- 
ment. Forty dentists would take care of all losses, and add 14 to the state. 
Does that take care of it ? We know that, over in Maryland, 11 for replace- 
ment and 19 added to the total is a little bit more than we can take. 

Then, they say, "How are you going to take them?" In Maryland, I 
am having my trouble because I am asked to do some things that I don't 
want to do. 

I want to talk to you about a problem (and it will take me just about 
eight minutes) that is of vital concern to my state and to yours. 

A little while ago, the President of the University of Maryland ap- 
pointed a committee on the higher education of the Negro in my oAvn 
state. I was designated to be a member of that committee to represent 
professional education in that state. The courts have forced the University 
of Maryland to take colored dentists. I do want to take just a little time 
to talk about that, if I may, and I will brief it. 

The number of colored dentists in the United States, and particularly 
of the southern states (and that includes Maryland) is totally inadequate 
to the needs of the people of the states, if they get reasonable care. 

Now, our colored dentists are educated in a number of non-segregated 
schools, which we see fit to refer to as the "northern schools," and two 
southern segregated schools. They are not producing dentists in sufficient 
quantity. There is a movement on hand now on the part of some people 
who believe in civil liberties and social rights for the colored man (and 
I would be the last one to put anything in the way of their advancement, 
I assure you), but the idea is to eliminate, put out of business, these two 
segregated southern schools. In my judgment, if that is done, it would be 
the greatest disservice that has ever been done the colored race — to take 
away from them an opportunity which they have for self-improvement and 
put nothing in its stead, excepting the imaginary opportunities which exist 
for these people in non-segregated institutions. 



Containing the Proceedings 59 



This letter that I have will point out very clearly to you, in terms 
of competition, that if Meharry and Howard were to take from their 
applications black and white, conduct their classes on a basis of merit, 
they would be white classes, they would be that, even though they are 
segregated colored schools. There were six students down in Meharry and 
five up in Howard. 

And so we have, in the dental schools of the United States now, 314 
colored students, of which 42, 42 out of 3,600, are in the schools in the 
north, or the non-segregated institutions. We have 272 in the segregated 
schools. 

The Negroes stand in danger of having taken away from them their 
best opportunity, their only avenue of development. We are up against 
it in Maryland — one-third of our public schools of Baltimore come in under 
this program that I told you about, and whatever is provided with public 
funds for the white child must be provided for the colored child. It poses 
a tremendous problem and one to which you will have to give a great 
deal of attention. 

I am sorry for over-running my time, but I want to say to this group 
that when you invited me, you knew I was voluble! (Applause.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Thank you. Dr. Robinson, for a really good talk. 

We have a distinguished guest, and it won't take long to introduce him. 
We have our new Trustee of the Fifth District of the American Dental 
Association, from our adjoining state of Virginia. Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, will 
you introduce Dr. J. E. John? 

DR. PAUL FITZGERALD: Members of the North Carolina Dental 
Society: For years, it was a duty of mine to stand before this organization 
and develop an apologetic frame of mind. As a matter of fact, I was called 
upon to stand up before you and I was apt to apologize. 

In that connection, I am reminded of a certain welfare office up in 
Virginia. A lady on relief came in, and a young lady case worker looked 
over her record. "There is something wrong with this record," she said. 
"It says here you have 13 children, but your husband left you ten years 
ago. Eight of those children are under ten years of age. There is something 
wrong with it." "I can explain that easily," said the woman. "My husband 
did leave me ten years ago, but he comes back every now and then to 
apologize." (Laughter.) I have stopped apologizing. 

Gentlemen, may I just review for a moment the setup of the American 
Dental Association? Our State Society is patterned after it. 

Here, our state is divided up into districts, and we elect delegates to 
our meetings. The business of the Society is conducted by the House of 
Delegates. Between sessions, the business of the North Carolina Dental 
Society is conducted by the Executive Committee. 



60 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

In the American Dental Association we have the House of Delegates, 
which conducts the business of the Association during the meetings. The 
American Dental Association also is divided up into districts, thirteen of 
them. Each district sends a trustee, who acts in the same capacity that 
our Executive Committee does. They transact the business of the American 
Dental Association between sessions. 

We, of course, are in the Fifth District, which comprises the states of 
Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and 
Mississippi. We are entitled to one trustee. Dr. Clyde Minges, President- 
Elect of the American Dental Association, served us for six years. 

This morning, we have with us our trustee from the Fifth District, a 
man that I served with in the American Dental Association. I recognize 
his ability — we all do. 

Gentlemen, I am proud that we have with us this morning the trustee 
of the Fifth District of the American Dental Association. I present to 
you Dr. J. E. John of Virginia. 

DR. J. E. JOHN: Mr. President, distinguished guests, and members: 
I shall not take but five minutes of your time. 

There are three things which I wish to call to your attention because 
I think that they are of importance. The first one is (and I will necessarily 
have to direct this to your delegates who will represent you in the House 
of Delegates at our next annual meeting to be held in Chicago, because 
they are the ones with whom this problem will have to be dealt) the re- 
vision of the Constitution and By-Laws of the American Dental Associa- 
tion. Our old Constitution has served us well, but our old Constitution and 
By-Laws can no longer serve us well, and I emphasize this in the beginning 
because an organization operates on its Constitution and By-Laws. Its 
provisions for its activities are specified there. I think that it is of vital 
importance that those of us who are charged with the responsibility of re- 
drafting these By-Laws should devote ourselves closely, even before we 
go to Chicago, to this pai'ticular duty. 

The next item which is of interest to all of us is the simple fact of 
not enough money to carry on our operations, you have heard, probably, 
much about this proposed raise of dues, and I have been asked over and 
over again, "Why?" 

I answer that question in brief for you by simply stating that we have 
outgrown, in our activities, in our program, ourselves, insofar as our in- 
come is concerned, which makes it necessary that, if we continue to 
develop, we must have more money. Of course, there are other things, other 
than the growth, which are involved, and that includes, at the present time, 
inflation, if you choose to call it that, and that has added to our difficulties. 

The budget which was adopted tentatively by the House of Delegates 
in Boston last year was a little over $1,000,000, or $312,000 more than our 
income. We can't keep on that way, as you can readily understand. It is 



Containing the Proceedings 61 

my opinion, and I think you will all agree, that we are not paying too 
much when we pay six dollars for that which the American Dental Associa- 
tion gives us. 

Along with the other members of the House of Delegates, I agreed to 
the proposal that the dues be raised six dollars. I will cite you this, as a 
further reason for the raise in the dues. This year, five dollars of your six 
dollar dues would be necessary in the publication of the Journal alone, 
leaving us one dollar for activities. 

We have money in reserve, but we can't continue to spend money in 
reserve in the amount of $312,000 a year and be solvent over a number of 
years. 

All of our commissions have increased in activities. The Board of 
Trustees, of necessity, had to cut down some of the activities, which we 
regret. But there is one thing that I am interested in, and I think you will 
be interested in also, and that is reducing our agencies from 28 to 16, and 
reducing the number of those serving on certain commissions, thereby sav- 
ing an overlapping of activities, and secondly an increase in cost on or for 
activities. 

The third thing which I want to call to your attention is, and this will 
be published in your Constitution and By-Laws if it is changed, is the de- 
crease in representation from the constituent societies to the House of 
Delegates of the American Dental Association. This has been proposed on 
a number of occasions by states with large representation. Coming from 
a state with a small representation, I am not particularly interested in it. 
I think we would have an area with smaller representation in many of the 
smaller states so far as population is concerned, dental population, which 
would make it very difficult to render services for two delegates to serve 
in North Carolina, two delegates to serve Virginia, two delegates to serve 
Alabama and Georgia. 

Gentlemen, these things are only some of the things that we, as den- 
tists and members of the American Dental Association and constituent 
societies, must make up our minds about. 

I am reporting to you that you may instruct your delegates as to 
what your desires are. 

Mr. President, I appreciate very much the opportunity of speaking to 
you and presenting this report. (Applause.) 

(The meeting recessed at twelve-fifty o'clock.) 

MONDAY AFTERNOON SESSION 
April 26, 1948 

The second general session of the Ninety- Second Anniversary Meet- 
ing of the North Carolina Dental Society convened in the City Auditorium, 
Asheville, North Carolina, at two o'clock, and was called to order by the 
President, Dr. R. M. Olive. 



62 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



PRESIDENT OLIVE: At this time, I would like to ask Dr. Amos 
Bumgardner to introduce the next speaker on the program. 

DR. AMOS BUMGARDNER: Dr. Olive and fellow members: It is 
always a pleasure to have men come and serve and work with us because 
of the national scope of any institution, and we are very happy at this 
time to have Dr. Warren Willman, M.S., D.D.S., of Chicago, to speak on 
"The Manipulation of Amalgam." 

Dr. Willman was graduated from the Chicago College of Dental 
Surgery in 1927, and received the degree of M.S. from Loyola University 
in 1935. He has taught in Loyola since the time of graduation in subjects 
of Crown and Fixed Bridge Prosthesis, Periodontia and Operative Den- 
tistry. At present, he is professor and Chairman of the Department of 
Operative Dentistry, author of a textbook on Periodontia. He has written 
numerous articles on Periodontia, research and operative dentistry in the 
various dental periodicals. He is a member of the International Association 
for Dental Research, and many other organizations. 

We are very happy to have Dr. Willman at this time. 

DR. WARREN WILLMAN: Members of the North Carolina State 
Dental Society and guests: We may not have thought of it, but, actually, 
we expect more of amalgam as a filler material than we do of the old 
inlay. We place an inlay in a tooth to restore occlusion and proximal form 
and contact, but the cement seals the cavity. When we place a contour 
amalgam filling, we expect it to restore the proximal form and we also 
expect, or hope, that it will seal the cavity hermetically. 

Many years ago, G. V. Black, whose name, I am sure, is familiar to 
all of you, did a great deal of research work on amalgam, the first re- 
search of any importance to us today. There had been a good deal before 
that, much of it rather excellent, but it is of no interest other than his- 
torical now. 

Black, after some years work with this material, came to the conclu- 
sion that the whole secret of good amalgam lay in the one word, "compres- 
sion," or, as will probably term it today, "concentration." He even went 
so far as to say that the whole secret of perfect amalgam work was con- 
tained in that one word. I don't know how a man of such scientific caliber 
happened to slip like that, but at least that is the way he expressed it. 

Since that time, there have been some modifications in the Black 
technic. At the time he was working with amalgam, he had with him a 
much younger man who worked side by side with him, a man of consider- 
able mechanical experience, who designed many of his instruments and 
helped him with much of his work. Dr. William E. Harper. I imagine 
many of the older men in the audience remember him. It was strange if 
he wasn't down here at one time or another, because he traveled far and 
wide. 



Containing the Proceedings 63 



He took up the study of amalgam where Black left off. After Black 
came to the conclusion of his studies, Harper felt probably rather well 
satisfied that he understood the making of amalgam, that is, the actual 
making of the alloys, because Black worked that out, too. He manipulated 
it so as to make a filling that would be both air-tight, that is, will seal 
the cavity hermetically, and one that would be hard or resistant, because 
he wanted both of those qualities, of course, in an amalgam filling. 

An odd accident occurred to make Harper realize that he perhaps 
didn't know as much as he thought he did about amalgam. In 1908, a great 
many years after Black had finished his work, a chap by the name of 
Southwell in Milwaukee was touring up and down the country giving 
clinics, a very odd sort of clinic, actually, a kind of competition. He would 
have men sit down at a table and put gold-foil fillings in cavities that 
were prepared in cow's teeth, in the bovine incisor. The cavities were per- 
fectly circular, shallow cavities, cut up by machines so that they were all 
exactly alike, and each operator would be given one of these. After they 
would finish, they would be tested to see whether or not they sealed the 
cavity hermetically. This was done by a method that was then considered 
quite ingenious — a hole would be drilled in the lingual side of the tooth 
straight through the under side of the filling. A little tap would be screwed 
into this hole and it would be connected by a hose to a line with compressed 
air, so that, actually, the compressed air was blown at the under side of 
the filling while it was in place in the cavity. Then it was immersed in 
water, so that the test was carried on the same way that we tested bicycle 
tires when we were youngsters, and they still test the inner tubes in the 
same way. 

If bubbles of air appeared between the cavity and the surrounding 
margins, obviously the filling was not sealed in the cavity hermetically. 
Some of them leaked and some didn't. 

That has nothing to do with us today except that in one of my clinics 
someone asked whether or not the same test would not be used for amal- 
gam. Some say there is no reason why it couldn't. 

A number of men, Harper men, inserted amalgam fillings into these 
cavities and then they were tested. The accounts of what happened have 
always varied a good deal. There have been a number of men, actually, 
who insisted that Harper's filling blew right out of the cavity. Harper 
always swore that it didn't, but he admitted that it leaked abominably. 
He was, of course, very humiliated by defeat of that kind because he 
considered himself then quite an authority on the subject of amalgam, 
so he went home to see if he could find out what was causing this failure 
on the part of amalgam. 

Black, many years ago, had changed the formula of the alloy so that 
it would not shrink. The old alloys before Black's time did shrink a great 
deal after they set, but Black had the so-called balanced alloy arranged in 
such a way that it would not shrink, and thought that, by so doing, he had 
eliminated the cause of the leaks that had been observed around amalgam 
fillings. 



64 Bulletin No7-th Carolina Dental Society 

Of course, I am sure that all of you will agree that, since 1895, there 
have been a lot of amalgam fillings that have leaked, and they have all 
been made with the balanced alloy. 

Black, in changing the formula of the alloy, had removed one cause 
of the failures of amalgam and introduced another alloy. Harper went 
home, as I said, to study this matter. The use of bovine teeth was entirely 
too impractical and too clumsy, so he had some dies, with movable discs 
at the bottom, made, which provided an even better test because, that 
way, the air was introduced at the junction of the side walls of the cavity 
and the floor, rather than the middle of the floor so that merely accidentally 
sealing off a ring around the floor of the cavity would not prevent show- 
ing that the side walls were not hermetically sealed. 

He had hundreds of these made and filled hundreds and hundreds of 
them. Other men throughout the country got wind of it and, in a number 
of places, study clubs were organized. Crandall headed such a study club, 
for example, out in Iowa and pursued this work for several years, report- 
ing something like 1200 fillings that the study club had put in. Their ex- 
perience was the same as Harper's and Harper's was the same as clinicians 
around the country. 

Dentists who came to visit him (and many did in passing through 
Chicago) never got away from his home without making some amalgam 
fillings in these test dies, and these tests were rather monotonously the 
same — only one of ten of these fillings would fail to leak, and the same 
man who put in that would do any number more, and they would all leak. 
Accidentally, one out of ten would come out air-tight, which does not 
mean, of course, that the filling fitted the side wall perfectly. In order to 
keep from showing an air bubble all that is necessary is that voids be- 
tween the filling and the side walls not be continuous. It is possible to 
have blisters, so to speak, between the amalgam and the side wall of the 
cavity in the central part of the cavity or near the outer margin or near 
the bottom, but you won't see a bubble unless there is a continuous channel 
through them. But, even with that requirement, nine out of ten of them 
leaked, and it wasn't for sometime before Harper stumbled onto some- 
thing that gave him a clue as to what could be done about it. 

Crandall wrote Harper a letter at the conclusion of some work that 
the lowan did and said that the only consistent thing that they could 
discover with amalgam was the inconsistency of the results, and that any- 
one who could ever find a way to seal those dies hermetically every time 
should have a monument erected to him. Dr. Harper told me he was going 
to claim the monument, and, in a respect, he earned it all right. 

Along about 1912, after four years of this. Harper himself was about 
ready to quit when one of those curious accidents happened. A couple of 
men from way out west were passing through and he asked them to place 
some amalgam fillings in these dies. Because men who came visiting were 
not prepared for such a test, of course, he made it a point to have every 
kind of amalgam alloy that was known and about every kind of plugger 



Cotitaining the Proceedings 65 



joint known on hand so that a man could not say he was usin-j a material 
or instrument he was not accustomed to. 

To his surprise, these men asked for what was nicknamed the old 
"silver tin alloy," which was made of 50 9f silver and 50% tin, and Black 
had presumably sent it to them about thirty years before. It was one of 
the popular alloys before Black showed that it shrank abominably and 
introduced his balanced alloy. But they asked for that, and he srave it to 
them. They put in fillings with it, and the fillings did not leak; at least, 
they didn't leak for several weeks until the known shrinkage of this 
particular alloy had a chance to set in. 

This was a very startling thing. There was no possibility of using 
this alloy because of its shrinkage, but, at the same time, here was the 
curious fact that it made air-tight fillings where the balanced alloy would 
not. 

By one of those flashes of genius for which we all have to be so grate- 
ful, Harper had an idea. There is a very peculiar T)ror»erty of tin alloy. 
When it is mixed, it becomes very, very fluid because of the large amount 
of tin in it which forms a solution with mercury, which is verv slipnery. 
As it is worked, even if it is pinched out rather dry, a good deal of the 
mercury is expressed out of it as it is reworked, and it becomes very fluid 
again. Even if it is further dried out by squeezing or pinching after it 
is put into the cavity and compressed down, it again tends to become 
rather fluid and therefore requires very thorough, meticulous concentra- 
tion, in order to get a filling filled at all. 

Harper had an idea, when this accident occurred, as you might call it, 
and wondered whether or not it would be possible to achieve a similar 
result by leaving the surplus mercury in the mix amalgam as it came 
from the mortar until the first part of the cavity was sealed with the 
amalgam. It had always been the practice (I imagine most of you were 
taught — I was taught — Black's method of handling amalgam) to make the 
mix with a surplus of mercury because it was conceded that that facilitated 
the amalgam mix itself, but, before placing it in the cavity, this surplus 
was always pinched out carefully so that the material was semi-dry. 
Black's direction is that if a ball of amalagm were rolled between the thumb 
and finger and held a few inches from the ear, a crepitating sound would 
be heard, or, if the same ball were dropped ten inches to the bracket 
table, it should just flatten slightly. 

Harper wondered whether or not it would make a diff^erence if instead 
of doing that, the first part of the amalgam introduced into the cavity 
and condensed there was put in with the full fluidity that it had, with 
the surplus mercury in it. So, as he usually did, he ran off three hundred 
tests. He always said that one test didn't prove anything. 

The use of these dies, of course, is not an entirely objective test be- 
cause it's a test of the operator more than the material, and he well knew 
that, so that he always took a percentage of a very large number of fillings. 



66 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

He made three hundred fillings in this case, and he immediately found 
that, instead of 10% of air-tight, he had 60%, an improvement of 50%. 
He told me many times that of all the steps of technic he evolved, he would 
part with any of them sooner than that because it alone had been respon- 
sible for a greater gain in making tight fillings than any other one step. 

He immediately trained a number of men for a progressive clinic in 
1914, two years later at the jubilee of the Illinois State Society, and these 
twenty men who had never done this before, but simply by following his 
directions, putting the fillings in the way they always had except for that 
one step, using the material in a very fluid or wet or mercury-rich, or what- 
ever term you care to use for it, in order to seal the first part of the cavity 
and then stabilizing that and building in the bulk of the filling with drier 
amalgam as it always used to be done, they, too, got 60% tight fillings. 

Later on, he found a second major step that was of great importance, 
and that goes back to a very odd experience that he and Black had work- 
ing together. 

I mentioned a moment ago that there are two things that he wanted 
from amalgam. One was that it should be air-tight, that it should seal 
the cavity hermetically; the other that it should be hard. A soft amalgam 
is of no use to us. Its strength, its resistance to torsion and shearing 
stress is little enough in any case, and we want it as hard as we can get it. 

Years before, when he and Black were working together, they went 
into elaborate details. I won't tell you the details now, but if I were to tell 
you all of the steps that they took to insure that these specimens which 
they were making in cylindrical dies would be made in exactly the same 
way as the others, you would wonder what they could possibly have over- 
looked. Everything was checked — the material that was used, the pluggers 
used, the mortar and pestle, the number of times refrigerated, and every 
single thing, you would think, had been thought of. Yet, after these speci- 
mens were taken from the dies, after they had set a given number of days, 
one specimen would hold a load up to 150 pounds and then would break 
(that, of course is many thousand pounds to the square inch because they 
are small specimens, but the actual load would be 150 pounds), and another 
would hold up to 350 pounds, several hundred per cent diff'erence, or any- 
where in between there, and they never knew when a strong one or a 
weak one was coming. 

Harper said later on, when he made this second large discovery, that 
he knew now what they had overlooked. They had assumed, of course, that 
amalgam could be packed like gold-foil. After all, gold-foil came first, in a 
manner of speaking, before amalgam worth speaking of, and the best den- 
tists were using gold-foil a century ago, and it was only natural that, 
when they came to condensing amalgam, they would think in terms of foil. 
They thought that nothing would do but that we were to use a little elbow 
grease in order to get a good amalgam filling — the harder you pressed the 
more condensation you got. That seemed logical because that will work 
with gold-foil, but it wouldn't with amalgam. 



Containing the Proceedings 67 

It is quite possible that most of you have been thinking, or have 
thought for a great many years, that, when you mix amalgam, when you 
mix the alloy filings with mercury in the mortar and pestle, that you make 
some kind of a solution just as when plaster and water are mixed together 
you make a solution which recyrstallizes out as plaster. That is not the 
case. All that you do when you make the mix of amalgam is to coat or 
to rub on the surface of each alloy particle a layer of mercury. A chemical 
action begins, but it is not a solution. Of course, if we stoo to think that, 
after the mix is completely made, we can take a chamois or some other 
kind of squeeze cloth and put the mix in it and squeeze it with a pliers 
and get practically chemically pure mercury, on one side and keep prac- 
tically dry filings on the Other, we would know that it wasn't a solution. 
You can't separate a solution that way. Because the two are the same 
color— both are white metallic color, the mercury and the filings, and they 
do make a homogeneous paste— it looks like a solution, but it isn't. 

We could get a good idea of what we are up against in making amal- 
gam filings if we could imagine mixing the alloy filings with some clear 
fluid, something like glycerine (of course, a mixture like that would never 
set, and it would have no use whatever). If you can imagine packing a 
cavity hermetically with the amalgam filings suspended in glycerine 
that would give a rough idea of the problem that we have in making amal- 
gam fillings. 

The amalgam filings, as you look at them under even very low 
magnification, are very jagged, and you have the same problem that you 
would have if you tried to fill a peck measure almost air-tight with a 
bunch of ring-hooks and artificial minnows and a few flies thrown in and 
things of that sort— all jagged material that tends to catch on one 
another. That is what we have to do in making our amalgam. We want 
to compress these particles of alloy which are still suspended freely in 
the mercury tightly enough into the cavity so that they, with very little 
pressure around them, will seal the cavity. 

In packing, in condensing gold-foil, it matters very little how the 
condensmg is done as long as nothing is missed. It is true that skillful 
operators usually get in the habit of working in a rather systematic way, 
from the center of the cavity toward the periphery, but that is chiefly 
just a convenience. Just so long as you mallet it, in reverse or haphazardly, 
and do not miss anything, the pure gold is so soft that it wiU continue to 
creep toward the cavity walls anyway, and, once you have malleted a 
layer of cohesive gold into a solid homogeneous piece of gold, that piece 
stays solid and homogeneous for all time. 

But that is not true of pure amalgam particles. When the alloyed 
particles are pushed together and you work over in some other area of 
the filling for a while, they may get jarred apart again and the mercury 
will go back in there. Harper used to liken it more to the problem that 
you had if you had a sheet or a blanket that had just been washed and 
you wanted to wring it out. If you were to pick up one corner (assuming 
you were wringing it by hand) and twist it rather dry and then just reach 



68 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



over somewhere in the middle and twist another place, here, there, and 
with a hop, skip, and a jump, in a haphazard way around and did that to 
a hundred blankets, you might get one of them quite dry and you might 
leave another quite wet or anywhere in between, because you might 
accidentally be quite systematic in one case and nurse all the way over to- 
ward one end and out. In other instances, you might merely shunt it back 
and forth. 

In packing amalgam in a haphazard manner, no matter how much 
force is used, or how many plugs are used, or how much time is consumed 
in doing it, the mercury is shunted back and forth and a large amount of 
it left in the specimen, and that's what he and Black got in their speci- 
mens. Or, equally by accident, a large amount of the mercury is squeezed 
out, and then a very hard one comes. 

So that his second major contribution to the technic of using amalgam 
was, in addition to starting the filling with a fluid mix so as to seal the 
cavity hermetically, that the condensation of all the portions should be 
very systematic, in a very orderly fashion, from the center of the cavity to 
the periphery so as to get out the maximum amount of mercury. 

In the early days, with these large round cavities that he tested, he 
would start by plugging in the middle of the cavity and then extending 
the plugger very carefully in a spiral course until it was around the ex- 
treme edge of the cavity and then taking a narrow plugger and extending 
the cavity wall again, since, with a large round plugger, there were always 
little V-shaped pieces around the periphery he couldn't get. That worked 
quite well. 

He also found that when the material was first put in the cavity, 
if it were jarred or agitated or tamped, as he called it, the way workers 
with cement or concrete pour the concrete into a mold and then tamp it 
(that is, of course, not to condense it, but merely to jar it in the mold 
and get the air bubbles out of it), he would be getting better results. 
Again, if we remember that we have these tiny fish-hooks, as it were, 
and if you put the amalgam in the cavity fluid, of course the more fluid 
it is, the more easily these particles slide over one another. They are 
lubricated, so to speak. But, even so, if they are immediately condensed, 
there is the risk as you reach the periphery that enough of them will get 
tangled, one on the other, so that you can't squeeze them tight against 
the side wall of the cavity. So, he found that, by jarring or tamping the 
material to place in the cavity just prior to condensation, again he got 
about twelve or thirteen per cent more successes, and then, by condensing 
in an orderly way and extending the cavity walls, he got up around 65% 
tight fillings. 

He realized what was against him there. It was a very curious 
property that amalgam had — other things being equal, your chances of 
sealing a cavity hermetically or getting a satisfying hard filling are exactly 
in relation to the smallness of the filling that you are making. If you stop 
to think about it, you will rarely see a small pit amalgam filling fail. It 
has to be made very, very badly before it will fail. On the other hand, a 



Containing the Proceedings 69 



very, very large amalgam restoration — one of these attempts to restore 
the major part of a molar crown, for example — practically never is a 
permanent success. It always leaks. That is the property of the amalgam 
itself. The lai'ger the filling, the less likely it is to succeed. 

These dies are made rather large so that they will show well how 
much or how little good the particular technic itself is. If the die was a 
very small one, of course any kind of technic would make a tight filling 
and wouldn't tell us very much. If the die were too large, no tecnic that 
could be done by hand would seal it tight. But the die that he has used, 
the simple round one, is eight millimeters across and four deep. That is 
as large as the largest round one surface cavity that you can have in a 
lower first molar. It looks deceptively small when you see it on the table, 
but it is actually a very large one. 

In these large cavities of a rounded form, we are up against a very 
peculiar paradox. If we use a very small plugger, the amalgam tends to 
be chopped up instead of condensed. Now, of course, with so many pounds — 
let's say five or ten pounds with the hand — the smaller the face of the 
plugger, the greater the concentration we get in terms of pounds per square 
inch. Of course, that is elementary physics. With a larger plugger point, 
it is necessary to use more force to get the same condensation. With these 
large cavities, the small plugger tends to chop up the amalgam, but a 
large plugger does not give us enough concentration. 

Harper ran an independent series of experiments, making many 
thousands of these fillings by machine in order to find out how many 
pounds per square inch pressure it took to insure the seal of the cavity, 
the seal of a filling, and found that it needed 2,000 pounds to the square 
inch, in order to be sure that the filling was going to be sealing the cavity 
successfully. 

Of course, no plugger is anywhere near a square inch, but he did put 
a bolder edge on the well-known Black's No. 3, the largest of the three 
round pluggers. I imagine all of you are familiar with them — one of the 
oldest sets of amalgam pluggers in the world. By computing the surface 
areas, I found that, in order to get 2,000 pounds to the square inch, it 
is necessary to put about 31 pounds on it with your hands. You will find, 
if you try it on a device to measure that, that, with the pen grasp under 
the best conditions, if you can get right up over a table and get the whole 
arm and shoulder over it, working with a pen grasp, you may be a little 
disappointed. All of us are optimistic as to how much force we have in 
our fingers. We have reason to be proud of our fingers, but we are likely 
to overestimate them a little bit in the amount of force we can use. The 
average dentist will glibly assure you he can deliver fifteen or twenty 
pounds many times in succession. You will find, actually, that, to move 
this little contraption that is made to show this, even when it is set at 
fourteen pounds, it will nearly break your hand. Actually, to deliver five 
pounds several hundred times in a row as is necessary to pack a filling is 
doing well, and back in the second and third molar it is a very good aver- 
age for any dental hand. 



70 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



So, we are up against that dilemma that the small plugger won't 
condense the amalgam and the large plugger won't either because it can't 
give force enough. 

Harper used a certain method in these cavities, and only in large 
cavities of a rounded form. He was greatly misunderstood on that point. 
He brought this technic out in the latter part of his life and was so enthu- 
siastic about it that his technics were given almost entirely to what he 
termed the "burnishing" technic, and many men got the idea that he had 
advocated the burnishing of all fillings. That was not true, but, in large 
cavities of a generally rounded form (they might be irregularly rounded, 
but rounded, nevertheless), by using a large plugger that was round and 
convex, in the shape of a burnishing instrument (for which reason he called 
it a burnishing method), placing that in the middle of the filling with very 
slight pressure as the amalgam was introduced into the cavity and jarred to 
place, and, without lifting it from the floor of the cavity, sliding it in a 
spiral towards the periphery and then exerting as much lateral force as 
possible against the side walls as each portion was put into place, in that 
way he could get a 100% of these dies filled hermetically. 

He immediately ran off almost 300 before he had the first one that 
showed even the slightest leak, and that occurred when he was giving a 
table clinic and stopped in the midst of making the filling to say good-by 
to a friend who was making a train, and he deviated from his technic. It 
was not the technic that was at fault — it was simply that he hadn't applied 
it. Whenever that technic was regularly used, it made a hermetically tight 
filling. 

In the narrow cavities, or narrow parts of cavities, such as that in a 
two-surface cavity, he still found it necessary to use the ordinary packing, 
the orderly packing. And, of course, in a narrow cavity, a smaller plugger 
had to be used so that the packing method would still give desirable results. 

Since Harper's time, a couple of other essentials in the use of amal- 
gam have been discovered. There was one that he might well have discov- 
ered except that he had, I well remember, a parchment-like hand — very 
dry skin — so that, in handling amalgam, as he did, in the palm of his 
hand, he would never have had occasion to discover that it could be con- 
taminated in that way. I had an assistant at the college for a number of 
years who had a similar type skin. He could handle cohesive gold-foil with 
his bare hands, and it would not lose its cohesion. Most of us will contami- 
nate amalgam so that, if we touch it with the hands to any amount at 
all, or if saliva or blood or anything of that sort gets into it, it will be 
contaminated. In fact, it has even been done by putting a little normal 
saline solution in the mortar and triturating it right into the amalgam. 

Then, starting a week or ten days after the filling is inserted, a de- 
layed expansion begins in the material. The amalgam, in the last ten or 
fifteen years since the Bureau of Standards has been working on it, has 
been of a somewhat expanding type, anyway, so that, with this secondary 
expansion occurring, it has been a common complaint. Some of you may 



Containing the Proceedings 71 



have had that trouble in the last ten years or so, that, after fillings have 
been placed a week or so, the patient suddenly gets a pulpitis. There is a 
complaint of a toothache. Frequently, it is a single, sharp sting, typical pul- 
pitic pain. The patient tells you it just lasts a minute. What they mean by a 
minute is the same thing when we say that you can take a snapshot in a 
minute — they mean an instant. I have had one in my own mouth, so I 
know what it feels like. It is one, single, sharp stab, and it is gone before 
you can jump. You don't know when it is coming again and, in fact, you 
won't anticipate it. It will be there several times a day for a while, and 
then, if all goes well, it may come with less frequency or severity if the 
pulp can adjust itself to that increased pressure. 

If not, it sometimes happened that we get them in the clinic, parti- 
cularly in gingival third cavities where it is almost impossible to get a 
filling in without getting some moisture in it. 

Sometimes, the pulpitis goes on so long and lasts not only a minute 
but say for thirty minutes and in increasing severity so that the filling 
has to be removed and a dressing put in the cavity for a few weeks and 
the filling replaced. 

For that reason, we have learned that amalgam must be kept free 
of contamination. 

One other point that goes right along with that is that great effort 
needs to be taken that the mix of amalgam is homogeneous throughout. 
You can get a similar disturbance, pitting of the amalgam, and other 
changes in its form if the mix of amalgam is not homogeneous. Ordinarily, 
that is not anjrthing that we have to worry unduly about unless we are 
using an amalgamating device that incorporates some set amalgam with it. 

Some amalgam dispensers, that is, dispensers of alloy and mercury, 
are so arranged that the fillings and the mercury pass through a common 
channel in coming out into the mortar. Sometimes there is even a moving 
slide through that channel and little bits of set amalgam form in there. I 
was looking at a new mechanical amalgamator just a couple of weeks ago. 
It was one of these that vibrate a capsule, and a fresh capsule was being 
used when the demonstration was made. In peering into the capsule just 
to see whether all of the mix came out or not, it seemed all to roll out 
in one little clump, and, in peering into it (I happened to have a light 
right over me), I noticed a little shoulder in there that had a little ring, 
very tiny ring, of amalgam still sitting on it. Nothing could happen except 
that it was going to sit there. After being set, when the next set is put 
in, some little bits are going to jar loose and come into the mix so that 
the mix wil not possibly be homogeneous. 

A mix made in an ordinary mortar and pestle is usually homogeneous 
if it is watched carefully. The kind that I am going to show you in a 
moment in the film will not always do that. A little bit of alloy fillings, 
little globules of mercury, sometimes get caught up on the holder where 
its lid fits on, as you will see, and that has to be watched for. 



72 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

We usually get around that lack of homogeneity in a mix of that kind 
by working it over. We used to kneed it in the palm of the hand. We can 
do it now with a cement spatula — that's the method we are using at the 
present time at the college. It is also done with a rubber finger or a piece 
of rubber dam, or something of that sort. 

In working on a slab, it is not done as you mix cement because the 
slab and spatula are both too slick. The material used slides on a glassy 
surface, but, rather, the material is slapped or spanked with the broad 
side of the spatula and agitated vigorously again and again in order to 
insure the homogeneity of the mix. 

It may often have occurred to you to wonder why we didn't just mix 
it another half minute in the mortar anyway. No matter how much 
time we had in the mortar, we always used to turn it out in the hand and 
work it around in the hand after working it in the mortar. Why not 
just work it longer in the mortar and be done with it? The mortar can't 
be depended on quite so well as to insure homogeneity in the mix, but, 
ordinarily, that is a problem that is not a very great one. 

This film which I am about to show you is a somewhat cut-down 
version of a longer film that I have. I couldn't bring it because it runs 
almost an hour and a half by itself, and they allowed only an hour and 
a half on the program. This one will take about forty minutes, and it 
will show the major parts of the presentation as it was filmed in the 
other one. 

The film was made seven or eight years ago before we knew about 
contaminating with the hands, so that, in the first part of the film, you 
will see the amalgam quite freely used in the palm of the hand the way 
we used to do it, which is still all right if you are only filling test dies on 
the table, because secondary expansion will not occur unless you incubate 
fillings under artificial saliva. If they are left dry in room temperature, 
nothing happens to them from such a source from contamination. For 
ordinary tests of that kind, it is still all right to handle it in the hand if 
we want to. 

In this, you will see first the old-fashioned technic. It may not be 
the one you use, any one of you, but I think you will agree that a pretty 
good average of practitioners, such as Black and Crandall and others, used 
to fill amalgams with this technic and most of us were taught it. You 
will see the results of that both in the frequent failure to get air-tight 
fillings and in the lack of uniformity and hardness obtained by that. 

Then you will see Harper's technic as applied to the round and the 
two-surface cavities, and then, at the end, the actual application of that 
technic to actual cavities in teeth. 

(The film was then shown, during which Dr. Willman made the fol- 
lowing running comments.) 

Here you will see the test die that is used for the simple round cavity. 
There is a shoulder here on which this little disc is placed to form the floor 



Containing the Proceedings 73 



of the cavity. That makes a more severe test than letting the air in the 
middle of the floor of it. The air comes in at the bottom. It is placed in a 
hexagonal nut as a convenience in holding it on to the table. When we 
come to the two-surface cavity, then you really need that nut as a matrix. 

Many men who are able to be classed as good, conscientious operators 
still do not measure their alloy in any way, and I watched some triturate 
as slowly as you see in the picture without their knowing it. It might 
take as long as four minutes to get a satisfactory mix, and that's too 
long to take. 

The mix is taken out of the mortar and put in the hand the way we 
used to do it. That's a pretty good plastic mix. It should be at least that 
wet. That was worked over in the hand for a certain time, and then 
spoiled. 

This archaic test I saw mentioned in the literature within the last few 
months. Somebody still had it that amalgam was properly fluid if it just 
flattened a little. 

This is a point that I did not mention. There is a good chemical reason 
for this. I can't take time to explain it, but it makes a difference. We used 
to use a large mass of amalgam all at once. This is the Black No. 2 ser- 
rated plugger that is being used. Enough of it is gotten so as to get it 
locked to place, and then it is simply compressed very, very hard, the idea 
being to exert the maximum force, and depending on force alone to get 
a good filling. There is no thought of the adaptability of the material; 
there is no thought of the order in which the concentration is done; it is 
not jarred as it is put in or anything of that sort. 

Haphazard packing, at least many times, fails to remove the surplus 
mercury. It may or may not, and we have no way of knowing whether 
it will or not. 

To the naked eye, however, that is a pretty good filling. It is fastened 
on to the connection here with just a little cautery bulb. This gives about 
a half pound of air pressure at the outset, and you see that already bubbles 
of air about the cavity and the surrounding walls. If you have never seen 
a test of this kind, it is likely to be something of a shock, because you see 
how badly it leaks when it is given about four and a half pounds pressure. 
It doesn't seem possible at first that a material like amalgam could be 
packed tight against the cavity wall and not fit. 

This is the usual result when we have ten or twelve men putting in 
fillings with their own methods and their own instruments. Only one is 
air-tight; only one doesn't leak at all. If that same man put in several 
others, some of them might leak. 

Some of them show only very small leaks, a single or four or five 
bubbles that you brush away, but they come back again. Others, of course, 
show streamers of air coming through between the filling and the cavity. 

MEMBER: How long were those packed? 



74 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



DR. WILLMAN : The test is made immediately after the filling is put 
in. They won't get any better — they may get a good deal worse after 
they set. 

This is a much more severe test. This is a very difficult die to fill, and 
the results are usually just awful when fillings are put in a die of this 
kind. Since there are no undercuts in the cavity, you wonder what holds 
those fillings in. 

(Showing an instrument for heavy pressure.) This is something like 
a Prunell test, except that it is not scientifically calibrated. 

Here you will see how this is used with a filling that was, incidentally, 
burnished in, a very well-made, well-condensed filling that has completely 
set. This test cannot be made right after the filling is placed. It has to 
set for several days, at least. Now, you will notice that horizontal bar 
coming down, and you will notice a sudden resistance at this point. That 
knob becomes very hard to turn because the body of the scale is now 
being lifted away from the pointer, and the brunt of the whole thing is 
being taken by the filling itself, so that there is a force of more than 200 
pounds, actually, because the friction of the system is not allowed for. 
There are many, many thousand pounds to the square inch, but it is 200 
pounds on that point. 

That's ai*bitrarily left there for a minute, and then examined. If the 
same test is done with a piece of inlay gold or with a silver quarter, you 
will find a deeper dent made in it than this. Properly manipulated, amal- 
gam is harder than inlaid gold or harder than coined silver. 

Now, if we look again at those first twelve fillings made by different 
men, and then look at them closely one by one, you will notice that some 
of these are quite hard and some of them are not. There is a great lack of 
uniformity, although, in every instance, it was the intent of the operator 
to get a hard filling. 

You will notice the little thumb screw in the upper lefthand corner 
there is loosened, that the top bar is acquiring a horizontal slide. This 
sliding motion occurs while the full force of the apparatus is on the filling. 
That gives a more vigorous strain on this filling than ten years of usage 
in the mouth would give, because that's the whole force of the bite placed 
on one part of the filling. It's really a rather brutal test, especially on 
these two-surface fillings which have no undercut, but you will see that 
most of these fillings couldn't take it. Most of them are fractured with 
the sliding of this point with the 175 or 200 pounds force on it. 

These three steps don't take the same amount of time to show, so we'll 
start over with the first one. 

The amalgam is mixed so as to produce a very adaptable matei'ial. The 
first thing that we do is to weigh out the material by some means or other. 
There are balances that weigh the alloy and mercury right together. This 
one is Crandall's and it works very well. It's just a little troublesome and 
a little time-consuming to use. 



Containing the Proceedings 75 



Then, the trituration is timed. It's done rather rapidly but with a 
great deal of force. There should be about four times a second, although 
the physical grasp on the pestle makes it look as though it had a great 
deal being used on it. It is not actually very fast. 

Now, for any alloy, almost, let's say you have a time factor. When 
the material first suddenly unites with the mercury to form a paste like 
this — I read an article by someone in which he wanted to stop right there. 
That's just exactly half enough trituration. It should be twice that long 
in the mortar and once again that much in the hand or on the slab or on 
the finger stall, whatever way is done. The first was thirty-five seconds 
of the 110; we remove the material — notice the smooth but high plasticity. 
We still have thirty-five seconds to go to the minute mark and this, of 
course, is the way we used to do it — in the hand. It is still the best way 
to manipulate it, but, unfortunately, it does contaminate it. The entire 
mix is completed in two or, at the most two and a half minutes. Then, 
this is placed out in a long form and cut up into several rather equal 
portions. 

A very important little step vnll make quite a little difference in the 
end results of the filling. That is used without squeezing out any mer- 
cury. The very first portion is taken just the way it is, and that is our 
first step. 

Secondly, we tamp this or jar it to place, and you may have to ease it 
into the cavity because it is so plastic. 

This illustrates the burnishing technic, starting in the center of the 
cavity. The material can be used over if it hasn't been lost in the mouth 
to mix in with the subsequent portions of amalgam and help, in that way, 
to maintain the plasticity of the material. "Wrings" is a good word. It 
does wring out the mercury just as a mechanical wringer would wring out 
water by starting in one place and systematically going over every spot 
to the ends. 

You will notice that it looks rather like gunmetal in the middle. In 
the packing technic, there's always a puddle of mercury there. Each por- 
tion of amalgam is reworked for a couple of seconds and then pinched 
drier than the preceding portion after the first couple of portions are put 
on. So, we come closer and closer to the top of the filling. 

This little device is one that Harper was very fond of, although it is 
not often applicable in the mouth. It is a half ball of rubber held in a 
special holder and is just rolled across the surface of the filling. 

There you see the results of this filling— much less dramatic, but much 
more of a satisfactory one. 

The question is often asked as to whether that is going to be air-tight 
since it is tested right away. Here you see a filling that was in place for 
a long time— six weeks at this time. I have one that Harper placed years 
ago and gave to me one time, and it still doesn't leak. 



76 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



You will notice the extreme uniformity of the fillings made with the 
burnishing method. I made two or three of these and some friends made 
the others. They had never burnished any before. They just did by rote 
what I told them to do. 

It cannot be overemphasized that, in using the burnishing technic, that 
you use a very light finger pressure. To show this, we cut off one of these 
test dies, put it in a vise and cut it off with a hacksaw just at the level of 
the floor of the cavity. (It was then placed on top of an egg.) 

This holder makes it possible for the left hand that is holding on to 
it to communicate its pressure to the plastic block itself. I wonder who 
would like to put in a well-condensed filling here with a packing technic! 

I was a little crowded for time when this part of the film was taken. 
I had to get ready for a Texas state meeting several years ago, so that 
I never practiced this. I did it the one and only time right in front of the 
camera, I was that confident of the result I would get. I will confess that 
I didn't tamp or jar quite so hard as usual. Otherwise, the technic was 
exactly the same as one done in the steel die. 

One thing that I wasn't prepared for was that I could feel the con- 
vexity in the floor of the cavity. I didn't think that a small area near the 
meridian of an egg would be detectable, but it was. 

All of the scrap of amalgam that is left over after making the filling 
can be gathered together and squeezed out in several layers of gauze. 

(Showing large test machine.) Because of the shortness of time, this 
filling had only four days to set at the time this test was made, but, as 
you see, we did get a well-condensed filling. 

We have, up to now, been talking about only one-surface cavities, the 
large round cavities, and, in those, we use the burnishing technic through- 
out. In two-surface cavities, burnishing is not possible in the narrow proxi- 
mal part of the cavity — we have to use orderly packing. Now we see a 
die with a two-surface cavity. 

Again, notice the wet plasticity or fluidity of the material when it 
is properly mixed. It has been pointed out recently by some experiments 
that seem to have been pretty carefully controlled that the filling, even if 
it is started with material that is mercury-rich like this, shows a difference 
in the ultimate strength of the set amalgam. However, the reduction in 
strength is negligible and the gain in having a mercury-rich or plastic 
material has already been shown. 

This is jarred to place very vigorously and packed with the utmost 
finger force. It can be done rapidly and still be done with a great deal 
of force. 

The third portion you see is used somewhat drier and is material that 
has been squeezed out. Now, because the second cavity is away up on 
the occlusal surface, we have to change the technic. We use the next por- 
tion perfectly wet again. If you kept using drier and drier material all 



Containing the Proceedings 77 



the way, you would soon be attempting to seal up the outer margins with 
material that was not adaptable. 

MEMBER : Have you tried that starting on the opposite side, or does 
it make any difference ? 

DR. WILLMAN : It doesn't make a bit of difference any way you go. 

MEMBER : I think it would be well to go one way one time and an- 
other time the next. 

DR. WILLMAN: That is often done, and not a bad idea. 

The steps that the plugger take are small enough so that they overlap. 

Now, the burnishing technic can be used for all except the two sharp 
points at the buccal and lingual. Something that you will notice here wasn't 
visible before — the burnisher takes all the amalgam off the floor of the 
cavity. That's all right — it doesn't hurt anything. 

With the smaller instrument, two thrusts are made, one at each end 
in those sharp comers. The first couple of portions here are used entirely 
wet, just the way they came from the mortar in the first place. Again, you 
notice the floor of the cavity is not covered. 

Starting with the third portion, we are using it a little bit drier, and 
the floor of the cavity will not be denuded. If you are still skimming the 
material off the floor of the cavity, it means that you are pressing too hard. 

We filled the cavity to excess and repeated this operation two or three 
times on the surface, and it's squeezing drier. Again, to the naked eye, 
this doesn't look any different than did those that you saw before that 
leaked so terribly. 

Now we will see how we can use this in the mouth. I have shown 
two of the four original fillings. The first is a large round cavity. 

This is another device for triturating material. It is a pestle fastened 
right on to the mortar. It is jarred vigorously to place or tamped, and 
then burnished. 

The burnishing method can be used in a large round cavity or in a 
large rounded part of a complex cavity. This shows the path of the bur- 
nishing instrument, not, of course, the speed at which it would go. 

This third portion has been pinched out a little bit. Some of the mer- 
cury has been expressed out of it so it is not quite so wet, and the next 
one you see is still drier. The side walls of the cavity are already sealed. 
Again, we will jump over a number of steps. The filling has already been 
completed, the cavity is filled to excess, and this is repeated two or three 
times in order to further harden the filling near the surface. 



78 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



The last one hei'e is a two-surface cavity enamel in the lower first 
molar. We no longer make M.O.D. amalgams over the whole surface at 
once; if we have to make an M.O.D. we make it in two sections. 

MEMBER: Why? 

DR. WILLMAN : It is not possible to seal that much cavity at one 
sitting. With amalgam, it's one of its limitations — it won't make that large 
a filling. Also, it is usually not possible to get enough separation on both 
sides of the same tooth at the same sitting. Those are some of the prin- 
ciple reasons — there are some minor ones in addition to those. 

Again, I will have to ask you not to be deceived by the speed of that 
plugging. A great deal of force is put on every plugging stroke, even 
though it is done very rapidly. 

Again, as in the one that was in the test die, each orderly portion 
here is perfectly fluid just as it came from, the mortar, and then the next 
one is quite a little bit more dry. One of them seals the margins, and the 
other stabilizes that and helps to build up the bulk of the filling. 

Now we come to the occlusal part. At the time that this film was 
made, I was, of course, doing about the same thing that Harper was — I was 
trying to harbor the burnishing method because it was less well known at 
that time. As I look at this film now, I rather question whether this 
occlusal portion could really be classified as a large cavity or of a generally 
rounded form. It's a little too irregular to be considered rounded. I bur- 
nished it here, however, and got a pretty good result, although I don't like 
the way the burnishing looks now when I see it. It is inclined to spiral 
up abruptly and to bump a little bit going around those corners. 

Again, we skip several intervening steps because they are all alike 
and would get very boring. The cavity is filled to excess. This one is 
jarred on there and burnished out. Then it's finished and polished. We get 
results like that if we care to take the time to do it. 

Amalgam will give the highest lustre of any filling material we have. 
Here we see the round one. 

I have already run fifteen minutes over on the next speaker's time, so 
I am afraid there is no time for questions, but there is a question period, 
I think, scheduled for tomorrow on this subject. 

Thank you very much. (Applause.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Thank you, Dr. Willman. 

Dr. Fred Hunt, our Secretary-Treasurer, has some announcements. 

DR. FRED HUNT: I have a telegram from Philadelphia from Clyde 
Minges and I am sure you will all be interested in it. It is addressed to 
R. M. Olive, President of the North Carolina Dental Society, and reads as 
follows: 



Containing the Proceedings 79 



"I am deeply grieved that I cannot be with you on this occasion. Please 
express my personal good wishes to every member and visitor attending 
the meeting. Best wishes for the greatest meeting ever held. Clyde Minges." 

I also have a similar one addressed to the Secretary. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Dr. D. L. Pridgen, a member and president of 
the Board of Dental Examiners, will introduce our next speaker. 

DR. D. L. PRIDGEN : Fellow members: I believe you will not have me 
consume much of his valuable time in presenting the next speaker, and 
I am sure that he needs no build-up. 

He is an eminent author, and a lecturer widely in demand. He is the 
Professor of Pharmacology and Therapeutics at the University of Mary- 
land Dental School, and a member of the Council on Dental Therapeutics 
of the American Dental Association. 

We are most fortunate in having him on our program, and at this 
time I take a great deal of pleasure in presenting to you Dr. Edwards C. 
Dobbs of Baltimore. (Applause.) 

DR. EDWARD C. DOBBS: It is a pleasure for me to be with you 
today. 

Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen: I have a number of slides that 
I would like to present, but I believe that we will hurry through, as I 
don't want to keep you too late. 

My assignment, the newer drugs used for dental and oral surgery, 
was not an easy assignment. Again, in getting my material and the slides 
together, I found that there was much material to be presented, and an 
hour was a short time to give all that material. So, I have made more or 
less a running resume of some anbiotics and the newer drugs useful in the 
control of dental caries. 

(Slide #1.) The slide that you have here is Baron H. Long, who, twelve 
years ago, introduced sulfonamides to American medicine. There have 
been many changes since that time. 

(Slide #2.) This is the structure of sulfonamide, which was one of 
the first drugs to be introduced in sulfonamide therapy. It was very effec- 
tive in the control of streptococcal infections. 

It was not long before we learned that this drug had its greatest ad- 
vantage in local treatment; therefore, dentists will use this drug by local 
applications chiefly. 

The best way to apply this drug (slide #3) is by insufflation. You 
will have a sterile powder which we put in the powder blower. By pressure 
on the bulb, the area can be frosted with the drug. Now, this is a very 
light coverage, but it is sufficient to pack the bacteria-static effect of the 
di'ug. It is much better to play the powder in this way than it is to use 



80 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



the tablets or the cones, which are very often insoluble, acting as a foreign 
body which will retard healing rather than stimulate healing. 

(Slide #4.) Sulfathiazole was introduced in 1939, and was very rapidly 
accepted by the dental and medical profession. The reason for this was 
that its efficacy was not only shown on streptococci and staphylococci, but 
also that the majority of dentists knew that the infections, most of the 
infections, in the oral cavity are infections due to streptoccoci and staphylo- 
cocci. But again, it was not long before we learned that this drug was 
highly toxic, producing hypersensitivity in 17 to 30% of the patients to 
whom the drug was administered. 

So, we can say at this time that sulfathiazole is not the first drug of 
choice for use in dentistry. In fact, "New and Artificial Remedies," which 
is the official publication of the American Medical Association, discontinued 
the use of the drug because of the high degree of sensitivity. 

(Slide #5.) The next drug to be introduced was sulfadiazine, which is 
still our best drug for systemic medication. This drug is used in the oral 
cavity wherever we have acute infections. 

The drug is administered in a six-gram dose the first day, and four 
grams thereafter. Usually, two grams is given as the initial dose and 
then one gram thereafter for four doses, repeated the next and the next 
day until the acute symptoms have disappeared. 

(Slide #6.) This is one of the newer preparations introduced the latter 
part of last year, sulfadiazine with sodium lactate. This preparation con- 
tains alkali in the preparation, and this prevents kidney crystallization of 
sulfadiazine and some of the various severe reactions that occur in the 
system when the preparation is used without alkali. This comes as a syrup 
which is very palatable and is very convenient to administer. It also comes 
as tablets. The dosage is two tablets four times a day for the tablets, and, 
for the liquid preparation, two teaspoonsful four times a day, and repeated 
until the infection is gone. 

(Slide #7.) In 1948, we have the invasion of three sulfonamides intro- 
duced into one preparation. The supposed advantage of this is that the 
sulfonamides here do not crystallize out in the urine as readily as one 
preparation. 

(Slide #8.) This slide on the left shows the amount of urine that is 
necessary to bring one gram of single sulfonamide into solution. The test 
tube on the right shows the amount of urine, which is about one-third, 
which is necessary to bring one gram of the three sulfonamides into 
solution. 

This is probably a good preparation and one that you should use. 
There is only one dissatisfaction with this preparation, and that is, when 
a patient is sensitized, that they may be sensitized to the three drugs — the 
sulfathiazole, the sulfalyrazole, and the sulfadiazine — and then, at some 
other time when the patient may be seriously ill, not any of these drugs 
might be used. 



Containing the Proceedings 81 



(Slide #9.) Keep in mind that these drugs are toxic. These drugs are 
toxic to the liver, producing jaundice; they are toxic to the kidneys, filling 
up the two tubes with crystals and producing hematuria and enuria; they 
are also toxic to the blood, producing anemia. All these diseases are highly 
fatal. So, if you use this drug, watch out for toxicity. Give a prescription 
for not more than three days and then have patients come in and watch 
the condition. Watch out particularly for the kidneys; ask the patient if 
they are passing at least 1,000 cc. of urine per day. Be sure that they 
drink plenty of water. If they are not taking the preparation containing 
the alkali, give alkali with the sulfonamides. 

They are good drugs, but they must be used cautiously. 

(Slide #10.) This is a picture of Alexander Fleming, who, in 1929, 
discovered penicillin. It wasn't until 1941 and '42 that penicillin became 
generally available for medication. 

(Slide #11.) This shows you the four fractions of penicillin. There- 
fore, we do not have "penicillin," but we have "penicillins." Of these four 
fractions, fraction "G" is the most potent and most stable. Therefore, pa- 
tients are protected by the F.D.A., which requires that all of the penicillin 
preparations be standardized to the "G" fraction. 

In 1947, the crystalline penicillin was isolated. It was not long before 
it was realized that crystalline penicillin contained so little moisture that 
the drug was highly stable, so highly stable that it need not be refrigerated. 
Therefore, penicillin crystals which are now on the market need not be 
refrigerated and have a long life. This is very convenient for the dentist 
and physician. 

(Slide #12.) The action of penicillin is bacteria-static and, only under 
very favorable conditions, bacteria-soluble. That means that, in the ma- 
jority of cases, the penicillin only Inhibits the growth and development of 
the vital organism, and it's necessary, for the patient's own defense, to 
destroy those organisms and cure the disease. 

(Slide #13.) You will see on this chart those vital organisms which 
respond favorably to penicillin. Those on the right hand column are those 
which do not respond favorably to penicillin. 

I don't believe you can see the whole chart from all over the room, but 
those organisms on the left hand side which are sensitive to penicillin are 
those vital organisms which are generally in the oral cavity. They are the 
organisms with which we have to deal. Therefore, we, as dentists, are very 
fortunate in being able to use penicillin, and, in the majority of cases, have 
good results. 

(Slide #14.) For effective penicillin therapy, we must observe the 
following: 

1. The infecting organisms must be penicillin-sensitive. 

2. The concentration of penicillin in contact wth the pathogens must 
be adequate. 



82 Bulletin No7'th Carolina Dental Society 



3. The duration of contact must be prolonged. 

It is important for you who are using penicillin to know this and to 
practice them to get the best results. Perhaps we should add a fourth, and 
that is that the patient should be put in the best physical condition so 
that he may overcome the infection. 

(Slide #15.) Like all drugs, some patients are sensitive to penicillin. 
If you look at this chart, you will see a general stomatitis produced by 
the use of penicillin lozenges for twenty-four hours. The lips show burns 
produced by the drug. When this occurs, you should stop the administra- 
tion of penicillin, and perhaps give one of the anti-histamine preparations. 
This cures the condition in a few hours. 

(Slide #16.) One of the newer products to come out in 1948 is staticin. 
This drug inhibits the excretion of penicillin through the kidneys, thereby 
increasing the concentration of penicillin in the blood and tissues. 

(Side #17.) On this chart, the lower part shows the concentration of 
the penicillin in the tissues when staticin is not administered. Those above 
show the concentration of penicillin in the tissues when staticin is admin- 
istered. Those on the left are for the oral administration, and those on the 
right are the intramuscular administration, and, in both instances, you will 
right is the intramuscular administration, and, in both instances, you will 
see a higher blood and tissue level, meaning more efficiency for the drug. 

There is one unfavorable action to staticin, and that is that it produces 
nausea, vomiting, in some patients, many patients, in fact. Therefore, it 
cannot be universally used. I would say that it is of use, but not routine 
use, in dentistry. It's a new drug. 

(Slide #18.) How may penicillin be administered? It may be admin- 
istered systemically and locally. 

Systemically, the drug may be given intravenously, which is a dan- 
gerous method, and is not extensively used; (b) it may be introduced intra- 
muscularly in safety, or in oil, or in oil and wax, which is the method of 
choice for hospitals; (c) the oral method, where the drug, in globulin form, 
is given with the intent to have the drug absorbed and produce a systemic 
effect. (This is best for office practice.) 

(Slide #19.) The news in penicillin in 1947 was the Romansky for- 
mula — penicillin in oil and wax. The drug was given in 300,000 units intra- 
muscularly and, from the site, it slowly absorbed, giving a therapeutic 
blood level for twenty-four hours. This was not used in the general prac- 
tice of dentistry, but many specialists use this preparation and found it 
satisfactory for acute infections. It is given once a day until the acute 
phase is over. 

(Slide #20.) This is a syringe for the Romansky formula. It is not 
too different from the syringe the dentist uses. This is the Squibb syringe. 
You can see the needle, the body, and, in place, you can see the cartridge. 
By pressure on the rubber, you can force the drug into the tissues. 



Containing the Proceedings 83 



(Slide #21.) This is the cartridge. On the left hand side we will see 
the clear solution, which is a saline solution. On the right side, you will 
see the more dense solution, which is the penicillin in oil and wax. To 
administer this drug, the needle is plunged deep into the muscles, and then 
the cartridge with the saline portion is forced on to the needle, and two 
or three drops of the solution inserted into the muscles. By letting up 
on the plunger, there is an aspirating effect which causes the withdrawal 
of the tissues of saline solution. If you do not see blood, you will know 
that you are not in the vein. You leave the syringe in place, change the 
cartridge around and slowly inject the penicillin. This, when given once 
a day, is very satisfactory. 

(Slide #22.) In 1948, the news is duracillin in oil. This is a prepara- 
tion of procaine penicillin. This is not a mixture, but a molecule of insol- 
uble pencillin with procaine dissolved in peanut oil. This preparation is 
used similar to the Romansky formula — 300,000 units injected into the 
muscles once a day, and the blood and tissue concentration is well above 
the therapeutic level. This is a good preparation for a specialist in den- 
tistry to use. 

(Slide #23.) This is a formula for penicillin procaine in oil, 300,000 
units, intramuscularly once in twenty-four hours. 

(Slide #24.) This preparation, procaine penicillin in oil, is given with 
the regular syringe. One cc. of the solution gives 300,000 units of penicillin. 

(Slide #25.) This is the occasion for oral penicillin. This is prepara- 
tion of choice in dentistry, for the prophylactic and treatment of infections 
caused by different cocci — streptococci and staphylococci. Oral penicillin 
preparations should be administered on a fasting stomach not less than 
thirty minutes before or less than one and a half to two hours after eating. 
Oral dosage has been held to be approximately five times parenteral dose 
for the equivalent effectiveness. 

(Slide #26.) The dosage of this preparation (and that's oral) and the 
buffered penicillin can be seen here — penicillin tablets orally, 50,000 units, 
Squibb #12; two tablets every four hours around the clock until the acute 
phase of the disease is over. Get the dosage — 100,000 units every three to 
four hours around the clock until the acute phase of the disease is over. 

(Slide #27.) We spoke of the systemic administration of penicillin. 
Now, we will consider briefly the local administration of penicillin, and 
these are the solid preparations. 

The first is the troche, the lozenge type, which is held in the mouth 
and slowly dissolved. Dosage ranges from one to five thousand units. If 
you haven't seen these preparations, Squibb's booth downstairs has litera- 
ture, and they also have the troche. 

The second is the so-called chewing troche — 20,000 units. This is ad- 
ministered after meals, three per day, and, usually, six is enough to re- 
move the acute phase of local infection. 



84 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

The next one is the cartridge. This is an innovation for 1948 with the 
introduction of the cartridge which contains 20,000 units. It originally con- 
tained only 10,000 units, as you see on the slide. It now contains 20,000 
units of crystalline penicillin "G" which can be combined with your local 
anesthetic solution and injected directly into or around the inflamed area. 
For instance, if you wish to remove a tooth with minor infection around 
it, you can infiltrate the tooth and area with 20,000 units of penicillin 
with your favorite local anesthetic and then remove the tooth. This one, I 
think, is perhaps the most important innovation for dentistry in '48. 

(Slide #28.) This is a photograph of a penicillin cartridge put out by 
another firm. On the right hand side, you will see the crystalline penicillin. 
On the left hand side, you will see a regular tube of local anesthetic. When 
you are ready to use the preparation, you inject the contents of the left 
hand tube into the right hand tube. Immediately it goes into solution, put 
it into your syringe and inject into the area. 

(Slide #29.) This is the regular syringe which you use for the admin- 
istration of penicillin for the injection method. If you haven't tried this, 
be sure to try it. 

(Slide #30.) This is the local penicillin administration, using liquid 
preparations. The irrigation, the mouthwash, the topical, and the spray 
are all liquid preparations of penicillin which deteriorate very rapidly, even 
when refrigerated. Therefore, they have disadvantages. I would say it is 
better to use the troche — either the lozenge or the chewing troche — and 
get a longer therapeutic level in the oral cavity. 

I would like to call your attention to "E," the ointment. This is an 
ointment base containing one to two thousand units of penicillin per gram 
of ointment. This is known as ophthalmic prophylaxis. You can buy it 
at all of your dnigstores. If you wish to use it, you can procure it at the 
drugstore, and then, whenever you need penicillin locally, such as in a peri- 
clasial pocket or periodontal alveolus, you can spread the contents of this 
tube and you will have an active therapeutic preparation. If you have not 
used it, try it. 

(Slide #31.) Now I am going to speak to you about tyrothricin. Ty- 
rothricin is one of the older antibiotics. It was on the market before peni- 
cillin, but it has never been highly accepted. Many dentists use it and like 
it; others have not tried it; others have tried it and haven't gotten too 
good results. Personally, I do not like tyrothricin as well as penicillin. 

Now, how may you use tyrothricin? You cannot administer it sys- 
temically because it is toxic to the red blood cells. Locally, you can admin- 
ister it topically in a 2% solution. If you wish to use it for irrigation, 
you can use it in a 500% solution or as a 500% solution as a mouthwash. 

This preparation may be used weherever penicillin is indicated, but it 
probably is less effective. However, it does have the advantage of having 
a higher degree of stability in aqueous solution. 

(Slide #32.) This slide will show you oral diseases which may be 
treated with penicillin or tyrothricin. I am not going to trouble you 



Containing the Proceedings 85 

with it, but if you look at this slide and can read it, you will see that 
there are only a few cases where tyrothricin is used in place of penicillin. 
Therefore, we can say that this preparation, tyrothricin, does have dental 
usefulness, but it is very limited. 

(Slide #33.) This is a slide showing methods of administering strepto- 
mycin, one of the newer antibiotics. The drug can be administered sub- 
cutaneously, intramuscularly (which is a preferred route) and also orally, 
as penicillin. The drug is usually injected into one of the larger muscles! 
either of the thigh or arm. 

(Slide #34.) Toxicity. Let us say that the toxicity of streptomycin 
is many times that of penicillin. Some of the toxic symptoms are irrever- 
sible, such as the effects on the nerves, which interferes with the calibration 
and may leave the individual in a staggering state for the remainder of 
his life. Therefore, it is a dangerous drug and must be used critically. 

(Slide #35.) These are the occasions for streptomycin. You will see 
that none of these are those which occur in the oral cavity. Therefore, in 
dental practice, it has limited usefulness. 

(Slide #36.) Contraindications to the use of streptomycin. It should 
be pointed out that, while streptomycin may have an inhibiting effect on 
both gram positive and gram negative micro-organisms, most strains of 
gram positive organisms are much more sensitive to penicillin than to 
streptomycin. Therefore, we can conclude this by saying that streptomycin 
is not a drug of choice in oral therapeutics. 

(Slide #37.) This slide is familiar to you. It shows a slide taken 
from a patient with oral Vincent's disease. You can see the spirochaeta 
fusiform, etc. One of the first requirements in the use of penicillin is 
that^ the infection be caused by penicillin-sensitve micro-organisms. Vin- 
cent's disease is readily curable with penicillin therapy, therefore, it is 
possibly the drug of choice in treating oral Vincent's disease. 

(Slide #38.) I especially wanted you to see these slides, this one and 
the next one. This, on the left hand side, shows the effect of chromic acid 
on the tooth. This tooth was bathed in 3% chromic acid for eight hours 
and you wall see that it ate off most of the enamel. On the right hand 
side, you will see a tooth in which the left half of the tooth has been painted 
three times with chromic acid 3% solution. The right hand side of the 
tooth was untreated, and you will see that the left hand side has been de- 
calcified. Therefore, you must use chromic acid cautiously in the oral 
cavity. It will decalcify the enamel and it will act as a caustic on soft 
tissues. 

(Slide #39.) This slide shows sodium perborate burns. Therefore, 
sodium perborate and chromic acid are not drugs of choice in the treat- 
ment of oral Vincent's disease. 

(Slide #40.) This is a slide showing Vincent's gingivitis. 



86 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

The treatment of this condition with penicillin is (slide #41) to use 
penicillin in distilled water, a 1 to 500 solution, and to put it into a spray 
and spray the mouth of the patient. The spray should be directed to a de- 
liberately glancing blow which will clean the soft tissue and the teeth of 
much of the debris. 

(Slide #42.) For the home treatment, penicillin troches, one to five 
thousand units, are used. In very severe cases, one troche every hour is 
used; for less severe cases, one or two troches between meals ax"e very 
satisfactory. This should be repeated until the acute phase of the disease 
is over. 

You must keep in mind that penicillin is not a cure-all; that it is only 
an adjunct to your periodontal treatment. 

(Slide #43.) This is a prescription for penicillin chewing troches. Our 
experience has been that penicillin chewing troches are much more effica- 
cious than the lozenge type. The reason for this is probably that the 
chewing stimulates the soft tissues and it massages the tissues around the 
teeth, removing the debris, and, in that way, acting as a prophylaxis as 
well as a bacteria-static agent. 

(Slide #44.) This is a picture of Vincent's stomatitis. Vincent's gingi- 
vitis is a local condition; Vincent's stomatitis is a systemic condition, so 
you must treat accordingly. You would treat the oral lesions similarly to 
the way that you treat the gingivitis — you would use your spray as your 
dental office treatment, then put the patient on a troche. Usually the 
lozenge type is better because the mouth is too sore to use the chewing 
troche. Give two troches between meals and continue until the acute phase 
of it is over. 

For the systemic treatment, (slide #45) you will use penicillin oral 
tablets, 50,000 units, and you administer two tablets every four hours 
around the clock. 

Now, differentiate between these two conditions. Gingivitis is local, 
and treat it locally; the stomatitis is local and systemic, and treat it locally 
and systemically. 

(Slide #46.) This is a Vincent's infection which followed a tooth ex- 
traction. You can see the infected lesion on the left hand side where the 
first molar has been removed. The treatment of this condition will be 
similar to your local treatment for gingivitis. You will use the spray first, 
and then, for home treatment, use the lozenges, every hour or two, between 
meals and around the clock, until the acute phase is over. 

(Slide #47.) This is your penicillin lozenge that you use every hour 
for treatment, or every two hours around the clock. 

(Slide #48.) This is your penicillin cartridge. If I were treating that 
condition, I would inject not directly into the inflamed area, but around 
that inflamed area, 20,000 units of penicillin in your anesthetic mixture. 



Containing the Proceedings 87 



That will give the patient some relief, and you will get the bacteria-static 
effect of penicillin. 

I know this is new treatment to you. We were taught in the old days 
that you should never inject into or near infected tissue, but, evidently, 
that is history in the past. Today, we inject around this inflamed area for 
getting good results. For a severe infection, you can augment your treat- 
ment by using the buffered oral penicillin, 100,000 units every two, three, 
or four hours around the clock. It does help out in severe cases. 

(Slide #49.) This condition looks similar to a Vincent's gingivitis, but 
the bacteriological study showed the streptococcal gingivitis. You will treat 
your streptococcal and staphylococcal gingivitis the same as you treat the 
Vincent's gingivitis, by the lozenge, and you will get equally good results. 

(Slide #50.) This is a pericornitis. You will see, on the left hand side, 
a tooth cusp emerging from the soft tissues. You will treat it locally, 
using your spray to clean up the area, and then your penicillin ointment. 
Warm the tube so the paste is soft; put the nozzle under the soft tissue 
and slowly squeeze until you have covered the inner portion of that pocket 
with pencillin ointment. You can have the patient come back the following 
day and repeat the treatment, or give him the tube and him insert the 
tube and apply the paste the best he can three times per day, having him 
return on the following day for a check-up. Usually, in forty-eight hours 
the acute phase of the disease is over, keeping in mind that this is a 
removal only of the acute phase and not the cause. The cause must be 
removed, and that is the removal of the pocket. Otherwise, you will have 
a recurrence. 

(Slide #51.) This is a prescription for your penicillin ointment; 15 
grams, 1,000 units per gram. 

(Slide #52.) This is a slide of periodontitis. I am not telling you that 
you can cure early pyorrhea with penicillin. I am telling you that you can 
use it as an adjunct for treatment. 

A few of the periodontists that I have talked to called my attention 
to the fact that, in such a case, they have been injecting the local anesthetic 
solution with 20,000 units of penicillin into the pillar between the teeth, 
and then they have gone in there and scaled the teeth, as they generally 
would in giving a prophylactic treatment. They felt that the penicillin gave 
bacteria-static action and that the local anesthetic removed the pain and 
permitted them to scale more deeply and thoroughly, and a vasoconstrictor 
closed off the blood vessels so they could work without too much hemor- 
rhage obstructing vision. 

(Slide #53.) This is a picture of periodontosis. This case was very 
much like the old pyorrhea where you had a flow of pus around the teeth. 
The treatment was very similar to the former, and that is that you inject 
your penicillin and local anesthetic agent in there, and you can go down 
and do your deep scaling. 



88 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



You must keep in mind that all your penicillin is doing is removing 
some of the infection and that you must remove the original causes of the 
periodontosis, or the condition will recur. Your penicillin is just an adjunct 
to treatment. 

(Slide #54.) This is a girl who came into the hospital with a dental 
alveolar abscess. You see them every day in dental pi-actice. 

