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Full text of "The Bulletin of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture"

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.±1 



THE BULLETIN 



OF THE 



NORTH CAROLINA 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



RALEIGH, 



Volume 29. 



JANUARY, 1908. 



Number 1. 



BEE-KEEPING IN NORTH CAROLINA. 




j«wu»um 



." MjM 








The crude, plain box hive, as shown at the left, produces each year an average of 21Vs pounds of 
honey, worth $2.60. 

The frame hive with super, shown at the right, produces each year an average of 37% pounds 
of honey, worth $4.13. Therefore, USE FRAME HIVES. (Photo by Prof. Hutt). (See page 18) . 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND SENT FREE TO CITIZENS ON APPLICATION. 



ENTERED AT THE RALEIGH POST-OFFICE AS SECOND-CLASS MAIL MATTER. 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



S. L. Patterson, Commissioner, ex officio Chairman, Raleigh. 

J. J. Laughinghouse Greenville First District. 

C. W. Mitchell Aulander Second District. 

William Dunn New Bern Third District. 

Ashley Hoene Clayton . .'. Fourth District. 

R. W. Scott Melville Fifth District. 

A. T. McCallum Red Springs Sixth District. 

J. P. McRae Laurinburg Seventh District. 

R. L. Doughton Laurel Springs Eighth District. 

W. A. Geaham Machpelah Ninth District. 

A. Cannon Horse Shoe Tenth District. 



OFFICERS AND STAFF. 

S. L. Patteeson Commissioner. 

T. K. Beunee Secretary. 

B. W. Kilgoee State Chemist, Field Crops. 

Tait Butlee Veterinarian, Animal Husbandry. 

Fbankxin Sherman, Je Entomologist. 

W. N. Hutt Horticulturist. 

H. H. Beimley Naturalist and Curator. 

T. B. Parker Demonstration Work. 

W. M. Allen Food Chemist. 

J. M. Pickel Assistant Chemist. 

C. D. Harris. .Assistant Chemist and Microscopist, Stock Feeds. 

W. G. Haywood Assistant Chemist. 

G. M. MacNider Assistant Chemist, Soils. 

L. L. Brinkley Assistant Chemist. 

S. O. Perkins Assistant Chemist. 

Hampden Hill Assistant Chemist. 

S. C. Clapp Nursery and Orchard Inspector. 



R. W. Scott, Jr., Superintendent Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C. 
F. T. Meacham, Superintendent Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. 
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent Pender Test Farm, Willard, N. C. 
R. W. Collett, Superintendent Transylvania Test Farm, Blantyre, N. C. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Summary of Bulletin 4 

Introduction 5 

Principal Honey Sections of State 6 

Races or Varieties of Bees 9 

Prices for Honey : 

Comb Honey 11 

Extracted Honey 13 

Leading Honey Plants 15 

Types of Hives IS 

Bee-moth and Other Enemies 20 

Bee-keeping Journals 23 

Summary of Bee-keeping in the State 23 

What Encouragement Can be Given? 24 

Leading Bee-keepers of the State 25 



SUMMARY. 

The moee important facts brought out in this Bulletin are as follows : 
From a careful study of detailed reports from 360 bee-keepers owning a 
total of over 10,400 colonies, we find that on the whole, the bee-keeping 
industry is much wore lagely developed in the eastern than in the mid- 
dle or western sections of the state, though the actual yield of honey 
seems to be about the same in all sections. the italian bees are de- 
cidedly superior to either the hybrids or the blacks, both as to honey 
produced and as to resistance to bee-moth and other enemies, but (in the 

EASTERN PART OF THE STATE ESPECIALLY) IT IS NECESSARY TO FREQUENTLY IM- 
port fertilized queens to keep the stock pure. there are three honey- 
plants which are far ahead of all others, these being : 1. sourwood j 
2. Poplar or Tulip-tree; 3. Clovers of all vareities. Sourwood, where it 
OCCURS, outranks all other plants in quality and quantity of honey 
produced, and also commands the best price per pound. those who deal 
in liquid honey would do well to use modern extractors rather than to 
"squeeze" the honey out by hand. The modern hives, made with movable 
frames, yield much more honey, which also sells at a higher price, than 
either the crude box hives or hollow-log "gums." bee-moth is especially 
destructive in log "gums," but much less troublesome in frame hives. 
The disease known as Foul-brood has been twice reported but not con- 
firmed, AND IT IS OF HIGHEST IMPORTANCE THAT OUR BEE-KEEPERS SHOULD 

watch for this disease and report the facts if found. there is some sen- 
timent in favor of a state bee-keepeks' association, but the matter 
should be very carefully considered before attempting to organize. a list 
of the leading bee-keepers of the state is given in the latter part of the 

Bulletin. 



BEE-KEEPING IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



A STUDY OF SOME STATISTICS ON THE INDUSTRY, WITH 
SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS. 



By Franklin Sherman, Jr., Entomologist. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Bee-keeping is an old industry in this State — so old that it has 
been allowed in some cases to settle into ruts, which are not only 
unprofitable, but hard to get out of. There is perhaps no other in- 
dustry in the State of equal importance and with equal opportunities 
for development which is so disorganized, so disconnected and suffer- 
ing so badly from lack of careful attention and better methods as is 
the bee-keeping business. We make this remark as applying to the 
State as a whole, for there are some individuals who are conducting 
their apiaries along modern and profitable lines. 

There is no State organization in which our bee-keepers meet to 
exchange views ; there is no system of inspection by which the apiaries 
may be brought to a higher standard ; the bee-keeping magazines have 
but a limited circulation with us, and there is nowhere in the State 
a practical bee-keeper whose special duty it is to encourage or protect 
this industry. 

In order to see if we could reach any of the fundamental facts 
underlying this industry in the State, the writer— though not an 
actual bee-keeper — began an inquiry into the industry in the summer 
of 1905, which has been continued (with interruptions) to the pres- 
ent time. A carefully prepared sheet of questions was sent out, and 
all data received in reply have been carefully recorded. We have left 
out of account any who have less than ten colonies of bees, so that the 
data which we have is from actual commercial bee-keepers. We have 
on record replies from about 360 persons, representing a total of 
10,450 colonies, located in seventy-eight counties — an average of 134 
colonies for each county heard from, or an average of nearly 108 
colonies for each and every county in the entire State. We feel that 
with such an amount of data we are warranted in deducting some 
conclusions regarding the industry in the State as a whole. 

Of course we have not heard from anywhere near all of the com- 
mercial bee-keepers. We know positively of several from whom we 
have not heard. Doubtless some of the counties from which we have 



6 The Bulletin. 

heard little or nothing, have as well-developed a honey industry as 
any. For instance, in Madison County, on the west, we have record 
of 23 bee-keepers, with a total of 646 hives, while in the neighboring . 
county of Mitchell, which is presumably just as well fitted for the 
industry and with perhaps as many colonies, we have record of only 
one man, who has 10 colonies. In the east we find Martin County 
with eight bee-keepers on record, owning a total of 716 colonies 
(average, 8 9y 2 each), while the neighboring county of Pitt has only 
one bee-keeper, with 15 colonies, on our records. We mention these 
instances to show that, while we have been successful in collecting 
much data from various parts of the State, it is probably by no means 
complete for all or, indeed, for any of the counties. 
The list of questions which we sent out is as follows : 

1. How many colonies of bees have you? 

2. What race or variety of bees do you keep? 

3. What is your average honey yield per hive each year? 

4. What are your highest and lowest prices for honey per pound? 

5. What are your principal honey plants? 

6. What plant, in your opinion, yields the best quality of honey? 

7. What plant, in your opinion, yields the largest quantity of honey? 

8. What kind of gum, box or hive do you use? 

9. Are your bees troubled with Foul-brood, Bee-moth, Paralysis, or other 

enemies? 
10. What bee-keeping journals, if any, do you take? 

This Bulletin is based entirely on the answers to these questions, 
sent, as we have said, by 360 bee-keepers, representing 10,450 colo- 
nies of bees. The writer makes no pretense to any knowledge of bee- 
keeping, except such as he has learned from these contributors. But 
the inquiry is sufficiently broad and has been responded to sufficiently 
well, so that many facts and deductions can be positively stated, after 
full consideration of them all. 

The author desires to acknowledge valuable assistance rendered by 
the numerous bee-keepers, and wishes also to express special thanks to 
Prof. W. N. Hutt for taking the several photographs with which The 
Bulletin is illustrated; to Mr. T. B. Parker for valuable sugges- 
tions in preparing the manuscript, and to Mr. Burton 1ST. Gates, Ex- 
pert in Apiculture, United States Department of Agriculture, for cor- 
recting some technical errors and for suggestions. 

principal honey sections of the state. 

Probably the first question that would naturally arise is, Which is 
the leading bee-keeping county ? Or, Which section of the State is in 
the lead? This is not easy to answer, and several different conclu- 
sions may be reached, according to the point of view. Martin County 
leads in the total number of colonies on record ; Washington leads in 
the average number of colonies owned by each bee-keeper, while 



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The Bulletin. 



Madison leads in the total number of bee-keepers. Taking into 
account only those counties which have on record 250 colonies or over, 
we present the following table : 



LEADING BEE-KEEPING COUNTIES. 



County. 



Beaufort — 

Bladen 

Duplin 

Iredell 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell-— 

Onslow 

Robeson 

Washington 



Section of State. 



East — 
East — 
East — 
Central 
West -- 
East — 
Central 
East — 
East — 
East — 



Total Colo- 
nies of Bees 
Reported. 



421 
353 
445 
325 
646 
716 
262 
484 
374 
300 



Number of 

Bee-keepers 

Reporting. 



12 
11 
10 
13 
23 

8 
11 
13 
14 

3 



Average 

Number 

Colonies Per 

Bee-keeper. 



35 
32 

44y 2 

25 
28 
89Vi 
24 
37 
27 
100 



We see, therefore, that, so far as our records go, they show de- 
cidedly that at present the leading honey-producing region of the 
State is the southeastern and eastern parts, which is explained by the 
fact that there are in those sections thousands of acres of swamp land 
which never have been and perhaps never will be cultivated, but in 
which a number of excellent honey plants (gallberry, huckleberry, 
etc.) grow to perfection. All this section may, therefore, be con- 
sidered as one (the eastern) region. Leaving this region, we pass 
across a wide belt of country in which there are no specially favored 
bee-keeping sections, until we get to the upper piedmont and moun- 
tain counties, where the mixed forests, wild clovers, and best of all, 
the famous sourwood flourish. Here the opportunities for bee-keep- 
ing are only limited by the clearing of the land for crops which are 
not honey producers. So far as the writer is able to judge, a skillful 
bee-keeper will do about as well in one of these sections as the other, 
with this difference : that in the piedmont and western counties, on 
account of colder climate, more care is needed in wintering the bees, 
and the favorable locations, where the best plants grow, are somewhat 
more restricted than in the east. To offset this disadvantage, it may 
be said that all bee-keepers, wherever the sourwood grows, rank it 
first among the honey plants, and this queen of honey producers is 
most abundant in the upper piedmont and lower mountain sections. 

In this connection it is proper to attempt to determine where the 
honey yield is greatest. To attempt this for each individual countv 



The Bulletin. 



could serve no real purpose, since in many cases the difference would 
be accounted for by other conditions than that of the honey flow. 
But if we take three typical counties, representing, respectively, the 
eastern, the piedmont and the western sections, we should derive some 
sound conclusions, since the honey plants in these three sections are 
decidedly different, and such differences in returns as exist are likely 
due to the honey flow. For this calculation we have taken the coun- 
ties of Onslow, Iredell and Madison. Eliminating a number of 
reports which, for various reasons, cannot be used in this estimate, 
we construct the following table from those that are available, and, 
though it is based on too few reports to be absolutely conclusive, it 
shows about what we would judge to be the true comparison: 



HONEY YIELD IN DIFFERENT SECTIONS. 



County. 



Onslow 
Iredell - 
Madison 



Location 
in State. 



East 

Piedmont- 
West 



Number of 
Reports. 



-17- 



Average Yield 
Per Hive. 



36^2 pounds. 
42Va pounds. 
38 pounds. 



RACES OR VARIETIES OF BEES. 

The Italian (in its various strains) is the leading bee for this State. 
To determine the relative desirability of the kinds, we must take into 
account the honey yield which each produces. The leading varieties 
are: Italians, Blacks, and Hybrids (or mixed), which are derived 
from the crossing of Italians with the Blacks. About 100 of our 
bee-keepers gave no estimate of their yearly yield per colony, and in 
other cases we have been obliged to make averages between the high 
and low yields which the same bee-keeper often reports. It is only 
the most careful bee-keepers who actually keep accurate record of the 
yield. 

One person who keeps Carnolians reports an average yield of 64 
pounds per hive ; three who have Italians crossed with Carnolians 
report an average yield of 30 pounds per hive; but in both these 
instances the number reporting is too small to warrant any conclu- 
sions as to the merits of these breeds. It is only when we have a 
large number of reports that we can expect the general average to 
give an accurate idea of the true conditions. For the Italians, Blacks, 
and Hybrids we have a sufficient number of reports so that we can 
feel some confidence in the averages which they show. We have 
reports from 89 persons who keep Italians, 88 who keep the common 
Blacks, and 83 who have the Hybrid bees. A number give the yield 



10 



The Bulletin. 



in gallons (extracted honey), but the majority report it in pounds 
(comb honey). Bringing all these reports together and averaging 
them, we find the following: 

HONEY YIELD FROM DIFFERENT RACES OF BEES'. 



Race of Bees. 



Italians 
Hybrids 
Blacks - 



Total 
Bee-keepers 
Reporting. 



89 
83 



Yield in Gallons. 



Number 
Reporting. 



4 
11 
20 



Average 

Yield 
Per Hive. 



4 gallons. 

4 gallons. 

'SVz gallons. 



Yield in Pounds. 



Number 
Reporting. 



85 
72 
68 



Average 

Yield 
Per Hive. 



40% pounds. 
34M; pounds. 
26V3 pounds. 



From the above we see that the Italians lead the Hybrids by an 
average of 6 pounds per hive each season, while the Hybrids in turn 
lead the Blacks by an average of 8 pounds. This puts the Italians 
14 pounds ahead of the Blacks in average yield per hive each season. 
In these cases, also, there is a sufficient number reporting to give re- 
liability, and they demonstrate the advantage of the Italians over the 
others. As regards gallons of extracted honey, there are too few 
reporting to give so reliable a comparison, but here we find the Italians 
and Hybrids standing together with an average yield of 1 gallons, 
while the Blacks follow at 3^ gallons. It is to be noted that only 
four of the 89 persons who keep Italians report the yield in gallons, 
eleven of those with Hybrids report in gallons, and twenty of those 
who keep Blacks give the yield in gallons. The Italians have an 
advantage in the care given them, for most of those keeping Italians 
use some improved type of hive, while fully half of those who keep 
the Blacks keep them in old hollow-log "gums." In the east, where, 
as already mentioned, there are interminable swamps and forests of 
fine bee pasturage, and where there are countless swarms of wild bees 
in the forests, we find the Black bees predominating in the apiaries, 
and this largely accounts for the low average yield. Considering, 
now, only the larger bee-keepers, those having fifty or more colonies, 
we find : 



DISTRIBUTION OF ITALIAN, BLACK AND HYBRID BEES IN APIARIES OF FIFTY OR 

MORE COLONIES. 



Section of State. 



East 

Piedmont 
West 



Number 
Keeping 
Italians. 



Number 
Keeping 
Hybrids. 



-10- 



Number 
Keeping 
Blacks. 



— 17- 

none. 

„._3— 



The Bulletin. 11 

From this we see that in the east the tendency is to make use of the 
wild Black bee as found in the native forest, or, even when Italians 
are introduced, they mingle with the wild Black, producing a 
Hybrid. It seems to be much more difficult to keep the Italians pure 
in the eastern section, necessitating frequent introduction of fertilized 
Italian queens from other apiaries. In the middle and the mountain 
sections there seems to be less difficulty along this line. In the region 
where the sourwood abounds the Italian is the decided favorite, for 
of the nine large bee-keepers on record in this (the piedmont) region 
six keep the pure Italians, while the other three have Hybrids in 
which there is Italian blood. 

Thus we see, taking a view of the matter from all sides, that the 
Italian is in the lead throughout the State as a whole, though out- 
stripped in numbers by the Blacks in the east. The Italians also 
have a decided lead in the yield of honey, and are especially preferred 
in the sections where the finest quality of honey is made. * When a 
bee-keeper gets to the point of working up a fancy trade in high- 
priced honey, tie is likely to abandon the Black bees and log "gums" 
and stock up with pure Italians in modern frame hives, in which the 
marketable, honey is stored in pound sections, or in frames from irttich 
it can be easily extracted. The main objection to this lies in the dif- 
ficulty of keeping the stock pure, and the expense of continually intro- 
ducing new queens ; but, in view of the higher average yield from the 
Italians, as shown in these pages, it would seem that they more than 
compensate for this trouble and expense. 

PRICES FOR HONEY. 

Comb Honey. — There is, of course,, a wide range in the prices paid 
for honey, depending upon the demand and supply, and also depend- 
ing upon the distance to the larger towns, the source from which the 
honey is derived, its color, etc. The prices mentioned for comb 
honey (with 215 persons reporting) range from 5 to 20 cents per 
pound, the bulk being sold, however, at from 10 to 15 cents. Averag- 
ing all the reports for 215 persons, we get a fraction less than 12 
cents as the average price for comb honey throughout the* State as a 
whole. An effort to determine in which section of the State the 
highest prices prevail is only partially successful, owing to the fact 
that we have not enough reports from representative counties in all 
sections to warrant conclusions. Six persons reporting from Onslow 
show an average price of exactly 12 cents per pound; nine from 
Iredell report an average of a fraction more than 12 cents, while 
twenty reporting from Madison show an. average of a fraction less 
than 13 cents per pound. This puts the three sections (east, central, 
and west) on practically the same basis, so far as price is concerned. 
But here again we find the sourwood showing the superiority of its 



12 



The Bulletin. 



honey, when it is abundant enough to give a fair yield. This plant 
grows well in the Brushy Mountains, in northern Iredell, in Alexan- 
der and in southern Wilkes counties; and the remarks of two of the 
bee-keepers of this region with regard to honey prices are significant. 
One says: "Dark honey, 10 to 12 cents; sourwood, 15 to 20 cents"; 
the other reports : "Ked honey, 10 cents ; sourwood, 20 cents." (The 
sourwood produces a light or "white" honey). While the general 






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Fig. 2.— A well-filled pound section, usually retailing at 18 to 20 cents. 
About three-fourths actual size. (Photo by Prof. Hutt). 

average of prices in the sourwood section may not be above that of 
other sections, yet those who take full advantage of the flow from this 
plant realize a better price from its honey than from any other. 
Some bee-keepers make a practice of taking away all surplus when 
the sourwood comes on, and taking it again at the close of the sour- 
wood season, so as to have that honey pure for the fancy trade at 
highest prices. 



The Bulletin. . 13 

In some instances the price for honey seems to be very uniform 
for a whole county. For instance, in Johnston County, out of seven 
reporting, five mention only one figure — 10 cents per pound— while 
of the other two, one gives his usual prices as from 10 to 12% cents, 
and the other gives 10 to 15 cents. 

Extracted Honey. — The majority of our bee-keepers sell the comb 
honey, but in the east a great deal is extracted (often by the crudest 
methods) and sold. As none of our questions related directly to the 
extracted honey, and as even the question of price was based on comb 
honey, we have only very incomplete data as to the extent that extract- 
ing is practiced and the prices secured for the extracted honey, and no 
data whatever as to the prices secured for the wax. Most of those 
who reported on extracted honey are in the east, particularly in Bla- 
den, Onslow, Duplin and neighboring counties. From these, fifteen 
persons report an average price of 52% cents per gallon for extracted 
honey. This is a low price, and is apparently the result of several 
causes. The methods of extracting are often crude and cannot fail 
to reduce the price, resulting as they do in much sediment and foreign 
matter being left in the honey. The process known as "squeezing" 
consists simply in forcing the honey from the comb by hand into an 
open tub or trough, and, added to the unpleasant thought that the 
honey has all run over the hands and fingers of some one, is the cer- 
tain fact that, while this is going on, more or less dust, fine particles 
of trash, etc., are blown in. Then, again, when old hollow-log 
"gums" or plain box hives are used, there is not that clear and certain 
distinction between the brood, bee-bread, and surplus honey that there 
is when modern hives are used ; consequently, "squeezed" honey may 
contain bits of comb, bee-bread and an occasional wing, leg, head or 
body of a bee — all of which tends to depress the price. Modern ex- 
tractors, by which the honey is cleanly and thoroughly removed from 
the combs, are not nearly so commonly used as they should be. 

It seems certain to the writer that in our eastern section, where 
there is such endless bee pasturage, either comb or extracted honey 
should be capable of very profitable production, and some do produce 
both profitably ; but surely something could be gained by using hives 
in which the honey is stored in frames, which then fit into a regular 
extractor, from which the honey is quickly and thoroughly extracted 
without waste, at the same time keeping it pure and appetizing. 
Some improvement in the methods at present employed is very de- 
sirable. 

There is another point to be remembered in regard to the sale of 
comb and extracted honey. Recent investigations, both in this State 
and in other States, show that there is on the markets a great amount 
of adulterated and imitation food products of all sorts. Extracted 
honey can be adulterated, and at least one case has been discovered by 



14 



Tile Bulletin. 



Mr. W. M. Allen, Food Chemist in our Department, where a material 
supposed to be extracted honey was found, when analyzed, to consist 
entirely of syrups, flavors, etc., which had been derived from other 
sources. It was purely an imitation honey, yet floating about in this 




Fig. 3. — A home-made extractor. The frames filled with honey, after being uncapped with 
a knife, are placed in this machine and the honey thrown out by rapid turning- with a 
crank. The honey is then drawn out by means of the spigot at bottom of the extractor. 
(Photo by Prof. Hutt). 

material was a leg of a bee, or a wing, or a tiny bit of comb, to make 
the deception complete ! The honest bee-keeper who sells extracted 
honey must sell in competition with these fraudulent and adulterated 

products, and he is thereby put to a disadvantage, and accordingly 

v \ ■ ' ' 



The Bulletin. 15 

gets a lower price, since everything' that is sold under the name of 
extracted honey falls under suspicion unless the bee-keeper has a 
fixed trade and has the full confidence of his customers. On the 
other hand, comb honey cannot be imitated, so that it does not suffer 
so keenly from this unfair competition. The only way to adulterate 
comb honey is by the well-known process of feeding the bees with 
syrup, which is, of course, necessary at times, but should not other- 
wise be practiced, for the reason that it is costly at best, and impairs 
the quality of the product, to the detriment of the price. 

LEADING HONEY PLANTS. 

North Carolina is well supplied with native honey plants, especially 
in the eastern section. Three of the questions sent out by the writer 
bear on this subject, and the answers give an excellent view of the 
matter for the entire State. Of course each bee-keeper may have his 
own preferences or prejudices as to which plant yields the best quality 
of honey, but the averages derived from a large number of replies are 
likely to be near the truth. We have been over all the reports, so as 
to reach some definite conclusions as to the order in which our princi- 
pal honey plants should be ranked. Taking the State as a whole, 
sourwood, poplar (sometimes called tulip tree) and the clovers (all 
kinds) are the three leaders. As one of the main sources of honey, 
the sourwood is mentioned 167 times, to 162 for poplar, and 157 for 
the clovers. As to quality of honey, sourwood is mentioned 121 
times, to 30 for poplar, and 65 for the clovers. For quantity of 
honey, the sourwood is mentioned 48 times, to 57 for poplar and 39 
for the clovers. Of these three leaders the poplar is the most widely 
distributed, and is prominently mentioned in all sections, from east 
to west. The sourwood is principally confined to the piedmont sec- 
tion, though reported also from the lower mountain localities and 
from the western border of the eastern region. The clovers are found 
in all parts, though more abundant in the mountain and piedmont 
sections. Next to these three we find the gallberry (Vaccinium sp.) 
and black-gum, both taking high rank and both found principally in 
the east. Persimmon ranks sixth and is reported chiefly from the 
east, several mentioning it as irregular in yield and lasting but a 
short time, but doing well for the short period. The basswood, or lin- 
den, comes seventh and is reported only from the west. Holly and 
huckleberry (low and high) are next in order, both being in the east. 
Buckwheat follows and is confined to the west. Iron weed (so-called, 
really a species of aster), while reported almost entirely from the 
piedmont, and especially from Mecklenburg, Cabarrus and neighbor- 
ing counties, taking relatively high rank both for quality and quan- 
tity of honey produced, grows over larger areas in the piedmont and 



16 



The Bulletin. 



eastern parts of the State, especially on the stiffer soils. Bringing- 
together all these reports and tabulating them for more easy reference, ' 
we find that our twenty-four leading honey plants are as follows : 



TWENTY-FOUB LEADING BEE PASTURAGE PLANTS. 



PLANT. 

Common Name as Used in 
this State. 



Section of State Where 
Most Common. 



V 

a 
.2 

'-3<H 

C o 



a 9 

» 3 

<s o 



s 

a 

•^ o 

a >> 
o +^ 

m 3 >> 

von 

H«2ffi 



§"8 



i. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 



Sourwood 

Poplar (Tulip tree) 

Clovers (all varieties) 

Gallberry 

Black-gum 

Persimmon 

Basswood (Linden, Linn) 

Holly 

Huckleberry 

Buckwheat 

Ironweed (Aster) 

Locust (Black Locust) 

Aster 

Cotton 

Stick-weed 

Fruit trees (all kinds) 

Peas (Cow-peas) 

Sumac 

Nut trees (including oak) 

Golden-rod 

Rattan 

Blackberry 

Maple (all varieties) 

Alfalfa 



Piedmont ; little East and West 

All sections 

West and Piedmont; little in East 

East 

East 

East and Piedmont 

West 

East 

East 

West 

Piedmont 

West and Piedmont 

All sections 

East and Piedmont 



All sections 

Piedmont and East - 



All sections 

All sections 

East 

All sections 

All sections 

Locally grown . 



167 

162 

157 

66 

62 

55 

38 

37 

36 

27 

21 

19 

14 

15 

9 

46 

13 

11 

8 

13 

7 

13 

11 

4 



121 

30 

63 

28 

21 

14 

13 

11 

11 

9 

13 

7 

1 

6 

3 

2 

1 

1 



57 
39 
2» 
22 

7 
8 
12 
13 
12 
14 
2 
10 

4 

1 
3 
2 
4 
2 
I 



Botanical. — For the sake of technical accuracy we give herewith, 
so far as we can ascertain, the scientific names of our honey-plants, 
numbered to correspond to the above list. 1, Oxydendron arbor eum; 
2, Liriodendron tulipfera; 3, Trifolium sp.; 4, Ilex sp.; 5, Nyssa 
sp.; 6, Diospyros virginiana; 7, Tilia sp.; 8, Ilex opaca; 9, Vac- 
cinium sp. and Gaylussacia sp.; 10, Polygonum fagopyrum; 11, 



The Bulletin. 



17 



Aster sp.; 12, Robinia pseudacacia; 13, Aster sp.; 14, Gossypium 
herbaceum; 15, Bidens sp.; 16, . . . . ; 17, Vigna catjang; 18, Rhus 
sp.; 19, . . . . ; 20, Soldago sp.; 21, probably Berchemia scandens; 22, 
Rubus sp.; 23, ^.cer sp.; 24, Medicago sp. 

Of the above-named plants it is probable that fruit trees, sumac, 
nut trees, golden-rod, blackberry, and maple are visited by the bees 
principally for the purpose of gathering pollen or to get honey merely 
for brood-rearing. A large number of other plants receive mention 
only a few times, indicating that they are worked by the bees only 
very little or under circumstances of need. 

The first fourteen plants named (down to and including cotton) 
may be regarded as our real leaders in producing honey, and include 
the main dependence of our bee-keepers of all sections. Of these 
fourteen we find that the eastern section gets a full share of eight, the 
piedmont gets the benefit of eight, though the cotton does not grow 
throughout all the section, and clover, persimmon and ironweed are 
rather limited, and the western section has six. This showing gives 
the east a decided advantage, especially when we consider that several 
of the leading honey producers (gallberry, black-gum, and persim- 
mon) are chiefly confined to the east. Tabulating these facts to show 
the plants with which each section is favored, we find these fourteen 
leading plants distributed as follows : 



FOURTEEN LEADING HONEY PLANTS. 



Eastern Section. 


■Piedmont Section. 


Western Section. 


Poplar. 


Sourwood. 


Poplar. 


Gallberry. 


Poplar. 


Clovers. 


Black-gum. 


Clovers (limited). 


Basswood. 


Persimmon. 


Persimmon (limited). 


Buckwheat (limited). 


Holly (limited). 


Ironweed (limited). 


Locust. 


Huckleberry. 


Locust. 


Aster. 


Aster. 


Aster. 




Cotton. 


Cotton (limited). 





Here we see that, while the piedmont section has as many of these 
plants as the east, they are more limited, so that the east really takes 
the lead in abundance and variety of honey plants. "While the moun- 
tain section has basswood and buckwheat peculiar to itself, the pied- 
mont, with its famous sourwood, can still hold its own, at least in all 
the localities where this plant is found. 



18 



The Bulletin. 



TYPES OF HIVES. (SEE ILLUSTRATION ON FRONT OF BULLETIN). 

In the studies under the headings "Races or Varieties of Bees" 
and "Prices for Honey" we have already referred to the matter of 
hives for hees, since it seemed in each case to be relevant to the sub- 
ject under discussion. But here we wish to refer to the matter 
directly and by itself. A study of the reports shows that the old 
hollow-log "gums" are in much more common use in the east than in 
either the piedmont or the west, as shown by the following table : 

TYPES OF HIVES, "GUMS," ETC., IN USE. 



Section of State. 



East 

Piedmont 
West 



Number Per- 
sons Using 

Frame Hives, 

Bought or 

Homemade. 



-63- 
-144- 
-36- 



Number 

Persons Using 

Old Log 

"Gums." 



-40- 
-8- 
-6- 



Number Per- 
sons Using 
Plank Hives, 
Boxes, etc., of 
Crude Make. 



-43- 
-24- 
~1- 



The next step is to find out which of these types of hives actually 
brings in the most money to the bee-keeper. Since the east is the 
only section which uses enough of all three types of hives to render a 
fair judgment possible, we will confine our calculation to that section. 
It is a long calculation, but, when carefully compiled and put in 
tabulated form to show the average of yield, price, and total cash 
return from each type, we get the following : 

RELATIVE RESULTS FROM DIFFERENT HIVES. 
(Based on comb honey only, and only on data from eastern counties). 



Type of Hive. 



Log "Gums" 3 



Number 
Reporting. 



Average 
Yield. 



Plank boxes, etc. 
Frame hives 



-16- 
-40- 



-13% pounds- 
-21Vs pounds- 
-ZIY2 pounds- 



Average Price 

Per Pound 

in Cents. 



-9 (less) - 
40 (less) - 
-11 (more) 



Value. 



-$1.11- 
-2.60- 
-4.13- 



The majority of those who use the log "gums" either report the 
yield in gallons or do not know the yield, so that we were able to get 
the desired figures in only three instances. This is too small a num- 
ber to give conclusive results, but, so far as they go, they show that 
the average yield of comb honey obtained from the "gums" is lS 1 ^ 
pounds ; that it is worth a little less than 9 cents per pound, giving 
an average value of $1.11 worth of honey per year for each log 
"gum." The roughly made square plank boxes — often with a re- 



The Bulletin. 19 

movable cap on top — do better, yielding, according to sixteen reports, 
an average of 27% pounds, worth a little less than 10 cents, making 
a value of $2.60 per box. The frame hives, which have a super 
with movable frames, do much better yet, for an average of forty 
reports shows a yield of 37y 2 pounds, worth a little over' 11 cents 
per pound, making a return of $1.13 per hive. These figures speak 
emphatically, and, as between the crude plank box hives and the 
frame hives, the number of reports is large enough to render the 
record quite reliable. The log "gums" rank lowest in yield, and 
the honey brings the lowest price. The crude plank box hives yield 
twice as much, and the honey commands a better price, while the 
frame hives exceed the box hives by ten pounds in yield, and the 
honey commands a still higher price. Clearly it is a mistake for any 
one who keeps bees for profit to olepend either on the "gums" or the 
plain boxes, for the difference in yield, accentuated by a difference in 
price, makes a very decided and striking difference in the value of the 
honey crop that is gathered and sold. The difference in price is based 
upon the fact that honey is regarded as a luxury rather than a neces- 
sity, and the consumer would rather pay a higher price for the sake of 
having it pure and in neat shape. Hence, the low price for honey 
from "gums/' the higher price for honey from the rough plank boxes, 
and the best price for the honey that is made in the extracting frames 
in the "super" of a frame hive. And the very highest price of all is 
paid for it when in the little one-pound sections, which are a neat and 
handy table size, and especially if taken off as soon as the cells are 
filled and capped, before the combs are discolored. 

It has already been pointed out, under the discussion of "Eaces or 
Varieties of Bees," that the three races most used in this State differ 
in their yield of honey, and it would be a very nice thing to figure 
out the exact difference for each race of bees in each kind of hive, 
but this is too fine a point for the records now in our hands to justify. 
Enough to know that on the whole the Italians do best, and that the 
bees of all races do best in, the movable frame hives with super. 

It is no part of the purpose of this Bulletin to say that any one 
make of frame hive is better than others, nor is it even necessary 
in all cases for a bee-keeper to buy a complete stock of any of the 
patented hives. Many of our bee-keepers make their own hives and 
frames, and often they invent certain little modifications which ren- 
der them different from any and all other makes. It is always ad- 
visable for a bee-keeper who makes his own hives to have one standard 
model hive after which all others are made of precisely same dimen- 
sions so that frames or supers can be exchanged from one hive to 
another without difficulty. We venture to say that, if we could call 



20 



The Bulletin. 



together in one mass-meeting all the bee-keepers of this State and 
attempt to solve the question, Which is the best bee-hive for North 
Carolina bee-keepers ? the meeting might stay in session for a month, 
with no satisfactory conclusion reached. Probably a dozen different 
hives would have good backing, with perhaps another dozen kinds 
developed by individual bee-keepers, each, of course, claiming certain 
advantages for his own hive. But the point is this — that the bees do 
better in the frame hives, where they store the honey in a super with 
frames or pound sections, and it is money in your pocket to get your 
swarms into that kind of a hive. The actual yield in pounds is 
greater from such hives, so that the rule holds good that the frame 
hives should be used, whether you sell the honey in the comb or ex- 
tracted. (See the illustration on front cover of this Bulletin, and 
the explanation below it). 

BEE-MOTH AND OTHER ENEMIES. 

The question on this subject was intended to show (when con- 
sidered in connection with the questions regarding the race of bees 




Fig. 4. — Showing different stages of the Bee-moth, and the webs which the larvae make in the hive. 
Two of the adult insects are shown in the lower left-hand corner. (Photo by Prof. Hutt). 

kept and the hives used) just what enemies are most serious and 
under what circumstances they are most destructive, so that we 
might from these facts reach some conclusion as to avoiding or 



The Bulletin. 



21 



reducing the damage. All told, twelve different enemies were men- 
tioned, as follows: Number 

Reports. 

Bee-moth, reported by various names 211 

Roaches 10 

Paralysis 8 

Ants 7 

Mice 6 

Foul-brood (perhaps erroneously reported) 2 

Also, "worthless bees," "robbers," "birds," "toads," "dysentery," and 
"picklebrood" were each reported once. 

From this it appears that bee-moth is the one really important 
and formidable enemy, the others being relatively unimportant or 
easily controlled, although the possibilities of damage by such epi- 
demics as paralysis, dysentery, and foul-brood (if this disease is 
really present in this State) are very great. So far as we know 
nothing is now positively known concerning foul-brood or other 
brood-diseases in this State. If they do exist it is of great impor- 
tance that they be discovered at once, and the extent of their spread 
ascertained. Bee-keepers who suspect the presence of these diseases 
should correspond with Dr. E. F. Phillips, Bureau Entomology, IT. S. 
Department Agriculture, Washington, D. C. But we will omit 
detailed discussion of the other troubles in order to do full justice to 
a discussion of the bee-moth. 

The bee-moth is so familiar to bee-keepers as to make any intro- 
duction or description unnecessary. While most bee-keepers know 
it familiarly by its proper name of bee-moth, yet a number reported 
it under other names, such as "worms," "moth," web-worm," "wee- 
vil," "bee-worms," "fly," etc. Going carefully over all the reports of 
this pest, and tabulating them in connection with the race of bees kept 
and the type of hive used, we find that we must drop a large number 
because they fail to answer one or another of these questions, or, in 
cases where they use several types of hives, it is not possible to tell 
which is most to blame. Leaving out all these doubtful or incomplete 
records, and confining ourselves strictly to clear and positive reports 
(of which we have enough to make our conclusions safe), we get the 
following result : 



BEE-MOTH AS AFFECTING DIFFERENT RACES OF BEES IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF HIVES. 



Race of Bees and Hives. 


Number 

Reporting 

Serious 

Damage. 


Number Re- 
porting Slight 
or No 
Damage. 




31 
42 
23 
17 
20 


37 

22 
8 
3 

1 













22 The Bulletin. 

In the case of all three races of bees the bee-moth is much less 
destructive in the frame hives than in either boxes or log "gums" ; 
also, it is less destructive in the boxes than in the gums, though it is 
only in case of the Blacks that we have enough reports to thoroughly 
establish the fact. A study of the table shows clearly and con- 
vincingly that Italian bees in the frame hives are least hurt by 
the bee-moth; Hybrids in frame hives are hurt more, while the 
Blacks (in the frame hives) suffer much more than either of the 
others. With the Blacks we carry The study further and find that 
they suffer worse in the plank-box hives than in the frame hives, 
while the ones who suffer most of all are the Blacks in the log 
"gums." We have seen in our studies under "Kaces of Bees" that 
the Italians produce the most honey, the Hybrids second, and the 
Blacks third ; and here we find that, with regard to resistance to bee- 
moth, they take the same rank. We also found in our study of 
"Types of Hives" that the frame hives rank first in value of 
honey yield, the plank-box hives second, and the log "gums" last; 
and here we find that, with regard to resistance to bee-moth, they 
take the same rank. Nothing is plainer than that the best combina- 
tion, both for pro/its and for resistance to bee-moth, is ti> keep 
Italian bees in frame hives. It is equally 'plain that the poorest 
combination, both with regard to profits and bee-moth, is to keep the 
common Black bees in log "gums." 

It is plain, from the tables and discussion just preceding, that 
Italian bees in the frame hives are the least subject to the rav- 
ages of the bee-moth; but there are other very important factors 
not included in our questions which were repeatedly stated by bee- 
keepers in their replies. Most important among these is the fact 
that strong colonies, with vigorous queens and a full number of 
workers, are not usually much troubled; but if the colony becomes 
weak or depleted from any cause, the bee-moth is likely to gain a 
foothold and keep the colony weak until it may kill out the swarm 
entirely. Freezing, long rainy spells, poor honey flow, being queen- 
less for a time, too severe robbing — all 'these things tend to deplete 
the colony so that the bee-moth takes possession. Most of our keen, 
active bee-keepers are fully aware of these facts, but every now and 
again we receive a mournful complaint from some one who is much 
worried by the bee-moth, when, likely as not, he is keeping the Black 
bees in old log "gums," the very conditions which enable the bee- 
moth to do its greatest destruction. 

In order to further emphasize the points brought out in reference 
to the injury by bee-moth, and the methods of avoiding it, we quote 
from the reports of several of our North Carolina bee-keepers on the 



The Bulletin. 23 

subject. Over thirty persons made just such remarks as these, and 
they fit the case exactly and give a good idea of the facts : 

"Weak colonies troubled with bee-moth." 

"Bee-moth; lost six or seven weak colonies." 

"Bee-moth, in bad seasons." 

"Bee-moth, when they lose the queens." 

"Sometimes bothered with moth during winter." 

"No moths if kept strong." 

"Bee-moth bad in wet seasons." 

"ISTo trouble unless bees get weak." 

"Bee-moth, but Italians are free if kept strong." 

"Bee-moth in log gums, but not in hives." 

"Bee-moth, after robbing. 

"Weak bees killed out; strong ones no trouble." 

The final advice with regard to bee-moth is, get Italians, keep 
them in frame hives, and use every effort to keep, the colony populous 
and strong. 

BEE-KEEPING JOURNALS. 

The last question on the list which we sent out related to journals 
or papers devoted especially to bee-keeping. A number mentioned 
that they secured information concerning bees from their farm 
papers, and several mentioned one or more books which they have on 
the subject. Out of about 340 persons who answered the question 
at all, 118 take one or more bee-keeping journals. Considering the 
fact that all of these people have at least ten colonies of bees, it seems 
to us that the number who are subscribers is smaller than it should 
be. Here, again, as with regard to hives for bees, it is a delicate 
matter to recommend any one above others ; but, since our bee-keepers 
should at least be given an opportunity to know what the journals 
are, we give below some convenient information regarding each of the 
bee-keeping journals which are taken by our bee-keepers. 

"Gleanings in Bee Culture" is published every two weeks by The 
A. T. Eoot Co., Medina, Ohio ; $1 per year. 

"American Bee Journal" is published monthly at $1 per year. 
Address 118 W. Jackson, Chicago, 111. 

"American Bee-keeper" is published monthly at Falconer, N. Y. 
Subscription, 50 cents per year ; 3 years for $1. 

"Bee-keeper s Review" is published monthly at Flint, Mich; $1 
per year. 

SUMMARY OF BEE-KEEPING IN THE STATE. 

North Carolina is well adapted to bee-keeping, but the industry 
has not been well developed along the best lines. Each of the three 
great sections (east, piedmont, and west) has certain splendid honey 
plants. Our bee-keepers, especially in the east, have relied too much 



24 The Bulletin. 

on the wild Black bees, and have not been so particular about 
the introduction of Italians as would have been best. We are also 
too prone to use the old log "gum" or crude plank box hive instead of 
the modern frame hives. In consequence of these facts our yield of 
honey is smaller than need be, the price received is lower than should 
be, and the colonies are more easily destroyed by bee-moth than should 
be. These difficulties will disappear or be gradually overcome with a 
little closer attention to the details and fine points of the business and 
with more general reading and study along these lines. Whether the 
bee-Jceeper sells comb honey or extracted honey, Ids best interests will 
be served if he will Italianize his swarms, keep them in hives with 
movable frames, and keep them in strong condition. 



WHAT ENCOURAGEMENT CAN BE GIVEN THE INDUSTRY 



« 



The writer is not a bee-keeper and does not claim to be able to 
advise in bee-keeping matters, except in such general matters as are 
discussed in this Bulletin. Indeed, he knows nothing about the 
business, except what he has learned in conducting this inquiry and 
in averaging and tabulating the results. When we began this work 
several bee-keepers at once expressed satisfaction that an effort was 
being made by our Department to aid the bee-keepers, and from time 
to time inquiries have come, which we have answered as best we 
could. Fortunately, most of these were about the bee-moth, the 
remedies for which are well known. But the bee-keeping industry 
never has been, and is not now, sufficiently well organized, or suffi- 
ciently important, or, at least, has not made itself sufficiently felt, to 
bring about the employment of a skilled and experienced man to 
especially aid and protect the industry ; and until the industry can 
successfully do away with these obstacles, the employment of such a 
man is not probable. 

Recently the State Department of Agriculture has added to its 
staff of workers Mr. T. B. Parker, well known to the farmers of the 
State. Mr. Parker has in the past been a practical bee-keeper, and at 
the time was an exceptionally close student of bee-keeping matters. 
Although he is now employed for other lines of work, our bee-keepers 
can in future benefit by his knowledge when they send inquiries to us. 
We realize that this, is not providing as fully and as satisfactorily 
for the bee-keepers as we should like, but it is the best that can be 
done in the present state of the industry. 

The United States Department of Agriculture at Washington has 
recently increased its work in apiculture, and our bee-keepers can at 
all times feel free to call on that Department for reasonable advice or 
for publications on this subject. The man in charge of this work is 
Dr. E. F. Phillips, Apiculturist, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



The Bulletin. 25 

Several bee-keepers have suggested that a State bee-keepers' asso- 
ciation should be organized. If there is a large enough number of 
bee-keepers who are deeply enough interested to actually go down in 
their pockets to pay dues, to buy tickets, pay hotel bills, etc., to the 
extent of a few dollars each year, so as to maintain such an organiza- 
tion and attend its meetings, then there can be no doubt that it 
could succeed and could eventually be a powerful factor in develop- 
ing a large and profitable honey industry. But it is to be remem- 
bered that no matter where a meeting is held, it would be a long 
distance from some of the members, and some plan of holding the 
meetings in different places from year to year would be necessary. 
We give in the last pages of this Bulletin a list of all bee-keepers 
in the State known to us who have fifty or more colonies of bees. 
If there is a real sentiment for a State bee-keepers' association these 
bee-keepers will be able to find it out among themselves. The writer 
stands ready to assist and encourage in any reasonable way, will 
give further lists of bee-keepers known to us, etc., but we cannot 
undertake to work up the sentiment and bring the organization into 
being; that is for the bee-keepers themselves. So many efforts at 
organization either fail utterly or are only partially successful that 
our bee-keepers should think carefully before attempting to form an 
organization. There is plenty of good work for such an organiza- 
tion to do, provided it has two essentials — numbers and enthusiasm — 
the real enthusiasm that is willing to pay something in cash even 
without hope of actually getting it back again, but for the purpose of 
furthering a worthy industry in the State. 

LEADING BEE-KEEPERS OF THE STATE. 

We give below a list of all the bee-keepers of whom we have 
record who have as many as fifty or more colonies of bees. There 
are no doubt a good many others, for, as was pointed out in the be- 
ginning of this Bulletin, our records must be far from complete; 
but we feel that this list should be of some interest and use. Records 
of all the rest of the 360 bee-keepers (all having ten colonies or more) 
who have furnished information to us are in this office, available for 
any proper use, but it does not seem desirable to publish them all 
here. 



26 



The Bulletin. 



LEADING BEE-KEEPERS OF THE STATE. 



County. 



Section 
of State. 



Beaufort East- 



Name. 



Bertie - 
Bladen 



Buncombe - 

Caswell 

Cherokee -- 



West 

Piedmont- 
West 



Columbus 
Duplin 



East- 



Edgecombe- 

Greene 

Haywood -— 
Henderson - 
Hertford — 



West 



East- 



Hyde - 
Iredell - 
Lenoir- 



Piedmont- 
East 



Madison - 
Martin -. 



West 
East- 



Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg - 



East 

Piedmpnt- 



Onslow ■ 



East- 



Pamlico ■ 



Marion Allen 

J. R. Pinkham 

Owen Warren 

J. S. Holloman 

P. S. Porter 

R. M. Squires 

Geo. I. Elmore 

A. Yancey Kerr 

H. M. Collett 

J. M. Mosteller 

A. B. Pridgen 

A. W. Alderman --. 

S. W. Clement 

H. M. Middleton— - 

JohnW. Day 

J. L. Newborn 

C. C. Moody 

Mrs. E. W. Gurley- 

James Cotton 

J. W. Holloman — - 

J. A. Dunbar 

J. W. Hager 

H. O. Hyatt 

R. E. Pittman 

Chas. L. Sams 

M. W. Ballard 

S. D. Matthews 

William Powell 

U. T. Riddick 

W. R. White 

A. L. Beach 

Thomas Donaldson 
George M. Phifer--. 

J. E. Floyd 

E. H. Morton 

John Thompson — 

G. T. Farnell 

W. J. Parker 



Address. 



Pungo 

R. F. D. 4, Washington 

Bonnerton 

Aulander 

Kelly 

Natmore 

Alexander 

Yancey ville 

Andrews 



Cronly-- 
Wallace 



Warsaw 

Tarboro 

Shine 

Dellwood 

R.F.D.5. Hendersonville 
Harrellsville 1 



Leechville 

Statesville 

Kinston 

Grifton 

Mars Hill 

R. F. D. 3. Williamston- 

Hamilton 

Parmele 

Williamston 

Williamston 

Old Fort 

Charlotte 



Catherine Lake- 
Verona 

Marines 

Bayboro 

Merritt 



Number 
Colonies. 



50 
50 

125 
65 

100 
85 

120 

160 
50 
55 

100 
90 

100 

100 
50 
65 
66 
75 
55 
75 

250 

100 

100 
70 

153 
90 

291 
75 
80 

100 
60 
50 
60 
96 

108 
80 

200 
64 



The Bulletin. 



27 



LEADING BEE-KEEPERS OF -THE STATE — -Continued. 



County. 



Section 
of State. 



Name. 



Address. 



Number 
Colonies. 



Pamlico • 
Pender -. 
Robeson - 



Sampson — 

Scotland 

Surry 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington ■ 



East- 



Piedmont 



East- 



Watauga West 



Yadkin . 



Piedmont- 



W.-P. Robinson 

D.G.Kelly 

W. P. Burns 

J. W. Faircloth 

N. W.Goddy 

W. R. McBride 

Wm. Carmichael 

Miss Ella Greenwood -- 

W. L. Womble 

W. H. Pridgen 

Grisbourne V. Lewis -- 

B. R. Marriner 

T. T. Woodley 

H. A. Davis 

A. J. McBride 

Mrs. Emma Shugart— 



Oriental 

Canetuck 

Maxton 

Rowland 

R. F. D. 3, Rowland — - 
R. F. D. 2, Parkersburg 

Johns Station 

Mount Airy 

Raleigh 

Creek 

Roper 



Cherry 

R. F. D. 1, Moretz 
Mast 

Jonesville 



60 

75 

50 

50 

75 

65 

50 

65 

100 

80 

100 

100 

100 

50 

50 

191 



REPORT FROM LEAF TOBACCO WAREHOUSES FOR MONTH OF 

DECEMBER, 1907. 

Pounds sold for producers, first hand 12,562,597 

Pounds sold for dealers 428,175 

Pounds resold for warehouse 641,950 

Pounds resold for other warehouses 13,977 

Total • 13,646,699 



REPORT FROM LEAF TOBACCO WAREHOUSES FOR MONTH OF 

JANUARY, 1908. 

Pounds sold for producers, first hand 9,144,246 

Pounds sold for dealers 399,800 

Pounds resold for warehouse 473,293 

Pounds resold for other warehouses 14,353 

Total 10,031,692 



THE BULLETIN 



OF THE 



NORTH CAROLINA 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



RALEIGH, 



Volume 29. 



FEBRUARY, 1908. 



Number 2. 



I. VARIETY AND DISTANCE TESTS OF CORN. 
II. VARIETY AND DISTANCE TESTS OF COTTON. 

III. FERTILIZATION AND CULTIVATION OF CORN AND COTTON. 

IV. COMPOST AND COMPOSTING. 

V. FERTILIZERS FOR TOBACCO. 




CORN AND COTTON PLATS— EDGECOMBE TEST FARM. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND SENT FREE TO CITIZENS ON APPLICATION. 



ENTERED AT THE RALEIGH POST-OFFICE AS SECOND-CLASS MAIL MATTER. 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



S. L. Patterson, Connnissioner, ex officio Chairman, Raleigh. 

J. J. Laughinghouse Greenville First District. 

C. W. Mitchell Aulander Second District. 

William Dunn New Bern Third District. 

Ashley Hobne Clayton Fourth District. 

R. W. Scott Melville Fifth District. 

A. T. McCallum Red Springs Sixth District. 

J. P. McRae Laurinburg Seventh District. 

R. L. Doughton Laurel Springs Eighth District. 

W. A. Graham Machpelah Ninth District. 

A. Cannon Horse Shoe Tenth District. 



OFFICERS AND STAFF. 

S. L. Patterson Commissioner. 

T. K. Bruner , Secretary. 

B. W. Kilgore State Chemist, Field Crops. 

Tait Butler Veterinarian, Animal Husbandry. 

Franklin Sherman, Jr Entomologist. 

W. N. Hutt Horticulturist. 

H. H. Brimleit Naturalist and Curator. 

T. B. Parker Demonstration Work. 

W. M. Allen Food Chemist. 

J. M. Pickel Assistant Chemist. 

C. D. Harris . . . Assistant Chemist and Microscopist, Stock Feeds. 

W. G. Haywood Assistant Chemist. 

G. M. MacNider Assistant Chemist, Soils. 

L. L. Brinkley Assistant Chemist. 

S. O. Perkins Assistant Chemist. 

Hampden Hill Assistant Chemist. 

S. C. Clapp .Nursery and Orchard Inspector. 

S. B. Shaw Assistant Horticulturist. 



R. W. Scott, Jr., Superintendent Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C. 
F. T. Meacham, Superintendent Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. 
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent Pender Test Farm, Willard, N. C. 
R. W. Collett, Superintendent Transylvania Test Farm, Blantyre, N. C. 



e. TRAOEs ffiffi ncouN aL 1 



EIGHTH (PARTIAL) REPORT OF THE WORK ON THE DEPART- 
MENT TEST FARMS FOR SEASON 1907, 2 

INCLUDING 

VARIETY AND DISTANCE TESTS OF CORN AND COTTON. 



B. W. KILGOIIE, State Chemist, Field Crops. 



by 
G. M. MacNideb, Soil Work, 

AND 

R. W. Scott, Jb., Superintendent Edgecombe Test Farm, 

F. T. Meacham, Supebintendent Ibedell Test Fabm, 

R. W. Collett, Supebintendent Teansylvania Test Faem. 



On the following pages are recorded the results of this year's work with 
the variety and distance tests of corn and cotton on the Department's Test 
Farms. The testing of these two factors in the production of cotton and 
corn is of the most fundamental importance, as is evidenced by the differ- 
ence in yield of different varieties and of different distancing when grown 
side by side in the same field, on the same type of soil, with identical cul- 
tivation and fertilization. Its importance is further emphasized when 
it is considered that 64.7 per cent (17.5 per cent to cotton and 47.2 per 
cent to corn) of the cultivated lands of North Carolina are devoted to 
these two crops, with the small average annual yields of 215 pounds of 
lint cotton and 12.8 bushels shelled corn per acre. If by carefully con- 
ducted experiments through a number of years the most advantageous 
distancing and most prolific varieties of corn and cotton on the different 
types of soil for an average season can be ascertained, and farmers gener- 
ally be induced to use the best varieties and distances in growing these 
crops, material assistance will have been rendered in increasing the total 
amounts per acre of these crops grown in the State. Increasing the aver- 
age yield of corn one bushel and seed cotton fifty pounds per acre will, 
according to the census of 1900, increase the annual profits of the farmers 
of North Carolina by about $3,650,000,. allowing sixty cents per bushel 
for shelled corn and three and one-half cents per pound for seed cotton. 
This does not appear, with the hearty co-operation of farmers, such a far- 
distant possibility, in the light of results obtained during the past seven 

lr The main portion of the work for 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906 and 1907 is reserved 
for publication later, when the results of our tests, which have now been running 
some six or seven years, will be brought together, with the view of drawing such 
conclusions as may be warranted on the subjects covered by the experiments. 

2 Thanks are due Mr. C B. Williams, Director of the Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion, West Raleigh, for valuable assistance in the preparation of this bulletin. 

s The results at the Edgecombe farm are taken for these comparisons because, it 
being the oldest farm, we have data for a greater number of years. 



4 The Bulletin. 

years in our testing of varieties of corn and cotton. Take, for example, 
the results of our variety tests at the Edgecombe farm 3 during this time. 
In comparative variety tests of corn, with the number of varieties in the 
different tests varying from eight to thirty-six, we have found the differ- 
ences between the one yielding the highest and the one the lowest amount 
of shelled corn per acre in the individual test to range from 6.2 to 26.6 
bushels. "With cotton the^range of difference in the different tests has 
been all the way from 530 to 915 pounds of seed cotton per acre, when 
from seven to twenty-six varieties were used in the different tests. It 
must not be forgotten that the best distancing of any crop is principally 
dependent upon soil fertility, while yield of variety is governed largely 
by soil fertility and adaptability and by the rigidity with which selection 
of seed of desirable characteristics has been made. 

LOCATION AND CHARACTER OF SOILS OF TEST FARMS. 

Edgecombe Farm. — This farm is located in Edgecombe County, about 
midway between the towns of Tarboro and Rocky Mount, and about two 
miles from Kingsboro, a station on the Atlantic Coast Line Eailway. 
The soil of this farm consists, principally, of sandy loam, with moder- 
ately fine sand, underlain by a rather tenacious sandy clay subsoil at a 
depth, generally, of from 8 to 12 inches. The subsoil is a moderately 
good sandy clay, such as is found under the larger portion of the "lands 
of the eastern part of the State. This type of soil responds very rapidly 
in remunerative crops to proper fertilization and cultivation, and repre- 
sents a large and important part of the coastal plain formation, which 
comprises something like forty per cent of the total area of the State. 
The types of soil on this farm are designated by the Bureau of Soils of 
the United States Department of Agriculture as Norfolk sandy loam and 
Norfolk fine sandy loam. 

Red Springs Farm. — This farm is located in the coastal plain region, 
about one mile east of the corporate limits of the town of Red Springs, 
in Robeson County. The soil is a rather deep phase of Norfolk sandy 
loam, a gray medium sandy loam underlain at from 12 to 15 inches by a 
yellow sandy clay subsoil. This type of soil is found in considerable 
areas in the middle-eastern and southeastern portions of the State, and 
being of a dry nature and warming up early in the spring, it is especially 
adapted to the growth of truck and other crops where early maturity is 
an important consideration. Although this soil is not as strong as that 
found on the Edgecombe farm, it will produce good yields under liberal 
fertilization and proper cultivation and rotation of crops. 

Iredell Farm. — This farm, located in the Piedmont section of the State, 
lies about one and one-half miles northwest of the corporate limits of 
Statesville, and is bisected by the Statesville and Western Division of the 
Southern Railway. The soils consist of Cecil clay and Cecil sandy loam, 
which are the predominant types throughout the Piedmont Plateau. The 
surface soil of the Cecil sandy loam is a grayish brown sandy loam, while 
that of the Cecil clay is a deep red tenacious clay. Both are underlain 
by a heavy red clay subsoil. These soils are naturally strong and are 
susceptible of high productivity under judicious fertilization and proper 
cultural management. They are especially adapted to the growth of 
grains, grasses and clover. 



The Bulletin. 5 

Transylvania Farm. — This farm is located at Blantyre, on the west 
side of the French Broad Eiver, twelve miles directly west of Henderson- 
ville, and is situated on both sides of the Hendersonville and Lake Tox- 
away Branch of the Asheville and Spartanburg Division of the Southern 
Bailway. The farm embraces both valley and mountain-side soils. The 
valley soil consists of a dark, heavy loam, containing organic matter and 
a liberal supply of plant-food constituents ; it is known as Toxaway loam. 
This soil, which is typical of large areas of soil in the French Broad Val- 
ley, is deep and fertile, and generally produces large yields when not sub- 
ject to too great overflows during the growing season._ The mountain- 
side soil consists of a grayish to dark red loam, underlain at from 6 to 12 
inches by a stiff clay loam ; it is known as Porter's loam. Both soil and 
subsoil contain some rock fragments. This is one of the typical soils of 
the mountains of western North Carolina. It washes badly if not cov- 
ered by forest or carefully looked after when cultivated. This soil, when 
not too steep, is devoted to some extent to general farming and fruit 
growing. 

I. Variety, Variety-distance and Distance Tests of Corn. 

Preparation and Cultivation. — The plats were all broke alike with a 
two-horse turning plow 8 to 10 inches deep and harrowed. Soon after 
the rows were run 4 to 5 inches deep and 4 feet apart in variety tests and 
the several distances in the distance tests. The stalks in the variety tests 
were reduced to a stand of 2 x /2 feet in the row. 

The fertilizer materials were applied uniformly in these drills and 
covered, the application being at the following rate per acre in all tests : 

Three hundred pounds of a mixture of acid phosphate, dried blood and 
manure salt, 1 which contained 7 per cent available phosphoric acid, 1% 
per cent potash and 3 per cent nitrogen (equal to 3.64 per cent ammonia), 
costing $3.12, were used. 

The slight ridges formed in covering the fertilizer were opened and 
the corn planted a little below the level, all tests of the same kind at the 
same farm being given the same treatment as to time of planting and 
otherwise. All cultivations were as nearly level as possible and rather 
deep early in the season, with the small hoes of the Planet Jr. Cultivator, 
but became shallower, using the large hoes as the season advanced and 
the roots extended towards the middle of the rows and nearer the surface. 
This system of cultivation afforded pretty thorough breaking of the land 
early in the season and prevented the disturbance of the root systems of 
the plants later. An effort was made to cultivate every ten or twelve 
days, as far as the weather would permit, and especially immediately 
after rains, in order to produce a fine dust mulch with the shallow-run- 
ning plows, to retard the evaporation of the recently, added moisture. 

The varieties of corn were harvested and shocked on September 16 at 
the Edgecombe farm, on September 14 at the Iredell farm, but were not 
husked until December 3 and 4 at Edgecombe, November 7 at Iredell. 

RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF CORN. 

The results of these tests are contained in the following tables : 



1 Manure salt is a potash compound containing about 20 per cent potash, princi- 
pally in the form of muriate. 



The Bulletin. 



Table I— RESULTS OF 

EDGECOMBE 



Rank in 
Produc- 
tivity. 



c 
u 
o 



JS 



1 

2 

S 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

9 

10 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

18 

18 

19 

20 

20 

21 

22 

22 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 



Varieties Tested. 



> 
o 

W 



14 
13 

6 
20 

1 
21 
29 
24 
23 
31 
34 
18 

7 
30 
33 

8 
16 
26 
28 
19 
17 

9 
10 

3 
32 
12 

5 
27 
15 

4 
23 
25 

7 
22 

2 
11 



Wyatt's Improved Yellow • 

Cocke's Prolific 

Weekley's Improved 

Marlboro Prolific 

Jarvis' Improved 

Biggs' Seven Ear 

American Queen 

Pool's 

Boone County White 

Six Ear Corn 

Boone County White 

Hickory King 

Cocke's Prolific 

Reid's Yellow Dent 

Riley's Favorite 

Williams' 

Hickory King 

Wilson's Success 

Parker's Cocke's Prolific 

Sanders' Improved 

Sharber's 

Marlboro Prolific 

Southern Beauty 

Fry's Improved 

Farmers' Favorite 

Brake's 

Holt's Strawberry 

Selection 77 — 

McMackin's Gourd Seed - 

Iowa Silver Mine 

Learning Yellow 

Boone County Special 

Hastings' Prolific 

Bradbury's Improved 

■ 
Henry Grady 

Mosby's Prolific 



Number 


Stalks 


per 


Plat. 


■w 




o 




f> 


ri 


u 


3 

o+S 

<?t 


&fl 


fcti 


fata 


MO 


1% 


178 


196 


172 


196 


219 


196 


188 


196 


162 


196 


195 



it 

a 



XD 

H 

O 






Average 
Height in 
Inches at 
Maturity. 



July 



XT1 



196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 
196 



162 
184 
165 
158 
171 
176 
202 
158 
184 
177 
204 
160 
156 
147 
161 
151 
173 
189 
13.1 
160 



196 193 



196 
196 
196 



180 
182 
143 



196 164 
196 173 

196 211 
196: 179 



196 
196 



172 
196 



112.0 
108.0 
105.0 
102.0 
110.0 



27 106.0 
27 99.0 



25 


96.0 


20 


102.0 


27 


108.0 


22 


99.0 


24 


97.0 


24 


107.0 


20 


97.0 


IS 


95.0 


26 


108.0 


23 


93.0 


26 


113.0 


25 


96.0 


2* 


106.0 


22 


97.0 


25 


106.0 


24 


104.0 


25 


110.0 



22 109.0 



25 
26 
28 

24 
23 
20 
22 
30 
2C 
25 
28 



109.0 

109.0 

97.0 

104.0 

72.0 

90.0 

97.0 

109.0 

103.0 

118.0 

101.0 






u 

a 

m 

8 
w 

«H 

O 
■- 
4> 

S 

3 



53.0 
49.0 
60.0 
42.0 
50.0 
46.0 
43.0 
36.0 
42.0 
52.0 
40.0 
39.0 
47.0 
39.0 
34.0 
51.0 
40.0 
52.0 
41.0 
49.0 
44.0 
49.0 
46.0 
53.0 
45.0 
47.0 
51.0 
39.0 
47.0 
28.0 
35-0 
37.0 
51.0 
47.0 
58.0 
53.0 



to 

U 

cd 

H 

■g. 

u 

a 

■a 

s 

o 
a> ~ 

cj +• 

$? 

it ® 



Yield per 
Plat. 



M 

ca o 



182 

232 

291 

243 

180 

306 

236 

217 

171 

225 

154 

200 

252 

142 

173 

150 

217 

208 

204 

169 

186 

212 

156 

166 

132 

139 

164 

170 

163 

126 

160 

159 

254 

172 

165 

191 



1.02 
1.34 
1.32 

1.29 

1.11 

1.56 

1.45 

1.17 

1.03 

1.42 

.90 

1.13 

1.24 

.89 

.94 

.84 

1.06 

1.30 

1.30 

1.14 

1.15 

1.40 

.90 

.87 

1.00 

.86 

.85 

.94 

.89 

• 88 

.97 

.91 

1.20 

.90 

.95 

.97 



p m 

■° 3 

2. § 



70.50 
69.76 
66.50 
73.25 
67.75 
64.00 
63.75 
58-00 
66.50 
66-50 
45.00 
54.00 
53-01 
55.25 
60.50 
60.75 
53.50 
57.25 
56.25 
52.75 
55.50 
50.00 
50.50 
50.50 
52.50 
41-25 
45.50 
51.00 
46. 5C 
44.50 
49.50 
49.25 
38.00 
40.25 
44.50 
37.00 



13.60 

12.75 

13.00 

6.00 

7.75 

14.75 

10.75 

11.75 

5.50 

5.50 

24.00 

11.00 

15.00 

10.50 

6.00 

10.00 

9.50 

9.75 

7.25 

5.25 

8.75 

11.50 

9.25 

8.50 

8.00 

15.00 

12.50 

6.75 

10.25 

11.75 

7.50 

6.00 

15.00 

11.00 

8.25 

9.00 



The Bulletin. 



VARIETY TEST OF CORN. 

FAHM. 



Yield per 
Acre. 


Number Ears to Shell One 
Bushel. 


c-fi 
5 g 

.9 m 
So " 

US 
H 11 

w o 

3ja 
o o 


Ears. 


Shelling 
Capacity. 


Total 
Weight. 


Stover per Acre— Pounds. 

Weight in Pounds of 
Measured Bushel of 
Shelled Corn. 




m 
T3 

C 

o 
1 

00 
U 

ca 
H 


1 

1 

Si 

4) to 

wffl 


Average 
Length- 
Inches. 


Average Cir- 
cumference — 
Inches 


i H 

1 <D 

'5 ti 

I- 01 


+5 
g 

o 
8 

1 

■8 

o 


Ears— 
Per Cent. 


i i 

4lO 

3 « 


Source'of Seed. 


1864.8 


27.0 


106 


71.5 


8.70 


6.90 


81.1 


18.9 


54.1 


45.9 


1576 


58.00 


^orth Carolina. 


1831.5 


26.6 


156 


79.5 


8.00 


6.60 


81.1 


18.1 


53.2 


46.8 1610 


64.50 


rennessee. 


1764.9 


26.2 


166 


71.5 


7.50 


6.00 


83.2 


16.8 


45.4 


54-6 


2120 


59.50 


Iredell Test Farm. 


1759.3 


25.7 


170 


73.0 


7.50 


5.90 


82.1 


17.9 


56.8 


43.1 


1384 


60.00 


South Carolina (B.P.I.) 


1076.1 


25.2 


104 


68.0 


8.10 


7.20 


84.5 


15.5 


43.1 


56.9 


2909 


57.50 


North Carolina. 


1748.2 


24.8 


206 


74.0 


6.25 


5.37 


79.5 


20.5 


60.5 


39.5 


1338 


58.50 


North Carolina. 


1653.9 


24.1 


168 


74.5 


7.20 


6.30 


81.8 


18.2 


59.5 


40.5 


1121 


61.00 


North Carolina. 


1548.4 


24.0 


154 


73.5 


6.90 


5.80 


87.0 


13.0 


55.8 


44.2 


1227 


64.00 


Georgia. 


1598.4 


23.6 


110 


70.0 


8.70 


7.20 


82.8 


17.2 


55.3 


44.7 


1287 


58.00 


Tennessee. 


1598.4 


23.6 


110 


70.0 


8.70 


7.20 


82.8 


17.2 


60.0 


40.0 


1066 


58.00 


Georgia. 


1531.8 


22.9 


108 


72.0 


8.60 


7.00 


84.0 


16.0 


65.7 


34.3 


799 


60.50 


Indiana. 


1443.0 


22.9 


150 


70.0 


6.70 


6.00 


89.2 


10.8 


50.0 


50.0 


1443 


62.50 


Virginia. 


1509.6 


22.4 


162 


'77.5 


7.50 


5.80 


83.2 


16.8 


43.8 


56.2 


1931 


64.50 


Edgecombe Test Farm. 


1459.6 


22.2 


116 


69.0 


8.30 


5.60 


85.5 


14.5 


57.1 


42.9 


1093 


59.00 


Illinois. 


1476.3 


22.0 


132 


68.0 


8-00 


6.50 


83.8 


16.2 


63.3 


36.7 


855 


57.00 


Indiana. 


1570.6 


21.8 


114 


74.5 


8.80 


6.90 


77.8 


22.2 


45.6 


54.4 


1870 


58.00 


North Carolina. 


1398.6 


21.5 


136 


65.5 


7.70 


6.10 


86.2 


13.8 


48.4 


51.6 


1487 


56.50 


Tennessee. 


1487.4 


21.2 


174 


70.5 


7.66 


5.75 


80.1 


19.9 


53.6 


46.4 


1176 


56.50 


Virginia. 


1409.7 


20.1 


162 


70.0 


7.50 


6.60 


80.0 


20.0 


55.2 


44.8 


1143 


56.00 


North Carolina. 


1287.6 


19.8 


136 


69.0 


7.10 


7.20 


86.2 


13.8 


48.3 


51.7 


1376 


59.50 


Georgia. 


1426.3 


19.8 


114 


74.5 


7.60 


6.75 


77.8 


22.2 


49.4 


50.6 


1460 


58.00 


North Carolina. 


1365.3 


19.8 


154 


73.5 


6-80 


6.05 


81.6 


18.4 


42.4 


57.6 


1854 


60.00 


South Carolina. 


1326.4 


19.5 


84 


65.5 


7.80 


7.80 


82.4 


17.6 


42.2 


55.8 


1671 


54.00 


North Carolina. 


1309.8 


19.4 


114 


74.0 


8.25 


6.9C 


83.2 


16.8 


33.7 


66.3 


2575 


62.00 


Georgia. 


1343.1 


19.4 


112 


72.5 


9.20 


6.60 


81.3 


18.7 


57.6 


42.4 


988 


59.00 


North Carolina. 


1248.7 


19.1 


130 


72.0 


7.50 


6.8C 


86.1 


13.S 


43.2 


56-8 


1637 


62.00 


North Carolina. 


1287.6 


19.0 


96 


71.0 


8.40 


7.6C 


83.0 


17. C 


36.2 


63.8 


2264 


59. 0C 


Virginia. 


1282.0 


19.0 


128 


66.0 


7.90 


6.6C 


83.3 


16.7 


52. 5 


47.5 


1158 


55. 0C 


Ohio. 


1259.8 


19. C 


96 


65.5 


7.00 


7.5C 


84.7 


15.? 


45.4 


54.6 


151E 


55.5C 


Tennessee. 


1248.7 


18. S 


120 


74.0 


8.0C 


6.91 


85.1 


14. £ 


34. C 


66. C 


2414 


63. 0C 


Illinois. 


1265.4 


18.? 


130 


70. C 


8.1C 


6.6( 


83. E 


16.1 


49.7 


50. S 


128' 


58. 5C 


Ohio. 


1226. S 


18.C 


112 


65.E 


7.9C 


6.9( 


) 82.4 


17. f 


50.2 


49-8 


121E 


54. 06 


Illinois. 


1176.6 


17. £ 


192 


73.C 


6.8C 


5.9( 


) 85.6 


14.^ 


37.8 


62.2 


1931 


62. 6( 


Georgia. 


1137.7 


n.4 


112 


68. E 


7.4C 


7.0( 


) 86.1 


13. i 


) 46. E 


53. E 


130< 


59. 0( 


1 Georgia. 


1171. C 


17.5 


96 


62. C 


7.3( 


7.6( 


) 82.2 


17. i 


5 31. C 


69. C 


260? 


, 51. 0( 


) Georgia. 


1021.5 


15.' 


' 152 


66. £ 


7.2( 


1 6.00 86.^ 


13.( 


; 38. : 


61." 


1645 


! 57. 5( 


) Mississippi. 



8 



The Bulletin. 



Table I— RESULTS OF VARIETY 

IREDELL 



Rank in 
Produc- 
tivity. 



c 
u 
o 
U 



T3 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 

10 

11 

12 

13 

13 

14 

15 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 



u 

> 
o 



21 

25 

11 

20 

22 
7 

15 

19 

23 

16 

10 
2 

31 
3 

26 

13 
9 
6 

18 
4 

14 
1 

24 
30 
28 
27 
12 
29 
8 
23 
21 
32 
5 
17 
15 
32 
34 



Varieties Tested. 



Number 




Stalks 




per 




Plat. 


b( 




c 














Oi 






<n 


o 
a 


13 


09 

CS 

H 


U 

0) . 


p 

« -P 


o 



Average 
Height in 
Inches at 
Maturity. 



s § 



>, o 



fc.t/3 MO 



c3 
Q 









Biggs' Seven Ear 

American Queen 

Southern Beauty 

Pool's 

Boone County White 

Cocke's Prolific 

Marlboro Prolific 

Selection 77 

Goodman's Prolific 

Jarvis' Improved 

Wilson's Success 

Henry Grady 

Parker's Cocke's Prolific- 
Brake's 

Boone County Special 

Hickory King 

Weekley's Improved 

Cocke's Prolific 

Sanders' Improved 

Fry's Improved 

McMackin's Gourd Seed- 

Holt's Strawberry 

Wyatt's Improved 

Currituck 

Sharber's 

Boone County White 

Hickory King 

Iowa Silver Mine 

Williams' 

Farmers' Favorite 

Bradbury's Improved — 

Learning Yellow 

Mosby's Prolific 

Six Ear Corn 

Hastings' Prolific 

Reid's Yellow Dent 

Riley's Favorite 



218 128 July 

218 128 " 

218 133 " 

218 141 " 

218 146 " 

218 132 " 

218 129 " 

218 123 " 

218 102 " 

218 148 " 

218 108 " 

218 137 " 

218 123 " 

218 149 " 

218 138 " 

218 148 " 

218 130 " 

218 119 " 

218 168 " 

218 129 " 

218 162 " 

218 138 " 

218J 126 " 

218J 138 " 

218 138 " 

218 122 " 

218 128 " 

218 143 " 

218 132 " 

218. 119 " 

218i 118 " 

218 129 " 

218 128 " 

218 115 " 

218 124 " 

218J 123 " 

218! 130 " 



18 
25 



26 114. 
25 130.0 
24 130.0 
18 114.0 
18 1C8.0 

24 126-0 

25 108.0 
18 116.0 

26 102.0 
22 124.0 
20 108 
20 125 
20 120.0 
20 122. 
18 116.0 

97.0 
114.0 
20 124.0 
22 120.0 
20 130.0 
20 100.0 
20 126.0 

25 120.0 
22 116.0 
20 122.0 
22 102.0 
22 120.0 
15 99.0 

26 124.0 
18| 120.0 
25! 120.0 
15 106.0 

25 106.0 

26 114.0 
26 127.0 
18 111.0 
15 120.0 



S 

3 
a 

01 

u 
a 
H 

o 

11 

£ 

3 

•z 



60.0 

54.0 

48.0 

54.0 

54.0 

72.0 

48. 

54. 

48.0 

54. 

60.0 

66.0 

66.0 

60.0 

66.0 

60.0 

60.0 

60.0 

72.0 

72.0 

60.0 

66.0 

60.0 

60.0 

66.0 

60-0 

60.0 

48-0 

66.0 

72.0 

72.0 

60.0 

60.0 

66.0 

72.0 

48.0 

72.0 



w 
u 

a 

H 

o 

U 

E 

3 

bt C8 

< a 



Yield per 
Plat. 



09 

U 

H m 

U C 

fci 3 

CS o 



to . 

.— ^ 

•° c 

■° 3 



264 

237 

157 

201 

140 

266 

221 

143 

222 

137! 

217 

150 

220 

125 

137 

156 

206 

169j 

180 

142 

138 

122 

137 

135 

133 

126 

163 

143 

123 

123j 

145 

133 

178 

230 

180 

129 

135 



2.06 138 50 20.00 

1.85 142 00 12.00 

1.18; 138. 00 6.00 

1.42 126-50 11.00 

.95129.50i 5.00 

2.01 125.50 11.00 

1.70 120-00 18.00 

1.16 118-50 8.00 

2. 17117. 00 5.00 

.92110.00 14.50 

2.00 122-50 16.00 

1.94 118.00 15.00 

1.78 122.00 9.00 

.83 108.50 15.00 

.99108.50 12.00 

1.05 119.00 2.00 

1.58 105.00 18.00 

1.42103 00' 18.00 

1.70 109.50 8.00 

1.10 104.50 17.00 

.85107.50 10.00 

.88 114.00 6.00 

1.87|ll4.50' 8.00 

.97 104. 50 12.00 

.95105-50 7.50 

1.83109.50 8.00 

1.27103.00 7.00 

1.00 103.00 7.00 

.93 106.50 11.00 

1.03 106. 00| 6.00 

1.22 92.50 | 11.00 

1.03 98.00! 9-00 
1.39 85.00 12.00 
2.00 i 75.50 19.00 
1.45 81.00 12.00 

1.04 88.00 4.00 
1.03 74.00 3.00 



The Bulletin. 



TEST OF CORN— Continued. 

FARM. 



Yield per 
Acre. 



73 

a 

I 






Si 

<p to 



3L70.0 
3180.0 
2880.0 
2750.0 
2690.0 
2730.0 
2763. 
2530.0 
2440.0 
2490.0 
2770.0 
2630.0 
2620.0 
2470.0 
2410.0 
2420.0 
2460.0 
2520.0 
2350. Oj 
2430.0 
2350.0 
2400.0 
2450.0 
2330.0 
2260.0 
2350.0 
2200. 
2200.0, 
2350.0 
2240.0 
2070.0 
2140.0 
1940.0 
1890.0 
1860. 
1T340.0 
1540.0 



46.9 

45.1 

43.7 

43-2 

40.3 

39.6 

39. 4 1 

38. 9j 

38.7 

38.2 

38.2 

38.0 

37.8 

37-0 

37.0 

36.7J 

36.4 

36.41 

36.0' 

35.5 

35.2 

35.1 

35.0 

34.9 

34.7 

34.4 

33.7 

33-0 

32.7 

32.0 

31.7 

31.3 

30.1 

28.6 

28.2 

27.9 

21.3 



V 




c 




O 


T3 4) 


X 


.Em 


m 


£ a> 


o 

-M 


P.O 






u 


W — 


n! 


Jh q> 


H 




<D— • 


«3 O 


o o> 


T3 4J 


Num 
Bush 


C^ 


2-° 
p o 



210 

183 

118 

162 

117 

199 

19s! 

125 

156 

119 

111 

114 

168 

112 

119 

108 

140 

163 

164 

122 

122 

120 

117 

122 

169 

120 

120 

133 

117 

112 

151 

136 

164 

229 

200 

121 

128 



67.5 
68.2 
65.9 
63.6 
66.7 
68.9 
70.0 
65.0 
63.0 
58.1 
72.5 
70.0 
69.3 
66.7 
65.1 
65.9 
67.5 
68.1 
65.2 
68.4 
66.7 
63.3 
70.0 
66.7 
65.1 
68.3 
65.2 
66.6 
71.8 
70.0 
65.3 
68.3 
64.4 
63.6 
65.9 
65.9 
72.3 



Ears. 



3 -" 



.hi 

01 m 
M6 



Shelling 
Capacity. 



2m» S-2*. .EO 
g c-g g Eg 3 fc, 

<j5 <^ g£ Ofc 



7.00 
7.00 
8.00 
9.00 

9.00 
8 25 
7.00 
8.25 
8.25 
7.50 
8.00 
9.25 
7.50 
7.50 
8-75 
8.00 
8.50 
9.25 
7.50 
8.25 
8.25 
9.25 
8.75 
7.00 
7.00 
8.00 
8.00 
8.00 
9.00 
9.75 
7.50 
7.50 
8.00 
7.00 
7.25 
8.00 
7.75 



5.75 
6.00 
6.75 
6.00 
6.75 
6.00 
6.25 
6.75 
5.75 
7.50 
6.00 
7.00 
6.75 
7.25 
7.25 
6.00 
6.50 
6.25 
6.00 
6.00 
7.00 
7.50 
6.50 
6.75 
6.25 
6.75 
5.75 
7.50 
6.50 
6.00 
7.25 
7.00 
5.75 
6.00 
6.00 
6.75 
6.75 



83.0 
82.0 
85.0 
88.01 
84.0 
81.0 
80.0 
86.0 
89. 0' 
86. 0' 
81.0 
80. ; 
81.0 
840 
86.0 
85.0: 
83.o! 
81.0 
86.0 
82. 0| 
84-0 
82.0 
80.0 
84.0 
86.0 
82.0 
86.0; 
.84.0 \ 
78.0 
80.0J 
£6.0 
82.0 
87.0J 
85.0 
85.5' 
85.0 
84.0 



a 
<a 
U 

u 
v 

I 

O 
U 



17.0 
18.0 
15.0 
12.0 
16.0 
19.0 
20.0 
14.0 
11.0 
14.0 
19.0 
20.0 
19.0 
16-0 
14.0 
15-0 
17.0 
19.0 
14.0 
18.0 
16.0 
18.0 
20.0 
16-0 
14.0 
18.0 
14.0 
16.0 
22.0 
20.0 
14.0 
18.0 
13.0 
15.0 
15.0 
14.5 
16.0 



Total 
Weight. 



c 
1 * 

h u 

OS 0> 



IB 

o * 



53.7 
55.0 

47. 2 

46. 2 

49.8, 

43.3 

44. 6 ! 

47.7 

48 8 

44.1 

46.1 

39.1 

58.2! 

37.4 

49.1 

43.2 

42.0 

39.6 

45.1: 

37.31 

42.6 

35.2 

49.0 

54.1 

50.2 

50.0 

47. oj 

52.3 

45.1 1 

46.6 

43.1 

54.9; 

33. 4J 

31.4 

37.2 

51.1 

48.1 



46.3 
45.0 
52.8 
53.8 
50.2 
55.7 
55.4 
52.3 
51.2 
55.9 
53.1 
60.9 
41.8 
62.6 
50.9 
56.8 
57.6 
60.4 
54.9 
62.7 
57.4 
64-8 
51.0 
45.9 
49.8 
50.0 
52.6 
47.7 
54.9 
53.4 
56.9 
46.1 
66.6 
68.6' 
62.8 
48.9 
51.9 



c 
o 

- 



< 

u 

<D 
P. 

u 

3) 
> 

o 



•H 

n ° 

1?* 
5 m . 

— v 



Source of Seed. 






2730 

2520 

3220 

2750 

2710 

3470 

3140 

2770 

2560 

3110 

3230 

4140 

1880 

4130! 

2490, 

3180 1 

3340 1 

3680! 

2850 

4070 

3150 

4400 

2550 

1970 

2240 

2350 

3200 

2000 

3450 

2560 

2730 

1760 

3860 

2920 

3140 

1760j 

1660 



North Carolina. 

North Carolina. 

North Carolina. 

Georgia. 

Indiana. 

Edgecombe Farm. 

South Carolina. 

Ohio. 

North Carolina. 

North Carolina. 

Virginia. 

Georgia. 

North Carolina. 

North Carolina. 

Illinois. 

Tennessee. 

Iredell Farm. 

Tennessee. 

Georgia. 

Georgia. 

Tennessee. 

Virginia. 

North Carolina. 

North Carolina. 

North Carolina. 

Tennessee. 

Virginia. 

Illinois. 

North Carolina. 

North Carolina. 

Georgia. 

Ohio. 

Mississippi. 

Georgia. 

Georgia. 

Illinois. 

Indiana. 



10 



The Bulletin. 



Table II— COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF CORN. 

EDGECOMBE FABM. 



1900. 



Varieties Tested. 



-a 

•A 
W 



2 a! 

GQ U 

M v. 

a a, 

— a 



r? 
5 ^ 



1901. 



> 



— • . « e 



1902. 



| 

09 
to 



> 

'•3 . 



lo 2 2 2" 3^,2^ 






CUTJ'M 



3«i|£ 



Quit; 



Br C 0> S3, C 2 fi S 

— U — ' & — 41 — & "" 1 

ax. -o c .ax 2 c ■*£ 

am S u S«3, "3 .. ceo 



« o ><0 



o rt 



Cocke's Prolific 

(Edgecombe.) 
Cocke's Prolific 

(Tenn. ) 
Weekley 's Improved— 



20.0 



Pool's 



19.4 



Craig's Prolific Straw- — 
berry 

Sander's Improved --- 17.8 



Holt's Strawberry 

Craig's Prolific White- 
Champion White 

Pearl. 
Cooley's Red Cob 

Improved Golden 

Dent. 
Champion Dent 



22.4 



17.2 



2 28.1 



D5 5^U 



« o 



2 35.2 



29.5 



27.0 
25.7 



Hickory King (Tenn.) 

Mosby's Prolific 

Tatum's Choice 

Shaw's Improved 

Tennessee Yellow 

Killebrew's (Native) - 

Learning Yellow 

Brake's 



17.4 
17.0 
16.2 



Marlboro Prolific 

(B. P. I.) 
Biggs' Seven Ear 



Iowa Silver Mine — 
Reid's Yellow Dent- 
Riley's Favorite 



Boone County White 

(Ind.) 
Boone County White 

(Tenn.) 
Number 167 



Selection 77 

Cocke's Prolific (Pou) 

Williams' 

Square Deal 



22.5 
22.2 
21.4 



26.6 
26.9 



1903. 



1904. 



1905. 



1906. 



1907. 



1 
"3 

J3 



£ \Mj\S %j& t3 e '.2 I'Sd-S.'Se 
.c 8 -a o -S Sz-o o -5 8 v g x, 8 -vS X h bo 



Aver- 
ages. 



'3 



JJk'OO 




2 c 



0) E gW 

... C W«j 

><0 « o 



ax -a c ■*-"= 2 



» E £W 



33.5 
26.1 
29.1 
27.1 
24.9 
24.6 
21.6 
20.6 



1 24.4 1 
— 19.9 7 

2 19.5 10 
5 19.7 8 

3 



>"0 



«o^OKo^O«o^OMo 



30.3 
26.4 
25.5 



5 35.9 1 



26.8 14 



35.5 
31.5 



59.3 
41.9 
53.1 






22.4 11 

26.5 2 
26.2 3 



24.0 



16.1 16 27.8 8 - 

15.3 17 31.0 3 31.8 4 44.2 

25 30.6 7 42.7 

10 24.1 



6 16.2 15 

18 



7 14.9 

8 



10 



20.1 



21.4 
20.0 
20.5 



18.6 
27.1 



22.4 
21.1 
13.7 
17.6 
21.4 
17-3 
17.8 
19.6 
19.4 
17.6 
16.2 
20.2 



23.4 



21 



31.2 



18 



24.6 
28.5 
32.3 
32.4 
25.2 



6 

22 



40.9 
37.7 



24.1 



21 



26.9 13 

11 



S c 
a) t 



COT 



.» c *«„ 



31.9 1 



30.2 



19.8 
19.0 



8 



18 



26.7 



22 25.0 



2 27.9 
1 ___. 



33.6 
40.4 
42.1 



21.5 
15.7 



18.8 
19.1 

19.8 



52.2 3 24.8 



24 

21 

18 

6 



14 22.3 24 36.6 21 18.9 23 



12 23.4 18 23.3 23 35.3 24 22.2 



22.8 20 24.6 18 



26.8 
23.9 



24.5 
32.3 
30.5 



11 
17 



23.3 23 



28.9 



16 



29.5 



9 



35.2 
37.6 
34.5 



24.1 21 



37.0 



40.7 



29.6 6 25.0 17 



22.0 
22.9 
23.6 



20 



12 



19.0 



21.8 



12 

13 

10 

9 

22 



14 



The Bulletin. 



11 



Table ,11— COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF CORN— Con. 

EDGECOMBE FARM. 





1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


Aver- 
ages. 


Varieties Tested. 


"8 

** 

~3 
xt 

VI 

m 

1l 
gc 

M< 

at 

— c 

2c 
C = 


1? 

I' 

Or 
h'- 
M-c 

- * 

k ■*" aj 

BK 

«0 


| 

.B 

J8 

< 

B a 
■ 3 c 

2c 

c = 


. u c 

' o£ 

l --3 
-MX 

CM 

(3 -g 


•a 

V 

— -» 
"<S 
JS 
OT 
a 

3« 

§■< 
»t 

a 2 

- 1 c 

2c 
C = 


Ie 

OiT 
4 

MX 
BK 

M o 


1 
15 
-a 
w 

m 

•-" c 
2 c 

:— c 
[HO 


> 

° c 

T3 C 
2<- 

*■* 

a = 

k — 4 
■M.C 
BK 

M C 


03 

• 1 « 

< 

B a 
— B 

2c 


;g 

. ° c 

1 Mt 

a 

Be 

k --J 
■MX 
BK 

Mo 


Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre. 

Rank in Productivity 
of Shelled finrn 


•a 

J3 

m 

w 

h 

03 

B a 
•~ c 

2c 

ii *■ 


> 

° c 
3 t 

"2 c 
or 

Mt: 

_ n 
8c 
— a 
Mx 
BK 

M^ 


Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre. 

Rank in Productivity 

of Shelled Corn. 

Yield in Bushels Shelled i 


> 

° B 

T3 O 

•-"3 

;MX 

CM 

Mo 


Boone County Special- 


















27.5 
23. J 
22. J 
21.4 
20.6 
20.3 


t 9 
19 
21 
22 
23 
24 


25.5 
25. £ 


! 16 

15 


34.6 
43.2 


27 
5 


18. C 

19. C 


25 
22 






McMackin's Gourd 




















Seed. 


































-^ 




23. S 
32.4 


23 
3 


40.9 
32.7 


11 
30 








Thomas' Improved 


























Chester County Mam- 


























moth. 
Hickory King (Va.) - 


















28.1 
27.7 
24.6 
24.5 
24.2 


10 
12 
18 
19 
20 


34.8 
42.5 
37.4 
40.2 


26 

7 
19 
14 


22.9 


10 






























Peele's Prolific 






















































































- 


























41.1 
39.6 
38.0 
35.8 
35.7 
35.2 


10 
15 
16 
22 
23 
25 


24.1 
17.9 
19.5 
19.4 
21.2 


7 
26 
19 
20 
16 


























































































































Battle's Prolific 






























Wyatt's Improved 
Yellow. 


























27.0 
25.7 
!5.2 
!3.6 
!0.1 
9.8 
9.4 
7.4 
7.2 


1 

4 

5 

9 
17 
18 . 
20 
27 
28 . 








































































































Parker's Cocke's Pro- 
































lific. 
































































Bradbury's Improved- 
















































































1 










1 





12 



The Bulletin. 



Table II— COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OP CORN— Con. 

EED SPRINGS FAEM. 





1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


Averages. 


Varieties Tested. 


Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre. 


Rank in Productivity of 
Shelled Corn. 


Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre. 


Rank in Productivity of 
Shelled Corn. 


Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre. 


o 
>> 

'> 

"■5 
o 

3 

2| 

C cy 
Km 


Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre. 


Rank in Productivity of 
Shelled Corn. 


Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre. 


o 

o 

3 

TJ • 

o c 

Qu ° 

.S-o 

■*= 

5 « 




22.4 
16.6 
15.4 
15.0 
14.4 
10.2 
10.0 
9.0 
8.4 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


14.1 


4 










18 3 


1 


Coman's Best 




























Bradbury's Improved 




















15.3 


3 










14.9 


2 














14.1 


5 










12.1 


4 














17.3 
19.0 
14.0 
13. 5 
12.4 
11.3 


2 

1 
6 
7 
8 
9 










12.9 


3 


































































Champion Dent 


























1 











The Bulletin. 



13 



Table II— COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF CORN— Con. 

IREDELL FARM. 





1900. 


1901. 


1902. 1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


Aver- 
ages. 


Varieties Tested. 


•a 

V 

"a! 
tn 

to 

n< 

^ u 
C n 
•-" ft 

2c 


>> 

3 c 

3 u 
•O o 

go 

On -a 

c^ 

■~ 0) 

-MX 
CO) 

X o 


Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre. 

Rank in Productivity 
of Shelled Corn. 


Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre. 

Rank in Productivity 
of Shelled Corn. 


1 
ui 

n 

s « 

-5 * 

CO CJ 

c 2 

2c 


> 

■a o 
go 
P<"a 

c^ 

"" o> 

-M.C 
CM 

On o 


•a 

"3 
tn 

to 

Ig 
i« 

M * 

c - 

— ft 
2c 

>H(J 


Rank in Productivity 
of Shelled Corn. 
Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre. 


>> 

> 

go 
*-% 

R5 
— a) 
-*J= 
CW 
CG „. 
« C 


Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre 

Rank in Productivity 
of Shelled Corn. 

Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre. 


Rank in Productivity 
of Shelled Corn. 

Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre. 


>> 

"P 

3 £ 

■a o 

go 

Oi-a 

ceo 

X o 


Biggs' Seven Ear 














29.7 
24.7 
24.3 
23.9 
23.5 
23.3 
22.6 
22.6 
21.9 
21.9 
21.8 
21.7 
21.2 
20.8 
20.8 
20.^ 
20.6 
19.9 
17.1 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

7 

8 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 


31.8 
26.0 

28.8 
22.5 
23.4 
21.9 
24.6 
22.3 
20.4 

23.5 
22.9 
21.5 
22.5 

22.5 
24.2 


2 
6 

3 
14 
10 
18 

7 
16 
22 

9 
12 
19 
14 

14 
8 







38.8 


9 


16.9 


1 






Craig's Prolific Straw- 


— 














berry. 










33.5 
31.8 
35.2 
40.3 
27.6 
27.8 
31.7 
28.7 
35.4 
33.4 
29.7 
31.3 
31.0 
38.1 
30.5 
32.8 


12 
18 

9 

2 
31 
30 
19 
27 

8 
13 
25 
20 
21 

6 
24 
14 


40.2 


6 


39.4 


7 






Craig's Prolific White- 


















Cocke's Prolific 














32.7 
42.0 
30.4 
36.4 
31.7 
36.7 

35.7 
35.3 
32.4 
33.4 
39.6 
30.4 
33.9 


21 
1 
26 
14 
24 
12 

15 
16 
22 
•20 
8 
26 
19 


36.4 
36.4 
30.1 
34.4 
35.1 
21.3 
43.2 
36.0 
38.9 
27.9 
31.3 
36.7 
33.0 
40.3 


15 
15 
30 
23 
19 
34 

4 
16 

8 

33 
29 
14 
25 

5 


30.0 
33.0 
26.1 
29.5 
28.5 
25.8 


3 
1 

9 

5 

6 

10 


(Tenn. ) 




























Boone County White 

(Tenn.) 
Holt's Strawberry 









































Pool's 




















30.0 
29.6 
26.7 
27. S 

25.4 
30.2 


3 
4 

8 

7 


Selection 77 














Reid's Yellow Dent 














Learning Yellow 
















Hickory King 
(Tenn.) 






















11 

2 


Boone County White 
(Ind.) 






• 


































32.4 
26.3 
26.1 
23.3 
22.7 
22.5 
22.4 
22.3 
22.2 
21.5 
21.1 
21.1 
20.3 


1 
4 
5 
11 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
19 
20 
20 
23 


37.4 
41.0 


7 
1 


40.3 
39.9 


5 
7 


37.0 
39.6 


13 
6 


— 




Cocke's Prolific 




















(Edgecombe.) 






































30.9 
28.0 
38.8 
38.7 
32.5 
33.9 


22 
29 
4 
5 
15 
10 


34-5 


18 


34.9 


21 













































37.9 
40.4 
28.7 
36.7 


11 

4 

27 

12 


32.7 
37.0 


26 
13 


— 
























Boone County Special- 




















Shellem's Prolific 




















Pride of Burke 




















McMackin's Gourd 
















28.5 


28 


31.3 


25 


35.2 


18 


— 




Seed. 
Parks' Large Yellow - 




















Parks' White Beauty - 



































14 



The Bulletin. 



Table II— COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF CORN— Con. 

IREDELL FAEM. 





1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


Aver- 
ages. 


Varieties Tested. 


2 

"3 

X 
M 

•2 . 

X h 

2 ° 

B J, 
2c 


1? 

> 

is 

fln-O 

c^ 

™" 0> 
MX 
CM 

04 


-a 
"3 

X 

w 

DO 

lg 

CO « 

C 01 

— a 
2c 


> 

•§S 
2^ 

*•§ 

Cs 
— • a 

MX 
CM 

Oh 


T3 

2 
"3 
X 

02 

DQ 

"3 d 

3 «f! 

c « 
— ' ft 
2c 

C° 


► 

° c 
■a o 
2w 

— u 
CW 

M o 


Yield in Bushels Shelled 
Corn per Acre. 

Rank in Productivity 

of Shelled Corn. 


■o 
_a> 

"3 

X 

DQ 

"3 m 

x Z 

■n ty 

&< 
g J> 
— ft 
2c 


>> 

-t-> 

'> 

'£ . 
u c 

T3 O 

go 

c== 
— u 

MX 
era 

rt ti_. 
« 


T3 
J) 

"3 

X 
W 
« 

"3 O) 

x s 

ffl 
" 1- 

c k 

- ft 

2 c 


>> 

\> 

2^ 

c "X 

— 0) 

cm 

K 


2 
"3 

Vl 

Ol 

"3 a 

•S " 

At! 

C 1) 

— 
2c 

(HO 


>> 

> 

2. >• 

T3 O 

go 

C3 

— 4> 
.X.C 

g W 
<S<H 
W O 


1 
"3 

X 

m 

01 

"3 4; 
•5 >• 

GO y 

C 0) 

■- O 

2c 
£° 


C 
■O O 
SO 

e- 

•- o> 

MX 

cm 

,2<m 

05 


•0 

2 
"3 

X 
VI 

01 

"3 ,; 
X u 

01 

s <£ 

PQ^ 

" t* 

C 4) 

"* P 

2c 


>> 

■M 

'> 

'■5 . 
c 

"2 ° 

2" 

*■% 

CS3 
•- a) 

CM 

tf 


Hickory King (Va.) — 


— 


— 




















20.8 


21 


30.6 
33.8 
32.3 
32.0 
39.2 
29.5 


23 
11 
16 

17 

3 

26 














34.8 
40.8 
32.0 
40.6 
38.7 
36.6 
32.7 


17 
2 

23 
3 
10 
13 
21 


33.7 
38.7 


24 
9 






























45.1 


2 
















































32.0 


27 




^ 


























































43.7 


9 






28.2 32 
38.2 10 






























































38.2 
38.0 
37.8 
35.5 
35.0 
34.7 
31.7 
28.6 


10 
11 
12 
17 
20 
22 
28 
31 








































Parker's Cocke's 
Prolific. 


































































Wyatt's Improved 














■ 


















































Bradbury's Im- 
proved . 









































































The Bulletin. 



15 



Table III— SHOWING RELATIVE EARLINESS, YIELDS, SIZE OF EARS, 
HEIGHT OF STALKS AND EARS, AND PERCENTAGE OF GRAIN, 
COB, EARS AND STOVER OF VARIETIES OF CORN TESTED IN 
1907. 

EDGECOMBE FARM. 



Varieties. 



Wyatt's Improved 

Cocke's Prolific (Tenn.) 

Weekley's Improved 

Marlboro Prolific (B. P. I.)— . 

Jarvis' Improved 

Biggs' Seven Ear 

American Queen 

Pool's 

Boone County White (Tenn. ) 

Six-Ear Corn 

Boone County White (Ind. ) -- 

Hickory King (Va.) 

Cocke's Prolific (Edgecombe) 

Reid's Yellow Dent 

Riley's Favorite 

Williams' 

Hickory King (Tenn.) 

Wilson's Success 

Parker's Cocke's Prolific 

Sander's Improved 

Sharber's 1 

Marlboro Prolific 

Southern Beauty 

Fry's Improved 

Farmers' Favorite 

Brake's 

Holt's Strawberry 

Selection 77 

McMackin's Gourd Seed 



Rank According to the Following Characters. 



§2 

Is 

J3 to 
O M 

UK 



a; 
S<* 



i 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 
9 
10 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
18 
18 
19 
•20 
20 
21 
22 
22 
22 



u <" 

5 a 
W » 

•acoo 
£.5 £.E 



> 1) 



1 

2 
3 

4 

6 

5 

7 

10 

8 

8 

11 

16 

12 

15 

14 

9 

19 

13 

18 

24 

17 

20 

22 

23 

21 

28 

21 

25 

27 



14 
13 

6 
20 

1 
21 
29 
24 
23 
31 
34 
18 

7 
30 
33 

8 
16 
26 
28 
19 
17 

9 
10 

3 
32 
12 

E 
27 
15 



<0 CD 

O ; O 

h I u 
O 

Cm 



24 
24 
15 
20 
10 
27 
21 

2 
17 
17 
11 

1 
15 

7 
12 
28 

4 
25 
26 

4 
28 
2-1 
18 
15 
23 

5 
16 
14 

9 



5 

9 

15 

10 

20 

2 

8 

28 

13 

13 

19 

29 

15 

23 

18 

1 

26 

4 

3 

26 

1 

7 

12 
15 
6 
25 
14 
16 
21 



4 
18 
20 
22 

3 
25 
21 
16 

6 

6 

5 
15 
19 

9 
13 

8 
14 
23 
19 
14 

8 
17 

1 

8 

7 
12 

2 
11 

2 



12 

14 

23 

8 

26 

3 

5 

9 

10 

4 

1 

17 

24 

7 

2 

22 

19 

13 

11 

20 

18 

27 

28 

33 

6 

2,') 

31 

15 

23 



21 
22 
12 
28 

8 
33 
31 
27 
26 
32 
35 
19 
10 
29 
34 
13 
16 
23 
25 
15 
17 

7 
11 

2 
30 

9 

4 
21 
12 



.5 w^v 
S£§ 

S rt.fi 



11 

19 

11 

14 

5 

16 

17 

15 

8 

8 

12 

8 

18 

7 

5 

17 

2 

9 

8 

7 

17 

15 

2 

16 

13 

12 

10 



(4 

W 

<H 
O 

!>. . 

*% 

Sod 
o i. 

Oh P, 



IS 
o.S 

Ms! 

toW 

'/J c 
<D Jg 

E c« 

■go 

&H.O 



18 

5 

6 

8 

15 

1 

2 

11 

17 

3 

24 

14 

9 

25 

22 

30 

16 

7 

7 

13 

12 

4 

24 

27 

19 

28 

29 

22 

25 



w 
M 
as 

■H 

o 

'3 

H 



in 

cii 

w 



a 

to 

m E 



3 

6 

9 

12 

4 

8 

13 

15 

12 

6 

13 

14 

7 

14 

16 

6 

17 

2 

15 

8 

14 

8 

10 

4 

5 

5 

5 

14 

10 



o oo 

■a *= 

12 

1 

9 

8 

13 

11 

6 

2 

12 

12 

7 

4 

1 

10 

14 

12 

15 

15 

16 

9 

12 

8 

19 

5 

10 

5 

10 
18 
17 



2 

6 

5 

12 

5 

8 

11 

17 

12 

3 

14 

15 

7 

15 

19 

4 

14 

3 

13 
6 
10 
6 
8 
2 
9 
7 
4 
15 
7 



16 



The Bulletin. 



Table III— SHOWING RELATIVE EARLINESS, YIELDS, SIZE OF EARS, 

HEIGHT OF STALKS AND EARS, AND PERCENTAGE OF GRAIN, 

COB, EARS AND STOVER OF VARIETIES OF CORN TESTED IN 

1907— Con. 

edgecombe farm. 





Rank According to the Following Characters. 




5 ?5 




i 

a 


s 


o 


03 
h 

ca 
H 


01 
H 

ca 

H 


u 

C9 

r/} 


bs. of 
ired to 
fCorn. 


01 

ca 


o.S 
■a* 


01 


03 




"3 




<u u 


U u 


V u 


«H 


«H 


«H 




J = o 


T 


r/i — 




It 




Varieties. 


— CD 
CD ft 


* a. 


p ft 


o 


o 

IV 


«H 

o 


O 

CD 


o 

CD 




O 


oiW 




ca 


M 5 




J3 01 

■a a 


■a o 


to » 
©Ph 


ex 

0) 

u 


M 

ca 

6 
u 


to 

01 

0) 

c 
o 


it 

ca 

e 

0) 

o 

u 


t>0 

ca 
* 

CD 

o 
u 


Smallness 
Ear Corn E 
Shell Bush 


8^ 

o cf 

Set 

O J. 


01 c 

to m 

CD .2 

.£ « 

■BO 


o 


o 
M 


«H O 

•g.2 

•5U 




?.£ 


£.s 


£.£ 


0. 


4) 
PL, 


ca 


91 
Ph 


ai 

Ph 


fci CD 

Ph a 

26 


- - 

3 


19 


n 

20 






23 


28 


4 


8 


22 


10 


32 


3 


16 


3 




?4 


'6 


?ft 


13 


17 


1? 


17 


18 


8 


20 


1 


18 


18 


11 




25 


?9 


?5 


18 


1? 


7 


16 


?0 


2 


23 


3 


14 


16 


19 




?"> 


30 


7 


fi 


24 


?4 


30 


5 


14 


10 


9 


B 


4 


4 


Bradbury's Improved 


27 


32 


22 


5 


25 


7 


21 


14 


6 


24 


8 


11 


7 


10 




?8 


31 


? 


19 


11 


? 


34 


1 


1 


21 


8 


1 


1 


20 




29 


33 


11 


3 


27 


16 


29 


6 


4 


20 


9 


10 


2 


13 







The Bulletin. 



17 



Table III— SHOWING RELATIVE EARLINESS, YIELDS, SIZE OF EARS, 

HEIGHT OF STALKS AND EARS, AND PERCENTAGE OF GRAIN, 

COB, EARS AND STOVER OF VARIETIES OF CORN TESTED IN 

1907— Con. 

iredell farm. 



Varieties. 



Rank According to the Following Characters. 



a . 
u cu 
o u 

°3 

V u 
S v 
a> p. 

m% 

o to 

2,3 
£.5 



<B 


6 




u 


C u 


•> 


S<! 


u<\ 


u ^ 


<D <-, 


&ft 


> <D 


3 » 




^ 


°3 


o ^ 



■BO TJO 



o 

o 

bo 
a 
+j 

c 

UJ 

u 
u 

a 



.fl 
o 
O 

«H 

o 

ID 

bo 

c 

CB 

o 
u 

V 

Ph 



CD 

a 

<v 
be 
t* 
as 



W 

o 
<u 

w 
5 

c 

0) 

a 

h 
CD 
Ph 



flj *. -* 

SO- 



b v 



WHO) 



to 


fr be 


c3 


o B 


w 


•B.* 


<H 


W — 


o 


MCQ 


!x 


"•M 


°ja 


9} O 


CO — 
O C3 


m 0) 


<C+j 


= rt 




TQ 


h el) 


nS >, 


Ok ft 


WJ2 






s i <n 



CD 



oO 



by 

'3 



o 
+> 

be 
'<3 



'm CD 



Biggs' Seven Ear 

American Queen 

Southern Beauty' 

Poole's 

Boone County White (Ind.) -- 
Cocke's Prolific (Edgecombe) 

Marlboro Prolific 

Selection 77 

Goodman's Prolific 

Jarvis' Improved 

Wilson's Success 

Henry Grady 

Parker's Cocke's Prolific 

Brake's 

Boone County Special 

Hickory King (Tenn.) 

Weekley's Improved 

Cocke's Prolific (Tenn.) 

Sanders' Improved 

Fry's Improved 

McMackin's Gourd Seed 

Holt's Strawberry 

Wyatt's Improved 

Currituck 

Sharber's 

Boone County White (Tenn.) 

Hickory King (Va.) 

Iowa Silver Mine 

Williams' 

Farmers' Favorite 



1 


2 


21 


8 


5 


26 


5 


32 


2 


1 


25 


9 


4 


22 


2 


35 


3 


3 


11 


6 


7 


7 


16 


20 


4 


6 


20 


2 


11 


17 


18 


17 


5 


8 


22 


7 


6 


5 


10 


27 


6 


7 


7 


10 


3 


24 


23 


14 


7 


5 


15 


11 


2 


23 


21 


15 


8 


11 


19 


4 


9 


12 


15 


22 


9 


17 


23 


1 


12 


18 


13 


24 


10 


13 


16 


4 


9 


8 


22 


13 


10 


4 


10 


10 


3 


2 


19 


19 


11 


9 


2 


11 


2 


4 


29 


7 


12 


10 


31 


10 


3 


20 


1 


36 


13 


14 


3 


7 


6 


3 


30 


6 


13 


20 


26 


4 


9 


8 


11 


26 


14 


19 


13 


6 


7 


1 


24 


12 


15 


15 


9 


8 


5 


16 


27 


9 


15 


12 


6 


10 


3 


18 


28 


8 


16 


22 


18 


4 


9 


19 


20 


16 


17 


18 


4 


9 


4 


11 


31 


5 


18 


22 


14 


7 


6 


11 


26 


10 


19 


21 


1 


9 


4 


9 


33 


3 


20 


16 


24 


11 


2 


5 


12 


25 


21 


23 


30 


7 


6 


11 


.4 


33 


22 


24 


28 


4 


9 


21 


8 


29 


23 


22 


27 


9 


4 


9 


9 


28 


24 


26 


12 


4 


9 


9 


17 


21 


25 


26 


29 


7 


6 


14 


6 


31 


26 


22 


8 


12 


1 


5 


20 


16 


27 


25 


23 


11 


2 


3 


17 


18 



12 

14 

9 

3 

11 

17 

19 

5 

2 

1 

22 

19 

18 

11 

6 

9 

12 

13 

7 

16 

11 

15 

19 

11 

6 

15 
7 

10 
20 
19 



2 


10 


7 


8 


16 


8 


12 


4 


25 


3 


3 


9 


9 


8 


17 


3 


1 


9 


27 


6 


4 


5 


5 


4 


8 


5 


30 


5 


23 


3 


19 


3 


10 


9 


12 


6 


9 


7 


18 


5 


29 


5 


28 


5 


6 


8 


24 


7 


25 


5 


21 


5 


14 


5 


22 


2 


26 


10 


21 


4 



9 
1 
1 
9 

13 
3 

13 
8 

15 
5 

13 
4 
7 
6 
3 

IS 
9 
5 
7 
1 

16 
3 
7 
8 
6 

15 
7 

17 
5 
7 



18 



The Bulletin. 



Table III— SHOWING RELATIVE EARLINESS, YIELDS, SIZE OF EARS, 

HEIGHT OF STALKS AND EARS, AND PERCENTAGE OF GRAIN, 

COB, EARS AND STOVER OF VARIETIES OF CORN TESTED IN 

1907— Con. 

iredell faem. 



Varieties. 



Rank According to the Following Characters. 



03 






C 


. 




_ t. 




oj 


-° 


< 


B o 


O 


(4 


o 


s< 


,,<! 


O 


U 


u 
0, 


C> u 


V h 


«H 


<H 


^ 


> 0> 


O 


O 


o ft 


a 


« 




ty to 


M °> 


fcc 


bo 


0) 
■r. 




T3 


e 


c 


3 


•a o 


T3 O 


o 




m 


%^ 


"30* 


e 


£.5 


P« 


Cm 


0) 

CM 



en 
h 

w 



OJ 

B 

» 

05 



<H -K B 

.T3 ° 






_ ^_ 

£ C 3 

B offl 

c !S u 







. 




3 


r. U 


m 




W 


*'? 


.* 


n 


o 
>1 . 


01 — 


5 


53 


^ 


m o 


O 


o 


*J5 


+J 


+> 


E « 


.fl 


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Bradbury's Improved 

Learning Yellow 

Mosby's Prolific 

Six-Ear Corn 

Hastings' Prolific 

Reid's Yellow Dent- 
Riley's Favorite 



28 


28 


21 


4 


9 


17 


29 


27 


32 


9 


4 


15 


30 


29 


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19 


31 


30 


17 


6 


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The Bulletin. 



19 



Table IV— COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF CORN, SHOW- 
ING RELATIVE EARLINESS, YIELDS, SIZE OF EARS, HEIGHT 
OF STALKS AND EARS, AND* PERCENTAGE OF GRAIN, COB, 
EARS AND STOVER. 

EDGECOMBE FARM. 



Varieties. 



Holt's Strawberry 

Marlboro Prolific 

Sanders' Improved 

Cocke's Prolific (Edgecombe) 

Brake's 

Boone County White (Ind.) -- 

Cocke's Prolific (Tenn.) 

Weekley's Improved 

Iowa Silver Mine 

Learning Yellow 

Selection 77 

Boone County White (Tenn. ) 

Reid's Yellow Dent 

Mosby's Prolific 

Riley's Favorite 



Rank According to the Following Characters. 



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Results in this column are from data of 1907 only. 

2 Results in these columns are from data of 1905, 1906 and 1907. 



20 



The Bulletin. 



Table IV— COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF CORN, SHOW- 
ING RELATIVE EARLINESS, YIELDS, SIZE OF EARS, HEIGHT 
OF STALKS AND EARS, AND PERCENTAGE OF GRAIN, COB, 
EARS AND STOVER— Con. 



IREDELL FAEM. 



Varieties. 



Cocke's Prolific (Tenn.) 

Weekley's Improved 

Mosby's Prolific 

Boone County White (Tenn.) 

Holt's Strawberry 

Riley's Favorite 

Sanders' Improved 

Selection 77 

Reid's Yellow Dent 

Learning: Yellow 

Iowa Silver Mine 

Boone County White (Ind. ) - 



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Results in this column are from data of 1904, 1905, 1906 and 1907. 



The Bulletin. 21 

comments on variety tests of cokn. 

The variety tests were conducted this year at the Edgecomhe and 
Iredell farms. The land at the Edgecombe farm devoted, to this test 
was good general farm land, while at Iredell a fine brownish clay soil 
with a red clay subsoil was used. To eliminate all inequalities in 
the character of the land, if any, the designated varieties at the dif- 
ferent farms were planted each in separate rows, arranged consecu- 
tively, and this plan was repeated from two to four times, varying 
with the length of the rows, in order to give the desired acreage to 
each variety. The varieties are arranged in Table I in the order of 
their productivity of shell corn per acre ; also the rank of stover per 
acre is indicated in the second column. In Table II are brought to- 
gether the results of varietal tests obtained at the Edgecombe farm 
during 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906 and 1907; at Red 
Springs in 1900 and 1901, and at Iredell during 1903, 1904, 1905, 
1906 and 1907. Results from the testing of varieties of corn were 
obtained at the Transylvania during 1906 only. The vigorous- 
ness in growth, prolificacy, largeness of ears, percentages of grain 
and stover, yields, etc., of all varieties tested at the different farms 
are shown in Tables I, II, III and IV. 

By consulting Table II it will be seen that the differences in yield 
of shelled corn per acre on the different farms during the period 
covered by the tests between the variety yielding the highest and the 
one the lowest in the individual tests have ranged all the way from 
6.2 to 26.6 bushels of shelled corn at the Edgecombe farm during 
the past eight years, with the number of varieties in the different tests 
varying from eight to thirty-six; from 7.7 to 14 bushels at Red 
Springs, when using nine varieties for each of two years; from 12.1 
to 13.5 bushels during five years at Iredell, where from nineteen to 
thirty-seven varieties were employed; and a difference of 24.8 bushels 
at Transylvania during 1906, where thirty-four varieties were 

planted. 

Tables III and IV will be found to contain much valuable data, in 
plain, compact form, relative to the different characters of corn when 
grown under widely varying soil and climatic conditions. A careful 
study of these tables should be made by every corn-growing reader. 

Table II also gives the average standing of all the varieties, at each 
farm, that have been tested continuously since the beginning of the 
work in the different localities. The varieties which have averaged 
the highest yields of shelled corn at the different farms are : At Edge- 
combe, during eight years, Cocke's Prolific, Weekley's Improved, 
Sanders' Improved and Holt's Strawberry ; at Red Springs, during 
two years, Native, Cocke's Prolific, Holt's Strawberry and Weekley's 
Improved; at Iredell, Weekley's Improved, Sanders' Improved, 
Cocke's Prolific and Boone County White. 



22 The Bulletin. 

notes on varieties op corn tested in 1907. 1 

Cocke's Prolific, from Edgeconibe-grown seed, ranked second in 
1900, 1901 and 1904, first in 1902, 1903, 1905 and 1906, and 
eleventh in 1907, at the Edgecombe farm; at Red Springs it stood 
fifth in 1900 and third in 1901 ; at Iredell, from Edgecombe-grown 
seed, sixth in 1904, first in 1905, seventh in 1906, and sixth in 1907 ; 
at Transylvania, second in 1906. The yield from Tennessee-grown 
seed of this variety at Edgecombe was seventh in 1903, twelfth in 
1904, fourteenth in 1905, ninth in 1906, and second in 1907 ; four- 
teenth in 1904, tenth in 1905, twenty-first in 1906, and fifteenth in 
1907 at Iredell; twenty-eighth in 1906 at Transylvania. From 
Experiment Station-grown seed, originally from Edgecombe farm, 
Cocke's Prolific ranked twenty-fourth in 1906 at Transylvania. The 
results of comparative varietal tests conducted during the past eight 
years on the test farms indicate this to be a most substantial and 
reliable variety; in fact, one of the best varieties thus far tested for 
growth on the sandy loam soils of the esatern portion of the State. 
One defect, however, with this variety is that the grains are too short. 

Weekley's Improved is a very good variety, having ranked first and 
second at the Iredell and Edgecombe farms as an average of four and 
seven years' trials, respectively. It is fairly early in maturity, and 
can be grown with more safety than most of the other varieties when 
only a short growing season is afforded. At the Edgecombe farm it 
ranked in 1900 third, in 1901 first, in 1902, 1905 and 1906 second, 
but in 1903 and 1904 it fell down to tenth and thirteenth places, 
respectively, and in 1907 ranked third. In 1901 it was first at Red 
Springs ; in 1903 sixth, in 1904 tenth, in 1905 second, in 1906 first, 
and in 1907 fifteenth at Iredell ; and in 1906 fifth at Transylvania. 
This variety has a little smaller ear and cob than Cocke's Prolific. 

Sanders' Improved, from Georgia-grown seed, ranked fourth in 
1900, third in 1901, fourth in 1902 and in 1906, seventeenth in 

1903, third in 1904, fourth in 1905, and eighteenth in 1907 at the 
Edgecombe farm; sixth in 1901 at Red Springs; and tenth in 1903, 
ninth in 1904, thirteenth in 1905, fifteenth in 1906, and sixteenth in 
1907 at Iredell; and third in 1906 at Transylvania. This variety 
produces an ear about the size of Cocke's Prolific, but contains a 
smaller cob by about three to six per cent, and consequently requires 
about three to five pounds less of corn on the ear, as shown by an 
average of the result of the past eight years, to shell a bushel of corn. 

Holt's Strawberry occupied first place in 1900, sixth in 1901, 1902 
and 1906, fifteenth in 1903, twenty-fifth in 1904, seventh in 1905, 
and twenty-second in 1907 at the Edgecombe farm; ninth in 1900 
and second in 1901 at Red Springs; eighth in 1903, sixteenth in 

1904, nineteenth in 1905 and 1907, and twenty-fourth in 1906 at 

1 The basis of rank in these notes is according to the yield of bushels cf shelled 
corn per acre. 



The Bulletin. 23 

Iredell; and second in 1906 at Transylvania. It has a much larger 
ear than Cocke's Prolific, and produces a large percentage of stover. 

Brake s, as the result of the tests in Edgecombe, the home of the 
variety, ranked eleventh in 1902, nineteenth in 1903, seventh in 
1904, thirteenth in 1905 and 1906, and twenty-first in 1907. At 
Iredell it occupied first place in the tests of 1904, seventh in 1905, 
fifth in 1906, and thirteenth in 1907 ; and twentieth at Transylvania 
in 1906. This variety has a short, large ear. 

Learning Yellow ranked twelfth in 1902, fourth in 1903, fifteenth 
in 1904, twenty-first in 1905, twenty-ninth in 1906, and twenty- 
fourth in 1907 at the Edgecombe farm; and twelfth in 1903, four- 
teenth in 1904, twenty-first in 1905 and 1906, and twenty-ninth in 
1907 at Iredell; and thirty-second at Transylvania in 1906. This 
is a yellow corn that has a strong tendency to produce only one large 
ear per stalk. It has yielded excellent results in Indiana, Iowa and 
Illinois in comparison with other varieties. 

Selection 77 ', from Ohio-grown seed, ranked fifth, sixteenth, eighth, 
twentieth and twenty-second at Edgecombe, and eleventh, twelfth, 
twenty-fifth, sixteenth and eighth at Iredell in 1903, 1904, 1905, 
1906 and 1907, respectively; and twenty-fifth in 1906 at Transyl- 
vania. This corn has a larger ear and a slightly greater percentage 
of shelling capacity than Cocke's Prolific. 

Riley's Favorite, from Indiana-grown seed, ranked ninth, eigh- 
teenth, twenty-fifth and thirteenth at the Edgecombe farm ; eighth, 
twenty-second, twenty-seventh, twelfth and thirty-fourth at Iredell 
in 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906 and 1907, respecively; and twenty-ninth 
in 1906 at Transylvania. This* is a yellow corn, with fairly small 
and narrow grains. It has a somewhat larger ear than Cocke's Pro- 
lific. This is an early maturing variety. 

Boone County White, from Indiana-grown seed, stood in 1903, 

1904, 1906 and 1907 eleventh, twenty-third, eighteenth and tenth 
at Edgecombe, and fifteenth in 1903, eighth in 1904, fourteenth in 

1905, nineteenth in 1906 and fifth in 1907 at Iredell; and eighteenth 
in 1906 at Transylvania; while from Tennessee-grown seed it ranked 
thirteenth, seventeenth, ninth, twenty-eighth and ninth at Edgecombe 
in 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906 and 1907 ; seventh in 1904, thirteenth in 
1905, fourteenth in 1906 and twenty-third in 1907 at Iredell; and 
twenty-third in 1906 at Transylvania. This is a large, white-eared 
variety. 

Reid's Yellow Dent, from Illinois-grown seed, ranked twelfth in 
1903, eighteenth in 1904, twenty-third in 1905, twenty-fourth in 
1906 and twelfth in 1907 at Edgecombe; twelfth in 1903, nineteenth 
in 1904, twentieth in 1905, twenty-second in 1906 and thirty-third 
in 1907 at Iredell; and thirty-third in 1906 at Transylvania. This 
is a yellow variety of corn that has done well in the Northwestern 
States, but has a strong tendency, when grown under Southern con- 
ditions, as indicated by our variety tests, to produce only one large 



24 The Bulletin. 

ear per stalk and smaller yields per acre than the two-eared varieties. 
It is medium early in maturity. 

Marlboro Prolific, from South Carolina-grown seed, from Bureau 
of Plant Industry, ranked thirteenth in 1903, second in 1904, eleventh 
in 1905, eighth in 1906 and eighteenth in 1907 at the Edgecombe 
farm; third in 1903, twelfth in 1905, sixth in 1906 and seventh in 
1907 at Iredell ; and seventh in 1906 at Transylvania. From South 
Carolina-grown seed, from Excelsior Seed Farm, Marlboro Prolific 
ranked fourth in 1907 at the Edgecombe farm. This variety has an 
ear a little larger in size than Cocke's Prolific, and has a decidedly 
strong tendency to bear more than one ear to each stalk. 

Iowa Silver Mine, from Illinois seed, ranked fourteenth at both 
Edgecombe and Iredell farms in both 1903 and 1904, twenty-fourth 
at both in 1905, twenty-first in 1906, and twenty-third in 1907 at 
Edgecombe, and twenty-sixth in 1906, twenty-fifth in 1907 at Ire- 
dell; and thirty-first in 1906 at Transylvania. This is a white, 
large-eared corn that has a smaller percentage of cob to grain than 
Cocke's Prolific. Its grains are well shaped, showing the effect of 
prolonged and intelligent breeding and selection. This is one of the 
earliest varieties which the Department has tested. 

Mosby's Prolific, from Mississippi-grown seed, ranked fifth in 
1900, twelfth in 1903, eighteenth in 1904, twenty-second in 1905, 
seventeenth in 1906 and twenty-ninth in 1907 at Edgecombe; third 
in 1900 at Red Springs; seventh in 1903, eighteenth in 1904, thirty- 
first in 1905, twenty-sixth in 1906 and thirteenth in 1907 at Iredell; 
and twenty-seventh in 1906 at Transylvania. It has a large propor- 
tion of stalk to ear, as it has a large istalk. 

Williams' ranked in 1904 fourth and fifteenth, in 1905 twenty- 
first and fifth, in 1906 twelfth and fourth, and in 1907 fourteenth 
and twenty-sixth at Edgecombe and Iredell, respectively; and thir- 
teenth in 1906 at Transylvania. This variety has a large, tall stalk 
and large ears that contain a medium high percentage of cob, espe- 
cially when grown at Iredell. It seems better suited to bottom than 
up land. 

Boone County Special stood ninth and sixteenth in 1904, sixteenth 
and fifteenth in 1905, twenty-seventh and twenty-seventh in 1906, 
and twenty-fifth and thirteenth in 1907, respectively, at the Edge- 
combe and Iredell farms; and thirteenth in 1906 at Transylvania. 
The ears are rather below the medium in size. 

McMachins Gourd Seed ranked nineteenth, fifteenth, fifth and 
twenty-second at Edgecombe; twentieth, twenty-eighth, twenty-fifth 
and eighteenth at Iredell in 1904, 1905, 1906 and 1907, respectively, 
and eighth in 1906 at Transylvania. Medium in date of maturity. 

Currituck, which is grown rather extensively in some sections of 
the Piedmont Plateau of North Carolina, ranked twenty-second in 
1904, eleventh in 1905 and twenty-second in 1906 at Edgecombe; 



The Bulletin. 25 

twenty-third in 1904, eleventh in 1905, eighteenth in 1906 and 
twenty-first in 1907 at Iredell; and seventeenth in 1906 at Transyl- 
vania. Its ears are large and contain a medium high percentage of 
cob to grain. 

Shellem's Prolific ranked at Iredell seventeenth in 1904, tenth in 

1905 and twelfth in 1906; at Edgecombe, nineteenth in 1905 and 
fourteenth in 1906 ; and fifteenth at Transylvania in 1906. It has 
a small ear and is early when grown in western North Carolina. 

Eureka ranked twelfth in 1905 and seventh in 1906 at Edgecombe ; 
twenty-sixth in 1905 and twenty-third in 1906 at Iredell ; and fourth 
in 1906 at Transylvania. This variety has a white ear, with a com- 
paratively high percentage of cob to grain. 

Hickory King, from Tennessee-grown seed, ranked ninth in 1901, 
sixth in 1903 and 1905, eleventh in 1906 and fifteenth in 1907 at 
Edgecombe; thirteenth in 1903, sixth in 1905, eighth in 1906 and 
fourteenth in 1907 at Iredell; eighth in 1901 at Red Springs; and 
first in 1906 at Transylvania. From Virginia-grown seed it stood 
tenth in 1905, twenty-sixth in 1906 and tenth in 1907 at Edgecombe ; 
eleventh in 1905 and twenty-fourth in 1907 at Iredell; and twenty- 
first in 1906 at Transylvania. This is a prolific variety, with small 
ears and broad and shallow grains. 

Thomas' Improved ranked fourteenth in 1904, fourth in 1905 and 
eleventh in 1906, third in 1905 and thirteenth in 1906 at Edge- 
combe; and fourteenth in 1906 at Transylvania. This is a vigorous, 
rank-growing variety that matures rather late. 

Peele's Prolific stood eighteenth in 1905 and nineteenth in 1906 
at Edgecombe; seventeenth in 1905 and 1906 at Iredell; and ninth 
in 1906 at Transylvania. 

•American Queen occupied third place in 1905, second in 1906 and 
second in 1907 at Iredell; tenth in 1906 and seventh in 1907 at 
Edgecombe ; and twelfth in 1906 at Transylvania. 

Square Deal, in 1904 and 1905, ranked sixth and seventh at Edge- 
combe, and twenty-first and twenty-third at Iredell. 

Hastings' Prolific ranked fifteenth in 1906 and twenty-sixth in 
1907 at Edgecombe; twenty-first in 1906 and thirty-second in 1907 
at Iredell ; and twenty-second in 1906 at Transylvania. 

Southern Beauty ranked sixteenth in 1906 and nineteenth in 1907 
at Edgecombe; thirteenth in 1906 and third in 1907 at Iredell; and 
sixth in 1906 at Transylvania. 

Farmers' Favorite ranked twenty-second in 1906 and twentieth in 
1907 at Edgecombe; third in 1906 and twenty-seventh in 1907 at 
Iredell ; and sixteenth in 1906 at Transylvania. 

Biggs' Seven Ear ranked third in 1903, first in 1904, third in 

1906 and sixth in 1907 at Edgecombe; first in 1903, second in 1904, 
ninth in 1906 and first in 1907 at Iredell; and tenth in 1906 at Tran- 
sylvania. 



26 The Bulletin. 

Wilson s Success ranked twenty-third in 1906 and sixteenth in 
1907 at Edgecombe, and tenth in 1907 at Iredell. 

Battle's Prolific stood twenty-fifth in 1906 at Edgecombe, and 
tenth in 1906 at Iredell, and eleventh in 1906 at Transylvania. 

Hamilton (native) ranked twenty-sixth in 1906 at Transylvania. 

Merrill (native) ranked nineteenth in 1906 at Transylvania. 

Jarvis' Improved ranked this year fifth at Edgecombe and tenth 
at Iredell. 

Wyatt's Improved ranked first at Edgecombe this year, and twen- 
tieth at Iredell. 

Pool's, from Georgia-grown seed, ranked eighth this year at Edge- 
combe, and fourth at Iredell. 

Six-Ear Corn ranked ninth this year at Edgecombe, and thirty- 
first at Iredell. 

Parkers Cocke's Prolific ranked seventeenth this year at Edge- 
combe, and twelfth at Iredell. 

Sharber's ranked eighteenth this year at Edgecombe, and twenty- 
second at Iredell. 

Fry's Improved ranked twentieth this year at Edgecombe, and 
seventeenth at Iredell. 

Bradbury's Improved ranked twenty-seventh this year at Edge- 
combe, and twenty-eighth at Iredell. 

Henry Grady ranked twenty-eighth this year at Edgecombe, and 
eleventh at Iredell. 

Goodman's Prolific ranked ninth this year at Iredell. 

STUDY OF COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF CORN. 

During the past eight years on the test farms of the Department 
something over fifty varieties of corn have been studied in compara- 
tive field tests. The number of varieties in the different tests has 
ranged all the way from eight in 1900 to thirty-seven in 1907. The 
different tests of varieties at the several farms were grown as nearly 
under the same conditions of soil, fertilization and cultivation as it 
was possible to provide. To eliminate all inequalities in the character 
of the land, if any, the varieties at the different farms were planted 
each in separate rows, arranged consecutively, and this plan was re- 
peated from three to four times, varying with the length of the rows, 
in order to give the desired acreage to each variety. By taking these 
precautions the results obtained should be reliable and highly valu- 
able. 

WHAT IS A VARIETY ? 

A variety is supposed to represent in a general way a class of 
plants with one or more distinguishing characteristics, but with a 
cereal like corn, which crosses so readily, variety does not signify 
much unless proper precautions have been exercised in its growth. 



The Bulletin. 27 

Take some variety of corn, say Cocke's Prolific, that has been bred 
carefully and intelligently through a number of years for high yield 
of shelled corn per stalk, and grow it continuously in or adjacent to 
a field of inferior corn, and in a very short time, especially if proper 
seed selection is not practiced, it will give much smaller yields, when 
grown under the same conditions, than the original pure-bred corn ; 
this being due to the fact that you no longer have pure Cocke's Pro- 
lific, but a mixture of "scrub" and Cocke's Prolific corn. This fact 
emphasizes the importance of securing seed from reliable parties. 

EARLY MATURING VARIETIES. 

Iowa Silver Mine, Eiley's Favorite, Learning Yellow, Eeid's Yel- 
low Dent, Boone County Special and Boone County White are six 
of the earliest varieties in maturing that have thus far been tested on 
the farms of the Department. These were all originated in the north- 
ern-central States, where they have been accustomed to a compara- 
tively short growing season, which accounts largely for their inherent 
tendency to early maturity when grown under North Carolina condi-. 
tions. Earliness, however, we do not consider an important requisite 
with corn for this climate, except, possibly, where corn is grown in 
the mountainous section of the State, or where corn, of necessity, has 
to be planted late, after the maturity of some crop like Irish potatoes 
or other truck crop. Under these circumstances it may be well to use 
one of the varieties mentioned above, especially if experience has 
taught the farmer that local varieties do not thoroughly mature before 
frost. 

MEDIUM MATURING VARIETIES. 

Biggs' Prolific, Craig's Prolific White, Cocke's Prolific and Craig's 
Prolific Strawberry mature at a medium date in the fall, and some 
of these are our most prolific varieties. All these will mature on the 
different types of soil of the State if planted before July 1. 

LATE MATURING VARIETIES. 

It has been found that Holt's Strawberry, Marlboro Prolific, San- 
ders' Improved, Weekley's Improved and Mosby's Prolific are the 
latest maturing varieties tested during the past five years. These 
varieties generally produce a large and tall stalk when grown under 
conditions as represented by the Iredell farm, i. e., the results of the 
past five years' tests at that place indicate as much. 

VARIETIES ADAPTED TO THE EAST SECTION. 

A study of the results of the variety tests conducted at the Edge- 
combe farm during the past seven years indicates that the varieties 
of corn best suited to the fine loamy soils of the eastern and south- 



28 The Bulletin. 

western parts of the State are Cocke's Prolific, Biggs' Seven Ear, 
Weekley's Improved, Marlboro Prolific, Craig's Prolific Strawberry, 
Sanders' Improved and Holt's Strawberry, in about the order in 
which they are arranged. Cocke's Prolific and Biggs' Seven Ear 
have proven exceedingly promising varieties. All these varieties, 
except Holt's Strawberry and Craig's Prolific Strawberry, are white 
and prolific, and produce medium to small ears. 

VARIETIES ADAPTED TO PIEDMONT AND MOUNTAIN SECTIONS. 

It has been found from a testing of thirty-eight varieties during 
the past five years at the Iredell farm, located in the Piedmont sec- 
tion, that Weekley's Improved, Biggs' Seven Ear, Craig's Prolific 
White, Cocke's Prolific, Sanders' Improved, Hickory King, Holt's 
Strawberry, Boone County White, Learning Yellow and Reid's Yel- 
low Dent are the largest yielders of shelled corn per acre of all the 
varieties thus far tested. These, too, are all white varieties and are 
medium to medium late in maturity. The best of the varieties tested 
at the western farm are almost the same as for the east, but the order 
of prolificacy is somewhat different, 

CORRELATION OF CHARACTERS OF VARIETIES OF CORN. 

One of the purposes of our detailed study of varieties of corn, 
exhibited in Tables I, II, III and IV, is to ascertain what characters, 
being mutually helpful and hence conducive of greater yields, may 
be expected to be found combined in the same variety, and what ones, 
being generally antagonistic, seldom or never occur in the same plant 
or group of plants. This knowledge is of the most fundamental im- 
portance in the proper production of not only corn, but all other agri- 
cultural crops, as one being familiar with these facts will be better 
enabled to originate, improve or select varieties best adapted to dif- 
ferent localities, soils and purposes. It is also felt that a more correct 
interpretation can be placed on the results obtained in variety tests. 

In Table IV are brought together the average results of the work 
of five years (1903-'04-'05-'06-'07) at the Edgecombe and Iredell 
farms, separately. From a detailed study of this table, supplemented 
by field observations, the following tentative inductions, are made 
with reference to varieties of corn studied when they are grown under 
conditions of soil and climate as represented by these two farms : 

Antagonistic Characters. — (1) Earliness in maturity, other things 
being equal, is not generally conducive to large yields of grain and 
stover. (2) Large-eared varieties usually have a low percentage of 
grain to cob, and are as a rule less productive of shelled corn per acre. 
(3) Ears with very small cob have poorly shaped kernels, and give a 
small amount of shelled corn per ear, and vice versa. (4) Kernels 
of low vitality do not tend to the growth of plants of maximum yields. 



The Bulletin. 29 

Associated Characters. — (1) Earliness, other things being equal, 
usually tends to high percentage of ear to stover, and vice versa, 
although this ratio is more or less modified by season, soil, fertiliza- 
tion and breeding. (2) Varieties producing two ears per stalk are 
generally more productive of shelled corn per acre than those bearing 
only one ear, although it may be a large one. ( 3 ) Medium maturity, 
other things being equal, tends to increase yields per acre of grain. 
(4) Small kernels usually possess low vitality. (5) Kernels with 
small germs (chits) contain a small percentage of oil or fat. (6) Va- 
rieties with good root and leaf development are usually the most re- 
sistant ones to drought and disease and insect ravages. 

SELECTING SEED FOE, IMPROVEMENT. 

In the improvement of corn by seed selection an endeavor should 
be made to start with the best variety as ascertained by actual tests in 
the field through a sufficient number of years to eliminate weather 
conditions. It must be borne in mind that in all plant improvement 
the same principles and practices that have been employed with such 
striking results in the improvement of the different breeds of animals 
must be followed. 

For corn there are three general methods of improvement : First, 
by importation of seed from some reputable breeder or grower ; second, 
by the careful selection of seed corn from one's own field or from a 
neighbor's ; third, by careful selection and growing of seed corn in a 
field isolated something like four or five hundred yards from any 
other corn field. 

The characters that should be taken into account in the improve- 
ment of corn by selection are: 

(1) Selection of ears from stalk bearing two or more ears, as it has 
been demonstrated time and again that a variety that bears two 
medium-sized ears per stalk will generally give higher yields of 
shelled corn per acre than a variety bearing one large ear to the stalk. 

(2) The stalk should be large at the base and tapering * gradually 
towards the tassel, for two reasons — first, because it will be better 
enabled to withstand drought, and, second, because it will stand up 
better in windstorms. 

(3) The ears should by all means be of a cylindrical form, with 
both butts and tips filled out, as this is the form that gives the highest 
percentage of yield of shelled corn per ear, other things being equal. 

(4) The best-shaped kernel is a medium wedge, as this fills out the 
space on the cob most completely. Also, the distance between the 
rows of grains should be small, while the number of rows should be 
large and run parallel the full length of the cob, with little or no 
diminution in size, either at the butts or tips. The percentage of 
grains should be from 80 to 90 and should be held rigidly by the cob. 
It should also possess a high (90 to 95 per cent) germinating power, 
and great resisting power to disease and insect ravages. 



30 The Bulletin. 

It should be kept clearly in mind that, with varieties of corn, selec- 
tion should be made particularly with reference to total yield of 
shelled corn and the characters which tend to give this and an im- 
proved quality of grains. If it is to be used in feeding growing 
animals, or to be ground into meal for human consumption, it should 
be high in flesh and muscle-forming material (protein) ; if for fatten- 
ing stock, high in fat, and if to manufacture whiskey, alcohol or 
starch, high in starch, sugar, etc. (carbohydrates). 

SOURCES OF VARIETIES OF CORN TESTED. 

The seed used in the variety tests of corn at the Edgecombe and 
Iredell farms this year were obtained from the following sources : 

American Queen R. P. Dalton, Winston, N. C. 

Boone County Special (Illinois) . .Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 
Boone County White (Tennessee) Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington, D. C. 
Boone County White (Indiana) Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

Brake's Joe L. Brake, Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Bradbury's Improved J. E. Bradbury, Jr., Athens, Ga. 

Biggs' Seven Ear Noah Biggs, Scotland Neck, N. C. 

Cocke's Prolific Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Cocke's Prolific (Tennessee) Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

Currituck T. L. Jarvis, Moyock, N. C. 

Farmers' Favorite A. Cannon, Horse Shoe, N. C. 

Fry's Improved : H. C. Fry, Clarksville, Ga. 

Goodman's Prolific J. K. Goodman, Mount Ulla, N. C. 

Hastings' Prolific H. G. Hastings & Co., Atlanta, Ga. 

Hickory King (Virginia) A. O. Lee, Hickory, Va. 

Hickory King (Tennessee) Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

Holt's Strawberry T. W. Wood & Sons, Richmond, Va. 

Henry Grady W. G. Headden, Austill, Ga. 

Iowa Silver Mine (Illinois) Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

Jarvis' Improved T. L. Jarvis, Moyock, N. C. 

Learning Yellow (Ohio) Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

Marlboro Prolific (S. Carolina) . .Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

Marlboro Prolific Excelsior Seed Farm, Cheraw, S. C. 

McMackin's Gourd Seed (Tenn.) Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

Mosby's Prolific (Miss.) Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

Parker's Cocke's Prolific T. B. Parker, Raleigh, N. C. 

Poole's '. J- C. Poole, Marion, N. C. 

Reid's Yellow Dent (Illinois) Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

Riley's Favorite (Indiana) Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C 

Sanders' Improved (Georgia) . .Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

Selection 77 (Ohio) Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

Shax-ber's M. D. Dozier, Camden, N. C. 

Six-Ear Corn Alexander Seed Co., Augusta, Ga. 

Southern Beauty L. A. Strupe, Tobaccoville, N. C. 

Weekley's Improved Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. 

Williams' C. S. Williams, Franklinton, N. C. 

Wilson's Success F. D. Wilson, Chase City, Va. 

Wyatt's Improved Job P. Wyatt, Raleigh, N. C. 

RESULTS OF VARIETY-DISTANCE TESTS OF CORN. 

The results of these tests are included in the following tables : 



The Bulletin. 



31 



Table V— RESULTS OF TESTS OF THREE LEADING VARIETIES OF 
CORN AT DIFFERENT SPACING IN THE ROWS IN 1907. 

EDGECOMBE EARM. 



Yield. Height of Stalks and Ears at Different Spacing of Stalks in 
Four- foot Rows. 





20 Inches. 


24 Inches. 30 Inches. 


36 Inches. 


40 Inches. 


Varieties. 


Height of Stalks in Inches 
at Maturity. 


to 
41 

43 
u 

c 
c 
01 . 

as 

<M 3 

° rt 
xS 
u v 
"3 b 

a 


£ 
U 

43 

w 

<H 

° . 

CO Q) 

i« 

to< 

39 oj 

c p 
— c 

2S 

£ 


Height of Stalks in Inches 
at Maturity. 


to 

01 

43 
o 

a 

l-H 

.2 

to 

B 3 
H-c 

•H 3 

O -M 

4=§ 

.»~ 
a 


1 
3 

OT 

<H 



to qJ 

3 fa 

• S E 

2 o 


Height of Stalks in Inches 
at Maturity. 


01 
91 

& 

01 . 
<H 3 

a 


T3 

"3 

43 

w 
o 

01 OJ 

39 o> 

3° 

"■" c 

2o 

4>0 


Height of Stalks in Inches 
at Maturity. 


01 

V 
43 
o 

c 
a 

01 

a£ 

<H 3 

°l 

ill B 

a 


| 

43 
K 

«H 

o 

01 oi 

09 8 

aS 

2S 


Height of Stalks in Inches 
at Maturity. 


to 
31 
43 
u 
a 

h- ( 
fi 

01 . 
K hi 

B -W 

"SB 

,p 03 

as 

5 B 

a 


| 
"3 

43 
OT 

<H 
O 

OJ oj 

I| 
01 << 

.5 
2 1 

DO 

£ 




112 49 


24.1 
23.9 
22.1 


107 
111 
101 


47 
52 
42 


23.3 
17.1 

15.7 


105 
112 
104 


44 
53 
47 


19.1 
17.3 
19.9 


104 
107 

101 


44 
50 
45 


16.8 
15.3 
17.9 


99 
107 
105 


43 

49 
49 


16.7 


Holt's Strawberry 

Weekley's Improved 


112 
107 


53 

51 


14.4 
12.8 



Table v— RESULTS OF TESTS OF THREE LEADING VARIETIES OF 
CORN AT DIFFERENT SPACING IN THE ROWS IN 1907. 

IREDELL FARM. 





Yield, Height of Stalks and Ears at Different Spacing of Stalks in 
Four- foot Rows. 




20 Inches. 


24 Inches. 


30 Inches. 


36 Inches. 


40 Inches. 


Varieties. 


Height of Stalks in Inches 
at Maturity. 


to 

01 

43 

o 

p 

S 

to 

1* . 
01 >> 

»*. 

01 B 

a 


3 

1 
w 

o 
01 o; 

01<i 

39 oi 

*s 

2 o 

01Q 
£ 


Height of Stalks in Inches 
at Maturity. 


01 

01 

43 

u 
C 

>— 1 

a 

01 

u- . 

CO >. 

w.-a 

01 R 

a 


73 
J» 

"3 

43 

m 

o 
to oi 

39 oi 
c 6 

il 

oio 

£ 


Height of Stalks in Inches 
at Maturity. 


01 
01 
43 
O 

a 
e 

01 
fa 

■S ^ 
01 B 

a 


1 
"oi 

43 
<H 

o 

01 oi 

to<; 

09 oi 

* 5 

2 o 

4) O 


m 

41 

43 
o 
B 

H- 1 
_P 
01 

4< 

w.| 
"82 

43S 
«*. 

oi sl 

a 


01 

01 
43 

CJ 

a 

H- 1 

fi 

01 

h . 
* >» 

W.-S 

<H3 

43S 
41 B 

a 


-d 
JH 
"3 

43 

ra 

«H 
O 
10 0) 

5S 

01< 

39 4> 

G a 

- fi 

2S 

41(J 


09 
4) 

43 

u 

■fi 

a 

n 

4^ 

3i 

°1 
£l 

41 B 

a 


01 

41 
43 
O 

a 
*-* 

a 

m 

t. . 
B >> 

W.-S 

c 

O -w 

43S 

.Sf-P 
41 B 

a 


2 
"oi 

43 

w 
o 

01 Q> 

oi<! 
09 « 

i 

41Q 




108 
108 
108 


60 33.3 


100 48 


32.5 
27.5 
21.1 


106 
104 
120 


66 35.7 


96 

96 

104 


54 
54 
60 


37.7 
33.0 
36.1 


106 48 


36.8 


Holt's Strawberry 

Weekley's Improved 


60 
60 


23.4 
27.8 


108 
106 


60 
60 


54 
60 


27.8 
38.2 


120 
124 


64 
72 


29.4 
28.4 



32 



The Bulletin. 



Table VI— COMPILED RESULTS OF THREE YEARS' TESTS OF THREE 
LEADING VARIETIES OF CORN AT DIFFERENT SPACING IN 
THE ROWS. 1 

EDGECOMBE FARM. 



Varieties. 



Yield, Height of Stalks and Ears at Different Spacing of Stalks in 
Four- foot Rows. 



20 Inches. 



24 Inches. 



41 

a 

c 



co 

3i 

WE 

<M 3 
I > CO 

is 

41 CO 

H 



w 

O 

J2 oi 

0) h 



co 

oi 

J5 



Sa >• -a « 

<« s S3 S 

° *" _ p. 

+j is a ~ 

»s .20 



01 

M 'E 
o ~ 

.»« 



a-- 

:<h 3 
|+> * 

■a§ 
■»*» 



Inches. 



0) 

C 



-a 

s 

~s 

■a 
m 

° . 

rr. u 

•a.2 2 
oi< ^ 

03 V 



-a 



a « 

m .S 

32 . 01 

si 



13 
_0> 

"3 

.13 
W 

•H 
O 
01 



«h 3 
°* 

01 09 

n 



. oi C 
*>.Xti 

03 oi 



H = 



36 Inches. 



-a 
o 
c 



ai 



01 

J3 
o 

B 



40 Inches. 



.a 



-a 

u 

-a c 

02 : w 

<h a 



"h 3 

-aS 

.»- 
oi co 

w 



3° 

— a 



CO >> 
WE 

<H 3 

2- 

bo 

w 



o 
to oi 

"3 " 



.^^■s^ 



a _ 

<M 3 

o i 

53 



03 5 

a* 

— a 



41 O 



01 

"3 ^ 

-p *j 
we 
«w 3 
O -P 

41 CO 



4) 
CO — 



c „ • 

-* 01 o> 

M . "3 h 

IO+j. ft 
i -m * 5 -■ 

'£§ «S 

!'Sto .20 
'EC >< 



Cocke's Prolific 116.0 55.2 25.7 111.0 56.0 29.4 

Holt's Strawberry 119.2 58.4 20.8 120.6 58.0 20.3 

Weekley's Improved 1 107.4 52.0 25.3} 110.9 52.5 24.2 



115.4 55.9 28-7 113.4 53.9 21.9 



112.2 50.7 23.4 



121.6 59.919.8 118.3 56.919.3 118.0 58. 20.0 
113.455.929.3 113.0 55.7 28.3 112.0 53.9 23.7 



IREDELL FARM. 



Cocke's Prolific 

Holt's Strawberry 

Weekley's Improved 



115.0 



57.0 39.1 117.3 



121.0 64.0 28.8 119.0 



56.0 
64.0 



122.0 63.0 31.4 119.0 61.0 



33.7; 115.3 58.0 
29.6 116.6 61.0 
30.1 127.0 62.0 



38.0 115.0 
32.4 111.0 
38.0 116.6 



55.0 
62.0 
57.0 



36.9 
30.7 
35.3 



116.3 52.0 
120.0 63.3 
121.0 62.0 



35.2 
30.2 
30.6 



'Results in this table for the Edgecombe farm were obtained from data of 1C05 
and 1907. 



These tests were conducted at both the Edgecombe and Iredell 
farms this year. The land devoted to this test at the Edgecombe 
farm was good general farm land, while that at the Iredell farm was 
a deep, red, rather open clay soil, underlain by a tenacious red clay 
subsoil. Both soil and subsoil contain some rock fragments. The 
tests were planned and put out in 1905, and continued this year to 
ascertain if the claim made by some that if distance is given the large 
one-eared varieties they will produce larger yields of shelled corn 
per acre than those producing or tending to produce two small or 
medium-sized ears per stalk. Eor the test, as seen above, two well- 
known prolific varieties — Cocke's Prolific and Weekley's Improved — 
are being compared with Holt's Strawberry, one of the best one-eared 
varieties. It will be noted that both Cocke's Prolific and Weekley's 
Improved have each, as an average of three years' results at Iredell 
and two years' results at Edgecombe, made larger yields than Holt's 
Strawberry, at both farms, and at all the different distancing of the 
hills in the rows that were tried. 



The Bulletin. 33 

At the Edgecombe farm, as an average of the results of 1905 and 
1907, Cocke's. Prolific produced the following increase of bushels of 
shelled corn over Holt's Strawberry: At 20 inches, 4.9 ; at 24 inches, 
9.1; at 30 inches, 8.9; at 36 inches, 2.6; at 40 inches, 3.4 bushels; 
while at Iredell the increased yields of Cocke's Prolific over Holt's 
Strawberry, as an average of the results for 1905, 1906 and 1907, 
were: At 20 inches, 10.3; at 24 inches, 4.1; at 30 inches, 5.6; at 36 
inches, 6.2; at 40 inches, 5.0 bushels. 

Weekley's Improved increased yields over Holt's Strawberry, as 
an average for 1905 and 1907 at the Edgecombe farm, wore: At 20 
inches, 4.5; at 24 inches, 3.9; at 30 inches, 9.5; at 36 inches, 9.0; 
at 40 inches, 3.7 bushels; while at the Iredell farm, as an average of 
three years' tests, 1905, 1906, 1907, the increases of Weekley's Im- 
proved over Holt's Strawberry were: at 20 inches, 2.6; at 24 inches, 
0.5 ; at 30 inches, 5.6; at 36 inches, 4.6; at 40 inches, 0.4 bushels. 

In the light of these results, coupled with six years' variety tests, 
it is evident that the largest yields of shelled corn per acre on any 
type of soil are going to result generally from the use of more prolific 
varieties, because they will produce more shelled corn per stalk, and, 
as the stalks are generally smaller and can be planted closer in the 
row, will contain more stalks per acre. 

AVhen the corn is planted wide apart in the row, and in wide-apart 
rows — matters not if the best one-eared varieties are used — the land 
will not "turn out" the maximum yield which it is capable of pro- 
ducing, for the reason that there are not enough stalks per acre. 

In 1905 Cocke's Prolific and Weekley's Improved, at both the 
Edgecombe and Iredell farms, produced their largest yields in these 
tests at the distancing centering about 30 to 36 inches, while Holt's 
Strawberry did best at the greatest distancing. At the most favor- 
able distancing (40 inches) Holt's Strawberry at the Edgecombe and 
Iredell farms yielded less by 12.6 and 4.2 bushels of shelled corn per 
acre, respectively, than Cocke's Prolific at the distancing best suited 
to it, which was 30 and 36 inches, respectively. Weekley's Improved, 
with its best distancing at Edgecombe, yielded 13 bushels more than 
Holt's Strawberry at 40-inch distancing; while at Iredell Weekley's 
Improved, with the stalks 36 inches in the row, produced 4.2 bushels 
more per acre than Holt's Strawberry at its optimum distancing (40 
inches) in the row. 

In 1906, being a year in which excessive amounts of rain fell dur- 
ing the growing period, all three varieties produced largest yields at 
a distancing of 20 inches in the row ; while the next best yields for 
all were at 30 inches in the row. This year seemed to be especially 
favorable to the production of maximum yields of all the large one- 
eared varieties, and at the Iredell farm Holt's Strawberry outyielded 
Weekley's Improved at both 20 and 30 inches between the hills in 
four-foot rows. 



31 



The Bulletin. 



In 1907, at the Edgecombe farm, all three varieties attained their 
highest yields at a distancing of 20 inches in the row. At this dis- 
tancing Cocke's Prolific slightly exceeded Holt's Strawberry, and 
Holt's Strawberry exceeded Weekley's Improved by 1.8 bushels 
shelled corn per acre. At the Iredell farm all three varieties made 
the best yields at a distancing of 36 inches in the row. At this dis- 
tancing Cocke's Prolific exceeded Holt's Strawberry by 4.7, and 
AVeekley's Improved exceeded Holt's Strawberry by 3.1 bushels 
shelled corn per acre. 

DISTANCE TESTS OF CORN. 

The results of the distance tests of corn are brought together in 
Tables VII and VIII, which follow : 

Table VII— COMPILED RESULTS OF DISTANCE TESTS OF CORN. 

EDGECOMBE FARM. 



- £ 

.as 

c c 

£W 
05 o 



Distance Between 
Stalks. 



7 

2 

5 

1 

4 

3 

6 

8 

9 

11 

10 

12 



Distance Be- 
tween Stalks 
in Row. 



No. 
Stalks 

per 
Plat. * 



o 

h 

11 . 

faw 



eg 

3 

>> o 
MO 



Three and one-half 

feet. 
Three and one-half 

feet. 
Three and one-half 

feet. 
Three and one- half 

feet. 
Four feet 

Four feet 

Four feet 

Four feet 

Five feet 

Five feet 

Five feet -, 

Five feet 



Four feet 

Three feet 

Two and one- 
half feet. 
Two feet 

Four feet 

Three feet 

Two and one- 
half feet. 
Two feet 

Four feet 

Three feet 

Two feet 

One and one- 
half feet. 



250 


248 


333 


364 


400 


371 


500 


498 


250 


284 


333 


287 


400 


404 


500 


449 


250 


292 


333 


395 


500 


379 


666 


171 



365 
410 
478 
631 
464 
440 
472 
494 
458 
404 
490 
487 






MS 
»8 

> - 

<£ 



Yield per Plat in 
Pounds. 



to 

W 

0) 
HO 
u 

ca 



■3 



106.0 
108.0 
107.0 
109.0 
110.0 
100.0 
111.0 
109-0 
110.0 



112.75 
149.25 
130.00 
177.25! 
165. 00 : 
174.50 
132.25 
124.50 
145.75 



10.25 
14.00 
17.75 
15.50 
12.75 
10.50 
18.00 



a 

u 

o 
O.Q 

-2 ° 

° G 
Eh o 



123. 
163. 
147. 
192. 
177. 
185. 
150. 



107.0 126.75 



109.0 
106.0 



145.00 
117.75 



14.50139 



16.75 
11.00 
13.50 
16.50 



162 
137 
158 
134, 



w 



92.00 
161.75 
162.25 
112.25 
142.25 
150.00 25.7 
154.75 20 



■o 
v 

-c 
W . 

IB ^ 
3 fc 



o c 

HO 



73 

J5 . 

CO.* 

c w 

O D 

Cm d 



19.6 
26.1 
22.3 
30.8 
24.7 



176.00 

162.50 

97.25 

136.50 



19.3 
18.2 
15.4 
17.7 



150.7515.0 



.41 
.37 
.33 
.32 
.52 
.53 
.30 
.25 
.46 
.29 
.40 
.23 



T3 

C 

§ 

Cm 



< 
U 
<0 

a, 
u 

> 
o 

-t-> 

w 



1140 
2005 
2011 
1391 
1536 
1620 
1671 
1900 
1413 
846 
1187 
1311 



The Bulletin. 



35 



Table VII— COMPILED RESULTS OF DISTANCE TESTS OF CORN. 

IREDELL FARM. 



73 8 
& 11 


Distance Between 
Stalks. 


Distance Between 
Stalks in Row. 


No. 

Stalks 

per 

Plat. 


+3 

0! 

u 
0) 
a 

tn 

H 

<H 

o 

h 
0) 

s 


m 

sS 
73 . 

O 3 

»+> 
P 

CO o 

*■< e 

<s 


Yield per Plat 
Pounds. 


in 


£ 
73 

j= 

M . 

■ s 

a) o 

■G< 
to 

3 >* 
EPS 
73 c 

o o 
HO 


a 

S 
O 

oi 

=3 
j= . 

CM 

O <D 
Oh A 


CO 

T3 

a 

3 

o 

0L, 
1 


60 - 
c c 

._ k. 

wo 

U 01 

<^ 

am 

K o 


u 

01 
«H 

to 

01 ■ 

\. B 
ft rt 

few 


73 

a 

O+S 

>> o 

mo 


m 
u 
rt 

H 

So 

c 
3 


oi 
C 

3 


c 

ft 

Oj£ 

£o 

o c 
Ho 


u 
oi 
> 

o 


< 

u 

01 

a 
u 

0) 

> 

o 

m 


6 
2 
5 
4 
11 

7 
10 


Three and one-half 

feet. 
Three and one-half 

feet. 
Three and one-half 

feet. 
Three and one-half 

feet. 


Four feet- 




187 
218 
233 
241 
201 
231 
216 
243 
281 
198 
214 
243 
301 


353 
384 
405 
430 
382 
427 
399 
452 
527 
364 
503 
478 
590 


96.0 

102.0 

100.0 

100.0 

94.0 

108.0 

100.0 

102.0 

94.0 

90.0 

96.0 

110.0 

102.0 


82.5 
88.0 
84.0 
79.0 
81.0 
88.0 
79.0 
78.0 
91.0 
95.0 
94.0 
111.0 
118.0 


3.6 
4.0 

4.0 

3.0 

3.0 

9.0 

10.0 

13.0 

14.0 

5.0 

11.0 

10.0 

15.0 


86.1 

92.0 

88.0 

82.0 

84.0 

97.0 

89.0 

91.0 

105.0 

100.0 

105.0 

121.0 

133.0 


119.0 
153.0 
137.0 
148-0 
141.0 
133.0 
146.0 
149.0 
175.0 
80.0 
135.0 
174.0 
202.0 


29.1 
31.2 
29.8 
30.7 
24.8 
28.7 
26.3 
26.9 
31.1 
23.7 
24.8 
28.6 
31.5 


.38 
.35 
.31 
.28 
.34 
.34 
.34 
.31 
.31 
.41 
.40 
.41 
.36 


S>725 






3503 


Two and one-half 

feet. 
Two feet 




3137 
3389 






2820 








2660 




Two and one-half 

feet 
Two feet -- - 





2920 


9 
3 




2980 




One and one-half 
feet. 




3500 


12 

11 

8 

1 




1280 








2160 








2784 




One and one-half 
feet. 




3232 









36 



The Bulletin. 



Table VIII— COMPILED RESULTS OF DISTANCE TESTS OF CORN. 

EDGECOMBE FABM. 



Year. 



Yield of Shelled Corn in Bushels per Acre at 
Different Distancing. 



4J 
-M 0> _ 



01 

o> 



4J V 4J^ 4J41 4Jth 4J V «H & 

so.fi co.fi co.fi co.fi ea.fi i^.o ■* 



•fl*.0 



Tf .a 



01 

■4J«4H 
T*.fi 



0) 

(1) 

"H >. «H >. 
■a-.fi -G£l 



<0 
O) 
«H 

aii 

01 " 
ie .fi 



0) 4> 4) 

m o> v 

4J*H -*J«H +^«w 

Q> CM ai CO qj ^ 

oX ie.fi ie.fi 



1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

Averages 



22.0 
36.8 
16.1 



18.8 



35.8 
12.7 



16.1 
26.8 



37.4 
22.7 



14.6 
23.7 
37.4 
29.6 



28.6 



35.8 
12.7 



33.7 
18.1 



17.6 
27.4 
35.8 
18.3 



28.4 
16.1 
23.0 
40.1 
15.8 



24.4 
16.2 
25.0 
30.2 
17.6 



22.5 



24.6 
32.7 
26.1 



24.3 23.0 
13.0 13.6 



19.5 



18.7 



32.8 31.9 
20.4 20.6 



30.8 22.3 26.1 — 



19.6 



19.3 20.8 25.7— - 24.7 15.0 



17.7 



15.418.2 






BED SPEINGS FABM. 



1901 








9.2 


*. 


10 




10 7 




16 •> 




'0 


17 9 


18 3 


1902 











14.8 — 





11.9 





14.4 





11.4 





12.2 


11.3 


10.9 


1903 











17.8 





18.3 





16.5 





18.2 





17.6 


19.2 


14.4 


1904 








23.3 










?1 8 






?S 6 


20.8 










16.3 — 
















18.4 


17.3 - 










- 





















IBEDELL FABM. 



1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

Averages - 



15.8— -21.9 
42.4-.. 39.3 
31.4— -38.0 
27.8 26.9 27.2 
30.7 29.8 31.2 



18.0 
40-6 
39.1 
24.3 
29.1 



-29.6 31.51 30.2 



22.9 14.5 
36.4 35.1 
37.0 34.1 
— . 20.5 
31.126.9 
— - 26.2 



16.4 17.1 — 
39.3 35.4— - 

37.2 34.5 — 
28.8 25.9 — 

26.3 28.7- — 
29.6 28.3 



15.4 — 
41.01— 

34.8 — - 



19.8 
46.9 

46.9 



24.3 28.8 23.8 
24.8 31.5 28.6 



28.0— - 33.2 



20.519.8 
37.231.0 
35.0 33.9 
17.5 18.4 
24.8 23.7 
27.0 25.3 



The Bulletin. 37 



COMMENTS ON DISTANCE TESTS. 



These tests were conducted this year at the Iredell and Edgecombe 
farms — seed of Cocke's Prolific having been used at Edgecombe and 
Weekley's Improved at Iredell for planting the different tests during 
all the years. The distancing best suited to the soil of the Edge- 
combe farm in its present state of fertility, as indicated by an average 
of six years' results, is 4 feet by 3" feet ; at Iredell and Reel Springs, 
as an average of three and five years' results, respectively, 5 feet by 
2 feet. It will require a number of repetitions of this test to arrive 
at a fair idea of the best width of rows and distance in rows for plant- 
ing corn on the types of soil used in the experiments. This will no 
doubt vary with the different kinds of corn, soil and season. 

In Table VIII is presented in concise form the results of all dis- 
tance tests with corn that have been conducted at the Edgecombe farm 
during six years, and the Red Springs farm during four years, and 
the Iredell farm during five years. 

II. Variety and Distance Tests of Cotton. 

Preparation and Cultivation, — All plats devoted to these tests were 
broke 8 to 10 inches deep during March at Edgecombe, and in April 
at Iredell, with a two-horse turning plow, followed by a thorough 
disking during the middle of April. Just before laying off the rows, 
which was during the last of April, the ground was gone over with a 
smoothing harrow. The rows were run 5 to 7 inches deep, 3^3 feet 
apart, with an 8-inch shovel, and the fertilizer materials applied in 
the drill, at the following rate per acre in all tests : 

Four hundred pounds of a mixture of acid phosphate, manure salt 
and dried blood, which contained 7 per cent available phosphoric acid, 
2y 2 per cent potash and 2l/ 2 per cent nitrogen (equal to 3.04 per cent 
ammonia), costing $3.95, were used. 

The cultivation was level, with cultivators, being moderately deep 
at the beginning of the season and shallower as the root zone increased. 
The cultivator was never run more than twice to the row at a time, as 
this more than covered the middle, and an effort was made to work 
over the plats as quickly as possible immediately after rains to break 
the crust formed by the showers and leave a dust mulch to check 
evaporation. The cultivator was run about iy 2 to 2 inches deep 
toward the close of the season. It was attempted to cultivate every 
ten days, which had to be changed, of course, to suit the season. The 
cotton was reduced to a stand of 15 inches at Edgecombe and 16 inches 
at Iredell between the hills in the rows with the variety tests. 

RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF COTTON. 

The results of these tests are included in the following tables : 



38 



The Bulletin. 



Table IX— RESULTS OF 

EDGECOMBE 



M 

c 

2 M 

<B -g 

w a 

-M O 

N £~ 

B W TJ 

13-8 s 

Ml)*) 
e.2.5 



Varieties Tested. 



1 Cleveland's Big Boll 

2 Shine's Extra Early Prolific - 

3 Sugar Loaf — 

4 Brown's No. 1 

5 Russell's Big Boll 

6 Cook's Improved 

7 Bigham's Improved 

8 Simpkins' Prolific 

9 Webb 

10 Braswell's Cluster 



Number of 

Stalks 

per Plat. 



11 Culpepper's Re-Improved- 

12 King's Improved 

13 Culpepper's Improved 

14 Morgan's Climax 

15 Hodge 

16 Edgeworth 

17 Dozier's Improved 

18 Wilson's Matchless 

19 Lay ton's Improved 

20 Moss' Improved 

21 Pullnot 

22 Alexander Money-Maker - 

23 Excelsior Prolific 

24 Cluster 

25 Peterkin's Improved 

26 Mortgage Lifter 

27 Black Texas Wood 



e 
et 

w 



Ph 

s 

&H 



555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 
555 



a 

3 

o 
O 

«— . 

ct 

3 

-M 
U 

< 



308 
236 
376 
407 
256 
377 
348 
298 
365 
346 
253 
271 
306 
430 
272 
207 
211 
307 
245 
286 
323 
275 
293 
278 
276 
113 
266 



£6 

a) 

w 



a! 



43.0 

44.0 

40.0 

43.0 

43.0 j 

41.0 

45.0 

38.0 

40.0 

45.0 

43.0 | 

37.0 

37.0 

46.0 

39.0 

45.0 

42.0 

43.0 

44.0 

41.0 

40.0 

43.0 

43.0 

48.0 

47.0 

44.0 

50.0 



Yield of Seed Cotton in 

Pounds per Plat at the 

Several Pickings. 



M . 

Bri 

!5 ** 

GO > 

& o 



36.50 
36.50 
46.25 
31.00 
26.50 
20.25 
43.50 
28.50 
49.50 
46.75 
23.50 
31.50 
27.25 
45.50 
42.50 
38.50 
33.75 
36-00 
33.50 
10.50 
22.50 
17.25 
34.50 
28.50 
28.50 
11.50 
9.50 



M 

a 

Sot 

OH 

S b 
« 2 

O r <D 



29 
30 
10 
20 
32 
30 
13, 
19 

3. 

4. 
26. 
13. 
20. 

3. 

2. 

7. 
10. 

8. 

5. 
26. 
16. 
18. 

3. 
12. 

6. 
22. 
17. 



to 
c 






H 



c 
15 

a 

- 

+a 
h 
3 
O 



Id 

bn 

c 

3 

o 

K 



o 

Eh 



66.25 
63.50 
56.75 
51.50 
58.75 
£0.25 
57.00 
48.25 
53.25 
51.50 
49.50 
45.00 
48.00 
49.00 
44.75 
45.50 
43.75 
44.00 
38.50 
36.75 
39.25 
36.00 
38-00 
41.00 
35.25 
33.50 
27.50 



The Bulletin. 



39 



VARIETY TESTS OF COTTON. 

FARM. 



- 

o 

o 
O 

T3 t 
V 
0) 

w 

05 t 
ns 

a * 

Ok S 

-M tl 

O (1) 

H ft 


JNumDer oi tsoiis nequirea 10 
Yield One Pound of Seed 
Cotton. 


03 

og 

■•H O 

•goo 
"_. 

.CO 

Eg 

3 O 
£Pk 


Pounds of Lint in 100 Pounds 
of Seed Cotton. 


Pounds of Seed in 100 Pounds 
of Seed Cotton. 


Pounds of Lint per Acre. 


Pounds of Seed per Acre. 


Value of Lint per Acre at 
11 Cents per Pound. 


Value of Seed per Acre at 
$1 00 per 100 Pounds or 
30 Cents per Bushel. 


T3 

a 

K! 

-*> 

a 
o 2 

3<! 

Tt b 
>$, 
"c3T3 

O 05 


Source of Seed. 


1278.63 


54 


2000 


35.14 


64.86 


449.3 


829.3 


$49.42 


$ 8.29 


$57.71 


Georgia. 


1225.55 


69 


2676 


32.68 


67.32 


400.5 


825.0 


44.05 


8.25 


52.30 


North Carolina. 


1095.28 


87 


2825 


36.28 


63.72 


397.3 


697.9 


43.70 6.97 


50.67 


North Carolina. 


993.95 


58 


2312 


38.49 


61.51 


382.5 


611.4 


42.08 


6.11 


48.19 


-Georgia. 


1134.88 


54 


2000 


31.95 


68.05 


362.5 


772.3 


39.87 


7.72 


47.59 


Edgecombe Farm. 


969.82 


61 


2353 


38.61 


61.39 


374.4 


595.4 


41.18 


5.95 


47.13 


Georgia. 


1100.10 


63 


2567 


32.90 


67.10 


361.9 


438.2 


39-80 


4.38 


44.18 


North Carolina. 


931.23 


79 


2812 


36.68 


63.32 


341.5 


589.7 


37.56 


5.90 


43.46 


North Carolina. 


1027.73 


83 


2862 


32.73 


67.27 


330.3 


697.4 


36.33 


6.97 


43.30 


North Carolina. 


993.95 


76 


2839 


33.51 


66.49 


333-0 


660.9 


36.63 


6.60 


43.23 


North Carolina. 


955.35 


54 


2150 


33.19 


66.81 


317.0 


638.3 


34.87 


6.38 


41.25 


Georgia. 


868. 50 


86 


2921 


37.40 


62.60 


324.8 


543.7 


35.72 


5.44 


41.16 


Iredell Farm. 


926.40 


61 


1959 


33.80 


66.18 


313.3 


613.1 


34.46 


6.13 


40.59 


Edgecombe Farm. 


945.70 


59 


2331 


31.51 


68.49 


297.9 


647.8 


32.76 


6.48 


39.24 


South Carolina. 


863.68 


77 


2630 


35.00 


65.00 


302.2 


561.4 


33.24 


5.61 


38.85 


North Carolina. 


878.15 


58 


2199 


1 32. 81 


67.19 


288.1 


590.0 


31.69 


5.90 


37.59 


Georgia. 


844.38 


71 


2707 


1 33.51 


66.49 


282.9 


561.4 


31.11 


5.61 


36.72 


North Carolina. 


849.20 


69 


2535 


32.88 


67.12 


279.2 


570. 


30.71 


5.70 


36.41 


North Carolina. 


743.05 


71 


2921 


38.55 


61.45 


286.4 


456.6 


31.50 


4.57 


36.07 


South Carolina. 


709.28 


74 


3102 


39.26 


60.74 


278.4 


430.8 


30.62 


4.31 


34.93 


South Carolina. 


757.53 


58 


2031 


35.93 


64.07 


272.1 


485.4 


29.93 


4.85 


34.78 


Georgia. 


694.80 


73 


2966 


38.80 


61.20 


269.5 


425.3 


29.65 


4.25 


33.90 


Georgia. 


733.40 


74 


2812 


36.21 


63.79 


265.5 


467.9 


29.20 


4.68 


33.88 


South Carolina. 


791.30 


76 


2911 


32.61 


67.39 


258.0 


533.3 


28.38 


5.33 


33.71 


North Carolina. 


680.33 


72 


3002 


37.36 


62.64 


254.1 


426.2 


27.95 


4.26 


32.21 


South Carolina. 


646.55 


56 


1864 


30.10 


69-90 


194.6 


451.9 


21.40 


4.52 


25.92 


Georgia. 


521.10 


76 


3215 

1 _ 


36.57 


63.43 


190.5 


330.6 


20.95 


3.30 


24.25 


North Carolina. 



40 



The Bulletin. 



Table IX— RESULTS OF VARIETY 

IREDELL 



bo 
.5 

S DO 

1) + J 

°"S 

bo£_; 
o o« 

M <u-tf 

b.H.S 



Varieties Tested. 



Number 
of Stalks 
per Plat. 



B 



o 
u 

u 
o 



12 
13 

14 
15 
16 

17 
18 



Pullnot 520 



King's Improved 

3 Cook's Improved- 

4 King's Improved (native) - 

5 Brown's No. 1 

6 Sugar Loaf 

7 Cleveland Big Boll 

8 Simpkin's Prolific 

9 Culpepper's Re- Improved- 

10 Mortgage Lifter 

11 Wilson's Matchless 

Alexander Money-Maker - 



520 
520 
520 
520 
520 
620 
520 
520 
520 
520 
520 



Moss' Improved 520 



Bigham's Improved 

Williams' 

Drake's Defiance 

Excelsior Prolific 

Dozier's Improved 

19 Shine's Extra Early Prolific . 

20 Edgeworth 

21 Cluster 

22 Black Texas Wood 

23 Webb 

24 Braswell's Cluster 



520 
520 
520 
520 
520 
520 
520 
520 
520 
520 
520 



- fi 



n 

w 
"Si 

f § 

to ti 

■•a 



Yield of Seed Cotton in 

Pounds per Plat at the 

Several Pickings. 



3 

O 

<! 
>> 

« 



434 
523 
465 
525 
431 
497 
429 
442 
407 
435 
472 
478 
436 
450 
490 
402 
492 
423 
426 
542 
442 
445 
478 
550 



2 « 



30.0 
40.0 
36.0 
33.0 
40.0 
36.0 
35.0 
42.0 
44.0 
45.0 
48.0 
32.0 
40.0 
32.0 
33.0 
34.0 
42.0 
30.0 
36.0 
30.0 
44.0 
42.0 
32.0 
30-0 



B . 
04 4) 

at 



39.14 
62.21 
30.31 
47.17 
30.30 
46.30 
37.06 
41.25 
25.10 
26.16 
32.65 
24.21 
19.35 
39-30 
37-61 
28.87 
21.38 
39.20 
31.21 
19.19 
17.25 
1S.72 
17.62 
14.15 



bo 
B . 

bS 



32.50 
15.00 
27.00 
.13.25 
25.00 
10.00 
21.00 
12.25 
30.50 
29.00 
21.50 
26.50 
26.60 
14.00 
10.00 
24.00 
24.00 
11.00 
18.25 
23.00 
24.00 
21.25 
17.00 
20.00 



be 

B 

3 



T3 
U 

'a 

H 



be 

B 
u 



5 

u 

3 

o 



10 

be 

B 



Cl, 



o 



71.64 
67.21 
57.31 
60.42 
55.30 
56.30 
58.06 
53.50 
55.60 
55.10 
54.15 
50.71 
45.85 
53.30 
47.61 
52.87 
48.38 
50.20 
49.46 
42.19 
41.25 
36.97 
34.62 
34.15 



The Bulletin. 



41 



TESTS OF COTTON— Continued. 

FABM. 



Total Pounds Seed Cotton 
per Acre. 


Number of Bolls Required to 
Yield One Pound of Seed 
Cotton. 


Number of Seed in One 
Pound of Seed Cotton. 


Pounds of Lint in 100 Pounds 
of Seed Cotton. 


Pounds of Seed in 100 Pounds 
of Seed Cotton. 


Pounds of Lint per Acre. 


Pounds of Seed per Acre. 


3 

* S 
no 

*>& 

B u 
•- (0 

1-J ft 

•H tO 

O +j 


Value of Seed per Acre at 
$1.00 per 100 Pounds or 
30 Cents per Bushel. % 


Total Value of Lint and 
Seed per Acre. 


Source of Seed. 


1432.80 


61 


1950 


38.69 


61.31 


554.3 


878.5 


60.97 


8.79 


69.76 


Georgia. 


1344.20 


83 


2811 


37.92 


62.08 


509.7 


834.5 


56.06 


8.36 


64.42 


Iredell Test Farm. 


1146.20 


63 


2221 


39.71 


60.29 


455.0 


691.2 


50.05 


6.91 


56.96 


Georgia. 


1208.40 


85 


2665 


36.36 


63.64 


439.3 


769.1 


48.32 


7.69 


56.01 


North Carolina. 


1106.00 


76 


2267 


39.58 


60.42 


438.0 


668-0 


48.18 


6.68 


54.86 


Georgia. 


1126.00 


95 


2811 


38.54 


61.46 


434.0 


692.0 


47.74 


6.92 


54.66 


North Carolina. 


1161.20 


63 


1904 


36.94 


63.06 


429.0 


732.2 


47.19 


7.32 


54.51 


Georgia. 


1070.00 


79 


2902 


37.61 


62.39 


402.4 


667.6 


44.26 


6.68 


50.94 


North Carolina. 


1112.00 


62 


2086 


34.69 


65.31 


385.7 


726.3 


42.42 


7.26 


49.68 


Edgecombe Test 

Farm. 
Georgia. 


1102.00 


60 


2176 


35.06 


64.94 


386.3 


715.7 


42.49 


7.16 


49.65 


1083.00 


71 


2528 


34.99 


65.01 


379.0 


704.0 


41.69 


7.04 


48.73 


North Carolina. 


1014.20 


82 


2964 


37.24 


62.76 


378.0 


636.2 


41.58 


6.36 


47.88 


Georgia. 


917.00 


73 


3079 


41.15 


58.85 


377.3 


539.7 


41.50 


5.40 


46.90 


South Carolina. 


1066.00 


76 


2584 


33.80 


66.20 


363.3 


705.7 


39.63 


7.06 


46.69 


North Carolina. 


952.20 


89 


2502 


38.98 


61.02 


371.2 


581.0 


40.83 


5.81 


46.64 


North Carolina. 


1057.40 


73 


2584 


33-90 


66.10 


358.4 


699.0 


39.42 


6.99 


46.41 


Georgia. 


967,60 


72 


2312 


37.09 


62.91 


359.0 


608.6 


39 .-49 


6.09 


45.58 


North Carolina. 


1004.00 


82 


2779 


34.45 


65-55 


316.0 


658.0 


38.06 


6.58 


44.60 


North Carolina. 


989.20 


82 


2457 


34.56 


65.44 


342.1 


647.1 


37.63 


6.47 


44.10 


North Carolina. 


818.80 


69 


2539 


37.21 


62.79 


314.0 , 


529.0 


34.54 


5.29 


39.83 


Georgia. 


825.00 


79 


2856 


34.87 


65.13 


287.6 


537.4 


31.63 


5.37 


37.00 


North Carolina. 


739.40 


82 


3174 


37.12 


62.88 


274.4 


465.0 


30.18 


4.65 


31.83 


North Carolina. 


692.40 


sa 


2766 


34.70 


65.30 


240.2 


452.2 


26.42 


4.52 


30.94 


North Carolina. 


683.00 


86 


2811 


35.05 


64.95 


239.3 


443.7 


26.32 


4.44 


30.76 


North Carolina. 



42 



The Bulletin. 



Table X— COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF COTTON. 

EDGECOMBE FARM. 





i 
1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 1905. 


1906. 


1 
1907. j 


Averages. 


Varieties Tested. 


-a 

0) 
CD 

m 
to a> 

Oh cd 

B» 

■~ a 

-3 O 

r° 


CD 

3 
3 
> 
o . 

«2 

I. O 

°^ 

,3<H 

M o 


V 

a 
VI 

m 6 
fiS 

ft- a ' 

c n 

— B 
t*0 


3 

> 

O . 

« 05 

E 3 
hi o 

<!3 

<S<H 

ft. O 


"S 

a) 
W , 

to 0) 
"3 ** 

3<! 

ft. CD 

— e 

13 O 
.— +-> 

;~ O 


<d 

3 
3 

> 

O . 

^ to 

S 3 
L, C 
Oft, 
«!3 

K O 


-3 
01 
0) 

W 
to a! 

is 

3<! 

ft< CD 

— E 

22 

1*0 


id 

3 

3 
> 

o . 

^ to 

»ts 

S 3 

t=2 

<"3 

-M 

93 O 


CD 
V 

w . 

to ai 

*3 ** 
3^ 

ft< V 

e° 

- C 

22 


CD 
3 

3 

> 

. 
« to 

60 "51 

5 3 

^ P. 

oft, 
o_ 
<! a 

ilO 
K o 


-3 

v 

v 
m 

to <0 

T3 u 

a< 
ft. s 

— E 

22 

■~ O 


CD 

3 

3 
> 
o . 

^ to 

by -5 

5 3 

be O 

cy ft. 

<J3 

bI 

CO (J. 

0J^ 


o 

<D 
M . 

to ID 

2S 
§<: 

ft. ID 

22 


CD 

3 

3 

> 

o . 

*» to 

S 3 

■=2 

t. ? 

- ft. 
°Z. 
<53 

Jd o 

§ B 

Oh O 


-3 
V 
ID 

M 

CO id' 

"SB 

§<: 

3 b, 
ft. <D 

E fi 

— E 

22 

CD 4J 

— O 


ID 

3 

3 

> 

o 
^ to 

S 3 

s- c 
o > 
oOui 

<)3 

3hS 


-a 

CD 
CD 

OT . 

to CD 

■as 

30 

3 Li 
ft. CD 

B fi 
•" B 

22 

CD -^ 

r ° 


ID 

3 

3 
> 
o . 

^ to 

S 3 

b O 

°> 
Oft. 

°_ 

<!3 

fS"H 

W o 


Russell's Big Boll — 

Culpepper's Im- 
proved. 
Moss' Improved 

Breeden's Prolific — 

Todd's Improved — 

Strickland's Im- 
proved. 
Lewis' Prize 

Hawkins' Extra 

Prolific. 
Peterkin's Improved 


1265.0 

1125.6 

1305.0 

1205.0 

1000. 

950.0 

770.0 

740.5 


3 
4 
1 
2 

5 
6 

7 
8 


1487.0 

1302.0 

999.0 


1 
3 
6 


1675.0 
1230.0 


1 

5 


1193.7 
1028.5 


7 
9 


1941.3 
2031.3 

1287.9 


4 
1 

17 


2096.5 
L983.3 
1604.6 


3 

2 

8 


1046.1 
1201.6 
1038.2 


20 
13 
10 


1134.9 
926.4 
709.3 


5 

13 
20 


1479.9 
1353. 5 


1 

2 














































1142.0 


4 


































• 
























1053.0 

1215.0 

957.0 


5 
2 
7 


















1006.6 


17 










1372.5 


2 


1291.3 


4 


1363.6 


16 


1697.8 


6 


680.3 


25 
























1335.0 

1230.0 

1170- 

885.0 


3 

4 
6 
7 


1036.0 
1336-3 


8 
6 






1397.6 


21 




































































.. 












1381.4 
1621.6 
1691.6 
1332.3 


3 
2 
1 
5 


1747.2 
1761.4 
1733.0 


3 

7 

10 






981.5 


16 


868.5 
733.4 
878.2 


12 
23 
16 

















1756.9 
1840.6 


1 
10 


















1251.6 


8 






Garrard's Improved 
Prolific. 






























1818.2 
1756.6 
1775.6 
1780.3 
1666.7 
1728.2 
1613. C 
1524.6 
1415.' 
1543-6 
1572.6 
1534.1 
1548.! 
- 1306.! 


2 

5 

6 

8 

9 

11 

12 

13 

14 

» 15 

1 18 

L 19 

! 20 

5 21 


1747.5 
1904.5 


5 

4 


1329.4 


1 


969.8 
863.7 


6 
15 





























Mebane's Triumph - 








































1688.0 
1668. a 
1850- 4 


17 

7 

15 


1270.1 


4 


1027.7 


9 







Tool's Early Prolific 

Shine's Extra Early 
Prolific. 




































982.9 
1089.6 


21 
14 


1225.6 


2 
























































Brown Texas Wood- 






















827.4 
977.6 


26 
15 


























1747. £ 


» 9 


521.1 


27 






Black Texas Wood-- 






















Peterkin's Improvec 

(Craig's.) 
White's Long StapU 


















1496. ( 


i 18 






































































L 





The Bulletin. 



43 



Table X— COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF COTTON— Con. 

EDGECOMBE FARM. 





1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


Averages. 


Varieties Tested. 


13 
0) 
41 

w , 

M 41 
3<! 

~ s 
23 

0) -t-» 
"- O 


4) 

=1 

> 

o . 

*• 00 

beg 

.5 3 

S p 

oPh 
o 

<J 01 
*1 

ra *,, 
Ph o 


T3 
0) 
4) 

<a . 

3<J 

Ph o 
C° 

— C 

23 
:~ o 


0) 

3 

13 
> 
o . 

+> to 
bfS 
.5 3 

„0h 

«si'3 

M% 

BH 

Ph o 


0) 

4) 
03 

m 4) 

T3 >- 

S5 

3< 

O Li 

Oh S 

c ft 

■- e 
2° 

1*0 


4) 
3 

"3 

> 

O . 

■^ m 

beg 

.5 3 
C p 

<)3 
Ph o 


T3 
4) 

4) 

w 

to 4) 
T3 h 

3<J 

Ph 41 

c ft 

— S 

23 

4) -M 
..- o 


41 

3 

3 
> 

o , 

*> 03 

Mtr 

.5 3 

^2 

h P 

°a* 
gfc 

Jd« 
P5o 


T3 
4> 
41 

CO 

CO 41 

3.3 

3<J 
Ph 4) 

s ft 

— B 
73 O 

r° 


• 

3 

> 
o . 

"^ 03 

.5 3 
'OTJ 

S o 
<5 "5 

« c 


s 

4) 

ta 

01 4) 
13 *■< 

s.3 

3<J 
O t, 

Oh 41 

fi° 

— fi 

23 

4) ■*-> 

•- O 


4) 

3 
3 
> 

.S 3 
ti p 

ofo 
<!3 

M* 
§ H 

K o 


■v 

41 

41 
Ul . 

01 4) 
T3 *■< 

3< 

£& 

B ft 

— fi 

23 

41 -*-> 
;— O 


4) 
3 

3 

> 

o . 

■t-tt 

11 

u P 
oCm 

<3 
j*S 

Ph O 


T3 

4) 

4) 
GO , 

01 4> 

'O >* 

3< 
Oh S 

B ft 
— B 
»n o 

41 H-» 

!T ° 


41 

3 
"3 
>■ 

O . 
*> to 

bfg 

.5 3 
T3 'U 
S P 

>^3 

45 "h 

P3 O 


T3 
41 
41 

w . 

01 4) 

■gj| 

3<i 

Ph 41 

3 fi 
,M B 
»w O 

— H-> 

■- o 

>HO 


41 
3 

3 
> 

o . 

+> oi 
bfg 

.S 3 
h p 
«Ph 

45 «H 

Ph O 


Wilson's Matchless 




















1678.2 
1535.4 


16 
12 
23 
20 
22 
13 
14 
19 
11 


1242.4 


12 


849.2 


18 






Jackson Limbless 


























(Wilt Resistant). 






















1181.1 
1387.8 
1496.6 
1535.4 
1643.7 
1520.7 
1845.5 














(No. 128-1-29-1-11). 






















1193.7 


11 


844.4 


17 






Berry's Big Boll- - 


























Lay ton's Improved- 
Gold Standard - 


























743.1 


19 


























* 






























1268.8 

1030.3 

1252.9 

1243.7 

1303.0 

1281.9 

1196.3 

952.6 

984.2 

961.8 

876.1 

797.1 


3 

19 

2 

5 

6 

7 

9 

18 

22 

23 

24 

25 


993.9 


10 






Butler's Early 
Prolific. 














































993.9 


4 




































jointed. 
Bigham's Improved 


























1100.1 


7 






























































































931.2 


8 




































Big Boll. 


























646.6 


26 


































Red Rust Proof 

































Cleveland's Big Boll 
























1278.6 
1095. 3 
954.4 
945.7 
757.5 
694.8 
791.3 


1 
3 
11 
14 
21 
22 
24 








































































Re-Improved. 


































Pullnot - 


































































Maker. 





































































44 



The Bulletin. 



Table X— COMPILED RESULTS OF 'VARIETY TESTS OF COTTON— Con. 

BED SPBINGS FABM. 





1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


Averages. 


Varieties Tested. 


Yield in Pounds ■ 

Seed Cotton per 

Acre. 

Rank According 

to Value of Total 

Products. 


Yield in Pounds 
Seed Cotton Per 
Acre. 


Rank According 

to Value of Total 

Products. 

Yield in Pounds 

Seed Cotton per 

Acre. 

Rank According 

to Value of Total 

Products. 


Yield in Pounds 
Seed Cotton per 
Acre. 


Rank According 
to Value of Total 
Products. 


Yield in Pounds 
Seed Cotton per 
Acre. 


Rank According 
to Value of Total 
Products. 


Yield in Pounds 

Seed Cotton per 

Acre. 

Rank According 

to Value of Total 

Products. 


Russell's Big Boll 

Culpepper's Improved 

(Edgecombe). 
Culpepper's Improved 

(Red Springs). 
Peterkin's Improved 

Daughty's Excelsior 

Allen's Long Staple 

Excelsior Prolific v — 


675.0 3 
734.4 1 


496.3 
477.0 


1 1070.0 

2 1218.5 


3 
1 


887.9 
897.2 
915.9 
915.9 


7 
4 
3 
2 


557.6 


5 


737.4 
831.8 


4 
1 


635.2 
441.4 


2 
10 




660.0 2 
655.0 4 
635.0 7 
635.0 6 
630.0 5 
605.0 7 
530.0 8 


440.0 


4 


982.5 


2 


688.0 


5 


























895.0 


5 


943.9 


1 


548.0 


3 


755.5 


2 
























































473.1 
448.3 
417.0 
255.0 


3 

5 


















Hawkins' Extra Prolific- 


























6 










334.5 


17 












7 




















910.0 


4 


813.1 


6 


500.5 
347.7 


6 
19 


741.2 


3 


Peterkin's Improved 
(Craig's). 












/ 














411.2 
925.2 


8 
5 




















491.0 
680.4 
490.1 
503.2 
494.9 
431.0 
452.6 
413.6 
382.5 
396.4 
392.7 
383.7 
312.1 


9 
1 
4 
7 




















































































8 
11 
12' 
13 
14 
15 
16 
18 




























Shine's Extra Early 
Prolific. 














































































































































20 























The Bulletin. 



45 



Table X— COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF COTTON— Con. 

IREDELL FARM. 





1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


Averages. 


Varieties Tested. 


* 

V 

w . 

« 

«J 

3<i 

Ph <u 

T3 

•X H-> 

£° 




3 

73 

> 

.S3 
T3-C 
It O 

°Jr 
go, 

<!73 

*2 

Ph 


3 



«2 . 

M 

«J 

3< 
Ph 

■a 2 

-^ *-■ 

£° 

>HO 


0) 
3 

> 

.5 3 
S p 

<$ 

MP 

§ H 
Oh C 


T3 

3 

V 

M . 

m 
•a ** 

Oh 

>HO 


3 

73 
> 

o . 

*» CO 

Wg 
.S3 

h p 
°> 

«!73 

Oh o 


a> 
v 
03 
to 

3 3 

3«J 
Oh 

T3 O 

r° 




3 

73 
> 
o . 

*" 05 
^« 

.S 3 

■rtT3 

C p 
° J - 

OOh 

<J73 

M* 

ol^ 


■8 



t» . 

to 

•eg 

0H 

£° 
!*0 




3 

73 
> 
o . 

+> w 
M-g 
.5 3 

u o 

°f 
&>0h 

°I- 

<J73 

m? 
§ H 

<S<*H 

Ph O 


T3 



w . 

01 

"So 1 
3< 
Ph 

— 3 " 

>HQ 




_3 

73 
> 

o . 
.5 3 

S o 
°> 

gPn 

<$ 
M c 

Oh 


T3 




M . 
01 

■SB 

0h 

•s£ 

'rt O 

*X -J- 

!*rj 




_3 

73 
>• 

H 

» F 

OPh 

•^73 
"1 

Ph O 


■8 


w . 

w 

3^ 
Ph 

3° 
"" C 

2 2 
+■> 
•- o 




3 

73 
> 

o 

*■ v\ 

w-5 

.5 3 

u p 
° Jr 

«Ph 

<J73 

■"2 

Oh c 


-a 




m 

"SB 

§<: 

Oh 

(MO 




3 

73 
> 

2 M - 

si 

gPn 

<tJ7j 

=5«tH 

Oh O 


King's Improved 

(Native). 
KiDg's Improved- 
Russell's Big Boll- 

Culpepper's Im- 
proved. 














750.0 1 
655.0 5? 


900.0 
1005.0 
835.0 
790.0 
760.0 
790.0 


2 
1 
7 
8 
11 
6 


985.4 
765.2 


1 

11 


865.0 
960.0 


3 
1 


1208.40 
1344.20 


4 
2 


941.6 
945.8 


2 














1 














640.0 
630.0 
605.0 
475.0 
410.0 


3 
5 
4 
6 

7 
















974.0 
873.0 
801.6 


4 
12 
10 


560.0 
670.0 


16 
13 






















848.80 
967.60 


20 
17 


751.3 


3 


Excelsior Prolific- 

Garrard's Improv- 
ed Prolific. 
Truitt's Improved 
















































360.0 q 






750.6 
743.4 
946.5 
1082.0 
816.6 
938.0 


22 

20 

5 

2 

13 

3 


























290.0 


8 


495.0 
920.0 
805.0 
575.0 
695.0 
745.0 
660.0 
825.0 
635.0 
525.0 
670.0 
500.0 
525.0 
615.0 
440.0 
465.0 
460.0 
600.0 
650.0 


21 

3 

4 

17 

10 

9 

13 
5 
16 
20 
15 
19 
24 
12 
25 
23 
22 
18 
14 














proved. 
Webb 














680.0 


11 


692.40 


23 




























Tool's Early Pro- 
lific. 


















































1146.20 


3 
































Speight's Prolific- 
Shine's Extra 


















926.6 


7 


720.0 


A 


989.20 


19 
























Early Prolific. 
Texas Big Boll 


















540.0 17 
600.0 14 






Black Texaa Wood 


















805.8 
784.6 
706.2 


15 
21 
18 


739.40 


22 



























proved (Craig) - 


















595.0 7 


. 917.00 


13 






White's Long 

Staple. 
Brown Texas 

Wood. 










































505.0 18 















































Jackson Limbless- 
Mebane's Triumph 




































































































































965.6 
720.2 

558.4 
890.8 


6 

19 

23 

9 


690.0 5 


1083.00 


11 






less. 
























(Wilt Resistant) 
































(No. 128-1-29-1-11) 
Dozier's Improved 






















685.0 


8 


1004.00 


18 







46 



The Bulletin. 



Table X— COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF COTTON— Con. 

IREDELL FARM. 





1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 

• 


Averages. 


Varieties Tested. 


13 
01 
01 

w . 

oi J> 

Ph oi 


IV 

3 

"3 

> 

o . 

*• DO 

totS 

.5 3 
u o 

oa. 
xp 

— o 


s 

oi 
w . 

"SB 

3< 
O In 
Ph oi 

s ft 
— c 

2° 
c° 


0) 
,3 

15 
> 

O . 
*> m 

beg 

.S3 
'fl'3 

Si 4 
<!« 

05 o 


T3 

5 

0) 
K . 

Ph <o 


01 

3 
3 
> 
o . 

*> to 

.5 3 
T3"B 
K P 

uOu 

■"jjls 

4H 

.*'C 

rt .,_. 
PSo 


a 
W . 

to 41 

■ga 

3*< 

P- oi 

a 2 

-rt O 
(HO 


1) 

3 

3 
> 

o , 

■* to 

.S 3 
£ p 

<J3 
*S 

cH 

55 


■a 

V 
0) 

oa . 

to «) 

■sa 

Ph oi 

3 Q 

— 3 

23 
>nrj 


oi 

_3 

"3 

> 

o . 

+* oi 

.S 3 

B o 

uQ< 
o 

<) « 

^^ 

<2<tH 

4 c 


-3 

s 
tn . 

01 V 

"SB 

3<! 

Ph 01 

c° 

— c 

'O o 

~ H-> 

CO 


3 

"3 
> 

o . 

■^ 01 

.5 s 

T3-3 
1- O 

of" 

<C3 

-* ° 
cH 
**, 

Ph o 


T3 
V 

01 

02 . 

to .01 

"SB 

3< 

Ph o> 
C° 

— a 
2° 


01 

3 

3 
> 

o , 

+" to 

sotS 

.5 3 

-n'3 

s s 

<! cj 

^ 
Ph O 


73 
01 

0) 

w . 

01 01 

"SB 

§«! 

Ph 01 

C° 
— 3 

(HO 


01 

3 

3 

> 

o . 

•^ m 
bfg 

.5 3 
B p 

gpH 

<!3 

M% 

Ph O 


Yield in Pounds Seed 
Cotton per Acre. 

Rank According to Value 
of Total Products. 
























909.6 
791.2 

787.2 
894.6 


17 
14 

16 
8 














Layton's Im- 
proved. 


































































Butler's Early 

Prolific. 
Broadwell's 

Doubiejointed. 
Bigham's Im- 
proved. 
Drake's Defiance- 
Improved Rus- 
sell's Bisr Boll. 




















































900.0 
650.0 
690.0 
700.0 
600.0 
560.0 
545.0 
530.0 


2 
6 
9 
10 
12 
15 
15 
19 


































1066.00 
1057.40 


14 
16 























































































1106.00 
1102.00 


5 
10 






Hawkins' Extra 
Prolific. 
















































































































1432.80 

1126. 00 

1161.20 

1070.00 

1112.00 

1014.00 

952.20 

825.00 

683.00 


1 

6 

7 

8 

9 

12 

15 

21 

24 







































Cleveland Big 

Boll. 
Simpkin's Prolific 

Culpepper's Re- 
Improved. 

Alexander Money- 
Maker. 


























































































^ 


























































































Braswell's Cluster 


















































. 










! 





The Bulletin. 



47 



Table XI— SHOWING RELATIVE EARLINESS, VALUE, YIELD, AND 
SIZE OF BOLLS, SEED, AND STALKS OF VARIETIES OF COTTON 
TESTED IN 1907. 

EDGECOMBE FARM. 



Varieties. 



Percentage of Cot- 
ton Open at the 
Several Pickings. 



Rank According to the Following 
Characters. 




Cleveland's Big Boll 

Shines's Extra Early Prolific 

Sugar Loaf 

Brown's No. 1 

Russell's Big Boll 

Cook's Improved 

Bigham's Improved 

Simpkins' Prolific 

Webb 

Braswell's Cluster 

Culpepper's Re-Improved — 

King's Improved 

Culpepper's Improved 

Morgan's Climax 

Hodge 

Edgeworth 

Dozier's Improved 

Wilson's Matchless 

Layton's Improved 

Moss' Improved 

Pullnot 

Alexander Money-Maker 

Excelsior Prolific 

Cluster 

Peterkin's Improved 

Mortgage Lifter 

Black Texas Wood — - 



55.09 

54.87 

81.49 

60.19 

45.10 

40.29 

76.31 

59.06 

92.95 

90.77 ; 

47.47 

70-00 

56.77 

92.85 

94.97 

84.61 

77.14 

81.81 

87.01 

28.57 

57.32 

47.91 

90-78 

69.51 

80-85 

34.32 

35.18 



44.91 
45-13 
18.51 
39.81 
54.90 
57.71 
26.69 
40.94 
7.05 
9.23 
62.53 
30.00 
43.23 
7.15 
5.03 
15.39 
22.86 
18.19 
12.99 
71.43 
42.68 
52.09 
9.22 
30.49 
19.15 
65.68 
64.82 



19 

20 

9 

15 

23 

24 

12 

16 

2 

5 

22 

13 

18 

3 

1 

7 

11 

8 

6 

27 

17 

21 

4 

14 

10 

26 

25 



. 1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 







+s 


t: 










c 


<d 




■o 


u 






CD 




0) 


ft a" 


ft,A 

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CD 

to 

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to 

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2 

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18 


9 


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8 


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8 


19 


14 


15 


10 


5 


21 


6 


15 


18 


9 


6 


16 


11 


12 


17 


12 


8 


17 


10 


1 


5 


.11 


16 


6 


21 


16 


20 


13 


9 


15 


12 


5 


2 


15 


7 


25 


2 


4 


8 


14 


15 


14 


13 


13 


12 


16 


12 


20 


7 


3 


6 


18 


15 


16 


11 


8 


14 


19 


14 


19 


8 


7 


10 


17 


20 


4 


23 


8 


20 


20 


23 


1 


26 


11 


23 


21 


18 


12 


15 


3 


4 


22 


26 


2 


25 


10 


21 


23 


19 


11 


16 


11 


15 


24 


17 


23 


4 


12 


19 


25 


25 


7 


20 


9 


22 


26 


21 


26 


1 


2 


1 


27 


24 


9 


18 


12 


24 



J3 

to 
'S 



7 
6 

10 
7 
7 
9 
5 

12 

10 
5 
7 

13 

13 
4 

11 
5 
8 
7 
6 
9 

10 
7 
7 
2 
3 
6 
1 



4S 



The Bulletin. 



Table XI— SHOWING RELATIVE EARLINESS, VALUE, YIELD, AND 
SIZE OF BOLLS, SEED, AND STALKS OF VARIETIES OF COTTON 
TESTED IN 1907— Con. 

IREDELL FAEM. 



Percentage cf 

Cotton Open at 

the Several 

Pickings. 



Rank According to the Following 
Characters. 



Varieties. 



H 
C 

faO 



Pullnot 54.63 

King's Improved 77.68 

Cook's Improved 52.88 

King's Improved (Native) 78.06 

Brown's No. 1 54.79 



Sugar Loaf 82.23 

Cleveland Big Boll 63.83 

Simpkin's Prolific 77.10 

Culpepper's Re-Improved 45.14 

Mortgage Lifter 47.47 



Wilson's Matchless 60.29 

Alexander Money- Maker 47. 74 

Moss' Improved 42.20 

Bigham's Improved 73.73 

Williams' 78.99 

Drake's Defiance 54.60 

Excelsior Prolific 50.39 

Dozier's Improved 78.08 

Shine's Extra Early Prolific 63.10 

Edgeworth 45.48 



Cluster 

Black Texas Wood 



41.81 
42.52 



Webb 50.89 

Brasswell's Cluster 41.43 



I 
u 

.5«S 






.3.5 



5 "J'oOj 



2 S 



= C^ 



u 

o 



^* — !_■ X 



-a 



3 s 

M c 



45.37 
22.32 
47.12 
21.94 
45.21 
17.77 
36.17 
22.90 
54.86 
52.53 
39.71 
52.26 
57.80 
26.27 
21.01 
45.30 
49.61 
21.92 
36.90 
54.52 
58.19 
57.48 
49.11 
58.57 



.5 3 u JSmL L 

S^"3S1 .2S.2S 



12 

5 

14 

4 

11 

1 

8 

6 

20 

18 

10 

17 

22 

7 

2 

13 

16 

3 

9 

19 

23 

21 

15 

24 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 



1 
2 

1! 
3 

12 



6 10 



7 

S 

10 

9 
11 
12 
13 
15 
14 
17 
16 
is 
19 
2U 
21 
22 
23 
24 



5 

7 
2 

14 

3 

6 

13 

8 

20 

15 

17 

9 

1 

24 

4 

23 

12 

22 

21 

10 

IS 

11 

19 
16 



31 



m 


13 




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a> 


K 


Ul 


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s- 


t. 


c« 


a 


1-1 


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20 
18 

22 
11 
23 
19 
12 
17 


10 

8 
16 
24 

1 
21 

2 
13 

3 

4 
15 

7 
14 

6 

9 



2 


2 


12 


16 


4 


5 


13 


13 


9 


6 


17 


16 


4 


1 



10 
3 
1 

C 
11 

s 

9 
16 

8 

7 

11 

11 
5 

10 
11 

15 

14 



18 
3 
4 

10 

18 

19 

12 

9 

12 

7 

15 

8 

11 

17 

19 

14 

1(5 



to 

M 

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in 

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O 
+> 

A 
00 
■3 



11 

5 
6 
9 
5 
6. 
7 
4 
3 
2 
1 

10 

5 

10 

9 

8 

4 

11 

6 

11 

3 

4 

10 

11 



The Bulletin. 



49 



Table XII— COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF COTTON, 
SHOWING RELATIVE EARLINESS, VALUE, YIELDS, AND SIZE 
OF BOLLS, AND STALKS. 1 

EDGECOMBE FARM. 


















Rank According to the Following 




13 




Characters. 




I 


I 


| 










a 

4) 






3) 


V 

3 




u 
a 










£0 




Varieties. 


H 

m 

u 

a 

Ov 

o 

H 
0) 

XI 


T3 
O 
h 

o c 
4) rt 


< 

a 

.S 

J 

"3.3 


a 

HI 
V 

M 


c 
o 

9) 
M 
(9 

c 


T3 
4) 

o 

to 

(3 


10 

"o 
M 

o 

05 
09 
V 

a 
w 


•a 

0) 

0) 

w 

o 
03 

4) 

a 


Offl M 


to 

CO 





S 


S'O 


•a c 


T3 C 

"3 => 




o 
u 


bo 


to 

u 


%z& 


to 




9 




•2 o 


•2 o 


a) 


0) 


ej 


so 


aJ oj oj 






fc 


>co 


>hCL, 


>Hfc 


Pn 


111 


J 


!-l 


WOm t« 


W 




\ 


3 


3 


1 


6 


2 


1 


1 


6 


3 




4 


2 


2 


2 


4 


4 


2 


4 


4 


4 




s 


5 


4 


5 


5 


3 


4 


2 


2 


1 




' A 


1 


1 


6 


1 


7 


3 


3 


5 


6 




4 


4 


5 


4 


3 


5 


fi 


6 


1 


5 




4 


6 


6 


3 


7 


1 


5 


5 


3 


2 




4 


7 


7 


7 


2 


6 


6 


7 


7 


3 







RED SPRINGS FARM. 



Russell's Big Boll 

Edgeworth 

Culpepper's Improved - 
Peterkin's Improved -- 

King's Improved 

Excelsior Prolific 



2 


5 


6 


2 


5 


1 


1 


1 


5 


2 


3 


5 


3 


4 


2 


3 


3 


1 


2 


2 


2 


1 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


6 


3 


5 


2 


4 


4 


5 


4 


2 


1 


4 


6 


1 


5 


6 


6 


6 


2 


4 


1 


4 


2 


4 


5 


4 


3 



IREDELL FARM. 



King's Improved (Native) 

King's Improved 

Edgeworth 



5 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3 


1 


5 


1 


1 


2 


1 


3 


2 


1 


2 


5 


3 


3 


3 


3 


i 

* 


1 


2 


3 



ir The comparisons of varieties in this table are the average of results of tests of 
1903, 1904, 1905, 1906 and 1907 at Iredell; of 1904, 1905, 1906 and 1907 at Edgecombe; 
and of 1903 and- 1904 at Red Springs. 

2 Results in this column for Red Springs farm were obtained from data of 1904 
only. 

3 Results in this column for the Iredell and Edgecombe farms were obtained from 
data of 1904, 1905, 1906 and 1907 at former, and 1904, 1905 and 1907 at the latter. 

♦Results in this column for the Edgecombe farm were obtained from data of 1906 
and 1907. 



50 The Bulletin. 

comments on variety tests of cotton. 

The varieties tested this year at the Edgecombe and Iredell farms 
are arranged in Table IX in the order of their selling price of "total 
products," when lint is selling at 11 cents per pound and seed at 30 
cents per bushel. This order may not be the order of productivity 
of seed cotton, as is shown in the tests this year at both the Edgecombe 
and Iredell farms. For example, at the Edgecombe farm, although 
Russell's Big Boll produced more seed cotton than Brown's No. 1 
and Sugar Loaf, each ranked higher in value of total products. The 
same was true of Cleveland's Big Boll, when compared with Brown's 
No. 1 and Cook's Improved at the Iredell farm. 

The reason for some varieties with smaller yields of seed cotton 
producing more lint and hence greater selling price per acre than 
some others with a larger amount of seed cotton per acre, is due to 
the former varieties producing a higher percentage of lint to seed. 

To eliminate inequalities in the land, if any, the different varieties 
at ihe separate farms were planted each in separate rows, arranged 
consecutively, and this plan repeated a sufficient number of times to 
give the designated acreage. It is absolutely essential, in order to 
eliminate soil and weather conditions as much as possible, to continue 
work of this kind for some years on different types of soils before 
attempting to draw definite conclusions. 

The yields for this year are presented in Table IX, while the aver- 
age rank in value of total products of the several varieties tested dur- 
ing the past seven years is shown in Table X. Taking the whole 
variety test at the Edgecombe farm, the stand was very irregular and 
poor. The late, cold spring was largely the cause of this defect in 
stand. It should not be overlooked, however, that all the varieties 
were planted in the same way, on the same day, on uniform land, and 
given the same fertilization and cultural treatment, hence the re- 
sults are valuable as showing the ability of certain varieties to with- 
stand adverse seasonal conditions and produce paying yields, which is 
a matter of considerable importance. At the Iredell farm the stand 
of the different varieties was considerably better than at the Edge- 
combe, but the yields at both farms were comparatively small, as an 
unusually early frost in the fall cut off the crop from one-third to one- 
half. Two pickings were made of the varieties this year at both the 
Edgecombe and Iredell farms. Of the varieties that have been tested 
continuously at 'the different farms since the inauguration of variety 
testing at them, as seen by Table X, Russell's Big Boll and Culpep- 
per's Improved, as an average of eight years' tests, have ranked as the 
best varieties at the Edgecombe farm ; Culpepper's Improved, Excel- 
sior Prolific, King's Improved and Russell's Big Boll were best at 
Red Springs as an average ©f five years' tests ; while King's Improved, 
King's Improved Native and Edgeworth were highest at the Iredell 
farm as an average of five years' testing. 