How would you treat this ? If the case is to be treated as an office case, 
I would give the patient penicillin, or at least a prescription for, tablets, 
to be taken, 100,000 units every two or three hours around the clock until 
the acute phase is over, and then I would inject the offending tooth with 
penicillin and procaine solution and remove it. That is the treatment to be 
preferred. 

(Slide #55. These are the penicillin oral tablets, 300,000 units, and 
you can give 75,000 every two or three hours, or 100,000 every two, three, 
or four hours, depending on the severity of the case and upon the reactions 
of the patient. 

This is the penicillin cartridge in whch you are gonig to prepare your 
local anesthetic and penicillin solution for the removal of the tooth. 

(Slide #56.) There is a difference in cellulitis. The other we call an 
acute dental alveolar abscess; this we call the cellulitis. 

This patient came into the hospital after five days with the physician. 
The patient originally had a tooth extracted, went back to the dentist and 
the dentist told him to go to the physician, and the physician treated him, 
and then I admitted him to the oral surgery service of the hospital. This 
patient is violently ill, is unconscious, and running a tempei-ature of 106. 
This is a life or death matter, and we treated the case accordingly. This 
patient was given sulfadiazine, six grams per day, and doses around the 
clock; he was given penicillin, 100,000 units, every three hours around the 
clock. In six days, the infection aborted and the patient was cured. 

In the old days they said that if the patient lived it probably was not 
cellulitis; I say, with penicillin and surgery, that the majority of these 
cases can be returned to normal health. 

(Slide #57.) This is a prescription of sulfadiazine tablets, one gram, 
that may be used wherever you wish to mix your sulfonamide treatment 
with penicillin. 

I would like to talk to you about our treatment in the hospital, but I 
think that time will permit only the mention of the use of the sulfonamides 
and penicillin in general office practice. 

(Slide #58.) This is the penicillin calcium, and the dosage is 30,000 
units intramuscularly. This is used chiefly for hospital medication. 

(Slide #59.) This is a chronic dental alveolar abscess and has mobilized 
and formed a pus over the left central. Penicillin is not useful in aborting 
this infection. After all, it is localized and it is ready to drain. The treat- 



Containing the Proceedings 89 



ment of choice here is to drain the area by incision, and later remove 
the tooth. 

(Slide #60.) This shows the tooth when the pus has been drained one 
or two days. We allow for resolution of the infection and then the area 
was injected with 20,000 units of penicillin procaine. The patient got along 
very well. I think probably he would have done just as well without the 
use of penicillin, but it is preventive. 

(Slide #61.) This is the penicillin cartridge that we used, Cook-Waite. 

I want you to keep in mind that I am not advertising Cook-Waite or 
Squibb. It just happens that I am using these preparations and I know them. 

(Slide #62.) This you recognize as dental caries. 

For the control of dental caries, we have several agents at our com- 
mand. The first one (slide #63) is the penicillin troche. Tom Hill, Western 
University, found in his experimentation that penicillin is one way to 
remove those types of micro-organisms from the oral cavity which probably 
produce dental caries. His work is progressing, but it has not progressed 
far enough so that he wishes to say that this form or that foi'm of penicillin 
preparation will prevent or control dental caries. It is something for us to 
think about in the future. 

(Slide #64.) This is sodium fluoride, ten grams. This is a 2% solution 
which is to be applied by the dentist to the teeth. The American Dental 
Association has gone on record that if the dentist will follow the directions, 
cleanse the teeth and then apply sodium fluoride to all of the surface of 
the teeth and repeat that three or four times per year, that the incidence 
of dental caries may be retarded at least 40%. 

It is important for you, as dentists, to get on the bandwagon and start 
your control program. I am not advertising any product, but I notice down- 
stairs a product from Maryland, Amflor, American Fluoride preparation. 
This preparation is of fluoride nature and is intended for control of dental 
caries. You don't have to buy that preparation — here is the formula. 

(Slide #65.) The tooth on the left hand side is one which has not been 
treated with fluoride, and the one on the right hand side has been treated. 
That imaginary blue area around there means that when sodium fluoride is 
applied to the teeth it will combine superficially with the enamel, and this 
combination of fluoride with the enamel will do one of three things, or per- 
haps all of them. 

First, it will make the enamel less soluble to the acids; secondly, it will 
inhibit the growth and development, on the surface, of those vital organ- 
isms which probably produce dental decay; and, thirdly, it will act in pre- 
venting the liberating of the enzymes of these micro-organisms to break 
down the carbohydrates into those organic acids which dissolve the tooth 
substance. 

This is a preparation I use for the home treatment. You paint the 
teeth with sodium fluoride and then give a sodium fluoride mouthwash. 



90 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



This is the preparation — 1 gram, 500cc. This is diluted with equal parts of 
warm water and used as a mouthwash. Generally, you have the patient 
use for two, three, or four weeks and discontinue for a month, and then 
repeat it. The dosage form depends on the severity of the dental decay. 

We have no proof that this will inhibit dental decay, but it probably 
will have an effect. 

(Slide #66.) This chart, on the left hand side will show a group with 
a dental caries infection of 65%. When calcium fluoride is applied to the 
teeth, it was reduced to 32%. 

This is when calcium fluoride, with vitamins C and D, is applied. I am 
repeating what they have in the advertising — they have absolutely no 
proof or confirmation that it reduces it to 15%. I do think that there is 
something in that. The more we experiment with sodium fluoride, the more 
we realize that it has great effect, topical effect, in an acid solution, and 
vitamin C is acid, so that's a possibility of a beneficial effect. Even so, it 
may or may not have value in the prevention of dental decay. 

(Slide #67.) This is a preparation of sodium fluoride — one-third clay, 
one-third glycerine. 

This is a preparation which Dr. Kissell of Chicago has formulated. 
That is used as a dentifrice, and he seems to get a marked retardation of 
the incidence of dental decay when this dentifrice is used. He is continuing 
his experimentation under an endowment and perhaps, in the next three 
or four years, we will know more about Kissell's experiment. 

(Slide #68.) This is the mouth rinse designed by Kissell and the 
patient uses this as a mouthwash immediately after meals. That is, if you 
can't use the dentifrice immediately after meals, you can use the mouth 
rinse. You seem to get the best results when it is used immediately after 
meals, 

(Slide #69.) This is the last thing that I am going to talk to you 
about, and that is the combination of demerol, which is a narcotic drug, 
with local anesthetic solutions. 

This preparation was introduced by a Boston dentist. Dr. Cronin, and 
it is intended to give an analgesic and euphoric state so that the patient is 
more susceptible to the operation. I think perhaps that demerol is not the 
drug of choice, but it is very good. Dr. Cronin calls it co-medication. In 
1948 and 1949, I think you are going to hear more about co-medication. 

Ladies and gentlemen, my time is up. It has been a pleasure to be 
here, and I hope I haven't bored you too much. 

Thank you. (Applause.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Thank you. Dr. Dobbs. 

(The afternoon meeting was recessed at four-fifty o'clock.) 



Containing the Proceedings 91 

HOUSE OF DELEGATES 
April 26, 1948 

The first meeting of the House of Delegates of the Ninety-Second 
Anniversary Meeting of the North Carolina Dental Society convened in 
the Victory Room of the Hotel George Vanderbilt, Asheville, Noi'th Caro- 
lina, at five-ten o'clock, and was called to order by the President, 
Dr. R. M. Olive. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE : We will now have the roll call by the Secretary. 

ROLL CALL: House of Delegates 

R. M. Olive, President; L. J. Moore, Vice-President; C. W. Sanders, 
President-Elect; Fred Hunt, Secretary-Treasurer; S. L. Bobbitt, F. 0. 
Alford, D. L. Pridgen, Neal Sheffield, W. Jackson, W. T. Martin, Burke 
Fox, Alice Patsy McGuire, J. C. Phillips, John R. Pharr, Frank Kirk, Wade 
Sowers, 0. L. Presnell, Frank E. Gilliam, Norman F. Ross, T. W. Atwood, 
E. M. Medlin, Walter McRae, H. 0. Lineberger, T. M. Hunter, J. J. Tew, 
C. E. Abernathy, Paul Fitzgerald, Z. L. Edwards, B. MqK. Johnson, R. E. 
Williams. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: The Secretary has an announcement. 

DR. HUNT: Mr. President and gentlemen: I think it would be very 
much in order, as the first business at our opening session of the House of 
Delegates, to give me the authority to send a telegram to Clyde Minges. 
We all know how much he loves dentistry and the North Carolina Dental 
Society, and I think it would make him very happy if he knew that the 
first order of business of the House of Delegates was a telegram to him. 

If it is in order, I would like to be authorized to do that. 

DR. C. W. SANDERS: I move that the Secretary be so authorized. 
(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Is there anything else you want to bring up 
before the reports of the committees? 

DR. NEAL SHEFFIELD: Mr. Chairman, I would like to bring to 
your attention Dr. E. A. Troxler, Greensboro; l)r. Howard D. Apple, 
Greensboro; and Dr. W. F. Clayton, High Point. These men are in very 
poor health, and they are no longer practicing dentistry. We would like 
that the names of these men be placed on the inactive list so that their 
dues will not expire — so that they will not be dropped for non-payment of 
dues, in other words. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: You have heard Dr. Sheffield's suggestion. Is 
a motion necessary? 



92 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

DR. SANDERS: I make such a motion. 
(The motion was seconded.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Is there any discussion? 

DR. HUNTER: In the interest of a discussion and the legality of it, 
I'd like to know what the constitution and by-laws remits in that instance. 
I am really not familiar with that and whether it is permissible or not. I 
am asking that as a question if anyone knows. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Can someone enlighten Dr. Hunter about that 
point of the constitution and by-laws? 

DR. SHEFFIELD: That has always been the custom in the North 
Carolina Dental Society as long as I have been a member. Any time any 
member dropped out from active practice, due to poor health, or otherwise 
quit the profession, if that procedure isn't followed, this man, unless he 
turns in his dues each year, will be dropped for non-payment of dues, 
which does not look good for that man. 

In these cases, the men have asked that this be done. They know that 
this is the usual and proper procedure. So, it is just the usual custom in 
the North Carolina Dental Society. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: In that case, I don't even think that it requires 
a motion. 

MEMBER: Dr. Alfred Hartman of Winston-Salem has not been in 
practice for several years, and he has been very active. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: We will include him on that list. 

MEMBER : I believe he was placed on it a year or so ago. 

DR. HUNTER : I have just been browsing thi-ough the constitution. I 
posed that question just to be sure that this was acting within our rights. 

Article III, Section 4 of the constitution says, "Life Membership shall 
consist of active members who shall have paid the full annual dues twenty- 
five consecutive years," and so forth. Section 3 says, "Honorary members 
shall consist of graduates of regularly chartered dental colleges, recognized 
by the Amei'ican Association of Dental Examiners, who have retired from 
practice." 

Possibly these are classified under that group, and nominations for 
honorary membership must be made through the Executive Committee. So 
far as I can find in browsing this through in that minute, I think it would 
be probably legal or appropriate to do it. I think it would be appropriate 
to follow with the nominations. 



Containing the Proceedings 93 



PRESIDENT OLIVE: It doesn't require a motion. Is there anybody 
else to be placed in that category while we are at it? (There was no 
response.) 

Is there any new business to be brought up at this meeting? 

DR. H. O. LINEBERGER: I would like, Mr. President, that we hold 
a special extraordinary meeting of the House of Delegates tomorrow morn- 
ing at 11:00 o'clock, at which time we can receive the report from Dr. 
O'Rourke regarding the recent survey of the State of North Carolina 
dental school. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: We have already announced that, Dr. Line- 
berger, and I hope everybody in the House of Delegates will attend. 

DR. LINEBERGER: I move that we hold such a meeting. 
(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Is there any new or old business? 

DR. PAUL FITZGERALD: Last year, we adopted a constitution 
and by-laws. 

In Article IV, Section 2 of the constitution, we find that: "The Presi- 
dent shall become a delegate to represent this society in the House of Dele- 
gates of the American Dental Association, without the formality of election. 
At each annual meeting, one additional delegate shall be elected by ballot 
for a term of three years, as provided in Article LX of the By-Laws. In 
the event that an increase in membership shall entitle the society to an 
additional delegate, the President-Elect shall become the official delegate." 
(This, of course is considering the fact that we are to have five delegates.) 

Gentlemen, I contend that while the President and the President-Elect 
will make the delegates to the American Dental Association, they cannot 
be effective to carry on the influence that the North Carolina Dental Society 
wishes. I say that for this reason : a man going to the American Dental 
Association as a delegate the first year will scarcely meet the members of 
his district. The second year, he probably will meet them, but he doesn't 
meet enough members there to have an influence. There are approximately 
four hundred members of the House of Delegates of the American Dental 
Association. Through the years, we have built up a considerable influence. 
We know that, because, at the present time, we have a President-Elect of 
the American Dental Association. 

I wish to make a motion that Section 2 of Article IV be amended, and 
that Article IX of the by-laws be changed to read as follows: "That five 
delegates be elected by the North Carolina Dental Society at the general 
session, one to be elected for one year, one for two, one for three, one for 
four, and one one for five years, and one each year to succeed for a period 
of five years. This is to take place as the present terms of the delegates 
expire." 



94 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



Let this be referred to the Committee on Constitution and By-Laws. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: You have heard Dr. Fitzgerald's motion. This 
will be referred to the Committee on Constitution and By-Laws. 

Is there any discussion from anybody here in the group on that subject. 

DR. FRANK O. ALFORD : I second the motion. 

DR. FITZGERALD : The motion was made to change the constitution 
and by-laws and to refer this, only to get it in order, to the Committee 
on Constitution and By-Laws. The reference is just for the purpose of 
getting it in the right order in the constitution and by-laws. 

MEMBER: It will have to lay over a year, will it not? 

DR. HUNT: The Constitution and By-Laws Committee will have to 
lay it on the table from one meeting to the next, and will have to have a 
90% consent from one year to the next, when it requires a two-thirds 
majority for adoption. 

DR. W. T. MARTIN : It seems to me we have been getting along 
rather well with the influence we have built up. We won't have too many 
new men from time to time, and I can't think of any men of more ability 
or caliber than the President and the President-Elect. Therefore, I see 
no reason for the change. 

DR. Z. L. EDWARDS: It strikes me that this is not the time to dis- 
cuss the merits or demerits of this proposed amendment. It seems to me, 
as a matter of parliamentary procedure, the thing to do is to refer it to 
the Constitution and By-Laws Committee and let them consider it and bring 
it back for a report. Then, we can discuss its merits or demerits, and let 
this House of Delegates act in accordance with their best judgment. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Does anyone else have anything to say on 
that subject? 

DR. SANDERS: I heartily agree with Dr. Edwards* I think the logic 
in presenting it at this particular time was to get it before the House of 
Delegates and conform thereby with their constitution and by-laws. When 
it is put in proper form, and at the proper time, we can discuss it and 
accept or reject it. 

DR. FITZGERALD: Mr. President; Section 17 of the By-Laws states: 
"The Constitution and By-Laws Committee shall receive and consider all 
proposed alterations, annulments, or revisions of the Constitution and By- 
Laws, and make proper recommendations to the Society." 

That's referred without a motion. 



Containing the Proceedings 95 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Without a motion. It would be referred to the 
Constitution and By-Laws Committee without any voting on it at all. 

Is there any other subject to be brought up now before we get into 
the reading of the reports of the Committees? (There was no response.) 

Are there any committees to report? 

EEPORT OF THE PROSTHETIC DENTAL SERVICE COMMITTEE 

The program issue of the Bulletin carries an account of the activities 
of the Prosthetic Dental Service Committee up until just a few weeks ago. 
Therefore, the Committee will only summarize the work. 

Early in December, 45 letters of explanation which appears on page 
275 of the Bulletin were sent to as many commercial laboratories. On 
page 273 of the Bulletin appears another letter sent to the laboratories 
about February 15. As a result, the Committee has received eighteen appli- 
cations for inspection. Ten have been inspected. Dr. McRae, who was 
designated as examiner by the Committee, will get around to the remain- 
ing eight within a short time. Then the full Committee will approve or 
disapprove the applications. Those approved will be passed along to the 
National Committee for final approval and certificates of accreditation will 
be issued those qualifying. It is expected that other applications will be 
received from time to time. — C. C. Poindexter, Chairman. 

DR. POINDEXTER: I move the adoption of this report. 
(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Are there any other reports? 



REPORT OF EXHIBIT COMMITTEE 

Receipts from 41 exhibits @ $7.00 each $2870.00 

Disbursements : 

Decorating Company for booths $ 615.00 

Printing, postage, mimeographing, etc 39.87 

Total $ 654.87 

Net Profit $2215.13 

J. W. BRANHAM, Chairman. 

DR. BRANHAM : I move the adoption of this report. (The motion 
was seconded and carried.) 

DR. HUNT: I'd like to speak on that, if I may. 

Dr. Branham is doing a really good job, whether you fellows realize 
it or not. There is a lot of work to his Exhibit Committee. I was looking 
through some of the old records, and, a few years ago, the exhibits brought 
in $600. Now they are $3,000. I think he is to be commended for the work 
that he has done along that line. 



96 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



DR. J. M. FLEMING: I am not a member of the House of Delegates, 
but I have one or two reports I want to give. 

First, I want to report on the Library and History Committee. There 
has been no really active work done by that committee this year. We have 
just about completed our files of the Journal and Cosmos, both at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina and Duke University in Durham. We still lack 
only a few volumes, and we are trying' our best to get those. During the 
year, we have saved the volumes as they have come in from the National, 
and they have been put into the library to complete the files. 

When it comes to a question of this book that we published, the Library 
and Historical Committee was handed this morning (I haven't got the 
general distribution, although I am the chairman of the Committee) this 
paper by Dr. Lineberger, who has charge. 

Last year, what money we had in the bank, we turned over to the 
Secretary-Treasurer of the Society, trying to pay back the money that the 
Society advanced to publish the history. We have sold during the year, 
four volumes at $6.00 a volume — $24.00 — and the bank service charge was 
60c, so, in the first of 1948, we have a bank balance of $23.40. 

We have on hand 329 of those histories. I sometimes think that it is 
a reflection on me that we haven't sold more of them than we have, and I 
have tried my best to give some of them away. I gave one away this 
morning, and the fellow seemed to be real proud. I wish I could give some 
more away. 

I wish somebody felt enough interest in it so that he would buy some 
of them so that Society might realize the money that they have put into 
the publishing of it. Of course, I made nothing out of the publication, and 
I don't want to, but I do want to see the Society reimbursed for the $2,000 
or more that they put into the publication. 

So much for that; this is the balance that we have on hand. 

Referring to this History Committee, of which I am also the chairman, 
your Committee that had charge of the Harris Memorial at Hertford, 
North Carolina, has had placed a bronze memorial in place of the marble 
marker that was in the marquee that we had. We just had marble because 
we couldn't get bronze during the war. But the marble doesn't last, and 
we have succeeded, during the year, in having that marble slab replaced 
with a bronze one, and that job is finished. I see no reason why that com- 
mittee of Dr. Fitzgerald, Dr. Johnson, and myself, should not be discharged, 
having done the best we could on it. 

I do want to say that the burden has fallen lai'gely on Dr. Fitzgerald. 
I think we put it on him because he is a man that does things when you 
ask him to. On account of his good nature, he has had to do extra work. 

The only other committee that I have is the Relief Committee, and I 
have no written report for that. I have a very short report to make. 



Containing the Proceedings 97 



During the year, we have had no further applicants for relief from 
this committee. The committee has held always that we should look into 
a case carefully before we vote it any money. 

A year ago, at our meeting, it was repoi-ted that we had voted to a 
member $20 a month for a period of twelve months. After five months, 
this member died, and left seven unpaid monthly payments of $20 a month. 
Of course, you understand that the national society matches anything that 
we pay. If we pay $20, they pay $20 also, so this recipient of our Relief 
Fund got $40 a month till he died at the end of five months. This had 
been kept up for a period of about three years. But, after his death, the 
Committee asked that the seven unpaid payments of $40 a month, both ours 
and the National, might go to his widow to help defray the burial expenses 
and other little expenses that she might have. We have done that through 
the American society, and she has received that $140 to help her defray 
those expenses. That's the only activity that the Relief Committee has 
had during the year. 

When it comes to the financial report of it, last year, it was very 
wisely taken out of the hands of the Relief Committee and turned over to 
the Secretary-Treasurer to be kept as a separate fund. The Secretary- 
Treasurer has that report, and I think it would be well for him to make 
that report right now as to the financial condition of the Relief Fund. 

DR. HUNT: Gentlemen, on the financial situation as of April 9th, 
we have: 

8 $1,000 bonds 
1 $25.00 bond 

at maturity 
(bought from 1941-46 by Dr. Fleming) 
1 $1,000 bond (at maturity) 

(bought November 11, 1947 by Dr. Hunt) 
ASSETS: 

$9,025.00— total in bonds 
801.68 — cash 



$9,826.68— TOTAL ASSETS 

As you all know, we are all collecting the dollar per member for 
the Relief Fund, and it is turned in with the dues so that there will not 
be any relief collections at the district meetings. 

To date, we have received in payment from the First District, $133; 
from the Second District, $180; Third, $113; Fourth, $120; Fifth, $125, 
making a total of $671 received to date. 

We also have a refund from the American Dental Association 
amounting to $232, which is to be added to this $671. That represents 
half the Christmas seals that were sold. 

Last fall, we did take these deductions at the district meetings, but, 
beginning January 1st, we changed to the collection. It gives us a total 



98 Bulletin North Carolina, Dental Society 



of about $1100 that we have collected, you might say, this year for 
the Relief. 

MEMBER: How does that compare with the voluntary con- 
tributions? 

DR. HUNT: It is larger, Doctor. We would probably get five or 
six hundred from the voluntary, and have already $671, and quite a 
few to come in yet. 

DR. ALFORD : I move the report be adopted. 
(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: While Dr. Fleming has just mentioned this, 
I want to say this about this history. There are a lot of members, I 
imagine, that don't know about this history. No one can realize how 
much value that is to any man in the North Carolina Dental Society 
interested in his profession. I have had a copy of this for years; I have 
been through it, and I wouldn't take anything for it in the world, being 
a dentist. 

I believe that those of you who haven't seen or don't know anything 
about it should avail yourselves of a copy of it. I imagine there are a 
lot of fellows who don't know about it and haven't even ^een it. Any- 
one that wants a copy should let Dr. Fleming know about it. 

Are there any more reports at this time? 

REPORT OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE TO 
NORTH CAROLINA MEDICAL CARE COMMISSION 

You will recall that last year the Advisory Committee to the Med- 
ical Care Commission in the report to the North Carolina Dental Society 
attempted to give a resume of the findings with reference to the need for 
increased facilities for dental education, particularly in North Carolina. 

This year your committee has been content to observe and to assist, 
whenever possible, the special Dental College Committee named by our 
President, Bob Olive. The Dental College Committee has asked mem- 
bers of this Committee to share in its deliberations on different occa- 
sions, and I want to speak for this Committee in congratulating the 
Dental College Committee on the unselfish and outstanding work it has 
done this year. — A. C. Current, Chairman. 

DR. CURRENT: Mr. President, I move the adoption of that report. 
(The motion was seconded.) 

MEMBER: Dr. Current, I think there is some more to be added 
to that, if you won't mind waiting for another meeting. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Any other committee reports? 



Containing the Proceedings 99 

DR. W. T. MARTIN : No irre^larities have been brought to our 
attention this year. We have taken that to mean that all is well. (Re- 
porting on the Ethics Committee.) 

REPORT OF THE ETHICS COMMITTEE 

The Ethics Committee is glad to report that no complaints or irregu- 
larities have been brought to our attention, and we take this to mean 
that all is well. — W. T. Martin, Chairman. 

REPORT OF THE PROGRAM COMMITTEE 
1947 - 1948 

During the past year the Program Committee has held two meet- 
ings with the Executive Committee: 

1. July 13, 1947, at the Hotel Charlotte, Charlotte. 

2. October 27, 1947, at the Sir Walter Hotel, Raleigh. 

The work and activities of this committee is represented in the pro- 
gram which appeared in the last issue of the Bulletin. — R. Fred Hunt, 
Chairman. 

DR. HUNT: I move the adoption of both reports — ^the Ethics Com- 
mittee and the Program Committee. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

DR. HUNT: I also have the financial report of the North Carolina 
Dental Society, April 19th, a condensed report. The final auditing will 
be in the Proceedings. It is quite lengthy, so I will just read a summary. 
(He then read the summary.) 

NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

April 19, 1948 

Assets 

Brought Forward $ 5,898.14 

Invested in Government Bonds 9,250.00 

Received From : 

First District 1592.00 

Second District 1770.00 

Third District 1320.00 

Fourth District 1002.00 

Fifth District 1194.00 

Miscellaneous 7666.00 

(Exhibit space sold — sale of bonds, etc.) 

Relief Fund Collections 662.00 



Total Assets $30,354.14 



100 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



Liabilities 

Telephone and Telegraph $ .56 

Postage 35.38 

Supplies 189.21 

Miscellaneous Disbursements (Sale Bonds $6,660.00, etc.) 9,595.39 

Paid A.D.A. for Membership Dues 3,540.00 

Paid A.D.A. for Life Membership 696.00 

Paid A.D.A. for Relief Fund 662.00 

Total Liabilities $14,718.54 

Cash in Peoples Bank & Trust Company $ 7,076.60 

Invested in Bonds — (Cost - Price) 9,250.00 

Net worth $16,326.60 

R. Fred Hunt, Sec.-Treas. 
North Carolina Dental Society 

I move the adoption of this report. 
(The motion w^as seconded and carried.) 

DR. HUNT: I also have a Secretary's report on new members. As 
this is quite lengthy, and if there is no objection, I will make a motion that 
this be read into the Proceedings by title only. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT ON NEW MEMBERS 

New Members of the First District by transfer : Allen T. Lockwood. 
New graduates are: Val Artress, Charles A. Brady, E. Kieth Brake, Harry 
Dickey, Charles M, Hare. 

New Members of the Second District are: William Edgar Alexander, 
Franklin C. Beaver, T. J. Bell, Jr., William J. Caroon, Jr., E. A. Eckers, 
Harold A. Eskew, James F. Hulin, Ernest C. Morris, Broadus E. Jones, 
Jr., Lackey Boggs Peeler, Charles E. Ridenhour, Norman P. Sholar, 
Zachery M. Stadt, L Frank Stone, T. L. White, John Richard Williams. 

New Members of the Third District are : William P. Hinson, John T. 
Hughes, Emery A. Bencini, Mott. P. Blair, E. W. Richardson, Jr., T. Edgar 
Sikes, Jr., Joseph R. Suggs, Marvin E. Walker, Woodrow W. Walker, 
George N. Anderson. Members reinstated since the last state meeting: 
B. J. Durham, C. B. Pratt, Glenn G. Scott. 

New Members of the Fourth District are: Gordon L. Townsend, David 
W. Seifert, Jr., H. E. Maxwell, R. Leo Horton, Joseph P. Hale, Clarence S. 
Olive. By transfer from Virginia Dental Society: Joseph T. Hunt, By 
transfer from Third District, North Carolina Dental Society : C. P. Osborne. 

New Members of the Fifth District are: John R. Carson, Jr., William 
H. Gray, Jr., Adolphus J. Cook, Joe M. Anderson, Jr., Charles T. Barker, 
W. W. Umphlett, Jr., R. L. Mohn, H. L. Young, Herbert Smith, J. M. 
Kornegay, F. E. Lansche. 



Containing the Proceedings 101 

However, I would like to give a summary. In the First District, there 
are 6; Second, 16; Third, 13; Fourth, 7; Fifth, 11, making a total of 53 
new members this year. 

I move that this report be adopted, read into the Proceedings by 
title only. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Are there any more reports? 

(Dr. Fitzgerald then requested permission to distribute copies of Dr. 
O'Rourke's report and made some announcements relative to keeping the 
contents confidential until it had been released to the press.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Is there anything else to come up this 
afternoon? 

DR. HUNT: Dr. Branch just handed me this report for the State 
Council on Dental Health, of which he is chairman. 

EFFORT OF STATE COUNCIL ON DENTAL HEALTH 

The Council on Dental Health is concerned with improving the dental 
health conditions of the people of our State. The problem is a big one since 
"dental diseases have an almost universal incidence and since the treatment 
of dental diseases and the correction of dental defects require operative 
procedures and are not readily adaptable to mass treatment." It is obvious 
that the task is two-fold, in that it involves the prevention and control of 
dental diseases on the one hand, and, on the other, the education of the 
public to an appreciation of the demand for the services which dentistry 
has to offer them. 

At the moment there is widespread interest in sodium fluoride therapy 
as a preventive measure. No doubt each of you has been beseiged with 
inquiries concerning its use, occasioned by the comments that appeared in 
Drew Pearson's syndicated column on March 5th. While there, seemingly, 
were inaccuracies in the statements and exaggerations in the claims made 
with the result that false hopes were raised, we believe that the topical 
application of a 2 per cent sodium fluoride solution to the teeth of children 
offers promise in the field of prevention. As a service to the dentists in 
private practice and to encourage its use, the Division of Oral Hygiene of 
the State Board of Health has had prepared by the Laboratory of Hygiene 
a 2 per cent solution of sodium fluoride. Upon request, any dentist in the 
State may secure this free of charge. Many of you have been using this 
treatment for some time and have expressed your belief that it is proving 
beneficial to your patients. 

A more spectacular preventive measure which is receiving much atten- 
tion is the addition of fluorine to the public water supply. As you are all 
familiar with the literature on this subject, we will merely call to your 



102 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



attention what seems, at this point, to be the generally accepted conclu- 
sions, namely; that this is still in the experimental stage, that it is not a 
fully tested public health procedure with proven benefits, — and that, per- 
haps, there are now enough experiments in progress. For these reasons 
and other considerations we are not in a position to recommend the fluori- 
nation of water supplies as a preventive measure in North Carolina. The 
other considerations to which we referred are the facts that some of our 
water supplies already contain fluorine in sufficient amounts to cause mot- 
tling of the enamel and that few localities have the facilities for employ- 
ing the necessary safeguards. 

We still believe that the most effective control measure is the early 
detection and correction of dental defects in children. Early and regular 
care of children is the one known and tested approach to a real preventive 
program and it is also a definite method of reducing the adult needs. 

The records of our Oral Hygiene Division show that since our last 
meeting the state school dentists have made dental corrections for 23,662 
underprivileged children in the public schools of our State. They have also 
inspected the mouths of 33,804 privileged children and have referred them 
to dentists in private practice. Of course, this is not adequate in terms of 
meeting the needs of our children but we hope that, in the near future, 
the staff may be enlarged and the services expanded. 

We have admitted our limitations in the field of prevention and control 
but we have no apologies to make for our dental health education activities. 
This phase of the work has been stressed to compensate for the gap be- 
tween the needs and facilities for treatment. We believe that North Caro- 
lina can boast of as well informed a populace as can any State. This will 
certainly be true in a few years judging from the requests from teachers 
throughout the State for dental health materials to use in their classrooms. 
The Division of Oral Hygiene of the State Board of Health is supplying, 
monthly, thousands of sheets of dental health teaching aids. The dental 
health news release, alone, goes to more than five hundred schools each 
month and into 45,000 homes. 

However, this is only one phase of the educational problem. The 
greatest contribution in this field can be made by the dentists in private 
practice. We urge each of you to keep in mind the following which we 
quote from the News Letter of the Council on Dental Health of the A.D.A. 
"This health education program should be a process of providing ex- 
periences for children and adults for the purpose of favorably influencing 
their knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to dental health." — 
Ernest A. Branch, Chairman. 

I want to commend Dr. Branch on that very fine report. I think all 
of us will agree that he is doing an excellent job. 

I make a motion that this report be adopted. 
(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Dr. Paul Jones, do you wish to present your 
report now? 



Containing the Proceedings 103 



DR. PAUL JONES: After Dr. John's report as our trustee this morn- 
ing, I thought that he emphasized some things that ought to be mentioned 
to this group, related to the A.D.A. and the program of the A.D.A. 

You know, he told us that the new constitution and administrative 
by-laws were going to reduce its agencies from twenty-six to sixteen, that 
is, ten that are now functioning, and that it was going to reduce in number 
four or five of its major committees from fifteen members down to five. 
Then, he said that they were going to centralize the work in these 
committees. 

I thought that we should take some notice of this reduction, because, 
following that up, he said that we are going to be asked to pay double 
the amount of dues that we have been paying before. 

Of course, your delegates knew something about this in the House of 
Delegates in the A.D.A., but the membership had probably not grasped the 
significance of this statement. 

There is just one other thing that has been proposed. There has been 
proposed by the Constitution, Administrative, By-Laws Committee that a 
reduction be made in the representation from the states. All three of these 
items at one time, and then, right in the same sweep of the arm, he says 
we are going to have to pay twice as much money to the A.D.A. 

I have been around the meetings of the A.D.A. for quite a while, and 
I know something of the different agencies, of the Board of Trustees and 
of the appropriations to carry on their work. I know that we will never 
be able, in our lifetime, to provide money for the agencies that they request 
from time to time. There always has to be a Budget Committee of the 
Board of Trustees to appropriate this money that we have, and I am just 
wondering if we are going to think enough about the amount of money 
that we are going to pay into the A.D.A., and, in the same breath, think- 
ing about the amount of representation that we are losing at the same 
time. I think we ought to think about that a little bit before we agree 
to do that. 

Of course, I know that they need the money. Clyde Minges wants us 
to agree to all of this, but your representatives in the House of Delegates 
are going to be required to vote on this, and we want you fellows to know 
about the significance of it before we say we are going to double the dues, 
and we come back on to face you boys in terms of a politician or something 
like that, state taxpayers, and you say, "You are just taking it all and 
giving us less representation." 

I just wanted to present that to you and let you know that your dele- 
gates were thinking about that, and we want you to give some expression 
as to what you expect your representatives to do at these meetings. 

That's my report. 

DR. Z. L. EDWARDS: Can you explain it to us? On what basis do 
they propose to select their representation? 



104 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



DR. JONES: There have been a dozen proposals from the House of 
Delegates. I think they had one out there that would just about put the 
House of Delegates down from its present size to one-quarter its size. It 
would cut it about 75*%. California presented that one. 

New York State has one that would cut it down to a little less than 
half, and then there is another from another state that will cut it down 
to a third. 

All of them have the tendency to penalize we fellows in the smaller 
states. 

DR. LINEBERGER: I was thinking, Mr. President, that we might 
dig up these things. I am sure your representatives that were at the meet- 
ing last summer in Boston, and all of the representatives from the smaller 
states, are opposed to this reduction in representation. 

If it is in order, I would like to make a motion to instruct our dele- 
gates to the next annual meeting of the American Dental Association to 
vote against, and work against, the reduction of the representation. 

(The motion was seconded.) 

DR. EDWARDS: I'm not satisfied with that. That's all right as far 
as it goes. But if these larger states are proposing to penalize the smaller 
states by reducing our representation in the House of Delegates, then I 
think the smaller states should get together and make a different proposal, 
something similar to the proposition that these states, small or large, should 
have a certain number of delegates, and that the larger states should be 
limited to a certain number of delegates. Under our system of government, 
the smaller states, even the state of Rhode Island, has as many senators as 
the great Empire State of New York or Texas. 

I can see that there is a desire on the part of some of the larger states 
to penalize some of the smaller states by giving them smaller representa- 
tion, and I think that these smaller states should organize and put that 
force behind a pi'oposition to clip the wings of these larger states, to reduce 
their representation considerably and give all of the states a certain num- 
ber in representation. 

I think that if the House of Delegates were to adopt that system and 
get together, that they could bring force enough to bear because we have 
more smaller states than we have larger states. We could put the fear of 
God in their hearts, and they wouldn't try to penalize the smaller states. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Is there any more discussion on that? 

DR. LINEBERGER: I think I might explain it a little bit further. I 
think you understand that the delegates are apportioned. In other words, 
the smaller states do get more representation today than the larger ones. 
The big states are penalized. 



Contaiyiing the Proceedings 105 



To a great degree, it is that way now, but I believe what you say 
about the smaller. We would like to have an expression from this body. 

DR. JONES: That's true, Mr. President, but of course the larger 
states now are beginning to want to limit the representation of the smaller 
states, cut it down, so to speak — get it back to equal distribution, or, rather, 
to a distribution favorable to their membership. 

All of this leads up to one thing — the growing and burning tendency 
on the part of the A.D.A. to centralize the activities of dentistry in a cen- 
tral office. That's what we are heading for now. More and more, they are 
taking away the functions of the local unit, that is, the state units. More 
and more, that's being centralized in the central oflflce. That's constructive 
thinking, all right, as long as it doesn't get to be too dictatorial to the rest 
of us. It probably will save money in administration and all of those things, 
and they may be able to do a more effective job. 

I wish all of you could have been at the House of Delegates meeting 
in Boston last year. It was the most wonderful setup I have ever seen at 
any meeting in my life for a fellow, a delegate, to go in and take his seat 
and perform his function as a representative of the state without any 
difficulty on his part. It was wonderful. We had a wonderful secretary, 
and it was the first time in the history of this association, the American 
Dental Association, that it had ever had any such setup as that. I com- 
mend the central office, through its secretary and its executive officers, for 
this fine piece of work that was done. 

But, with all of that, the next man that we have that comes into the 
office to succeed this group that we now have may not be quite as liberal 
as this one was, and I am calling that to the attention of that group so 
that we may know what it is that we are headed for in the future. I hope 
all of you will recognize that — that I am not hollering, not making a noise 
to arouse you — that there is no antagonism to this, but I am pointing out 
to you that we must keep the affairs of dentistry largely in the hands of 
the states, as we go along, and not go too much to the central office, in a 
unanimous way, as it appears now to be. 

I might tell you some things that I know about the amount of money 
that has to be spent in carrying on the activities of the A.D.A. through 
the central office. There are some enormous salaries paid that, if you knew 
about, you would probably be very resentful of. They probably, and more 
than likely, can be justified by the work that is being done. I thank you. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: You have heard Dr. Lineberger's motion sec- 
onded by Dr. Alford. Is there any more discussion on this? Will you re- 
state your motion. Dr. Lineberger? 

DR. LINEBERGER: It is substantially that we instruct the delegates 
to the American Dental Association to oppose any change in representation 
of the American Dental Association to the House of Delegates. 



106 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



PRESIDENT OLIVE: Is there any further discussion? If not, those 
in favor of the motion, let it be known by saying "aye"; opposed, "no". 

The motion is carried. 

(Dr. Edwards mentioned the question of the raising of dues, and the 
meeting was recessed at six-ten o'clock.) 

MONDAY EVENING SESSION 
April 26, 1948 

The third general session of the Ninety- Second Anniversary Meeting 
of the North Carolina Dental Society convened in the City Auditorium, 
Asheville, North Carolina, at eight o'clock, and was called to order by the 
President, Dr. R. M. Olive. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: At this time, we will recognize Dr. A. C. Cur- 
rent, who will introduce our next speaker. 

DR. A. C. CURRENT: President Olive and members of the North 
Carolina Dental Society: I do not suppose that anything has come to the 
attention of organized dentistry in recent years that is more important, or 
that certain men might tell you is any more important right now, than 
that of the possibility of fluorine in the control of the incidence of dental 
caries. So far as I know, we have much more to find out about fluorine in 
the installation of the control of dental caries and all in general than is 
known at the present moment. 

However, we do have for your edification tonight a man who is the 
forerunner in this field, a man who knows as much about this subject as 
anyone that we have in the country. 

Our speaker tonight is a graduate of the University of Minnesota 
School of Dentistry, with the D.D.S. degree, 1931. He is a graduate of the 
Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, with a master's degree 
in Public Health, in 1939, and, in that same school, in 1940, he merited 
the degree of doctor in Public Health. He is, at the present, Chief of 
Dental Public Health Section, States Relation Division, U. S. Public Health 
service, Washington, D. C. 

It gives me a great deal of pleasure to present to you now Dr. John W. 
Knutson, who will speak to us on the subject of fluoride installation to the 
incidence of dental caries. 

DR. JOHN W. KNUTSON: Mr. Chairman, President Olive, members 
and distinguished guests of the North Carolina Dental Society: I want to 
assure you at the outset that, to me, this is a great honor to be invited to 
address you, to be invited to participate in this meeting of the North Caro- 
lina State Dental Society, to be invited to sit in, and, so to speak, speak 
with the distinguished friends that I have known for years in this state 
society. 



Containing the Proceedings 107 

First of all, I want to pay my respects to the dean of dentistry and 
public health, Dr. Ennis. (Applause.) Here is a name who you all know. 
He cared early in our life to think not only of those who are in that 
service, but to dedicate his life to those who are not, and to try to de- 
velop means whereby they could get such service. 

I pay tribute to my other distin^shed friends — to Waldo Paul, who 
is a lecturer in this country in the interest of dentistry for children. I 
pay my respects to Dr. Wilbert Jackson, who has won gratitude for such 
a great job in the field of dental education; to your man who has reached 
the highest level that those of us in dentistry could bestow on him, Clyde 
Minges, President-Elect of the American Dental Association. 

So, coming here to North Carolina, I am sure you will recognize that 
is, to me, an honor. 

It is also with humility that I come before you to present this dis- 
cussion on fluorides. However, I might say that this feeling of humility 
has been counterbalanced by an added honor. I am sure that most of you 
have noticed that I have not a guest badge; I have the badge of a mem- 
ber. I can assure that I didn't attain that badge by being an imposter. I 
told them at the registration desk that I was an essayist, and yet I was 
given the badge of a member of the Society. So, if you will permit me, 
I would like to enjoy that pleasure for the few hours that I do spend here 
with you. 

Getting now to the subject of the discussion for the evening, the rela- 
tionship or place of fluorides in dental health, it has now been conclusively 
demonstrated that a series of four applications of 2% solution to the 
teeth of children effects a 40% reduction in the incidence of dental caries. 
This is an established fact. Its establishment has been recognized, en- 
dorsed, by the American Dental Association, by their Council on Dental 
Health. It has been endorsed by the Dental Section of the American Public 
Health Association. And, finally, it has been approved and endorsed by a 
group of 114 dental scientists who met at Ann Arbor last September and 
spent one week reviewing the evidence which demonstrated whether or 
not a particular procedure was effective in controlling or inhibiting the inci- 
dence of dental caries. That group unanimously agreed that the evidence 
was sufficient in the case of fluoride, and that treatment should be used 
as routine procedure in dental practice. 

Since this endorsement has arrived on the scene, there has been much 
publicity regarding topical fluorides. Some of that publicity has been accu- 
rate and good; some of it has been inaccurate and bad. Both the good and 
the bad publicity has engendered in your patient a great deal of interest 
in the use of fluorides to the control of dental caries. They come to you 
with questions: "What is this fluoride story?" "How effective is it?" "How 
can it come about that fluoride would prevent dental caries?" 

It is with the hope of telling you the simple story of these findings 
were brought about, the simple facts put together, that I am going to speak 
with you tonight. 



108 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



(Slide #1.) This slide is familiar to most of you. You have seen its 
condition, the technical picture of it, if not the clinical. It is what was 
formerly known as "mottled enamel." It is the result of hypercalcification 
of the teeth. It was in 1931, it was found that this condition, this objec- 
tionable, esthetically bad condition which was associated with inferior 
enamel, was caused by excessive amounts of fluorides in the water supply. 
Rather, let it be said that it was caused by fluorides in the water supply. 
That discovery was made in 1931. 

When this discovery was made — that this condition was endemic to 
many areas in this country, particularly the southwestern states, the Da- 
kotas — it was natural that there should be interest developed in the means 
for preventing this condition. It was established that fluorides in the water 
was its cause. 

In some communities, it was possible to change the water supply from 
a fluoride-containing one to a fluoride-free one. In many communities, in 
fact, in a majority of communities, it was not practical or feasible to 
do this. 

In the interest designed to develop a means to rsmove the excess 
fluoride, one of the first substances which they found was effective in re- 
moving the fluoride was bone meal. Later, it was found that the principal 
constituent of the bone tneal that was the active aarent, or the agent which 
affected the fluoride and was absorbed by the fluoride, whs tricalciumphos- 
phate. As you all know, tricalciumphosphate is the principal constituent 
of enamel. 

(Slide #2.) This slide is the second phase we come to in the contri- 
bution of bone meal. 

MEMBER : What was the age of that patient ? 

DR. KNUTSON: That child was fifteen years of age. 

It was noted in the areas where they had excessive fluoride that these 
individuals, even though they had this condition of hvnercalcification, in- 
ferior enamel, certainly did not have more dental caries than an area where 
the enamel was apparently sound in its development. 

This was rather an unusual observation, since, at that time, it was 
believed that, by proper development of enamel through adequate diet, one 
could prevent dental caries. Subsequently, studies by Dean and his asso- 
ciates demonstrated that not only was there not more dental caries, but 
there was appreciably less dental caries. In the etiological studies, it was 
shown that areas where they had more than one or more parts per mil- 
lion in the water supply had individuals who had from 60 to 55% less 
dental decay. 

This, of course, was of marked interest, particularly in view of the 
fact that his earlier study had demonstrated thaW one part per million was 
the minimum threshold of condemning fluorides. If the water supply con- 
tained one part per million, or less, of fluorides, it was not associated with 



Containing the Proceedings 109 



mottled enamel. If it contained more, there were cases of mottled enamel, 
and the percentage of individuals with mottling condition increased above 
one part per million. Not only that, but the severity of the patient in- 
creased with the increase in mottled enamel. So that it was of particular 
interest that the results of this study, of the relationship of fluorine in the 
water supplies to dental caries, showed, demonstrated, that the caries 
reduction, or caries inhibition, was not enhanced appreciably when a con- 
centration of fluorine in the water supply went over one part per million. 

The upper three bars indicate an excess of one and a half parts per 
million. The next four bars are communities where they had from one 
to one and a half parts per million. The next is below one part per mil- 
lion. It is when we get below one part per million where we notice the 
marked increase in dental caries activity. The average for areas in which 
they have one to one and a half parts per million in the water supply is 
less than three decayed, missing, or filled per child ages 12 to 14, as com- 
pared with up to ten in areas where the water was fluoride-free. 

That, of course, led to the proposal that fluoride, in the optimum 
amounts, be added to the water supply in order to control caries, in order 
to reduce its prevalence by one-half to two-thirds. 

All I will say on that point this evening is that, at ths present time, 
there are several demonstrations under way in this country to determine 
whether or not the artificial addition of fluoride to the water supply will 
be associated with the same reduction in caries incidence that we find in 
areas where the fluoride normally occurs in those water supplies. The 
oldest of those demonstrations has been in operation for three years. 

We know that, to attain the full benefits of fluorinated water, it must 
be during the age when the teeth are being developed, from birth to age 
eight, and we will not know the full eff'ect of fluorinated water on dental 
caries incidence until these studies have been in operation from two to five 
years longer, at minimum. 

Now, let's go back to the bone meal, which is used to remove excessive 
fluorides. Here was an indication that the presence of fluorides prevented 
dental caries. Bone meal could be used to remove excessive fluorides from 
the water supplies. Bone meal was tricalciumphosphate; tricalciumphos- 
phate was the principal constituent of enamel. It was simple then, to go 
to the next step — if the presence of fluoride in the enamel, or fluoride, is 
responsible for the reduction of dental caries, and if bone meal takes up 
fluoride, why wouldn't enamel? The enamel is made of tricalciumphosphate. 
As demonstrated in the laboratory, it will absorb fluorine. 

This simple deduction was tested by Rober and his associates, and 
they found in their tests in the laboratory that enamel would absorb 
fluorine, sodiujm fluoride solution. They found that it would absorb the 
fluoride in a definite pattern. Furthermore, they found that when enamel 
so treated was subject to acids, it was much more resistant to decalcifi- 
cation than the untreated en imel. 



110 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Both of these findings were important, and particularly the latter, be- 
cause it is generally agreed now that the caries process is a result of de- 
calcification of the enamel, so that the laboratory evidence in favor of 
putting the fluorides directly on the enamel was on the positive side. 

The next step came after testing our theory. 

(Slide #3.) I cite at this point, and I am sure you will all agree, that 
if we have control of dental caries, we have control of dental disease. 

We were all essentially "from Missouri" — we wanted to see tested out 
the results of sixty-nine clinical tests. That must remain particularly true 
of the preventives of dental caries, because we do not know everything 
there is to know about the caries process. 

On this slide, we have the results of the first clinical tests. I might 
say that these tests in the use of sodium fluoride were designed to answer 
the simple question, "Can we check the prevalence of the incidence of 
dental caries by painting the teeth or applying the solution to the enamel 
of the teeth?" 

In this study by Bibby, he treated the teeth in one quadrant of the 
mouth with the one-tenth sodium fluoride solution. At the end of the first 
year, they observed 46|% less dental caries and new caries in fluoride 
treated teeth. In the second year, they continued these applications at the 
rate of one every three or four months. At the end of that period, there 
was 33% less; five years later, 36% less. Treatment had been discon- 
tinued at the end of the second year. 

In our first study, we were concerned about answering these ques- 
tions — "Can you influence the prevalence of dental caries?" We treated 
the teeth in half the mouth of each individual of 289 children. We used a 
2%. sodium fluoride solution. We applied this solution, at the rate of once 
or twice a week, with a minimum of seven applications and a maximum 
of fifteen. 

At the end of the year, there was 40% less new caries in the treated 
teeth than in the non-treated teeth. I want to emphasize that all the 
applications were given during the first eight-week period of this study. 
Without application of any kind, two years later it was 41*% ; two years 
later, 37%. 

I want to point out the number of individuals in this study — slightly 
less than 300. 

(Slide #4.) After we were convinced that we could influence the inci- 
dence of dental caries by the use of topical fluorides, it then became of in- 
terest to develop an effective method of utilizing topical fluorides, to de- 
velop the simplest method which would be the most effective method; to 
test different fluorides; to raise the reduction from 40% on up with the 
minimum number of applications required. 

In our first study, the series of applications were preceded by dental 
prophylaxis, a sort of dental cleansing — not a traditional dental prophylaxis. 



Containing the Proceedings 111 



In our second study, which was assigned to the total number of applica- 
tions required to attain the 40%, one group received two applications, an- 
other group four applications, another six applications of the 2% solution, 
but the intial cleansing of the teeth was omitted. You will notice in the last 
column, in those children who had two applications, there was a 9% reduc- 
tion effected by this treatment; in the four applications, a 20'f/o reduction; 
in the six applications, 21% reduction. It is of interest to note in those 
figures that six applications did not give us an appreciably greater reduc- 
tion than four applications. 

Jord and his associates, using the same technic, but preceding the 
applications with the cleansing, with one application got 5% reduction; two 
applications, 10%; three applications, 21%. Again, they had not reached 
the 40i%. 

In our next study, we preceded the series of applications with the 
cleansing. In other words, a cleansing of the teeth was performed prior 
to the application of the fluoride solution. Applications were at the rate of 
one to two per week. Note that with two, we got 22% reduction. The one 
at the top of the slide was not preceded with cleansing, where we got 9%. 
In other words, twice as great a reduction when the series was preceded 
by cleansing. In four applications, we got 41%. Again, compare that figure 
in the second line in the top of the slide, when we got 20'f/o reduction 
without the cleansing — we got twice -as much reduction with the cleansing. 
And in the last six applications preceded by cleansing, 41%; again, twice 
as much has been gotten than without prior cleansing. 

(Slide #5.) I merely present this to you to point out the method in 
which these studies were conducted. The basis on which we tested this 
procedure rests on the fact that in population groups, in groups of chil- 
dren, you vdll find that caries occurs bilaterally equal, that you will find 
for the group as many carious teeth on the left side as on the right side, 
and in all of the previous experience in which nothing is done to prevent 
dental caries, many new carious teeth will appear on the right half of the 
mouth as on the left half. I want to point out that we recognize that 
the individual child may have all these caries on the left side or right side, 
or he may have more on the left than on the right, and vice versa, but, for 
a group of children, those incidences will equalize themselves so that you 
come out with figures such as presented here in this group of 320 assorted 
children who were followed for a period of two years. Note that there are 
254 carious teeth on the upper right; 137 on the lower left, and some on 
the lower right — excellent symmetry. 

(Slide #6.) Note what happened when we painted half the teeth with 
topical fluoride, how we set up that bilateral symmetry. It was 97 against 
173; 67 against 107, or 40% less new carious teeth in the fluoride treated 
than in the non-treated. Those are the last of the figures I am going to 
give you. I do want to point out, however, that we have now completed 
17 different study groups, with an average of 325, 350, children in each 
study group. 



112 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

We have reproduced, and can readily reproduce, the findings which are 
shown on the slide — that a series of four applications of a 2f/f solution of 
sodium fluoride in the teeth of children, the first application of which is 
preceded by cleansing, effects the 40% reduction in dental caries. 

We have also demonstrated in these studies that if we space the appli- 
cations six months apart, they may give one application after the patient's 
visit and another six months later, that we merely postpone the time when 
the full 40% eff'ect is operated. One application will give you roughly 20% ; 
three, 30%; and four, 40%. It is not that perfect, but, roughly, it is true, 
so that, if you give one application for six months, you have a 10% re- 
ducing eff"ect operated. If the second application is given at the end of six 
months, then, for six months, you will have the eff'ect of two applications, 
or 20% reducing effect operated. 

The same has been found to be true when we spaced the applications 
three months apart. We postpone the time when the full 40% effect is 
operated. So, in order to attain full 40% reducing effect early, it is essential 
that the applications be given one after the other, say, at the rate of one 
to two per week, or, I might add, in accordance with the appointments or 
other operative work in dental practices, until the total of four applica- 
tions is made. 

I might say also that some of our clinical results have not borne 
out some of the promise that was indicated as far as other fluoride solu- 
tions are concerned. One laboratory investigator, studying the effect of 
lead fluoride on enamel in his laboratory, found that lead fluoride should 
be more effective than sodium fluoride; another one found that it should 
be equally as effective in his chemical studies. Clinically, we found that 
lead fluoride was of no value whatever — it did not reduce dental caries. 
This, it seems to me, is in accord with what would be expected from a 
chemical standpoint. 

Another thing that has been suggested from the results of laboratory 
findings is that the solution should be accidulated. I would not tamper with 
the pH of the solution until it has been demonstrated clinically that an 
acid solution is more effective than a solution that is not accidulated. So- 
dium fluoride in distilled water has a pH which is near normal, 6.8. I would 
not alter the fluoride solution in any way until it has been tested fully 
clinically. 

We come to another question that frequently arises — "How effective is 
it in adults?" The answer is, "We don't know." It has not been tested 
clinically on adults — certainly not adequately. 

One study of the acidulated solution was used, and only one application 
was made. The one point that was important in that study, outside of the 
fact that one application was made, was that accidulated solution was used. 
So that, until we have the results of clinical studies on adults, we don't 
know the effectiveness of topica fluoride in reducing caries in adults. The 
laboratory evidence looks prosperous and, from a chemical standpoint, there 



Containing the Proceedings 113 



is no reason why it should not be fully as effective in adults if they have 
teeth, sound teeth, remaining as it is in children. 

So much for topical fluoride, except that I w^ill conclude with the state- 
ment with which I started — it has now been demonstrated conclusively 
that a series of four applications of 2% sodium fluoride solution to the 
teeth of children effects 40% reduction in dental caries. 

We will now show a short movie on the technic that has been used in 
testing topical fluorides in clinical cases. 

(Preparations were then made to show the film.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: While we are waiting, our Secretary, Dr. Hunt, 
has some announcements he wants to make. 

DR. HUNT: Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen: I have been asked 
to make several announcements. 

First, as a matter of information to this audience, the House of Dele- 
gates this afternoon voted to send telegrams expressing our regrets to 
Clyde Minges, and also to wish him a speedy recovery. 

All of you know that Dr. O'Rourke has made a basic survey of the 
dental situation in North Carolina. Tomorrow morning, there will be special 
call session of the House of Delegates, at which time the results of this 
survey will be explained. This meeting of the House of Delegates is open 
to all members and visitors here at this meeting. 

I have been asked to announce that Dr. Guy Harrison, who has at- 
tended twenty-eight annual meetings of the North Carolina Dental Society, 
was unable to be with us this time. He has wired his regrets and wishes 
for us a most successful meeting. 

While in Richmond attending the Virginia meeting, I talked with 
Harry Bear. Dr. Bear's health hasn't been too good for some time, and due 
to that fact, he could not be with us here. He also asked me to express to 
you his most sincere regrets. 

(The motion picture, "Technic of Application," was then presented 
by Dr. Knutson.) 

DR. KNUTSON : Thank you very much for your kind attention. 
(Applause.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Thank you. Dr. Knutson. 

Dr. Thomas L. Blair, of Winston-Salem, state chairman of the National 
Physicians and Dentists Committee, will now introduce our next speaker. 

DR. THOMAS L. BLAIR: It is a distinct pleasure to me tonight to 
introduce our speaker of the evening, Mr. M. H. Petersen. As Associate 



114 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



Administrator of the National Committee of Dentists, he has rendered in- 
valuable service to our profession, familiarizing the public with the value, 
methods, and achievements of Aimerican dentistry and its effectiveness in 
preserving the private practice system and the American way of life. 

The Wagner-Murray-Dingell proposals would rob the dentist of his 
freedom of action and decision. They would render him subordinate to a 
bureaucrat. Bureaucratic control would destroy that intangible, indefinable 
essence that is the secret of the dentist's effectiveness in his role as an 
individual. It is said that socialized medicine is the key mechanism of the 
communists for the conquest of this nation. 

Mr. Petersen has a message of vital interest, and I hope it will extract 
from you some comment at the close of this session. His topic is, "The 
Continuing Threat of Collectivist Planning." 

I now have great pleasure in presenting Mr. M. H. Petersen. 

MR. M. H. PETERSEN: Dr. Blair, Dr. Olive, and members of the 
North Carolina Dental Society: I am happy to be here with you this 
evening. 

I want to tell you first a bit about the history and background of the 
successive attempts that have been made to bring about some sort of com- 
pulsory health care legislation, because I think that, in order to identify the 
efforts that are being made from time to time on the medical and dental 
professions, you will want to know more about the origin of the proposals 
that have been made. 

It was after the close of World War I, after the Versailles treaty was 
signed that, in connection with the International Labor Organization, the 
first Intei-national Labor Congress was called. At that meeting, there were 
members from all of the various countries that had engaged in the first 
World War, including those who were interested in establishing some form 
of control over various phases of the health question. 

The International Labor Organization deliberations were participated 
in principally by those nations which have by treaty become members of 
the International Labor Organization. It is a coincidence that the first 
meeting of the I.L.O. was held in the Navy Department building during 
the years that Mr. Roosevelt was Under-Secretary of the Navy. 

It is perhaps due to the fact that it was held right here in this country 
that many of the people who are concerned with the development of social 
security aspects and programs took initial and continuing part in the de- 
liberations. 

The blueprint for health care of every country of the world, similar 
regardless of where it is operated, was drawn by the I.L.O. and imme- 
diately submitted for the approval of the governments of those nations 
that had ratified treaties with the organization. In the United States at 
that time, some felt that it did not want to ratify with the I.L.O., and, from 



Containing the Proceedings 115 



the time that the first meetings were set, the United States was repre- 
sented only by an unofficial member or representative. But it is interesting 
to note that the same group of people who have consistently led in the de- 
velopment of plans for the regimentation of dental and medical professions 
of this country were present at those original deliberations and took an 
important part in them. Over the years, our observers have noted that 
names like Falk, Colen, and MacDavis have always been prominent among 
those who have been observed for the United States, and lent their counsel 
and assistance in the development of an overall health plan. 

Regardless of whether it is a Wagner-Murray-Dingell bill in the United 
States, or whether it is perhaps such as that operated in New Zealand or 
Russia or Great Britain, or the one that is to go into effect in Sweden in 
1950, the overall plan has been the same. The legislation has been drawn 
from the same blueprint. 

It wasn't until 1934, after almost fourteen years, that the United 
States, by treaty, became a member of the I.L.O. In 1934, in the closing 
days of Congress, the treaty was ratified which made the United States a 
full-fledged member of the I.L.O. That meant that there was one more 
change that took place. Prior to that time, we were bound by nothing that 
was recommended by the Congress of the I.L.O., but after we became a 
treaty member, we were bound, within two years, to submit to our Congress 
any recommendations that were made by the Congress sitting as a whole. 

While that didn't take place until two years after our ratification of 
the treaty, it did take place just as soon as legislation could be framed and 
introduced by Senators Wagner and Murray and Representative Dingell of 
Michigan, and so, in 1939, we saw the introduction of the first Wagner- 
Murray-Dingell bill, drawn from the blueprint of the I.L.O., which is domi- 
nated by representatives of all countries, principally those of a strong cen- 
tralized government of either collectivist or fascist origin. 

This legislation is not designed primarily for the health of the people, 
but designed primarily to do two things: first, to establish a tight cen- 
tralized control over people through control of the one thing which is more 
precious to people generally than anything else, and that's their health; 
and second, to raise by popular opinion, the largest sum of tax-collected 
money that can possibly be raised under a popular ballot. 

In every country which has gone the whole way in accepting a bureau- 
cratic, collectivist system of health care, there has never been an improve- 
ment in the overall health of the nation. There has been a general leveling 
down of all health care services, and the money which has been raised sup- 
posedly for dental and medical care has gone largely for other purposes. 
We have seen that in our own country to some extent so far as old age 
and unemployment benefits are concerned. The reserves which are sup- 
posedly in the hands of the Social Security Board are not there. They were 
used to finance other programs of the government. 

That may have been in keeping with what we have found it necessary 
to do in wartime emergency, but the fact remains that the promise of 



116 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



security has always been the mechanism by which taxes have been raised 
and the money spent, in many instances — in most instances — for many 
things over and above the purpose for which it has been collected. 

I want to make that one particular thing crystal clear because its 
understanding is essential if we are to know why it is that there is a little 
group of people in the Bureau of Research and Statistics of the Social 
Security Board who consistently work for an extension of control of all 
health care services. That isn't only dental and medical services — it includes 
hospitalization, nursing service, the furnishing of drugs, appliances, glasses, 
and everything else that goes with a complete health care. 

When we understand that this little group has planned, written, and 
directed the promotion of all the health care legislation, I think it is easier 
for each and every one of us to identify why it is that we have the inten- 
sive drive that has gone on since 1939 to control medical and dental care 
for the people of the country. 

In the early days of the New Deal, Rex Tugwell, who was chief of 
the Brain Trust, said, "There is a little group of men in this country who 
are insignificant as far as numbers are concerned. There are only 250,000 
of them, but they are called on in their offices, invited into every home in 
the United States at least once a year, usually at a time of stress or pain. 
They are selected because, of all of the people, they are the ones the people 
call on with the greatest of confidence. 

"Those men are the physicians and the dentists of the country. If we 
can ever control the thinking of the physicians and the dentists of the 
country, we will control the whole country itself because physicians and 
dentists have a unique relationship to the people for whom they care." 

Not only do you have in your charge the most precious thing that each 
and everyone of us possesses, and that is our health and our life, but you 
are called on also for advice and counsel regarding family matters, financial 
matters, and anything that has to do with civic or community welfare. 
People generally have come to look upon the men who take care of them 
in time of stress and time of ill health as the one person in whom they 
can have supreme confidence, and the one person to whom they can turn 
in time of stress or trouble. It is for that reason that you men and the 
physicians of the country have the unique responsibility to the people who 
are your patients. 

Because of the fact that, out of the private practice system in our 
American way of life, you have developed the finest system of health care 
that has ever been knovra to any people anywhere at any time, the people 
of the United States have come to expect that dentists and physicians will 
supply them with more of that good medical and dental care that has made 
this the healthiest nation in the world. It is for that reason tljat the power- 
hungry nationalizers of health care services have selected the mechanism 
of compulsory health care as the one thing which will enable them to more 
quickly extend a cotnplete control over the people. 



Containing the Proceedings 117 



It was in 1939 that we saw the introduction of the first Wagner- 
Murray-Dingell bill, and it was in that bill that we would enact the medical 
society of the District of Columbia as a trade union. If that could happen 
to medicine, it would most certainly happen to dentistry and the other 
professions in quick succession if there was a possibility of putting across 
a plan whereby the professions could be completely controlled. 

Before that case ever went to trial in the courts, it was tried in the 
newspapers in perhaps the most ambitious smear campaign that was ever 
planned. The entire center of the attack was one which would prove that 
the physicians of the country have no concern for the health and welfare 
of the people, but were interested only in their own selfish ends and de- 
sires. That same campaign has been consistently followed and in every 
case where it has been possible and at every opportunity, the point has 
been made that physicians and dentists are interested primarily in them- 
selves and not in their patients, and, therefore, it is necessary for a benevo- 
lent government, through a horde of bureaucrats, to step in and exercise 
some sort of control. 

What will happen under the provisions of legislation such as this 
Wagner-Murray-Dingell bill ? There are no provisions in the last bill for 
taxes, but in those that had these, there would be a tax of 49r on wages 
and 4% on payrolls to pay for the cost of furnishing to the people com- 
plete medical, hospital, nursing, and all health care. 

In countries where there has been some sort of compulsory health care 
for a period of time, it has resulted always in a larger part of the tax 
dollar going for administration and for lay personnel to administer the 
law than has gone to professional people. In Austria, in 1939, out of every 
dollar collected for health care services, 17c went to physicians and dentists, 
and 83c went for administration. That is extreme, to be sure. 

In Germany, prior to the war, social security taxes amounted to 50% 
of income. The result has been that, today, in Germany, there is no such 
thing as social security. 

So, every time that we trade off some of our liberty for social security, 
there is a definite loss as far as the people are concerned, not only finan- 
cially, in the quality of the care they receive, but in the liberty that they 
retain, as well, because every tim.e we buy social security we give up a 
certain amount of liberty in order to get it. 

There have been successive attempts, every two years, to pass some 
sort of health care legislation. We saw the reintroduction of compulsory 
health insurance legislation in 1943 and 1945; again in 1947. It follows a 
very definite pattern of the requirements of our treaty with the Interna- 
tional Labor Organization, and, regardless of whether we have a Republican 
Congress or Republican President, whether the country goes conservative 
or liberal, so long as we have that treaty with the I.L.O., we will have 
some sort of compulsory health insurance legislation proposed every two 
years. It is a treaty obligation. 



118 Bulletin North Carolma Dental Society 



There are a number of other things in this connection that I think you 
should be aware of. Out of 266 federal judges, all but 41, according to the 
latest accounts available (and that was about a month ago) have been ap- 
pointed by Mr. Roosevelt and Mr. Truman, so, regardless of whether the 
complexion of Congress changes or not, the interpretation of the Legisla- 
tion that is on the books will be in the light of the philosophy which was 
in effect at the time most of those judges were appointed. You may there- 
fore expect that in court tests of any social security legislation which has 
been passed in the last ten or twelve years, that the interpretation will be 
liberal and the benefit of the doubt will swing toward the left. 

So far as the administrative personnel of the various branches of the 
government are concerned, there has been one important change since the 
election of November, 1946, and that is that all of the persons concerned 
with the administration of our social security legislation, particularly, have 
been more active than ever before in promoting the philosophy of cradle 
to the grave care. During the last two years, there have been a number 
of significant developments. 

Many of you wondered, from time to time, what this National Com- 
mittee of Dentists and what the National Physicians Committee do, why 
they came into existence, and what their function is, and, I think, rightly 
so, because in our American democracy we most certainly want to have all 
of the facts at our disposal so that we can intelligently make up our mind 
as to what we want to do. 

The National Physicians Committee was organized in 1939 by a group 
of physicians who felt that because of the indictment returned against 
the American Medical Association, it was possible that the A.M. A. might 
lose the federal charter under which it operates in the field of education 
and medicine. These leaders felt that there should be some organization 
which, if that came to pass, would speak in behalf of medicine during the 
stop-gap period, and that, from that time on, there should be some group of 
professionally directed people who would concern themselves with three 
principal things: first, to tell the American people about the outstanding 
achievements of American medicine under the private practice system; 
second, to awaken the profession to the facts in connection with the 
attempts that were being made to bring about, a nationalization of health 
care services; and third, to encourage business and industry, under the free 
enterprise system, to develop some form of health care, one that would sat- 
isfactorily provide for the one thing for which the people have expressed 
an outstanding need, and that is an easier way to pay for unusual dentistry 
or medical bills. 

And so, the National Physicians Committee has concerned itself with 
those three things. It makes no policy; it establishes no program. It 
operates within the framework of policy findings of the American Medical 
Association, as a strong right arm in the service of medicine, doing those 
things which it can more easily accomplish than the A.M. A. itself. It brings 
to medicine the support and cooperation of many outside groups in order 
to further and preserve our private practice system in this country. 



Containing the Proceedings 119 



The National Committee of Dentists was formed for the same purpose. 

It was in 1946 that we found, in North Dakota, the establishment of 
the so-called "Health "Workshops." An investigation discovered that repre- 
sentatives of the federal departments had gone to North Dakota and, with 
taxpayers' money, had promoted what a House sub-committee has since re- 
ported as an attempt to set up a lobby in favor of compulsory health in- 
surance legislation. Every dentist and every physician in the country re- 
ceived in the mail, some six or seven months ago, a reprint of the third 
intermediate report of the House Committee on Expenditures in the Execu- 
tive Departments. It's only seven pages, and won't take you more than ten 
minutes to read. You should read it because it tells conclusively, under 
sworn testimony, how specifically ear-marked appropriations have been 
used for purposes other than the ones for which they were appropriated — 
to develop lobbies and pressure in favor of compulsory health insurance 
legislation. 

It says in part that much of this material is prepared for the C.I.O. 
and other groups by the Social Security Board at government expense. Its 
propaganda refers to socialized medicine in every approach, and concludes 
by saying, "Suffice at this time for your committee to report its firm con- 
clusions on the basis of the evidence at hand that this group has a cardinal 
point in its objective, and that is, in some instances, in common with com- 
munists and fellow travelers within the federal agencies who are working 
diligently with federal funds in the furtherance of the Moscow party line 
in this regard." 

Now, gentlemen, whenever you find a situation like that in a country 
like ours, it is up to whatever group can most effectively operate to combat 
it, to take steps with every mechanism possible to circumvent the further- 
ance of these objectives, and those are some of the things that the Na- 
tional Committee of Dentists and the National Physicians Committee have 
done. We have felt, first, that an understanding of who it is that tried to 
put over this kind of legislation is essential, and, secondly, that by expos- 
ing the methods to the profession and to the public, we can effectively bring 
about an appreciation of what will happen if these things ever come about. 

To that end, the National Committee of Dentists, in February of this 
year, realizing that the elections are coming up this Fall and that we are 
in the midst of a year of decision, embarked on a well correlated, fully- 
rounded-out, comprehensive plan, perhaps the most ambitious public rela- 
tions and public education plan that has ever been attempted by any 
organization, whether it is this or any other. 

In February of this year, we started a campaign of editorials to editors 
in the trade press. In other words, in the publications that are the news- 
paper and magazine counterpart of your professional journals. They have 
outlined, step by step, the methods that have been used and the significance 
of the moves that have been made. They outline the story of what hap- 
pened in Great Britain; the significance of the Political Health Conference 
which has been called in Washington for May 1st; the close relationship be- 
tween the socialization of health care services and the communistic pur- 



120 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

poses in this country; the deceitful manipulation of the draft statistics 
which have been used as the basis for claims that we need some sort of 
federal medicine in this country. 

You will recall that our Social Security Board based its demand for 
the passage of the Wagner-Murray-Dingell bill on the fact that 36% of 
all young men examined by the Selective Service Boards were found to be 
physically unfit. On that preimise, they based their conclusion that the 
health of the nation was deplorable under the private practice system. 

Now let's see what the facts actually are. That 36% figure, to begin 
with, does not include the two and a half million volunteers who were ac- 
cepted into the Army and who represent, probably, the cream of our crop. 
So, when you do include the two and a half million volunteers with the ten 
million draft selectees and take from that the percentage of rejectees, the 
figure is brought down very considerably. 

In an analysis of the draft rejections. Dr. Maurice Freedman of Wash- 
ington, D. C, proved that our Social Security Board Bureau of Research 
and Statistics had misused the draft statistics to prove a previously arrived 
at conclusion, rather than using them in an evolutionary way to arrive at 
a sound answer. 

Dr. Freedman went on and showed that if you next eliminated all of 
the so-called draft rejections who were examined anywhere from one to ten 
times, and who, each time they were called, were called a rejection, the 
figure was further brought down. You then throw out those with one leg, 
one arm, blind, deaf, feeble-minded, or those who couldn't read or were no 
good, and those who could not, by the widest stretch of the imagination, 
have been made fit for military service by any type of medical or dental 
care, and the figure is reduced to approximately 1% of the total rather 
than 36%. 