The Bulletin. 51 

In this connection it is interesting to note that in the several tests 
of cotton on the different' farms the differences between the one yield- 
ing the highest amount of seed cotton per acre and the one the lowest 
in the individual tests ranged from 530 to 915 pounds of seed cotton 
at Edgecombe, with the number of varieties ranging from seven to 
twenty-seven during the past eight years ; at Red Springs, 204 to 533 
pounds during five years, with from five to twenty varieties ; and at 
Iredell, from 455 to 565 pounds when using from nine to twenty-five 
varieties in the different tests during the past five years. 

These results speak in no uncertain terms as to the importance and 
value of good seed which are adapted to the different soils and locali- 
ties of the State. 

In Table XI is given the rank of the varieties tested this year 
according to certain characteristics ; while Table XII shows the aver- 
age ranking of three years at Edgecombe, two at Red Springs and five 
at Iredell. Both of these tables will be found to contain much in- 
formation, compiled in compact form. 

NOTES ON VARIETIES OF COTTON TESTED IN 1907. 

Russell's Big Boll is a hardy, large-boiled and vigorous-growing 
variety that yields well, especially on a loamy or sandy soil in the 
eastern part of the State, and is very popular with pickers. In value 
of total products (lint and seed) it stood third in 1900 and 1905, first 
in 1901 and 1902, seventh in 1903, fourth in 1904, twentieth in 1906 
and fifth in 1907 at the Edgecombe farm; third in 1900 and 1902, 
first in 1901, seventh in 1903 and fifth in 1904 at Red Springs ; third 
in 1903 and seventh in 1904 at Iredell. In ordinary seasons this 
variety is not only prolific, but fairly reliable, especially on the well- 
drained sandy or loamy soil of the east. This season it was greatly 
cut off by an early frost. 

Culpepper's Improved is a large-boiled variety, yielding generally 
a little less per boll than Russell's Big Boll. It ranked fourth in 
1900, third in 1901, fifth in 1902, ninth in 1903, seventeenth in 
1904, second in 1905, thirteenth in 1906 and 1907 at the Edgecombe 
farm; first in 1900, second in 1901, first in 1902, third from Red 
Springs seed and fourth from Edgecombe seed in 1903, second from 
Red Springs seed in 1904 at the Red Springs farm; fifth, eighth, 
fourth and sixteenth in 1903, 1904, 1905 and 1906, respectively, at 
Iredell. This variety is earlier by about ten days and seems to be 
more subject to variation than Russell's Big Boll, but, notwithstand- 
ing this last defect, is considered a good, reliable variety. Being a 
late-maturing variety, and having a short growing season this year, it 
was cut off some by frost. It has a large-sized weed, with spreading 
limbs, well boiled, and holds cotton well. 



52 The Bulletin. 

King's Improved has a boll a little smaller than Peterkin's Im- 
proved, but does not generally yield quite as high percentage of lint. 
It has a rather small stalk, with spreading limbs. This and 
Dozier's Improved are two of the earliest-maturing varieties thus far 
tested. It occupied seventh place in 1902, third in 1903 and 1904, 
sixteenth in 1906 and twelfth in 1907 at Edgecombe; fourth in 1902, 
sixth in 1903 and 1904 at Ked Springs; second in 1903, first in 1904 
and 1906, eleventh in 1905 and second in 1907 at Iredell. 

Edgeworth stood first in 1903, tenth in 1904 and 1905, eighth in 
1906 and sixteenth in 1907 at Edgecombe; fifth in 1903 and ninth 
in 1904 at Ked Springs; fourth in 1903, eleventh in 1904, twelfth 
in 1905, thirteenth in 1906 and twentieth in 1907 at Iredell. It has 
a rather heavy stalk, large leaves and short stems, and is ordinarily 
a rather late-maturing variety. 

Moss' Improved stood first in 1900, sixth in 1901, seventeenth in 

1904, eighth in 1905, tenth. in 1906 and twentieth in 1907 at Edge- 
combe ; sixth in 1901 and seventeenth in 1904 at Red Springs ; nine- 
teenth in 1904, eighteenth in 1905, seventeenth in 1906 and thirteenth 
in 1907 at Iredell. This variety possessed as high percentage of lint 
as any other variety tested during the past three years. 

Cook's Improved ranked second in 1904, fifth in 1905, first in 1906 
and sixth in 1907 at Edgecombe; tenth in 1904, third in 1905 and 
third in 1907 at Iredell. It is a medium early maturing variety. 

Webb occupied eighth and seventeenth places at Edgecombe in 

1904 and 1905, fourth in 1906 and ninth in 1907 ; seventh at Eed 
Springs in 1904; and third, fifth, eleventh and twenty-third in 1904, 

1905, 1906 and 1907 at Iredell. Has rather small bolls and seeds. 
Shine's Extra Early Prolific ranked eleventh in 1904, fifteenth in 

1905, twenty-first in 1906 and second in 1907 at Edgecombe; twelfth 
at Red Springs in 1904; and fifth in 1904, seventh in 1905, fourth 
in 1906 and nineteenth in 1907 at Iredell. Our tests of three years 
indicate this to be a rather early maturing variety. 

Black Texas Wood ranked fifteenth in 1904 and 1906, ninth in 

1905 and twenty-seventh in 1907 at Edgecombe; thirteenth at Red 
Springs in 1904; twentieth in 1904, fifteenth in 1905, fourteenth in 

1906 and twenty-second in 1907 at Iredell. This is a late-maturing 
variety. 

King's Improved (native) stood first in 1903 and 1905, second in 
1904, third in 1906 and fourth in 1907 at the Iredell farm. 

Wilson's Matchless ranked sixteenth in 1905, twelfth in 1906 and 
eighteenth in 1907 at Edgecombe; sixth in 1905, fifth in 1906 and 
eleventh in 1907 at Iredell. 

Dozier's Improved ranked twentieth in 1905, eleventh in 1906 and 
seventeenth in 1907 at Edgecombe ; ninth in 1905, eighth in 1906 and 
eighteenth in 1907 at Iredell. This is a small-boiled and very early 
maturing variety. 



The Bulletin. 53 

Browns No. 1 ranked second in 1906 and fourth in 1907 at Edge- 
combe ; twelfth in 1906 and fifth in 1907 at Iredell. 

Braswell's Cluster ranked nineteenth in 1905, third in 1906 and 
tenth in 1907 at Edgecombe; and twenty-fourth at Iredell in 1907. 

Bigliam's Improved ranked sixth in 1906 and seventh in 1907 at 
Edgecombe; and sixth in 1906 and fourteenth in 1907 at Iredell. 

Drakes Defiance ranked ninth in 1906 at Edgecombe; and ninth 
in 1906 and sixteenth in 1907 at Iredell. 

Simpkins Prolific ranked eighteenth in 1906 and eighth in 1907 
at Edgecombe; and eighth in 1907 at Iredell. 

Mortgage Lifter ranked twenty-third in 1906 and twenty-sixth in 
1907 at Edgecombe; and fifteenth in 1906 and tenth in 1907 at 
Iredell. 

Cleveland's Big Boll ranked first at Edgecombe and seventh at 
Iredell in this year's tests. 

Hodge ranked fifth in 1904, fourth in 1905 and fifteenth in 1907 
at Edgecombe; and fourth in 1904 and second in 1905 at Iredell. 

Peterkin's Improved ranked second in 1901 and 1902, fourth in 

1903, sixteenth in 1904, sixth in 1905 and twenty-fifth in 1907 at 
Edgecombe; eighth in 1903, twenty-first in 1904 and twentieth in 
1905 at Iredell. 

Excelsior Prolific ranked second in 1903, seventh in 1904, first in 
1905 and twenty-third in 1907 at Edgecombe; sixth in 1903 and 

1904, tenth in 1905 and seventeenth in 1907 at Iredell. 
Alexander Money Maker ranked twenty-second at Edgecombe and 

twelfth at Iredell in this year's tests. 

Morgans Climax ranked fourteenth at Edgecombe in this year's 

tests. 

Culpepper s Re-Improved ranked eleventh at Edgecombe and ninth 

at Iredell in this year's tests. 

Layton's Improved ranked thirteenth in 1905 and nineteenth in 
1907 at Edgecombe, and fourteenth in 1905 at Iredell. 

Pullnot ranked twenty-first at Edgecombe and first at Iredell in 
this year's tests. 

Sugar Loaf ranked third at Edgecombe and sixth at Iredell in this 

year's tests. 

Cluster ranked twenty-fourth at Edgecombe and twenty-fourth at 
Iredell in this year's tests. 

Williams' ranked fifteenth at Iredell in this year's tests. 

STUDY OF COMPILED RESULTS OF VARIETY TESTS OF COTTON. 

Eight years ago the Department of Agriculture, by means of its 
test farms, began comparative tests of varieties of cotton, with the pur- 
pose, primarily, of ascertaining, if possible, the varieties that are most 
prolific of seed cotton per acre when grown under our conditions of 



54 The Bulletin. 

soil and climate. During this time tests have been made of seven 
varieties in 1900 to twenty-seven in 1907 in the tests on the different 
farms. It is felt from these accumulated data of eight years' tests 
that some very reliable and valuable information has been derived, 
especially if taken and intelligently applied by the individual farmers 
of the State in their farming operations. 

VARIATION IN YIELD OF VARIETIES. 

In our variety tests we have had some variety or varieties to yield 
700 to 900 pounds of seed cotton per acre more than other varieties in 
the same tests and grown under identical conditions of soil, fertiliza- 
tion and cultivation. This variation in yield has been no uncommon 
occurrence in our experience. Take, for instance, the results at the 
Edgecombe farm during the past eight years. In 1900, in a test of 
eight varieties, the difference between the variety yielding the largest 
amount of seed cotton per acre and the one the smallest was 565 
pounds; in 1901 and 1902, in tests of. seven varieties each, the differ- 
ences were 530 and 790 pounds, respectively; in 1903, 663 pounds, 
when nine varieties were incorporated, 724 pounds in 1904 with 
twenty-one varieties, 576 pounds in 1905 with twenty-three varieties, 
915 pounds in 1906 with twenty-six varieties, and 758 pounds in 
1907 with twenty-seven varieties. The average of these^ differences 
is more than the average annual yield per acre of seed cotton in North 
Carolina. To grow cotton cheaply per pound, more must be produced 
per acre than is at present done on an average. To do this, better 
varieties must be planted, more thorough preparation and cultivation 
be given to the land, and more intelligent fertilization, either directly 
or indirectly, must be practised. It costs no more to cultivate a pro- 
lific variety of cotton than one that has few bolls to the stalk or has a 
larger number of stalks missing in the row, due to imperfect germina- 
tion of the seed, or some other avoidable or unavoidable cause. 

WHAT A VARIETY SHOULD BE. 

A variety of cotton should be a group of plants having some special 
excellencies, such as total yield of lint per acre, resistance to disease 
and insect pests, etc., and the seed of which should be able to trans- 
mit to their progeny, with certainty and without diminution, the ex- 
cellent qualities of the parent plants. If the designated group of 
plants does not have these qualities, then it is not worthy to be styled 
a variety. Neither should the same variety have two names. 

EARLY MATURING VARIETIES. 

The earliest varieties, judged from the percentage of total cotton 
open at first picking in the past three or four years' tests at the test 
farms of the Department, are Dozier's Improved, King's Improved, 



The Bulletin. 55 

Hodge, Shine's Extra Early Prolific, and Webb. The first two 
named are probably the earliest maturing varieties we have thus far 
tested. They are especially adapted for growth in regions where 
cotton is liable to be cut off by frost, mattering not whether the pro- 
longed growth be due to climate or soil. 

MEDIUM MATURING VARIETIES. 

Culpepper's Improved, Cook's Improved, Excelsior Prolific^ Peter- 
kin's Improved, and Edgeworth are varieties that matured during the 
past year at a medium date. 

LATE MATURING VARIETIES. 

Russell's Big Boll, Black Texas Wood, and Moss' Improved were 
the latest varieties tested. Some of these are good yielding varieties 
when grown where the season is long enough for complete develop- 
ment of their bolls before frost. 

VARIETIES WITH HIGH PERCENTAGE OF LINT. 

Of the varieties tested, Moss' Improved, King's Improved, Brown 
Texas Wood, Peterkin's Improved, Cook's Improved, Tool's Early 
Prolific, Hodge, Excelsior Prolific, Brown's No. 1, Edgeworth, and 
Mortgage Lifter are the ones that have yielded the highest percentage 
of lint to seed. With these varieties in 1904 the percentage of lint 
to seed varied from 35.42 per cent with Excelsior Prolific at the 
Edgecombe farm to 43.03 per cent with Moss' Improved at Iredell. 
The percentage yield of lint alone of a variety is frequently an unsafe 
guide in selecting a variety that will produce a large amount of lint 
cotton per acre. 

VARIETIES WITH LARGE BOLLS. 

Russell's Big Boll, Culpepper's Improved, Edgeworth, Double- 
header, and Brown's No. 1 are the five varieties thus far tested that 
possess the largest-sized bolls as well as seed. As an average of four 
years' tests at the Edgecombe farm and three years' each at the Red 
Springs and Iredell farms, it has required the following number of 
bolls to yield a pound of seed cotton : Russell's Big Boll, at Edge- 
combe, 53; at Red Springs, 64, and at Iredell, 72. Culpepper's 
Improved, at Edgecombe, 60 ; at Red Springs, 71, and at Iredell, 74. 
Edgeworth, at Edgecombe, 66 ; at Red Springs, 77, and at Iredell, 79. 
These are late varieties and heavy producers of both lint and seed 
when planted upon soils that will mature them before frost. 



56 The Bulletin. 

varieties adapted to the eastern and southeastern sections 

of the state. 

After a study of our results with varieties obtained at the Edge- 
combe and Red Springs farms during the past six or seven years, 
it is found that of the varieties of cotton thus far tested, Excelsior 
Prolific, Edgeworth, Culpepper's Improved, King's Improved, Rus- 
sell's Big Boll, and Peterkin's Improved have yielded the largest 
amounts of seed cotton per acre on an average. In the eastern part 
of the State, on the stiffer clayey soils, bottom lands, poorly drained 
lands and lands near the northern border of the State, it will gener- 
ally be found advisable to use the best of the earlier maturing varie- 
ties, such as King's Improved, Edgeworth, and Excelsior Prolific ; 
while on the more open, sandy and loamy soils of the east and south- 
east the larger-boiled and more vigorously growing varieties, such as 
Culpepper's Improved and Russell's Big Boll, will generally yield 
most satisfactory returns. 

VARIETIES ADAPTED TO PIEDMONT SECTION OF THE STATE. 

With reference to varieties of cotton suited to this portion of the 
State, we cannot assert with the same degree of certainty as we can 
for the eastern part of the State, as our experiments have only been 
conducted in Iredell for four years, and with some of the varieties 
for only the past season. So, with reference to this portion of the 
State, on a red-clay soil, we would recommend, tentatively, guided 
by our results, the use of either King's Improved, Culpepper's Im- 
proved, Edgeworth, or Excelsior Prolific as the best suited. King's 
Improved has, in our experiments at the Iredell farm, proved to be 
the earliest and decidedly the most prolific variety thus far tested 
there, where the growing season for cotton is comparatively short. 
There are other promising varieties being tested, but data for a suffi- 
cient number of years are not yet in hand to justify anything like 
definite statements in reference to them and their adaptability to dif- 
ferent localities. 

CORRELATION OF CHARACTERS OF VARIETIES OF COTTON. 

With cotton, as with corn, it is of the highest importance for farm- 
ers, and imperative for all those who are studying or trying to im- 
prove varieties, to know what characters are usually antagonistic and 
what ones are mutually helpful in their economic development. In 
Table XII are compiled, in concise form, the' results of four years' 
tests at Edgecombe, five at Iredell and two at Red Springs. From 
this compilation, supplemented by observation in the field and at the 
gin, the following tentative inferences are made in reference to the 
varieties of upland cotton tested, when grown under the conditions of 
climate and soil as represented by these three farms : 



The Bulletin. 57 

Antagonistic Characters. — (1) Earliness in maturity is not usually 
conducive to large yields, although in areas where a short growing 
period is afforded the earlier maturing varieties often give the greater 
yields (but these are not large generally), as is shown by King's 
Improved, which, during the past five years, has proven the most pro- 
lific of seed cotton at the Iredell farm, where the growing period for 
cotton during an average season is comparatively short. (2) Varie- 
ties that have large seed generally yield a small percentage of lint to 
seed. (3) Late-maturing varieties do not generally produce seed 
cotton that yields a high percentage of lint, although the number of 
pounds of lint per acre may be large. (4) Small-boiled varieties are 
not generally easily picked, and hence are unpopular with pickers. 

Associated Characters. — (1) Varieties that mature early tend to 
the production of seed cotton that contains a high percentage of lint 
to seed. (2) Varieties with short staple usually have a high per- 
centage of lint, and vice versa. (3) Varieties with large bolls gener- 
ally have large seed and small percentage of lint. (4) The larger 
the yield of seed cotton per acre, through proper fertilization or favor- 
able seasonal conditions, the lower the percentage of lint to seed, even 
of the same variety. ( 5 ) Good root and leaf development of a variety 
tends to increase power of resistance to drought, insect and disease 
ravages. 

PK.OPER PLACE 'TO SELECT SEED. 

With cotton, as with any other staple crop, the place to select seed 
for the next year's planting is in the field — selecting with reference 
to total yield of seed cotton, percentage of lint, date of maturity, vigor, 
hardiness,. form and size of bolls, leaves, stalks, limbs, and resistance 
to disease and insect ravages. By selecting from stalks that bear a 
large number of bolls per stalk, the tendency will be in the progeny 
to give an increased yield over the average of the patch, which is the 
seed obtained when one waits to secure his seed at random from the 
gin. Another objection to securing seed from the gin in the usual 
way is that it is usually deferred until late in the fall, and thereby, 
generally, seed from the last picking are obtained, which are not the 
best seed. The best seed, as a rule, are from the middle picking. 

In selecting a variety one must not be guided entirely by total yield 
of seed cotton, for often between two varieties producing about the 
same quantity per acre the one with the smaller yield should be chosen 
because of its production of a larger amount of lint and higher selling 
price of total products (lint and seed). It should be remembered 
that lint sells for from eight to fifteen times as much per pound as 
seed. 

Other things being equal, preference should be given to the larger- 
boiled varieties, with a large number of locks per boll, as they are 
much easier picked, and hence are most popular with pickers. 



58 The Bulletin. 

A few hours spent in the fall in selecting and gathering separately 
the seed cotton from stalks that have a large number of bolls well dis- 
tributed over the stalks and with other desirable characters, will pay 
as well or better than any other form of farm work. The seed cotton 
thus gathered should be ginned separately and the seed carefully saved 
in some secure place for the next year's planting. Every one who 
has been through a cotton field in the fall has surely noticed the great 
difference in the same field, in the form, shape and number of bolls 
on different stalks, as well as in the characteristics of the stalks them- 
selves. Now, remembering that the law of heredity is as strong and 
constant in plants as in animals will help to emphasize the great im- 
portance of selecting seed of the short staple cotton only from those 
stalks that bear the largest amount of lint cotton per stalk. Of course, 
this latter statement does not apply to long-staple cottons in compari- 
son with the short-staple ones, for a long-staple cotton may produce 
less lint per acre than a short-"staple one, yet this smaller number of 
pounds may sell for more on the market, on account of its higher sell- 
ing price per pound. 

BUYING COTTON SEED. 

Seed of cotton, as well as all other crops, should be purchased only 
from the most reliable sources, for frequently seeds advertised in 
extravagant superlatives are inferior. It is not always the cheapest 
seed that are secured for the smallest outlay ; nor, on the other hand, 
are all expensive seed of superior quality ; so the only safe plan to fol- 
low is to buy from the most reliable parties. It might be said, how- 
ever, that if seed are properly selected they will have to bring a good 
price to compensate the seedsman or grower for his extra care and 
expense. The seed should possess strong vitality, for seed of low 
vitality produce a poor stand of stunted plants that do not produce 
as large yields as good seed when grown under identical conditions of 
soil, fertilization and cultivation. It will be remembered, however, 
that stunted cotton will give larger proportional yields than will corn. 
It is common to see cotton only a few inches high bearing one, two or 
more small bolls per stalk, while corn that only reaches three or four 
or five feet high will frequently produce not much more than a spin- 
dling stalk, small shuck and cob. 

SOURCES OF VARIETIES OF COTTON TESTED. 

The seed used in the variety tests of cotton at the Edgecombe and 
Iredell farms this year were received from the following sources : 

Alexander Money Maker Alexander Seed Co., Augusta, Ga. 

Bigham's Improved J. N. Bighain, R. F. D. No. 5, Charlotte, N. C. 

Black Texas Wood Martin McKinnon, Red Springs, N. C. 

Braswell's Cluster J. R. Pitt, Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Brown's No. 1 M. L. Brown, Decatur, Ga. 

Cook's Improved J. R. Cook, Schley, Ga. 



The Bulletin. 



59 



Culpepper's Re-Improved J. E. Culpepper, Luthersville, Ga. 

Cluster Martin McKinnori, Red Springs, N. C. 

Cleveland's Big Boll J. R. Cleveland, Decatur, Ga. 

Culpepper's Improved, Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mt, N. C. (R. F. D. No. 5) 

Dozier's Improved W. D. Dozier, Camden, N. C. 

Drake's Defiance Drake Brothers, Philomath, Ga. 

Edgeworth J. C. Little, Louisville, Ga. 

Excelsior Prolific Excelsior Seed Farm, Cheraw, S. C. 

Hodge C. N. Allen, Auburn, N. C. 

King's Improved i Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. 

King's Improved (native) J. W. Sherrill, Statesville, N. C. 

Layton's Improved R. D. Layton, St. Matthews, S. C. 

Mortgage Lifter H. G. Hastings & Co., Atlanta, Ga. 

Moss' Improved B. D. Moss, Norway, S. C. 

Morgan's Climax J. W. Morgan, Glendale, S. C. 

Pullnot J. E. Bradbury, Athens, < }a. 

Peterkin's Improved J. N. Peterkin, Fort Motte, S. C. 

Russell's Big Boll. . .Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mt., N. C. (R. F. D. No. 5). 

Sugar Loaf C. S. Williams, Franklinton, N. C. 

Shine's Extra Early Prolific J. A. Shine, Faison, N. C. 

Simpkins' Prolific W. A. Simpkins, Raleigh, N. C. 

Williams' C. S. Williams, Franklinton, N. C. 

Webb Dr. C. L. Killibrew, Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Wilson's Matchless F. D. Wilson, Littleton, N. C. 

RESULTS OF DISTANCE TESTS OF COTTON. 

These results are found in Tables XIII and XIV, which follow : 

Table XIII— RESULTS OF DISTANCE TESTS OF COTTON. 

Iredell Farm — 1907. 



4> 



TD 



d OS 

S3 
.5.2 



Distance 

Between 

Rows. 



ZVz feet 
Z l A feet 
ZYi feet 
ZYi feet 
4 feet -- 
4 feet-. 
4 feet -. 
4 feet - 



Distance 

Between 

Stalks 

in Rows. 



Number .£ 

Stalks o> 

per 

Plat 

m 



% 

W 
+> 
o 

u 
■o 

fa 



12 inches- 
16 inches- 
20 inches-- 
24 inches- 
12 inches-- 
16 inches-. 
20 inches- 
24 inches — 



651 
489 
390 
324 
651 
489 
390 
327 



o +j 

■£' c 
•5 3 

"SiS 

a. 



Yield Seed Cotton in 

Pounds per Plat at 

the Several Pickings. 



I 

to 

.5 • 
3:2 
«^ 

pL, Ol 






495 



51136.0 



502 
488 
476 
442 
353 
368 



36.0 



40.0 
40.0 
38.0 
38.0 
40.0 
40.0 



20.00 
21.50 
17.50 
25.00 
33.00 
22.00 
14.00 
23.00 



I 

u 
a 

3 . 

o o 
WO 



13.50 
14.00 
13.25 
18.00 
20.25 
15.50 
12.50 
13.00 



3> • 
.2 » 

HP 



10.50 
13.50 
13.00 
13.50 
13.00 
14.25 
12.00 
10.00 



to 

W 

a 
3 

u 



$ 

o 



44.00 
49.00 
43.75 
56.50 
66.25 
51.75 
38.50 
46.00 



<u 

a. 

a 
o 
■*> 
+j 
o 
O 

■a 
41 
v 
co 

"3 



o 

<! 

■-1 
a> 
a 



o 

to 

a 
p 
o 



880.00 
980.00 
875.00 
1030.00 
1093.12 
853.87 
635.25 
759.00 



333.7 
371.6 
331.8 
390.6 
415.5 
323.8 
240.9 
287.8 



u 
o 

.< 

u 

a 

a> 

0) 



a 
3 
o 



516.3 
608.4 
543.2 
639.4 
678.6 
530.1 
394.4 
471.2 



Ed 



< 
0>T3 

a. c 

•sfi 
J* 

O ft 
0> 01 

!« 





DQ 




01 tj 






c 

O 


"5 


< 


PL, 






T) 


2 


ci) 


0) 


K 


a 


T1 


t- 


■o 


R 





0) 


3 


O 


x 


« 


0! 


<H 


1- 


C 


O 


Ol 


O 


CD 


au 


So 


O 


oS 

> 


O CO 


.y.. 


° 



T3 
Ol 
Ol 

ra 

13 

C 
(« 
-t-> 

c 
3 

<M 
O 
0) 

3 

"5 J> 

>S 

•3< 

O 0> 

E-i ft 



$36.70 


$ 5.46 


40.87 


6.08 


36.49 


5.43 


42.96 


6.39 


45.70 


6.79 


35.61 


5.30 


26.49 


3.94 


31.65 


4.71 



$42.16 
46.95 
41.92 
49.35 
52.49 
40.90 
30.43 
36.36 



60 



The Bulletin. 



Table XIV— COMPILED RESULTS OF DISTANCE TESTS OF COTTON. 

EDGECOMBE FABM. 





Yield Seed Cotton in Pounds per Acre at Different Distancing. 


Year. 


>> 

fa a 

COi-H 


3Yi Feet by 
16 Inches. 


3Ms Feet by 
20 Inches. 


>> 

fa a 

C3CM 


>> CO 

XI 01 

» 2 


• 

■° 2 

o> a 
fa 1-1 


£>8 

■<-> -"- 

« 2 

o> a 

<o 


>, n 

X « 

» 2 

a) a 

&<" 
© 


>. 01 

• 2 

a) a 

^^ 


1901 


1286.0 
1507.1 
1541.2 
1444.7 


1384-0 
1507.1 
1751.9 
1547.6 


1410.0 
1342.9 
1632.4 
1461.7 


1063.0 
1342.9 
1746.0 
1383.9 


964.0 
1506.3 
1723.3 
1397.8 






893.0 
1306.3 
1646.6 
1281.9 




1903 




1331.1 
1828.9 


1312.5 
1861.1 


1904 


Averages 



Year. 


>> 

fa B 

-SP 1- * 

COi-H 


3H Feet by 
16 Inches. 


ZVi Feet by 
20 Inches. 


ZYz Feet by 
24 Inches. 

4 Feet by 
12 Inches. 


4 Feet by 
15 Inches. 


4 Feet by 
16 Inches. 


4 Feet by 
20 Inches. 


4 Feet by 
24 Inches. 


1905 


1593.8 


1457.7 


1214.2 


1683.4 


18%. 7 




2019.1 


1577.1 


1493.4 



BED SPBINGS FABM. 



Year. 


>> 

•° ~! 

8^ 

0> o 
fa E 

COr-1 


>> 
^oJ 

*> $ 
<"xi 

sCl 1 "" 1 
>-N«0 

CO-H 


>> 

^cc 

*> £ 

Q)Jc 

fa a 

COlM 


3V 2 Feet by 
24 Inches. 


4 Feet by 
12 Inches. 


4 Feet by 
15 Inches. 


>» 00* 

X 01 

« a 

at a 

fa 1-1 
"to 


■° 2 

o> a 

fa 1-1 
"o 
■*esi 


4 Feet by 
24 Inches. 


1901 


284.0 

1258. 6 

831.8 

791.4 


288.0 

1310.3 

897.2 

831.7 


359.0 

1340.5 

906.5 

868.6 


447.8 

1428.9 

757-0 

877.9 


566.9 

1229.3 

883.1 

893.1 




634.7 

1153.2 

997.6 

928.5 






1902 

1903 


1051.4 
842.2 


1165.8 
727.7 











x> • 




>> 

X • 


>> 

X ■ 














„ w 


I, n 


" 0) 


7. m 


>> 01 










Year. 


0) „ 

fa a 




11 


•5 

fa a 


-° 2 

oi B 


XI 0) 

oi a 


XI 0) 
« 2 


■° 2 
» 2 

01 B 


XI 01 
ijXI 

« 2 




►N.CM 


*JxcO 


*s 


NT 1 " 1 

.is-.* 


CM 


lO 


fa 1-1 

50 


fe 1 - 1 


£" 




COH 


COi-l 


COIM 


COCJ 


"* I-H 


■*rH 


TCH 


<*N 


■*<N 


1904 


857.5 


750.0 


675.0 


860.0 


767.5 




815.0 


727.5 


622.5 





The Bulletin. 



61 



Table XIV— COMPILED RESULTS OF DISTANCE TESTS OF COTTON. 

Continued. 

iredell farm — 1907. 



Year. 



1903- 
1904. 
1905- 



COi-H 



743.2 

845. 
975.0 



1906 ! 1190.0 



•°.Q 

» o 

fa a 

NT 1 "" 1 



1907. 



Averages ■ 



880.0 
926.6 



743.2 

795.0 

1100.0 

1785.0 

980.0 

1080.6 



si 

CON 



630.6 
810.0 
1035.0 
1585.0 
875.0 
987.1 



I* c 

COIN 



750.8 
835.0 
1110.0 
1280.0 
1030.0 
1001.1 



>> to 
fa 



612.5 
845.8 
1340.0 
1215.3 
1093.1 
1021.3 



>> to 

» 2 
«.£ 

fa"* 

"us 
■*1-l 



700.0 



>> 0) 

42 I' 

a. a 

fa M 

"to 



675.0 
812.5 
1280.0 
937.5 
853.9 
911.7 



>> to 

» « 

IV S 

fa 1-1 
"o 

■*f<N 



862.5 
779.2 
1170.0 
720.5 
635-3 
833.5 



>! tO 

Is 

-»(N 



791.7 
762.5 
1325.0 
612.0 
759.0 
850.0 



COMMENTS ON DISTANCE TESTS OF COTTON. 

The average results of the distance tests conducted at the Edge- 
combe and Red Springs farms during the past four years indicate 
that the best distancing of cotton for the Edgecombe section is some- 
where about Sy 2 feet by 16 inches, while at Red Springs it centers 
closely around 4 feet by 16 inches. As the average of five years' 
tests at the Iredell farm, the best distancing was 3% feet by 16 inches. 

The general deductions above should be accepted tentatively, as 
here, as with other tests, it will require a number of repetitions to 
arrive at a fair idea of the best width of rows and distance in rows 
for planting cotton on the types of soils on which these tests were 
made. 

The plats at the four farms were arranged in lateral series, with 
each test occupying from three to five rows. 

'As the results of this test are likely to vary somewhat with different 
varieties, Culpepper's Improved seed were used at Red Springs, Rus- 
sell's Big Boll at Edgecombe, and King's Improved 1 at Iredell. 

In Table XIV is presented a summary of five years' tests at Edge- 
combe and at Red Springs, and five at Iredell. 

III. Fertilization and Cultivation of Cokn and Cotton. 

coen. 

Culture. — It unquestionably pays well to thoroughly break and 
broadcast-harrow land for corn. Using a two-horse plow and run- 
ning it 8 to 10 inches deep, and afterwards harrowing with large 
smoothing harrow, puts the land in nice condition. It is also well 
to run a small-tooth harrow or weeder across corn rows about the time 
the plants are coming up, and even after they are several inches high, 

Culpepper's Improved was used in the test of 1903. 



& 



62 The Bulletin. 

slanting the teeth of the harrow backward. Harrowing in this way 
saves after-cultivation, and is a quick and comparatively inexpensive 
way of getting over the land. The land being thoroughly broken 
before the corn is put in the ground, only shallow, level cultivation 
with some one of the considerable number of good cultivators need be 
given the crop during the growing season. The one-horse cultivators 
cover corn rows in two or three furrows, and the two-horse ones at 
a single trip. The cultivation should be frequent — about every ten 
to twelve days — and, if possible, just after rains, so as to break any 
crust formed by showers, leaving a dust mulch to retard the loss of 
moisture added to the soil by previous rains. * Toward the end of the 
growing season the cultivators should only be run one to one -and a 
half inches deep, so as -to disturb as little as possible the roots of the 
plants, which, by that time, are well into the middle of the rows. 

Fertilizers for Corn. — The experimental work on the sandy soils 
of the east, reports of which have been made previously, has pro- 
gressed far enough, we feel, to draw some conclusions in reference 
to the best amounts and proportions of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and 
potash for corn. As the results of the past five years' work have not 
yet been published, the following formulas, based on the results of the 
first two years' tests, and tests in other States with similar soil and cli- 
matic conditions, are given as good ones for corn: 

For Corn on Land in Fair Condition. 
No. 1— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 900 pounds 

■ Cotton-seed meal, 6.59 2 per cent nitrogen, 2.5 per cent phos- 
phoric acid and 1.5 per cent potash 960 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash 140 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain: available phosphoric acid, 7.5 per cent; 
potash, 1.6 per cent; nitrogen, 3.2 per cent (equal to ammonia, 3.9 
per cent). 

No. 2— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 1,045 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal, 6.59 per cent nitrogen, 2.5 per cent phos- 
phoric acid and 1.5 per cent potash 520 pounds 

Nitrate of soda, 15 per cent nitrogen 225 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash 210 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

In this formula one-half of the nitrogen is supplied by nitrate of 
soda and the other one-half by cotton-seed meal. This mixture will 
contain : available phosphoric acid, 8.0 per cent ; potash, 1.7 per cent ; 
nitrogen, 3.4 per cent (equal to ammonia, 4.0 per cent). 

2 6.59 per cent nitrogen equals 8 per cent ammonia. 



The Bulletin. 63 

No. 3— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 965 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal, 6.59 per cent nitrogen, 2.5 per cent phos- 
phoric acid and 1.5 per cent potash 750 pounds 

Nitrate of soda, 15 per cent nitrogen 110 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash 175 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

In this formula one-fourth of the nitrogen is supplied by nitrate of 
soda and the other three-fourths by cotton-seed meal. This mixture 
will contain: available phosphoric acid, 7.7 per cent; potash, 1.7 per 
cent; nitrogen, 3.3 per cent (equal to ammonia, 4.0 per cent). 

No. 4— 

Acid phosphate, 16 per cent phosphoric acid 835 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal, 6.59 per cent nitrogen, 2.5 per cent phos- 
phoric acid and 1*5 per cent potash 1,010 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash 155 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain: available phosphoric acid, 7.0 per cent; 
potash, 1.7 per cent; nitrogen, 3.3 per cent (equal to ammonia, 4.0 
per cent). 

No. 5— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 860 pounds 

Fish scrap, 8.25 per cent nitrogen and 6.0 per cent phos- 
phoric acid 850 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash 290 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain: available phosphoric acid, 8.6 per cent; 
potash, 1.8 per cent; nitrogen, 3.5 per cent (equal to ammonia, 4.3 
per cent). 

No. 6— 

Acid phosphate, 16 per cent phosphoric acid 800 pounds 

Fish scrap, 8.25 per cent nitrogen and 6.0 per cent phos- 
phoric acid 900 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash 300 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture is more concentrated than preceding ones, on account 
of the use of higher-grade materials, and will contain : available phos- 
phoric acid, 9.1 per cent; potash, 1.9 per cent; nitrogen, 3.7 per cent 
(equal to ammonia, 4.5 per cent). 

No. 7— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 960 pounds 

Fish scrap, 8.25 per cent nitrogen and 6.0 per cent phos- 
phoric acid 960 pounds 

Muriate of potash, 50 per cent potash 80 pounds 

2,000 pounds 



64 The Bulletin. 

This mixture, too, is more concentrated than the preceding ones, on 
account of the use of a high-grade potassic material, muriate of pot- 
ash, and will contain: available phosphoric acid, 9.6 per cent; potash, 
2.0 per cent; nitrogen, 4.0 per cent (equal to ammonia, 4.8 per cent). 

No. 8— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 950 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal, 6.59 per cent nitrogen, 2.5 per cent phos- 
phoric acid and 1.5 per cent potash 1,015 pounds 

Muriate of potash, 50 per cent potash 35 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain : available phosphoric acid, 7.9 per cent; 
potash, 1.6 per cent; nitrogen, 3.3 per cent (equal to ammonia, 4.0 
per cent). 

No. 9— 

Acid phosphate, 16 per cent phosphoric acid 900 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal, 6.59 per cent nitrogen, 2.5 per cent phos- 
phoric acid and 1.5 per cent potash 1,060 pounds 

Muriate of potash, 50 per cent potash. 40 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain: available phosphoric acid, 8.5 per cent; 
potash, 1.8 per cent; nitrogen, 3.5 per cent (equal to ammonia, 4.3 
per cent). 

No. 10— 

1 Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 1,365 pounds 

Dried Wood, 13 per cent nitrogen 555 pounds 

Muriate of potash, 50 per cent potash 80 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture is a concentrated one, on account of high-grade ni- 
trogenous and potassic materials being used, and will contain : avail- 
able phosphoric acid, 9.6 per cent; potash, 2.0 per cent; nitrogen, 3.6 
per cent (equal to ammonia, 4.4 per cent). 

No. 11— 

Acid phosphate, 16 per cent phosphoric acid 1,310 pounds 

Dried blood, 13 per cent nitrogen 600 pounds 

Muriate of potash, 50 per cent potash 90 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture is quite concentrated, on account of the high-grade 
phosphatic and potassic materials used, and will contain: available 
phosphoric acid, 10.5 per cent; potash, 2.3 per cent; nitrogen, 3.9 per 
cent (equal to ammonia, 4.7 per cent). 

No. 12— 

Bone meal, 22.5 per cent phosphoric acid and 3.7 per cent 
nitrogen 950 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal, 6.59 per cent nitrogen, 2.5 per cent phos- 
phoric acid and 1.5 per cent potash 975 pounds 

Muriate of potash, 50 per cent potash 75 pounds 

2,000 pounds 



The Bulletin. 65 

This mixture is a concentrated one, on account of the high-grade 
phosphatic and potassic materials used, and will contain : available 
phosphoric acid, 11.9 per cent; potash, 2.6 per cent; nitrogen, 5.0 per 
cent (equal to ammonia, 6.0 per cent). 

No. 13— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 585 pounds 

Cotton seed, 3.1 per cent nitrogen, 1.3 per cent phosphoric 

acid and 1.2 per cent potash 1,375 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash 40 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain: available phosphoric acid, 5.0 per cent; 
potash, 1.1 per cent; nitrogen, 2.1 per cent (equal to ammonia, 2.6 per 
cent). 

Cotton Seed. — Cotton seed may replace the meal in preceding 
formulas containing meal by allowing 2 pounds of seed for one of 
meal. 

Nitrate of Soda. — This material is quick-acting, because of its easy 
solubility in water. For this reason, when used in a considerable 
quantity in fertilizers at time of planting, especially on light sandy 
land, there is considerable danger of its being leached beyond the 
reach of the roots of the plants before they can use it. On clay lands 
and loams having good subsoils to them this danger does not exist, 
certainly not to the extent that it does on light soils. A small amount 
of nitrate of soda in the mixture will give the crop a quick start and 
make its cultivation easier and more economical. Formula No. 3 has 
been arranged with this idea in view, and in No. 2 one-half the nitro- 
gen comes from nitrate of soda. On light lands it would likely be 
better to omit the nitrate from the mixture and apply it as a top dress- 
ing, between the 10th and last of June, on early corn. Nitrate of 
soda may take the place of a portion of the other nitrogen-furnishing 
materials in any of the formulas, one pound of nitrate being equal in 
its content of nitrogen to 2.2 pounds of cotton-seed meal, 2 pounds of 
fish scrap, 1.2 pounds of dried blood. Nitrate of soda is frequently 
used as a top dressing for corn, and is a very valuable material for 
use in this way. A good application is 50 to 75 pounds per acre, dis- 
tributed along the side of the row or dropped beside the plants and 
three or four inches from them, or else, where there is a ridge in the 
center, it may be distributed on this, and when it is thrown out the 
nitrate will be thrown to the two sides of the row. 

Application of Fertilizers to Corn. — On clay lands and loams hav- 
ing good subsoil the fertilizer should be applied in the drill, at or just 
before planting, at the rate of 200 to 400 pounds per acre. On light 
sandy lands it is best to use 50 to 100 pounds in the drill at time of 
planting, to give the crop a good start, and the balance of the fertilizer 
as a side dressing when the corn has begun to grow well. 

5 



66 The Bulletin. 

Fertilizers for Corn Following Peas and Other Legumes. 

The best and most profitable yields of corn in our experimental 
work were where the corn followed velvet beans, bur clover, cow-peas, 
crimson clover and other leguminous crops. These crops, with acid 
phosphate and kainit, or some other potash salt, are the best previous 
treatment and fertilization for corn. Where light crops of peas have 
been grown in corn, or cut from the land and the stubble left, it would 
be safest to add some nitrogenous material in the fertilizer mixture. 
In cases of this kind it is suggested that the nitrogen-furnishing ma- 
terial in any of the preceding formulas be reduced one-half. Where 
corn is to follow good crops of velvet beans, peas, bur and crimson 
clover or soja beans, especially where the entire crops have been left 
on the soil, no further application of nitrogen need be made, but it is 
advised that 200 to 300 pounds per acre of the following mixture, in 
the drill, be used just before planting : 

Acid phosphate 200 pounds 

Kainit 100 pounds 

COTTON. 

Culture. — The remarks regarding the preparation and cultivation 
of corn also apply with equal force to cotton, unless it be the part 
regarding breaking-the land well before planting. Some doubt the 
necessity of this for cotton. Cotton is generally grown on ridges. 
This is necessary on wet soils, but on all fairly well drained upland 
and sandy soils we are convinced that level and frequent shallow cul- 
tivation, as was indicated for corn, is the best and most economical 
method to follow, in growing cotton. Eidge culture may give better 
results in very wet years, but, taking the seasons as they come, the 
advantage will lie, we think, with flat culture. 

Fertilizers for Cotton. — The preliminary remarks regarding fer- 
tilizers for corn also apply to cotton, the following formulas being 
offered tentatively and as the result of our best judgment, after study- 
ing the best obtainable data on this subject : 

For Cotton on Land in Fair Condition. 

No. 1— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 895 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal, 6.59 per cent nitrogen, 2.5 per cent phos- 
phoric acid and 1.5 per cent potash 790 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash 315 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain: available phosphoric acid, 7.2 per cent; 
potash, 2.6 per cent; nitrogen, 2.6 per cent (equal to ammonia, 3.2 
per cent). 



The Bulletin. 67 

No. 2— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 1,015 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal, 6.59 per cent nitrogen, 2.5 per cent phos- 
phoric acid and 1.5 per cent potash 415 pounds 

Nitrate of soda, 15 per cent nitrogen 180 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash 390 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

In this formula one-half of the nitrogen is supplied by nitrate of 
soda and the other one-half by cotton-seed meal. This mixture will 
contain : available phosphoric acid, 7.6 per cent ; potash, 2.7 per cent ; 
nitrogen, 2.7 per cent (equal to ammonia, 3.3 per cent). 

No. 3— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 955 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal, 6.59 per cent nitrogen. 2.5 per cent phos- 
phoric acid and 1.5 per cent potash 605 pounds 

Nitrate of soda, 15 per cent nitrogen 90 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash 350 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

In this formula one-fourth of the nitrogen is supplied by nitrate of 
soda and the other three-fourths by cotton-seed meal. This mixture 
will contain: available phosphoric acid, 7.4 per cent; potash, 2.6 per 
cent ; nitrogen, 2.6 per cent (equal to ammonia, 3.1 per cent). 

No. 4— 

Acid phosphate, 16 per cent phosphoric acid 830 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal, 6.59 per cent nitrogen, 2.5 per cent phos- 
phoric acid and 1.5 per cent potash 830 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash 340 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain: available phosphoric acid, 7.7 per cent; 
potash, 2.7 per cent; nitrogen, 2.7 per cent (equal to ammonia, 3.3 
per cent). 

No. 5— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 850 pounds 

Fish scrap, 8.25 per cent nitrogen and 6.0 per cent phos- 
phoric acid 690 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash 460 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain : available phosphoric acid, 8.0 per cent; 
potash, 2.9 per cent; nitrogen, 2.9 per cent (equal to ammonia, 3.5 
per cent). 

No. 6— 

Acid phosphate, 16 per cent phosphoric acid 790 pounds 

Fish scrap, 8.25 per cent nitrogen and 6.0 per cent phos- 
phoric acid 730 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash 480 pounds 

2,000 pounds 



68 The Bulletin. 

This mixture is more concentrated than the foregoing ones, on 
account of the higher-grade materials used, and will contain : avail- 
able phosphoric acid, 8.5 per cent; potash, 3.0 per cent; nitrogen, 3.0 
per cent (equal to ammonia, 3.6 per cent). 

No. 7— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 1,020 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal, 6.59 per cent nitrogen, 2.5 per cent phos- 
phoric acid and 1.5 per cent potash 890 pounds 

Muriate of potash, 50 per cent potash 90 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain : available phosphoric acid, 8.3 per cent; 
potash, 2.9 per cent; nitrogen, 2.9 per cent (equal to ammonia, 3.5 
per cent). 

No. 8— 

Acid phosphate, 16 per cent phosphoric acid 965 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal, 6.59 per cent nitrogen, 2.5 per cent phos- 
phoric acid and 1.5 per cent potash 940 pounds 

Muriate of potash, 50 per cent potash 95 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture is a concentrated one, on account of the high-grade 
phosphatic and potassic materials used, and will contain: available 
phosphoric acid, 8.9 per cent; potash, 3.1 per cent; nitrogen, 3.1 per 
cent (equal to ammonia, 3.8 per cent). 

No. 9— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 1,045 pounds 

Fish scrap, 8.25 per cent nitrogen and 6.0 per cent phos- 
phoric acid 820 pounds 

Muriate of potash, 50 per cent potash 135 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain : available phosphoric acid, 9.8 per cent ; 
potash, 3.4 per cent; nitrogen, 3.4 per cent (equal to ammonia, 4.1 
per cent). 

No. 10— 

Acid phosphate, 16 per cent phosphoric acid 975 pounds 

Fish scrap, 8.25 per cent nitrogen and 6.0 per cent phos- 
phoric acid '. 880 pounds 

Muriate of potash, 50 per cent potash 145 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture is considerably more concentrated than the others, on 
account of the high-grade materials used, and will contain : available 
phosphoric acid, 10.4 per cent; potash, 3.6 per cent; nitrogen, 3.6 per 
cent (equal to ammonia, 4.4 per cent). 

No. 11— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid * 1,355 pounds 

Dried blood, 13 per cent nitrogen 510 pounds 

Muriate of potash, 50 per cent potash 135 pounds 

2,000 pounds 



The Bulletin. 69 



This mixture will contain: available phosphoric acid, 9.5 per cent; 

potash, 3.4 per cent; nitrogen, 3.3 per cent (equal to ammonia, 4.0 

per cent). 

No. 12— 

Acid phosphate, 16 per cent phosphoric acid 1,295 pounds 

Dried blood, 13 per cent nitrogen 560 pounds 

Muriate of potash, 50 per cent potash 145 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain: available phosphoric acid, 10.4 per 
cent; potash, 3.6 per cent; nitrogen, 3.6 per cent (equal to ammonia, 
4.4 per cent). 

No. 13— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent phosphoric acid 630 pounds 

Cotton seed, 3.1 per cent nitrogen, 1.3 per cent phosphoric 

acid and 1.2 per cent potash 1,100 pounds 

Kainit, 12.5 per cent potash ISO pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain : available phosphoric acid, 5.2 per cent ; 
potash, 1.8 per cent; nitrogen, 1.8 per cent (equal to ammonia, 2.2 
per cent). 

Cotton Seed and Nitrate of Soda. — The remarks under "Com" re- 
garding these two fertilizing materials apply also to cotton, as do the 
suggestions concerning the change in the quantity of nitrogen-supply- 
ing materials in the formulas, should cotton follow peas or any other 
leguminous crop. In Formula No. 3 one-fourth of the nitrogen is 
supplied by nitrate of soda, with the view of giving the crop a quick 
start, and in No. 2 one-half of the nitrogen comes from this source. 
On light lands it will be good practice to omit this nitrate from the 
mixture and apply it as a side dressing about the middle of June. 
Good results come from the use of it in this way on heavy types of 
land. Where land does not produce a good stalk of cotton, and fer- 
tilizers are used which contain only a moderate amount of nitrogen or 
ammonia, good results are obtained from a side dressing of 50 to 100 
pounds of nitrate of soda per acre. The nitrate should be distributed 
along one side of the row, or, where there is a ridge in the middle, it 
may be put on this, and when the ridge is thrown out the nitrate will 
be thrown on two sides of the row. 

Application of Fertilizer to Cotton. — The fertilizer should be ap- 
plied in the drill at or just before planting. The quantity used for 
cotton varies from 200 to 1,000 pounds per acre ; 400 to 600 pounds 
are the more common quantities used of the grade of Formula No. 1. 
Some of the mixtures in this Bulletin are much more concentrated 
than No. 1, and when they are used the quantity may be reduced pro- 
portionately. 



70 The Bulletin. 

IV. Composts and Composting. 

Compost for General Use. — Frequent requests are made for com- 
post formulas, and the following one, with barnyard manure, rich 
dirt, or woods mould, or all, and acid phosphate and kainit, is well 
suited for general use : 

Barnyard manure, rich dirt or woods mould 1,750 pounds 

Acid phosphate 200 pounds 

Kainit 50 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

With average barnyard manure the above compost would contain: 
phosphoric acid, 1.7 per cent; potash, .7 per cent; and ammonia, .6 
per cent. One ton of this compost is worth between 500 and 600 
pounds of the average fertilizer containing 8 per cent of available 
phosphoric acid, 2 per cent of potash and 2 per cent of ammonia. It 
should be applied at the rate of 600 to 1,600 pounds per acre in the 
drill, 1,400 pounds of the compost being about equal to an application 
of 400 pounds of the 8-2-2 fertilizer. 

The compost may be made under shelter or out of doors. In either 
case select a place where the soil is compact, and arrange it so that 
the water that may run through the heap will not drain from it. Put 
down the materials in alternate layers — first, a layer 3 to 6 inches 
thick, according to the size of the compost to be made, of the manure, 
woods mould or rich dirt, then sprinkle upon this layers of acid phos- 
phate and kainit, and continue in this way to put down alternate 
layers of the materials till the compost is complete. If dry, the 
manure, mould, etc., should be moistened by sprinkling with water ^ 
and the heap should be brought to a conical or wedge shape, covered 
with dirt, preferably rich dirt, and thoroughly compacted to prevent 
undue entrance of air, which brings about heating and injurious fer- 
mentation of the heap. The compost must be watched, and if it be- 
comes hot a hole should be made in the side and towards the top and 
water poured in to cool it. Heating is likely to occur if made under 
shelter, while if made out of doors in the winter and early spring the 
rains are apt to be sufficient to keep it moist, but here there is danger 
of loss, especially of the very soluble potash and phosphoric acid, from 
leaching, and the heaps made out of doors need careful watching to 
see that they do not get too hot just after making and between rains, 
and more especially to see that they are thoroughly covered with dirt 
and compacted, so as to make the water run mostly off the sides instead 
of through the heap and draining off with the most valuable part of 
the manure. The heap should remain 40 to 60 days, and may stay 
longer. *Before using, it should be thoroughly cut up and mixed by 
means of hoes and shovels. If the manure, woods mould and dirt are 



The Bulletin. Yl 

reasonably free from litter and trash, the mixture may be put through 
a sand screen and be in condition to drill as other fertilizers are. This 
will require care in selecting the manure, mould and dirt. 

Unquestionably, there is great advantage, if it is not, indeed, an 
absolute necessity, to save scrupulously all the manure and other waste 
material on and around the farm to assist in maintaining or increasing- 
its productiveness. One way to do this is to use the compost in some 
way similar to that suggested in the foregoing. Another and perhaps 
somewhat cheaper way, unless the compost is made at a time when the 
farm labor is not profitably occupied with other work, is to apply the 
manure and woods mould, etc., broadcast where there are large quan- 
tities of them, or in the drill when the amounts are limited and less 
than 1,500 to 2,000 pounds to the acre, and drill the acid phosphate 
and kainit or other materials on them. This saves the cost of mixing. 
Each plan has its advantages, and each farmer can decide for himself 
which best suits his individual case and which will enable him to save 
to best advantage these exceedingly important and valuable fertilizer 
materials on and about the farm, and which go to waste, or partial 
waste, in far too many instances. 

Compost with Cotton Seed. — Frequently cotton seed are used as a 
fertilizer. One difficulty in the way of their use is the killing of the 
germs of the seed so as to prevent them from sprouting and growing. 
A common custom is to pile the seed in the field early in the spring 
and allow them to become wet and afterwards heat. They are then 
put in the drill as other fertilizers, or sometimes broadcast. They are 
also killed by composting, and the following compost with cotton seed 
is a well-balanced and rich one for general farm crops : 

Acid phosphate 300 pounds 

Cotton seed, 13% bushels 400 pounds 

Kainit 75 pounds 

Barnyard manure, etc 1,225 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This compost will contain: phosphoric acid, 2.6 per cent; potash, .9 
per cent; ammonia, 1.1 per cent. One ton of it is worth between 800 
and 900 pounds of the average fertilizer containing 8 per cent avail- 
able phosphoric acid, 2 per cent ammonia and 2 per cent potash, and 
a good application for cotton would be 600 to 1,200 pounds in the 
drill, and for corn 400 to 800 pounds in the drill. 

Compost with Cotton-seed Meal. — Cotton-seed meal may replace 
the seed in the preceding compost. In fact, it is much better to use 
some of the insoluble forms of nitrogen or ammonia in composts rather 
than nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia, which are already in 
easily soluble condition and ready to feed plants. Besides, there is 
not the same danger of loss when materials like cotton seed, cotton- 



72 The Bulletin. 

seed meal, etc., are used as when nitrate of soda and sulphate of am- 
monia are employed. The following compost with cotton-seed meal is 
some richer than the one with seed given above : 

Acid phosphate 325 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal 200 pounds 

Kainit 100 pounds 

Barnyard manure, etc 1.375 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain: phosphoric acid, 2.8 per cent; potash, 
1.0 per cent; ammonia, 1.2 per cent. One ton of this is equal in fer- 
tilizing value to about one-half ton of a mixed fertilizer containing 8 
per cent available phosphoric acid, 2 per cent ammonia and 2 per cent 
potash. A good application of it for cotton would be 400 to 800 
pounds in the drill, and for corn 300 to 600 pounds in the drill. 

Use Lime in the Compost. — Where lime is used at all in the making 
of compost, it should not be put in contact with either the barnyard 
manure or acid phosphate, as it has an injurious action on both of 
these, endangering the loss of ammonia from the manure by setting it 
free and enabling it to pass off in the air, and changing the phosphoric 
acid of the acid phosphate into an insoluble form. Where sour muck 
or black soil is used, the lime mixed with these would correct their 
acidity or sourness and prove beneficial. 



V. Fertilizers for Tobacco. 

There are few products whose quality and quantity are more affected 
by the kind of soil and fertilizer used than is tobacco. For bright 
tobacco, the main kind grown in this State, the fine and deep, sandy 
loam with yellow-colored sandy clay subsoil is the type of land most 
largely used, and the one which grows the best grade of this character 
of tobacco. Generally, the kind of soil that is suited to the produc- 
tion of tobacco is better understood than the fertilizer that should be 
used on it. Evidence of this is seen in the great variation in the com- 
position of fertilizers sold in the State, especially for use on the 
tobacco crop. In 1901 there were registered with the Department 
of Agriculture one hundred and eight (108) special fertilizers for 
tobacco. It is interesting in this connection to note the wide varia- 
tion as well as the average composition of these fertilizers. The 
highest amount of available phosphoric acid guaranteed in any of 
them was 9.25 per cent, the lowest 5 per cent, and the average 8.12 
per cent. The highest amount of ammonia guaranteed was 10 per 
cent, the lowest 2 per cent, and the average 2.73 per cent. The 
highest amount of potash guaranteed was 5 per cent, the lowest 1 per 
cent, and the average 2.61 per cent. These wide variations in the 
amounts of the valuable fertilizing constituents indicate that the fer- 
tilizers themselves must have had very varying effects on the quality 
and quantity of the tobacco crop. 



The Bulletin. 73 

A study of the experiments in tobacco growing, and a consideration 
of the experiences of good tobacco growers, show that the amounts of 
ammonia and potash in the average tobacco fertilizers, as stated above, 
are not as large as are needed to give the best results. It would 
appear that the largest amount of ammonia (10 per cent) in any of 
these "specials" is greater than is required for bright tobacco, while 
the maximum quantity of potash (5 per cent) in any of the 108 
brands is less than is used by numbers of our best bright tobacco 
growers, especially in the eastern part of the State. A considerable 
number of these growers either mix their own tobacco fertilizers or 
else have them put up according to formulas of their suggestion. Be- 
low are given eight formulas for mixing fertilizers for tobacco. The 
grade of those fertilizers will be higher and they will, of course, cost 
more than the goods that are generally used in the State on tobacco, 
but we feel confident that the increased yield will more than justify 
the additional expense. In The Bulletin of the Department of 
Agriculture, and in our correspondence with farmers, we have been 
recommending formulas of about the composition of these for a num- 
ber of years, and evidence is accumulating which shows that the char- 
acter of tobacco fertilizers is undergoing quite a considerable change. 

No. 1— 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent 750 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal 900 pounds 

Nitrate of soda 100 pounds 

Sulphate of potash, high grade 250 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain : available phosphoric acid, 6.3 per cent ; 

potash, 6.9 per cent; nitrogen, 3.7 per cent (equal to ammonia, 4.5 

per cent). 

No. 2— 

Acid phosphate 1,065 pounds 

Dried blood, high grade 500 pounds 

Nitrate of soda 125 pounds 

Sulphate of potash, high grade 310 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain : available phosphoric acid, 7.4 per cent ; 
potash, 7.7 per cent; nitrogen, 4.3 per cent (equal to ammonia, 5.2 
per cent). 

No. 3— 

Acid phosphate 875 pounds 

Fish scrap 725 pounds 

Nitrate of soda 100 pounds 

Sulphate of potash, high grade 300 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain : available phosphoric acid, 7.2 per cent ; 
potash, 7.5 per cent; nitrogen, 3.8 per cent (equal to ammonia, 4.6 
per cent). 
r> 



74 The Bulletin. 

No. 4— 

Acid phosphate 1,000 pounds 

Dried blood 500 pounds 

Nitrate of soda 100 pounds 

Sulphate of potash, high grade 400 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain : available phosphoric acid, 7 per cent ; 
potash, 10 per cent; nitrogen, 4.1 per cent (equal to ammonia, 5 per 
cent). 

No. 5— 

Acid phosphate 900 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal TOO pounds 

Nitrate of soda 100 pounds 

Sulphate of potash, high grade 300 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain: available phosphoric acid, 7.2 per cent; 
potash, 7.7 per cent; nitrogen, 3.1 per cent (equal to ammonia, 3.8 
per cent). 

No. 6— 

Acid phosphate 745 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal 1,140 pounds 

Sulphate of potash, high grade 115 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

This mixture will contain : available phosphoric acid, 6. 6 per cent ; 
potash, 3.7 per cent; nitrogen, 3.8 per cent (equal to ammonia, 4.6 
per cent). 

No. 7— 

Acid phosphate 885 pounds 

Dried blood 575 pounds 

Nitrate of soda 170 pounds 

Sulphate of potash, high grade 370 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

In this formula one-fourth of the nitrogen is derived from nitrate 
of soda and the other three-fourths from dried blood. This mixture 
will contain: available phosphoric acid, 6.2 per cent; potash, 9.2 per 
cent; nitrogen, 5.2 per cent (equal to ammonia, 6.2 per cent). 

No. S— 

Acid phosphate - 874 pounds 

Cotton-seed meal 782 pounds 

Nitrate of soda 116 pounds 

Sulphate of potash, high grade 228 pounds 

2,000 pounds 

In this formula one-fourth of the nitrogen is derived from nitrate 
of soda, and the other three-fourths from cotton-seed meal. This mix- 
ture will contain: available phosphoric acid, 4.2 per cent; potash, 6.3 
per cent; nitrogen, 4.2 per cent (equal to ammonia, 5.1 per cent). 



The Bulletin. 75 

Five hundred and seventy-five pounds of No. 8 is equivalent to 600 
pounds of a mixture analyzing 4 per cent available phosphoric acid, 
6 per cent potash and 4 per cent ammonia. 

Three hundred and fifty to one thousand pounds of these mixtures 
should be used to the acre. 

The mixtures made from Formulas Nos. 2 and 3 are somewhat 
more concentrated than that from No. 1, on account of cotton-seed 
meal containing less ammonia than fish scrap and dried blood. The 
three formulas are given to enable the use of any one of the three 
main organic nitrogenous materials — dried blood, fish scrap and cot- 
ton-seed meal. In the coastal sections fish scrap and meal are both 
easily obtained ; some distance inland meal is more accessible, while 
in the more western end of the tobacco belt it will be found convenient 
to use dried blood. All three are good sources of ammonia for tobacco. 
The other materials — nitrate of soda, sulphate of potash, and acid 
phosphate — are the same for all mixtures. 

Occasional requests are made for formulas furnishing as much as 
10 per cent of potash, and No. 4 has been arranged to meet needs of 
this nature. It is known that excellent tobacco, in quality and quan- 
tity, is grown by the use of fertilizers of this class, and some of our 
farmers greatly prefer them to others containing less potash. It takes 
considerable observation and experimentation to determine the best 
practice in matters of this kind. 

Formula No. 7, in 1905, in some tobacco experiments conducted 
on the bright-leaf soils of Granville County, gave very promising re- 
sults. Three hundred and eighty-eight pounds per acre of this mix- 
ture were used, which was equal to an application of 600 pounds of a 
mixture analyzing 4 per cent available phosphoric acid, 6 per cent 
potash and 4 per cent ammonia. 

A limited quantity of stable manure is very beneficial to tobacco, 
and it succeeds well after peanuts. These materials add ammonia 
to the soil, and where heavy applications of fertilizers are to be made 
in connection with manure, and on peanut land, it would be well not 
to have so much ammonia in the fertilizers as is used in the ones em- 
ployed on land not having other ammoniated materials put on them. 
Formula No. 5 is destined to meet cases of this kind. A good many 
eastern tobacco growers plant tobacco after peanuts, and some of them 
grow peas between the hills of tobacco, planting them with hoes and 
putting six to ten peas in a place, the latter part of June or early in 
July. This improves the soil for after-crops, but tobacco grown after 
tobacco and peas is said not to be of good quality, though, as would be 
expected, the growth is very large. 

Good results will come from the use of high-grade fertilizers, such 
as are suggested above, or similar ones, and we believe that when 
once tried there will be no inclination to go back to the lower-grade 
ones, now so largely used. 



THE BULLETIN 



OF THE 



NORTH CAROLINA "SEES 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



RALEIGH. 



Volume 29. MARCH, 1908. Number 3. 



I. ANALYSES OF FERTILIZERS— FALL SEASON, 1907. 



II. REGISTRATION OF FERTILIZERS. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND SENT FREE TO CITIZENS ON APPLICATION. 



ENTERED AT THE RALEIGH POST-OFFICE AS SECOND-CLASS MAIL MATTER. 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 



S. L. Patterson, Commissioner, ex officio Chairman, Raleigh. 

J. J. Laughinghouse Greenville First District. 

C. W. Mitchell Aulander Second District. 

William Dunn New Bern Third District. 

Ashley Horne Clayton Fourth District. 

R. W. Scott Melville Fifth District. 

A. T. McCallum Red Springs Sixth District. 

J. P. McRae Laurinburg Seventh District. 

R. L. Doughton Laurel Springs Eighth District. 

W. A. Graham Machpelah Ninth District. 

A. Cannon Horse Shoe Tenth District. 



OFFICERS AND STAFF. 

S. L. Patterson Commissioner. 

Secretary 

B. W. Kilgore State Chemist, Field Crops. 

Tait Butler Veterinarian, Animal Husbandry. 

Franklin Sherman, Jr Entomologist. 

W. N. Hutt Horticulturist. 

H. H. Brimley Naturalist and Curator. 

T. B. Parker Demonstration Work. 

W. M. Allen Food Chemist. 

J. M. Pickel Assistant Chemist. 

C. D. Harris. . .Assistant Chemist and Microscopist, Stock Feeds. 

W. G. Haywood Assistant Chemist. 

G. M. MacNider Assistant Chemist, Soils. 

L. L. Brinkley Assistant Chemist. 

S. O. Perkins Assistant Chemist. 

Hampden Hill Assistant Chemist. 

S. C. Clapp Nursery and Orchard Inspector. 

S. B. Shaw Assistant Horticulturist. 



R. W. Scott, Jr., Superintendent Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C. 
F. T. Meacham, Superintendent Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. 
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent Pender Test Farm, Willard, N. C. 
R. W. Collett, Superintendent Transylvania and Buncombe Test Farms, 
Swannanoa, N. C. 



I. ANALYSES OF FERTILIZERS— FALL SEASON, 1907. 



BY B. W. KILGORE, STATE CHEMIST. 



Tire analyses presented in this Bulletin are of samples collected 
by the fertilizer inspectors of the Department, under the direction of 
the Commissioner of Agriculture, during the fall months of 1907. 
They should receive the careful study of every farmer in the State 
who uses fertilizers, as by comparing the analyses in the Bulletin 
with the claims made for the fertilizers actually used, the farmer can 
know by, or before, the time fertilizers are put in the ground whether 
or not they contain the fertilizing constituents in the amounts they 
were claimed to be present. 

TERMS USED IN ANALYSES. 

Water-soluble Phosphoric Acid. — Phosphate rock, as dug from the 
mines, mainly in South Carolina, Florida and Tennessee, is the chief 
source of phosphoric acid in fertilizers. 

In its raw, or natural, state the phosphate has three parts of lime 
united to the phosphoric acid (called by chemists tri-calcium phos- 
phate). This is" very insoluble in water and is not in condition to 
be taken up readily by plants. In order to render it soluble in water 
and fit for plant food, the rock is finely ground and treated with sul- 
phuric acid, which acts upon it in such a way as to take from the 
three-lime phosphate two parts of its lime, thus leaving only one 
part of lime united to the phosphoric acid. This one-lime phosphate 
is what is known as water-soluble phosphoric acid. 

Reverted Phosphoric Acid. — On long standing some of this water- 
soluble phosphoric acid has a tendency to take lime from other sub- 
stances in contact with it, and to become somewhat less soluble. This 
latter is known as reverted or gone-back phosphoric acid. This is 
thought to contain two parts of lime in combination with the phos- 
phoric acid, and is thus an intermediate product between water- 
soluble and the original rock. 

Water-soluble phosphoric acid is considered somewhat more valu- 
able than reverted, because it becomes better distributed in the soil 
as a consequence of its solubility in water. 



-A The Bulletin. 

Available Phosphoric Acid is made up of the water-soluble and 
reverted ; it is the sum of these two. 

Water-soluble Ammonia. — The main materials furnishing am- 
monia in fertilizers are nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, cotton- 
seed meal, dried blood, tankage, and fish scrap. The first two of 
these (nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia) are easily soluble in 
water and become well distributed in the soil where plant roots can 
get at them. They are, especially the nitrate of soda, ready to be 
taken up by plants, and are therefore quick-acting forms of ammonia. 
It is mainly the ammonia from nitrate of soda and sulphate of am- 
monia that will be designated under the heading of water-soluble 
ammonia. 

Organic Ammonia. — The ammonia in cotton-seed meal, dried 
blood, tankage, fish scrap, and so on, is included under this heading. 
These materials are insoluble in water, and before they can feed 
plants they must decay and have their ammonia changed, by the aid 
of the bacteria of the soil, to nitrates, similar to nitrate of soda. 

They are valuable then as plant food in proportion to their content 
of ammonia, and the rapidity with which they decay in the soil, or 
rather the rate of decay, will determine the quickness of their action 
as fertilizers. With short season, quick-growing crops, quickness of 
action is an important consideration, but with crops occupying the 
land during the greater portion, or all, of the growing season, it is 
better to have a fertilizer that will become available more slowly, so 
as to feed the plant till maturity. Cotton-seed meal and dried blood 
decompose fairly rapidly, but "will last the greater portion, if not all, 
of the growing season in this State. While cotton seed and tankage 
will last longer than meal and blood, none of these act so quickly, or 
give out so soon, as nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia. 

Total Ammonia is made up of the water-soluble and organic; it is 
the sum of these two. 

The farmer should suit, as far as possible, the kind of ammonia to 
his different crops, and a study of the forms of ammonia as given in 
the tables of analyses will help him to do this. 

VALUATIONS. 

To have a basis for comparing the values of different fertilizer 
materials and fertilizers, it is necessary to assign prices to the three 



The Bulletin. 5 

valuable constituents of fertilizers — ammonia, phosphoric acid, and 
potash. These figures, expressing relative value per ton, are not 
intended to represent crop-producing power, or agricultural value, 
but are estimates of the commercial value of ammonia, phosphoric 
acid and potash in the materials supplying them. These values are 
only approximate (as the costs of fertilizing materials are liable to 
change, as other commercial products are), but they are believed to 
fairly represent the cost of making and putting fertilizers on the 
market. They are based on a careful examination of trade condi- 
tions, wholesale and retail, and upon quotations of manufacturers. 

Relative value per ton,, or the figures showing this, represents the 
prices on board the cars at the factory, in retail lots of five tons or 
less, for cash. 

To make a complete fertilizer the factories have to mix together in 
proper proportions materials containing ammonia, phosphoric acid 
and potash. This costs something. Tor this reason it is thought 
well to have two sets of valuations — one for the raw or unmixed 
materials, such as acid phosphate, kainit, cotton-seed meal, etc., and 
one for mixed fertilizers. 

The values used last season were : 

VALUATIONS FOR 1907. 

In Unmixed or Raw Materials. 

For phosphoric acid in acid phosphate 4 cents per pound. 

For phosphoric acid in bone meal, basic slag 

and Peruvian guano 3^ cents per pound. 

Tor ammonia 15 !/2 cents per pound. 

Tor potash 5 cents per pound. 

In Mixed Fertilizers. 

For phosphoric acid 4% cents per pound. 

For ammonia 161^ cents per pound. 

For potash 5y 2 cents per pound. 

HOW RELATIVE VALUE IS CALCULATED. 

In the calculation of relative value it is only necessary to remember 
that so many per cent means the same number of pounds per hun- 
dred, and that there are twenty hundred pounds in one ton (2,000 
pounds). 



6 The- Bulletin. 

With an 8 — 2 — 2 goods, which means that the fertilizer contains 
available phosphoric acid 8 per cent, potash 2 per cent, and ammonia 
2 per cent, the calculation is made as follows : 

-r. j-t-, • -,nr>-ru ValuePer Value Per Ton, 

Percentage of Lbs. in 100 Lbs. 10 q j^ bg 2 000 Lbs. 

8 pounds available phosphoric acid at 4J cents 0. 36 X 20= $7. 20 

2 pounds potash at 5J 0.11X20= 2.20 

2 pounds ammonia at 16J cents 0.33X20= 6.60 

Total value 0.80X20= $16.00 

Freight and merchant's commission must be added to these prices. 
Freight rates from the seaboard and manufacturing centers to inte- 
rior points are given in the following table : 



The Bulletin. 



Freight Rates from the Seaboard to Interior Points.— From the Published Rates of the 
Associated Railways of Virginia and the Carolinas. In car-loads, of not less than ten tons each, 
per ton of 2,000 pounds. Less than car-loads, add 20 per cent. 



Destination. 



Advance 

Apex 

Ashboro 

Asheville 

Chapel Hill 

Charlotte 

Clayton 

Cherry ville 

Clinton 

Creedmoor 

Cunningham 

Dallas 

Davidson College- 
Dudley 

Dunn 

Durham 

Elkin 

Elm City 

Fair Bluff 

Fayetteville 

Forestville 

Gastonia 

Gibson 

Goldsboro 

Greensboro 

Hamlet 

Henderson 

Hickory 

High Point 

Hillsboro 

Kernersville 

Kinston 

Laurel Hill 

Laurinburg 

Liberty 

Louisburg 

Lumberton 

Macon 

Madison 

Matthews 

Maxton 

Milton 

Mocksville 

Morven 

Mount Airy 

Nashville 

New Bern 

Norwood 

Oxford 

Pineville 

Pittsboro 

Polkton 

Raleigh 

Reidsville 

Rockingham 

Rocky Mount 

Ruffin 

Rural Hall 

Rutherford ton- 
Salisbury 

Sanford 

Selma 

Shelby 

SilerCity 

Smithfield 

Statesville 

Stem 

Tarboro 

Waco 

Wadesboro 

Walnut Cove 

Warrenton 

Warsaw 

Washington 

Weldon 

Wilson 

Winston-Salem — 



From 
Wilmington, 
• N. C. 



$3.20 
2.70 
3.20 
4.00 
2.95 
2.65 
2.48 
3.85 



60 

00 

00 

00 

00 

1.70 

2.00 

2.80 

3.60 

2-10 

1.60 

1.80 

2.85 

3.12 

2.10 

1.80 

2.96 

2.00 

3.00 

3.20 



00 



.00 
.10 
.90 
1.90 
2.72 
2.95 
1.60 
3.05 
3.00 
2.60 
1.80 
3.44 
3.36 
2.55 
2.20 
2.30 
1.25 
3.68 
3.04 
2.77 
2.60 
2.40 
2.56 
3.00 
2.10 
2-20 
3.28 
3.28 



05 
25 
10 
10 
90 
60 
20 
50 



2.95 



30 

90 

30 

00 

05 

50 

2.65 

2.55 

2.00 

3.00 



From 

Norfolk and 

Portsmouth, 

Va. 



From 

Charleston, 

S. C. 



3.20 
4.00 
3.20 
3.20 



86 

60 

00 

00 

40 

3.60 

3.20 

3.00 

2.80 

2.83 

3.20 

2.60 

3.80 



.00 

.00 

.25 

.50 

.80 

.00 

.00 

2.83 

3.60 

3.08 

2.88 

3.00 

2.80 

2.40 

3.40 

3.60 

3.00 

3.60 

3.00 

3.00 

3.20 

3.40 



40 

20 

60 

40 

90 

75 

20 

83 

25 

30 

3.00 

2.83 

2.96 

3.00 

2.50 

2.80 

3-20 

3.65 

3.20 

3.00 

2.80 

3.60 

3.60 

2.80 

3.20 



83 
40 
60 

no 
oo 

25 

3.00 
1.75 
1.90 
2.60 
3.00 



$3.40 
3.80 
3.60 
4.00 
3.90 
2.85 
3.63 
3.40 
3.20 
3.80 
4.00 
3.40 
2.20 
3.20 
3.20 



20 

60 

20 

40 

00 

80 

12 

10 

20 

3.40 

3.60 

3.55 

3.20 

3.40 

2.68 

3.40 

3.50 

3.80 

3.80 

3.80 

3.80 

3.70 

3-85 

3.40 

3.20 

2.70 



00 
40 
50 



40 
95 
20 
55 
00 
10 
20 
3.40 
3.40 
3. SO 
3.40 
3.40 
3.60 
3.05 
3.20 
3.40 
3.20 
3.90 
3-80 
3.20 
3-60 
3.80 
3.00 
3.40 
2.50 
3.40 
4.10 
3.20 
2.25 
3.85 
3.20 
3.40 



From 

Richmond, 

Va. 



$3.20 
3.00 
3.20 
4-00 
3.20 
3.20 
2.80 
3.68 
3.00 
3.00 
2.40 
3.60 
3.20 
3.00 
2.80 
2.83 
3.20 
2.60 
3.80 
3.00 
3.06 
3.25 
3.50 

' 2.80 
3.00 
3.00 
2.83 
3.60 
3.08 
2.88 
3.00 
2.80 
3-40 
3-40 
3.60 
3-00 
3.60 
3-00 
3-00 
3-20 
3-40 
2-40 
3-20 
3-60 
3-40 
2.90 
1.75 
2.23 
2.83 
3.20 
3.30 
3.00 
2.83 
2-36 
3-00 
2-50 
2-20 
3.20 
3-65 
3.20 
3-00 
2-80 
3.60 
3.60 
2.80 
3.20 
2.83 
2.40 
3.60 
3.00 
3-00 
3.25 
3.00 
1.50 
1.90 
2.60 
3.00 



The Bulletin. 



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II. FERTILIZER BRANDS REGISTERED FOR 1908. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

The Atlantic Chemical Corporation, Norfolk, Va. — 

Nitrate of Soda , 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

High Grade 16 Per Cent Acid Phos- 



Atlantic 
phate 



14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Dissolved Bone 

Acid Phosphate 

10 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture. 

Bone and Potash for Grain 

Bone and Potash Mixture 

c 8 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture. . . 

7 Per Cent Truck Guano 

Potato Guano 

Special Truck Guano 

High Grade Tobacco Guano. ....... 

Tobacco Grower 

Tobacco Compound 

Special Guano 

Cotton Grower 

Special Wheat Fertilizer 

Meal Compound 

High Grade Cotton Guano 

Soluble Guano 

Apex Peanut Grower 

Perfection Peanut Grower 

Oriental High Grade Guano 

Paloma Tobacco Guano 



Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 
Atlant 



Geo. L. Arps & Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Arps' Potato Guano 

Arps' Standard Truck Guano 

Arps' Scuppernong Guano for Trucks 

Geo. L. Arps & Co.'s Big Yield Guano 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Kainit 

Arps' Premium Guano for Cotton, Tobacco and 
All Spring Crops 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 


15.66 


50.00 
48.00 
12.00 


16.00 






14.00 


. . 


. . 


13.00 




, . 


12.00 


. . 




10.00 


, . 


4.00 


10.00 


. . 


3.00 


10.00 


. . 


2.00 


8.00 


. . 


4.00 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


8.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


0.00 


1.65 


1.00 


0.00 


2.06 


1.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


0.00 


2.26 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


.82 


4.00 


7.00 


, . 


5.00 


S.00 


3.30 


4.00 


S.00 


3.30 


4.00 


6.00 


5.76 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


14.00 


, . 


. , 



8.00 



1.65 



12.00 
2.00 



Acme Manufacturing Co., Wilmington, N. O. 



Acme Acid Phosphate 

Acme Bone and Potash 

Acme Bone and Potash 

Acme Bone and Potash 

Acme Bone and Potash ". 

Acme Bone and Potash 

Acme High Grade Acid Phosphate. 

Acme Acid Phosphate 

Acme Standard Guano 

Acme High Grade 

Acme Strawberry Top Dresser 

Acme Truck Grower 



12.00 




. , 


10.00 




2.00 


10.00 




3.00 


10.00 




4.00 


8.00 




4.00 


11.00 




2.00 


14.00 




, . 


16.00 




, t 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


6.00 


4.95 


8.00 


8.00 


1.65 


4.00 


6.00 


3.30 


8.00 



The Bulletin. 



15 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Acme Cotton Grower 

Acme Special Grain 

Acme Fertilizer for Tobacco 

Acme Fertilizer 

Acme Acid Phosphate v . 

Gibson's Melon Grower 

Corn Guano 

Clark's Corn Guano 

P. D. Special 

Quickstep 

Gem Fertilizer 

Cotton Seed Meal Guano 

Lattimer's Complete Fertilizer 

Tiptop Crop Grower 

Tiptop Tobacco Grower 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Pure German Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potasb 

Acme Bone and Potash 

Muriate of Potash 



-Ashepoo Fertiliser Co., Charleston, 8. C. — 

High Grade Eutaw Acid Phosphate. . . .1 

High Grade Ashepoo Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Dissolved Phosphate 

High Grade Superpotash Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Ashepoo Superpotash Acid Phos- 
phate 

High Grade Ashepoo Vegetable Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Truck Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Farmers' Special 

High Grade Ashepoo Special Cotton Seed Meal 
Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Ammoniated Superphos- 
phate 

High Grade Ashepoo Bird and Fish Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Meal Mixture 

High Grade Ashepoo X Tobacco Fertilizer 

High Grade Ashepoo Golden Tobacco Producer. 

High Grade Ashepoo Guauo 

High Grade Ashepoo Perfection Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Fruit Grower 

High Grade Ashepoo Watermelon Guano 

High Grade Eutaw X Golden Fertilizer 

High Grade Eutaw Special Cotton Seed Meal 
Guano 

High Grade Carolina XXX Guano 

High Grade Taylor's Circle Guano 

Standard Eutaw XX Acid Phosphate 

Standard Eutaw XXX Acid Phosphate 

Standard Eutaw Potash Acid Phosphate 

Standard Eutaw Acid Phosphate and Potash. . . 

Standard Eutaw Circle Guano 

Standard Eutaw XX Guano 

Standard Eutaw XXX Guano 

Standard Eutaw Fertilizer 

•Standard Ashepoo Fertilizer 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






9.00 


2.27 


2.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


2.50 


8.00 


2.47 


2.50 


13/JO 


. . 




1C.00 


3.30 


5.00 


J.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.00 


6.60 


10.00 


s.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 

2<u;i> 

15.00 


3.00 

ii.oo 

48.00 

48.00 


16.00 


* " 


5.00 
55.00 


14.00 






14.00 


t t 


, , 


16.00 


, . 


, . 


10.00 




4.00 


10.00 




4.00 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


S.00 


3.29 


6.00 


8.00 


3.91 


2.75 


10.00 


3.29 


5.00 


8.00 


2.46 


4.00 


S.00 


2.46 


4.00 


S.00 


2.46 


3.00 


9.00 


1.65 


4.00 


12.00 


. , 


. . 


13.00 


, . 


. , 


11.00 


. , 


1.00 


12.00 


, . 


1.00 


8.00 


2.00 


2.00 


8.50 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


1.85 


1.00 


9.00 


1.S5 


1.00 



16 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



Standard Ashepoo Harrow Brand Raw Bone 

Superphosphate 9.00 

Standard Ashepoo Wheat and Oats Special 0.50 

Standard Ashepoo XXX Guano 8.65 

Standard Ashepoo XX Guano ; 8.50 

Standard Ashepoo Circle Guano 8.00 

Standard Ashepoo Guano S.50 

Standard Ashepoo Special Fertilizer S.00 

Standard Ashepoo Acid Phosphate and Potash . . 12.00 

Standard Ashepoo Potash and Acid Phosphate. . 11.00 

Standard Ashepoo Potash Compound 10.00 

Standard Ashepoo XXX Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Standard Ashepoo Dissolved Bone 12.00 

Standard Ashepoo XX Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Standard Coomassie Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Standard Coomassie Circle Fertilizer 8.00 

Standard Carolina Guano 8.00 

Standard Carolina Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Standard Circle Bone 13.00 

Standard Palmetto Potash Acid Phosphate 11.00 

Standard Brownwood Acid Phosphate 8.00 

Standard P. D. Fertilizer 8.00 

German Kainit 

Standard Enoree Acid Phosphate and Potash. . . 10.00 

High Grade Ashepoo XXXX Acid Phosphate. . . 14.00 

Taylor's XX Ammoniated Dissolved Fertilizer. . 10.00 

The Armour Fertilizer Works, Atlanta, Chicago and 
Wilmington — 

Top Dresser 5.00 

10 Per Cent Trucker 5.00 

Manure Substitute 0.00 

7 Per Cent Trucker 6.00 

General 8.00 

Fruit and Root Crop Special 8.00 

High Grade Potato 8.00 

King Cotton No. 2 8.00 

Champion 8.00 

Gold Medal for Tobacco -. S.00 

Berry King S.00 

Cotton Special S.00 

Tobacco Special 8.00 

Truck and Berry Special 8.00 

All Soluble S.00 

Special Trucker 8.00 

Bone, Blood and Potash S.00 

Bone and Dissolved Bone with Potash 9.00 

African Cotton Grower 9.00 

10 Per Cent Trucker 2.00 

Dried Blood 

Phosphoric Acid with Potash 10.00 

Superphosphate and Potash 10.00 

W. H. White & Co.'s Special Corn Mixture 10.00 

Phosphate and Potash No. 2 S.00 

Phosphate and Potash No. 1 10.00 

17 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 17.00 

16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

13 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 13.00 

12 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Star Phosphate 14.00 



1.65 
1.65 
1.65 
1.65 
2.06 
2.06 
1.65 



1.65 
1.65 



1.65 



.82 



S.25 
8.25 
3.30 
5.78 
1.65 
1.65 
1.65 
2.06 
2.06 
2.06 
2.06 
2.47 
2.47 
2.47 
2.88 
3.30 
4.12 
1.65 
2.47 
8.25 
13.20 



2.00 
1.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
1.00 
2.00 
1.00 
1.00 
3.00 



2.00 
2.00 



1.00 
4.00 
2.00 
12.00 
2.00 

1.00 



2.00 
3.00 
4.00 
5.00 
2.00 
5.00 

10.00 
2.00 
2.50 
3.00 
4.00 
3.00 
3.00 

10.00 
4.00 
4.00 
7.00 
3.00 
3.00 



5.00 
4.00 
2.00 
5.00 
2.00 



The Bulletin. 



17 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Nitrate of Soda 

Kainit 

King Cotton 

Ainmoniated Dissolved Bone with Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Van Lindley's Special 

Standard Cotton Grower 

Armour's Slaughter House Fertilizer 

Anderson Phosphate and Oil Co., Anderson, S. C. — 

Anderson's Special Formula 

Anderson's Blood Guano 

Anderson's Special Fertilizer 

Anderson's Blood and Bone Guano 

American Fertilizer Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

10 Per Cent Arnmoniated Guano.' 

Standard 7 Per Cent Ammonia Guano 

American Irish Potato Grower 

American 7-7-7 for Irish Potatoes 

American Fish Scrap Guano 

American Eagle Guano 

American No. 1 Fertilizer 

American No. 2 Fertilizer 

American Cotton Compound 

American Standard Cotton Grower 

American Special Potash Mixture for Wheat . . . 

American High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Special Formula Guano for Yellow Leaf Tobacco, 

Special Potato Guano 

Special Potato Manure 

Bone and Peruvian Guano 

Bone and Peruvian Guano 

A. L. Hanna's Special 

Peruvian Mixture 

Blood and Bone Compound 

Bob White Fertilizer for Tobacco 

J. G. Miller & Co. Yellow Leaf Fertilizer 

Pitt County Special Fertilizer 

N. C. and S. C. Cotton Grower 

Peruvian Mixture Guano Especially Prepared 

for Sweet Potatoes 

Kale, Spinach and Cabbage Guano 

Stable Manure Substitute 

Strawberry and Asparagus Guano. 

Ground Fish Scraps 

Nitrate of Soda 

Bone Meal Total 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Eagle Brand Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Dissolved Bone and Potash for Corn and Wheat, 

Double Dissolved Bone and Potash 

Cooper's Genuine Eagle Island 



Avail. 






Phos. Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






14.85 


. , 


• * • 




12.00 


8.00 : 


2.06 


2.00 


10.00 1.65 


2.00 


. 




48.00 


• . • 




50.00 


8.00 4.12 


2.C0 


8.50 1.65 


2.00 


S.OO 


L.65 


2.00 


* 

10.00 : 


2.47 


3.00 


S.OO 


L.65 


2.00 


s.oo : 


2.47 


3.00 


10.00 


L.65 


2.00 


7.00 


S.24 


2.00 


7.00 


5.76 


5.00 


7.00 


1.12 


5.00 


7.00 


5.76 


7.00 


7.00 


3.29 


4.00 


S.I HI 


2.47 


3.00 


S.OO 


2.06 


3.00 


S.OO 


1.65 


2.00 


S.OO 


1.65 


2.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


. 


4.00 


16.00 


. 


. . 


9.00 


2.88 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.75 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.50 


1.65 


1.50 


8.50 


2.06 


1.00 


S.OO 


2.06 


2.50 


S.OO 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


2.88 


5.00 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


3.29 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


4.00 


7.00 


2.47 


4.00 


9.00 


2.88 
8.24 


9.00 


15.6E 


. . 


20.00 


3.71 


50.00 
49.00 
12.00 


13.00 




. . 


14.00 




. , 


10.00 




2.00 


10.00 


. - 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


22.70 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 




5.00 


( . 


3.00 




2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


2.50 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 



18 The Bulletin. 

Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

American Agricultural Chemical Co., New York — 
Holmes & Dawson Productive Cotton and Pea- 
nut Guano 9.00 

Holmes & Dawson Triumph Soluble 8.00 

Holmes & Dawson Gold Dust Guano 9.00 

Savage Sons & Co. Purity Guano 8.00 

Lazaretto Truckers' Favorite 6.00 

Lazaretto Early Trucker 7.00 

Lazaretto Challenge Fertilizer 8.00 

Lazaretto Special for Tobacco and Potatoes. . . . 8.00 

Lazaretto Climax Plant Food S.00 

Lazaretto Universal Compound 8.00 

Lazaretto Crop Grower 8.00 

Lazaretto High Grade Dissolved Bone and Pot- 
ash 12.00 

Lazaretto Alkaline Bone Phosphate 12.00 

Lazaretto Dissolved Bone and Potash 10.00 

Lazaretto Acid Phosphate '. 14.00 

Reese Pacific Guano 8.00 

Reese Pacific Guano for Tobacco 8.50 

Canton Chemical Truckers' Special 7 Per Cent . . 6.00 

Canton Chemical Excelsior Trucker 7.00 

Canton Chemical Baker's Tobacco Fertilizer. . . . 8.00 

Canton Chemical Baker's Fish Guano 8.00 

Canton Chemical Baker's Dissolved S. C. Bone. . 14.00 
Canton Chemical Baker's Standard High Grade 

Guano 8.00 2.06 3.00 

Canton Chemical Gem Phosphate 12.00 

Canton Chemical Soluble Bone and Potash 10.00 

Canton Chemical Soluble Alkaline Bone 12.00 

Canton Chemical Game Guano 8.00 

Canton Chemical Virginia Standard High Grade 

Manure 8.00 

Canton Chemical C. C. Special Compound 8.00 

Canton Chemical Superior High Grade Fertilizer, S.00 

Detrick's Gold Basis 6.00 

Detrick's Special Trucker 7.00 

Detrick's Gold Eagle 6.00 

Detrick's Quickstep Bone and Potash S.00 

Detrick's Special Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Detrick's Vegetator Ammoniated Superphosphate, 8.00 

Detrick's Kangaroo Komplete Kompound 8.00 

Detrick's Royal Crop Grower 8.00 

Detrick's Fish Mixture 8.00 

Detrick's Victory Alkaline Bone 12.00 

Detrick's P. & B. Special 12.00 

Detrick's Soluble Bone Phosphate and Potash.. 10.00 

Detrick's XXtra Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Zell's 10 Per Cent Trucker 5.00 

Zell's 7 Per Cent Potato and Vegetable Manure, 6.00 

Zell's Truck Grower 7.00 

Zell's Special Compound for Potatoes and Vege- 
tables '. S.00 

Zell's Tobacco Fertilizer s.Oi > 

Zell's Bright Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Zell's .Royal High Grade Fertilizer 9.00 

Zell's Special Compound for Tobacco 8.00 

Zell's Calvert Guano 8.00 

Zell's Ammonia Bone Superphosphate b.00 

Zell's High Grade potash Fertilizer 10.00 





2.00 


. 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.06 


6.00 


2.47 


3.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 




5.00 




3.00 




2.00 


8.23 


3.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


, . 


4.00 



The Bulletin. 



19 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Zell's Reliance High Grade Manure 8.00 

Zell's Fish Guano 8.00 

Zell's Dissolved Bone Phosphate 14.00 

Zell's Electric Phosphate 10.00 

Bull Head Potato and Vegetable Manure G.00 

Enterprise Alkaline Phosphate 8.00 

Royal Alkaline Bone 10.00 

Palmetto Alkaline Phosphate 8.00 

Slingluff's Bright Mixture ; 8.00 

Pure Ground Bone Total 45.00 

Muriate of Potash , 

A. A. C. Co.'s 16 Per Cent Superphosphate 10.00 

Detrick's Superior Animal Bone Fertilizer 0.00 

Lazaretto Retriever Animal Bone Fertilizer. . . . 0.00 

Zell's Victoria Animal Bone Compound 0.00 

Canton Chemical Bone Fertilizer 0-00 

Canton Chemical Virginia Standard Manure .... 8.00 

Purity Guano— 2-8-2— for S. S. & Co 8.00 

A. D. Adair & McCarty Bros., Atlanta, Oa, — 

Adair's Wheat and Grass Grower 10.00 

Adair's Dissolved Bone * 12.00 

Adair's High Grade Dissolved Bone 14.00 

Adair's High Grade Dissolved Bone 16.00 

Adair's Formula 10.00 

Adair's Special Potash Mixture S.00 

Adair's Ammoniated Dissolved Bone 8.00 

Adair's High Grade Blood and Bone 10.00 

Adair's Soluble Pacific Guano 10.00 

McCarty's Cotton Special 10.00 

McCarty's Wheat Special 10.00 

McCarty's Corn Special 10.00 

McCarty's Soluble Bone 10.00 

McCarty's High Grade Corn Grower 10.00 

McCarty's High Grade Cotton Grower 10.00 

Planters' Soluble Fertilizer 8.00 

Blood, Bone and Tankage 0.00 

High Grade Potash Compound 10.00 

Golden Grain Compound 8.00 

A. & M. 13-4 13.00 

David Harum High Grade Guano 10.00 

Asheville Packing Co., Asheville, A 7 . C. — 

Asheville Packing Co.'s Bone and Potash 10.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 8-4 Fertilizer 8.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 8-1-3 Fertilizer 8.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 8-2-2 Fertilizer 8.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s Potato Grower 10.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 8-5-5 Special Garden Fer- 
tilizer S.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s High Grade Potato, 

8-2-10 8.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s Special Fruit Grower. . . 8.00 
Asheville Packing Co.'s 17 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 17.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 14 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 14.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 13 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 13.00 



itrogen. 
2.47 


Potash. 
3.00 


1.65 


2.00 




'2.00 


4.12 


7.00 




5.00 




4.00 




4.00 


2.06 


2.50 


3.29 


, . 




50.00 


i.86 


4.00 


1.86 


4.00 


1.86 


4.00 


1.86 


4.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 



4.00 





4.00 


1.05 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


.82 


3.00 


.82 


3.00 


.82 


3.00 


.82 


1.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1 .65 


2.00 


1.65 


2:00 


.82 


2.00 


, 


4.00 


.82 


3.00 


, 


4.00 


3.30 


4.00 




2.00 




4.00 


.82 


3.00 


1.70 


2.00 


• 


6.00 


4.25 


5.00 


1.70 


10.00 


1.70 


5.00 



20 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 12 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 

Asheville Packing Co.'s Blood and Bone 

Baugh & Sons Co., Phila., Pa., and Norfolk, Va — 

Baugh's 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Baugh's 5-6-5 Guano 

Baugh's New Process 10 Per Cent Guano 

Baugh's Fish Mixture , 

Baugh's Fertilizer for Wheat and Grass 

Baugh's Fish, Bone and Potash 

Baugh's Animal Bone and Potash Compound for 
All Crops 

Baugh's Complete Animal Bone Fertilizer 

Baugh's Peruvian Guano Substitute for Potatoes 
and All Vegetables 

Baugh's Grand Rapids High Grade Truck Guano. 

Baugh's Special Tobacco Guano 

Baugh's Fruit and Berry Guano 

Baugh's 7 Per Cent Potato Guano 

Baugh's Soluble Alkaline Superphosphate 

Baugh's Special Manure for Melons 

Baugh's Sweet Potato Guano 

Baugh's Potato and Truck Special 

Baugh's Special Potato Manure 

Baugh's Fine Ground Fish 

Baugh's Raw Bone Meal, Warranted Pure. Total 

Baugh's High Grade Acid Phosphate. 

Baugh's High Grade Tobacco Guano 

Baugh's High Grade Potash Mixture 

Baugh's High Grade Cotton and Truck Guano. . 

Baugh's Pure Animal Bone and Muriate of Pot- 
ash Mixture 

Baugh's Pure Dissolved Animal Bone 

Glover's Special Potato Guano 

. Fine Ground Blood 

Genuine German Kainit 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Muriate of Potash 

High Grade Sulphate of Potash. 

Baugh's Excelsior Guano 

Randolph's Bone and Potash Mixture for All 
Crops 

Nitrate of Soda 

The John L. Bailey Co., Elm City, N. C— 

Fairmont 

Stag Brand 



Avail. 
Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






12.00 






8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


16.00 






6.00 


4.12 


5.00 


5.00 


8.23 


2.50 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


5.00 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


5.00 


8.00 


2.47 


10.00 


6.00 


5.76 


5.00 


10.00 


. , 


2.00 


10.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


7.00 


2.88 


7.00 


5.00 


1.65 


10.00 


. , 


8.23 


, m 


21.50 


3.70 




14.00 


, . 


t t 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


10.00 


, . 


4.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


15.00 


2.47 


5.00 


13.00 


2.06 




7.00 


3.30 
13.00 

21.00 


8.00 
12.00 
48.00 




. . 


48.00 


8.00 


.82 


4.00 



10.00 



8.00 
8.00 



15.00 



2.47 
1.65 



3.00 



3.00 
2.00 



J. A. Benton, Ruffin, N. C. — 

North Carolina Bright Fertilizer 



9.00 



1.65 



2.00 



C. J. Burton Guano Co., Baltimore, Md. 

Acid Phosphate 

Burton's Butcher Bone 

Burton's High Grade 

Tobacco Queen 

High Grade Tobacco 

Burton's Best 



14.00 


. . 


, . 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


S.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 



The Bulletin. 



21 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Best d-Thompson, Goldsboro, N. C. — 

Pure German Kainit • • 12.00 



Blacksburg Guano Co., Inc., Blacksburg, Va. — 

Red Letter for Tobacco 

Jim Crow for Tobacco 

Alliance for Tobacco 

Red Letter 

Alliance Guano 

B. G. Co., Inc., Acid Pkospkate 

B. G. Co., Inc., Bone and Potasb 

Old Bellefonte • 

Red Warrior for Tobacco 

Blackstone Special for Tobacco 

Bellefonte for Tobacco 

Hard Cask for Tobacco 



Bradley Fertilizer Co., Charleston, 8. C. — 

Standard Bradley's Palmetto Acid Pkospkate.. 

Standard Bradley's XXX Acid Pkospkate 

Standard Bradley's Wkeat Grower 

Standard Bradley's Bone and Potask. 

Standard Bradley's Cereal Guano 

Standard Bradley's X Guano 

Higk Grade Bradley's Guano 

Higk Grade Bradley's Circle Guano 

Higk Grade Bradley's Acid Pkospkate 

Standard Bradley's Acid Pkospkate 

Standard Bradley's Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 

Standard Bradley's Patent Superpkospkate 

Standard B. D. Sea Fowl Guano 

Standard Eagle Ammoniated Bone Superpkos- 
pkate 

German Kainit 

The Berkley Chemical Co., Norfolk, Va. — 



Royal Truck Grower 

Mascot Truck Guano 

Victory Special Crop Grower 

Advance Crop Grower 

Berkley Tobacco Guano 

Monitor Animal Bone Fertilizer... 

Select Crop Grower 

Brandon Superpkospkate 

Berkley Plant Food 

Berkley Bone and Potask Mixture. 

Berkley Acid Pkospkate 

Superior Bone and Potask 

Laurel Potask Mixture 

Resolute Acid Pkospkate 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potask 

Nitrate of Soda 

Long Leaf Tobacco Grower 



Bragaw Fertilizer Co., Washington, A 7 . C. 
Ckocowinity Special Tobacco Guano., 

Tuckakoe Tobacco Guano 

Beaufort County Guano 



8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


14.00 


, 


. , 


10.00 


. 


2.00 


8.00 


3.30 


2.00 


9.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


12.00 






13.00 


, 


. . 


10.00 


, 


2.00 


10.00 




2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


14.00 


. 


. , 


12.00 


. 


, . 


9.00 


1.85 


1.00 


9.00 


1.85 


1.00 


9.00 


1.85 


1.00 


9.00 


1.85 


1.00 


• • * 




12.00 


6.00 


5.76 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


7.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


1.85 


4.00 


8.50 


2.06 


2.50 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


10.00 


, 


4.00 


11.00 


. 


2.00 


14.00 


. 


. . 


8.00 


, 


4.00 


10.00 


. 


2.00 


16.00 


" 


12.00 
50.00 




L5.65 


. . 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


5.00 


3.29 


6.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 



22 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. , Phos. 

Acid. 

Old Reliable Premium Guano 8.00 

Hanover Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Palmetto Acid Phospbate 14.00 

Long Acre Bone Pbospbate 14.00 

Pamlico Trucker 7.00 

Riverview Potato Grower 6.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Farmers' Union Meal Mixture 9.0Q 

Columbia Guano Co., Nor foil-, Va. — 

Columbia Higb Grade 16 Per Cent Acid Pbos- 
pbate 16.00 

Columbia 14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Columbia Dissolved Bone 13.00 

Columbia Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Columbia 8 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture S.OO 

Columbia 10 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture. . . 10.00 

Columbia Bone and Potash for Grain 10.00 

Columbia Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Columbia 7 Per Cent Special Truck Guano 7.00 

Columbia Special Truck Guano 8.00 

Columbia Potato Guano 7.00 

Columbia C. S. M. Special 9.00 

Columbia Special 4-8-3 8.00 

Columbia Special Wheat Fertilizer S.OO 

Columbia Special Tobacco Guano S.OO 

Olympia Cotton Guano 8.00 

Columbia Soluble Guano 8.00 

Crown Brand Peanut Guano 7.00 

Our Best Meal Guano 8.00 

Special Peanut. Grower 8.00 

Crews' Special .">."> 

Hayes' Special .• S.OO 

McRae's Special 9.00 

McRae's High Grade Guano 8.00 

Hyco Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Rex Brand Ammoniated Guano 9.00 

Carolina Soluble Guano 9.00 

Pelican Ammoniated Guano S.OO 

Sulphate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Trojan Tobacco Guano S.OO 

Columbia 10-5 Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


1.65 

2.47 


2.00 
3.00 


4.12 
5.76 

2.26 


'8.00 

5.00 

12.00 

■ 2.00 





4.00 




4.00 




3.00 




2.00 


5.77 


7.00 


2.30 


4.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.27 


2.00 


3.30 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


, , 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


.82 


4.00 


4.49 


10.00 


3.30 


3.00 


4.12 


7.00 


3.30 


7.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


1.00 


1.65 


1.00 


3.30 


4.00 


, . 


50.00 


. . 


12.00 




4S.0O 


L5.56 


, . 


3.30 


4.00 


. . 


5.00 



Cumberland Bone and Phosphate Co., Portland, Me., 
and Charleston, S. C. — 

Standard Cumberland Bone and Superphosphate 
of Lime 



9.00 



1.S5 



1.00 



The Coe-Hortimer Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Genuine Peruvian Guano Ex. S. S. Planet Venus, 15.00 
Genuine Peruvian Guano Ex. S. S. Celia Chincha 

Island 9.00 

Genuine Peruvian Guano Ex. S. % S. Celia Lobos 

Island 17.00 

Nitrate of Soda 

Kainit 



3.53 


2.S0 


5.53 


2.25 


2.S0 
14.76 


2.80 
12.00 



The Bulletin. 23 

Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Thomas' Phosphate Big Slag 17.00 

Sulphate of Potash .. 48.00 

Muriate of Potash . . 49.00 

Colder Bros., Wilmington, N. C. — 

Genuine German Kainit . . 12.00 

Muriate of Potash .. 50.00 

Craven Chemical Co., Neiv Bern, N. ('. — 

C. E. Foy High Grade Guano (Trade Mark) . . . 8.00 2.47 3.00 

Jewel Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Neuse Truck Grower G.OO 

Pantego Potato Guano 7.00 

Hanover Standard Guano S.00 

Elite Cotton Guano 8.00 

Marvel Great Truck Grower S.00 

Duplin Tobacco Guano S.00 

Gaston High Grade Fertilizer 8.00 

Trent Bone and Potash 10.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Craven Chemical Co.'s Truck Guano, 5-10-2% . . 5.00 

William H. Camp, Petersburg, Va. — 

Lion and Monkey Bone and Potash 10.00 

Camp's Red Head Chemicals 8.00 

Camp's Green Head Chemicals, Irish Potato 7.00 

Camp's Yellow Head Chemicals. S.00 

Lion and Monkey for Tobacco S.00 

Clayton Oil Mill, Clayton, N. C. — 

Clayton Guano S.00 

Cotton Queen 8.00 

Summer Queen 8.00 

Cowell, Swan & McCotter Co., Bayboro, N. C. — ■ 

Cowell, Swan & McCotter Co.'s Cabbage Guano, 5.00 
Cowell, Swan & McCotter Co.'s Tobacco Guano, 8.00 

Bone and Fish Guano 8.00 

Crop Guano S.00 

Rust Proof Cottou Guano 8.00 

Standard Cotton Grower 8.00 

Quick Grower Guano S.00 

Great Cabbage and Potato Guano 7.00 

Aurora Trucker 7.00 

Oriental Trucker 7.00 

High Grade Truck Guano 7.00 

Potato Favorite Guano 7.00 

Champion Guano 8.00 

Bone Phosphate 14.00 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

German Kainit 

Cowell's Great Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Combahee Fertiliser Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Combahee 16 Per Cent Dissolved Bone 16.00 

Combahee 14 Per cent Dissolved Bone 14.00 

High Grade Cotton 8.00 2.47 3.00 

High Grade Cantaloupe 10.00 2.47 10.00 



4.94 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


3.29 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


. 


2.00 


. 


12.00 


8.24 


2.50 




4.00 


2.25 


2.00 


6.15 


10.00 


2.87 


7.50 


2.46 


3.00 


3.00 


3.00 


2.00 


2.00 


2.00 


2.00 


8.25 


2.50 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


3.00 


3.30 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


5.77 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


4.12 


8.00 


4.12 


5.00 


3.30 


7.00 


2.47 


3.00 


• 


12.00 


2.47 


3.00 



24 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

B. B. & P 8.50 

Nitrate of Soda 

Cornbahee Kainit 

Malloy's Special for Cotton 8.65 

Special Mixture 8.00 

10-4-5 Trucker 10.00 

10-3-10 Trucker' 10.00 

Acid and Potash 8.00 

Chickamauga Fertiliser Works, Atlanta, Oa. — 

Chiekamauga Complete Fertilizer 8.00 

Chickamauga High Grade Fertilizer 10.00 

Chickamauga High Grade Plant Food. 10.00 

Chickamauga Wheat Special 10.00 

Chickamauga Corn Special 10.00 

Chickamauga Standard Corn Grower 8.00 

Chickamauga Dissolved Bone 12.00 

Chickamauga High Grade Dissolved Bone 14.00 

Chickamauga High Grade Dissolved Bone No. 16, 16.00 

Chickamauga Bone and Potash 10.00 

Chickamauga Alkaline Bone 10.00 

Georgia Home Guano 8.00 

Special Corn Compound 10.00 

Blood, Bone and Tankage 9.00 

Ben Hur High Grade Guano 10.00 

Old Glory Mixture 10.00 

Chickamauga Wheat and Corn Grower 10.00 



Nitrogen. Potash. 



2.06 
14.83 

1.65 
1.65 
3.30 

2.47 



1.65 
1.65 
1.65 
.82 
.82 
1.65 



1.65 
1.65 

.82 
2.47 

.82 



1.00 

12.00 
2.00 
2.00 
5.00 

10.00 
4.00 



2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
3.00 
3.00 
2.00 



2.00 
4.00 
2.00 
4.00 
2.00 
3.00 
1.00 
4.00 



Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertilizer Works, Raleigh, 

n. c— 

Home & Son's High Grade Bone and Potash .... 11.00 

Special Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Buncombe Wheat Grower 8.00 

Buncombe Corn Grower 8.00 

Morris & Scarboro's Special Bone and Potash.. 10.00 

Electric Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Climax Dissolved Bone 14.00 

Sterling Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Staple Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Bone Meal Total 20.00 

Bone Meal Total 26.00 

Crown Ammonia ted Guano 8.00 

Ely Ammoniated Fertilizer 8.00 

Eclipse Ammoniated Guano 8.00 

Planters' Pride 8.00 

Caraleigh Special Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Pacific Tobacco and Cotton Grower 9.00 

Home's Best 8.00 

Caraleigh Top Dresser 3.00 

Crow Fertiliser Co., Monroe, N. C. — 

Kainit 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 



15.65 
3.91 
2.14 
1.64 
1.64 
2.06 
2.06 
2.06 
2.26 
2.47 
8.24 



5.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
3.00 
2.00 



12.00 
50.00 
50.00 



2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
3.00 
3.00 
2.00 
3.00 
4.00 



12.00 



The Bulletin. 



25 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



W. B. Cooper, Wilmington, N. C. — 

Muriate of Potash 

Kainit 

Sulphate of Potash 

Contentnea Guano Co., Wilson, N. C. — 

Special Formula for Tobacco 

Special Formula for Cotton 

Contentnea Corn Special 

Davis' Best Fertilizer 

Special Formula for Tobacco 

Special Formula Fertilizer, 9-2y 2 -5 

Special Formula for Tobacco 

High Grade 14 Per Cent Acid 

Pick Leaf 

Top Notch 

Blood and Bone Cotton Compound 

C. P. Bey, Beaufort, N. C— 

Ground Fish Scrap 

Etiwan Fertilizer Co., Charleston, 8. C. — 

Plow Brand Ammoniated Fertilizer 8.00 

Plow Brand Special Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Plow Brand Acid Phosphate with Potash 11.00 

Etiwan Potash Bone 10.00 

Etiwan Special Potash Mixture 8.00 

Etiwan Soluble Bone with Potash 10.00 

Etiwan Acid Phosphate with Potash 11.00 

Etiwan Dissolved Bone 13.00 

Etiwan High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Etiwan Superior Cotton Fertilizer 8.00 

Etiwan Special Cotton Fertilizer 8.00 

Etiwan Cotton Compound S.00 

Etiwan Ammoniated Fertilizer S.00 

Etiwan High Grade Cotton Fertilizer 8.00 

Diamond Soluble Bone 13.00 

X Diamond Soluble Bone with Potash 10.00 

XX Acid Phosphate with Potash 10.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Etiwan Blood and Bone Guano 9.00 

Plow Brand Raw Bone Superphosphate 9.00 

Farmers Guano Co., Raleigh, N. C. — 

Farmers' Formula 7.00 

Special Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Century Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Farmers' Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Bone Meal Total 20.00 

Nitrate of Soda 

Bone Meal Total 26.00 

State Standard Guano 8.00 

Big Crop Guano 8.00 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 




46.00 
12.00 
4S.00 


8.00 


3.2S 


4.00 


8.00 


3.28 


4.00 


5.00 


1.04 


5.00 


8.00 


3.28 


6.00 


8.00 


2.05 


3.00 


9.00 


2.05 


5.00 


8.00 


3.28 


7.00 


14.00 


, . 


, , 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 



8.25 





1.65 


2.00 




4.00 






1.00 






4.00 






4.00 






3.00 






1.00 




3.30 


6.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


2.00 




2.00 


. , 


2.00 


. , 


12.00 


2.06 


1.00 


2.06 


1.00 


2.47 


3.25 






4.00 






2.00 






12.00 






50.00 






50.00 


3.91 


. t 


15.65 


. . 


2.14 


, , 


1.64 


2.00 




2.06 


3.00 



26 The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Toco Tobacco Guano . . 
Golden Grade Guano. . 
Farmers' Top Dresser. 



Fremont Oil Mills, Fremont, N. C. — 

Up-to-date 

Nahunta Special 

Fremont Prolific Fertilizer 

Yelverton Bros.' Plant Food... 
Fremont Standard Fertilizer . . . 
Home* Run Guano 



Farmers Cotton Oil Co., Wilson, N. C. — 

German Kainit 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Contentnea Acid Phosphate 

Bonum Acid Phosphate 

16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Xtra Good Bone and Potash 

Crop King Guauo 

Farmers' Special Guano 

Planters' Friend Guano 

Carolina Choice Tobacco Guano.... 

Wilson High Grade Guano 

J. D. Farrior's Special Guano 

Graves' Cotton Grower Guano 

Golden Gem Guano 

Regal Tobacco Guano 

Dean's Special Guano 

Perfect Top Dresser 

Wilson Top Dresser 

Washington's Corn Mixture Guauo. 



W. 8. Farmer & Co., Baltimore, Mil. — 

Kainit 

W. S. F. & Co.'s Dis. South Carolina. 

W. S. F. & Co.'s Fish Mixture 

W. S. F. & Co.'s Hawk Eye 

W. S. F. & Co.'s Tampico 

Anne Arundel Trucker 



Avail. 






Phos. ; 


Nitrogen. 


Potash, 


Acid. 






8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


3.00 


8.24 


4.00 


8.00 


1.05 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


• 2.26 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 






12.00 


• • 


20.57 


50.00 
50.00 




15.63 


* 


13.00 




. , 


14.00 




. . 


16.00 


. . 


. . 


10.00 


, , 


2.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


S.00 


2.27 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.88 


5.00 


8.00 


3.70 


7.00 


2.00 


8.23 


5.00 


2.00 


0.05 


4.00 


10.00 


.82 


5.00 
12.00 


14.00 


. , 


. . 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


2.47 


3.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


8.00 


3.70 


7.00 



Germofert Manufacturing Co., Charleston, 8. C. — 

Germofert Patented Vegetable Fertilizer, Total, 25.00 3.29 6.00 

Grace & Co., New York — 

Nitrate of Soda : 15.00 

Griffith & Boyd Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Spring Crop Grower 6.50 1.65 4.50 

Ammoniated Bone and Potash 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Home Fertilizer and Chemical Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Sulphate of Potash . . 48.00 

Muriate of Potash .. 50.00 

Nitrate of Soda 15.67 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Sulphate of Ammonia 

German Kainit 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Boykins' Alkaline Bone. 

Boykins' Cereal Fertilizer 

Boykins' Dissolved Animal Bone. 
Boykins' Vegetable Fertilizer.... 
Boykins' Home Potato Grower . . . 

Special Alkaline Mixture 

Phoenix Crop Grower 

Matchless Guano 

Home Fertilizer 



Hadley, Harriss & Co., Wilson, N. C. — 

Hadley Bros 

German Kainit 

Daisy Fish Mixture 

John Hadley Special High Grade Plant Food. 

Top Dressing 

Golden Weed Tobacco Grower 



8. B. Harrell & Co., Norfolk, Va.— 

Harrell's Acid Phosphate : . . . 

Harrell's Champion Cotton and Peanut Grower, 
Harrell's Truck Guano 



Hardison & Co., Wadesboro, N. C. — 
Genuine German Kainit 



Hampton Guano Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Virginia Truck Grower 

Reliance Truck Guano 

Little's Favorite Crop Grower 

P. P. P. (Princess Prolific Producer) 

Hampton Tobacco Guano 

Arlington Animal Bone Fertilizer. . . . 

Alpha Crop Grower 

Shirley's Superphosphate 

Hampton Crop Grower 

Hampton Bone and Potash Mixture. 

Dauntless Potash Mixture 

Hampton Acid Phosphate 

Supreme Acid Phosphate 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Genuine German Kainit 

Excelsior Bone and Potash 

Extra Tobacco Guano 



M. P. Hubbard & Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Hubbard's Bermuda Guano 

Hubbard's Special Cotton and Corn Fertilizer 

Hall cG Pear sail (Inc.), Wilmington, N. C. — 

German Kainit 



The Imperial Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Imperial Bright Tobacco Guano. 
Imperial Cotton Grower 







27 


Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 


20.62 


12.00 


14.00 


, , 


. , 


10.00 


. . 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


12.00 


1.65 


2.00 


6.00 


4.12 


6.00 


6.00 


3.30 


4.00 


10.00 


. . 


5.00 


S.00 


2.48 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


4.00 




5.77 


7.00 


8.00 


2.25 


2.50 


. . 


. , 


12.00 


8.00 


1.64 


2.00 


S.00 


1.64 


2.00 




7.38 


6.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


14.00 






S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


6.00 


5.76 


5.00 



12.00 



6.00 


5.76 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


7.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


1.85 


4.00 


8.50 


2.06 


2.50 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


10.00 


, , 


4.00 


11.00 


. . 


2.00 


10.00 


. . 


2.00 


14.00 


. . 




16.00 




50.00 




15.65 


12.00 


8.00 


. , 


4.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


7.00 


5.74 


7.00 


7.00 


1.64 


5.00 



8.00 
8.00 



2.05 
1.65 



12.00 



3.00 
2.00 



28 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Imperial 5-6-7 Potato Guano 6.00 

Imperial Snowflake Cotton Grower 8.00 

Imperial Peanut and Corn Guano 8.00 

Imperial Champion Guano 8.00 

Imperial X. L. O. Cotton Guano 8.00 

Imperial Cisco Soluble Guano 8.00 

Imperial Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Imperial Laugkinghouse Special Tobacco Guano, 4.00 

Imperial Standard Premium 8.00 

Imperial Cubanola Tobacco Guano 4.00 

Imperial Martin County Special Crop Grower.. 9.00 

Imperial High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Imperial Genuine German Kainit 

Imperial Special 7 Per Cent Guano for Potatoes, 5.00 

Imperial 10 Per Cent Guano 5.00 

Imperial Sweet Potato Guano 6.00 

Imperial Williams' Special Potato Guano , 6.00 

Imperial Fish and Bone 6.00 

Imperial Lucky Strike Potato Guano 7.00 

Imperial 7-7-7 Potash Guano 7.00 

Imperial Bone and Potash 10.00 

Imperial High Grade Irish Potato Guano 7.00 

Imperial Tennessee Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Imperial Roanoke Crop Grower 7.00 

17 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 17.00 

Imperial Asparagus Mixture 6.00 

Imperial Yellow Bark Sweet Potato Guano 8.00 

Dawson's Cotton Grower 7.00 

Imperial 6-6-6 Crop Grower 6.00 

John King, Mt. Olive, N. C. — 

Nitrate of Soda 

Laurinburg Oil Co., Laurinburg, N. C. — 

Flora Dora 6.40 

Lister's Agricultural Chemical Works, Newark, N. J. — 

Lister's Ammoniated Dissolved Bone Phosphate. S.00 

Lister's Success Fertilizer 8.00 

Lister's Standard Pure Bone Superphosphate of 

Lime 9:00 

American Agricultural Chemical Co.'s Buyers' 

Choice Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Lister's Bone Meal Total 20.60 

A. S. Lee & Sons Co. (Inc.), Richmond, Ya. — 

Lee's Plant Bed Fertilizer 8.00 

Lee's Bone and Potash 9.00 

Lee's Corn Fertilizer 10.00 

The J. J. Little john Co., Jonesville, S. C. — 

Littlejohn's Superior Cotton Fertilizer 10.00 

E. H. & J. A. Meadows Co., New Bern, N. C. — 

Hookerton Cotton Guano 8.00 

Meadows' Cotton Guano 8.00 

Meadows' All Crop Guano 8.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


4.11 


7.00 


3.29 


4.00 


1.64 


2.00 


1.64 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.64 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


3.29 


6.00 


1.64 


2.00 


2.47 


5.00 


2.26 


2.00 




12.00 


5.76 


5.00 


8.23 


2.50 


1.64 


6.00 


4.11 


5.00 


3.29 


4.00 


4.11 


8.00 


5.76 


7.00 


. . 


2.00 


4.11 


8.00 




50.00 


15.63 


. , 


2.47 


2.00 


4.11 


7.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.67 


2.75 


4.92 


7.00 



15.00 



2.13 



1.6.1 



3.00 



2.06 
1.65 


2.00 
2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


3.30 




2.00 


2.00 
4.00 
2.00 



3.00 



1.64 


2.00 


1.64 


2.00 


2.05 


2.50 



The Bulletin. 



29 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Meadows' Roanoke Guano 

Meadows' Gold Leaf Tobacco Guano 

Meadows' Lobos Guano 

Meadows' Great Potato Guano 

Meadows' Great Cabbage Guano 

Meadows' 10 Per Cent Guano 

Meadows' Sea Bird Guano 

Meadows' Dissolved Bone and Potash Compound, 

Meadows' German Kainit 

Meadows' Diamond Acid Phosphate 

Dixon's High Grade Tobacco Guano 

Parker's Special Tobacco Guano 

Meadows' Dissolved Bone and Potash Compound, 
Brooks' Special Tobacco Grower 

The Miller Fertilizer Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Special Tobacco Grower 

Standard Phosphate 

Ammoniated Dissolved Boue 

High Grade Potato 

Tobacco King 

Profit 

Standard Potato 

Potato and Vegetable Guano 

Trucker 

Farmers' Profit 

Harrnony 

Corn and Peanut Grower 

No. 1 Potato and Vegetable Grower 

Clinch 

4 Per Cent Tobacco 

Miller's 7 Per Cent 

• Miller's Irish Potato 

Miller's 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Kainit 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

S. C. Rock 14.00 

The Miller Fertilizer Co.'s 10 and 4 Per Cent. . . 10.00 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






8.00 


2.05 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


4.11 


5.00 


7.00 


4.11 


8.00 


7.00 


5.76 


7.00 


6.00 


S.23 


2.50 


9.00 


3.29 


2.50 


10.00 


, , 


2.00 


, # 


# , 


12.00 


14.00 


. . 


, . 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


4.00 


10.00 


. , 


5.00 


8.00 


2.47 


5.00 


8.00 


1.65 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


4.00 


8.00 


4.12 


5.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.00 


3.00 


10.50 


t . 


2.25 


8.00 


3.71 


7.00 


10.00 


, . 


2.00 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


S.00 


3.29 


4.00 



12.00 



4.00 



The Mapes Formula and Peruvian Guano Co., 143 
Liberty Street, New York — 

Mapes' Economical Potato Manure 4.00 

Mapes' Vegetable or Complete Manure for Light 

Soils 6.00 

Mapes' Corn Manure 8.00 

Mapes' Complete Manure, "A" Brand 10.00 

C. F. Moore, Cheraw, 8. C. — 

Muriate of Potash 

John F. McNair, Laurinburg, N. C. — 

Genuine German Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 

D. B. Martin Co., Richmond, Va. — 

Martin's 7 Per Cent Guano 6.00 

Martin's Early Truck and Vegetable Grower 6.00 

Martin's Claremount Vegetable Grower 7.00 



3.29 



14.76 



S.00 



4.94 


6.00 


2.47 


6.00 


2.47 


2.50 



49.00 



12.00 



5.74 


5.00 


3.28 


8.00 


2.46 


5.00 



30 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Martin's Red Star Brand 

Martin's Bull Head Fertilizer 

Martin's Tobacco Special 

Martin's Carolina Cotton Fertilizer 

Martin's Old Virginia Favorite 

Martin's Corn and Cereal Special 

Martin's Gilt Edge Potato Manure 

Martin's Animal Bone Potato Guano 

Martin's Animal Bone Potato Compound 

Martin's Pure Dissolved Animal Bone 

Martin's Pure Ground Bone Total 

Martin's Raw Bone Meal Total 

Martin's Animal Tankage, Ground Total 

Martin's Acid Phosphate 

Martin's Potash and Soluble Bone 

Martin's High Grade Blood 

Martin's Blood 

Acid Phosphate 

Potash and Soluble Bone 

Potash and Soluble Bone 

Potash and Soluble Bone 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Blood 

Blood 

Blood 

Genuine German Kainit 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Pure Ground Bone Total 



Marietta Fertilizer Co., Atlanta, Ga. — 

Lion Power Guano 

Lion Potash Compound 

Lion High Grade Dissolved Bone. 

Lion Crop Producer 

Favorite Guano 



Lion 



Marsh-Lee & Co., Marshville, X. C. — 

Marsh's High Grade Acid 

Marsh's Cotton Fertilizer, 8-2-2. 

Marsh's Guano for Corn 

Marsh's Special S-3-3 



Raven Brand 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






8.00 


3.2S 


4.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


7.00 


2.46 


10.00 


G.00 


4.10 


7.00 


16.00 


1.65 


2.50 


12.00 


1.65 


2.00 


22.90 


1.65 


2.00 


21.00 


3.69 


. . 


10.00 


4.92 


. , 


16.00 




. . 


12.00 


. , 


5.00 


, t 


13.94 


. . 


. . 


12.30 


. , 


14.00 


, , 


. . 


12.00 


. . 


3.00 


.10.00 


# ', 


5.00 


10.00 


15.52 


2.00 




, 


20.50 


. . 




, 


10.66 


. . 




g 


9.84 


. . 




, 


12.30 






• 




12.00 
50.00 




, 


. , 


50.00 


22.90 


2.46 




10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


, . 


4.00 


14.00 


. , 


, . 


10.00 


. . 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


14.00 






S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.50 


3.00 




8.00 


2.65 


2.00 



J. W. McLaughlin Co., Raeford, N. C. 
Nitrate of Soda 



15.00 



The MacMurphy Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Special 8-3-3 Guano 

Special 8-2-2 Cotton and Corn Guano 

Cotton and Corn Guano, 9-2-2 

Wilcox & Gibbs Co.'s Manipulated Guano. 

Cotton and Corn Guano, 9-3-3 

High Grade Acid Phosphate, 14 Per Cent. 

Pure German Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 

Muriate of Potash 

Acid Phosphate, 13 Per Cent 



8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


9.00 


2.47 


3.00 


14.00 


. *. 


, , 



13.00 



14.S2 



12.00 
48.00 



The Bulletin. 



31 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

N. C. Cotton Oil Co., Wilmington, N. C— 

Wilmington High Grade 

Wilmington Cotton Grower 

Wilmington Standard 

Wilmington Truck Grower 

Wilmington Special 

Carter's Lifter 

Clark's Special 

Wilmington Banner 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


2.50 


8.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


3.00 



North Carolina Cotton Oil Co., Raleigh, N. C— 
Raleigh Standard Guano 



8.00 



Ar/f Bern Cotton Oil and Fertilizer Mills, New Bern, 
N. C— , 

Oriole Tobacco Grower 

Greene County Standard Fertilizer 

Jones County Premium Crop Grower 

Onslow Farmers' Reliance Guano 

High Grade Fertilizer 

Foy's High Grade Fertilizer 

Pitt's Prolific Golden Tobacco Grower 

Craven Cotton Guano 

Lenoir Bright Leaf Tobacco Grower 

Ives' Irish Potato Guano 

Dunn's Standard Truck Grower 

Pamlico Electric Top Dresser 

Special Corn and Peanut Grower 

Carteret Bone and Potash 

14 Per Cent Acid Phospha te 

Genuine German Kainit 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Bogue Fish Scrap 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Favorite Cotton Grower C. S. M 



Norfolk Fertiliser Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Oriana Cotton Guano 

Oriana C. S. M. Special 

Oriana Tobacco Guano 

Oriana 3-8-3 for Cotton 

Oriana Crop Grower 

Oriana Bone and Potash 

Oriana. 14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Oriana 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Genuine German Kainit 

Iola Acid Phosphate 

Oriana First Step Tobacco Guano 

Oriana 4-4-6 High Grade Tobacco Guano. 
Pine Top Special Crop Grower 



Navassa Guano Co., Wilmington, N. C. — 
Ammoniated Soluble Navassa Guano. 

Clarendon Tobacco Guano 

Occoneechee Tobacco Guano 

Coree Tobacco Guano 

Harvest King Guano 



2.26 



2.00 



8.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


■ 3.00 


S.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


7.00 


4.13 


7.00 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


5.00 


8.25 


2.50 


11.00 




2.00 


10.00 


. 


2.00 


14.00 


• 


12.00 
50.00 
48.00 




7.42 


. . 


] 


L5.67 


. . 


. . i 


>0.62 


. . 


8.00 


2.27 


2.00 


8.00 


1.64 


2.00 


9.00 


2.2b 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.64 


3.00 


10.00 


. . 


2.00 


14.00 


. . 


. . 


16.00 




12.00 


13.00 




. , 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


4.00 


3.29 


6.00 


5.00 


1.64 


6.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


3.00 



32 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Mogul Guano 

Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Orton Guano 

Navassa Universal Fertilizer 

Navassa Wheat Mixture 

Navassa Wheat and Grass Grower 

Navassa Special Wheat Mixture 

Navassa Gray Land Mixture 

Navassa Dissolved Bone with Potash 

Navassa Acid Phosphate 

Navassa Dissolved Bone • 

Navassa Acid Phosphate 

Navassa Acid Phosphate 

Navassa Special Trucker 

Navassa Strawberry Top Dressing 

Navassa Blood and Bone Meal Mixture 

Navassa Creole Guano 

Navassa Root Crop Fertilizer 

Navassa Carib Guano 

Navassa Guano for Tobacco 

Navassa Grain Fertilizer 

Navassa Fruit Growers' Fertilizer 

Navassa Cotton Seed Meal Special 3 Per Cent 

Guano 

Navassa Cotton Seed Meal Guano 

Navassa Cotton Fertilizer 

Navassa Complete Fertilizer 

Navassa High Grade Guano 

Navassa Acid Phosphate with Potash 



Avail. 






Phos. Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






S.00 


2.06 


3.00 


• • • 


. 


12.00 




• 


48.00 
50.00 


15.65 


. . 


20.59 


. . 


8.00 


2.47 


4.00 


8.50 


2.06 


1.00 


10.00 




2.25 


10.00 




4.00 


12.00 




4.00 


12.00 




4.00 


10.00 




2.00 


12.00 




, , 


13.00 




. . 


14.00 , . 




. . 


16.00 




. . 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


2.06 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


5.00 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


8.00 


2.47 


10.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


6.00 


8.00 


2.47 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


1.65 


1.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


. 


4.00 



The Nitrate Agencies Co., Savannah, Ga. 
Nitrate of Soda 



15.00 



O. Ober & /Sons Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Ober's Complete Fertilizer 

Special High Grade Fertilizer 

Ober's Special Compound for Tobacco 

Ober's Standard Tobacco Fertilizer 

Ober's Special Ammonia ted Dissolved Bone 

Ober's Special Cotton Compound 

Ober's Soluble Ammoniated Superphosphate of 

Lime 

Ober's Farmers' Mixture 

Ober's Dissolved Bone, Phosphate and Potash . . . 

Ober's Acid Phosphate with Potash 

Ober's Standard Potash Compound 

Ober's High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Ober's Dissolved Bone Phosphate 

Nitrate of Soda 

Muriate of Potash 

Kainit 

Cooper's Pungo Guano 

Pure Raw Bone Meal Total 



6.00 


4.12 


6.00 


9.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


.82 


2.00 


10.00 


, , 


2.00 


8.00 


. . 


2.00 


12.00 


, # 


5.00 


16.00 


, ( 


, . 


14.00 


, , 


. . 


. . 


15.50 


. . 


. . 


, . 


48.00 


, , 


. , 


12.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


21.00 


. . 


3.71 



The Bulletin. 



33 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash 

The Pocomoke Guano Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Garrett's Grape Grower : 8.00 

Coast Line Truck Guano o.UU 

Freeman's 7 Per Cent Irish Potato Grower 6.00 

Seaboard Popular Trucker 6.00 

Standard Truck Guano ™0 

Faultless Aminoniated Superphosphate 7.00 

Harvest High Grade Monarch 800 

Monarch Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Monticello Animal Bone Fertilizer. J-00 

Cinco Tobacco Guano 8.50 , 

Crescent Complete Compound 8.00 

Hornthal's Tobacco Guano 8.00 

L. P. II. Premium . °-00 

Electric Crop Grower 8.o0 

' Pamlico Superphosphate 8.00 

Pocomoke Superphosphate °.5U 

Pocomoke Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Pure Ground Bone Total 20.00 

10-2 Potash Mixture JU-JJJ 

Alkali Bone iJ-JJJ 

Peerless Acid Phosphate 1* -^ 

Superb Acid Phosphate lb - w 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda ; • • • • • 

Pocomoke Defiance Bone and Potash s.oo 

Smith's Special Formula 4u0 

Pamlico Chemical Co., Washington, N. C— 

Pamlico Favorite Guano £-00 

Pamlico Bone and Fish Guano 8.00 

Pamlico Potato Guano ™0 

Pamlico Cotton Guano 8.00 

Pamlico 7-7-7 Guano ™0 

Pamlico 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 10.00 

Pamlico Bone and Potash 14-00 

Cowell's Great Potato Grower 8-00 

Cowell's Great Cabbage Grower 5.00 

Tobacco Growers' Friend 8.00 

Genuine German Kainit • 

Faimers' Best Guano 8.00 

Farmers' Friend 8.00 

Staton & Taylor's Special Grower 800 

Prosperity Cotton Grower J-00 

Pamlico High Grade Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Pamlico 8-4-4 Guano 8.00 

Pamlico 6-3-6 Guano 6.00 

Pamlico Bone and Potash 1000 

Planters Fertiliser and Phosphate Co., Charleston, 
S. 0.— 

Planters' BrigUt Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Planters' High Grade Cabbage Fertilizer <.00 

Planters' Fertilizer 8.00 

Planters' Soluble Guano 8.00 

Planters' Standard Guano 8.75 

Nitrate of Soda • • 

Planters' High Grade Acid Phosphate \ 14.00 

Planters' Standard Fertilizer 8.00 



3.29 


10.00 


S.23 


3.00 


5.76 


5.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.85 


4.00 


2.00 


2.50 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 




4.00 


3.70 


. , 




2.00 




2.00 




12.00 




50.00 


15.65 


. . 




4.00 


3.30 


6.00 


4.12 


5.00 


1.65 


2.00 


4.12 


7.00 


1.65 


2.00 


5.77 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


8.25 


2.50 


2.47 


3.00 




12.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.47 


5.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.45 


6.00 




2.00 


3.90 


4.00 


6.59 


5.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


14.83 


, . 



1.65 



2.00 



34 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Planters' Soluble Bone. . . 

Sulphate of Potash 

Planters' German Kainit 



Parsons & Hardison, Wadesooro, X. C. — 
Nitrate of Soda 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

13.00 

48.00 
12.00 



14.85 



Z. V. Pate, Laurel Hill, N. C— 
Nitrate of Soda 



Pearsall & Co., Wilmington, N. C- 
Kainit 



Pacific Guano Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Standard Soluble Pacific Guano.. 
Standard Pacific Acid Phosphate. 
High Grade Pacific Fertilizer 



Poichatan Chemical Co., Richmond, Va. — 

Powhatan Trucker 

Powhatan Bone and Potash Mixture 

Powhatan Acid Phosphate 

Magic Dissolved Bone Phosphate 

Magic Peanut Grower 

Magic Grain and Grass Grower 

Magic Bone and Potash Mixture 

Magic Mixture 

Magic Cotton Grower 

Magic Special Fertilizer 

Magic Tobacco Grower 

. King Brand Fertilizer 

White Leaf Tobacco Fertilizer 

Economic Cotton Grower 

North State Special : 

Guilford Special 

Pure Raw Bone Meal Total 

Bone and Potash Mixture 

Bone Meal Total 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Pure German Kainit 

Virginia Dissolved Bone 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Uneeda Acid Phosphate 

P. C. Co.'s Hustle 

Magic Corn Grower 

Magic Wheat Grower 

Johnson's Best Fertilizer 

Holt's Magic Fertilizer 

Magic Peanut Specia'l 

Bone Mixture 

Magic Crop Grower 

Patapsco Guano Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Patapsco Plant Food for Tobacco, Potatoes and 

Truck 

Patapsco Soluble Bone and Potash 



14.70 



12.00 



8.50 


1.65 


2.00 


12.00 


. 


. . 


S.OO 


2.46 


3.00 


7.00 


4.04 


5.00 


8.00 




4.00 


13.00 




. . 


16.00 




. . 


8.00 




■4.00 


8.00 




4.00 


10.00 




4.00 


9.00 


1.65 


1.00 


S.OO 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.OO 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


S.OO 


3.29 


4.00 


9.00 


2.47 


6.00 


20.00 


3.29 


. , 


10.00 




2.00 


25.00 


2.47 


. , 


15.63 


. . 


19.75 


. . 






48.00 






50.00 






12.00 


12.00 




. . 


14.00 




. . 


15.00 




, . 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


10.00 


.82 


1.00 


9.00 


.82 


2.00 


9.00 


2.06 


5.00 


9.00 


2.06 


5.00 


S.OO 


.82 


4.00 


10.00 


.82 


1.00 


10.00 


.82 


1.00 


8.00 


2.47 


5.00 


10.00 


. 


2.00 



The Bulletin. 



35 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Patapsco High Grade Bone and Potash 11.00 

Patapsco 10 and 4 Potash Mixture 10.00 

Patapsco 7-7-7 Truck Guano 7.00 

Patapsco Potato Guano 6.00 

Patapsco Top Dresser 4.00 

Patapsco Trucker for Early Vegetables 7.00 

Patapsco Tobacco Fertilizer 9.00 

Patapsco Guano for Tobacco 9.25 

Patapsco Guano 9.25 

Patapsco Special Tobacco Mixture S.00 

Patapsco Fine Ground Bone Total 20.61 

Patapsco Dissolved S. C. Phosphate 14.00 

Coon Brand Guano 9.00 

Choctaw Guano 8.00 

Planters' Favorite 8.00 

Seagull Ammoniated Guano 8.00 

Money Maker Guano 7.00 

Unicorn Guano 8.00 

Baltimore Soluble Phosphate 11.00 

Florida Soluble Phosphate 16.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 

Muriate of Potash 

Ground Fish 

Swanson's Gold Leaf Special 8.00 

Pocahontas Guano Co., Lynchburg, Va. — 

Imperial Dissolved S. C. Phosphate 14.00 

Carrington's Superior Grain Compound 10.00 

Wabash Wheat Mixture 10.00 

Cherokee Grain Special 8.00 

Farmers' Favorite Guano, Apex Brand 8.00 

Blackhawk Brand 8.00 

Spot Cash Tobacco Compound 8.00 

Yellow Tobacco Special 9.00 

High Grade 4 Per Cent Tobacco Compound, Mo- 
hawk King Brand 9.00 

Standard Tobacco Guano, Old Chief Brand 9.00 

Pocahontas Special Tobacco Fertilizer 9.00 

A. A. Complete Champion Brand 8.00 

Special Truck Grower, Eagle Mount Brand S.00 

Indian Truck Grower 8.00 

Pure Raw Bone Meal Total 22.00 

Carrington's S. C. Phosphate, Waukesha Brand. 16.00 

Carrington's Banner Brand Guano 8.00 

Indian Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Piedmont-Alt. Airy Guano Co., Baltimore, Mel. — 

Piedmont Cultivator Brand 8.00 

Piedmont Bone and Peruvian Mixture 8.00 

Piedmont Special Truck Fertilizer 6.00 

Piedmont Early Vegetable Manure 6.00 

Piedmont A'egetable Compound 6.00 

Piedmont Essential Tobacco Compound 9.00 

Piedmont Guano for Tobacco 8.00 

Piedmont High Grade Ammoniated Bone and 

Potash 8.00 

Piedmont High Grade S. C. Bone Phosphate.. 14.00 

Levering's Potashed Bone 10.00 



itrogen. 


Potash. 




5.00 




4.00 


5.77 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


3.30 


4.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 


3.30 




".83 


*3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.05 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


3.70 


6.00 


2.06 


3.00 




2.00 




12.00 


15.64 


. . 




50.00 


8.23 


, , 


2.06 


2.00 



t 


2.00 


t 


4.00 


,. 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.85 


4.00 


1.65 • 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


.82 


3.00 


2.06 


6.00 


3.30 


4.00 


3.71 




1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


5.77 


5.00 


4.12 


7.00 


3.30 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 



2.41 



3.00 
4.00 



36 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Levering' s Reliable Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Piedmont Special Potato Guano 6.00 

Piedmont Red Leaf Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Piedmont Guano for Cotton 9.00 

Piedmont Early Trucker 6.00 

Piedmont Potato Producer 5.00 

Piedmont Farmers' Standard 9.00 

Piedmont Guano for Wbeat 9.00 

Piedmont Special for Cotton, Corn and Peanuts, 8.00 

Piedmont Special Farmers' Tobacco Guano 8.40 

Piedmont Farmers' Bone and Potasb 10.00 

Piedmont Higb Grade Guano for Cotton 8.00 

Haynes' Cultivator Guano 8.00 

Piedmont Farmers' Favorite 8.00 

Piedmont Farmers' Cotton Grower 9.00 

German Kainit 

Piedmont Star Bone and Potash S.00 

Piedmont Unexcelled Guano 8.00 

Piedmont Bone Meal Total 21.00 

Ricks Bros.' Special Potato and Truck Guano.. 6.00 

Kaiser & Mauney's Special 2-8-2 Guano 8.00 

Kaiser & Mauney's Special 3-8-3 Guano 8.00 

Privott's 3-8-4 Guano 8.00 

Piedmont Guano for All Crops 8.00 

Piedmont Vegetable Manure 6.00 

Nitrate of Soda 

Privott's Standard Guano 8.00 

Privott's Special Guano 8.00 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

The Quinnepiac Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Standard Quinnepiac Pine Island Ammoniated 

Superphosphate 9.00 

Standard Quinnepiac Acid Phosphate 13.00 

F. S. Royster Guano Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Farmers' Own Fertilizer 8.00 

Bonanza Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Orinoco Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Special Tobacco Compound 8.00 

Cobb's High Grade for Tobacco 8.00 

Humphrey's Special for Tobacco 6.00 

Eagle's Special Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Royal Potato Guano 7.00 

Royal Special Potato Guano 7.00 

Ballentine's Potato Guano 6.00 

Truckers' Delight 8.00 

Special Compound 9.00 

Tomlinson's Special 9.00 

Williams' Special Guano 8.00 

Magic Top Dresser 

Royster's Special Sweet Potato Guano 8.00 

Royster's Potato Guano 5.00 

Royster's Special 7 Per Cent Truck Guano 7.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


2.47 


3.00 


4.94 


7.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


1.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


6.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


1.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


4.00 


. . 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


.82 


4.00 


.82 


3.00 


. . 


12.00 




5.00 


3.29 


4.00 


3.30 


t t 


4.12 


7.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.06 


3.00 


3.29 


8.00 


15.23 




2.06 


3.00 


1.65 


6.00 


. , 


48.00 


. . 


50.00 



•_'( I.5.S 



1.S5 



1.00 



, 


50.00 


# 


48.00 


, 


12.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


3.30 


5.00 


2.55 


3.20 


2.47 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


4.12 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


3.30 


4.00 


1.65 


1.00 


2.47 


5.00 


2.06 


5.00 


7.42 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


4.94 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 



The Bulletin. 



37 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 

Royster's 



Early Truck Guano 

Special 10 Per Cent Truck Guano 

Special 4-8-3 

4-9-5 Special 

Special 1-9-2 Guano 

2-6-5 Special 

Meal Mixture 

Special Wheat Fertilizer 

H. G. 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate. . . 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Dissolved Bone 

XX Acid Phosphate 

Bone and Potash Mixture 

Bone and Potash Mixture 

Bone and Potash for Grain 

8 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture 

Peanut Special 

Complete Guano 

10 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture. . . 

Best Guano 

Harvey's Cabbage Guano 

Marlborough High Grade Cotton Gu- 



ano 

Nitrate of Soda 

Jumbo Peanut Grower 

Watkins' Special 

Haynes' Special • 

Pure Raw Bone Meal Total 

Milo Tobacco Guano 

Royster's Soluble Guano 

McDowell's Cotton Grower 

Royster's 4-6-4 Special 

Webb's Korn King 

J. H. Roberson & Co., Robersonville, N. C— 



Roberson's Potato 

Roberson's Cotton 

Roberson's Special 

Roberson's Bright 

Roberson's 

Genuine German Kainit. 



Guano 

Grower 

Potato Grower 
Leaf Grower. 



Avail. 






Phos. Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






7.00 


4.12 


8.00 


5.00 


8.24 


3.00 


8.00 


3.30 


3.00 


9.00 


3.30 


5.00 


9.00 


.82 


2.00 


6.00 


1.65 


5.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


16.00 


. 


. . 


14.00 


. 




13.00 




. . 


12.00 




. . 


11.00 


, 


5.00 


10.00 


, 


2.00 


10.00 


. 


3.00 


8.00 




4.00 


7.00 




5.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


10.00 


, , 


4.00 


8.00 


3.71 


7.00 


5.00 


6.59 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 
15.66 


3.00 


8.00 


.82 


4.00 


9.00 


2.06 


5.00 


9.00 


2.06 


3.00 


21.50 


3.70 


. . 


8.00 


3.30 


4.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


6.00 


2.30 


2.50 


6.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


6.00 


5.77 


5.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 



High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 



6.00 



Richmond Guano Co., Richmond, Va — 

10 Per Cent Cabbage Guano 

Special High Grade for Truck < 00 

Southern Trucker 8.00 

Perfection Special °-^ 

Gilt Edge Fertilizer jJ-JJJ 

Carolina Cotton Grower J-W 

Carolina Bright Special Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Tip Top Fertilizer S.00 

Special Premium Brand for Tobacco S-00 

Special Premium Brand for Plants 8.00 

Carolina Bright for Cotton 8.00 

Benson's Special Fertilizer 

Parker & Hunter's Special Fertilizer 

Premium Tobacco Fertilizer 

Premium Brand Fertilizer 

Bone Mixture 



8.00 
8.00 
8.00 
9.00 



8.23 

4.94 

4.11 

3.29 

2.47 

2.26 

2.26 

2.06 

1.85 

1.85 

2.06 

1.65 

1.65 

1.65 

1.65 

1.65 



12.00 



2.00 

5.00 

5.00 

4.00 

3.00 

2.00 

2.50 

3.00 

2.25 

2.25 

1.50 

6.00 

2.00 

2.00 

2.00 

1.00 



38 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Clark's Special Formula 

Carter's Special for Tobacco 

Saunder's Special Formula for Bright Tobacco, 

Burtou's Special Tobacco Fertilizer 

Hunter & Dunn's Special Ammoniated Fertilizer, 

Hunter & Dunn's Ammoniated Fertilizer 

Edgecombe Cotton Grower 

Premium Bone and Potash Mixture 

Rex Bone and Potash Mixture 

Tip Top Bone and Potash Mixture 

Winter Grain and Grass Grower 

Premium Peanut Grower 

Bone and Potash Mixture 

Rex Dissolved Bone Phosphate 

Regal Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Wheat and Grass Fertilizer 

Premium Dissolved Bone 

Dissolved S. C. Phosphate 

Hunter & Dunn's Dissolved Bone 

Pure German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Nitrate of Soda 

Pure Raw Bone meal Total 

Bone Meal Total 

Premium Corn Grower 

Premium Wheat Grower 

Cracker Jack Fertilizer 

Premium Peanut Special 

Premium Cotton Grower 

Old Homestead Dissolved Bone 



Avail. 






Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 


Acid. 






7.00 


4.94 


6.00 


4.00 


2.47 


6.00 


9.00 


2.88 


5.00 


9.00 


2.06 


3.00 


9.00 


2.47 


2.25 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


13.00 




3.00 


10.00 




4.00 


8.00 




4.00 


8.00 




4.00 


S.00 




4.00 


10.00 




2.00 


16.00 




. 


15.00 




. 


14.00 




. 


14.00 




. 


13.00 . . 




, 


12.00 




. 


12.00 




. 




12.00 




50.00 




48.00 


19.75 


, 


15.63 


. 


20.00 


3.29 


, . 


25.00 


2.47 


. 


10.00 


.82 


1.00 


9.00 


.82 


2.00 


9.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


.82 


4.00 


9.00 


.82 


3.00 


12.00 


. 


, . 



Read Phosphate Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Genuine German Kainit 

Read's High Grade Acid Phosphate. 

Read's Bone and Potash 

Read's Alkaline Bone 

Read's Special Potash Mixture , 

Read's High Grade Tobacco Leaf 

Read's Blood and Bone Fertilizer No. 1. 

Read's Soluble Fish Guano 

Read's High Grade Cotton Grower 



Raisin-Monumental Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Dixie Guano 

Empire Guano 

Raisin Premium Brand for Tobacco.. 

Raisin Gold Standard 

Raisin Special Bone and Potash 

Raisin Bone and Potash 

Raisin 13 Per Cent Acid Phosphate. . 
Raisin 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate. . . 
Raisin Acid Phosphate 



Reidsville Fertilizer Co., Reidsville, N. C. 

Banner Fertilizer 

Champion Guano 



12.00 



14.00 




. . 


10.00 




4.00 


10.00 




2.00 


8.00 




4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


10.00 




5.00 


10.00 




2.00 


13.00 




. . 


16.00 




. . 


14.00 






8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 



The Bulletin. 



39 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen 

Acid. 

Broad Leaf Tobacco Guano '. . 8.00 

Royal Fertilizer 8.00 

Lion Brand Fertilizer 9.00 

Bone and Potash 10.00 

Swift Fertiliser Works, Atlanta, Ca., and Wilming- 
ton, N. C— 

High Grade Swift's Strawberry Grower 8.00 

High Grade Swift's Special Trucker 6.00 

High Grade Swift's Special 10 Per Cent Blood 

and Bone Trucker 5.00 

High Grade Swift's Carolina 7 Per Cent Special 

Trucker 7.00 

High Grade Swift's Favorite Truck Guano 6.00 

High Grade Swift's Special Irish Potato Grower, 7.00 

High Grade Swift's Special Potato Grower 6.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Red Steer Guano Stand- 
ard Grade 8.00 

Swift's Plow Boy Guano 10.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Cotton Plant Standard 

Grade Guano 9.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Golden Harvest Stand- 
ard Grade Guano 8.00 

Swift's Eagle Standard Grade Guano 10.00 

, High Grade Swift's Farmers' Favorite High 

Grade Guano 9.00 

High Grade Swift's Pioneer High Grade Guano 

Tobacco Grower 8.00 

High Grade Swift's Early Trucker 7.00 

High Grade Swift's Blood. Bone and Potash 

High Grade Guano 9.50 

High Grade Swift's Corn and Cotton Grower 

High Grade Guano ! 10.00 

High Grade Swift's Cotton King High Grade 

Guano 9.00 

High Grade Swift's Ruralist High Grade Guano, 8.00 
High Grade Swift's Special High Grade Guano. . 9.50 
High Grade Swift's Monarch Vegetable Grower 

High Grade Guano 8.00 

High Grade Swift's Atlanta High Grade Guano, 12.00 
High Grade Swift's Special High Grade Phos- 
phate and Potash 12.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Plantation Standard 

Grade Phosphate and Potash S.00 

High Grade Swift's Farmers' Home High Grade 

Phosphate and Potash 10.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Field and Farm Stand- 
ard Grade Phosphate and Potash 10.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Wheat Grower Stand- 
ard Grade Phosphate and Potash 10.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Harrow Standard Grade 

Acid Phosphate 13.00 

High Grade Swift's No. 1 Ground Tankage 6.00 

Swift's Pure Bone Meal Total 25.00 

High Grade Swift's Cultivator High Grade Acid 

Phosphate ' 14.00 

High Grade Swift's Special High Grade Acid 

Phosphate 16.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Chattakoochee Standard 
Grade Acid Phosphate 12.00 



Potash. 



1.85 


2.50 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


6.00 


. 


4.00 



2.47 

5.76 


10.00 
5.00 


8.23 


3.00 


5.76 
4.94 
4.12 
4.12 


7.00 
6.00 

8.00 
7.00 


1.65 

.82 


2.00 
1.00 


1.65 


1.00 


1.65 
1.65 


2.00 
2.00 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 
4.12 


4.00 

5.00 


3.29 


7.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 
2.47 

4.12 


2.00 
3.00 
3.00 


3.29 


4.00 
4.00 




6.00 




4.00 




4.00 




2.00 




2.00 


8.24 
2.47 


" * 



40 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



High Grade Swift's Ground Dried Blood 

Swift's Pure Nitrate of Soda 

Swift's Pure Raw Bone Meal Total 

Swift's Muriate of Potash 

Swift's German Kainit 

Swift's Farmers' Favorite High Grade Guano. . . 

Swift's Pioneer High Grade Guano 

High Grade Swift's Eagle High Grade Guano. . . 
Swift's Atlanta High Grade Phosphate and Pot- 
ash 12.00 

Southern Chemical Co., Inc.. Roanoke, Va.— 

Our Favorite 8.00 

Farmers' Joy 8.00 

Our Leader 9.00 

Harvest King 8.00 

Southern Queen 8.00 

Valley Chief 8.50 

Spartanburg Fertilizer Co., Spartanburg, S. C. — 

Corn Formula , 10.50 

Gosnell's Plant Food 10.50 

West's Potash Acid 13.00 

Bold Buster 9.00 

Potato Guano 7.00 

Tiger Brand Acidulated Phosphate 14.00 

The Southern Exchange Co., Maxton, N. C. — 

Melon Grower 8.00 

McKimmon's Special Truck Formula 8.00 

Two Fours Guano 7.00 

That Big Stick Guano 8.00 

Bull of the Woods Fertilizer 8.00 

Jack's Best Fertilizer 8.00 

Correct Cotton Compound 8.00 

Juicy Fruit Fertilizer 9.00 

The Walnut Fertilizer 8.50 

The Racer Guano 8.00 

The Coon Guano 8.00 

R. M. C. Special Crop Grower 8.00 

S. E. C. Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

S. E. C. Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

S. E. C. Acid Phosphate 16.00 

S. E. C. Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 



Avail. 
Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






# . 


13.18 


# , 


. . 


14.82 


. , 


23.00 


3.71 


. . 


, , 


. . 


50.00 


. . 


. . 


12.00 


9.00 


1.65 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


4.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 



4.00 



1.64 


2.00 


1.64 


4.00 


.82 


2.00 


.82 


3.00 


2.46 


10.00 


1.64 


2.00 


1.65 


5.00 


2.46 


2.00 


. 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


7.00 



4.12 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.85 


4.00 


2.06 


2.50 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 




4.00 




2.00 




12.00 




50.00 



15.65 



The Southern Cotton Oil Co., Charlotte District, Con- 
cord, Charlotte, Davidson, Madison, Shelby, 
and Gibson. — : 

Conqueror 8.00 

Gloria 8.00 

Peacock 8.00 

Red Bull 8.00 

Noon 8.00 

King Bee 8.65 

Gold Seal 14.00 

Silver King 13.00 



3.28 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


2.05 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 



itrogen. 


Potash. 




12.00 


, , 


2.00 


. . 


4.00 


6.18 


1.50 


3.30 


6.00 


, # 


12.00 


< # 


2.00 


, # 


4.00 



The Bulletin. 41 

Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Genuine German Kainit 

Magnolia Bone and Potash 10.00 

Conqueror Bone and Potash 10.00 

Cotton Seed Meal 2.30 

Choice 8.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Magnolia B. and P 10.00 

Conqueror B. and P 12.00 

Southern Cotton Oil Co.'s 16 Per Cent Acid 

Phosphate 16.00 

Razem 9.00 1.65 3.00 

Southern Cotton Oil Co., Goldsboro, FayetteviUe 
Rocky Mount and Wilson. — • 

Rocky Mount Oil Mill Standard 8.00 

FayetteviUe Oil Mill Standard ' 8.00 

Goldsboro Oil Mill Standard 8.00 

Wilson Oil Mill Standard 8.00 

The Southern Cotton Oil Company Standard 8.00 

FayetteviUe Oil Mill Special Cotton Grower S.00 

Wilson Oil Mill Special Cotton Grower 8.00 

Rocky Mount Oil Mill Special Cotton Grower. . . 8.00 

Goldsboro Oil Mill Special Cotton Grower 8.00 

Goldsboro Oil Mill High Grade 8.00 

Rocky Mount Oil Mill High Grade 8.00 

FayetteviUe Oil Mill High Grade 8.00 

Wilson Oil Mill High Grade 8.00 

The Southern Cotton Oil Co. High Grade S.00 

Edgerton's Old Reliable 8.00 

Hale's Special for Tobacco 8.00 

Pine Level High Grade 8.00 

Cotton Grower for all Crops. 8.00 

Best & Thompson's Special 9.00 

The Southern Cotton Oil Co.'s Special Tobacco 

Grower 8.00 

Echo 8.00 

Morning Glory -. 8.00 

Tuscarora Fertilizer Co., Atlanta, Ga„ and Wilming- 
ton, N. C— 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Tuscarora Alkaline 10.00 

Bone Potash 10.00 

Champion 8.00 

Manure Substitute 6.00 

Tuscarora Trucker 8.00 

Berry King 8.00 

Tobacco Special 8.00 

Tuscarora Fruit and Potato 8.00 

Cotton Special 8.00 

King Cotton 8.00 

Big Four 7.00 

Tuscarora Standard 8.00 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 14.85 

Acid Phosphate 16.00 



1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.2G 


2.50 


2.26 


2.50 


2.26 


2.50 


2.26 


2.50 


2.26 


2.50 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 



m 


5.00 


, 


2.00 


2.06 


2.50 


3.30 


4.00 


4.12 


7.00 


2.06 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


10.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


, 


50.00 


t 


48.00 


m 


12.00 



42 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



Tide Water Fertiliser Co., Portsmouth, Va. — 

Tide Water Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Tide Water 12 Per Cent German Kainit 

Acid Phosphate and Tankage 8.00 

Tide Water High Grade Cotton 8.00 

Tide Water Tobacco Special 8.00 

Tide Water Very Best Cotton and Corn Guano . . 8.00 

Union Guano Co., Winston-Salem, N. C— 

Union 8-5 Bone and Potash S.00 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Union 12 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Union Dissolved Bone. 13.00 

Union High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Union 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Union 12-3 Bone and Potash 12.00 

Union 10-6 Bone and Potash 10.00 

Union 10-5 Bone and Potash 10.00 

Union 10-4 Bone and Potash 10.00 

Union 8-5 Bone and Potash 8.00 

Union 12-4 Bone and Potash 12.00 

Union 12-5 Bone and Potash 12.00 

Union Wheat Mixture 8.00 

Union Bone and Potash 10.00 

Quakers' Grain Mixture 10.00 

Giant Phosphate and Potash 10.00 

Liberty Bell Crop Grower 10.50 

Roseboro's Special Potash Mixture 12.00 

Union Potato Mixture 8.00 

Union Dissolved Animal Bone 12.50 

Union Vegetable Compound 7.00 

Union Truck Guano 7.00 

Union Premium Guano 8.00 

Union Perfect Cotton Grower 9.00 

Union Standard Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Union Mule Brand Guano 10.00 

Union Water Fowl Guano 8.00 

Union Homestead Guano 8.00 

Union Superlative Guano 8.00 

Union Special Formula for Cotton 10.00 

Union Complete Cotton Mixture 9.00 

Old Homestead Guano 8.00 

Victoria High Grade Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Sparger's Special Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Old Homestead Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Genuine Animal Bone Meal Total 22.50 

Nitrate of Soda 

Quality and Quantity Guano 9.00 

R. L. Upshur, Norfolk, Va.— 

Cotton Seed Meal Mixture 9.00 

Nitrate of Soda 

Quality and Quantity Guano 9.00 

Nitrate of Soda 

Muriate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Upshur's High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 



2.47 
2.47 
2.47 
1.65 



1.65 
2.06 
4.12 
3.29 
3.29 
2.26 
2.06 
1.65 
2.06 
2.37 
.82 
2.47 
1.65 
1.65 
2.47 
1.65 
1.65 
3.70 
15.65 
1.65 



2.26 

15.65 

1.65 

15.22 



12.00 
3.00 
3.00 
3.00 
2.00 



5.00 
48.00 
48.00 
12.00 



3.00 
6.00 
5.00 
4.00 
5.00 
4.00 
5.00 
4.00 
2.00 
4.00 
3.00 
1.50 
6.00 
10.00 

8.00 
5.00 
4.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
3.00 
3.00 
4.00 
3.00 
3.00 
2.00 
3.00 
3.00 
2.00 



1.00 

2.00 

1.00 

50.00 
12.00' 



The Bulletin. 43 

Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Upshur's Peanut Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Upshur's G., G. & C. (Grain, Grass and Cotton 

Guano) 8.00 .1.65 2.00 

Upshur's Wheat Compound 12.00 . . 5.00 

Upshur's F. F. V. (Favorite Fertilizer of Vir- 
ginia) 8.00 1.64 2.00 

Upshur's Bone and Potash Guano 10.00 . . 2.00 

Upshur's Norfolk Special 10 Per Cent Guano 5.00 8.22 2.00 

Upshur's 7 Per Cent Irish Potato Guano 6.00 5.76 5.00 

Upshur's F. C. (Farmers' Challenge) Guano ... 6.00 5.76 6.00 

Upshur's 7 Per Cent Special Potato Guano 5.00 5,76 5.00 

Upshur's Special Truck Guano 7.00 4.11 8.00 

Upshur's F. F. (Farmers' Favorite) 7.00 4.11 6.00 

Upshur's 5 Per Cent Guano 5.00 4.11 5.00 

Upshur's Fish, Bone and Potash Guano 8.00 1.64 4.00 

Upshur's 8-3-3 Cotton Guano 8.00 2.47 3.00 

Upshur's High Grade Tobacco Guano 8.00 2.47 3.00 

Premo Cotton Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Upshur's Special 2% 8-3 Guano 8.00 2.05 3.00 

Upshur's 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Upshur's 4-6-4 Guano 6.00 3.69 4.00 

Venahle Fertilizer Co., Richmond, Va.-~ 

Venable's 10 Per Cent Trucker 6.00 8.23 2.00 

Venable's 6-6-6 Manure 6.00 4.94 6.00 

Venable's 5 Per Cent Trucker 8.00 4.11 5.00 

Venable's 4 Per Cent Trucker 8.00 3.29 4.00 

Venable's Ideal Manure 8.00 1.65 5.00 

Venable's Alliance Tobacco Manure No. 1 8.00 2.06 3.00 

Venable's Alliance Tobacco Manure No. 2 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Venable's B. B. P. Manure 9.00 1.65 1.00 

Venable's Cotton Grower 8.00 2.06 3.00 

Venable's Roanoke Special 8.00 2.06 3.00 

Venable's Alliance Bone and Potash Mixture.. 8.00 .. 4.00 

Venable's Peanut Grower 8.00 . . 4.00 

Venable's Best Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Venable's Alliance Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Venable's Dissolved Bone 13.00 

Venable's Standard Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 . . 2.00 

High Grade Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 . . 4.00 

Planters' Bone Fertilizer 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Ballard's Choice Fertilizer S.OO 2.47 3.00 

Roanoke Mixture 9.00 2.26 2.00 

Roanoke Meal Mixture 9.00 2.26 2.00 

Bone Meal Total 25.00 2.47 

Pure Raw Bone Total 20.00 3.20 

Muriate of Potash '. 50 - 00 

Nitrate of Soda 15-63 

Sulphate of Potash • • 48 -00 

Pure German Kainit • • 12.00 

Venable's Corn, Wheat and Grass Fertilizer... 10.00 .82 1.00 

Venable's Peanut Special 8.00 .82 4.00 

Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co., Richmond, Va. — 
V.-C. C. Co.'s Special High Grade Potash Mix- 
ture 12-00 .. 6.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s 14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 



44 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Standard Bone and Potash 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Special Crop Grower 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Formula 4-4 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Special Truck Guano 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Special 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Special Potash Mixture 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Lion's High Grade Tobacco Fer- 
tilizer 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Invincible High Grade Fertilizer. . 
V.-C. C. Co.'s High Grade Tobacco Fertilizer. . . 
Great Texas Cotton Grower Soluble Guano .... 

Cock's Soluble High Grade Animal Bone 

Truck Crop Fertilizer 

Prolific Cotton Grower 

Battle's Crop Grower 

3 Per Cent Special C. S. M. Guano No. 3 

Delta C. S. M 

Winston Special for Cotton C. S. M 

Diamond Dust C. S. M 

Admiral . . . '. 

Blue Star C. S. M 

Good Luck C. S. M 

North State Guano C. S. M 

Plant Food 

Split Silk C. S. M 

Superlative C. S. M. Guano 

Farmers' Friend Favorite Fertilizer Special .... 

White Stem C. S. M 

Special High Grade Tobacco Fertilizer C. S. M . . 

Wilson's Standard C. S. M 

Adams' Special 

Ajax C. S. M. Guano 

Royal Crown 

Farmers' Favorite Fertilizer C. S. M. . .'. 

Atlas Guano C. S. M 

Blake's Best 

Orange Grove 

Carr's 8-4-4 Crop Grower 

Ford's Wheat and Corn Guano 

Konqueror High Grade Truck Fertilizer 

Goodman's Special Potash Mixture 

Jones' Grain Special 

Raw Bone Meal Total 

Dissolved Animal Bone 

Sludge Acid Phosphate 

Manure Salts 

Sulphate of Potash 

Sulphate of Ammonia : 

Fish Scrap 

Nitrate of Soda 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Grain Special 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Dissolved Bone and Potash 

Diamond Cotton Seed Meal Guano 

Bold Buster Guano 

Bigelow's Crop Guano 

V.-C. C. Co.'s 12-4 Grain Grower 

Jeffreys' High Grade Guano 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






10.00 


. , 


5.00 


12.00 


. , 


3.00 


7.00 


2.55 


3.20 


6.00 


4.10 


7.00 


8.00 


3.28 


4.00 


10.00 




4.00 


8.00 


2.46 


4.00 


6.00 


4.10 


7.00 


8.00 


2.46 


10.00 


9.00 


2.46 


4.00 


9.00 


1.85 


3.00 


7.00 


4.10 


7.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


12.00 


, . 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.00 


8.00 


2.26 


2.50 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.50 


8.00 


2.05 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.50 


9.00 


1.65 


1.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.50 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.50 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.26 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.50 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.26 


2.50 


8.00 


3.28 


4.00 


9.00 


.82 


2.00 


7.00 


4.10 


5.00 


12.00 


a . 


5.00 


8.00 


. . 


4.00 


22.50 


3.70 


, . 


12.50 


2.05 


. , 


14.00 


. , 


. . 






20.00 
50.00 




20.59 


. , 




8.25 


. , 




15.68 


12.00 




. , 


48.00 


10.00 


, , 


6.00 


10.00 


, . 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


.82 


3.00 


12.00 


. t 


4.00 


9.00 


2.47 


3.00 



The Bulletin. 45 

Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

V.-C. C. Co.'s High Grade Top Dresser. .' 4.00 6.18 2.50 

V.-C. C. Co.'s 13 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Haynes' Special Cotton Fertilizer 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Parker & Hunter's Special 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Allison & Addison's Star Brand Vegetable 
Guano 8.00 3.70 4.00 

Allison & Addison's Star Special Tobacco Ma- 
nure 9.00 2.26 2.00 

Allison & Addison's Anchor Brand Tobacco Fer- 
tilizer 8.50 2.26 2.00 

Allison & Addison's Anchor Brand Fertilizer 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Allison & Addison's A. A. Guano 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Allison & Addison's Old Hickory Guano S.00 1.65 2.00 

Allison & Addison's Star Brand Guano 9.00 1.65 1.00 

Allison & Addison's B. P. Potash Mixture 10.00 . . 2.00 

Allison & Addison's McGavock's Special Potash 
Mixture 10.00 . . 2.00 

Allison & Addison's Fulton Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Allison & Addison's I. X. L. Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Allison & Addison's Standard Acid Phosphate.. 12.00 

Allison & Addison's Rocket Acid Phosphate. . . . 12.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Eureka 
Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Crenshaw 
Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Valley of 
Virgina Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Our Acid 
Phosphate 12.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Eureka 

Bone and Potash Compound 10.00 .. 2.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Eureka 

Ammoniated Bone Special for Tobacco 9.00 2.05 2.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Eureka 

Ammoniated Bone 8.00 1.65 3.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Carolina 
Truckers 7.00 5.74 7.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Virginia 
Truckers 8.00 4.10 5.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Orient Spe- 
cial for Tobacco 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Orient 
Complete Manure 9.00 1.65 2.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s King Cotton 
Grower 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s The Leader 
B. G 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Groom's Spe- 
cial Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 2.46 4.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Charlotte Dis- 
solved Bone 12.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Charlotte Am- 
moniated Guano B. G 8.00 2.05 1.50 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Charlotte Am- 
moniated Guano C. S. M 8.00 2.05 1.50 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Charlotte Acid 
Phosphate 13.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Catawba Gu- 
ano B. G 8.00 2.46 3.00 



46 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. 

Acid. 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Catawba Acid 
Phosphate 14.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Queen of the 

Harvest C. S. M 9.00 

Charlotte Oil Fertilizer Co.'s Oliver's Perfect 

Wheat Grower 11.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s 10-2 Bone and 
Potash 10.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s 15 Per Cent 
Acid Phosphate 15.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s McCrary's Dia- 
mond Bone and Potash 8.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Special 3 Per 

Cent Guano C. S. M 8.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s High Grade 

Special Tobacco Fertilizer 9.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Guano for To- 
bacco 8.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Special Tobacco 
Guano 9.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Truck Guano 8.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Guano 8.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Acid Phosphate 
with Potash 10.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand High Grade Dis- 
solved Bone 14.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Dissolved Bone. . . 12.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand High Grade Acid 

Phosphate 16.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand High Grade 3 Per 
Cent Soluble Guano 9.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Acid Phosphate.. 13.00 

Davie & Whittle's Vinco Guano .' 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Blacksburg Soluble Gu- 
ano 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Blacksburg Soluble 
Bone 13.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Diamond Wheat Mix- 
ture 10.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Standard Wheat and 
Corn Grower 10.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Excelsior Dissolved 

Bone Phosphate 14.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Double Bone Phosphate, 13.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Blue Ridge Wheat 
Grower 10.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Carr's Special Wheat 
Grower 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Standard Guano 9.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Best Potato Manure... 7.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s L. & N. Special 9.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Special Plant and Truck 
Fertilizer 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Golden Leaf Bright To- 
bacco Guano 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Gold Medal Brand 
Guano 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Durham Bone and Pot- 
ash Mixture 10.00 



Potash. 



1.65 * 


2.00 


2.46 


4.00 


• 


2.00 


t 


4.00 


2.46 


2.00 


2.05 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


2.05 
4.92 
1.65 


2.00 
5.00 
2.00 



2.00 



2.05 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 




3.00 




2.00 



2.00 



1.65 
5.74 
2.46 


4.00 
2.00 
7.00 
2.00 


4.10 


3.00 


2.46 


3.00 


2.46 


3.00 




2.00 



The Bulletin. 47 

Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Genuine Bone and Peru- 
vian Guano 8-00 ^ 200 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Genuine Bone and Peru- 
vian Tobacco Guano 8.00 I- 65 2 - 00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Raw Bone Superphos- 
phate 8.00 2.05 1.50 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Raw Bone Superphos- 

phate for Tobacco 8.00 2.05 2.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s N. C. Farmers' Alliance 

Official Guano 8.00 2.05 3.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s N. C. Farmers' Alliance 

Official Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Standard High Grade 

Acid Phosphate 14-00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Great Potato and Corn 

Grower 10-50 .. 1.50 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Progressive Farmer 

- Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Durham Ammoniated 

Fertilizer 9-00 1.65 1.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Durham Best Acid Phos- 
phate 13-00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Durham Acid Phos- 
phate 12-00 . . • . • 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s New Era 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Ironside Acid Phosphate, 16.00 
Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Spartan Acid Phosphate, 12.00 
Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Arvonia Acid Phosphate, 13.00 
Lynchburg Guano Co.'s S. W. Special Bone and 

"Potash Mixture 10.00 . . 4.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Alpine Mixture 10.00 . . 5.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Dissolved Bone and 

Potash 10.00 .. 2.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Independent Standard.. 8.50 1.6o 2.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Solid Gold Tobacco 8.00 2.26 4.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Lynchburg High Grade 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Lynchburg Soluble 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Lynchburg Soluble for 

Tobacco 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Crescent 

Brand Ammoniated Fertilizer 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Cooper's 

Bright Tobacco 8.00 2.05 3.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 

Trucker and Tomato Grower 8.00 4.10 5.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Genuine 

Slaughter House Bone 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Genuine 
Slaughter House Bone, Made Especially for 

Tobacco 8.00 2.05 2.00 

Norfolk and Cnrolina Chemical Co.'s Amazon 

High Grade Manure 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Bright Leaf 

Tobacco Grower 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 

Bone and Potash 10.00 . . 2.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 

Soluble Bone 12.00 



48 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. 

Acid. 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 
Best Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 

Reliable Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Standard Raw Bone 

Soluble Guano 8.00 1.65 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Farmers' Friend High 

Grade Fertilizer 8.00 2.46 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Farmers' Friend Fer- 
tilizer 8.00 1.65 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Farmers' Friend Spe- 
cial Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 2.46 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Special 

Wheat Guano 8.00 1.65 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Special 

Sweet Potato Guano 6.00 1.65 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Solu- 
ble Tobacco Guano 8.00 1.65 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Solu- 
ble Guano 8.00 1.65 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Potato 
Manure 7.00 4.10 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Raw 
Bone Soluble Guano 9.00 2.05 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion 6-7-5 

Truck Guano 6.00 5.74 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion 7-7-7 
Truck Guano 7.00 5.74 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Alka- 
line Bone and Potasb 10.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Bullock's Cotton 
Grower 8.00 1.65 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Osceola Tobacco 
Guano 8.00 2.05 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Dissolved Bone and 
Potash 10.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Millers' Special 

Wheat Mixture •. 8.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Planters' Bone and 

Potash Mixture 10.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Bone Phosphate 13.0.0 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Royster's Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s High Grade Acid 
Phosphate 14.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Almont Acid Phosphate.. 12.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Brand Best Acid 
Phosphate 13.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Almont High Grade Acid 
Phosphate 14.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Fulp's Acid Phosphate 13 
Per Cent 13.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Brand Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Acid Phosphate and Pot- 
ash 10.50 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Almont Wheat Mixture. . . 10.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Dissolved Bone and Potash, 10.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Almont Soluble Ammoni- 
ated Guano 8.00 1.65 



Potash. 



2.00 
3.00 
2.00 
3.00 
2.00 
6.00 
2.00 
2.00 
8.00 
3.00 
5.00 
7.00 
2.00 
2.00 
3.00 
2.00 
4.00 
3.00 



1.50 
3.00 
2.00 

2.00 



The Bulletin. 



49 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Carolina Golden Belt Ani- 
moniated Guano for Tobacco S.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Truck Farmers' Special 
Animoniatqd Guano 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Old Kentucky High Grade 
Manure 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Seed Meal Stand- 
ard Guano 9.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Seed Meal Soluble 
Animoniated Guano S.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Belt Animoniated 
Guano 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Eagle Island Animoniated. 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Brand Animoniated 
Dissolved Bone S.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Gibb's Ammoniated Guano, 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Powers' Animoniated 
Guano 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Electric Tobacco Guano, 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Electric Standard 
Guano 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Pilot Animoniated Gu- 
ano Special for Tobacco S.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s George Washington 
Plant Bed Fertilizer for Tobacco S.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Sun Brand Guano.... 9.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Yadkin Complete Fer- 
tilizer 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Solid South 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Chick's Special Wheat 
Compound S.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Mammoth Wheat and 
Grass Grower 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Winston Bone and Pot- 
ash Compound 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Winner Grain Mixture, 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Mammoth Corn Grower, 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Farmers' Pride Bone 
and Potash 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Reaper Grain Applica- 
tion 12.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Quickstep Bone and 
Potash 11.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Tar Pleel'Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Red Cross 14 Per Cent 

Arid Phosphate 14.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Comet 16 Per Cent 
Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Chick's 16 Per Cent 
Acid Phosphate 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Chatham Acid Phos- 
phate 13.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Horseshoe Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Victor Acid Phosphate, 13.00 

J. G. Tinslev & Co.'s Champion Acid Phosphate, 16.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Dissolved S. C. Bone 13.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Powhatan Acid Phosphate, 14.00 

4 



Nitrogen. Potash. 



2.05 

3.28 

2.46 

2.46 

1.65 

2.46 
1.65 

3.28 
2.05 

2.05 
1.65 

1.65 

2.05 

2.40 
2.05 

1.65 



3.00 

5.00 

3.00 

2.00 

2.00 

2.00 
2.00 

4.00 
1.50 

2.00 
2.00 

2.00 

3.00 

2.50 
5.00 

2.00 
6.00 

4.00 

2.00 

2.00 
4.00 
2.00 

3.00 

3.00 

5.00 



50 



The Bulletin. 



2.46 
1.65 

2.05 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen 

Acid. 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Richmond Brand Guano.. 8.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Lee Brand Guano 8.00 

J. G. Tinslev & Co.'s Killickinick Tobacco Mix- 
ture 8.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Stonewall Brand Acid 
Phosphate 12.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Stonewall Brand Guano.. 8.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Stonewall Tobacco Guano, 8.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Special Irish 

Potato Grower 6.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Bone and Potash 
Mixture 10.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Strawberry 
Grower 6.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's 10 Per Cent Truck 
Guano 5.1 10 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Irish Potato 
Grower 6.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Tobacco Fertilizer, 8.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's 7 Per Cent Am- 
moniated Guano for Beans, Peas, Cabbage, 
Strawberries, etc 6.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s National Fertilizer 8.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s National Special Tobacco 
Fertilizer 8.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Beef, Blood and Bone 
Fertilizer S.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Standard Dissolved S. C. 
Bone 13.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Travers' Dissolved Bone 
Phosphate 14.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Dissolved Bone. . . 12.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Cotton Fertilizer, 8.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Bone and Potash 
Compound 10.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Truck Fertilizer. . 8.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Tobacco Fertilizer. 8.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Farmers' Special Wheat 
Compound 8.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Farmers' 7 Per Cent Truck 
Fertilizer 6.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Virginia State 
Dissolved Bone and Potash 10.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Virginia State 

Guano 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Virginia State 

High Grade Tobacco Guano S.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Number One Sol- 
uble Guano 0.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s XX Potash Mix- 
ture 10.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Mountain Top 
Bone and Potash 10.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Peerless Tobacco 
Guano 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Battle Axe To- 
bacco Guano S.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Dunnington's Spe- 
cial Formula for Tobacco 8.00 



Potash. 

3.00 
2.00 

3.00 



i.cr, 


2.00 


1.65 


2.0(1 


5.74 


0.00 




2.00 


3.28 


4.00 


8.25 


2.50 


4.92 


6.00 


3.28 


2.50 


5.74 


6.00 


1.(1.", 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 



2.05 



2.00 



, . 


2.00 


3.28 


3.00 


3.28 


3.00 




4.00 


5.74 


5.00 




2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


• 


4.00 


• 


5.00 


2.46 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 



Tile Bulletin. 



51 



2.05 


2.00 


12. or, 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.05 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 



1.65 



1 .85 



1.00 



Acid. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Austrian Tobacco 

Grower 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Buffalo Guano.. 8.00 

Virginia Slate Fertilizer Co.'s Gamecock Special 

for Tobacco 8.o0 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s G. E. Special To- 
bacco Grower 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Bull Dog Solu- 
ble Guano 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Clipper Brand 

Acid Phosphate 13 -°° 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Highland King. . . 9.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Alps Brand Acid 

Phosphate 12 -°° 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Bull Run Acid 

Phosphate 1G -°° 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Lurich Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Gilt Edge Brand 

Arid Phosphate • 44.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Gilt Edge Brand 

Dissolved Bone and Potash 8.00 

Williams & Clark Fertilizer Co., Charleston, S. C— 
Standard American Ammoniated Bone Super- 
phosphate 9.00 

Winborne Guano Co., Tuner, A". C— 

King Tammany Guano 8 -°9 

Farmers' Select Guano 8.00 

Winborne's 7 Per Cent Guano 5.00 

Winborne's Excelsior Guano 8.00 

Winborne's Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Winborne's Eureka Guano 8.00 

Winborne's 3-8-4 Guano 8.00 

Winborne's Triumph Guano 8.00 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Standard 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

T. W. Wood & Sons, Richmond, Va.— 

Standard Grain and Grass Grower 8.00 

Standard High Grade Trucker 8.00 

Standard Potato Fertilizer 8-00 

Standard Vegetable Fertilizer 8.00 

Standard Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Standard High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Standard Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Wood's Pure Animal Bone Total 23.00 

Wood's Lawn Enricher 6.00 

Nitrate of Soda 



4.00 



1.00 



2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


5.75 


5.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 



12.00 



1.65 


2.00 


4.94 


6.00 


1.65 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


• * 


2.00 


2.47 




2.47 


3.00 


15.63 


. . 



THE BULLETIN 



OF THE 



NORTH CAROLINA 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



RALEIGH. 



Volume 29. APRIL, 1908. Number 4. 



I. ANALYSES OF FERTILIZERS— SPRING SEASON, 1908. 



II. REGISTRATION OF FERTILIZERS. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND SENT FREE TO CITIZENS ON APPLICATION. 



ENTERED AT THE RALEIGH POST-OFFICE AS SECOND-CLASS MAIL MATTER. 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 



S. L. Patterson, Commissioner, ex officio Chairman, Raleigh. 

J. J. Laughinghouse Greenville First District. 

C. W. Mitchell Aulander Second District. 

William Dunn New Bern Third District. 

Ashley Hobne Clayton Fourth District. 

R. W. Scott Melville Fifth District. 

A. T. McCaixxjm Red Springs Sixth District. 

J. P. McRae Laurinburg Seventh District. 

R. L. Doughtox Laurel Springs '. Eighth District. 

W. A. Graham Machpelah Ninth District. 

A. Cannon Horse Shoe Tenth District. 



OFFICERS AND STAFF. 

S. L. Patterson Commissioner. 

Secretary. 

B. W. Kilgore State Chemist, Field Crops. 

Tait Butler - Veterinarian, Animal Husbandry. 

Franklin Sherman. Jr Entomologist. 

W. N. Hutt Horticulturist. 

H. H. Brimley Naturalist and Curator. 

T. B. Parker Demonstration Work. 

W. M. Allen Food Chemist. 

J. M. Pickel Assistant Chemist. 

C. D. Harris. . .Assistant Chemist and Microscopist, Stock Feeds. 

W. G. Haywood Assistant Chemist. 

G. M. MacNider Assistant Chemist, Soils. 

L. L. Brinkley Assistant Chemist. 

S. O. Perkins Assistant Chemist. 

Hampden Hill Assistant Chemist. 

S. C. Clapp . . Nursery and Orchard Inspector. 

S. B. Shaw . .Assistant Horticulturist. 



R. W. Scott, Jr., Superintendent Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C. 
F. T. Meacham, Superintendent Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. 
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent Pender Test Farm, Willard, N. C. 
R. W. Collett, Superintendent Transylvania and Buncombe Test Farms, 
Swannanoa, N. C. 



i. ANALYSES OF FERTILIZERS— SPRING SEASON, 1908. 



BY B. W. KILGORE, STATE CHEMIST. 



The analyses presented in this Bulletin are of samples collected 
by the fertilizer inspectors of the Department, under the direction of 
the Commissioner of Agriculture, during the spring months of 1908. 
They should receive the careful study of every farmer in the State 
who uses fertilizers, as by comparing the analyses in the Bulletin 
with the claims made for the fertilizers actually used, the farmer can 
know by, or before, the time fertilizers are put in the ground whether 
or not they contain the fertilizing constituents in the amounts they 
were claimed to be present. 

TEEMS USED IN ANALYSES. 

Water-soluble Phosphoric Acid. — Phosphate rock, as dug from the 
mines, mainly in South Carolina, Florida and Tennessee, is the chief 
source of phosphoric acid in fertilizers. 

In its raw, or natural, state the phosphate has three parts of lime 
united to the phosphoric acid (called by chemists tri-calcium phos- 
phate). This is very insoluble in water and is not in condition to 
be taken up readily by plants. In order to render it soluble in water 
and fit for plant food, the rock is finely ground and treated with sul- 
phuric acid, which acts upon it in such a way as to take from the 
three-lime phosphate two parts of its lime, thus leaving only one 
part of lime united to the phosphoric acid. This one-lime phosphate 
is what is known as water-soluble phosphoric acid. 

Reverted Phosphoric Acid. — On long standing some of this water- 
soluble phosphoric acid has a tendency to take lime from other sub- 
stances in contact with it, and to become somewhat less soluble. This 
latter is known as reverted or gone-back phosphoric acid. This is 
thought to contain two parts of lime in combination with the phos- 
phoric acid, and is thus an intermediate product between water- 
soluble and the original rock. 

Water-soluble phosphoric acid is considered somewhat more valu- 
able than reverted, because it becomes better distributed in the soil 
as a consequence of its solubility in water. 



4 The Bulletin. 

Available Phosphoric Acid is made up of the water-soluble and 
reverted ; it is the sum of these two. 

Water-soluble Ammonia. — The main materials furnishing am- 
monia in fertilizers are nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, cotton- 
seed meal, dried blood, tankage, and fish scrap. The first two of 
these (nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia) are easily soluble in 
water and become well distributed in the soil where plant roots can 
get at them. They are, especially the nitrate of soda, ready to be 
taken up by plants, and are therefore quick-acting forms of ammonia. 
It is mainly the ammonia from nitrate of soda and sulphate of am- 
monia that will be designated under the heading of water-soluble 
ammonia. 

Organic Ammonia. — The ammonia in cotton-seed meal, dried 
blood, tankage, fish scrap, and so on, is included under this heading. 
These materials are insoluble in water, and before they can feed 
plants they must decay and have their ammonia changed, by the aid 
of the bacteria of the soil, to nitrates, similar to nitrate of soda. 

They are valuable then as plant food in proportion to their content 
of ammonia, and the rapidity with which they decay in the soil, or 
rather the rate of decay, will determine the quickness of their action 
as fertilizers. With short season, quick-growing crops, quickness of 
action is an important consideration, but with crops occupying the 
land during the greater portion, or all, of the growing season, it is 
better to have a fertilizer that will become available more slowly, so 
as to feed the plant till maturity. Cotton-seed meal and dried blood 
decompose fairly rapidly, but will last the greater portion, if not all, 
of the growing season in this State. While cotton seed and tankage 
will lastlonger than meal and blood, none of these act so quickly, or 
give out so soon, as nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia. 

Total Ammonia is made up of the water-soluble and organic ; it is 
the sum of these two. 

The farmer should suit, as far as possible, the kind of ammonia to 
his different crops, and a study of the forms of ammonia as given in 
the tables of analyses will help him to do this. 

VALUATIONS. 

To have a basis for comparing the values of different fertilizer 
materials and fertilizers, it is necessary to assign prices to the three 
valuable constituents of fertilizers — ammonia, phosphoric acid, and 



The Bulletin. 5 

potash. These figures, expressing relative value per ton, are not 
intended to represent crop-producing power, or agricultural value, 
but are estimates of the commercial value of ammonia, phosphoric 
acid and potash in the materials supplying them. These values are 
only approximate (as the costs of fertilizing materials are liable to 
change, as other commercial products are), but they are believed to 
fairly represent the cost of making and putting fertilizers on the 
market. They are based on a careful examination of trade condi- 
tions, wholesale and retail, and upon quotations of manufacturers. 

Relative value per ton, or the figures showing this, represents the 
prices on board the cars at the factory, in retail lots of five tons or 
less, for cash. 

To make a complete fertilizer the factories have to mix together in 
proper proportions materials containing ammonia, phosphoric acid 
and potash. This costs something. For this reason it is thought 
well to have two sets of valuations — one for the raw or unmixed 
materials, such as acid phosphate, kainit, cotton-seed meal, etc., and 
one for mixed fertilizers. 

The values used last season were : 

VALUATIONS FOR 1907. 

In Unmixed or Raw Materials. 

For phosphoric acid in acid phosphate ..... 4 cents per pound. 
For phosphoric acid in bone meal, basic slag 

and Peruvian guano 3% cents per pound. 

For ammonia 151/2 cents per pound. 

For potash 5 cents per pound. 

In Mixed Fertilizers. 

For phosphoric acid 4% cents per pound. 

For ammonia 16% cents per pound. 

For potash 5% cents per pound. 

The valuations decided on this season, for reasons already given, 
are: 

VALUATIONS FOR 1908. 

In Unmixed or Raw Materials. 

For phosphoric acid in acid phosphate 4 cents per pound. 

For phosphoric acid in bone meal, basic slag 

and Peruvian guano 3% cents per pound. 

For nitrogen 18 cents per pound. 



6 The Bulletin. 

In Mixed Fertilizers. 

For available phosphoric acid 4 1 /-. cents per pound. 

For nitrogen 19% cents per pound. 

For potash 5y 2 cents per pound. 

HOW RELATIVE VALUE IS CALCULATED. 

In the calculation of relative value it is only necessary to remember 
that so many per cent means the same number of pounds per hundred, 
and that there are twenty hundred pounds in one ton (2,000 pounds). 

With an 8—2 — 1.65 goods, which means that the fertilizer con- 
tains available phosphoric acid 8 per cent, potash 2 per cent, and 
nitrogen 1.65 per cent, the calculation is made as follows: 

t> n ■ iaatv. Value Per Value Per Ton, 

Percentage, or Lbs. in 100 Lbs. 1()0 Lbg g> 000 Lbg 

8 pounds available phosphoric acid at 4£ cents 0. 3C> X 20= $7. 20 

2 pounds potash at h\ cents , 0.11 X'20= 2.20 

1.65 pounds nitrogen at 19J cents- 0. 321 X 20= 6. 42 

Total value 0.791X20= $15.82 

Freight and merchant's commission must be added to these prices. 
Freight rates from the seaboard and manufacturing centers to interior 
points are given in the following table : 



The Bulletin. 



Freight Rates from the Seaboard to Interior Points.— From the Published Rates of the 
Associated Railways of Virginia and the Carolinas. In car-loads, of not less than ten tons each, 
per ton of 2,000 pounds. Less than car-loads, add 20 per cent. 



Destination. 



Advance , 

Apex 

Ashboro 

Asheville 

Chapel Hill 

Charlotte 

Clayton ^- 

Cherryville 

Clinton 

Creed moor 

Cuningham 

Dallas 

Davidson College- 
Dudley 

Dunn 

Durham 

Elkin 

Elm City 

Fair Bluff 

Fayetteville 

Forestville 

Gastonia 

Gibson 

Goldsboro 

Greensboro 

Hamlet 

Henderson 

Hickory 

High Point 

Hillsboro 

Kernersville 

Kinston 

Laurel Hill 

Laurinburg 

Liberty 

Louisburg 

Lumberton ■- 

Macon 

Madison 

Matthews 

Maxton 

Milton 

Mocksville 

Morven 

Mount Airy 

Nashville 

New Bern 

Norwood 

Oxford 

Pineville 

Pittsboro 

Polkton 

Raleigh 

Reidsville 

Rockingham 

Rocky Mount 

Ruffin 

Rural Hall 

Rutherford ton 

Salisbury 

Sanford 

Selma 

Shelby 

Siler City 

Smithfield 

Statesville 

Stem 

Tarboro 

Waco 

Wadesboro 

Walnut Cove 

Warrenton 

Warsaw 

Washington 

Weldon 

Wilson 

Winston-Salem — 



From 

Wilmington, 

N. C. 


rrom 

Norfolk and 

Portsmouth, 

Va. 


From 

Charleston, 

S. C. 


From 

Richmond, 

Va. 


$3.20 


$3.20 


$3.40 


$3.20 


2.70 




3.80 


3.00 
3.20 


3.20 


3.20 


3.60 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


2.95 


3.20 


3.90 


3.20 


2.65 


3-20 


2.85 


3.20 


2.48 


2.86 


3.63 


2.80 


3.85 


3.60 


3.40 


3.63 


1.60 


3.00 


3.20 


3.00 


3.00 


3.00 


3.80 


3.00 


3.00 


2.40 


4.00 


2.40 


3.00 


3.60 


3.40 


3.60 


3.00 


3.20 


2.20 


3.20 


1.70 


3.00 


3.20 


3.00 


2.00 


2.80 


3.20 


2.80 


2.80 


2:83 


3.20 


2.83 


3.60 


3.20 


3.60 


3.20 


2.10 


2.60 


3.20 


2.60 


1.60 


3.80 


2.40 


3.80 


1.80 


3.00 


3.00 


3.00 


2.85 


3.00 


3.80 


3.06 


3.12 


3.25 


3.12 


3.25 


2.10 


3.50 


2.10 


3.50 


1.80 


2.80 


3.20 


2.80 


2.96 


3.00 


3.40 


3.00 


2.00 


3.00 


3.60 


3.00 


3.00 


2.83 


3.55 


2.83 


3.20 


3.60 


3.20 


3-60 


3.00 


3-08 


3.40 


3.08 


2.88 


2.88 


2.68 


2.88 


3.00 


3.00 


3.40 


3.00 


2.10 


2.80 


3.50 


2.80 


1.90 


2.40 


3.80 


3.40 


1.90 


3.40 


3.80 


3.40 


2.72 


3.60 


3.80 


3.60 


2.95 


3.00 


3.80 


3.00 


1.60 


3.60 


3.70 


3.60 


3.' 05 


3.00 


3.85 


3-00 


3.00 


3.00 


3.40 


3-00 


2.60 


3.20 


3.20 


3-20 


1.80 


3.40 


2.70 


3-40 


3.44 


2.40 


4.00 


2.40 


3.36 


3.20 


3.40 


3-20 


2.55 


3.60 


2.50 


3-60 


2.20 


3.40 


3.80 


3-40 


2.30 


2.90 


3.40 


2.90 


1.25 


1.75 


3.95 


1.75 


3.68 


3.20 


3.20 


2.23 


3.04 


2.83 


3.55 


2.83 


2-77 


3.25 


3.00 


3.20 


2-60 


3.30 


4.10 


3.30 


2.40 


3.00 


2.20 


3.00 


2.56 


2.83 


3.40 


2.83 


3.00 


2.96 


3.40 


2-36 


2.10 


3.00 


3.80 


3-00 


2-20 


2.50 


3.40 


2-50 


3.28 


2.80 


3.40 


2.20 


3.28 


3.20 


3.60 


3.20 


3-05 


3.65 


3.05 


3-65 


3.25 


3.20 


3.20 


3.20 


2.10 


3. 00 


3.40 


3-00 


2.10 


,2.80 


3.20 


2-80 


2.90 


3.60 


3-90 


3-60 


2 60 


3.60 


3-80 


3.60 


2.20 


2.80 


3-20 


2.80 


3.50 


3.20 


3.60 


3.20 


2.95 


2.83 


3.80 


2.83 


2.30 


2.40 


3.00 


2.40 


2.90 


3.60 


3.40 


3.60 


2.30 


3.00 


2.50 


3.00 


3.00 


3.00 


3.40 


3.00 


3.05 


3.25 


4.10 


3.25 


1.50 


3.00 


3.20 


3.00 


2.65 


1.75 


2.25 


1.50 


2.55 


1.90 


3.85 


1.90 


2.00 


2.60 


3.20 


2.60 


3.00 


3.00 


3.40 


3.00 



8 



The Bulletin. 



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II. FERTILIZER BRANDS REGISTERED FOR 1908. 



15.66 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen 

Acid. 
The Atlantic Chemical Corporation, Norfolk, Va. — 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Potash ". 

Muriate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Atlantic High Grade 16 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 16.00 

Atlantic 14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Atlantic Dissolved Bone 13.00 

Atlantic Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Atlantic 10 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

■ Atlantic Bone and Potash for Grain 10.00 

Atlantic Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Atlantic 8 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture 8.00 

Atlantic 7 Per Cent Truck Guano 7.00 

Atlantic Potato Guano 7.00 

Atlantic Special Truck Guano 8.00 

Atlantic High Grade Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Atlantic Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Atlantic Tobacco Compound S.00 

Atlantic Special Guano 9.00 

Atlantic Cotton Grower 0.00 

Atlantic Special Wheat Fertilizer 8.00 

Atlantic Meal Compound 9.00 

Atlantic High Grade Cotton Guano S.00 

Atlantic Soluble Guano 8.00 

Apex Peanut Grower S.00 

Perfection Peanut Grower 7.00 

Oriental High Grade Guano 8.00 

Paloma Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Oeo. L. Arps & Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Arps' Potato Guano 6.00 

Arps' Standard Truck Guano 7.00 

Arps' Scuppernong Guano for Trucks 6.00 

Geo. L. Arps & Co.'s Big Yield Guano 8.00 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Kainit 

Arps' Premium Guano for Cotton, Tobacco and 

All Spring Crops S.00 

Acme Manufacturing Co., Wilmington, N. C. — 

Acme Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Acme Bone and Potash 10.00 

Acme Bone and Potash 10.00 

Acme Bone and Potash 10.00 

Acme Bone and Potash 8.00 

Acme Bone and Potash 11.00 

Acme High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Acme Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Acme Standard Guano 8.00 

Acme High Grade 6.00 

Acme Strawberry Top Dresser .' 8.00 

Acme Truck Grower 6.00 

Acme Cotton Grower 9.00 



1.65 



Potash. 



50.00 
48.00 
12.00 





4.00 




3.00 




2.00 




4.00 


5.77 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


1.00 


2.06 


1.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


.82 


4.00 




5.00 


3.30 


4.00 


3.30 


4.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


4.12 


7.00 


1.65 


2.00 



12.00 
2.00 





2.00 




3.00 




4.00 




4.00 




2.00 


2.06 


2.00 


4.95 


8.00 


1.65 


4.00 


3.30 


8.00 


2.27 


2.00 



12 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Acme Special Grain 

Acme Fertilizer for Tobacco. . . 

Acme Fertilizer 

Acme Acid Phosphate 

Gibson's Melon Grower 

Corn Guano 

Clark's Corn Guano 

P. D. Special 

Quickstep 

Gem Fertilizer 

Cotton Seed Meal Guano 

Lattimer's Complete Fertilizer. 

Tiptop Crop Grower 

Tiptop Tobacco Grower 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Pure German Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Acme Bone and Potash 

Muriate of Potash 



Ashepoo Fertilizer Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

High Grade Eutaw Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Ashepoo Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Dissolved Phosphate 

High Grade Superpotash Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Ashepoo Superpotash Acid Phos- 
phate 

High Grade Ashepoo Vegetable Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Truck Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Farmers' Special 

High Grade Ashepoo Special Cotton Seed Meal 
Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Ammoniated Superphos- 
phate 

High Grade Ashepoo Bird and Fish Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Meal Mixture 

High Grade Ashepoo X Tobacco Fertilizer 

High Grade Ashepoo Golden Tobacco Producer. 

High Grade Ashepoo Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Perfection Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Fruit Grower 

High Grade Ashepoo Watermelon Guano 

High Grade Eutaw X Golden Fertilizer 

High Grade Eutaw Special Cotton Seed Meal 
Guano 

High Grade Carolina XXX Guano 

High Grade Taylor's Circle Guano 

Standard Eutaw XX Acid Phosphate 

Standard Eutaw XXX Acid Phosphate 

Standard Eutaw Potash Acid Phosphate 

Standard Eutaw Acid Phosphate and Potash . . . 

Standard Eutaw Circle Guano 

Standard Eutaw XX Guano 

Standard Eutaw XXX Guano 

Standard Eutaw Fertilizer 

Standard Ashepoo Fertilizer 

Standard Ashepoo Harrow Brand Raw Bone 
Superphosphate 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


2.50 


8.00 


2.47 


2.50 


13/JO 


. . 


# t 


1P.00 


3.30 


5.00 


o.OO 


2.47 


3.00 


1.00 


6.60 


10.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


2.06 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 




20.62 


12.00 




15.00 


, . 




. . 


48.00 




. . 


48.00 


io.oo 




5.00 
55.00 


14.00 






14.00 


. . 


, , 


16.00 


. . 


. . 


10.00 




4.00 


10.00 




4.00 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


8.00 


2.06 


- 3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.00 


S.00 


2.46 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


S.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


3.29 


6.00 


8.00 


3.91 


2.75 


10.00 


3.29 


5.00 


8.00 


2.46 


4.00 


S.00 


2.46 


4.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


9.00 


1.65 


4.00 


12.00 




# , 


13.00 


■ • 




11.00 


t # 


1.00 


12.00 


# , 


1.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


8.50 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


1.85 


1.00 


9.00 


1.85 


1.00 



9.00 



1.65 



2.00 



The Bulletin. 



13 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Standard Ashepoo Wheat and Oats Special 9.50 

Standard Ashepoo XXX Guano 8.65 

Standard Ashepoo XX Guano 8.50 

Standard Ashepoo Circle Guano 8.00 

Standard Ashepoo Guano 8.50 

Standard Ashepoo Special Fertilizer 8.00 

Standard Ashepoo Acid Phosphate and Potash . . 12.00 

Standard Ashepoo Potash and Acid Phosphate. . 11.00 

Standard Ashepoo Potash Compound 10.00 

Standard* Ashepoo XXX Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Standard Ashepoo Dissolved Bone 12.00 

Standard Ashepoo XX Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Standard Cooinassie Acid Phosphate * 12.00 

Standard Coomassie Circle Fertilizer 8.00 

Standard Carolina Guano 8.00 

Standard Carolina Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Standard Circle Bone 13.00 

Standard Palmetto Potash Acid Phosphate 11.00 

Standard Brownwood Acid Phosphate 8.00 

Standard P. D. Fertilizer 8.00 

German Kainit 

Standard Enoree Acid Phosphate and Potash . . . 10.00 

High Grade Ashepoo XXXX Acid Phosphate. . . 14.00 

Taylor's XX Ammoniated Dissolved Fertilizer.. 10.00 

High Grade Ashepoo Nitrogenous Top Dressing. 3.00 

The Armour Fertilizer Works, Atlanta, Chicago and 
Wilmington — 

Top Dresser ,...." 5.00 

10 Per Cent Trucker 5.00 

Manure Substitute 6.00 

7 Per Cent Trucker 6.00 

General 8.00 

Fruit and Root Crop Special 8.00 

High Grade Potato 8.00 

King Cotton No. 2 8.00 

Champion 8.00 

Gold Medal for Tobacco 8.00 

Berry King 8.00 

Cotton Special 8.00 

Tobacco Special • 8.00 

Truck and Berry Special 8.00 

Ail Soluble 8.00 

Special Trucker 8.00 

Bone, Blood and Potash 8.00 

Bone and Dissolved Bone with Potash 9.00 

African Cotton Grower 9.00 

10 Per Cent Trucker 2.00 

Dried Blood ". 

•Phosphoric Acid with Potash 10.00 

Superphosphate and Potash 10.00 

W. H. White & Co.'s Special Corn Mixture 10.00 

Phosphate and Potash No. 2 8.00 

Phosphate and Potash No. 1 10.00 

17 Per Cent Acid Phosphate " 17.00 

16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

13 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 13.00 

12 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Star Phosphate 14.00 

Nitrate of Soda 



Nitrogen. Potash. 



1.65 
1.65 
1.65 
2.06 
2.06 
1.65 



1.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
1.00 
2.00 
1.00 
1.00 
3.00 



1.65 

1.65 


2.00 
2.00 


1.05 


i.oo 

4.00 

2.00 

12.00 

2.00 


'.82 
7.00 


i.oo 

2.00 



8.25 


2.00 


8.25 


3.00 


3.30 


4.00 


5.78 


5.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


5.00 


1.65 


10.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.06 


2.50 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


10.00 


2.SS 


4.00 


3.30 


4.00 


4.12 


7.00 


1.65 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.25 


. . 


L3.20 


. , 


, , 


5.00 




4.00 




2.00 




5.00 




2.00 



14.85 



14 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Kainit 

King Cotton 

Ammoniated Dissolved Bone with Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Van Lindley's Special 

Standard Cotton Grower 

Armour's Slaughter House Fertilizer 

Anderson Phosphate and Oil Co., Anderson, 8. C. — ■ 

Anderson's Special Formula 

Anderson's Blood Guano 

Anderson's Special Fertilizer 

Anderson's Blood and Bone Guano 

American Fertiliser Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

10 Per Cent Ammoniated Guano 

Standard 7 Per Cent Ammonia Guano 

American Irish Potato Grower 

American 7-7-7 for Irish Potatoes 

American Fish Scrap Guano 

American Eagle Guano 

American No. 1 Fertilizer 

American No. 2 Fertilizer 

American Cotton Compound 

American Standard Cotton Grower 

American Special Potash Mixture for Wheat... 

American High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Special Formula Guano for Yellow Leaf Tobacco. 

Special Potat i Guano. 

Special Potato Manure 

Bone and Peruvian Guano 

Bone and Peruvian Guano 

A. L. Hanna's Special 

Peruvian Mixture 

Blood and Bone Compound 

Bob White Fertilizer for Tobacco 

I. G. Miller & Co. Yellow Leaf Fertilizer 

Pitt County Special Fertilizer 

N. C. and S. C. Cotton Grower 

Peruvian Mixture Guano Especially Prepared 

for Sweet Potatoes 

Kale, Spinach and Cabbage Guano 

Stable Manure Substitute 

Strawberry and Asparagus Guano 

Ground Fish Scraps . , 

Nitrate of Soda 

Bone Meal Total 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Eagle Brand Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Dissolved Bone and Potash for Corn and Wheat, 

Double Dissolved Bone and Potash. 

Cooper's Genuine Eagle Island 

American Agricultural Chemical Co., New York — 

Holmes & Dawson Productive Cotton and Pea- 
nut Guano 9.00 22.70 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






. . 


t • 


12.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


. . 


. 


48.00 


. . 


. 


50.00 


8.00 


4.12 


2.00 


8.50 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


10.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


7.00 


8.24 


2.50 


7.00 


5.76 


5.00 


7.00 


4:12 


5.00 


7.00 


5.76 


7.00 


7.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


, , 


4.00 


16.00 


, . 


, , 


9.00 


2.8S 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.75 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.50 


1.65 


1.50 


8.50 


2.06 


1.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.50 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


2.88 


5.00 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


3.29 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


4.00 


7.00 


2.47 


4.00 


9.00 


2.88 


9.00 


. . 


8.24 


t t 


15.65 


# # 


20.00 


3.71 


50.00 
49.00 


. , 




12.00 


13.00 






14.00 




, , 


10.00 




2.00 


10.00 




4.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 



2.00 



The Bulletin. 



15 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Pno f- r 

Acid. 

Holmes & Dawson Triumph Soluble 8.00 

Holmes & Dawson Gold Dust Guano 9-00 

Savage Sons & Co. Purity Guano 8.00 

Lazaretto Truckers' Favorite 6.00 

Lazaretto Early Trucker 7-00 

Lazaretto Challenge Fertilizer 8.00 

Lazaretto Special for Tobacco and Potatoes 8.00 

Lazaretto Climax Plant Food 8.00 

Lazaretto Universal Compound 8.00 

Lazaretto Crop Grower 8.00 

Lazaretto High Grade Dissolved Bone and Pot- 
ash . . 12.00 

Lazaretto Alkaline Bone Phosphate. 12.00 

Lazaretto Dissolved Bone and Potash 10.00 

Lazaretto Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Reese Pacific Guano 8.00 

Reese Pacific Guano for Tobacco 8.50 

Canton Chemical Truckers' Special 7 Per Cent. . 6.00 

Canton Chemical Excelsior Trucker 7.00 

Canton Chemical Baker's Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Canton Chemical Baker's Fish Guano 8.00 

Canton Chemical Baker's Dissolved S. C. Bone. . 14.00 
Canton Chemical Baker's Standard High Grade 

Guano • 8 - 00 

Canton Chemical Gem Phosphate 12.00 

Canton Chemical Soluble Bone and Potash 10.00 

Canton Chemical Soluble Alkaline Bone 12.00 

Canton Chemical Game Guano , 8.00 

€anton Chemical Virginia Standard High Grade 

Manure 8.00 

Canton Chemical C. C. Special Compound 8.00 

Canton Chemical Superior High Grade Fertilizer, 8.00 

Detrick's Gold Basis 6.00 

Detrick's Special Trucker 7.00 

Detrick's Gold Eagle .' 6.00 

Detrick's Quickstep Bone and Potash S.00 

Detrick's Special Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Detrick's Vegetator Ammoniated Superphosphate, 8.00 

Detrick's Kangaroo Komplete Kompound 8.00 

Detrick's Royal Crop Grower 8.00 

Detrick's Fish Mixture 8.00 

Detrick's Victory Alkaline Bone 12.00 

Detrick's P. & B. Special 12.00 

Detrick's Soluble Bone Phosphate and Potash.. 10.00 

Detrick's XXtra Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Zell's 10 Per Cent Trucker 5.00 

Zell's 7 Per Cent Potato and Vegetable Manure, 6.00 

Zell's Truck Grower 7.00 

Zell's Special Compound for Potatoes and Vege- 
tables 8.00 

Zell's Tobacco Fertilizer S.00 

Zell's Bright Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Zell's Royal High Grade Fertilizer 9.00 

Zell's Special Compound for Tobacco 8.00 

Zell's Calvert Guano" S.00 

Zell's Ammonia Bone Superphosphate 6.00 

Zell's High Grade Potash Fertilizer 10.00 

Zell's Reliance High Grade Manure 8.00 

Zell's Fish Guano 8.00 

Zell's Dissolved Bone Phosphate 14.00 



•ogen. 


Potash. 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


5.70 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 




5.00 




3.00 




2.00 


i.65 


2.00 


2.47 


2.50 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 



2.06 



3.00 





2.00 




3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.06 


6.00 


2.47 


3.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 




5.00 




3.00 




2.00 


8.23 


3.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 




4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 



16 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Zell's Electric Phosphate 10.00 

Bull Head Potato and Vegetable Manure 6.00 

Enterprise Alkaline Phosphate 8.00 

Royal Alkaline Bone 10.00 

Palmetto Alkaline Phosphate 8.00 

Slingluff' s Bright Mixture 8.00 

Pure Ground Bone '. Total 45.00 

Muriate of Potash 

A. A. C. Co.'s 16 Per Cent Superphosphate 10.00 

Detrick's Superior Animal Bone Fertilizer 0.00 

Lazaretto Retriever Animal Bone Fertilizer. . . . 9.00 

Zell's Victoria Animal Bone Compound 9.00 

Canton Chemical Bone Fertilizer 9.00 

Canton Chemical Virginia Standard Manure. . . . 8.00 

Purity Guano— 2-8-2— for S. S. & Co 8.00 

A. D. Adair & McCarty Bros., Atlanta, Oa. — 

Adair's Wheat and Grass Grower 10.00 

Adair's Dissolved Bone 12.00 

Adair's High Grade Dissolved Bone 14.00 

Adair's High Grade Dissolved Bone 16.00 

Adair's Formula 10.00 

Adair's Special Potash Mixture 8.00 

Adair's Ammoniated Dissolved Bone S.00 

Adair's High Grade Blood and Bone 10.00 

Adair's Soluble Pacific Guano 10.00 

McCarty's Cotton Special 10.00 

McCarty's Wheat Special 10.00 

McCarty's Corn Special 10.00 

McCarty's Soluble Bone 10.00 

McCarty's High Grade Com Grower 10.00 

McCarty's High Grade Cotton Grower 10.00 

Planters' Soluble Fertilizer 8.00 

Blood, Bone and Tankage 9.00 

High Grade Potash Compound 10.00 

Golden Grain Compound S.00 

A. & M. 13-4 13.00 

David Harum High Grade Guano 10.00 

Asheville Packing Co., Asheville, N. C. — 

Asheville Packing Co.'s Bone and Potash 10.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 8-4 Fertilizer 8.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 8-1-3 Fertilizer 8.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 8-2-2 Fertilizer S.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s Potato Grower 10.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 8-5-5 Special Garden Fer- 
tilizer 8.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s High Grade Potato, 

8-2-10 S.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s Special Fruit Grower. . . S.00 
Asheville Packing Co.'s 17 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 17.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 14 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 14.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 13 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 13.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 12 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s Blood and Bone 8.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 




2.00 


4.12 


7.00 


. t 


5.00 


m , 


4.00 


. . 