Dr. Freedman's startling statement to the Senate Committee was that, 
actually, our draft rejection figures are a tribute not to lack of medical 
care, but to the unusually good health care that we have in this country, 
because, Dr. Freedman went on to say, "Every child with a rheumatic heart, 
every diabetic who lives to the age of 21, lives to be a draft rejection. If 
they had died at an earlier age, our figures would have shown much better." 

So, when we say that 36%, of our male population is unfit for military 
service on the basis of draft rejections, it is untrue. These figures have 
been thoroughly discredited not only by Dr. Freedman, but I can tell you 
that, in May, the Brookings Institute, at the request of Senator Smith, 
undertook to either certify or disprove these findings, and, within the last 
two weeks, the Brookings Institute, which is noted for the authenticity 
of its research and reports, came up with a report in which there are 
fifteen principal conclusions. 

The first one says, "Probably no great nation of the world has a popu- 
lation in better health than prevails in the United States." 



Containing the Proceedings 121 

In the last one, it says, "It seems questionable whether a country which 
has once embarked upon compulsory insurance can turn back when it once 
attempts to remedy defects by more complete governmental control and 
administration." 

In every detail, the Brookings Institute has verified the testimony 
that was given before the Senate Committee by Dr. Freedman in which 
the conclusions arrived at by the Social Security Board, in proving or 
attempting to prove their contention that only a system of nationalized 
health care will solve the health question of the United States are proved 
to be completely erroneous. 

We have taken these findings, based entirely on fact, and pubhshed 
a series of editorials to editors. The purpose of this has been to first 
clarify the issues at stake, the statistical and background information for 
newspapers so that they might be able to separate the wheat from 
the chaff. 

This same technique was used in 1945, with the result that, unknown 
to us, a survey was taken by the American press to find out what news- 
paper editors and publishers thought about compulsory insurance and 
government medicine. The result was that 80% of all newspaper editors 
were opposed to a federal plan of compulsory health care and believed 
in the maintenance of the private practice system. Their editorial com- 
ment reflected that viewpoint. 

In March of this year, we announced a cartoon contest for cartoonists 
who had best portrayed the effects of government medicine. We felt that 
this contest would be a source of considerable controversy. It was deliber- 
ately planned with the idea that, in developing a controversy, we would, 
to highlight the health care question at this time. 

It did create a controversy. We received within a week letters from 
forty newspaper publishers who said that for the duration of the contest, 
their newspapers would carry no cartoons on the subject, and that their 
cartoonists had been barred from entry in the contest. They came from 
such places as Toledo, where the entire population of the town is under the 
control of extreme left-wingers. They came from such places as Cleveland, 
Ohio, where the Cleveland Plain Dealer congratulated the N.P.C. on the 
stand that it had taken, and assured us that, more than ever, they believed 
in a complete airing of the entire question in the news columns. 

We are on the verge of going one step further, and in this step we 
ask your cooperation, whether you have ever been a contributor to the 
National Committee of Dentists or the N.P.C. or not. 

We found, in 1943, that one of the most effective things that was done 
was the distribution, through the offices of the dentists and physicians, 
through drugstores, through business, of a little pamphlet called "Political 
Medicine." It was recognized as such, because the left-wing mouthpiece, 
PM in New York, offered testimony before Senator Murray's sub-com- 
mittee to the effect that "Political Medicine" was the most widely distrib- 



122 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



uted privately printed pamphlet ever distributed in this country. It 
undoubtedly had too much to do with informing the public of the issue 
that was at stake. 

This coming week, there will be in the mail to every physician and 
dentist in the U.S.A. an eight-page bulletin of this type (showing bulletin.) 
It's the conclusions of the Brookings report. It offers reprints of the edito- 
rials which were run in the trade press of the newspaper world, and it 
highlights one thing which is of particular significance also. 

We all hear much about the lower third in the income group which 
needs health care the worst and can't afford to pay for it. Fro/m tabula- 
tions by the U. S. Public Health Service, we have had a statistical analysis 
of these figures made by Dr. Elizabeth Wilson, who is a prominent consul- 
tant to most of the principal insurance companies and many business and 
industrial concerns as well, and she comes up with a table which I am 
going to call to your attention. It will be in this bulletin you will receive. 
It brings out two important and outstanding conclusions which you should 
fix in your minds. 

First, a large part of that lower third in the income group is between 
the ages of 15 and 24. This age group needs a minimum of health care 
services. I want to stop just long enough to recognize the fact that it is 
in that age bracket that there is greater need for dentistry, but the overall 
need of both medical and dental care is the lowest in that age bracket. 
It goes progressively up through the ages from 25 to 34 until you get to 
the bracket from 55 to 64. At that point, income begins to go down. People 
have reached their earning peak and are on the down-grade. Those older 
people are the ones, in the lower third of incomes, who build up that need 
for medical care on a statistical basis. That is true, because we have ex- 
tended our average age, under the private practice system, to a point 
where it is the diseases of old age rather than other diseases that are 
of the greatest concern so far as our health care is concerned. 

When you see that figure quoted in the future — that the lower third 
in income gets only two doctor calls per year, whereas the higher two- 
thirds gets 3.6 doctor calls a year (and that includes dentists and physi- 
cians) — you will recognize that that is because many of the people in 
the lower income groups are not those who need the maximum of medical 
and dental care. 

That story, as I say, has been completely told to newspaper editors 
because we believe that if they have the facts, we will get an emphasis 
and an explanation of the issues at stake. We are following that with a 
little eight-page folder which will be given to you in any quantities you 
desire. It tells the story of where this plan originated, what it consists 
of, and who is behind it, and each phase is illustrated by a cartoon from 
one of the leading cartoonists of the country. We have combined a pictorial 
and a typed job in this pamphlet of explanation. 

There should be a distribution of between twenty-five and thirty mil- 
lion. You will receive samples in the mail within the next week. You can 



Containing the Proceedings 123 



have as many as you want for distribution to your patients at meetings, at 
civic and business groups as well as professional organizations, to send 
with your bills, and any other way you want to. The important thing is 
that every family in the United States should be reached with this or some 
other explanation of what the difference is between the clinical care people 
are getting today and that which they will receive under a government- 
controlled politically administered system. 

When all of the people know just what they have to do in order that 
you may be their dentist from now on instead of someone else, we can 
expect intelligent cooperation so far as the men they pick to go to Wash- 
ington and your state legislature are concerned. There is no more important 
issue in our whole national life today than what happens so far as control 
of the health care professions is concerned. 

Socialized medicine is the keystone of the arch of the communistic 
state. That holds true whether it is communism or fasicsm or any other 
collectivist form of government — it starts with the control of the health 
care professions and moves progressively on. It is because business and 
industry have seen this thing in the countries where it has operated that 
you find today the cooperation, so far as business and industry, generally, 
are concerned, in maintaining the private practice system for the people 
of the United States. 

There is a growing appreciation, gentlemen, on the part of the leaders 
in every field, of the job that has been done by dentistry and medicine in 
the last ten years. 

Within the last year, we have seen the effort on the part of the U. S. 
Chamber of Commerce to infiltrate business and industry with a new set 
of pamphlets on business, labor, unions, government, agriculture — every 
phase of our national life. The American Legion has taken this as a 
cardinal point in its Americanization program. The guardians of American 
liberty have finally awakened to the fact that there is a concerted attempt 
being made to infiltrate the textbooks of our schools. 

I don't know how many of you have heard the story about the sixth 
grade civics book that was approved for use in 4500 school districts in 
this country. It's a beautifully done little job in four colors. The typography 
is outstanding; the illustrations are good and clear and understandable; 
diagrams tell about how our government works. It's designed for sixth 
grade school kids. 

Among the things that it discusses is how a bill comes along. And 
what does it say? It says, "Congressman X of Colorado believes everyone 
is entitled to free medical care, so he introduces a bill to provide it." Now, 
there might be hundreds of examples of how a bill is introduced, but that 
isn't happenstance that "Congressman X from Colorado believes that every- 
one is entitled to free medical care." He classifies that idea in the minds 
of children during the formative years, when they all believe in the altru- 
istic theories of life. 



124 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



And so the story goes on through high school and college until we 
find in the economics manual in the institute which was used in the ex- 
tension services of the Army during the war where it says, on Page 761 
of our Armed Forces Manual 763 (in case you are interested), "There 
must be a constant increase in inheritance taxes until it is possible to pass 
on from one generation to another only keepsakes, and until this objective 
is reached, we must have an increase of income taxes until there is a level- 
ing out of national income." 

That is the progression of thinking, so far as infiltration in textbooks 
is concerned, from the sixth grade to the extension courses that were given 
in the Army. That project is a long way from public health for American 
dentistry — or is it? 

No one else had examined into the field of just why this push to 
socialized health care services continued and continued and continued until 
we began to look around for sources. 

The National Committee of Dentists and the N.C.P. operate on a program 
of cooperation. We have found out what happens so far as infiltration in 
textbooks is concerned. We realize that the medical and dental professions 
need all the help that they can get from business and industry. We can't 
tell the United States about what happens to school textbooks, so that 
project is to go to the American Legion and the Guardians of American 
Liberty. 

In every instance, we have tried to use the technique of pointing the 
way, showing the job that is to be done, and then securing the local co- 
operation or the cooperation of other groups to expand and broaden the 
program of explanation to the people. 

And now, in concluding, an example of how we tie that down in our 
every day operation: 

We ran these editorials to editors in the trade press of newspapers; 
we ran a contest for newspaper cartoonists. They are beginning to bear 
fruit. 

We are operating these pamphlets for your distribution to your pa- 
tients on a vast scale; we are preparing newspaper ads of these editorials 
to be offered for local sponsorships through your local dental and medical 
societies, to be paid for by some local enterprise who will be called on 
by the newspaper advertising department to sponsor these ads, to explain 
this issue in behalf of medicine and dentistry. 

In 1943, at a cost of about $28,000, we prepared a series of five full- 
page ads. These were sent out in proof and mat form to many medical 
and dental societies. They were also sent to newspapers. We suggested 
to the professional organizations that they approve of them and cooperate 
with the newspapers and find a local sponsor for them. As a result, if the 
space had been bought at commercial rates, about $3,250,000 Avorth of 
advertising space was devoted to telling the story of medicine and dentistry 



Containing the Proceedings 125 



to the public. We expect to do that on a much more expanded scale during 
the latter part of this summer. 

As a final effort in this program, we suggest that between now and 
election next Fall, groups of physicians and dentists call on every candidate 
for Congress and the Senate, and your incumbents as well, and explain 
the issues that are at stake and the background. 

Many of our Senators and Congressmen fully understand what it's 
all about. They have been consistently backing the program of professions 
for many years. They are entitled to, and should have, your expressions 
of thanks and commendation. Those that don't know what it is all about 
should most certainly have it explained to them. 

When you make these visitations, make a record of what the attitude 
is and get a signed statement from your candidate. You can get an expres- 
sion much easier before than after election. 

Those are some of the things that the National Committee of Dentists 
and the National Physicians Committee are set up to do — to aid and assist 
in developing an atmosphere which will be favorable to the private practice 
system under which we have achieved the greatest gain that has ever 
been made in the history of health care. 

If there are any questions, I will be glad to have a question and 
answer period. 

MEMBER : Do you have any figures on how much free work is done 
by the physicians and dentists in the United States? 

MR. PETERSEN: I don't have any figures. Doctor, But there have 
been various evidences, and I think that the one that comes up most 
frequently is that a third of the work that is done is done free. That's 
about the same for dentistry as it is for medicine. With free clinics, and 
everything else, about a third of the work is done free. 

MEMBER: I think a point that should be stressed is the amount of 
work that is done free by the dentist. 

MR. PETERSEN: It is one of the things, I think, that we can well 
afford to stress. Those things. Doctor, are much better told by someone 
remotely than they are in the form of actual release. If you tell a story 
of that kind from a national or state level, it sounds like something that 
was prepared by an advertising agency and it doesn't have the word of 
finality in it. 

I think you will feel the difference in the point of origin, but if you 
can tie that to what is being done locally in some of your institutions, 
or by one of your local organizations, it makes a different story. 

MEMBER: Do the National Committee of Dentists and the National 
Physicians Committee receive funds from the National Association of 
Manufacturers for operation as well as from the drughouses ? 



126 Bulletiyi North Carolina Dental Society 



MR. PETERSEN : About half the contributions to these organizations 
comes from professional sources. The other half comes from industries 
that serve the professions and from a widening circle. In other words, they 
come from drug manufacturers, hospital suppliers, surgical supply manu- 
facturers; they come from some of the food companies, some of the oil 
companies. There is an increasing group of people who recognize the fact 
that if dentistry and medicine are regimented, it is just the next step 
until you have a regimentation of business and industry, because, if you 
drain off 8% more of our national income for a compulsory health care 
program, you will have drained off all of the funds that, at present, go 
into life insurance of any kind. When you do that, you will have eliminated 
the source of income of such things as public utilities, big business, public 
works, and you will drive that finance committee into the hands of some 
government agency. 

MEMBER: This poll that you took on publishers and editors of news- 
papers indicated that about 98 or 90% were not sympathetic with govern- 
ment controlled medicine — didn't you say that? How do you account for 
the fact that you do not have a sympathetic press ? I mean in one case, 
you would say that the poll was sympathetic against. 

MR. PETERSEN : I said a poll taken by American Weekly, not us, 
indicated that 80% of editors are opposed to compulsory health care. I 
would say that we have a sympathetic press to that extent. There are 
probably less than 20% of our papers that are in favor of compulsory 
health insurance care. There are certain ones that you can count on as 
being in favor of anything of that sort. 

MEMBER: Is that plan approved by the American Dental Association 
coming out of the central office ? 

MR. PETERSEN : No, and this, again, is not a program or a project 
of the American Dental Association. The National Physicians Committee 
and the National Committee of Dentists are two groups of physicians and 
dentists who believe that because they are physicians and dentists they 
have a great influence, so far as the public is concerned, and they are in- 
terested in maintaining, f^rst, our American way of life and, in keeping 
with it, the private practice system. 

They are interested in anything which makes for the welfare and well- 
being of the medical and dental professions, without having any part what- 
soever in making policy or speaking for medicine or dentistry. This is a 
job that is one of creating a condition and an atmosphere in which the 
private practice system can live. 

MEMBER: If this is not a project of the American Dental Association 
or the American Medical Association, what justification would local 
societies have for sponsoring these things in newspapers that you were 
talking about, or would you advocate that for the societies or components 
of the national organization? 



Containing the Proceedings 127 



MR. PETERSEN : I would think that they could have an interest in 
sponsoring- anything which will maintain the private practice system, 
regardless of who puts it out. 

MEMBER: But if your program is not approved, I mean could they 
sponsor the same type of literature in the press ? That's what I mean. 

MR. PETERSEN: Most certainly. I see no reason why. 

As a matter of fact, the head of the American Medical Association 
has felt that the efforts of the National Physicians Committee are in- 
dispensable, and it so resolved that last year in June. 

The resolution also said, in substance, "We approve and commend 
the efforts and the program," just as you would probably be in favor of 
the program and effort of your Rotary Club or Kiwanis or any other civic 
organization which is working for the general welfare of the country and 
your community. That is much the status of these two groups, except that, 
insofar as your dentists and physicians are concerned, you understand 
what would happen better as a result of your being physicians and dentists, 
and as such and because of your influence, you are interested and con- 
cerned in telling: your patients what the ultimate result is when regimen- 
tation steps in. 

MEMBER: Why wouldn't this program conflict with the public infor- 
mation coming out of the central office of the American Dental Association ? 

MR. PETERSEN : Because we have nothing to do with any of the 
programs or projects of the American Dental Association, so far as m.ak- 
ing policy or program is concerned. The American Dental Association has 
said that it opposed compulsory health insurance, and has instructed its 
legislative committee to oppose it. 

Now, we have developed many techniques that have been successfully 
used in educating the public as to why compulsory health care is bad. To 
that extent, the policy established has been taken by the A.M. A. and the 
A.D.A. both, before we could do anything at all in the field. Once having 
a policy, it is a matter, then, of everyone using all of their influence to 
get behind it. 

MEMBER: Mr. Petersen, what information have you, if any, about the 
meeting of educators which is taking place in Washington May 1st to 4th, 
I believe ? 

MR. PETERSEN: That is the President's Health Conference, Doctor? 

MEMBER : Isn't that tied into what you are talking on ? 

MR. PETERSEN: Yes, it is. As a matter of fact, the President's 
Health Conference is the result of what took place in these last terms. 

If you want to follow it step by step chronologically — to begin with, 
the Social Security Board came out with the statement of condition that 
I gave you wherein it said that 36%. of the male population is unfit for 



128 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



military service, and the lower third of the country is unable to pay for 
medical and dental service. 

Dr. Freedman discredited those figures and proved that there were 
many other factors in this thing. Simultaneously with that, the fact was 
brought out that there is a complete program so far as both medicine and 
dentistry are concerned for the health care of the people. 

On top of that, the Harness Committee came out and exposed the 
fact that the government, or certain arms in government departments, at 
least, were actively lobbying in favor of compulsion. Then, there was that 
little episode in Hawaii a year ago, where, out of a clear sky, a Murray- 
Wagner-Dingell bill was introduced with very good chance of passage. 

As a matter of fact, the lower house of the Hawaiian Territorial Legis- 
lature was composed of 15 P.A.C. elective representatives, and 15 so-called 
Republicans. Three of them, however, were also P.A.C. There was quite 
a collection of the C.I.O. — the Political Action Committee of the C.I.O. 

One Saturday afternoon, we got a call from the medical society of the 
territory, in which they said that this bill was to be called up for hearing 
and they were going to try to rush it through. By coincidence, Sy Midd 
of the University of Michigan was taking a sabbatical and also by coinci- 
dence, the Governor-General had retained him as his consultant on health. 
Between Saturday afternoon and the following week-end, we had all the 
material that we used in these successful fights against the Wagner-Mur- 
ray-Dingell bills here in the Islands, and the following week-end, one of 
the members of our staff arrived out there at their request. 

Now, I could use this as an illustration of how an organization like 
the NwD.C. and the N.P.C. can act in many respects where the professional 
organizations can't. They needed help out there. They called up and said 
they did and wanted to know what we could do to bring some. Among the 
things we took was about $40,000 right now to start a radio and newspaper 
campaign. That money was available. If it had been a matter for Council 
action on the part of the A.M.A. or the A.D.A., I don't think we could 
have had action inside of twenty-four hours, and that is as it should be. 

Our professional organizations have, in an evolutionary way, developed 
the professions by careful consideration of what to do next and what steps 
to take. But in the field of public relations, it is a matter of timing as 
well as what to do. 

And so we got on the Hawaiian Islands, and there was a great dis- 
order. The whole Island was beset by strikes all during the war. The 
Island was, at that point, just about giving them anything they asked 
from industry. Compulsory insurance ? Let them have it to keep them woi'k- 
ing! "We'll sell out. Let's not have any more strikes!" 

So we got on the telephone with Proctor and Gamble, General Mills, 
the A & P, oil companies and banking interests, bar associations, every 
line of industry and business that did business in the Hawaiian Islands 
and said to them, "Somebody had better explain to your correspondents 



Containing the Proceedings 129 



in the Hawaiian Islands what actually is going to happen if they pass 
the compulsory health insurance bill." It so happened that that compulsory 
health insurance bill didn't even call for equal contributions on the part 
of the worker and the employer — it was all coming out of the employer. 
And, on top of complete health and sickness and unemployment and burial 
benefits, they also had another benefit which provides that, in case the 
workers went out on strike, at the end of two weeks, they could apply 
for and get educational benefits to train them for some other type of job 
at the former employer's expense. 

We got that understood by business and industry here, and they said 
to their folks, "Look here, you better oppose this. Get some cooperation." 

By the end of four months, by the use of radio, billboards, and every- 
thing else, we successfully staved off the passage of the Wagner-Murray- 
Dingell bill in the Hawaiian Islands. 

You know, of course, that we have one in Rhode Island, and one in 
final operation in California. Right now, we are continuing for another 
four days, hearings in New Jersey to determine whether or not they are 
going to have some form of state compensation and health insurance. 

And so it behooves all of us to know what the basic and fundamental 
factors are. But, more important, the people who are your patients must 
know because if they don't support the program that your societies have 
developed for their welfare and well-being, you aren't getting a chance 
to put it into effect. That is one place where an organization such as this, 
which brings to the support of the professions all types of other organiza- 
tins in support of the program which has been evolved by the professions, 
can do a tremendous and significant job. 

MEMBER: Does this association have any money to put to the Con- 
gressmen? Do you have any money to fight it in Congress? 

MR. PETERSEN: Well, I don't know that I just exactly get your 
question, Doctor, but if you mean how do we operate, we believe that the 
most successful job of lobbying is not done in Washington — it is done right 
back here at home. The only time a Senator or Congressman ever pays 
any attention to anyone is when the people who vote for him make known 
what they want. So, our whole job is to bring the facts to you with the 
material and the plan that will help you develop the greatest amount of 
public opinion. 

I happen to know something about the strength of the Farm Lobby 
because that's where I got my start. I come from a dairy farm in northern 
Illinois, and at the time the Farm Bureau was reorganized, I had just 
gotten through school. I was a part of the Washington representation of 
the American Farm Bureau Federation for a number of years, so I am 
rather familiar with the strength of the Farm Lobby, and it comes from 
keeping the grass roots informed and getting the answers back home. It 
doesn't take money — it takes a lot of hard work. The money counts. 



130 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



MEMBER : I mean that a congressman can't get so interested some- 
times unless you have a little money, and then his interest picks up right 
away. The Farm Bloc and Labor both fight together. It would be quite 
easy, I imagine. 

MR. PETERSEN: Well, as I say, I think that the success of medicine 
and dentistry in holding off compulsory health legislaion this long is per- 
haps a pretty good tribute to the effectiveness of the job that you men 
can do. 

MEMBER: Do you think your plan of the N.C.D. and the N.P.C. is 
more effective than the American Dental Association plan coming out of 
our central office? 

MR. PETERSEN :Vj\douhted\y they are entirely different. 

MEMBER : In what way ? They both offer information to the public. 

MR. PETERSEN: Never before in the history of any organization 
has there been as extensive an information program as the N.P.C. has de- 
veloped with a minimum of cost. That is a matter of record; not our 
records, but the record of the associations in the publishing and advertis- 
ing field. We have identified the source of the effort to put across the 
compulsory program. Before anyone else in the field, we have taken the 
leading part in the development of the testimony which places on a factual 
basis the facts and the contentions on which the objections lay. 

The analysis of the draft statistics, regardless of who gives them, is 
a herculean job, and professional men realize that much better than the 
average laymen. When you go through all of the figures of Selective 
Service to analyze on half a dozen fronts, just what has happened, it's 
statistical and research job that's tremendous. 

The same is true in running down the facts in connection with the 
health workshops. It takes a background of explanation and promotion to 
get and emphasize, as far as newspapers are concerned, as far as all in- 
formation services are concerned, all the facts and data on how to explain 
this thing. It's a matter of two years' work, for instance, with radio to 
explain why they should eliminate an editorial viewpoint that is unfav- 
orable to medicine and dentistry or a radio serial. You can see some of 
the things that publicity like that leads to. In one serial, there was a 
fear of the operating room being built up, and you don't want that sort 
of thing. There are many cases of preventing the things that are un- 
favorable, and that is just as important as bringing about a positive action. 

Many of those things are somewhat outside the field of professional 
organization. To that extent, an organization of specialists in the field 
perhaps gets better results faster or gets additional results to those that 
are gotten by medicine and dentistry. 

So far as the program as set down is concerned, no one but the A.D.A. 
or A.M.A. can do that. How you are going to interpret that to the public, 
get its acceptance — that's something that many can help with. 



Containing the Proceedings 131 



PRESIDENT OLIVE: If there are no other questions, I want to thank 
you, Mr. Petersen for the well-interpreted subject that you have given us 
tonight. 

DR. BURKE FOX: Could I say just a word or two? 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Mr. Petersen's talk has been very thorough and 
very lengthy. . If you can summarize in a few words what you have in 
mind, you can explain. 

DR. FOX: Mr. President, there seems to be a few men in here who 
feel that this program is disapproved by the American Dental Association. 
It happens that I have a little information about that and I think I know 
what is in the back of the minds of some men, and that is that the Ameri- 
can Dental Association has not given whole-hearted support to the work 
that is being done by the National Committee of Dentists. 

It was expressed to me that some of our leading members of the 
American Dental Association felt that the job being done by this National 
Committee of Dentists was probably a job that should be done by the 
A.D.A. Possibly, it seems to me there might have been a little jealousy 
that they had not put the thing across. 

Actually, I felt that that was the wrong attitude, because we have 
been told that the American Dental Association is short of funds. They 
have been operating at a deficit, and if somebody comes in to help them 
with funds and with efforts I think we should appreciate it rather than 
resent it. 

Further, one of the officials of the A.D.A. told me that he felt that this 
program should be operated by a professional man, rather, a physician 
or a dentist, in preference to a public relations man. As a matter of fact, 
the American Dental Association has placed its publicity in the hands of 
a young man who had been a reporter on a Chicago newspaper — not one 
of the top reporters there, but a boy who had worked on a Chicago news- 
paper — and they hired him to handle the publicity for them. 

Frankly, if you people saw the A.D.A.-handled publicity and talked 
to Mr. Petersen, I think you would be able to draw your own conclusions 
as to which one would be most effective in putting across the story that 
we want to put across to the public of this country, and particularly to 
our legislators. 

Frankly, I don't think that the A.D.A. should specify to every mem- 
ber of the Association that they should vote Democratic or Eepublican. 
That's a matter for your own opinion. If we feel that we are opposed to 
collectivist planning, government regimentation of all our projects, I am 
in favor of taking the help of anybody who is willing to give it to us, 
and let's keep on trying to get the people away from the idea that the 
government has got to furnish medical care, that we as dentists have got 
to give up private practice and start working for the Veterans Adminis- 
tration and make reports to our supervisor with eight copies of each re- 



132 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



port of just what we have done and what we are going to do for our 
patients. 

Let's keep to private practice and take all the help we can get from 
any source. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: I want to explain one point. The American 
Dental Association has made a study of this. The House of Delegates in 
Boston had this under discussion, and they are very favorable towards the 
work the Committee is doing. However, at this time they are still making 
a study of it. The study that Mr. Petersen has just mentioned a minute 
ago is very complicated because we are not familiar with it. 

He presented the subject very well. They are a competent committee 
on that, and they are in a position to help us as an organization. We as 
dentists do not have the time to lobby or to do the things that they 
can do for us. 

That is the substance, isn't it, Mr. Petersen ? Just explain in a few 
words. 

MR. PETERSEN : There is just one thing that I want to emphasize, 
and that is, that the work is being done by these two groups under the 
supervision of the Executive Committee of the National Committee of 
Dentists, who are all dentists, and the trustees of the N.P.C., who are all 
physicians. I am a lay member of the staff, and I do what I am told. 

MEMBER: Dr. Robinson stated this morning that they are getting 
ready to pass a bill in Maryland that will take care of the school children. 
Why isn't the National Committee of Dentists looking after that? 

MR. PETERSEN: To begin with, I think that the A.D.A. has estab- 
lished as a policy the fact that there should be a means in furnishing 
free dental service. 

Now, as far as the proposed legislation is concerned in Maryland, we 
are actively working with the Physicians Committee and the Maryland 
Dentists Committee to educate the public in the sentiment in favor of it 
and opposition to it. Wherever there is need, just the same as in Hawaii, 
the facilities of this group are available and will be on hand. We had the 
same thing so far as New Jersey is concerned. 

MEMBER : In answer to Dr. Fox's statement there, if we would accept 
a plan which you have to offer, why couldn't we abolish our Legislative 
Committee in the A.D.A. ? Why not take that instead of what we have 
set up in our association plan? 

MR. PETERSEN: I think, Doctor, that you can't abolish your Legis- 
lative Committee, because, when it comes to expressing the opinion of the 
A.D.A., as the professional organization of dentistry, before a congres- 
sional committee, it can only be done authentically by a representative of 
the professional societies. 



Containing the Proceedings 133 



In bringing witnesses to Washington to testify during the Wagner- 
3Iurray-Dingell bill hearings, there was never any attempt to have the 
National Physicians Committee testify so far as medicine and physicians 
were concerned, nor were there any attempts to bring witnesses to testify 
regarding dental problems from the National Committee of Dentists. You 
don't need that; you have the A.D.A. strictly for dentistry, and the A.M.A. 
strictly for medicine. Whenever they get through speaking and, say, we 
are opposed to this, or we prefer to do it some other way, then it is up 
to this independent group to bring every influence possible to bear to sell 
that idea to the people because you have to have popular support if you 
are going to win your case. 

No one can speak with authority for dentistry except your professional 
organization. You make the policy and you state it, but there are many 
places where another organization can step in and assist them at a level 
that will keep the A.D.A. and the A.M.A. out of the crossfire of unfavorable 
public opinion. 

MEMBER : Is it not true that your plan has been disapproved in 
some states? 

MR. PETERSEN: The plan has been disapproved in the state of 
Louisiana, yes. 

It was a matter of resolution as far as the Council of the Minnesota 
Society is concerned. The Minnesota Society passed a resolution opposing 
the National Committee of Dentists based on the so-called Rich report, a 
report that was made to the House of Delegates of the A.M.A. They 
analyzed the Rich report and accepted the conclusions before it ever was 
submitted to the Board of Trustees of the American Medical Association. 
The Rich report was read at a time when it was a confidential document. 

At the Atlantic City meeting of the American Medical Association, 
the Reference Committee, in executive session, of which Dr. Bill Pays of 
Philadelphia, is chairman, repudiated every conclusion that was arrived at 
in the Rich report, and the A.M.A., after listening to it, endorsed the work 
of the National Physicians Committee, commended it for its efforts, com- 
mended the Board of Trustees and the staff, and went on to say, "In spite 
of the vastly expanding public relations program of the American Medical 
Association, we believe that it will be necessary for us to have a National 
Physicians Committee for many years to come." 

The Minnesota Society took the Rich report before they found out what 
the people thought about it. I don't know, but I don't think that that is 
analyzing the facts before they arrived at a conclusion, and I think that 
their action in accepting a copy of the resolution based entirely on un- 
authenticated facts was unethical, to say the least. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Thank you again, Mr. Petersen. If there are 
no other questions, I declare the meeting adjourned. 

(The meeting recessed at ten-twenty-five o'clock.) 



134 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

TUESDAY AFTERNOON SESSION 
April 27, 1948 

The fourth general session of the Ninety-Second Anniversary Meeting 
of the North Carolina Dental Society convened in the City Auditorium, 
Asheville, North Carolina, at two o'clock, by the President, Dr. R. M. Olive. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: The meeting will please come to order for the 
group forum discussion as outlined in your program this afternoon. Dr. 
Walter McFall from Asheville has consented to act as chairman of this 
discussion. Dr. McFall. 

DR. WALTER McFALL: Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen: At our 
opening session, we would have had our first speaker at that time, but 
being one of our leading cardiologists, it wasn't possible for him to be here. 

It is my happy privilege to present to you a gentleman who has 
dignified our section of North Carolina. He is very greatly admired 
because of his fine ability and character and because he is a typical man 
in medicine. 

Dr. W. O. Edwards of Asheville, North Carolina, brings you the 
greetings of the North Carolina Medical Society. 

DR. W. O. EDWARDS: Mr. President, members of the North Caro- 
lina Dental Society, and guests: I am glad to be here. I bring you the 
greetings and good wishes of the officers and members of the Medical 
Society of the State of North Carolina. 

I trust that your sessions here will be most helpful to you in carrying 
on your work and render you more efficient and more enthusiastic in 
your work. 

I am glad of the close fraternal feeling that we have between the two 
societies, and I trust that this feeling will continue to grow, that we can 
work side by side as we do, and that we can be more useful to each other. 

I want to invite you to send a delegate to our annual session which 
meets in Pinehurst May 3, 4, and 5. 

I hope that you will have a pleasant meeting and that you will enjoy 
your stay in Asheville, that you will continue to drink our pure water 
which comes off of Mount Mitchell, that you will enjoy our pure air and 
beautiful sunshine. I hope that you will not wait so long to come again 
as you did this time. We are always anxious to have you here in Asheville. 
I thank you. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Thank you. Dr. Edwards. 

DR. McFALL: Gentlemen, we will get right into our four forum 
discussions for the afternoon. We only have thirty minutes for each of 
these excellent men. 



Containing the Proceedings 135 



Dr. Warren Willman, who gave us such a splendid program yesterday 
on amalgam will be the first. Several of you have given me the questions 
because you did not want to ask them. 

The first question is, "Is mechanical spatulation more impoi'tant than 
hand spatulation?" 

DR. WILLMAN : Mechanical spatulation versus hand spatulation. I 
presume that what is meant by that is the initial mixing. 

In the hand trituration or mechanical trituration, as was mentioned 
yesterday, one of the more important things is homogeneous mixing of 
amalgam, and it presumably can be done either way. I have two of the 
so-called "wiggle bug" type of devices for triturating or mixing. It hap- 
pens that one is for AC and one is for direct current, since we are plagued 
with both in Chicago, but at the present time I am not using them very 
much. 

A couple of weeks ago, I was presented with one of the flossy type 
of mixers which is very similar. My experience with those has been rather 
disappointing. If they work so rapidly that the mix is completed in the 
given number of seconds that they say, the amalgam that comes out is not 
smoothly plastic. It does not have the adaptability that a mix would have 
if it were done longer. On the other hand, if I have run it for a greater 
number of seconds, then the mix comes out almost hot. The agitation 
is so violent that it, of course, greatly accelerates the chemical action of 
the setting of the amalgam so that, although I did get that way a smooth 
plastic mix, it sets much too rapidly and is rather unpredictable. 

I have found too, for reasons that I absolutely can't explain, the next 
one I tried would come out in some way different. 

In the one that is called wiggle bug (I presume that all of you are 
familiar with that device), the capsule takes in a sort of figure-8 curve 
in its course, which gives it its rather undignified name. Inside the capsule 
there is a little slug which is supposed to act as a pestle. Yet, in spite 
of that curve or wiggle that is given to that capsule, many times we find 
as we open it that the entire mass of amalgam is perched like a sleeve 
around this little slug and is just going along for the ride. It is not being 
triturated at all, and you can tell by the sound of the device as it gets 
underway that the little slug inside is striking the bare metal end of 
the capsule. 

They then came out with a somewhat larger plastic capsule, but they 
didn't seem to make any difference — they had the same result. 

The flossy I have not had a chance to try it. I think that perhaps it 
might work better. It doesn't have a slug inside of it at all. It merely 
agitates the material back and forth in the capsule. I did mention yestei- 
day, and it was the flossy I was referring to, that there is a shoulder 
inside that capsule on which a little amalgam was staying; a few granules 
of it which would be there by the time the next was made, so there again, 
in our efforts to get homogeneity, we are likely to lose it. 



136 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

There are, of course, many other devices^ — some of them nothing more 
than motor-driven pestles that fasten on to the hand and are used in a 
mortar like a hand mortar and pestle, and there is no objection to those. 

The one that I liked the best, which is semi-mechanical is the one that 
was shown in the latter part of the film yesterday, where the pestle is 
attached by a ring on to the top part of the mortar and has a spring- 
in it so that it gives a certain amount of force, anywhere from zero up 
to four pounds, so that you will get a uniform pressure. That device, 
however, is not fool-proof, either, because the pestle is obliged to take just 
one track around the mortar. You can't guide or watch it so well. Conse- 
quently, especially if you are making a small mix and don't see that the 
mix keeps falling over and over to get under the track of the pestle, then 
you may have trouble getting a homogeneous mix. We have been using 
that device, however, for the last six or seven years, at least, at the college 
with very good results. 

MEMBER: Dr. Willman, in condensing your amalgam, do you prefer 
plug or burnisher over a serrated plug? 

DR. WILLMAN : The serrated plugs were devised by Harper although 
they have Black's name on them. They were working together and it was 
done with Harper's consent. 

But Harper himself, and most amalgam workers, later abandoned the 
use of the serrated plugger because the serration simply got clogged with 
amalgam. I sometimes use the serrated plugger, especially on upper teeth 
when portions of amalgam are placed in the cavity and you are working 
with a mirror. If you take a smooth instrument and go to jar the material 
to place, sometimes it falls down as it dislodges easily, and I use the ser- 
rated plugger just as a sort of non-skid placing device to push the amal- 
gam up into the cavity, after which it is tamped and then a smooth-faced 
plugger is used, whether it is a packing instrument or a burnishing 
instrument. 

MEMBER : I noticed in your remarks last night that you used an 
Aristo alloy in Harper's method. How does this apply to true dental law 
and Cox 20th Century? A good many of the men are using a Cox and 
S. S. White and Aristo alloy and Harper's technic. How is it that you 
didn't bring that point up? 

DR. WILLMAN : I am a little mystified. I don't remember saying 
anything about any trade names. 

MEMBER: You didn't, but you used it, I believe, in the wiggle bug 
device. 

DR. WILLMAN: That one is Crescent's. That can be set for any 
alloy. 



Containing the Proceedings 137 



The chief variation in the different alloys that really is somewhat 
different is the difference in proportions of mercury and alloy to get the 
same degree of wetness or fluidity or plasticity — whatever you want to 
term it — and there is far more variation in the handling of the alloys 
than in the alloys themselves. Now that they all have to conform to the 
standards set up by the Bureau of Standards, there is relatively little 
variation. 

A fine-cut alloy is better than a coarse one, of course, because the 
coarse particles do not pack into the cavity as readily to make it her- 
metically sealed. 

MEMBER: Hew about mechanical condensation? 

DR. WILLMAN : I would have been surprised if somebody hadn't 
asked about that. That is one question that always comes up — this matter 
of mechanical condensation. 

I use a mechanical condenser quite a little as a supplementary device 
in condensing the fillings, but not to build the entire filling. I have tried 
several. The difficulty, as many of you who have tried the mechanical 
condenser have undoubtedly found, is that if you use a wet fluid mix of 
amalgam, the material will fly out of the cavity when the mechanical con- 
denser is applied to it, so that you are obliged to start with a fairly dry 
mix of amalgam. Trying that in tests we find, of course, that we do get 
some leakages. They are not usually the largest or most severe of the 
leaks because you do get not only a wonderful condensation with those 
devices, but they also act, many of them, as a kind of tamping or jarring 
machine at the same time so that they induce a good deal of adaptability 
in material that is even semi-dry. 

They don't get enough to seal the cavity quite hermetically, but they 
do better than you would with the same dry material with hand alone 
because of the mechanical tamping plus the condensation that they give. 

What I actually do is start the cavities with the fluid mix of amalgam 
and then use the mechanical device for the condensation toward the latter 
part of the filling. Particularly is that true in parts of the mouth where it 
is difficult to get access and it is difficult to get the amount of condensing 
force by hand that you would like. 

I hope that I was successful yesterday in avoiding one misunder- 
standing that Harper frequently did leave behind him, and that is that 
this fluid material, this mercury-rich or soft, wet amalgam that is put 
first into the cavity is completely condensed. It is not left in there with 
any more mercury in it than it would have been otherwise. There is an 
idea that the first part of the cavity is just sort of wiped over with fluid 
amalgam and then drier amalgam packed on top of that. You would not 
get a good fiTTing doing that. It is completely condensed. The main rea- 
son that men, years ago, and many of them still, were afraid to use the 
soft fluid amalgam at the beginning of the cavity, was the fear that they 



138 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



would not be able to condense it adequately in the cavity. That fear has 
been shown to be unfounded. 

MEMBER : I wonder if you might tell us why you do not teach the 
M.O.D. amalgam in one sitting at one time. 

DR. WILLMAN : I mentioned yesterday that there is a physical limi- 
tation to amalgam on the amount of margin that you can seal with it at 
one time. The larger the amalgam filling, the more sure it is, or the more 
likely, it is to fail, other factors being entirely the same. 

This test die, for example, which is eight millimeters across and four 
deep — if that were doubled so that is sixteen millimeters across and eight 
millimeters deep, no technic known to anybody, except working by machine 
with the plunger at enormous force, by hand could possibly fill that cavity 
hermetically. 

Harper used to make the statement that he wouldn't argue with any- 
body that wanted to do an M.O.D. amalgam. He had M.O.D. difficulties, 
and he said all anyone had to do was sit down and do it carefully and the 
filling wouldn't leak. He could sometimes get one out of then that would 
not leak seriously. It was too much to do at one time. In addition, it is 
difficult to get enough separation on both sides of the same tooth at the 
same sitting for contact. 

I might take a second here, because I think that it is important, to tell 
you how we do this. The cavity is prepared in one sitting because the 
tooth, of course, would become sensitive if it were not. Then, one-half of 
that, or slightly less than that, is filled with temporary cement, and the 
matrix placed on this side, and then this side is filled with amalgam. 
About five or moi-e days later, usually a week later, cut away any of the 
rough amalgam where it is packed against the cement gutta percha and 
freshen this, and that, of course, makes a double dove-tail, and this side 
is filled. 

Don't make the mistake that I did once. I was working on a patient 
that was in from out of town. You know how those things go — trying 
to get everything possible done in one or two days. I had put in a filling 
of this sort and done some other work in the mouth. Two or three hours 
later, I took out this temporary filling and then filled the other half. When 
I got through, both sides were soft. Unless that is completely set, the 
mercury will go back over into it. 

When the filling is completely done, they unite chemically at this 
point. You won't be able to see the joining, but there is a chemical union 
at that point. 

I have no doubt but that the amalgam is weaker there than if it had 
all been done in one place, but of course you have retention along the axial 
wall, to the buccal and lingual wall, to the proximal part itself, and you 
have the effect of a dove-tail on both sides. 



Containing the Proceedings 139 



With the bicuspid, you have a slightly different problem. Because of 
the narrowness of the occlusal surface here, it is wise to make the occlusal 
rather wide, a little wider than would be done for M.O.D. inlay. Cement 
is put only on one side, upon the proximal portion, and the entire occlusal, 
as well as the other, is filled with amalgam. Then, a week later, that is 
removed, and a dove-tail is cut very carefully in there. The two sides hook 
around one another, and there is a very long line for union between the 
two. We are quite successful in putting them in that way. 

Another type of filling that requires being made in sections, which 
I didn't mention yesterday, is that of the molar with a very, very long 
slot-shaped gingival third cavity. Relative to its area, it is a shallow 
cavity. At best, it doesn't have too much retention, and thei'e it has a long, 
curved axial wall. 

You start to pack the amalgam as the others. You gently press it 
back, and you moderate your packing pressure and in doing that, you 
moderate it so much that you don't condense the amalgam at all. Leaving 
extra mercury in it, plus the fact that this is frequently contaminated by 
moisture from the gum tissues, is the reason that six months later the 
patient will tell you he can feel that with his fingernail. You run the disc 
over it and polish it up, and a year later it is out again. 

What we do is fill in the center part here with cement, making, in 
effect, two small pit cavities at each end which are thoroughly condensed 
with amalgam. A week later, this cement is removed and the amalgam 
is freshened so that you have a central portion which is then filled. You 
can get, that way, a well-condensed filling, even one that girdles the entire 
tooth where you have an isolated tooth carrying a clasp or something of 
that sort, by filling sections with cement and packing one, say the odd 
numbers, with amalgam one time and the even numbers the other. It takes 
only two sittings to fill a cavity of any length. 

If the cavity were one of more oval character, then it could be bur- 
nished, but you cannot use the burnishing technic in a narrow slot- 
shaped cavity. 

MEMBER : Doctor, how long do you allow a filling to dry in the 
mouth before you let the patient close his mouth — in other words, after 
you finish packing. 

DR. WILLMAN : With quick-setting amalgam (which, I imagine, is 
what most of you use — we use the medium at school because that seems 
to be better for students), after the occlusal surface is carved, it is gen- 
erally possible to remove the matrix almost immediately by sliding the 
matrix out buccally instead of pulling it out occlusally. Then, of course, 
a minute or two will be spent in carving away the little excess around the 
buccal and lingual and gingival, because even the tightest fitting matrix 
isn't watertight. You then carve and finish the marginal ridge the way 
you think it ought to look. By that time, if you can get the cooperation 
of the patient, you can usually have them try it. I generally remind them 



140 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



that, even as powerful as the jaw muscles are, it is possible for a person 
to take a robin's egg between his two bicuspids and roll it around without 
puncturing- it. Tell them to close very slowly and gently. I don't say to 
chew it, but to feel the amalgam, slide the teeth around it very lightly, 
and see if they detect the filling there. I usually take the precaution of 
putting a mirror between their teeth so that if they bite down hard, they 
will hit the mirror. If they do start coming down slowly, you can remove 
the mirror, and they will never know it was in there. 

DR. McFALL: About four men have asked me this: Can you trust 
the manufacturers' directions on each of his preparations? 

DR. WILLMAN : To a certain extent, you can. They have more in 
their minds than directing the dentist. They were required by the Bureau 
of Standards when they mark the material and guarantee that it meets 
the specifications to put out a product which, if manipulated according to 
their directions, will produce the results that the Bureau requires in the 
establishing of three to ten microns per centimeter of length and from 
nought to four per cent after twenty-four hours, and so on. 

There is no objective test for adaptability, and these, by air pressure, 
are not objective because it is a test of the operator more than of the 
material, or a test of technic more than it is of the material. 

Many of the manufacturers' alloys are more adaptable if they are 
mixed a little longer than what the manufacturer says, for example, or 
if more mercury is used than what they indicate. But the reason that they 
don't give those directions is that the material might stay at zero — it 
might not respond three or four microns the way they want it to. 

The directions are put there in order to make the alloy do certain 
tricks, so to speak, to perform according to the Bureau of Standards 
requirements. Any alloy, if it is overworked, will become more plastic and 
adaptable and it will become much harder after it is set, but it will also 
give a very, very slight shrinkage, although it has been shown rather 
conclusively that a very slight shrinkage (not 40, 50, or 60, of course) 
does not prevent the cavity from being hermetically sealed. Generally, 
if you are going to err one way or the other, it is better to over-triturate 
a little bit rather than not to triturate quite enough. 

One manufacturer took rather a mean advantage of that fact some 
years ago in his advertising, when he was saying that his material had 
the color of silver and the strength of steel, and that the crushing strength 
exceeded that of a steel beam — had something like 62,000 pounds to the 
square inch and mentioned that it had seven microns per centimeter of 
length expansion, which was true. But it didn't tell you that it took two 
different mixes to do it. The one was overworked so as to give the 62,000 
pounds crushing strength, and the one that expanded seven microns was 
nowhere near that strong because it was underworked. 

DR. McFALL: There is time for one more question. 



Containing the Proceedings 141 



MEMBER : Do you express all the mercury possible? I know that in 
your finished filling yesterday it still looked soft. Had you expressed all 
the mercury? 

DR. WILLMAN : Not quite all. I know what you mean about the 
appearance in the photograph. It is partly a photographic artefact and 
partly due to the fact that when you are working in front of a camera, 
you are at a great disadvantage and don't do things just the way you 
would ordinarily. They should lock quite dry when finished and nor- 
mally do. 

In working with it, you have to pinch it — whether you use the finger 
stall or piece of rubber dam or whatnot — as hard as can be done with two 
hands; that is, the third or fourth portion may be pinched dry with one 
hand. You can take a squeeze cloth and a pair of pliers and get it much 
drier than that, but you dry it in a clump and then it is too dry to be 
useful. It does not have any ability to be adaptable; it doesn't have what 
Harper called working plasticity any more. By that time it is too dry 
to be sure that it makes a satisfactory union with the material just 
below it. 

MEMBER : Can you replace part of that if necessary? 

DR. WILLMAN : Do you mean put more mercury in? 

MEMBER : Replace part of the mercury that you squeezed out. 

DR. WILLMAN : The mercury squeezed out can be reused on the next 
portion. To add new mercury out of the mercury bottle is dangerous. 

I call that mercury just because everybody else does and it is so easy 
to understand. It is not mercury. It has all of the elements and many 
of the particles of the amalgam alloy. It is not pure mercury by any 
means. We call it mercury just for convenience. 

MEMBER : What method do you use in polishing and how long do 
you wait before doing it. 

DR. WILLMAN : To get anything like a lasting result, you have to 
polish it a day or so after, or any time after the next day. If you polish 
in twenty or thirty minutes after, you can get a very nice finish on it 
but it won't last because there is still some chemical change going on in 
the particles right at the surface. 

If it is smoothly carved at the time that it is placed, and by that I 
mean just cut smooth so that there are no scratches or chatter marks, 
it will look very rough, but just cut smoothly then at the next sitting. 
A thick paste of flour of pumice and water is the coarsest abrasive you 
need. If you use something coarser than that, it tends to cut the amalgam 
unduly. But just use a thick paste of flour of pumice and water on a stiff 
brush or a little wheel for a few minutes and then some material with 
these ground up clam shells or any of the very, very fine abrasives, and 
it will give a very high chromium-like lustre to the amalgam. 



142 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

DR. McFALL : Dr. Willman, we thank you for your fine helpful pres- 
entation and appreciate what you gave us yesterday and today. I think 
you have seen the interest of this group, and I do wish we had time to get 
one-tenth of the questions in our hearts and minds out. Thank you so 
much. (Applause.) 

Ladies and gentlemen, we now have the kindly gentleman who made a 
big place in all hearts, LeRoy Ennis, who comes to us from Philadelphia. 
We know that when someone is invited back again and again, as Dr. Ennis 
is, he must have something on the ball. 

If you haven't any questions, I have those that you have given me 
to ask Dr. Ennis. One question is, "How can you tell when an extracted 
third molar is made in the right relationship from x-ray that you didn't 
make?" 

DR. ENNIS: You can tell by contact. I generally can tell by the con- 
tact point between your first and second molar. In other words, in your 
contact point, your second and third molar or your first and second molar — 
when you see that contact, you can pretty well know that the tooth is 
directly in the midline of the mandible because you do not have any 
distortion. 

(Drawing on board.) Now if in other words, you are coming in there 
to get those teeth in their proper relationship to each other, if yo*u have 
this contact point and this tooth is over here, you can put it down definitely 
that that tooth is not directly in the midline of the mandible. It is varying 
to the left or right buccally or lingually, and those cusps are to the right 
or left of the second molar. 

If however, you have a tooth of this type, when you get an overlapping 
of your first and second molar, you can put it down immediately that yooi 
don't know anything about this tooth, and no one else does. No one can 
tell you exactly anything truthfully about that film as far as where that 
third molar is. It may be directly midline, and it may be worse than it 
really is, for the simple reason that you have directed your rays and got 
an overlapping here (indicating) which can be told very easily in the x-ray 
by the overlapping in the very decided shadow thrown. You have this 
anterior-posterior distortion here and here. 

Actually, if you wanted to determine whether you have your contact 
between your first and second molar, go into the occlusal plane at I'ight 
angles to that film. In other words, when you are operating two third 
molars, as the present diagram, always take at right angles to each other. 
You can go in at right angles; you go jn practically perpendicular and 
generally get this position, and then you go in perpendicular to your plane 
of occlusion, so that when you operate you will know exactly what angula- 
tion you have used and exactly what you may expect. When you take 
it at a haphazard angle, you don't know anything about it and no one 
else does. 

MEMBER: Will you explain that condition where it looks like globes 
in the anterior? 



Containing the Proceedings 143 

DR. ENNIS: Those are fibroma. All that is a condition we don't know 
a whole lot about. There is no clinical evidence that is there. The only 
way to find is by x-rays, roentgenograms. 

Actually, what happens is that you first have a stimulation of your 
fibrous tissues around the apex of the root of the tooth. You get an 
osteomyelitis, loss of bone, filled with granular or fibrous tissue, and, in 
time, we have two things that happen. What the cycle is or what the 
general cause is, what general condition causes this, we don't know. We 
do know this: if you leave them alone, they will recuperate; nature will 
help you out on that. You get the building up of bone; building up of 
cementum, depending on what is being stimulated in that particular area, 
whether it is the cementoblast or osteoblast being stimulated. You will 
get this building up that will happen over a period of time. 

The teeth may be vital, and the best thing I could tell you to do is 
leave them alone and watch them, and don't take the teeth out. 

I can't tell you definitely what it is, but it is actually the process 
that forms the common fibroid tumor known as the epulis, which will 
calcify the same as these fibromas do at the apex of the root of the tooth. 

The teeth are never lost; there is no clinical evidence; no loosness of 
the teeth. You might have evidence of trauma, that is, attrition, but 
there is absolutely nothing else that would indicate anything there except 
by the x-ray. 

MEMBER: Do those areas ever become virulent? 

DR. ENNIS: I have never seen it. I don't say they can not become 
so by infection passing up and down along the gingiva. Possibly it can. 
If they do, you can treat them as that, but, ordinarily, they only affect 
the six anterior teeth. 

The best advice we can give you today is to simply watch them and 
don't attempt a radical extraction of the teeth. 

MEMBER: Does that occur in middle-aged patients? 

DR. ENNIS: In our observations so far, the earliest I have seen it is 
in a young lady 22 years old on one incisor. 

As I say, we don't see them until the majority of these cases have 
actually happened. You don't get it when you are taking a routine x-ray 
examination, full mouth of all patients coming. 

I would say that it starts somewhere around 33, 35, and probably 
goes on to practically 45 and 50. The majority of times, it is in the female 
sex. Whether sex hormones or that particular period of life when a woman 
is taking on certain changes has anything to do with it, I don't know. 
I don't know whether anybody does. But it happens more in women than 
it does anywhere else. 

In the literature you will see that it happens in the Negro more than 
in the white, but I don't believe that. Those who made that statement 



144 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



worked in a Negro clinic and handled practically nothing but Negroes up 
in the Bronx in New York. You can throw that kind of evidence out. 

MEMBER: Is there any way of taking a film that is over-exposed or 
over-developed and lightening it up? 

DR. ENNIS: Absolutely. Anybody that has a dark-room should have 
a reducing solution in that dark-room. You can get the solution out of any 
book on photography. You can mix it yourself by taking one ounce of 
ferric oxide, 16 ounces of water, one ounce of ferric cyanide. This has to 
be the red crystals. A fellow called the di'ugstore one time and asked him 
for potassium ferric cyanide and the druggist gave him a yellow crystal. 
That's an iron proposition and it won't work. You have to have the red 
crystals. It is a ferric cyanide, not ferrous. 

Take one ounce of this to sixteen ounces of water. Put it in a bottle 
and label that Solution "A". Then you get another bottle and put one 
ounce of sodium ferrosulfate, which is the ordinary hypo crystals — not the 
stuff that comes in your hypo packages that you get from Eastman ; it is 
the hypo crystal itself (the stuff you get from Eastman has other chem- 
icals in it, and you want the pure crystal) — and sixteen ounces of water 
in it. Label that "B". The moment your film goes down out of the hypo, 
if it's too dark, you can take these solutions and combine them. You don't 
have to combine a lot of it. Take a whiskey glass or a small container, 
and put your film in that solution wet, just as it comes from the hypo, 
and watch it. Keep your eyes on it. You don't have to do that in the 
dark; do that after you have turned on the light. I say watch it because 
if you don't, you won't have anything on the film. It will take all of the 
silver oxide off of that emulsion. What you are actually doing is cutting 
down, reducing, the silver oxide which you had too much of and lightening 
that film. 

MEMBER: Can that be done on old film? 

DR. ENNIS: Yes it can. If you have an old film that you want to 
bring back so you can look at it, then you soak your film in water until 
the emulsion has become porous again. Then reduce that film. 

MEMBER: Where do you direct your central rays to keep from get- 
ting disinclination of upper cuspids? 

DR. ENNIS: The question is, "Where do I direct my central rays 
to keep from an anterior posterior distortion of the maxillary canine in 
the cuspid?" 

The point is, you direct your rays directly over the canine eminence, 
which is about three millimeters distant to the ala of the nose. In other 
words, you can run your finger there and feel that canine eminence that 
is the point of entry. You pass the ray through the part you want to look 
at, so that you do not direct your rays down here at the crowns of the 
teeth. (Demonstrating.) You drop the film under the nose and near it 
right up here, only go through the crowns of the teeth so that the central 



Containing the Proceedings 



145 



ray must be through the part under investigation. You don't care about 
the crown; you are looking at the apex. 

If you want the crowns, you can take other pictures. 

Take a line from the tragus of the ear, the line of orientation, which is 
the hne through which the rays must pass, anywhere a central ray must 
go through a line for all your maxillary teeth, and as you get here on 
the anterior region, you go through this three millimeter distal on the alae 
of the nose around about 45 degrees from the sagittal plane. 

What we mean by that is this. Here is your arch. There is your side 
of the plane. You will find, for about 95% of the patients that you handle 
you can place that tube in position without ever looking in the mouth' 
You place your film in the molar region there; you direct your rays per- 
pendicular to the side of the plane and you will be perpendicular to the 
mean edge of the posterior tangents of those molar teeth. 

I am getting away from your question for a moment, but I am getting 
right back there, because the answer is yes, you direct your rays per- 
pendicular and posterior to the tangents of the teeth in question. That's 
a lot of words, but here's the drawing. This is the mean and posterior 
tangents of the molars. If you are getting a three molar, get into an arc 
so that the tangent changes. That is your mean and posterior tangent 
and when you get to this canine, the mean and posterior tangent takes 
m the second incisors, lateral incisor, and first bicuspid, so you have three 

o?v!t ^t T ^"".^ ^^^^^"^ ^" *^^* ^^™' ^"^ *^^t'^ ^h^re you are wrong 
90% of the time m taking these maxillary canines because you are going 
to have a tooth instead of an area. If you go after the areas, you will 
always get the canine. You should have the second incisor and canine on 
It, so that the first incisor should be over here (indicating). 

_ There is the position. Here are your parallel sides of the plane com- 
ing m about 45 degrees, depending on the curvature of the arch. You will 
find that this lower border of your film in the mouth gives you generally 
your mean and posterior tangent teeth so that you fit your tube perpen- 
dicular to the lower border of that film, the mean lower border. If you 
have the curve, you will find that you don't have too much trouble. 

Now, where you get the greatest amount of trouble in the anterior 
region is with the V-shaped mouth. You have a very well-rounded mouth, 
square jaw, and then you have the V type. 

In this V question where you are in trouble, don't try to do the 
impossible. Put your film in the plane of occlusion, let him bite on it, like 
the occlusal view of it, and increase your vertical angulation, so that if 
you place your film in the mouth so that the long axis of your tooth is 
parallel to the long axis of your film up here at 65 degrees and go down 
through the apex of the root, you will find that you get no distortion there 
f\ 1\ r f beautiful results. It is only when you get the curvature of 
the film that you get into trouble in the V type mouth. 



146 Bulletin Noi'th Carolina Dental Society 

Same thing for the posterior teeth. Put the fihii in the plane of occlu- 
sion, and you will always get a beautiful film. You can do a small film 
as well as a large. 

MEMBER : What is the relation of target to film distance, How far 
away should you place the point of your tube from the face when taking 
these intra-oral films, 

DR. ENNIS: First of all, we never place a tube anywhere on the 
face. Never put that in contact with the face. I have been in a lot of 
dental ofiices and I have never seen anybody sterilize the front of that tube 
yet. You are liable to have somebody come in with eczema, and, therefore, 
you just don't do it. 

Secondly, it depends on the film you are usin?-. In the literature you 
have seen coming out of California lately, the long distance technic is 
stressed. That's all right for an expert, but it never works in a dental 
office, unless you have nothing else to do all day long but take films. In 
that technic, they take 32 films of every mouth, cut them all up, paste 
them up like paper dolls, and finally get 25 for each one. You are in an 
office and you are trying to do something practical and trying to find 
out what there is from a practical standpoint and not out there trying 
to produce Rembrandts. 

After ycu have passed 16 inches in distance, the amount of distortion 
is so nil that you couldn't measure it. After you have gone past 16 inches 
on a small film, on a small tooth in the mouth, so that you are about 30 or 
40 or 20 inches, it isn't going to make a lot of difference. In other words, 
you can do as excellent work at 16 inches that you can ever do at 20 or 25. 

Many of you have used radiatized film as a semi-fast film. I wouldn't 
use them if they were the last film on earth — well, maybe if they were the 
last — but as long as I can get a regular or slow film, that is what I am 
going to use. You are given this film because you asked for a glossy 
film and the supply houses will send you anything they have on the shelf. 
Generally it is radiatized film, because that's being pushed. 

The radiatized film is just twice as fast as the slow film. For instance, 
we take up here in the molar region, and we would give roughly a four- 
second exposure on an upper molar. That four-second exposure is based 
upon about a twelve-inch target plate distance, or the distance between the 
tube, when the tube is touching the face, between the target and this film, 
which is roughly from ten to twelve inches, depending on the machine you 
are using. If you stretch that distance out about four inches, back your 
tube away about four inches or five inches from the face and double your 
exposure, on your radiatized film, you are going to find you have a much 
better film. The reason for that is that the faster the film, the more sensi- 
tive it is to radiation. That is common sense. If you have a camera and 
buy a fast film, you can take a picture in a thousandth of a second; with 
another film it will take you a twenty-fifth of a second to do the same 
thing. The reason for it is that the film is a fast one and more susceptible 
to light. The same thing is true here in the x-ray. If you have a very fast 
film, it is more susceptible to radiation. 



Containing the Proceedings 147 

When these rays pass through tissue, they hit a tooth and get a new 
radiation set up there. If it goes through a little "thin" fellow like me, 
you get a lot of radiation, because as it goes through moisture, it breaks 
up, with the result that you have a considerable secondary radiation 
created as the rays pass through there. With the result that the faster the 
film the more of that secondary radiation you pick up, the more film will 
be fogged by secondary radiation. That is why, in larger work, when you 
are taking the diaphragm or stomach or anything of that sort, you have 
sheets of lead that cut out the secondary radiation. You can't do that in 
the mouth, so back away, double your exposure on your radiatized film, and 
you are much better off. Give that eight seconds instead of four. 

MEMBER: What method do you use in localizing your bicuspids? 

DR. ENNIS: Simplest way to do it is to take your head; here is a 
nose and mouth (demonstrating on blackboard). Then you take an occlusal 
film. If you don't have that, take a small film. If you use the occlusal film, 
place that film in the mouth so that the median edge of the film is over 
here (indicating) and stretch it out here; push the cheek out. It goes 
back here — assume that is going back. In other words, if you had it back 
in a horizontal position, you will then direct your rays down about 80 
degrees, as nearly perpendicular to the film as you can possibly go; you 
are looking right down on it. You can tell exactly where that tooth is. 

There are other means — stereoscopic, take two films — but that is the 
simplest thing in the world to do. 

MEMBER: How do you know whether it is buccal or lingual? 

DR. ENNIS: This will tell you whether it is buccal or lingual or be- 
tween the teeth because you are looking right down on the palate. In 
other words, I direct my rays in such a way that they will come down 
on it. Then, if it is on the buccal or lingual side, you will know it, and 
if it is right over the teeth, it will show that, too. 

That's the simplest method I could tell you. I could spend an hour 
on different methods of Idealization, but that is the simplest and the one 
we use. 

Here is another little point on localization that many of you might 
want. It's practical. 

Supposing you have an edentulous mouth with some residual roots, 
and you want to know where to go in. Take your film and put it in the 
mouth. Take an indelible pencil and put a mark on the tissue on the an- 
terior portion; expose it; develop it. Measure back then on the film the 
distance that the root shows on the film. Take that measurement, put it 
back from the indelible spot in your mouth, and there is your root. 

MEMBER: Will you say a little about pulp-stones? 

DR. ENNIS: As far as I am concerned, pulp-stones are much ado 
about nothing. I don't think I have ever seen more than a half dozen cases 
where pulp-stones were doing any harm to anybody. 



148 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



This statement that a tooth stops growing at a certain time, to me, 
is a fallacy. It depends on what you mean by stops growing — whether it 
is up or out. Any tooth — and you all know this, you have all seen it and 
can prove it — keeps on growing until you die, or until the entire tooth is 
completely calcified, where you have no pulp chamber at all. 

In any tooth, the older you grow, the smaller the pulp chamber and 
the smaller the canal is. You get these people around seventy where you 
have a lot of trauma, a man chewing tobacco, and you will see practically 
no pulp chamber of the lower anterior teeth. 

A pulp nodule is practically the same thing, only broken away and 
lying there in the pulp. I think there is a gentleman in this audience 
who sent me a case that had so many pulp-stones it wasn't even funny. 
If you start to take out all the teeth to remove the pulp-stones that you 
see in x-rays, that's all you are going to do for the rest of your life — 
open up good pulp to take out the pulp-stones. 

DR. McFALL: Thank you. Dr. Ennis, for coming to us. 

(The members then moved to the East Ballroom in the George Van- 
derbilt Hotel for a continuation of the program.) 

DR. McFALL: We will continue our discussion with Dr. Dobbs, the 
gentleman who gave us such a fine presentation yesterday on recent ad- 
vancements in drug therapy. Dr. Dobbs is here and will answer any 
questions now along that line that any of you care to ask. 

MEMBER: How about the use of staticin. Isn't that the medicine 
you mentioned yesterday? 

DR. DOBBS: Yes, Doctor. 

MEMBER: I hadn't heard of it. 

DR. DOBBS: Staticin is a new drug which has been introduced for 
the purpose of retarding the excretion of penicillin through the kidney 
tubules. The purpose of staticin is to increase the concentration of peni- 
cillin in the blood and tissue to a point where you have an adequate thera- 
peutic level. About 8% of the penicillin which is introduced into the body 
is excreted through the tubules, and staticin blocks this excretion. 

When staticin is administered, you can give about one-fourth of the 
usual dosage of penicillin and get a therapeutic blood level. 

Now, it does have a disadvantage. Staticin has a bad taste. You 
need to give two tablets of staticin eveiy four hours, day and night, as 
long as the penicillin is administered, and many patients are prone to be 
nauseated and vomit. 

The cost of staticin is about equal to that of penicillin, so, on an 
economic basis, there is no particular reason for its use. 

There is a possibility that, in some patients, for one reason or another, 
it is impossible to maintain a therapeutic blood level when staticin can be 
given and the penicillin will be more effective. 



Containing the Proceedings 149 



In dentistry, I would say it had limited usefulness at this time. 

DR. McFALL: The question has been asked, "What would you do on 
palliative treatment for such a burn as you showed yesterday on sodium 
perborate. What would you do to give relief? 

DR. DOBBS: Discontinue the sodium perborate; use a bland mouth- 
wash, such as baking soda, 3% solution, or sodium chloride, physiologic 
solution. In one or two days, the condition will clear up spontaneously. 

MEMBER: What is your specific treatment for Vincent's infection? 

DR. DOBBS: Vincent's infection is best treated with penicillin. For 
the gingivitis, which is a local condition, I suggest local applications of 
penicillin. The best pi-eparations are the troches, the lozenge type, which 
contains between 1,000 and 5,000 units of penicillin. The patient dissolves 
these in his mouth slowly. The dosage depends upon the severity of the 
infection. Generally, two lozenge-type troches between meals, six per day, 
is all that is neecessary. 

DR. McFALL: This is another that I have been given: "Is one den- 
tifrice put out and accepted by the A.D.T. better than another?" 

DR. DOBBS: That is a very controversial question. 

I am very happy to say that the Council on Dental Therapeutics no 
longer accepts or rejects dentifrices, unless the dentifrices have thera- 
peutic claims. 

The subject of dentifrices has been a sore one to the Council and to 
many of the members of the dental profession. Probably all of the den- 
tifrices on the market are safe and efficacious. Many of them do advertise 
falsely, and, for that reason, the Council on Dental Therapeutics would 
not accept it. There are exceptions. 

In the early days, perhaps you remember that potassium chlorate 
was included in Pebaco tooth paste, and if a child were to eat one-half a 
tube, there was enough of this toxic substance to kill him. 

Some of the dentifrices contained irritating substances. You are all 
aware of Ipana, which, during the war, was forced to change their formula 
from a glycerine base to an aqueous syrup base and, as a result, some 
of these irritating substances were concentrated in the preparation and 
burned the patients. The Federal Trade Associations now has an injunc- 
tion against Ipana, and the outcome of the court decision depends on time. 

MEMBER: What is the most accepted sterilizing agent in cavity 
preparations? 

DR. DOBBS: I thought when I started, when they said that I would 
answer all questions, that they were going to be lenient, but it seems they 
are getting harder and harder. I wish I knew how to answer that question. 

At the University of Maryland, they asked me the same question, so 
I went upstairs to my laboratory and I concocted a 50% solution of alcohol, 



150 BuUetm North Carolina Dental Society 



and, to keep the students fi'om drinking it, I put thymol in. So, we used 
thymol and alcohol. I think perhaps it is a shame to waste the alcohol 
by poisoning it with thymol, but my impression is that we have two things 
to consider — one is the cavity sterilization. Cavity toilet, as the late G. V. 
Black discussed it, was more or less a cleansing, and I think that perhaps 
any mildly antiseptic solution, such as the hydrogen peroxide, 50% alcohol, 
such as some of the colorless tinctures, are all good for sterilizing and 
use as cavity toilet. 

Now, whether we are going to sterilize dentine and kill the bacteria 
which are deeply implanted in the tissues is indeed very questionable, so 
I wouldn't use the cavity sterilization, because I don't think that it can 
be accomplished. The use of silver nitrate discolors the tooth, and for that 
reason, I think it is unsatisfactory. The use of phenol, in the liquid state, 
is probably satisfactory. It has peneration into the tubules, and if it 
comes in contact with the micro-organisms it will destroy them. Secondly, 
it is obtunding in its action. You can remove the phenol with alcohol, but 
it must be used judiciously. 

I know my dentist uses it, and immediately after the insertion of the 
phenol, he reaches for the air and blows it all over my mouth. The next 
day, I have fifteen or twenty little ulcers. I have told him about it, but, 
being good friends, he just says that I am one of those peculiar teachers, 
and he goes right on blowing the phenol all over everyone's mouth. 

If you are going to use it in that way, I would say perhaps water is 
the best. If you are going to do it conscientiously, perhaps liquefied phenal, 
following it with 70% alcohol is satisfactory. Too strong a solution of 
alcohol is bad for the teeth and the stomach. 

MEMBER : What is the reason for using alcohol after the phenol? 

DR. DOBBS : Phenol has a greater solubility in alcohol than it does in 
the tooth tissue; therefore, there is a withdrawal of the phenol into the 
alcohol, or into the alcohol sponge, and then, as you withdraw the sponge, 
you remove the excess phenol. 

MEMBER: What about beechwood creosote? 

DR. DOBBS: That was a favorite in the old days in the treatment 
of odontalgia, toothache, and root canal therapy and obtunding sensitive 
dentine, and perhaps for sterilizing cavity preparation. The preparation 
has a good bit of viscosity, and if it is not removed there is a possibility 
that you will not get as good an approximation of your filling to the 
cavity margin. That's only a speculation. It has a disagreeable odor to 
the patient and will smell up the office; it has a higher degree of bacteria 
acidulation than liquefied phenol, and it is less caustic. 

All in all, creosote is probably a moderately good drug to use in den- 
tistry wherever you need an antiseptic. 

MEMBER: What is the objection to what little phenol might be left in 
that cavity after you blow it out with air? 



Containing the Proceedings 151 



DR. DOBBS: None. 

MEMBER: How about the use of penicillin in areas where there is 
cellulitis and things like that? Which is the best to use? 

DR. DOBBS: If there is a cellulitis with a systemic involvement, the 
patient having hyperpyrexia and other systemic symptoms of toxicity, the 
penicillin should be administered systemically. You can give it in saline 
solution, 30,000 units every three hours around the clock until the infection 
is aborted. You can give the Romansky formula, which is 300,000 units 
of penicillin in beeswax and peanut oil, once every twelve hours, or once 
every twenty-four hours, depending upon the severity of the infection. You 
can give the newer preparation, which is penicillin procaine, in peanut oil, 
300,000 units once in twenty-four hours, and that should abort the acute 
phase. 

Now, if you wish to remove the tooth, you can use a penicillin, such 
as the Cook-Waite preparation — iniect 20,000 units of penicillin in procaine 
solution around the tooth, and then extract the tooth. 

If you feel that a systemic reaction will occur, you can augment that 
with systemic medication of penicillin, 300,000 units of penicillin pro- 
caine in oil. 

DR. MCFALL: What do you do to save your face in hematoma? 

DR. DOBBS: Or the patient's face? I wouldn't try to save my face. 
I think it's done. I would just say that it's a shame and tell him to go 
home and put ice on it. It happens in the best of practices. 