4.00 


2.06 


2.50 


3.29 


• • 




50.00 


1.86 


4.00 


1.86 


4.00 


1.86 


4.00 


1.86 


4.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 



4.00 





4.00 


1JS5 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65' 


2.00 


.82 


3.00 


.82 


3.00 


.82 


3.00 


.82 


1.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


.82 


2.00 


t 


4.00 


.82 


3.00 


. 


4.00 


3.30 


4.00 




2.00 


u 


4.00 


.82 


3.00 


1.70 


2.00 


• 


6.00 


4.25 


5.00 


1.70 


10.00 


1.70 


5.00 



2.47 



3.00 



The Bulletin. 



17 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Baugh & Sons Co., Phila., Pa., and Norfolk, Va. — 

Baugh's 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Baugh's 5-6-5 Guano 

Baugh's New Process 10 Per Cent Guano 

Baugh's Fish Mixture 

Baugh's Fertilizer for Wheat and Grass 

Baugh's Fish, Bone and Potash 

Baugh's Animal Bone and Potash Compound for 
All Crops 

Baugh's Complete Animal Bone Fertilizer 

Baugh's Peruvian Guano Substitute for Potatoes 
and All Vegetables 

Baugh's Grand Rapids High Grade Truck Guano, 

Baugh's Special Tobacco Guano 

Baugh's Fruit and Berry Guano 

Baugh's 7 Per Cent Potato Guano 

Baugh's Soluble Alkaline Superphosphate." 

Baugh's Special Manure for Melons 

Baugh's Sweet Potato Guano 

Baugh's Potato and Truck Special 

Baugh's Special Potato Manure 

Baugh's Fine Ground Fish 

Baugh's Raw Bone Meal, Warranted Pure, Total 

Baugh's High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Baugh's High Grade Tobacco Guano 

Baugh's High Grade Potash Mixture 

Baugh's High Grade Cotton and Truck Guano. . 

Baugh's Pure Animal Bone and Muriate of Pot- 
ash Mixture 

Baugh's Pure Dissolved Animal Bone 

Glover's Special Potato Guano 

Fine Ground Blood 

Genuine German Kainit 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Muriate of Potash 

High Grade Sulphate of Potash 

Baugh's Excelsior Guano 

Randolph's Bone and Potash Mixture for All 
Crops 

Nitrate of Soda 



Avail. 




. 


Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






16.00 






6.00 


4.12 


5.00 


5.00 


8.23 


2.50 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


5.00 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


5.00 


8.00 


2.47 


10.00 


6.00 


5.76 


5.00 


10.00 


, . 


2.00 


10.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


7.00 


2.88 


7.00 


5.00 


1.65 


10.00 


. . 


S.23 


, . 


21.50 


3.70 


. . 


14.00 


. . 


, , 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


10.00 


, , 


4.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


15.00 


2.47 


5.00 


13.00 


2.06 


, , 


7.00 


3.30 
13.00 

21.00 


8.00 
12.00 

48.00 




, , 


48.00 


8.00 


.82 


4.00 



10.00 



3.00 



15.00 



The John L. Bailey Co., Elm City, N. C.- 
Fairmont 

Stag Brand 



8.00 2.47 3.00 

8.00 1.65 2.00 



J. A. Benton, Ruffln, N. C. — 

North Carolina Bright Fertilizer. 



C. J. Burton Guano Co., Baltimore. 1/77. — ■ 

Acid Phosphate 

Burton's Butcher Bone 

Burton's High Grade 

Tobacco Queen 

High Grade Tobacco 

Burton's Best , . . . 



9.00 


1.65 


2.00 


4.00 






8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


3.20 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 



Best & Thompson, Goldsboro, N. C- 
Pure German Kainit 



12.00 



18 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Blacksburg Guano Co., Inc., Blacksburg, Va. — 

Red Letter for Tobacco 

Jim Crow for Tobacco 

Alliance for Tobacco 

Red Letter 

Alliance Guano 

B. G. Co., Inc., Acid Pbospbate 

B. G. Co., Inc., Bone and Potasb 

Old Bellefonte 

Red Warrior for Tobacco 

Blaekstone Special for Tobacco 

Bellefonte for Tobacco 

Hard Casb for Tobacco 

Bradley Fertilizer Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Standard Bradley's Palmetto Acid Pbospbate.. 12.00 

Standard Bradley's XXX Acid Pbospbate 13.00 

Standard Bradley's Wheat Grower 10.00 

Standard Bradley's Bone and Potash 10.00 

Standard Bradley's Cereal Guano S.00 

Standard Bradley's X Guano S.00 

High Grade Bradley's Guano 8.00 

High Grade Bradley's Circle Guano 8.00 

High Grade Bradley's Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Standard Bradley's Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Standard Bradley's Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 9.00 

Standard Bradley's Patent Superphosphate 9.00 

Standard B. D. Sea Fowl Guano 9.00 

Standard Eagle Ammoniated Bone Superphos- 
phate 9.00 

German Kainit 

The Berkley Chemical Co., Norfolk, Va, — 

Royal Truck Grower 6.00 

Mascot Truck Guano 7.00 

Victory Special Crop Grower 7.00 

Advance Crop Grower 8.00 

Berkley Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Monitor Animal Bone Fertilizer 9.00 

Select Crop Grower 8.50 

Brandon Superphosphate 8.00 

Berkley Plant Food 10.00 

Berkley Bone and Potash Mixture 11.00 

Berkley Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Superior Bone and Potash 8.00 

Laurel Potash Mixture 10.00 

Resolute Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Long Leaf Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Bragato Fertilizer Co., Washington, N. C. — 

Chocowinity Special Tobacco Guano 5.00 

Tuckahoe Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Beaufort County Guano 8.00 

Old Reliable Premium Guano S.00 

Hanover Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Palmetto Acid Phosphate 14.00 



Avail. 
Phos. 
Acid. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


14.00 


, . 


. . 


10.00 


. . 


2.00 


8.00 


3.30 


2.00 


9.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 





2.00 


, # 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


3.29 


4.00 


1.S5 


i.oo 


1.85 


1.00 


1.85 


1.00 


1.85 


1.00 




12.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.85 


4.00 


2.06 


2.50 


1.65 


2.00 




4.00 




2.00 


* * 


4.00 




2.00 


* * 


12.00 


. . 


50.00 


15.65 


, . 


1.65 


2.00 


3.29 


6.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 



The Bulletin. 



19 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Long Acre Bone Phosphate 14.00 

Pamlico Trucker 7.00 

Riverview Potato Grower 6.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Farmers' Union Meal Mixture 9.00 

Columbia Guano Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Columbia High Grade 16 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 16.00 

Columbia 14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Columbia Dissolved Bone 13.00 

Columbia Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Columbia S and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture 8.00 

Columbia 10 and 4 Bone and Potash 'Mixture. . . 10.00 

Columbia Bone and Potash for Grain 10.00 

Columbia Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Columbia 7 Per Cent Special Truck Guano 7.00 

Columbia Special Truck Guano 8.00 

Columbia Potato Guano 7.00 

Columbia C. S. M. Special 9.00 ' 

Columbia Special 4-8-3 S.00 

Columbia Special Wheat Fertilizer 8.00 

Columbia Special Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Olympia Cotton Guano 8.00 

Columbia Soluble Guano 8.00 

Crown Brand Peanut Guano 7.00 

Our Best Meal Guano 8.00 

Special Peanut Grower S.00 

Crews' Special 5.85 

Hayes' Special 8.00 

McRae's Special 9.00 

McRae's High Grade Guano 8.00 

Hyco Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Rex Brand Ammoniated Guano 9.00 

Carolina Soluble Guano : 9.00 

Pelican Ammoniated Guano 8.00 

Sulphate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Trojan Tobacco Guano S.00 

Columbia 10-5 Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Columbia Top Dresser 

Cumberland iBone and Phosphate Co., Portland, Ale., 
and Charleston, 8. C. — 

Standard Cumberland Bone and Superphosphate 

of Lime 9.00 

The Coe-M or timer Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Genuine Peruvian Guano Ex. S. S. Planet Venus, . 15.00 
Genuine Peruvian Guano Ex. S. S. Celia Chincha 

Island 9.00 

Genuine Peruvian Guano Ex. S. % S. Celia Lobos 

Island 17.00 

Nitrate of Soda 

Kainit 

Thomas' Phosphate Big Slag 17.00 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 



Nitrogen. Potash. 



4.12 
5.76 

*2.26 



1.85 



S.00 

5.00 

12.00 

2.00 





4.00 


, , 


4.00 


, t 


3.00 


, m 


2.00 


5.77 


7.00 


2.30 


4.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.27 


2.00 


3.30 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


, . 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


.82 


4.00 


4.49 


10.00 


3.30 


3.00 


4.12 


7.00 


3.30 


7.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


1.00 


1.65 


1.00 


3.30 


4.00 


. . 


50.00 


. . 


12.00 


t . 


48.00 


15.56 


. . 


3.30 


4.00 




5.00 


7.42 


3.00 



1.00 



3.53 


2.80 


5.53 


2.25 


2.80 
14.76 


2.80 
12.00 




48.00 
49.00 



20 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



Colder Bros., Wilmington, N. C. — 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Craven Chemical Co., New Bern, N. C. — 

O: E. Foy High Grade Guano (Trade Mark) . . . 8.00 

Jewel Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Neuse Truck Grower 6.00 

Pantego Potato Guano 7.00 

Hanover Standard Guano 8.00 

Elite Cotton Guano 8.00 

Marvel Great Truck Grower 8.00 

Duplin Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Gaston High Grade Fertilizer 8.00 

Trent Bone and Potash 10.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Craven Chemical Co.'s Truck Guano, 5-10-2% . . 5.00 

William H. Camp, Petersburg, Va. — 

Lion and Monkey Bone and Potash 10.00 

Camp's Red Head Chemicals 8.00 

Camp's Green Head Chemicals, Irish Potato.... 7.00 

Camp's Yellow Head Chemicals 8.00 

Lion and Monkey for Tobacco S.00 

Clayton Oil Mill, Clayton, N. C. — 

Clayton Guano S.00 

Cotton Queen 8.00 

Summer Queen S.00 

Cowell, Swan & McCotter Co., Bayboro, N. C. — 

Cowell, Swan & McCotter Co.'s Cabbage Guano, 5.00 
Cowell, Swan & McCotter Co.'s Tobacco Guano, 8.00 

Bone and Fish Guano 8.00 

Crop Guano S.00 

Rust Proof Cotton Guano 8.00 

Standard Cotton Grower 8.00 

Quick Grower Guano S.00 

Great Cabbage and Potato Guano 7.00 

Aurora Trucker 7.00 

Oriental Trucker 7.00 

High Grade Truck Guano 7.00 

Potato Favorite Guano 7.00 

Champion Guano S.00 

Bone Phosphate 14.00 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

German Kainit 

Cowell's Great Tobacco Grower S.00 

Combahee Fertilizer Co.\ Charleston, S. C. — 

Combahee 16 Per Cent Dissolved Bone 16.00 

Combahee 14 Per cent Dissolved Bone 14.00 

High Grade Cotton S.00 

High Grade Cantaloupe 10.00 

B. B. & P 8.50 

Nitrate of Soda 

Combahee Kainit 

Malloy's Special for Cotton 8.65 



2.47 



12.00 
50.00 



3.00 



4.94 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


3.29 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


m 


2.00 


. 


12.00 


8.24 


2.50 




4.00 


2.25 


2.00 


6.15 


10.00 


2.87 


7.50 


2.46 


3.00 


3.00 


3.00 


2.00 


2.00 


2.00 


2.00 


8.25 


2.50 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


3.00 


3.30 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


5.77 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


4.12 


8.00 


4.12 


5.00 


3.30 


7.00 


2.47 


3.00 




12.00 


2.47 


3.00 



2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


10.00 


2.06 


1.00 


14.83 


. . 


, , 


12.00 


1.65 


2.00 



The Bulletin. 21 

Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Special Mixture S.00 

10-4-5 Trucker 10.00 

10-3-10 Trucker 10.00 

Acid and Potash 8-00 

Chickamauga Fertilizer Works, Atlanta, Ga. — 

Chickarnauga Complete Fertilizer 8.00 

Chickamauga High Grade Fertilizer 10.00 

Chickamauga High Grade Plant Food 10.00 

Chickamauga Wheat Special 10.00 

Chickamauga Corn Special 10.00 

Chickamauga Standard Corn Grower 8.00 

Chickamauga Dissolved Bone 12.00 

Chickamauga High Grade Dissolved Bone 14.00 

Chickamauga High Grade Dissolved Bone No. 16, 16.00 

Chickamauga Bone and Potash 10.00 

Chickamauga Alkaline Bone 10.00 

Georgia Home Guano 8.00 

Special Corn Compound 10.00 

Blood, Bone and Tankage 9.00 

Ben Hur High Grade Guano 10.00 

Old Glory Mixture 10.00 

Chickamauga Wheat and Corn Grower 10.00 

Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertilizer Works, Raleigh, 
N. C— 
Home & Son's High Grade Bone and Potash .... 11.00 

Special Bone and Potash Mixture: 10.00 

Buncombe Wheat Grower » 8.00 

Buncombe Corn Grower 8.00 

Morris & Scarboro's Special Bone and Potash . . 10.00 

Electric Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Climax Dissolved Bone 14.00 

Sterling Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Staple Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Bone Meal Total 20.00 

Bone Meal Total 26.00 

Crown Ammoniated Guano 8.00 

Ely Ammoniated Fertilizer 8.00 

Eclipse Ammoniated Guano 8.00 

Planters' Pride 8.00 

Caraleigh, Special Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Pacific Tobacco and Cotton Grower 9.00 

Home's Best 8.00 

Caraleigh Top Dresser 3.00 

Crow Fertilizer Co., Monroe, A 7 . C. — 

Kainit 1200 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

W. B. Cooper, Wilmington, N. C. — 

Muriate of Potash •• 46.00 

Kainit 1200 

Sulphate of Potash •• 48.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


1.65 


2.00 


3.30 


5.00 


2.47 


10.00 




4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


.82 


3.00 


.82 


• 3.00 


1.65 


2.00 




2.00 




4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


4.00 


.82 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


.82 


1.00 




4.00 




5.00 




4.00 




4.00 




4.00 




3.00 


, . 


2.00 





12.00 




50.00 


t t 


50.00 


15.65 


. . 


3.91 


, . 


2.14 


. , 


1.64 


2.00 


1.64 


2.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.24 


4.00 



22 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Contentnea Guano Co., Wilson, N. C. — 

Special Formula for Tobacco 

Special Formula for Cotton 

Contentnea Corn Special 

Davis' Best Fertilizer 

Special Formula for Tobacco 

Special Formula Fertilizer, 9-2Vo-5 

Special Formula for Tobacco 

Higb Grade 14 Per Cent Acid 

Pick Leaf 

Top Notcb 

Blood and Bone Cotton Compound 

C. P. Bey, Beaufort, N. C— 

Ground Fish Scrap 

Etiwan Fertilizer Co., Charleston, 8. C. — 

Plow Brand Ammoniated Fertilizer 8.00 

Plow Brand Special Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Plow Brand Acid Phosphate with Potash 11.00 

Etiwan Potash Bone 10.00 

Etiwan Special Potash Mixture 8.00 

Etiwan Soluble Bone with Potash 10.00 

Etiwan Acid Phosphate with Potash 11.00 

Etiwan Dissolved Bone 13.00 

Etiwan High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Etiwan Superior Cotton Fertilizer 8.00 

Etiwan Special Cotton Fertilizer 8.00 

Etiwan Cotton Compound .' 8.00 

Etiwan Ammoniated Fertilizer 8.00 

Etiwan High Grade Cotton Fertilizer S.00 

Diamond Soluble Bone 13.00 

X Diamond Soluble Bone with Potash 10.00 

XX Acid Phosphate with Potash 10.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Etiwan Blood and Bone Guano 9.00 

Plow Brand Raw Bone Superphosphate 9.00 

Farmers Guano Co., Raleigh, N. C. — 

Farmers' Formula 7.00 

Special Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Century Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Farmers' Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Bone Meal Total 20.00 

Nitrate of Soda 

Bone Meal Total 26.00 

State Standard Guano 8.00 

Big Crop Guano 8.00 

Toco Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Golden Grade Guano 8.00 

Farmers' Top Dresser 3.00 



Avail. 
Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






S.00 


3.28 


4.00 


S.00 


3.2S 


4.00 


5.00 


1.64 


5.00 


8.00 


3.28 


6.00 


8.00 


2.05 


3.00 


9.00 


2.05 


5.00 


8.00 


3.2S 


7.00 


14.00 


. . 


. . 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 



8.25 



1.65 


2.00 


3.30 


4.00 




1.00 




4.00 




4.00 




3.00 




1.00 


3.30 


6.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


2.00 




2.00 


# m 


2.00 


. . 


12.00 


2.06 


1.00 


2.06 


1.00 


2.47 


3.25 




4.00 




2.00 




12.00 




50.00 




50.00 


3.91 


, , 


15.65 


. . 


2.14 


, . 


1.64 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.24 


4.00 



The Bulletin. 



23 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Fremont Oil Mills, Fremont, N. C. — 

Up-to-date 

Nahunta Special 

Fremont Prolific Fertilizer 

Yelverton Bros.' Plant Food • 

Fremont Standard Fertilizer 

Home Run Guano 

Fremont Oil Mill Co.'s Special for Tobacco 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



Farmers Cotton Oil Co., Wilson, N. C. — 



German Kainit 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Contentnea Acid Phosphate 

Bonum Acid Phosphate 

16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Xtra Good Bone and Potash 

Crop King Guano 

Farmers' Special Guano 

Planters' Friend Guano 

Carolina Choice Tobacco Guano 

Wilson High Grade Guano 

J. D. Farrior's Special Guano 

Graves' Cotton Grower Guano ...... 

Golden Gem Guano 

Regal Tobacco Guano 

Dean's Special Guano 

Perfect Top Dresser 

Wilson Top Dresser 

Washington's Corn Mixture Guano. 



8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


5.00 






12.00 




20.57 


. . 






50.00 
50.00 




15.63 


. . 


13.00 


. . 


. . 


14.00 


. . 


. . 


16.00 


. . 


. . 


10.00 


. . 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.27 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.8S 


5.00 


8.00 


3.70 


7.00 


2.00 


S.23 


5.00 


2.00 


9.05 


4.00 


10.00 


.82 


5.00 



W. S. Farmer & Co., Baltimore, Md. 



Kainit ■ 

W. S. F. & Co.'s Dis. South Carolina . 

W. S. F. & Co.'s Fish Mixture 

W. S. F. & Co.'s Hawk Eye 

W. S. F. & Co.'s Tampico , 

Anne Arundel Trucker 



Germofert Manufacturing Co., Charleston, 8. C— 
Germofert Patented Vegetable Fertilizer, Total, 
Germofert Patented Extra. Special Cotton 

Grower 

Germofert Patented Special Cotton Grower 

Germofert Patented Standard Cotton Grower . . . 



25.00 



3.29 



12.00 



14.00 


. . 


. . 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


8.00 


3.70 


7.00 



6.00 



4.00 


3.29 


4.00 


6.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 



W. R. Grace & Co., New York — 

Nitrate of Soda • 

Griffith & Boyd Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Spring Crop Grower 6.50 

Ammoniated Bone and Potash 8.00 

Home Fertilizer and Chemical Co., Baltimore. Md. — 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 



15.00 



1.65 
1.65 



4.50 
2.00 



48.00 
50.00 



24 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

German Kainit 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Boykins' Alkaline Bone 

Boykins' Cereal Fertilizer 

Boykins' Dissolved Animal Bone. 

Boykins' Vegetable Fertilizer 

Boykins' Home Potato Grower 

Special Alkaline Mixture 

Phoenix Crop Grower 

Matchless Guano 

Home Fertilizer 

Cerealite Top Dressing 

Hadley, Harriss & Co., Wilson, N. C— 

Hadley Bros 

German Kainit 

Daisy Fish Mixture 

John Hadley Special High Grade Plant Food. . 

Top Dressing 

Golden Weed Tobacco Grower 

S. B. Harrell & Co., Norfolk, Va.— 

Harrell's Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Harrell's Champion Cotton and Peanut Grower. 8.00 
Harrell's Truck Guano 6.00 

Hardison & Co., Wadesboro, N. C. — 

Genuine German Kainit 

Hampton Guano Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Virginia Truck Grower 6.00 

Reliance Truck Guano 7.00 

Little's Favorite Crop Grower 7.00 

P. P. P. (Princess Prolific Producer) 8.00 

Hampton Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Arlington Animal Bone Fertilizer 9.00 

Alpha Crop Grower 8.50 

Shirley's Superphosphate 8.00 

Hampton Crop Grower. . . . 10.00 

Hampton Bone and Potash Mixture 11.00 

Dauntless Potash Mixture 10.00 

Hampton Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Supreme Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Genuine German Kainit 

Excelsior Bone and Potash S.00 

Extra Tobacco Guano S.00 

M. P. Hubbard & Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Hubbard's Bermuda Guano 7.00 

Hubbard's Special Cotton and Corn Fertilizer. . . 7.00 



Avail. 
Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 








15.67 






20.62 


12.00 


14.00 


, . 


. . 


10.00 


. . 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


12.00 


1.65 


2.00 


6.00 


4.12 


6.00 


6.00 


3.30 


4.00 


10.00 


. . 


5.00 


8.00 


2.4S 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


4.00 


. . 


5.77 


7.00 




7.6S 


3.00 


8.00 


2.25 


2.50 


. . 


. . 


12.00 


S.00 


1.64 


2.00 


8.00 


1.64 


2.00 


. . 


7.38 


6.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 



1.65 
5.76 



2.00 
5.00 



12.00 



5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.85 


4.00 


2.06 


2.50 


1.65 


2.00 




4.00 


. , 


2.00 




2.00 




50.00 


15.65 


. . 


. , 


12.00 


. . 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


5.78 


4.00 


1.65 


5.00 



Hubbard Fertilizer Co., Baltimore, Md. — 
Parker & Hunter's B. B. B 



8.00 



.82 



3.00 



The Bulletin. 



25 



12.00 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Hall & Pear sail (Inc.), Wilmington, N. C— 

German Kalnit 

L. Harvey & Son Co., Einston. N. C. — 

Nitrate of Soda 15.50 

The Imperial Co., Norfolk, Va.-*- 

Imperial Bright Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Imperial Cotton Grower 8.00 

Imperial 5-6-7 Potato Guano 6.00 

Imperial Snowflake Cotton Grower 8.00 

Imperial Peanut and Corn Guano S.00 

Imperial Champion Guano 8.00 

Imperial X. L. O. Cotton Guano 8.00 

Imperial Cisco Soluble Guano 8.00 

Imperial Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Imperial Laughinghouse Special Tobacco Guano, 4.00 

Imperial Standard Premium 8.00 

Imperial Cubanola Tobacco Guano 4.00 

Imperial Martin County Special Crop Grower.. 9.00 

Imperial High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Imperial Genuine German Kaiuit 

Imperial Special 7 Per Cent Guano for Potatoes, 5.00 

Imperial 10 Per Cent Guano 5.00 

Imperial Sweet Potato Guano 6.00 

Imperial Williams' Special Potato Guano 6.00 

Imperial Fish and Bone 6.00 

Imperial Lucky Strike Potato Guano 7.00 

Imperial 7-7-7 Potash Guano 7.00 

Imperial Bone and Potash 10.00 

Imperial High Grade Irish Potato Guano 7.00 

Imperial Tennessee Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda •- 

Imperial Roanoke Crop Grower 7.00 

17 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 17.00 

Imperial Asparagus Mixture 6.00 

Imperial Yellow Bark Sweet Potato Guano 8.00 

Dawson's Cotton Grower 7.00 

Imperial 6-6-6 Crop Grower 6.00 

John King, Mt. Olive, N. C. — 

Nitrate of Soda 1500 

R. L. KirJavood, Bennettsville, N. C. — 

Nitrate of Soda I 400 

Laurinburg Oil Co., Laurinburg, N. C. — 

Flora Dora 6.40 2.13 

Lister's Agricultural Chemical Works, Newark, N. J — 

Lister's Ammoniated Dissolved Bone Phosphate. 8.00 2.06 

Lister's Success Fertilizer 8.00 1.65 

Lister's Standard Pure Bone Superphosphate of 

Lime 900 1.65 

American Agricultural Chemical Co.'s Buyers' 

Choice Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Lister's Bone Meal Total 20.60 3.30 



2.05 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


4.11 


7.00 


3.29 


4.00 


1.64 


2.00 


1.64 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.64 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


3.29 


6.00 


1.64 


2.00 


2.47 


5.00 


2.26 


2.00 


" * 


12.00 


5.76 


5.00 


8.23 


2.50 


1.64 


6.00 


4.11 


5.00 


3.29 


4.00 


4.11 


8.00 


5.76 


7.00 




2.00 


4.11 


8.00 




50.00 


15.63 


, , 


2.47 


2.00 


4.11 


7.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.67 


2.75 


4.92 


7.00 



3.00 



2.00 
2.00 

2.00 



26 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



A. S. Lee & Sons Co. (Inc.), Richmond, Va. — 

Lee's Plant Bed Fertilizer 8.00 

Lee's Bone and Potash 9.00 

Lee's Corn Fertilizer 10.00 

The J. J. Littlejohn Co., Jonesville, S. C. — 

Littlejohn's Superior Cotton Fertilizer 10.00 

E. H. & J. A. Meadows Co., New Bern, N. C. — : 

Hookerton Cotton Guano 8.00 

Meadows' Cotton Guano 8.00 

Meadows' All Crop Guano 8.00 

Meadows' Roanoke Guano S.OO 

Meadows' Gold Leaf Tobacco Guano S.OO 

Meadows' Lobos Guano 8.00 

Meadows' Great Potato Guano 7.00 

Meadows' Great Cabbage Guano 7.00 

Meadows' 10 Per Cent Guano 6.00 

Meadows' Sea Bird Guano 900 

Meadows' Dissolved Bone and Potash Compound, 10.00 

Meadows' German Kainit 

Meadows' Diamond Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Dixon's High Grade Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Parker's Special Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Meadows' Dissolved Bone and Potash Compound, 10.00 

Brooks' Special Tobacco Grower 8.00 

The Miller Fertilizer Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Special Tobacco Grower S.OO 

Standard Phosphate 8.00 

Ammoniated Dissolved Bone 8.00 

High Grade Potato 6.00 

Tobacco King 8.00 

Profit S.OO 

Standard Potato S.OO 

Potato and Vegetable Guano S.OO 

Trucker S.OO 

Farmers' Profit S.OO 

Harmony S.OO 

Corn and Peanut Grower 10.50 

No. 1 Potato and Vegetable Grower S.OO 

Clinch 10.00 

4 Per Cent Tobacco 8.00 

Miller's 7 Per Cent 7.00 

Miller's Irish Potato S.OO 

Miller's 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Kainit 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

S. C. Rock 14.00 

The Miller Fertilizer Co.'s 10 and 4 Per Cent. . . 10.00 



2.00 



1.65 



2.00 
4.00 
2.00 



3.00 



1.64 


2.00 


1.64 


2.00 


2.05 


2.50 


2.05 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


4.11 


5.00 


4.11 


8.00 


5.76 


7.00 


8.23 


2.50 


3.29 


2.50 


t 


2.00 


• 


12.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


4.00 


, 


5.00 


2.47 


5.00 


1.65 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


4.12 


7.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


4.00 


4.12 


5.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 




2.25 


3.71 


7.00 




2.00 


3.29 


4.00 


5.77 


7.00 


3.29 


4.00 



12.00 



4.00 



The Mapes Formula and Peruvian Guano Co., 1-'i3 

Liberty Street, New York — 

Mapes' Economical Potato Manure 4.00 

Mapes' Vegetable or Complete Manure for Light 

Soils 6.00 

Mapes' Corn Manure S.OO 

Mapes' Complete Manure, "A" Brand 10.00 



3.29 



S.OO 



4.94 


6.00 


2.47 


6.00 


2.47 


2.50 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

C. F. Moore, Cher aw, 8. C. — 

Muriate of Potash 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



49.00 



John F. McNair, Laurinburg, N. C- 

Genuine German Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 



D. B. Martin Co., Richmond, Va. — 

Martin's 7 Per Cent Guano 

Martin's Early Truck and Vegetable Grower 

Martin's Clarernount Vegetable Grower 

Martin's Red Star Brand 

Martin's Bull Head Fertilizer 

Martin's Tobacco Special 

Martin's Carolina Cotton Fertilizer 

Martin's Old Virginia Favorite 

Martin's Corn and Cereal Special 

Martin's Gilt Edge Potato Manure 

Martin's Animal Bone Potato Guano 

Martin's Animal Bone Potato Compound 

Martin's Pure Dissolved Animal Bone 

Martin's Pure Ground Bone Total 

Martin's Raw Bone Meal Total 

Martin's Animal Tankage, Ground Total 

Martin's Acid Phosphate 

Mai-tin's Potash and Soluble Bone 

Martin's High Grade Blood 

Martin's Blood 

Acid Phosphate 

Potash and Soluble Bone 

Potash and Soluble Bone 

Potash and Soluble Bone 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Blood 

Blood 

Blood 

Genuine German Kainit 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Pure Ground Bone Total 

Martin's Carolina Special 



Marietta Fertilizer Co., Atlanta, Ga. — 

Lion Power Guano 

Lion Potash Compound 

Lion High Grade Dissolved Bone. 

Lion Crop Producer 

Lion Favorite Guano 



Marsh-Lee & Co., Marshville, N. C. — 

Marsh's High Grade Acid 

Marsh's Cotton Fertilizer, 8-2-2. 

Marsh's Guano for Corn 

Marsh's Special 8-3-3 



Raven Brand 

J. W. McLaughlin Co., Raeford, N. C- 
Nitrate of Soda 



14.76 



12.00 



6.00 


5.74 


5.00 


6.00 


3.28 


8.00 


7.00 


2.46 


5.00 


S.00 


3.28 


4.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


7.00 


2.46 


10.00 


6.00 


4.10 


7.00 


16.00 


1.65 


2.50 


12.00 


1.65 


2.00 


22.90 


1.65 


2.00 


21.00 


3.69 


. . 


16.00 


4.92 


, . 


16.00 


. , 


. . 


12.00 


. . 


5.00 




13.94 


. . 




12.30 


. , 


14.00 


# . 


. . 


12.00 


. . 


3.00 


10.00 


. . 


5.00 


10.00 


, , 


2.00 




15.52 


, . 




20.50 
10.66 


•• 




9.84 
12.30 








12.00 






50.00 


' 


• 


50.00 


22.90 


2.46 




8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


, . 


4.00 


14.00 


. . 


. . 


10.00 


. . 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


14.00 






8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.50 


3.00 


8.00 


2.65 


2.00 



15.00 



28 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



The MacMurphy Co., Charleston, 8. C. — 

Special 8-3-3 Guano 8.00 

Special 8-2-2 Cotton and Corn Guano 8.00 

Cotton and Corn Guano, 9-2-2 ' 9.00 

Wilcox & Gibbs Co.'s Manipulated Guano 9.00 

Cotton and Corn Guano, 9-3-3 9.00 

High Grade Acid Phosphate, 14 Per Cent 14.00 

Pure German Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 

Muriate of Potash 

Acid Phosphate, 13 Per Cent 13.00 

N. C. Cotton Oil Co., Wilmington, N. C. — 

Wilmington High Grade S.00 

Wilmington Cotton Grower 8.00 

Wilmington Standard 8.00 

Wilmington Truck Grower S:00 

Wilmington Special 8.00 

Carter's Lifter 8.00 

Clark's Special 8.00 

Wilmington Banner 8.00 

North Carolina Cotton Oil Co., Raleigh, N. C. — 

Raleigh Standard Guano 8.00 

North Carolina Cotton Oil Co., Charlotte, N. C. — 

Majestic 8.00 

N. C. Cotton Oil Co., Henderson. N. C. — 

Uneedit Cotton Grower 8.00 

Uneedit Tobacco Fertilizer 9.00 

Vance Cotton Grower S.00 

Pride of Vance 9.00 

Henderson Cotton Grower 8.00 

Henderson Tobacco Fertilizer 9.00 

Franklin Cotton Grower 8.00 

Franklin Tobacco Fertilizer 9.00 

New Bern Cotton Oil and Fertilizer Mills, New Bern. 
N. C— 

Oriole Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Greene County Standard Fertilizer 8.00 

Jones County Premium Crop Grower 8.00 

Onslow Farmers' Reliance Guano 8.00 

High Grade Fertilizer 8.00 

Foy's High Grade Fertilizer 8.00 

Pitt's Prolific Golden Tobacco Grower. 8.00 

Craven Cotton Guano 8.00 

Lenoir Bright Leaf Tobacco Grower. . ". 8.00 

Ives' Irish Potato Guano 7.00 

Dunn's Standard Truck Grower 7.00 

Pamlico Electric Top Dresser 5.00 

Special Corn and Peanut Grower 11.00 

Carteret Bone and Potash 10.00 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Sulphate of Potash 

• Muriate of Potash 

Bogue Fish Scrap 



2.47 
1.65 
1.65 
2.26 
2.47 



14.82 



2.26 



1.65 



3.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
3.00 

12.00 

48.00 



2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


2.50 


3.30 


.4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


3.00 



2.00 



2.00 



1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 



3.30 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


4.13 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


8.25 


2.50 




2.00 




2.00 




12.00 




50.00 




4S.00 



7.42 



The Bulletin. 



29 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Favorite Cotton Grower C. S. M. 



Norfolk Fertilizer Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Oriana Cotton Guano 

Oriana C. S. M. Special 

Oriana Tobacco Guano 

Oriana 3-8-3 for Cotton 

Oriana Crop Grower 

Oriana Bone and Potash 

Oriana 14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Oriana 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Genuine German Kainit 

Iola Acid Phosphate 

Oriana First Step Tobacco Guano 

Oriana 4-4-6 High Grade Tobacco Guano . 
Pine Top Special Crop Grower 



Navassa Guano Co., Wilmington, N. C. — 

Ammoniated Soluble Navassa Guano 

Clarendon Tobacco Guano 

Occoneechee Tobacco Guano 

Coree Tobacco Guano 

Harvest King Guano 

Mogul Guano 

Kainit . 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Orton Guano 

Navassa Universal Fertilizer 

Navassa Wheat Mixture.- 

Navassa Wheat and Grass Grower 

Navassa Special Wheat Mixture 

Navassa Gray Land Mixture 

Navassa Dissolved Bone with Potash 

Navassa Acid Phosphate 

Navassa Dissolved Bone 

Navassa Acid Phosphate 

Navassa Acid Phosphate 

Navassa Special Trucker 

Navassa Strawberry Top Dressing 

Navassa Blood and Bone Meal Mixture 

Navassa Creole Guano 

Navassa Root Crop Fertilizer 

Navassa Carib Guano 

Navassa Guano for Tobacco 

Navassa Grain Fertilizer 

Navassa Fruit Growers' Fertilizer 

Navassa Cotton Seed Meal Special 3 Per Cent 

Guano 

Navassa Cotton Seed Meal Guano 

Navassa Cotton Fertilizer 

Navassa Complete Fertilizer 

Navassa High Grade Guano 

Navassa Acid Phosphate with Potash 



Avail. 






Phos. Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






15.67 


. , 


20.62 


. . 


S.00 


2.27 


2.00 


8.00 


1.64 


2.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.64 


3.00 


10.00 


. 


2.00 


14.00 


. 


. . 


16.00 


• 


12.00 


13.00 


, 


. . 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


4.00 


3.29 


6.00 


5.00 


1.64 


6.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 






12.00 






48.00 




t 


50.00 


15.65 


. , 


20.59 


. . 


S.00 


2.47 


4.00 


8.50 


2.06 


1.00 


10.00 




2.25 


10.00 




4.00 


12.00 




4.00 


12.00 




4.00 


10.00 


, , 


2.00 


12.00 


, , 




13.00 


, . 


. . 


14.00 


, , 


. . 


16.00 




, . 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


2.06 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


5.00 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


8.00 


2.47 


10.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


6.00 


8.00 


2.47 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


1.65 


1.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


. . 


4.00 



30 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



The Nitrate Agencies Co., Savannah, Ga. — 

Nitrate of Soda 

O. Ooer & Sons Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Ober's Complete Fertilizer 6.00 

Special High Grade Fertilizer 9.00 

Ober's Special Compound for Tobacco S.00 

Ober's Standard Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Ober's Special Ammoniated Dissolved Bone 9.00 

Ober's Special Cotton Compound 8.00 

Ober's Soluble Ammoniated Superphosphate of 

Lime 8.00 

Ober's Farmers' Mixture 9.00 

Ober's Dissolved Bone, Phosphate and Potash . . . 10.00 

Ober's Acid Phosphate with Potash 8.00 

Ober's Standard Potash Compound 12.00 

Ober's High Grade Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Ober's Dissolved Bone Phosphate 14.00 

Nitrate of Soda 

Muriate of Potash 

Kaiuit 

Cooper's Pungo Guano 8.00 

Pure Raw Bone Meal Total 21.00 

The Pocomoke Guano Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Garrett's Grape Grower 8.00 

Coast Line Truck Guano 5.U0 

Freeman's 7 Per Cent Irish Potato Grower 6.00 

Seaboard Popular Trucker 6.00 

Standard Truck Guano 7.00 

Faultless Ammoniated Superphosphate 7.00 

Harvest High Grade Monarch 8.00 

Monarch Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Monticello Animal Bone Fertilizer 9.00 

Cinco Tobacco Guano 8.50 

Crescent Complete Compound 8.00 

Hornthal's Tobacco Guano 8.00 

L. P. H. Premium ". 8.00 

Electric Crop Grower 8.50 

Pamlico Superphosphate S.UU 

Pocomoke Superphosphate 8.50 

Pocomoke Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Pure Ground Bone Total 2U.00 

10-2 Potash Mixture 10.00 

Alkali Bone 11.00 

Peerless Acid Phosphate , 14.00 

Superb Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Genuine German Kainit : 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda - 

Pocomoke Defiance Bone and Potash 8.00 

Smith's Special Formula 4.00 

Pamlico Chemical Co., Washington, N. C. — 

Pamlico Favorite Guano 7.00 

Pamlico Bone and Fish Guano 8.00 

Pamlico Potato Guano 7.00 

Pamlico Cotton Guano 8.00 

Pamlico 7-7-7 Guano 7.00 



15.00 



4.12 


6.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


.82 


2.00 


. , 


2.00 


• • • 


2.00 




5.00 


15.50 




, , 


48.00 


. . 


12.00 


2.06 


2.00 




3.71 


3.29 


10.00 


8.23 


3.00 


5.76 


5.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.85 


4.00 


2.06 


2.50 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


, , 


4.00 


3.70 


, , 


, . 


2.00 




2.00 




12.00 


, t 


50.00 


15.65 


. . 


. . 


4.00 


3.30 


6.00 


4.12 


5.00 


1.65 


2.00 


4.12 


7.00 


1.65 


2.00 


5.77 


7.00 



The Bulletin. 



31 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Pamlico 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Pamlico Bone and Potash 14.00 

Cowell's Great Potato Grower 8.00 

Cowell's Great Cabbage Grower 5.00 

Tobacco Growers' Friend S.OO 

Genuine German Kainit 

Farmers' Best Guano 8.00 

Farmers' Friend S.OO 

Staton & Taylor's Special Grower 8.00 

Prosperity Cotton Grower 9.00 

Pamlico High Grade Tobacco Grower S.OO 

Pamlico S-4-4 Guano 8.00 

Pamlico 6-3-6 Guano 6.00 

Pamlico Bone and Potash 10.00 

Planters Fertilizer and Phosphate Co., Charleston, 
8. C— 

Planters' Bright Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Planters' High Grade Cabbage Fertilizer 7.00 

Planters' Fertilizer S.OO 

Planters' Soluble Guano S.OO 

Planters' Standard Guano 8.75 

Nitrate of Soda 

Planters' High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Planters' Standard Fertilizer 8.00 

Planters' Soluble Bone 13.00 

Sulphate of Potash 

Planters' German Kainit 

Parsons (G Ilardison, Wadeshoro, N. C. — 

Nitrate of Soda 

Z. V. Pate, Laurel Hill, N. C— 

Nitrate of Soda 

Pearsall & Co., Wilmington, N. C. — 

Kainit 

Pacific Guano Co., Charleston, 8. C. — 

Standard Soluble Pacific Guano 8.50 

Standard Pacific Acid Phosphate 12.00 

High Grade Pacific Fertilizer 8.00 

Powhatan Chemical Co., Richmond, Va. — 

Powhatan Trucker 7.00 

Powhatan Bone and Potash Mixture 8.00 

Powhatan Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Magic Dissolved Bone Phosphate 16.00 

Magic Peanut Grower 8.00 

Magic Grain and Grass Grower S.OO 

Magic Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Magic Mixture 9.00 

Magic Cotton Grower 8.00 

Magic Special Fertilizer S.OO 

Magic Tobacco Grower S.OO 

King Brand Fertilizer 8.00 

White Leaf Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Economic Cotton Grower 9.00 

North State Special 8.00 



itrogen. 


Potash. 


4.12 


7.00 


8.25 


2.50 


2.47 


3.00 


. . 


12.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.47 


5.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.45 


6.00 


# , 


2.00 



3.90 


4.00 


6.59 


5.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


14.S3 




'i.65 


2.00 




48.00 


, . 


12.00 



14.85 



14.76 



12.00 



1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


4.94 


5.00 




4.00 




4.00 




4.00 




4.00 


1.65 


1.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.26 


2.00 


3.29 


4.00 



32 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Guilford Special 

Pure Raw Bone Meal Total 

Bone and Potash Mixture 

Bone Meal Total 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Pure German Kainit 

Virginia Dissolved Bone 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Uneeda Acid Phosphate 

P. C. Co.'s Hustle 

Magic Corn Grower 

Magic Wheat Grower 

Johnson's Best Fertilizer 

. Holt's Magic Fertilizer 

Magic Peanut Special 

Bone Mixture 

Magic Crop Grower 

Patapsco Guano Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Patapsco Plant Food for Tobacco, Potatoes and 

Truck 

Patapsco Soluble Bone and Potash 

Patapsco High Grade Bone and Potash 

Patapsco 10 and 4 Potash Mixture. 

Patapsco 7-7-7 Truck Guano. 

Patapsco Potato Guano 

Patapsco Top Dresser 

Patapsco Trucker for Early Vegetables 

Patapsco Tobacco Fertilizer 

Patapsco Guano for Tobacco 

Patapsco Guano 

Patapsco Special Tobacco Mixture 

Patapsco Fine Ground Bone Total 

Patapsco Dissolved S. C. Phosphate 

Coon Brand Guano. 

Choctaw Guano 

Planters' Favorite 

Seagull Ammoniated Guano 

Money Maker Guano 

Unicorn Guano 

Baltimore Soluble Phosphate 

Florida Soluble Phosphate 

Genuine German Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 

Muriate of Potash 

Ground Fish 

Swanson's Gold Leaf Special 



Pocahontas Guano Co., Lynchburg, Va. — 

Imperial Dissolved S. C. Phosphate.... 
Carrington's Superior Grain Compound. 

Wabash Wheat Mixture 

Cherokee Grain Special 

Farmers' Favorite Guano, Apex Brand. 

Blackhawk Brand 

Spot Cash Tobacco Compound 



Avail. 
Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






9.00 


2.47 


6.00 


20.00 


3.29 




10.00 


. . 


2.00 


25.00 


2.47 




. v 


15.63 


# , 


. , 


19.75 


. , 


. . 


■ • 


4S.00 


, . 


. . 


50.00 


. . 


. . 


12.00 


12.00 


. . 




14.00 






15.00 


. . 




8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


10.00 


.82 


1.00 


9.00 


.82 


2.00 


9.00 


2.0G 


5.00 


9.00 


2.06 


5.00 


8.00 


.82 


4.00 


10.00 


.82 


1.00 


10.00 


.82 


1.00 



8.00 


2.47 


5.00 


10.00 


. . 


2.00 


11.00 


. . 


5.00 


10.00 


, , 


4.00 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


4.00 


3.30 


4.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


9.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.25 


2.06 


2.00 


9.25 


2.06 


2.00 


S.00 


2.06 


3.00 


20.61 


3.30 


m m 


14.00 


t # 




9.00 


.83 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


7.00 


3.70 


6.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


11.-00 


, , 


2.00 


16.00 


. . 


, , 


. , 


. . 


12.00 




15.64 


50.00 


, . 


8.23 . 


, , 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


14.00 






10.00 


, , 


2.00 


10.00 


, , 


4.00 


8.00 


. , 


4.00 


S.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 



The Bulletin. 



33 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Yellow Tobacco Special 9.00 1.65 2.00 

High Grade 4 Per Cent Tobacco Compound, Mo- 

hawk'King Brand 9.00 1.85 4.00 

Standard Tobacco Guano, Old Chief Brand 9.00 1.65 2.00 

Pocahontas Special Tobacco Fertilizer. 9.00 2.47 3.00 

A. A. Complete Cbampion Brand 8.00 .82 3.00 

Special Truck Grower, Eagle Mount Brand 8.00 2.06 6.00 

Indian Truck Grower 8.00 3.30 4.00 

Pure Raw Bone Meal Total 22.00 3.71 

Carrington's S. C. Phosphate, Waukesha Brand, 16.00 

Carrington's Banner Brand Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Indian Tobacco Grower 8.00 2.46 4.00 

Piedmont-Mt. Airy Guano Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Piedmont Cultivator Brand 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Piedmont Bone and Peruvian Mixture 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Piedmont Special Truck Fertilizer 6.00 5.77 5.00 

Piedmont Early Vegetable Manure 6.00 4.12 7.00 

Piedmont Vegetable Compound 6.00 3.30 8.00 

Piedmont Essential Tobacco Compound 9.00 1.65 2.00 

Piedmont Guano for Tobacco 8.00 2.06 . 3.00 

Piedmont High Grade Ammoniated Bone and 

Potash 8.00 2.47 3.00 

Piedmont High Grade S. C. Bone Phosphate. . 14.00 

Levering's Potashed Bone 10.00 .. 4.00 

Levering's Reliable Tobacco Guano 8.00 2.47 3.00 

Piedmont Special Potato Guano 6.00 4.94 7.00 

Piedmont Red Leaf Tobacco Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Piedmont Guano for Cotton 9.00 1.65 ' 1.00 

Piedmont Early Trucker .' . . 6.00 4.12 5.00 

Piedmont Potato Producer 5.00 2.47 6.00 

Piedmont Farmers' Standard 9.00 1.65 2.00 

Piedmont Guano for Wheat 9.00 1.65 1.00 

Piedmont Special for Cotton, Corn and Peanuts, 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Piedmont Special Farmers' Tobacco Guano 8.40 2.47 4.00 

Piedmont Farmers' Bone and Potash 10.00 .. 2.00 

Piedmont High Grade Guano for Cotton 8.00 2.47 3.00 

Haynes' Cultivator Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Piedmont Farmers' Favorite 8.00 .82 4.00 

Piedmont Farmers' Cotton Grower 9.00 .82 3.00 

German Kainit • • 12.00 

Piedmont Star Bone and Potash 8.00 .. 5.00 

Piedmont Unexcelled Guano 8.00 3.29 4.00 

Piedmont Bone Meal Total 21.00 3.30 

Ricks Bros.' Special Potato and Truck Guano.. 6.00 4.12 7.00 

Kaiser & Mauney's Special 2-8-2 Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Kaiser & Mauney's Special 3-8-3 Guano 8.00 2.47 3.00 

Privott's 3-8-4 Guano 8.00 2.47 4.00 

Piedmont Guano for All Crops 8.00 2.06 3.00 

Piedmont Vegetable Manure 6.00 3.29 8.00 

Nitrate of Soda 15.23 

Privott's Standard Guano 8.00 2.06 3.00 

Privott's Special Guano 8.00 1.65 6.00 

Muriate of Potash . • 48.00 

Sulphate of Potash . . 50.00 

Sulphate of Ammonia 20.58 

Acidulated Rock and Bone Tankage 9.00 2.47 3.00 



34 



The Bulletin. 



1.85 



1.00 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

The Quinnepiac Co., Charleston, 8. C. — 

Standard Quinnepiac Pine Island Ammoniated 

Superphosphate 9.00 

Standard Quinnepiac Acid Phosphate 13.00 

F. S. Royster Guano Co., tsorfolk, Va. — 

Sulphate of Potash. , 

Muriate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Farmers' Own Fertilizer 8.00 

Bonanza Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Orinoco Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Special Tobacco Compound 8.00 

Cobb's High Grade for Tobacco 8.00 

Humphrey's Special for Tobacco ; 6.00 

Eagle's Special Tobacco Guano '. 8.00 

Royal Potato Guano 7.00 

Royal Special Potato Guano 7.00 

Ballentine's Potato Guano 6.00 

Truckers' Delight 8.00 

Special Compound 9.00 

Tomlinson's Special 9.00 

Williams' Special Guano 8.00 

Magic Top Dresser 

Royster's Special Sweet Potato Guano 8.00 

Royster's Potato Guano 5.00 

Royster's Special 7 Per Cent Truck Guano 7.00 

Royster's Early Truck Guano 7.00 

Royster's Special 10 Per Cent Truck Guano 5.00 

Royster's Special 4-8-3 8.00 

Royster's 4-9-5 Special 9.00 

Royster's Special 1-9-2 Guano 9.00 

Royster's 2-6-5 Special 6.00 

Royster's Meal Mixture 9.00 

Royster's Special Wheat Fertilizer 8.00 

Royster's H. G. 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate... 16.00 

Royster's 14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Royster's Dissolved Bone 13.00 

Royster's XX Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Royster's Bone and Potash Mixture 11.00 

Royster's Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Royster's Bone and Potash for Grain 10.00 

Royster's 8 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture 8.00 

Royster's Peanut Special 7.00 

Royster's Complete Guano 8.00 

Royster's 10 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture. . . 10.00 

Royster's Best Guano 8.00 

Royster's Harvey's Cabbage Guano 5.00 

Rovster's Marlborough High Grade Cotton Gu- 
ano , 8.00 

Nitrate of Soda 

Jumbo Peanut Grower 8.00 

Watkins' Special 9.00 

Haynes' Special 9.00 

Pure Raw Bone Meal Total 21.50 

Milo Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Royster's Soluble Guano 10.00 

McDowell's Cotton Grower 6.00 

Royster's 4-6-4 Special 6.00 



, 


50.00 




48.00 


t 


12.00 


1.65 


• 2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


3.30 


5.00 


2.55 


3.20 


2.47 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


4.12 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


3.30 


4.00 


1.65 


1.00 


2.47 


5.00 


2.06 


5.00 


7.42 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


4.94 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


4.12 


8.00 


8.24 


3.00 


3.30 


3.00 


3.30 


• 5.00 


.82 


2.00 


1.65 


5.00 


2.26 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 




5.00 




2.00 




3.00 




4.00 




5.00 


1.65 


2.00 




4.00 


3.71 


7.00 


6.59 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


15.66 


. , 


.82 


4.00 


2.06 


5.00 


2.06 


3.00 


3.70 


. , 


3.30 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.30 


2.50 


3.30 


4.00 



The Bulletin. 



35 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Webb's Korn King. . 
Royster's 10-5 Bone 



and Potasb Mixture. 



Avail. 
Phos. 
Acid. 

8.00 

10.00 



Nitrogen. Potash. 



J. H. Rohcrson & Co., Robersonville, N. C. — 



Potato Guano 6.00 

Cotton Grower 9-00 

Special Potato Grower 7.00 

Bright Leaf Grower 8.00 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 



Roberson's 
Roberson's 
Roberson's 
Roberson's 
Roberson's 
Genuine German Kainit. 



Richmond Guano Co., Richmond, Va. — 

10 Per Cent Cabbage Guano 

Special High Grade for Truck 

Southern Trucker 

Perfection Special 

Gilt Edge Fertilizer 

Carolina Cotton Grower 

Carolina Bright Special Tobacco Fertilizer 

Tip Top Fertilizer 

Special Premium Brand for Tobacco 

Special Premium Brand for Plants 

Carolina Bright for Cotton 

Benson's Special Fertilizer 

Parker & Hunter's Special Fertilizer 

Premium Tobacco Fertilizer 

Premium Brand Fertilizer 

Bone Mixture 

Clark's Special Formula 

Carter's Special for Tobacco 

Saunder's Special Formula for Bright Tobacco, 

Burton's Special Tobacco Fertilizer 

Hunter & Dunn's Special Ammoniated Fertilizer, 

Hunter & Dunn's Ammoniated Fertilizer 

Edgecombe Cotton Grower 

Premium Bone and Potash Mixture 

Rex Bone and Potash Mixture 

Tip Top Bone and Potash Mixture 

Winter Grain and Grass Grower 

Premium Peanut Grower 

Bone and Potash Mixture 

Rex Dissolved Bone Phosphate 

Regal Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Wheat and Grass Fertilizer 

Premium Dissolved Bone 

Dissolved S. C. Phosphate 

Hunter & Dunn's Dissolved Bone 

Pure German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Nitrate of Soda 

Pure Raw Bone meal Total 

Bone Meal Total 

Premium Corn Grower 

Premium Wheat Grower 

Cracker Jack Fertilizer 

Premium Peanut Special 



1.65 



5.77 
2.26 

5.77 
2.06 



2.00 

5.00 



5.00 
2.00 
7.00 
3.00 

12.00 



6.00 


8.23 


2.00 


7.00 


4.94 


5.00 


8.00 


4.11 • 


5.00 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


8.00 


2.26 


2.50 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


1.85 


2.25 


8.00 


1.85 


2.25 


8.00 


2.06 


1.50 


8.00 


1.65 


6.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


1.65 


1.00 


7.00 


4.94 


6.00 


4.00 


2.47 


6.00 


9.00 


2.88 


5.00 


9.00 


2.06 


3.00 


9.00 


2.47 


2.25 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


13.00 


, 


3.00 


10.00 


t 


4.00 


8.00 


, 


4.00 


8.00 


# 


4.00 


8.00 


, 


4.00 


10.00 


. 


2.00 


16.00 


, 


. . 


15.00 


. 


. . 


14.00 


a 


. . 


14.00 


a 


. . 


13.00 


, 


. . 


12.00 


, 


. . 


12.00 


# 


. . 




L9.75 
15.63 


12.00 
50.00 
48.00 


20.00 


3.29 


. . 


25.00 


2.47 


. . 


10.00 


.82 


1.00 


3.00 


.82 


2.00 


9.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


.82 


4.00 



36 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Premium Cotton Grower . 9.00 

Old Homestead Dissolved Bone 12.00 

Haw River Special Fertilizer. 8.00 

Read Phosphate Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Genuine German Kainit 

Read's High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Read's Bone and Potash 10.00 

Read's Alkaline Bone ". 10.00 

Read's Special Potash Mixture 8.00 

Read's High Grade Tobacco Leaf. 8.00 

Read's Blood and Bone Fertilizer No. 1 8.00 

Read's Soluble Fish Guano 8.00 

Read's High Grade Cotton Grower 8.00 

Raisin-Monumental Co., Baltimore, Mel. — 

Dixie Guano 9.00 

Empire Guano 8.00 

Raisin Premium Brand for Tobacco 8.00 

Raisin Gold Standard 8.00 

Raisin Special Bone and Potash 10.00 

Raisin Bone and Potash 10.00 

Raisin 13 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Raisin 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Raisin Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Reidsville Fertilizer Co., Reidsville, N. C. — 

Banner Fertilizer 8.00 

Champion Guano ! 8.00 

Broad Leaf Tobacco Guano , 8.00 

Royal Fertilizer 8.00 

Lion Brand Fertilizer 9.00 

Bone and Potash 10.00 

Swift Fertilizer Works, Atlanta, Ca., and Wilming- 
ton, N. C— 

High Grade Swift's Strawberry Grower....... 8.00 

High Grade Swift's Special Trucker 6.00 

High Grade Swift's Special 10 Per Cent Blood 

and Bone Trucker 5.00 

High Grade Swift's Carolina 7 Per Cent Special 

Trucker 7.00 

High Grade Swift's Favorite Truck Guano 6.00 

High Grade Swift's Special Irish Potato Grower, 7.00 

High Grade Swift's Special Potato Grower 6.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Red Steer Guano Stand- 
ard Grade 8.00 

Swift's Plow Boy Guano 10.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Cotton Plant Standard 

Grade Guano 9.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Golden Harvest Stand- 
ard Grade Guano 8.00 

Swift's Eagle Standard Grade Guano 10.00 

High Grade Swift's Farmers' Favorite High 

Grade Guano 9.00 

High Grade Swift's Pioneer High Grade Guano 

Tobacco Grower S.00 

High Grade Swift's Early Trucker 7.00 



Nitrogen. Potash. 



.82 
2.88 



3.00 
5.00 



12.00 









4.00 




2.00 




4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


2.46 


3.00 




5.00 




2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.85 


2.50 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


6.00 


, . 


4.00 



2.47 
5.76 


10.00 
5.00 


8.23 


3.00 


5.76 
4.94 
4.12 
4.12 


7.00 
6.00 
8.00 
7.00 


1.65 

.82 


2.00 
1.00 


1.65 


1.00 


1.65 
1.65 


2.00 
2.00 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 
4.12 


4.00 
5.00 



The Bulletin. 



37 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

High Grade Swift's Blood, Bone and Potash 
High Grade Guano 

High Grade Swift's Corn and Cotton Grower 
High Grade Guano 

High Grade Swift's Cotton King High Grade 
Guano 

High Grade Swift's Ruralist High Grade Guano, 

High Grade Swift's Special High Grade Guano. . 

High Grade Swift's Monarch Vegetable Grower 
High Grade Guano 

High Grade Swift's Atlanta High Grade Guano, 

High Grade Swift's Special High Grade Phos- 
phate and Potash 

Standard Grade Swift's Plantation Standard 
Grade Phosphate and Potash 

High Grade Swift's Farmers' Home High Grade 
Phosphate and Potash 

Standard Grade Swift's Field and Farm Stand- 
ard Grade Phosphate and Potash 

Standard Grade Swift's Wheat Grower Stand- 
ard Grade Phosphate and Potash 

Standard Grade Swift's Harrow Standard Grade 
Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Swift's No. 1 Ground Tankage 

Swift's Pure Bone Meal Total 

High Grade Swift's Cultivator High Grade Acid 
Phosphate 

High Grade Swift's Special High Grade Acid 
Phosphate 

Standard Grade Swift's Chattakoochee Standard 
Grade Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Swift's Ground Dried Blood 

Swift's Pure Nitrate of Soda. 

Swift's Pure Raw Bone Meal Total 

Swift's Muriate of Potash . 

Swift's German Kainit 

Swift's Farmers' Favorite High Grade Guano. . . 

Swift's Pioneer High Grade Guano 

High Grade Swift's Eagle High Grade Guano. . . 
Swift's Atlanta High Grade Phosphate and Pot- 
ash 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. 

Acid. 


Potash. 


9.50 


3.29 


7.00 


10.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 
8.00 
9.50 


2.47 
2.47 
4.12 


2.00 
3.00 
3.00 


8.00 
12.00 


3.29 


4.00 
4.00 


12.00 




6.00 


8.00 




4.00 


10.00 




4.00 


10.00 




2.00 


10.00 




2.00 


13.00 

6.00 

25.00 


8.24 
2.47 




14.00 






16.00 






12.00 
23.00 

9.00 

8.00 
10.00 


13.18 

14.82 

3.71 

1.65 
1.65 

1.65 


50.00 

12.00 

3.00 

4.00 

2.00 



12.00 



4.00 



Southern Chemical Co., Inc.. Roanoke, Va. 

Our Favorite 

Farmers' Joy 

Our Leader 

Harvest King 

Southern Queen 

Valley Chief 



8.00 
8.00 
9.00 
8.00 
8.00 
8.50 



Spartanburg Fertilizer Co., Spartanburg, S. C. — 

Corn Formula 10-50 

Gosnell's Plant Food 10.50 

West's Potash Acid 13-00 

Bold Buster 900 

Potato Guano 7.00 

Tiger Brand Acidulated Phosphate 14.00 



1.64 
1.64 
.82 
.82 
2.46 
1.64 



1.65 
2.46 

1.65 
2.46 



2.00 
4.00 
2.00 
3.00 
10.00 
2.00 



5.00 
2.00 
3.00 
2.00 
7.00 



38 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

The Southern Exchange Co., Maxton, N. C. — 

Melon Grower 8.00 

McKimrnon's Special Truck Formula 8.00 

Two Fours Guano 7.00 

That Big Stick Guano 8.00 

Bull of the Woods Fertilizer 8.00 

Jack's Best Fertilizer 8.00 

Correct Cotton Compound 8.00 

Juicy Fruit Fertilizer 9.00 

The Walnut Fertilizer 8.50 

The Racer Guano 8.00 

The Coon Guano 8.00 

R. M. C. Special Crop Grower 8.00 

S. E. C. Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

S. E. C. Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

S. E. C. Acid Phosphate 16.00 

S. E. C. Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 15.65 



4.12 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.85 


4.00 


2.06 


2.50 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 




4.00 




2.00 




12.00 


, . 


50.00 



The Southern Cotton Oil Co., Charlotte District, Con- 
cord, Charlotte, Davidson, Madison, Shelby, 
and Gibson. — ■ 

Conqueror 8.00 

Gloria 8.00 

Peacock 8.00 

Red Bull ; 8.00 

Noon 8.00 

King Bee 8.65 

Gold Seal 14.00 

Silver King „ 13.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Magnolia Bone and Potash 10.00 

Conqueror Bone and Potash 10.00 

Cotton Seed Meal 2.30 

Choice 8.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Magnolia B. and P 10.00 

Conqueror B. and P 12.00 

Southern Cotton Oil Co.'s 16 Per Cent Acid 

Phosphate 16.00 

Razem 9.00 

Southern Cotton Oil Co., Goldsboro, Fayetteville 
Rocky Mount and Wilson. — 

Rocky Mount Oil Mill Standard 8.00 

Fayetteville Oil Mill Standard 8.00 

Goldsboro Oil Mill Standard 8.00 

Wilson Oil Mill Standard 8.00 

The Southern Cotton Oil Company Standard S.00 

Fayetteville Oil Mill Special Cotton Grower S.00 

Wilson Oil Mill Special Cotton Grower 8.00 

Rocky Mount Oil Mill Special Cotton Grower. . . S.00 

Goldsboro Oil Mill Special Cotton Grower 8.00 

Goldsboro Oil Mill High Grade 8.00 

Rocky Mount Oil Mill High Grade S.00 



3.28 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


2.05 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 




12.00 




2.00 


t t 


4.00 


6.18 


1.50 


3.30 


6.00 




12.00 




2.00 


# , 


4.00 



1.65 



3.00 



1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.26 


2.50 


2.26 


2.50 



The Bulletin. 



39 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Fayetteville Oil Mill High Grade 8.00 

Wilson Oil Mill High Grade 8.00 

The Southern Cotton Oil Co. High Grade 8.00 

Edgerfon's Old Reliable 8.00 

Hale's Special for Tobacco 8.00 

Pine Level High Grade 8.00 

Cotton Grower for all Crops S.oo 

Best & Thompson's Special 9.00 

The Southern Cotton Oil Co.'s Special Tobacco 

Grower 8.00 

Echo S.OO 

Morning Glory 8.00 

Tuscarora Fertiliser Co., Atlanta, Ga., and Wilming- 
ton, N. C— 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Tuscarora Alkaline 10.00 

Bone Potash .'. 10.00 

Champion 8.00 

Manure Substitute 6.00 

Tuscarora Trucker 8.00 

Berry King 8.00 

Tobacco Special 8.00 

Tuscarora Fruit and Potato 8.00 

Cotton Special 8.00 

King Cotton S.OO 

Big Four 7.00 

Tuscarora Standard 8.00 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 

Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Tuscarora Bone and Potash S.OO 

Tuscarora Bone and Potash 10.00 

Tide Water Fertilizer Co., Portsmouth, Va. — 

Tide Water Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Tide Water 12 Per Cent German Kainit 

Acid Phosphate and Tankage 8.00 

Tide Water High Grade Cotton 8.00 

Tide Water Tobacco Special - 8.00 

Tide Water Very Best Cotton and Corn Guano. . 8.00 

Union Guano Co., Winston-Salem, N. C. — 

Union 8-5 Bone and Potash 8.00 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Union 12 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Union Dissolved Bone 13.00 

Union High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Union 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Union 12-3 Bone and Potash 12.00 

Union 10-6 Bone and Potash 10.00 

Union 10-5 Bone and Potash 10.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


2.26 


2.50 


2.26 


2.50 


2.26 


2.50 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 



g 


5.00 




2.00 


2.06 


2.50 


3.30 


4.00 


4.12 


7.00 


2.06 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


10.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


, 


50.00 


. 


48.00 


, 


12.00 


.4.85 




; 


4.00 


. 


4.00 



m 


12.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 




5.00 




48.00 




48.00 




12.00 



3.00 
6.00 
5.00 



40 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Union 10-4 Bone and Potash 10.00 

Union 8-5 Bone and Potash 8.00 

Union 12-4 Bone and Potash 12.00 

Union 12-5 Bone and Potash 12.00 

Union Wheat Mixture 8.00 

Union Bone and Potash 10."00 

Quakers' Grain Mixture 10.00 

Giant Phosphate and Potash 10.00 

Liberty Bell Crop Grower 10.50 

Roseboro's Special Potash Mixture 12.00 

Union Potato Mixture 8.00 

Union Dissolved Animal Bone 12.50 

Union Vegetable Compound 7.00 

Union Truck Guano 7.00 

Union Premium Guano 8.00 

Union Perfect Cotton Grower 9.00 

Union Standard Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Union Mule Brand Guano 10.00 

Union Water Fowl Guano 8.00 

Union Homestead Guano 8.00 

Union Superlative Guano 8.00 

Union Special Formula for Cotton 10.00 

Union Complete Cotton Mixture 9.00 

Old Homestead Guano 8.00 

Victoria High Grade Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Sparger's Special Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Old Homestead Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Genuine Animal Bone Meal Total 22.50 

Nitrate of Soda 

Quality and Quantity Guano 9.00 

R. L. Upshur, Norfolk, Va. — 

Cotton Seed Meal Mixture 9.00 

Nitrate of Soda 

Quality and Quantity Guano 9.00 

Nitrate of Soda 

Muriate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Upshur's High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Upshur's Peanut Guano : -. 8.00 

Upshur's G., G. & C. (Grain, Grass and Cotton 

Guano) \ . 8.00 

Upshur's Wheat Compound 12.00 

Upshur's F. F. V. (Favorite Fertilizer of Vir- 
ginia) 8.00 

Upshur's Bone and Potash Guano 10.00 

Upshur's Norfolk Special 10 Per Cent Guano 5.00 

Upshur's 7 Per Cent Irish Potato Guano 6.00 

Upshur's F. C. (Farmers' Challenge) Guano . . . 6.00 

Upshur's 7 Per Cent Special Potato Guano 5.00 

Upshur's Special Truck Guano 7.00 

Upshur's F. F. (Farmers' Favorite) 7.00 

Upshur's 5 Per Cent Guano 5.00 

Upshur's Fish, Bone and Potash Guano 8.00 

Upshur's 8-3-3 Cotton Guano 8.00 

Upshur's High Grade Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Premo Cotton Guano • 8.00 

Upshur's Special 2y 2 8-3 Guano 8.00 

Upshur's 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Upshur's 4-6-4 Guano 6.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 




4.00 






5.00 






4.00 






5.00 






4.00 






2.00 






4.00 






3.00 






1.50 






6.00 


1.65 


10.00 


2.06 


. . 


4.12 


8.00 


3.29 


5.00 


3.29 


4.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.37 


3.00 


.82 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


3.70 


, , 


15.65 


• ■ 


1.65 


1.00 


2.26 


2.00 


15.65 


. . 


1.65 


1.00. 


15.22 


. . 




50.00 




12.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 




5.00 


1.64 


2.00 


m , 


2.00 


8.22 


2.00 


5.76 


5.00 


5.76 


6.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.11 


8.00 


4.11 


6.00 


4.11 


5.00 


1.64 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 




2.05 


3.00 



3.69 



4.00 



The Bulletin. 



41 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



Venable Fertilizer Co., Richmond, Va. — 

Venable's 10 Per Cent Trucker 6.00 

Venable's 6-6-6 Manure 6.00 

Venable's 5 Per Cent Trucker 8.00 

Venable's 4 Per Cent Trucker 8.00 

Venable's Ideal Manure 8.00 

Venable's Alliance Tobacco Manure No. 1 8.00 

Venable's Alliance Tobacco Manure No. 2 8.00 

Venable's B. B. P. Manure 9.00 

Venable's Cotton Grower 8.00 

Venable's Roanoke Special 8.00 

Venable's Alliance Bone and Potasb Mixture.. 8.00 

Venable's Peanut Grower 8.00 

Venable's Best Acid Pbospbate 16.00 

Venable's Alliance Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Venable's Dissolved Bone 13.00 

Venable's Standard Acid Pbospbate 12.00 

Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

High Grade Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Planters' Bone Fertilizer. 8.00 

Ballard's Choice Fertilizer 8.00 

Roanoke Mixture 900 

Roanoke Meal Mixture 9.00 

Bone Meal Total 25.00 

Pure Raw Bone Total 20.00 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Potash 

Pure German Kainit 

Venable's Corn, Wheat and Grass Fertilizer... 10.00 

Venable's Peanut Special 8.00 

Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co., Richmond, Va.— 
V.-C. C. Co.'s Special High Grade Potash Mix- 
ture 12.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s 14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Standard Bone and Potash 10.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Special Crop Grower 12.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Formula 4-4 7.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Special Truck Guano 6.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Special 8.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Special Potash Mixture 10.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Lion's High Grade Tobacco Fer- 
tilizer 8.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Invincible High Grade Fertilizer. . 6.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s High Grade Tobacco Fertilizer. . . 8.00 

Great Texas Cotton Grower Soluble Guano 9.00 

Cock's Soluble High Grade Animal Bone 9.00 

Truck Crop Fertilizer 7.00 

Prolific Cotton Grower 9.00 

Battle's Crop Grower 12.00 

3 Per Cent Special C. S. M. Guano No. 3 8.00 

Delta C. S. M 8.00 

Winston Special for Cotton C. S. M 8.00 

Diamond Dust C. S. M 8.00 

Admiral 8.00 

Blue Star C. S. M 8.00 

Good Luck C. S. M 8.00 



8.23 
4.94 
4.11 
3.29 
1.65 
2.06 
1.65 
1.65 
2.06 
2.06 



2.00 
6.00 
5.00 
4.00 
5.00 
3.00 
2.00 
1.00 
3.00 
3.00 
4.00 
4.00 





2.00 




4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.47 


. . 


3.20 


. . 


m 


50.00 


5.63 


, . 




48.00 




12.00 


.82 


1.00 


.82 


4.00 



6.00 





5.00 




3.00 


2.55 


3.20 


4.10 


7.00 


3.28 


4.00 




4.00 


2.46 


4.00 


4.10 


7.00 


2.46 


10.00 


2.46 


4.00 


1.85 


3.00 


4.10 


7.00 


2.26 


2.00 




3.00 


2.46 


2.00 


2.26 


2.50 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


2.50 


2.05 


3.00 


2.46 


2.50 



42 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

North State Guano C. S. M 

Plant Food 

Split Silk C. S. M 

Superlative C. S. M. Guano 

Farmers' Friend Favorite Fertilizer Special.... 

White Stem C. S. M 

Special High Grade Tobacco Fertilizer C. S. M. . 

Wilson's Standard C. S. M 

Adams' Special 

Ajax C. £. M. Guano 

Royal Crown 

Farmers' Favorite Fertilizer C. S. M. . : 

Atlas Guano C. S. M 

Blake's Best 

Orange Grove 

Carr's 8-4-4 Crop Grower 

Ford's Wheat and Corn Guano 

Konqueror High Grade Truck Fertilizer 

Goodman's Special Potash Mixture 

Jones' Grain Special 

Raw Bone Meal Total 

Dissolved Animal Bone 

Sludge Acid Phosphate 

Manure Salts 

Sulphate of Potash 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Fish Scrap 

Nitrate of Soda 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Grain Special 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Dissolved Bone and Potash 

Diamond Cotton Seed Meal Guano 

Bold Buster Guano 

Bigelow's Crop Guano 

V.-C. C. Co.'s 12-4 Grain Grower 

Jeffreys' High Grade Guano 

V.-C. C. Co.'s High Grade Top Dresser 

V.-C. C. Co.'s 13 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Haynes' Special Cotton Fertilizer 

Parker & Hunter's Special 

Allison & Addison's Star Brand Vegetable 
Guano 

Allison & Addison's Star Special Tobacco Ma- 
nure 

Allison & Addison's Anchor Brand Tobacco Fer- 
tilizer 

Allison & Addison's Anchor Brand Fertilizer 

Allison & Addison's A. A. Guano 

Allison & Addison's Old Hickory Guano 

Allison & Addison's Star Brand Guano 

Allison & Addison's B. P. Potash Mixture 

Allison & Addison's McGavock's Special Potash 
Mixture .- 

Allison & Addison's Fulton Acid Phosphate 

Allison & Addison's I. X. L. Acid Phosphate 

Allison & Addison's Standard Acid Phosphate. . 

Allison & Addison's Rocket Acid Phosphate 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Eureka 
Acid Phosphate 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






9.00 


1.65 


1.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.50 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.50 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.26 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.50 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.26 


2.50 


8.00 


3.28 


4.00 


9.00 


.82 


2.00 


7.00 


4.10 


5.00 


12.00 


, , 


5.00 


8.00 


. . 


4.00 


22.50 


3.70 


. . 


12.50 


2.05 


. , 


14.00 


, , 


. , 






20.00 
50.00 




20.59 


, . 




8.25 


. . 




15.68 


. « 






12.00 
48.00 


10.00 


. . 


6.00 


10.00 


, # 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


.82 


3.00 


12.00 


m m 


4.00 


9.00 


2.47 


3.00 


4.00 


6.18 


2.50 


13.00 


, # 


. . 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


3.70 


4.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


8.50 


2.26 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


1.65 


1.00 


10.00 




2.00 


10.00 




2.00 


14.00 




. . 


13.00 




. , 


12.00 




, . 


12.00 




. , 



16.00 



The Bulletin. 43 

Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Crenshaw 

Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Valley of 

Virgina Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Our Acid 
Phosphate 12.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Eureka 

Bone and Potash Compound 10.00 . . 2.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Eureka 

Ammoniated Bone Special for Tobacco 9.00 2.05 2.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Eureka 

Ammoniated Bone ,... 8.00 -1.65 3.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Carolina 

Truckers 7.00 5.74 7.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Virginia 
Truckers 8.00 4.10 5.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Orient Spe- 
cial for Tobacco 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Orient 

Complete Manure 9.00 1.65 2.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s King Cotton 
Grower 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s The Leader 
B. G 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Groom's Spe- 
cial Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 2.46 4.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Charlotte Dis- 
solved Bone 12.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Charlotte Am- 
moniated Guano B. G 8.00 2.05 1.50 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Charlotte Am- 
moniated Guano C. S. M 8.00 2.05 1.50 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Charlotte Acid 
Phosphate 13.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Catawba Gu- 
ano B. G 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Catawba Acid 
Phosphate 14.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Queen of the 
Harvest C. S. M 9.00 1.65 2.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Oliver's Per- 
fect Wheat Grower 11.00 2.46 4.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s 10-2 Bone and 
Potash 10.00 '.. 2.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s 15 Per Cent 
Acid Phosphate 15.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s McCrary's Dia- 
mond Bone and Potash 8.00 . . 4.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Special 3 Per 

Cent Guano C. S. M 8.00 2.46 2.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s High Grade 

Special Tobacco Fertilizer 9.00 2.05 2.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Guano for To- 
bacco 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Special Tobacco 
Guano 9.00 2.05 2.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Truck Guano 8.00 4.92 5.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 



44 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Acid Phosphate 
with Potash 10.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand High Grade Dis- 
solved Bone 14.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Dissolved Bone. . . 12.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand High Grade Acid 

Phosphate 16.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand High Grade 3 Per 

Cent Soluble Guano 9.00 

'Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Acid Phosphate. . 13.00 

Davie & Whittle's Vinco Guano 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Blacksburg Soluble Gu- 
ano 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Blacksburg Soluble 
Bone 13.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Diamoud Wheat Mix- 
ture 10.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Standard Wheat and 
Corn Grower 10.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Excelsior Dissolved 

Bone Phosphate 14.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Double Bone Phosphate, 13.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Blue Ridge Wheat 

Grower 10.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Carr's Special Wheat 
Grower 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Standard Guano 9.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Best Potato Manure... 7.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s L. & N. Special 9.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Special Plant and Truck 

Fertilizer 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Golden Leaf Bright To- 
bacco Guano 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Gold Medal Brand 
Guano 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Durham Bone and Pot- 
ash Mixture 10.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Genuine Bone and Peru- 
vian Guano 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Genuine Bone and Peru- 
vian Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Raw Bone Superphos- 
phate 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Raw Bone Superphos- 
phate for Tobacco 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s N. C. Farmers' Alliance 
Official Guano 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s N. C. Farmers' Alliance 
Official Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Standard High Grade 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Great Potato and Corn 
Grower 10.50 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Progressive Farmer 
Guano 8.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Durham Ammoniated 
Fertilizer 9.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Durham Best Acid Phos- 
phate 13.00 



Nitrogen. Potash. 



2.00 



2.05 
1.65 
1.65 



3.00 
2.00 
2.00 

3.00 
2.00 

2.00 



1.G5 
5.74 
2.46 


4.00 
2.00 
7.00 
2.00 


4.10 


3.00 


2.46 


3.00 


2.46 


3.00 


• 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.05 


1.50 


2.05 


2.00 


2.05 


3.00 



• 


1.50 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


1.00 



The Bulletin. 45 

Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Durham Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s New Era 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Ironside Acid Phosphate, 1G.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Spartan Acid Phosphate, 12.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Arvonia Acid Phosphate, 13.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s S. W. Special Bone and 
Potash Mixture 10.00 . . 4.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Alpine Mixture 10.00 .. 5.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Dissolved Bone and 
Potash 10.00 .. 2.00 

Lynchburg GuanO Co.'s Independent Standard.. 8.50 1.65 2.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Solid Gold Tobacco 8.00 2.26 4.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Lynchburg High Grade 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Lynchburg Soluble 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Lynchburg Soluble for 
Tobacco 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Crescent 

Brand Ammoniated Fertilizer 8.00 1.05 2.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Cooper's 

Bright Tobacco 8.00 2.05 3.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 
Trucker and Tomato Grower 8.00 4.10 5.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Genuine 

Slaughter House Bone 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Genuine 
Slaughter House Bone, Made Especially for 
Tobacco 8.00 2.05 2.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Amazon 

High Grade Manure 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Bright Leaf 
Tobacco Grower 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 
Bone and Potash 10.00 . . 2.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 

Soluble Bone ' 12.00 ... 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 
Best Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 
Reliable Acid Phosphate. 14.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Standard Raw Bone 

Soluble Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Farmers' Friend High 

Grade Fertilizer 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Farmers' Friend Fer- 
tilizer 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Farmers' Friend Spe- 
cial Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Special 
Wheat Guano .8.00 1.65 2.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Special 

Sweet Potato Guano 6.00 1.65 6.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Solu- 
ble Tobacco Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Solu- 
ble Guano S.OO 1.65 2.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Potato 
Manure 7.00 4.10 8.00 



46 



The Bulletin. 



2.05 


3.00 


5.74 


5.00 


5.74 


7.00 


• 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.05 


3.00 


• 


2.00 


• 


4.00 




3.00 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Raw 
Bone Soluble Guano 9.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion 6-7-5 
Truck Guano 6.00 

Old Dominion Guano -Co.'s Old Dominion 7-7-7 
Truck Guano 7.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Alka- 
line Bone and Potash 10.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Bullock's Cotton 
Grower 8.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Osceola Tobacco 
Guano 8.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Dissolved Bone and 
Potash 10.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Millers' Special 
Wheat Mixture 8.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Planters' Bone and 

Potash Mixture 10.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Bone Phosphate 13.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Royster's Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s High Grade Acid 
Phosphate 14.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Almont Acid Phosphate.. 12.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Brand Best Acid 
Phosphate 13.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Almont High Grade Acid 
Phosphate 14.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Fulp's Acid Phosphate 13 
Per Cent 13.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Brand Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Acid Phosphate and Pot- 
ash 10.50 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Almont Wheat Mixture. . . 10.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Dissolved Bone and Potash, 10.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Almont Soluble Ammoni- 
ated Guano 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Carolina Golden Belt Am- 
moniated Guano for Tobacco 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Truck Farmers' Special 
Ammoniated Guano 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Old Kentucky High Grade 
Manure 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Seed Meal Stand- 
ard Guano 9.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Seed Meal Soluble 
Ammoniated Guano 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Belt Ammoniated 
Guano 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Eagle Island Ammoniated, 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Brand Ammoniated 
Dissolved Bone 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Gibb's Ammoniated Guano, 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Powers' Ammoniated 
Guano 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Electric Tobacco Guano, 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Electric Standard 
Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 





1.50 
3.00 
2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.05 


3.00 


3.28 


5.00 


2.46 


3.00 


2.46 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 
1.65 


2.00 
2.00 


3.28 
2.05 


4.00 
1.50 


2.05 
1.65 


2.00 
2.00 



The Bulletin. 



47 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Pilot Annnoniated Gu- 
ano Special for Tobacco S.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s George Washington 

Plant Bed Fertilizer for Tobacco 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Sun Brand Guano 9.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Yadkin Complete Fer- 
tilizer 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Solid South 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Chick's Special Wheat 

Compound .' 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Mammoth Wheat and 

Grass Grower 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Winston Bone and Pot- 
ash Compound 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Winner Grain Mixture, 10.00 
Southern Chemical Co.'s Mammoth Corn Grower, 10.00 
Southern Chemical Co.'s Farmers' Pride Bone 

and Potash 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Reaper Grain Applica- 
tion 12.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Quickstep Bone and 

Potash 11.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Tar Heel Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Red Cross 14 Per Cent 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Comet 16 Per Cent 

Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Chick's 16 Per Cent 

Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Chatham Acid Phos- 
phate „ 13.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Horseshoe Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Victor Acid Phosphate, 13.00 
J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Champion Acid Phosphate, 16.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Dissolved S. C. Bone 13.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Powhatan Acid Phosphate, 14.00 
J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Richmond Brand Guano.. 8.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Lee Brand Guano 8.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Killickinick Tobacco Mix- 
ture 8.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Stonewall Brand Acid 

Phosphate 12.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Stonewall Brand Guano.. 8.00 
J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Stonewall Tobacco Guano, 8.00 
J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Special Irish 

Potnto Grower 6.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Bone and Potash 

Mixture 10.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Strawberry 

Grower 6.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's 10 Per Cent Truck 

Guano 5.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Irish Potato 

Grower 6.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Tobacco Fertilizer, 8.00 
J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's 7 Per Cent Am- 
moniated Guano for Beans, Peas, Cabbage. 
Strawberries, etc 6.00 



Nitrogen. Potash. 



2.05 

2.46 
2.05 

1.65 



2.46 
1.65 

2.05 



3.00 

2.50 
5.00 

2.00 
6.00 

4,00 

2.00 

2.00 
4.00 
2.00 

3.00 

3.00 

5.00 



3.00 
2.00 

3.00 



1.65 
1.65 


2.00 
2.00 


5.74 


6.00 


• 


2.00 


3.28 


4.00 


8.25 


2.50 


4.92 

3.28 


6.00 
2.50 



5.74 



6.00 



48 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s National Fertilizer 8.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s National Special Tobacco 
Fertilizer 8.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Beef, Blood and Bone 
Fertilizer 8.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Standard Dissolved S. C. 
Bone 13.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Travers' Dissolved Bone 
Phosphate 14.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Dissolved Bone. .\ 12.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Cotton Fertilizer, 8.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Bone and Potash 
Compound 10.00 

S. W. Travers & Co. r s Capital Truck Fertilizer. . 8.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Tobacco Fertilizer, 8.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Farmers' Special Wheat 
Compound 8.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Farmers' 7 Per Cent Truck 
Fertilizer G.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Virginia State 
Dissolved Bone and Potash 10.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Virginia State 
Guano 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Virginia State 

High Grade Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Number One Sol- 
uble Guano 9.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s XX Potash Mix- 

. ture 10.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Mountain Top 

Bone and Potash 10.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Peerless Tobacco 
Guano 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Battle Axe To- 
bacco Guano 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Dunnington's Spe- 
cial Formula for Tobacco 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Austrian Tobacco 
Grower 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Buffalo Guano. . 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Gamecock Special 

for Tobacco 8.50 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s G. E. Special To- 
bacco Grower 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Bull Dog Solu- 
. ble Guano 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Clipper Brand 
Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Highland King. . . 9.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Alps Brand Acid 
Phosphate 12.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Bull Run Acid 
Phosphate • 10.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Lurich Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Gilt Edge Brand 
Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Gilt Edge Brand 
Dissolved Bone and Potash 8.00 

Sun Tobacco Fertilizer 5.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 



2.05 



1.65 



2.00 



3.28 

3.28 


2.00 
3.00 
3.00 


• 


4.00 


5.74 


5.00 


• 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


• 


4.00 


• 


5.00 


2.46 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


2.05 
2.05 


2.00 
3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.05 


2.00 


2.46 " 


3.00 



1.00 



5.11 



4.00 
9.20 



The Bulletin. 49 

Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Thomas Wakefield, Friendship, N. C. — 

Bone Meal Total 21.73 4.12 

Williams cG Clark Fertilizer Co., Charleston, S. C. — 
Standard American Ammoniated Bone Super- 
phosphate 9-00 1.S5 1.00 

Winbomc Guano Co., Tyner, A 7 . C. — 

King Tammany Guano 8.00 2.47 3.00 

Farmers' Select Guano *.' >< » 2.06 3.00 

Winborne's 7 Per Cent Guano 5.00 5.75 .">.<><> 

Winborne's Excelsior Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Winborne's Tobacco Guano 8.00 2.47 2.00 

Winborne's Eureka Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Winborne's 3-8-4 Guano 8.00 2.47 4.00 

Winborne's Triumph Guano S.00 1.65 2.00 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Standard 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Genuine German Kainit • • 12.00 

T. W. Wood & Sons, Richmond, Va. — 

Standard Grain and Grass Grower 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Standard High Grade Trucker 8.00 4.94 6.00 

Standard Potato Fertilizer 8.00 1.05 5.00 

Standard Vegetable Fertilizer 8.00 2.47 3.00 

Standard Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 2.47 3.00 

Standard High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Standard Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 .. 2.00 

Wood's Pure Animal Bone Total 23.00 2.47 

Wood's Lawn Enricher 6.00 2.47 3.00 

Nitrate of Soda 15.63 



50 The Bulletin. 



REPORT FROM LEAF TOBACCO WAREHOUSES FOR MONTH OF 

FEBRUARY, 1908. 



Pounds sold for producers, first hand 9,920,500 

Pounds sold for dealers 454,164 

Pounds resold for warehouse 528,791 

Pounds resold for other warehouses 11,790 



Total -. 10,915,245 



REPORT FROM LEAF TOBACCO WAREHOUSES FOR MONTH OF 

MARCH, 1908. 



Pounds sold for producers, first hand 5,270,749 

Pounds sold for dealers 369,092 

Pounds resold for warehouse 307,895 

Pounds resold for other warehouses 957 



Total 5,948,693 



THE BULLETIN 



OP THE 



NORTH CAROLINA 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



RALEIGH. 



Volume 29. 



MAY, 1908. 



Number 5. 



FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK. 




Applying the Lime-Sulphur-Salt Wash with barrel spraying outfit in an 
orchard of 5,000 bearing pear trees. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND SENT FREE TO CITIZENS ON APPLICATION. 

ENTERED AT THE RALEIGH POST-OFFICE AS SECOND-CLASS MAIL MATTER. 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 



S. L. Patterson, Commissioner, ex officio Chairman, Raleigh. 

J. J. Laughinghouse Greenville First District. 

C. W. Mitchell Aulander Second District. 

William Dunn New Bern Third District. 

Ashley Horne Clayton Fourth District. 

R. W. Scott Melville Fifth District. 

A. T. McCallum Red Springs Sixth District. 

J. P. McRae Laurinburg Seventh District. 

R. L. Doughton Laurel Springs Eighth District. 

W. A. Graham Machpelah Ninth District. 

A. Cannon Horse Shoe Tenth District. 



OFFICERS AND STAFF. 

S. L. Patterson Commissioner. 

Secretary. 

B. W. Kilgore State Chemist, Field Crops. 

Tait Butler ' Veterinarian, Animal Husbandry. 

Franklin Sherman, Jr Entomologist. 

W. N. Hutt Horticulturist. 

H. H. Brimley Naturalist and Curator. 

T. B. Parker Demonstration Work. 

W. M. Allen Food Chemist. 

J. M. Pickel Assistant Chemist. 

C. D. Harris. . .Assistant Chemist and Microscopist, Stock Feeds. 

W. G. Haywood Assistant Chemist. 

G. M. MacNider Assistant Chemist, Soils. 

L. L. Brinkley Assistant Chemist. 

S. O. Perkins Assistant Chemist. 

Hampden Hill Assistant Chemist. 

S. C. Clapp Nursery and Orchard Inspector. 

S. B. Shaw Assistant Horticulturist. 



R. W. Scott, Jr., Superintendent Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C. 
F. T. Meacham, Superintendent Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. 
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent Pender Test Farm, Willnrd, N. C. 
R. W. Collett, Superintendent Transylvania and Buncombe Test Farms, 

Swannanoa, N. C. 



^ TRAOEsT ri'Si l COUNCIL > 



FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK. 



Within recent years there has been inaugurated a method of extend- 
ing agricultural knowledge known as Agricultural Demonstration. 
The purpose of this new educational work is not to displace or sup- 
plant any of the other established means of increasing and extending 
agricultural information, such as the Agricultural College, the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Stations and the Farmers' Institutes; but it is 
intended to supplement and assist all other means of bringing the 
actual tillers of the soil closer to those agricultural facts ascertained 
by the Experiment Stations and accumulated through long years of 
experience. 

This demonstration method of teaching established agricultural 
facts to the farmer by operations on his own farm is but another evi- 
dence of the present tendencies of scientific methods of teaching. It 
is the approved modern laboratory method of instruction taken to the 
individual farm. 

The operations already being conducted on the farm are used to 
demonstrate the value of -a knowledge of the few general scientific 
principles underlying up-to-date farm practices, and that these prac- 
tices are applicable to and of great value to this particular farm. 
With farm crops the value of better seed and more intelligent fer- 
tilization and of better preparation and cultivation of the land are 
demonstrated. In fruit growing the increase in the quantity and 
quality of the product resulting from better methods of orchard man- 
agement and the value of more attention to preparing the fruit for 
market are shown-. In dairying the unprofitable cows are detected, 
better methods of care and feeding put in operation, and the greater 
profits from placing a high-class product on the market proved. 

The general method of conducting this farm demonstration work is 
to send a practical man, having a working knowledge of scientific 
agriculture and an intimate experience with the special line of work 
he has in charge, to the farms of the men who are to co-operate in 
carrying out the demonstration. These visits are made at regular 
intervals during the period of the demonstrations, in order to make 
certain that the farmer shall have such instruction and assistance as 
he may need in performing his part of the work. 

When the demonstrator goes to a farm he endeavors to utilize such 
facilities as already exist there or may easily be obtained. No experi- 
ments are undertaken, but only such crops and practices as the value 
of which have been thoroughly demonstrated are advised. In short, 
it is demonstration and not experimental work that is contemplated. 



4 The Bulletin. 

The chief obstacle to progress and the introduction of improved 
methods and implements is that old practices are more easily and per- 
fectly executed because of long practice in following them. A new- 
practice, although in itself much more easily followed and, when well 
performed, much more effective, may at first be more difficult than the 
old way, and, for this reason, being less perfectly performed, may be 
less effective. The personal presence and assistance of the demonstra- 
tor in starting new methods and implements of known value removes 
this obstacle to their introduction and insures them a fair trial, which 
may lead to their permanent use in future farming operations. 

The aim of this demonstration work is simply to assist the farmer 
to introduce such farm practices as have been proved of value, and 
thereby enable him to do better farming and get more for his labor. 
Incidentally, the farmer also obtains much valuable agricultural in- 
formation. 

With the full inauguration of this farm demonstration work the 
connection between the farmer and agricultural science will be com- 
plete. We have the Experiment Stations to verify old and ascertain 
new facts; the Agricultural Colleges to teach these facts to the few 
who go to college, and these few to teach the masses, through the 
medium of the Farmers' Institute, and show the accuracy of their 
teaching by means of farm demonstrations. 

So fully impressed was the State Department of Agriculture with 
the importance of the work and its possibilities for direct good to 
agriculture, that, in September, 1907, a division of Demonstration 
was created and Mr. T. B. Parker elected to take charge of this im- 
portant line of work. 

If the fruit growers, truckers, dairymen or general farmers of any 
section or any individual desires assistance in any line of farm work, 
the State Department of Agriculture will be glad to co-operate with 
him and render all assistance possible to enable him to obtain better 
results from his labor, and, when necessary, a representative from the 
Department will visit any part of the State and assist in overcoming 
any agricultural difficulties encountered. 



DEMONSTRATION WORK AS APPLIED TO FARM CROPS. 



By T. B. PARKER, in Charge of Demonstration Work. 



So far, in North Carolina, demonstration work relating to farm 
crops has been confined to alfalfa, crimson clover, vetches, and im- 
proved varieties of corn and cotton. It was started about two years 
ago with alfalfa, in co-operation with the United States Department 
of Agriculture. 

Through this co-operation effected with the Federal Department of 
Agriculture, we were last year able to send crimson clover and vetch 
to nearly seventy-five farmers living in more than twenty-five counties 
and embracing nearly every section of the State. These seed are not 
distributed indiscriminately. They are sent out for the specific pur- 
pose of finding out where they will succeed and under what conditions 
they do best, and to prove to the farmers their economic agricultural 
value. Each person receiving seed will also be required to keep a 
record of time of planting, the nature of the land, what crop occupied 
the land last year, if high land or low land, level land or hill land, the 
methods of cultivation, fertilization, etc., for which we furnish blanks 
to- be filled out by the co-operator. With this data, covering every 
variety of soil in the State, different methods of cultivation, fertiliza- 
tion, etc., we can draw conclusions that must be helpful to the agri- 
cultural interests of the State. Follow this up a few years, until we 
have proved by the test of time the results of these farm tests, and we 
will have a fund of information that will be invaluable to the farmers 
of the State. 

The value of alfalfa as a forage crop, as well as a soil improver, 
wherever it can be grown, is sufficient reason for the Department of 
Agriculture to encourage its cultivation, which we are doing on small 
areas in many parts of the State. 

Crimson clover is another of the legumes that we are anxious to see 
grown all over the State, especially where red clover will not succeed. 
The Department feels justified in inducing our farmers to grow this 
crop. It is not only a fine soil improver, but is also a good hay plant. 

The vetches also belong to the legume family and are valuable for 
soil improvement and for hay. 

The great value of these plants has been proven at our test farms, 
and we are desirous of demonstrating to the farmers their value along 
these lines. 

But few reports have as yet come in, but those that have are of a 
very encouraging nature and give evidence of an interest in these 



6 The Bulletin. 

crops. We have not yet been able to make any definite arrangements 
in regard to crimson clover and vetch to send out again this fall, but 
we are hoping to be able to send out even more than we did last season. 

In addition to the above-named crops, the Division of Demonstra- 
tion Work has this year (1908) sent improved seed corn to about 175 
co-operators, and improved cotton seed to about an equal number, 
embracing every section of the State in which cotton is produced^ in 
appreciable quantities. Besides, in four counties we are co-operating 
with Dr. S. A. Knapp, of the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, in demonstration work, the State Department of Agriculture 
■ furnishing the seed and Dr. Knapp the demonstrators. 

With this nucleus of workers, demonstrators and co-operators scat- 
tered all over the State, we are expecting reports that will justify an 
extension of the work until every county in the State will be occupied. 

It has been demonstrated at our test farms that the highest yielding 
variety of corn will produce almost twice as much corn per acre as the 
lowest yielding variety tested. Likewise with cotton. At the Edge- 
combe test farm last year (1907) the best yielding variety of cotton 
produced $57.71 worth of lint and seed, while the lowest yielding 
variety tested produetd only $24.25 worth of lint and seed. If we 
can introduce the best variety of either corn or cotton in the field of 
a farmer who is planting the lowest yielding varieties, and let him 
compare the different varieties, he at once becomes a convert to im- 
proved seed. If it were possible to do this on every farm in the State, 
we would raise the yield per acre for both of these crops to a point that 
would mean a very greatly increased profit. But the Department of 
Agriculture cannot do these things alone. It must have the co-opera- 
tion of the farmers. We are willing to send the seed as long as our 
supply will permit, and give any instructions or other information at 
our command, and the co-operators must do the balance. 

We would like to have in this work as co-operators farmers who 
really believe there is a future for the farmers and who believe better 
seed and better methods of preparation and cultivation will result in 
increased yields, and who will be willing to keep a record of the work 
and report results for the benefit of his fellow farmer. We should 
be glad to correspond with those who are interested to this extent. 

The field of demonstration work, or co-operative experiments, is 
wide and freighted with great possibilities. With the full and hearty 
co-operation of the State Department of Agriculture and the pro- 
gressive farmers of the State, our crop yields can be made much larger 
and farm life much more enjoyable. 



ORCHARD DEMONSTRATIONS. 



By W. N. HUTT, Horticulturist. 



During February, 1908, several orchard demonstration institutes 
were held in the apple-growing regions of the State to show the best 
methods of pruning and spraying fruit trees. The meetings were 
held right out in the orchards, where the demonstrators could actually 
do the work and have the trees to illustrate what they were talking 
about. 

The orchards in which the demonstrations were given were selected 
beforehand, on account of convenient and central location. The trees 
used in the demonstration were generally near a road, where they could 
be under observation throughout the season, so that the results of the 
demonstration could be noted. 

Demonstrations were given in the following counties : Stokes, Surry, 
Alexander, Wilkes, Caldwell, Watauga, Henderson, Haywood, Jack- 
son and Swain. 

PRUNING. 

The demonstration of pruning proceeded about as follows : 

1. The fruit growers present were taken through the orchard, and 
the best forms of trees for commercial orcharding were noted. 

2. Those present picked out a tree which they desired to see pruned. 

3. The demonstrator outlined the method of growth in trees and 
explained the reasons for pruning. 

4. The origin of fruit buds and their development were explained. 

5. Pruning tools of different kinds were shown and their uses ex- 
plained by the demonstrator. 

6. The tree was pruned and the principles of pruning and the why 
and wherefore of each step explained while the work was being done. 

7. The pruned and unpruned trees were compared. 

8. How to properly remove a limb and treat the resulting wound 
was demonstrated. 

9. Different kinds of trees were pruned. For example, apple, pear, 
peach, plum, etc. 

10. The pruning and training of a young tree was explained and 
demonstrated. 

11. Methods of renovating old and neglected trees were shown. 

12. Tools were distributed to those present and trees were pruned 
by them, under the direction of the demonstrator. 

13. A general discussion of the subject of pruning followed these 
demonstrations, and questions were freely asked and answered. 



8 The Bulletin. 



FUTURE DEMONSTRATIONS. 

The coming fall it is purposed to visit the same orchards in which 
the pruning and spraying demonstrations were given this spring, and 
to call the orchardists together to note the results of the work done at 
the spring demonstration in improving the quality and increasing the 
quantity of fruit. It is the further purpose to pick this fruit and to 
demonstrate the most approved .methods of commercial grading and 
packing of fruit for the wholesale market. By these demonstrations 
it is hoped to assist our fruit growers to make use of our splendid 
natural facilities and to encourage them in the development of a great 
commercial fruit industry. 



SPRAYING DEMONSTRATIONS. 



By FRANKLIN SHERMAN, Jr., Entomologist. 



At the conclusion of the pruning work described in the preceding 
pages a demonstration was given of the spraying of fruit trees, to 
prevent damage by insects and diseases, and to improve the quality of 
the fruit. The general method followed was similar to that of the 
pruning demonstration, and the trees which had already been pruned 
were used in the spraying demonstration. 

1. A brief account was given of the most serious orchard insects 
which are combated by spraying, and when present these were pointed 
out in their actual natural location on the trees. 

2. A complete barrel-spraying outfit for. commercial orchards and 
a complete bucket outfit for family orchards were exhibited, explained 
and put together, ready for work. 

3. The manner of measuring out and dissolving the ingredients for 
making the Bordeaux Mixture and Paris Green was explained and the 
mixtures prepared before the audience. 

4. The trees were thoroughly sprayed, the process being fully ex- 
plained in every detail. Members of the audience were encouraged 
to take part in the work. 

5. Different nozzles and extension rods were used to show their 
adaptability to different uses. 

6. A general discussion of the subject of spraying followed, with 
the asking and answering of questions. 

Twice during the growing season a representative from this office 
has gone to these orchards again, each time giving another application 
of the same spraying mixture. 

It would be very desirable to give more demonstrations of this kind 
in the future, not only in the western counties, but in the piedmont 
and eastern sections as well — particularly in counties where fruit is 
grown for distant shipment or to supply local markets, and where the 
methods of spraying are not now well understood. 

Demonstrations of similar character, and using the same mixture, 
should be made with other crops, especially Irish potatoes, grapes and 
melons. With all of these it is fully established that spraying is 
profitable in average seasons, and it only remains to adequately dem- 
onstrate to the growers the methods and the value of the operation. 



DEMONSTRATION WORK IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY. 



By TAIT BUTLER, Veterinarian. 



DAIRYING. 



A uniformly high price for first-class dairy products and facilities 
for producing cheap forage are unquestionably two important factors 
in successful dairy husbandry. North Carolina has both of these, 
but, nevertheless, as at present conducted, dairying is not generally 
profitable in this State. Moreover, it is a demonstrated fact that 
where dairying is not now profitable it is chiefly due to a lack of per- 
sonal attention to proper business management or a failure on the part 
of the dairyman to fully use in a practical way the large amount of 
dairy information available to any man who intelligently studies the 
business. In other words, where dairying is not now successful in 
this State it is usually the fault of the dairyman rather than the exist- 
ing unfavorable dairy conditions beyond his control. To be more 
specific, dairy failures in North Carolina are chiefly due to a failure 
to study, know and follow the teachings of modern dairy science, and 
a lack of personal attention to business management. 

Recognizing the foregoing facts, the Dairy Division of the United 
States Department of Agriculture began dairy demonstration work in 
this State nearly two years ago, with the direct purpose of assisting 
our dairymen to obtain better results. During this time the North 
Carolina State Department of Agriculture has, in a limited way, 
co-operated with the Federal workers, and at its last meeting the State 
Board of Agriculture made an appropriation for the support of this 
work, in order that the co-operation might be more effectual and com- 
plete. 

METHOD OF CONDUCTING THE WORK. 

The method of conducting this work has been about as follows : 
An expert dairyman of experience has been regularly employed, 
and during the summer, when the work was such that one man could 
not attend to it all, an additional man has been temporarily engaged. 
These men have visited the farms of dairymen in various parts of the 
State and endeavored to assist them in obtaining better results. At 
the first visit to a farm the entire plant is carefully looked over; the 
methods of conducting the business are inquired into ; the manner of 
feeding is studied; the kind and quality of the products examined 
and the market prices learned. 

After becoming familiar with the present workings of the dairy, 
the demonstrator is in a position to make suggestions for future im- 



The Bulletin. 11 

provements, but, unless the dairyman is willing to do his part and is 
fully interested and anxious to co-operate in the work, nothing of 
value will be accomplished. 

If the dairyman is willing to do the extra work necessary to obtain 
sufficient information relative to the herd to enable the demonstrator 
to assist him, the work will be taken up in earnest and systematically 
conducted. 

The work already done shows that in practically every herd there 
are many unprofitable cows, which largely consume the profits from 
the good ones. To find out which cows are unprofitable it is necessary 
to weigh the milk, test it and ascertain the amount of butter fat it con- 
tains, and weigh the feeds. When this is done for a few months, the 
data are obtained necessary to enable the dairyman to weed out his 
unprofitable cows. 

To help the dairyman to obtain this necessary information, scales 
for weighing the milk are loaned him and blank milk-record sheets 
furnished. The time required to weigh the milk at each milking 
from each cow during an entire year would not equal the loss from 
feeding one unprofitable cow for that length of time. The feed should 
be weighed three or four times a month and all changes noted and 
record made of the same. 

At first the samples of milk for testing for butter fat are taken by 
the demonstrator and the test made by him. The next and subsequent 
months the dairyman will take the milk samples for two days imme- 
diately preceding the regular monthly visits of the demonstrator, who 
will make the tests for butter fat. 