MEMBER: It doesn't show up for three days though. 

DR. DOBBS: That's a different type of hematoma, which occurs at a 
later time. I have seen that type in fractures in which a roughened edge 
of bone would later cut a blood vessel, permitting the escape of blood into 
the soft tissue, producing a hematoma. That is a more serious condition. 
I think that the fracture should be looked at and perhaps stabilized. 

If you have a hematoma three days later, it may be due to infection 
in that area, infection around a blood vessel, and rupture of that blood 
vessel. That, again, can be very serious. 

Hematomas that continue over long periods of time are very often 
serious if operated upon. We had one at the University hospital. Fortu- 
nately, I was out of town and didn't try it. Dr. Wilkeson (perhaps some of 
you know him) tried it and nearly lost the patient. He bled profusely; 
they didn't know where the artery was, that was cut, and the only thing 
they could do was block the areas and give transfusions continuously. 

Hematomas, generally, are not serious, particularly those following an 
injection. I would just accept it and say you are sorry. I don't think you 
are particularly liable. There's nothing that you have done if you have 
carried out the precautions that you should following an injection. 

MEMBER: How about penicillin treatment of the root canal? 



152 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



DR. DOBBS : Penicillin in root canal therapy is still controversial. 
Di\ Grossman of the University of Pennsylvania has tried it without 
success. I find in the literature, particularly in the latter part of last 
year, that many favorable reports were coming in, in the use of penicillin 
in root canal therapy. 

You must keep in mind that it is not a drug of universal application, 
that there are instances where the infecting organisms are penicillin- 
sensitive, and, if that be the case, you will get good results. Usually, if 
you have a mix, it is infection, and all you do is cut down the growth 
and development of the penicillin-sensitive organisms, allowing a growth 
of the non-penicillin-sensitive, so all you have changed is one pathogen 
to another. 

I think you should use it in conjunction with some other form of 
antiseptic. 

MEMBER: Is there any relationship between dry sockets and the 
use of penicillin? In recent literature, there has been some comment that 
penicillin in the sockets does delay the blood clot or destroy the blood 
clot, but sulfa helps it. 

DR. DOBBS: There has been a report, several reports, in the litera- 
ture that penicillin will inhibit blood clotting and in that way tend to 
promote hemorrhage. We have never observed that in our practice. 

The use of penicillin, either by injection or by local application, should 
not in any appreciable way retard the clotting of the blood and foster 
hemorrhage. 

MEMBER: What is the most accepted thing in hemorrhage now? 

DR. DOBBS: Fortunately, the control of hemorrhage has changed 
within the last few years. We have many substances now available which 
are markedly efficient in the control of hemorrhage. Their application is 
not much different than the application of foreign-body substances that 
we used previously. 

For instance, the old manner of controlling hemorrhage was to apply 
gauze to the area, exert pressure, have the patient at rest, and nature 
would form a clot. Now we can use cellulose materials, similar to gauze, 
but which have been treated so that they are absorbent. These substances 
seem to foster blood clotting and tend to reduce bleeding time. Oxicell 
is a good example; gelfoam is another, as is fibrinfoam, which previously 
came from human blood. Now they are getting it from animal blood, and 
it seems to be just as satisfactory. These preparations may be combined 
with thrombin, which is one of the essential substances in blood clotting. 

These may be applied to the bleeding areas, held firmly in place, the 
patient allowed to rest, and clotting will take place. 

There are a few instances where the blood just fails to clot. That's not 
a local phenomenon — that's a systemic phenomenon. For instance, in liver 
disease where the patient is not absorbing vitamin K, there is no thrombin 



Containing the Proceedings 153 

in the blood and it just fails to clot. You will find cases of pseudo-hemo- 
philia, in which the blood just fails to clot. You will find others in which 
the thrombins fail to produce clotting. 

So, when you have a condition that the ordinary methods will not 
check, say, in one or two hours, and there is still profuse bleeding, I would 
send the patient to the hospital, have a blood check-up made, and perhaps 
in that way hemorrhage may be controlled. 

MEMBER: Are the sulfonamides being put in as many sockets after 
extraction today as formerly? 

DR. DOBBS: I can't answer that. You could perhaps get it better 
from some of the dental supply salesmen. 

I can say this about the application of the sulfonamides locally — that 
if you are to use them, I would use a finely divided powder in a sterile 
state and apply it by insulfation to the area, or with a small spatula, just 
dusting it over the area and allow the drug to remain in contact for at 
least a half hour. 

The use of cones may or may not be satisfactory. That is likewise true 
of the tablets. There is always a possibility that the cone is old and dehy- 
drated, that it will not readily go into solution, and it will act as a foreign 
body, inhibiting the healing rather than fostering healing. 

MEMBER: Is it practical to use sodium fluoride in cavities already 
prepared before inserting fillings? 

DR. McFALL: You hold that for the next clinic. 

DR. DOBBS: I think that's better. Dr. Knutson is looking at me, and 
I think perhaps the best part of valor is discretion. 

DR. KNUTSON: Go right ahead. Doctor. 

DR. DOBBS: My impression in the use of fluorides for obtunding is 
that if you will apply a 2% solution to the sensitive cavity, wipe it dry 
afterwards, you will not get any palpal irritation. Perhaps my experience 
has been limited enough that we have not seen too many examples of 
pulpal irritation from the use of sodium fluoride. 

MEMBER: What is your opinion of the use of sulfonamides in sockets 
after an extraction? Are they of great aid? 

DR. DOBBS : Perhaps I can augment that question or the answer that 
I give by saying that I do not believe in the sulfonamides being used 
routinely in tooth extraction. Perhaps, in those severe cases where you 
anticipate an infection, they may have value, but not routinely. 

MEMBER: I want to know where we can get some of your favorite 
formulas. 

DR. DOBBS: I have a few here. If I don't have enough, if you will 
put your name and address down here and have patience I'll send you 
a copy. 



154 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



MEMBER: Dr. Dobbs, on vitamin therapy, there are indications that 
there are objections to dentists administering vitamin therapy. Are we 
within our rights in prescribing vitamin therapy for our patients per se? 

DR. DOBBS: Personally, I think we are. At the Council on Dental 
Therapeutics meeting, Dr. Austin Smith, Secretary of the Council on Phar- 
macy and Chemistry of the A.M. A. took exception to my statement, and 
said that he did not believe that the dentists are qualified to prescribe 
vitamins. He said that he thought it was necessary to make elaborate 
diagnosis first and then use vitamins, and I disagreed vehemently with him. 

I think that vitamins may be used in at least two instances. One is 
as a preventive or to supplement the diet of the patient, and secondly, a 
curative. In certain cases, for instance, as a supplement to the diet, it is 
absolutely important and sometimes necessary. For instance, on all frac- 
ture cases that come into the University of Maryland, and under my super- 
vision, I provide adequate diet high in proteins, carbohydrates, and vita- 
mins. If patients are without teeth, following extraction, I think that you 
should care for their diet, and perhaps give them supplemental vitamin 
therapy. . 

There are some cases that come into the office in which you expect 
or suspect from the symptoms that a vitamin deficiency may be prevalent, 
and you can give to these patients the therapeutic vitamin preparations 
which contain five times the accepted dosage of the vitamins. Now, I do 
not believe that any dentist should use those mammoth doses of vitamins. 
For instance, use a hundred thousand units of vitamin D for some form 
of arthritis at the temporal mandibular joint. I don't think you should 
and I don't think the average physician should. Perhaps those who are 
specializing in some field, physician or dentist, may use those mammoth 
doses, but for most of us, I would say that we should use first the supple- 
mentary preparations which contain the accepted for all of the vitamins, 
and then, if you suspect that the patient needs more, you can use the 
therapeutic preparation. 

I am not advertising Squibb products, but they have two excellent 
vitamin concentrate preparations in tablet and liquid form, one as a supple- 
ment, and the other as a therapeutic agent. If you are interested, I'd get 
some literature on these. 

MEMBER: In connection with what Dr. McFall said about giving 
sulfonamides, in carrying that patient to saturation point, probably, you 
are not getting a blood picture, and you have a possibility of going into 
sulf hemoglobin. What do you think of that? 

DR. DOBBS: The wisdom of sulfonamides without a blood study is 
probably not good practice, but the majority of dentists are doing it and 
the majority of physicians are doing it. So I don't think the dentist is 
the only one that is negligent in administering the sulfonamides without 
a blood picture. 

I do think that you administer the drugs, as I told you before, for 
three days; have the patient come in and ask him a few questions. You 



Containing the Proceedings 155 



can tell by the mucus membranes whether there is cyanosis; you should 
inquire if the urinary function is normal, that they are passing at least 
a thousand to fifteen hundred cc. of urine per day; you can look at the 
color of the eyes and tell whether any liver disease has started. If you do 
that, I think you have done enough, if you are administering the drug for 
three days to six days. Beyond six days, perhaps you had better take your 
patient to the hospital and there, like the physician, you can get a routine 
blood check-up. 

MEMBER: Doctor, you can now inject around or inject almost into 
so-called infected areas with the novocaine penicillin combination, and 
so forth? 

DR. DOBBS : The subject of injecting penicillin into acutely infected 
tissue is still in the experimental stage. The work that has been done in 
medicine and in dentistry suggests that, if done cautiously, penicillin may 
be injected at least around inflamed areas, and that the concentration of 
penicillin in the tissue is much higher than you can get by giving the 
drug systemically. The use of penicillin to inject into an acute abscess is 
probably not justified. There is a danger that the infection which is being 
localized by the tissues will be spread, and that the infection, instead of 
being benefited, will be perhaps harmed. 

MEMBER : What about this hypodermic needle that you inject into 
the tissue without its entering the tissue? Is that going to be adaptable 
to dentistry? I understand the physicians are using it, and the point of 
the needle absolutely does not go into the tissues, but, with a lot of pres- 
sure, puts the solution through the pores. 

DR. DOBBS: The introduction of drugs into the tissue by air pressure 
is still in the experimental stage. 

There is a young doctor in Baltimore that has been doing a good bit 
of work, and he has introduced certain substances through the skin by 
this high air pressure. It is sort of a miniature atomic bomb, and I have 
never personally liked the idea, but it may have some therapeutic useful- 
ness later on. 

MEMBER: I understand that the American College of Surgeons con- 
siders the injection of novocaine into an abscessed area quite all right to 
do. What do you think of that? 

DR. DOBBS: Well, I disagree with that. I wouldn't inject penicillin 
directly into an acute Ludwig's infection. 

MEMBER: This is novocaine. 

DR. DOBBS: 0, pardon me. What would be the benefit? 

MEMBER: As an anesthetic, I understand. 

DR. McFALL: Dr. Dobbs, I suspect he has reference to making a 
wheel, as they often do in massive induction methods with novocaine. 



156 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

DR. DOBBS : If I am interpreting the question correctly, it is the use 
of procaine as a local anesthetic agent for surgery in Ludwig's angina. 

You must keep in mind that sensation is just beneath the skin. There 
is very little deep muscle sense. So, if you will inject your procaine solu- 
tion just under the skin and in the area of the incision, you can go in 
there, make your incision, and you can work around until you find the 
pus pockets and so forth, without producing any appreciable amount of 
pain to the patient. We do that. 

DR. McFALL: Not only has Dr. Dobbs given us a lot of first-hand 
beneficial help, but he has taught all of us how to pronounce things that 
we have been messing around with all of our lives. You don't say "sul- 
fonamides"; it's "sulfona-mids"! 

DR. DOBBS: Thank you, gentlemen. 

DR. McFALL: Dr. Knutson will now answer any questions you may 
have on sodium fluoride. First of all, he wishes to demonstrate his technic 
in application on one of your number. 

(One of the members then went up to the platform, and Dr. Knutson 
then gave the following demonstration.) 

DR. KNUTSON : In the use of topical fluorides, we gave you the 
technic, the procedure. 

The first step is to cleanse the teeth, using the pumice paste, motor- 
driven rubber cup. This is not a traditional dental prophylaxis, but merely 
a cleansing, a removing of the gross debris from the crown surfaces of 
the teeth. 

Step No. 2 is isolating the teeth with cotton rolls; No. 3 is to dry the 
teeth with compressed air; and No. 4, you wet the crown surfaces of the 
teeth with your fluoride solution. 

Now, of all those four steps, there is one that will give you more 
trouble (it gave me more trouble) than any of the others. That is step 
No. 2. You can spend a lot of time on it. I am going to try to give you 
what little I have learned about that step No. 2, which is isolating the 
teeth with cotton rolls. 

What is the effective way of using cotton rolls in the mouth? It should 
be clear to you that we are not only interested in getting rolls in the mouth, 
that these must not only isolate the teeth, but they must be away from 
the teeth. If they are contiguous, they will absorb the solution as fast as 
you put it on. In other words, you are going to use these cotton rolls in 
such a way that they help isolate the teeth. 

The first thing we want, in the use of No. 2 size cotton roll, is that we 
want the patient to help us; we want the facial muscles to help us. We 
want to work in cooperation with the patient so that we will work together 
instead of against each other. 



Containing the Proceedings I57 

In doing this, the first thing we come to is seating the patient. The 
usual thing to do is to adjust the head in the reclining position. If we are 
going to use the cotton rolls, he is not going to work with you. Just throw 
your head back and see what it does with the facial muscles. Those facial 
muscles, you can recognize, are pulling this cotton roll in the upper mouth 
out. So, let's have the patient in the erect position. 

The next thing you do is to have him open his mouth real wide. It 
isn't what you want. It would force the cotton roll out. You have to have 
his mouth open, but you want him to open in the relaxed position so that 
these muscles are not straining against the cotton rolls. So much for 
seating the patient. 

For the lower mouth, our problem is not anywhere as complicated as 
with the upper mouth. Our main task is to find a cotton roll holder that 
works well in our hand. This happens to be one that works fairly well 
in my hand. 

In cutting the cotton rolls, instead of using the butt end, and placing 
that in the upper mouth, you cut those at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees. 
You can readily understand why that will fit much better than the butt 
end. There would be less traction to the cotton rolls. In fact, we cut all 
our cotton rolls that way, even the ones in the lower mouth. 

Again, we don't want to have a cotton roll holder or a device that will 
take too much time. That isolates the teeth in the lower mouth. (Demon- 
strating.) Not only are the cotton rolls isolating the teeth, but they are 
away from the teeth. 

At the upper teeth, we insert the posterior end of the cotton roll with 
our index finger; but, before inserting the front end, give it a twist away 
from the lip. Why do we do that? So the cotton roll will have a tendency 
to turn up into the fold instead of away from the fold. In other words, 
you want to put that cotton roll in once ; you don't want to do, as I found 
I was doing — put it in and have itjook fine, then go to the table to get 
the solution and the cotton roll is down. You do the same thing with the 
others — turn the front ends aw^ay from the lip so that after it is set it 
will have the tendency to roll up into the fold instead of out of the fold. 

MEMBER: Whose cotton roll holder is that? 

DR. KNUTSON: Garner cotton roll holder. 

DR. McFALL: For your first question, will you comment on the 
sodium fluoride in open cavities. 

DR. KNUTSON: Frankly, I wouldn't use it. I wouldn't use it in a 
freshly cut cavity. 

The general impression is that if you use this solution to prevent 
dental caries, why not paint your cavity walls with sodium fluoride solution 
before inserting the filling? If you do that, you are doing just the opposite 
from what you are taught, and that is to use a mildly obtunding antiseptic. 



158 - Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

one that is kind to the pulpal walls and is non-irritating. Sodium fluoride 
in solution is an irritant; it has an irritating action, so I would not use it, 
until we learn otherwise, in freshly cut cavities. 

MEMBER: What do you think of applying the solution to bicuspids 
or second molars that are very calcified? 

DR. KNUTSON: I think that would be an excellent idea. You have 
tricalcium phosphate there. It should take up the fluoride and should be 
more resistant to decalcification. 

MEMBER: Where you have caries in deciduous teeth, with cavities, 
would it work as well on them? 

DR. KNUTSON: Prior to insertion of the filling? 

MEMBER: No, without filling. 

DR. KNUTSON : You have isolated these teeth with cotton rolls and 
dried them. I would paint all the teeth with fluoride — those with open 
caries lesions, filled teeth, and sound teeth. 

MEMBER: I would like to clear up this thought. You fellows are not 
advocating that we use this where we have been using silver nitrate. Your 
big thought is the closed enamel surface; isn't that right? Do you advo- 
cate that it helps any at all in open cavities to inhibit caries? 

DR. KNUTSON : We don't know that it inhibits caries in open cavi- 
ties. We know it does no harm. You have an open caries lesion there; it 
is open to the fluids in the mouth, it does have the irritating effect — in 
that case, the same effect as if it were sealed into the cavity. 

We do know that the surfaces, the sound surfaces of the teeth that 
are carious at the time of treatment, are less subject to additional decay 
than surfaces of carious teeth that are not treated. 

But I wanted to clear up the point that Dr. McFall mentioned. I don't 
know as I understand it, because, as far as I know, it has not been demon- 
strated that silver nitrate has any caries inhibiting effect when used in 
open cavities. 

MEMBER: You don't claim that sodium fluoride has, either. 

DR. KNUTSON: No, we don't. 

MEMBER: What is the effect of sodium fluoride on adult enamel? 

DR. KNUTSON: That we don't know. All the clinical tests have been 
on children of school age, except for one small study on a group of Coast 
Guard cadets where only one application was made, and, furthermore, the 
solution was acidulated. 

So that the answer to your question is that we don't know how effec- 
tive it is on adults, but the results of laboratory investigations indicate 
that it should be fully as effective. 



Containing the Proceedings 



159 



MEMBER: Is there any difference in the chemistry of adult enamel? 

DR. KNUTSON: The results of laboratory investigations indicate 
there is none, that the adult enamel takes up the fluoride as readily as the 
young enamel. 

MEMBER: How about the drinking water? How many cities now 
have that m their drinking water? Has the U. S. Public Health Service 
advocated that any of the other cities try it? 

DR. KNUTSON: I don't know the exact number of those who have 
fluormated their water supply. At last count, there were at least ten I 
am sure there are more, but those fluorinations are on a demonstration 
basis, and we will not be able to advocate its general use until the results 
of those demonstrations have been obtained. It will take a minimum of 
two to three years to get the established preliminary effects, and even 
longer than that — five years more— to get the full effects. 

MEMBER: Considering that these studies have been made under very 
special conditions, and that the treatment with sodium fluoride in a private 
oflice would be under a different basis, what would be the total chair time 
for a whole series of treatment? 

DR. KNUTSON: For the series of four applications? 
MEMBER: Just the four applications. 

DR. KNUTSON: Including the first cleansing, from forty-five minutes 
to an hour for the series of four. 

MEMBER: Doctor, are there legal aspects with which we might be 
concerned m the fluorination of the water supply? Can an individual, let's 
say, sue the city if a child gets mild mottling of the enamel? 

DR. KNUTSON: I have been told that if the community officials 
endorse the use of fluorine in the water supply for the community, the city 
cannot be sued successfully to recover any damages. 

MEMBER: Are there any other objections or ill effects except mot- 
tling of the enamel from the use of it? 

DR. KNUTSON: The first toxic eff^ect of the ingestion of fluorides 
over long periods of time— excessive amounts-is mottled enamels in the 
growing child, in the child from birth to age eight. That is the first toxic 
symptom of, let's say, fluoride intoxication. 

MEMBER: In those mouths that have the wide contact points. Doctor 
I don t see how the solution gets down in there. Isn't there a possibility 
that it doesn't get down in there? 

.;. F^: 5 ^^^'50^^■ One of the first things that ycu will note (at least 
the fii^st that I noted) in the treatment of the teeth with flucriie solution 
after they had been thoroughly dried is the, let's say, strength of capillary 
attraction force there. If you wet the buccal surfaces, clean the occlusal 
surfaces, and last draw your swab on the lingual surfaces, you can actually 



160 ' Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



see it wetting the entire proximal surface, and you can see the play of 
the solution in the interproximal surfaces. 

Now, you will not wet the exact contact point — at least, as far as I 
know. We have a tight contact point. You will not wet that surface, but 
your real vulnerable surface is right below that. 

MEMBER : How about the mix in chalk preparations for prophylaxis? 

DR. KNUTSON : That has been tested and is being subjected to 
further test — that is, the use of fluoride solution in your prophylactic paste. 
One thing we want to be sure of and that is that we won't have a substance 
that will dry up the fluoride, such as common calcium carbonate. If we 
take that and add the fluoride solution, the calcium carbonate will take up 
the fluoride and the fluoride won't be available for the teeth. 

The clinical results of such usage of fluorides have not been encourag- 
ing to date. Some of the initial results looked good, and, on more thorough 
investigation, were rather discouraging. 

MEMBER: What about the fluorine found in the chemical analysis 
of the teeth that have been treated topically with fluoride solution? 

DR. KNUTSON : The amount of fluoride or the tracing of the fluoride 
has not been accomplished as yet. Already, there are methods now avail- 
able so that, within a relatively short time, we should be able to trace the 
fluoride and determine the amount that is taken up by the enamels. 

MEMBER: Does that raise the resistance of the teeth to caries or 
change the environment of the bacteria? 

DR. KNUTSON: I don't know. The theory that I lean towards and 
the one that seems most logical to me is that there is actual union of the 
fluoride with the enamel, and that this union produces a substance which 
is more resistant to decalcification or the action of acids. 

MEMBER: Would you discuss something about the 4% solution of 
sodium fluoride? 

DR. KNUTSON: We have used the 2,% solution almost entirely in 
oui studies. The only other solution that we have used is the 1%, and the 
results from one study group indicate that 1% is fully as effective as the 
2.%, but the majority of the evidence is on that established by the effect 
of topical fluorides based on 3%. Until any other change in that solution 
has been verified, I will continue to use the 2% solution. 

MEMBER: Does it help to alleviate sensitivity in the teeth of adults? 

DR. KNUTSON: A different fluoride mixture is used in the treat- 
ment of hypersensitive dentine. That is a desensitizing paste made of a 
third sodium fluoride, a third glycerine, and a third clay. That is a very 
potent fluoride mixture, and is applied after the area has been dried and 
isolated, and then it is thoroughly washed out of the mouth after the 
treatment has been given. You have to give it once, twice, or three times 
to desensitize the teeth. 



Containing the Proceedings 161 

MEMBER: Will the 2% solution burn the membrane or ^m in any 
manner? 

DR. KNUTSON: The 2% solution does not burn the membrane, if it 
is used as we use it in the topical fluoride procedure. 

MEMBER: In other words, it isn't necessary to wash it out after 
applying? 

DR. KNUTSON : It is not necessary to wash it out after applying it. 

MEMBER: If the local city council is in favor of it, and would like 
to know our opinion of adding fluorine to the drinking water supply, would 
it be wise for us, as a local society, to recommend that they add it to the 
water supply, or should we wait until further studies are made? Should 
we go ahead and have them put it in or not? 

DR. KNUTSON : I have four children, and I wish they were on fluori- 
nated water. The evidence in favor of fluorinating the water supply is 
extremely good, but it is still presumptive, so that this decision will have 
to be made for yourselves on the same basis it was made when we decided 
to fluorinate the water, with the cooperation of the Michigan Department 
of Health, in Grand Rapids. The evidence is excellent in favor of its 
being effective. That same evidence will be available to you. If you think 
it is better than a 50-50 basis, that may be a reason for going ahead, but 
on your own basis, not on my say-so or anyone else's. We don't know any 
more about it than you do. 

MEMBER: What is the approximate cost to the city? 

DR. KNUTSON : Approximately 8c per person. That varies. During 
the war, when we started the project out in Grand Rapids, the cost was 7c 
per person — about a pound per person a year. It went up as high as 13c. 
Now it is back to about 9l^c per pound. 

MEMBER: Have there been any studies made as to burns, because 
once you see the mottling, it is very soft. I was wondering if there had 
been any studies made on that. 

DR. KNUTSON: Not that I know of. 

MEMBER: Wouldn't the machinery raise the initial cost of mixing 
that in the water? 

DR. KNUTSON : The machinery for fluorinating the water supply in 
Grand Rapids cost about $800 per unit feeder. We needed two feeders be- 
cause the water supply was divided into two parts. 

MEMBER : What percentage should you have in the city water supply? 

DR. KNUTSON: What concentration? 

MEMBER: Yes. 

DR. KNUTSON : One to one and a half parts per million appears to 
be the optimum amount. 



162 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

MEMBER: Have there been any allergic reactions at all to the topical 
application of fluorine? 

DR. KNUTSON : None that I know of. "We have now treated upwards 
of seven thousand children, in group of 350, and have had no, let's say, 
untoward reaction to the use of topical fluorides. 

I want to point out and emphasize the fact that you are using a 
poison. Sodium fluoride is ordinarily known as cockroach poison. If your 
child patient should drink four to six ounces of the solution, it would un- 
doubtedly be lethal. In other words, you want to think of it just as you 
think of using iodine and some of your other poisons. 

I also want to point out that there is 30 cc. in an ounce, and six ounces 
would be 180 cc. About 3 cc. of the solution should be about the maximum 
amount that you should use in wetting the teeth. You can see a range of 
safety there, but use it in such a way that you merely wet the crown sur- 
faces of the teeth, and don't use it sloppily. 

DR. McFALL : Several of the fellows have asked what is your opinion 
on the oral administration of fluoride, and, relative to that gentleman's 
question, what are the allergic disturbances from it. 

DR. KNUTSON : There is no other use of fluorides than that of topi- 
cal fluorides that has been clinically tested adequately and found to be 
effective in preventing dental caries. Ensofluor, which is a calcium fluoride, 
has not been subject to suflicient clinical testing to establish its worth. I 
might say that, in general, I am skeptical of its value because it has been 
demonstrated that calcium fluoride is much less readily absorbed by the 
body than sodium fluoride. Certainly there should be serious doubt that 
it has any effect after the teeth have been calcified, after age eight. I am 
speaking of the teeth, not including the third molar. 

MEMBER: This is a new thing. How do we arrive at a fee for this 
treatment, or is that an individual problem? 

DR. KNUTSON : That's a good question. It is a question that has 
been asked in every group meeting we have had of this type. It is an excel- 
lent question because, by and large, that is one of the first general pre- 
ventive procedures that dentistry is going to employ. You have not had 
much experience in your practice of charging fees for preventive services, 
and your first inclination, naturally, would be one of charging a fee 
that's low. 

You should charge a fee in accordance with the service time necessary 
to give this service, and you want to start doing it right now. Now, I don't 
think that there is much belief that you will be able to give this service 
much cheaper than you give it in your private practice. There is no doubt 
about it. But the physician has gone through that same thing and is still 
going through it. I think there is available to all of us, in most communi- 
ties in this country, diphtheria immunization and smallpox vaccination at 
costs ranging from 25 to 50c in public clinics. Yet, your pediatrician, and 
I have had the experience, will charge you $5.00 for that same treatment, 



Containing the Proceedings 163 

and his conscience doesn't bother him at all, and it shouldn't because he 
has an office, he has overhead; he has to charge more. Yet, I did it, and 
many of you, I am sure have done it, even though you could 'get it for 25c 
or 50c in the public clinic. 

The fee that you will charge will vary, markedly, depending on the 
value that you put on your service time. 

MEMBER: Up in New Jersey this past week-end, I understand, the 
Governor signed a bill permitting oral hygienists or dental technicians to 
be legalized in the state of New Jersey. I understand that quite a few 
states have legalized dental hygienists. The question is, are these dental 
hygienists to be permitted to apply, legally, this treatment, and is it con- 
sidered a part of the prophylaxis? 

DR. KNUTSON: I believe that 39 states, now that New Jersey has 
passed the bill, have now legalized dental hygienists; whether or not they 
will be allowed to administer topical fluoride treatments will rest, I am 
sure, with the decisions made by the State Dental Society or the' State 
Board of Dental Examiners. I don't know as it should be; I don't think 
It should be otherwise than what the dental hygienist has prescribed as 
her scope of activity by the dentist under whose supervision she works. 

MEMBER: What is the ideal age that you should administer this 
treatment for children, and how often should it be administered, that is 
through the year? If you start at 6, how long should it be given and how 
many years should that last? 

DR. KNUTSON: Ideally, the first application, the first series of appli- 
cations, should be given at approximately age 3 to give this protection to 
the deciduous or primary teeth. But at age 6 we know that those teeth 
are beginning to be lost, the anteriors, and replaced by permanent incisors, 
and also the six-year molar comes in, so that roughly, at age 7 we want 
to treat these new teeth which have come into the mouth. Then again let's 
say at age 10, we would get the bicuspids and cuspids, and at age 13 we 
would get the second molars. You vary those ages according to the erup- 
tion pattern of the individual child. 

MEMBER: Should the teeth be cleansed before the application of the 
fluoride solution? 

DR. KNUTSON: Each series of four applications should be preceded 
by cleansing of the teeth. Each series, not before each application-before 
each series of four. 

MEMBER: How long after you apply the solution do you keep it dry 
before you put water on it? ^ y 

DR. KNUTSON: Approximately three minutes is the time required 
lor the solution to dry. 

MEMBER: What time should elapse between the first and second 
third and fourth treatments? 



164 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



DR. KNUTSON : In our studies that time has varied from three days 
to ten days. 

MEMBER: Between each treatment? 

DR. KNUTSON: That's right. 

DR. McFALL: I'm afraid we can't keep Dr. Knutson any longer as 
he has to get a train. 

We want to thank you very much for the helpful information you have 
given us, Dr. Knutson. (Applause.) 

(A motion picture, "Silicate Cements," was then shown, and the meet- 
ing was recessed.) 

HOUSE OF DELEGATES 
April 27, 1947 

The second meeting of the House of Delegates of the Ninety-Second 
Anniversary Meeting of the North Carolina Dental Society convened in 
the Victory Room of the Hotel George Vanderbilt, Asheville, North Caro- 
lina, at four-fifty o'clock, and was called to order by the President, 
Dr. R. M. Olive. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: I will ask Dr. Medlin, who is taking Dr. Hunt's 
place at the moment, to act as secretary. He will call the roll. 

R. M. Olive, President; C. W. Sanders, President-Elect; Fred Hunt, 
Secretary-Treasurer; A. C. Current, S. L. Bobbitt, F. O. Alford, Paul 
Jones, D. L. Pridgen, Neal Sheffield, W. Jackson, W. D. Yelton, Alice Patsy 
McGuire, J. C. Phillips, Walter Clark, William Matheson, Frank Kirk, 
Wade Sowers, O. L. Presnell, Frank E. Gilliam, Norman F. Ross, H. O. 
Lineberger, J. J. Tew, Paul Fitzgerald, Z. L. Edwards, B. McK. Johnson, 
R. E. Williams, C. D. Eatman, G. L. Overman. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: The meeting is now open for the report of the 
committees. 

(Dr. H. O. Lineberger then presented the report of the Dental Col- 
lege Committee.) 

REPORT OF THE DENTAL COLLEGE COMMITTEE 

The Dental College Committee begs to submit as its report the state- 
ment carried in the Foreword to the Dental Survey which has been our 
main activity during this year. 

FOREWORD 

This report on the Dental needs and dental facilities of North Carolina 
is the culmination of several efforts to improve dental health service, and 
to establish a dental school within the state. 



Containing the Proceedings 165 

The first Dental College Committee was appointed in 1921. This com- 
mittee was instructed to explore the possibility of establishing a Dental 
School at the University of North Carolina. In 1926, Dr. William J. Gies, 
in his Carnegie Foundation report on Dental Education in the United 
States and Canada, suggested that: "The logical place for a Dental Health 
Center and a dental school is the several reasons, mostly financial, action 
was not taken on this suggestion. 

The immediate reasons for the recent study from which the report is 
derived are: 

1. The definite need in North Carolina to create better health service 
for our people. 

2. The inability of the out-of-state dental schools to accept a suflftcient 
number. 

3. The need for expansion of opportunities for postgraduate study in 
North Carolina. 

On October, 1947, the Officers and Executive Committee of the North 
Carolina Dental Society meeting with the Dental College Committee 
authorized a basic dental survey of North Carolina, looking to the estab- 
lishment of a dental school in the state. It was decided to finance the 
survey by donations from the individual members of the State Society. 

Dr. John T. O'Rourke, Director of the Graduate School and Research 
Department of Tufts Dental College, was secured to make the survey. A 
study of this report will impress you with the fact that it is a job well 
done All conditions were thoroughly explored and recommendations ar- 
rived at after due consideration of the facts in hand. 

Dr. O'Rourke has asked the privilege of submitting a supplementary 
section after all concerned have had a chance to thoroughly study this 
report and the recommendations which it includes. 

We are sure all the oflicers and members of the North Carolina Dental 
Society join with the members of the Dental College Committee in ex- 
pressing our thanks to Dr. O'Rourke for his most comprehensive dental 
survey of the dental needs and dental facilities of North Carolina and for 
his recommendations which will serve as a guide for us in the years to come. 

Your committee urges this House of Delegates of the North Carolina 
Dental Society to approve the Survey with the recommendation and to 
set m motion machinery looking to the establishment of a Dental School 
under the auspices of the University of North Carolina.— H. 0. Lineberger 
Chairman. ' 

DR. LINEBERGER: I move the adoption of this report. 
(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

(Dr. Paul Fitzgerald then read the report of the Insurance Com- 
mittee.) 



166 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



REPORT OF THE INSURANCE COMMITTEE 

The Insurance Committee has held one meeting during the year. At 
this meeting Mr. Crumpton of the Commercial Casualty, with whom we 
have a Group Contract, appeared before the committee and reported that 
his company had paid in the past year approximately $15,000.00 in claims. 
This included one death claim of $5,000.00. 

The committee has had no complaints from members of our present 
Group Contract. — Paul Fitzgerald, Chairman. 

DR. FITZGERALD: I move the adoption of this report. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

(Dr. Fitzgerald then read the report of the President's Address Com- 
mittee.) 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 

This committee wishes to commend the President on his able adminis- 
tration of the affairs of the North Carolina Dental Society. We find that 
the President has been judicious in his committee appointments and dili- 
gent in his efforts for the progress and welfare of the organization. Recom- 
mendations made are as follows: 

1. That we support the action of both the American Dental Associa- 
tion and the American Medical Association for greater cooperation 
between the two professions and that we for this purpose change 
the names of our present "Professional Relations Committee" to the 
"Medical Dental Relationship Committee" as it is called by the Na- 
tional Dental and Medical Associations. 

2. That a committee be appointed to be known as "The Advisory Com- 
mittee to the North Carolina Good Health Association." 

3. That a committee be appointed on General Anesthesia to encourage 
and assist those interested in forming clubs for post-graduate study 
of General Anesthesia. 

4. That the Extension Course Committee to encourage more general 
participation in post-graduate study be reappointed. 

5. That the president be requested to furnish several days prior to 
the State Meetings, in the future, copies of his address to the presi- 
dent-elect and the vice-president. 

The committee approves the recommendations of the president as set 
forth in this report. — Paul Fitzgerald, Chairman. 

DR. FITZGERALD: I move the adoption of this report. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

(Dr. A. C. Current then read the report of the Executive Committee.) 



Containing the Proceedings 167 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

During the year, your Executive Committee has held nine meetings. In 
this number are included the times in which this Committee has met with 
the Program, Local Arrangement, Exhibit, Entertainment, Golf, Advisory 
to Medical Care Commission, and Dental College Committees. 

One of our meetings with the Dental College Committee is of particu- 
lar interest since we were in session for a whole day reviewing one of the 
most comprehensive reports on the dental needs of our people, that it has 
been your committee's privilege to hear. 

Since the expenditures, place and time of meetings and other society 
activities which the By-Laws require the Executive Committee to act upon 
will appear in the minutes under the heading of your secretary's report, 
we do not deem it necessary or even advisable to again break them down 
by giving them in detail here. 

However, we do want to thank our officers, our various committees and 
the members at large for the whole-hearted manner in which you have 
assisted your Executive Committee in its effort to serve you this year. 

Your Committee I'ecommends for honorary membership in the North 
Carolina Dental Society the following men: 

Dr. Leroy M. Ennis, Philadelphia, Pa:; Dr. Warren Willman, Chicago, 
111.; Dr. Edwards C. Dobbs, Baltimore, Md.; Dr. John W. Knutson, Wash- 
ington, D. C; Dr. Howard B. Higgins, Spartanburg, S. C; Dr. Robert W. 
Madry, Chapel Hill, N. C; Dr. John T. O'Rourke, Boston, Mass.— A. C. 
Current, Chairman. 

DR. CURRENT: I move the adoption of this report. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

DR. AMOS BUMGARDNER: I have a report of the Professional 
Relations Committee. 

The Professional Relations Committee is a committee that was organ- 
ized, set in motion, by Dr. Mead, in which there is a joint meeting of 
committees and relationships so that there might be an inter-fellowship 
between medicine and dentistry. 



REPORT OF THE PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIP COMMITTEE 

In the fall of 1946 Dr. Sterling V. Mead, President of the American 
Dental Association, created the Medico-Dental Relations Committee of the 
American Dental Association, and appointed five men to represent the Na- 
tional body, with Dr. C. Raymond Wells, New York, Chairman. 

The purpose of the committee is to foster mutual interest between 
the medical and dental professions; to act in a liaison capacity between 
the American Dental Association and the American Medical Association; 
to stimulate local and state dental societies; to form medical and dental 
relations committees in their respective areas. 



168 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

This is the first time there has been such a National committee created. 
These two great health professions so interlocked will rebound to the credit 
of both, as well as to the public. 

A tentative platform has been arranged by the chairman for 1948, 
which consists of the following: 

1. Medical Dental Educational Problems. 

2. Medical Dental Hospital Relations. 

3. Medical Dental Specialties and Specialty Boards. 

4. Medical Dental Prepayment Insurance Plan. 

5. Current Trends of Socialization of the Professions. 

6. Joint Legislative Matters and Cooperation. 

7. Medical Dental Joint Meetings, Local, State and National. 

8. Medical Dental Interest in Obtaining a Secretary of Health in the 
cabinet of the President of the United States. 

9. Joint Approval of Medical Dental Advertisement in Medical and 
Dental Journals. 

On June 6th, 1947, Chairman Wells was invited by the American Med- 
ical Association to attend a dinner given by the allied professions at the 
Hotel Traymore, Atlantic City, New Jersey, in connection with the one 
hundredth anniversary of the American Medical Association. The Chair- 
man attended, thereby fostering a cooperative spirit between medicine and 
dentistry, and listening to many outstanding speakers in the medical field. 

Following this scheduled dinner the Chairman met briefly with three 
members of the Medical Dental Relations Committee of the American Medi- 
cal Association. A mutual consent from all parties was given for an early 
meeting. 

July 24, 1947, this committee met in Chicago at the American Medical 
Association Headquarters. Much progressive good was accomplished. One 
of the highlights of the conference was the desire on both parts regarding 
medical and dental socialization, and that they recommend that the Means 
test be given as a basis for all state health legislation, passed by either 
state or legislative bodies. The Means test is a requirement whereby any 
persons applying for the benefit of prehealth care offered by the local 
municipality, state or federal government, must certify and be investigated 
whether or not the patient can or cannot afford to pay for the services of 
a private practitioner. 

Specifically the Medical Dental Relations Committee requests approval 
of the following: 

1. Continuance of a Medical Dental Relations Committee. (Members 
subject to appointment of future president, of course). 

2. Authorization of funds from general secretary office (not a budg- 
etary item especially for the committee because expenses are un- 
predictable and generally are only small annual expenses). 

3. Approval for a tentative platform as outlined. 

4. Adoption of a Means test on the local level as dentistry's require- 



Containing the Proceedings 169 



ment in any health care legislation which the American Dental 
Association or its constitutional bodies approve. 

5. Reiteration of the express policy of the American Dental Associa- 
tion for Autonomy for Dentistry as a profession and for all schools 
of dentistry. 

6. Authorize the President of the American Dental Association or his 
representative to attend the annual meeting of the Amei'ican Medi- 
cal Association, and to invite the president or his representative of 
the American Medical Association to attend each annual meeting of 
the American Dental Association. 

In cooperation with the national body the undersigned committee of the 
North Carolina Dental Society, as appointed by its president, and acting 
in behalf of our state, have worked with the North Carolina Medical 
Society Committee very harmoniously, and are happy to have as their rep- 
resentative Dr. B. O. Edwards of Asheville. — A. S. Bumgardner, Chairman. 

I move the adoption of this report. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

(Dr. G. L. Overman then read the report of the Dental Caries Com- 
mittee.) 

REPORT OF DENTAL CARIES COMMITTEE 

This committee is a new committee, as you already know, and this the 
first report. We have made just a beginning in finding out the cause fof 
the increased number of cavities, and some prevention for this existing con- 
dition. Today in spite of the progress that has been made in dentistry 
from many angles, there has been little, if any, progress made toward pre- 
venting decay in our State. We have more decay today than at any time 
in our history. 

Several developments in the past few years in the attempt to control 
dental caries have received widespread publicity in the past year, and have 
increased public interest in this subject greatly. It has become necessary 
for the dentist to study this subject so that he may intelligently answer 
questions, and correct some erroneous impressions which the public has 
gathered from articles in magazines and newspapers. 

During the past year this Committee has contacted other State Dental 
Societies to find out what they had learned about the cause and prevention 
of dental decay. We believe this was profitable, as some of these states 
had tested fluorine and were able to give encouraging reports of their find- 
ings. They also were able to give interesting reports concerning diet in re- 
lation to decay. Most of the men of our State are familiar with fluorine 
and some are using it. Fluorinization of public water has been tried out 
in some cities in other states and the reports are favorable. 

In our enthusiasm over fluorine we must not lose sight of the fact that 
diet plays a big part in the development of sound teeth and a healthy body. 
We believe that the causes of dental decay today are: 



170 Bnlletin North Carolina Dental Society 



1. Improper diet (in most cases too many sweets and starches). 

2. Improper development of tooth structure. 

3. Possibly glandular disturbance. 

4. The absence of fluorine in drinking water. 

5. Improper mouth hygiene. 

There has been an alarming increase in the sugar consumption of the 
American people. One hundred yeai's ago the average American consumed 
twelve pounds of sugar per year, whereas today the amount the average 
American consumes has increased to one hundred twenty-five pounds per 
year. I believe you agree that the amount of cavities have increased about 
the same ratio. 

The Dental Caries Committee recommend the following: 

1. That each District of our State Society have a Dental Caries Com- 
mittee. 

2. That the North Carolina Dental Society inform the public that we 
as a Society consider correct diet essential in the fight against 
dental decay, and that the dentists of North Carolina are working 
with and studying carefully the use of fluorine. 

3. We do not think that this society should recommend the addition of 
fluorine to the municipal water supplies until approved by the U. S. 
Public Health Service. 

DR. OVERMAN : I move the adoption of this report. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

DR. OVERMAN : I also have the report of the State Institutions 
Committee. I suggest that we adopt this by title only, and so move. 



STATE INSTITUTIONS COMMITTEE 

Your committee has made a thorough investigation of the dental condi- 
tions in the State Institutions and begs to make the following report : 

The State Mental Hospitals have new and adequate dental equipment 
at all hospitals. There is, however, a desperate shortage of dentists. 

The dental needs at Raleigh and Morganton Hospitals are reasonably 
well taken care of. 

The North Carolina Hospital at Goldsboro is without a dentist and 
has need for probably two. 

The North Carolina Hospital at Butner needs at least one dentist — at 
present they have none. 

The Caswell Training School needs a full-time dentist — at present they 
have a part-time dentist. 

Other State Institutions, as well as the State Board of Health, are in 
need of dentists if they are to render satisfactory dental service. 



Containing the Proceedings 171 

The salary schedules as set up for dentists in the State Institutions is 
far below that offered by the Army, Navy, United States Public Health 
or the Veterans Administration. 

We therefore recommend that some machinery be set up in order to 
bring the state salary schedule for dentists up to, and on a par with, the 
Veterans Administration. 

If it is in order, we recommend that this suggestion be called to the 
attention of the Legislative Committee and if found advisable, that suitable 
legislation be prepared and introduced in the next General Assembly. 

We further wish to endorse the Dental Survey of North Carolina look- 
ing to the establishment of a Dental School in North Carolina. — Everett 
Smith, Chairman. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

DR. F. O. ALFORD: I have a report of the State Board of Dental 
Examiners. It is the same report sent to the governor January first, in- 
cluding a financial statement, and I move that this report be adopted by 
title and published in the Bulletin. 

REPORT OF NORTH CAROLINA STATE BOARD OF 
DENTAL EXAMINERS 

February 11, 1984 
To His Excellency 
R. Gregg Cherry 
Governor of North Carolina 
Raleigh, North Carolina 

Sir: 

In accordance with the provisions of the dental law, I wish to hand 
you herewith a report of the proceedings of the North Carolina State 
Board of Dental Examiners for the calendar year of 1947. 

Three meetings have been held during the year. 

The North Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners held a special 
meeting at Carolina Hotel, Pinehurst, May 4, 1947, for the purpose of 
transacting any business that might come before the Board. All members 
were present with Dr. Wilbert Jackson, President, presiding. The minutes 
of the last meeting were read and approved. 

Letters from Dr. H. M. Patterson and the Davidson County Dental 
Society protesting the action of the Board of Dental Examiners in raising 
the requirements for Dental Hygienists from graduation from a school 
giving a one year course to graduation from a school giving a two year 
course were read. The matter was discussed and the Board voted unani- 
mously to rescind the resolution passed on June 24, 1946, raising the re- 
quirements effective July 1, 1947, and unanimously passed the following 
resolution : 



172 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

"On and after July 1, 1948, all applicants for licensure to practice 
Dental Hygiene in North Carolina, except those who graduated prior to 
the above date, will be required to be a graduate of a recognized school 
of Dental Hygiene which has as a minimum requirement, graduation from 
an accredited high school and two years of nine months each in an ac- 
credited school of Dental Hygiene." 

The Secretary was authorized to have printed a roster of all registered 
Dentists in North Carolina after the June examination and this roster be 
sent to all registered Dentists in the State. 

Other routine matters were discussed. 

The Board voted one day Per Diem for this meeting. 

There being no further business, the meeting adjourned. 

The North Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners held its sixty- 
seventh regular annual meeting at the Carolina Hotel, Raleigh, beginning 
Monday morning, June 23, 1947, at 9:00 for the purpose of examining ap- 
plicants for licensure and transacting any other business that might come 
before the Board. The theoretical examinations were given in the Hall of 
the House of Representatives at the State Capitol. The practical examina- 
tions were held in the Ball Room of the Carolina Hotel. 

All members of the Board were present, with Dr. Wilbert Jackson, 
President, presiding. Dr. A. T. Jennette of Washington, newly elected 
member of the Board, was invited to attend this meeting. 

Sixty-four applicants for licensure to practice Dentistry, having com- 
plied with the requirements of the Board of Dental Examiners, were per- 
mitted to take the examination given by the Board. Applicant No. 24, 
Joseph Earl Boyster, withdrew application and examination fee was re- 
funded. Applicants No. 26, L. E. Kilday of Greenville, Tennessee, and No. 
68, C. Frederick Sprague of Boston, Massachusetts, failed to present for 
examination. 

Twelve applicants for licensure to practice Dental Hygiene, having 
complied with the requirements of the Board, were permitted to take the 
examination given by the Board. 

The North Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners met in executive 
session Wednesday afternoon, June 25, 1947, at 5:00 in Room 9B, Carolina 
Hotel, with all members present. Dr. Wilbert Jackson, President, presided. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The Board passed the following resolutions: 

1. "On and after July 1, 1947, no examination fee paid to the Board, 
after application for examination is completed, shall be returnable 
to the applicant in case of failure to take the examination." 

2. "No application for examination shall be accepted by the Board 
after thirty days prior to the date of the beginning of the ex- 
amination." 



Containing the Proceedings 173 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 

Dr. D. L. Pridgen, President, Fayetteville. 

Dr. Frank 0. Alford, Secretary-Treasurer, Charlotte. 

Dr. Wilbert Jackson and Dr. Frank O. Alford were elected delegates 
to the meeting of the American Association of Dental Examiners, to be 
held in Boston, Mass., August 2, and 3, 1947. 

Dr. D. L. Pridgen and Dr. Neal Sheffield were elected delegates to the 
North Carolina Dental Society. 

The Board voted to hold its next meeting to canvass the grades of the 
applicants taking the examination June 23, at the Carolina Hotel, Raleigh, 
at 10:00 a.m., Sunday, July 13, 1947. 

The Beard voted eleven days Per Diem for the meetings for examina- 
tions and canvassing of grades. 

The Board voted to store all old inactive files of the North Carolina 
State Board of Dental Examiners in the Department of Archives and His- 
tory, in the Education Building in Raleigh, to be available only to active 
members of the Board, or to their successor. 

There being no further business, the Board voted to adjourn after the 
examination being held were completed. 

The North Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners held a special 
meeting at the Carolina Hotel, Raleigh, Room 301, July 14, 1947, beginning 
at 10:00 in the morning for the purpose of tabulating the results of the 
examination given beginning June 23, 1947, and to transact any other busi- 
ness coming before the Board. All members were present. Dr. A. T. Jen- 
nette, new member of the Board to succeed Dr. Paul E. Jones, was invited 
to attend this meeting. Dr. Wilbert Jackson, President, presided. The 
minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The Board voted to hold its next examination at the annual meeting 
which begins Monday, June 28, 1948. 

At the request of Dr. Daniel Collins, of the Western North Carolina 
Tubercular Sanitorium, Black Mountain, the Board voted to allow interne- 
ship in that Institution under following conditions: 

"The North Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners allow a 
dental interneship at Western North Carolina Tubercular Sanitorium, 
provided the dental interne works under the supervision of a dental mem- 
ber of the hospital staff, who must be licensed to practice dentistry in 
North Carolina. The Dental interneship is to extend to the next meeting 
of the Board of Dental Examiners at which time the dental interne will 
be required to take the examination given by the Board of Dental Ex- 
aminers to determine his fitness to practice dentistry in North Carolina, 
as required of all applicants for licensure." 



174 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



Upon tabulation of the grades of the examination given, beginning 
June 23, 1947, in Raleigh, the following having received an average of 80 
or more v^rere given license to practice dentistry in North Carolina: 

1846 — J. B. Rosemond Wilmington 

1847 — J. F. Cameron Lumberton 

1848— A. T. LockviTood St. Louis, Mo. 

1849— A. H. Smith Lexington 

1850— J. R. Williams Winston-Salem 

1851 — H. P. Lineberger Gastonia 

1852 — ^J. M. Anderson, Jr New Bern 

1853— W. W. Umpheltt, Jr Wilson 

1854 — R. B. Holmes Fayetteville 

1855— H. P. Riggs, Jr Wake Forest 

1856 — R, L. Horton Wendell 

1857— J. R. Suggs Asheboro 

1858— R. F. Trieber Detroit, Mich. 

1859— C. T. Barker New Bern 

1860— H. E. Maxwell Falcon 

1861 — W. W. Walker Burlington 

1862— W. J. Carson North Wilkesboro 

1863— J. R. Carson, Jr Bethel 

1864 — H. H. Levine Winston-Salem 

1865 — J. F. Hulin Lexington 

1866— D. M. Getsinger Plymouth 

1867— C. M. Hare Chicago, 111. 

1868— H. G. Kelley Raleigh 

1869— M. P. Blair Elizabethtown 

1870— R. M. Fakoury Myrtle Beach, S. C. 

1871— C. E. Ridehour Kannapolis 

1872— E. W. Richardson Greensboro 

1873— Harry Dickey Murphy 

1874 — W. E. Alexander Kannapolis 

1875— T. E. Hussey Robbins 

1876— E. J. Malone, Jr Prospect Hill 

1877— E. A. Eckerd Taylorsville 

1878— T. F. Kilkelly Zebulon 

1879— S. J. Smith East Marion 

1880— C. A. Brady, Jr Newton 

1881— F. A. Green Raleigh 

1882— J. W. Wiggins, Jr Richmond, Va. 

1883— C. S. Olive Fayetteville 

1884— T. E. Sikes, Jr Greensboro 

1885— L. B. Peeler Belwood 

1886 — Val .Kent Artress Atlanta, Ga. 

1887 — F. B. Cornett Independence, Va. 

1888—1. C. Holloway, Jr Lenoir 

1889 — ^J. F. Russell Hiawassee, Ga. 

1890— Z. M. Stadt Charlotte 

1891— J. T. Hughes Selma 



Containing the Proceedings 175 



1892 — A. J. Cook Kannapolis 

1893— W. H. Gray Robersonville 

1894— C. N. Anderson Wilson 

1895— R. L. Mohn New Bern 

1896— B. M. Williams Hilton Village, Va. 

1897— J. P. Halo Ahoskie 

1898 — A. L. Harris Henderson 

1899— B. C. Swayze Raleigh 

1900— H. A. Eskew St. Louis, Mo. 

The following having received an average of 80 or more, were given 
licenses to practice dental hygiene in North Carolina : 

10 — Marjorie Janet Bowen Plymouth 

11— Edith S. Chiperfield Asheville 

12 — Ora Lee Williams Boone 

13 — Charlotte Zimmerman High Point 

14 — ^Joyce E. Van Slyke Wilson 

15 — Linda Grace Edwards Pink Hill 

16 — Mary Louise Tuttle Winston-Salem 

17 — Camilla Jo Hunsucker Maiden 

18 — Winfred J. Brewer Winston-Salem 

19 — Ellen Clack Stewart Warrenton 

20 — Mrs. Laura B. Parker Raeford 

21 — Mrs. Jean Moon Moore Raleigh 

The following failed to pass the examination, having made an average 
of less than 80 : 

H. J. Tvrdy Manhasset, L. I., N. Y. 

Raphael Wolpert Loris, S. C. 

L N. Hammonds Tarboro 

W. A. Rehm St. Genevieve, Mo. 

J. S. Isgett Cheraw, S. C. 

A. L. Heisten Charleston, S. C. 

G. D. Bingham Knoxville, Tenn. 

W. S. Russell Candler 

Arthur Herschaft Jacksonville, Fla. 

Dr. Wilbert Jackson, retiring President, installed Dr. D. L. Pridgen, 
the newly elected President for the ensuing year. 

The Board adjourned at 6:00 p.m. 

During the year three reported violations of the Dental Law were 
investigated and the reports were found to be without foundation or the 
Board could not secure sufficient evidence to justify conviction so no action 
was taken. 

On September 24, 1947, the following detailed information was fur- 
nished each member of the Commission to Study and Investigate Examin- 
ing Boards of State: 



176 Bulletin North Caroliyia Dental Society 

1. Copy of by-laws, rules and regulations. 

2. Total number of applicants for license per year, for past three 
years. 

3. Total number licenses issued per year for past three years. 

4. Number rejected per year and cause of rejection for past three 
years. 

5. Total annual revenue received per year for past three years. 

6. Total annual disbursements, to whom paid and for what purpose 
spent, for past three years. 

7. Surplus funds and disposition thereof for past three years. 

8. Number licenses revoked and cause of revocation for past three 
years. 

9. Number persons indicted and/or convicted for operating without 
license or after such license has expired without renewal for past 
three years. 

10. Amount of examination fee, license fee and renewal fee. 

11. Amount returned unsuccessful applicants. 

12. Number yearly examinations held by Board, dates held and place 
of examination. 

13. Time required to grant license after examination. 

14. Total number now licensed in State under your Board. 

15. Total number in State admitted under grandfather rights. 

16. Do you have annual audits and if so, by whom audited and to 
whom reports are made? 

At the request of Mr. George R. Uzzell, Chairman of the Commission to 
Study and Investigate Examining Boards of State, the North Carolina 
State Board of Dental Examiners was represented at a meeting of the 
Commission held in Raleigh, November 6, 1947. Dr. D. L. Pridgen, Presi- 
dent, and Dr. Wilbert Jackson, represented the Board at this meeting. — 
Frank 0. Alford, Secretary-Treasurer. 

AUDITOR'S REPORT, DECEMBER 31, 1947 
Organization and Board Members 

Dr. D. L. Pridgen, President Fayetteville 

Dr. Frank 0. Alford, Secretary-Treasurer Charlotte 

Dr. Wilbert Jackson Clinton 

Dr. Walter E. Clark Asheville 

Dr. Neal Sheffield Greensboro 

Dr. A. T. Jennette Washington 



Containing the Proceedings 111 



3. M. Van Hoy 

Certified Public Accountant 

Charlotte, N. C. 

February 6, 1947 
Dr. Frank O. Alford, Secretary-Treasurer 
North Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners 
Charlotte, North Carolina 
Dear Dr. Alford: 

There is presented herein report on the audit of the book and records 
of the North Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners for the year ended 
December 31, 1947. This audit was naade in accordance with verbal agree- 
ment entered into between the Secretary-Treasurer and ourselves. 

All recorded cash receipts were verified with the bank deposits and 
cash on hand. All disbursements were supported by duly authorized 
vouchers or cancelled checks. There were no known liabilities at Decem- 
ber 31, 1947. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. M. Van Hoy (Signed) 
Certified Public Accountant 

BALANCE SHEET 
December 31, 1947 

Assets — Exhibit A 
Current Assets: 

Cash in Bank $ 870.60 

Cash on Hand : December Collections 208.00 

Total $1,078.60 

Liabilities and Surplus 
Current Liabilities : 

None $1,078.60 

Total $1,078.60 

Schedule 1 

CASH RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS 
Year Ended December 31, 1947 

Cash Balance, January 1, 1947 $1,017.72 

Receipts : 

1947 Renewal License $ 48.00 

1948 Renewal License 2,032.00 

Examination Fees 1,520.00 

Reinstatement of License 20.00 

Duplicate License 2.00 3,622.00 

Total $4,639.72 



178 Bulletin North Carolina Devtal Society 

Disbursements : 

Per Diem and Mileage: 

Dr. Paul E. Jones $ 144.00 

Dr. Neal Sheffield 145.00 

Dr. Walter Clark 182.00 

Dr. Wilbert Jackson 161.50 

Dr. D. L. Pridgen 177.25 

Dr. F. 0. Alford 199.30 $1,009.05 

Salaries : 

Cecile Thompson, Ass't. Sec'y 300.00 

Mrs. W. E. Johnson, Ass't. Sec'y 150.00 

Dr. F. O. Alford, Sec'y.-Treas 450.00 900.00 

Annual Meeting Expenses 464.98 

Examination Expenses 183.45 

Clinic Expenses 147.03 

Storage and Insurance 53.42 

Printing and Stationery 120.78 

Postage 130.00 

Telephone and Telegraph 233.01 

Office Expense 124.32 

Audit 50.00 

Attorney Fee — Riggs Case 77.31 

American Association Dental Examiners Dues 45.00 

Bank Service Charges 2.77 

License Fees Refunded 20.00 

Total $3,561.12 

Cash in Bank $ 870.60 

Cash in Hand 208.00 



$1,078.60 



Schedule 2 

INCOME AND EXPENSES 
Year Ended December 31, 1947 
Income : 

24 1946 Renewal License @ $2.00 $ 48.00 

1016 1948 Renewal License @ $2.00 2,032.00 

2 Reinstatement License @ $10.00 20.00 

76 Examination Applications @ $20.00 1,520.00 

1 Duplicate License 2.00 

Total Income $3,622.00 



Containing the Proceedings 179 



Expenses : 

Per Diem and Mileage $1,009.05 

Salaries 900.00 

Other Expenses 1,652.07 

Total Expenses 3,561.12 



Net Income % 60.88 

Expenditures are shown in detail on Schedule 1 — Cash Receipts and 
Disbursements. 



Schedule 3 

BANK RECONCILIATION 

Balance, Union National Bank, Charlotte, N. C $3,023.76 

Outstanding Checks 

No. 74 $ 144.00 

No. 75 145.00 

No. 76 182.00 

No. 77 161.50 

No. 78 177.25 

No. 79 199.30 

No. 80 10.00 

No. 81 231.95 

No. 82 300.00 

No. 83 150.00 

No. 84 300.00 

No. 85 150.00 

No. 86 2.16 2,153.16 



Balance per Books 870.60 

Cash on Hand 208.00 



Total $1,078.60 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

(Dr. K. L. Johnson then read the report of the Clinic Board of Cen- 
sors Committee.) 

REPORT OF THE CLINIC BOARD OF CENSORS 

This committee met and after due consideration, we respectfully sub- 
mit the following clinics to be sent to the American Dental Association 
Meeting from the North Carolina Dental Society: Hylton K. Crotts, Win- 
ston-Salem; Bernard Walker, Charlotte; J.' R. Edwards, Jr., Fuquay 
Springs; Harold Eskew, Charlotte; James A. Harrell, Elkin. — K. L. 
Johnson, Chairman. 



180 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

DR. JOHNSON : I move the adoption of the report. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

(Dr. D. L. Pridgen then read the report of the Constitution and By- 
Laws Committee.) 

REPORT OF THE CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS COMMITTEE 

Your Constitution and By-Laws Committee has carefully considered 
the amendment presented by Dr. Paul Fitzgerald affecting; our delegates 
to the American Dental Association, and we unanimously disapprove any 
change at present, in view of the proposed change in the American Dental 
Association Constitution and Administration By-Laws, which might pos- 
sibly reduce our representation in the American Dental Association House 
of Delegates. — D. L. Pridgen, Chairman. 

DR. PRIDGEN : I move the adoption of this report. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

DR. FRANK KIRK: (Referring to Dr. O'Rourke's report.) I move 
that this book be placed in the hands of the North Carolina Society. 

(The motion was seconded.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Is there any discussion? We discussed that 
the other night at length and designated a certain number of copies. 

DR. FRANK O. ALFORD : Dr. Branch figured that, with the stencils 
already cut, and the cost of the binding, it will cost approximately $500 
to have it published and get it in the mail to each member of the Society. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Is there any other discussion? All in favor of 
the motion, let it be known by saying "aye." 

(The motion was carried.) 

DR. PAUL E. JONES: I don't think that is a representative vote. I 
would rather get a little better response when we are spending money 
like that. 

I would like to have everybody have a copy of that report. It's an im- 
portant work, but unless you fellows are going to use it, let's not throw 
away our money. It's a nice thing to have in our library and all that, but 
I just have an idea that a lot of fellows won't use it, and if they are not 
going to use it, let's not spend this money. 

DR. KIRK: The reason I brought it up is that no one but the House 
of Delegates knows much about it. I am interested in it and I think every- 
body else is. That's why I wanted each man to have a copy. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: I was trying to invite discussion before pass- 
ing the motion. Let's discuss it again. 



Containing the Proceedings 181 

DR. WILLIAM MATHESON: I think that each man who wishes a 
copy should write in for one. Don't send them out indiscriminately. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: We discussed that at length the other night. I 
think it was finally decided it would be distributed. Everybody decided it 
was a good idea. 

DR. JONES: I think the suggestion is very, very timely that we re- 
quire all those fellows who want a copy to write in for it when we tell 
them that we have enough copies so that we can supply the applications 
as they come in. 

DR. LINEBERGER: Dr. O'Rourke states that he will be glad to pre- 
pare, at no cost, the summary of this report, and we can send that out 
cheaper, couldn't we? 

DR. JOHN O'ROURKE: It depends on how much you want. 

DR. LINEBERGER: He has the stencils. I don't know how you fel- 
lows here feel about it. There are many fellows way over here in the 
grass roots and small towns that want a copy. I think it would be a good 
idea, as you suggested, to send out a letter and ask them to return a card 
if they desire a copy. If the summary will tell them the story, it would be 
perfectly agreeable to do that. It would cost a little less money. 

DR. JONES: I think that a lot would rather have a summary. 

DR. LINEBERGER: Let them make a notation if they would rather 
have the whole report. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: The only thing I would say is that the stencils 
are cut. To make a summary you would have to have new stencils entirely, 
wouldn't we, Dr. O'Rourke? 

DR. O'ROURKE: The summary will take only a few pages and tell 
the essential points involved, and if there is a desire for it, I would suggest 
to the dentists of the Society that they can get the full copy by writing 
in for it after reading the summary. I think that would solve your prob- 
lem. I don't think that the summary needs to be beyond perhaps twelve or 
fifteen pages, and it could be stuffed into an ordinary legal sized envelope, 
folded, and sent out at very little cost. 

In fact, some of the stencils for the summary are already set up be- 
cause each one of the chapters in this report is already summarized. In 
fact, they could be lifted right now and sent out and bring the members 
of the State Society just about all the information they need. If the sten- 
cils that are now available were run off, they could be put in ordinary 
envelopes and mailed at third class mail at very little cost, I think. 

DR. KIRK: I accept that motion. 

DR. JONES: In order to get the thing straightened out, I move that 
we table motions before us in relation to this in order that it may clear the 
way for a new motion covering the suggestion of Dr. O'Rourke. 



182 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



(Dr. Kirk withdrew his original motion, as did the doctor who 
seconded it.) 

DR. JONES: I move that we send out the summaries as suggested by 
Dr. O'Rourke and that we include in that the notation that a complete 
report could be had if they write in for it. 

(The motion was seconded.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Is that clear to everybody now? Is there any 
further discussion? (There was no response, and the motion was unani- 
mously carried.) 

DR. HUNT: Mr. President, we have two members eligible for life 
membership in the American Dental Association, and it is necessary for 
them to be recommended by the House of Delegates before they can be 
accepted, and their names have to be placed vdth the secretary of the 
American Dental Association sixty days prior to the annual meeting. 

At this time, I make a motion that the House of Delegates recommend 
to the American Dental Association the names of Dr. O. C. Barker of 
Asheville and Dr. A. C. Bone of Rocky Mount for life membership in the 
American Dental Association. 

DR. JONES: I second the motion. 

(The motion was carried.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Are there any other reports? 

DR. LINEBERGER: Dr. O'Rourke would just like to make one state- 
ment to the House of Delegates. 

DR. O'ROURKE: I know that you are busy and that you have only 
a short period of time, so whether this is the time to make my statement 
or not I don't know. 

I just wanted to thank the President and the College Committee and 
the Society for their cooperation in the study. In view of the effort that 
they put forth to aid me in doing it, accomplishing it, I certainly would 
be ungrateful if I didn't express my appreciation here today for the confi- 
dence of this House of Delegates has expressed in adopting it. It was an 
expression of confidence for which any man, I think, doing such a study 
ought to be proud and grateful to you. 

The third point I would like to make is that I have been in a position 
to receive, fortunately, a few honors in my career (whether earned or 
unearned, it doesn't matter.) Perhaps some of them were acquired by acci- 
dent, but this election as an honorary member of the North Carolina Dental 
Society I consider to be the outstanding honor that I have received in my 
period of life in dentistry, and I want you to know that I appreciate it. 

I want to thank you all for your splendid cooperation, your hospitality, 
and for your enthusiastic approach to this problem that we have been dis- 
cussing, and also for your wonderful attitude toward your own profession 



Containing the Proceedings 183 



of dentistry. I feel it, I sense it, and I can't describe it, but I have a 
woman's intuition that you have something, and I am proud to be an 
honorary member of the North Carolina Dental Society. Thank you very 
much. (Applause.) 

PRESIENT OLIVE: Thank you, Dr. O'Rourke. We want to thank 
you also for what you have done for us. 

DR. LINEBERGER: I move we give Dr. O'Rourke a rising vote of 
thanks for the work he has done. 

(A rising vote of thanks was then given Dr. O'Rourke.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Dr. Fox will new make the Publicity Com- 
mittee report. 

(Dr. Burke Fox then read the report of the Publicity Committee and 
continued with the following remarks.) 



REPORT OF PUBLICITY COMMITTEE 

There has been some criticism of the Publicity Committee this year, 
due to the unfortunate loss of photographs of the clinicians and officers by 
the engravers. 

Six advance stories were sent out by me by mail to 36 newspapers. 
Also two stories were given to the AP to be wired out. At least one other 
story was sent out by Bob Madry with a Fayetteville dateline. 

A look at the Asheville papers for the past few days will show what 
we have done in the way of pictures and stories. 

I further recommend that the secretary be instructed to write a letter 
of thanks to the Asheville Citizen and Times, and also to Bob Madry for 
their splendid cooperation. — Burke W. Fox, Chairman. 

DR. FOX: I think that the House of Delegates will want to act on 
the recommendations. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: You have heard Dr. Fox's report. Is there any 
comment on that? What part of it did you want acted on, Dr. Fox? 

DR. FOX : That the North Carolina Society adopt a policy of request- 
ing that any member of the society planning to release a story to the news- 
papers involving the society or the profession as a whole first submit that 
to a member of the publicity committee for approval. That will avoid 
something being put in the paper that shouldn't be there. 

DR. JONES: Mr. President, I would like to have Dr. Fox give an 
explanation. Undoubtedly, he is hiding something here. 

DR. FOX: Since you want it uncovered, I will tell you. 

On the 7th of March, the Raleigh News and Observer carried a story 
which was quoting Dr. Branch, and I believe I have the exact words. I 



184 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



won't be positive that there is not a word or two changed. But in that, 
Dr. Branch was quoted as saying that, "My first task is to educate the 
dentists. We may later on send out pamphlets to educate the public." 

DR. JONES: What was he referring to in that? 

DR. FOX: To the use of fluorides in dentistry. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Do you have a copy of that? 

DR. FOX: I don't have a copy of it. 

I have had a number of men come and say that patients brought this 
clipping into the office and asked when they were going to find out some- 
thing about this so that they could give that treatment to the children. 

It was an unfortunate thing to have published in the paper. 

The other thing that I had reference to was that Dr. Stadt, who is a 
public health dentist in Charlotte, had released a story to the newspapers 
on the topical application of fluoride, and concluded his story by saying 
that the dentists, of course, should charge a fee for making these applica- 
tions, and that fee should probably be $15. 

I don't think it is good policy for any one man to give out a story 
setting up fees for the entire profession in his vicinity, particulai'ly when 
he is not actively engaged in practice. 

DR. JONES: I must admit that I have to educate myself on the use 
of fluorides as a preventive. We certainly have to acquire education some- 
where in life, and I think that Dr. Branch was perfectly within his rights 
when he made the statement, if he made it (and I don't doubt but what 
he did) because there certainly has to be a beginning in the use of fluoride 
in the prevention of decay. 

I want to point out to the group here that Dr. Branch was making it 
in his right as administrator of a state health agency and not as a rep- 
resentative of the North Carolina Dental Society, so I don't see why this 
House of Delegates would have anything to say or do on it. It might have 
been inopportune, it might have been entered by this reporter that sent 
out the news release at that particular time, but I certainly think it was 
probably a correct statement on the part of Dr. Branch at the time, and 
he was trying to emphasize the fact that we had to acquire a proper 
knowledge in the technical application of this new product that came on the 
market that the public was clamoring for. That is about my explanation. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: While we are discussing this, there seems to 
be some misunderstanding. Any criticism Dr. Fox has with the publicity is 
not his fault. About losing the cuts — he had nothing to do with it. I 
hadn't heard very much about it, but he has worked hard and tried to do 
his duty. I want everybody to know that and to have it go on the minutes 
that this has been cleared up because there was a misunderstanding there. 
Dr. Franklin Bumgardner can vouch for that. It did happen at a time 
when things did look rather badly. 



Containing the Proceedings 185 



DR. FRANKLIN BUMGARDNER: That's right. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: I want to emphasize in your behalf, Dr. Fox, 
you have worked hard on that job. 

DR. ERNEST A. BRANCH: I am right here if anybody wants to ask 
about that. 

So far as my phoning all over the western part of the state to find out 
what I am going to tell a newspaper reporter — 

DR. FOX : You have a member of the committee in Raleigh. 

DR. BRANCH : I don't expect to confer with them, in connection with 
what I am going to tell a newspaper reporter. My connection is with the 
State Board of Health. 

This publicity man on the Board, this newspaper reporter, read Drew 
Pearson's article. They got right on the phone and called me, and I asked 
them to come down and talk it over as I couldn't talk about it over the 
phone. They came down and, I think, stayed for most of an hour. What 
they were going to say when they went back, I don't know. They don't 
show me what they are going to write, and I don't think that I am going 
to phone anybody and ask them what I am going to tell somebody else 
before I tell them. I don't think I am. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: We are wasting a lot of time here. Maybe 
we're not, but let's get through this as quickly as we can. 

DR. FOX: That recommendation is in there, and I am not a member 
of the House of Delegates. I can't move that it be adopted or that it not be 
adopted. The House of Delegates will have to move to adopt the report 
with its recommendation, or disapprove it. 

DR. JONES: I move the report be adopted minus the recommendation 
of the committee. 

DR FOX: Paul, do you want some man to come out and be able to 
state that the fees for dentistry are going to be so much in your vicinity? 

DR. JONES: No. I don't gather your significance, but — 

DR. FOX: That is what you are doing. 