The dairyman must keep these necessary records and is expected to 
assist in calculating the results. 

In the handling of the dairy products the expert will give all the 
assistance possible, with a view of enabling the dairyman to put upon 
the market a first-class product. 

BUILDING OF. SILOS. 

In feeding, the advice and assistance of the demonstrator is fre- 
quently of great value. As a rule, our dairymen do not produce their 
own feed to the extent they should, nor do they give sufficient care to 
the character of the feeds to obtain the best results. Silos are too rare, 
and yet succulence is essential in dairy feeding. All dairymen are 
advised to use silos, and those who wish to build them are assisted to 
do so. 

The most desirable kind of silo for the conditions existing on "the 
farm is determined, and plans and specifications furnished free of 
charge. When the materials are on the ground, the demonstrator will 
supervise the erection of the silo, and later will direct the filling of it, 
in order that the dairyman may run no risk from lack of experience 
in such matters. 



12 The Bulletin. 



DAIRY BARN PLANS. 

If a dairy barn is needed, the demonstrator will advise concerning 
its location and construction, even to the extent of furnishing plans, 
etc. 

In all these and in many other ways the dairymen of the State may 
receive the assistance of an expert dairyman if they are sufficiently 
interested to do their part of the work, but no dairyman can be helped 
who will not help himself. 

ONE DAIRYMAN'S OPINION OF THE WORK. 

The work already done in this State has fully demonstrated its 
value. One dairyman who has been visited by the demonstrator 
writes : 

"We have been helped and will be glad if you will continue the 
visits. 

"1. We have found that we only make one-half the butter from 
each cow that the best dairies do. 

"2. We have found that we lose ten or fifteen per cent of the butter 
in skimming and churning. 

"3. We have been induced by your agent to visit one of the best 
dairies in the State (about fifty miles distant), in his company, and 
we learned a lot of things there. 

"4. I have a very high opinion of the good the dairy agents may do 
in this country." 

FEEDING BEEF CATTLE. 

The work of the State Department of Agriculture on its test farms 
during the past three years has demonstrated that, with our cheapest 
available feeds and proper facilities for handling the animals, the 
feeding of beef cattle may be made profitable, at least, throughout the 
central and western parts of the State. It is a fact, however, that the 
feeding of beef cattle is not generally regarded as profitable in this 
State. 

Good feeders are too scarce, freight rates too high, and the feeds 
generally used too high-priced to permit of the profitable feeding of 
beef cattle, especially if the full value of stable manure be ignored, 
as is very generally done in this State. 

By using a ration consisting of corn silage and corn stover, both 
cheap feeds and readily produced on the farm, and cotton seed and 
cotton-seed meal, cattle feeding may be made profitable, if proper care 
and intelligence be given to the purchase and care of the feeders and 
a fair valuation given to the stable manure. 

Silage is one of the best and cheapest feeds for beef cattle, and, in 
cases where it is not necessary to provide extra power to drive the 
machinery for filling the silo, it should be used by every feeder of 



The Bulletin. 13 

cattle. As is being done with the dairymen of the State, the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture will be pleased to furnish plans and assist in the 
erection of silos for any farmer in the State who contemplates erecting 
a silo for the feeding of beef cattle or other live stock. 

The Department is anxious to encourage the feeding of more cattle 
for the building up of our worn and depleted soils, and would like to 
co-operate with every man in the State who expects to feed beef cattle 
in carload or half-carload lots next winter. If desired, an expert 
cattle man will be sent to the farm of the feeder and advise regarding 
the purchase of the cattle, the feeds to be used, and the care and mar- 
keting of the animals. 

Any farmer in the State wishing the assistance of the Department 
in animal husbandry lines should write Dr. Tait Butler, Ealeigh, 
N. C. 

ASSISTANCE IN MAINTAINING THE HEALTH OF THE HEEDS. 

Since it is generally conceded that tuberculosis may be communi- 
cated from cattle to man through infected milk, no dairyman can 
afford to maintain a herd in which tuberculosis exists. He cannot 
afford to maintain in his herd animals suffering from disease of any 
kind. He cannot afford to do these things, because they are not right, 
and also because they are unprofitable. If tuberculosis exists in your 
herd to-day, you will lose animals from the disease regularly during 
the coming years, unless you eradicate it. 

There is only one way to clear a herd of tuberculosis and keep it 
clear. That is, to tuberculin test every animal in the herd once a 
year, and test all animals brought into the herd before their introduc- 
tion, and exclude all diseased animals. 

The State Department of Agriculture will assist dairymen and cat- 
tle breeders to eradicate tuberculosis from their herds, and maintain 
them healthy, free of charge, on the following terms : 

1. The owners must furnish the help and all other facilities neces- 
sary to enable one veterinarian to do the work. 

2. All diseased animals must be disposed of, according to the direc- 
tion of the State Veterinarian. 

3. The owner of the herd must agree to and afford the proper facili- 
ties for retesting the herd once a year. 

4. All new animals brought into the herd must be tested before 
their introduction, or isolated until the regular yearly test. 

Any person complying with the conditions above stated and main- 
taining a herd free of disease may receive from the State Veterinarian 
a certificate stating these facts. 

Any cattle breeder or owner of a herd of five or more animals may 
avail himself of this privilege by communicating with the State Vet- 
erinarian. 



REPORT FROM LEAF TOBACCO WAREHOUSES FOR MONTH 

OF APRIL, 1908. 

Pounds sold for producers, first hand 1,619,071 

Pounds sold for dealers. ., 120,044 

Pounds resold for warehouse 81,554 

Pounds resold for other warehouses 1,971 



Total 1,822,640 



THE BULLETIN 



OF THE 



NORTH CAROLINA 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



RALEIGH. 



Volume 29. 



JUNE, 1908. 



Number 6. 



INSECT ENEMIES OF COTTON. 



BY 



FRANKLIN SHERMAN, JR., ENTOMOLOGIST. 




LIBRARY 

NE 

BOTANK 
GARDEN 




Cotton Boll-worm. A Destructive Enemy of Corn, Cotton, Tobacco and Tomatoes- 

a Conspicuous Pest of Southern Agriculture. 

(After Howard, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr. ) 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND SENT FREE TO CITIZENS ON APPLICATION- 

ENTERED AT THE RALEIGH POST-OFFICE AS SECOND-CLASS MAIL MATTER. 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 



S. L. Patterson, Commissioner, ex officio Chairman, Raleigh. 

J. J. Laughinghouse Greenville First District. 

C. W. Mitchell Aulander Second District. 

William Dunn New Bern Third District. 

Ashley Horne Clayton Fourth District. 

R. W. Scott Melville Fifth District. 

A. T. McCallum Red Springs Sixth District. 

J. P. McRae : . . . Laurinburg Seventh District. 

R. L. Doughton Laurel Springs Eighth District. 

W. A. Graham Machpelah Ninth District. 

A. Cannon: Horse Shoe Tenth District. 



OFFICERS AND STAFF. 

S. L. Patterson Commissioner. 

B. W. Kilgore State Chemist, Field Crops. 

Tait Butler Veterinarian, Animal Husbandry. 

Franklin Sherman, Jr Entomologist. 

W. N. Hutt Horticulturist. 

H. H. Brimley Naturalist and Curator. 

T. B. Parker Demonstration Work. 

W. M. Allen Food Chemist. 

J. M. Pickel Assistant Chemist. 

C. D. Harris Feed Chemist and Microscopist. 

W. G. Haywood Assistant Chemist. 

G. M. MacNider Assistant Chemist, Soils. 

L. L. Brinkley : Assistant Chemist. 

S. O. Perkins : Assistant Chemist. 

Hampden Hill Assistant Chemist. 

S. C. Clapp Nursery and Orchard Inspector. 

S. B. Shaw ". Assistant Horticulturist. 



R. W. Scott, Jr., Superintendent Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C. 
F. T. Meacham, Superintendent Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. 
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent Pender Test Farm, Willard, N. C. , 
R. W. Collett, Superintendent Transylvania and Buncombe Test Farms, 
Swannanoa, N. C. 



<TW<resH ' M Sr icoTOCO 



INSECT ENEMIES OF COTTON. 



BY FRANKLIN SHERMAN, JR., ENTOMOLOGIST, 



INTRODUCTION. 



North Carolina produces approximately 600,000 bales of cotton 
each year. Allowing an average of 500 pounds per bale, and 10 
cents per pound for the cotton, we have $30,000,000 as the average 
yearly value of our cotton crop. In the acreage devoted to its pro- 
duction in the State, cotton is second only to corn, but as corn is 
largely grown in every county and as cotton is grown commercially 
in only about two-thirds of the counties, it is seen that cotton is 
overwhelmingly the most important money crop in those counties 
which are well within the cotton belt. 

Insects are estimated to destroy approximately one-tenth of our 
total value of crop products each year. If cotton suffered its pro- 
portional one-tenth, of damage, the loss in this State would amount 
to $3,000,000. But at present we do not believe that the damage 
amounts to this much, so to be conservative we will take away a 
million dollars from that estimate, and we have remaining the sum 
of $2,000,000 which the cotton crop alone of North Carolina con- 
tributes each year to satisfy the appetite of its insect enemies, and 
we believe that the real and actual loss is fully equal to that sum. 

At present the number of serious insect enemies of cotton in the 
State is not large, and usually their attacks are not especially no- 
ticeable, but each year brings to this office a number of inquiries 
and complaints concerning Cotton-lice, Boll-worms, Red Spider and 
others. Last year (1907) there was considerable complaint of Root- 
louse. Meanwhile the Cotton Boll-weevil has spread from Texas 
across Louisiana and is now in western Mississippi, and bids fair to 
continue its march until it occupies the entire cotton region, includ- 
ing North Carolina. 

While the number of pests which are really serious is not large 
at present, there are a considerable number which under peculiarly 
favorable conditions might at any time become very much more 
destructive than they are now. Several which have attracted atten- 
tion in the last few years were not previously on record in this State 
as pests of cotton at all. Several farmers, in making complaint of 
insect injury to cotton, have remarked that their loss from insects is 
growing heavier each year. We are fully convinced, therefore, 
that our estimate of $2,000,000 damage to the cotton crop of the 



4 The Bulletin. 

State by insects is not too high, and we are also convinced that this 
loss is growing steadily greater, and will continue to do so until our 
cotton growers begin to take these enemies into consideration and 
plant and handle their crops in such a way as to reduce the loss. 

How long the cotton growers of the State will be willing to calmly 
sacrifice this amount to insects,' is largely for them to decide. While 
it is true that no grower, however energetic and earnest, can entirely 
prevent loss from this source, it is safe to say that at least one- 
third of this total loss could be prevented, at trivial expense, merely 
by the adoption of different methods of rotation or preparation of the 
crop, planting, etc. The object of this Bulletin is to show where 
these losses to the cotton crop occur, to describe the insects responsible 
for them, and to set forth the remedies or methods which may be 
employed in preventing or avoiding these injuries. 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

Cotton, like corn and other grains, is a crop of what we may call 
low commercial value. That is to say, the cash return from an acre 
devoted to cotton is low as compared to the return from some other 
crops. An acre devoted to strawberries may yield a net return of 
$400, but an acre devoted to cotton will usually yield not over $50. 
Thus, while one might profitably spend $40 or $50 per acre to combat 
insects on strawberries, the average farmer cannot spend more than a 
few dollars per acre at most to combat cotton insects, if he is to make 
a profit, "With any crop which is grown in such large areas, and where 
there are so many individual -plants, it is usually unprofitable to 
adopt any method which calls for the treatment of individual plants, 
unless such treatment is effective in preventing the spread of the 
trouble to other parts of the field. We must, therefore, depend 
mainly upon such methods of preparing the land, selection of seed and 
varieties, fertilization, cultivation, handling, etc., as will render the 
crop least liable to injury, or will enable it to quickly recover when 
attacked. Treatment for a pest must frequently be given before the 
pest actually appears, thus preventing its injuries, rather than to 
attempt a remedy after the damage has become evident, 

CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

It has already been stated that in combating insect pests of cot- 
ton we must largely depend on methods of managing the crop so that 
it shall be least subject to attack, or to make it grow so vigorously 
that it will quickly recover from injury. Such methods may be 
called Cultural Methods since they imply merely a changing or modi- 
fication of the methods of ordinary culture already in common use. 

Rotation. — Intelligent farmers everywhere are coming to see that 
some system of rotation is necessary to secure the best results with 
any crop. To grow any one crop continuously on the same land year 



The Bulletin. 5 

after year will surely result in wearing out the important elements of 
plant-food for that crop, as well as to deplete the supply of humus, 
which is so necessary to every soil. To grow the same crop con- 
tinuously also gives every opportunity for the insect pests of that 
crop to multiply undisturbed until they become destructive enough 
to ruin it. Crops with different requirements should follow one 
another continuously so as to keep something growing on the land all 
the time. 

In some respects cotton is unfortunate in regard to rotation for 
insect pests, for if we rotate in such a way as to avoid one, we are 
liable to play directly into the hands (so to speak)' of another. If 
cotton follows a growth of weeds and grass, serious damage by Cut- 
worms may be expected, especially in our piedmont counties and on 
clay lands. If cotton follows cowpeas, it is liable to be damaged 
by the Cowpea-pod Weevil, while if cotton follows corn it is likely 
to be attacked by the Cotton Root-louse. The grower must, therefore, 
be sufficiently watchful and intelligent to know whai his serious pests 
are, and must then choose such system as will give the least op- 
portunity to his worst pests. Carefully studied out and used, the 
rotation of cotton with other crops can be made quite effectual in 
avoiding Cut-worms, Cowpea-pod Weevil, Root-louse and Red Spider 
(or Rust-mite), and to a lesser extent it may be helpful against the 
Cotton Leaf-louse. 

Plowing. — In plowing the land preparatory to planting cotton, the 
soil should be broken deeply. Gradual deepening from year to year 
is better than to plow deeply all at once. The deepening of the soil 
furnishes more food for the plant and enables it to grow rapidly so 
that it does not succumb so quickly to insect attack. Deep plowing 
also destroys weeds and grass which may harbor Cut-worms, exposes 
and destroys the pupae of the Boll-worm, and it disturbs any insects in 
the soil which may attack the plant beneath the surface. 

Deep Fall Plowing may be used to bury the remnants of the crop 
as a check to the Red Spider, or perhaps, to disturb underground 
pests, such as the Root-louse, and to destroy the pupae of the Boll- 
worm. 

Plowing in Winter or Early Spring will leave the ground bare for 
a time before planting, which tends to drive away Cut-worms, and 
will also destroy many pupse of Boll-worms. 

Preparation Of Soil. — If the soil be prepared deeply and finely 
so as to form a good seed bed the young plants will grow vigorously 
and will quickly recover from injuries which might otherwise kill 
them. Such careful preparation calls for much working over the 
soil before planting, plowing perhaps both ways, harrowing, dragging, 
etc. This is advisable merely for the sake of the crop itself even if 
there were no insects, but the same methods serve to reduce these pests 
also. Abundant working before planting will disturb and discourage 



6 The Bulletin. 

• 

any underground insects which might attack the roots. If the ground 
is thus carefully worked and kept bare for a few weeks previous to 
planting many 'Cut-worms will be starved or driven out. The extra 
stimulus given to the plant by all this careful working enables it to 
resist or recover from the attacks of Cut-worms, Lice, Koot-lice and 
Cowpea-pod Weevils. 

Varieties. — North Carolina is the most northern of the large cot- 
ton-producing States, and as cotton is essentially a plant of warm 
countries, our seasons are sometimes a little shorter than is best for 
this crop, and makes it necessary for us to use early-maturing varieties 
which will make a crop before frost. The need of early varieties is 
still more evident when we remember that some insect pests are most 
destructive in the latter part of the season, for by that time an early 
variety may have its crop made, while the later-maturing variety 
may fall prey to the insects. The use of the very earliest varieties 
is advisable as a means of counteracting the Boll-worm, also to a 
lesser extent it is effective against the Bed Spider, and in the States 
infested by Boll-weevil it is one of the principal means of escaping 
the ravages of that pest. 

Time Of Planting. — In respect to the time of planting we have 
to take our chances with certain pests no matter whether we plant 
early or late. Early planting tends to avoid damage by the Boll- 
worm, because it enables the crop to be made before that insect 
reaches its greatest abundance in the fall. On the other hand late 
planting helps to escape Cut-worms, Cowpea-pod Weevil, Root- 
louse and Le'df-louse and Lice, as these are all worse early in the 
season. 

Since the shortness of our season has to be considered we believe 
the balance to be in favor of reasonably early planting, and especially 
is this the case in the more northern and western of our cotton 
counties, as in Rutherford, Catawba, Alexander, Davie, Granville and 
Warren. Some growers in these sections complain that the shortness 
of the season is their main difficulty and in such cases it is idle to 
delay planting after the conditions are once fit. But in the warmer 
counties like Mecklenburg, Union and Anson, where the season is 
suitably long, and where Cut-worms are regularly serious, it is cer- 
tainly worth while to consider the advisability of later planting, 
especially when the cotton must follow directly after a crop of grass 
or weeds. 

Planting ExceSS Of Seed. — Injury "by some insects, such as Cut- 
worms, Lice and Cowpea-pod Weevil, may be lessened by planting an 
increased quantity of seed so that there shall be enough plants to 
secure a stand even if some are destroyed by insects. If injury by 
these continues regularly after the cotton is chopped, it may be advis- 
able to chop to a thicker stand, so as to allow for some being killed 
later. Any surplus can be gotten rid of if necessary by thinning 



The Bulletin. 7 

afterwards. The planting of excess seed need not often be resorted 
to, as the usual practice is to plant many more than actually needed 
and to. thin the plants by chopping. 

Fertilization. — What crop will not do better in a fertile soil than 
in an impoverished one ? All that can be done to enrich the soil in 
an economical way so as to increase the vigor of the plants will not 
only help the cotton to outgrow and recover from insect injury, but 
will contribute largely toward a greatly increased crop, even aside 
from any consideration of insects. Injury by Cut- worms, Lice and 
Cowpea-pod Weevil are all rendered less severe by having the crop 
growing in a soil where there is an abundance of available plant 
food. So far as the insects are concerned it matters not whether this 
fertility is supplied by barnyard manure, by commercial fertilizers 
or by rotation of crops with legumes, etc., or by any combination of 
these methods. Good fertilization also tends to mature the crop 
early, thus escaping some of the injuries of the Boll-worm. An excess 
of phosphoric acid over the proportions generally used will hasten 
maturity. 

Cultivation. — With a deep, thoroughly prepared soil, properly 
enriched, planted with proper varieties of cotton at the proper time, 
it yet remains to give the crop the most thorough and frequent shallow 
cultivations. This will stimulate growth in the plants, thus enabling 
them to recover from any slight injuries that they may receive from 
Cut-worms, Lice and the like, while the stirring of the soil close 
to the plants is an actual discomfort and discouragement to the Cut- 
worms and tends to drive them away. 

Destruction Of Remnants. — It is the common custom to leave the 

• dead cotton stalks standing all fall and winter after the crop has 

been harvested. This has a tendency to increase certain pests, such 

as Boll-worm and Red Spider, which may continue to live on the 

latest-surviving leaves and bolls until actual winter sets in. 

In Texas and Louisiana repeated experience has shown that in 
combating the Boll-weevil a great point is gained if the cotton stalks 
be disposed of as soon as the bulk of the crop is gathered, without 
waiting to get the last of the "top crop," and as the Boll-weevil will 
likely reach North Carolina sometime in the future, we may 
eventually be obliged to resort to this practice. In Currituck and 
other of our north-eastern counties the stalks are frequently gathered 
and burned, *but as most of our soils are sadly lacking in humus, 
perhaps deep turning under by plowing would be the best practice for 
most of our cotton growers. But where a winter-growing crop (like 
crimson clover or vetch) is sown in the field before the cotton is 
picked we must let the stalks stand. The destruction of the stalks 
is not now of enough importance to justify us in giving up an already 
established and beneficial system of management, but when they can 



8 The Bulletin. 

be disposed of without disarranging the habitual methods of practice 
and without loss, then we consider it advisable, on account of insects 
and diseases, to plow them under. 

All the foregoing culture considerations show that very much may 
be done to ward off insect injury by slight changes in the methods of 
culture which are already in common use, and, indeed, these are the 
remedies most to be relied upon. It costs but a trifle to put these 
methods to practice, and, as they are beneficial to the crop itself, 
aside from all consideration of the insects, it would seem that ordinary 
prudence would induce the intelligent cotton planter to at least have 
them in mind to be employed as his needs may require. All the 
good doctrine that has been taught to our farmers year in and year 
out in bulletins, in the agricultural papers, in correspondence and 
at the Farmers' Institutes, begging for wiser methods of plowing, 
preparation of lands, fertilization and cultivation, all these tend also 
to ward off serious insect injury. 

REGARDING- INSECTS AND THEIR NAMES. 

In discussing the cotton insects in this Bulletin we have given 
both the popular and the scientific name of the species, and have in- 
dicated the order and the family of insects to which each belongs. It 
should be remembered that the Order is the more comprehensive 
group, and each order is divided into a number of Families. 

The great majority of our common insects may be grouped into 
seven orders, as follows: 

1. The Orthoptera (Or : thop-tera), including the Grasshoppers, 
Katydids, Crickets, Roaches, etc. 

2. Hemiptera (He-mip-tera), Bugs, such as Chinch Bug, Terrapin 
Bug, Lice, Plant-lice, Scale-insects,, etc. 

3. Neuroptera (Neu-rop-tera), Lace-wing Flies, Dobsohs, Dragon- 
flies, May-flies, Darning-needles, Mosquito-hawks, etc. 

4. Lepidoptera (Lep-i-dop-tera), Butterflies, Skippers and Moths. 

5. Diptera (Dip-tera), the true two-winged Flies, such as House- 
flies, Mosquitoes, Blow-flies, Horse-flies, etc. 

6. Coleoptera (Co-le-op-tera), Beetles, such as Potato-beetle, Bill- 
beetle, Flea-beetle, June-beetle, Tumble-beetle, Tiger-beetle, etc. 

7. Hymenoptera (Hy-men-op-tera), Bees, Ants and Wasps. 

It is believed that this explanation and arrangement, will be help- 
ful to those who are interested in learning how to recognize the 
different orders of insects. 

INSECT ENEMIES OF COTTON. 

In the study of the cultural methods we found that many practices 
which are used in the control of the cotton insects merely require 
a change or modification of the ordinary methods of culture which 
are already in common use, and do not require any large expense. 



The Bulletin. 



But if the farmer is to know just what methods to adopt to avoid 
insect pests, he should be intelligent enough to know just what those 
insects are, and how they live, grow and change from one stage of life 
to another. This information we here give with regard to our most 
serious cotton insect pests. 

CUT-WORMS (Several Species). 
Order Lepidoptera. Family Noctuidas. 

Description. — Bather stout-bodied, soft, brown, blackish or grayish 
caterpillars, which remain concealed during the day and do great 
injury at night by eating off young plants at or near the surface of 
the ground. 

Injun/ in North Carolina. — Cut-worms are such a common and 
universal nuisance that they do not excite comment or complaint at all 
commensurate with the injuries which they actually inflict. When a 
farmer does complain of them it is usually in a general way as attack- 
ing all crops ancl not with regard to any one in particular, hence we 
have not had much specific complaint of Cut-worm injury to cotton, 
although it is a matter of common knowledge that such injury does 
occur. Kecent inquiry into cotton growing conditions brings out the 
fact that Cut-worms are more serious to cotton in our piedmont 
counties than in the extreme east, the growers in Mecklenburg County 
making frequent mention of them as serious pests. 




Fig. 1. — Variegated Cut-worm, showing adult at o; larva or Cut-worm 
(three views) at 6, c, and d; egg (enlarged) at e, and eggs in natural 
position on grass-stalk at/. All about natural size, except e. 
(After Howard, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

Although Cut-worms are present and do more or less damage every 
season, the year of 1905 seems to have been one of special abundance 
and destruction by them in this State. 



10 The Bulletin. 

Life-history and Habits. — There are a number of distinct species 
of Cut-worms, but all are the caterpillar stage, or larvae, of moths. 
The family Noctuidw to which they belong contains some 2,000 
species in North America, and probably 500 or more are found in 
North Carolina. It is likely, however, that our seriously destructive 
Cut-worms do not number more than 20 or 30 species. In some 
species the adult moth stage is reached in spring and early summer, 
while in others it is not reached until fall, hence in both cases 
the insects will be in the Cut-worm stage in early spring, while in late 
spring and summer only the later species will be in the Cut-worm 
stage. 

Mr. C. S. Brimley of Raleigh, who has long been interested in 
collecting, rearing and studying insects, brought to maturity seven 
different species of Cut-worms during 1903-'04. Of these, four 
reached the moth stage in fall and two reached that stage in the 
spring, while another species was only seen once, in midsummer. 
From his observations it seems that at Raleigh for the spring species 
June, and for the fall species September and October, are the prin- 
cipal months of activity and egg-laying by the adult moths. 

The details in the life-history of a species will vary somewhat 
according as it matures in the spring or in the fall, but the follow- 
ing will serve as a general account of the life of a Cut-worm. 

The larvae (destructive Cut-worm stage) pass the winter in the 
earth or on the surface under such shelter as they can find. At this 
time they are only partly grown. In warm spells of weather they 
may crawl about and feed on roots or green stems of grasses or hardy 
weeds. Their long fast or season of scarcity of food gives them 
ravenous appetites when the warm days of spring arouse them to 
activity, and they then feed on any green succulent young plants that 
they can find. Their greatest damage to cotton consists in eating 
off young plants at or near the surface of the ground. Sometimes 
they pull the severed end of the young stalk into the ground where 
they may feed upon it during the following day. They usually 
remain quiet during the day and feed only at night, but sometimes in 
cool weather or on cloudy days they will work all day. Cool weather 
in spring seems especially- to sharpen their appetites and such weather 
makes the cotton backward so that it cannot readily recover from 
injury. When the larva (or Cut-worm) becomes grown (which 
varies according as the moth is to emerge in spring or fall), they 
change to the pupa stage in the earth, an inch or so under the sur- 
face. Those that are to emerge in spring or early summer change 
to the pupa state in the middle or latter part of May, and it is be- 
cause these larvae (Cut-worms) become mature at this season that 
they cease their injuries, and not because of any epidemic of disease 
among them. In the pupa state they have neither legs nor wings and 
take no food — it is simply a stage of change from the larva (Cut- 



The Bulletin. 



11 



worm) to the adult moth. After a few weeks the adult moth breaks 
out from the pupa-shell, and after hardening and drying like a young 
chick just out of the egg, it is ready, for an active flying life, which, 
however, lasts only a few days and allows for mating and the laying 




Fig. 2. — Granulated Cut-worm, showing larva at a, 
pupa at /, adult moth at h. and details of structure. 

(After Riley and Howard, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

of eggs to continue the species. Most of the Cut- worm moths are dull 
gray or brown in general color, and with the hind wings lighter, often 
of a pinkish hue. When the wings are expanded they measure from 
one to two inches from tip to tip. These moths fly mostly at night 
'and are often attracted to bright lights and not infrequently enter 
houses and flutter about the lamps or walls. The females deposit 
their eggs on trash, grass or weeds, in sod or weedy lands. The flying 
moth does not develop to any other form, but dies soon after the 
eggs are laid. 




Fig 3. — Cut-worm (Feltia malefida) show- 
ing larva or cut-worm stage at a, adult 
moth at /, and details of structure at b, 
c, d, and e. 

(After Riley.) 



Natural Enemies. — Almost every kind of insect is subject to the 
attacks of other insects, larger animals, or diseases, and fortunately 
for us Cut-worms are not exceptions to this rule. Among the birds 
the insect-eating kinds which spend much time on the ground are 
no doubt the most useful, especially the Bob White, Crow, Black 



12 



The Bulletin. 



Birds, Meadow Lark (or Field Lark), Sparrows, Cat Bird, Mocking 
Bird, Brown Thrasher, Blue Bird and Kobin. These, in the course 
of a season, and especially when, rearing their young, pick up many a 
juicy Cut-worm. The common and much-despised toad is also a 
helper, for he comes forth from his hiding place at dusk and Cut- 
worms are one of the regular items in his bill of fare. Certain 
predaceous insects like the Ground-beetles also attack and devour 
Cut-worms. Parasitic flies sting and deposit their eggs within the 
bodies of Cut-worms and these eggs, hatching to maggots, eventually 
cause the death of the Cut-worm. There are also certain fungous 
and bacterial diseases which kill a considerable number. 

All these natural enemies, while not by any means preventing all 
damage by Cut-worms, at least act as a check upon them, and we be- 
lieve it proper that the cotton grower should know them. 




Fig. 4.— Adult moth of the Black Cut-worm. Natural size. 
(After Riley and Howard, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

Summary. — Cut-worms are the larva? of night-flying moths. They 
pass the winter as larva?, eat ravenously in the spring, become mature, 
pupate, and emerge as moths in early summer or fall. June, 
September and October seem to be the principal months for egg- 
laying. Eggs are laid in weedy or grassy fields, after which the 
moths die. The larva? pass the winter in a partly grown condition in 
the fields. With these points clearly understood it will be easy to 
comprehend the following remedial suggestions: 

REMEDIES. 

As the eggs are laid in weedy and sod lands, cotton planted on 
land just from sod or weeds will almost surely suffer, as the Cut- 
worms are already in the soil when the cotton is planted. Therefore 
the first consideration is to have cotton follow some cultivated crop. 
If cotton must come after a growth of grass or weeds, then, by plow- 
ing the land in the fall, many Cut-worms will be killed by exposure 
or starvation before the cotton is planted in spring. If the land be 
plowed before the fall moths have laid their eggs (before September 
20th for example), then the moths will deposit their eggs in other 
fields, some cover crop could be sown in October or November which 
would cover the ground and prevent leaching, and the cotton crop 



The Bulletin. 13 

planted the following spring would be much less troubled than if the 
grass and weeds had stayed on all through the previous fall and 
winter. As a preventive of Cut-worms it would be better to have 
the ground bare all winter and plow it once or twice in the mean- 
time, but that might not be good practice unless Cut-worms were 
exceptionally bad on the place, and we must so adapt our measures 
against the insects as to make them fit into a good scheme of farming. 
By delaying the planting until late in the spring, the early-maturing 
Cut-worms will be nearly or entirely grown and will, therefore, do 
less injury. Very late planting may not be advisable on account of 
short seasons, early frost, or on account of Boll-worm, which is worst 
late in the season, but it is one of the possible means of avoiding 
Cut-worms. Frequent cultivation will disturb the Cut-worms and 
tend to drive them away, and will cause the plant to grow rapidly and 
recover from injury, while good fertilization aids in the same di- 
rection. 

But if we must put a piece of spring-plowed sod or weedy land 
into cotton, and wish to plant at the normal season, there is still a 
method (not always easy or entirely satisfactory perhaps) by which we 
may combat the Cut-worms. When the land is plowed in the spring 
much of their food is destroyed and they become hungry. It is then, 
after breaking and harrowing the land and before the cotton is 
planted, that it is possible to poison them. Clover or other green 
and succulent vegetation may be poisoned with Paris Green and dis- 
tributed through the fields as a bait to the worms. The clover 
may be sprayed with poison as it stands and then cut ; or perhaps the 
better and more thorough plan would be to cut it and dip it into a 
barrel of the poisoned solution. The Paris Green for this purpose 
should be thoroughly mixed with water at the rate of about one pound 
to the barrel (40 to 50 gallons) of water. Arsenate of lead may be 
used instead of Paris Green, at the. rate of five or six pounds to the 
barrel. Paris Green and wheat bran have been used in gardens, at 
the rate of about one ounce of the poison to two or three pounds of 
the bran. A mash made of bran, Paris Green and water, and 
sweetened with molasses, has also been used by gardeners. But in 
field operations, with cotton grown on a large scale, the main prac- 
tices to be relied upon are (1) the avoidance of cotton after sod or 
weeds, and (2) fall plowing (as early as convenient), if such land 
must be put into cotton in the spring. The poisoning methods will 
often be too expensive and too uncertain for use on a large scale in 
cotton fields. 

For further discussion of the methods mentioned against Cut- 
worms the reader is referred to what is said under the head of 
Rotation (p. 4), Plowing (p. 5), Preparation of Soil (p. 5), Time 
of Planting (p. 6), Planting Excess of Seed (p. 6), Fertilization 
(p. 7), and Cultivation (p. 7). 



14 



The Bulletin. 



COTTON LEAF-LOUSE (principally Aphis gossypii glov.) 
Order Hemiptera. Family Aphididw. 

Description. — A small green louse, often found in great numbers 
on the young leaves and tender growing part of young cotton, where 
they suck the sap from the plant. More destructive in cool seasons, 
and usually disappearing when settled hot weather comes in June and 
July. The same species of louse also infests melons, in which case 
it is called "Melon-louse." 

Injury in North Carolina. — Injury by this Cotton-louse seems 
to be rather general throughout all the cotton-growing region of the 
State. But although it often causes some uneasiness early in the 
season while the weather is yet cool, it becomes reduced in numbers 
or entirely disappears when settled warm weather comes in June or 
July, the crop usually recovers, and the real ultimate damage is usually 
slight, or at least is not seriously noticeable. Recent inquiries indicate 
that it is regarded as an occasionally serious pest by over one-third 
of our growers in all sections where cotton is grown. 




Fig. 5. — Cotton Leaf-louse. Adult winged female at a, side view of dark female at ab, young- louse 
at b, young louse nearly grown at c, adult female of wingless form at d. All much enlarged. 

(After Chittenden, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

Life-history and Habits. — The adult winged lice appear in the 
fields when the cotton is quite young. In the figure (Fig. 5, ab), 
is shown the side view of a winged female and it may be seen that 
there is a pointed beak attached to the under side of the head. 



The Bulletin. 



15 



this beak the insect punctures the stem or tissue of the leaf and 
sucks out the sap. The young lice are much like the grown ones in 
appearance, and are represented at b and c in the figure. 

During cool, wet seasons the lice multiply rapidly and become 
quite destructive, causing the infested plants to become stunted and 
distorted. The insect also attacks melons, cucumbers, and no doubt 
a number of species of weeds. In hot, dry seasons 'a number of other 
insects, which feed upon the lice, become abundant and check them. 
The lice are, . therefore, more abundant in cool seasons, not so much 
because such a season is more beneficial to them, but because a cool 
season is very unfavorable to the enemies which prey on the lice. 
The grown lice may be either winged or wingless, as shown in 
Fig. 5. 

Natural Enemies. — As already indicated there are a number of 
other insects which prey on the Leaf-louse. Probably the most im- 
portant of these are certain very small black four-winged flies (hardly 
as large as the gnats which often get into the eyes of persons) which 
sting the lice .and lay their eggs in the bodies of the lice. These 
are known as parasites. In warm weather these parasites are very 
active and may be found running about on the leaves in search 
of suitable victims. If the farmer will notice closely he may often 
find a considerable number of dead lice on the leaves which are dry 
and brown and bloated in appearance. These have been killed by the 
growth of the young parasite within their bodies. These parasites 
are wholly unknown to, and unappreciated by, the average cotton 
farmer, yet it is largely on account of their activity that the lice dis- 
appear when hot weather comes on in early summer. 

Frequently the farmer will notice on the louse-infested cotton 
a yellowish beetle with black spots. These beetles are about a fourth 
of an inch long, and crawl about among the louse-infested leaves. 
These are known as Lady-beetles, and the one most frequently found 
on lousy cotton is the Convergent Lady-beetle (Hippodamia con- 
vergent) shown in Fig. 6. 





a v 

Fig. 6. — Convergent Lady-beetle. An important enemy of the Cotton Leaf- 
louse. Adult beetle at a, the young or larva at c, and the pupa at 6. 

(After Chittenden, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 



16 The 'Bulletin. 

At a is shown the adult beetle, the line to the right indicating 
its actual length. Farmers often suppose that these Lady-beetles are 
the parents of the louse, but in reality they are enemies to the louse 
(and are, therefore, friends to the farmer), for the reason that they 
feed on the lice. They lay their eggs on the leaf and these hatch to 
the larva as shown at c, and this larva, when grown, changes to the 
pupa, as shown at b, and from this pupa the adult beetle (a) emerges. 
The larva (c) of the Lady-beetle also feeds actively on the cotton lice. 
There are several other species of Lady-beetles that attack the Cotton- 
louse, but the one here mentioned is the most abundant and beneficial 
one. 

There are a number of other insects which help to keep down the 
Cotton-louse, such as the Lace-wing Flies and Syrphus Flies, but 
they do not require detailed mention here. On the other hand, cotton 
(or any other plant) which is badly infested with lice is apt to be 
frequented by many insects which go there, not to attack the lice, but 
to get from the lice a sweetish substance called a honey-dew," which 
the lice secrete from their bodies. Ants, flies and v\-asps are fond 
of this substance and are frequently abundant on plants which are 
badly infested with the lice. 

Summary.- — -The Cotton Leaf-louse is most abundant in cool, wet, 
late seasons and is sometimes destructive, but usually disappears or 
becomes much less evident when hot weather comes on, due prin- 
cipally to the activity of the parasites and other natural enemies. 
Parasitic four-winged Flies, the Convergent Lady-beetle, Lace-wing 
Flies and the Syrphus Flies are the most active of the natural 
enemies. Louse-infested cotton is also frequented by certain other 
insects which go there for the honey-dew anel do not take part either in 
destroying or aiding the lice. The Cotton-louse has no stage of 
existence except that of a louse, though some are winged, as shown in 
the illustration. 

REMEDIES. 

Since the Cotton Leaf-louse does most of its destructive work early 
in the season, some of its injuries can be avoided by later planting so 
that the young cotton will come on in hot weather when the natural 
enemies of the louse are active and able to protect the crop. This is 
a point worth consideration on plantations where the louse is a 
serious pest every year, though perhaps not advisable for those who 
do not usually suffer severe injury from the louse. Good fertiliza- 
tion and frequent shallow cultivation will cause the crop to grow 
vigorously and soon be beyond the stage of serious injury. 

When the Cotton-louse suddenly appears in great numbers in re- 
stricted spots in the field and threatens to spread over the entire 
. area, it may pay to use a spray pump and thoroughly spray all the 
plants in the infested area. For this purpose use ordinary home- 
made or laundry soap, dissolved in water at the rate of iy 2 pounds to 



The Bulletin. IT 

4 gallons. The soap is shaved in thin pieces and placed in a pail or 
kettle over a fire with enough water to dissolve it. When heated to 
boiling, stir vigorously and the soap will dissolve. Then remove 
from the fire ami add the water required to bring it to the proper 
amount. A thorough application of this solution will be quite ef- 
fectual, and one such treatment will usually check their spread ami 
"tide over" the plants until hot weather comes, when the lice become 
unnoticeable. 

See also what is said under the headings Time of Planting 
(p. 6), Fertilization (p. 7), Cultivation (p. 7), and Planting Ex- 
cess of Seed (p. G). 

THE COTTON ROOT-LOUSE. (Aphis maidi-radicis.) 

Order Hemiptera. Family Aphididce. 

(Also called "Blue-bug.") 

Description, — A small greenish or bluish plant-louse, attacking the 
roots of young cotton, causing it to be of slow, belated, stunted growth, 
or killing the plants entirely. Known also by the name of "Blue 
Bug." 

.1// I 'u recognized Pest, — Heretofore there has been no published 
record of this insect as an enemy of cotton, though it has long ranked 
as a serious enemy of corn in Illinois and adjacent States, where 
it is known as the "Corn Boot-louse." It was recently reported to 
the United States Department of Agriculture at Washington, as at- 
tacking cotton roots in South Carolina, but it seems that it has never 
been recognized by entomologists as one of the standard cotton pests. 
Vague reports of its ravages had reached the State Department of 
Agriculture from time to time, always indicating that it was serious, 
but always these reports came at such a time or in such a way that 
they were not substantiated by specimens. It was only this spring 
(1908) that w 7 e were enabled to secure sufficient material to ascertain 
d( finitely the species responsible for the damage. 

Injury in North Carolina. — During the last eight years there 
have been reports of this pest from time to time in county papers, and 
several limes it has been asked about at Banners' Institutes. But it 
was not until the spring of 1907 that it was promptly and specifically 
reported by letter in such a way as to admit of positive record. Be- 
tween June 1th ami July 12th, 1907, it was reported five times, once 
each from the comities of Bladen, Duplin, Johnston, Robeson and 
Wayne. That it was very destructive in 1907 is shown well by the 

following letter : 

Goldsboro, N. C, June 27, 1907. 
On the 1st day of June the cotton crop of Wayne and surrounding counties 
was fully normal; to-day <i."> per cent would, perhaps, more than represent the 
present condition. Root lice (Aphis) have been so universally destructive that 
it is rare to find a field untouched, and most fields are permanently damaged 
from one-fourth to one-half. Corn, also, has been very much injured in some 
sections by this same pest. Yours, 

J. W. Hall. 



18 The Bulletin. 

Up to the present it seems to have attracted attention mainly in 
the more eastern of our cotton counties. Inquiry among 40 cotton 
farmers fails to locate it as a serious pest in the counties of Meck- 
lenburg, Scotland, Wake and Warren. (Several in these counties 
merely mention "Lice" or "Cotton-louse," but do not specify the 
Koot-louse). That it is present in these counties seems certain, for 
on inspection we located it in a field near Kaleigh (Wake County), 
and the owner of the field said he was familiar with it. In an in- 
quiry among 56 growers in the counties of Halifax and Edgecombe 
(two of our largest cotton-producing counties), 29 growers mention 
this Koot-louse as a serious pest, a greater number than mention 
any of the other insect enemies of cotton, thus giving it first rank 
in importance among the cotton insects in these counties. 

The species occurs on a number of plants, and this spring (1908) 
a louse on corn roots (doubtless this same species) has been reported 
from the western part of Gaston County. 

Summing up all these fragments of evidence, we may say that this 
insect is doubtless present in a large portion of the State, and prob- 
ably does some injury to cotton in most of the counties where the crop 
is grown, but up to the present it has attracted attention as a 
serious cotton pest principally in the eastern section of the State. 

Habits, Life-history, etc. — As a result of our inquiries this year 
for information about this pest, and for specimens of it, a number 
of persons have written concerning it, and from these we quote : 

Battleboro, N. C June 12, 1908. 

Dear Sir : — * * * I feel that I can give you some information on this 
pest, as it is a common thing with us. The Root-louse is more prevalent in 
cold springs. * * * They attack and suck the plant when small and cause 
it to dwarf and not grow until warm nights, when all this (affected) cotton 
will revive and grow, making late bolls subject to frost. * * * The plant 
when first attacked will be (apparently) all right, but it will not grow, and 
becomes hard and knotty-looking, lacking all vitality, stem will be small and 
dark, and root seems to be decaying as the lice suck it, until it dies, or warm 
weather and cultivation seem to cause them to disappear. They are more 
prevalent in stiff and bottom lands. I notice cotton in my fields to-day 
affected, and while I have not personally examined the roots * * * it is 
generally understood that Blue-bugs (Root-lice) are the cause of the non- 
growth and stunted form. Yours very truly, 

Hugh B. Bryan. 

Battleboro, N. C, June 13, 1908. 

Dear Sir : — I send you by to-day's mail three plants that are infested by the 
"Blue-bug" (Root-louse). One plant was about dead when taken up, another 
badly damaged, and the third is not so badly damaged^ * * * As you say 
you know nothing about this pest I will give you a few facts that any farmer 
in my section could tell you, but probably will not, because he would expect 
everybody to know about them. This insect is much worse in cool, damp 
weather, and on land that is of a close nature, as the heat will not penetrate 
this as it will sandy land. Hot, dry weather will drive the pest away. 
* * * You are very apt to find ants working in a little hole by the side 
of all plants that are infested — in fact the ants are so apt to be there at work 



The Bulletin. 19 

that many say the ants ruin their cotton. We have not been very badly dam- 
aged by this insect this season, but last year (1907) they did great damage. 
The only thing I know to combat it is to prepare the land well and to work 
the cotton as soon as possible after a rain, so that the heat can get down to 
the roots. Yours truly, 

George C. Philips. 

These two letters indicate not only that the Root-louse on cotton is ' 
well known to growers, but that it is a truly important factor, and 
that it is entitled to rank among the most serious insect pests of the 
crop, at least in North Carolina. 

It is interesting to note that ants are commonly found in company 
with this Root-louse, for this same louse in the Central States (where 
it seriously affects the roots of corn) is* attended by a species of 
ant, and this ant not only does not eat the lice, but it protects them 
from enemies so far as it is able, and carries the lice or their eggs into 
its ant hills in the fall of the year, cares for them through the winter, 
and in spring transfers them again to the field and locates them on 
the roots of young corn plants. The lice secrete from their bodies 
a sweetish substance known as "honey-dew," and it is to obtain this 
that the ants stay near them. The ants themselves do not ordinarily 
hurt the plant, nor do they give birth to lice, nor do they destroy 
lice. They are an entirely distinct species of insect which attend the 
lice for the sake of the honey-dew. 

This being the case with this same louse in the Central States 
on corn, there is every reason to suppose that here in North Carolina 
the ants attend the lice on the cotton roots for the same purpose. 
Growers who suppose that the ants eat the lice and are therefore 
beneficial, are almost certainly mistaken, and those who suppose that 
the ants attack the cotton are almost certainly mistaken, while those 
who suppose that the ants are the parents of the lice, are absolutely 
mistaken without any doubt or question whatever, since the louse has 
no stage of its life when it is really like an ant, and no ant has 
any stage of its life when it is like a louse. 

We are hoping to begin some studies of this Cotton Root-louse 
this season, and at the time- these lines are written preliminary in- 
quiries are being made, but .up to this time we have only definitely 
ascertained the identity of the pest and learned a few general facts 
concerning it. But. with the little knowledge we have so far gathered, 
we feel considerable confidence in the remedial measures here recom- 
mended, and we doubt whether later studies will materially change 
them. 

Natural Enemies. — -Just what other insects kill and prey upon 
the Cotton Root-louse we do not know, but we know that its cousin, the 
Leaf -louse, is attacked by a number of enemies which subdue it when 
settled warm weather comes. This Root-louse also is said to dis- 
appear, or at least becomes harmless, when hot weather comes, and 
this is possibly due to the fact that its natural enemies are able to 



20 The Bulletin. 

subdue it when favored by warm weather ; if so, frequent cultivation 
close up to the plants will break open the soil so as to admit these 
natural enemies under favorable conditions of warmth, and will at 
the same time disturb the ants. 

Summary. — The Cotton Root-louse is identical with the Corn Root- 
• louse of the Central States. It attacks the roots of cotton and 
causes the plant to be of slow, late, stunted growth, or oftentimes it is 
killed. It is known to infest corn in this State, and is also recorded 
as attacking the roots of a number of other plants. The ants which 
accompany it feed on the "honey-dew" which the lice secrete. This 
louse seems most serious to cotton in our eastern counties, where 'the 
prevailing soils are sandy, but it is most abundant on the stirrer por- 
tions of the field. They are worse in cool seasons and usually disap- 
pear when settled hot weather comes. 

REMEDIES. 

As cotton and corn seem to be the two chief food plants of this 
Root-louse we may expect some measure of relief if we avoid planting 
cotton in land that was in corn the previous year. One grower in 
Sampson County mentions that where he grows cotton after corn he is 
so much troubled by "Wood-louse" (by which we suppose he means 
this same Root-louse) that he has adopted the practice of growing 
cotton for two years in succession on the same land to avoid the 
necessity of having cotton always follow corn. 

As pointed out in the letter of Mr. Philips, much can be done by 
having the land well prepared and by cultivating frequently, and 
if the land is well fertilized the injury will be even less severe 
and will be more quickly outgrown by the plants. Cultivating as 
soon as possible after a rain is mentioned by Mr. Philips, and has also 
been demonstrated as effectual against the Corn Root-louse in Illinois. 

Possibly by planting later in the spring the plants would come 
on when the weather is more settled and hot, and thus escape. Plant- 
ing increased quantity of seed, or chopping to a thicker stand will 
allow for a full stand even after the Root-louse has done its worst. 

If the ant which attends these Root-lice takes them into its col- 
onies for the winter and brings them out and places them on new 
plants in the spring, then the more of these ant colonics we can break 
up and destroy the less of the Root-louse we will have. For this pur- 
pose we must depend on a. very deep plowing of the soil, either in 
preparing the land for the crop, or immediately after the injured 
crop is gathered. Lands in corn and which it is intended to plant in 
cotton the nex,t year could be very deeply plowed in the fall to destroy 
the ant colonies and thus kill the lice. During the winter this could 
grow some useful cover crop or legume, after which, with good prep- 
aration for cotton, the Root-louse would be less likely to be destruc- 
tive. The whole point of this dee]) plowing treatment, so far as this 
louse is concerned, would be to break up the colonies of ants. 



The Bulletin. 21 

It is possible that an application of tobacco dust at rate of from 
100 to 200 pounds per acre, sown in the row with the seed, would 
be an effectual preventive, as tobacco in many forms is an excellent 
remedy for plant-lice. But this has not yet been proven. In the 
( Vntral States it has been demonstrated that the seed corn can be so 
treated as to greatly reduce injury from this insect, but it is ex- 
tremely doubtful whether these methods could be used profitably on 
cotton, owing to the vastly greater quantity of seed used. 

For further discussion of several of the methods here mentioned 
the reader is referred to what is said under the headings Rotation 
(p. 4), Plowing (p. 5), Deep Fall Plowing (p. 5), Preparation of 
Soil (]>. -5), Time of Planting (p. 6), Planting Excess of Seed 
(p. 6), Fertilization (p. 7), and Cultivation (p. 7). 

THE COWPEA-POD WEEVIL. (Chalcodermusceneus.) 
Order Coleoptera. Family Curculionidw. 

Description.- — A very dark brown, bronze or black weevil, less than 
one-fourth inch in length, with strong snout or beak bent down under 
the head. It appears in fields of young cotton in late May and early 
June, attacking and eating holes in the leaf, stems, and in tender parts 
of the main stem in the young growing part of the plant. Especially 
abundant and destructive in land which was in cowpeas the previous 
year. 

Injury in North Carolina. — During seven years this insect had 

not been complained of to this office until 1007, in which season it 

was reported from Duplin, Wake, Johnston and Harnett Counties. 

That it has long been present in the State, however, is well shown 

oy the fact that we have in the office collection specimens from Wake 

County in 1901, from Johnston in 1002, and from Carteret in 1003. 

In 1007 it was regarded as seriouslv destructive, as shown by the 

following : 

Clayton, N. C, June 4, 1907. 

The hug you call Cowpea-pod Weevil is still playing havoc with my cotton 
on the 3-acre lot where he first appeared. In nine days I have gathered over 
5.000 of them off the three acres, and they seem to keep right on coming. 
* * * They are in several of my neighhors' cotton also; one told me this 
morning that he had gathered over 2,000 from one of his fields. But in every 
instance where they have appeared it is where peas were planted last year. 
Lots of lice are working at the root and sucking the life out of it. so yon see 
cotton is having a very bad time down here. 

.Most truly. Icana Pool. 

R. F. D.. Four Oaks. N. C, June, 1007. 

I enclose a few hugs. * * * They devour the cotton crop and are very 
destructive, get on the stalk and "lull" it. and kill it almost like a hot iron 
had been pierced through the stalk. One man says they are destroying his 
crop. Very respectfully. 

R. I. Lassiter. 

On May 20, 1007, Mr. M. C. Hodge, R. F. D. Xo. 2, Ealeigh, 
W 7 ake County, brought to the State Department of Agriculture young 



22 The Bulletin. 

cotton plants hurt by this insect, together with specimens of the in- 
sect itself. Mr. Hodge reported that it was very destructive on land 
that was in cowpeas the year before, but was not present on other 
cotton not ten feet distant from where peas were grown. He said 
one could' tell almost to the row just where the peas had been by the 
presence of the weevils. 




Fig. 7. — Cowpea-pod Weevil. Side view. Much enlarged. 
(After Chittenden, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

Life-history and Habits. — The principal food plant of this insect 
and the one in which it naturally breeds, in the Southern States, 
is evidently cowpeas, and as already indicated its injury to cotton is 
principally confined to lands that were in cowpeas the year previous. 
. Its attacks on cotton are likely due to absence of cowpeas in the fields 
where the weevils emerge in spring. The eggs are laid in the pod 
of the cowpea and the larva or grub comes to maturity without leaving 
the pod. In 1901 it was reported by Scott and Fiske (then State 
Entomologist and Assistant, respectively) as common among the in- 
sects jarred from peach trees in Georgia. In 1903 it was reported 
on cotton to the United States Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ington, but was thought to be of accidental occurrence in cotton 
fields and was not regarded as a serious cotton pest. In 1901 a brief 
account of it was published by F. H. Chittenden, of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, giving many instances of reported 
injury in the extreme southern States.* 

In 1904 it was quite destructive to young cotton in Georgia and 
was investigated to some extent by Mr. Newell, then State En- 
tomologist. According to his account, they were found to feed on the 
cotton mostly in early morning or in the afternoon, or on cloudy days. 
The weevils punctured the leaf stems or the tender part of the 
main stem of the young cotton. In a 15-acre field fully 25 per cent, 
had been killed. During the middle of the clay the weevils hid for 
the most part in the loose dirt about the plants at a depth of from 
one-half inch to two inches. Mr. Newell tested the preference of 
the beetles by placing them on young cotton plants and placing 
young cowpea plants close by and found that they preferred the 
cowpeas. In speaking of the injuries to cotton, Mr. Newell says : 
"In all cases the owners of infested fields reported that the first 
appearance of these insects was in those portions of the field that 
had been in cowpeas the year previous." 

♦Bulletin 44, Division of Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agr., Feb., 1904., pp. 39-43. 



The Bulletin. 23 

Natural Enemies. — No careful study of the natural enemies of 
this insect has yet been made, though it is known to be attacked by 
one or more species of parasites. It is altogether likely that some 
are eaten by those species of insect-eating birds which frequent ^ cot- 
ton and cowpea fields, such as the Bob White, Sparrows, Cat-birds, 
Mocking-birds and Blue-birds, but the good that they do in con- 
trolling'this insect is not great, and it will not do for the fanner to • 
rely on them. 

Summary. — The Cowpea-pod Weevil seems to have only recently 
become a serious cotton pest in this State and apparently its regular 
food plant is the cowpea. It attacks young cotton in May and June 
and pierces the leaf stem and main growing stem with its beak or bill. 
It is apparently chiefly confined to lands which were in cowpeas the 
previous year. Up to the present it does not appear to be much under 
control of natural enemies. 

REMEDIES. 

With this insect, as with so many other cotton pests, we must 
depend chiefly on methods of management and care of the crop to 
avoid injury. It is doubtful whether it would be profitable to make 
any application of poison to the plants, even if such treatment were 
known to be effective. But as the insect is chiefly destructive to 
young cotton and on lands previously in peas, it is practicable to out- 
line methods of treatment which will benefit the crop and which, at 
the same time, will be inexpensive. 

The most obvious method of control is to avoid planting cotton 
on land which was in peas the previous season. The letters and 
experiences quoted in this account of the pest all show it to be mainly 
confined to land previously in peas, hence the avoidance of such lands 
for cotton will furnish an almost absolute protection. We well know 
that cowpeas are a favorite crop to go ahead of cotton, and for the 
present there will be no occasion to change this system of rotation so 
long as this weevil does not become a pest, but once the .grower finds 
it serious on his cotton he may know that by avoiding land which 
was in peas the previous year he may secure practical immunity 
from this pest. 

Since the insect attacks principally young cotton, the grower 
may find it in the field before the cotton is chopped. He can then 
chop to a thicker stand so as to allow for some being killed by the 
insect and yet have enough for his crop, or, if his cotton is late, he 
may postpone chopping until after the insects have disappeared 
(which they seem to do early in Tune), and then he can chop out 
those plants that have been badly injured and secure his stand from 
the healthy stalks remaining. Late planting will tend to avoid the 
insect. 



24 The Bulletin. 

In addition to these measures a point will be gained by having 
the land so well prepared, so fertile, and so well cultivated that the 
plant makes a quick, vigorous growth, which enables it to quickly 
recover from injury. 

For further consideration of these measures, the reader should 
see what is said under the following headings . in this Buleetix : 
Kotation (p. 4), Preparation of Soil (p. 5), Time of Planting 
(p. (!), Planting Excess of Seed (p. 6), Fertilization (p. 7), and 
Cultivation (p. 7). 

THE NEW COTTON BEETLE. (Luperodes brunneus.) 
Order Coleoptera. Family Chrysomelidw. 

Description. — A dark brown or black beetle, less than one-fourth 
inch in length, appearing in great numbers in late June and in July. 
devouring the blossoms, squares and young bolls. The beetles run 
about quite actively, and fly readily. 

Historical. — This is another of the cotton insects that is only 
recently forcing its way to the front as a pest. As early as 1892 
it was reported to the United States Department of Agriculture as 
destroying cotton in Polk County, Georgia, but seems to have been 
only local and did not again attract notice for years. In 1905 it 
became quite destructive in six different counties in Georgia, and was 
discussed in Bulletin 20 of the Georgia State Board of Entomology, 
by Prof. R. I. Smith (at that time Entomologist of Georgia, now 
Entomologist of the Experiment Station of. North Carolina). Mr. 
Smith proposed the name of "The New Cotton Beetle" for this 
pest, and we have, therefore, called it by that name. In North Caro- 
lina it was reported as injuring cotton in the three consecutive years 
of 1903, 1904 and 1905." 

Injury in North Carolina. — In 1903 specimens were sent from the 
place of Mr. T. J. Watkins, Poplar Hill, Anson County, with the 
report that they were doing considerable damage to blooms and 
squares. In response to our inquiry we received the following: 

Poplar Hill, N. C, August 11, 1903. 
I am in hopes that the beetles sent will not prove to be a serious pest. I 
enclose some of the blooms to show that they work inside the bloom as well 
as outside. He .cuts the squares from around the bloom, and cuts the pollen 
from around the stem on the inside. You are mistaken if you think it attacks 
the dead blooms and leaves— it is the fresh blooms and the tenderest leaves 
that he works on. I can now see plainly how he is getting in his work. All 
stalks attacked are ruined except bolls that are nearly grown. It is some- 
thing that has never preyed on the cotton plant in this section before. 

Yours truly, 

T. J. Watkins. 

In a letter written the next year (dated July 1st, 1^04) Mr. Wat- 
kins wrote: "The same insect is on the cotton this year." 



The Bulletin. 25 

R. F. D. No. 3. Apex, N. C, August 1, 1904. 

I send you some bugs found on cotton. They have damaged it one-half, I 
think. They started in one corner of the field and are spreading. They 
attack the bolls and blooms and squares. They can fiy. 

Respectfully. W. F. Upchurch. 

The three complaints made in 1905 were from Wake and Gran- 
ville Counties, but contributed nothing further to our knowledge of 
the injuries caused by the insect. 

Life-history and Habits. — This beetle belongs to the family 
Chrysomelidse, the same large family to which many other pests 
belong, such as the Potato-beetle, Melon-beetle, Flea-beetle and the 
Elm Leaf-beetle. Most of them are of active habits, crawl briskly, 
fly readily, and feed on the flowers or leaves of plants. Some species 
are found on a considerable number of plants, while others confine 
themselves strictly to one or only a few kinds of plants. 

Professor Smith, reporting on the Georgia outbreak of 1905, says 
that a favorite place of feeding of this Xew Cotton Beetle was in the 
opening blooms, from which they would eat the entire center. The 
insects were present in great numbers for a few weeks and then sud- 
denly dropped out of sight. 

The further life-history of this insect, the place of depositing 
the egix-^, the food habits of the young or larva, the method of passing 
the winter, etc., all these points, so far as we know, are still a 
matter of conjecture and in need of further study. With such a com- 
plete knowledge of the insect it might be easier to devise some method 
of combating it, though with our present meagre knowledge we are 
almost helpless. 

KEMEDIBS. 

With an insect as active as this, which attacks the constantly 
growing and unfolding parts of a plant, it is very difficult to make 
any effective treatment. This is all the more impracticable on cot- 
ton where no expensive measures could be used with any profit. If 
cotton were relatively of as high value and grown in as limited areas 
as lettuce in a hot bed or as strawberries in a home garden, the enemy 
might lie easily controlled. 

Prom our present limited knowledge and experience we believe 
that in most cases this pest will not be seriously destructive. A 
considerable part of the flower of a plant (especially the petals) may 
be eaten away without actually diminishing the crop of bolls. We be- 
lieve, therefore, that the grower can afford to take a little risk with 
this insect and wait a few days (keeping it under frequent observa- 
tion) to ascertain, if possible, whether they are present in numbers 
and activity sufficient to really mean serious loss to the crop; but 
having concluded that some action is necessary, we have two methods 
to suggest, both troublesome, and neither justifiable except where 
serious injury is threatened. If the insect is widely distributed 



26 The Bulletin. 

over a large area, so that detailed treatment of all the individual 
plants is impracticable, he should use the dusting method of ap- 
plying dry poison. This is fully discussed under remedies for the 
Cotton Boll- worm on page 38. So far as practicable care should 
be taken to direct the poison to the opening squares and blooms. 

If the injury is confined to a restricted area, a more thorough 
treatment can be made by using a regular spray pump and applying 
Paris Green in water at the rate of one ounce to every eight gallons. 
The nozzle must be directed so as to thoroughly dampen all the young 
squares, opening blossoms, etc. where the insects feed. We could not 
expect this spraying treatment to pay merely by benefit to the plants 
treated,, but the greatest good would come by preventing further 
spread into new parts of the field. 

Should these methods of treatment seem impracticable, perhaps a 
strip or belt of plants around the infested area could be treated so 
that in their further spread the insects would encounter the poisoned 
plants and be checked. 

We have no special reason to believe that any method of culture, 
rotation, etc., can be used that will avoid or diminish the ravages 
of this pest. 

It is especially to be hoped that this will not become a serious 
and regular pest, for if it were every year to be widespread in 
destructive numbers its ravages would be very great and our remedies 
might not prove altogether satisfactory for such universal outbreaks. 

THE COTTON RED SPIDER. (Tetranychus gloveri.) 
(Also known as "Rust-inite," "Rust," and by other names.) 

Description. — A tiny mite or "spider," barely noticeable to the 
naked eye, which occurs in great numbers on the under side of the 
leaves, causing them to turn reddish or "rust." Later they turn 
yellowish brown and fall from the plant. The little mite is yel- 
lowish-green or reddish in color. 

Notice. — This little creature causes one of the several different 
troubles which most, farmers know without distinction under the 
name of "rust."- There are other forms of rust, sometimes caused 
or aided by a fungus or by bacterial diseases, or sometimes by the 
presence or absence of certain chemical elements in the soil, but this 
Red Spider or Rust Mite is one of the most frequent afflictions that 
pass under the name of "rust." It does some injury almost every 
year in midsummer, but usually becomes widely destructive in times 
of long continued dry weather. 

Injury in North Carolina. — Since 1900 the years of 1902 and 
1905 have witnessed the most destructive outbreaks of this creature. 
It has been reported from many counties scattered over our cotton- 
growing region, though the principal area of injury seems to be in 
a belt about two counties wide, extending across the State from 



The Bulletin. 



27 



Halifax and Warren on the north, southward through Wayne and 
Johnston, and passing beyond our borders in the counties of Robeson 
and Scotland on the south. Nevertheless it has been twice reported 
from as far west as Cabarrus County, and what is presumably the 
same was sent on corn from Brunswick County. That it is not con- 
fined to cotton alone is made plain by the following, which shows 
it to be destructive to corn and peas as well, and these, with cotton, 
are the three main staple crops in the cotton counties : 

Fremont. N. C, July 25, 1902. 

I send to-day two stalks of cotton, one of corn, and one bill of peas. You 
will observe that there is an insect on it which is spreading rapidly. The cot- 
ton, destitute of leaves, shows the way in which it is left. I notice they are 
spreading faster on the corn than on the cotton. 

Yours, etc., J. A. Davis. 

An examination of the samples sent by Mr. Davis showed all three 
of these kinds of plants to be swarming with this Red Spider in all 
stages of development, the leaves in each case showing the reddish 
or yellowish color due to their injurious attacks. Many other letters 
could be quoted showing it to be destructive, but most of our cotton 
farmers are already aware of its nature. 




Fig. 8. — Cotton Red Spider, or Rust-mite. Adult mite, very much enlarged. 
(After Titus, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

Life-history and Habits. — How the Red Spider passes the winter 
is not known, but it seems likely that it may pass this season on 
hardy weeds. At any rate, during the summer, they are found in all 
stages of development on the cotton leaves. The young mites are of 
the same general appearance as the adults, but are smaller and gener- 
ally paler in color. The eggs are round and are of a pearly color 
at first, but turn darker as the time for hatching approaches. The 
eggs hatch in a few days in hot weather. 

The Red Spider usually first appears in restricted areas, in one 
corner, or along one edge of the field, or in spots here and there 
through the field. They spread gradually until by the latter part of 
summer, they may be all over the field, causing leaves and bolls to 



28 The Bulletlk". 

drop off and leaving only bare stalks with a few stunted, imperfect 
bolls. The natural method of spread is by the mites crawling from 
one plant to another where they touch in the row, or when they are 
blown by wind so that each plant brushes against the others near by. 
But it seems certain that they may also be spre'ad by birds, or by other 
insects which may rest among the infested plants for a few minutes 
and then fly or crawl to some other plant, accidentally carrying a 
few of the mites. In fact, Mr. E. S. G. Titus, formerly Special 
Field Agent for the Bureau of Entomology at Washington, states* 
that they have been taken from several insects, such as grasshoppers 
and small bugs, which frequent the plants. It is also likely that they 
would be spread to some extent in cultivating or hoeing the crop be- 
fore it is "laid by." 

The fact that it has a wide range of food plants is also important. 
As already indicated, it has shown itself destructive in this State 
on cotton, corn and peas. What is presumably this same species has 
been sent to us on tomato leaves, and several cotton growers have men- 
tioned to us that it frequently starts in their fields from the poke- 
berry weeds, and infested leaves from this plant have been sent 
to us. Mr. Titus also records it on the cocklebur, which is a common 
weed in this State in cotton fields. There is little doubt that it also 
attacks many other species of weeds. 

Natural E?iemies. : — Air. Titus records the fact that several species 
of predaceous insects prey on the Red Spider, mentioning par- 
ticularly one of the Lady-beetles. The mites are so very small that 
they would seldom, if ever, be eaten by birds, and up to the present 
we know of no species of true parasite that infests it. Upon the 
whole it seems to be not much under the control of natural enemies. 

REMEDIES. 

As a method of avoiding the first appearance of the Red Spider, 
all weeds, especially pokeberry and cocklebur, should be kept subdued 
by frequent and thorough cultivation. As many of. the mites will 
still be on the younger parts of the cotton plant when the crop is 
picked, it would help considerably if all old stalks and remnants in 
badly infested fields were pulled and burned immediately after the 
cotton harvest, or else turned under deeply with a two-horse turning 
plow. These measures will tend to keep their numbers always de- 
creased so as to escape the necessity of further and more expensive 
treatments. 

When the Red Spider has made its appearance and begins to show 
its bad effect on the plants we believe that the b?st plan (if it is 
discovered early while it is yet confined to small areas) is to pull up 
all the plants that show the trouble and also all others immediately 
adjoining even if they arc not visibly affected, and put them all in a 

♦Circular No. 65, Bureau Entomology, "The Cotton Red Spider." Oct., 1905. 



The Bulletin. 29 

pile in the center of the area, add some dry leaves or straw, and 
burn. This may seem like a heroic treatment and it certainly does 
not save the infested plants, but in adopting this treatment the object 
will be to prevent the further spread of the Red Spider and thus save 
the rest of the crop. 

Supposing, however, that the Red Spider has made its appearance 
and is doing injury, but that the grower does not wish to adopt the 
method of destroying the infested plants. Then he has recourse to 
either dusting the plants with dry powdered sulphur with a bellows 
(arranged or worked so that the application shall reach the under side 
of the leaves), or he may give a spraying treatment with some 
solution that will kill the mite- by coming into contact with them. 

In dusting the plants with a bellows or powder gun, ordinarily 
powdered sulphur may be used alone, or mixed with an equal amount 
of flour or sifted road dust. The application must be carefully 
made so as to reach the under side of the leaves, where the creatures 
are most plentiful. 

If the grower decides to adopt a liquid treatment the material 
which will likely give best results is a solution of lime and sulphur, 
which can be prepared as follows, to make 100 gallons of the solution : 
Five pounds of fresh stone lime (unslaked) is put in a tub, keg, bar- 
rel, or iron kettle (not copper). Add a little water to start slaking 
and add more to keep it going. As it slakes add five pounds of sul- 
phur, and the heat and boiling of the slaking will cause much of the 
lime and sulphur to unite. Keep the mixture stirring as it slakes 
and boils. When it has finished slaking, add water to make 100 
gallons, and it is ready to apply. If desired, this mixture may be 
made up in smaller quantity than 100 gallons, but it should always 
be prepared in these proportions.' One pound of lime and one pound 
of sulphur may be used to make up 20 gallons of the solution. 

Ordinary laundry soap dissolved in hot water and diluted to make 
iy 2 pounds soap to 4 gallons of water has been used by us with good 
effect against plant lice without injury to the plants, but whether 
this would be effective against Red Spider w T e do not know. It is 
worthy of trial. 

It is doubtful whether the spraying and dusting treatments will 
always prove satisfactory. The cultural methods of prevention and 
the destruction of stalks to prevent spread of the trouble while it is 
yet confined to small areas, is more promising. This pest, like several 
others discussed in this Bulletin, is irregular and sporadic in its 
outbreaks and in many seasons treatment will not be necessary, but 
it is best alwavs for the grower to follow T such methods of practice 
as give the least encouragement to attack, and to know what measures 
can be used in an emergency. 



30 



The Bulletin, 



THE COTTON WORM. (Aletia argillacea.) 
Order Lepidoptera. Family Noctuidw. 

Description. — A slender greenish caterpillar or worm from an 
inch to an inch and a half in length, with small black dots, sometimes 
showing stripes down the back, which feeds mainly on the top growth 
of the cotton, sometimes becoming destructive in late summer and 
fall. The caterpillar crawls with a looping or "measuring" motion. 

Injury in North Carolina. — In this State the Cotton Worm has not 
often been destructive. It is a much more important pest in the ex- 
treme Southern States of Alabama, Louisiana and Texas. However, 
it seems to have attracted attention in Wayne and Halifax Counties 
as early as 1863. In recent years, however, there has been no 
serious outbreak until the fall of 1905, when it suddenly appeared in 
great numbers in Pitt and Lenoir Counties, where it was sometimes 
erroneously called "Army Worm." That it was abundant and de- 
structive at that time is shown by the following : 

Greenville, N. C, September 13, 1905. 

I write to let you know that the Army Worm (Cotton Worm) is destroying 
all of the late cotton in this county. They have just begun on my farm near 
town. Yours truly, 

C. T. Mumford. 

This outbreak was investigated by Mr. R. S. Woglum, at that time 
Acting Entomologist, and the results of his observations were pub- 
lished.* From his notes, as well as from his published account, it 
is evident that the damage was very severe on the top crop of the 
late cotton. By the middle of October the caterpillars had prac- 
tically all matured and the damage ceased. 




/ b V 



Fig. 9. — Cotton Worm Moth, a, with wings spread; 6, with wings closed. Natural size. 

(After Riley.) 

Life-history and Habits. — The adult parent insect of the Cotton 
Worm is a flying moth as shown in Fig. 9. These moths can fly 
freely for long distances. Although the worms are known to feed 
to maturity only on cotton (which is grown only in the Southern 
States) , the adult moths have been found at lights in towns and cities 
in Canada, having evidently flown there from hundreds of miles to 
the south, aided perhaps by favorable winds. As the insect is only 

^Entomological Circular No. 16, N. C Dept. Agr., "The Cotton Worm." 



The Bulletin. 



31 



occasionally noticeable in North Carolina, it seems likely that the 
parent moths of the worms which do damage with us are brought 
here by long flights from the States further south. There are several 
generations of the insect and the moths of an early generation might 
come into North Carolina in July or August and their progeny would 
be destructive to the cotton a few weeks later. The moths lay their 
eggs principally on the under side of the leaves and in the tender 
growing part of the plant. The egg is circular, flattened, and some- 
what ribbed as shown in Fig. 10. 





Fig. 10.— Two views of Egg of Cotton Worm Moth, a. View from above; 6. 
view from side. Much enlarged. 
(From Fourth Report, U, S. Entomological Commission ) 



The eggs hatch in about a week and the young caterpillar begins to 
"rag" the leaves. They do not usually attract attention until they 
get large enough to devour considerable quantities of the foliage. At 
this time the caterpillars present somewhat the appearance shown in 
Fig, 11, which shows two views of the worm somewhat enlarged, the 
length of the line between the two figures representing the actual 
length. The caterpillar crawls by a looping motion, and Mr. Wog- 





i!=<'-3ii !^».=«a i p^g^l l ^gyj ftga^jg45«g|=aa|j B gj 




Fig. 11. — Cotton Worm, or Caterpillar, a, Side view ; 6, view from 
above. Somewhat enlarged. Actual length indicated by line. 

(From Fourth Report, U. S. Entomological Commission.) 

him stat s that he has seen them, when disturbed, suddenly throw 
themselves into the air as much as a foot above the leaf on which they 
were. These caterpillars feed ravenously and when the tender 
growth of one plant is consumed, may attack the older leaves or crawl 
on to another plant, thus quickly spreading over an entire field, eating 
away the tender top growth. 



32 The Bulletin. 

When the caterpillar becomes full grown (which requires about 
two weeks) it turns to the condition known as the "pupa" or 
"chrysalis," usually attached to the under surface of a slightly 
folded leaf, by a very slightly spun cocoon. The pupa stage oc- 
cupies from one to four weeks, depending on climatic conditions, and 
then the adult moth (as shown in Fig. 9) bursts out of the brown 
pupa shell, and after drying and stretching its wings is ready to 
begin its Hying life. The adult moth flies chiefly at night, but when 
present in the field in large numbers may lie flushed from the plants 
in daytime. 

Since the Cotton Worm appears in destructive numbers with us 
only late in the season and confines itself principally to the late tender 
growth, it probably does not do nearly so much harm as is generally 
thought, for most of the late foliage and bolls are killed by frost 
before they mature, so that even when there is no outbreak of these 
worms the "top crop" is often of no value. That they do destroy the 
late growth in great quantities is not to be denied and no grower 
wishes to see the vegetation of his crops ruined by an insect enemy. 
But in this case there is at least some consolation in the fact that 
the injury usually is not in reality so bad as it appears. Even in 
the more southern States, where the late too crop is more often 
harvested and where it is of more account, the Cotton Worm is not 
now regarded so seriously as in former years, when it was the cause 
of much alarm. 

Natural Enemies. — As the caterpillars of this insect are of good 
size, and feed openly and exposed on the cotton foliage, they are 
freely subject to the attacks of natural enemies which easily find them. 
When a worm falls to the ground it may be overcome by ant-, and 
there can be no doubt that many are also eaten by insectivorous birds. 
There are also numerous parasites which infest the bodies of the 
caterpillars and cause their death. In years when only a few of the 
moths come to us from the south these natural enemies no doubt act 
strongly to keep them under control, but in other years (like 1005) 
where local conditions are favorable and where a considerable number 
of the insects become established, they get beyond the control* of their 
natural enemies and are then recognized as seriously destructive. 
It is interesting for the farmer to know that every year there is a 
silent host of natural enemies at work in his behalf, not only subduing 
tlii< pest, but many others on all kinds of crops. While he can do 
but little to aid or multiply these friendly little creatures, he may 
at least be thankful that nature provides such a means of protec- 
tion. 

Summary. — The Cotton Worm is the larva or caterpillar of a moth, 
and is sometimes destructive to the late top growth of cotton. It 
seems probable that the flying moths invade this State from the south 
in years when they are destructive. There are several broods each 
year, but only the later broods attract attention. It is attacked by 
a number of natural enemies. 



The Bulletin. 33 

remedies. 

The culture methods of rotation, cultivation, etc., which are so 
useful against a number of our cotton pests, are relatively useless 
and impracticable against this. Furthermore, the Cotton Worm is so 
seldom a pest with us that it would not always pay to adopt any 
regular methods of prevention unless such methods were of themselves 
the best for the cotton crop. 

On the whole, the methods of combating the Cotton Worm consist 
in the application of direct remedies, in the form of poisons put on the 
foliage to kill the caterpillars. They are so ravenous that they are 
easily killed by this means, the main question being to devise means 
for applying the remedies over large fields at low enough cost to be 
profitable. The course usually adopted is to dust dry Paris Green on 
the plants by the methods described in discussing remedies for the 
Boll-worm on page 38 of this Bulletin. From 1 to 3 pounds of 
Paris Green will be sufficient for treating an acre of cotton. It should 
be dusted on as soon as the destructive work of the Cotton Worm be- 
comes evident, without waiting until the tender top foliage is prac- 
tically all eaten away. 

The Paris Green may be dusted on pure, or mixed with an equal 
quantity of dry powdered air-slaked lime, or land plaster. If only 
a limited area is to be treated the material can be dusted on by hand, 
or it may be scattered broadcast when there is a good breeze blowing 
so that it shall be widely scattered. While the application must be 
thorough enough to get a small quantity of the poison on the growing 
part of every plant, yet at the same time we must choose such methods 
as are rapid and economical. It is best to do the dusting work in 
early morning or late afternoon and evening, so that the dews will 
cause it to adhere to the foliage. 

For further discussion of the dusting method of applying poison 
to cotton the reader should see what is said on this subject in dis- 
cussing the methods of applying poison for the Boll-worm on page . 

THE COTTON BOLL-WORM. (Heliothis obsoleta.) 
Order Lepldoptera. Family Noctuidce. 

Description. — A greenish, grayish, or pinkish colored caterpillar 
or worm, when full grown from an inch to an inch and a half in 
length, which injures cotton by eating into the squares and bolls. 
Found on cotton from the time the squares are formed, but attracts at- 
tention principally in September and early October, at which time 
injury to the bolls is sometimes serious. The same insect attacks the 
ears of corn, when it is known as the Corn Ear-worm ; it also attacks 
the green or ripening fruit of tomatoes, when it is called the Tomato 
Fruit-worm, and it is sometimes also called the Tobacco Bud-worm 

3 



34 



The Bulletin. 



from its destructive habit of attacking the growing part of the to- 
bacco plant. It is also known to attack the pods or fruits of various 
other plants, such as peas, beans, okra and squash. 





Fig. 12.— Cotton Boll-worm, a, AdUlt moth ; b and c, views of the larva or Boll-worm ; 

d, pupa. All slightly enlarged. 

(After Howard, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept, Agr.) 

Injury in North Carolina. — The Boll-worm has not usually been 
considered as a serious cotton enemy in North Carolina, but it does 
some damage every year, and in its latent or pent-up possibilities for 
evil, we consider it one of our most prominent pests. Taking the 
State as a whole probably our four most important crops are corn, 
cotton, cowpeas and tobacco. There are few pests that attack all of 
these, yet this Boll-worm (so called when it attacks cotton) has -been 
at various times reported to this office as doing noticeable damage 
to all four of these leading crops, and it is known to attack a large 
number of other crops and plants to a slighter degree. In all cases 
its habits and methods of attack make it a difficult pest to combat 
satisfactorily. Should conditions be favorable to its increase for a 
series of years, there can be little doubt that it would forge to the 
front as an exceedingly important pest, not only of cotton, but of 
other important crops as well. On one or another of the crops named 
this insect has been complained of every year from 1900 to 1907, in- 
clusive, and no doubt 1908 will witness further destruction by it. It 
is such a common and universal pest in the ears of corn that it seldom 
attracts more than passing notice, except in gardens or truck patches 



The Bulletin. 



35 



where corn is grown for table use, long familiarity with its ravages 
having made the planter indifferent to the really large aggregate^ 
damage which it inflicts, and no doubt it is much more destructive 




Fig. 13.— Boll-worm eating into boll from outside, as commonly # found 

in cotton fields in late summer and fall. Natural size. 

(After Quaintance, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

to cotton than most of our growers realize. The following extracts 
from letters concerning this insect indicate, however, that it was 

seriously destructive in 1907 : 

Mt. Olive, N. C, September 8, 1907. 
I was in my cotton crop to-day and found that some kind of insect was 
creating great destruction. I send you sample. 

Respectfully yours, Calvin Brock. 

Clinton, N. C, September 9, 1907. 
I send to-day cotton bolls ruined by worms— some of the worms are in the 
bolls. My cotton is very much hurt by them, in some places as much as 10 or 

15 per cent, or probably more. Yours truly, 

S. H. Hobbs. 

Warsaw, N. C, September 19, 1907. 
I send some cotton bolls and a worm that is destroying my cotton. One can 
find thousands of them in my field, as many as forty on one stalk. 

Yours, etc., 

R. P. Raiford. 



36 



The Bulletin. 



Daedens, N. C, September 21, 1907. 

I send you some worms and cotton bolls. Tbe cotton within a radius of five 
miles is badly damaged by this worm — in some instances the damage is not 
less than 25 per cent. We have had some of these worms for three or four 
seasons, but not as many as this year. 

Yours respectfully, C. C. Fagan. 

Life-history and Habits.— The adult (parent) insect is a brownish- 
yellow moth which measures about an inch and a half from tip to 
tip of the expanded wings. The moth flies at dusk and after dark, 
and feeds upon the nectar of flowers. The female moths lay the eggs 
(on the cotton plant) largely on the young leaves and squares. These 
moths do no harm other than to lay the eggs. The eggs hatch in from 
two days to a week to small dark-colored caterpillars, or larvae. At 
first the young caterpillars feed on the leaves close to where the eggs 
were laid, but later they wander farther away and attack the first 
boll they can find, or bore into the bud. The worm may remain in 
the boll first attacked until it is completely eaten out, or it may eat 
directly through the boll and at once go in search of another. In 
this way one Boll-worm may destroy a considerable number of 
bolls. 




Fig. 14. — Healthy square at left. "Flared" square attacked by Boll-worm at right. Notice hole eaten 

in bud by worm. Natural size. 

(After Quaintance, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

When the larva (caterpillar) is fully grown it is from an inch to 
an inch and a half in length. They vary greatly in color, some being 
dusky brown, others pink, reddish or yellowish. The grown larva 
leaves the boll and enters the ground, where it changes to the pupa. 



The Bulletin. 



37 



It passes this stage in an oval cell in the earth. It is of a brown color 
and entirely helpless, as this is merely a transformation stage, when 
the larva is being formed into the adult moth. This stage of the 
insect lasts from one to four weeks (or over winter), at the end of 
which time the adult insect emerges. The adult insects mate and 
deposit eggs for another brood, and then die. 

There are several distinct generations of the insect each year, 
the exact number having never yet been definitely determined for 
North Carolina, but it seems likely that in eastern North Carolina 
there are at least five distinct broods and in the piedmont section 
four or five broods. The winter is passed in the pupa stage in the 
ground. 

It is interesting to know that the larvse are cannibals and not 
infrequently eat one another. This is (to us) a very beneficial habit 
and worthy of all possible encouragement, but as it takes place duly 
when they are numerous enough to come into competition for pos- 
session of food, there will always be enough left to do serious damage. 




Fig. 15. — Boll cut open to show Boll-worm at work inside. Natural size. 
(After Quaintance, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

. Com seems to be the preferred food of the Boll-worm, for the 
adult moths lay their eggs on fresh com silk in preference to any- 
thing else. But when the kernels have become hardened they turn to 
cotton and other crops. 

Professor Quaintance states* that noticeable injury to cotton 
begins with the August generation of caterpillars. When a young 
square is attacked it "flares" and drops from the plant. This injury 

*Farmers' Bulletin 191, U. S. Dept. Agr., "The Cotton Boll-worm." 



38 The Bulletin. 

is well shown in Fig. 14. As injury on cotton begins to be serious 
in August, any treatment for the purpose of poisoning the worms 
should be made early in August so as to kill the young larvae while 
they are feeding on the leaves, before they get in the bolls, where it 
would be impracticable to reach them effectively. 

Natural Enemies.^-As the Boll-worm spends much of its time 
inside the part of the plant which it attacks, it is not so often at- 
tacked by enemies as we could wish. There is a parasite which at- 
tacks the eggs, and which Professor Quaintance says sometimes de- 
stroys 50 to 75 per cent of them. The fact that the Boll-worms some- 
times eat each other has already been mentioned. Birds also no doubt 
devour a considerable number. 

Summary. — The Boll-worm attacks many other crops beside cotton 
and becomes noticeable as a cotton pest only in the latter part of the 
season. They cause young squares to flare and drop, and also bore 
into and ruin the growing bolls. It has long been present in the 
State and is usually not very destructive to cotton, but in 1907 did 
considerable injury. 

J J REMEDIES. 

Cultural Methods. — It has been pointed out that Boll-worm injury 
to cotton is not serious until late in the season, hence if the cotton 
is very early it may practically have its crop made before the Boll- 
worm injury reaches its height. Whatever can be done to hasten the 
crop will tend to decrease the injury by Boll-worms. Good prepara- 
tion, early planting, use of early maturing varieties, frequent culti- 
vation, all these things tend to force the crop along rapidly so that a 
good crop will be assured before the Boll-worm becomes destructive. 

As we have learned that the insect passes the winter in the pupa 
stage in the soil, a thorough breaking of the land in winter will de- 
stroy many of the pupae by exposing them to birds and weather. It 
has been proved that most of the Boll-worm pupae which are thus 
disturbed in winter are killed. 

Dusting With Poison. — As the Boll-worm begins to be destructive 
to cotton early in August, and as the young larvae feed to considera- 
ble extent on young squares and leaves before they actually enter the 
bolls, it is possible to poison the cotton about the first of August 
so as to kill them. For this purpose the use of dry poison applied as 
dust seems the "best, and Paris Green is recommended. It may be 
applied pure or mixed with an equal quantity of flour or dry air- 
slaked lime, but should be applied at the rate of from 2 to 3 pounds 
of the green per acre. If mixed with equal quantity of lime, use from 
4 to 6 pounds of the mixture to the acre. It is easier to make a uni- 
form and economical application when the poison is mixed with some 
other substance than to apply the Paris Green alone. 



The Bulletin. 39 

It is important to adopt some method by which the poison can be 
quickly ancT economically applied, else the application would not pay. 
A homemade apparatus for dusting cotton plants is shown in Fig. 16. 
This apparatus is described by Prof. K. I. Smith* as follows : 




Fig. 16.— Apparatus for dusting cotton plants with Paris Green by hand. 

(After R. I. Smith.) 

"The dusting apparatus is made from a one-inch board, four and a half feet 
long and three inches wide, by boring an inch and a half auger-hole five inches 
from each end, and attaching under each hole a sack five inches wide by about 
fifteen inches long. These sacks can be made from unstarched sheeting run- 
ning about four pounds to the yard. If it is found that the poison is being 
applied too fast or too slow the proportion of lime (or flour) and Paris Green 
must be changed, so that the required amount of actual poison will be applied 
per acre." 

Figure 17 shows this apparatus in actual use, and it will be ob- 
served that as the laborer walks along, swinging and shaking the- 
duster, a cloud of the lime and green is shaken from the sacks 
and is wafted about in the air so as to settle on all parts of the 
cotton plants. By the use of such an apparatus (which costs prac- 
tically nothing to make) a good laborer can treat cotton very rapidly. 
If favored by a very light breeze it would not be necessary to walk 
between every two rows, but every second middle (or every third or 
fourth middle) can be traveled, shaking the duster continually. 
While such a treatment cannot destroy all the Boll-worms on the cot- 
ton, yet if given at the right time (about August 1st to 10th) it will 
kill so many of the young worms as to greatly reduce their injuries. 

"Bulletin No. 16, Georgia State Board of Entomology, April, 1905 "Cotton Boll-wormin Georgia." 



40 



The Bulletin. 




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This apparatus is entirely practicable for the farmer who grows up to 
about 50 acres of cotton. An application of the poisoned dust about 
the first of August may serve other purposes, for it may check the 
first ravages of the Cotton Worm, or the New Cotton Beetle or other 
leaf-feeding insects which might be gaining a start. 



The Bulletin. 



41 



For use in very large plantations a still more rapid method of 
dusting is desirable. Fig. 18 shows a very similar method adapted to 
more wholesale use. A longer pole is used than with the hand duster 
and a larger bag of poison is tied at each end; the laborer rides 
a mule (or horse) down a middle and shakes the dust out as he goes. 
We can readily see that many acres can be treated in a short time by 
such a method. Reporting upon investigations conducted in 1903 in 
Texas, Professor Quaintance shows* that in a 5-acre plat there was a 



I 




FlG. 18.— Poisoning cotton in large fields by pole-and-bag method. 
(After Quaintance, Bur. Knt., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

net profit of $5.79 per acre from three applications with the dusting 
method, after allowing for cost of materials, labor, etc. But as the 
Boll-worm is more destructive in Texas than in North Carolina our 
farmers could not expect so high a return except in years like 1907, 
when the Boll-worm was more destructive than usual. But there can 
be little doubt that in many seasons when our farmers have "laid 
by" the crop and are scarcely looking at it (merely waiting for the 
harvest), there would be profit in one or more dusting treatments in 
certain parts of the field, at least during August and early Septem- 
ber. Professor Quaintance suggests that dusting applications should 
be made at night, or early in morning or late in evening, to secure 
the very best results, as the plants will then be damp with dew and 
the poison will stick better. 

♦Farmers' Bulletin No. 191, U. S. Dept. Agr., "The Cotton Boll-worm," p. 20. 



42 The Bulletin. 

Liquid Sprays. — Paris Green may be applied as a spray in water at 
the rate of one pound to 50 or 75 gallons of water with good effect in 
checking the Boll-worm, but this process is slower and more tedious 
and does not commend itself to the consideration of the cotton farmer 
in the middle of our average August day. Professor Quaintance 
found, however, a net gain of $6.99 per acre as result of three spray- 
ings. Five to six acres per day could be treated with a barrel outfit 
by using a team and wagon and two men. But the cost of the out- 
fit and the few occasions on which it would be used on the general 
cotton plantation, lead us to recommend the planter not to depend 
on the spraying process. We believe the dusting process to be gen- 
erally more practical and satisfactory. 

A Word About Dusting Cotton. — We have gone into some detail 
here to describe and illustrate the methods of dusting cotton. We 
give this discussion in connection with the Boll-worm because at 
present it is the cotton pest most likely to require this treatment, 
but it must be remembered that the same method is effective against 
practically all insects which devour the foliage, squares, etc., the 
exact result depending largely on the care and thoroughness with 
which the work is done. We well know that with a large field of cot- 
ton a rapid method of treatment is the only practical one, even if it 
is not absolutely thorough. Every grower should be familiar with the 
methods and materials used in this dusting process, so that he can put 
it into operation without delay at any time that an emergency arises. 
That it can be used with decided profit in bad outbreaks of Boll-worm 
and Cotton Worm is absolutely proven, and there is reason to believe 
that it will be of some benefit against the New Cotton Beetle and 
against the Cowpea-pod Weevil. It will not be effectual against the 
Leaf-louse, and its effect on the Rust-mite will be only very slight 
if indeed there is any effect whatever. 

The reader should see what is said under the headings : Plowing 
(p. 5), Time of Planting (p. 6), Fertilization (p. 7). 

THE COTTON BOLL-WEEVIL. (Anthonomus grandis.) 
Order Coleoptera. Family Citrculionidce. 

Notice. — The Cotton Boll-weevil is not yet (June, 1908) known 
to be in this State, despite many rumors of its appearance. This 
account of the insect is given to instruct our farmers in advance. 

Description. — A brown or blackish weevil, less than one-fourth 
inch in length, with snout about half as long as body, found on grow- 
ing buds and young leaves of cotton in early season, and later attack- 
ing squares and young bolls, causing squares to "flare" and drop and 
bolls to be deformed. At present known in United States only in 
Texas and Louisiana and edge of adjoining cotton-growing States. 
The adult beetle is much like the Cowpea-pod Weevil in size and ap- 
pearance. 



The Bulletin. 43 

General Account. — The Cotton Boll-weevil is not known to be in 
North Carolina at the present time, but it is well that our growers 
should be thoroughly informed regarding it in advance of its coming. 
It is impossible to say with certainty whether it will ever reach 
North Carolina, and it is also impossible to tell whether it would 
thrive in our climate. But it seems probable, judging from the rate 
with which it spreads and the hardiness of other species which are 
closely related to it, that it will eventually reach this State, and 
that it will prove to be a serious, permanent pest of our cotton. 

All talk of "exterminating" or "getting rid of" the Boll-weevil 
is unsound, in the light of all the evidence at hand. No insect pest 
has ever been "exterminated" or "gotten rid of," so far as the writer 
is aware. Some will escape even the most painstaking application of 
remedies and their offspring make it again necessary to repeat the 
work after a few years at most. In regard to the Cotton Boll-weevil 
no direct means of applying remedies seems feasible at the present 
time, hence there is no probability that it will ever be wiped out of 
existence by any treatment which man may devise. Its habits and 
life-history are such that it is not much exposed to the attacks of birds 
or other natural enemies. 

But we want it distinctly understood that we do not believe that 
the Boll-weevil will "ruin the cotton industry" or do many of the 
other alarming things that the newspaper reports declare. There are 
many farmers in Texas in the very heart of the Boll-weevil district, 
who are making from one-half to three-fourths of a bale of cotton to 
the acre, and this is far more than this State produces on an average. 
No agricultural industry in any enlightened country has ever suc- 
cumbed to any insect pest. Like the Potato Beetle, the Chinch Bug, 
the San Jose Scale and the Hessian Fly, the Cotton Boll-weevil will 
probably always continue as a serious pest, and perhaps, worse than 
any of these, but when the people get better acquainted with it, it 
will probably find its level. 

Description of the Insect. — The accompanying illustrations (Figs. 
19 and 22) give an idea of the general appearance of the adult 
weevil. It is about as large as a house fly, but the hard wing-covers 
fit down closely over the back in the same manner as those of the com- 
mon potato beetle. Note the snout or beak which projects from the 
head and which is about half as long as the body of the insect. At 
the end of this snout are the small but strong jaws, for it is truly a 
biting, and not a sucking, insect. 

A much enlarged picture of the weevil is shown in Fig. 19. Here 
it may be seen the body is covered'with a fine (yellowish-brown) fuzz. 
Note also the antennae (feelers) which are attached to the snout. 
Hundreds of our native beetles have the antennae attached to the snout 
in this same way. Now notice carefully the upper part (the part 
nearest the body) of the front leg. It is much thickened, as is the 



44 



The Btjlletix. 



case with nearly all beetles, but notice further that there is a projec- 
tion on this thickened portion and that this projection is notched near 
the tip, so that it is divided into two points, "teeth," as they are 
called, one of these teeth being decidedly larger than the other. Also 
notice that the wing covers are smooth, except for the very fine 
parallel lines running lengthwise, and the downy fuzz. We know of 
none of our native snout-beetles of this size whose wing covers are as 
smooth as these and which have the two teeth on the upper part of the 
front leg. The Strawberry-weevil, which is very close kin to it, has 
only one tooth on the front leg, and the weevils which infest acorns, 
chestnuts and the like have only one. It is true that the plum 
curculio and its near relatives have two such teeth, but they have 
the wing covers much roughened. We have gone into these points in 




Fig. 19.— Enlarged picture of adult Boll-weevil, showing hairy covering, snout, antennae, 

and the two small teeth or projections on the front leg. The line between 

the two figures indicates the actual length of the insect. 

(After Hunter, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

some detail, for when the weevil once does appear in this State there 
will be need for every cotton grower to be able to distinguish it with 
certainty from other beetles which are like it in general appearance. 
The insect itself is of a chestnut brown color, sometimes almost black, 
but the covering of fuzz makes it look brown or almost grayish, the 
exact shade depending upon the extent to which the fuzz has become 
rubbed off. The insects are not especially active, in fact they are 
rather slow and clumsy walkers, and not rapid runners like some other 
beetles. 

If you examine closely, then, you may distinguish the Boll-weevil 
with reasonable certainty by: First, its size, about that of a house 
fly, with the wing covers fitting Closely over the back; second, its 
color, chestnut brown with more or less grayish or yellowish fuzz; 
third, the snout, about half as long as the body ; fourth, the smooth 
nature of the wing covers, and fifth, the two teeth on the upper part 
(femur) of the front leg. If you have a specimen which does not 
agree with all of these points it is probably something else. 



The Bulletin. 



45 



The description of the larva and pupa will be found in the account 
of the life-history. 

Should any reader of this Bulletin find what he takes to be the 
true Boll-weevil in this State, he should at once send specimens to 
the writer, so that it may be determined with certainty. By all means 
it should not be announced that the weevil has been found until it is 
ascertained to be an absolute fact. Harm and undue excitement may 
be caused by such careless reports. When it is determined beyond 
doubt that the insect is infesting the fields of this State the public 
will be promptly informed of the fact. In the meantime let us keep 
our eyes open and receive all sensational newspaper accounts of its 
appearance (unless they come from an authorized source) with the 
large grain of allowance which they deserve. 

Life-history. — The adult weevils pass the winter in sheltered 
situations in the edges of woods, in and around farm buildings, under 
rubbish, among grass and weeds in the fields, etc. In the spring they 
begin to emerge and feed to a limited extent on the tender growing- 
terminal leaves — "in the bud" — as one would say, of any volunteer 
cotton which may be growing. Later they go to the planted fields. 
When the buds or "squares" begin to form the insects feed on them 
and the females deposit their eggs in them also, placing the egg in a 
hole which is made in the square or boll with the snout. In Fig. 
20, at the right-hand side, is shown a partly grown boll which shows 
the marks where the insects have been feeding and laying their eggs. 




Fig. 20.— At right, a boll showing feeding and egg-laying marks of Boll-weevil. At left, partly 
grown boll opened to show grown larva of Boll-weevil inside. Natural size. 

(After Howard, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

These marks should not be confused with the little specks of color 
which are to be seen on almost any boll. The egg is covered over 
with a substance somewhat like glue, which protects it from the 
attacks of enemies and also from such application of remedies as 
might be made. The eggs hatch to tiny white grubs which live, eat 



46 



The Bulletin. 



and grow entirely within the boll in which they are hatched. When 
full grown these larvse are of the size shown to the left in Fig. 20, 
never more than one-half inch in length, and white in color. 

In Fig. 21 may be seen, natural size, several steps in the develop- 
ment of the larvae and its transformation to the adult weevil condi- 
tion. The young, newly-hatched larva is shown at a, and a later stage 
of its growth is shown at b. When it gets full grown it changes to 
the pupa shown in the square of c. From this it changes again to the 
adult beetle (Figs. 19 and 22) which provides for another generation 
and then dies. 

By preference, the eggs are laid in the buds or squares, and it is 
only in late summer and fall that they are laid in the bolls to any con- 
siderable extent. 




Fig. 21. 



-Showing development of Boll-weevil, a, Young larva in young square ; 6, larva 
nearly grown in square ; c, pupa, still inside square. All natural size. 

(After Howard, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 



When the squares are punctured and eggs laid in them they al- 
most invariably become weakened and drop off. Squares are often 
shed even when not infested, so the shedding alone is not an indica- 
tion of the presence of the weevil. 

When the bolls are infested they do not ordinarily drop. Instead, 
they may continue to grow until about mature, but they do not open 
properly, so that it is not practicable to get the cotton by ordinary 
means. They are apt to be stunted, dwarfed and misshapen, so that 
they are valueless, but they do not drop. 

From this account it will be seen that the entire life of the in- 
sect is such that it is not much exposed either to the attacks of 
birds or other enemies or the application of remedies. Indeed, the 
general life-history is very similar to that of the Strawberry-weevil, 



The Bulletin. 



47 



which is very destructive in the south-eastern part of this State, 
and which is a close relative of the Cotton Boll-weevil (both belonging 
to the genus Anthonomus) . 

Habits and Migration. — When the weevils come out .from hiber- 
nating quarters in the spring, the parts of the cotton fields nearest 
the hibernating places are attacked first, the weevil spreading later 
throughout the fields, or to the fields which are more remote from the 
hibernating quarters. At first they feed in the bud of the plant, 
but after squares are formed they devote their attention almost en- 
tirely to them. 







CK 


■ ■ ■ " ' u 




% [ ■ ■ 


■ ^f 



Fig. 22.— A row of adult Boll-weevils, giving an excellent idea of their size and 
general appearance. Slightly enlarged. 

(After E. D. Sanderson.) 

Late in summer, when the uninfested bolls are about mature and 
practically all of the young squares have been punctured, there seems 
to be a general migration of the weevil to new. fields. Prof. H. A. 
Morgan, formerly Entomologist of Louisiana, informed us that within 
three days at the time of this migration the weevils spread over a 
strip of country from 15 to 30 miles wide in western Louisiana; but 
this was practically all the spread that occurred during the season. 
When thus migrating the weevils avoid the uplands where the cotton 
is already mature and the plants dying, and they settle most readily 
in the sheltered situations in the lowlands and along river valleys 
where the cotton is still green. 

There is not much migration or spread of the weevil to new 
localities in the summer season. 

How the Weevil Spreads. — As has been pointed out, the most com- 
mon means of spreading is by ordinary flight at the migrating season 
in late summer. At this time the insects may accidentally settle on 
vehicles, in cars, or other articles for transportation and thus be car- 
ried to new localities, but it is encouraging to learn that Professor 
Morgan (working in Louisiana) was not able to locate a single in- 
stance in which the weevil was being actually carried in this way. 
At the migrating season he also had a number of assistants in the 
field, who were instructed to sweep with insect nets all sorts of 
vegetation along the roadsides with a view to seeing upon what other 
plants the beetles might settle, but in no case was the insect found 



48 The Bulletin. 

anywhere except in cotton fields, and almost invariably in fields or 
parts of the fields where the cotton was green. 

If, however, the cotton from an infested field be ginned the gin- 
house is likely to become infested with some of the weevils, which will 
pass the winter there. The cotton seed from such an infested gin- 
house may then be purchased by other farmers in the vicinity and the 
weevil is then liable to be carried to their fields in the cotton seed. It 
is for this reason that all our farmers should be especially particular 
not to use any seed or other cotton products which may come from 
Texas, Louisiana, or other weevil-infested territory. 

When Will the Boll-weevil Reach North Carolina? — In speculating 
upon this question it must be remembered that the weevil may reach 
us by either of three methods : First, by its own natural means of 
spread ; second, by being accidentally imported by trains or shipment 
of goods by other means from the weevil-infested territory ; third, it 
might reach us by a combination of these methods, as, for instance, it 
might be brought into South Carolina by accident and from there it 
might reach us by natural spread, or vice versa. 

It is now spreading at an average rate of from 40 to 75 miles per 
year, but as it gains in area it will likely spread faster. Its progress 
up to this time makes it seem probable that it will not reach North 
Carolina for eight or ten years yet (1915 or later), though there is 
always the possibility that it may appear suddenly or spread more 
rapidly by accidental transportation on trains or other vehicles, and 
estimates on this point are speculative. 

Mistaken Reports of Boll-weevil. — Ever since about 1903, when 
the United States Department of Agriculture brought the Boll-weevil 
so forcibly to the attention of all the Southern States, there have been 
repeated reports of its presence in North Carolina, but every specimen 
which has been sent in has proven to be something else. Persons 
from Texas, and supposed to know the Boll-weevil, have captured 
beetles in this State which resemble it superficially, and have promptly 
and positively announced that the genuine Boll-weevil is here, but 
when the specimens come to us they always prove to be something else. 
Be it understood that these persons do not intentionally spread a 
false alarm, but their knowledge simply is not definite, positive and 
accurate enough to permit them to speak with certainty. They are 
not trained entomologists, and as there are a number of beetles native 
to North Carolina which closely resemble the Boll-weevil, a person 
who is not trained in the accurate study of insects is likely to get 
them confused. To the credit of the Texans who have made these 
erroneous announcements it should be said that the specimens which 
they have sent do bear a considerable resemblance to the true Boll- 
weevil. The specimens from North Carolina farmers who think 
that they have Boll-weevil prove to.be everything from the common 
Boll-worm to June-beetles and Lace-wing Flies. This shows that, 



The Bulletin. 49 

while many of our own people are utterly ignorant regarding the 
nature and appearance of the weevil, the persons from Texas v/hv 
have reported its presence, have at least been nearer the truth and 
have doubtless had only the best of intentions. 

Cotton growers throughout this State may, therefore, set themselves 
at rest regarding this pest for the present, but they should still 
keep their eyes open for the weevil, and meantime receive with a 
liberal grain of allowance all unauthorized reports of its appearance. 

REMEDIES. 

Under this head we can only discuss the remedies that have been 
used in the weevil-infested districts, and consider them in the light of 
our own conditions. The recommendations here given are taken from 
Farmers' Bulletin No. 189 of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, by Mr. W. D. Hunter, who is in charge of the Boll-weevil 
investigations. These same lines of work will have to be followed 
when the weevil appears in this State. It will be observed that the 
principal object is to hasten the crop td early maturity, this being 
then supplemented by destroying food and winter quarters as soon as 
the crop can be gathered. 

Plant Early. — If possible, plant seed of varieties known to mature 
early. It is much better to run the risk of being obliged to replant 
than to have the crop delayed. In this State this recommendation 
will not be of as much value as in Texas, for we already grow the 
early varieties and plant reasonably early. 