DR. JONES: You can't hamstring a state agency with any statement 
they may make. You can't do that as a society. I think you should reword 
your recommendation there. Of course I don't approve of any member of 
any health board coming out and discussing the fee that the profession 
should charge. I think your man Stadt stepped out of his character and 
prerogative when he did that, but so far as saying that Dr. Branch, as a 
representative and employee of the state of North Carolina, has got to con- 
fer together with the committee from the North Carolina Dental Society 
before he can make to the public is absurd, and I am opposed to that. 



186 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



PRESIDENT OLIVE: The Constitution of the United States says 
that there is free speech, free thought, and we should go according to 
human dictates. 

However, the Ethics Committee appears to be the deciding factor if 
there is anything to be traced down as unethical. That is just my inter- 
pretation of it. 

DR. JONES: Read the committee report again — the constructive part 
of it, anyway. 

DR. FOX: "I recommend that the society adopt the policy of request- 
ing that any member of the society who plans to release a story to the 
newspapers involving the society or the profession as a whole, first submit 
the story to a member of the publicity committee for approval. 

DR. JONES: "As a representative." How about adding that? That 
would eliminate the objection that I had. 

MEMBER : He says, "involving the society;" you say, "representing 
the society." 

DR. JONES: I know, but Dr. Branch is a member of the North Caro- 
lina Dental Society. Its application comes from that. 

DR. FOX: You can make any changes you want in it. I tried to word 
it so that it wouldn't bar local propositions, but, on something that spoke 
unfavorably of the dental profession in the whole state or something that 
involved the profession as a whole, I felt that there ought to be a little 
more thought given to that instead of people just turning loose and telling 
the newspapers "so and so" because a lot of people don't know how stuff 
is going to sound when it comes out in the paper. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: There is a motion before the house. Is there 
a second to the motion? Will you state your motion. Dr. Jones? 

DR. JONES: I move that it be deferred for a few minutes. 

(The motion was seconded.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Is there any more discussion? If not, those in 
favor of the motion let me know by saying, "aye." 

(The motion was carried.) 

Is that satisfactory to you, Burke? 

DR. FOX: Anything the society does. I can only make a recom- 
mendation. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Are there any other reports to come before 
the house? 

DR. POINDEXTER: I am not a member of the House of Delegates, 
but I have a resolution I want to propose. 



Containing the Proceedings 187 

MEMBER: This resolution will have to lay on the table until another 
meeting. 

DR. POINDEXTER: I want to make it; then you can put it in the 
channels where it belongs. 

Before reading it, I'd like to say that the specialists of the state (and 
we have a number of them in different towns) have conceived the idea of 
some special legislation. It is my thought, when once a fellow is licensed 
in the state, he is qualified to do anything he wants to do. This is my 
motion : 

"I propose that the North Carolina Dental Society issue a certificate 
of qualification to its members who engage in the exclusive practice of a 
specialty, provided: 



"1. That said member has practiced his specialty exckisively in North 
Carolina for a period of not less than three years and is a member in good 
standing of the national association governing his particular specialty. 

"2. That, after 1948, a member wishing to practice a specialty and 
wishing to receive a certificate of qualification will have to complete a 
course in a recognized school giving instruction in his particular field." 

I thought this might be referred to the proper committee. 

MEMBER: You should refer that to the Resolution Committee and 
refer back to this body tomorrow morning. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Is there anything else to come up before the 
group ? 

DR. KIRK: I move we adjourn. 

(The motion was seconded and carried, and the meeting was adjourned 
at five-forty.) 



ANNUAL BANQUET 
April 27, 1948 

The annual banquet of the North Carolina Dental Society was held 
in the City Auditorium, Asheville, North Carolina, Tuesday evening, April 
27, at six o'clock, with Dr. Walter McFall presiding. Dr. Walter E. Clark 
of Asheville, gave the invocation. 

DR. McFALL: We have called this our "Ladies' Night" program be- 
cause, in our heart of hearts, if you could see those hearts of ours, you 
could see yourselves reflected in them. We certainly love our ladies. We 
are eternally grateful to them for all that they mean to us, from Mother's 
Day right on to the time when we have little folks of our own that are like 
the woman we married many years ago. We are so happy to have you 
come with us tonight and to share our good times. 



188 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



(Dr. McFall then introduced those seated at the head table. Dr. Ralph 
Coffey, as General Chairman of the Local Arrangements Committee, intro- 
duced those who were instrumental in the carrying out of the details con- 
nected with the convention.) 

DR. McFALL : And now, at this time, ladies and gentlemen, if you 
will refer to the program, you will see that the next order of business is 
the presentation of the President's emblem. This will be done by Dr. A. C. 
Current, Chairman of the Executive Committee. 



PRESENTING PAST PRESIDENT'S EMBLEM 

Two years ago when the North Carolina Dental Society chose you 
president-elect, I asked the question : "What sort of leader will Bob Olive 
make?" It wasn't long before I began to realize that this question was a 
reflection on my own intelligence; and as the problems of interest to 
organized dentistry started bobing up for consideration, the question com- 
pletely vanished. 

And speaking of vanishing, I am reminded of the time when a colored 
man was digging a hole in my yard and our bulldog ran out to meet me 
as I drove into the driveway. On seeing the "Nigger," the dog fastened 
his teeth into the "Nigger's" trousers not too far below the belt line. I 
rushed to the scene of action, but the "Nigger" was gone before I arrived. 
However, the dog had evidence between his teeth that the "Nigger" had 
been there. 

To a great extent, it has been like that with you, Bob. Many problems 
in organized dentistry have vanished during your administration, but you 
have given us reason to know how and why they vanished. Take for ex- 
ample the state-wide Better Health Meeting in which dentistry was, for 
some reason, not mentioned. I am certain that problem has gone forever, 
and it is all due to your prodigious efforts. 

Then again, your interest in dental education in North Carolina has 
been outstanding. You have gone far beyond your line of official duty in 
this respect. And certainly there can be no more worthy cause to confront 
organized dentistry or to confront the citizens of our state at large. If and 
when a school of dentistry second to no other becomes a reality in our 
state, the name of Bob Olive can never be separated from it. 

I could go on at length mentioning the noteworthy things to which you 
have set your mind and to which you have given of your time. Therefore, 
it is an honor and a source of genuine personal pride to speak in behalf 
of the membership of our Society in saying that it is an expression of the 
high esteem in which we hold you and in a small way an expression of our 
gratitude that we present to you herewith the Past President's Emblem of 
the North Carolina Dental Society. 

(Dr. Current then read a prepared paper, following which he presented 
Dr. Olive with the emblem.) 



Containing the Proceedings 189 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: I do want to say this — I have been married 
cnce, and am still naarried; I have had religion twice, but this is one of 
the happiest moments of my life. 

I have tried, during these few years, to do the best I could in my feeble 
way. As Shakespeare has expressed it, "If to do were as easy as know 
what were good to do, chapels had been churches and poor men's cottages 
princes' palaces." 

If it had not been for the help and cooperation of such fellows, such 
fine men, in the North Carolina Dental Society that I have had to back 
me up, I am afraid that the program might have been a failure. Thank 
ffoodness I have had the cooperation, and I want to thank everybody here 
from the bottom of my heart. 

Thank you. (Applause.) 

(Dr. McFall then made acknowledgements for the complimentary 
cigarettes and the flower arrangements. Marjorie McClung Parker, accom- 
panied by Miss Joy Bowers, sang a medley of three songs.) 

DR. McFALL : Now we come to the second half of our program, which 
concerns Dr. Frederick Lorenzo Hunt. 

(Dr. McFall then read a testimonial to Dr. Hunt, after which he pre- 
sented him with a watch.) 

DR. FREDERICK LORENZO HUNT 

1875- 

Born in Greenville, N. Y. Educated in Greenville Academy, Greenville, 
N. Y. University of Pennsylvania Department of Dentistry, graduated in 
1900. In private practice since 1900. Member of the Asheville Dental 
Society 1902-1930. First District and North Carolina Dental Society, 
American Dental Association. President of the North Carolina Dental So- 
ciety and the Asheville Dental Society 1908-1909. Member of and Secre- 
tary of the North Carolina Board of Dental Examiners from 1909 to 1926. 

Has contributed to dental literature; served on many national dental 
committees; active, useful, helpful in all things in dentistry, in life and in 
making his fellowman better. Considered the Dean of Dentists in Western 
North Carolina. He retired from active practice in Asheville, in No- 
vember, 1945. 

Dr. Hunt has been not only an inspiration to his family and friends, 
but a very real contributor to the community and section in which he has 
lived. He has served with credit, honor and distinction in his church, in 
the civic, social, welfare groups and organizations. He has been faithful to 
and loved his wife, his family and always has typified the highest, finest 
and best in love, life, and in our profession. 

Our honored guest this evening is not only our honored guest but truly 
a real friend. Yes, he is our guest tonight because all of us like to think 
in our heart of hearts and di'eam of dreams what we might one day be- 



190 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



come for "Lives of great men all remind us, we can make our lives sub- 
lime, and departing leave behind us, footprints on the sands of time." Yes 
all of us in our better moments often feel that — 

"Sometimes I wish that I might do just one grand deed and die 
And by that one grand deed reach up to meet God in the sky. 
But such is not Thy way Oh Lord, nor such is Thy decree, 
But deed by deed and tear by tear, our souls must rise to Thee." 

Surely all of us admire a splendid professional man who has served 
not only well but as outstandingly as has Dr. Hunt. It brings to our minds 
the importance of influence, the realization of real I'esponsibility, yes we 
begin to believe — 

"Isn't it strange that princes and kings 
And clowns that caper in sawdust rings and common 
Folks like you and me, are builders of eternity. 
To each is given a bag of tools, a shapeless mass 
And a book of rules — And each must make, ere life is flown, 
A stumbling block or a stepping stone." 

No compliment, no commendation to Fred Hunt would be complete 
without paying tribute to his lovely, gracious and charming wife. In these 
days of misunderstanding, heartaches, jealousy and hatreds, what a joy, 
what an inspiration to see two who promised many years ago before God 
and man to love, honor and obey — thank God, still doing just that. Living, 
loving, hoping, praying and proving that when two love and adore each 
other they not only bless each other, they also bless all they touch and 
know and influence. Yes, tonight gentlemen, I give you a toast to a devoted 
wife, a lovely lady, a charming mother — and an inspiring help-mate in a 
full, busy, useful life — Mrs. Frederick Hunt. 

Dr. Hunt is a friend who likes you in spite of your faults, who lets 
you talk aloud and listens but who best of all helps you be your best self. 
To you and Mrs. Hunt, Fred, may all your days be filled with sunshine 
and just enough of clouds to give you both a glorious sunset. As a little 
token we give you this so that as you wear it on your pulse you may know 
that everytime it ticks a dentist in North Carolina thanks you again for 
what you are and what you mean to each and everyone of us. God bless 
you and Mrs. Hunt and God speed you in every quest of wherever, what- 
ever and whenever you want. Thank you. — Walter McFall. 

DR. FREDERICK LORENZO HUNT: Mr. Toastmaster, ladies and 
gentlemen : To say that I deeply appreciate this would be making it very 
mild. I do — I deeply appreciate everything Walter has said. I almost 
think that Walter is somewhat as he said Dr. Ennis is — that he can see a 
lot of things in you that you don't know are there. He surely told me a 
lot of things that I didn't know about myself. 

He forgot one thing, however, when he was telling about my birth. 
He forgot to say that I was born on Friday the 13th. That's true. And I 
think one reason that I have been reasonably happy all my life is because 
I was born on Friday the 13th. A lot of things happened on Friday the 



Containing the Proceedings 191 



13th in my life. I put long trousers on when I was 13; I think the first 
day I went to school was the 13th; I graduated from Pennsylvania on the 
13th; I came to Asheville on the 13th; I had my first patient on the 13th; 
I think I had my 13th patient on the 13th, too; I had my last patient on 
the 13th; I had a grandson born on the 13th; I tried to get married on 
the 13th, but that was just 3 hours and 55 minutes of being the 13th. 

Walter, I appreciate your telling me all these things about myself. I 
noticed that he had tears in his eyes when he handed me the token, and, 
somehow, I am glad he did. These boys up here in the western part of 
North Carolina know me, and they know that it's much easier for me to 
have tears in my eyes than anything else if anybody has done anything 
nice for me. It is only for the fact that Walter beat me to it that I couldn't 
shed tears. 

I want to thank all the members of the North Carolina Dental Society 
for all the nice things they have done for me. I came here a "damyankee," 
and they took me in right from the start, and I want to tell you that I 
would rather live in North or South Carolina than any place that I know 
anything about. I have lived more than half my life in North Carolina, and 
I think it is one of the greatest states in the Union. 

When one has lived for three score years and ten (I wouldn't have 
said anything about that except Walter mentioned the birth-date), one is 
prone to view life in the retrospect, and I know that I made many mis- 
takes. Walter didn't find that out, apparently, but I have made many 
mistakes, and I would like to live my life over again to see if I couldn't do 
a little better and make a little better job of it. 

I just want to thank you again — every one of you. I am sure that 
most of you have love and respect for me, and I know that I have love 
and respect for you. Thank you very much. (Applause.) 

DR. McFALL: Thank you so much, Fred. 

(The meeting was adjourned at eight-ten o'clock.) 



GENERAL SESSION 
Tuesday Evening, April 27, 1948 

The fifth general session of the Ninety-Second Anniversary Meeting 
of the North Carolina Dental Society convened in the ball room of the 
Hotel George Vanderbilt, Asheville, North Carolina, at eight-thirty-five 
o'clock, and was called to order by the President, Dr. R. M. Olive. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: According to the constitution and by-laws, 
Tuesday night at eight o'clock we meet for the sole purpose of electing 
officers. 

I will now appoint an election committee: Dr. Paul Jones, Chairman; 
Dr. Marcus Smith; Dr. C. C. Poindexter; Dr. Claude Parks; Dr. O. C. 
Barker; Dr. Wilbert Jackson; and Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, Sr. 



192 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Since Dr. Smith is not here, will you please come forward and take 
his place, Dr. William C. Taylor? That makes a total of six men with one 
chairman, Dr. Jones. 

The first office to be filled is that of President-Elect. It is in order 
to have nominations for that office. 

DR. JOHN R. PHARR: Mr. President, Fellow Members of the North 
Carolina Dental Society: I would like to nominate Dr. Amos Bumgardner 
of Charlotte for the office of President- Elect of the North Carolina Dental 
Society. 

Amos has been a faithful member of the North Carolina Dental Society 
for 26 years, and has attended every meeting since he joined in 1922, the 
year he graduated from Dental College. During this time he has served 
on every committee of any importance in the North Carolina Dental 
Society, including the Executive Committee which he served in the years 
1939-42. 

Amos served as secretary and treasurer and president of the Char- 
lotte Dental Society also secretary-treasurer and president of the Second 
District Dental Society, and served on the Board of Directors of the 
Southern Society of Orthodontia for three years and was elevated to the 
presidency of that organization for the year 1945-46. 

In the field of civic service Amos served as secretary-treasurer of the 
Rotary Club in Charlotte for two terms and as president in the year 
1941-42. He is now president of the Mecklenberg Chapter of the North 
Carolina Wildlife Federation, and past president of the Tar Heel Field 
Trial Club. 

He is a member of the Executive Club and Chamber of Commerce 
of Charlotte, a veteran of the first World War and served on the Dental 
Board of Selective Service in World War II. 

Amos Bumgardner has been an active worker in the St. John's Baptist 
Church, having been superintendent of the Sunday School for eleven years. 
A member of the Board of Deacons for 18 years, serving in the capacity 
of vice-chairman and chairman, he is a member on the Board of Trustees 
of the North Carolina Baptist Hospital at Winston- Salem, which is con- 
nected with the Bowman Gray School of Medicine and Wake Forest College. 

It has been seven years since a man from the Second District has 
served as president. 

I can assure you gentlemen if Amos Bumgardner is elected to this 
office he will serve with honor and distinction to the North Carolina Dental 
Society. 

Therefore, it gives me great pleasure to nominate Dr. Amos Bum- 
gardner for president-elect. 

DR. RISER: Members of the North Carolina Dental Society: I don't 
rise to my feet to make a speech. I rise to my feet to second the nomina- 



Containing the Proceedings 193 

tion of one of the finest Christian gentlemen I have ever known. He is a 
successful gentleman; he is successful as a father; he is a successful den- 
tist in the practice of orthodontia; he is a successful man in the operation 
of his church. 

He has held important positions in his church, and has given unstint- 
ingly of his time to the service of his Lord through his church. He is a 
successful man as a civic leader; he is a successful man as a leader in 
sportsmanship and w^ild life. 

Gentlemen, I believe that hard w^ork through the years, serving in 
the capacities in which he has been called on to serve should deserve the 
reward of being elected to the highest office in the North Carolina Dental 
Society. He is a man that I have had the privilege of knowing and practic- 
ing with for fifteen years, and I admire him in all respects. 

It gives me a great deal of pleasure, and it is a privilege, to second 
the nomination of Dr. Amos Bumgardner for President-Elect in the North 
Carolina Dental Society. (Applause.) 

DR. SYLVESTER GAY: Members of the North Carolina Dental 
Society: I wish to place in nomination for President-Elect Dr. Walter Mc- 
Fall of Asheville, North Carolina. 

Dr. McFall has been practicing and working for dentistry for twenty- 
five years. He has worked in states other than North Carolina, but he 
has been in this state for eight or ten years, working as hard as any man 
that I have ever known for the betterment of dentistry. 

He is now actively associated with several dental societies and study 
clubs, including the North Carolina and American Dental Associations; he 
is a member of the Southern Society of Orthodontists and the American 
Association of Orthodontists; he is a past Secretary-Treasurer and Presi- 
dent of the American Society of Children's Dentistry; Past Secretary, 
Vice-Chairman, and Chairman of the section on Children's Dentistry and 
Oral Hygiene of the A.D.A.; past Grand Master of the National Alumni 
Chapter of the Psi Omega fraternity; he has served as editor of the 
Children's Dentistry Section of the International Journal of Orthodontia 
and Children's Dentistry; as consultant editor of the American Journal 
of Orthodontia and Oral Surgery, on the editorial board of the Review of 
Dentistry for Children, and writer of several State Society Bulletin articles, 
he has given clinics and papers, lectures and talks before dental, medical, 
civic, and lay groups in more than 35 states; he has given over 400 clinics, 
addresses, and papers, and has conducted post-graduate seminars in nine 
states, as well as refresher courses in seven states; he has spoken before 
civic clubs, schools, and P.T.A. organizations; he has appeared repeatedly 
on the A.D.A. Chicago mid-winter clinics, and also at the N. F.D.I, in 
Boston in 1947. 

He has contributed articles for publication in the following: Oral 
Hygiene; A.D.A. Journal; Dental Survey; Indian Dental Journal; Spanish 



194 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



Dental Journal; British Dental Journal; Good Housekeeping; International 
Journal of Orthodontia and Children's Dentistry. 

He has given clinics in thirty-nine states. He is now President of the 
International College of Dentists. 

Gentlemen, it has been my pleasure to be in a study club with Dr. 
McFall, the Asheville Study Club, for some seven or eight years. I know 
him to be sincere, courageous, a hard worker, and a man of great ability. 
He has worked very hard for the betterment of dentistry in Asheville as 
well as the state and nation. His influence has permeated the whole 
civilized world in dentistry. 

I also know that he has worked hard for the betterment of the com- 
munity in all its aspects — social, educational, and religious. The contacts 
and experiences that he has gained from working in these different organi- 
zations, and the positions that he has held in them, have certainly qualified 
him to serve the North Carolina Dental Society. 

On a basis of qualification and ability and for what he has done for 
North Carolina and the nation as a whole, he deserves to be President of 
this Society. Let's elect him. (Applause.) 

DR. W. J. TURBYFILL.I am rather in a hot spot. The three of us 
are orthodontists. I am a good friend of Dr. Bumgardner, and also of 
Walter McFall. I could say many things about both of them. 

But there are many orthodontists that would like to be in the position 
that I am in — to be in a town, practice with another man, the only other 
orthodontists, and practice as we practice. Walter McFall, ever since the 
first day he came to Asheville (and I have known him since that time) 
has never sold me short one minute, and I have tried not to sell him short. 
I am not going to sell him short now because he is worthy of anything 
we can offer him. 

The orthodontists think a lot of Walter. Dentistry, general dentistry as 
a whole, thinks a lot of Walter. They think more of him all over the United 
States, I believe, than any other man that I could name, whether he be 
a North Carolinian or Texan or what not. 

I have traveled quite a bit, going to different meetings in different 
parts of the United States. If I were in Texas and said "Asheville," they 
would say, "That's where Walter McFall is from." They don't know me, 
but they know Walter. 

I believe that if Clyde Minges were here tonight and were to talk 
to you, he would tell you that were it not for Walter McFall, he would 
not be President-Elect of the American Dental Association. Out in Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, they would tell you the same thing. Walter McFall is 
directly responsible for two — one past President and President-Elect of 
the American Dental Association. He won't tell you that, but, without his 
help, neither of those two men, I am quite sure, would be where they are. 
We should be proud of him for that. 



Containing the Proceedings 195 



I am proud to tell you people that we had a telegram from the boys. 
We are supposed to be in Columbus, Ohio, now at the Orthodontists Con- 
vention, but I think more of dentistry as a whole than to miss this meet- 
ing. I have stayed here purposely for this. 

I don't know of any man that you could elect who would be better 
than Walter McFall. We need somebody who can talk a lot. We have been 
sitting on our haunches during these good times, and our lawmakers have 
just about forced us to a phase of dentistry that we have never seen in 
the United States, but I am afraid we are going to come to it. I believe 
that with a man like Walter McFall, a man who can talk, who is known 
not only in North Carolina but throughout the United States and Canada, 
he is the kind of a man we want. We don't want him in this state — we 
want him in the forty-eight. 

If there were forty-eight Walters, I would have the privilege of say- 
ing something about him in every state, and I would get up and say it, 
because we would have forty-eight good presidents. But that is impossible 
because you don't find the quality that Walter has in every man. I know, 
because we work in the same building. Our offices are there. We ride in 
the same elevator. When I am out of town, he looks after what I am doing 
and I do him likewise. 

I will say again that there are many, many orthodontists in the 
United States that would like to be practicing in Asheville for no other 
factor than to be practicing with Walter McFall. 

It give me a peculiar pleasure indeed to second the nomination of 
Walter McFall for President-Elect of the North Carolina Dental Society. 
(Applause.) 

DR. WALTER E. CLARK:! haven't the gift of oratory that these 
gentlemen have who preceded me. 

There are problems in the lives of all of us that are hard to solve im- 
partially sometimes, and that is particularly true when you are dealing 
with two friends and two good men. I have deliberated this question 
seriously and thought over it a long time. 

Some very serious problems present themselves to dental associations, 
dentistry in general, in the years immediately in front of us. Dr. McFall 
is worthy and eminently qualified to help work out these problems in 
military affairs and also in the dental education problems. It gives me a 
peculiar honor, fellow citizens, to second his nomination as President- 
Elect. (Applause.) 

DR. WADE A. SOWERS. -I have known Amos Bumgardner for a 
period of 17 years. Without exception, there is not a man in the second 
district or any district in North Carolina that devotes more time to den- 
tistry and is more sincere than Amos Bumgardner. 

It is very true that he is not particularly a speaker, or eloquent, but 
he works sincerely and unselfishly for the welfare of dentistry. I can't 



196 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



think of any man, of any friend that I have in this district that is better 
qualified and that is more deserving of the presidency of the North Caro- 
lina Dental Society. (Applause.) 

DR. RILEY E. SPOON, JR.: Gentlemen, I can add a little to what has 
been said for Dr. Bumgardner this evening. 

I have known him for quite a few years. Probably, I have known 
a lot more about him through my father, who practiced in this Society. 

I'd like to say that there is little that I can tell of his character, of 
his work, or his ability in dentistry that has not been already expressed 
here. He is a very active man and one thing that is important — a Christian 
man. 

Are you listening? We are talking about a Christian character, and 
we need those men to lead us today — someone with strong ability to see 
us through. 

It is a pleasure to second the nomination of Dr. Amos Bumgardner 
from Charlotte, North Carolina. (Applause.) 

DR. MILLER : I have known Dr. Bumgardner for quite a few yea^s. I 
practice 40 miles from Charlotte, and all the years that I have known Dr. 
Bumgardner, worked with him, associated with him, served with him in 
the field, I have never found a more sincere man. 

It seems to be sort of a custom (I am sure of myself there) to kind 
of rotate these offices, and the second district has not had a president for 
a good many years, and if we are to follow those rules (although they 
are not iron-clad) by all the rules of the game, the second district is 
entitled to a president-elect. 

I know Dr. Bumgardner to be a true Christian man. He is a saved 
man; he is a man that you can trust, and he will work unselfishly and 
untiringly for the betterment of the North Carolina Dental Society. There- 
fore, it gives me a peculiar pleasure to second the nomination of Dr. Amos 
Bumgardner to the office of President-Elect of the North Carolina Dental 
Society. (Applause.) 

MEMBER: I move that the nominations be closed. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

(Dr. Guion's name was taken from the ballot at his own request, as 
he did not know that he was being placed in nomination. The voting was 
then begun in the rear of the room, with the district secretaries acting 
with the committee to check on the membership.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: While we are waiting for the counting of 
ballots we shall go ahead with the election of the next officer in line, the 
Vice-President. 

DR. ROSS: I would like to nominate Dr. T. W. Atwood of Durham. 



Containing the Proceedings 197 



PRESIDENT OLIVE: Are there any other nominations? 

MEMBER: I move the nominations be closed. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: It has been moved and seconded that Dr. At- 
wood of Durham be nominated for Vice-President. All in favor of that 
motion let it be known by saying "aye." (The motion was carried.) 

I would like to instruct the Secretary to cast one ballot for Dr. T. W. 
Atwood from Durham for Vice-President. 

DR. HUNT: I hereby cast one ballot in behalf of the North Carolina 
Society for T. W. Atwood of Durham for the office Vice-President. 
(Applause.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Dr. Atwood, we would like to hear from you. 

DR. ATWOOD: I would just like to thank you at this time. I think 
we better continue with the election of officers. 

DR. JONES: Mr. President: I am pleased to announce the result of 
result of the balloting for President-Elect of the North Carolina Dental 
Society. 

There were 295 votes cast — 163 votes for Dr. McFall and 132 for Dr. 
Bumgardner. (Applause and cheers.) 

DR. BUMGARDNER: I would like to say that I just anpreciate the 
privilege of running. Now that Dr. McFall is the President-Elect of all of 
us, I am sure that you, with me, will accept this as a good family. I 
hope nobody has said anything that's not in keeping with the high fine 
sportsmanship. 

I ask you, sir, that we make it unanimous. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: I ask the Secretary to cast a unanimous vote 
for Dr. Walter McFall. 

DR. HUNT: Mr. Chairman, I consider it a unique privilege and 
pleasure to be able to cast a uninimous ballot on behalf of the North 
Carolina Dental Society for Dr. Walter McFall for the office of Presi- 
dent-Elect. 

MEMBERS: Speech! Speech! 

DR. McFALL: President Bob and gentlemen: I have never been so 
contrite and humble in my life as I am this minute. It would be worth 
losing any race in the world to have had and to have merited what Jack 
Turbyfill said about me tonight. 

I voted for Amos Bumgardner. Lord knows I did what I could. I 
voted for Amos because, in Boston, we slept together. Nobody told me 
Amos was in the race and nobody told Amos I was in the race. 

Somebody has said it is a spirited race, and a great deal has been 
said about Amos, his fine Christian character, and I want to tell you that 
I went to school with him and can verify everything that has been said. 
You didn't elect me over Amos or Amos over me. The race was won by 



198 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

those who worked a little harder. There was no difference between Amos 
and myself; there is no difference between us this moment. 

And so, what Amos would have done in the North Carolina Dental 
Society for twenty-four hours service, I pledge you my best effort — to him 
and to North Carolina Dentistry. (Applause.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: The next order of business is the nomination 
of the Secretary-Treasurer. 

DR. J. MARTIN FLEMING: Gentlemen, I was Secretary of this So- 
ciety in 1901 and '02. Does anybody date back to Secretary any further 
than that? If not, that makes me the dean of Secretaries. 

I have seen them come and go, and I was the sorriest one that ever 
came, and I think that our present Secretary-Treasurer is one of the best 
ones up to this time, and so it gives me pleasure to nominate my friend, 
Dr. Fred Hunt, to succeed himself as Secretary-Treasurer because he has 
made a good one. 

DR. FOX: Fred said that he was tired of this job, and that he was 
going to nominate me to succeed him and I want to avoid any such 
catastrophe, so I move that the nominations be closed, and Erbie Medlin 
be instructed to cast the unanimous vote of the North Carolina Dental 
Society for Fred Hunt to succeed himself. (Applause.) 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

DR. MEDLIN : Mr. President, it gives me great pleasure to cast a 
unanimous ballot for Dr. Fred Hunt for Secretary-Treasurer to succeed 
himself. (Applause.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Dr. Hunt, we would like to have a word 
from you. 

DR. HUNT: I feel kind of like the nigger boys who walked through 
a cemetery the other day looking at tombstones. On one, they saw, "Not 
dead, just sleeping." The little nigger said, "That man ain't fooling no- 
body but hisself." 

Gentlemen, anybody that thinks there is no work in this job is fooling 
himself, for there is plenty of work. As I said in this very room last 
October, there is a lot of work, but also a lot of privilege and a lot of 
pleasure which more than offsets the work. 

I consider it a unique privilege to have the opportunity to serve you 
again next year, and I will do my dead level best to do better than I did 
this year. Thank you. (Applause.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: We have two members of the Board of Dental 
Examiners to elect this evening to succeed Dr. Walter Clark and Dr. D. L. 
Pridgen. I will now entertain a motion for someone to succeed Dr. Clark. 

DR. C. T. WELLS: There is an old adage that "Experience is the best 
teacher." Walter Clark has been on the Board for three years. He has been 



Containing the Proceedings 199 



a very fine man on the Board; he has been there just long enough to learn 
what it is all about. I think it would be a great mistake to drop Walter 
at this time. I think he is the most capable man for the job. He is one of 
western North Carolina's best dentists; he knows good dentistry and he is 
capable, and he knows State Board work. 

I'd like to place the name of Walter Clark in nomination to succeed 
himself on the North Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners. 

MEMBER: I second the motion. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Are there any other nominations? If not, those 
in favor of Dr. Clark let it be known by saying, "aye." (The motion was 
unanimously carried.) 

I will now instruct the Secretary to cast a unanimous vote for Dr. 
Walter Clark. 

DR. HUNT: It gives me great pleasure to cast a unanimous ballot 
for the North Carolina Dental Society for Walter Clark to succeed himself 
as the member of the State Board of Dental Examiners. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: I will now entertain a motion for the successor 
of Dr. D. L. Pridgen. 

DR. ROYSTER CHAMBLEE: I would like to nominate a man tonight 
who needs no eulogy. He is a man who has never asked for any job or 
for any favors in the North Carolina Dental Society. However, many 
responsibilities and many positions have come his way. These respon- 
sibilities he has done with credit to himself and to the North Carolina 
Dental Society. 

At this time, we need a particularly strong State Board of Examiners. 
I would like to nominate Dr. LeRoy Pridgen of Fayetteville to succeed 
himself. 

DR. POINDEXTER: I second the nomination. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: All in favor of having Dr. Pridgen succeed him- 
self, let it be known by saying "aye." (The motion was carried.) 

I now instruct the Secretary to cast one vote for Dr. Pridgen to 
succeed himself. 

DR. HUNT: I consider it a great privilege to be able to cast one ballot 
for the North Carolina Dental Society for Dr. Pridgen for the office of 
member of the Board of Dental Examiners. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: The next order of business is to elect a delegate 
to the American Dental Association, to succeed Dr. Paul Jones. 

DR. J. A. SINCLAIR: Mr. President, as you know, for this year it 
has been the idea of the North Carolina Dental Society to pick our best 
timber to represent us at the national meetings. We have been able, through 
that system, to build up a recognized personnel that perhaps is not equalled 



200 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

by any state. We have done that by sending the same boys back — those 
who have great ability to have contacts — and I want to nominate Dr. Paul 
Jones to succeed himself as national delegate. 

DR. MOSER: I would like to second that motion. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Are there any other nominations? If not, all 
those in favor of Paul Jones' succeeding himself, let it be known by say- 
ing "aye." (The motion was carried.) 

I will now ask the Secretary to cast a ballot for Dr. Paul Jones to 
succeed himself to the American Dental Association as delegate. 

DR. HUNT: I consider it a unique privilege to be able to cast a unani- 
mous ballot for the North Carolina Dental Society for Dr. Paul Jones to 
succeed himself as a delegate to the American Dental Association. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: The next order of business is to nominate five 
alternates to the American Dental Association. 

DR. C. R. MINGES: I know who will attend twenty-four hours a day. 
I'd like to nominate the Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. Fred Hunt. 

DR. FLEMING: Mr. President, for one of the delegates, alternate 
delegates, I'd like to nominate Dr. Amos Bumgardner. 

DR. JONES: Burke Fox. 

DR. WELLS: Dr. S. E. Moser. 

MEMBER: Dr. E. M. Medlin. 

MEMBER : I move that the nominations be closed. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: All in favor of electing these men, let it be 
known by saying "aye." (The motion was carried.) 

I now instruct the Secretary to cast one ballot for their election. 

DR. HUNT: I hereby cast a unanimous ballot for the North Carolina 
Dental Society for alternate delegates to the next meeting of the Ameri- 
can Dental Asociation for the following: Dr. Amos Bumgardner; Dr. Burke 
Fox; Dr. S. E. Moser; Dr. E. M. Medlin; Dr. Fred Hunt. 

(Pinehurst was then selected as the meeting place of the 1949 conven- 
tion, and the meeting was adjourned at ten-twenty o'clock.) 



HOUSE OF DELEGATES 
April 28, 1948 

The third meeting of the House of Delegates of the Ninety-Second 
Anniversary Meeting of the North Carolina Dental Society convened in 
the Ballroom of the Hotel George Vanderbilt, Asheville, North Carolina, 



Containing the Proceedings 201 

at nine-thirty-five o'clock, and was called to order by the President, Dr. 
R. M. Olive. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: The meeting will please come to order. 

(The Secretary called the roll, and declared a quorum.) 

R. M. Olive, President; L. J. Moore, Vice-President; C. W. Sanders, 
President-Elect; Fred Hunt, Secretary-Treasurer; A. C. Current. F. O. 
Alford, Paul Jones, D. L. Pridgen, Neal Sheffield, W. Jackson, W. T. Martin, 
Burke Fox, Alice Patsy McGuire, John R. Pharr, Joe V. Davis, Jr., Frank 
Kirk, Wade Sowers, C. C. Poindexter, Frank E. Gilliam, Normin F. Ross, 
T. W. Atwood, H. O. Lineberger, T. M. Hunter, C. E. Abernathy, Paul 
Fitzgerald, B. McK. Johnson, C. D. Eatman. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE : We are now ready fov anv unfinished business. 
Are there any reports to be submitted? 

(Dr. Hunter then read a report into the record, moved its adoption, 
and the motion was seconded and carried.) 

DR. THOMAS HUNTER: Mr. President, Gentlemen, I would like to 
take this opportunity to read into the minutes of this meeting an expres- 
sion of appreciation to the North Carolina State Department of Health 
for their splendid cooperation vdth the North Carolina Dental Society: 
We especially appreciate the approval of Dr. Roy D. Norton, Chief Health 
Officer of the T.V.A. the newly appointed Director of our State Health 
Department who will take office July 1st replacing: Dr. Carl V. Reynolds 
retiring. I think we can rely on Dr. Norton for utmost cooperaion in 
advancing dentistry in North Carolina. 

I would also like to express appreciation to the Department of Oral 
Hygiene for making available to all North Carolina Dentists the 2% 
Sodium Fluoride Solution being distributed by them free of charge to all 
who request it. I am informed also that Silver Nitrat9 is or soon will 
be available through the same channels as the Sodium Flucride. 

I am taking this oportunity to make public the appreciation of the 
North Carolina Dental Society for the contribution of the State Department 
of Health — the Department of Oral Hygiene and to Dr. E. A. Branch, 
Chairman. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Are there any other reports? 

(Dr. Lineberger then read the report of the Legislative Committee.) 

LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE 

The Legislative Committee has actively supported all American Dental 
Association legislation in the National Congress. During the year we have 
had considerable correspondence with North Carolina representatives in 
the Congress, endeavoring at all times to keep them informed as to our 
views on all legislation concerning the dental profession. 



202 Bulletin No7-th Carolina Dental Society 



The committee wishes to publicly thank our Senators and Representa- 
tives for their splendid cooperation. They have all opposed the Wagner- 
Murray-Ding-ell Bill and favored the American Dental Association research 
legislation. Especially do we wish to thank Senator William B. Umstead 
and Representative A. L Bulwinkle for their support which they have 
given both our State and American Dental Association Legislative Com- 
mittee. Representative Bulwinkle, as a member of the House Committee 
on Research, has been most effective in our behalf. He is considered by 
our American Dental Association Legislative Committee as one of the 
staunchest supporters the dental profession has in the Congress. 

Your Legislative Committee suggests that this House of Delegates 
authorizes our State Secretary to write all members of the Congress and 
express to them our appreciation for the support they have so generously 
given the Dental Profession. — H. O. Lineberger, Chairman. 

DR. LINEBERGER: I move the adoption of this report. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

(Dr. L. Franklin Bumgardner then read the report of the Editor- 
Publisher.) 

REPORT OF EDITOR-PUBLISHER 

President Bob, according to history "On October 16, 1856 in the City 
of Raleigh, the first North Carolina Dental Society was organized," with 
eight charter members. 

The earliest record of any Proceedings to be published will be found 
in the "American Journal of Dental Science; Second Seines; Vol. VII, Page 
154, 1857 . . . The alumni of Dental Colleges practicing in the State of 
North Carolina, united the organization of a Society . . . Their meetings, 
to be held annually . . . can prove highly beneficial during a year, of so 
respectable a body of practitioners made public at each successive meet- 
ing, will certainly richly compensate everyone for the time and expense 
incurred in attending it." 

A Committee was appointed to make some recommendation about 
publishing the Proceedings in 1897. Resolved: "That the Publication Com- 
mittee be instructed to examine all papers read at each meeting of the 
Society and edit them for publication together with the Proceedings of the 
Society, same to be done at the expense of the Society and a copy sent 
to each member and to each Dental Journal." 

The 1901 By-Laws, Article 1, Section 9, stated the duties of the Com- 
mittee on Publication. This Committee functioned as publisher prior to 
the Secretary. "On Friday, May 30th, 1913, a motion was made that these 
unpublished years should be published in one pamphlet and that we should 
also publish pictures of each charter member and should dedicate the 
pamphlet to the "Charter Members of the Society," there being seven of 
them then living. This was done and those Proceedings were published in 



Containing the Proceedings 203 



a book of 170 pages, thus completing a published record of Proceedings 
from the beginning of the organization. 

A motion was made in 1899 that a fee of $25.00 be allowed the Chair- 
man of the Publishing Committee for services as editor, same to apply 
to the editor of the 1898 Proceedings and that fee was paid for the work 
through 1916. The years 1917 and 1918 the transactions were reported and 
edited by Dr. Whitfield Cobb, of Winston- Salem. Under the new constitu- 
tion, the one proposed in 1919 and adopted in 1920, the editing of the Pro- 
ceedings was combined with the Secretary's work and he was paid $50.00 
in addition to his $50.00 salary as Secretary to edit the Proceedings. The 
By-Laws changing duties of Secretary reads as follows: ". . . and perform 
all duties assigned to him, including editing and publishing the Proceed- 
ings. He shall receive a salary of one hundred dollars per year for his 
services." 

In 1923, in his President's Address at Pinehurst, Dr. S. Robert Horton 
advocated paying a higher salary to the Secretary, and the suggestion took 
shape in the following recommendation, which was adopted along with 
others : 

"That the Society employ an efficient Secretary at a salary of $500.00 
per year, whose duty it shall be to secure and make contracts with clini- 
cians and exhibitors of our annual State meetings; to arrange and publish 
Bulletins and Programs, look after all clerical work of the Society and 
assist in so far as he is able in the perfection of the district organiza- 
tions." This recommendation was signed by Drs. F. L. Hunt, J. H. Wheeler, 
C. C. Keiger, H. L. Keith, and R. M. Squires, Chairman. 

Another recommendation that this committee made was that we 
suspend the publication of the Proceedings of the North Carolina Dental 
Society. And by motion this was done, but in 1924 Dr. R. M. Morrow, in 
his President's Address, recommended that we resume at once the publica- 
tion of our Proceedings and that the next volume should also contain the 
unpublished Proceedings of 1923, and so this was done. This was the second 
time that we had discontinued publishing our Proceedings, only to see 
our mistake and correct it. 

In 1927 the Secretary's salary was increased to $700.00 per annum 
and publishing the Proceedings continued as a part of the duties of the 
Secretary-Treasurer until 1930, when it was decided, on suggestion of Dr. 
J. H. Wheeler in his President's Address, that the office of Editor be 
created to relieve somewhat the burdensome work of the Secretary-Trea- 
surer and that the salary of the Editor be $350.00 per year, the same 
to be deducted from the $700.00 salary of the Secretary-Treasurer, and 
that he publish a state-wide Bulletin, which would supplant the District 
Bulletins which had gradually sprung up with the growth of the districts. 

The publishing of District Bulletins began in 1928 following a meet- 
ing in Reidsville of the Third District Society in 1927. It seems it was not 
the brain child of any one man, but the thought took form from a discus- 
sion of how to create more interest in the District work. The motion to 



204 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



create and publish the Bulletin was offered by Dr. Dennis Keel and Dr. 
Neal Sheffield was elected Editor. 

To him goes the honor and distinction of having published the first 
District Bulletin which he very aptly named "The Plugger." 

It thus became the official organ of the Third District Dental Society 
and set a high mark of excellence from the first. 

Other Districts immediately began to plan similar Bulletins, and the 
Fifth District did establish one of high excellence, with Dr. Z. L. Edwards, 
Editor, and Drs. John R. Allison, of Wilmington, and J. V. Turner of Wil- 
son, Associate Editors. 

The name of this was "The Burr," the letters being formed by an 
unique arrangement of small teeth. 

At the meeting in Asheville in 1930, Dr. Wheeler presiding. Dr. Z. L. 
Edwards made a motion that we discontinue our District Bulletins and all 
combine to help make a greater State Bulletin. Dr. Edwards stated that 
the District Bulletins would necessarily have to be supported by the adver- 
tisements of the supply houses and dental laboratories and that contribu- 
tions by them to the Bulletin of each of five districts, if each established 
one, would work such hardship on those taking advertising space, that they 
would, in all probability, be forced to discontinue all such advertising, in 
fairness to themselves and thus "kill the goose that laid the golden egg." 

And so the office of State Editor was created. 

Up to that time, since 1918, the publishing of the Proceedings had been 
part of the duties of the Secretary, as had also the publishing of the State 
Bulletin. The duties of the Editor were prescribed as follows: "The Editor- 
Publisher shall publish the Annual Proceedings within four months follow- 
ing the annual meeting, at least two Bulletins and any other notices and 
publications the Executive Committee may deem necessary. 

His salary shall be $350.00 per annum, provided the Executive officers 
may withhold same in their discretion if the Proceedings fail to be pub- 
lished within the time limit prescribed by the Constitution and By-Laws." 
The election of this Editor-Publisher was left in the hands of the executive 
officers of the Society, namely. President, President-Elect, Vice-President, 
Secretary-Treasurer, and the Executive Committee. 

Dr. Fred Hale was elected to this office at this meeting and he held 
the same with great honor to himself and to the State Society until 1937, 
when he was elected President-Elect and Dr. Neal Sheffield was elected to 
succeed him. Dr. Sheffield served faithfully until 1943 when he was elected 
to the State Board of Dental Examiners and Dr. L. Franklin Bumgardner 
was elected by the Executive Committee to fill the office of Editor-Publisher. 

1914 — Edited by Dr. J. Martin Fleming. 

1915-16— Edited by Dr. R. T. Allen. 

1917-18— Reported and edited by Dr. Whitfield Cobb. 



Containing the Proceedings 205 



1919 — Edited by Secretary W. T. Martin. 

1920-23— Edited by H. O. Lineberger. 

1925-26— Edited by Secretary E. B. Howie. 

1927-30 — Edited by Secretary Dennis Keel. 

1931-37— Edited by Dr. G. Fred Hale. 

1938-43— Edited by Dr. Neal Sheffield (until May Meeting.) 

1943 — Edited by Dr. L. Franklin Bumgardner. 

I would like to elaborate a little on the report of Editor-Publisher and 
also digress long enough to say that, I have some recommendations to 
make and due to a change made last year in the Constitution I am not 
sure whether these proposals are intended to be acted upon by the House 
of Delegates or submitted to the Executive since I was elected to office 
by them, that I should give an account of my stewardship to them in 
Executive session. 

As you know, since assuming Editorship five years a^o the best re- 
porter we could obtain to cover the meetings and take the Proceedings has 
been less perfect each year and so I set about to locate a more efficient 
person to do the job. While attending the American Dental Association 
Meeting in Boston, I was greatly impressed by Miss Kevill. After consult- 
ing with the officers, her services were obtained and she consented to 
come to cover our meeting. I believe you will agree with me when you 
read the Proceedings of this meeting, that Miss Kevill has done a most 
excellent and magnificent job. 

The Bulletin has been carrying from 800 to 1200 inches of printing 
per issue with approximately 30-70 ratio advertising, except the Proceed- 
ings issue. This compares favorable with only the leading Dental Journals, 
when one considers that some dental magazines carry as much as 80% 
advertising and 20% text. 

In addition to publishing the Bulletin other activities have been at- 
tempted. In 1946 the entire membership was canvassed for correcting ad- 
dresses and a Roster was compiled. This Roster has proven very helpful 
during the past two years and at present 1300 copies of a new roster is 
coming from the press, which with the invaluable assistance of Dr. F. O. 
Alford, Secretary of the North Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners, 
will contain not only a revised list of membership but a complete licensure 
of dentist in North Carolina now practicing. 

In June, 1947, your editor had 800 copies of the Constitution and By- 
Laws of the North Carolina Dental Society printed. 

Since 1943 the number of Bulletins have doubled in amount of copy, in 
circulation, in cost to produce and naturally in time required to publish. 

The advertising rates have been increased once a small amount and I 
would like to now make the following recommendations to the Executive 
Committee : 

1. An increase in advertising rates. 

2. A business manager. 

3. Restoration of Publication Committee. 

4. That each District carefully select their District- Editor with great 
interest. 



206 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE BULLETIN SINCE 1940 



Fiscal Year 


Receipts 




Disbursements 


Balance 


1939-40 


% 88.59 
872.40 


$ 960.99 


$ 924.76 


$ 36.23 


1940-41 


36.23 
882.69 


918.92 


822.35 


96,57 


1941-42 


96.57 
867.96 


964.53 


832.35 


132.18 


1942-43 


132.18 
832.60 


964.78 


742.49 


222.29 


1943-44 


222.29 
1,022.10 


1,244.39 


871.27 


373.12 


1944-45 


373.12 
1,454.12 


1,827.32 


1,470.46 


356.86 


1945-46 


356.86 
2,125.47 


2,482.33 


1,882.26 


599.47 


1946-47 


599.47 
2,132.09 


2,731.56 


2,029.83 


701.72 


1947-48 


701.72 
1,920.95 


2,622.67 


2,111.35 


511.32 



The following' list is the number of Bulletins having been printed 
since 1943: 

1948-44 

700 Bulletins (District Issue) October, 1943 
800 Bulletins (Membership Issue) January, 1944 
900 Bulletins (Program Issue) April, 1944 
800 Hand Progi-ams May, 1944 



3,200 Total 

1944-45 

1,000 Proceedings August, 1944 

875 Bulletins (District Issue) October, 1944 

900 Bulletins (Membership Issue) January, 1945 

900 Bulletins (Program Issue) April, 1945 

700 Hand Programs May, 1945 



4,375 Total 

1945-46 

1,000 Proceedings August, 1945 
900 Bulletins (District Issue) October, 1945 
900 Bulletins (Membership Issue) January, 1946 
900 Bulletins (Program Issue) April, 1946 
800 Hand Programs May, 1946 

4,500 Total 



Containing the Proceedings 207 



1946-47 

1,000 Proceedings September, 1946 

900 Bulletins (District Issue) September, 1946 
1,000 Bulletins (Membership Issue) December, 1946 
1,300 Bulletins (Program Issue) April, 1947 

800 Hand Programs May, 1947 



5,000 Total 

1947-1948 

1,000 Proceedings August, 1947 
1,000 Bulletins (District Issue) September, 1947 
1,200 Bulletins (Membership Issue) December, 1947 
1,300 Bulletins (Program Issue) March, 1948 
900 Hand Programs April, 1948 



5,400 Total 

Balance Brought Forward, May 31, 1947 $ 701.72 

Receipts 

1947 

Dairy Council $ 43.00 

Austenal Laboratories 30.00 

Thompson Dental Company 30.00 

Postmaster 3.75 

Noyes and Sproul 30.00 

Smith Dental Laboratory 10.00 

S. S. White Dental Manufacturing Company 30.00 

Central Dental Company 10.00 

Dairy Council 42.00 

Woodward Prosthetic 30.00 

R. D. Webb Dental Manufacturing Co 18.00 

Ray-Lyon 30.00 

Powers & Anderson 30.00 

Charlotte Laboratory 30.00 

Merrimon Insurance Agency, Inc 10.00 

Noble Dental Laboratory 30.00 

Thompson Dental Company 30.00 

Commercial Casualty Insurance Company 30.00 

Rothstein Dental Laboratories 30.00 

North State Dental Laboratory 18.00 

Keener Dental Supply 18.00 

Corega Chemical Company 29.40 

Luxene, Inc 60.00 

Noyes & Sproul (Pycope) 30.00 

Raleigh Dental Laboratory 30.00 

Richmond Dental Laboratory 30.00 



208 Bulletin No)'th Carolina Dental Society 



1948 

Smith Dental Laboratory 10.00 

Woodward Prosthetic Company 30.00 

Central Dental Laboratory 10.00 

Charlotte Laboratory 30.00 

Raleigh Dental Laboratory 30.00 

Merrimon Insurance Agency, Inc 10.00 

Ray-Lyon 30.00 

Noble Dental Laboratory 30.00 

Rothstein Dental Laboratory 30.00 

North State Dental Laboratory 18.00 

Dairy Council 42.00 

Thompson Dental Company 30.00 

Corega Chemical Company 29.40 

Commercial Casualty Insurance Company 30.00 

S. S. White Manufacturing Company 30.00 

Richmond Dental Laboratory 30.00 

Keener Dental Supply 18.00 

Powers & Anderson 30.00 

R. D. Webb Dental Manufacturing Company 18.00 

Economy Printing Company 10.00 

Rothstein Dental Laboratory 30.00 

Merrimon Insurance Agency, Inc 10.00 

Economy Printing Company 10.00 

Corega Chemical Company 29.40 

Woodward Prosthetic Company 30.00 

Thompson Dental Company 30.00 

Commercial Casualty Insurance Company 30.00 

Earnhardt Manufacturing Company 30.00 

Ray-Lyon 30.00 

Luxene, Inc 60.00 

Noble Dental Laboratory 30.00 

Dairy Council 30.00 

Raleigh Dental Laboratory 30.00 

Powers & Anderson 30.00 

Coca-Cola Bottling Company 10.00 

MacArthur Krause Florist 10.00 

Harry's Motor Inn 10.00 

Battery Park Hotel 10.00 

Noyes & Sproul (Pycope) 30.00 

Vanderbilt Hotel 30.00 

Charlotte Laboratory 30.00 

S. S. White Dental Manufacturing Company 30.00 

Dentists Supply Company of New York 30.00 

North State Dental Laboratory 18.00 

Smith Dental Laboratory 10.00 

Central Dental Laboratory 10.00 

Total Receipts $2,546.67 



Containing the Proceedings 209 



Advertisers That Have Not Remitted: 

Biltmore Plaza Hotel 10.00 

Seven-Up Bottling Company 18.00 

Richmond Dental Laboratory 30.00 

R. D. Webb Dental Manufacturing Company 18.00 



Balance Outstanding $ 76.00 

Brought Forward Collected 2,546.67 



$2,622.67 



Disbursements 
1947 

Postmaster $ 10.40 

E. R. Abernathy (Addressing Machine) 58.35 

E. R. Abernathy (Stencils) 14.42 

Economy Printing Company (Cuts) 64.56 

Postmaster (Stamps) 11.20 

Postmaster (Mailing of Bulletin) 10.00 

Southern Bell Telephone & Telegraph 8.97 

Economy Printing Company 549.35 

Charlotte Dental Society 10.00 

Postmaster (Stamps) 10.00 

Postmaster (Stamps) 17.85 

1948 

Economy Printing Company 471.50 

Southern Bell Telephone & Telegraph 19.59 

Postmaster 13.00 

Postmaster (Stamps) 15.00 

Economy Printing Company (Cuts) 44.20 

Postmaster (Stamps) 12.50 

Economy Printing Company 510.61 

Southern Bell Telephone & Telegraph 14.70 

Economy Printing Company 233.20 

Postmaster (Stamps) 11.95 



Total Disbursements $2,111.35 

Total Receipts Ending May 31, 1948 $2,622.67 

Total Disbursements Ending May 31, 1948 2,111.35 



Cash Balance May 31, 1948 $ 511.32 

L. Franklin Bumgarbner, Editor-Publisher 

DR. BURKE FOX: I would like to move that we accept this report 
and refer the recommendations to the Executive Committee for study 
and decision. 

MEMBER: I second the motion. 



210 BuUetin North Carolina Dental Society 

DR. LINEBERGER: I think we should thank Dr. Bumgardner for 
the work he has been doing here. It's a regular old horse type of work 
every day. I think we should give him a vote of thanks. 

(A rising vote of thanks was given Dr. Bumgardner.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Franklin, I am glad you brought this up about 
the Publications Committee. I might explain this. 

In the beginning of my term of office, there was an idea of eliminating 
this committee and several others. In fact, this wasn't my idea, but were 
suggestions that came from some of those who served ahead of me. I re- 
tained some of them because we found a need for them. This is one of 
the ones that was asked to be left out. We have such an efficient Editor- 
Publisher, I think they had an idea that this committee would not be neces- 
sary, but we do realize that you have a hard job and you have done it well. 
I think it will be a lot of help to have this additional committee reinstated 
as you mentioned in your remarks. 

DR. NEAL SHEFFIELD: I have a report that Dr. Graham asked me 
to read. 



LIAISON COMMITTEE TO THE DENTAL DIVISION OF THE OLD 

NORTH STATE MEDICAL, DENTAL AND 

PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY 

There has been very little for this committee to do this year. The com- 
mittee has aided as much as possible the colored dentist in securing local 
men as clinicians for their local meetings as well as for their district and 
state meetings. 

There has been a name to separate the dental section of this group and 
have a colored dental society. It is possible this has been accomplished. 
It is not known what name this new group will use. 

We recommend that this committee continue to assist this group in 
securing clinicians for their meeting. — C. A. Graham, Chairman. 

I would like to say that there will probably have to be another name 
for this committee. 

I move that the report be adopted. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

DR. MEDLIN : This is a report of statement by the Resolutions Com- 
mittee, turned over to me yesterday as chairman of the committee, regard- 
ing the certification of specialists in this state. 

After conferring with some of the fellows, in particular Dr. Jackson, 
I find that the Council on Dental Education of the A.D.A. is doing con- 
siderable work along this line, in trying to set up a uniform policy through- 



Containing the Proceedings 211 



out the country on this matter. In view of this, I would suggest that this 
be turned over to the incoming Resolutions Committee for action at our 
next meeting. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: If there are no objections to Dr. Medlin's re- 
marks about this committee, we will turn it over to the next committee as 
he has suggested. (There were no objections.) 

DR. MEDLIN : Dr. John Forest is the new chairman of the Resolu- 
tions Committee, He will start working on it. 

DR. LINEBERGER: I might say here that some of those who have 
gone to the A.D.A. know that they have had considerable problems in re- 
gard to voting in the national association. They have adopted a new plan 
of voting at the Boston meeting, and I think it is very good. 

I would like to make a motion, Mr. President, that the Constitution and 
By-Laws Committee be asked to investigate the voting procedures of the 
American Dental Association, and, if necessary, change our by-laws to 
conform with theirs. 

DR. HUNT : The idea is to get it so you can act on it the next session? 

DR. LINEBERGER: Act on it at any of the meetings next year. I 
will make that a motion. 

MEMBER: I second the motion. 

(The motion was carried.) 

DR. PRIDGEN : I would like to give the report of the Advisory Com- 
mittee to the N.C.D. Hygienist Association 

The Committee wishes to report that they held an organizational meet- 
ing here, elected officers, and adopted a constitution and by-laws. Due to 
the postponement from the original hour of meeting and conflicts later, no 
member of the Advisory Committee could be present, but Dr. McFall was 
present. He was a great inspiration to them, and gave them much en- 
couragement in their organization. There were ten or twelve present, and 
they are looking forward to a better attendance next year. 

DR. McFALL : We did have Dr. Tuttle present. 

DR. PRIDGEN : Dr. Tuttle of the Advisory Committee was present, 
in addition to Dr. McFall. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Are there any further reports? 

DR. HUNT : I have a report handed me by Mrs. Henderson in regard 
to our attendance. I have been told the registration for this meeting was 
810: District 1, 146; District 2, 123; District 3, 67; District 4, 73; District 
5, 61; total, 468; Dental Hygienists, 11; Exhibitors, 62; District Guests, 
20; Visitors, 247, which compares with 875 for 1947, and 815 for 1946. 
That is a very fine figure to be this far away. Usually when we come this 
far west, we don't get an attendance that is so good. Our paid member- 
ship is approximately 700. 



212 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: Are there any further reports or business to 
come before the House of Delegates? 

If not, I would like to entertain a motion that the House of Delegates 
adjourn and that we go into general session. 

DR. ALFORD : I move that we adjourn the House of Delegates. 

(The motion was seconded and carried.) 

GENERAL SESSION 
April 28, 1948 

The sixth General Session was immediately called to order by President 
R. M. Olive. 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: The order of business at this time is the instal- 
lation of officers. I would like to ask that Dr. J. Martin Fleming and Dr. 
C. C. Poindexter escort Dr. C. W. Sanders, President-Elect of the North 
Carolina Dental Society to the platform. 

(Dr. Sanders was then escorted to the platform.) 

PRESIDENT OLIVE: During the past two years it has been a pleas- 
ure and an inspiration to have had official association with you, as an 
officer of our State Dental Association. You have been a capable secretary- 
treasurer, president-elect, and you are recognized as one of the most efficient 
men we have in our organization. This great honor that has been bestowed 
on you is the proof of such recognition by your fellow members, merited 
by your proven ability as a capable leader. I do not think that I have ever 
had a finer friend and associate, and with all these qualifications in mind, 
it is an honor to have you succeed me as president of the North Carolina 
Dental Society and in behalf of its fellow members, I now turn the gavel 
over to you: President Sanders. (Applause.) 

DR. C. W. SANDERS, PRESIDENT: Bob, I wish to thank you for 
this very complimentary statement and to congratulate you upon the won- 
derful and efficient way that you have expedited the aff'airs of this organi- 
zation during the past year. 

As I accept this symbol of authority, the gavel, from you I am highly 
conscious of the responsibilities which go with it. I am fully conscious of 
my personal limitations and my unworthiness to serve as your president 
during the coming year. Were I to neglect to say to all of you how very 
much I appreciate this honor and how nearly this honor approximates the 
height of my greatest expectations and how sincerely I desire to repay you 
through service, loyalty and devotion to the North Carolina Dental Society. 
I would fail to explain to you the feelings which are in my heart this 
morning. During the four years it has been my privilege to serve as an 
officer of the North Carolina Dental Society, I must confess that I have 
acquired a few very definite personal convictions relative to the activities 
and responsibilities of the officers of this organization. Please allow me 
to assure you, however, that any recommendation made by me at any time 



Containing the Proceedings 213 



which may deviate from past procedures will not be forced upon you but 
will be cleared through duly elected and authorized channels. I pledge you 
the best there is within me. In turn, I ask your counsel, advice and co- 
operation during the coming year. Working together, as I am sure we 
will, the North Carolina Dental Society will continue to grow and serve 
its fine membership and contribute greatly to the general health of North 
Carolina's citizens. 

PRESIDENT SANDERS: Will Dr. Alford and Dr. Branham please 
escort the President-Elect to the platform? 

(Dr. McFall was escorted to the platform., 

Walter, it is a great privilege and honor which I have to welcome you, 
our President-Elect, into the official family of the North Carolina Dental 
Society. Having just finished a year's service in the same capacity myself, 
I know whereof I speak when I say — this will be a neriod of observation 
and preparation for you. In my estimation the membership of the North 
Carolina Dental Society could not have chosen a more conscientious or 
more capable individual as its future president. During the coming months, 
I shall lean heavily upon your knowledge and resourcefulness for advice 
and guidance. It gives me great pleasure to declare you installed as Presi- 
dent-Elect of the North Carolina Dental Society. 

PRESIDENT-ELECT McFALL: I made one speech last night and 
felt that was enough. 

I don't know how many of you fellows are Bible class teachers. If 
you are, then you know what your next Sunday's lesson is. We have been 
studying this part where the children of Israel have been in their second 
exile for 70 years and had come back. Our next Sunday's verse is Nehe- 
miah, the 4th Chapter, 6th verse, which reads as follows: "So we built the 
wall, for the people had a mind to work." 

There is no one who loves dentistry any more than I do. There is no 
one that appreciates more the fine honor that you gentlemen have done 
me last night. I know better than any of you my many frailties and faults, 
and I have tried as best I could to curb them. I know also that if North 
Carolina Dentistry holds its place in the sun, it will have to improve every 
year because competition is keener. Our national State Officers meeting 
showed that very plainly. 

We don't have all the answers. As an adopted North Carolinian, I am 
a little bit tired of hearing the '44, '46, '47, and '48 in this. Some of us 
in Noi'th Carolina are so close to these things that we fail to see them. 
North Carolina shouldn't be down the line in anything — we don't think it 
is, but statisticians do. 

And so, if we in North Carolina dentistry, and all the rest of you 
who make it great, are to consummate those ideas and ideals that we have 
in mind and heart, it will require not only a courageous leadership, but an 
inspired following. The finest service that any man ever renders to his 
organization is not in the credit and the glory and the name that he re- 



214 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

ceives, but in the self-satisfaction that comes to the left side of a man's 
chest, because, without that satisfaction, life is nothing. 

And so, to you, Mr. President, and to you, ladies and gentlemen of 
the North Carolina Dental Society, with all my foibles and frailties and 
faults, I pledge you the best that I have. Thank you. (Applause.) 

PRESIDENT SANDERS: The next in order of installation is our 
Vice-President. I will ask Dr. Alford and Dr. Eatman to please escort 
Dr. Atwood to the front. 

(Dr. Atwood was escorted to the platform.) 

Ted, there is a great service you as Vice-President of the North Caro- 
lina Dental Society can render during your term of ofR?e. Our organiza- 
tion should always choose a Vice-President as carefully as it has chosen 
you. Take full advantage of your office by attending all district meetings, 
learn all you possibly can about your organizations and the men composing 
its membership. It is a privilege to declare you installed as Vice-President 
of the North Carolina Dental Society. 

DR. T. W. ATWOOD : I do very deeply appreciate the honor that has 
been placed on me by our dental society. I can only say that I will do my 
best in cooperation with the other elected officers to make this year the 
most successful in the history of the North Carolina Dental Society. Thank 
you. (Applause.) 

PRESIDENT SANDERS: The next order of business is the installa- 
tion of our Secretary-Treasurer. 

Fred, since you are already up here and look so tired, I'll make this 
installation short. It is a unique pleasure which is mine to know that 
during the coming year you, with your wealth of experience and knowledge 
gained through experience are going to serve as Secretary-Treasurer of 
the North Carolina Dental Society. You are going to be my right arm 
and maybe my left also during the months to come. It is going to be a 
great pleasure to continue working with you. Fred, I am happy to declare 
you installed as Secretary-Treasurer of the North Carolina Dental Society 
for another year. 

DR. HUNT: Thank you, Mr. President. I am indeed grateful for this 
honor, and, gentlemen, I really think it is an honor, and I treat it seriously 
and as such. 

I want you to know that, at all times, I am going to attempt to con- 
duct the duties of this office in a way I think they should be conducted, 
and if, at any time, they do not go according to what the predecessors have 
established, it would be a great privilege to me if you will let me have 
your constructive criticism, because it is only in that way that I will know 
what is wrong and what needs to be corrected, because I honestly and 
truly intend to give, during the coming year, to the office of Secretary- 
Treasurer the very best I have in me, and, Dr. Sanders, if I can just supply 
your wrist instead of your both arms, I will be very happy. (Applause.) 



Containing the Proceedings 215 

PRESIDENT SANDERS: I will now ask Dr. Frank Gilliam and 
Dr. Medlin to escort Dr. Clark and Dr. Pridgen to the front. 

(Dr. Sanders greeted them.) 

Roy and Walter, when I think of the great responsibilities which rest 
in your hands as members of the North Carolina State Board of Dental 
Examiners, I can then understand better why you two men were chosen to 
fill these responsible positions. It is the responsibility of you fine men on 
the Board to determine whether or not a candidate for license to practice 
dentistry in North Carolina is worthy and capable of that privilege. We 
are indeed proud of each of our Board members and I congratulate you 
on being re-elected to serve in this distinguished capacity. It is a pleasure 
to declare you installed as members of the North Carolina State Board of 
Dental Examiners, subject to confirmation of the Governor of North 
Carolina. 

PRESIDENT SANDERS: The next order of installation are the dele- 
gates to the American Dental Association House of Delegates. 

Since Dr. Jones, who is the delegate, is not present, we will now have 
the installation of the alternate delegates. 

(Dr. Sanders then greeted Dr. Bumgardner, Dr. Hunt, Dr. Fox, and 
Dr. Medlin. Dr. Moser was not present.) 

Gentlemen, in order to save time we will install you all together — there 
being no objection. 

I am quite sure our membership couldn't have chosen a finer, more 
capable group of men to represent us as delegates and alternate delegates 
to the American Dental Association House of Delegates. Yours will be an 
unusual privilege in as much as it will be your pleasure to witness the 
installation to presidency of the American Dental Association our distin- 
guished and well-loved, Dr. Clyde E. Minges. It is a pleasure to declare 
you installed as delegates to the American Dental Association from the 
North Carolina Dental Society. 

PRESIDENT SANDERS: This, I believe, completes the installations, 
and if there is no other business, I will read my committee appointments 
at this time. 



NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 
STANDING COMMITTEES 

1948-1949 

Executive Committee 
S. L. Bobbitt (1949), Chairman 
A. C. Current (1950) Paul Fitzgerald (1951) 

Paul Fitzgerald (1951) 



216 Bulletin No)th Carolina Dental Society 



Ethics Committee 
J. F. Reece (1949), Chnirtnan 
J. A. McClung (1950) Burke Fox (1952) 

W. T. Martin (1951) C. R. Minges (1953) 

Legislative Committee 
C. C. Poindexter (1949) Paul Jones (1951) 

H. O. Lineberger (1950) Z. L. Edwards (1952) 

E. G. Click (1953) 

Program Committee 
R. Fred Hunt, Chairman 
Charles B. Johnson Z. V. Kendrick 

A. C. Current S. P. Gay 

K. L. Johnson 

Clinic Committee 
Kenneth L. Johnson, Chairman 
E. R. Teague Phillip R. Melvin 

L. T. Dupree, Jr. W. J. McDaniel 

Membership Committee 
Walter McFall, Chairman 
Alice Patsy McGuire Norman F. Ross 

Joe V. Davis, Jr. C. E. Abernathy 

C. D. Eatman 

Exhibit Committee 
J. W. Branham, Chairman 
J. A. Marshburn R. S. Garrett 

J. H. Guion H. E. Butler 

E. G. Click 

Necrology Committee 
A. S. Bumgardner (1952), Chairman 
W. T. Ralph (1949) J. S. Betts (1951) 

I. R. Self (1950) Victor E. Bell (1953) 

Library and History Committee 
J. Martin Fleming (1952), Chairman 
J. P. Bingham (1949) B. McK. Johnson (1951) 

Alice P. McGuire (1950) R. L. Underwood (1953) 

Insurance Committee 
Claude Parks (1950), Chairman 
S. E. Moser (1949) Paul Fitzgerald (1952) 

H. Royster Chamblee (1951) Claude A. Adams (1953) 

Publicity Committee 
Neal Sheffield (1949), Chairman 
O. C. Barker (1950) K. L. Johnson (1952) 

Burke Fox (1951) Darden J. Eure (1953) 



Containing the Proceedings 

The N. C. State Board of Dental Examiners 

Frank O. Alford (1949) 

Wilbert Jackson (1949) a t t ^^ /.^,- 

D. L. Pridgen (1951) 

Constitution and By-Laws Committee 
D. L. Pridgen (1952), Chairman 

Prosthetic Dental Service Committee 

^XT ^. ^, ?• ^' P°^"dexter (1952), Chairman 

Walter Clark n94Q^ -c^ ^ ^ 

r> 1 T '^'■'^ y^^'^y) Frank 0. Alford Ciqiin 

Paul Jones (1950) w ,^ i,x V; uyoi) 

^ ' Walter McRae (1953) 

State Council on Dental Health 
TXT r ^ ^' ^- ^^^nch (1952), Chairman 

^^^"^ J- Donald Riser (1953) 

State Institutions Committee 
G. L. Overman (1952), Chairman 
Olm Owen (1949) r. 

Norman F. Eoss 1950) f ^w ^^f ^''''^ 

^ '' Ralph L. Falls (1953) 

Relief Committee 

T r A "J;.^f ^'" Fleming (1950), Chairman 
J. Conrad Watkins (1949) u i tt,-^ 

Walter Clark (1951) l^t ^^^^^^^ald (1952) 

^^^^^^ E. M. Medlin (1953) 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

Advisory Committee N C MEnirAT r^T,r. n 

iN_u. medical Care Commission and Good 
Health Association 

TT ^ T • -^^"^ Jones, Chairman 

n.. U. Lmeberger r^ nx ,,r 

Ralph Jarrett 

Public Relations Committee 

, , T A u, "^^ ^' Current, Chairman 

John L. Ashby r t r^ 

L. G. Coble ^;.,r- ^^^^""lan 

„ ^ Wilbert Jackson 

Z. L. Edwards 

Resolutions Committee 

AWT,.. '^''^" ^' ^^^^^' C/iazrm«n 

A. W. Bottoms TOD 

S. B. Towler t' ^ "^ 

J. F. Duke 
DeWitt C. Woodall 



217 



218 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



Dental College Committee 

H. O. Lineberger, Chairman 
G. Fred Hale R. M. Olive 

Wilbert Jackson J. Conrad Watkins 

Paul E. Jones 

Clinic Board of Censors 

W. W. Rankin, Chairman 
Conrad Fritz L. Graham Page 

William C. Current J. R. Edwards, Jr. 

W. I. Hart 

Publication Committee 

T. G. Nisbit, Chairman 
Kermit Chapman Worth Byrd 

Norman F. Ross J. M. Kilpatrick 

Entertainment of Out of State Visitors Committee 
Paul Fitzgerald, Jr., Chairman 
O. C. Barker R. M. Olive 

Clyde E. Minges Wilbert Jackson 

Charles Eatman Walter McFall 

T. E. Sikes 

Superintendent of Clinics Committee 
Howard L. Allen, Chairman 
W. ,K. Chapman W. I. Farrell 

P. C. Hull, Jr. C. E. Abernathy 

Charles B. Johnson 

Liaison Committee to the Dental Division of the Old North State 
Medical, Dental and Pharmaceutical Society 
Neal Sheffield, Chairman 
J. J. Tew A. R. Kistler 

C. M. Peeler R. S. Turner 

John L. Ashby R. M. Blackman 

Hospital Dental Service Committee 
K. L. Johnson, Chairman 
Thomas L. Blair Norman F. Ross 

T. E. Sikes Clarence Olive 

R. L. Underwood 

Advisory Committee for Veterans Administration Program 
P. B. Whittington, Chairynan 
E. D. Baker J. T. Bell 

H. 0. Lineberger Kemp Lindsay 

H. W. Gooding Coyte Minges 



Containing the Proceedings 219 

Medical-Dental Relationship Committee 
Charles Eatman, Chairman 
S. E. Moser Lee Overman 

Ralph F. Jarrett G. L. Hooper 

T. W. Atwood H. Royster Chamblee 



Advisory Committee to N. C. Dental Hygienist Association 
Ralph Coffey, Chairman 
S. B. Towler Ralph F. Jarrett 

N. R. Callaghan A. P. Cline 

W. I. Hart 



Dental Caries Committee 
G. L. Overman, Chairman 
Walter McFall L. M. Edwards 

Donald Kiser W. F. Mustin 

J. W. Whitehead 



Arrangements Committee 
Royster Chamblee, Chairman 
E. M. Medlin S. L. Bobbitt 

Hovirard Allen Thomas G. Collins 

Walter McRae 

Entertainment Committee 
E. D. Baker, Chairman 
Marcus Smith W. K. Chapman 

Bernard Walker Frank E. Gilliam 

C. D. Eatman 

Golf Committee 
L. M. Daniels, Chairman 
E. M. Medlin D. T. Carr 

J. W. Branham P. B. Whittington 

Worth M. Byrd 

Housing Committee 
Howard W. Branch, Chairman 
Clarence Roberts G. L. Hooper 

L. M. Massey R. E. Finch 

P. E. Cotter 

Advsiry Committee to the American Academy of Pediatrics 
K. L. Johnson, Chairman 
R. M. Olive H. C. Carr 

T. W. Atwood S. L. Bobbitt 



220 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



Advisory Committee to North Carolina Good Health Association 
Paul E. Jones, Chairman 

Clyde E. Minges S. L. Bobbitt 

H. 0. Lineberger John R. Pharr 

E. M. Medlin A. C. Current 
C. C. Poindexter C. A. Pless 

F. O. Alford R. M. Olive 

Extension Course Committee 
T. W. AtMfood, Chairman 
M. H. Truluck G. L. Hooper 

J. H. Guion A. C. Early 

Committee on General Anesthesia 
R. M. Olive, Chairm,an 
J. A. Sinclair Grady Ross 

T. E. Sikes J. Y. Hinson 

H. K. Thompson 



I should like to entertain a motion at this time for the privilege of 
making minor changes in this committee appointment list in case I find it 
necessary. 

(The motion was made, seconded, and carried.) 

PRESIDENT SANDERS: Is there any further business to come be- 
fore this meeting? 

DR. HUNT : I think that last night w^as the proper time to make this 
comment, but I think that some of us M^ere asleep. I M^as asleep myself. 

I haven't heard any member of the North Carolina Dental Society get 
on his feet and tell how? much we appreciate the entertainment that we 
have had here in Asheville. If it has been done, I stand corrected, but if 
if it hasn't been done, I am going ahead. 

To you Walter, Ralph CoflFy, Nat Maddux, and all you fellows here in 
the first district, we extend to you our most hearty and sincere thanks 
for the very wonderful entertainment that you have shown not only to the 
dentists, but to the ladies. I have been coming for nearly twenty-five years 
to these conventions, and this is the first time I have ever brought my 
wife. I have taken her to the A.D.A., to the Chicago clinics last month, 
and to Atlanta, but I have never brought her to a state meeting. She would 
ask why I didn't take her, and I told her there was nothing to do but 
watch a lot of ugly old men pass. The situation is different this time, 
gentlemen, and I think the sentiment that she has about Asheville and 
the entertainment bespeaks for all the ladies present. I have heard nothing 
but praise. I think it's wonderful. I have never seen anything like it in 
an A.D.A. meeting or any other meeting. 



Containing the Proceedings 221 



On behalf of the North Carolina Dental Society, Walter, Ralph, Nat, 
and the others, I wish to extend to you our most hearty and sincere thanks. 
(Applause.) 

PRESIDENT SANDERS: Thank you, Fred; I had a little speech my- 
self, but I won't use it now. I do want to say this — Fred has expressed 
my sentiments precisely. I have never attended a more enjoyable meeting. 

This has been a characteristic meeting in many respects inasmuch as 
we met, we thrashed out some differences, and we are all going home happy. 

I want to extend to the men in this district and in this city of Ashe- 
ville who worked so hard putting on this program, entertainment, and 
caring for us, our sincere appreciation for the good job which they have 
done. They have done a remarkable job, when we stop to consider that they 
haven't entertained the North Carolina Dental Society in quite a number 
of years. They had to set up their committees, and each and every man 
worked like a Trojan. We do appreciate it from the bottom of our hearts — 
the success that you have helped to make of this meeting. (Applause.) 

Is there any further business? 

DR. G. FRED HALE : It occurs to me that it would be a good idea 
if we presented formally to the Medical Care Commission this report of 
the Dental College Committee that was approved by the House of Delegates. 
I think it probably would be a good idea if it would come in the formal 
way to them and ask for their support. 

PRESIDENT SANDERS: Dr. Hale, your suggestion is very well put. 
Did you make that in the form of a motion. 

DR. HALE : I make that a motion. 

MEMBER: I second that motion. 

PRESIDENT SANDERS: It has been moved and seconded that we 
send a copy of the dental survey to the North Carolina Medical Care 
Commission. 

DR. OLIVE: I would like for you to send Mr. H. C. Cranford, of 
Durham, Executive Secretary of the Good Health Association, a copy of 
it too, because he has asked that a copy be sent to them for study and 
cooperation. 

PRESIDENT SANDERS: Do you accept that, Fred? 

DR. HALE: Yes, indeed. 

PRESIDENT SANDERS: Is there any other discussion? If not, all 
in favor of this motion, let it be known by saying "aye." (The motion was 
carried.) 

Is there any further business? (There was no response.) If not, I will 
now entertain a motion to adjourn. 

DR. SHEFFIELD: I move we adjourn. 



222 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



MEMBER: I second the motion. 

PRESIDENT SANDERS: All in favor, please let it be known by say- 
ing "aye." (The motion was carried.) 

I now declare the Ninety-Second Annual Meeting of the North Caro- 
lina Dental Society adjourned, to meet in Pinehurst next year. 

(The convention was adjourned at ten-thirty-five o'clock.) 



MINUTES 

NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 
MEETING EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

GEORGE VANDERBILT HOTEL 

Asheville, N. C. 

April 28, 1948 — 10:30 A.M. 

The Executive Committee met immediately following conclusion of the 
Ninety-Second anniversary meeting of he North Carolina Dental Society. 

Those present were: 

Dr. S. L. Bobbitt, Chairman 

Dr. A. C. Current 

Dr. Paul Fitzgerald 

Dr. C. W. Sanders, Ex-Officio 

Dr. Walter T. McFall, Ex-Officio 

Dr. R. Fred Hunt, Ex-Officio 

The meeting was called to order by Dr. S. L. Bobbitt, Chairman, and 
the date for our 1949 meeting was discussed. It was suggested that we 
attempt to hold our next annual meeting on May 2-3-4, 1949 in Pinehurst. 

Dr. C. W. Sanders is to call Dr. J. E. John to ascertain the time of 
the next annual meeting of the Virginia State Dental Association in order 
to prevent conflicting dates before conferring with Mr. Fitzgibbon of the 
Carolina Hotel. 

Motion by Dr. C. W. Sanders, seconded by Dr. Paul Fitz-^erald and 
carried the minutes of the meeting of the Veterans North Carolina Dental 
Society be placed in the Proceedings of the North Carolina Dental Society. 

Motion made by Dr. R. F. Hunt and seconded by Dr. C. W. Sanders 
that Dr. L. Franklin Bumgardner be elected to succeed himself as Editor- 
Publisher of the North Carolina Dental Society for the coming year and 
that the secretary send to him a letter expressing our appreciation and 
thanks for the efficient and capable manner in which he had executed the 
duties of his office during the past year. 

Motion made by Dr. C. W. Sanders, seconded by Dr. Walter T. McFall 
and carried that we defer consideration of the recommendations of the 



Containing the Proceedings 223 



Editor-Publisher in his annual report on April 28, 1948, until the next meet- 
ing of the Executive Committee which is to be held July 11, 1948, in 
Pinehurst. 

Motion by Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, seconded by Dr. A. C. Current and 
carried that the remittance of Membership dues to the American Dental 
Association and the remittance of the Relief dues to the American Dental 
Association be made by separate checks. 

Motion by Dr. C. W. Sanders, seconded by Dr. Paul Fitzgerald that the 
secretary write Dr. Ralph Coffey and his various committees letters of ap- 
preciation for the excellent arrangements made for and the fine hospitality 
exhibited at our annual meeting which was held in Asheville April 25, 26, 
27, and 28, 1948. 

The Secretary was instructed to notify the members of the Executive 
Committee, the members of the Program Committee and the Chairman of 
the following committee of the meeting to be held in Pinehurst Sunday, 
July 11, 1948, for the purpose of setting up the 1949 meeting: 

1. Local Arrangements Comjmittee 

2. Entertainment Committee 

3. Exhibit Committee 

The fee or honorarium to be paid to Mr. R. W. Madry for handling the 
publicity pertaining to our Asheville meeting was discussed. It was decided 
that the secretary should contact Mr. Madry for submission of a fee. This 
fee to be approved by the chairman of the Executive Committee. 

There being no further business the meeting adjourned at 12:00 noon. 

R. Fred Hunt, Sec.-Treas., 
North Carolina Dental Society 



VETERANS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 

A luncheon meeting was held at the Battery Park Hotel on Tuesday, 
April 27th. President Bernard Walker of Charlotte, presided. Veterans of 
both World Wars I and II were present numbering 140. The roster included 
four scheduled speakers: Rear Admiral Alfred Chandler, Bureau of Medicine 
and Dentistry, Navy Department, Washington, D. C; Col. William Lanier, 
Head of Veterans Administration in North Carolina; Capt. R. W. Combs, 
Instructor Western North Carolina Military District; Commander Fred 
Seely, Vice-President of Reserve Officers Organization in North Carolina. 

The speakers emphasized the shortage of dentists and physicians in 
the various branches of the service and described the recent increased ad- 
vantages for dentists in service. Dr. H. O. Lineberger of Raleigh, reviewed 
the pending U.M.T. and Draft legislation now in Senate committees and its 
implications in the future in so far as is now known. 



224 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 

Dr. R. F. Falls of Morganton expressed appreciation of the Veterans 
Society for the splendid work done by Dr. Lineberger in the recent 
emergency. 

Dr. Ray F. Fields of Johnson City, Tenn., and Dr. C. W. Sanders of 
Benson, were guests. 

In a brief business meeting following the luncheon, Dr. C. W. Sanders, 
incoming President of the North Carolina Dental Society, was made an 
honorary member and the election of new officers was held. Dr. E. D. Baker 
of Raleigh, was elected President; Dr. Dan Wright of Greenville, Vice- 
President; Dr. C. D. Eatman, Rocky Mount, Secretary and Treasurer, 

Meeting adjourned. — E. D. Baker, Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE MILITARY AFFAIRS COMMITTEE TO 
THE HOUSE OF DELEGATES 

The Military Affairs Committee has not had a call meeting during the 
year 1947-1948, but instead has conducted its business by mail. 

The committee has had numerous requests from the American Dental 
Association and the Veterans' Administration for information and sugges- 
tions in regard to the present dental program. The committee members 
have been contacted and their opinions have been forwarded through the 
proper channels. 

The committee wishes to urge the North Carolina Dentists to retain 
their appointments as participating dentists. By so doing, we can help 
avoid having further Veterans Dental Clinics set up in other cities of our 
state. There may come a time when the Veterans Fees will be very attrac- 
tive to lots of us. — P. B. Whittington, Chairman, 



Containing the Proceedings 



225 



MEMBERS ATTENDING ASHEVILLE MEETING 
April, 1948 



First District 



A. D. Abernathy 
David Abernathy 
George S. Abernathy 
W. R. Aiken 
Gerald Almond 
Isaac H. Archer 
Val R. Artress 
L. P. Baker 
O. C. Barker 
M. R. Barringer 
C. M. Beam 
J. R. Bell 
C. C. Bennett 
E. N. Biggerstaff 
Harold Book 
A. W. Bottoms 
A. V. Boyles 
Jack L. Boyles 
E. K. Brake 
W. H. Breeland 
C. F. Brown 

C. Z. Candler 
W. W. Carpenter 
George H. Carrell 
W. K. Chapman 
W. E. Clark 

W. S. Clayton 
A. P. Cline 
J. D. Cochran 
Ralph Coffey 
E. W. Connell 

D. H. Crawford 
J. G. Crowell 

A. C. Current 
William M. Davenport 
Frank W. Davis 

J. E. Duby 
Clinton Dierck 

B. C. Drum 

D. W. Dudley 

A. C. Edwards 

B. F. Edwards 

E. L. Edwards 
R. H. Ellington 



George J. Evans 
L. L. Ezzell 
Ralph L. Falls 
J. W. Faucette 
C. B. Fritz 
John R. Fritz 
H. D. Froneberger 
W. E. Furr 
C. D. Gerdes 
Edmond T. Glenn 
C. J. Goodwin 
R. H. Graham 

B. P. Grant 
J. E. Hain 

W. F. Hargrove 
Henry C. Harrelson 

C. H. Harrill 
Paul E. Hedrick 
F. B. Hicks 

C. Highsmith 
J. N. Hill 
O. R. Hodgin 
Robert R. Hoffman 
Ralph R. Howes 
F. L. Hunt 
R. L. Hunt 
J. H. Hutchins 
Sam Isenhower 
R. B. Kennerlj 
A. A. Lackey 
O. P. Lewis 
Allen T. Lockwood 
Matt McBrayer 
C. S. McCall 
C. W. McCall 
Robert S. McCall 
W. J. McDaniel 
W. T. McFall 
Harold McGuire 
Noracella E. McGuire 
A. Patsy McGuire 
W. P. McGuire 
N. P. Maddux 
J. A. Marshburn 



226 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



J. B. Martin 
W. M. Matheson 
H. M. May 
N. M. Medford 
J. T. Mize 
O. L. Moore 
Jessie Z. Moreland 
James E. Moser 
S. E. Moser 
R. L. Paisly 
C. A. Parker 
William H. Parker 
George K. Patterson 
C. M. Peeler 
J. Carter Phillips 
H. Edwin Plaster 
Hubert S. Plaster 
Cecil A. Pless 
Forest C. Port 
J. E. Pruett 
Arthur M. Ransey 
J. L. Rayner 
J. F. Reeee 
R. C. Rhea 
C. Frank Rich 
Howard S. Rhyne 
Pearce Roberts 
L. C. Rollins 
L. T. Russell 



W. S. Russell 
Bruce Sanes 
T. R. Self 
Eugene Shapiro 
J. A. Sinclair 
S. H. Steelman 
Ralph R. Steinman 
G. C. Stone 

C. B. Taylor 
P. R. Taylor 
Paul Troutman 
M. H. Truluck 
W. J. Turbyfill 
Robert Turner 

D. M. Tuttle 
L. Van Proyen 
R. C. Weaver 

B. R. Webster 
Carey T. Wells 

C. M. Whisnant 
W. K. Whitson 
F. R. Wilkins 
J. L. Woody 

L. W. Woody 
M. E. Woody 
P. P. Yates 
J. L. Yelton 
W. D. Yelton 
Fred Zachary 



Second District 



Edgar Alexander 
George Alexander 
Frank O. Alford 
L. Dale Arthur 
John L. Ashby 
Edward U. Austin 
Linus Banker 

C. A. Bankley 
David L. Beavers 
Franklin C. Beavers 
T. J. Bell 

D. L. Belvin 
A. R. Black 
V. A. Black 
Charles A. Blackburn 
Thomas L. Blain 
Boyce Brawley 

H. L. Brooks 



A. S. Bumgardner 
L. F. Bumgardner 
R. T. Byerly 
William J. Caroon 
R. P.Casey 
Allan H. Cash 
A. C. Chamberlain 
E. G. Click 
Vernon Cox 
J. R. Crawford 
Hylton K. Crotts 
W. C. Current 
Joe V. Davis 
V. L. DeHart 
S. C. Duncan 
E. A. Eckerd 
Harold A. Eskew 
J. C. Farthing 



Containing the Proceedings 



227 



C. L. Folger 

Burke W. Fox 

M. O. Fox 

Noah D. Fox 

J. B. Freeland 

R. A. George 

James E. Graham 

J. H. Guion 

T. N. Hamer 

James A. Harrell 

R. B. Harrell 

J. F. Hartness 

John W. Heinz 

J. B. Herndon 

Milo J. Hoffman 

J. M. Holland 

R. H. Holliday 

Leslie C. Holshouser 

A. E. Howell 

James F. Hulin 

P. C. Hull 

P. C. Hull, Jr. 
W. A. Ingram 
John R. Irwin 
Clyde H, Jarrett, Jr. 
Ralph Jarrett 
Broadus E. Jones 
C. C. Keiger 
Vaiden Kendriek 
Z. V. Kendriek 
Frank Kirk 
J. Donald Kiser 
A. R. Kistler 
G. A. Lazenby 
Edwin W. Lipe 
Robert Long 
Robert E. Hasten 
Guy M. Hasten 
R. Phillip Helvin 
0. B. Hizell 

D. 0. Hontgomery 

E. Brown Horgan 
Donald W. Horris 
Ernest C. Horris 



Elliot R. Hotley 
John A. HcClung 
J. H. Nicholson 
Thomas G. Nisbet 
Olin Owen 
C. H. Parks 
R. H, Patterson 
L. B. Peeler 
J. C. Pennington 
R. E. Petree 
John Pharr 
J. P. Reece 
J. G. Rehm 
C. S. Reid 
Grady Ross 
Hubert Sapp 
Ralph Schmucker 
W. A. Secrest 
W. B. Sherrod 
A. Hedrick Smith 
Wade Sowers 
Riley E, Spoon, Jr. 
Zachary H. Stadt 
Fleming H. Stone 
Paul A. Stroup, Jr. 
W. C. Taylor 
Harold W. Thomson 
M. L. Troutman 
R. D. Tuttle 
L. E. Wall 
D. T. Waller 
Bernard N. Walker 
Frank H. Walker 
J. C. Watkins 
T. F. Weant 

B. H. Webster 
W. P. Weeks 
R. G. Wharton 

C. D. Wheeler 
John R. Williams 
William F. Yelton 
John W. Zimmerman 
G. W. Yokeley 

D. C. Young, Jr. 



Frank Atwater 
T. W. Atwood 
John T. Bell 



Third District 



J. S. Betts 
Howard X, Bowling 
J. D. Bradsher 



228 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



R. W. Brannock 

William T. Burns 

Luther Butler 

Fred S. Caddell 

N. R. Callaghan 

H. C. Carr 

James N. Caudle 

M. L. Cheri-y 

L. G. Coble 

A. W. Craver 

L. M. Daniels 

D. H. Erwin 

M. R. Evans 

W. L. Farrell 

Sylvester P. Gay 

L. M. Foushee 

F. E. Gilliam 

C. A. Graham 

C. Allen Graham, Jr. 

W. K. Griffin 

Samuel T. Hart 

James L. Henson 

J. N. Hester 

O. H. Hester 

William P. Kinson, Jr. 

J. H. Hughes 

H. M. Hunsucker 

N. C. Johnson 

George Kirkland 

R. E. Long 

S. H. McCall 



J. A. Mcintosh 
E. M. Medlin 
J. W. Menius 
C. I. Miller 
H. W. Moore 
Henry V. Murray 
W. E. Neal 
R. F. Overcash 
L. G. Page 
H. M. Patterson 
C. C. Poindexter 
C. B. Pratt 

O. L. Presnell 

J. Ross Pringle 

A. P. Reade 

Morman F. Ross 

Neal Sheffield 

S. W. Shaffer 

J. S. Spurgeon 

Alex R. Stanford 

J. T. Thomas 

F. H. Underwood 
J. T. Underwood 

P. B. Whittington, Jr. 
R. A. Wilkins 

G. Roberts Willis 
Carl B. Wolfe 

F. Spencer Woody 
L. H. Zimmerman 
T. R. Zimmerman 



Fourth District 



C. E. Abernathy 

Howard L. Allen 

Clarence D. Bain 

E. D. Baker 

A. D. Barker 

Victor E. Bell 
S. L. Bobbett 

H. B. Bowden 
Ernest A. Branch 
W. Howard Branch 
J. Walton Branham 
Charles H. Bryan 
Robert Byrd 
Worth M. Byrd 
H. Royster Chamblee 
T. G. Collins 



James H. Edwards 
John R. Edwards, Jr. 
J. R. Edwards 
Robert E. Finch 
Paul Fitzgerald, Jr. 
J. Martin Fleming 
Thomas S. Fleming 
J. S. Hain 
L. G. Hair 
G. Fred Hale 
Joseph P. Hale 
R. P. Hamilton 
Paul T. Harrell 
L. D. Herring 
J. Y. Hinson 
G. L. Hooper 



Containivg the Proceedings 



229 



R. Lee Horton 
S. Robert Horton 
T. M. Hunter 
Wilbert Jackson 
K. L. Johnson 
M. L. Johnson 
Marvin T. Jones, Jr. 
Julius F. Jordon 
E. N. Lawrence 
Robert B. Lessen 
J. Henry Ligon, Jr. 
W. K. Lindsay 
H. 0. Lineberger 
W. T. Martin 
L. M. Massey ' 
S. H. Massey 
L. J. Moore, Jr. 
L. J. Moore 
J. W. McCracken 
W. L. McRae 
W. G. Nimocks 



R. M. Olive 
R. M. Qiive, Jr. 

C. P. Osborne, Jr. 
L. H. Paschal 

A. A. Phillips 

D. L. Pridgen 
J. M. Pringle 
W. W. Rankin 
Raymond R. Renfrow 
Clarence E. Roberts 
C. W. Sanders 
Edward N. Smith 
Everett Smith 
Marcus R. Smith 

J. J. Tew 
S. B. Towler 
M. F. Townsend 
R. A. Turlington 
A. D. Underwood 
T. L. Young 



Fifth District 



V. M. Barnes 
H. A. Baughan 
Franklin D. Bell 
Manfred T. Blanchard 
Dewey Boseman 
W. F. Britt 
H. E. Butler 
H. Franklin Civils 
Charles S. Cooke 
R. A. Daniels, Jr. 
E. C. Denton 
J. F. Duke 
L. J. Dupree 
L. J. Dupree, Jr. 
A. C. Early 
Charlie Eatman 
E. L. Eatman 
H. A. Edwards 
Z. L. Edwards 
Darden J. Eure 
Paul Fitzgerald 
James E. Furr, Jr. 
Marcus A. Garriss 
Charles P. Godwin 
H. W. Gooding 
William H. Gray, Jr. 



F. G. Harris 
W. L Hart 
R. F. Hunt 

A. T. Jennette 

B. McK. Johnson 
Charles B. Johnson 
P. E. Jones 

J. M. Kilpatrick 
V. M. Kornegay 

C. G. Lancaster 
M. M. Lilley 

S. E. Malone 

Sandy C. Marks 

Roy A. Miller 

C. R. Minges 

R. T. Moore 

B. R. Morrison 

W. E. Murphy, Jr. 

G. L. Overman 
G. E. Pigford 
William L. Rudder 
James H. Smith 
Junius C. Smith 
Robert L. Tomlinson 
L. R. Turner 

H. E. Weeks 



230 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



L. Wells, Jr. 
J. W. Whitehead 
R. L. Whitehurst 
R. E. Williams 
0. L. Wilson 



A. L. Wooten 
George A. Wooten 
Dan Wright 
Henry S. Zaytown 




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Ulo, 2 




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Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 




TO 



IRBY H. HOYLE 

Whose noble efforts have been to encourage the ideal of 
service by high ethical standards in dentistry both 
in military and civil life. His sterling char- 
acter has been exemplified by a dis- 
tinguished career of loyalty and 
devotion to his fellowman. 



THE BULLETIN 

of 
THE NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 

(Component of the American Dental Association) 
Vol. 32 OCTOBER, 1948 No. 2 

Entered as second-class matter as a quarterly, September, 1944, at the Post Office, Charlotte, N. C, 
under act of August 24, 1912. Office of Publication, 415 Professional Building, Charlotte, N. C. 

Subscription per year $1.00 



ncef6 

C. W. SANDERS, President Benson 

WALTER McFALL, President-Elecf Asheville 

T. W. ATWOOD, Vice-President Durham 

R. F. HUNT, Secretary-Treasurer Rocky Mount 



Jrn ^kl6 ^t 



-66u.e 

The President's Message — C. W. Sanders 232 

Director of Districts — Walter McFoll 234 

DISTRICT PROGRAMS 

First 235 

Second 241 

Third 246 

Fourth 252 

Fifth 257 

Minutes of the Dental Hygienist Association 262 

Minutes of Committees — May 30 265 

Minutes of the Prosthetic Dental Service Committee — June 27 268 

Minutes of Committees — July 11 269 

Dental Needs and Facilities of North Carolina 271 

Accredited Laboratories 272 

vSuuetln 
L. Franklin Bumgordner, Editor Chorlotte 

DISTRICT EDITORS PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

Pearce Roberts, First T. G. Nisbit, Chairman 

W. F. Yelton, Second Kermit Chapman 

J. N. Caudle, Third Norman F. Ross 

Lawrence H. Paschal, Fourth Worth Byrd 

M. M. Lilley, Fifth J. M. Kilpatrick 



232 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



THE STRENGTH OF ORGANIZED DENTISTRY IS WITHIN 
OUR DISTRICT SOCIETIES 



-DR. C. W. SANDERS, President 



Last year I was privileged to attend the State Officers Conference during 
the American Dental Association Meeting in Boston. That being my first 
meeting with this fine group of men who came from every state and terri- 
tory of the United States, I couldn't help but feel that perhaps North Caro- 
lina had many problems which the other states didn't have. I wondered if 
North Carolina could ever equal the fine accomplishments which some of the 
larger state organizations were noted for. After several hours listening to 
much discussion between guest speakers and members on the floor, I came 
away with a feeling of pride and joy in the North Carolina Dental Society 
and its members. Instead of lagging behind, I found that in many instances • 
our fellows had already blazed the trail. What can be finer than to know 
that you belong to one of the most outstanding and progressive dental 
societies in the United States? 

Following this experience, I asked myself this question — How has the 
North Carolina Dental Society managed to forge ahead and pioneer so many 
worthwhile developments when other state organizations, with larger mem- 
bership and greater wealth, have failed to do so ? In my candid opinion the 
answer to this question lies in our system of strong district organizations. 
This nation is no stronger than the states composing it and the North Caro- 
lina Dental Society is no more progressive or efficient than the district com- 
ponents. We hear a great deal today about decentralization of industry, gov- 
ernment and big business as the only hope for continued democratic existence. 
The North Carolina Dental Society has practiced a form of decentralization 
since its founding as represented in the five fine districts which make up 
our organization. We hear a great deal about states' rights also and we can 
furnish abundant proof to the effect that such a course has helped us and 
that it is wise to discourage too great a centralization of authority over 
smaller functioning units of a government or a state dental society. 

This issue of the Bulletin is known as the District Issue in as much as it 
contains the fall programs of all five districts. Since this is true, I am glad 
of this opportunity to express to each district my appreciation for the excel- 
lent work each is doing. I am firmly of the opinion that most of our success 
as an organization stems from the fact that our districts are always strong 
and well officered. I am most happy to witness much progress and many 
worthwhile ideas beginning on the district level. In a democratic institution, 
which we are, it is better that constructive ideas come 'from the district level 
instead of the state level. I have talked frequently with district leaders dur- 
ing the past year or two especially and have found as much sincere effort 
being put forth among them as among state leaders. It is good to find this 
true and to know that some of these same men will be guiding the dentists 
of the state organization. All district work — membership, program, social 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 233 



and organizational in nature — ^will receive hearty approval and encouragement 
and I can assure you that your state organization and officers will work with 
you in every way possible. I believe in strong district societies. This, I think, 
is the secret of our success and strength. Support your district officers and 
encourage the weakest of your members to greater efforts. 

From all indications district programs scheduled for this fall will be the 
best ever. I am looking forward to my visits with you at these meetings and 
wish for each district the best year in its history. 



^ ^ 



A WORD TO THE WISE 

The State Bureau of Investigation in North Carolina is now 
on the track of apprehending any and all dental assistants who 
are giving prophylaxis or otherwise illegally performing any 
dental operation in the mouth or any dental hygienist who is 
engaged in applying Sodium Fluoride or other dental opera- 
tions other than stipulated by the law for which she is licensed 
to practice. Sodium Fluoride according to the North Carolina 
Dental Law can only be applied by a licensed dentist. It has 
been rumored that for sometime a number of the dental assist- 
ants in North Carolina have been doing routine prophylaxis 
and other treatment procedures in the mouth which have been 
known by the dentist to be illegal. This practice must be dis- 
continued immediately. The S.B.I, will investigate all dental 
offices where such practices have been reported. — F. O. Alford, 
D.D.S., Secretary-Treasurer of the North Carolina State Board 
of Dental Examiners. 



234 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



HELP YOURSELF BY HELPING YOUR DISTRICT 

DR. WALTER T. MeFALL, President-EIeet 



Next to holding the splendid position which has been gained down 
through the years as one of the leading factors in the healing arts, we need 
and need badly to increase our membership. 

In almost every district of our State, some few members have dropped out 
for reasons satisfactory to them. Yes, some dentists in North Carolina are 
practicing without enjoying the benefits, fellowship and privileges of member- 
ship which mean so much to us. They have proven to themselves that they 
can do without the North Carolina Dental Society, but you and I know we 
can not do as well without them. 

Won't you please notify your District President and Secretary-Treasurer 
of each and every dentist you know of in your city, county or section who is 
not now an active member of our State Dental Society? You would be doing 
him a genuine favor and sincerely, you would be helping your district, state 
and national dental group. 

The Executive Committee has had three meetings since our last annual 
meeting held here in Asheville. The Program Committee and many, many 
other important committees of our North Carolina Dental Society have met 
and planned and worked for all our good and benefit. North Carolina Den- 
tistry has gained an enviable reputation and highly respected position among 
all State Dental Societies. It did not earn and win this position by the eff'orts 
of a few men good and true, but because nearly every man and woman in 
North Carolina Dentistry did not only his part but his most to keep himself 
abreast of the best; to share what he knew with his colleagues; to ever- 
lastingly continue and strive to improve. 

This fall all the District Dental Societies have already planned outstand- 
ing programs, good fellowship, events of pride and good if each and every 
dentist vdll help with this enthusiastically necessary preliminary work. Come 
to your District Dental Society Meeting, read your State Dental Bulletin, help 
get every dentist in North Carolina into our North Carolina Dental Society 
so that we may do more and better service for our boys and girls, men and 
women of the Old North State. We need your help, remember this is our 
North Carolina Dental Society — are you doing your part to keep it this way? 
All of your officers in the District and State Dental Society will appreciate 
your suggestions and ideas, many thanks. 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



235 



DISTRICT SOCIETIES 







FIRST DISTRICT 

OFFICERS 

1947-48 

H. M, May President 

J. A. Marshburn Vice-President 

W. D. Yelton President-Elect 

Alice Patsy McGuire Secretary-Treasurer 

Pearce Roberts District Editor 



H. M. May 
W. D. Yelton 



COMMITTEES 

HOUSE OF DELEGATES 

Alice Patsy McGuire 
S. E. Moser 
J. C. Phillips 



EXECUTIVE 

H. M. May, Chairman 
W. D. Yelton 
Alice Patsy McGuire 
A. W. Bottoms 
M. R. Barringer 
W. K. Chapman 

PUBLICITY 

Hugh S. Plaster 



PROGRAM 

W. D. Yelton, Chairman 
H. Edwin Plaster 
S. H. Isenhower 
S. E. Moser 
Pearce Roberts 

ARRANGEMENTS 
J. L. Yelton 
Byard Edwards 
C. W. McCall 



236 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



SHELBY OUR HOST CITY 

DR. H. M. MAY, President 



I _ 




Dr. May 



The annual meeting of the First District Dental 
Society will be held on Sunday and Monday, October 
3rd and 4th at the Hotel Charles in Shelby. On Sun- 
day at 1:00 P.M. our most able entertainment com- 
mittee has arranged a Golf Tournament at the Shelby 
Country Club for those who are interested in chasing 
that little white pill down the fairway. It is hoped 
that there will be a large number of the golfers who 
will arrive in time for the match. Please notify the 
golf committee in ample time so that your match will 
be arranged. 



The scientific and business meeting will begin promptly at 9 :00 A.M., Mon- 
day morning. I urge all to attend promptly and on time for our program com- 
mittee has worked diligently, faithfully and tirelessly to give us one of the 
best programs ever. 

We are proud of this District for our members are wide awake, willing 
and anxious to do any and all things that will make us better dentists; to 
promote better dentistry and to do our utmost in improving the health and 
general welfare of this great State of North Carolina. I think it is most 
timely to give you a list of the many organizations that are active in the 
First District — namely: The Iso Thermal Dental Society with C. W. McCall 
as President; Tri-County Dental Society, Ruffin Self, President; Gaston County 
Dental Society, David Tuttle, President; Western North Carolina Society, 
L. H. Ezell, President; the Tri-County Club with R. B. Kennerly as President 
and the Asheville Dental Study Club, H. M. May, President. 

At the writing of this article I would like to give you as a matter of infor- 
mation the facts concerning the number of dentists in this area. We have a 
total of not over 205 dentists practicing in this section, of this number 185 
are members of the First District with three and possibly five applications on 
file that will be taken in at the Shelby meeting in October. 

A word to the wise should be sufficient — Do we want a Dental College in 
North Carolina? Of course the answer is a loud, yes. So let us all put our 
shoulders to the wheel, do what we are asked to do and when called upon for 
a contribution to aid in this — let us give and give freely. It is to our advan- 
tage. So, help — help — help. Don't wait for the other fellow to do your share. 

Remember fellow members of the First District, let's have 185 out of 185 
members to greet those new members that are to join our fold at our Shelby 
Meeting. 



Bulletin North Carolina. Dental Society 237 



PROGRAM 

FIRST DISTRICT DENTAL SOCIETY 
Hotel Charles 
Shelby, N. C. 

« 

Sunday, October 3, 1948 
1 :00 P.M. Golf Tournament — Shelby Country Chib 

Monday, October 4, 1948 

8 :00 A.M. Veterans' Breakfast 

9 :00 A.M. Registration 

9:30 A.M. Meeting called to order by the President, H. M. May, 
D.D.S., Asheville 

Invocation, Rev. Harlan Harris, Pastor First Baptist 
Church, Shelby. 

Address of Welcome, Honorable Harry Woodson, 
Mayor of Shelby. 

Response to Address of Welcome, S. E. Moser, D.D.S., 
Gastonia. 

President's Address, H. M. May, D.D.S., Asheville. 

Recognition of Officers 

Minutes of Last Meeting 

Treasurer's Report 

10:30 A.M. "Methods and Procedures That Have Proven Satis- 
factory in My Practice of Dentistry for Children," 
G. A. C. Jennings, D.D.S., Richmond, Virginia. 



238 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



12 :30 P.M. Luncheon — Hotel Dining Room 
Golf Tournament Awards 
Election of Officers 

2:00 P.M. "Practical Fixed Bridge Prosthesis," E. B. Nuttall, 
D.D.S., Baltimore, Maryland. 

3 :30 P.M. Table Clinics 

"Diercks Impression Technique for Indirect Inlays 
and Bridge Abutments," Clinton Diercks, D.D.S., 
Morganton. 

"Practical Aids in Endodontia," R. H. Graham, 
D.D.S., Lenoir. 

"Temporary Bridge Construction," William McDaniel, 
D.D.S., Rutherfordton. 

"Some Aids to Dental Practice," C. W. McCall, D.D.S., 
Tryon. 

"Amalgam Technique and Matrics," J. E. Derby, 
D.D.S., Tryon. 

"Apicoectomy," T. J. Mize, D.D.S., Tryon. 

"Cavity Preparation and Filling of Decid. Teeth," 
Auburn Poovey, D.D.S., Hickory. 

"Clinic," N. P. Maddux, D.D.S., Asheville. 

"Clinic," Carey T. Wells, D.D.S., Canton. 

"Clinic," George Patterson, D.D.S., Asheville. 

"Silver Alloy Filling Employing Pneumatic Condenser 
and Mechanical Amalgamator," Moultrie Truluck, 
D.D.S., Asheville. 

"A Resume of Seven Years' Experience with Plastics 
in Crown and Fixed Bridge Restorations," A. C. Cur- 
rent, D.D.S., Gastonia. 

5:00 P.M. Business Session 

Report of Committees 
Installation of Officers 
Adjournment 



Bulletin Noi'th Carolina Dental Society 



239 




% . 




G. A. C. JENNINGS, D.D.S. 

Richmond, Virginia. Was born 
in 1897, graduated from the Medi- 
cal College of Virginia in 1924, the 
College of William and Mary, Wil- 
liamsburg, Virginia, in 1919, served 
in World War I, is past president 
of the Richmond Dental Society, 
and a member of the Executive 
Council of the Virginia State Den- 
tal Association He is Assistant 
Professor of Operative Dentistry 
at the Medical College of Virginia, 
and a member of the O. K. V., and 
Xi Psi Phi Fraternities. Appears 
on the program 10:30 A.M. Sub- 
ject: "Methods and Procedures 
That Have Proven Satisfactory in 
My Practice of Dentistry for Chil- 
dren." 



Dr. Jennings 



E. B. NUTTALL, D.D.S., F.A.C.D. 

Baltimore, Maryland. Graduated 
from the Baltimore College of Den- 
tal Surgery, Dental School, Uni- 
versity of Maryland in 1931. Ap- 
pointed Instructor in Ceramics fol- 
lowing graduation. Private prac- 
tice eleven years. Member of the 
Naval Reserve DC-V(S), United 
States Navy since 1938. Fellow of 
American College of Dentists. 
Associate member of the American 
Academy of Restorative Dentistry. 
In 1942 was elected Professor of 
Fixed Partial Prosthesis at the 
University of Maryland. Appears 
on the program, 2:00 P.M. Sub- 
ject: "Practical Fixed Bridge 
Prosthesis." 




Dr. Nuttad 



240 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



NEWS ITEMS 

The First District was very happy to have the State Dental 
Society as their guests for the annual meeting in Asheville, We are 
also very pleased to have such a capable person in our district as 
Walter McFall who is the President-Elect of the North Carolina 
Dental Society. 

The Blue Ridge Dental Society finished up the year by the elec- 
tion of the following new officers: R. R. Hoffman, President-Elect; 
A. W. Bottoms, Vice-President; Allen Lockwood, Secretary-Treas- 
urer. The Society for the new year will be under the excellent lead- 
ership of Dr. W. M. Davenport of Spruce Pine, President. 

Dr. J. A. Sinclair has again received recognition for his pro- 
fessional contributions. He with Olin Kirkland received an award 
for outstanding contributions to Periodontia at the last meeting of 
the Southern Academy of Periodontology. 

Members of the Asheville Dental Study Club were hosts to the 
Tri-County Dental Study Club at their meeting in May. The Iso- 
thermal Dental Club was entertained by Dr. Clyde Wells, Green- 
ville, S. C, at his cabin at Saluda in July. 

We wish for Drs. McCracken and Moss of Asheville, speedy re- 
coveries from their serious illnesses. 

Our deep regrets go to Dr. and Mrs. W. H. Parker of Valdese, 
whose child recently had poliomyelitis. 

Three of our good men should be justly proud of their sons 
who are following in the same profession and have just finished 
taking their State Board Examinations. They are Dr. Frank Davis 
(son. Buddy), Dr. Carey Wells (Cary, Jr.), Dr. Nick Medford 
(Phillip). 

Dr. R. R. Hoffman, Asheville, recently gave up his bachelor- 
hood. To him we send congratulations. 

Dr. Walter Clark, Asheville, now has Dr. Duncan M. Getsinger 
as his associate. Dr. Getsinger recently arrived from Dr. Clark's 
alma mater, Medical College of Virginia. 

In Asheville there have been a few changes of address : Dr. 
Dean Crawford is now in the Haywood Building ; Dr. V. K. Artress 
has a new office in the City Building and still maintains his old 
office in Swannanoa. I have also moved into the City Building. 

We hope to see all you good First District members in Shelby, 
on October 4, for the District Meeting. — Pearce Roberts, District 
Editor. 



'ulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



241 



SECOND DISTRICT 

OFFICERS 

1947-48 

John Pharr President 

J. Donald Kiser President-Elect 

G. W. Yokley Vice-President 

Joe V. Davis, Jr Secretary-Treasurer 

W. F. Yelton District Editor 

HOUSE OF P EGATES EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

John R. Ph Frank Kirk, Chairman 

Joe V. Dav' ^y. W. A. Ingram 

Frank Kirk Wade Sowers 
W. A. Ingrr 
Wade Sowe" 

COMMITTEES 

PROGRAM ENTERTAINMENT 

Bernard Wa' r, Chairman Amos Bumgardner, Chairman 

W. B. Sherrr ' J. D. Kiser 

J. P. Reece Homer Guion 



LOCAL ARRAN'^^EMENTS 
L. F. Bumgardner, Chairman 
Elliott R. Motley 
Grady L. Ross 



NECROLOGY 

Claude Parks, Chairman 
Harold Thompson 
L. E. Wall 



DENTAL RELIEF 

Frank Kirk, Chairman 
Carl Barkley 
Robert Byerly 



CLINIC 

Donald Morris, Chairman 
Riley E. Spoon 
W. C. Taylor 



CONSTITUTION AND BYLAWS 
E. G. Click, Chairman 
J. N. Nicholson 
D. 0. Montgomery 



MEMBERSHIP 

J. Donald Kiser, Chairman 
R. B. Harrell 
Philip R. Melvin 



NOMINATING COMMITTEE 
G. A. Lazenby, Chairman 
John A. McClung 
S. C. Duncan 



ETHICS 

John Ashby, Chairman 
G. S. Alexander 
O. R. Hodgin 



242 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



WELCOME TO CHARLOTTE 

DR. JOHN R. PHARR, President 




The Twenty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the 
Second District, North Carolina Dental Society 
will convene at Hotel Charlotte, Charlotte, Oc- 
tober 11th at 9:00 A.M. 

The Program Committee has arranged for 
you to hear these outstanding men in the dental 
profession, on subjects that are most vital to 
every man practicing dentistry today. 



Dr. Pharr 



We invite all members of the North Carolina 
Dental Society and members of organized den- 
tistry from other states to meet with us and enjoy the fellowship 
and fine clinics, the program and other committees have planned. 

I wish to express my appreciation in this issue of the bulletin to 
the outstanding clinicians from out-of-state giving of their val- 
uable time to bring to us modern developments and current trends 
in the progress of dentistry and to the men who are presenting 
table clinics. I wish to thank you for your valuable contribution 
and for the time you have spent in preparing your clinics and dem- 
onstrations on most worthy subjects. 

I wish to express my appreciation to all committeemen because 
it is through your efforts that the success of this meeting is 
assured. 

To the membership of the 2nd district it behooves you to set 
aside this meeting date now on your appointment book as you are 
a vital part of this district and organized dentistry. Your presence 
will mean much both to yourself and the influence you may have 
on the new men coming into our midst. 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



243 



PROGRAM 



SECOND DISTRICT DENTAL SOCIETY 
Charlotte Hotel 
Charlotte, N. C. 

Monday, October 11, 1948 

9:00 A.M. Registration — Hotel Lobby 

9:30 A.M. Opening Session 

Meeting called to order by the President, John R. 
Pharr, D.D.S., Charlotte. 

Invocation, Dr. Warner Hall, Pastor Covenant Pres- 
byterian Church, 2nd Church Branch. 

Address of Welcome, Honorable Herbert H. Baxter, 
Mayor of Charlotte. 

Response to Address of Welcome, Harold Thompson, 
D.D.S., China Grove. 

President's Address, John R. Pharr, D.D.S., Charlotte. 

Report of Necrology Committee. 

Introduction of Visitors. 

Receiving Applications for Membership in District 
and State Societies. 

11 :00 A.M. "Oral Surgery for the General Practitioners," George 
W. Matthews, M.S., D.D.S., F.A.C.D., Birmingham, 
Alabama. 

SYNOPSIS : No. 1 : Lecture illustrated by lantern slides covering cases and conditions with 

which the general practitioner in the smaller communities has to deal. Par- 
ticular emphasis will be placed on pre-operative diagnosis and the recognition 
of factors which make apparently simple looking cases diflficult. Other points 
which will be discussed are : Choice of anesthetic ; control of hemorrhage ; 
treatment of dry sockets and other post-operative complications ; alveolectomy ; 
vitamin and penicillin therapy. 

12 :30 P.M. Luncheon 

2:00 P.M. "Dental Radiography and Interpretation," George 

Matthews. 

SYNOPSIS : No. 2 : The complete technique for making an intra-oral radiographic exami- 

nation ; bite-wing occlusal and extra-oral exposures and also radiography for 
children will be shown in detail in a motion picture. Following this v^ill be 
a lantern slide lecture on Interpretation which will stress the recognition of 
many of the anatomic land marks and variations which are frequently mis- 
taken for pathological conditions. Radiographic anatomy must be thoroughly 
understood before radiographic pathology can be diagnosed. 



244 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



4 :00 P.M. Table Clinics 



SYNOPSIS: 

6:30 P.M. 
8:30 P.M. 



"Everyday Oral Surgery That Can Be Accomplished 
in the Average Dental Office," Hylton K. Crotts, 
D.D.S., Winston-Salem. 

"Permanent Base Plates in Making Prosthetic Den- 
tures," James R. Cravirford, D.D.S., Winston-Salem. 

"Technique for Application of Sodium Fluoride," 
Phillip Melvin, D.D.S., Winston-Salem. 

"Cavity Preparation for Amalgam Restorations," 
David L. Beavers, D.D.S., Winston-Salem. 

"A Compound Impression Technique for Three-Quar- 
ter Crowns." Riley J. Spoon, Jr., D.D.S., Winston- 
Salem. 

"Helpful Hints in Dental Radiography," Elliot R. 
Motley, D.D.S., Charlotte. 

"Zinc Oxide and Some of its Uses in Dentistry," J. G. 
Rehm, D.D.S., Charlotte. 

"Thymol Crystals in the Treatment of Near and Ex- 
posed Vital Pulps," James E. Graham, D.D.S., Char- 
lotte. 

"Practical Utilization of Acrylic in Gold Crown Con- 
struction," Clyde H. Jarrett, Jr., D.D.S., Charlotte. 

"Elimination of Periodontal Lesions," Illustrated by 
Motion Pictures. D. B. Mizell, D.D.S., Charlotte. 

"Surgical Correction or Protrusion of the Lower 
Jaw," Grady L. Ross, D.D.S., Charlotte, N. C. 

This clinic will be demonstrated by lantern slides and shown at 4 and again 
at 5 P.M. in a private room nearby the clinic hall. 

Banquet 

Business Session, Election of Officers, Selection of 
Meeting Place 



Tuesday, October 12, 1948 

9:00 A.M. Lecture, "Functional Full Denture Prosthesis," Vic- 
tor N. Jaffe, D.D.S., Washington, D. C. 

SYNOPSIS : "I shall endeavor to tie in and show the importance and application of func- 

tional occlusion, not only to full denture prosthesis but also toward partial 
denture prosthesis and fixed restorative bite correction." 

11:00 A.M. Business Session, Installation of Officers, Adjourn- 
ment 



Bulletin Noi'th Carolina Dental Society 



245 



G. W. MATTHEWS, D.D.S., F.A.C.D. 

Birmingham, Alabama. Graduated 
from Northwestern University Dental 
School in 1927. Master of Science in 
Biological Research from Birmingham- 
Southern College in 1931. Member of the 
Oral Surgery Staff of Hillman Hospital 
since 1928. Served as Chief of the Oral 
Surgery Section of 300th General Hos- 
pital, United States Army. Served in 
North Africa and Italy. Fellow of the 
American College of Dentists. Instructor 
in Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Medical Col- 
lege of Alabama. Chief of Dental Sur- 
gery Service, St. Vincent's Hospital. Sec- 
retary-Treasurer, Alabama Dental Asso- 
ciation, and Editor of the State Bulletin. 
Secretary of American Dental Associa- 
tion State Officers' Conference. Appears 
on the program 11:00 A.M. and 2:00 
P.M. Subjects: "Oral Surgery for the 
General Practitioners," and "Dental Ra- 
diography and Interpretation." 




Dr. Matthews 




Dr. Jaffe 



VICTOR N. JAFFE, D.D.S. 

Washington, D. C. Before receiving his 
degree of D.D.S. at Georgetown Univer- 
sity, 1935, he studied Mechanical Engi- 
neering at M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass. Has 
practiced specialty of Prosthodontia and 
Crown and Bridge, including Bite Cor- 
rection in Washington. D. C, until 1943, 
when he was commissioned in the United 
States Navy. Was assigned to Norfolk 
Naval Shipyard as Prosthetic Specialist 
in Portsmouth, Virginia, where he stayed 
until his retirement. Has appeared as 
clinician before numerous Dental Society 
and Study Club groups throughout the 
east coast. Is listed in the Academy-In- 
ternational of Medicine and Dentistry. 
The American Dental Association has 
duplicated his films on Dental technique, 
using Spanish and Portuguese titles for 
South American distribution. Is a mem- 
ber of the American Full Denture So- 
ciety, American Dental Association, and 
District of Columbia Dental Society. 
Appears on the program 9:00 A.M. Sub- 
ject: "Functional Full Denture Pros- 
thesis." 



246 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



THrRD DISTRICT 

OFFICERS 

1947-48 

Frank E. Gilliam President 

C. H. Teague President-Elect 

T. W. Atwood Vice-President 

Norman F. Ross Secretary-Treasurer 

J. N. Caudle District Editor 

HOUSE OF DELEGATES ALTERNATES 
P. B. Whittington M. R. Evans 

O. L. Presnell G. A. Gradson 

Frank E. Gilliam N. C. Johnson 

Norman F. Ross Frank Atwater 

T. W. Atwood John Menius 

COMMITTEES 

EXECUTIVE NECROLOGY 

C. C. Poindexter, Chairman J- S. Betts, Chairman 

J. T. Lasley D. T. Carr J. S. Spurgeon 

PROGRAM John Swaim 

H. V. Murray, Chairman LEGISLATIVE 

R. A. Wilkins T. E. Sikes, Chairman 

P. B. Whittington Neal Sheffield 

CLINICS W. A. Pressley, Jr. 

C. H. Teague, Chairman C. A. Graham 

Jack Hughes CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 

G. Kirkland O. L. Presnell, Chairman 

J. S. Moore C. I. Miller H. M. Hunsucker 

R. W. Brannock ARRANGEMENTS 

N. R. Callaghan E. M. Medlin, Chairman 

DENTAL SALVAGE Clell S. Caldwell 

T. W. Atwood, Chairman S. P. Gay 

F. S. Woody F. M. Stonestreet 

Everett R. Teague A. A. McDuffie 

Carl B. Wolfe Luther Butler 

R. Y. Whittemore COORDINATING 

C. A. Graham, Jr. R. A. Wilkins, Chairman 

ETHICS C. H. Teague D. T. Carr 

L. G. Coble, Chairman GOLF 

J. J. Lauten L. G. Page L. M. Daniels, Chairman 
Marvin Walker Herbert S. Long C. D. Kistler J. B. Newman 

MEMBERSHIP F. S. Caddell S. W. Schaffer 

Norman F. Ross, Chairman AUDITING 

Frank Atwater S. T. Hart M. R. Evans, Chairman 

Walter Neal John Pleasants Howard Apple Guy Willis 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 247 



PRESIDENT'S REPORT OF PROGRESS 

DR. FRANK E. GILLIAM, President 




Soon after the Third District Meeting last 
fall, the various committees were appointed. 
The Program Committee got off to a good start 
in selecting two outstanding clinicians for our 
meeting at Mid-Pines October 31 to Novem- 
ber 2. 

One new committee was appointed last fall. 
The Coordinating Committee. 

A great deal of work is being done by this 
committee in designating the duties and re- 
Dr. Gilliam sponsibilities of the officers and committees of 

our district and also to assist the younger men 
in our profession as they assume greater leadership in the advance- 
ment of dentistry. 

"The Constitution and By-Laws Committee has assumed the re- 
sponsibility of making the proper recommendations to our society 
this fall, to bring our Constitution and By-Laws up to date. 

The Legislative Committee and the other Committees are func- 
tioning for the advancement of our society and dentistry as a 
whole. 

During the last five years I have been closely connected with 
our District Society; I have looked forward a great deal to our 
meetings. I hope that you will do all that is within your power to 
attend our District Meeting this fall and make it a great success. 

As plans are shaping up at this stage, I feel sure we will have 
a very interesting meeting. I am deeply grateful for the assistance 
you have given me and the fine cooperation you have shown. Your 
confidence and loyalty has meant a great deal to the officers of 
your society. 

Plan now to attend the Third District Meeting at Mid-Pines. 
Write for reservations today. 

I want to thank you for the honor you have bestowed upon me 
and to assure you that I shall try to keep faith with the high stand- 
ards set before me. 



248 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



PROGRAM 

THIRD DISTRICT DENTAL SOCIETY 
Mid-Pines, N. C. 

Sunday, October 31, 1948 

10 :00 A.M.— Golf Tournament— Mid-Pines CImId. 

Scores are to be turned in by 7:00 P.M. to compete 
for prizes. 



Monday, November 1, 1948 

9:00 A.M. Registration — Lobby of Hotel 

Address of Welcome 

Response to Address of Welcome, S. W. Shaffer, 
D.D.S., Greensboro. 

President's Address, Frank E. Gilliam, D.D.S., Bur- 
lington. 

Recognition of State Officers 

Introduction of Visitors 

10:30 A.M. "Dental Oral Surgery," Bruce M. Dorsey, D.D.S., Bal- 
timore College of Dental Surgery, University of 
Maryland. 

SYNOPSIS : Indications, contra-indications, surgical treatment and post-operative care of 

apicoectomy, alveolar resection, plastic closure of oro-antral flstulae, cystec- 
tomy removal of torus palatinus and superior labial freneatomy. These sub- 
jects will be presented in a manner to appeal to the general practitioner 
rather than the specialist. 

12 :30 P.M. Adjournment of Morning Session 

1 :00 P.M. Luncheon 

2:00 P.M. "Oral Lesions of Interest to the Practicing Dentist," 
Lester W. Burket, D.D.S., M.D., Professor of Oral 
Medicine, The Thomas W. Evans Museum and Dental 
Institute School of Dentistry, University of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

SYNOPSIS : Dr. Burket will stress the more common lesions difficulties in diagnosis. Some 

of the less common lesions of the mouth such as syphilitic lesions will also be 
discussed and illustrated. 

4 :00 P.M. Meeting of Third District Veterans' Group 
6 :30 P.M. Banquet— Mid-Pines Club 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 249 



Tuesday, November 2, 1948 

9 :00 A.M. Table Clinics 

"Prosthetics," T. J. Ross, D.D.S., Durham. 

"Reinforced Acrylic Bridges," N. R. Callaghan, 
D.D.S., Greensboro. 

"Mechanical Insertion of Amalgam Filling," Frank 
Atwater, D.D.S., Greensboro. 

"Nitrous Oxide," M. R, Evans, D.D.S., Chapel Hill. 

"Orthodontics," D. T. Carr, D.D.S., Durham and M.E. 
Walker, D.D.S., Durham. 

"Natural Tooth Jacket Crown," J. R. Henson, D.D.S., 
Greensboro. 

"Manipulation of Amalgam," W. W. Walker, D.D.S., 
Burlington. 

"Cysts and Hidden Infection," T. E. Sikes, D.D.S., 
Greensboro. 

"Amalgam Fillings," W. E. Campbell, D.D.S., Dur- 
ham. 

"Proper Applications of Sodium Fluoride," J. N. 
Caudle, D.D.S., Greensboro. 

"Treatment of Periodontal Disease," G. F. Kirkland, 
D.D.S., Durham. 

11 :00 A.M. Business Meeting 
Election of Officers 
New Business 
Report of Committees 
Selection of Next Meeting Place 
Installation of Officers 

12 :00 Noon Adjournment 



250 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 




B. M. DORSEY, D.D.S., F.A.C.D. 

Baltimore, Maryland. Professor of 
Oral Surgery at Baltimore College of 
Dental Surgery, Dental School of the 
University of Maryland. He is Chief of 
the Dental Staff of the University Hos- 
pital, Consulting Dental Specialist for 
the U. S. Public Health Service, Re- 
gional Consultant in Oral Surgery for 
the Veterans Administration. He is a fel- 
low of the American College of Dentists, 
member of the Federation Dentaire In- 
ternationale, member of the American 
Dental Association and a member of 
Omicron Kappa Upsilon. Presented 
clinics before the Connecticut State, 
Main State, Fourth and Fifth District 
Dental Societies of North Carolina and 
at the Royal College of Surgeons and 
the Queensland Dental Society of Bris- 
bane, Queensland, Australia. He revised 
Films for the Surgeon General's Office, 
United States Army. Appears on the 
program 10:30 A.M. Subject: "Dental 
Oral Surgery." 



Dr. Dorsey 



LESTER W. BURKET, D.D.S., M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Pro- 
fessor of Oral Medicine, The 
Thomas W. Evans Museum and 
Dental Institute school of Den- 
tistry, University of Pennsylvania ; 
Professor of Oral Medicine, Grad- 
uate School of Medicine, Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. Appears on 
the program 2:00 P.M. Subject: 
"Oral Lesions of Interest to the 
Practicing Dentist." 




Dr. Burket 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 251 



FROM THE SECRETARY 

DR. NORMAN F. ROSS, Secretary-Treasurer 



My message to the members of the Third District is very favor- 
able regarding membership, payment of dues, and reinstatement. 
In the past two years, we have lost no members because of failure 
to pay dues, have added several new members, and several have 
been reinstated. 

For the benefit of future secretary-treasurers, I would like to 
urge all members either to pay the following year's dues at the 
district meeting, or as soon as possible after their return home. 
The secretary-treasurer can handle the dues, reports, and member- 
ship cards much more easily and efficiently in large numbers than 
if they come straggling in during this year. The American Dental 
Association is enforcing its policy of withholding copies of the 
Journal from members who have not paid their dues by January. 
We all wish to get and keep each copy of the Journal. 

We would like to have you recommend for membership the men 
in your locality who should belong to the Society. A note concern- 
ing any non-member to your President or Secretary will insure 
that an application for membership will be sent to him. 

I would like to express my thanks for the courteous and friendly 
cooperation of the members of the Third District throughout the 
past two years. 

NEWS ITEMS 

We are looking forward to a merry time at Mid-Pines Club 
October 31 to November 2. We urge all of you to be present, as we 
need your presence there. An interesting program has been 
planned. 

Congratulations to Dr. and Mrs. James Henson w^ho have a new 
son. 

Dr. T. E. Sikes is in the hospital for an operation. Here's hop- 
ing he will be with us real soon. 

It seems that Durham's loss is Graham's gain. Dr. Whitimore 
has left Durham and is located in Graham. 

Dr. and Mrs. W. E. Campbell have a son. We predict another 
dentist in 1975. 

Dr. P. B. Whittington had an extended fishing trip at the Point, 
good luck, Pete! 

Summer vacations call many to the beach. Along with them we 
find Dr. Dan Carr sun bathing at Carolina Beach. 

Dr. Howard Apple resumed practice in Greensboro. We are 
happy to have him back. — J. N. Caudle, District Editor. 



252 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



FOURTH DISTRICT 

OFFICERS 

1947-48 

Thomas M. Hunter President 

J. J. Tew President-Elect 

J. F, Coltrane Vice-President 

C. E. Abernathy Secretary-Treasurer 

Lawrence H. Paschal District Editor 



HOUSE OF DELEGATES 
Walter McRae 
H. 0. Lineberger 
T. M. Hunter 
J. J. Tew 
C. E. Abernathy 



ALTERNATES 
E. N. Lawrence 
L. J. Moore 
L. M. Massey 
Victor Bell 
J. R. Edwards 



COMMITTEES 



PROGRAM 

iK. L. Johnson, Chairman 

E. D. Baker 

W. Howard Branch 

ENTERTAINMENT 

H. R. Chamblee, Chairman 
S. L. Bobbitt 
W. W. Rankin 

DISTRICT COUNCIL 
DENTAL HEALTH 

E. N. Lawrence, Chavrm,an 
Paul Fitzgerald, Jr. 
R, M.Olive, Jr. 

STATE INSTITUTIONS 

J. Martin Fleming, Chairmxvn 
J. Y. Hinson 
Victor E. Bell 



MEMBERSHIP 

J. J. Tew, Chairman 
Paul T. Harrell 
R. L. Eagles 

A.D.A. RELIEF 

Marvin T. Jones, Chairman 
Paul T. Baker 
R. J. Noble, Jr. 

ETHICS 

H. L. Allen, Chairman 
J. R. Edwards, Jr. 
Worth M. Byrd 

PUBLICITY 

J. W. Branham, Chairman 
Marcus Smith 
E. M. Broughton 



GROUP ORGANIZATIONS 
G. Fred Hale, Chairman, Wake and Johnston Counties 
Walter H. Finch, Chairman, Vance, Granville, Warren and Franklin Counties; 
G. L. Hooper, Chairman, Lee, Harnett, Hoke, Cumberland and Sampson Coun- 
ties; L. J. Moore, Chairm^an, Robeson, Bladen, and Columbus Counties. 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



253 



COME TO RALEIGH FOR THE FOURTH DISTRICT MEETING 

DR. THOMAS M. HUNTER, President 




Dr. Hunter 



I have just reviewed the program and ban- 
quet plans for the Fourth District meeting on 
October 25th and 26th and the committees have 
done a splendid job of arranging for our enter- 
tainment and education. The program appears 
elsewhere in this issue of the Bulletin and you 
can see for yourself that the committees have 
provided us with a well-rounded and diversified 
program. The banquet promised to be one of 
the best in several years with good food and a 
good time for all. The announcement in this 
Bulletin will give you no indication of the type 
entertainment, but take it from me, it should be good and will 
afford you some much needed relaxation and a good start on the 
scientific program of the next day. Royster Chamblee and his com- 
mittee have some splendid plans for the program and while they 
are not completed at this early date, they are original and will 
afford you and your guest plenty of entertainment, so come to 
Raleigh early and get into the swing of things by attending the 
banquet and getting a good night's rest. 

Kenneth Johnson and his committee have arranged a program 
for Tuesday that will interest you. The out of state clinicians are 
well known and are sure to bring some valuable information with 
them that they will be glad to impart to you. The first two hours 
of the afternoon have been set aside for the local boys to show you 
how they do things at home. These fellows will spend a lot of val- 
uable time in preparation of these table clinics and I am sure all of 
us will learn something new if we will stop by and allow them to 
tell and show how they handle the situation that may be troubling 
you ; so come on to Raleigh, October 25th and 26th, and let's have 
the best time and the best meeting we have ever had. 



254 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



PROGRAM 

FOURTH DISTRICT DENTAL SOCIETY 

Hotel Sir Walter 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Monday, October 25, 1948 

7:00 P.M. Banquet — Virginia Dare Ballroom 
Entertainment 

Tuesday, October 26, 1948 

8 :00 A.M. Veterans' Breakfast 

8 :30 A.M. Registration 

9:00 A.M. Meeting called to order by the President, T. M. Hun- 
ter, D.D.S., Henderson. 

Invocation, Rev. Ray Holder, Rector of Christ Epis- 
copal Church, Raleigh. 

Minutes of Last Meeting 

Treasurer's Report 

President's Address, T. M. Hunter, D.D.S., Henderson. 

Presentation of Applications for Membership, J. J. 
Tew, D.D.S., Clayton. 

Recognition of the Officers 

Introduction of Visitors, H. O. Lineberger, D.D.S., 
Raleigh. 

10:00 A.M. Business Session 

Election of Officers 

Election of Delegates and Alternates to the North 
Carolina Dental Society 



Bulletiyi North Carolina Dental Society 255 



10:30 A.M. "A Dentist Evaluates Focal Infection," John E. 
Buhler, D.D.S., Atlanta, Georgia, Dean of the Emory 
University School of Dentistry. 

11:30 A.M. "Dental Surgery," Harold W. K r o g h, D.D.S., 
F.A.C.D., Washington, D. C. 

12:30 P.M. Moving Picture 

"Topical Fluorides," U. S. Public Health Service. 

1 :00 P.M. Luncheon 

2:00 P.M. Table Clinics 

"Removal of Upper Second Molars in Distal Relation 
Cases," E. D. Baker, D.D.S., Raleigh. 

"Individual Impression Trays for Full Upper and 
Lower Impressions," J. W. Branham, D.D.S., Raleigh. 

"Pitfalls of Synthetic Restorations," T. M. Collins, 
D.D.S., Raleigh. 

"Simplified Clinical Photography," Walter Finch. 
D.D.S., Henderson. 

"Unusual Cases in Oral Surgery with Discussion of 
Symptoms and X-ray Exhibit," J. Y. Hinson, D.D.S., 
Raleigh. 

"Some Atypical Amalgam Preparations," Rufus S. 
Jones, D.D.S., Warrenton. 

"Appliances and Methods Used in Fixation of Maxil- 
lary and Mandibular Fractures." 

"Vertical Dimension in Orthodontics," A. A. Phillips, 
D.D.S., Raleigh. 

4 :00 P.M. Business Session 

Report of Committees 
Installation of Officers 
Adjournment 



256 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 





J. E. BUHLER, D.D.S., F.A.C.D. 

Atlanta, Georgia. Dean of 
the Emory University School 
of Dentistry, former Member 
and Secretary of the Faculty 
of Temple University School 
of Dentistry, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. Appears on the 
program 10 :30 A.M. Subject: 
"A Dentist Evaluates Focal 
Infection." 



Dr. Buhler 



H. W. KROGH, D.D.S., F.A.C.D. 

Washington, D. C. Practice 
limited to Oral Surgery, Mem- 
ber of the Staff of Episcopal, 
Emergency, Doctors, and 
George Washington Hospitals. 
Appears on the program 
11:30 A.M. Subject: "Dental 
Surgery.'- 




Dr. Krogh 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



257 



FIFTH DISTRICT 

OFFrCERS 

1947-48 

R. E. Williams President 

Sandy C. Marks President-Elect 

James Zealy Vice-President 

C. D. Eatman Secretary-Treasurer 

M. M. Lilley District Editor 



Z. L. Edwards 



HOUSE OF DELEGATES 
Paul Fitzgerald 



B. McK. Johnson 



COMMITTEES 



PROGRAM 

E. L. Eatman, Chairmayi 

F. G. Harris 
H. W. Gooding 

STATE, COUNTY AND 
CITY HOSPITALS 

A. L. Wooten, Chairman . 

A. R. Mallard 

Paul Munsell 

NECROLOGY 
W. T. Ralph 
W. L. Hand 
J. S. Poole 

RESOLUTIONS 
A. T. Jennette 
Herbert Spear 
L. R. Turner 

CLINICS 

A. C. Early, Chairman 
J. S. Baughan 
R. A. Daniels 

COUNCIL ON DENTAL HEALTH 
F. D. Bell, Chairman 
Allen B. Bonner 
C. G. Lancaster 



AUDITING 

J. F. Duke 
Fred H. Coleman 
James E. Furr, Jr. 

MEMBERSHIP 

W. I. Hart, Chairman 
Dan Wright 
Junius C. Smith 

DENTAL DECAY 

Darden J. Eure, Chairman 
G. L. Overman 
M. T. Blanchard 

RELIEF 

C. B. Johnson 
Paul Fitzgerald 
Charles S. Cooke 

ARRANGEMENTS 

H. E. Butler 
H. E. Nixon 
C. D. Johnson, Jr. 
Arthur Gollobin 
Abner Riggs 



258 Bulletin North Carolina Devtal Society 



AN INVITATION TO ELIZABETH CITY 

DR. R. E. WILLIAMS, President 



Summer vacations are now over and the time for our Annual 
District Meeting draws near. I believe another short vacation from 
the daily routine of our offices will do us all good and there is no 
better place for this than Elizabeth City. 

We will see old friends, renew acquaintances and make new 
friends as well as receiving information about the affairs of our 
society. Then, too, we profit from the scientific program. 

Elizabeth City is in the Northeastern corner of our District 
and will necessitate a fairly long drive for some of our members 
but the men from this part of the District have alWays faithfully 
attended the meetings wherever they are, so let's show them that 
we appreciate it by paying back their visit. 

The trip there and back can be pleasant and enjoyable when 
you have a car full of your fellow practitioners and friends. The 
men in Elizabeth City are working hard and doing all they can 
to give us a good time while we are there. 

The program committee has secured an excellent clinician who 
is highly qualified. Dr. E. Howell Smith of the University of Penn- 
sylvania is recommended as a man who will teach us things that 
we can take home and use in our daily practice. 

The clinic committee has arranged several table clinics by men 
of our own District who have chosen subjects that will be of in- 
terest to all. These men have worked hard and spent many weary 
hours preparing these clinics and I know we will all benefit from 
their work and experience. Let's show our appreciation by giving 
them courteous and respectful attention. 

Our Fifth District is proud of the fact that one of its members 
has attained the highest office organized dentistry offers in the 
U. S. and the entire world. We who know Clyde Minges are sat- 
isfied that the affairs of the American Dental Association are in 
able hands, for he is honest, sincere and has the courage of his 
convictions. 

We extend an invitation to dentists of all the other Districts of 
our State or any member of American Dental Association to attend 
our meeting in Elizabeth City. 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 259 



PROGRAM 

FIFTH DISTRICT DENTAL SOCIETY 
Virginia Dare Hotel 
Elizabeth City, N. C. 

Sunday, October 24, 1948 

6 :30 P.M. Supper— "The Tavern" 

Location — Two miles on Nags Head Highway 

Monday, October 25, 1948 

8:00 A.M. Veterans' Breakfast — Banquet Hall 

Meeting called to order by the President, R. E. Wil- 
liams, D.D.S., Goldsboro. 

Invocation, Rev. A. F. Brantley, First Methodist 
Church, Elizabeth City. 

Address of Welcome, Honorable J. J. Hughes, Mayor 
of Elizabeth City. 

Response to Address of Welcome, B. McK. Johnson, 
D.D.S., Greenville. 

Minutes of last meeting 

President's Address, Dr. R. E. Williams, Goldsboro. 

Presentation of Applicants for Membership, W. I. 
Hart, D.D.S., Edenton. 

Greeting from the North Carolina Dental Society 
Officers 

Introduction of Visitors 

10 :30 A.M. "Mandibular Edentulous Impressions Using Muco- 
Seal Impression Material," E. Howell Smith, D.D.S., 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

SYNOPSIS: An illustrated lecture by means of slides and movies to better demonstrate the 

different procedure in the technique will be given. This will be follow^ed by 
a question and answer period, and will give an opportunity to clear up many 
of the problems which may confront you. 

11:45 A.M. Intermission 



260 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 




E. HOWELL SMITH, D.D.S. 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
University of Pennsylvania. 
Appears on the program 
10:30 A.M. Subject: "Mandi- 
bular Edentulous Impressions 
Using Muco-Seal Impression 
Material." 



Dr. Smith 



12:00 Noon Table Clinics 

"Root Canal Therapy," M. M. Lilley, D.D.S., Scotland 
Neck. 

"Clinical Camera," A. C. Early, D.D.S., Goldsboro. 

"Impression Technique," C. B. Johnson, D.D.S., Jack- 
sonville. 

1 :00 P.M. Luncheon 

Treasurer's Report 

Report of Committee on President's Address 

Report of other committees 

New Business 

Election of Officers 

Place of next meeting 

Installation of officers 

Adjournment 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 261 



NEWS ITEMS 

As we g-o to press in the very midst of all the hot weather, we 
find that our district quota is well up to par enjoying some very 
good baseball games along with excellent fishing and beaching. We 
don't know of any records being set down here but we are hoping 
that everyone will be well-pleased at the end of the summer. 

We are happy to welcome Dr. Clyde E. Minges back with us 
after a major operation in Philadelphia which in-activated him for 
some two months. 

Dr. William H. Gray, Jr., formerly associated with Dr. H. A. 
Edwards of Pink Hill, has recently opened his oflice in Wil- 
liamston. 

Dr. F. E. Lansche has opened his office in New Bern where he 
practiced before going in the armed forces. 

Dr. F. W. Hughes has opened an office in Edenton. We wish 
to welcome you fellows to our district and if there are others we 
do not know about, the same goes for each of you. 