Wide Rows. — Plant the rows as far apart as experience with the 
land indicates is feasible, and thin out the plants in the rows 
thoroughly. The idea here involved is to give the plants room for 
rapid growth, so as to secure a crop before the weevils become numer- 
ous enough to destroy most of the squares. It is also of value in 
allowing the sun to shine well between the plants and rows, so as to 
dry up the infested squares that fall to the ground, thus destroying 
the larvse that may be contained in them. 

Fertilize Well. — Here again the idea is to hasten the crop forward 
so as to mature a crop ahead of the weevil's most destructive season. 

Destroy by plowing up, windrowing and burning all the cotton 
stalks in the field as soon as the weevils become so numerous that 
practically all the bolls or squares are being punctured. This may do 
away with the "top crop," but if the weevil is abundant it will not 
be worth picking anyway. This is the recommendation which is most 
likely to be neglected, for the farmer, once he gets the crop of this 
year, is not apt to look ahead to the next. Yet it is entirely a 
practicable recommendation, and the writer has seen it in actual prac-, 
tice in Texas. 



50 The Bulletin. 

In reference to the destruction of remnants and hibernating places, 
Mr. Hunter says : "Clean farming, by which is meant the killing 
of all weeds by thorough cultivation, and the removal of all portions 
of the crop from the land by burning or plowing under as soon as pos- 
sible after the time of harvesting, is nearly as important in the case 
of a sorghum or corn field that is to be put in cotton the following 
season (provided there are cotton fields adjoining), as it will be 
later in the cctton field itself." 

OTHER COTTON INSECTS OF LESSER IMPORTANCE. 

In the foregoing pages we have discussed those insects which are 
really destructive cotton pests in this State. There are, however, a 
large number of other insects which are to be found frequenting the 
cotton plant, some more or less destructive, and others there for 
pollen, nectar, or in search of other insects. We will here consider 
briefly several of those that are most likely to attract the attention 
of the observing farmer. 

Grasshopper's (Order Orthoptera) . — There are a number of differ- 
ent species of grasshoppers which attack cotton, sometimes proving 
quite destructive. Some of these appear full winged when the cotton 
first gets well started in spring, while others appear first in the 
young wingless state and acquire wings later. When serious, the 
grasshoppers may be combated more or less successfully by the use of 
poisoned baits as described for Cut- worms on page 13. 

Flea-beetles (Order Coleoptera). — There are many species of 
Flea-beetles and they attack a great variety of plants. Cotton does 
not usually suffer much injury from them, but in May, 1904, speci- 
mens of the Pale-striped Flea-beetle (Systena blanda) were sent in 
from Robeson County with the report that they were injuring cotton. 
Whenever occurring in serious numbers they can likely be combated 
by the poison dust method as discussed for Boll-worm on page 38. 

Lady-beetles (Order Coleoptera). — The yellow beetles, less than 
one-half inch in length, with black spots, commonly found on cotton 
that is infested with the Leaf-louse, are known as "Lady-beetles." 
They have been discussed in connection with the Cotton Leaf-louse on 
page 15. Their object on the cotton is to destroy the lice and they 
are, therefore, distinctly beneficial to the cotton grower. 

Snails. — Although snails are not really insects, they may be 
mentioned here. Certainly they are not usually a pest on cotton, yet 
in June, 1907, specimens were sent in from Halifax County with the 
report that they were present in great numbers on young cotton and 
destroying the foliage. The species sent was possessed of a small 
spiral shell, like some of the pond snails. Possibly the field was low 
and had been overflowed from a pond, with result that stranded snails 
were obliged to seek what food they could. 



The Bulletin. 51 

Stinging Cotton-worm (Order Lepidoptera) . — Nearly all caterpil- 
lars are harmless to man, but we have about half a dozen species which 
are provided with extremely fine sharp spines which produce a nettling 
or poisoning effect when they pierce the skin. The one of this char- 
acter which is most often found on cotton is the caterpillar of the 
Io moth, which is a very handsome species. The caterpillar is green, 
about two inches long when grown, with a bright crimson stripe down 
each side. The body is set with many tufts of sharp spines, which, if 
brushed against when working the cotton, may give a very painful, 
but not dangerous, sting. When grown the larva spins a brownish 
silken cocoon within which it transforms to a handsome moth, the 
males being yellowish and expanding two inches from tip to tip of the 
wings, and the females yellowish-brown and expanding as much as 
three inches in large specimens. In both .sexes the hind wings are 
marked with conspicuous eye-spots. If one is stung by the caterpil- 
lars, relief may be had by bathing the part with ammonia water or 
a solution of baking soda. 

The Regal Moth (Order Lepidoptera). — One of our finest and 
largest moths comes from a large, greenish caterpillar, with long 
black-tipped horns on the forward part of the body, which is some- 
times found on cotton. The caterpillar, when grown, is about four 
inches long and nearly an inch in diameter. When disturbed they 
sometimes swing the front end of the body violently around as if to 
strike the tormentor with the horns. They are sometimes greatly 
feared by negroes, but in reality are harmless and can be handled 
without any injurious results. Even the spines are rather dull 
pointed, and there is no venom. The same caterpillar is sometimes 
found on persimmon, when they are known as "Persimmon-bulls." 
In the north it feeds on hickory, walnut, and butternut leaves, and 
is known as the "Hickory Horned Devil." These ferocious names 
do an injustice to a rather handsome caterpillar which transforms 
into one of our most beautiful moths. They pass the winter in the 
pupa stage under ground. 

The Fall Web-worm (Order Lepidoptera). — This is the insect 
which makes ugly web nests in fruit trees, appearing about July 1st. 
The nests are also very common along roadsides in persimmon trees 
at any time from midsummer to winter. Sometimes a stray colony 
of caterpillars makes its web nest in a cotton plant and strips it of its 
leaves, but this is unusual. 

The Sialic Borer (Papiapema nitella). (Order Lepidoptera). — 
This insect attacks a great variety of plants and in some sections be- 
comes a serious pest from the habit of the caterpillar of boring into 
stems of growing plants. It has been twice complained of to this of- 
fice as a cotton pest, once each from the counties of Bertie and 
Johnston. The life-stages of the insect are well shown in Fig. 23. 



r>2 



The Bulletin. 



An infested plant soon begins to droop and wilt as a result of its 
attacks. This is an insect which might become very serious, but at 
this time is of minor importance to the cotton grower. "When an in- 
fested plant is noticed it should be destroyed, or the borer should be 
cut out and killed. 




Fig. 23.— The Stalk Borar. a. Female moth ; 6. half-grown caterpillar; c, full-grown caterpillar 
inside hollowed-out cotton stalk ; e, pupa All shown a little larger than natural size. 

(After Chittenden, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

The Cotton Stalk Borer (Ataxia crypto). (Order Coleoptera). — 
This insect affects cotton in much the same manner as the Stalk Borer 
just discussed, but the adult (parent) insect is a beetle instead of a 
moth. The larva is a white grub which bores within the stem of the 
cotton plant, but seems to confine itself mainly to plants which are 
already injured, and does not, therefore, seem likely to become a 
serious pest. We have had specimens of injured cotton sent to us 
from Gaston County in late July (1906), while the adult beetle is 
represented in our collection by specimens taken in Wake and Samp- 
son Counties in April. 

"Click-beetle" or "Jack-snapper" (Order Coleoptera). — Of this 
interesting group of beetles a species known scientifically as Mono- 
crepidus vespertinus has been quite frequently sent in to us under 
suspicion of being the Boll-weevil. 



The Bulletin. 






It is found within the squares and under the shuck or hull of the 
growing boll. So far as known, however, it is not really a pest of 
cotton and feeds but little, if at all, on the cotton plant. The eggs 
of Jack-snappers are usually laid in weedy or grassy fields and the 
larvse are known by the name of Wire-worms, and feed on roots of 
grasses, etc. This particular species seems to be found frequently 
on cotton, for it has been sent in several different years and from 
various counties. 




Fig. 24.— Jack-snapper. This species ( Monocrepidus vespertinus) is found in squares 
and on young bolls, and sometimes mistaken for Boll-weevil. 
Enlarged. Line to right shows actual length. 
(After Chittenden, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr.) 

Flower-beetles (Order Coleoptera). — Two different species of the 
genus Euphoria have been sent in as attacking cotton bolls. These 
are Euphoria melancholia and Euphoria inda. They are closely re- 
lated to the common green "June-bug," and so far as we know they 
are found only in bolls that have started to decay, or have been 
bruised or eaten into by other insects. They have several times been 
taken for Boll-weevil 'by uninformed growers. They cannot be re- 
garded as serious. 

Lace-wing Flies (Order Neuroptera). — These are very delicate 
greenish little creatures, with four dainty greenish wings so finely 
netted with "veins" as to suggest lace work. With wings expanded, 
they measure from three-fourths to one inch from tip to tip. They 
are frequently startled and may be seen flying to other plants. They 
do no harm;, on the contrary their young (larvae) are predaceous and 
feed to a considerable extent on the Cotton Leaf-louse, and are, there- 
fore, beneficial. 

Caterpillars (Order Lepidoptera) .—There are various species of 
caterpillars other than those discussed in these pages which may be 
found on cotton, especially if they are driven to find new food by 
the death of their favorite food plant. All true caterpillars nor- 
mally develop into moths of some kind. 



54 The Bulletin. 

It must be remembered that many insects may be found on cotton 
plants which are not really enemies to the crop. Some may be merely 
resting, or may be seeking shelter from weather or hiding from 
enemies. In the preceding pages we have tried to discuss those which 
have attracted attention as actual pests and have mentioned also 
such others as are most frequently suspected of injury. 

The writer will welcome correspondence with cotton growers who 
make use of the suggestions given in this Bulletin, and who care- 
fully watch results. He also desires to be promptly informed in case 
of any outbreak of any cotton pest not mentioned in these pages. 

Franklin Sherman, Jr., 
Entomologist, Dept. Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C. 



56 The Bulletin. 



REPORT FROM LEAF TOBACCO WAREHOUSES FOR MONTH OF 

MAY, 1908. 

Pounds sold for producers, first baud 515,530 

Pouuds sold for dealers 31,270 

Pouuds resold for warehouse 23,175 

Total 569,984 



NOTICE. 

The Department finds it necessary to revise the Bulletin list. All 
parties desiring the Bulletin sent to them in the future are re- 
quested to send notice to this effect on postal card, addressing 
Commissioner of Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C. 






THE BULLETIN 



OF THE 



NORTH CAROLINA 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



RALEIGH 



Volume 29. 



JULY, 1908. 



Number 7. 



I." ANALYSES OF FERTILIZERS— FALL SEASON, 1907; SPRING 
SEASON, 1908. 



II. ANALYSES OF COTTON-SEED MEAL 



III. REGISTRATION OF FERTILIZERS. 



LIBRAE 

NEW YOI 

bota; 

GAPS 




PUBLISHED MONTHLi' Cv ' li^''' AY,/ ~^E TO CITIZENS ON APPLICATION. 

*»//V >. 'lit.: 
ENTERED AT THE RALEIGH POST-OFFICE AS SECOND-CLASS MAIL MATTER. 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



S. L. Patterson, Commissioner, ex officio Chairman, Raleigh. 

J. J. Laughinghouse. . . ." Greenville First District. 

C. W. Mitchell Aulander Second District. 

William Dunn New Bern Third District. 

Ashley Ho.rne Clayton Fourth District. 

R. W. Scott Melville Fifth District. 

A. T. McCallum Red Springs Sixth District. 

J. P. McRae Laurinburg Seventh District. 

R. L. Doughton Laurel Springs Eighth District. 

W. A. Graham Machpelah Ninth District. 

A. Cannon Horse Shoe Tenth District. 



OFFICERS AND STAFF. 

S. L. Patterson Commissioner. 

Elias Carr Secretary. 

B. W. Kilgore State Chemist, Field Crops. 

Tait Butler Veterinarian, Animal Husbandry. 

Franklin Sherman, Jr Entomologist. 

W. N. Hutt Horticulturist. 

H. H. Brimley Naturalist and Curator. 

T. B. Parker Demonstration Work. 

W. M. Allen Food Chemist. 

C. D. Harris Feed Chemist and Microscopist. 

J. M. Pickel Assistant Chemist. 

W. G. LIaywood Assistant Chemist, Fertilizers. 

G. M. MacNider Assistant Chemist, Soils. 

L. L. Brinkley Assistant Chemist. 

S. O. Perkins Assistant Chemist. 

Hampden Hill Assistant Chemist. 

S. C. Clapp Nursery and Orchard Inspector. 

S. B. Shaw Assistant Horticulturist. 

W. J. Hartman Assistant Veterinarian. 

Z. P. Metcalf Assistant Entomologist. 



R. W. Scott, Jr., Superintendent Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C. 
F. T. Meacham, Superintendent Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. 
John J. Jefferies, Superintendent Pender Test Farm, Williafd, N. C. 
R. W. Collett, Superintendent Transylvania and Buncombe Test Farms, 
Swannanoa, N. C. 



I. ANALYSES OF FERTILIZERS, 
FALL SEASON, 1907; SPRING SEASON, 1908. 



By B. W. KILGORE, State Chemist, 

AND 

W. G. HAYWOOD, J. M. PICKEL, L. L. BRINKLEY and S. O. PERKINS, 

Assistant Chemists. 



The analyses presented in this Bulletin are of samples collected 
by the fertilizer inspectors of the Department, under the direction of 
the Commissioner of Agriculture, during fall months of 1907, and 
the spring months of 1908. They should receive the careful study of 
every farmer in the State who uses fertilizers, as by comparing the 
analyses in the Bulletin with the claims made for the fertilizers 
actually used, the farmer can know by, or before, the time fertilizers 
are put in the ground whether or not they contain the fertilizing 
constituents in the amounts they were claimed to be present. 

TERMS USED IN ANALYSES. 

Water-soluble Phosphoric Acid. — Phosphate rock, as dug from the 
mines, mainly in South Carolina, Florida and Tennessee, is the chief 
source of phosphoric acid in fertilizers. 

In its raw, or natural, state the phosphate has three parts of lime 
united to the phosphoric acid (called by chemists tri-calcium phos- 
phate). This is very insoluble in water and is not in condition to 
be taken up readily by plants. In order to render it soluble in water 
and fit for plant food, the rock is finely ground and treated with sul- 
phuric acid, which acts upon it in -such a way as to take from the 
three-lime phosphate two parts of its lime, thus leaving only one 
part of lime united to the phosphoric acid. This one-lime phosphate 
is what is known as water-soluble phosphoric acid. 

Reverted Phosphoric Acid. — On long standing some of this water- 
soluble phosphoric acid has a tendency to take lime from other sub- 
stances in contact with it, and to become somewhat less soluble. This 
latter is known as reverted or gone-back phosphoric acid. This is 
thought to contain two parts of lime in combination with the phos- 
phoric acid, and is thus an intermediate product between water- 
soluble and the original rock. 

Water-soluble phosphoric acid is considered somewhat more valu- 
able than reverted, because it becomes better distributed in the soil 
as a consequence of its solubility in water. 



4 The Bulletin. 

Available Phosphoric Acid is made up of the water-soluble and 
reverted ; it is the sum of these two. 

Water-soluble Ammonia. — The main materials furnishing am- 
monia in fertilizers are nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, cotton- 
seed meal, dried blood, tankage, and fish scrap. The first two of 
these (nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia) are easily soluble in 
water and become well distributed in the soil where plant roots can 
get at them. They are, especially the nitrate of soda, ready to be 
taken up by plants, and are therefore quick-acting forms of ammonia.^ 
It is mainly the ammonia from nitrate of soda and sulphate of am- 
monia that will be designated under the heading of water-soluble 
ammonia. 

Organic Ammonia. — The ammonia in cotton-seed meal, dried 
blood, tankage, fish scrap, and so on, is included under this heading. 
These materials are insoluble in water, and before they can feed 
plants they must decay and have their ammonia changed, by the aid 
of the bacteria of the soil, to nitrates, similar to nitrate of soda. 

They are valuable then as plant food in proportion to their content 
of ammonia, and the rapidity with which they decay in the soil, or 
rather the rate of decay will determine the quickness of their action 
as fertilizers. With short season, quick-growing crops, quickness of 
action is an important consideration, but with crops occupying the 
land during the greater portion, or all, of the growing season, it is 
better to have a fertilizer that will become available more slowly, so 
as to feed the plant till maturity. Cotton-seed meal and dried blood 
decompose fairly rapidly, but will last the greater portion, if not all, 
of the growing season in this State. While cotton seed and tankage 
will last longer than meal and blood, none of these act so quickly, or 
give out so soon, as nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia. 

Total Ammonia is made up of the water-soluble and organic; it is 
the sum of these two. 

The farmer should suit, as far as possible, the kind of ammonia to 
his different crops, and a study of the forms of ammonia as given in 
the tables of analyses will help him to do this. 

FORM OF POTASH IN TOBACCO FERTILIZERS. 

Tobacco growers are becoming yearly more disposed to know the 
form of potash, whether from kainit, muriate or sulphate, which en- 
ters into their tobacco fertilizers. Considerable work of this kind has 
been done for individuals, and we now determine the form of potash 
in all tobacco brands, for the benefit of tobacco growers. 

The term potash from muriate, as reported in the analyses, does 
not mean, necessarily, that the potash was supplied by muriate of 
potash. Sulphate or some other potash salt may have been used, but 
in all fertilizers where the term potash from muriate is used, there 



The Bulletin. 5 

is enough chlorine present to combine with all the potash, though it 
may have come from salt in tankage, kainit, or karnalite. As the 
objection to the use of muriate of potash in tobacco fertilizers arises 
from the chlorine present, it does not matter whether this substance 
is present in common salt or potash-furnishing materials. 

The use of sulphate of potash where there is chlorine present in the 
other ingredients of the fertilizer will not prevent the injurious effect 
of the chlorine. The term potash from muriate in our analyses, 
therefore, means that there is sufficient chlorine present in the fer- 
tilizer from all sources to combine with the potash to the extent 
indicated by the analyses. 

VALUATIONS. 

To have a basis for comparing the values of different fertilizer 
materials and fertilizers, it is necessary to assign prices to the three 
valuable constituents of fertilizers- — ammonia, phosphoric acid, and 
potash. These figures, expressing relative value . per ton, are not 
intended to represent crop-producing power, or agricultural value, 
but are estimates of the commercial value of ammonia, phosphoric 
acid and potash in the materials supplying them. These values are 
only approximate, as the cost of fertilizing materials is liable to 
change as other commercial products are, but they are believed to 
fairly represent the cost of making and putting fertilizers on the 
market. They are based on a careful examination of trade condi- 
tions, wholesale and retail, and upon quotations of manufacturers. 

Relative value per ton, or the figures showing this, represents the 
prices on board the cars at the factory, in retail lots of five tons or 
less, for cash. 

To make a complete fertilizer the factories have to mix together in 
proper proportions materials containing ammonia, phosphoric acid 
and potash. This costs something. For this reaion it is thought 
well to have two sets of valuations — one for the raw or unmixed 
materials, such as acid phosphate, kainit, cotton-seed meal, etc., and 
one for mixed fertilizers. 

VALUATIONS FOR 1907. 

hi Unmixed or Raw Materials. 

For phosphoric acid in acid phosphate 4 cents per pound. 

For phosphoric acid in bone meal, basic slag 

and Peruvian guano 3% cents per pound. 

For ammonia 15i/ 2 cents per pound. 

For potash 5 cents per pound. 

In Mixed Fertilizers. 

For phosphoric acid 4=y 2 cents per pound. 

For ammonia . 16y 2 cents per pound. 

For potash 5y 2 cents per pound. 



6 The Bulletin. 

The valuations decided on this season, for reasons already given, 
are: 

VALUATIONS FOR 1908. 

In Unmixed or Raw Materials. 

For phosphoric acid in acid phosphate 4 cents per pound. 

For phosphoric acid in bone meal, basic slag 

and Peruvian guano 3% cents per pound. 

For nitrogen 18 cents per pound. 

In Mixed Fertilizers. 

For available phosphoric acid IV2 cents per pound. 

For nitrogen 19% cents per pound. 

For potash 5% cents per pound. 

HOW RELATIVE VALUE IS CALCULATED. 

In the calculation of relative value it is only necessary to remember 
that so many per cent means the same number of pounds per hundred, 
and that there are twenty hundred pounds in one ton (2,000 pounds). 

With an 8 — 2 — 1.65 goods, which means that the fertilizer con- 
tains available phosphoric acid 8 per cent, potash 2 per cent, and 
nitrogen 1.65 per cent, the calculation is made as follows: 

™ T , . imT , Value Per Value Per Ton, 

Percentage, or Lbs. in 100 Lbs. 1Q0 Lbg _ 2 ,000 Lbs. 

8 pounds available phosphoric acid at 4£ cents 0.36 X20= $7.20 

2 pounds potash at 5^ cents 0.11 X20= 2.20 

1.65 pounds nitrogen at 19$ cents 0.321 X20= 6.42 

Total value _._, 0.791X20= $15.82 

Freight and merchant's commission must be added to these prices. 
Freight rates from the seaboard and manufacturing centers to interior 
points are given in the following table: 



The Bulletin. 



Freight Rates from the Seaboard to Interior Points.— From the Published Rates of the 
Associated Railways of Virginia and the Carolinas. In car-loads, of not less than ten tons each, 
per ton of 2,000 pounds. Less than car-loads, add 20 per cent. 



Destination. 



Advance 

Apex 

Ashboro 

Asheville 

Chapel Hill 

Charlotte 

Clayton 

Cherry ville 

Clinton 

Creedmoor 

Cuningham 

Dallas 

Davidson College- 
Dudley 

Dunn 

Durham 

Elkin 

Elm City 

Fair Bluff 

Fayetteville 

Forestville 

Gastonia 

Gibson 

Goldsboro 

Greensboro 

Hamlet 

Henderson 

Hickory 

High Point 

Hillsboro 

Kernersville 

Kinston 

Laurel Hill 

Laurinburg 

Liberty 

Louisburg 

Lumberton 

Macon 

Madison 

Matthews 

Maxton 

Milton 

Mocksville 

Morven 

Mount Airy 

Nashville 

New Bern 

Norwood 

Oxford 

Pineville 

Pittsboro 

Polkton 

Raleigh 

Reidsville 

Rockingham 

Rocky Mount 

Ruffin 

Rural Hall 

Rutherford ton 

Salisbury 

Sanford 

Selma 

Shelby 

Siler City 

Smithfield 

Statesville 

Stem 

Tarboro 

Waco 

Wadesboro 

Walnut Cove 

Warrenton 

Warsaw 

Washington 

Weldon 

Wilson 

Winston-Salem - - 



From 

Wilmington, 

N. C. 



$3.20 
2.70 
3.20 
4.00 
2.95 
2.65 
2.48 
3.85 
1.60 
3.00 
3.00 
3.00 
3.00 
1.70 
2.00 
2.80 
3.60 
2.10 
1.60 
1.80 
2.85 
3.12 
2.10 
1.80 
2.96 
2.00 
3-00 
3.20 
3.00 
2.88 
3.00 
2.10 
1.90 
1.90 
2.72 
2.95 
1.60 
3-05 
3.00 
2.60 
1.80 
3.44 
3.36 
2-55 
2.20 
2.30 
1.25 
3-68 
3.04 
2.77 
2.60 
2.40 
2.56 
3.00 
2.10 
2.20 
3.28 
3.28 
3.05 
3-25 
2.10 
2.10 
2.90 

2 60 
2.20 
3.50 
2.95 
2.30 
2.90 
2.30 

3 00 
3.05 
1.50 
2. 65 
2.55 
2.00 
3.00 



From 

Norfolk and 

Portsmouth, 

Va. 



$3.20 



3.20 
4.00 
3.20 
3.20 
2.86 
3.60 
3.00 
3.00 
2.40 
3.60 
3.20 
3.00 
2.80 
2.83 
3.20 
2.60 
3.80 
3.00 
3.00 
3.25 
3.50 
2.80 
3.00 
3.00 
2.83 



60 

OS 



00 

80 
2.40 
3.40 
3.60 



.00 

.60 

.00 

.00 

.20 

.40 

.40 

.20 

.60 

.40 

2.90 

1.75 

3.20 

2.83 

3.25 

3.30 

3.00 

2.83 

2.96 

3.00 

2.50 

2.80 

3.20 

3.65 

3.20 

3 00 

2.80 

3.60 

3.60 

2.80 

3.20 

2.83 

2.40 

3.60 

3.00 

3.00 

3.25 

3.00 

1.75 

1.90 

2.60 

3-00 



From 

Charleston, 

S. C. 



$3.40 
3.80 
3.60 
4.00 



.90 

.85 

.63 

.40 

.20 

.80 

.00 

.40 

.20 

3.20 

3.20 

3.20 

3.60 

3.20 

2.40 

3.00 

3.80 

3.12 

2.10 

3.20 

3.40 

3.60 

3.55 

3.20 

3.40 



.68 
.40 
.50 
.80 
.80 
.80 
3.80 
3.70 
3.85 
3.40 
3.20 
2.70 
4.00 
3.40 
2.50 
3.80 
3.40 
3.95 
3.20 
3.55 
3-00 
4.10 
2.20 
3.40 
3.40 
3.80 
3.40 
3.40 
3.60 
3.05 
3.20 
3.40 
3.20 
3.90 
3-80 
3-20 
3.60 
3.80 
3.00 
3.40 
2.50 
3.40 
4.10 
3.20 
2.25 
3.85 
3.20 
3.40 



From 

Richmond, 

Va. 



$3.20 
3.00 
3.20 
4.00 
3.20 
3.20 
2.80 
3.63 
3.00 
3.00 
2.40 
3.60 
3.20 
3.00 
2.80 
2.83 
3.20 
2.60 
3.80 
3.00 
3.06 
3.25 
3.50 
2.80 
3.00 
3.00 
2.83 
3-60 
3.08 
2.88 
3.00 
2.80 
3-40 
3-40 
3.60 
3.00 
3.60 
3-00 
3-00 
3-20 
3-40 
2.40 
3-20 
3-60 
3-40 
2.90 
1.75 
2.23 
2.83 
3.20 
3.30 
3.00 
2.83 
2.36 
3-00 
2-50 
2.20 
3.20 
3-65 
3.20 
3.00 
2.80 
3-60 
3.60 
2.80 
3.20 
2.83 
2.40 
3.60 
3.00 
3.00 
3.25 
3.00 
1.50 
1.90 
2.60 
3.00 



8 



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2.14 

2.45 

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3.27 

1.42 

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|tf |« O- Ph PhK Ph K W «« tf P3 Pi Pi 


Burlington 

Elizabeth City- 
Hertford 

Clinton 

Edenton 

Burlington 

Burlington 

Greensboro 

Mount Olive--- 

Mebane 

Burlington 

Clinton 

Burlington 

Princeton 

Tunis 


Piedmont Star Bone and 
Potash. 

Dissolved Bone and Potash 

for Corn and Wheat. 
M. H. White & Co.'s Special 

Corn Mixture. 
Columbia Bone and Potash 

Mixture. 

Bone and Potash 

Navassa Dissolved Bone and 

Potash. 
Piedmont Farmer's High 

Grade Bone and Potash. 
Bone and Potash Mixture — 

Royster's Bone and Potash — 

Union Bone and Potash 

A. & A.'s McGavock's Special 
Potash Mixture. 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Bone 
and Potash Mixture. 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s 
High Grade Alkaline Bone 
and Potash. 

Powers, Gibbs & Co.'s Dis- 
solved Bone and Potash. 

Va.-Car. Chemical Co.'s Dis- 
solved Bone and Potash. 


Brand claiming 

Piedmont-Mt. Airy Guano Co., 
Baltimore, Md. 
Brands claiming 

American Fertilizing Co., Nor- 
folk, Va. 

Armour Fertilizer Works, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Columbia Guano Co., Norfolk, Va.- 

Imperial Co., Norfolk. Va. 

Navassa Guano Co., Wilmington, 
N. C. 

Piedmont-Mt. Airy Guano Co., 
Baltimore, Md. 

Powhatan Chemical Co., Rich- 
mond, Va. 

Royster, F. S , Guano Co., Rich- 
mond, Va. 

Union Guano Co., Winston, N. C. - 

Va.-Car. Chemical Co., Richmond, 
Va. 
....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 


6758 

6488 

6695 

6626 

6726 
6761 

6719 

6783 

6775 

6642 
6750 

6627 

6746 

6810 
6802 



The Bulletin. 



31 



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Mebane 

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Navassa Acid Phosphate 

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Union 12 Per Cent Acid 

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Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer 

Co.'s Charlotte Dissolved 

Bone. 


Brands claiming _._-„_. 

Navassa Guano Co., Wilmington, 

N. C. 
Richmond Guano Co., Richmond, 

Va. 
Union Guano Co.. Winston, N. C. - 

Va.-Car. Chemical Co , Richmond, 
Va. 


6646 
6812 
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32 



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34 



The Bulletin. 



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$ 12. 84 
12.57 
12.71 

2.00 

2.68 

12.00 

12.06 

12.46 
11.78 

12.06 
11.92 

13.08 
11.78 

12.22 
12.93 

11.56 
11.68 

12.92 

12.72 
12.78 
12.72 








2.00 

2.68 

12.00 

12.06 

12.46 
11.78 

12. 06 
11.92 

13.08 
11.78 

12.22 
12.93 

1 1.56 
11.68 

12.92 

12.72 
12.78 
12.72 










16.05 

15.72 

15.89 


2.93 
3.40 
3.26 


13.12 
12.32 
12.63 


O tf Pi |P5 m to tf wmznm tfw wkM PhcgPQ 


Maxton 

Pittsboro 

Monroe 

Red Springs- 
Warsaw 

Edenton 

Hertford - 

Edenton--- 

Edenton 

Edenton 

Goldsboro 

Edenton 

Aulander 

Magnolia 

Edenton 

Scotland Neck- 

Edenton 

New Bern 

Kinston 


High Grade Swift's Special 
H. G. Attid Phosphate. 

Click's 16 Per Cent Acid 
Phosphate. 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Best 
Acid Phosphate. 

Lee's Prepared Agricultural 
Lime. 

Genuine German Kainit 

— do 

—.do—— 

— do 

—.do 

. ..do 

__.„do 

— do -- 

— do 

— do 

— do 

.. .do 

— do 


Swift Fertilizer Works, Atlanta, 

Ga. 
Va.-Car. Chemical Co., Richmond, 

Va. 
— do 

Brand claiming - ____ - - 

Lee, A. S., & Sons Co., Richmond, 

Va. 

Brands claiming -- _ -- 

Acme Manufacturing Co., Wil- 
mington, N. C. 
American Agricultural Chemical 

Co., N. Y. 
American Fertilizing Works, 

Baltimore, Md. 
Arps, Geo. L.. & Co., Norfolk, Va.- 
Baugh & Sons Co., Norfolk, Va.--- 
Berkley Chemical Co., Norfolk, Va. 
Best & Thompson, Goldsboro, 

N. C. 
Columbia Guano Co , Norfolk, Va.- 
Farmers Cotton Oil Co , Wilson, 

N. C. 
Hall & Pearsall, Wilmington, N. C. 
Hampton Guano Co., Norfolk. Va.- 
Hubbard Fertilizer Co., Baltimore, 

Md. 

Imperial Co., Norfolk, Va. 

Martin, D. B., Co., Richmond, Va. 
Meadows, E. H. & J. A., New 

Bern, N. C. 


6663 
6600 
6765 

6605 

6573 
6401 

6728 

6613 

6344 
6525 
6717 

6341 
6685 

6571 
6704 
6683 

6534 
6409 
6408 



The Bulletin. 



35 



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36 



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(■ i i • i ii iii ii i i ii 


2.25 
1.75 

2.80 
2.78 

2.80 
2.51 


o 

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\ i 






II III I I 1 ! ' II III! 




jM ^fqpa MM iii |m |m jffl 


Washington — 

Edenton 

Edenton 

Edentoni' 

Edenton 

Greensboro 

Burlington 

Maxton- 

Bethel 

Lumberton 


|| jii i i ill | 1 |i || 

I O i 

1 1 1 1 1 | ; | ' :c • 
1 I 1 • 1 I III ! M II ! 1 

II III 1 I ' CS IrK II II 

11 CD* ' U '' ' ■ 

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s X3 iii i iSSi ic 'i '• 

12 III ! 1 IfflO, lO II II 


Brands claiming . . 
Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertili- 
zer Works, Raleigh, N. C. 
Columbia Guano Co., Norfolk, Va.- 

Imperial Co., Norfolk, Va. 

Richmond Guano Co., Richmond, 

Va. 
Southern Exchange Co., Maxton, 

N. C. 
Va.-Car. Chemical Co., Richmond, 
Va. 

Brands claiming . . . . . 

.Baugh & Sons Co., Norfolk, Va. — 
Ober, G., & Sons Co., Baltimore, 
Md. 
Brand claiming . .... 
Coe-Mortimer Co., Charleston, 
S. C. 

Brand claiming . 

Coe-Mortimer Co., Charleston, 
S. C. 

Brand claiming . -._. .. . 

Coe-Mortimer Co., Charleston, 
S. C. 


6342 

6520 

6620 

6665 
6494 

6801 

6799 

6686 
6346 
6364 



£ 

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The Bulletin. 



37 



II. ANALYSES OF COTTON-SEED MEAL 



o .• 
SB 



Name and Address of Manufacturer. 



Where Sampled. 



T3 

a- 

53 £ 3 

P4ZO 



2309 
2314 
2321 
2312 
2326 
2313 
2380 
2315 
2338 
2362 
2363 
2366 
2367 
2343 
2340 
2364 
2358 
2303 
2372 
2336 
2297 
2368 
2365 
2386 
2289 
2302 
2290 
2317 
2304 
2324 
2323 
2291 
2337 

2320 
2335 
2288 
2319 
2341 
2311 
2357 
2356 
2295 
2369 
2339 
2344 
2359 
2361 
2331 
2294 
2342 
2371 
2325 
2292 
2318 



Battleboro Oil Co., Battleboro, N. C Battleboro 

do do 

do do 

do do 

do do 

do do 

„_.do ! do 

do do 

Bragaw, Wm., & Co., Washington, N. C. Washington 

Chatham Cotton Oil Co., Pittsboro, N. C. Pittsboro 

do — Sanford 

Consumers Cotton Oil Co., Tarboro, N. C Windsor ' 

Cotton Oil Ginning Co.. Scotland Neck, N. C. Palmyra 

Eastern Cotton Oil Co., Hertford, N". C. Edenton 

do do 

Elba Manufacturing Co., Charlotte. N. C Laurinburg 

do ICharlotte 

Fremont Oil Mill Co., Fremont, N. C Edenton 

Georgia Cotton Oil Co., Atlanta, Ga. Wadesboro — 

Haven's Oil Mill, Washington, N. C Edenton 

KingsMountain Cotton Oil Co., KingsMt., N. C Kings Mountain- 

Laurinburg Oil Co., Laurinburg, N. C Rockingham 



-do 

.—do 

-—do 

_ — do 

Lenoir Oil and Ice Co., Kinston, N. C 

—do •- 

.— do 

—do 
—do 
Morgan Oil and Fertilizer Co 



Hamlet - 
Laurinburg - 

.—do 

— do 

Kinston 

....do 

_—do 

. — do 

—do 

Red Springs, N. C. - Red Springs- 



New Bern Cotton Oil and Fertilizer Mills, New Edenton 

Bern, N. C. 

North Carolina Cotton Oil Co., Henderson, N. C Durham 

North Carolina Cotton Oil Co., Wilmington, N. C.~ Chadbourn 

Pine Level Oil Mills Co.,- Pine Level, N. C Pine Level 

do do 

Pitt County Oil Co., Winterville, N. C Greenville 

Rowland Oil and Fertilizer Co., Rowland. N. C— — Rowland 

Southern Cotton Oil Co., Charlotte, N. C Charlotte 

-,_ do Red Springs 

Southern Cotton Oil Co., Concord, N. C Greensboro 

Southern Cotton Oil Co., Goldsboro, N. C. Lewiston 

Southern Cotton Oil Co., Rocky Mount, N. C Williamston — 

Southern Cotton Oil Co., Tarboro. N. C jTarboro 

Southern Cotton Oil Co., Wilson. N. C lAulander 

Southern Cotton Oil Co., Wilmington, N. C Ahoskie 

Speed Milling Co., Speed, N. C. |Speed 

Statesville Oil and Fertilizer Co.. Statesville, N. C.-lGreensboro 

Tar River Oil Co., Tarboro, N. C .Washington 

Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co.. Richmond, Va Burlington 

Verner Oil Co., Lattimore, N. C Lattimore 

do 1 do 

Wells, J. Lindsay, & Co., Memphis, Tenn JHendersonville - 



6.18 
6.18 
6.18 
6.18 
6.18 
6.18 
6.18 
6-18 
6.18 



6.18 
6.18 



6.18 

6.18 
6.18 



6.18 



6.18 
6.18 
6.18 
6.18 
6.18 
6.18 
6.18 
6.18 



> = 



» B jSg 



7.50 
7.50 
7.50 
7.50 
7.50 



7.50 
7.50 



7.50 

7.50 

7.50 



7.50 



7.50 
7.50 
7.50 
7.50 
7.50 
7.50 
7.50 
7.50 



7.50 
7.50 
7.50 



6.69 
6.59 
6.57 
6-51 
6.42 
6.39 
6.29 
5.77 
6.92 
6.32 
6.74 
6.64 
7.14 
6.11 
6.34 
6.36 
6.90 
6.59 
6.44 



6.14 

6.59 
6.74 
6.62 
6.56 
6.42 
6.39 
6.03 
6.65 

5.62 
6.00 

6.23 
6.90 
6.29 
6.15 
6.46 
6.04 
6.74 
6.82 
6.01 
5.77 
6.69 
6.14 
6.62 
6.84 
6.90 
6.60 
6.98 
6.57 
7.08 



|s 

aB 



8.12 
8.00 
7.98 
7-90 
7.80 
7.76 
7.64 
7.00 
8.40 
7.67 
8-18 
8.06 
8.67 
7.42 
7.70 
7.72 
8.38 
8.00 
7-82 
8.04 
8.88 
8.21 
7.96 
7.60 
7.46 
8.00 
8.18 
8.04 
7.96 
7.80 
7.76 
7.32 
8.08 

6.82 
7.28 

7.56 
8.38 
7-64 
7.50 
7.84 

7.33 
8.18 
8.28 

7.30 

7.00 
8.12- 

7.45 
8.04 
8.30 
8-38 
8.01 
8.38 
7.98 
8.60 



III. FERTILIZER BRANDS REGISTERED FOR 1903. 



15.66 



1.65 



50.00 
48.00 
12.00 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash 

Acid. 
The Atlantic Chemical Corporation, Norfolk, Va. — 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Atlantic High Grade 16 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 16.00 

Atlantic 14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Atlantic Dissolved Bone 13.00 

Atlantic Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Atlantic 10 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Atlantic Bone and Potash for Grain 10.00 

Atlantic Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Atlantic 8 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture S.OO 

Atlantic 7 Per Cent Truck Guano 7.00 

Atlantic Potato Guano 7.00 

Atlantic Special Truck Guano S.OO 

Atlantic High Grade Tobacco Guano S.OO 

Atlantic Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Atlantic Tobacco Compound S.OO 

Atlantic Special Guano 9.00 

Atlantic Cotton Grower 9.00 

Atlantic Special Wheat Fertilizer S.OO 

Atlantic Meal Compound 9.00 

Atlantic High Grade Cotton Guano 8.00 

Atlantic Soluble Guano 8.00 

Apex Peanut Grower S.OO 

Perfection Peanut Grower 7.00 

Oriental High Grade Guano S.OO 

Paloma Tobacco Guano S.OO 

Geo. L. Arps & Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Arps' Potato Guano 6.00 

Arps' Standard Truck Guano : 7.00 

Arps' Scuppernong Guano for Trucks 6.00 

Geo. L. Arps & Co.'s Big Yield Guano 8.00 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Kainit 

Arps' Premium Guano for Cotton, Tobacco and 

All Spring Crops 8.00 

Acme Manufacturing Co., Wilmington. N. C. — 

Acme Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Acme Bone and Potash 10.00 

Acme Bone and Potash 10.00 

Acme Bone and Potash 10.00 

Acme Bone and Potash S.OO 

Acme Bone and Potash 11.00 

Acme High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Acme Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Acme Standard Guano 8.00 

Acme High Grade 6.00 

Acme Strawberry Top Dresser 8.00 

Acme Truck Grower 6.00 

Acme Cotton Grower 9.00 





4.00 




3.00 




2.00 




4.00 


5.77 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


1.00 


2.06 


1.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


.82 


4.00 


t 


5.00 


3.30 


4.00 


3.30 


4.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


4.12 


7.00 


1.65 


2.00 



12.00 
2.00 





2.00 




3.00 




4.00 




4.00 




2.00 


2.06 


2.00 


4.95 


8.00 


1.65 


4.00 


3.30 


8.00 


2.27 


2.00 



The Bulletin. 



39 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Acme Special Gi'ain * 

Acme Fertilizer for Tobacco 

Acme Fertilizer 

Acme Acid Phosphate 

Gibson's Melon Grower 

Corn Guano 

Clark's Corn Guano 

P. D. Special 

Quickstep 

Gem Fertilizer 

Cotton Seed Meal Guano , 

Lattimer's Complete Fertilizer 

Tiptop Crop Grower 

Tiptop Tobacco Grower 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Pure German Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Acme Bone and Potash 

Muriate of Potash 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


2.47 


2.50 


8.00 


2.47 


2.50 


1H.00 


. . 




lo.no 


3.30 


5.00 


6.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.00 


6.60 


10.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 
20.62 

15.00 


3.00 

ii.oo 






48.00 
48.00 


10.00 




5.00 
55.00 



Ashepoo Fertilizer Co., Charleston, 8. C. — 

High Grade Eutaw Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Ashepoo Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Dissolved Phosphate 

High Grade Superpotash Acid Phosphate 

High Grade Ashepoo Superpotash Acid Phos- 
phate 

High Grade Ashepoo Vegetable Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Truck Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Farmers' Special 

High Grade Ashepoo Special Cotton Seed Meal 
Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Ammoniated Superphos- 
phate 

High Grade Ashepoo Bird and Fish Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Meal Mixture 

High Grade Ashepoo X Tobacco Fertilizer 

High Grade Ashepoo Golden Tobacco Producer. 

High Grade Ashepoo Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Perfection Guano 

High Grade Ashepoo Fruit Grower 

High Grade Ashepoo Watermelon Guano 

High Grade Eutaw X Golden Fertilizer 

High Grade Eutaw Special Cotton Seed Meal 
Guano 

High Grade Carolina XXX Guano 

High Grade Taylor's Circle Guano 

Standard Eutaw XX Acid Phosphate 

Standard Eutaw XXX Acid Phosphate 

Standard Eutaw. Potash Acid Phosphate 

Standard Eutaw Acid Phosphate and Potash . . . 

Standard Eutaw Circle Guano 

Standard Eutaw XX Guano 

Standard Eutaw XXX Guano 

Standard Eutaw Fertilizer 

Standard Ashepoo Fertilizer 

Standard Ashepoo Harrow Brand Raw Bone 
Superphosphate 



14.00 • 


. . 


• • 


14.00 


. . 


. • 


16.00 


. . 


. . 


10.00 




4.00 


10.00 




4.00 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


3.29 


6.00 


S.00 


3.91 


2.75 


10.00 


3.29 


5.00 


8.00 


2.46 


4.00 


S.00 


2.46 


4.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


9.00 


1.65 


4.00 


12.00 


. . 


. , 


13.00 


. . 


. » 


11.00 


. . 


1.00 


12.00 


, , 


1.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


8.50 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


1.85 


1.00 


9.00 


1.85 


1.00 



9.00 



1.65 



2.00 



40 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Standard Ashepoo Wheat and Oats Special 9.50 

Standard Ashepoo XXX Guano 8.65 

Standard Ashepoo XX Guano S.50 

Standard Ashepoo Circle Guano 8.00 

Standard Ashepoo Guano 8.50 

Standard Ashepoo Special Fertilizer S.00 

Standard Ashepoo Acid Phosphate and Potash . . 12.00 

Standard Ashepoo Potash and Acid Phosphate 7. 11.00 

Standard Ashepoo Potash Compound 10.00 

Standard Ashepoo XXX Acid Phosphate. ...... 13.00 

Standard Ashepoo Dissolved Bone 12.00 

Standard Ashepoo XX Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Standard Coomassie Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Standard Coomassie Circle Fertilizer 8.00 

Standard Carolina Guano S.00 

Standard Carolina Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Standard Circle Bone 13.00 

Standard Palmetto Potash Acid Phosphate 11.00 

Standard Brownwood Acid Phosphate 8.00 

Standard P. D. Fertilizer 8.00 

German Kainit 

Standard Enoree Acid Phosphate and Potash. . . 10.00 

High Grade Ashepoo XXXX Acid Phosphate. . . 14.00 

Taylor's XX Ammoniated Dissolved Fertilizer.. 10.00 

High Grade Ashepoo Nitrogenous Top Dressing. 3.00 



Nitrogen. '. 


Potash. 


1.65 


1.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.06 


1.00 


1.65 


2.00 


# t 


1.00 


. . 


1.00 


, . 


3.00 



1.65 • 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


• 


i.oo 




4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


. 


12.00 


■ 


2.00 


'.82 


1.00 


7.00 


2.00 



The Armour Fertiliser Works, Atlanta, Chicago and 
Wilmington — 

Top Dresser 5.00 

10 Per Cent Trucker , 5.00 

Manure Substitute 6.00 

7 Per Cent Trucker 6.00 

General S.00 

Fruit and Root Crop Special 8.00 

High Grade Potato S.00 

King Cotton No. 2 8.00 

Champion 8.0Q 

Gold Medal for Tobacco 8.00 

Berry King . . . S.00 

Cotton Special 8.00 

Tobacco Special 8.00 

Truck and Berry Special 8.00 

All Soluble S.00 

Special Trucker S.00 

Bone, Blood and Potash S.00 

Bone and Dissolved Bone with Potash 9.00 

African Cotton Grower 9.00 

10 Per Cent Trucker 2.00 

Dried Blood . . , 

Phosphoric Acid with Potash 10.00 

Superphosphate and Potash 10.00 

W. H. White & Co.'s Special Corn Mixture • 10.00 

Phosphate and Potash No. 2 8.00 

Phosphate and Potash No. 1 10.00 

17 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 17.00 

16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

13 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 13.00 

12 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Star Phosphate 14.00 

Nitrate of Soda 



S.25 


2.00 


S.25 


3.00 


3.30 


4.00 


5.78 


5.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


5.00 


1.65 


10.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.06 


2.50 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


10.00 


2.S8 


4.00 


3.30 


4.00 


4.12 


7.00 


1.65 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.25 


, . 


13.20 


m . 


, , 


5.00 


, , 


4.00 


, , 


2.00 


, , 


5.00 


, , 


2.00 



14.85 



The Bulletin. 



41 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Kainit 

King Cotton 

Aininoniated Dissolved Bone with Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Van Lindley's Special 

Standard Cotton Grower 

Armour's Slaughter House Fertilizer 

Anderson Phosphate and Oil Co., Anderson, 8. C. — 

Anderson's Special Formula 

Anderson's Blood Guano 

Anderson's Special Fertilizer 

Anderson's Blood and Bone Guano 

American Fertiliser Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

10 Per Cent Ammoniated Guano 

Standard 7 Per Cent Ammonia Guano 

American Irish Potato Grower 

American 7-7-7 for Irish Potatoes 

American Fish Scrap Guano 

American Eagle Guano 

American No. 1 Fertilizer 

American No. 2 Fertilizer ■'. 

American Cotton Compound 

American Standard Cotton Grower 

American Special Potash Mixture for Wheat... 

American High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Special Formula Guano for Yellow Leaf Tobacco. 

Special Potato Guano 

Special Potato Manure 

Bone and Peruvian Guano 

Bone and Peruvian Guano 

A. L. Hanna's Special 

Peruvian Mixture 

Blood and Bone Compound 

Bob White Fertilizer for Tobacco 

J. G. Miller & Co. Yellow Leaf Fertilizer 

Pitt County Special Fertilizer 

N. C. and S. C. Cotton Grower 

Peruvian Mixture Guano Especially Prepared 

for Sweet Potatoes 

Kale, Spinach and Cabbage Guano 

Stable Manure Substitute 

Strawberry and Asparagus Guano 

Ground Fish Scraps 

Nitrate of Soda 

Bone Meal Total 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Eagle Brand Acid Phosphate; 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Dissolved Bone and Potash for Corn and Wheat, 

Double Dissolved Bone and Potash 

Cooper's Genuine Eagle Island 

American Agricultural Chemical Co., New York — 

Holmes & Dawson Productive Cotton and Pea- 
nut Guano. 9.00 22.70 



Avail. 






Phos. Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 




12.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 
48.00 


• • ■ 




50.00 


S.00 


4.32 


2.00 


8.50 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


10.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


2.47 


3.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


7.00 


8.24 


2.50 


7.00 


5.76 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


7.00 


5.76 


7.00 


7.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


, 


4.00 


10.00 


. 


. . 


0.00 


2.88 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.75 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.50 


1.65 


1.50 


8.50 


2.06 


1.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.50 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


2.88 


5.00 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


S.00 


3.29 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


4.00 


7.00 


2.47 


4.00 


9.00 


2.88 


9.00 


. , 


8.24 




15.65 


9 9 


20.00 


3.71 


50.00 
49.00 
12.00 


13.00 






14.00 




# . 


10.00 




2.00 


10.00 




4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 



2.00 



itrogen. '. 


Potash. 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 




5.00 


, . 


3.00 




2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


2.50 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


• 2.00 



42 The Bulletin. 

Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Holmes & Dawson Triumph Soluble 8.00 

Holmes & Dawson Gold Dust Guano 9.00 

Savage Sons & Co. Purity Guano. 8.00 

Lazaretto Truckers' Favorite 6.00 

Lazaretto Early Trucker 7.00 

Lazaretto Challenge Fertilizer •. . . 8.00 

Lazaretto Special for Tobacco and Potatoes .... 8.00 

Lazaretto Climax Plant Food 8.00 

Lazaretto Universal Compound 8.00 

Lazaretto Crop Grower 8.00 

Lazaretto High Grade Dissolved Bone and Pot- 
ash 12.00 

Lazaretto Alkaline Bone Phosphate 12.00 

Lazaretto Dissolved Bone and Potash 10.00 

Lazaretto Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Reese Pacific Guano 8.00 

Reese Pacific Guano for Tobacco 8.50 

Canton Chemical Truckers' Special 7 Per Cent . . 6.00 

Canton Chemical Excelsior Trucker 7.00 

Canton Chemical Baker's Tobacco Fertilizer. . . . 8.00 

Canton Chemical Baker's Fish Guano 8.00 

Canton Chemical Baker's Dissolved S. C. Bone. . 14.00 . . 
Canton Chemical Baker's Standard High Grade 

Guano 8.00 2.06 3.00 

Canton Chemical Gem Phosphate 12.00 

Canton Chemical Soluble Bone and Potash 10.00 

Canton Chemical Soluble Alkaline Bone 12.00 

Canton Chemical Game Guano 8.00 

Canton Chemical Virginia Standard High Grade 

Manure 8.00 

Canton Chemical C. C. Special Compound 8.00 

Canton Chemical Superior High Grade Fertilizer, 8.00 

Detrick's Gold Basis 6.00 

Detrick's Special Trucker 7.00 

Detrick's Gold Eagle 6.00 

Detrick's Quickstep Bone and Potash 8.00 

Detrick's Special Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Detrick's Yegetator Ammoniated Superphosphate, 8.00 

Detrick's Kangaroo Komplete Kompound 8.00 

Detrick's Royal Crop Grower 8.00 

Detrick's Fish Mixture 8.00 

Detrick's Victory Alkaline Bone 12.00 

Detrick's P. & B. Special 12.00 

Detrick's Soluble Bone Phosphate and Potash.. 10.00 

Detrick's XXtra Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Zell's 10 Per Cent Trucker 5.00 

Zell's 7 Per Cent Potato and Vegetable Manure, 6.00 

Zell's Truck Grower 7.00 

Zell's Special Compound for Potatoes and Vege- 
tables 8.00 

Zell's Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Zell's Bright Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Zell's Royal High Grade Fertilizer 9.00 

Zell's Special Compound for Tobacco 8.00 

Zell's Calvert Guano 8.00 

Zell's Ammonia Bone Superphosphate b.00 

Zell's High Grade Potash Fertilizer 10.00 

Zell's Reliance High Grade Manure S.00 

Zell's Fish Guano 8.00 

Zell's Dissolved Bone Phosphate 14.00 



. 


2.00 


. 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.06 


6.00 


2.47 


3.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


. 


5.00 


. 


3.00 


• 


2.00 


8.23 


3.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


. 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 



The Bulletin. 



43 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Zell's Electric Phosphate '. 10.00 

Bull Head Potato and Vegetable Manure 6.00 

Enterprise Alkaline Phosphate 8.00 

Royal Alkaline Bone 10.00 

Palmetto Alkaline Phosphate 8.00 

Slingluff' s Bright Mixture.,' S.00 

Pure Ground Bone Total 45.00 

Muriate of Potash 

A. A. C. Co.'s 16 Per Cent Superphosphate 10.00 

Detrick's Superior Animal Bone Fertilizer 9.00 

Lazaretto Retriever Animal Bone Fertilizer 9.00 

Zell's Victoria Animal Bone Compound 9.00 

Canton Chemical Bone Fertilizer 9.00 

Canton Chemical Virginia Standard Manure. . . . 8.00 

Purity Guano— 2-S-2— for S. S. & Co S.00 

A. D. Adair & McCarty Bros., Atlanta, Ga. — 

Adair's Wheat and Grass Grower 10.00 

Adair's Dissolved Bone 12.00 

Adair's High Grade Dissolved Bone 14.00 

Adair's High Grade Dissolved Bone 16.00 

Adair's Formula 10.00 

Adair's Special Potash Mixture 8.00 

Adair's Ammoniated Dissolved Bone 8.00 

Adair's High Grade Blood and Bone 10.00 

Adair's Soluble Pacific Guano 10.00 

McCarty's Cotton Special 10.00 

McCarty's Wheat Special 10.00 

McCarty's Corn Special 10.00 

McCarty's Soluble Bone 10.00 

McCarty's High Grade Corn Grower 10.00 

McCarty's High Grade Cotton Grower 10.00 

Planters' Soluble Fertilizer 8.00 

Blood, Bone and Tankage 9.00 

High Grade Potash Compound 10.00 

Golden Grain Compound 8.00 

A. & M. 13-4 13.00 

David Harum High Grade' Guano 10.00 

Asheville Packing Co., Asheville, N. C. — 

Asheville Packing Co.'s Bone and Potash 10.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 8-4 Fertilizer 8.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 8-1-3 Fertilizer 8.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 8-2-2 Fertilizer S.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s Potato Grower 10.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 8-5-5 Special Garden Fer- 
tilizer 8.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s High Grade Potato. 

8-2-10 8.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s Special Fruit Grower. . . 8.00 
Asheville Packing Co.'s 17 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 17.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 14 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 14.00 

Asheville Packing Co,'s 13 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 13.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s 12 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate '. 12.00 

Asheville Packing Co.'s Blood and Bone 8.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 




2.00 


4.12 


7.00 




5.00 




4.00 




4.00 


2.06 


2.50 


3.29 


. . 


m ■ • 


50.00 


1.86 


4.00 


1.86 


4.00 


1.86 


4.00 


1.86 


4.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 



4.00 



. 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


.82 


3.00 


.82 


3.00 


.82 


3.00 


.82 


1.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


.82 


2.00 


. 


4.00 


.82 


3.00 


m 


4.00 


3.30 


4.00 




2.00 


m 


4.00 


.82 


3.00 


1.70 


2.00 


• 


6.00 


4.25 


5.00 


1.70 


10.00 


1.70 


5.00 



2.47 



3.00 



44 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Baugh & Sons Co., Phila., Pa., and Norfolk, Va. — 

Baugh's 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Baugh's 5-6-5 Guano 

Baugh's New Process 10 Per Cent Guano 

Baugh's Fish Mixture 

Baugh's Fertilizer for Wheat and Grass 

Baugh's Fish, Bone and Potash. 

Baugh's Animal Bone and Potash Compound for 
All Crops 

Baugh's Complete Animal Bone Fertilizer 

Baugh's Peruvian Guano Substitute for Potatoes 
and All Vegetables 

Baugh's Grand Rapids High Grade Truck Guano. 

Baugh's Special Tobacco Guano 

Baugh's Fruit and Berry Guano 

Baugh's 7 Per Cent Potato Guano 

Baugh's Soluble Alkaline Superphosphate 

Baugh's Special Manure for Melons 

Baugh's Sweet Potato Guano 

Baugh's Potato and Truck Special 

Baugh's Special Potato Manure 

Baugh's Fine Ground Fish 

Baugh's Raw Bone Meal, Warranted Pure, Total 

Baugh's High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Baugh's High Grade Tobacco Guano 

Baugh's High Grade Potash Mixture 

Baugh's High Grade Cotton and Truck Guano. . 

Baugh's Pure Animal Bone and Muriate of Pot- 
ash Mixture 

Baugh's Pure Dissolved Animal Bone-. 

Glover's Special Potato Guano , 

Fine Ground Blood 

Genuine German Kainit 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Muriate of Potash 

High Grade Sulphate of Potash. 

Baugh's Excelsior Guano 

Randolph's Bone and Potash Mixture for* All 
Crops 

Nitrate of Soda 

Lobos Peruvian Guano (Total) 

The John L. Bailey Co., Elm City, N. C. — 

Fairmont 

Stag Brand 



J. A. Benton, Ruffin, A 7 . C. — 

North Carolina Bright Fertilizer. 



C. J. Burton Guano Co., Baltimore, Md. 

Acid Phosphate 

Burton's Butcher Bone 

Burton's High Grade 

Tobacco Queen 

High Grade Tobacco 

Burton's Best 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






16.00 






6.00 


4.12 


5.00 


5.00 


8.23 


2.50 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


•1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.I III 


1.65 


2.00 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


S.I III 


2.47 


3.00 


S.00 


2.47 


5.00 


8.00 


2.47 


10.00 


6.00 


5.76 


5.00 


10.00 


. . 


2.00 


10.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


7.00 


2.88 


7.00 


5.00 


1.65 


10.00 


. , 


8.23 


, , 


21.50 


3.70 


# , 


14.00 


. . 


, . 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


10.00 


. . 


4.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


15.00 


2.47 


5.00 


13.00 


2.06 


, , 


7.00 


3.30 
13.00 

21.00 


8.00 
12.00 
48.00 




. , 


48.00 


8.00 


.82 


4.00 


10.00 




3.00 


. . 


15.00 


, . 


14.00 


1.65 


1.70 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


1.65 


2.00 


14.00 






8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 



Best & Thompson, Goldsooro, N. C. — 
Pure German Kainit 



12.00 



The Bulletin, 



45 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Blacksburg Guano Co., Inc., Blacksburg, Va. — 

Red Letter for Tobacco 

Jirn Crow for Tobacco 

Alliance for Tobacco '. 

Red Letter 

Alliance Guano 

B. G. Co., Inc., Acid Phosphate 

B. G. Co., Inc., Bone and Potash 

Old Bellefonte . 

Red Warrior for Tobacco 

Blackstone Special for Tobacco 

Bellefonte for Tobacco 

Hard Cash for Tobacco 

Bradley Fertilizer Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Standard Bradley's Palmetto Acid Phosphate.. 12.00 

Standard Bradley's XXX Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Standard Bradley's Wheat Grower 10.00 

Standard Bradley's Bone and Potash. : 10.00 

Standard Bradley's Cereal Guano 8.00 

Standard Bradley's X Guano 8.00 

High Grade Bradley's Guano 8.00 

High Grade Bradley's Circle Guano 8.00 

High Grade Bradley's Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Standard Bradley's Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Standard Bradley's Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 9.00 

Standard Bradley's Patent Superphosphate .... 9.00 

Standard B. D. Sea Fowl Guano 9.00 

Standard Eagle Ammoniated Bone Superphos- 
phate 9.00 

German Kainit 

The Berkley Chemical Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Royal Truck Grower ' 6.00 

Mascot Truck Guano 7.00 

Victory Special' Crop Grower 7.00 

Advance Crop Grower 8.00 

Berkley Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Monitor Animal Bone Fertilizer 9.00 

Select Crop Grower. . . . 8.50 

Brandon Superphosphate S.00 

Berkley Plant Food 10.00 

Berkley Bone and Potash Mixture 11.00 

Berkley Acid Phosphate. 14.00 

Superior Bone and Potash 8.00 

Laurel Potash Mixture 10.00 

Resolute Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Genuine German Kainit ' 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Long Leaf Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Bragaw Fertilizer Co., Washington, N. C. — 

Chocowinity Special Tobacco Guano 5.00 

Tuckahoe Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Beaufort County Guano 8.00 

Old Reliable Premium Guano 8.00 

Hanover Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Palmetto Acid Phosphate 14.00 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


14.00 


, . 


, # 


10.00 


, . 


2.00 


8.00 


3.30 


2.00 


9.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 



, . 


2.00 


, . 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


3.29 


4.00 


1.85 


1.00 


1.85 


1.00 


1.85 


1.00 


1.85 


1.00 


•• 


12.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.85 


4.00 


2.06 


2.50 


1.65 


2.00 




4.00 




2.00 




4.00 




2.00 




12.00 




50.00 


15.65 


. . 


1.65 


2.00 


3.29 


6.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 



46 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Long Acre Bone Phosphate 

Pamlico Trucker 

Riverview Potato Grower 

Genuine German Kainit 

Farmers' Union Meal Mixture. 



Columbia Guano Co., Norfolk, Va. — 

Columbia High Grade 16 Per Cent Acid Phos- 
phate 



Columb 
Column 
Columb 
Columb 
Columb 
Columb 
Columb 
Columb 
Columb 
Columb 
Columb 
Columb 
Columb 
Columb 



ia 14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

ia Dissolved Bone 

ia Acid Phosphate 

ia 8 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture. . 

ia 10 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture. 

ia Bone and Potash for Grain 

ia Bone and Potash Mixture 

ia 7 Per Cent Special Truck Guano . . . 

ia Special Truck Guano 

ia Potato Guano 

ia C. S. M. Special 

ia Special 4-8-3 

ia Special Wheat Fertilizer 

ia Special Tobacco Guano 

Olympia Cotton Guano 

Columbia Soluble Guano 

Crown Brand Peanut Guano 

Our Best Meal Guano 

Special Peanut Grower 

Crews' Special 

Hayes' Special 

McRae's Special 

McRae's High Grade Guano 

Hyco Tobacco Guano 

Rex Brand Ammoniated Guano 

Carolina Soluble Guano 

Pelican Ammoniated Guano 

Sulphate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Trojan Tobacco Guano 

Columbia 10-5 Bone and Potash Mixture 

Columbia Top Dresser 



Cumberland Bone and Phosphate Co., Portland, Me., 
and Charleston, 8. C. — 

Standard Cumberland Bone and Superphosphate 
of Lime 

The Coe-Mortimer Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Genuine Peruvian Guano Ex. S. S. Planet Venus, 
Genuine Peruvian Guano Ex. S. S. Celia Chincha 

Island 

Genuine Peruvian Guano Ex. S. % S. Celia Lobos 

Island 

Nitrate of Soda 

Kainit 

Thomas' Phosphate Big Slag 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Thomas Phosphate (Big Slag) 

Lobos Peruvian Guano. (Total ) 



Avail. 
Phos. 
Acid. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


14.00 


, , 




7.00 


4.12 


8.00 


6.00 


5.76 


5.00 


, , 


, , 


12.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 



9.00 

15.00 

9.00 

17.00 

17.00 



16.00 




. . 


14.00 




. , 


13.00 




. . 


12.00 




. . 


8.00 




4.00 


10.00 




4.00 


10.00 




3.00 


10.00 




2.00 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


8.00 


2.30 


4.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


9.00 


2.27 


2.00 


8.00 


3.30 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


7.00 




5.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


.82 


4.00 


5.85 


4.49 


10.00 


8.00 


3.30 


3.00 


9.00 


4.12 


7.00 


8.00 


3.30 


7.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


2.06 


1.00 


9.00 


1.65 


1.00 


8.00 


3.30 


4.00 


, , 


, 


50.00 




• 


12.00 
48.00 


15.5( 


. , 


8.00 


3.30 


4.00 


10.00 


# 


5.00 


, . 


7.42 


3.00 



1.85 

3.53 

5.53 

2.80 
14.76 



15.50 
14.00 1.65 



1.00 

2.80 

2.25 

2.80 

12.00 

48.00 
49.00 

1.70 



The Bulletin. 



47 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



Calder Bros., Wilmington, N. C. — 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Craven Chemical Co., ~New Bern, N. C. — 

C. E. Foy High Grade Guano (Trade Mark) . . . 8.00 

Jewel Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Neuse Truck Grower 6.00 

Pantego Potato Guano 7.00 

Hanover Standard Guano 8.00 

Elite Cotton Guano 8.00 

Marvel Great Truck Grower S.00 

Duplin Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Gaston High Grade Fertilizer 8.00 

Trent Bone and Potash 10.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Craven Chemical Co.'s Truck Guano, 5-10-2% . . 5.00 

William H. Camp, Petersburg, Ta. — 

Lion and Monkey Bone and Potash 10.00 

Camp's Red Head Chemicals 8.00 

Camp's Green Head Chemicals, Irish Potato.... 7.00 

Camp's Yellow Head Chemicals 8.00 

Lion and Monkey for Tobacco 8.00 

Clayton Oil Mill, Clayton, N. C. — 

Clayton Guano 8.00 

Cotton Queen 8.00 

Summer Queen 8.00 

Cowell, Swan d McCotter Co., Bayboro, N. C. — 

Cowell, Swan & McCotter Co.'s Cabbage Guano, 5.00 

Cowell, Swan & McCotter Co.'s Tobacco Guano, 8.00 

Bone and Fish Guano 8.00 

Crop Guano 8.00 

Rust Proof Cotton Guano 8.00 

Standard Cotton Grower 8.00 

Quick Grower Guano 8.00 

Great Cabbage and Potato Guano 7.00 

Aurora Trucker 7.00 

Oriental Trucker ■ 7.00 

High Grade Truck Guano 7.00 

Potato Favorite Guano 7.00 

Champion Guano 8.00 

Bone Phosphate 14.00 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

German Kainit 

Cowell's Great Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Combahee Fertilizer Co., Charleston, 8. C. — 

Combahee 16 Per Cent Dissolved Bone 16.00 

Combahee 14 Per cent Dissolved Bone 14.00 

High Grade Cotton 8.00 

High Grade Cantaloupe 10.00 

B. B. & P 8.50 

Nitrate of Soda 

Combahee Kainit 

Malloy's Special for Cotton • 8.65 



2.47 



12.00 
50.00 



3.00 



4.94 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 


3.29 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 




2.00 


, . 


12.00 


8.24 


2.50 




4.00 


2.25 


2.00 


6.15 


10.00 


2.87 


7.50 


2.46 


3.00 


3.00 


3.00 


2.00 


2.00 


2.00 


2.00 


8.25 


2.50 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


3.00 


3.30 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


5.77 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


4.12 


8.00 


4.12 


5.00 


3.30 


7.00 


2.47 


3.00 


• 


12.00 


2.47 


3.00 



2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


10.00 


2.06 


1.00 


14.83 


, , 


. . 


12.00 


1.65 


2.00 



-is 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Special Mixture 8.00 

10-4-5 Trucker 10.00 

10-3-10 Trucker 10.00 

Acid and Potash. 8.00 

Chickamauga Fertilizer Works, Atlanta, Ga. — 

Chiekamauga Complete Fertilizer 8.00 

Chickamauga High Grade Fertilizer 10.00 

Chickamauga High Grade Plant Food 10.00 

Chickamauga Wheat Special 10.00 

Chickamauga Corn Special 10.00 

Chickamauga Standard Corn Grower S.00 

Chickamauga Dissolved Bone 12.00 

Chickamauga High Grade Dissolved Bone 14.00 

Chickamauga High Grade Dissolved Bone No. 16, 16.00 

Chickamauga Bone and Potash 10.00 

Chickamauga Alkaline Bone 10.00 

Georgia Home Guano 8.00 

Special Corn Compound 10.00 

Blood, Bone and Tankage 9.00 

Ben Hur High Grade Guano 10.00 

Old Glory Mixture 10.00 

Chickamauga Wheat and Corn Grower 10.00 

Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertilizer Works, Raleiofi, 

N. C— 

Home & Son's High Grade Bone and Potash. . . . 11.00 

Special Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Buncombe Wheat Grower 8.00 

Buncombe Corn Grower 8.00 

Morris & Scarboro's Special Bone and Potash.. 10.00 

Electric Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Climax Dissolved Bone 14.00 

Sterling Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Staple Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Bone Meal ' Total 20.00 

Bone Meal Total 26.00 

Crown Ammoniated Guano 8.00 

Ely Ammoniated Fertilizer 8.00 

Eclipse Ammoniated Guano 8.00 

Planters' Pride 8.00 

Caraleigh Special Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Pacific Tobacco and Cotton Grower 9.00 

Home's Best 8.00 

Caraleigh Top Dresser 3.00 

Crow Fertilizer Co., Monroe, N. C. — 

Kainit 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

W. B. Cooper, Wilmington, N. C. — 

Muriate of Potash 

Kainit 

Sulphate of Potash 



Nitrogen. Potash. 



1.65 
3.30 

2.47 



1.65 
1.65 
1.65 

.82 

.82 

1.65 



1.65 
1.65 

.82 

2.47 

.S2 



15.65 
3.91 
2.14 
1.64 
1.64 
2.06 
2.06 
2.06 
2.26 
2.47 
8.24 



2.00 

5.00 

10.00 

4.00 



2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
3.00 
3.00 
2.00 



2.00 
4.00 
2.00 
4.00 
2.00 
3.00 
1.00 
4.00 



5.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
3.00 
2.00 



12.00 
50.00 
50.00 



2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
3.00 
3.00 
2.00 
3.00 
4.00 



12.00 



46.00 
12.00 
48.00 



The Bulletin. 



49 



3.28 


4.00 


3.28 


4.00 


1.64 


5.00 


3.28 


6.00 


2.05 


3.00 


2.05 


5.00 


3.2S 


7.00 


2.47 


'3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.23 


5.00 


m 


50.00 




50.00 




4.00 


3.70 


7.00 


3.70 


7.00 


2.47 


2.50 




12.00 



8.25 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Contentnea Guano Co., Wilson, N. C. — 

Special Formula for Tobacco 8.00 

Special Formula for Cotton 8.00 

Contentnea Coru Special 5.00 

Davis' Best Fertilizer S.00 

Special Formula for Tobacco S.00 

Special Formula Fertilizer, 9-2^-5 9.00 

Special Formula for Tobacco 8.00 

High Grade 14 Per Cent Acid 14.00 

Pick Leaf 8.00 

Top Notch 8.00 

Blood and Bone Cotton Compound 8.00 

Contentnea Top Dresser 3.00 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Bone and Potash Mixture 10-00 

8-4-1 2-7 for Tobacco 8-00 

8-4-1 2-7 for Cotton S.00 

( 'ontentnea Cotton Grower 8-00 

German Kainit 

C. P. Bey, Beaufort, N. C— 

Ground Fish Scrap 

Etiwan Fertilizer Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Plow Brand Ammoniated Fertilizer 8.00 

Plow Brand Special Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Plow Brand Acid Phosphate with Potash 11.00 

Etiwan Potash Bone 10.00 

Etiwan Special Potash Mixture 8.00 

Etiwan Soluble Bone with Potash 10.00 

Etiwan Acid Phosphate with Potash 11.00 

Etiwan Dissolved Bone 13.00 

Etiwan High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Etiwan Superior Cotton Fertilizer 8.00 

Etiwan Special Cotton Fertilizer S.00 

Etiwan Cotton Compound S-00 

Etiwan Ammoniated Fertilizer 8.00 

Etiwan High Grade Cotton Fertilizer 8.00 

Diamond Soluble Bone 13.00 

X Diamond Soluble Bone with Potash 10.00 

XX Acid Phosphate with Potash 10.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Etiwan Blood and Bone Guano 9.00 

Plow Brand Raw Bone Superphosphate 9.00 

Farmers Guano Co., Raleigh, N. C. — 

Farmers' Formula 7.00 

Special Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Century Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Farmers' Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Bone Meal Total 20.00 

Nitrate of Soda 



1.65 


2.00 


3.30 


4.00 




1.00 




4.00 




4.00 




3.00 




1.00 


3.30 


6.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


2.00 


* " 


2.00 




2.00 




12.00 


2.06 


1.00 


2.06 


1.00 


2.47 


3.25 




4.00 


. . 


2.00 




12.00 




50.00 


m , 


50.00 


3.91 


. . 


15.65 


. . 



50 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Bone Meal Total 

State Standard Guano 

Big Crop Guano 

Toco Tobacco Guano : . . 

Golden Grade Guano 

Farmers' Top Dresser 

Fremont Oil Mills, Fremont, N. C. — 

Up-to-date 

Nahunta Special 

Fremont Prolific Fertilizer 

Yelverton Bros.' Plant Food 

Fremont Standard Fertilizer 

Home Run Guano 

Fremont Oil Mill Co.'s Special for Tobacco 



Avail. 
Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






26.00 


2.14 


, , 


8.00 


1.G4 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


S.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


3.00 


8.24 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2. on 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


2.47 


5.00 



Farmers Cotton Oil Co., Wilson, N. C. — 

German Kainit 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Contentnea Acid Phosphate 

Bouum Acid Phosphate 

16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Xtra Good Bone and Potash 

Crop King Guano 

Farmers' Special Guano 

Planters' Friend Guano 

Carolina Choice Tobacco Guano 

Wilson High Grade Guano 

J. D. Farrior's Special Guano 

Graves' Cotton Grower Guano 

Golden Gem Guano 

Regal Tobacco Guano 

Dean's Special Guano 

Perfect Top Dresser 

Wilson Top Dresser 

Washington's Corn Mixture Guano . . 

W. S. Farmer & Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Kainit 

W. S. F. & Co.'s Dis. South Carolina. 

W. S. F. & Co.'s Fish Mixture. 

W. S. F. & Co.'s Hawk Eye 

W. S. F. & Co.'s Tampico 

Anne Arundel Trucker 



20.57 



15.63 



12.00 
50.00 



13.00 


, , 


. . 


14.00 


. , 


. . 


16.00 


. . 


. . 


10.00 


. . 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


S.00 


2.27 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


S.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.88 


5.00 


S.00 


3.70 


7.00 


2.00 


8.23 


5.00 


2.00 


9.05 


4.00 


10.00 


.82 


5.00 



12.00 



14.00 


. . 


. . 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


2.47 


3.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


S.00 


3.70 


7.00 



Germofert Manufacturing Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Germofert Patented Vegetable Fertilizer, Total, 
Germofert Patented Extra Special Cotton 

Grower 

Germofert Patented Special Cotton Grower 

Germofert Patented Standard Cotton Grower . . . 



25.00 



3.29 



6.00 



4.00 


3.29 


4.00 


6.00 


2.47 


3.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 



W. R. Grace & Co., New York— 
Nitrate of Soda 



15.00 



The Bulletin. 



51 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Griffith & Boyd Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Spring Crop Grower 

Amrnoniated Bone and Potash 



Home Fertilizer- and Chemical Co., Baltimore. Md. 



Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

German Kainit 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Boykins' Alkaline Bone 

Boykins' Cereal Fertilizer 

Boykins' Dissolved Animal Bone. 
Boykins' Vegetable Fertilizer.... 
Boykins' Home Potato Grower... 

Special Alkaline Mixture 

Phoenix Crop Grower 

Matchless Guano 

Home Fertilizer 

Cerealite Top Dressing 



Eadley, Harriss & Co., Wilson, N. C. — 

Hadley Bros 

German Kainit 

Daisy Fish Mixture 

John Hadley Special High Grade Plant Food. 

Top Dressing 

Golden Weed Tobacco Grower 



8. B. Earrell & Co., Norfolk, Va.— 

Harrell's Acid Phosphate 

Harrell's Champion Cotton and Peanut Grower 
Harrell's Truck Guano 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






14.00 






6.50 


1.65 


4.50 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 






48.00 




. . 


50.00 


. . 


15.67 


. . 




20.62 


12.00 


14.00 


, ^ 


. . 


10.00 


. . 


2.00 


S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


12.00 


1.65 


2.0U 


6.00 


4.12 


6.00 


6.00 


3.30 


4.00 


10.00 




5.00 


8.00 


2.4S 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


4.00 


. . 


5.77 


7.00 




7.6S 


3.00 


8.00 


2.25 


2.50 


, , 


, . 


12.00 


S.00 


1.64 


2.00 


S.00 


1.64 


2.00 


. , 


7.38 


6.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


14.00 






S.00 


1.65 


2.00 


6.00 


5.76 


5.00 



Hardison & Co., Wadesboro, N. C- 
Genuine German Kainit 



Hampton Guano Co., Norfolk, Va. — 



Virginia Truck Grower 

Reliance Truck Guano 

Little's Favorite Crop Grower 

P. P. P. (Princess Prolific Producer) 

Hampton Tobacco Guano , 

Arlington Animal Bone Fertilizer. . . . 

Alpha Crop Grower 

Shirley's Superphosphate 

Hampton Crop Grower 

Hampton Bone and Potash Mixture. 

Dauntless Potash Mixture 

Hampton Acid Phosphate 

Supreme Acid Phosphate 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Genuine German Kainit 

Excelsior Bone and Potash 

Extra Tobacco Guano 



12.00 



6.00 


5.76 


5.00 


7.00 


4.12 


5.00 


7.00 


3.30 


4.00 


S.00 


2.47 


3.00 


S.00 


2.47 


3.00 


0.00 


1.S5 


4.00 


S.50 


2.06 


2.50 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


10.00 


. , 


4.00 


11.00 


, , 


2.00 


10.00 


, , 


2.00 


14.00 


. . 


. . 


16.00 




50.00 




15.65 


12.00 


8.00 


. . 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 



52 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

M. P. Hubbard d Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Hubbard's Bermuda Guano 7.00 5.78 4.00 

Hubbard's Special Cotton and Corn Fertilizer. . . 7.00 1.65 5.00 

Hubbard Fertilizer Co., Baltimore, Md. — - 

Parker & Hunter's B. B. B 8.00 .82 3.00 

Hall & Pear sail (Inc.), Wilmington, A r . C. — 

German Kainit • . 12.00 

L. Harvey & Son Co., Kinston, N. C. — 

Nitrate of Soda 15.50 

The Imperial Co.. Norfolk, Ya. — 

Imperial" Bright Tobacco Guano 8.00 2.05 3.00 

Imperial Cotton Grower 8.00 1.G5 2.00 

Imperial 5-6-7 Potato Guano 6.00 4.11 7.00 

Imperial Snowflake Cotton Grower 8.00 3.29 4.00 

Imperial Peanut and Corn Guano 8.00 1.64 2.00 

Imperial Champion Guano 8.00 1.04 2.00 

Imperial X. L. O. Cotton Guano 8.00 2.47 3.00 

Imperial Cisco Soluble Guano 8.00 1.64 2.00 

Imperial Tobacco Guano 8.00 2.47 3.00 

Imperial Laughinghouse Special Tobacco Guano, 4.00 3.29 6.00 

Imperial Standard Premium 8.00 1.64 2.00 

Imperial Cubanola Tobacco Guano 4.00 2.47 5.00 

Imperial Martin County Special Crop Grower. . 9.00 2.26 2.00 

Imperial High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Imperial Genuine German Kainit . . 12.00 

Imperial Special 7 Per Cent Guano for Potatoes, 5.00 5.76 5.00 

Imperial 10 Per Cent Guano 5.00 8.23 2.50 

Imperial Sweet Potato Guano 6.00 1.64 6.00 

Imperial Williams' Special Potato Guano 6.00 4.11 5.00 

Imperial Fish and Bone 6.00 3.29 4.00 

Imperial Lucky Strike Potato Guano 7.00 4.11 8.00 

Imperial 7-7-7 Potash Guano 7.00 5.76 7.00 

Imperial Bone and Potash 10.00 . . 2.00 

Imperial High Grade Irish Potato Guano 7.00 4.11 8.00 

Imperial Tennessee Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Muriate of Potash .. 50.00 

Nitrate of Soda 15.63 

Imperial Roanoke Crop Grower 7.00 2.47 2.00 

17 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 17.00 

Imperial Asparagus Mixture 6.00 4.11 7.00 

Imperial Yellow Bark Sweet Potato Guano 8.00 2.47 3.00 

Dawson's Cotton Grower 7.00 2.67 2.75 

Imperial 6-6-6 Crop Grower 6.00 4.92 7.00 

Imperial Top Dresser for Cotton 2.00 8.32 

John King, Alt. Olive, ZV. C— 

Nitrate of Soda 15.00 

R. L. Kirkwood, Benncttsville, N. C. — 

Nitrate of Soda 14.00 

Laurinburg Oil Co., Laurinburg, ZV. C. — 

Flora Dora 6.40 2.13 3.00 



The Bulletin. 



53 



2.06 
1.65 


2.00 
2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


3.30 


' * 


2.00 


2.00 
4.00 
2.00 



1.65 



3.00 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Lister's Agricultural Chemical Works, Newark, N. J. — 

Lister's Ainnioniated Dissolved Bone Phosphate. 8.00 

Lister's Success Fertilizer 8.00 

Lister's Standard Pure Bone Superphosphate of 

Lime 9-00 

American Agricultural Chemical Co.'s Buyers' 

Choice Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Lister's Bone Meal Total 20.60 

A. 8. Lee & Sons Co. (Inc.), Richmond, Va, — 

Lee's Plant Bed Fertilizer 8.00 

Lee's Bone and Potash 0.00 

Lee's Corn Fertilizer 10.00 

The J. J. Littlejohn Co., Jonesville, S. C. — 

Littlejohn's Superior Cotton Fertilizer 10.00 

E. H. & J. A. Meadows Co., New Bern, N. C. — 

Hookerton Cotton Guano .' 8.00 

Meadows' Cotton Guano 8.00 

Meadows' All Crop Guano 8.00 

Meadows' Roanoke Guano 8.00 

Meadows' Gold Leaf Tobacco Guano. 8.00 

Meadows' Lobos Guano .' 8.00 

Meadows' Great Potato Guano 7.00 

Meadows' Great Cabbage Guano 7.00 

Meadows' 10 Per Cent Guano 6.00 

Meadows' Sea Bird Guano 0.00 

Meadows' Dissolved Bone and Potash Couipound, 10.00 

Meadows' German Kainit 

Meadows' Diamond Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Dixon's High Grade Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Parker's Special Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Meadows' Dissolved Bone and Potash Compound, 10.00 

Brooks' Special Tobacco Grower 8.00 

The Miller Fertilizer Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Special Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Standard Phosphate 8.00 

Ammonlated Dissolved Bone 8.00 

High Grade Potato 6.00 

Tobacco King S.00 

Profit : 8.00 

Standard Potato 8.00 

Potato and Vegetable Guano 8.00 

Trucker 8.00 

Farmers' Profit 8.00 

Harmony 8.00 

Corn and Peanut Grower 10.50 

No. 1 Potato and Vegetable Grower 8.00 

Clinch 10.00 

4 Per Cent Tobacco 8.00 

Miller's 7 Per Cent 7.00 

Miller's Irish Potato 8.00 

Miller's 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Kainit 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

S. C. Rock 14.00 

The Miller Fertilizer Co.'s 10 and 4 Per Cent. . . 10.00 



1.64 


2.00 


1.64 


2.00 


2.05 


2.50 


2.05 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


4.11 


5.00 


4.11 


8.00 


5.76 


7.00 


8.23 


2.50 


3.29 


2.50 




2.00 


• 


12.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


4.00 


. 


5.00 


2.47 


5.00 


1.65 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


4.12 


7.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


4.00 


4.12 


5.00 


1 .05 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 




2.25 


3.71 


7.00 




2.00 


3.20 


4.00 


5.77 


7.00 


3.20 


4.00 



12.00 



4.00 



54 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

The Mapes Formula and Peruvian Guano Co., 1^8 
Liberty Street, New York — 

Mapes' Economical Potato Manure 

Mapes' Vegetable or Complete Manure for Light 

Soils 

Mapes' Corn Manure 

Mapes' Complete Manure, "A" Brand 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



4.00 



3.29 



S.OO 



G.00 


4.94 


6.00 


8.00 


2.47 


6.00 


0.00 


2.47 


2.50 



C. F. Moore, Cheraw, S. C- 
Muriate of Potash. . . . 



49.00 



John F. McNair, Laurinlmrg, N. C. — 

Genuine German Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 



14.76 



12.00 



D. B. Martin Co., Richmond, Va. — 

Martin's 7 Per Cent Guano 

Martin's Early Truck and Vegetable Grower 

Martin's Claremount Vegetable Grower 

Martin's Red Star Brand 

Martin's Bull Head Fertilizer 

Martin's Tobacco Special 

Martin's Carolina Cotton Fertilizer 

Martin's Old Virginia Favorite 

Martin's Corn and Cereal Special 

Martin's Gilt Edge Potato Manure 

Martin's Animal Bone Potato Guano 

Martin's Animal Bone Potato Compound 

Martin's Pure Dissolved Animal Bone 

Martin's Pure Ground Bone Total 

Martin's Raw Bone Meal Total 

Martin's Animal Tankage, Ground Total 

Martin's Acid Phosphate 

Martin's Potash and Soluble Bone 

Martin's High Grade Blood 

Martin's Blood 

Acid Phosphate 

Potash and Soluble Bone ' 

Potash and Soluble Bone 

Potash and Soluble Bone 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Blood 

Blood 

Blood 

Genuine German Kainit 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Pure Ground Bone Total 

Martin's Carolina Special 



Marietta Fertilizer Co., Atlanta, Ga. — 

Lion Power Guano 

Lion Potash Compound 

Lion High Grade Dissolved Bone. 

Lion Crop Producer. 

Lion Favorite Guano 



<s.oo 


5.74 


5.00 


6.00 


3.28 


S.OO 


7.00 


2.46 


5.00 


s.oo 


3.28 


4.00 


s.oo 


2.46 


3.00 


s.oo 


2.46 


3.00 


s.oo 


1.65 


2.00 


s.oo 


1.65 


2.00 


s.oo 


1.65 


2.00 


7.00 


2.46 


10.00 


6.00 


4.10 


7.00 


16.00 


1.05 


2.50 


12.00 


1.65 


2.00 


22.90 


1.65 


2.00 


21.00 


3.69 




10.00 


4.92 




16.00 


. . 




12.00 


, . 


5.00 


. . 


13.94 




. . 


12.30 




14.00 


. . 




12:00 


. , 


3.00 


10.00 


, . 


5.00 


10.00 


15.52 
20.50 
10.66 
9.S4 
12.30 


2.00 


. . 


. . 


12.00 


. . 


. . 


50.00 


. , 


. . 


50.00 


22.90 


2.40 




S.OO 


1.65 


2.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


. . 


4.00 


14.00 


. , 


, . 


10.00 


. . 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 



The Bulletin. 



55 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Marsh-Lee & Co., Marshville, N. C. — 

Marsh's High Grade Acid 

Marsh's Cotton Fertilizer, 8-2-2 

Marsh's Guano for Corn 

Marsh's Special S-3-3 

Raven Brand 

J. W. McLaughlin Co., Raeford, N. C. — 

Nitrate of Soda 

The MacMurphy Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Special S-3-3 Guano 8.00 

Special 8-2-2 Cotton and Corn Guano 8.00 

Cotton and Corn Guano, 9-2-2 9.00 

Wilcox & Gibbs Co.'s Manipulated Guano 9.00 

Cotton and Corn Guano, 9-3-3 9.00 

High Grade Acid Phosphate, 14 Per Cent 14.00 

Pure German Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 

Muriate of Potash 

Acid Phosphate, 13 Per Cent 13.00 

N. C. Cotton Oil Co., Wilmington, N. C— 

Wilmington High Grade 8.00 

Wilmington Cotton Grower . 8.00 

Wilmington Standard 8.00 

Wilmington Truck Grower 8.00 

Wilmington Special 8.00 

Carter's Lifter - 8.00 

. Clark's Special 8.00 

Wilmington Banner 8.00 

North Carolina Cotton Oil Co., Raleigh, N. C. — 

Raleigh Standard Guano S.00 

North Carolina Cotton Oil Co., Charlotte, N. C. — 

Majestic 8.00 

N. C. Cotton Oil Co., Henderson, N. C— 

Uneedit Cotton Grower S.00 

Uneedit Tobacco Fertilizer 9.00 

Vance Cotton Grower 8.00 

Pride of Vance 9.00 

Henderson Cotton Grower 8.00 

Henderson Tobacco Fertilizer 9.00 

Franklin Cotton Grower 8.00 

Franklin Tobacco Fertilizer 9.00 

Nexo Bern Cotton Oil and Fertilizer Mills, Seic Hern. 
N. C— 

Oriole Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Greene County Standard Fertilizer S.00 

Jones County Premium Crop Grower 8.00 

Onslow Farmers' Reliance Guano 8.00 

High Grade Fertilizer 8.00 

Foy's High Grade Fertilizer 8.00 

Pitt's Prolific Golden Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Craven Cotton Guano 8.00 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






14.00 






8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


2.50 


3.00 


8.00 


2.65 


2.00 



15.00 



2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 



14.82 



2.26 



1.65 



12.00 
48.00 



2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


2.50 


3.30 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


3.00 



2.00 



2.00 



1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


• 2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 



3.30 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 



56 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Lenoir Bright Leaf Tobacco Grower 

Ives' Irish Potato Guano 

Dunn's Standard Truck Grower.... 

Pamlico Electric Top Dresser 

Special Corn and Peanut Grower . . . 

Carteret Bone and Potash 

14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate. 

Genuine German Kainit 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Bogue Fish Scrap 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Favorite Cotton Grower C. S. M 



Norfolk Fertilizer Co., Norfolk, Ya. — 

Oriana Cotton Guano 

Oriana C. S. M. Special 

Oriana Tobacco Guano 

Oriana 3-8-3 for Cotton 

Oriana Crop Grower 

Oriana Bone and Potash 

Oriana 14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Oriana 1G Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Genuine German Kainit 

Iola Acid Phosphate 

Oriana First Step Tobacco Guano 

Oriana 4-4-0 High Grade Tobacco Guano. . 

Pine Top Special Crop Grower 

Nitrate of Soda Mixture for Top Dressing 
Cotton 



Avail. 






Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


7.00 


4.13 


7.00 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


5.00 


8.25 


2.50 


11.00 


. . 


2.00 


10.00 


. , 


2.00 


14.00 


, , 


. . 




, , 


12.00 






50.00 




, . 


48.00 




7.42 


. . 




15.67 


# . 




20.02 


. . 


8.00 


2.27 


2.00 


8.00 


1.04 


2.00 


9.00 


2.2b 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


S.00 


2.47 


3.00 


S.00 


1.64 


3.00 


10.00 


. . 


2.00 


14.00 


. , 


, » 


16.00 




12.00 


13.00 


. . 


. . 


8.00 


3.20 


4.00 


4.00 


3.20 


0.00 


5.00 


1.04 


0.00 



2.00 



Navassa Guano Co., Wilmington, N. C. — 

Ammoniated Soluble Navassa Guano. . . . 

Clarendon Tobacco Guano 

Occoneechee Tobacco Guano 

Coree Tobacco Guano 

Harvest King Guano 

Mogul Guano • • 

Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Orton Guano 

Navassa Universal Fertilizer 

Navassa Wheat Mixture 

Navassa Wheat and Grass Grower 

Navassa Special Wheat Mixture 

Navassa Gray Land Mixture 

Navassa Dissolved Bone with Potash... 

Navassa Acid Phosphate 

Navassa Dissolved Bone 

Navassa Acid Phosphate 

Navassa Acid Phosphate 

Navassa Special Trucker 

Navassa Strawberry Top Dressing 

Navassa Blood and Bone Meal Mixture. 
Navassa Creole Guano 



8.23 



8.00 


2.06 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


S.00 


3.29 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 






12.00 






4S.O0 






50.00 


15.05 


. . 


20.50 


. , 


8.00 


2.47 


4.00 


8.50 


2.06 


1.00 


10.00 


m 


2.25 


10.00 


m 


4.00 


12.00 


. 


4.00 


12.00 


, 


4.00 


10.00 


, 


2.00 


12.00 


. 


, . 


13.00 


, 


. . 


14.00 


. 


. . 


10.00 




. . 


S.i'i) 


3.20 


4.00 


8.00 


2.06 


4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


5.00 


0.00 


4.12 


7.00 



The Bulletin. 



57 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Navassa Root Crop Fertilizer 7.00 

Navassa Carib Guano 8.00 

Navassa Guano for Tobacco 8.00 

Navassa Grain Fertilizer 8.00 

Nav:issa Fruit Growers' Fertilizer 8.00 

Navassa Cotton Seed Meal Special 3 Per Cent 

Guano 8.00 

Navassa Cotton Seed Meal Guano 8.00 

Navassa Cotton Fertilizer 8.00 

Navassa Complete Fertilizer 0.00 

Navassa High Grade Guano '. 8.00 

Navassa Acid Phosphate with Potash 8.00 

The Nitrate Agencies Co., Savannah, Ga. — 

Nitrate of Soda 

O. Ober & Sons Co., Baltimore, Md. — 

Ober's Complete Fertilizer 0.00 

Special High Grade Fertilizer 0.00 

Ober's Special Compound for Tobacco 8.00 

Ober's Standard Tobacco Fertilizer S.00 

Ober's Special Ammonia ted Dissolved Bone 0.00 

Ober's Special Cotton Compound S.00 

Ober's Soluble Ammoniated Superphosphate of 

Lime 8.00 

Ober's Farmers' Mixture 0.00 

Ober's Dissolved Bone. Phosphate and Potash. . . 10.00 

Ober's Acid Phosphate with Potash 8.00 

Ober's Standard Potash Compound 12.00 

Ober's High Grade Acid Phosphate 10.00 

Ober's Dissolved Bone Phosphate 14.00 

Nitrate of Soda 

Muriate of Potash 

Kainit 

Cooper's Pungo Guano 8.00 

Pure Raw Boue Meal Total 21.00 

The Pocomoke Guano Co., Norfolk, Ya. — 

Garrett's Grape Grower 8.00 

Coast Fine Truck Guano ■ 5.00 

Freeman's 7 Per Cent Irish Potato Grower 0.00 

Seaboard Popular Trucker 0-00 

Standard Truck Guano 7.00 

Faultless Ammoniated Superphosphate 7.00 

Harvest High Grade Monarch S.00 

Monarch Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Monticello Animal Bone Fertilizer 0.00 

Cinco Tobacco Guano 8.50 

Crescent (Eomplete Compound. 8.00 

Hornthal's Tobacco Guano 8.00 

L. P. H. Premium S.00 

Electric Crop Grower 8.50 

Pamlico Superphosphate 8.00 

Pocomoke Superphosphate 8.50 

Pocomoke Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Pure Ground Bone .Total 20.00 

10-2 Potash Mixture 10.00 

Alkali Bone 11-00 

Peerless Acid Phosphate 14.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


4.12 


7.00 


2.47 


10.00 


2.00 


2.00 


1.05 


2.00 


1.65 


6.00 


2.47 


2.00 


1.05 


2.00 


1.05 


2.00 


1.05 


1.00 


2.47 


3.00 


. , 


4.00 



15.00 



4.12 


6.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.05 


2.00 


.82 


2.00 




2.00 




2.00 




5.00 


15.50 






48.00 




12.00 


2.06 


2.00 




3.71 


3.20 


10.00 


8.23 


3.00 


5.76 


5.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.85 


4.00 


2.06 


2.50 


1.65 


3.00 


1 .65 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 




4.00 


3.70 


. , 




2.00 




2.00 



58 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Superb Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Pocomoke Defiance Bone and Potash 8.00 

Smith's Special Formula 4.00 

Pamlico Chemical Co., Washington, N. C. — 

Pamlico Favorite Guano 7.00 

Pamlico Bone and Fish Guano 8.00 

Pamlico Potato Guano .' 7.00 

Pamlico Cotton Guano S.00 

Pamlico 7-7-7 Guano 7.00 

Pamlico 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Pamlico Bone and Potash 14.00 

Cowell's Great Potato Grower S.00 

Cowell's Great Cabbage Grower 5.00 

Tobacco Growers' Friend 8.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Farmers' Best Guano S.00 

Farmers' Friend 8.00 

Staton & Taylor's Special Grower. . . : 8.00 

Prosperity Cotton Grower 9.00 

Pamlico High Grade Tobacco Grower S.00 

Pamlico 8-4-4 Guano S.00 

Pamlico 6-3-6 Guano 6.00 

Pamlico Bone and Potash 10.00 

Planters Fertilizer and Phosphate Co., Charleston, 
8. C— 

Planters' Brignt Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Planters' High Grade Cabbage Fertilizer 7.00 

Planters' Fertilizer 8.00 

Planters' Soluble Guano 8.00 

Planters' Standard Guano 8.75 

Nitrate of Soda 

Planters' High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Planters' Standard Fertilizer 8.00 

Planters' Soluble Bone 13.00 

Sulphate of Potash . • 

Planters' German Kainit 

Parsons & Hardison, Wadesboro, A 7 . C. — 

Nitrate of Soda 

Z. V. Pate, Laurel Hill, N. C— 

Nitrate of Soda 

Pearsall & Co., Wilmington, N. C. — 

Kainit 

Pacific Guano Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Standard Soluble Pacific Guano 8.50 

Standard Pacific Acid Phosphate 12.00 

High Grade Pacific Fertilizer 8.00 

Powhatan Chemical Co., Richmond, Va. — 

Powhatan Trucker 7.00 

Powhatan Bone and Potash Mixture S.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 




12.00 


, . 


50.00 


15.65 


. . 


, # 


4.00 


3.30 


6.00 


4.12 


5.00 


1 .65 


2.00 


4.12 


7.00 


1.65 


2.00 


5.77 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


8.25 


2.50 


2.47 


3.00 


t t 


12.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.47 


5.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.45 


6.00 




2.00 



3.90 


4.00 


6.59 


5.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


14.83 




1.65 


2.00 




48.00 


, , 


12.00 



14.85 



14.76 



12.00 



1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


4.94 


5.00 
4.00 



The Bulletin. 



59 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Powhatan Acid Phosphate 

Magic Dissolved Bone Phosphate 

Magic Peanut Grower 

Magic Grain and Grass Grower 

Magic Bone and Potash Mixture 

Magic Mixture 

Magic Cotton Grower 

Magic Special Fertilizer 

Magic Tobacco Grower 

King Brand Fertilizer 

White Leaf Tobacco Fertilizer 

Economic Cotton Grower 

North State Special 

Guilford Special 

Pure Raw Bone Meal • Total 

Bone and Potash Mixture 

Bone Meal Total 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Pure German Kainit 

Virginia Dissolved Bone 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Uneeda Acid Fhosphate 

P. C. Co.'s Hustle 

Magic Corn Grower 

Magic Wheat Grower 

Johnson's Best Fertilizer 

Holt's Magic Fertilizer 

Magic Peanut Special 

Bone Mixture 

Magic Crop Grower 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






13.00 


, 


. , 


1G.00 


. 


. . 


8.00 




4.00 


S.00 


, 


4.00 


10.00 


. 


4.00 


9.00 


1.65 


1.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


S.00 


3.29 


4.00 


0.00 


2.47 


6.00 


20.00 


3.29 


, . 


10.00 


, 


2.00 


25.00 


2.47 


. . 


15.63 


, , 


19.75 


. . 






48.00 
50.00 


, , 


, , 


12.00 


12.00 


, # 


# , 


14.00 


. , 


, . 


15.00 


, . 


. . 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


10.00 


.82 


1.00 


9.00 


■ .82 


2.00 


9.00 


2.06 


5.00 


9.00 


2.06 


5.00 


S.00 


.82 


4.00 


10.00 


.82 


1.00 


10.00 


.82 


1.00 



Patapsco Guano Co., Baltimore, Mil. — 

Patapsco Plant Food for Tobacco, Potatoes and 

Truck 8.00 

Patapsco Soluble Bone and Potash 10.00 

Patapsco High Grade Bone and Potash 11.00 

Patapsco 10 and 4 Potash Mixture 10.00 

Patapsco 7-7-7 Truck Guano 7.00. 

Patapsco Potato Guano 6.00 

Patapsco Top Dresser 4.00 

Patapsco Trucker for Early Vegetables 7.00 

Patapsco Tobacco Fertilizer 9.00 

Patapsco Guano for Tobacco 9.25 

Patapsco Guano 9.25 

Patapsco Special Tobacco Mixture 8.00 

Patapsco Fine Ground Bone Total 20.01 

Patapsco Dissolved S. C. Phosphate 14.00 

Coon Brand Guano 9.00 

Choctaw Guano 8.00 

Planters' Favorite 8.00 

Seagull Ammoniated Guano 8.00 

Money Maker Guano 7.00 

Unicorn Guano 8.00 

Baltimore Soluble Thosphate 11.00 

Florida Soluble Phosphate 16.00 

Genuine German Kainit 



2.47 


5.00 


, 


2.00 


, 


5.00 


, 


4.00 


5.77 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


3.30 


4.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 


3.30 




.83 


*3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


3.70 


6.00 


2.00 


3.00 


t 


2.00 



12.00 



60 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



Nitrate of Soda 

Muriate of Potash 

Ground Fish 

Svvansou's Gold Leaf Special 8.00 

Pocahontas Guano Co., Lynchburg, Va. — 

Imperial Dissolved S. C. Phosphate 14.00 

Carrington's Superior Grain Compound 10.00 

Wabash Wheat Mixture 10.00 

Cherokee Grain Special 8.00 

Farmers' Favorite Guano, Apex Brand 8.00 

Blackhawk Brand 8.00 

Spot Cash Tobacco Compound 8.00 

Yellow Tobacco Special 9.00 

High Grade 4 Per Cent Tobacco Compound, Mo- 
hawk King Brand 9.00 

Standard Tobacco Guano, Old Chief Brand 9.00 

Pocahontas Special Tobacco Fertilizer 9.00 

A. A. Complete Champion Brand 8.00 

Special Truck Grower, Eagle Mount Brand.... 8.00 

I ndian Truck Grower 8.00 

Pure Raw Bone Meal Total 22.00 

Carrington's S. C. Pbosphate, Waukesha Brand, 10.00 

Carrington's Banner Brand Guano 8.00 

Indian Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Piedmont-Mt. Airy Guano Co., Baltimore, Aid.— 

Piedmont Cultivator Brand 8.00 

Piedmont Bone and Peruvian Mixture 8.00 

Piedmont Special Truck Fertilizer 0.00 

Piedmont Early Vegetable Manure 0.00 

Piedmont Vegetable Compound 6.00 

Piedmont Essential Tobacco Compound 9.00 

Piedmont Guano for Tobacco '. 8.00 

Piedmont High Grade Ainmoniated Bone and 

Potash S.00 

Piedmont High Grade S. C. Bone Phosphate. . 14.00 

Levering's Potashed Bone 10.00 

Levering's Reliable Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Piedmont Special Potato Guano 0.00 

Piedmont Red Leaf Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Piedmont Guano for Cotton 9.00 

Piedmont Early Trucker G.00 

Piedmont Potato Producer 5.00 

Tiedmont Farmers' Standard 9.00 

Piedmont Guano for Wheat 9.00 

Piedmont Special for Cotton, Corn and Peanuts, 8.00 

Piedmont Special Farmers' Tobacco Guano 8.40 

Piedmont Farmers' Bone and Potasb 10.00 

Piedniont High Grade Guano for Cotton 8.00 

Haynes' Cultivator Guano 8.00 

Piedmont Farmers' Favorite 8.00 

Piedmont Farmers' Cotton Grower 9.00 

German Kainit 

Piedmont Star Bone and Potash S.00 

Piedmont Unexcelled Guano 8.00 

Piedmont Bone Meal Total 21.00 

Ricks Bros.' Special Potato and Truck Guano.. 6.00 

Kaiser & Mauney's Special 2-S-2 Guano 8.00 



15.64 

8.23 
2.06 



2.41 



50.00 
2.00 



, 


2.00 


. 


4.00 


, 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


2.00 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.S5 


4.00 


L65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


.82 


3.00 


2.00 


0.00 


3.30 


4.00 


3.71 




1.05 


2.00 


2.46 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


5.77 


5.00 


4.12 


7.00 


3.30 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.06 


3.00 



3.00 



. 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


4.94 


7.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


1.00 


4.12 


5.00 


2.47 


0.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


1.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


4.00 


. 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


.82 


4.00 


.82 


3.00 


. 


12.00 


. 


5.00 


3.20 


4.00 


3.30 


. . 


4.12 


7.00 


1.65 


2.00 



The Bulletin. 