Here is an item we are both glad and sorry to report. We are 
loosing our Dr. Sandy C. Marks, President-Elect of our district, 
and a very valuable man he has been. Dr. Marks will leave in late 
summer for Africa in the service of our Lord as a Missionary. May 
God bless him, his good wife and three children. Sandy, we are 
already looking forward to some great news upon your return to 
this country. 

Dr. Paul E. Jones, of Farmville, was elected to the North Caro- 
lina State Senate in the recent election. Congratulations, Dr. Jones 
we hope you the best of success. 

Dr. and Mrs. J. B. Brown, of Ahoskie, announce the recent 
arrival of a daughter. Congratulations. 

Dr. C. G. Powell, of Ahoskie, celebrated his 45th year of active 
Dental practice, June 15, 1948. 

Dr. J. R. Edmundson, of Wilson, recently celebrated his 50th 
year of active practice. We are indeed proud of these two fine men, 
and may we add a great big "well done" to each of you, your entire 
district wishes for you both many more years of good health and 
happiness. 

We are hoping that our district, as well as the State will be well- 
represented at the American Dental Association Meeting in Chi- 
cago September 13-17. This should be a great occasion fellows, to 
see our own Dr. Clyde Minges take the oath of office as President 
of the American Dental Association. 

Don't forget our District Meeting in Ehzabeth City in October. 
See you then. — M. M. Lilley, District Editor. 



262 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



MINUTES 

of the 

NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL HYGIENIST ASSOCIATION 

Sun Dial Room, George Vonderbiit Hotel 

April 26, 1948, 5:00 P.M. 

Asheville, N. C. 

The North Carolina hygienists met for the purpose of organizing a istate 
Association. Dr, Walter McFall, was appointed by the American Dental 
Hygienist Association to act as representative in place of an officer from the 
American Dental Hygienist Association due to the fact that none of them 
were able to attend. Dr. McFall has been an honorary member for twelve 
years and has been very active in organizing other State Associations. Miss 
Ora Lee Williams was asked to serve as temporary secretary until one could 
be elected. 

Letters of greetings from the American Dental Hygienist Association were 
read by Mrs. Carolyn Smart. It was first suggested that temporary officei-s 
and a working council be appointed until the annual meeting next year. How- 
ever, by a unanimous vote of the group it was decided that we should get our 
organization under way and elect standing officers for the ensuing year. Dr. 
McFall presided as chairman until our president could be elected and installed. 

Due to the small group and for expediency our nominations and voting- 
were oral but this was by unanimous consent of the group following Dr. Mc- 
Fall's suggestion. 

By a motion from Mrs. Edith S. Chiperfield and seconded by Mrs. Harris 
Parker, Mrs. Carolyn Smart was nominated for president. There were no 
other nominations and the vote was unanimous in her favor, she was then 
installed as president. 

By motion from Miss Camilla Honsucker and seconded by Mrs. Earle 
Blakely, Mrs. Cecile Bullock was nominated as vice-president. There were no 
other nominations and Mrs. Bullock was elected vice-president. 

By motion from Mrs. Harris Parker and seconded by Mrs. Edith S. Chiper- 
field, Miss Ora Lee Williams was nominated as secretary. There were no other 
nominations and she was elected as secretary. 

A motion was made by Mrs. Cecile Bullock and seconded by Miss Camilla 
Honsucker to nominate Mrs. Harris Parker for treasurer. There were no 
other nominations and she was elected treasurer. 

Nominations were then open to elect three members to serve on the Execu- 
tive Council. 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 263 



Miss Charlotte Zimmerman was nominated to serve for three years by Mrs. 
Edith S. Chiperfield, the nomination was seconded by Miss Maxine Koontz. 

Mrs. Edith S. Chiperfield was nominated to serve for two years by Mrs. 
Harris Parker, the nomination was seconded by Mrs. Earle Blakely. 

Miss Camilla Honsucker was nominated to serve for one year by Mrs. 
Cecile Bullock, the nomination was seconded by Mrs. Harris Parker. 

A motion was then made that nominations be closed for the Executive 
Council and the three members were voted upon and elected to serve as listed : 

Miss Charlotte Zimmerman Three Years 

Mrs. Edith S. Chiperfield Two Years 

Miss Camilla Honsucker One Year 

Nominations were then open to elect one delegate and two alternate dele- 
gates to the American Dental Hygienist Association to be held in Chicago next 
September. 

Mrs. Cecile Bullock nominated Mrs. Carolyn Smart as Delegate, the nomi- 
nation was seconded by Mrs. Earle Blakely. Mrs. Smart was elected by a 
unanimous vote. 

Mrs. Harris Parker was nominated as first alternate delegate and Miss 
Camilla Honsucker as second alternate delegate to the American Dental Hy- 
gienist Association. These two were voted upon together and elected by a 
unanimous vote. 

The meeting was adjourned until Tuesday morning, April 27 at 11:00 
A.M. — Miss Ora Lee Williams. 



Sun Dial Room, George Vonderbilt Hotel 
April 27, 1948, 11:00 A.M. 

The meeting was called to order by the president. After roll call the 
minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

Dr. R. D. Tuttle, representative of the Advisory Committee from the North 
Carolina Dental Society, gave a report from his committee and offered their 
help and guidance in carrying on the work of the new organization. A sug- 
gestion was made that the Bulletin of the North Carolina Dental Society list- 
ing all the names of the Advisory Committee be filed with the original minutes. 

It was also agreed upon that all hygienist licensed in North Carolina be 
extended an invitation to become a chai-ter member of the North Carolina 
Hygienist Association if they join within twelve months. The original elever 
charter members are listed below: 



264 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



Miss Winefred Jean Brewer Mrs. Earle J. Blakely 

Mrs. Cecile Bullock Miss Mary Louise Tuttle 

Miss Camilla Jo Honsucker Miss Ora Lee Williams 

Miss Maxine Koontz Miss Charlotte Elaine Zimmerman 

Mrs. Harris Parker Mrs. Edith S. Chiperfield 

The Constitution and By-Laws of the North Carolina Dental Hygienist's 
Association were read by the president. Article VI (Dues) was read and after 
much discussion ten dollars ($10.00) a year was decided upon as the an- 
nual dues for the North Carolina Dental Hygienist's Association. Five dol- 
lars ($5.00) of this amount to be paid to the American Dental Hygienist's 
Association. 

Miss Mary Louise Tuttle made a motion that the Constitution and By-Laws 
be adopted as written with only the above change, this was seconded by Miss 
Charlotte Zimmerman. The adoption was made by a unanimous vote of the 
members. 

The Executive Council nominated Dr. Walter McFall as an honorary mem- 
ber. Dr. McFall was elected as the first honorary member of the North Caro- 
lina Dental Hygienist's Association by a unanimous vote of the members. 

By a decision of the Executive Council Mrs. Harris Parker was appointed 
as chairman of the New Membership Committee to meet the applicants from 
North Carolina state board examinations to be held in June. Mrs. Parker shall 
appoint her own members to serve with her on this committee and arrange 
a dinner or luncheon for the new girls entering the profession. 

The meeting was then adjourned until the president and executive council 
set a date for a special meeting to be held before the next annual meeting. — 
Miss Ora Lee Williams. 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 265 



MINUTES 

NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 

MEETING 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

DENTAL COLLEGE COMMITTEE 

LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE 

CHAIRMAN PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE 

DISTRICT PRESIDENTS 

Sunday, May 30, 1948, 11:30 A.M. Sir Walter Hotel 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Members present were: 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Dr. S. L. Bobbitt, Chairman 
Dr. A. C. Current Dr. Paul Fitzgerald 

Dr. C. W. Sanders Dr. Walter T. McFall 

Dr. R. Fred Hunt 

DENTAL COLLEGE COMMITTEE 

Dr. H. O. Lineberger, Chairman 
Dr. Wilbert Jackson Dr. Paul E. Jones 

Dr. G. Fred Hale Dr. R. M. Olive 

LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE 

Dr. C. C. Poindexter, Chairman 
Dr. Z. L. Edwards Dr. H. 0. Lineberger 

Dr. Paul E. Jones Dr. E. G. Click 

» 

PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE 
Dr. A. C. Current, Chah^man 

DISTRICT PRESIDENT'S 

Dr. John R. Pharr Dr. Thomas M. Hunter 

Dr. F. E. Gilliam Dr. R. E. Williams 

Others present were: Drs. C. E. Minges, F. 0. Alford, W. E. Clark, E. M. 
Medlin and W. L. McRae. 



266 Bulletin North Caroliria Dental Society 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING 
Sunday, May 30, 1948, 3:00 P.M. Sir Walter Hotel, Raleigh, N. C. 

The Executive Committee met immediately following lunch. 
Members present were : 

Dr. S. L. Bobbitt, Chairman Dr. Paul Fitzgerald 

Dr. A. C. Current Dr. Walter T. McFall 

Dr. C. W. Sanders Dr. R. Fred Hunt 

Dr. C. C. Poindexter appeared before the Executive Committee and ex- 
plained the action which has been taken so far with reference to securing a 
full time Dental Health Officer for the City of Greensboro. Dr. Fitzgerald 
suggested that Dr. Poindexter continue his activities with the information 
obtained here and if a satisfactory arrangement cannot be worked out to 
report back to the next meeting of the Executive Committee which will be 
held in Pinehurst July 11, 1948. 

Motion by Dr. Current, seconded by Dr. Fitzgerald and carried that 
$1,500.00 be appropriated for use by the Program Committee in arranging 
for the 1949 meeting. An additional $1,000.00 was also appropriated to be 
used in connection with the 1949 meeting. 

Motion by Dr. Sanders, seconded by Dr. McFall and carried that $100.00 
be appropriated to be used by the Out-of-State Entertainment Committee. 

Dr. Sanders read a letter from the North Carolina Laboratory Association 
as a matter of information. It was decided to defer action of this matter until 
our next meeting, Sunday, July 11, 1948, in Pinehurst. 

There was a discussion of the American Dental Association Relief Fund 
and North Carolina Dental Society Relief Fund. It was agreed that our Con- 
stitution and By-Laws do not fully cover the collection and distribution of 
the one dollar for the Relief Fund. 

Dr. C. W. Sanders opened the meeting and presented Dr. H. O. Lineberger, 
Chairman of the Dental College Committee, who explained that the meeting 
was called for the purpose of discussing the future action of this committee. 
Drs. Lineberger and Current each read a letter which will be mailed out to 
the membership, together with a summary of Dr. O'Rourke's report. Dr. E. G. 
Click brought up the question of publicity. Dr. Current explained that plans 
are being made to bring this matter to the attention of the dentists at the 
District Meetings in October. In the meantime we should get this idea over 
to the public through Parent-Teacher Associations, Civic Clubs, Churches, 
Health Groups and similar organizations reaching a climax just before the 
Legislature project is the citizens obligation and privilege as well as the 
dentists. 

Dr. Fred Hale suggests that each District set aside a part of its program 
for the presentation of this subject. Dr. John Pharr suggests that it might 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 267 



be well for each District President to include the need for the establishment 
of a dental school in his address. 

A very forceful talk was made by Dr. Wilbert Jackson showing the 
URGENT need for the establishment of a dental school in North Carolina if 
we are to continue to have sufficient dentists to care for the needs of the 
population of our state. 

Dr. Sanders appointed Dr. A. C. Current to officially represent the Dental 
College Committee at all District Meetings next fall. 

Dr. Lineberger read a letter from Dr. O'Rourke in which he suggested 
that we distribute a report of the Survey to every health agency in North 
Carolina, adding that Drs. Blakerby and Horner also concur in this matter. 

Motion by Dr. R. M. Olive seconded and carried that a recommendation go 
to the Executive Committee to the effect that the Dental College Committee 
be authorized to prepare 500 copies of the full report which are to be used 
as needed. 

Dr. Fred Hale read a copy of the letter which he had mailed to Dr. Ferrell, 
Secretary to the Medical Care Commission. It was decided to ask Dr. Ferrell 
to bring the -matter of establishing a dental school in North Carolina before 
the next meeting of the Executive Committee of the Medical Care Commission. 

Motion by Dr. Wilbert Jackson, seconded by Dr. R. M. Olive and carried 
that Dr. Lineberger and other members of the Dental College Committee 
present the need for the establishment of a dental school at the University of 
North Carolina to the Advisory Budget Committee when they meet in Chapel 
Hill and ask that the Dental College Program be brought before the Appro- 
priations Committee. 

The meeting adjourned at 1:15 P.M. for lunch. 



268 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



MINUTES 

PROSTHETIC DENTAL SERVICE COMMITTEE 

From the 

NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL LABORATORY ASSOCIATION 

June 27, 1948 Raleigh 

This meeting was for purpose of passing upon the laboratories' applica- 
tions for the accreditation. While a few variations were necessary to make 
the plan workable in this state, the plan finally adopted is well in line with 
the suggested plan of the American Dental Association. Reference is made 
to the committees' report on page 116 of the 1947 Proceedings of the North 
Carolina Dental Society. 

Twenty-one applications were received. Seventeen were fully approved; 
two approved for certain types of work and one rejected. 

In the interest of continued harmony and understanding, it was agreed 
that one or two joint meetings of the Prosthetic Dental Service Committee 
and the North Carolina Dental Laboratory Association Committee be held 
each year. 

It was further agreed that the Prosthetic Dental Service Committee recom- 
mend to the Executive Committee that when desired one page in the Bulletin 
be made available to the Laboratory Committee for the disseminating of 
laboratory news interesting to the profession. The proposed articles be sub- 
ject to the approval of the committee on publications. Another agreement pro- 
vides that only accredited laboratories carrying advertising in the Bulletin be 
continued on the mailing list of the Bulletin but does not include the Pro- 
ceedings issue. 

Those present being Drs. Walter Clark, Walter McRae, Frank Alford, 
C. C. Poindexter of the Prosthetic Dental Service Committee and Messrs. 
John Fleming, E. B. Horton, Louis Miller, Charles Spake, and Robert Wood- 
ward of the North Carolina Laboratory Association. 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 269 



AS A MATTER OF RECORD 

Minutes of the 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

PROGRAM COMMITTEE 

OFFICERS NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 

ARRANGEMENT COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN 

CLINIC COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN 

HOUSING COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN 

Sunday, July 11, 1948 Sir Walter Hotel 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Members present were: 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 
Dr. S. L. Bobbitt Dr. A. C. Current 

Dr. Paul Fitzgerald 

OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 
Dr. C. W. Sanders Dr. T. W. Atwood 

Dr. Walter T. McFall Dr. R. Fred Hunt 

PROGRAM COMMITTEE 
Dr. S. P. Gay Dr. K. L. Johnson 

Dr. A. C. Current Dr. C. B. Johnson 

Dr. R. Fred Hunt 

Dr. Royster Chamblee, Chairman Arrangements Committee 

Dr. K. L. Johnson, Chairman Clinic Committee 

Dr. Howard W. Branch, Chairman Housing Committee 

Others present were: Drs. E. A. Branch, H. 0. Lineberger, R. M. Olive, 
R. M. Olive, Jr., Paul Fitzgerald, Jr., Thomas L. Blair and Thomas M. Hunter. 

Dr. C. W. Sanders opened the meeting and presented Dr. Ernest A. Branch, 
who explained the U. S. Public Health Service Plan for the application and 
demonstration of Topical Fluoride treatment in North Carolina and other 
states. There followed a thorough and detailed discussion by several members 
present after which Dr. Paul Fitzgerald made a motion, seconded by Dr. A. C. 
Current and carried that unless the $20,000.00 appropriated by the Federal 
Government for use in our state be made into a grant to be used by and 
through the Oral Hygiene Division of the State Board of Health that we 
hold in abeyance our request for the present. 



270 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



Dr. A. C. Current, Chairman of the Public Relations Committee, reported 
for his committee. He is to appear before each of the five districts at the 
Fall meetings to explain the action taken thus far by the Dental College Com- 
mittee and to enlist the support of the membership of the North Carolina 
Dental Society in this worthy project. The Committee further proposes to 
educate the public through Civic Clubs, Parent-Teacher Associations and 
similar organizations. A question and answer pamphlet on Dr. O'Rourke's 
Survey has been prepared which will answer the questions most likely to be 
raised by the public. 

A motion was made by Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, seconded by Dr. S. L. Bobbitt 
and carried that the Executive Committee appropriate $299.50 for the printing 
of 2,500 of these pamphlets if needed. 

Dr. Current stated that a smaller number might be sufficient. 

Dr. McFall suggests that the president and secretary of each district be 
appointed as a committee to visit all legislators in their district, explaining 
to them the urgent need for the establishment of a Dental School in North 
Carolina. Also to invite them to attend the meeting of their district at which 
time Dr. Current will speak on this subject. 



MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 
July 11, 1948, 2:00 P.M. Sir Walter Hotel 

Members present were: 

Dr. S. L. Bobbitt, Chairman 

Dr. A. C. Current 

Dr. Paul Fitzgerald 

Dr. C. W. Sanders, ex-officio 

Dr. Walter T. McFall, ex-officio 

Dr. Fred Hunt, ex-officio 

Motion by Dr. C. W. Sanders, seconded by Dr. A. C. Current and carried 
that the Executive Committee authorize the payment of $500.00 by the North 
Carolina Dental Society to Mrs. John T. O'Rourke as an honorarium for 
services rendered by the late Dr. O'Rourke in connection with the Dental Col- 
lege Survey. This amount to be repaid to the North Carolina Dental Society 
from the Dental College Committee Fund if and when donations by members 
of the North Carolina Dental Society justify repayment. 

Motion by Dr. C. W. Sanders, seconded by Dr. A. C. Current and carried 
that the resolution proposed by the Military Affairs Committee of the North 
Carolina Dental Society be adopted by the Executive Committee. 

The resolution reads as follows : "This Committee recommends that the 
North Carolina State Dental Association go on record as opposing any motion 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 271 



to remove or delete the Military Affairs Committee as a standing committee 
of the American Dental Association and that the Secretary of our State Asso- 
ciation be instructed to notify the trustee of the Fifth District of its action 
with the request that the trustee notify each state in the Fifth District of 
the action of this State Association ; and be it further resolved that the trustee 
be requested to bring this matter to the attention of the committee on com- 
mittees and that the delegates to the American Dental Association meeting 
in September in Chicago be indoctrinated so that they can vote accordingly 
when the matter is brought before the house." — Walter McFall, Secretary, 
Pro-tem. 



News Letter May 28, 1948 

DENTAL NEEDS AND FACILITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Shortly before his death, Dr. John T. O'Rourke prepared a com- 
prehensive twenty-four page report of the dental needs and re- 
sources of North Carolina. The study was sponsored by the Dental 
College Committee of the North Carolina Dental Society. The 
report included a consideration of the prevalence of dental diseases 
in the state, dental personnel resources and the need for reducing 
the gap between dental needs and dental facilities. 

Dr. O'Rourke recommended the establishment of a dental school 
as a unit of the University of North Carolina and located at Chapel 
Hill. He also proposed that the dental needs of rural areas be 
met by : 

1. Concentrating dental health education in areas of 
of greatest needs. 

2. Voluntary prepayment of meeting the cost of den- 
tal care. 

3. Increase in use of auxiliary dental personnel. 

4. Guidance of new registrants who are seeking a 
location to practice. 

CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA, HOLDS ITS FIRST 
ANNUAL DENTAL HEALTH WEEK 

During the week of May 3rd, an educational program for den- 
tists and the public was held in Charlotte, North Carolina. Class 
awards for dental health achievements were presented in elemen- 
tary schools. Dr. Ruth Martin, of St. Louis, lectured before the 
local dental society and before a meeting of parents, teachers and 
nurses, radio programs on dental health subjects were broadcast 
daily over the four local stations. 



272 Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 



ACCREDITED LABORATORIES IN NORTH CAROLINA 

A. & S. Laboratory, Burlington. 
Buran's Dental Laboratory, Asheville. 
*Carter Laboratory, Raleigh. 
Central Laboratory, Durham. 
Charlotte Laboratory, Charlotte. 
E. G. Edwards Dental Laboratory, Rocky Mount. 
Fleming Dental Laboratory, Raleigh. 
Goldsboro Dental Laboratory, Goldsboro. 
Greensboro Laboratory, Greensboro. 
Horton Laboratory, Wilson. 
James Dental Laboratory, Elizabeth City. 
Kinston Dental Laboratory, Kinston. 
Miller Dental Laboratory, Winston-Salem. 
**Noble Dental Laboratory, Raleigh. 

North State Dental Laboratory, Charlotte. 

S. & S. Laboratory, Charlotte. 

Spakes Dental Laboratory, Statesville. 

R. Lee Toombs Dental Laboratory, Charlotte. 

Woodward Prosthetic Company, Greensboro. 



* Accredited as a gold and porcelain laboratory. 
** Accredited as a denture laboratory. 



Bulletin North Carolina Dental Society 273 



THINK THIS OVER: 

1. Find any excuse, but don't attend dental meetings. 

2. When you do attend, sit back, find fault and see how much 
noise you can make to upset the meeting. 

3. Be sure to come late, then shake hands with all your friends 
while the meeting is going on. 

4. Never accept any office, it is much easier to criticize. 

5. When asked to accept a committee, appointment, decline, but 
if you accept, don't attend any meetings; show them who is 
boss. 

6. When asked by the committee chairman to voice your opinion, 
decline, say nothing, but after the meeting tell all the others 
how things should be run. 

7. If things don't go right, as you see it, stop working in the 
middle of the job. 

8. Don't bother to get new members; that's a job for the officers. 

9. If you do accept an elective office, let the other dentists do the 
work. Just take the honor of the office. 

10. Do nothing unless absolutely necessary, but when the other 
members unselfishly and willingly roll up their sleeves and go 
to work for the sake of your Society, you go and howl that the 
organization is being run by a clique. 



ANNOUNCEMENTS 

The North Carolina Dental Society — Ninety-Third Anniver- 
sary Meeting to be held at the Carolina Hotel in Pinehurst, May 

19, 20, 21, 1949. 

* * * 

An invitation to the First Annual New Orleans Dental Con- 
ference of the New Orleans Dental Association to be held October 
24, 25, 26, 27, 1948, at the Roosevelt Hotel, New Orleans, with 
a full scientific program. Registration fee is $5.00. Make checks 
payable to Dr. Maffre R. Matta, 8118 Oak Street, New Orleans, La. 

* * * 

American Dental Association meets September 13-17, Chicago. 
H. Hillenbrand, Secretary. 



FOR THE MEMBERS OF 

THE NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 

THIS COULD HAPPEN TO YOU! 

The following claims are typical cases taken from our 
record of claims paid North Carolina Dentists. Approxi- 
mately $15,000.00 has been paid disabled members of the 
North Carolina Dental Society during the past twelve 
months. 

Dr. A— Charlotte— Angina— Still Disabled— $450.00. 
Dr. B — Kannapolis — Loss use of limbs — Still Disabled 

$1,600.00. 
Dr. C— Hamlet— Angina— Still Disabled— $350.00. 
Dr. D — Roseboro — Cerebral Thrombosis — $2,600.00. 
Dr. E — Morganton — Overwork — $350.00. 
Dr. F — Coats — Fatal auto injury — $5,000.00. 
Dr. G — Fayetteville — Bronchitis, twice — $670.00. 
Dr. H— Raleigh— Flu and Allergy— $356.00. 
Dr. I — Forest City — Muscle Atrophy and Pneumonia — 

$1,705.00. 
Dr. J — Asheville — Auto injury — $450.00. 
Dr. K— High Point— Bursitis— $775.00. 
Dr. L — Raleigh — Hernia and Hlness — $950.00. 
Dr. M— Greensboro — Flu— $350.00. 
Dr. N — Durham — Colitis and Fissue — $685.00. 
Dr. O — Albemarle — Nervous Disorder — $1,100.00. 
Dr. P — Asheboro — Nervous Exhaustion — $1,100.00. 
Dr. Q — Asheville — Coronary — $480.00. 
Dr. R — Greensboro — Tremor of Hands — $2,600.00. 
Dr. S — Jacksonville — Spinal Disease — $2,350.00. 
Dr. T — Salisbury — Heart Disease — $1,292.00. 
Dr. U— High Point— Allergy on Hands— $1,364.00. 
If you are not already insured under the Plan, we urge 
you to get full particulars today. 

$216.00 per month if disabled. 

$5,000.00 accidental death, or dismemberment. 

Annual Premium only $80.00. 

FULLY APPROVED BY THE NORTH CAROLINA 

DENTAL SOCIETY FOR ITS MEMBERS 

SINCE 1943 

J. L CRUMPTON 

P. O. Box 147 Durham, N. C. 

Representing 

COMMERCIAL CASUALTY INSURANCE COMPANY 

NEWARK, NEW JERSEY 

Your Society's Group Policy provides the most protection at the 
lowest cost obtainable. 



f]U 




IIORTU CAROimiA DEIITAL SOCIETY 



North Carolina Marches Forward Sanders 

Dental School Planning on Solid Foundation Hunt 

Where Do We Go From Here? Current 

Harmonious Teamwork May 

Pressing Challenge Confronting The Dental Profession Pharr 

Better Health Service Through Dental Education Gilliam 

Individual Responsibilities to the Service of Mankind Hunter 

The Demand is Critical For Adequate Facilities Williams 



ganuaiy, I949 




HTUIII] 



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To 



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Whose honesty, integrity and high ideals qualify him as a logical 
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to his fellowman. 



THE BULLETIN 

of 
THE NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 

(Component of the American Dental Association) 



EDITOR 

Franklin Bumgardner, 
D.D.S. 



District Editors 

Pearce Roberts, D.D.S. 

W. F. Yelton, D.D.S. 

M. R. Evans, D.D.S. 

Earnest Pearson, Jr., D.D.S. 

F. D. Bell, D.D.S. 



i^ 



Office of Publication 

415 Professional Building 

Charlotte 2. N. C. 



iV 



Published Quarterly — January, 
: April, August and October. En- 
I tered as Second Class matter, Sep- 
tember 1944, Charlotte, N. C- 



^it y^cd ^<UMe 




North Carolina Marches Forward 


-Sanders 276 


Dental School Planning on 

Solid Foundation 


___Hunt 278 


Where Do We Go From Here? 


-Current 279 


Harmonious Teamwork 


May 281 


Western Items of Interest 


-Roberts 283 


Local Societies in First District 


283 


Pressing Challenge Confronting 

the Dental Profession 


.--Pharr 285 


Better Health Service Through 

Dental Education 


-Gilliam 289 


Individual Responsibilities to the 

Service of Mankind 


.-Hunter 293 


The Demand is Critical For 

Adequate Facilities 


Williams 298 


Resolution Adopted 


300 


Veterans Group Organize in the Fifth 


301 


Clyde Minges Takes Office 


303 


Minutes of Dental College and 

Public Relations Committee 


304 


Announcements 


"{oa 





President 

Cleon W. Sanders, D.D.S. 

Benson, N. C. 



Secretary 

R. Fred Hunt, D.D.S. 

Rocky Mount, N. C. 



VOLUME 32 
NUMBER 3 



Subscription $1.00 



January 1949 



NORTH CAROLINA 
MARCHES FORWARD 

C. W. Sanders, D.D.S., President, Benson 




Dr. Sanders 

Several weeks ago, while on a trip 
to the Fifth District, I was passing 
through Hertford and stopped that I 
might once again visit a marker there 
in the courthouse square. It was my 
pleasure in October 1944 to have a 
part in dedicating this particular me- 
morial to a great pioneer dentist, Dr. 
John Harris, M.D., D.D.S. Dr. Harris 
died in Hertford, North Carolina, on 
July 26th, 1849. It was this man of 
great vision, now resting in the soil of 
our native state, who conducted the 
first school in dental surgery. From 
this school which was conducted in his 
office, "there developed the modern 



system of dental education that has 
brought to American dentistry the 
highest recognition throughout the 
world." 

Today, we seem to feel the kindly 
guiding spirit of Dr. Harris leading 
us on here in North Carolina in our 
endeavor to secure dental educational 
facilities for young men and women 
yet unborn and to safeguard the 
health of North Carolina's citizens in 
future years. 

Perhaps Dr. Harris, even in his 
fondest dreams, never visualized 
a dental school in North Carolina 
or maybe he did. Who knows? 
Anyway, with the passing of near- 
ly a century since his death, we 
find one of the most concerted 
efforts ever put forth by the 
North Carolina Dental Society 
and this effort is directed entire- 
ly toward securing a dental school 
in this state. In traveling through- 
out North Carolina during the 
past two years the main thought 
in the minds of our men has been 
concerning a school. During the 
past few months strenuous ef- 
fort has been put forth by many 
men from every district in order 
that the people might know the 
things we have in mind. Infor- 
mation, almost personal to each 
practicing dentist, has been made 
known to the public. These ef- 
forts and these labors are begin- 
ning to bear fruit. "We the peo- 
ple" are beginning to catch the 
spirit which eminates from the 



276] 



anxious and hopeful faces of 
North Carolina Dentists, and the 
gradual swell of public sentiment 
is attracting more attention each 
day. We sincerely hope that a 
great crescendo of the multitudi- 
nous voices of our citizens will 
become so powerful that the leg- 
islature will consider it a man- 
date that funds be appropriated 
for a dental school in North Caro- 
lina — not in the years to come 
but during the 1949 session. 
Much work and many labors are 
behind us. Much work and anxious 
days lie ahead. There are many rea- 
sons for satisfaction in progress made 
to date but none for complacency. 
Each of us must labor for this cause 



as we have never labored before. Up 
until now a few men from each dis- 
trict have been able to carry the ball. 
From now on each member must con- 
tribute his part. I am proud of the 
great job you are doing and I am con- 
fident that this fine undertaking will 
succeed. North Carolina must and 
will have a dental school second to 
none other. Do your part and you 
will have contributed something great 
and fine to your profession. 

This will be my last message to you 
before the holiday season so please 
allow me to thank each of you for your 
many kindnesses shown me, for your 
fine spirit and to wish for you and 
yours a most joyful Christmas season 
and a happy and successful New Year. 



[277] 



DENTAL SCHOOL PLANNING 
ON SOLID FOUNDATION 

R. Fred Hunt, D.D.S., Secretary, Rocky Mount 



It has again been my happy priv- 
ilege to attend each of the five district 
meetings. All districts are to be con- 
gratulated upon the excellent meetings 
which were held this year. It was 
also a great pleasure to renew my old 
acquaintances and to make new ones. 
I should like to take this opportunity, 
in behalf of the State Officers, to 
thank each district for the hospitality 
and favors shown us while attending 
these meetings. It is indeed encourag- 
ing to see the interest which is being 
exhibited at the district meetings. It 
has been about twenty-six years since 
the State Society was divided into the 
various districts and I truly believe 
that the North Carolina Dental Soci- 
ety is a leader among the southeastern 
states as a direct result of the activity 
and organizational work which has 
been accomplished in the district so- 
cieties. 

Our State meeting is to be held in 
Pinehurst on Thursday, Friday and 
Saturday, May 19, 20, and 21. The 
Program Committee has practically 
completed the arrangements for this 
meeting. There will be outstanding 
essayists and clinicians who Tvill en- 
deavor to bring to you a well balanced 



program. We expect and hope to have 
presentations which -will be practical 
and beneficial to the membership. 

The Dental College Committee, of 
which Dr. H. L. Lineberger is Chair- 
man, has done a noble piece of work. 
They have held many, many meetings 
during the year and have established 
a solid foundation upon which they hope 
to convince the members of the legis- 
lature that a dental school in North 
Carolina is sorely needed. Your help 
and assistance will not only be needed, 
but necessary if this most noble ven- 
ture is to succeed. Visit your legis- 
lators at their homes and explain to 
them the impoi'tance of this under- 
taking so that they will be acquainted 
with our needs when the bill is pre- 
sented in the legislature. Many mem- 
bers of the North Carolina Dental 
Society have contributed to the Den- 
tal College Fund. If perchance you 
might have overlooked this opportun- 
ity, please mail your check in to my 
office. 

May I take this opportunity to ex- 
tend to you, and to your family, my 
sincere wishes for a most enjoyable 
Christmas season and a happy and 
successful new year. 



f278 



WHERE DO WE 
GO FROM HERE? 

A. C. Current, D.D.S., Chairman Public Relations, Gastonia 



The adoption by the North Carolina 
Dental Society of the Dental College 
Committees survey and recommenda- 
tions for a school of dentistry at Ashe- 
ville materialized the first phase of 
our work. The Public Relationships 
Committee has been doing effective 
work since that time, and our efforts 
reached a present climax when the 
dental college project was presented 
to the Advisory Budget Commission 
on November 12th. 

At the meeting in Asheville, the 
first phase of a movement to establish 
a school of dentistry for North Caro- 
lina came to a head. The Dental Col- 
lege Committee headed by Dr. H. 0. 
Lineberger submitted the most com- 
prehensive report ever compiled on the 
dental needs of our state. The com- 
mittee's recommendations for a school 
of dentitry as an integral part of the 
University was unanimously adopted 
by the House of Delegates. 

With the adoption of this report, 
another phase of our work began, that 
of acquainting the public and lawmak- 
ers with our need for a school of 
dentistry in North Carolina. This has 
included community rallies, emphasis 
at each district meeting, radio and 
newspaper participation, and dental 
schools programs by civic and other 
organizations. 

In our community rallies. Dr. 
Clyde Minges spoke at Gastonia 
and he said in part, "We had 
over 300 predental schools last 
spring, and yet only 25 of these 
could be admitted. I believe our 



legistators want to maintain the 
free enterprise and democratic 
liberties under so called Christian 
democracy that would give to 
the common man his God-pro- 
clainied rights." In this connec- 
tion, Greensboro and St. Pauls 
have had similar rallies and your 
Public Relations Committee wish- 
es to urge other committees to fol- 
low these splendid examples. 

Coming now to the district 
meetings, emphasis was good at 
all meetings; but Charlotte and 
the Second District came in for 
special mention. President John 
Pharr's address was built around 
Dental Education. Read it. Dr. 
Wilbert Jackson's address for the 
Public Relations Committee was 
dynamic. He said: "This thing 
we know as dental education has 
reached a most serious situation 
• . . We have been discouraged 
time after time. Your executive 
committee has decided the emer- 
gency is too near. We can no 
longer afford to wait." At the 
banquet Dr. Ike W. Grier of 
Chapel Hill spoke on the subject. 
Safeguarding Our Profession, 
"Socialism and communism are 
no stronger than democracy is 
weak," he said. The spirit of self 
survival has made America great; 
and when it dies, democracy dies 
with it. How can we maintain the 
spirit of self survival in dentistry 
without dental education," he con- 
cluded. 



279 



The civic groups interest deserves 
the highest commendation. For exam- 
ple the Shelby, Cherryville, Gastonia, 
Charlotte, Concord, St. Pauls, and 
other Rotary Clubs, also, various 
P.T.A., Womens Clubs, Kiwanis, Civ- 
itans. Lions Clubs, etc. have put on 
excellent programs in support of the 
dental college movement. 

These efforts which were sponsored 
by the Public Relations Committee of 
the North Carolina Dental Society 
and by the Dental College Committee 
culminated recently in the presentation 
of the Dental College movement by 
the Advisory Budget Commission at 
Raleigh, but the big question is where 
do we go from here? 

President Sanders called a "pep 
meeting" immediately following our 
hearing before the Advisory Budget 
Commission at this meeting, Dr. 
Frank Graham, President of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina made a 
forceful plea for personal work at 
home on the part of every practicing 
dentist. "Each dentist must first be- 
come imbued with the idea of dental 
education, then he must contact per- 
sonally all members of the legislature 



that he knows. If this is done the 
dental school is in the "bag" declared 
Dr. Graham. 

The main objective decided upon at 
this meeting was as follows: The 
Pubic Relations Committee shall des- 
ignate one dentist in each county to 
be responsible for making personal 
contact with every legislator in the 
county. This having been done the 
dentist in charge shall report in writ- 
ing to the chairman of the Public Re- 
lations Committee the attitude of all 
legislators contacted. 

If you are the man who has been 
called upon to represent your county, 
please do not consider this a usual or 
ordinary responsibility. It is of tre- 
mendous importance. The success or 
failure of the whole plan for dental 
education in our state may hinge on 
your efforts. Your Public Relations 
Committee, President Sanders, the 
dental College Committee and the var- 
ious officers are in agreement with 
Dr. Graham. Legislators will not vote 
against public opinion. If you will do 
your part, therefore, we go straight 
from here to a school of dentistry as 
an integral part of the University of 
North Carolina. 



280] 



HARMONIOUS TEAMWORK 

H. M. May, D.D.S., President, Asheville 



In these days of misunderstanding, 
anxiety, and world-wide turmoil, we 
in one of the grandest professions in 
the world, are permitted to meet in 
another annual two day meeting of 
our First District Dental Society. 

Your officers, committees and dele- 
gates have striven to the best of their 
ability to serve you, the membership 
with the very best of preparation, 
planning and execution of our duties 
and responsibilities. We of this day 
and generation owe much to those 
whom have gone before us, to our 
parents, friends, teachers, and espe- 
cially to those in our dental profes- 
sion who have gone before us and 
done so well the laying of foundations 
which have blessed both us and those 
we sincerely seek to serve in the heal- 
ing arts. May I ask that all of you 
stand for a moment in silent tribute 
and prayerful thankfulness, in mem- 
ory of those who have meant so much 
to us as colleagues, fine members, and 
such splendid representatives of our 
profession to our districts and section 
.... Amen. 

We have been busy in the First 
District since our last annual meeting- 
held in Asheville a year ago. Pro- 
gram planning for this meeting, plans 
for the successful handling of the 
many details necessary in making this 
meeting in Shelby the benefit and en- 
joyment it is proving to all of us; 
the intensive and thorough planning 
for our recent North Carolina Dental 
Society Meeting in Asheville last 
April, I was so proud of all of you of 



the First District and without your 
combined cooperation, helpfulness and 
complete and harmonious working as 
a team, we could never have done the 
fine job we did as hosts to one of the 
biggest and best state dental meetings 
ever held in our good state. Surely 
it required considerable sacrifices on 
the parts of many, but all of you 
contributed both in money, activities, 
and as good hosts and hostesses. Fel- 
lows we are closer together and more 
active in the First Dsitrict than ever 
before. We proved we could and did 
give to all the dentists and their 
wives of North Caroina as fine a 
meeting as ever. 

We made many friends for our dis- 
trict and for ourselves ; it was good to 
have our friends come to Western 
North Carolina and enjoy our hos- 
pitality which was our happy priv- 
ilege and pleasure. 

In the Executive Council our Dis- 
trict was well represented and gave 
a good account of itself. The Bulletin 
of the North Carolina Dental Society 
has been sent news items, programs, 
and all that was expected of us has 
been complied with and on time. I 
am greatly pleased and deeply touched 
with the cooperation I have received 
from the officers, committees, and the 
membership. I am grateful to you 
ladies and gentlemen for the privilege 
of serving you this year. May I tell 
you that the good things we have ac- 
complished have come about because 
each of you did not only do your part 
but your most, that always means 



281] 



success in any adventure or organ- 
ization. I do thank the local arrange- 
ments group and the program group 
for all they have done to make this 
meeting most interesting, profitable 
and enjoyable. Recommendations to 
you for the improvement of our Dis- 
trict Dental Society : 

1. We greatly need a history of our 
First District, w^hen it w^as started, 
names, membership, accomplish- 
ments, all this would help and in- 
spire us and those w^hom are to 
follow in the future. 

2. In the future election and selection 
of your officers and delegates be 
sure to give considerable attention, 
recognition, and thought to whom 
you select and elect. We have many 
well qualified and capable persons 
but these manifold responsibilities 
and duties require time, thought 
and careful planning. 

3. This year our Legislative Program 
and Dental College Planning Com- 
mittee is going to need the help, 
personal assistance and enthusi- 
astic support of each and every 
dentist in our District. We can not 

. help our people unless all does 
what he can and should with ev- 
ery legislatureman and represent- 
ative from your city, county and 
section. Be sure these gentlemen 
have the facts, our well known in- 
formation, and what our sincere 
needs and wishes are for the good 
health of our people in North Caro- 
lina. Literature can and will be 
furnished you by Dr. H. 0. Line- 
berger, Professional Building, Ral- 
eigh, and you will hear more of this 
need and your individual part in 
this program from our own Dr. A. 
C. Current and the officers of the 
North Carolina Dental Society 
Meeting attending this meeting to- 
day. Be sure to get your answers 
before you leave, then please per- 



sonally contact any of the gentle- 
men representing your county in 
the General Assembly at Raleigh 
in January. 

4. We must give more attention to 
the business session of our Dis- 
trict Meeting. Once we met at an 
evening session on Sunday before 
the scientific and clinical program 
on Monday, but when we have the 
business session as the last order 
of business we never seem to have 
very much attendance or interest. 
This is our District Society and 
our business, lets make it what it 
ought to be for the sake of our of- 
ficers whom we select and elect as 
well as for our own good. Do try 
to be present for our business ses- 
sion whenever it is held. 

5. I hope all of you will plan now and 
make your reservations early, for 
the next North Carolina Dental 
Society Meeting in Pinehurst on 
May 19, 20, and 21, 1949. Remem- 
ber this next years meeting will 
be held Thursday, Friday and Sat- 
urday, so come early, bring the 
family, stay late and enjoy a good 
meeting and have a much needed 
rest and vacation. 

6. The First District has as many 
good dentists, excellent clinicians 
and essayists as any district dental 
society in the United States. We 
have not been doing our part as 
state clinicians or essayists, we 
should give more consideration to 
this important part of our state 
dental programs and meetings. I 
hope we can have at least five to 
ten State Clinicians at our next 
meeting in Pinehurst. Do volun- 
teer and give your name and title 
of clinic to our secretary-treasurer 
so this information can be sent in 
early and our district well repre- 
sented. 



282 



7. The strength of our organization 
is no stronger than the possibility 
of our membership being active and 
well informed. If you know of a 
dentist in your city, county, section 
who is not now an active member 
of our First District Dental So- 
ciety please send his name to our 
President-Elect Walter McFall of 
Asheville so he can help gain him 
for active membership. Better 
still you get his application and 
check, send them to our secretary- 
treasurer, and be sure we have all 
dentists for we need all dentists 
actively aligned with our District, 
State and American Dental Asso- 
ciation. Dr. Clyde Minges is Pres- 
ident of the American Dental Asso- 
ciation, so lets help him to have a 
good year and to have our complete 
support from an active membership. 
Thank each and every one of you 
for your encouragement, cooperation 
and fine support during the year. I 
shall long remember this year as your 
president. 



Read before the First District Dental Society 
October 4, 1948 — Shelby. 



WESTERN ITEMS 
OF INTEREST 

Pearce Roberts, D.D.5, District-Editor 

It was good to see most all of the 
members out for the district meeting 
in Shelby. The program was excel- 
lent and the arrangements perfect. 
Our many thanks to the arrangement 
committee, John Yelton, Byard Ed- 
wards and C. W. McCall and the Drs. 
Plasters. 

The Blue Ridge Dental Society held 
its quarterly meeting in Asheville, 
September 25, Drs. Steve A. Garrett 
and W. T. Honeycutt of Atlanta were 
the clinicians for the evening. 

It is a big loss to our district when 
such valuable men as Dr. P. R. Fall 



of Gastonia and Dr. H. A. Moss of 
Asheville pass along. 

Dr. J. A. Marshburn, our past Vice 
President, has left our district and 
is now with the State Hospital at 
Butler, North Carolina. Dr. Marsh- 
burn will always be one of our district. 

Dr. C. M. McCracken and Dr. Van 
Proyen are back at work after long 
illnesses. 

Dr. Moultrie Truluck has just re- 
turned from Cincinatti and is off to 
Alabama to continue his post gradu- 
ate work before beginning his special- 
ty of Periodontia. 

Our new additions with shiny new 
offices are Drs. Keener and Davis 
in Asheville Medford in Waynesville ; 
Wells in Canton. To them we extend 
our welcome. 

Many congratulations to Dr. and 
Mrs. W. Jackson Turbyfill who are 
now the proud parents of Jack, Jr. 

LOCAL SOCIETIES 
IN FIRST DISTRICT 

The following are local dental soci- 
eties in the First District, Asheville 
Study Club which meets in Asheville 
every third Tuesday with H. M. May, 
President; Moultrie Truluck, Vice- 
President; and George Carrell, Secre- 
tary-Treasurer. 

The Blue Ridge Dental Society 
meets quarterly in Asheville with W. 
M. Davenport, President; R. R. Hoff- 
man, Vice-President; Allen Lockwood, 
Secretary-Treasurer. 

The Gaston County Dental Society 
meets every third Friday at the Ar- 
lington Hotel with D. M. Tuttle, 
President; I. R. Self, Vice-President; 
J. D. Cochran, Jr., Secretary-Treas- 
urer. 

The Tri-County Dental Society has 
been inactive this year. 

The Western North Carolina Dental 
Society has not met this year but 



283] 



has B. C. Thomasson, President and 
Patsy McGuire, as Secretary-Treas- 
urer. 

The Tri-County Study Club meets 
every 2nd Tuesday at the S & W 
Cafeteria in Asheville with R. B. 
Kennerly, President; C. Z. Candler, 
Vice-President; R. R. Steinman, Sec- 
retary-Treasurer. 

The Isothermal Dental Society meets 
every third Tuesday at the Isothermal 
Hotel in Rutherfordton with H. E. 
Plaster, President, J. T. Mize, Vice- 
President, C. M. Hare, Secretary- 
Treasurer. 



FIRST DISTRICT DENTAL SOCIETY 

Officers 1948-49 
W. D. Yelton, President 
C. W. McCall, Vice-President 
S. H. Steelman, President-Elect 
Alice Patsy McGuire, Secretary-Treas- 
urer 
Pearce Roberts, District-Editor 

House Of Delegates 
W. D. Yelton 
S. H. Steelman 
Patsy McGuire 
W. J. Turbyfill 
A. W. Bottom 



I 284 } 



PRESSING CHALLENGE CONFRONTING 
THE DENTAL PROFESSION 

John R. Pharr, D.D.S., President, Charlotte 



Mr. Chairman, Fellow Members and 
Guests: I want to extend to each of 
you a warm welcome to Charlotte. 
We hope you will have an enjoyable 
time socially, and a helpful time pro- 
fessionally. Your Program Commit- 
tee, under the leadership of Dr. Bern- 
ard Walker, and the Clinic Commit- 
tee, under the direction of Dr. Donald 
Morris, have worked hard and faith- 
fully to make this meeting worth 
while. 

I am deeply grateful to the mem- 
bers of these, and all other commit- 
tees who have performed their duties 
so well. Their aid throughout the 
year has added immeasurably to my 
pleasure in serving as President. I 
shall aways remember this honor with 
professional pride and personal joy. 

The overall picture of American 
Dentistry during the past year should 
be a source of gratification to all who 
have chosen the profession as a 
career. Never before has Dentistry 
received more or better publicity. Nev- 
er before have so many people la- 
mented the scarcity of dentists, nor 
have been more appreciative of our 
efforts on their behalf. 

In the turmoil that is the after- 
math of World War II, and as we ap- 
proach the middle of the twentieth 
century, we find ourselves in the 
surge of a tremendous world-wide 
social upheaval, and along with it a 
phenominal advance in scientific 
achievement. What part are we as 
dentists playing? 



It is well for each of us, as individ- 
uals, and as members of an essential 
branch of the healing arts, to take 
stock of our accomplishments and 
failures, our hopes and aspirations, 
and to set forth afresh on the highroad 
of achievement in the service of our 
communities. 

As our new Surgeon-General of the 
U. S. Public Health Service, Dr. 
Leonard A. Scheele, has so eloquently 
pointed out: "We are inspired and 
challenged by the yearning of the 
American people for health. At no 
time in our history has the desire for 
meaningful values and new life-goals 
been so intense, and health is the first 
value and the first goal of life." The 
desire for health is reflected by the 
growing public demand for better 
health services, by increased Congres- 
sional support of the programs of the 
Public Health Service, and by numer- 
ous new proposals which the 80th 
Congress approved and others which 
the 81st Congress will have before it 
for the progressing solution of our 
most urgent problems. 

At present we are continuing our 
progress in dental technics, expending 
research into the cause of dental dis- 
eases and methods of prevention, and 
gathering momentum in time-study 
demonstrations. But the most press- 
ing challenge confronting the dental 
profession is whether we will be able 
to meet the increasing demand for 
dental services. The demand is sub- 
stantial and promises to continue 
firmly- It seems from an improved 



[285] 



economic situation and a broad in- 
crease in appreciation of dental 
health. There is a greater recognition 
of the importance of increments to 
the huge back-log of unmet dental 
needs, and thereby improving the na- 
tional well-being. 

The 80th Congress approved legis- 
lation for the expenditure of one mil- 
lion dollars during the fiscal year 
1948-49 for U. S. Public Health Ser- 
vice teams to be assigned to the vari- 
ous states to demonstrate the topical 
application of Sodium Fluoride. 

Other legislation approved the es- 
tablishment of the National Dental 
Research Center in Washington w^ith 
an annual appropriation of three- 
quarters of a million dollars. 

The Veterans' Administration will 
continue on a high level indefinitely. 
The Armed Forces are increasingly 
active in recruiting dentists to meet 
growing military requirements, how- 
ever, voluntary enlistment in both 
the dental and medical field has not 
been sufficient to meet these require- 
ments. There is every indication that 
the new Congress will be asked to 
rush through a special Military Ser- 
vice law so that the new men who will 
be coming in under the draft can be 
adequately taken care of. 

There are many other drains on our 
inadequate professional man-power. 
Industrial hygiene programs are at- 
tracting a fair share of dentists, as 
improved agreements are made by 
management and labor. All of these, 
we must agree make for a persistent, 
sustained and overwhelming demand 
for dental services of adults as well 
as for children. 

Of no small importance is the grow- 
ing consideration of the application of 
the insurance principle to extend vol- 
untary health insurance benefits to 
include dental services. In some 
health insurance programs this pro- 



vides for considerable coverage, in 
others it is limited, while in still oth- 
ers it provides for reduced service 
cost. 

The Strusser plan, at an initial cost 
of around sixty-seven cents added to 
the premium of blue cross policy hold- 
ers, would provide initial and incre- 
mental care starting with two year 
olds, with new age groups added each 
year to the age of 14. Dr. Strusser, 
at the Chicago meeting, reported that 
he was receiving numerous inquiries 
from all over the country. On the 
national and state levels there is an 
undiminished consideration of methods 
that range from grants in aid to com- 
pulsory coverage. I recommend that 
each of us fully familiarize oui'selves 
with the report on the Second National 
Health Assembly held in Washington, 
D. C. last May 1st to 4th, and carried 
in the June 1948 issue of the Journal 
of the American Dental Association. 

Dentistry must lead the way in all 
considerations of methods for improv- 
ing and expanding its vital health ser- 
vices to the community. We recognize 
that we need more dentists. But 
where can they be trained? This year 
only 15 negro and 25 white North 
Carolinians were admitted to the 
dental schools, and there is no assur- 
ance that they will return to practice 
here. Can we depend on other states 
to train our men and women to be 
dentists? I ask you this question and 
I join you in your powerful "No". The 
very reliable analysis of Dr. Harlan 
H. Horner remind us that it is im- 
probable that we can train enough 
dentists in the forseeable future to 
meet the demand of our rapidly in- 
creasing population, and of equal im- 
portance — our aging population. Yes, 
we need a dental school in North Caro- 
lina, and we need it now!!! 

Our second consideration should be 
to increase the number of auxiliary 
side and to broaden their responsibil- 



286 



ity. The Mississippi Dental Hygien- 
ist Act was amended in 1928 to pro- 
vide for the application, by the dental 
hygienist, of such agents as the dent- 
ist may direct for the arrest of dental 
caries in children's teeth. 

I think legislation should be enacted 
to provide for amending our own 
Dental Hygienist Practice Act to in- 
clude such provisions as this, that will 
allow for the dental hygienist to better 
fulfill her role of auxiliary aid, and 
thus provide the dentist with more 
time for more patients. 

Our third consideration must pro- 
vide for adequate dental care for all 
our people in the rural areas of our 
district, and more especially the chil- 
dren. This must include the employ- 
ment of methods of prevention. 

Our fourth consideration must pro- 
vide for an increase in the time devoted 
to the care of children. 

Our fifth consideration must pro- 
vide for an awareness and employ- 
ment of methods of prevention of 
dental disease. 

It is not unlikely that the enrich- 
ment of deficient water supplies will 
be equally as common in the future 
for dental health benefits, as is our 
increasing practice of food enrich- 
ment today for our general bodily ben- 
efit. 

Lastly, dentistry should establish 
and maintain state and local commit- 
tees specifically designed to study the 
trends in methods of distribution and 
financing of dental services. These 
committees should be charged with 
making recommendations which will 
insure a maximum participation by 
representatives of organized dentistry 
in all discussions, plans, and programs 
concerned with the distribution and 
financing of all dental services. The 
recently approved Baltimore plan was 
ably explained to us by Dr. J. Ben 
Robinson, at the Asheville meeting. 



This plan would provide complete 
dental care for every kindergarten and 
Primary student in the entire school 
system of Baltimore regardless of 
economic status. It is important for 
us to remember that this plan did not 
originate in the dental society. The 
plan represents the opinions on the 
needs of children as seen by physi- 
cians, lawyers, health workers, lay- 
men, welfare workers, and a dentist, 
all of whom comprise the "Committee 
to study Medical Care Needs of Bal- 
timore City." Dentistry must join 
with others and give leadership, or 
others will lead the way. There are no 
alternatives. 

All this is ihe challenge to dentistry 
today. From it we can draw new in- 
spiration to move forward to greater 
heights of achievement in the import- 
ant contribution we must make to the 
well-being of our community and our 
district. We can do no less. We must 
advance as we enter the last half of 
the twentieth century. It is up to 
you and me, for together we will ad- 
vance. 

It is a pleasure to conclude these 
remarks by reporting that the 89th 
Session of the American Dental Asso- 
ciation in Chicago, September 13th 
through 17th was a large and success- 
ful meeting. There were 10,213 reg- 
istered, a new post war record. Among 
other matters, this session of the 
American Dental Association took oc- 
casion to adopt a new Constitution and 
By-Laws. May I recommend that the 
Second District formally request its 
Committee on Constitution and By- 
Laws to submit at our next annual 
meeting, such changes in our Consti- 
tution and By-Laws as may be nec- 
essary to bring them into conformity 
with present parliamentary practices, 
as well as with the newly adopted 
Constitution and By-Laws of the 
American Dental Association and the 
North Carolina Dental Society, being 



287] 



aware of certain changes that may be 
passed at the next annual meeting 
of the North Carolina Dental Society. 
My final recommendation as I take 
leave of this high office entrusted to 
me, is that you listen well to the 
words of wisdom to be spoken on our 
program. They represent the best 
thought and experience of some of our 
most capable and distinguished col- 
leagues. My fondest hope is that you 
go home from this meeting refreshed 
and with renewed professional zeal 
and increased skill. 



Read before the Second District Dental Society, 
October 12, 1948 — Charlotte. 



SECOND DISTRICT DENTAL SOCIETY 

Officers 1948-49 

J. D. Kiser, President 
W. D. Sherrod, President-Elect 
R. W. Crews, Vice-President 
J. V. Davis, Secretary-Treasurer 
W. F. Yelton, District-Editor 

Executive Committee 
W. A. Ingram, Chr. 
Wade Sowers 
John Ashby 

Entertainment Committee 
V. B. Kendrick, Chr. 
T. G. Nisbet 
J. B. Freeland 

COSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 

B. W. Fox, Chr. 
O. W. Owen 
J. V. Davis 

Ethics Committee 
J. C. Watkins, Chr. 
J. G. Rehm 
W. C. Taylor 



Program Committee 
Z. V. Kendrick, Chr. 
J. P. Reece 
G. S. Alexander 

Clinic Committee 
J. H. Guion, Chr. 
G. A. Lazenby 
R. E. Spoon 

Necrology Committee 
L. F. Bumgardner, Chr. 
L. D. Arthur 
T. L. Blair 

House of Delegates 
J. D. Kiser 
J. V. Davis 
W. A. Ingram 
Wade Sowers 
John Ashby 

Dental Relief Committee 

A. S. Bumgardner, Chr. 
J. M. Holland 

E. G. Click 

Local Arrangements Committee 

D. W. Morris, Chr. 
J. R. Pharr 

E. U. Austin 
H. A. Eskew 

Membership Committee 
W. B. Sherrod, Chr. 
H. W. Thompson 
T. N. Hamer 

Nominating Committee 

B. N. Walker, Chr. 

F. W. Kirk 

C. M. Parks 



288 



BETTER HEALTH SERVICE 
THROUGH DENTAL EDUCATION 

F. E. Gilliam, D.D.S., President, Burlington 



Mr. Chairman, members of the 
Third District Dental Society, we want 
to heartily welcome each and every- 
one of you. We want you to know 
that your presence is appreciated and 
I feel that your attendance at this 
ftieeting will be pleasant as well as 
profitable. 

May I take this occasion to thank 
all the officers, committeemen and 
others, who have made this meeting 
possible. It has been a genuine pleas- 
ure to sei-ve as your President this 
year, but when I look back over the 
months, I can see much that should 
have been done. I do feel however 
that some progress has been made, 
and it has largely been done by the 
other officers and by the splendid co- 
operation of the committees in giving 
of their time and effort for the ad- 
vancement of our profession. I want 
especially to thank the Program Com- 
mittee, for performing their duty well. 
Dr. Henry V. Murray, Chairman. We 
feel very fortunate in having two out- 
standing leaders in our profession ap- 
pear on our Third District Program. 
This committee has followed through 
in providing all necessary equipment, 
such as projectors, screen and making 
reservations, etc. for our clinicians. 

Constitution and By-Laws Commit- 
tee, Dr. O. L. Presnell, Chairman. 
This committee has had a great deal 
of hard work to do in getting together 
the necessary recommendations to 
present before our district society to 
bring the By-Laws up to date. 

The Coordinating Committe, Dr. R. 
A. Wilkins, Chairman. This commit- 



tee has designated the duties of each 
officer and the committees, which will 
effectively aid and direct the activi- 
ties of members assuming greater re- 
sponsibility and leadership in our so- 
ciety. 

I want to thank our very efficient 
Secretary-Treasurer Dr. Norman F. 
Ross, for the fine manner in which he 
has served the third district during 
the last two years. 

Arrangements Committee, Dr. Erbie 
Medlin, chairman. This committee al- 
ways responds willingly and a good 
job is gladly done. 

Golf Committee, Dr. L. M. Daniels, 
Chairman. I feel sure you golf lovers 
have had a good time, for we always 
do. Table Clinics Committee Chair- 
man is Dr. C. H. Teague. You will see 
a fine group of table clinics Tuesday 
morning. 

We must plan the course of our 
profession with courage and unself- 
ishness. This planning must be sound 
socially and economically if our pro- 
fession is to have maximum growth 
and render efficient service in im- 
proving the health standards of our 
state and nation. Our profession has 
a noble heritage beginning humbly 
with the first graduates from the 
Baltimore College of Dental Surgery 
in 1841. 

The development and growth of 
dentistry is largely due to many far- 
sighted and ambitious men of years 
gone by who planned our educational 
institutions, raised dental standards 
and charted a progressive course for 
the profession. 



[289 



Today our pi"ofession is contributing 
much to the health and comfort of our 
nation, through the elimination and 
prevention of suffering and disease. 

The recent efforts to improve the 
dental health service in North Caro- 
lina and to establish a dental school 
within the state, were started in Oc- 
tober 1947 when the officers and 
Executive Committee of the North 
Carolina Dental Society, meeting with 
the Dental College Committee author- 
ized a basic dental survey of North 
Carolina, looking to the establishment 
of a dental school in the state. 

The survey was made by Dr. John 
T. O'Rourke, Director of the Graduate 
and Research Department of Tufts 
Dental College. 

The Dental College Committee gave 
briefly "The immediate reasons for 
the recent study from which the re- 
port was derived." These are: 

1. The definite need in North Carolina 
to create better health service for 
our people. 

2. The inability of the out of state 
schools to accept a sufficient num- 
ber of North Carolina students. 

3. The need for expansion of oppor- 
tunities for post-graduate study in 
North Carolina. 

A supplementary report was sent 
to each member of the North Carolina 
Dental Society, after the North Caro- 
lina Dental Society approved the 
movement to establish a dental col- 
lege in this state. 

The Public Relations Committee of 
the North Carolina Dental Society has 
promoted this program through the 
district societies. All Senators and 
Representatives of the North Carolina 
State Legislature both Democrats and 
Republican candidates, have been in- 
forming them of our dental needs and 
expressing our support in this matter. 

As President of the Third District 
Dental Society, I feel that we should 



give our full support to this worthy 
cause. 

Our new members that join the dis- 
trict society have not been given the 
recognition and cordial welcome that 
should be given. The length of time 
when an applicant fills out the appli- 
cation blank for membership at the 
time he passes the State Board of 
Dental Examiners, has in the past, in 
many instances, been one year or more 
before he has become a member, or 
privileged to attend a district meeting. 

Any member that makes application 
for membership at the time he passes 
the examination for license to practice, 
whose application is in order and 
properly signed by two members in 
good standing in North Carolina Den- 
tal Society, should be eligible and urg- 
ed to attend the following district 
meeting. 

The Membership Committee should 
extend a very cordial welcome to the 
young men passing the State Board 
and locating in the Third District, 
explaining the procedure in becoming 
a member of the district and North 
Carolina Dental Society, enclosing ap- 
plication blank and encouraging at- 
tendance at the fall meeting after 
passing the Board. 

A special greeting will be extended 
new members in recognition of mutual 
interest in better serving our fellow- 
man. 

I believe that much can be accomp- 
lished in building a better society by 
extending a cordial welcome, to those 
locating in our district, and by offer- 
ing a helping hand in every way pos- 
sible to direct attention to the oppor- 
tunities for improvement in the skills 
of our profession in rendering the 
best service to patients through the 
combined efforts, collectively and in- 
dividually, contributing our best for 
the advancement of dentistry. 



290 



Dental Health Educatou 

May I review briefly some of the 
history of the Noi'th Carolina Dental 
Society, so that we may have fresh 
in our minds some of the progTess 
made which may help us as a guide 
as we look to the future. 

The North Carolina Dental Society 
recommended to the State Board of 
Health a state-wide dental health 
program in 1918. At that time Dr. G. 
M. Hooper (M.D.) chief of the bureau 
for medical inspection of schools for 
the North Carolina State Board of 
Health, placing dentistry in the public 
Health Program of the public schools 
of the state. This became the first 
state-wide dental program in the 
United States. Our state was the 
first in the union to pass a law in 
1931, placing a dentist on each Coun- 
ty Board of Health. Much has been 
accomplished in the public schools by 
State Board of Health Department of 
Oral Hygiene, under the direction of 
Dr. Ernest A. Branch. He was chosen 
full time director of oral hygiene for 
the Board of Health in 1929. We are 
proud of the educational work he and 
his department are doing among the 
school children and the public at large 
in the proper care of their teeth. There 
are many great problems before us to- 
day that need our attention. 

There is much need for promoting 
better dental health education for 
parents and adults by the individual 
dentist. Educational pamphlets can 
be secured from the American Dental 
Association which can be used effec- 
tively in our offices. Parents are in- 
terested and frequently make inquiries 
relative to information about the sodi- 
um fluoride 2% solution for aiding in 
the control of dental caries in chil- 
dren's teeth. Also about x-rays, for 
finding periapical abscesses, dental 
cysts, etc., and how the teeth should 
be brushed to get best results. There 
are several approved pamphlets that 



are available from the American 
Dental Association that we could use 
in our offices in meeting the needs 
of our patients. 

Are you listening? More than half 
of all the young men in the State cal- 
led for selective service in the recent 
war were rejected for physical unfit- 
ness! Yes, these youths were turned 
down because of bad feet, bad teeth, 
bad eyes and other defects. Records 
of the North Carolina Baptist Or- 
phanage reveal that only three out of 
three thousand and one were turned 
down. Similar conditions existed in 
other orphanages of our state. When 
this concrete example of the small 
percentage of our young men in the 
Baptist Orphanages in North Carolina 
that failed to pass physical examina- 
tion when called for selective service, 
indicates for one thing the great need 
for more adult Dental Health Educa- 
tion. It seems to me that we should 
stress to adults and parents the im- 
portance of: 

1. Simple, wholesome food in our daily 
diet. 

2. Dental Health Education for the 
adults, by the distribution of in- 
formative dental pamphlets which 
are approved by the American Den- 
tal Association to be used in our 
offices, which will supplement our 
oral instruction to patients relative 
to preventive and corrective den- 
tistry. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. That the designated duties of the 
officers of the Third District Den- 
tal Society and the responsibilities 
of the various committees be ap- 
proved, as presented by the Coor- 
dinating Committee. 

2. That the Constitution and By-Laws 
of the Third District Dental Soci- 
ety be printed in booklet form and 



[291] 



that the designated duties of the 
officers and committees as sug- 
gested by the Coordinating Com- 
mittee be printed in the back half 
of the Constitution and By-Laws 
booklet of the Third District Den- 
tal Society. 



Read before the Third District Dental Society, 
November 1, 1948 — Mid-Pines Club 



THIRD DISTRICT DENTAL SOCIETY 

Officers 1948-49 

C. H. Teague, President 
N. F. Ross, President-Elect 
N. R. Callaghan, Vice-President 
P. B. Whittington, Secretary-Treas- 
urer 
M. R. Evans, District-Editor 

House of Delegates 

C. H. Teague 

N. F. Ross, President-Elect 

P. B. Whittington 

J. N. Caudle 

Sam Shaffer 

Legislative Committee 
C. C. Poindexter, Chr. 
E. M. Medlin 

C. A. Graham 
H. C. Carr 

L. G. Page 

Necrology Committee 
J. S. Betts, Chr. 
J. S. Spurgeon 
John Swaim 
W. R. McKaughan 

Executive Committee 
J. T. Lasley, Chr. 

D. T. Carr 
Frank E. Gilliam 



Program Committee 
Neal Sheffield, Chr. 
S. P. Gay 
T. W. Atvi^ood 

Constitution and By-Lav\^s 
H. V. Murray, Chr. 
R. A. Wilkins 
O. L. Presnell 
W. W. Walker 

Auditing Committee 
L. M. Daniels, Chr. 
L. G. Coble 
J. H. Hughes 

Veterans Group 
Frank G. Atwater, Pres. 
J. R. Wheless, Vice-Pres. 
W. T. Burns, Sec.-Treas. 

Alternates 
H. V. Murray 
C. I. Miller 
Guy Willis 
L. G. Page 
R. A. Wilkins 

Clinic Committee 
N. F. Ross, Chr. 
G. F. Kirkland 
W. P. Hinson 
W. R. Brannock 
J. N. Caudle 

F. G. Atwater 

Ethics Committee 
T. E. Sikes, 
W. A. Pressley 
S. W. Shaffer 

G. L Miller 



292 



INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITIES 
TO THE SERVICE OF MANKIND 

T. M. Hunter, D.D.S., President, Henderson 



Last year when I stood before this 
group and accepted the position as 
President of the Fourth District Den- 
tal Society to which you had elected 
me it was with great humility and 
pride. I think that every man when 
he starts into a profession such as 
dentistry does so with multipurposes 
in mind. These I would list as fol- 
lows: To serve mankind in a human- 
itarian way, to serve the organized 
profession of which he is a member, 
and to establish his name among those 
to be remembered by his colleagues, 
whether for a few fleeting years or 
for eternity by the records of his 
deeds. Naturally one expects to derive 
a livelihood from his profession but 
I think and this would be my advice 
to a man beginning a professional 
career — fulfill the purposes stated 
above and your livelihood and public 
esteem will be guaranteed. 

I have tried in the past year with 
the able assistance of my fellow offi- 
cers and committees to make this year 
of my administration one that would 
be remembered for the growth and 
activity of this society. I thank you 
for the opportunity of serving you 
and I hope that the administration 
has been to your satisfaction. 

What has been accomplished can 
not be told now but I hope will be 
an addition to the sum total of pro- 
gress for our profession. For the ac- 
complishments we have made, credit 
is due the able officers and commit- 
tees of this society, who have worked 
untiringly to provide you with a soci- 



ety that you may be proud of. Notable 
among these are Dr. C. E. Abernethy, 
secretary-treasurer and the commit- 
tees responsible for this meeting. Dr. 
Royster Chamblee and his committee 
for entertainment and Dr. K. L. John- 
son and his committee for the program 
we will enjoy today, and to all who 
have assisted these committees. 

This year has been a notable one 
for dentistry in North Carolina. You 
are all familiar with the report of 
Dr. J". T. O'Rouke, in Asheville, re- 
garding; a Dental College for North 
Carolina. In my opinion, the estab- 
lishment of a Dental College in North 
Carolina is a task that must be ac- 
complished and one that will require 
the efforts of all of us separately and 
collectively to bring about satisfactory 
culmination of this program in the 
establishment of a school of Dentistry 
to which we can point with pride. 

To review what has been done, let 
me recall that Dr. O'Rourke was en- 
gaged by the North Carolina Dental 
Society to conduct a survey and re- 
port his findings and recommenda- 
tions as to the need of a school in 
North Carolina. This survey was dif- 
ferent from the survey made by the 
state regarding the Medical School, in 
that this was a private survey, financ- 
ed by the North Carolina Dental So- 
ciety and needing your individual sup- 
port. So, if you have not sent your 
contribution for this survey please 
send it to Dr. Fred Hunt, secretary- 
treasurer, North Carolina Dental So- 
ciety, Rocky Mount, or make your 



[293] 



contribution direct to our local secre- 
tary to be forwarded to the State 
secretary-treasurer. It would be grati- 
fying, indeed, if we could have a 100% 
record for contributions to this fund. 

It may be, that if we had been more 
alert to developments at the time we 
could have had our interest considered 
by the same surveying committee that 
made the report for the state and 
therefore accomplished our purpose 
with no expense to us and to have had 
the Dental College Program integrat- 
ed with the Medical College Program. 
However, that was not to be the case, 
so that now, it falls upon us to show 
the people of this state and their 
representatives in the legislature that 
this Dental College is a need and a 
desire of the people of this state. It 
is certainly unfitting of a state the 
size of North Carolina to depend on 
other states to educate our young men 
for the profession of Dentistry. Ev- 
ery man who has held the degree of 
D.D.S. or ever practiced the profes- 
sion of dentistry in North Carolina 
owes a debt of gratitude to some other 
state other than his native or adopted 
state of North Carolina for providing 
the facilities leading to his acquiring 
his degree of D.D.S. 

Therefore, it behooves each of us 
to put forth our greatest effort in 
time, influence and money to pi"operly 
enlighten the people and their legis- 
lators as to the needs of this state 
in Dental education. You can do this 
by talking up the planned program to 
individuals in influential positions, to 
your community groups of Civic Clubs, 
P. T. A. and other organizations etc. 
as told you by Dr. Current in his talk 
last night. The Dental College commit- 
tee and its publicity committee will be 
glad to furnish you with information 
and statistics for these talks that will 
show without a doubt that North 
Carolina does need a Dental College 
and that the North Carolina Dental 



Society is committed to the purpose 
of establishing such facilities for the 
education of the youth of our state 
and thereby providing dental service 
for more of the people of North Caro- 
lina. 

It was a severe blow to our college 
committee when Dr. O'Rourke passed 
away, as he could have added much 
influence to our program. However, 
he had completed his survey and re- 
port and we have that to go on. The 
untimely death of Dr. O'Rourke calls 
on us to put forth redoubled efforts 
toward acquiring this college as me- 
morial to one of Dr. O'Rourkes last 
great humanitarian works. Let us all 
do our share and we will be assured 
of this accomplishment. 

In the past several years our arma- 
mentarium in the control of the most 
prevalent disease on earth, dental 
caries has been greatly increased. I 
would like to take a few minutes to 
discuss this phase and express myself 
upon the subject. Probably one of the 
first influential phases of this work 
was approached, like so many other 
diseases, through dietary control, and 
a great deal has been accomplished 
through this research but no one real- 
izes better than the general practi- 
tioner the difficulties inherent in con- 
trolling the diet of patients. However, 
definite casual relationship between 
diet and dental caries has been es- 
tablished and should not be overlooked 
in any control program. 

The Gottlieb technique of caries 
control is definitely under attack as 
it seems to undermine some of the 
accepted theories of dental caries. This 
technique of the precipitation of Zinc 
Ferrocyanide in fissures and crevices 
deserves further investigation and 
possibly wider spread use. Certainly 
it should be used in conjunction with 
the accepted silver nitrate technique 
to avoid discoloration of anterior 
teeth where possible and advisable. I 



294] 



do not think this technique has been 
widely accepted as I have seen very 
little reported on the work. However, 
I think that it deserves further study 
and more widely published literature 
in its connection. 

The most widely publicized and we 
hope that most beneficial method of 
caries control is Sodium Fluoride. 
Each of these agents have their place 
in the practice of preventive dentistry. 
At the present time the only accepted 
or recommended treatment for Sodium 
Fluoride is by topical application of 
the 2% solution. 

If the findings of research teams 
on Sodium Fluoride are borne out in 
practice it will truly be a boone to 
humanity. However, there are cer- 
tain obstacles in the way of wide- 
spread use. The proper application of 
the drug is time consuming and not 
very stimulating to the mind of the 
busy practitioner. 

The solution is not expensive, in 
fact, it is available free to any dentist 
in North Carolina through the Oral 
Hygiene Department of the North 
Carolina Department of Health. If 
you will write our own Dr. E. A. 
Branch, I am sure he will be happy 
to supply you. However, the time re- 
quired for proper application of So- 
dium Fluoride to a mouth range from 
15 to 30 minutes per patient, and each 
patient requires four treatments for 
optimum results. Certainly there are 
no dangers inherent in the treatment 
as such small quantities of producing 
a mottling do not exist as the enamel 
is already formed. This treatment will, 
according to the reports of the U. S. 
Public Health Service, affect on the 
average, a 40% reduction in caries 
occurance. However, there are those 
among us who would deprive hun- 
dreds of children of this treatment by 
their interpretation of a law passed 
prior to the discovery of the value of 
Sodium Fluoride. Their literal inter- 



pretation of this law, would prohibit 
the use of this solution by the only 
people within the profession who have 
the time and inclination to use it (the 
registered dental Hygienist). 

This interpretation of the Hygien- 
ist Law by certain individuals, our 
State Board of Dental Examiners, and 
apparently the State Bureau of In- 
vestigation which supposedly was 
passed to relieve the strain of ovei- 
work for the dentist by relegating 
certain non exacting task to the Hy- 
gienist who is trained, examined by 
our Board of Examiners, registered 
and certified as qualified Hygienist, 
would keep thousands of patients from 
receiving what the profession and the 
American Dental Association have 
boosted as the boon of our times in the 
control of dental caries. 

If this law does not permit the 
Dental Hygienist to apply Sodium 
Fluoride and an amendment to this 
law is necessary to make it legal for 
them to use this solution then I sug- 
gest that this Society prepare a reso- 
lution requesting that the Legislative 
Committee of the North Carolina Den- 
tal Society prepare such an amend- 
ment to be presented to the Legisla- 
ture whereby the Hygienist be given 
the right to apply Sodium Fluoride so 
that this treatment will be available 
to the hundreds of more patients, she 
could treat. 

When I was installed as your pres- 
ident, I asked that all members co- 
operate in the organization of smaller 
component groups of our District So- 
ciety to foster better understanding 
between the indivdual dentist and his 
associates in the same area, and to 
stimulate discussions and study of the 
problems that confront us daily. I 
suggested that these groups meet 
about once a month and to carry on 
the interest of the District, State and 
National Associations. I am sorry 
that this proposal has not been more 



295 



enthusiastically received, and I can 
not help but feel that it is due to the 
fact that previously such groups have 
failed due to petty individual differ- 
ences among local dentists who were 
not willing to compromize these dif- 
ferences. However, there have been 
many new dentists to move into all 
areas of the state and many of the 
older men have passed on or are less 
active than prior to the war, so I feel 
that now is the opportune time to or- 
ganize these men into groups for 
study and fellowship. 

We in the northern section of this 
district including Vance, Franklin, 
Granville, Warren and part of Wake 
Counties have effected such organiza- 
tion as was proposed. We have met 
for dutch suppers and a planned pro- 
gram was presented by one of our 
group at each monthly meeting since 
the early spring. At these meetings, 
we have had an average attendance 
of eight to ten men who I think have 
enjoyed the meetings and I know that 
we have come to know each other and 
to understand each others problems 
better. 

I am sorry that all the men in our 
section did not see fit to join with us. 
However, I think that they are the los- 
ers by not doing so. 

I would like to recommend that this 
Society sponsor the organization of 
groups of dentists throughout our 
district and that a strong committee 
be appointed to perfect such organi- 
zations and to help carry on the work 
that these groups can accomplish if 
all of us cooperate by supporting this 
plan. 

I would also like to recommend that 
our Constitution and By-Laws be 
brought up to date by the changes 
that will be proposed this morning. 
These proposals are designed to bring 
our Constitution and By-Laws more 
in line with the State Constitution and 
to give the President-Elect a position 



in the House of Delegates of the 
North Carolina Dental Society, which 
in turn will give him the opportunity 
of fulfilling his responsibility as set 
forth in the Constitution by giving 
him an opportunity to prepare him- 
self for the office of President. 

In conclusion I would like to recom- 
mend that: 

1. All of us here and now rededicate 
ourselves to the service of mankind 
through higher standards of ethi- 
cal practice of dentistry. 

2. That each of us assume an individ- 
ual responsibility in supporting the 
program leading to the develop- 
ment of a school of dentistry for 
North Carolina and work untiring- 
ly to that end. 

3. That each of us make a sincere ef- 
fort to educate all our patients to 
the need of good dentistry for their 
health and happiness and that we 
fulfill our duty, especially, to the 
youth of this state by following a 
comprehensive practice of dentis.- 
try 

4. That this Society prepare a resolu- 
tion to be sent to the Legislative 
Committee of the North Carolina 
Dental Society requesting that an 
amendment be made to the Hygien- 
ist law which would permit the 
Registered Hygienist to apply So- 
dium Fluoride to the teeth of pa- 
tients. 

5. That the Fourth District Dental 
Society make a determined effort to 
establish sufficient study clubs or 
group organizations so that each 
member of this society may have 
the opportunity to affiliate himself 
if he so desires. 

6. That this group in convention as- 
sembled vote into the Constitution 
and By-Laws the changes that will 
be proposed this morning. 



Read before the Fourth District Dental Society, 
October 26, 1948— Raleigh 



[296] 



FOURTH DISTRICT DENTAL SOCIETY 

Officers 1948-49 

J. J. Tew, President 

C. E. Abernathy, President-Elect 

L. G. Hair, Vice-President 

Paul Hairell, Secretary-Treasurer 

E. A. Pearson, Jr., District Editor 

House of Delegates 

J. J. Tew 

C. E. Abernathy 

Paul Harrell 

Entertainment Committee 
K. L. Johnson, Chr. 
E. N. Lawrence 
R. T. Goe 

Membership Committee 
C. E. Abernathy, Chr. 
L. H. Paschal 
J. T. Hunt 

Delegate To State Convention 
W. T. Martin 

Program Committee 

J. W. Whitehead, Chr. 
S. H. Massey, Jr. 
P. E. Cotter 

District Council Dental Health 
J. M. Fleming, Chr. 
A. D. Underwood 
G. L. Hooker 

A. D. A. Relief Committee 
L. J. Moore, Chr. 

B. L. Aycock 

C. D. Bain 

Publicity Committee 
T. M. Hunter, Chr. 
R. S. Jones 
J. R. Edwards 



Alternate Delegates 

L. J. Moore 

G. L. Hooker 

R. M. Olive 

G. F. Hale 

J. M. Fleming 

State Institutions 
H. O. Lineberger, Chr. 
D. T. Smithwick 
W. J. Massey, Jr. 

Ethics Committee 
R. M. Olive, Chr. 
S. L. Bobbitt 

D. C. Woodall 

Membership Committee 

P. B. Whittington, Chr. 

M. E. Newton 

R. S. Turner 

S. T. Hart 

Walter E. Neal 

J. L. Henson 

Dental Salvage Committee 

N. R. Callaghan, Chr. 

C. B. Wolfe 

W. E. Campbell 

J. T. Thomas 

F. S. Caddell 

Arrangements Committee 

E. M. Medlin, Chr. 
J. W. Menius 

S. W. Shaffer 
L. H. Butler 
R. T. Garrett 

Golf Committe 

C. S. Caldwell, Chr. 

E. R. Teague 

C. D. Kisler 

W. T. Burns 

H. M. Hunsucker 



297] 



THE DEMAND IS CRITICAL 
FOR ADEQUATE FACILITIES 

R. E. Williams, D.D.S., President, Goldsboro 



Several problems deserve our serious 
consideration at the present time. 
Probably of great importance is the 
establishment of a dental school in 
North Carolina, that an adequate sup- 
ply of dentists to meet the future 
needs of our people may be assured. 
You are aware of the critical situa- 
tion and when only 25 men from our 
State entered dental schools in 1947, 
the situation is indeed distressing. 

Our State Society, through its com- 
mittees and officers, has and is doing 
wonderful work in presenting the 
problems to the proper governmental 
officers and agencies. 

These men have given freely and 
untiringly of their time and energy 
with no thought of compensation in 
any way. Their only reward can be 
the consolation of a job well done in 
providing for the future dental needs 
of our State. However hard they may 
work they cannot carry the load alone. 
It will take the combined efforts of all 
of us. The dental profession has the 
habit of doing things for itself. 

The history of dentistry from the 
beginning shows that it received lit- 
tle encouragement, or help from the 
outside, and even to this day very 
little has been given to dentistry as 
endowments or grants of any kind. 
In fact, it is infinitesimal when com- 
pared to the endowments in the arts, 
sciences and other professions. 

Of course, the dentists of North 
Carolina cannot build a dental school 
alone, but we can bring the need for 
one so forcibly to the people that they 



will demand adequate facilities for 
the training of dentists. 

Our State has provided liberally for 
training in the arts, sciences and all 
other professions and these schools are 
recognized throughout the nation as 
among the best and the best in many 
fields. There is no reason why such a 
great State as ours with so much 
wealth and population which is stead- 
ily growing should not provide for the 
training of dentists. 

If a school is established we want it 
to be the best. Not a mediocre one but 
one of which both dentists and people 
can be proud. 

I am certain that if this condition 
is properly presented and the true 
facts made known the problem will be 
solved successfully. We will all be 
expected to do our part and I know 
we will. 

Recently there has come to the dental 
profession a procedure which promises 
to reduce the incidence of dental caries 
by 40% to 50%. This, of course, is 
the topical application of 2% sodium 
fluoride. A large amount of data has 
accumulated to support the claim that 
this is a safe and effective way to 
materially reduce caries. 

Dentistry in North Carolina has 
much to its credit with many notable 
achievements worthy of any profes- 
sion but much remains to be done. 
First and foremost among its respon- 
sibilities is to make provision for a 
wider distribution of its service and 
give consideration to those who at 
present are denied a service which it 



298 



alone can give. It is indeed a part of 
its tradition to serve all the people 
within the limits of its capacity. A 
great profession such as ours can do 
no less. 

The problem arises as to hov^^ we 
can most quickly make this procedure 
available to as many children as pos- 
sible. 

The Dental Caries Committee of the 
State Society has passed a resolution 
which in part reads as follows: 

That the dentists of North Caro- 
ina and the division of oral hygiene 
of the State Department of Health, 

First, make every effort to enlarge 
the program now in effect. 

Second, apply sodium fluoride to 
the teeth of as many children as pos- 
sible. 

Third, conduct an enlarged and 
widespread educational program set- 
ting forth the value of sodium fluoride 
in the prevention of tooth decay. 

This I believe is a clear and con- 
cise statement of a program and pol- 
icy which we can follow. 

Therefore, with the combined ef- 
forts of the Oral Hygiene Department 
and the private practitioners I believe 
the children of North Carolina will 
be adequately served. 

To be specific, I suggest that each 
local society make a careful thorough 
study of their local needs and work 
out a plan to reach all children whose 
parents wish them to receive this 
treatment. 

I say this because obviously no one 
plan would be suitable to all localities 
as there are many factors such as 
number of dentists, number of chil- 
dren, economic status, etc., which vary 
the conditions from place to place. 

While the topical application of 
fluoride is uppermost in our minds 
today we must not lose sight of other 
tried and true measures to reduce 
dental ills or mislead the public into 
believing this is a cureall and all they 



need to do is to have their children's 
teeth "painted" and then they will 
not have any rotten teeth. 

It is gratifying to note that all men 
who have started practicing in our 
district within the last few years 
have become members of our Society 
at the earliest opportunity. 

We welcome all these men, for they 
can be of great help to our Society 
and they will in turn receive many 
benefits from the Society. 

We want to be sure that each new 
man in our district is given the op- 
portunity at the earliest time to be- 
come a member. Then we want to 
give him a hearty welcome into our 
Society and let him feel that we are 
all his friends and are ready and will- 
ing to give him a helping hand when 
he needs it. 

During the past year we have re- 
ceived several new members which 
brings our total membership to be- 
tween 140 and 150. With such a mem- 
bership I believe the time has come 
when we should consider having more 
time for our annual meeting so that 
we can have a more elaborate pro- 
gram. 

For the past several years we have 
found it necessary to have men ap- 
pear before our Society on urgent 
matters when time could scarcely be 
found. 

I believe this situation will become 
more and more aggravated in the 
future. Several plans suggest them- 
selves : Have the election of officers on 
the evening program, preceding the 
scientific program ; have a part of 
the program on the preceding evening 
and leave the scientific program as 
it is with the election of officers in 
the afternoon. 

There may be still other solutions 
but such details could be worked out. 
With more time we could have more 
table clinics. This would offer more 
opportunities for the development of 



299 



clinicians within our membership as 
well as offering a more interesting 
and helpful program. 

A brief summary of my recommen- 
dations are: 

1. That our Society resolve to do all 
it can to promote the establishment 
of a dental school in North Caro- 
lina. 

2. That we devise ways and means to 
make the fluoride treatments for 
the prevention of dental caries 
available to as many children as 
quickly as possible, 

3. That we provide more time for our 
annual meeting. 

4. That we have more table clinics. 

It has been an honor and a pleasure 
to serve as your President this year 
and with such an efficient secretary as 
Charlie Eatman the task has been 
easy. I want to take this occasion to 
sincerely thank him for his services. 

The various committees have car- 
ried out their duties in an excellent 
manner and have co-operated in every 
way. I wish to thank them sincerely. 
Especially do I wish to commend the 
fine work of the Program and Clinic. 

I know you all wish to join me in 
expressing our .sincere appreciation 
and thanks to Dr. Butler and each 
member of his committee for their 
excellent arrangements and wonderful 
hospitality. They have contributed 
much to make our meeting a success. 

I wish to thank the entire member- 
ship for the great honor which they 
so generously gave to me. As this 
honor passes on to others I will be glad 
always to do whatever I can in the 
interest of the Fifth District and 
our great profession which we all 
love so much. 



Read before the Fifth District Dental Society 
October 25, 1948 — Elizabeth City. 



RESOLUTION ADOPTED 

Dr. Paul Jones presented a resolu- 
tion, that was adopted, to oppose a 
special Super-Board, to govern laws, 
to have jurisdiction over the State 
Board of Dental Examiners, that is 
to be presented at the next legislature. 

RESOLUTION 

Re: Dr. Sandy C. Marks 

Whereas, Dr. Sandy C. Marks, of Wil- 
mington, North Carolina, a 
member of the Fifth Dis- 
trict of the North Carolina 
Dental Society and the 
American Dental Associa- 
tion, has decided to leave 
lucrative practice in Wil- 
mington, North Carolina, 
and go as a dental mission- 
ary to Belgian Congo, Af- 
i"ica, and. 

Whereas, This act on his part exhibits 
an unselfish spirit that com- 
mends itself in a marked 
degree to his associates, 
and, 

Whereas, This decision reflects credit 
and brings honor to the pro- 
fession of dentistry, and. 

Whereas, This move on his part is all 
the more noteworthy in that 
he is the first dental mis- 
sionary to be sent out by 
the Southern Presbyterian 
Church, the first to go out 
from this Society, and, so 
far as we can ascertain, the 
first to ever go as a dental 
missionary to foreign fields, 
and, 

Whereas, We believe that such an 
event should be made a part 
of the records of this Soci- 
ety. 

Therefore, Be it resolved by 
the Fifth District of the 
North Carolina Dental Soci- 
ety 



300] 



That, We commend our associate, 
Dr. Sandy C. Marks, for the 
decision to carry his fine 
training into an area where 
it is so sorely needed. 

That, We offer him our best wish- 
es and our prayers as he 
goes to his new field of ser- 
vice. 

That, We feel honored that one of 
our members has offered 
himself as the first dental 
missionary, .sent out by the 
Southern Presbyterian 
Church, 

That, A copy of these Resolutions 
be spread on the minutes of 
this Soceity, a copy be sent 
to Dr. Sandy C. Marks: 
A.P.C.M., Lubondai, Tshim- 
bulu, Congo Beige, Africa; 
a copy be sent to the North 
Carolina Dental Society, a 
copy be sent to the Ameri- 
ican Dental Association, and 
a copy be sent to the First 
Presbyterian Church, Wil- 
mington, North Carolina. 
October 25. 1948. 



VETERANS GROUP 
ORGANIZE IN THE FIFTH 

The Fifth Group of the Veterans' 
North Carolina Dental Society met at 
a breakfast, Monday, October 25, at 
8:00 a.m. in the Virginia Dare Hotel, 
Elizabeth City, North Carolina. There 
were 26 members and 9 visitors pres- 
ent. 

Talks were made by the officers of 
the North Carolina Dental Society, 
Drs. C. W. Sanders, Walter McFall, 
and R. F. Hunt. 



Dean John Buhler of Emory Uni- 
versity, made a short talk as to the 
proposed veterans' set-up in the dental 
school. 

The President, Ed Baker, talked to 
the group about veterans' affairs in 
North Carolina and also made the 
statement that he was very enthusi- 
astic about having 100% membership 
in the Veterans' North Carolina Den- 
tal Society. He stated that the or- 
ganization was primarily interested 
in the affairs of the dental veteran 
and that the meetings were not held 
to draft or encourage boys to go back 
into service. 

The follov.'ing report was proposed 
by E. L. Eatman, Chairman of the 
Nominating Committee for President, 
M. M. Liley, Vice President, Guy Pig- 
ford, and Secretary-Treasurer, Dan 
Wright. 

These men were unanimously ap- 
proved to serve as officers for the 
year 1948-49. 

There being no further business, the 
meeting adjourned. 

FIFTH DISTRICT DENTAL SOCIETY 

Officers 1948-49 

Charles D. Eatman, President 
H. E. Butler, President-Elect 
Wallace Griffin, Vice-President 
Dan Wright, Secretary-Treasurer 
F. D. Bell, District Editor 

House of Delegates 
Dan Wright 
CD. Eatman 
Darden Eure 
Z. L. Edwards 
B. McK. Johnson 



301] 




Dr. R. E. Williams (left) Retiring President. Dr. C. D. Eatman 
Installed in Fifth District 



-^ 




Dr. Clyde Minges Speaks at Fifth District 




Dr. C. W. Sanders attends Fifth 



New Members in Fifth District 



302 




Dr. Clyde E. Minges Takes Office As The New 
President of The American Dental Association 

Dr. Minges is shown (right) accepting the gavel from Dr. H. B. Wash- 
burn, retiring president, at the last A.D.A. Meeting in Chicago. Dr. Percy T. 
Phillips, of New York (center) newly elected speaker of the House. The posi- 
tion of speaker was created with the adoption of a new constitution and by- 
laws at this year's meeting. 



_y^/ j-^lnekii^Hi 








It is Suggested by the Housing Com 


mittee 


to make 


your 


reservations for the 


State 


Meeting 


with 


the Hotel of your ( 


:hoice 


NOW. 









303 



MINUTES OF 
DENTAL COLLEGE AND PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE 



Sir Walter Hotel, Raleigh, N. C. 



Sunday, August 



1948 



Those present on the Dental College 
Committee were: Drs. H. 0. Lineber- 
ger, Chairman; Wilbert Jackson; 
Paul E. Jones; G. Fred Hale; A. C. 
Current; R. M. Olive, also present on 
the Public Relations Committee were: 
Drs. A. C. Current, Chairman; John 
L. Ashby; Wilbert Jackson; Z. L. Ed- 
wards; G. L. Overman. 

The folowing members of the Exec- 
tive Committee were present: Drs. S. 
L. Bobbitt, Chairman; A. C. Current; 
Pau Fitzgerald; C. W. Sanders, Ex- 
Officio; R. Fred Hunt, Ex-Officio; 
others present were Mr. Robert 
Madry, University of North Carolina 
and Dr. Robert George. 

President C. W. Sanders opened 
the meeting and recognized Dr. Line- 
berger who read a letter from Mrs. 
John T. O'Rourke expressing her ap- 
preciation for the $500.00 honorarium 
received from the North Carolina 
Dental Society. 

The secretary then gave a financial 
report for the Dental College Com- 
mittee. It was decided to contact 
Drs. Horner and Blackerby at the 
A.D.A. meeting in Chicago with ref- 
erence to attending the meetings of 
both the Advisory Budget Commis- 
sion and the Joint Senate and House 
Appropriations Committees. It was 
suggested that Dr. Blackerby be in- 
vited to appear on the Program at 
our Ninety-Third Annual meeting 
which is to be held in Pinehurst next 
May. 

Dr. Sanders then presented the 
Chairman of the Public Relations 
Committee. Dr. Current reviewed the 
work which has been accomplished by 



his committee to date. He presented 
a question and answer pamphlet show- 
ing the questions generally asked 
about the establishment of a dental 
school in North Carolina. 

Dr. Current read a copy of the 
letter mailed to all District Presidents 
including also a "Form letter" to be 
sent to all legislators together with 
a copy of Dr. O'Rourke's summary 
and a question and answer pamphlet. 
He next read a copy of the letter which 
he mailed to all Public Relation Com- 
mittee members showing the best 
method for them to follow in assisting 
the District Presidents. 

Copies of letters to the President of 
the North Carolina Parent-Teacher 
Congress and President of the North 
Carolina Woman's Club were also 
read as a matter of information. 

Dr. Current also stated that the 
Gastonia Chamber of Commerce will 
sponsor a meeting September 28th, 
1948 for the purpose of publicizing 
the Dental College movement in North 
Carolina. Dr. Clyde E. Minges will be 
the speaker. 

Mr. Robert Madry suggested that 
each dentist who is to appear before 
a civic or similar group first receive 
a report of the essential facts in con- 
nection with the Dental College move- 
ment. This report to consist of ap- 
proximatey 500 words and to be pre- 
pared by the Public Relations Com- 
mittee. 

Dr. Current suggested that Mr. 
Madry .serve as Central Press Agent 
and that the various newspaper arti- 
cles to be released through him when- 
ever possible. 



[304 



Dr. Z. L. Edwards pointed out that 
the "Real Test" for the Dental Col- 
lege bill will be when the matter comes 
up before the joint meeting of the 
Senate and House appropriations com- 
mittee. It will be advisable to have 
present Drs. Horner and Blackerby 
if possible, together with all members 
of the Dental College Committee, Pub- 
lic Relations Committee, Executive 
Committee and other interested mem- 
bers. 

The secretary received permission to 
write Dr. Sandy Marks a letter of 
commendation and wishing for him 
success in his work as a Dental Mis- 
sionary to Africa. — R. Fred Hunt, 
Secretary-Treasurer. 

ANNOUNCEMENTS: 

North Carolina Dental Society will 
hold their annual meeting May 19- 
21, 1949. Headquarters: Carolina 
Hotel, Pinehurst. Make your res- 
ervations with the Hotel of your 
choice now — Carolina Hotel, Mid 
Pines Hotel, Holly Inn and Berk- 
shire Inn. 



South Carolina Dental Society will 
hold their annual meeting May 1-3, 
1949 at Myrtle Beach, with head- 
quarters in the Ocean Forest Hotel. 
J. R. Owings, Secretary, Greenville. 

Virginia State Dental Society will 
meet in Roanoke from April 11-13, 
1949 for their annual meeting. 

North Carolina State Board of Den- 
tal Examiners will meet June 27, 
1949 for the purpose of holding their 
next examination for applicants 
wishing to practice in North Caro- 
lina. 

Chicago Mid-Winter Clinic will be 
held Friday 7-10, 1949 in Chicago. 
Headquarters: Stevens Hotel. 

Thomas P. Hinman Mid-Winter Clin- 
ic will be held in Atlanta March 
20-23, 1949. 

Southern Academy of Periodontology 
meets June 13 and 14 at General 
Oglethorpe Hotel, Savannah, Ga. 



305 



FOR THE MEMBERS OF 

THE NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 

THIS COULD HAPPEN TO YOU! 

The following claims are typical cases taken from our 
record of claims paid North Carolina Dentists. Approxi- 
mately $15,000.00 has been paid disabled members of the 
North Carolina Dental Society during the past twelve 
months. 

Dr. A— Charlotte—Angina— Still Disabled— $450.00. 
Dr. B — Kannapolis — Loss use of limbs — Still Disabled 

$1,600.00. 
Dr. C— Hamlet— Angina— Still Disabled— $350.00. 
Dr. D — Roseboro — Cerebral Thrombosis — $2,600.00. 
Dr. E — Morganton — Overwork — $350.00. 
Dr. F — Coats — Fatal auto injury — $5,000.00. 
Dr. G — Fayetteville — Bronchitis, twice — $670.00. 
Dr. H— Raleigh — Flu and Allergy— $356.00. 
Dr. I — Forest City — Muscle Atrophy and Pneumonia — 

$1,705.00. 
Dr. J — Asheville — Auto injury — $450.00. 
Dr. K— High Point— Bursitis— $775.00. 
Dr. L — Raleigh — Hernia and Hlness — $950.00. 
Dr. M— Greensboro — Flu— $350.00. 
Dr. N — Durham — Colitis and Fissue — $685.00. 
Dr. — Albemarle — Nervous Disorder — $1,100.00. 
Dr. P — Asheboro — Nervous Exhaustion — $1,100.00. 
Dr. Q — Asheville — Coronary — $480.00. 
Dr. R — Greensboro — Tremor of Hands — $2,600.00. 
Dr. S — Jacksonville — Spinal Disease — $2,350.00. 
Dr. T — Salisbury — Heart Disease — $1,292.00. 
Dr. U — High Point — Allergy on Hands — $1,364.00. 
If you axe not already insured under the Plan, we urge 
you to get full particulars today. 

$216.00 per month if disabled. 

$5,000.00 accidental death, or dismemberment. 

Annual Premium only $80.00. 

FULLY APPROVED BY THE NORTH CAROLINA 

DENTAL SOCIETY FOR ITS MEMBERS 

SINCE 1943 

J. L CRUMPTON 

p. O. Box 147 Durham, N. C. 

Representing 
COMMERCIAL CASUALTY INSURANCE COMPANY 

NEWARK, NEW JERSEY 

Your Society's Group Policy provides the most protection at the 
lowest cost obtainable. 



IJU 




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To 



CLAUDE M. PARKS 



Who has been an inspirational leader in the progress of 
dentistry giving in the form of encouragement, sym- 
pathy, kindly words, the pleasant smile, the 
cheerful greeting, good will with charity 
and loyalty to complete his trinity 
of virtues. 



THE BULLETIN 

of 
THE NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 

(Component of the American Dental Association) 



EDITOR 

L. Franklin Bumgardner. 
D.D.S. 

District Editors 

Pearce Roberts, D.D.S. 

W. F. Yelton, D.D.S. 

M. R. Evans, D.D.S. 

Earnest Pearson, Jr., D.D.S. 

F. D. Bell, D.D.S. 



•A 



Office of Publication 

415 Pi'ofessional Building 

Charlotte 2, N. C. 



iV 



he closing dates for the Bulletin 
are February 10. July 10 and No- 
vember 10. 

ublished Quarterly — January, 
April, August and October. En- 
tered as Second Class matter, Sep- 
tember 1944, Charlotte, N. C- 



Sincere Gratitude Sanders 309 

Record Attendance Expected Hunt 310 

General Information 311 

Essayist 314 

Program At A Glance 317 

General Session 318 

Essay Program 319 

General Clinics 320 

North Carolina Dental Hygienist Program 323 

Members of the House of Delegates 324 

North Carolina Dental Society Committees 325 

Veterans Organization ----- 329 

News Items 330 

Minutes of the North Carolina 

Dental Society 331 

Announcements 332 



President 

Cleon W. Sanders, D.D.S. 

Benson, N. C. 



Secretary 

R. Fred Hunt, D.D.S. 

Rocky Mount, N. C. 



VOLUME 32 
NUMBER 4 



Subscription $1.00 



April 1949 




DR. C. W. SANDERS 
President 





DR. W. T. McFALL 
President-Elect 



DR. R. FRED HUNT 

Secretary-Treasurer 



308] 



SINCERE GRATITUDE 

FOR YOUR LOYAL SUPPORT 

C. W. Sanders, D.D.S., President, Benson 



Since this will be my last message 
to the Bulletin before our state meet- 
ing in May. I would like to use the 
opportunity to thank each of you once 
again for the great honor you have 
done me in allowing me to serve this 
year as your president. No greater 
honor can come to a member of the 
North Carolina Dental Society than 
to be chosen to fill this high office. 
These have been short months and 
the most pleasant that I have ever 
spent. They have been rather busy 
months also and my hope is that the 
feeble effort put forth by me as your 
president will bear fruit in proportion 
to the satisfaction which has come to 
me in trying. One couldn't ask for 
better assistance and finer cooperation 
that you men have accorded me in 
every instance. The warmth of your 
friendship and the strength of your 
inspiration have been of untold worth 
to me and I am most, humbly grateful. 

It is interesting to note that activ- 
ities of the North Carolina Dental 
Society have for the past fifteen 
years increased at a steady tempo un- 
til today there exists for your pro- 
tection and benefit one of the most 
advanced and progressive dental soci- 
eties to be found in these United 
States. Who has produced this fine 
organization? the answer is — YOU. 
Each of you members who served his 
country or worked in his practice, 
his community, his church, schools and 
civic clubs has made the profession to 
a place of service and respectability 
along side the most honored profes- 
sion in existance today. This quality, 



this spirit and this ability and will- 
ingness to sacrifice and work on your 
part has made the North Carolina 
Dental Society one of the finest in the 
nation. 

Now that these thoughts which are 
so close to my heart have been passed 
on to you we will talk about some- 
thing else. 

I wish it were possible to say some- 
thing definite about the prospects for 
a dental school in North Carolina but 
I cannot. By the time this appears in 
print, however, something will have 
been decided either in our favor or 
against us. At this time I can report 
that Senator Paul Jones of the Fifth 
District has presented a Dental School 
Bill in the senate. Several of us have 
appeared before both the Advisory 
Budget Committee (favorable report) 
and the Joint Senate and House Ap- 
propriations Commission. Our pros- 
pects look almost too good, but I am 
aware that many things can happen 
between now and the time the Legis- 
lature adjourns. 

Perhaps more planning and prep- 
arations have already been made for 
the state meeting than in any year 
before. Every effort is being put 
forth to give to the membership and 
guests one of the finest state meet- 
ings possible. The Program Commit- 
tee secured the best available clini- 
cians, lecturers and essayist. The 
Entertainment Committee has some- 
thing planned for each individual 
preference. Very special entertain- 
ment is being arranged for the ladies. 



[309: 



So all of us have something fine to 
look forward to. 

I hope this will be a good meeting 
and that each of you will enjoy it. My 



sincere appreciations for your loyal 
support and your fine spirit. I am 
looking forward to seeing you in 
Pinehur.st. 



RECORD BREAKING 
ATTENDANCE EXPECTED 

R. Fred Hunt, D.D.S., Secretary, Rocky Mount 



May w-e dare hope for a 100% 
attendance at a State Meeting? I am 
firmly convinced that our coming 
meeting will more nearly approach 
this ideal than any we have ever held. 
Judging from all reports, the head- 
quarters hotel and all other near-by 
hotels will be filled to capacity. 

The Carolina Hotel management 
has stated that rooms will be assigned 
in the same order in which the appli- 
cation blanks are received and that 
they will assign members to rooms in 
near-by hotels after reaching their 
capacity. 

Please remember to bring your 1949 
membership cards to Pinehurst. This 
will greatly expedite the registration 
and prevent unnecessary delay in get- 
ting registered. 

There seems to be some misunder- 
standing in regard to the American 
Dental Association Relief contribu- 
tions. The Annual Collection at the 
District Meetings has been discontin- 
ued. Instead, each member pays one 
dollar, along with his dues, to the 
District Secretary. Those wishing to 
make additional contributions — and 
all of us should — may do so by mailing 
your check directly to the American 
Dental Association headquarters or 
to your District Secretary. 

The American Dental Association 
Relief Fund has been incorporated as 
a separate and independent organi- 



zation apart from the American Den- 
tal Association. It is an indenture 
trust and at no future time may the 
funds be used for any purpose other 
than for the relief of needy dentists. 
One-half of all funds contributed are 
returned to the respective states. Ef- 
fective January 1st, 1949 the Ameri- 
can Dental Association Relief Commis- 
sion will pay two-thirds and the state 
one-third to all recipient instead half 
and half as has been the previous 
policy. This a most worthy organiza- 
tion and merits our fullest support. 

On behalf of the Dental College 
Committee and myself I extend to all 
of you my appreciation for the con- 
tributions to the Dental College Sur- 
vey Fund. The response was indeed 
gratifying. 

Our 1949 meeting promises to be 
one of the best in the long history of 
our organization. Excellent scientific 
programs have been arranged along 
with fine entertainment for the ladies. 
Everything points to a most success- 
ful and well rounded meeting. 

I would like to take this opportunity 
to express my sincere appreciation 
to all district members and officers — 
especially the secretaries — for the 
splendid cooperation and assistance 
rendered during the past year. Also 
my deepest thanks to all of you who 
have worked to diligently to make 
this meeting a success. To you the 



310] 



credit is due for the excellent meeting Looking forward to seeing each of 
which we anticipate at Pinehurst. you there. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

REGISTRATION: The registration desk will be in the lobby opening 
Wednesday 8:00 P. M. and again Thursday at 8:00 A. M. 

Members will please fill out the registration card and have it okeyed by 
your District Secretary before presenting it for your lapel badge this will 
expedite the procedure for registering. 

All guests and exhibitors are expected to register while attending the 
convention. 

LADIES ENTERTAINMENT 

The Entertainment Committee extends to the ladies of the Dental Society 
a cordial invitation to come to Pinehurst. We have arranged what we hope 
will be a very enjoyable program for you. 

Thursday and Friday moraing will be given to the ladies to do as they 
wish; to renew acquaintances, to shop, sight seeing or to just enjoy the restful 
beauty of Pinehurst. 

LADIES PROGRAM 

Bridge 

"Meet North Carolina," sound movie, by Standard Oil Company 

— Charlotte Branch 

Fashion Show, F. R. Razook, Pinehurst 
Annual Banquet 

The Norwood Lane Quartette (Lobby) 
Dancing — Bill Joe Austin Orchestra — Ballroom 
We assure you that the program has been planned to make your visit to 
the convention a pleasant one. 

COMMERCIAL EXHIBITS 

There will be the largest commercial exhibits displayed at the North 
Carolina Dental Society meeting in it's history. 

The Dental Manufacturers will show for the first time complete new 
office equipment. Many other new dental items will be on display. We urge 
you to visit and register with the exhibitors. 

$300.00 WORTH of Prizes given away 

This year we are giving $300.00 worth of prizes at the drawing to be 
held Friday afternoon, May 21 at 5:30 P.M. in the exhibit hall. To win one 
of these prizes you must register at each exhibit booth. 

Only Dentists are eligible and you must be present at the time of the 
drawing. 

[311] 



Thur 


sday 


2: 


;30 


P. 


M. 


8; 


:00 


P. 


M. 


Friday 




3 


:30 


P. 


M. 


6 


:00 


P. 


M, 


9 


:15 


P. 


M, 


.0 


:30 


P. 


M, 



TESTIMONIAL BANQUET 

This year we are indeed fortunate to do honor to the President of the 
American Dental Association, our own native Clyde E. Minges at a Testimonial 
Dinner Friday Evening at 6:20 P.M. in the Main Dining Room. At this time 
we will have an opportunity to hear several outstanding men of the American 
Dental Association, among which will be such notable men as: Drs. Blackerby 
Hillenbrand, Ennis, Lyons, and Harrison. The Toastmaster for the evening 
will be the genial Dr. Wilbert Jackson. There will also be presented at this 
time the President's Emblem by Dr. H. 0. Lineberger. Banquet tickets are 
provided for those registered at the Carolina Hotel, but all other guests must 
purchase their ticket for the banquet at the desk of the Carolina. 

DANCE 

An outstanding social event of our meeting will be the annual dance held 
in the main ballroom Friday Evening at 10:30 o'clock. The dance has been 
arranged for your pleasure with Bill Joe Austin and his Orchestra playing 
for the occasion. A most cordial welcome is extended to all guests to attend 
this gala event, and be assured of an enjoyable time. Dress is optional. 

GOLF 

The Golf Committee under the able direction of Dr. L. M. Daniels assures 
us that every effort has been put forth to make this part of the program of 
special interest for the golfers over the beautiful 18 hole course, which we 
are privileged to play. It has been announced that the Tournament will 
begin Wednesday Afternoon, May 18th at 1:00 P.M. It is expressly requested 
that you be ready to begin promptly at 1:00. There will be a number of 
prizes awarded at the Golf Dinner which will be held at 6:00 P.M., Thursday 
Evening. Every dentist who plays golf is encouraged to enter the Tournament. 

The Tournament will be limited to Wednesday Afternoon only but of 
course you are privileged and invited to play golf at any time you care to 
diiring the meeting. 

BREAKFAST CONFERENCES 

Past President's Breakfast, will be presided over by Dr. R. M. Olive and 
held in the Stag Room Friday Morning at 8:00 A.M. All Past Presidents 
attending the meeting are especially urged and invited to enjoy the fellowship 
and participate in the activities of this fine group of men who have given 
much time and thought in the past to the progress of dentistry in North 
Carolina. We owe to them a debt of gratitude for their services. 

District Officers Conference will meet Friday Morning at 8:00 A. M. in 
the Children's Dining Room. Presiding will be Dr. W. T. McFall. This meet- 
ing will be an invaluable aid to the district officers in planning their future 
meeting. 

New Members Conference will be held in the Crystal Room, Friday 
Morning at 8:00 A.M. with Dr. C. W. Sanders presiding. All members who 
have joined the society during the past year are especially expected to be 
present. The purpose of this conference is to have an opportunity to welcome 
the new men into the fellowship of the society in order to better acquaint the 
new men with the overall program of society activities. 

[312 1 



VETERANS LUNCHEON CONFERENCE 

At the Manor Hotel Friday, February 20th at 1:00 P.M. there will be a 
Luncheon Meeting of the Veterans Organization. All Veterans are urged to 
attend this luncheon as pertinent matters will be discussed pertaining to 
National Dental Emergency Service, also election of officers. President E. D. 
Baker will be in charge of the program. 

VIRGINIA ALUMNI 

The Alumni of the Medical College of Virginia will hold its annual meet- 
ing in the Crystal Room, Thursday at 6:30 P.M. A special request for all 
Virginia Alumnus to be present at this dinner is made by Mrs. Helen M. 
Sellers, Assistant Secretary of the Alumni Association. 

DELTA SIGMA DELTA 

The North Carolina Chapter of the Delta Sigma Delta Fraternity will 
hold a dinner meeting during the Convention, in which all Delta Sigs are 
expected to attend. The time will be announced at the Convention. — Coyte R. 
Minges, Scribe. 



J. E. JOHN, D.D.S. 

Roanoke, Virginia. Trustee from 
the Fifth District of the American 
Dental Association. He is at present, 
Secretary of the Virginia State Den- 
tal Society. Appears on the program 
Thursday at 11:30 A. M. GREET- 
INGS FROM YOUR TRUSTEE. 




1313 





HAROLD HILLENBRAND, D.D.S. 

Chicago, 111. He is Secretary of the 
A.D.A. He served as Chief Executive 
Officer of the Association in 1946. 
Past Editor of the Journal of the A. 
D.A., also Illinois Dental Journal and 
Fortnightly Review. He is a graduate 
of the Chicago College of Dental Sur- 
gery, Dental School of Loyola Uni- 
versity, serving on the Faculty as 
assistant professor of Ethics and 
Social Relations. He is a member of 
the National Advisory Council on 
Dental Research of the Federal Gov- 
ernment and is a member of the 
Dental Advisory Committee of the W. 
K. Kellogg Foundation. He appears 
on the program Thursday at 12:00 
Noon and has chosen for his topic, 
CURRENT PROBLEMS IN AMERI- 
CAN DENTISTRY. 



LINDELL L. LEATHERS, D.D.S. 

Washington, D. C. He is a graduate 
of Emory University, School of Den- 
tistry (A.S.D.C.) attended the Uni- 
versity of Oregon and Duke Univer- 
sity. He has practiced in the District 
of Columbia Dental Society, American 
Denture Society. He is to appear on 
the program Friday at 4:00 P.M. 
lecturing on, ESSENTIAL ASPECTS 
OF FULL DENTURE CONSTRUC- 
TION. 

Stressing five steps in the construc- 
tion of full dentures in order to 
achieve stabilization and minimize 
adjustments. Kodachrome slides will 
be used to illustrate the lecture. 




314] 



THOMAS CONNER, D.D.S. 

Atlanta, Ga. He is Past President 
of the American Society of Oral 
Surgeons; special lecturer Emory 
University School of Dentistry. He 
is scheduled on the program Thurs- 
day at 2:00 P.M., discussing GRIEF 
IN EXODONTIA. 

How to avoid some of the incidents 
in the practice of exodontia that an- 
noy the operator and make dissatisfied 
patients will also be discussed. 





GUY R. HARRISON, D.D.S., F.A.C.D. 

Richmond, Va. He is a graduate 
of the Medical College of Virginia, 
School of Dentistry. Now serving as 
Oral Surgeon at the Stuart Circle 
Hospital, St. Luke's Hospital and 
McGuire Clinic. Consulting Maxillo- 
facial Sui-geon Atlantic Coast Line 
Railroad and Richmond Fredericks- 
burg and Potomac Railroad. Thurs- 
day at 3:30 P.M. he will lecture on 
STONES OF THE SALIVARY 
GLANDS AND DUCTS. 

A discussion illustrated with lan- 
tern slides, of the occurrence, location, 
symptoms, diagnosis, treatment in 
connection with the presence of stones 
in the salivary system. 



[315: 





PHILIP E. BLACKERBY, JR, A.B., 
D.D.S., F.A.C.D., M.S.P.H. 

Battle Creek, Mich. Graduated 
from the University of Louisville, 
School of Dentistry. The following- 
two years he remained as instructor 
in the school, serving as Dean of the 
School of Dentistry for one year, 
1944-45. During the past three years 
he has been Director of the Division 
of Dentistry, W. K. Kellogg Founda- 
tion. He is a member of the A.D.A., 
American Public Health Association, 
The International Association of 
Dental Research, Federation Den- 
taire Internationale and others. He 
will appear on the program Thursday 
at 7:30. speaking about, WHAT LIES 
AHEAD? 



WALTER LEABO, D.D.S., F.A.C.D. 

Shreveport, Louisiana. Graduate of 
the Kansas City Dental College. He 
is a member of the American Acad- 
emy of Periodontology and licensed by 
the Board of the Academy. He is 
Past President of the Louisiana State 
Dental Society; special lecturer Loy- 
ola University Dental School. He ap- 
pears on the program Thursday at 
8:00 P.M., concerning PERIODON- 
TIA, WITH EMPHASIS ON SUB- 
GINGIVAL CURETTAGE. 

A discussion of the objectives and 
the philosophy of dentistry in relation 
to periodontology and the responsi- 
bility of the general practitioner; 
need of more attention to the pre- 
vention and treatment of periodontal 
disease; importance of early diagnos- 
is and elimination of all forms of 
gingivitis; necessity of utilizing all 
accepted methods of gingival and sub- 
gingival surgery ; importance of and 
discussion of nutrition and the cor- 
rection of traumatic occlusion; slides 
illusti-ating various bone changes fol- 
lowing treatment and other patholog- 
ical conditions. 




316) 



THE PROGRAM AT A GLANCE 



Thursday, May 19th 



MORNING 


AFTERNOON 


EVENING 


8:00 


2:00 


6:00 


Registration 


Dr. Thomas M. Conner 


Golf Dinner 


9:00 


3:30 


7:30 


General Session 


Dr. Guy R. Harrison 


Dr. P. E.Blackerby.Jr. 


11:00 


4:30 


8:00 


Dr. Clyde E. Minges 


Dr. W. P. Weeks 


Dr. Walter Leabo 


11:30 


4:30 


9:30 


Dr. J. E. John 


House of Delegates 


House of Delegates 


12:00 






Dr. Harold Hillenbrand 







Friday, May 20th 



MORNING 


AFTERNOON 


EVENING 


8:00 


2:00 


6:30 


Breakfast Meetings 


Open Forum 


Annual Banquet 


9:30 

General Clinics 


Dr. Walter Leabo 
Dr. Thomas Conner 


8:00 

General Session 




4:00 

Dr. L. L. Leathers 


10:30 
Dance 



Saturday, May 21st 



10:00 

House of Delegates 

11:00 

General Session 



[317 



GENERAL SESSION 

Thursday Morning 
9:00 o'clock 

Gmnd Ballroom 

Invocation Rev. T. A. Cheatham 

Welcome Richard S. Tufts 

Response G. L. Hooper, D.D.S. 

President's Address C. W. Sanders, D.D.S. 

Mementos A. S. Bumgardner, D.D.S. 

Introduction of Visitors Z. L. Edwards, D.D.S. 

Greetings of the American Dental Association Clyde E. Minges, D.D.S. 

Greetings of the Fifth District Trustee J. E. John, D.D.S. 

Current Problems in American Dentistry Harold Hillenbrand, D.D.S. 



BUSINESS SESSION 



Thursday Afternoon 
4:30 o'clock 



House of Delegates 
Report of Committees 



Thursday Evening 
9:30 o'clock 

House of Delegates 
Final Committee Reports 



Friday Evening 
8:00 o'clock 

General Session 
Election of Officers 
Election of Board Members 
Election of A.D.A. Delegates 
Next Meeting Place 



Saturday Morning 
10:00 o'clock 

House of Delegates 
General Session 
Installation of Officers 
Adjournment 



318 



ESSAY PROGRAM 

R. Fred Hunt, Chairman 

Thursday Afternoon 

2:00 P. M. GRIEF IN EXODONTIA 

Thomas M. Conner, Atlanta, Georgia 

3:30 P. M. STONES OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS AND DUCTS 
Guy R. Harrison. Richmond, Virginia 

4:30 P. M. SIMPLIFYING THE PROBLEMS IN FURNISHING TREAT- 
MENT TO VETERANS 
W. P. Weeks, Winston-Salem 



Thursday Evening 

7:30 P. M. WHAT LIES AHEAD? 

Philip E. Blackerby, Jr., Battle Creek, Michigan 

8:00 P. M. PERIODONTIA: WITH EMPHASIS ON SUB-GINGIVAL 
CURETTAGE. 

Walter Leabo, Shreveport, Louisiana 



Friday Afternoon 

OPEN FORUM 

J. Donald Kiser, Presiding Chairmav 

2:00 P. M. Discussion: PERIODONTIA, Walter Leabo 
Leader: George Kirkland 

3:00 P. M. Discussion: EXODONTIA, Thomas Conner 
Leader T. L. Blair 

4:00 P. M. ESSENTIAL ASPECTS OF FULL DENTURE CONSTRUC- 
TION 
LiNDELL L. Leathers, Washington. D. C. 



[319 



GENERAL CLINICS 

, K. L. Johnson, Chairman 

GRAND BALLROOM 
Friday, 9:00 to 12:00 Noon 

Table ENDODONTIA 

No. 

1. Practical Aids in Endodontia 

R. H. Graham Lenoir 

2. Root Canal Therapy 

M. M. LiLLEY Scotland Neck 

3. Essentials in Endodontic Practice 

J. R. Pharr Charlotte 

OPERATIVE DENTISTRY 

4. Mechanical Technique for the Insertion of Amalgam Fillings 

Frank G. Atwater Greensboro 

5. Dental Amalgam 

Synopsis: Some principles of cavity preparation for amalgam. 

Methods of placing amalgam restorations. Illustrated with 

models and diagrams. 
David L. Beavers Winston-Salem 

6. Eigh Years Experience with Plastics in Crown and Fixed Bridge Pros- 
thesis 

A. C. Current Gastonia 

7. Crystalline Thymol in the Treatment of Exposed and Near Exposed 
Vital Pulps 

James E. Graham Charlotte 

8. Pulpotomy as a Means of Saving Some Teeth with exposed Nerves 

R. L. Horton Wendell 

9. Temporary Bridge Construction or Esthetics and Maintaining Occlusal 
Relationship 

Wm J. McDaniel Rutherfordton 

10. Topic Unannounced 

C. W. McCall Tryon 

11. A Series of Case Histories 

T. L. Blair Winston-Salem 

12. Some Diseases of the Mouth 

Charles D. and Ed. L. Eatman Rocky Mount 

1.3. Anatomical Consideration of Impacted Teeth, Cysts, Mandibular Frac- 
tures and Osteomyelitis in Connection with the General Practitioner With 
Specimens and Radiographs 
J. Y. HiNSON Durham 

[320] 



14. Treatment of Hypermobility of the Temporomandibular Jointi 
Vaiden B. Kendrick Charlotte 

15. Pre and Post Operative Handling of Extractions and Impactions 

N. P. Maddux Asheville 

16. Oral Surgery 

Grady Ross Charlotte 

17. Unusual and Interesting Cases Found in the Practice of Oral Surgery 
T. E. SiKES Greensboro 

18. General Anesthesia for Dental and Oral Surgery 

Carey T. Wells Canton 

ORTHODONTICS 

19. Orthodontics 

A. S. Bumgardner Charlotte 

20. Vertical Dimension in Orthodontics 

A. A. Phillips Raleigh 

PERIODONTIA 

21. A Simplified Surgical Technique for Treating Periodontal Pockets 

S. P. Gay Greensboro 

22. Periodontal Lesions Before and After Treatment 

Dan B. Mizell Charlotte 

23. Preventive Periodontia 

Moultrie H. Truluck Asheville 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

24. Simplified Clinical Photography 

Walter H. Finch Henderson 

preventitive dentistry 

25. The Gottlieb Impregnation Method for Prevention of Decay 

C. H. Jarrett Charlotte 

26. Home Care of Mouths That Have Lost One or More Teeth 

George K. Patterson Asheville 

prosthodontia 

27. Individual Impression Trays for Full Upper and Lower Impressions 

J. W. Branham Raleigh 

28. Sectional Impressions of Edentulous Cases 

L. G. Coble Greensboro 

29. Permanent Baseplates 

J. R. Crawford Winston-Salem 

30. Establishing the Tray and Border Outline of the Lower Denture 
Charles B. Johnson Jacksonville 

[321] 



NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL HYGIENIST ASSOCIATION 

31. The Dental Hygienist 

Mrs. Ora Lee Blair Black Mountain 

Plaster Models, Molding and Painting 

Mrs. Carolyn Smart Fayetteville 

32. What is a Dental Hygienist? 

Miss Winfred Brewer Chapel Hill 

33. Educating the Patient in Dental Hygiene 

Mrs. L. .J. Leskosky Charlotte 



i^ >-s i^ 



There will be a special train from North Carolina to the 
American Dental Association Meeting October 17 - 21 in 
San Francisco covering points of interest to and from the meeting 
provided there is sufficient interest for a plan of this nature the 
Railroad will be cooperative and give a reduction in rates. See 
Charlie Eatman for details. 



i:^ ik 1^ 



322 



NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL HYGIENIST ASSOCIATION 




Carolyn Smart 
R.D.H. 



OFFICERS 

1948-49 

Mrs. Carolyn Smart, President 
Mrs. Cecile Bullock, Vice-President 
Mrs. Ora Lee Blair, Secretary 
Mrs. Harris Parker, Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

Miss Camilla Honsucker, (1949) 
Mrs. Edith S. Chiperfield, (1950) 
Miss Charlotte Zimmerman, (1951) 




Nancy Leskosky 
R.D.H. 



PROGRAM 



Thursday Morning 

8:00 Registration 
9:00 Opening Session 

Call to Order Carolyn Smart 

Greetings from Advisory Council Dr. Ralph Coffey 

Minutes Ora Lee Blair 

10:00 Greetings Dr. A. C. Current 

11:00 President's Address Carolyn Smart 

Thursday Afternoon 

2:00 Delegates Report from American Dental Hygienist Association Con- 
vention 

Report of Treasurer 
Report of Committees 
Report of Executive Council 
Old and New Business 

Friday Morning 

General Clinics— Table Numbers: 31, 32 and 33 

Friday Afternoon 

2:00 Election and Installation of Officers 
3:00 Dr. C. W. Sanders 

[323] - 



HOUSE OF DELEGATES 



Officers 

C. W. Sanders 
Walter McFall 
T. W. Atwood 
Fred Hunt 



Executive Committee 

S. L. Bobbitt 
A. C. Current 
Paul Fitzgerald 



Ethics Committee 

J. F. Reece 
J. A. McClung 
W. T. Martin 
Burke W. Fox 
Coyte Minges 

State Board of Dental Examiners 

Walter Clark 
D. L. Pridgen 



Second District 

J. D. Kiser 
Joe V. Davis 
W. A. Ingram 
John Ashby 
Wade Sowers 



Third District 

C. H. Teague 
Norman Ross 
P. B. Whittington 
J. N. Caudle 
Sam Shaffer 



Fourth District 

J. J. Tew 

L. G. Hair 
C. E. Abernathy 
Paul Harrell 
W. F. Martin 



First District 

W. D. Yelton 
S. H. Steelman 
Patsy McGuire 
W. J. TurbyfiU 
A. W. Bottom 



Fifth District 

Dan Wright 
Charles Eatman 
Darden Eure 
Z. L. Edwards 
B. McK. Johnson 



I 324 



NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 
STANDING COMMITTEES 

1948-1949 

Executive Committee 

S. L. Bobbitt (1949). Chairmah 

A. C. Cui-rent (1950) Paul Fitzg-erald (1951) 

Ethics Committee 
J. F. Reece (1949), Chairman 
J. A. McClung (1950) Burke Fox (1952 

W. T. Martin (1951) C. R. Ming-es (1953 j 

Legislative Committee 
C. C. Poindexter (1949) Paul Jones (1951) 

H. O. Linebergev (1950) Z. L. Edward? (1952) 

E. G. Click (1953) 

Program Committee 
R. Fred Hunt, Chuirman 
Charles B. Johnson Z. V. Kendrick 

A. C. Current S. P. Gay 

K. L. Johnson 

Clinic Committee 
Kenneth L. Johnson, Chairmav 
E. R. Teague Phillip R. Melvin 

L. T. Dupree, Jr. W. J. McDaniel 

Membership Committee 
Walter McFall, Chairman 
Alice Patsy McGuire Norman F. Ross 

Joe V. Davis, Jr. C. E. Abernathy 

C. D. Eatman 

Exhibit Committee 
J. W. Branham, Chairman 
J. A. Marshburn R. S. Garrett 

J. H. Guion H. E. Butler 

E. G. Click 



Necrology Committee 
A. S. Bumgardner (1952), Chairman 
W. T. Ralph (1949) J. S. Betts (1951) 

I. R. Self (1950) Victor E. Bell (1953) 

Library and History Committee 
J. Martin Fleming (1952), Chairman 
J. P. Bingham (1949) B. McK. Johnson (1951) 

Alice P. McGuire (1950) R. L. Underwood (1953) 

[325] 



Insurance Committee 
Claude Parks (1950), Chairman 
S. E. Moser (1949) Paul Fitzgerald (1952) 

H. Royster Chamblee (1951) Claude A. Adams (1953) 

Publicity Committee 

Neal Sheffield (1949), Chairman 

O. C. Barker (1950) K. L. Johnson (1952) 

Burke Fox (1951) Darden J. Eure (1953) 

The N. C. State Board of Dental Examiners 

Frank O. Alford (1949) 

Wilbert Jackson (1949) A. T. Jennette (1950) 

Neal Sheffield (1950) Walter Clark (1951) 

D. L. Pridgen (1951) 

Constitution and By-Laws Committee 

D. L. Pridgen (1952), Chairman 

Henry Carr (1949) Paul Jones (1951) 

Frank 0. Alford (1950) W. H. Breeland (1953) 

Prosthetic Dental Service Committee 
C. C. Poindexter (1952), Chairman 
Walter Clark (1949) Frank 0. Alford (1951) 

Paul Jones (1950) Walter McRae (1953) 

State Council on Dental Health 

E. A. Branch (1952), Chairman 

W. L. Farrell (1949) Ed. D. Eatman (1951) 

R. S. McCall (1950) J. Donald Riser (1953) 

State Institutions Committee 
G. L. Overman (1952), Chairman 
Olin Ow^en (1949) Everett Smith (1951) 

Norman F. Ross (1950) Ralph L. Falls (1953) 

Relief Committee 
J. Martin Fleming (1950), Chairman 
J. Conrad Watkins (1949) Paul Fitzgerald (1952) 

Walter Clark (1951) E. M. Medlin (1953) 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

Advisory Committee N. C. Medical Care Commission and Good 
Health Association 

Paul Jones, Chairman 
H. 0. Lineberger E. M. Medlin 

Wilbert Jackson R. M. Olive 

Ralph Jarrett 

[326] 



Public Relations Committee 
A. C. Current, Chairman 
John L. Ashbv G. L. Overman 

L. G. Coble Wilbert Jackson 

Z. L. Edwards 

Resolutions Committee 
John R. Pharr, Chairman 
A. W. Bottoms J. S. Betts 

S. B. Towler J. F. Duke 

DeWitt C. Woodall 

Dental College Committee 

H. 0. Lineberger, Chairman 
G. Fred Hale R. M. Olive 

Wilbert Jackson J. Conrad Watkins 

Paul E. Jones 

Clinic Board of Censors 
W. W. Rankin, Chairman 
Conrad Fritz L. Graham Page 

William C. Current J. R. Edwards, Jr. 

W. I. Hart 

Publication Committee 

T. G. Nisbet, Chairman 
Kermit Chapman Worth Byrd 

Norman F. Ross J. M. Kilpatrick 

Entertainment of Out of State Visitors Committee 
Coyte Minges, Chairman 
0. C. Barker R. M. Olive 

Clyde E. Minges Wilbert Jackson 

Charles Eatman Walter McFall 

T. E. Sikes 

Superintendent of Clinics Committee 
Howard L. Allen, Chairman 
W. K. Chapman W. I. Farrell 

P. C. Hull, Jr. C. E. Abernathy 

Charles B. Johnson 

Liaison Committee to the Dental Division of the Old North State 
Medical, Dental and Pharmaceutical Society 
Neal Sheffield, Chairman 
J. J. Tew A. R. Kistler 

C. M. Peeler R. S. Turner 

John L. Ashby R. M. Blackman 

Hospital Dental Service Committee 
K. L. Johnson, Chairman 
Thomas L. Blair Norman F. Ross 

T. E. Sikes Clarence Olive 

R. L. Underwood 

[327] 



Advisory Committee for Veterans Administration Program 
P. B. Whittington, Chairman 
E. D. Baker J. T. Bell 

H. O. Lineberger Kemp Lindsay 

H. W. Gooding Coyte Minges 

Medical-Dental Relationship Committee 
Charles Eatman, Chairman 
S. E. Moser Lee Overman 

Ralph F. Jarrett C. L. Hooper 

T. W. Atwood H. Royster Chamblee 

Advisory Committee to N. C. Dental Hygienist Association 
Ralph Coffey, Chairman 
S. B. Towler Ralph F. Jarrett 

N. R. Callaghan A. P. Cline 

W. I. Hart 

Dental Caries Committee 

G. L. Overman, Chairman 
Walter McFall L. M. Edwards 

Donald Riser W. F. Mustin 

J. W. Whitehead 

Arrangements Committee 
Royster Chamblee, Chairman 
E. M. Medlin S. L. Bobbitt 

Howard Allen Thomas G. Collins 

Walter McRae 

Entertainment Committee 
E. D. Baker, Chairman 
Marcus Smith W. K. Chapman 

Bernard Walker Frank E. Gilliam 

C. D. Eatman 

Golf Committee 
L. M. Daniels, Chairnuin 
E. M. Medlin D. T. Carr 

J. W. Branham P. B. Whittington 

Worth M. Byrd 

Housing Committee 
Howard W. Branch, Chairman 
Clarence Roberts G. L. Hooper 

L. M. Massey R. E. Finch 

P. E. Cotter 



Advisory Committee to the American Academy of Pediatrics 
K. L. Johnson, Chairman 
R. M. Olive H. C. Carr 

T. W. Atwood S. L. Bobbitt 

f 328] 



Advisory Committee to North Carolina Good Health Association 
Paul E. Jones, Chairman 
Clyde E. Minges S. L. Bobbitt 

H. O. Lineberger John R. PhaiT 

E. M. Medlin A. C. Current 
C. C. Poindexter C. A. Pless 

F. O. Alford R. M. Olive 



Extension Course Committee 
T. W. At wood. Chairman 



M. H. Truluck 
J. H. Guion 



G. L. Hooper 
A. C. Earlv 



Committee on General Anesthesia 
R. M. Olive, Chairinan 
J. A. Sinclair Grady Ross 

T. E. Sikes J. Y. Hinson 

H. K. Thompson 



VETERANS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL SOCIETY 



The rapidly changing vs^orld situa- 
tion which existed at the time of the 
State Meeting in Asheville last year 
brought about a joint meeting of the 
Veteran's Planning and Executive 
Committees in Greensboro on Sunday, 
May 23, 1948. The Committees con- 
sisted of the following members: 
Planning Committee, Drs. Ralph 
Falls, Julius Hill, B. N. Walker, Da- 
vid L. Beavers, P. B. Whittington, 
Worth M. Byrd, Henry Ligon, M. M. 
Lilley, Charles Cook. The Executive 
Committee consisted of E. D. Baker, 
Dan Wright, C. D. Eatman. 

This meeting brought forth the fol- 
lowing program for the year: 

(1) To reactivate the Veteran's 
Organization and obtain a 
membership of representative 
size, since we can meet our 
problems better as a group 
than as individuals. 

(2) Increase efficiency and fellow- 
ship by organizing district vet- 
eran groups to carry out activ- 
ities locally — in addition to 



regular annual veteran's meet- 
ing. 

(3) Keep each district veteran's 
group posted in national legis- 
lative developments — by means 
of A.D.A. News Letters and 
our own mimeographed bulle- 
tins. 

(4) Secure a member of A.D.A.'s 
Committee on National Dental 
Emergency Service, to speak to 
us in Pinehurst in May and 
bring us up to date on legisla- 
tive plans on Procurement and 
Assignment or drafting of den- 
tists. 

Veteran's meetings were held in 
each of the districts in October and 
November 1948. At each of the meet- 
ings. President Sanders, President 
Elect Walter McFall and Secretary 
Fred Hunt of the State Society, as 
well as other guests were present and 
spoke briefly encouraging the Veter- 
ans, Dr. E. D. Baker of Raleigh, 
President of Veterans of North Caro- 



[329] 



lina Dental Society spoke briefly 
about legislative developments. 

Election of officers was held and 
the following men were elected to hold 
office: President — E. D. Baker, Vice 
President — Dan Wright, Seci'etary — 
C. D. Eatman. 

District Society Officers 

First 
Ralph Falls, Pi'esident 
Harold McGuire, Vice-President 
Harold Plaster, Secretary 

Second 
Elliot Motley, President 
Bob Masten, Vice-President 
T. F. Weant, Secretary 

Third 
Frank Atwater, President 
J. R. Wheless, Vice-President 
William T. Burns, Secretary 

Fourth 
Worth Byrd, President 
Henry Ligon, Vice President 
Bob Finch, Secretary 

Fifth 
Guy Pigford, Vice-President 
M. M. Lilley, President 
Dan Wright, Secretary 



NEWS FROM THE SECOND DISTRICT 
W. F. Yelton, Editor 

In the office of Joe Davis a Com- 
mittee Meeting was held January 30. 
Those present included the officei:s. 
Executive Committee, Program Com- 
mittee, and Clinic Committee. It was 
decided to hold the next meeting in 
Charlotte at the Hotel Charlotte 
either the first or second week in 
September. The date which will not 
interfere with other District Meetings 
and a change from our regular time 
of meeting due to the American Den- 
tal Association Meeting. There was 



a lively discussion as to the type pro- 
gram most interesting and a census 
of opinion was to have as feature 
topics "Mouth Diseases and Practice 
Management." Refreshments were 
served following the meeting. 

We wish to welcome the following 
new members into our society: Drs. 
E. A. Eckerd, L. V. Grady, Hyman H. 
Levine, B. P. Lentz, and Horace P. 
Reeves, Jr. 

The new officers of the Cabarrus 
County Dental Society are as follows: 
Hugh Parks, President; R. M. Patter- 
son, Vice-President; Joe Davis, Secre- 
tary-Treasurer. This society is quite 
active and good programs are being 
sponsored by this lively group. 

The Forsyth County Dental Society 
recently elected the following new 
officers: Drs. Robert Masten, Presi- 
dent; Hylton Crotts, Vice-President; 
and Dwight A. Jackson, Secretary- 
Treasurer. At the February meeting 
Dr. Wingate Johnson of the Bowmen 
Grey School of Medicine gave a very 
interesting talk on the Socialization 
of Medicine and Compulsory Health 
Insurance. 

We are glad to report that Dr. J. C. 
Pennington of Thomasville is improv- 
ing after a most serious operation at 
the North Carolina Baptist Hospital 
in Winston-Salem. We hope that Dr. 
Pennington will be back at work soon. 

Congratulations to Dr. and Mrs. 
David Beavers of Winston-Salem upon 
the birth of a daughter Christine 
Diane. 

Dr. D. A. Jackson of Winston- 
Salem, who for the past two years 
has been associated with Dr. Harry 
Keel, has now opened an office in 
Winston-Salem for the practice of 
Orthodontia. 

Dr. Thomas L. Blair of Winston- 
Salem is improving following a recent 
operation. We sincerely hope he will 
be back at work soon. 

In the January meeting of the 
Davidson County Dental Society a 



[330: 



very interesting program was given 
by Drs. John Pharr and A. S. Bum- 
gardner of Charlotte. The meeting 
was held in Thoniasville. Also at 
this meeting the following officers 
were elected to serve the society for 
the coming year: Drs. Wade Sowers 
of Lexington, President, R. H. HoUi- 
day of Thoniasville, Vice-President 
and J. P. Bingham, Jr., Secretary- 
Treasurer. 

Drs. Robert L. Reynolds and F. G. 
Johnson both of Lexington have re- 
cently retired from the active prac- 
tice of dentistry. 

At the February meeting of the 
Statesville Dental Society at the 
Statesville Country Club the follow- 
ing new members were taken into the 
society: Drs. Locke Long, Glenn Laz- 
enby, Jr., James Little, and Sherrod 
Williams. 

The next meeting of the Statesville 
Dental Society will be held March 1 
at which time new officers will be 
elected. Dr. Glenn Lazenby, Jr. has 
charge of the program for this meet- 
ing. 

In connection with the Florida 
State Meeting last December a class 
reunion of 1923, Emory University, 
School of Dentistry was held. The 
class of '23 held a banquet on Decem- 
ber 13th at which time Dean Buhler 
and Clyde Minges were guest speak- 
ers. 

The fellowship was grately enjoyed 
by the following members of this class 
and a number of wives were also 
present. 

Drs. H. B. McLendon, Charles 
Martin and wife, Carl Elkin, Z. L. 
Webb and wife, Geo. M. Shields, Wal- 
lace Caswell and wife, L. B. King, 
V. A. and J. A. Spato all of Florida. 
Drs. Frank Kirk and wife, Charlie 
Harrell and wife, and Cary Wells of 
North Carolina. Drs. Charles Toole 
and wife, and Hoyt Simpson of 
Georgia. Dr. Howard Higgins of 
South Carolina. 



Among those attending the Chicago 
Mid-Winter Clinic from North Caro- 
lina were: Drs. Clyde E. Minges, 
Coyte Minges, Charles Eatman, Joe 
V. Davis, J. Donald Kiser, Franklin 
Bumgardner, Frank 0. Alford, and 
Walter McFall. 

AS A MATTER OF RECORD 

The Executive Committee of the 
North Carolina Dental Society met in 
Pinehurst Sunday, January 23, 1949 
at the Carolina Hotel with the various 
committee chairmen, for the purpose 
of making the final arrangements for 
our next State Meeting which is to 
be held in Pinehurst May 19-20-21st. 

Members of the Executive Com- 
mittee present were: S. L. Bobbitt, 
Chairman, Paul E. Fitzgerald, C. W. 
Sanders, ex-officio; Walter T. Mc- 
Fall, ex-officio; R. Fred Hunt, ex- 
officio; H. Royster Chamblee, J. W. 
Branham, K. L. Johnson, E. D. Baker, 
W. H. Branch, L. M. Daniel, G. Fred 
Hale, E. M. Medlin, J. D. Kiser, Paul 
Fitzgerald, L. F. Bumgardner. 

The following committee chairmen 
made reports for their respective com- 
mittees: Arrangements Committee — 
H. Royster, Chairman, Exhibit Com- 
mittee — J. Walton Branham, Clinic 
Committee — K. L. Johnson, Enter- 
tainment Committee — E. D. Baker, 
Golf Committee — L. M. Daniels. L. 
Franklin Bumgardner, Editor-Pub- 
lisher also made a report. Program 
Committee — R. Fred Hunt. 

Many questions relative to the ap- 
proaching State Meeting were dis- 
cussed. It was found that much pro- 
gress has been made in preparing for 
this event. 

Dr. J. W. Branham reported that 
the hotel management has assessed a 
charge of $600.00 for rental of the 
exhibit space to be used at our May 
Meeting. 



3311 



A motion was made by Dr. Paul 
Fitzgei'ald, seconded by Dr. Walter 
McFall and carried that the Execu- 
tive Committee appropriate $600.00 
to be used for the exhibit space rental 
fee. 

It was discussed and agreed that 
only the accredited laboratories should 
be allowed to purchase exhibit space 
at our State Meeting. 

The secretary was instructed to ex- 
tend an invitation to the Medical So- 
ciety of North Carolina to send a 
representative of that organization to 
our annual meeting in Pinehurst May 
19-20-21st. 

The secretary was also instructed 
to convey to Mr. Fitzgibbon, Manager 
of the Cai'olina Hotel, our apprecia- 
tion for the excellent luncheon served, 
and the courtesies shown to our 
group while meeting in Pinehurst, 
Sunday, January 23rd. 

There being no further business 
the meeting adjourned at 3:30 P. M. 
- — R. Fred Hunt, Secretary-Treasurer. 

ANNOUNCEMENTS: 

The North Carolina Dental Society 
will hold their annual meeting Maj' 
19-21, 1949 at the Carolina Hotel, 
Pinehurst. R. Fred Hunt, Secre- 
tary, Rocky Mount. 

The South Carolina Dental Associa- 
tion will convene May 1-3, 1949 in 
the Ocean Forest Hotel, Mvrtle 



Beach, S. C. J. R. Owings, Secre- 
tary, Greenville. 

North Carolina State Board of Den- 
tal Examiners will meet June 27, 
1949 to examine applicants to prac- 
tice in North Carolina. F. 0. Al- 
ford, Secretary, Charlotte. 

The Virginia State Dental Society 
will meet in Roanoke, April 11-13, 
1949. J. E. John, Secretary, Roan- 
oke. 

American Dental Association meets 
October 17-21, 1949, San Francisco. 
H. Hillenbrand, Secretary, Chicago. 

Southern Academy of Periodontology 
will meet June 13-14, 1949, Savan- 
nah, Georgia. Headquarters, Gen- 
eral Oglethorpe Hotel. 

A United States Savings Bonds Cam- 
paign will open May 16 and con- 
tinue through June 30 for promot- 
ing the sale of Series E, F and G 
Bonds. The Treasury Department 
asks the cooperation of members of 
the North Carolina Dental Society 
with other groups in support of 
this important Campaign. 

The Sixth Annual Seminar for the 
Study and Practice of Dental Medi- 
cine will be held October 23-28 at 
the Desert Inn, Palm Springs, ac- 
cording to Dr. Hermann Becks, 
Seminar President. Address in- 
quiries to: Marian G. Lewis, Exec- 
utive Secretary, 1618 Ninth Aven- 
ue, San Francisco 22, California. 



332