61 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Kaiser & Manner's Special 8-8-3 Guano 8.00 

Privott's 3-8-4 Guano 8.00 

Piedmont Guano for All Crops 8.00 

Piedmont Vegetable Manure 6.00 

Nitrate of Soda 

Privott's Standard Guano 8.00 

Privott's Special Guano 8.00 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Acidulated Rock and Bone Tankage 0.00 

Acidulated Rock and Bone Tankage 9.00 

The Quinnepiac Co., Charleston, S. C. — 

Standard Quinnepiac Pine Island Ammoniated 

Superphosphate 0.00 

Standard Quinnepiac Acid Phosphate 13.00 

F. 8. Royster Guano Co., Norfolk, Va.— 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Farmers' Bone Fertilizer 8.00 

Bonanza Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Orinoco Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Special Tobacco Compound 8.00 

Cobb's High Grade for Tobacco 8.00 

Humphrey's Special for Tobacco 6.00 

Eagle's Special Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Royal Potato Guano 7.00 

Royal Special Potato Guano 7.00 

Ballentine's Potato Guano 6.00 

Truckers' Delight 8.00 

Special Compound 9-00 

Tomlinson's Special 9.00 

Williams' Special Guano 8.00 

Magic Top Dresser 

Royster's Special Sweet Potato Guano 8.00 

Royster's Potato Guano 5.00 

Royster's Special 7 Per Cent Truck Guano 7.00 

Royster's Early Truck Guano 7.00 

Royster's Special 10 Per Cent Truck Guano 5.00 

Royster's Special 4-8-3 8.00 

Royster's 4-0-5 Special 9.00 

Royster's Special 1-9-2 Guano 9.00 

Royster's 2-6-5 Special G.00 

Royster's Meal Mixture 9.00 

Royster's Special Wheat Fertilizer 8.00 

Royster's H. G. 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate... 16.00 

Royster's 14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate. 14.00 

Royster's Dissolved Bone 13.00 

Royster's XX Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Royster's Bone and Potash Mixture 11.00 

Royster's Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Royster's Bone and Potash for Grain 10.00 

Royster's 8 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture 8.00 

Royster's Peanut Special 7.00 

Royster's Complete Guano 8.00 

Royster's 10 and 4 Bone and Potash Mixture. . . 10.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.06 


8.00 


3.29 


8.00 


15.23 


. . 


2.06 


3.00 


1.65 


6.00 




48.00 


, . 


50.00 


20.58 


. , 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 



1.S5 



1.00 





50.00 




48.00 


, 


12.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


3.30 


5.00 


2.55 


3.20 


2.47 


5.00 


4.12 


5.00 


4.12 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


3.30 


4.00 


1.65 


1.00 


2.47 


5.00 


2.06 


5.00 


7.42 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


4.94 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


4.12 


8.00 


8.24 


3.00 


3.30 


3.00 


3.30 


5.00 


.82 


2.00 


1.65 


5.00 


2.26 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 



1.65 



5.00 
2.00 
3.00 
4.00 
5.00 
2.00 
4.00 



62 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Royster's Best Guano 

Royster's Harvey's Cabbage Guano 

Royster's Marlborough High Grade Cotton Gu- 
ano 

Nitrate of Soda 

Jumbo Peanut Grower 

Watkins' Special 

Ilaynes' Special 

Pure Raw Bone Meal Total 

Milo Tobacco Guano 

Royster's Soluble Guano 

McDowell's Cotton Grower 

Royster's 4-6-4 Special 

Webb's Korn King 

Royster's 10-5 Bone and Potash Mixture 

J. H. Roberson & Co., Robersonville, JV. C. — 

Roberson's Potato Guano 

Roberson's Cotton Grower 

Roberson's Special Potato Grower 

Roberson's Bright Leaf Grower 

Roberson's High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Richmond Guano Co., Richmond, Va. — 

10 Per Cent Cabbage Guano G.00 

Special High Grade for Truck 7.00 

Southern Trucker 8.00 

Perfection Special 8.00 

Gilt Edge Fertilizer 8.00 

Carolina Cotton Grower 0.00 

Carolina Bright Special Tobacco Fertilizer 8.(10 

Tip Top Fertilizer S.00 

Special Premium Brand for Tobacco 8.00 

Special Premium Brand for Plants 8.00 

Carolina Bright for Cotton 8.00 

Benson's Special Fertilizer 8.00 

Parker & Hunter's Special Fertilizer 8.00 

Premium Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Premium Brand Fertilizer S.00 

Bone Mixture 0-00 

Clark's Special Formula 7.00 

Carter's Special for Tobacco 4.00 

Saunder's Special Formula for Bright Tobacco, 9.00 

Burton's Special Tobacco Fertilizer 9.00 

Hunter & Dunn's Special Ammoniated Fertilizer, 9.00 

Hunter & Dunn's Ammoniated Fertilizer 8.00 

Edgecombe Cotton Grower 8.00 

Premium Bone and Potash Mixture 13.00 

Rex Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Tip Top Bone and Potash Mixture 8.00 

Winter Grain and Grass Grower 8.00 

Premium Peanut Grower 8.00 

Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Rex Dissolved Bone Phosphate 16.00 

Regal Acid Phosphate 15.00 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

High Grade Wheat and Grass Fertilizer 14.00 

Premium Dissolved Bone 13.00 



Avail. 
Phos. 
Acid. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


8.00 


3.71 


7.00 


5.00 


6.59 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


, , 


15.66 


. . 


8.00 


.82 


4.00 


9.00 


2.06 


5.00 


9.00 


2.06 


3.00 


21.50 


3.70 


, . 


8.00 


3.30 


4.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


6.00 


2.30 


2.50 


6.00 


3.30 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


10.00 




5.00 


6.00 


5.77 


5.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


7.00 


5.77 


7.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 



12.00 



8.23 


2.00 


4.94 


5.00 


4.11 


5.00 


3.29 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.26 


2.50 


2.06 


3.00 


1.85 


2.25 


1.85 


2.25 


2.06 


1.50 


1.65 


6.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


1.00 


4.94 


6.00 


2.47 


6.00 


2.88 


5.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


2.25 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 




3.00 




4.00 




4.00 




4.00 




4.00 




2.00 



The Bulletin. 



63 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Dissolved S. C. Phosphate 

Hunter & Dunn's Dissolved Bone 

Pure German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Nitrate of Soda 

Pure Paw Bone meal Total 

Bone Meal Total 

Premium Corn Grower 

Premium Wheat Grower *. 

Cracker Jack Fertilizer 

Premium Peanut Special 

Premium Cotton Grower 

Old Homestead Dissolved Bone 

Haw River Special Fertilizer 



Read Phosphate Co., Charleston, 8. C. — 

Genuine German Kainit 

Read's High Grade Acid Phosphate. 

Read's Bone and Potash 

Read's Alkaline Bone 

Read's Special Potash Mixture 

Read's High Grade Tobacco Leaf 

Read's Blood and Bone Fertilizer No. 1, 

Read's Soluble Fish Guano 

Read's High Grade Cotton Grower 



Raisin-Monumental Co., Baltimore, Md — 

Dixie Guano 

Empire Guano 

Raisin Premium Brand for Tobacco. 

Raisin Gold Standard 

Raisin Special Bone and Potash 

Raisin Bone and Potash 

Raisin 13 Per Cent Acid Phosphate. 
Raisin 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate. . 
Raisin Acid Phosphate 



Reidsville Fertilizer Co., Reidsville, N. C. 

Banner Fertilizer , 

Champion Guano , 

Broad Leaf Tobacco Guano , 

Royal Fertilizer , 

Lion Brand Fertilizer 

Bone and Potash , 



Avail. 
Phos. 


Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






12.00 




. . 


12.00 




. . 




19.75 


12.00 
50.00 
48.00 


. . 


15.63 


. . 


20.00 


3.29 


. . 


25.00 


2.47 


. . 


1O.00 


.82 


1.00 


9.00 


.82 


2.00 


9.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


.82 


4.00 


9.00 


.82 


3.00 


12.00 


. . 


. . 


S.00 


2.SS 


5.00 



12.00 



14.00 






10.00 




4.00 


10.00 




2.00 


8.00 




4.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


10.00 




5.00 


10.00 




2.00 


13.00 




. . 


16.00 




. . 


14.00 






8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.85 


2.50 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


9.00 


2.47 


6.00 


10.00 


. . 


4.00 



Swift Fertiliser 
ton, N. C, 

High Grade 
High Grade 
High Grade 

and Bone 
High Grade 

Trucker . 
High Grade 
High Grade 
High Grade 



Works, Atlanta, Ca., and Wilming- 

Swift's Strawberry Grower 

Swift's Special Trucker 

Swift's Special 10 Per Cent Blood 

Trucker 

Swift's Carolina 7 Per Cent Special 

Swift's Favorite Truck Guano 

Swift's Special Irish Potato Grower, 
Swift's Special Potato Grower 



8.00 


2.47 


10.00 


6.00 


5.76 


5.00 


5.00 


8.23 


3.00 


7.00 


5.76 


7.00 


6.00 


4.94 


6.00 


7.00 


4.12 


8.00 


6.00 


4.12 


7.00 



64 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Standard Grade Swift's Red Steer Guano Stand- 
ard Grade 8.00 

Swift's Plow Boy Guano 10.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Cotton Plant Standard 

Grade Guano 9.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Golden Harvest Stand- 
ard Grade Guano 8.00 

Swift's Eagle Standard Grade Guano 10.00 

High Grade Swift's Farmers' Favorite High 

Grade Guano 9.00 

High Grade Swift's Pipneer High Grade Guano 

Tobacco Grower S.00 

High Grade Swift's Early Trucker 7.00 

High Grade Swift's Blood. Bone and Potash 

High Grade Guano 9.50 

High Grade Swift's Corn and Cotton Grower 

High Grade Guano 10.00 

High Grade Swift's Cotton King High Grade 

Guano 9.00 

High Grade Swift's Ruralist High Grade Guano, S.00 

High Grade Swift's Special High Grade Guano. . 9.50 
High Grade Swift's Monarch Vegetable Grower 

High Grade Guano 8.00 

High Grade Swift's Atlanta High Grade Guano, 12.00 
High Grade Swift's Special High .Grade Phos- 
phate and Potash 12.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Plantation Standard 

Grade Phosphate and Potash S.00 

High Grade Swift's Farmers' Home High Grade 

Phosphate and Potash 10.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Field and Farm Stand- 
ard Grade Phosphate and Potash. . , 10.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Wheat Grower Stand- 
ard Grade Phosphate and Potash 10.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Harrow Standard Grade 

Acid Phosphate 13.00 

High Grade Swift's No. 1 Ground Tankage 6.00 

Swift's Pure Bone Meal Total 25.00 

High Grade Swift's Cultivator High Grade Acid 

Phosphate 14.00 

High Grade Swift's Special High Grade Acid 

Phosphate 10.00 

Standard Grade Swift's Chattakoochee Standard 

Grade Acid Phosphate 12.00 

High Grade Swift's Ground Dried Blood 

Swift's Pure Nitrate of Soda 

Swift's Pure Raw Bone Meal Total 23.00 

Swift's Muriate of Potash 

Swift's German Kainit 

Swift's Farmers' Favorite High Grade Guano. . . 9.00 

Swift's Pioneer High Grade Guano 8.00 

High Grade Swift's Eagle High Grade Guano. . . 10.00 
Swift's Atlanta High Grade Phosphate and Pot- 
ash 12.00 

Southern Chemical Co., Inc.. Roanoke, Va. — 

Our Favorite 8.00 

Farmers' Joy 8.00 

Our Leader 9.00 



Nitrogen. Potash. 



1.65 

.82 

1.65 



2.00 
1.00 

1.00 



1.65 
1.65 


2.00 
2.00 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 
4.12 


4.00 
5.00 


3.29 


7.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 

2.47 
4.12 


2.00 
3.00 
3.00 


3.29 


4.00 
4.00 


• 


6.00 


• 


4.00 


• 


4.00 


• 


2.00 


• 


2.00 


8.24 
2.47 


' * 



13.18 


« . 


14.82 


, , 


3.71 


. , 




50.00 




12.00 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 



4.00 



1.64 


2.00 


1.64 


4.00 


.82 


2.00 



The Bulletin. 



05 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. ^ h ??- 

Harvest King 8.00 

Southern Queen 8.00 

Valley Chief 8 - 50 

Spartanburg Fertilizer Co., Spartanburg, S. C. — 

Corn Formula 10 - 50 

Gosnell's Plant Food ' 10 - 50 

West's Potash Acid 13 - 00 

Bold Buster 9 -°° 

Potato Guano 7 -°0 

Tiger Brand Acidulated Phosphate 14.00 

The Southern Exchange Co., Maxton, N. C— 

Melon Grower 8.00 

McKirnnion's Special Truck Formula 8.00 

Two Fours Guano 70 ° 

That Big Stick Guano 800 

Bull of the Woods Fertilizer 8.00 

Jack's Best Fertilizer 8.00 

Correct Cotton Compound 8.00 

Juicy Fruit Fertilizer 9-00 

The Walnut Fertilizer 8.50 

The Racer Guano 8.00 

The Coon Guano 8.00 

R. M. C. Special Crop Grower 8.00 

S. E. C. Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

S. E. C. Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

S. E. C. Acid Phosphate 16.00 

S. E. C. Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


.82 


3.00 


2.46 


10.00 


1.64 


2.00 


1.65 


5.00 


2.46 


2.00 




3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


7.00 



4.12 


7.00 


4.12 


7.00 


3.30 


4.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.85 


4.00 


2.06 


2.50 


1.65 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 




4.00 




2.00 




12.00 


, , 


50.00 



15.65 



The Southern Cotton Oil Co., Charlotte District, Con- 
cord, Charlotte, Davidson, Madison, Shelby, 
and Gibson. — 

Conqueror 8.00 

Gloria 8.00 

Peacock 8.00 

Red Bull 8.00 

Noon 8.00 

King Bee 8.05 

Gold Seal 14.00 

Silver King 13.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Magnolia Bone and Potash 10.00 

Conqueror Bone and Potash 10.00 

Cotton Seed Meal 2.30 

Choice 8.00 

Genuine German Kainit 

Magnolia B. and P 10.00 

Conqueror B. and P 12.00 

Southern Cotton Oil Co.'s 16 Per Cent Acid 

Phosphate 16.00 

Razem 9-00 

Southern Cotton Oil Co. (Charlotte Division). 

Dandy Top Dresser 4.00 

5 



3.28 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


2.05 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 




12.00 




2.00 




4.00 


6.18 


1.50 


3.30 


6.00 




12.00 




2.00 




4.00 



1.65 



9.07 



3.00 



2.50 



66 The Bulletin. 

Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Southern Cotton Oil Co., Goldsboro, Fayetteville, 
Rocky Mount and Wilson. — 

Rocky Mount Oil Mill Standard 8.00 

Fayetteville Oil Mill Standard 8.00 

Goldsboro Oil Mill Standard 8.00 

Wilson Oil Mill Standard 8.00 

The Southern Cotton Oil Company Standard 8.00 

Fayetteville Oil Mill Special Cotton Grower 8.00 

Wi'lson Oil Mill Special Cotton Grower 8.00 

Rocky Mount Oil Mill Special Cotton Grower. . . 8.00 

Goldsboro Oil Mill Special Cotton Grower 8.00 

Goldsboro Oil Mill High Grade 8.00 

Rocky Mount Oil Mill High Grade 8.00 

Fayetteville Oil Mill High Grade 8.00 

Wilson Oil Mill High Grade 8.00 

The Southern Cotton Oil Co. High Grade 8.00 

Edgerton's Old Reliable 8.00 

Hale's Special for Tobacco 8.00 

Pine Level High Grade 8.00 

Cotton Grower for all Crops 8.00 

Best & Thompson's Special 9.00 

The Southern Cotton Oil Co.'s Special Tobacco 

Grower 8.00 

Echo 8.00 

Morning Glory 8.00 

Tuscarora Fertilizer Co., Atlanta, Ga., and Wilming- 
ton, N. C— 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Tuscarora Alkaline 10.00 

Bone Potash 10.00 

Champion 8.00 

Manure Substitute 6.00 

Tuscarora Trucker 8.00 

Berry King 8.00 

Tobacco Special ■ 8.00 

Tuscarora Fruit and Potato 8.00 

Cotton Special 8.00 

King Cotton 8.00 

Big Four 7.00 

Tuscarora Standard 8.00 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Kainit 

Nitrate of Soda 

Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Tuscarora Bone and Potash 8.00 

Tuscarora Bone and Potash 10.00 

Tide Water Fertilizer Co., Portsmouth, Va. — 

Tide Water Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Tide Water 12 Per Cent German Kainit 

Acid Phosphate and Tankage 8.00 

Tide Water High Grade Cotton 8.00 

Tide Water Tobacco Special 8.00 

Tide Water Very Best Cotton and Corn Guano. . 8.00 



Nitrogen. '. 


Potash. 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.26 


2.50 


2.26 


2.50 


2.26 


2.50 


2.26 


2.50 


2.26 


2.50 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.26 


' 2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 





5.00 




2.00 


2.06 


2.50 


3.30 


4.00 


4.12 


7.00 


2.06 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


10.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.06 


2.00 


1.65 


4.00 


1.65 


2.00 




50.00 




48.00 




12.00 


.4.85 






'4.00 


, , 


4.00 





12.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 



The Bulletin. 



67 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

Union Guano Co., Winston-Salem, N. C. — 

Union S-5 Bone and Potash 

Sulphate of Potash 

Muriate of Potash 

Genuine German Kainit 

Union 12 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Union Dissolved Bone '• 

Union High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Union' 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Union 12-3 Bone and Potash 

Union 10-6 Bone and Potash 

Union 10-5 Bone and Potash 

Union 10-4 Bone and Potash 

Union 8-5 Bone and Potash 

Union 12-4 Bone and Potash 

Union 12-5 Bone and Potash 

Union Wheat Mixture 

Union Bone and Potash 

Quakers' Grain Mixture 

Giant Phosphate and Potash 

, Liberty Bell Crop Grower 

Roseboro's Special Potash Mixture 

Union Potato Mixture 

Union Dissolved Animal Bone 

Union Vegetable Compound 

Union Truck Guano 

Union Premium Guano 

Union Perfect Cotton Grower 

Union Standard Tobacco Grower 

Union Mule Brand Guano 

Union Water Fowl Guano 

Union Homestead Guano 

Union Superlative Guano 

Union Special Formula for Cotton 

Union Complete Cotton Mixture 

Old Homestead Guano 

Victoria High Grade Tobacco Guano 

Sparger's Special Tobacco Grower 

Old Homestead Tobacco Guano 

Genuine Animal Bone Meal Total 

Nitrate of Soda 

Quality and Quantity Guano 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



8.00 



12.00 

13.00 

14.00 

16.00 

12.00 

10.00 

10.00 

10.00 

8.00 

12.00 

12.00 

8.00 

10.00 

10.00 

10.00 

10.50 

12.00 

8.00 

12.50 

7.00 

7.00 

8.00 

9.00 

8.00 

10.00 

8.00 

8.00 

8.00 

10.00 

9.00 

8.00 

8.00 

8.00 

8.00 

22.50 

*9.00 



1.65 
2.06 
4.12 
3.29 
3.29 
2.26 
2.06 
1.65 
2.06 
2.37 
.82 
2.47 
1.65 
1.65 
2.47 
1.65 
1.65 
3.70 
15.65 
1.65 



5.00 
48.00 
48.00 
12.00 



3.00 
6.00 
5.00 
4.00 
5.00 
4.00 
5.00 
4.00 
2.00 
4.00 
3.00 
1.50 
6.00 
10.00 

8.00 
5.00 
4.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
3.00 
3.00 
4.00 
3.00 
3.00 
2.00 
3.00 
3.00 
2.00 



1.00 



R. L. Upshur, Norfolk, Va. — 

Cotton Seed Meal Mixture 9.00 2.26 2.00 

Nitrate of Soda 15.65 

Quality and Quantity Guano 9.00 1.65 1.00 

Nitrate of Soda ' 15.22 

Muriate of Potash • • 50.00 

Genuine German Kainit • • 12.00 

Upshur's High Grade Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Upshur's Peanut Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Upshur's G., G. & C. (Grain, Grass and Cotton 

Guano) 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Upshur's Wheat Compound 12.00 . . 5.00 

Upshur's F. F. V. (Favorite Fertilizer of Vir- 
ginia) 8.00 1.64 2.00 

Upshur's Bone and Potash Guano 10.00 . . 2.00 



68 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 

Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Upshur's Norfolk Special 10 Per Cent Guano 5.00 

Upshur's 7 Per Cent Irish Potato Guano 6.00 

Upshur's F. C. (Farmers' Challenge) Guano ... 6.00 

Upshur's 7 Per Cent Special Potato Guano 5.00 

Upshur's Special Truck Guano 7.00 

Upshur's F. F. (Farmers' Favorite) 7.00 

Upshur's 5 Per Cent Guano 5.00 

Upshur's Fish, Bone and Potash Guano 8.00 

Upshur's 8-3-3 Cotton Guano 8.00 

Upshur's High Grade Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Premo Cotton Guano 8.00 

Upshur's Special 2y 2 8-3 Guano 8.00 

Upshur's 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Upshur's 4-6-4 Guano 6.00 

Tenable Fertilizer Co., Richmond, Va. — 

Venable's 10 Per Cent Trucker 6.00 

Venable's 6-6-6 Manure 6.00 

Venable's 5 Per Cent Trucker 8.00 

Venable's 4 Per Cent Trucker 8.00 

Venable's Ideal Manure 8.00 

Venable's Alliance Tobacco Manure No. 1 8.00 

Venable's Alliance Tobacco Manure No. 2 8.00 

Venable's B. B. P. Manure 9.00 

Venable's Cotton Grower 8.00 

Venable's Roanoke Special 8.00 

Venable's Alliance Bone and Potash Mixture.. 8.00 

Venable's Peanut Grower 8.00 

Venable's Best Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Venable's Alliance Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Venable's Dissolved Bone 13.00 

Venable's Standard Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

High Grade Bone and Potash Mixture 10.00 

Planters' Bone Fertilizer 8.00 

Ballard's Choice Fertilizer 8.00 

Roanoke Mixture 9.00 

Roanoke Meal Mixture 9.00 

Bone Meal Total 25.00 

Pure Raw Bone .Total 20.00 

Muriate of Potash 

Nitrate of Soda 

Sulphate of Potash 

Pure German Kainit 

Venable's Corn, Wheat and Grass Fertilizer... 10.00 

Venable's Peanut Special 8.00 

Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co., Richmond, Va. — 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Special High Grade Potash Mix- 
ture 12.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s 14 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 14.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 16.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Standard Bone and Potash 10.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Special Crop Grower 12.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Formula 4-4 7.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Special Truck Guano 6.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Special 8.00 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Special Potash Mixture 10.00 



Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


8.22 


2.00 


5.76 


5.00 


5.76 


6.00 


5.76 


5.00 


4.11 


8.00 


4.11 


6.00 


4.11 


5.00 


1.64 


4.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.47 


3.00 


1.05 


2.00 


2.05 


3.00 



3.69 



4.00 



8.23 


2.00 


4.94 


6.00 


4.11 


5.00 


3.29 


4.00 


1.65 


6.00 


2.06 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


1.00 


2.06 


3.00 


2.06 


3.00 




4.00 




4.00 





2.00 




4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.47 


3.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.26 


2.00 


2.47 


, . 


3.20 


. , 


. 


50.00 


5.63 


• * 


, 


48.00 


. 


12.00 


.82 


1.00 


.82 


4.00 



6.00 





5.00 




3.00 


2.55 


3.20 


4.10 


7.00 


3.28 


4.00 




4.00 



The Bulletin. 



69 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Lion's High Grade Tobacco Fer- 
tilizer 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Invincible High Grade Fertilizer. . 
V.-C. C. Co.'s High Grade Tobacco Fertilizer... 

Great Texas Cotton Grower Soluble Guano 

Cock's Soluble High Grade Animal Bone 

Truck Crop Fertilizer 

Prolific Cotton Grower 

Battle's Crop Grower 

3 Per Cent Special C. S. M. Guano No. 3 

Delta C. S. M 

Winston Special for Cotton C. S. M 

Diamond Dust C. S. M 

Admiral 

Blue Star C. S. M 

Good Luck C. S. M 

North State Guano C. S. M 

riant Food 

Split Silk C. S. M 

Superlative C. S. M. Guano 

Farmers' Friend Favorite Fertilizer Special.... 

White Stem C. S. M - 

Special High Grade Tobacco Fertilizer C. S. M. . 

Wilson's Standard C. S. M 

Adams' Special 

Ajax C. S. M. Guano 

Royal Crown 

Farmers' Favorite Fertilizer C. S. M 

Atlas Guano C. S. M 

Blake's Best 

Orange Grove 

Carr's 8-4-4 Crop Grower 

Ford's Wheat and Corn Guano 

Kouqueror High Grade Truck Fertilizer 

Goodman's Special Potash Mixture 

Jones' Grain Special 

Raw Bone Meal Total 

Dissolved Animal Bone 

Sludge Acid Phosphate 

Manure Salts 

Sulphate of Potash 

Sulphate of Ammonia 

Fish Scrap 

Nitrate of Soda 

Genuine German Kainit. ^ 

Muriate of Potash 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Grain Special 

V.-C. C. Co.'s Dissolved Bone and Potash 

Diamond Cotton Seed Meal Guano 

Bold Buster Guano 

Bigelow's Crop Guano 

V.-C. C. Co.'s 12-4 Grain Grower 

Jeffreys' High Grade Guano 

V.-C. C. Co.'s High Grade Top Dresser 

V.-C. C. Co.'s 13 Per Cent Acid Phosphate 

Haynes' Special Cotton Fertilizer 

Parker & Hunter's Special 

Allison & Addison's Star Brand Vegetable 
Guano 



Avail. 






Phos. Nitrogen. 


Potash. 


Acid. 






8.00 


2.46 


4.00 


6.00 


4.10 


7.00 


8.00 


2.46 


10.00 


9.00 


2.46 


4.00 


9.00 


1.85 


.3.00 


7.00 


4.10 


7.00 


9.00 


2.20 


2.00 


12.00 


. . 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.00 


8.00 


2.26 


2.50 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.50 


8.00 


2.05 


3.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.50 


9.00 


1.65 


1.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.50 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


8.50 


1.05 


2.00 


9.00 


2.26 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.26 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.46 


2.50 


8.00 


2.46 


3.00 


8.00 


2.26 


2.50 


8.00 


3.28 


4.00 


9.00 


.82 


2.00 


7.00 


4.10 


5.00 


12.00 


# , 


5.00 


8.00 


. , 


4.00 


22.50 


3.70 


. . 


12.50 


2.05 


. . 


14.00 


. . 


, , 






20.00 




, , 


50.00 


. , 


20.59 


. , 




8.25 


, . 




15.68 


. . 






12.00 
48.00 


10.00 


. . 


6.00 


10.00 


, . 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


10.00 


1.65 


2.00 


9.00 


.82 


3.00 


12.00 


. , 


4.00 


9.00 


2.47 


3.00 


4.00 


6.18 


2.50 


13.00 


m . 


. , 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 



8.00 



3.70 



4.00 



70 



The Bulletin. 



2.26 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


1.00 


, 


2.00 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Allison & Addison's Star Special Tobacco Ma- 
nure 9.00 2.26 2.00 

Allison & Addison's Anchor Brand Tobacco Fer- 
tilizer 8.50 

Allison & Addison's Anchor Brand Fertilizer. . . . 8.00 

Allison & Addison's A. A. Guano 8.00 

Allison & Addison's Old Hickory Guano 8.00 

Allison & Addison's Star Brand Guano 9.00 

Allison & Addison's B. P. Potash Mixture 10.00 

Allison & Addison's McGavock's Special Potash 
Mixture 10.00 . . 2.00 

Allison & Addison's Fulton Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Allison & Addison's I. X. L. Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Allison & Addison's Standard Acid Phosphate.. 12.00 

Allison & Addison's Rocket Acid Phosphate 12.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Eureka 

Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Crenshaw 

Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Valley of 

Virgina Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Our Acid 

Phosphate 12.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Eureka 

Bone and Potash Compound 10.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Eureka 

Amnioniated Bone Special for Tobacco 9.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Eureka 

Ammoniated Bone 8.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Carolina 
Truckers 7.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Virginia 
Truckers 8.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Orient Spe- 
cial for Tobacco , . 8.00 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizer Co.'s Orient 

Complete Manure 9.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s King Cotton 
Grower 8.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s The Leader 
B. G 8.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Groom's Spe- 
cial Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Charlotte Dis- 
solved Bone 12.00 . . 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Charlotte Am- 
moniated Guano B. G 8.00 2.05 1.50 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Charlotte Am- 
moniated Guano C. S. M 8.00 2.05 1.50 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Charlotte Acid 

Phosphate 13.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Catawba Gu- 
ano B. G 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Catawba Acid 

Phosphate 14.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Queen of the 

Harvest C. S. M 9.00 1.65 2.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Oliver's Per- 
fect Wheat Grower 11.00 2.46 4.00 



• 


2.00 


2.05 


2.00 


1.65 


3^00 


5.74 


7.00 


4.10 


5.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


4.00 



The Bulletin. 71 

Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s 10-2 Bone and 
Potash 10-00 •• 2.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s 15 Per Cent 

Acid Phosphate 15.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s McCrary's Dia- 

niond Bone and Potash 800 . . 4.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s Special 3 Per 

Cent Guano C. S. M 8.00 2.46 2.00 

Charlotte Oil and Fertilizer Co.'s High Grade 

Special Tobacco Fertilizer 0.00 2.05 2.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Guano for To- 
bacco 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Special Tobacco 
Guano 0-00 2.05 2.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Truck Guano 8.00 4.!)2 5.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Acid Phosphate 

with Potash 10.00 . . 2.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand High Grade Dis- 
solved Bone 14.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Dissolved Bone. . . , 12.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand High Grade Acid 

Phosphate 16.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand High Grade 3 Per 

Cent Soluble Guano 9.00 2.05 3.00 

Davie & Whittle's Owl Brand Acid Phosphate. . 13.00 

Davie & Whittle's Vinco Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Blacksburg Soluble Gu- 
ano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Blacksburg Soluble 
Bone 13.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Diamond Wheat Mix- 
ture 10;00 .. 3.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Standard Wheat and 
Corn Grower 10.00 .. 2.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Excelsior Dissolved 

Bone Phosphate 14.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Double Bone Phosphate, 13.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Blue Ridge Wheat 

Grower 10.00 .. 2.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Carr's Special Wheat 
Grower 8.00 .. 4.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Standard Guano • . 9.00 1.65 2.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Best Potato Manure. . . 7.00 5.74 7.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s L. & N. Special 9.00 2.46 2.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Special Plant and Truck 

Fertilizer 8.00 4.10 3.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Golden Leaf Bright To- 
bacco Guano 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Gold Medal Brand 

Guano 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Durham Bone and Pot- 
ash Mixture 10.00 .. 2.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Genuine Bone and Peru- 
vian Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Genuine Bone and Peru- 
vian Tobacco Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Raw Bone Superphos- 
phate 8.00 2.05 1.50 



72 The Bulletin. 

Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Raw Bone Superphos- 
phate for Tobacco 8.00 2.05 2.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s N. C. Farmers' Alliance 

Official Guano 8.00 2.05 3.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s N. C. Farmers' Alliance 

Official Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Standard High Grade 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Great Potato and Corn 

Grower 10.50 .. 1.50 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Progressive Farmer 

Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Durham Ammoniated 

Fertilizer 9.00 1.65 1.00 

„ Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Durham Best Acid Phos- 
phate 13.00 

Durham Fertilizer Co.'s Durham Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s New Era 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Ironside Acid Phosphate, 16.00 
Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Spartan Acid Phosphate, 12.00 
Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Arvonia Acid Phosphate, 13.00 
Lynchburg Guano Co.'s S. W. Special Bone and 

Potash Mixture 10.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Alpine Mixture 10.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Dissolved Bone and 

Potash 10.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Independent Standard.. 8.50 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Solid Gold Tobacco 8.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Lynchburg High Grade 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Lynchburg Soluble 8.00 

Lynchburg Guano Co.'s Lynchburg Soluble for 

Tobacco 8.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Crescent 

Brand Ammoniated Fertilizer 8.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Cooper's 

Bright Tobacco 8.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 

Trucker and Tomato Grower 8.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Genuine 

Slaughter House Bone 8.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Genuine 

Slaughter House Bone, Made Especially for 

Tobacco 8.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Amazon 

High Grade Manure 8.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Bright Leaf 

Tobacco Grower 8.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 

Bone and Potash 10.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 

Soluble Bone 12.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 

Best Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Norfolk and Carolina Chemical Co.'s Norfolk 

Reliable Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Standard Raw Bone 

Soluble Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 





4.00 
5.00 


1.65 
2.26 


2.00 
2.00 
4.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.05 


3.00 


4.10 


5.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.05 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


2.46 


3.00 




2.00 



The Bulletin. 



73 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen 

Acid. 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Farmers' Friend High 

Grade Fertilizer 8.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Farmers' Friend Fer- 
tilizer 8.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Farmers' Friend Spe- 
cial Tobacco Fertilizer 8.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Special 

Wheat Guano 8.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Special 

Sweet Potato Guano 0.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Solu- 
ble Tobacco Guano 8.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Solu- 

bfe Guano 8.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Potato 

Manure 7.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Raw 

Bone Soluble Guano 9.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion 6-7-5 

Truck Guano 0.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion 7-7-7 

Truck Guano 7.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Old Dominion Alka- 
line Bone and Potash 10.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Bullock's Cotton 
Grower 8.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Osceola Tobacco 

Guano 8.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Dissolved Bone and 
Potash 10.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Millers' Special 
Wheat Mixture 8.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Planters' Bone and 

Potash Mixture 10.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Bone Thospbate 13.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s Royster's Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Old Dominion Guano Co.'s High Grade Acid 

Phosphate 14.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Almont Acid Phosphate.. 12.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Brand Best Acid 
Phosphate 13.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Almont High Grade Acid 
Phosphate 14.00 

Powers. Gibb & Co.'s Fulp's Acid Phosphate 13 
Per Cent 13.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Brand Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Acid Phosphate and Pot- 
ash 10.50 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Almont Wheat Mixture. . . 10.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Dissolved Bone and Potash, 10.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Almont Soluble Ammoni- 
ated Guano 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Carolina Golden Belt Am- 

moniated Guano for Tobacco 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Truck Farmers' Special 
Ammoniated Guano 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Old Kentucky High Grade 

Manure 8.00 



Potash. 



2.46 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.46 


3.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


6.00 


1.65 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


4.10 


8.00 


2.05 


3.00 


5.74 


5.00 


5.74 


7.00 




• 


• 


2.00 


1.65 


2.00 


2.05 


3.00 




2.00 




4.00 




3.00 



1.65 
2.05 
3.28 
2.46 



1.50 
3.00 
2.00 

2.00 

3.00 

5.00 

3.00 



74 



The Bulletin. 



Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. 

Acid. 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Seed Meal Stand- 
ard Guano 9.00 

Powers. Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Seed Meal Soluble 

Ammoniated Guano 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Belt Ammoniated 

Guano 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Eagle Island Ammoniated, 8.00 
Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Cotton Brand Ammoniated 

Dissolved Bone 8.00 

Powers, Gibb & Co.'s Gibb's Ammoniated Guano, 8.00 
Powers. Gibb & Co.'s Powers' Ammoniated 

Guano S.00 

Soutbern Cbemieal Co.'s Electric Tobacco Guano, 8.00 
Southern Chemical Co.'s Electric Standard 

Guano 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Pilot Ammoniated Gu- 
ano Special for Tobacco 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s George Washington ' 

Plant Bed Fertilizer for Tobacco 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co/s Sun Brand Guano 9.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Yadkin Complete Fer- 
tilizer 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Solid South 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Chick's Special Wheat 

Compound 8.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Mammoth Wheat and 

Grass Grower 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Winston Bone and Pot- 
ash Compound 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Winner Grain Mixture, 10.00 
Southern Chemical Co.'s Mammoth Corn Grower, 10.00 
Southern Chemical Co.'s Farmers' Pride Bone 

and Potash 10.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Reaper Grain Applica- 
tion 12.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Quickstep Bone and 

Potash 11-00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Tar Heel Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Red Cross 14 Per Cent 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Comet 16 Per Cent 

Acid Phosphate 1000 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Chick's 16 Per Cent 

Acid Phosphate 16.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Chatham Acid Phos- 
phate , 13.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Horseshoe Acid Phos- 

phate 12.00 

Southern Chemical Co.'s Victor Acid Phosphate, 13.00 
J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Champion Acid Phosphate, 16.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Dissolved S. C. Bone 13.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Powhatan Acid Phosphate, 14.00 
J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Richmond Brand Guano.. 8.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Lee Brand Guano S.00 

J. G. Tinslev & Co.'s Killickinick Tobacco Mix- 
ture 8.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Stonewall Brand Acid 
Phosphate 12.00 



Nitrogen. Potash. 



2.46 

1.65 

2.4(5 
1.65 

3.28 
2.05 

2.05 
1.65 

1.65 

2.05 

2.46 
2.05 

1.65 



2.46 
1.65 

2.05 



2.00 

2.00 

2.00 
2.00 

4.00 
1.50 

2.00 
2.00 

2.00 

3.00 

2.50 
5.00 

2.00 
6.00 

4,00 

2.00 

2.00 
4.00 
2.00 

3.00 

3.00 

5.00 



3.00 
2.00 

3.00 



The Bulletin. 75 

Avail. 
Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Stonewall Brand Guano.. 8.00 1.65 2.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Stonewall Tobacco Guano, 8.00 1.G5 2.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Special Irish 

Potnto Grower 0.00 5.74 6.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Bone and Potash 
Mixture 10.00 .. 2.00 

J. G. Tinslev & Co.'s Tinsley's Strawberry 
Grower 6.00 3.28 4.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's 10 Per Cent Truck 
Guano 5.00 8.25 2.50 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Irish Potato 
Grower ..." 6.00 4.92 6.00 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's Tobacco Fertilizer, 8.00 3.28 2.50 

J. G. Tinsley & Co.'s Tinsley's 7 Per Cent Am- 
moniated Guano for Beans, Peas, Cabbage, 
Strawberries, etc 6.00 5.74 6.00 

S. W..Travers & Co.'s National Fertilizer 8.00 1.65 2.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s National Special Tobacco 
Fertilizer '• 8.00 1.65 2.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Beef, Blood and Bone 
Fertilizer 8.00 1.65 2.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Standard Dissolved S. C. 
Bone 13.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Travers' Dissolved Bone 
Phosphate 14.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Dissolved Bone. . . 12.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Cotton Fertilizer, 8.00 2.05 2.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Bone and Potash 
Compound 10.00 .. 2.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Truck Fertilizer. . 8.00 3.28 3.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Capital Tobacco Fertilizer, 8.00 3.28 3.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Farmers' Special Wheat 
Compound 8.00 .. . 4.00 

S. W. Travers & Co.'s Farmers' 7 Per Cent Truck 
Fertilizer 6.00 5.74 5.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Virginia State 
Dissolved Bone and Potash 10.00 . . 2.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Virginia State 
Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Virginia State 

High Grade Tobacco Guano 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Number One Sol- 
uble Guano 9.00 1.65 2.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s XX Potash Mix- 
ture 10.00 .. 4.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Mountain Top 

Bone and Potash 10.00 . . 5.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Peerless Tobacco 
Guano 8.00 2.46 3.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Battle Axe To- 
bacco Guano 8.00 1.65 2.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Dunnington's Spe- 
cial Formula for Tobacco 8.00 2.40 3.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Austrian Tobacco 
Grower 8.00 2.05 2.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Buffalo Guano.. 8.00 2.05 3.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Gamecock Special 

for Tobacco 8.50 1.65 2.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s G. E. Special To- 
bacco Grower 8.00 2.05 2.00 



76 



The Bulletin. 



Name and Address of Manufacturer and Name of Brand. 



Avail. 

Phos. Nitrogen. Potash. 

Acid. 



Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Bull ' Dog Solu- 
ble Guano 8.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Clipper Brand 
Acid Phosphate 13.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Highland King. . . 9.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Alps Brand Acid 
Phosphate 12.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Bull Run Acid 
Phosphate 16.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Lurich Acid Phos- 
phate 12.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Gilt Edge Brand 

Acid Phosphate 14.00 

Virginia State Fertilizer Co.'s Gilt Edge Brand 

Dissolved Bone and Potash 8.00 

Sun Tobacco Fertilizer 5.00 



2.46 



1.65 



3.00 
1.00 



5.11 



4.00 
9.20 



Thomas Wakefield, Friendship. N. C- 
Bone Meal 



.Total 21.73 



4.12 



Williams & Clark Fertilizer Co., Charleston, 8. C. — 
Standard American Ammoniated Bone Super- 
phosphate 

Winbornc Guano Co., Tyner, ~N. C. — 



King Tammany Guano 

Farmers' Select Guano 

Winborne's 7 Per Cent Guano 

Winborue's Excelsior Guano 

Winborne's Tobacco Guano 

Winborne's Eureka Guano 

Winborne's 3-8-4 Guano 

Winborne's Triumph Guano 

High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Standard 16 Per Cent Acid Phosphate. 
Genuine German Kainit 



9.00 



1.85 



1.00 



8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.06 


3.00 


5.00 


5.75 


5.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


2.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


2.47 


4.00 


8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


14.00 


, , 


. . 


16.00 


m , 


. , 



12.00 



T. W. Wood & Sons, Richmond, Va. — 

Standard Grain and Grass Grower 

Standard High Grade Trucker 

Standard Potato Fertilizer 

Standard Vegetable Fertilizer 

Standard Tobacco Fertilizer 

Standard High Grade Acid Phosphate 

Standard Bone and Potash Mixture 

Wood's Pure Animal Bone Total 

Wood's Lawn Enricher 

Nitrate of Soda 



8.00 


1.65 


2.00 


8.00 


4.94 


6.00 


8.00 


1.65 


5.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


8.00 


2.47 


3.00 


14.00 


, , 


, . 


10.00 


, . 


2.00 


23.00 


2.47 


. . 


6.00 


2.47 


3.00 


, m 


15.63 


. . 



REPORT FROM LEAF TOBACCO WAREHOUSES FOR MONTH 

OF JUNE, 1908. 



Pounds sold for producers, first hand 43,552 

Pounds sold for dealers -±,069 

Pounds resold for warehouse 9,390 

Pounds resold for other warehouses 

Total : 57,011 



NOTICE. 

The Department finds it necessary to revise the Bulletin list. 
All parties desiring the Bulletin sent to them in the future are re- 
quested to send notice to this effect on postal card, addressing 
Commissioner of Agriculture. Raleigh. N. C. 






THE BULLETIN 



OF THE 



NORTH CAROLINA 



LIBRARY 

NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



RALEIGH 



Volume 29. 



AUGUST, 1908. 



Number 8. 



COMMERCIAL APPLE CULTURE IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS. 



BY 



W. N. HUTT, Horticulturist. 



f. 5 . *^.*3& ft kK 




PUBLISHED MONTHLY AND SENT FREE TO CITIZENS ON APPLICATION. 

ENTERED AT THE RALEIGH l'OST-OFFICE AS SECOND-CLASS MAIL MATTER. 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



S. L. Patterson, Commissioner, ex officio Chairman, Raleigh. 

J. J. Laughinghouse Greenville First District. 

C. W. Mitchell Aulander Second District. 

William Dunn New Bern . Third District. 

Ashley Hoene Clayton Fourth District. 

R. W. Scott Melville Fifth District. 

A. T. McCallum Red Springs Sixth District. 

J. P. McRae Laurinburg Seventh District. 

R. L. Doughton Laurel Springs Eighth District. 

W. A. Graham Machpelah Ninth District. 

A. Cannon Horse Shoe Tenth District. 



OFFICERS AND STAFF. 

S. L. Patterson Commissioner. 

Elias Carr Secretary. 

B. W. Kilgore State Chemist, Field Crops. 

Tait Butler Veterinarian, Animal Husbandry. 

Franklin Sherman. Jr Entomologist. 

W. N. Hutt Horticulturist. 

H. H. Brimley Naturalist and Curator. 

T. B. Parker Demonstration Work. 

W. M. Allen Food Chemist. 

C. D. Harris Feed Chemist and Microscopist. 

J. M. Pickel Assistant Chemist. 

W. G. Haywood Assistant Chemist, Fertilizers. 

G. M. MacNider Assistant Chemist, Soils. 

L. L. Brinkley Assistant Chemist. 

S. O. Perkins Assistant Chemist. 

Hampden Hill Assistant Chemist. 

S. C. Clapp Nursery and Orchard Inspector. 

S. B. Shaw Assistant Horticulturist. 

W. J. Hartman Assistant Veterinarian. 

Z. P. Metcalf Assistant Entomologist. 



R. W. Scott, Jr., Superintendent Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C. 
F. T. Meacham, Superintendent Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. 
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent Pender Test Farm, Willard, N. C. 
R. W. Collett, Superintendent Transylvania and Buncombe Test Farms, 
Swannanoa, N. C. 



COMMERCIAL APPLE CULTURE IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS. 



BY W. N. HUTT, HORTICULTURIST. 



The apple is the most widely distributed of tree fruits. It is 
found growing on every continent of the globe. In the United States 
it grows in every State of the Union, from the subtropic to the north 
temperate zone. It is found from sea level to mountain top, with 
every variety of soil and with every grade of humidity and aridity. 
In this wide range it has almost every environmental change to which 
a plant could well be subjected. Under all these varying conditions 
it gives evidence of its likes and its dislikes by the varying degrees 
of success to which it grows. 

Plants, like animals, have their preferences and also their means 
of showing them. The environmental likes and dislikes of plants are 
easily seen. When they are at home and comfortable in their sur- 
roundings they give evidence of their satisfaction in increased growth 
and production and in the highest quality of fruit. When they are 
not comfortable they show a puny growth, scarcity of foliage, suscep- 
tibility to the attacks of insects and diseases, lack of fruit and les- 
sened longevity. 

It is interesting to note the instinctive desires of the apple tree and 
what conformity it shows to local conditions. In the low altitudes 
where the cotton plant is at home the apple tree is generally most 
uncomfortable. Except with the early or summer varieties, it is 
hard in such locations to keep apple trees in life. After resisting 
conditions unsuited to them they have little power left for fruit pro- 
duction. In the warm, sandy soils where sweet potatoes grow large 
and sweet, apple trees lose their leaves and have a struggle for life 
from season to season. On loamy or clay soils they feel more com- 
fortable, show a correspondingly increased growth and productiveness, 
are freer from disease and are longer-lived. Observations on apple 
growing throughout the whole of this country show that the trees re- 
quire for their best growth, productiveness and longevity the follow- 
ing conditions : 

1. Zone Temperate. 

2. Climate Summer cool, winter cold. 

3. Soil Rich loams and clays. 

4. Altitude High. 

5. Rainfall Copious and constant. 

6. Drainage Good. . 

1. Sunlight Abundant (air clear and cloudless). 

8. Food ' Constant supply of humus and plant food. 

In America the regions that produce the most and best apples are 
those that afford the largest number of these conditions. 



The Bulletin. 



apple ZONES. 



The temperate zone is the native home of the apple. All around 
the world it finds its best general temperature for growth in this zone. 
In the temperate zone it inclines to the north and finds there rather 
than in the south its best or optimum condition of growth. In the 
south temperate zone the apple deports itself much the same as in the 
north temperate zone, and inclines to the cooler south rather than 
towards the tropical boundary. As an evidence of the hardiness of 
the apple tree and its love for a cool climate it may be unknown to 
many that most magnificent apples are grown in Canada, away north 
of the great lakes, on the forty-sixth parallel, north latitude. In this 
region the lakes and rivers are icebound for several months of the 
year, the ground in winter is covered with three or four feet of snow 
and the thermometer is sometimes 30 degrees below zero. In that 
region the apple is nearing the northern limit of its growth. Con- 
sidering these extremes of temperature, one would begin to wonder 
how North Carolina, with its mild climate, could raise apples at all. 
It does show, however, why apple growing is so commonly unsuccess- 
ful in the cotton belt. Being a cool-loving plant, the apple tree finds 
in the cotton belt its extreme southern limit of endurance. The pecan 
tree, on the other hand, being a southern neighbor of the cotton plant, 
will grow and thrive well in the area of cotton production. About 
one-third of the area of North Carolina is in the cotton belt, one-third 
rolling piedmont and one-third high and mountainous. It is in this 
mountainous region of the State, where altitude guarantees a cool 
climate, that the apple grows and thrives and produces even better 
than it does in the renowned apple regions of the North. 

MOUNTAIN REGIONS EOR APPLE CULTURE. 

It is not generally known to apple growers that a mountain region 
in the South, which by virtue of its altitude affords the same cool tem- 
perature that a northern region gives, has yet other advantages that a 
northern location, with its higher latitude but lower altitude, cannot 
give. The "Sunny South," particularly in its mountain regions, has 
the clear air and abundant sunlight that put the rich colors on the out- 
side of the fruit and the fine flavors within. Other things being 
equal, the greater the amount of sunlight the higher colored the fruit. 
In regions where cloudy skies are prevalent fruits and also flowers are 
of dull colors. Clear, sunny weather will give bright flowers and also 
highly tinted fruits. The maximum hours of sunlight are obtained 
at high elevations. It is for this reason that mountain-grown fruit is 
superior in color and flavor to that of the same varieties grown in the 
lowlands. The best fruit grown in eastern United States is that pro- 
duced on the slopes of the Blue Kidge and Alleghany Mountains. 



The Bulletin. 5 

The most lofty portions of these mountain ranges are found in west- 
ern North Carolina. Here a rich soil, combined with high elevation, 
affords almost ideal conditions for commercial apple culture. Very 
few fruit growers in the South appreciate the splendid opportunities 
afforded for commercial apple growing in the high, cool but sunny 
slopes of the southern Appalachian region. It is only in the last 
decade or so that fruit growers generally have become aware of the 
advantages of elevated regions for the commercial growing of hardy 
fruits. At present, all along the eastern slopes and foothills of the 
Alleghany Mountains, in Pennsylvania, in Maryland, in Virginia, in 
West Virginia and in North Carolina, lands which were formerly 
considered almost worthless for agricultural purposes are now rapidly 
passing the mark of $100 per acre for commercial orcharding. 

DRAINAGE IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS. 

Another great advantage of mountain lands for growing fruit trees 
is that they naturally afford the most perfect drainage. The slope of 
such lands is almost a perfect guarantee that they are naturally well 
drained or can be made so at very small expense. Orchard trees of 
all plants require the most perfect drainage. Since they are per- 
ennial, they cannot, like annual crops, occupy the ground only in the 
favored season of summer, when growth conditions are almost per- 
fect. They must be subject to every prevailing condition of heat and 
cold and of flood and drought throughout the entire year. Trees 
placed on wet or undrained land have to resist a condition that is 
adverse to their growth, and their productiveness and longevity are 
reduced accordingly. In connection with Experiment Station work 
I once had charge of an orchard that was on very flat land. This 
orchard received almost ideal tillage, fertilization and spraying.. In 
spite of the most constant care and attention the trees were unproduc- 
tive ; they shed their foliage prematurely, and not a year passed but 
some of them diefl and went to the brush pile. When this orchard 
should have been at the age of its greatest production and usefulness 
there was but a remnant of dying trees marking an ill-advised attempt 
to grow trees in a location entirely unsuited to them. One single cir- 
cumstance will be sufficient to explain the cause of the utter failure of 
this orchard : Crayfish would build up their burrows in the soil be- 
neath the trees. A pebble dropped into a burrow could often be 
heard to splash into water a few inches below the surface of the 
ground. These trees, as fruit trees always do, naturally refused to 
grow and produce on a waterlogged soil. In mountain regions, on 
account of favorable drainage, conditions of this kind are almost 
impossible. 



6 The Bulletin. 

the advantages of altitude in commercial apple orcharding. 

An apple tree, in its soil and fertilizer requirements, differs little 
from a forest tree. The conditions of soil that will produce heavy 
timber will produce productive fruit trees. Forest trees grow natu- 
rally on mountain slopes because they find there a rich soil, abundant 
drainage and clear sunlight. The same conditions will produce large, 
productive, long-lived fruit trees. Where the natural forest is taken 
off the mountain slopes by the lumbermen a forest of fruit trees can 
profitably succeed it. Indeed, no cultivated crop so well holds sloping 
lands from washing as do the strong roots of fruit trees. The common 
agricultural trouble known in the South as "washing of land" is only 
another name for uncontrolled drainage. Trees, since they are per- 
ennial in growth and have their roots in the soil at all seasons, are 
more useful than any other crop in protecting mountain lands from 
destructive erosion. Sloping soils which will wash must necessarily 
be well drained. This is the foremost reason why trees like sloping 
land and why mountain orchards give better results than those in 
similarly cool locations, but on flat lands with the water table too close 
to the surface. 

The cool but sunny slopes of southern mountains have ideal condi- 
tions of soil and drainage that are unexcelled for the culture of hardy 
fruits. The cool climate of a southern mountain region obtained by 
high altitude is, for many reasons, better for apple growing than the 
equally cool but less sunny locations in the North obtained by higher 
latitudes. 

NATURAL IRRIGATION IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS. 

It is not only necessary that trees be protected from excessive moist- 
ure by drainage, but to insure their best growth and productiveness 
they must have a copious and constant supply of water during their 
season of growth, and particularly when they are developing a crop of 
fruit. If the roots of a tree are immersed in water for any length of 
time its leaves will turn yellow and drop, and it will cast off its fruit. 
If this condition becomes chronic, as on ill-drained lands, the roots will 
sooner or later become diseased and rot off. On the other hand, ex- 
cessive droughts may leave in the soil so limited an amount of moisture 
that the tree will show yellow foliage and cast off its fruit as it does on 
too wet land. As sloping land is a natural corrective for too much 
water being supplied to trees, it is also a means of furnishing moisture 
in times of excessive drought. In elevated regions it is often found that 
moisture precipitated on mountain tops is carried down gradually, 
so that lower slopes receive from it a copious and constant supply. 
This is especially true where the soil is more or less mixed and under- 
laid with rock or shale. The rocks protect the moisture from the sun, 
and the roughness of a rocky or shaley bed affords a natural reservoir, 
which gives up its moisture in a slow but constant supply to lower 



The Bulletin. 7 

lands. Moisture obtained in this way is known in the irrigated re- 
gions of the West as "seepage water" and is used to grow immense 
fields of wheat in the foothills clustering about the bases of high moun- 
tains. This condition is found to a greater or less degree in all moun- 
tain regions. In coves and protected places it amounts to a natural 
system of subirrigation. The slope that in times of flood takes ex- 
cessive and injurious moisture from the roots of the trees in times of 
drought brings the life-giving moisture to them. In mountain regions 
one frequently sees large, healthy trees clinging to rocky crags, where 
they would scarcely appear to have sufficient soil to cover their roots. 
Though they have little soil, they have from their location so perfect 
a system of root aeration, irrigation and drainage that they grow and 
flourish to perfection. Such natural conditions of drainage and irri- 
gation occur only in mountain regions. It is for this reason, more 
than any other, that fruit trees in mountain regions are large, vigorous 
and long-lived. 

The late T. K. Bruner, of this Department, in his valuable work on 
"North Carolina and Its Besources," gives the following note on 
mountain apple trees: 

The size to which apple trees attain in the mountains of North Carolina 
is a source of wonder to those who have become accustomed to the trees in 
the North. In one orchard in Haywood County was measured a tree that 
had a girth of eleven feet and nine inches, and in the same orchard, which 
had never been cultivated, there were a hundred other trees that were full 
three feet in diameter of trunk and all in the most luxurious health. All that 
is needed here is a population of fruit growers who understand the culture 
and handling of winter apples. Apples of the northern varieties grown in 
Watauga County are hardly recognizable because of their greater size and 
beauty. 

AIR NECESSARY TO TREE ROOTS. 

Roots of trees require air as well as moisture. If the roots of a 
tree are fully surrounded by water, air is excluded and the tree dies 
of suffocation. On ill-drained lands trees have a way of pushing their 
large roots partially above the surface of the soil, so that they can get 
the air necessary for their growth. The cypress, which grows in 
tidewater, sends up its knees above high-water mark, .so that it can 
get its air in time of flood. The roots of trees, even under the most 
favorable circumstances, do not go nearly so deep into the ground 
as is commonly supposed. Their home is between the water table 
and the surface. As to how commodious a home the tree roots 
have will depend on how much living room there is between the 
water table and the surface. The orchard in which the crayfish 
made their burrows had too cramped a layer of aerated soil to sup- 
port vigorous tree life. Trees which make the maximum growth 
are those which have a deep water table, with a retentive but well- 
aerated soil above it. The roots of trees will not grow below the 
line of permanent ground-water. Of almost all trees three-fourths 
of the root system is found in the first foot of soil. One is often 



8 The Bulletin. 

surprised to find that large trees uprooted by a storm have a much 
shallower root system than one would have expected. On the other 
hand, tree roots are sometimes found deep in wells, but on examina- 
tion it will be found, too, that they adhere only to the air-exposed 
surfaces. In cities, where filling-in is done to raise the grades of 
streets, the deeper covering of the tree roots is almost always fatal 
to shade trees. The same thing is often seen where lumber mills 
blow out their piles of sawdust about the roots of growing trees. 
It is not that the sawdust in itself is injurious, but that it suffo- 
cates the tree roots by burying them beyond the reach of air. 

ATMOSPHERIC DRAINAGE AND FROST PROTECTION. 

In mountain regions, besides the draining of water from higher *to 
lower levels, there is a similar drainage of air. This latter might 
seem to be of trilling importance in fruit growing, but it is in fact one 
of the most important considerations, for it tends greatly to avert 
frost. Freezes and frosts are undoubtedly the greatest hazard of the 
business of fruit growing. ~No disease or depredator destroys half so 
many hopes and dollars for the fruit grower as a few hours of frost. 
We are told that "the frost falleth alike on the just and on the un- 
just," but in seasons when the daily papers are heralding reports that 
an untimely frost has taken the entire fruit crop of the State some 
lucky fellow high up in his mountain coves, with not too many good 
works to his credit, has his entire crop saved as if by miracle. Frosts 
appear to strike in a very erratic manner ; they are, however, like 
other phenomena of nature, subject to very definite laws. It is well 
known that as air becomes heated it ascends, and as it cools it becomes 
heavier and falls. On sloping ground air as it cools passes down 
from higher to lower levels. Other things being equal, low lands are 
more frosty than higher lands, because the cold and frosty air drains 
from the higher and settles into the lower levels. A corn field in the 
fall gives one of the best illustrations of the places most subject to 
frost and those also which are exempt. On the bottom lands the 
blades and stalks will almost invariably show where frost has bitten 
first. Up on the hillsides and higher elevations the corn will often 
be found growing fresh and green, while in the bottoms below not a 
green stalk can be seen. Where knolls occur in bottoms they will 
often be seen to lift their green-clad sides out of the blighting frost- 
laden atmosphere of the surrounding valley. Air drainage is just as 
natural as water drainage, and for orchard locations is just as impor- 
tant a consideration. 

The frostiest locations, and those therefore to be most avoided, are 
valleys shut in on all sides. To the uninitiated these places would 
appear to be most admirably protected, but they are veritable frost 
pockets. On cold nights they receive the cold air from higher regions, 
and frosts and freezes in them are inevitable. Once while traveling 



The Bulletin. 9 

in the Kocky Mountains I saw one of these small valleys shut in by 
hills, in which all the vegetation was nipped by frost. The surround- 
ing hills on one side were somewhat lower than on the other sides. 
When the valley became full of cold air it flowed over the lowest side, 
just as water would have done. All around on the other sides of the 
valley the high frost mark could be seen, and it formed a line on a 
level with the top of the lowest hill where the frosty air had flowed 
over. Above this line the tenderest vegetation showed not the slightest 
injury. A valley with a large outlet will usually be reasonably safe 
from frost. The land about rivers which have a considerable fall will 
be drained of water and also of cold air. Lands contiguous to such 
streams can be counted on as being reasonably safe from frost. Expe- 
rience with frost shows that mountain regions are much safer for fruit 
growing than the lower lands below them. 

A carefully planned and conducted experiment which I made two 
years ago in a hillside peach orchard confirms the results of general 
experience on this point. This orchard was carefully surveyed with a 
leveling instrument and the ground mapped out in contours. Contour 
lines connected all trees at the same elevation. There was two_ feet 
difference in elevation between each two contour lines. Self -register- 
ing thermometers were placed on each contour line and readings were 
made on them three times a day throughout the entire winter and 
spring. The lower contour lines almost invariably registered lower 
temperatures than the higher ones. There was usually from one-half 
to one degree of difference between each line and the one above it. 
Instruments placed along one contour line, thus all being at the same 
elevation, showed practically no difference in temperature. During 
the winter zero temperatures were recorded in this orchard. At 
pruning time in the spring it was found that the wood of the trees on 
the lowest contour had been badly frozen and was "black-hearted." 
The effect of the "black-hearting" lessened with higher contours, and 
on the highest one not a single affected tree could be found. The 
only fruit produced in the orchard was on the two highest contours. 
Higher land above this, which was not planted in orchard, would un- 
doubtedly have been a safer location for peaches. The same season 
an estimate was made on the effect of winter freezing of peach buds 
on trees grown on comparatively level land. A measuring pole was 
placed in the trees and by means of a step-ladder the buds were ex- 
amined and counted at different heights from the ground. An exami- 
nation of 1,300 buds gave the following percentage of buds killed by 
frost : 

Two feet from the ground 50 per cent. 

Four feet from the ground 30 per cent. 

Eight feet from the ground 16 per cent. 

These are only a few of hundreds of such examples that could be 
given to show the advantages of elevated locations for fruit growing. 

2 



10 • The Bulletin. 



THERMAL FRUIT BELTS. 



In mountain regions, where elevations are greatest, the maximum 
of exemption from frost is experienced. There are many places in 
our mountains known as thermal belts, which are said to be entirely 
free from frost. Whether or not this is claiming too much, it is cer- 
tain that distinct lines can often be seen separating bright, _ fresh 
verdure above and blackened, frost-bitten foliage below. Similar 
lines of demarcation can be seen in spring between the early growth 
on the hillsides and the dormant buds of the valley below. In sum- 
mer over the same area can be seen a distinct cloud line marking the 
height of the fog in the valley below, while above it on the hillside will 
be a cloudless air bathed in sunlight. In the fall, when frosts have 
claimed all the tender vegetation of the valley, there will be seen, 
longitudinal bands skirting the hillsides, showing for a month or six 
weeks all the freshness of summer. Though the exact borders of 
these thermal zones cannot be located with precision, their general posi- 
tion is fairly constant. Orchards planted on thermal belts are re- 
markably regular in fruit bearing. There are many orchards in the 
mountains where old settlers claim they have never seen a failure in 
a crop from frost. The reason for these peculiar phenomena is 
undoubtedly the draining of cold air from the hillsides and its strati- 
fication in the valleys below. There are other circumstances con- 
nected with thermal belts that have not yet been been fully worked 
out. By the aid of self-registering instruments for recording tem- 
perature and humidity we are at present working on these problems, 
and hope to have information to give later. However, there is at 
present sufficient practical evidence of the value of thermal belts in 
frost protection. Fruit growers should not fail, where possible, to 
take advantage of them in orchard planting. 

DIRECTION OF SLOPE. 

There is considerable difference of opinion among fruit men as to 
what is the best direction for the slope of an orchard. The prefer- 
ences of different men of experience are so variable as to include every 
point of the compass. Each slope has its advantages and its dis- 
advantages. A northern slope is a little later in forcing growth in 
spring, and on that account the bloom is less apt to be nipped by late 
spring frosts. On the other hand, the fruit on northern slopes, when 
developing, gets less sunlight and does not have the high colors of that 
grown on southern slopes. As it is the sunlight that paints the bright 
colors, the southern slopes always produce the richest-tinted fruit. 
Southern slopes, too, are the ones from which the sun drinks the 
moisture most rapidly. They are apt, therefore, to be droughty, and 
unless the trees are well cultivated or mulched they will produce small 
fruit. On account of the continuous loss of moisture from southern 



The Bulletin. 11 

slopes it is found that the soils on them are almost invariably thinner 
and poorer than on northern slopes. Comparisons in the growths of 
natural forests on northern and southern slopes bear out the same 
idea. Western slopes give brighter colors of fruit than eastern ones, 
but they get the hottest rays of the sun, and trees on them are much 
more subject to sunscald. By care in cultivation and pruning many 
of the drawbacks due to slope can be overcome, but in any case the 
sloping lands are to be preferred to level ones for commercial orchard- 
ing. 

The steepness of the slope on which it is practicable to plant 
orchards will depend on circumstances. One often finds apple trees 
in mountain regions that are producing large quantities of beautiful 
fruit in places that to a plainsman would scarcely seem to be accessi- 
ble with a flying machine. There is little doubt about the trees doing 
well on very steep and even on rocky locations, but it is often next to 
impossible to harvest the fruit there economically. Mountain coves, 
even when high up in the mountain sides, offer the best possibilities 
for apple growing because they have natural irrigation and excellent 
drainage, and their soils are usually rich from the washing of the 
enclosing slopes. Often, while steep, high ridges may be entirely 
unsuited for apple trees, the coves which they contain may be almost- 
ideal for the same crop. Nature never intended that the greater part 
of mountain lands should bear anything but forest. Man in moun- 
tain regions too often invades nature's realm, and thus we see washed 
and gullied fields on which cultivation is impracticable. Orchards 
can profitably go higher up the slope than any other agricultural crop, 
but our better judgment should not allow them to trespass on nature's 
domain. 

• SOILS FOR APPLE ORCHARDING. 

Apple trees will grow on a great variety of soils, but they feel most 
at home and give their best results on deep, rich clays and loams. 
Why they prefer these soils it is impossible to say, but apple trees 
seem to be suited to clays just as cacti are to desert sands. The early 
or summer apples do well on light or sandy soils because they ripen 
their crop before the hot season,-when moisture is scarcest. Late fall 
■ or winter varieties, which have to develop their fruit in the hot sum- 
mer, when moisture is hardest to get, must have a soil that is retentive 
of moisture. Muck soils are rich and contain abundant moisture, but 
they produce large, rank-growing trees with tender terminals that 
produce poor fruit. 

BEST RESULTS ON RICH SOILS. 

Apple soils should be rich and they should not be called upon to 
produce anything but apples. It takes a great deal of fertility in 
the land to produce the wood of the trees on an acre of orchard. The 



12 The Bulletin. 

fertility that produces the fruit is over and above that required to 
grow the trees. There are few crops so exhaustive on land as a crop 
of nursery stock, and no tillers of the soil know so well how to fer- 
tilize the soil as do nurserymen. If trees continued to grow in the 
orchard with the vigor they are made to do in the nursery there would 
be a thousandfold greater returns from orchards than there are to-day. 
From my experience and observation in horticulture I think it safe 
to say that seventy-five per cent of all the trees that leave nurseries 
die of starvation before they come to usefulness. Soil poverty de- 
stroys more trees than all the pests and plagues put together. A soil 
cropped to death with corn or cotton or tramped hard by the feet of 
stock is a certain burying ground for the tender and well-favored tree 
from the fertile soil of a nursery. The reason timber trees grow so 
well in their native forests is that the fertile, spongy mould of the 
forest floor affords an ideal home for the little seedlings till they get 
big enough to fend for themselves. Soil for orchards should be as 
nearly as possible like nature's model forest soil. Indeed, the best 
soils for fruit trees are those just vacated by the forest primeval and 
occupied by the orchard before they can be pre-empted by any other 
agricultural tenant. Mountain coves are ideal for orchards. 

STUMPY AND STONY LAND FOR ORCHARDS. 

It is by no means necessary that a virgin soil should be cleared of 
stumps and stones before planting the orchard trees. Unless a stump 
is actually in the place where a tree should be set, it is not necessary 
to go to the trouble and expense of having it removed. It is much 
cheaper to let stumps rot out gradually, and while they are doing so 
they are supplying humus to the growing fruit trees. Stony land is 
not at all objectionable for commercial orcharding. On steep loca- 
tions they, help very greatly to hold the rich soil from being washed 
away. It is probably for this very reason that in many mountain 
orchards the stony soils produce the best trees. Loose stones may be 
placed to form shelf terraces below the trees, or they may be placed 
in lines to form general terraces between each two rows of trees. 
Unless the soil is very thin, stones may be considered as a benefit 
rather than otherwise, because of the value they have to the land 
in assisting drainage and in protecting soil moisture. It is notice- 
able that fruit trees near rock piles or stone fences suffer little from 
drought. 

NEW VS. OLD LAND. 

Where virgin soil from the forest cannot be obtained for orchard 
planting, only rich land should be used. As an orchard will occupy 
the ground for many years, very thorough preparation should be given 
the soil before planting the trees. Never set trees on poor or dry 
land, for if they do start they are so stunted that it is next to impossi- 



The Bulletin. 13 

ble to ever get them to make a satisfactory orchard. Land kept in 
good tilth and used for cultivated crops can be expected to give 
reasonably good results in starting and growing orchard trees. Lands 
used for grain crops should be shunned for orchard work, as they are 
almost certain to be of the driest and poorest character. Old pasture 
lands are very poor for tree culture. They may be fairly rich from 
the droppings of the stock, but the humus in them is ruined by tram- 
pling and their mechanical texture is at its very worst. A good pre- 
vious crop is a heavy growth of some kind of leguminous plant. This 
crop should be plowed down to furnish humus for the trees. It is 
more or less difficult and expensive to improve land after trees are 
planted; so it is best to spare no pains on previous preparation. 
Preparatory to setting the trees the soil should be deeply plowed. 
Clean surface cultivation should be given to conserve moisture. A 
liberal dressing of manure is always beneficial. The manure should 
never be put in the holes in which the trees are planted, but it should 
be incorporated in the soil by general cultivation. 

LAYING OUT A MOUNTAIN OECHAED. 

Laying off land for tree planting on a hilly or uneven surface is 
much more difficult than on level ground. It takes a good eye and a 
careful hand to lay out an orchard so that the trees will line up every 
way. On level ground nothing less should be done, for crooked or 
irregular rows of trees are not only an eyesore and a living monument 
to the incompetency of the planter, but they are an endless vexation to 
the one who has to cultivate them. On mountain land the slope 
usually makes cultivation impracticable except parallel with the hill- 
sides. This simplifies the problem itself, but one who has never tried 
hillside planting will be surprised at how difficult it is to get anything 
like a regular-looking orchard when the work is completed. If the 
slope is fairly regular — that is, with no "draws" or "coves" — one can 
measure up and down the hill and locate the ends of the rows on a 
base line at each end of the piece. If the land is not very steep, one 
can start at a bottom corner and measure up the hill, laying off the 
rows according to the distance desired between the trees. If the trees 
are to be 35 feet apart, which is the least distance standard trees 
should be set, he will simply measure up the hill, using one of the end 
boundaries as a base line and put in a stake at every 35 feet. Meas- 
uring down the hill, he should check up his distances to see that each 
was exact. Each stake so set would mark the end of a row. The 
same measurements should be made up and down the hill on the other 
border of the piece. Using these end stakes as fixed points, a row of 
stakes could be sighted in between to make a straight line. The plow 
could then be started and a perfectly straight furrow, practically par- 
allel with the hillside, put in from this line of stakes. As the plow- 



14 



The Bulletin. 




The Bulletin. 



15 



ing proceeded, a second row of sighting stakes could be set up to mark 
the next row to be plowed. In proceeding in this manner the whole 
piece would be laid off in exactly parallel furrows, running approxi- 
mately parallel with the hillside. By making two rounds in each 
furrow the soil would be sufficiently plowed out, so that there would 
be very little more dirt to be thrown out with a shovel in planting the 
trees. In the highest and lowest parallel furrows stakes are set at 
every 35 feet. This marks the position of the trees in the first and 
last rows. From the second stake below a wire is reeled out and the 
end fastened tight to a stob driven in place of the second stake in the 




Fig. 2. — A Hillside Staked Out in Contours. 

upper row. The wire is drawn tight between these two points and 
then slackened gradually till it conforms to the slope of the hill and 
rests on the ground in a straight line. Where the wire crosses the 
bottom of each parallel furrow will mark the spot where a tree is to be 
planted. The setting of the trees can now begin. While one man is 
distributing trees up or down the hillside along the wire other men 
with shovels can be throwing out any extra dirt to make a proper hole 
and planting the trees. The wire can then be moved over to the next 
two stakes, and planting of the next row proceed in the same manner. 
A bright wire affords a very handy means of marking out the rows, 



16 The Bulletin. 

for in the sun it shows like a silver ribbon and can be seen perfectly, 
even throughout a long stretch of land. If the land is steep the same 
method can be used, but instead of measuring off the 35 feet (the dis- 
tance between two trees) on the slope it would be best to use a plumb 
line and level up, so that the 35 feet would be measured on the level 
instead of on the slope. On steep slopes, if some correction is not 
made for grade, it will be found that the rows are too close together. 
If the land is not too irregular, trees set out by this method will be 
found to "checker up" pretty well every way. 

LAYING OFF IRREGULAR OR COVE LAND. 

The foregoing method, though giving good results on even and regu- 
lar slopes, will not be found practicable on irregular slopes or cove 
land. On these latter the best method is to terrace the land by run- 
ning contour lines which will conform to all irregularities of slope 
and surface and bring all the trees in one row practically on the same 
level. The ground, whether, rough or smooth, will be laid off in a 
series of steps. Where the slope is steep the contour lines will be 
made to diverge so as not to bring the trees too close together up and 
down the hillside. The most accurate method of laying off contours 
is by the use of a leveling instrument, such as is used by surveyors. 
From practical experience with hilly lands most mountaineers can by 
the eye lay off fairly good contours. There are, however, simple 
home-made levels that can be constructed in a few minutes which will 
lay off terraces that for all practical purposes are as good as those sur- 
veyed by an engineer. F. T. Meacham, superintendent of the Iredell 
Test Farm, gives the following description of the construction and 
use of a home-made terrace level : 



B! --------- J-16y 2 ft.-i ----- - - - - iC 

To construct an A level, use well-seasoned timber, pine being preferable 
because it is ligbt and does not tend to warp. Take tbree pieces 10 feet long, 
3 incbes wide and x / 2 inch tbick. Now lay on a level floor so as to get the 
instrument of a rod span. The rod is commonly used in measuring land and 
is generally best, as it gets over land faster than a ten- foot level. Drive two 
nails in the floor just a rod, or 16% feet apart, saw off the ends of the two 



The Bulletin. 17 

pieces to be used for legs so that the ends will rest flat on the floor. Now 
place one end of each leg against the nails and let the pieces cross above your 
head and just exactly over the center of the rod span. Put a bolt here 
through both pieces fasten them together at the point A then we have two 
legs of the level, AB and AC. Now take the third piece and use as a cross- 
bar, DE. Fasten the piece DE to AC at about D, bolt so as to permit it to 
work easily. Now place firmly on DE in the center a spirit level, such as you 
can get from almost any hardware store for ten cents. Bring DE, at E end, 
to a point on leg AB, where the spirit level indicates level ; then mark or put 
a bole through both for bolt to work in. This hole on AB leg we call zero, 
which means level. Now we wish to make a scale that will enable us to run 
a terrace having a fall anywhere from an inch to four inches. Let some one 
raise the foot of AB one inch and lower cross-bar DE until level ; then put 
a hole through AB leg, and call this hole No. 1. Now raise foot of AB two 
inches and put another hole in AB leg and call it No. 2, and so on until we 
make our scale to four or five inches. The half-inch is then gotten by dividing 
the distance between holes and numbering halves. Now we have an instru- 
ment made that should not cost more than fifty cents at the outside, and will, 
if properly handled, suffice for most of this kind of work. 

In terracing a field start about three feet from the top of the hill, and begin 
to lay off the first terrace. Usually about one to two inches fall to the rod 
will be sufficient. Try to put the second terrace so that it will be about three 
to four feet lower than the first, and so on down the hill until the whole field 
is terraced. Now, if a field has a swag about the center and water collects 
from both directions in this swag, to avoid this begin the terrace in the swag 
and go both ways, providing there is a good outlet at each end. Lay off the 
terrace, giving one to two inches fall, as desired, by fastening the cross-bar 
DE at E in the hole giving the fall desired. Start at the point we have 
selected to begin, and. let the short leg, or the leg with the scale on it, be 
up-hill. The place for the terrace is found by raising the foot of the instru- 
ment up or down hill until the proper level is obtained, then let the boy carry- 
ing pegs stick one at the front end of the level ; then go with the instrument 
to that point, and repeat same operation until all the terraces are laid off. 
When you come to a gulley make half sets with the instrument and set up- 
grade stakes to tell how high to build the banks to prevent breaking over by 
heavy rains. Now walk back over the line of stakes and when a place is 
found where there is too short a turn in the terrace, straighten a little or give 
a more gentle curve by moving the upper stakes a little down-hill; never 
move lower stakes up-hill. 

After the terrace has been staked out a furrow can be run connect- 
ing the stakes. If desired, the terrace can be listed up by throwing 
several furrows together and the trees planted on the terrace. In 
planting orchards on contours it is impossible to have- the trees line up 
as they would do on even land. The first row is set by simply spacing 
the trees along the contour at the regular distance desired. The second 
row is set by as nearly as possible alternating the trees with those in 
the first row set. As the work of setting proceeds the trees in each 
row will be alternated with those in the row preceding it. On account 
of the variability of slope it will be found impossible to exactly alter- 
nate the trees. Occasionally a tree will have to be shifted one way or 
the other, or one left out, in order to keep the spaces between the trees 
fairly uniform. 



18 The Bulletin. 



HOW TO PLANT A TREE. 



It is not every one who can properly plant a tree. From the time 
trees leave the nursery until they are permanently planted they should 
be exposed just as little as possible. They should never be left open 
to sun or wind or air when it can at all be avoided. Trees waiting for 
planting should be heeled in with moist earth about the roots and only 
taken out of the ground when actually needed for setting. The hole 
dug for a tree should be large enough so that the roots may be spread 
out naturally in all directions. Yet it is not necessary to dig wide 
holes if the trees are heavy-rooted, for the roots of a tree always need 
trimming back at transplanting time. Cut back all roots, leaving a 
clean-cut surface. Remove all broken or torn roots and those that 
have become dried or dead. The cut surfaces should always show 
fresh living wood. When these clean-cut surfaces come in contact 
with moist soil the cambium grows out over the end and forms a callus, 
from which new roots start very readily. 

The filling-in of the holes is the most important step in the work of 
tree planting. To get the best results moist soil must be placed closely 
about the roots, so that there are no air holes or crevices. The best 
instrument fbr accomplishing this work is the human hand. When 
the tree is placed in position the roots are spread out and a shovelful 
or two of the finest and best earth thrown in upon them. This should 
be carefully worked into the crevices with the fingers, and when the 
hole is about a third full the dirt about the roots of the 'trees should be 
tramped down solid. Moving the tree up and down while the earth 
is being thrown in will assist materially in avoiding air holes and in 
bringing the soil into close contact with all the roots. There is little 
danger of packing the earth too much, but trees often die for lack of 
tramping. After the roots are all covered and packed in tightly the 
hole may be filled with the remainder of the earth. Trees should be 
set in the orchard no deeper than they stood in the nursery. Deep 
setting is almost as injurious as too shallow setting. The collar of the 
tree is the natural indicator of the proper depth of planting. The 
surface should be left loose ; tramping it would pack the soil so that it 
would lose moisture and dry out the tree. In planting trees do not 
pour water into the holes, for a slightly moist soil is much better than 
a very wet one. In very cold regions trees are best set in spring. In 
fairly mild climates trees get a better start if planted in the fall. In 
North Carolina, even in the mountains, the fall planting of trees will 
almost invariably give best results. The proper distance for setting 
standard apple trees is not less than 35 feet. 

Since the root surface has been reduced in transplanting the tree, 
it is necessary to cut back the top in similar proportion to maintain a 
balance between top and root. If this is not done, when the tree 
comes into leaf the foliage will give off moisture faster than the re- 
duced roots can supply it, and so the tree is dried out and killed. 



The Bulletin. 19 



FORMING THE YOUNG TREE. 



There has always been considerable discussion among fruit growers 
as to what is the proper height to start young apple trees. High- 
headed trees have the advantage that they can be easily cultivated. 
On the other hand, with low-headed trees the fruit is much easier to 
pick, it is not so apt to be blown off by wind and the trunks are much 
less subject to sunscald. The advantages are much in favor of low- 
headed trees, especially in mountain regions. The best height at 
which to head the young tree is 2 feet. The most uniform orchards 
are made from setting trees one and not two years old from the bud 
or graft. The one-year-old trees are little whips, on which the grower 
can form just the kind of head he desires. They are, of course, 
cheaper than two-year-olds and the freight on them is less. Two-year- 
old trees are large and brushy and have a head formed on them under 
the unfavorable crowding of the nursery. Many of the heads formed 
on two-year-old trees in the nursery are badly formed and have to be 
cut off and a new head formed in the orchard. This reduces them to 
practically the whip condition of the one-year-old trees. 

For the first season young trees should be allowed to grow pretty 
leafy. The more leaves they have the more wood they are able to 
form and the quicker they become established. After the trimming 
at planting time no pruning should be done the first season, except 
with especially vigorous trees to rub off a few of the sprouts at the 
collar and on the lower part of the trunk. In the spring of the second 
season a very thoughtful and careful pruning should be given. This 
is the most important pruning in the whole life of the tree and in a 
great measure determines the future usefulness of the tree. Trees 
should not be started with too many main limbs, as afterwards they 
thicken up and crowd each other and make it necessary to cut out very 
large limbs. This leaves very large wounds, which seldom heal over 
and usually cause the trunk of the tree to decay and become hollow. 
The cutting of large limbs is always a damage to a tree and should 
never be practiced except in the most extreme cases. Three or at. 
most four main limbs are enough for any fruit tree, and if properly 
placed on the trunk it will never be necessary to cut out a large limb. 
All main limbs should not start out at the same height on the trunk, 
for all the weight of limbs and of fruit being directed at a single 
point, the tree is liable to become split down by the wind. Opposite 
crotches should be avoided.. As far as possible have each main limb 
started so that it has the purchase of the whole trunk opposite it. 
Remove all suckers or water sprouts and limbs that cross and rub 
each other or that follow other limbs too closely in a parallel direction. 
The idea should be to obtain a symmetrically formed head, with the 
space well divided, so as to give each branch the maximum of light and 
air. There are different general forms of trees that are preferred by 



20 The Bulletin. 

different growers. Some like an open vase form of head, with hollow 
center and diverging branches. Such a tree is obtained by removing 
the leader bud in the little tree. Another form of tree desired by 
some growers is the "double-decked" or "two-story" tree, gotten by 
carefully maintaining the leader and allowing the tree to form a high 
top. With young trees it is nearly always necessary to head back the 
annual growth. From one- fourth to one-half the length should be cut 
from all long shoots. This causes the tree to thicken up and the 
branches to become thick and stocky. If heading-back pruning is not 
given young trees they will become tall and spindling and easily broken 
down when laden with fruit. 

VARIETIES. 

What varieties shall I plant ? is a question oftener asked than any 
other horticultural inquiry. It is one of the most difficult questions 
to answer, for unless one knows the district and has seen its possibili- 
ties he can at best but make a good guess. The most exact and prac- 
tical method of finding out what varieties do best in any section is for 
the intending planter to hitch up his best horse and visit the orchards 
in his vicinity. Varieties of fruit are much less selective as regards 
locality than is generally believed. It was formerly believed that the 
Albemarle Pippin could be grown nowhere with marked success but 
in a certain mountain region in Virginia. This very variety is now 
• grown to such perfection on the Pacific coast that it threatens to drive 
the Virginia Albemarle out of the market. More of the elements of 
successful fruit culture are in the grower than in the variety. If one 
likes a certain variety he generally gives it the conditions that make it 
successful. The characteristics of a good commercial apple are as 
follows : 

1. Tree heavy bearer. 

2. Tree vigorous and healthy. 

3. Fruit of fair size and bright color. 

4. Fruit keeps and ships well. 

5. Fruit of fair to good quality. 

The thing of prime importance with commercial orchards is that 
varieties be used that are heavy bearers. The only kind of successful 
commercial orchard is the one that produces, fruit, fruit, FRUIT. 
No matter what other characteristic a variety may possess, if it is not 
a heavy producer it has no place in a commercial orchard. The com- 
mercial apple should be showy and of fair to large size. The money- 
making market apple is "the big red apple." With but a few notable 
exceptions markets want red apples. It is hard to educate the mar- 
ket ; it has its prejudices and it is willing to pay for them. The com- 
mercial apple should be a good keeper and shipper. This assures a 
long season of sale and an attractive appearance on arriving in mar- 



The Bulletin. 21 

ket. It should have, too, the finest texture and best flavor consistent 
with keeping and shipping quality. Some varieties of apples of 
notably poor quality have in the past proved to be good money makers. 
Shipping and storing facilities are improving every year, and apples 
of fine texture and good flavor can now be placed in the best markets 
in perfect condition. The commercial apple of the future must have 
far better than Ben Davis quality. 

The apple growers of Western North Carolina have not been living 
up to the ideal horticultural possibilities of their clear, salubrious 
climate and rich mountain slopes. They can grow the best of the 
best. There are much better commercial apples than the Limbertwig, 
Stein and Grannie Buff. From these same slopes I have seen as fine 
Baldwins as ever grew in Massachusetts and as big Blacktwigs as 
ever came out of Arkansas. 

A commercial orchard, even a large one, should contain few varie- 
ties. Many fair-sized orchards have such a desultory collection of 
odd varieties coming on at all seasons of the year that the total output 
is of no consequence for market purposes. If I were planting a com- 
mercial apple orchard in Western North Carolina — and. I know of 
no better horticultural proposition — I would plant largely of the few 
following varieties : 

York Imperial, Stayman, 

Eome Beauty, Albemarle, 

Arkansas Blacktwig, Bonum, 

Winesap, Buckingham. 

AVOID BLOCK PLANTING. 

Varieties of fruit should not be planted in orchards in large, solid 
blocks. Some of the most productive varieties are not readily fertilized 
with their own pollen. Such varieties would be unproductive unless 
situated so that their blossoms could be pollinated by other varieties 
blooming at the same time. Old orchards teach their lessons along 
this line. A commercial orchard under observation recently con- 
sisted of four varieties, in solid blocks, in the following order : Bald- 
win, Golden Eusset, Koxbury Kusset, and Spy. The Baldwin is a self- 
fertilizing variety, and whenever there was any fruit in the orchard 
it could always be found on the Baldwins. The Golden Russets were 
laden with fruit on alternate years. The Roxbury Russets were 
pretty generally productive. The Spy block was uniformly unpro- 
ductive, except for a couple of rows next the Russets, which bore well 
whenever the orchard bloomed. Many good varieties of fruit are 
unproductive because they are so situated that their blossoms cannot 
be pollinated from neighboring varieties. Instead of planting varie- 
ties in solid blocks they should be planted in alternating rows. This 
may make a little more trouble at packing time, but there will almost 
invariably be more to pack. 



22 The Bulletin. 

cultivating orchards. 

In horticultural papers discussions are often seen as to the advisa- 
bility of cultivating or not cultivating bearing orchards. Regarding 
young trees there is not a shadow of a doubt of their being benefited 
by cultivation. Indeed, it is only a loss of time and money to plant 
trees without giving them cultivation at least during their early years. 
Little trees left to struggle against weeds, drought and a poverty- 
stricken soil very soon give up the struggle. If by chance they do 
survive they become so stunted that they are never of much value. 
Where the land is not too steep and rough, clean, shallow cultivation 
should be given over its whole surface. The plow should not be used 
in the orchard any oftener than necessary. An Acme harrow is a 
good orchard tool, and on land that is not stony a disc harrow is one 
of the bed. Implement builders are now making for orchard work 
a reversible disc cultivator that does not ridge up the land and that 
has an extension for working under low-headed trees. As soon after 
rains as the land is in suitable condition it should be gone over lightly' 
to make a surface mulch for conserving moisture. For cultivating 
close to the trees and reducing hand hoe work to a minimum a Planet, 
Jr., cultivator is one of the best tools. None but a careful man 
should ever be allowed to cultivate an orchard. A mule and a care- 
less man can do more harm to trees in an hour than all the insects 
and diseases on record. Low collars and hames should be used on the 
'horses, and they should be hitched to short whiffletrees. Chain traces 
should be wrapped with burlap to keep them from injuring the bark 
of the trees. There are special whiffletrees manufactured for orchard 
work which have the traces attached in such a way that there are no 
projecting ends to catch the bark. 

Before midsummer trees make most of their new growth ; the latter 
part of the season is used in developing the shoots and in ripening the 
terminal buds. If cultivation is continued after midsummer the 
terminals will continue to grow, and the immature growth thus made 
will be frozen back during winter. Cultivation should begin early 
in spring and cease early in summer. 

Where land is too rough and rocky for general cultivation a circle 
should be dug by hand about each tree. A mattock or heavy hoe is a 
handy tool for doing this work. The first year a circle of two to 
three feet in diameter will be sufficient. As the roots spread the 
circle of cultivation should widen out. Lack of cultivation while the 
tree is small is always attended with loss. 

THE SOD-MULCH ORCHARD. 

A great deal has of late been written in horticultural papers regard- 
ing the value of the sod method and the sod-mulch method of handling 
of orchards as compared with clean cultivation. On easily tillable 



The Bulletin. 23 

land cultivation is the surest if not the most economical way of retain- 
ing soil moisture. On rough, rocky or steep lands, such as are com- 
mon in mountain regions, where tillage is difficult, modifications of 
the sod or the sod-mulch methods. will be found advantageous. The 
Hitchings method of orcharding, of which a great deal has been heard 
of late, advocates the clearing roughly of the land from woods and the 
setting of the little apple trees among the stumps. No cultivation is 
given, but the grass and weeds are cut away with the scythe and 
timothy seed sown so* that a sod will be formed. As the stumps rot 
sufficiently to be removed conveniently they are taken out ,and the 
ground is worked and seeded down to timothy. The orchard is then 
mowed with a mowing machine once or twice during the season and 
the grass allowed to lie and rot on' the ground and form a partial 
mulch. Under certain conditions some growers have reported good 
results from this method. My own experience and observation com- 
pel me to advocate cultivation, and cultivation only, for the growing 
tree. After it has a fair root range it may be able to take care of 
itself and give good results in partial sod or under sod mulch. The 
color of the foliage and the amount of wood a young tree is able to 
form will indicate whether or not it is able to compete successfully 
with the vegetation beneath it. After trees are of bearing age there 
is no place in which they are better able to go without cultivation than 
in mountain regions. On land difficult of tillage and in terraced 
orchards the ground may be sown to grass and the grass cut and 
allowed to rot beneath the trees. If the trees are not occupying the 
whole soil with their roots it is best to pile the grass in the form of an 
individual mulch about each tree. Where the tree roots spread so as 
to cover the whole ground the grass may be allowed to decay where it 
falls. In most cases it would pay the orchardist to go a step farther 
than this and apply in addition any cheap material that could be 
readily obtained to thicken the mulch. 

ORCHARD FERTILIZERS. 

If we added together the sum total of injury to orchards from 
insects, diseases and frosts we would then have only a fraction of the 
losses due to poverty-stricken soils. "Saul and Jonathan may have 
slain their thousands, but David hath slain his tens of thousands." 
A great many more trees die of slow starvation on impoverished soil 
than perish from all other causes'. If farmers gave their corn or cot- 
ton or truck crops no more fertilizer than they do their fruit trees 
they would not expect a crop. Somehow or other a tree is expected 
to take care of itself without cultivation or plant food, and even while 
the soil about it is growing another crop or is tramped hard by stock 
it is supposed to produce a crop of fruit. Under such circumstances, 
instead of producing fruit (the product of its surplus energy) it has 



24 The Bulletin. 

a struggle to maintain its existence. There is a good deal of plant 
food locked up in the wood of the root, trunk and branches (the work- 
ing parts of the tree). It is only the surplus, after all necessities for 
growth are satisfied, that can go into fruit production. Growers 
often complain of their trees casting their fruit. This is because the 
tree finds itself unable to produce fruit and have a living balance left ; 
so to maintain its existence it casts off its fruit. After a heavy crop 
many trees succumb because they have not sufficient reserve force left. 
Such trees could be saved by a fertilizer application supplying some of 
the ingredients exhausted by the crop. 

A tree that is growing and building up its system of trunk and 
branches above and below ground requires a different fertilizer from 
a tree that already has these formed and is able to produce fruit. 
Growing tissues require considerable nitrogen and less of phosphoric 
acid and potash. Fruit production requires on the other hand a 
maximum of phosphoric acid and potash with a reduced amount of 
nitrogen. Stable manure is one of the very best fertilizers for young 
trees, but if used in large quantities on mature trees may stimulate 
too great a growth of wood at the expense of fruit production. Ashes 
are one of the best fertilizers obtainable for bearing trees. Where 
cover crops are used in the orchard they supply sufficient nitrogen to 
keep the trees in a good growing condition. If a dressing of acid 
phosphate and kainit at the rate of 250 pounds of each per acre be 
applied it would put the trees in good fruiting condition. One of our 
most successful growers uses for growing trees on light land the fol- 
lowing fertilizer : 

Phosphoric acid, 8 per cent ^ 

Nitrogen 5 per cent > 500 pounds per acre. 

Potash 2 per cent J 

And for fruiting trees on similar land : 

Phosphoric acid, 8 per cent ) 

Nitrogen 3 per cent r 500 pounds per acre. 

Potash 10 per cent > 

CROPS IN THE ORCHARD. 

At the proper distance of setting there will be in a young orchard 
a considerable proportion of land not in use by the trees. This can 
be conveniently and profitably used by other crops until the trees get 
large enough to need the whole land. When of bearing age a tree 
should have all the land on which it stands. It is not possible to pro- 
duce two crops on the same land at the same time. If in a mature 
orchard the land is used to produce other crops, very little can be 
expected from the trees. In young orchards cultivated crops may be 



The Bulletin. 25 

used to advantage to utilize vacant land, and at the same time the fer- 
tilizer and cultivation given will be useful to the growing trees. The 
best crops in the young orchard are those that mature early and thus 
do not compete with the trees during the summer season for their 
moisture and plant food. Early potatoes is one of the best crops; 
also snap beans and garden peas. Such crops leave the land in good 
tilth and do not draw heavily on the trees. Crops like corn, tomatoes 
and melons, that usually have to be cultivated later in the season, are 
not so suitable, because the later cultivation stimulates the trees to 
make growth too late in the season. With such crops they should not 
be allowed to come too close to the tree rows, and in no case is it 
advisable to plant in the tree row itself. For the first season a space 
of 4 feet on each side of the row should be given the little trees. 
In the following years this strip should be widened every year till the 
supplementary crops are crowded out and the trees are occupying the 
whole ground. In no case should grass crops or small grains be 
grown in the young orchard. 

COVER CROPS FOR ORCHARDS. 

As soon as cultivation ceases in an orchard the finely worked soil 
should be utilized as a seed bed for a cover crop. Leguminous plants 
are best for orchard cover crops, because they not only hold the soil 
and take up the plant food made available by cultivation, but, being 
nitrogen gatherers, they add to the soil this most expensive and elusive 
fertilizing constituent. Leguminous cover crops are the cheapest as 
well as the easiest means of adding nitrogen to the soil. During their 
growing period especially, orchard trees require a copious supply of 
nitrogen. With bearing orchards it is possible on rich land to use 
leguminous cover crops too frequently. If there is too much nitrogen 
supplied to the soil the trees will make wood and leaf growth at the 
expense of fruit. If the trees are found to be making too much new 
wood and the fruit does not color well it is advisable to leave out the 
cover crop for a year or two, till the balance is restored. Such a con- 
dition happens only under the most intensive tillage. What we 
usually see is orchards suffering grievously and starving for the want 
of cover crops. One of the best cover crops, especially for summer, 
is the cowpea. Unfortunately this plant does not grow well in moun- 
tain regions and it stops growing entirely at the first frost. Hairy 
vetch is a winter grower that makes a useful cover crop, but my 
experience has shown that crimson clover is the best cover-crop plant 
for mountain orchards. It should be sown early, when moisture is 
abundant. If the land is very poor it is difficult to get a stand of it, 
but with a reasonable chance it makes one of the best, if not the very 
best, cover crop. It will grow during the fall and most of the winter, 
and will add much to the fertility of the soil. It should be plowed 



26 



The Bulletin. 



or worked in early in spring, for it does not gain anything for the land 
by being left to flower and seed, and by the delay much valuable 
moisture is lost. By the use of cover crops the land is kept full of 
humus, which is so necessary to the holding of moisture. Orchard 
slopes rich in humus will absorb and hold a great deal of rain before 
they show any signs of washing. When lands begin to wash it is a 
sure sign that they are deficient in humus and have not been tilled to 
cover crops. 




Fig. 3.— Young Tree Protected from Rabbits by Veneer. 

As has been said before, it is best to cultivate orchards during the 
early part of the season. Cultivation should begin as early in the 
season as the land can be properly worked. If necessary, the land 
should be plowed, and plowed shallow, but if it is possible to break up 
the land and to work in the accumulation of vegetable matter with a 
harrow or disc cultivator without plowing, it is best to do so. If the 
soil is taken in time and the accumulation of vegetable matter is not 
too heavy and green, it will usually be found that a disc cultivator 
will do the work thoroughly and more cheaply than the plow. From 
this earliest cultivation the orchard should receive numerous shallow 



The Bulletin. 



27 



workings till midsummer. After each rain a light brushing with a 
harrow will do wonders in conserving moisture for the use of the trees. 
By midsummer it will be found that all the new shoots on the trees 
have made practically their season's growth. The remainder of the 




Fig. 4. — Roots of Tree Eaten off by Mice. 



summer and fall is used in maturing this growth and in ripening the 
terminals. If cultivation is continued after midsummer the trees are 
encouraged to make a long, sappy growth that will not mature, but 
will be killed by the first frost of winter. 



28 The Bulletin. 



WARDING OFF MICE AND RABBITS. 



A simple but by no means trifling drawback to orcharding in moun- 
tain regions is the destructive attacks of mice and rabbits. In a 
single winter's night one hungry rabbit will completely girdle and 
destroy trees that it has taken several years of labor and expense to 
produce. A few of these rodents, if not checked, will in a few weeks 
in winter entirely ruin valuable orchards. They seem to prefer apple 
bark to that of natural forest growth. The extensive timber lands of 
mountain regions afford harbor for rabbits, and an isolated orchard 
runs great risk. Small boys, with the usual desire for a dog and a 
gun and an appetite for rabbit pie, will do much to allay the trouble, 
but every careful orchardist should take special pains to protect his 
trees. The rabbit is a vegetarian, and blood and animal matter 
smeared on the tree trunks will do much to ward off his attacks. I 
have found, however, that the safest method is to wrap about the tree 
trunk a wooden veneer and fasten it securely with a wire. (See 
Fig. 3). This may take a little more trouble than other methods, but 
I have always found it a sure cure. 

The injury of mice to trees would to the uninitiated appear to be 
trifling, but the harm they do to young trees is usually much more 
serious than that clone by rabbits. Fig. 4 shows a young tree two 
years old set in a mountain orchard, the roots of which have been 
entirely eaten off by mice. -In this orchard, which was not cultivated, 
several hundred trees were destroyed. There is but one practical cure 
for the mice trouble, and that is clean cultivation. 

SPRAYING. 

Under present orchard conditions spraying is an absolute necessity 
in successful fruit production. It is practically impossible to raise 
good fruit now without spraying. One might as well try to raise 
fruit without planting the trees as to try to raise clean, marketable 
fruit nowadays without spraying. On account of the widespread 
culture of apples and the ever-increasing acreage of orchards it is 
only natural that the insects and diseases which prey upon the apple 
crop should be more numerous than they were a generation ago. To 
raise clean fruit one must spray, and spray persistently. That it 
pays to spray no one who has ever once tried it will for a moment 
question. Spraying is one of the necessities of the fruit business just 
as much as tillage, fertilization or marketing. It is not the purpose 
of this Bulletin to discuss methods of making spraying mixtures or 
their application. Numerous bulletins on all phases of that subject 
have been published and can be had on application to this Depart- 
ment. 



& 



The Bulletin. 29 

Commercial apple orcharding in the mountain regions is one of the 
most promising horticultural industries in this State. Many large 
orchards have been planted and thousands of trees are being set each 
year. Many mature orchards now in bearing are showing the advan- 
tages of rich mountain soils and a clear, cool climate, and are bearing 
large crops of rich-colored fruit. Young orchards, where given good 
care, are showing by a vigorous growth that the mountain sides are for 
them an ideal home. In spite of an ever-increasing acreage of 
orchard trees the prices paid for first-class apples are steadily advanc- 
ing. There is at present an increasing demand for first-class fruit at 
fancy prices. The possibility of overproduction seems to be nowhere 
in sight. In the great cities of the states south of us North Carolina 
has a natural market for commercial winter apples. By geographical 
position and direct lines of transportation she has in Southern mar- 
kets advantages over all Northern competitors in apple production. 
The unit of commercial production is the carload. Some cities in our 
oldest apple-producing counties are already handling apples on this 
scale. It is to be hoped that farmers in all our mountain regions will 
make use of their great natural advantages of soil and climate to 
develop large apple-shipping centers where wholesale buyers will 
come and purchase fruit in carload lots. To this end growers should 
plant only the best commercial varieties. The day of the seedling- 
apple has passed. Spraying should be considered as an inseparable 
adjunct to fruit growing. Fruit should never be shipped in crates, 
but should be packed in tight barrels or boxes, and only clean, graded 
fruit should go to market. 

In the oldest apple-producing sections land has greatly increased in 
value. Lands which were formerly considered of no use or of only 
trifling value for rough pastures are now held at high prices on 
account of their production of high-class, high-priced fruits. Many 
steep slopes formerly the prey of destructive erosion are now held in 
profitable use by the strong, tenacious roots of apple trees. Unlike 
annual crops, orchard trees add a yearly increment to the value of the 
land. A little apple tree of standard variety, when once established 
in an orchard, increases in value under good cultivation at the rate of 
one dollar a year for every year it grows towards its maturity. This 
gives some slight idea of the value and possibilities of mountain re- 
gions for commercial apple production. 



LEAF TOBACCO SALES DURING MONTH OF JULY, 1908. 

Pounds sold for producers, first baud 527,383 

Pounds sold for dealers 70,597 

Pounds resold for warehouse. . : 125,219 

Pounds resold for other warehouses 

Total 723,199 



NOTICE. 

The Department finds it necessary to revise the Bulletin list. All 
parties desiring the Bulletin sent to them in the future are re- 
quested to send notice to this effect on postal card, addressing 
Commissioner of Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C. 



THE BULLETIN 



OF THE 



NORTH CAROLINA 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



RALEIGH. 



Volume 29. 



SEPTEMBER, 1908. 



Number 9. 



VARIETIES OF FRUIT 



FOR GROWING IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



BY 



W. N; HUTT AND S. B. SHAW. 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

GARDEN.. 




PUBLISHED MONTHLY A 



J "br 



•9jy 



rS -Vf.t, ^O CITIZENS ON 



APPLICATION. 



• J? • *« £ 

ENTERED AT THE RALEIGH POST-OFFICr. ®li* J> **fi|V>»» MAIL MATTER. 

* till- C */ 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



S. L. Patterson, Commissioner, ex officio Chairman, Raleigh. 

J. J. Laughinghouse Greenville First District. 

C. W. Mitchell Aulander Second District. 

William Dunn New Bern Third District. 

Ashley Hokne Clayton Fourth District. 

R. W. Scott Melville Fifth District. 

A. T. McCaixum Red Springs Sixth District. 

J. P. McRae Laurinburg Seventh District. 

R. L. Doughton Laurel Springs Eighth District. 

W. A. Graham Machpelah Ninth District. 

A. Cannon Horse Shoe Tenth District. 



OFFICERS AND STAFF. 

S. L. Patterson Commissioner. 

Elias Carr Secretary. 

B. W. Ktlgore State Chemist, Field Crops. 

Tait Butler Veterinarian, Animal Husbandry. 

Franklin Sherman, Jr '. Entomologist. 

W. N. Hutt Horticulturist. 

H. H. Brimley Naturalist and Curator. 

T. B. Parker Demonstration Work. 

W. M. Allen Food Chemist. 

C. D. Harris Feed Chemist and Microscopist. 

J. M. Pickel Assistant Chemist. 

W. G. Haywood Assistant Chemist, Fertilizers. 

G. M. MacNider Assistant Chemist, Soils. 

L. L. Brinkley Assistant Chemist. 

S. O. Perkins Assistant Chemist. 

Hampden Hill Assistant Chemist. 

S. C. Clapp Nursery and Orchard Inspector. 

S. B. Shaw Assistant Horticulturist. 

W. J. Hartman Assistant Veterinarian. 

Z. P. Metcalf Assistant Entomologist. 



R. W. Scott, Jr., Superintendent Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C. 
F. T. Meacham, Superintendent Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. 
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent Pender Test Farm, Willard, N. C. 
R. W. Collett, Superintendent Transylvania and Buncombe Test Farms, 
Swannanoa, N. C. 




VARIETIES OF FRUIT 

FOR GROWING IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



W. N. HUTT. 



The selection of suitable varieties is fundamental to success in fruit 
growing. If the tree is not of the proper breed, it makes no differ- 
ence how rich the soil or how careful the tillage. Orchards are often 
seen that are on good soils and receive the most assiduous attention 
of their owners, but at harvest time they give no fruit, or fruit of 
only indifferent quality, in return for all the trouble and expense 
bestowed upon them. It is just as necessary for the successful fruit 
grower to have trees of the right breed as for the dairyman or the 
stock raiser to have animals of the right breed. Indeed, the stock 
raiser, finding he has made a mistake in the selection of his animals, 
can more easily and cheaply remedy his error than can the fruit 
grower who has planted an orchard with poor nursery stock. 

A great deal of harm has been done to fruit growing by the irre- 
sponsible, itinerant tree peddler. Many farmers have, to their sor- 
row, paid high prices to tree peddlers for trees, the fruit of which 
was represented to them by enlarged and over-painted pictures, bol- 
stered up by imaginary and flamboyant descriptions. Most of the 
fruit sold by such persons turns out to be entirely worthless or to be 
old varieties renamed, or inferior varieties substituted for standard 
sorts. A farmer once showed me a mature orchard, the trees of 
which had been bought from a traveling nursery agent. It consisted 
of eight acres and was supposed to be set with four leading commer- 
cial varieties. The orchard had been carefully tended for fifteen 
years. On coming into bearing, there were found to be as many 
varieties as. there were trees, and not one of them was of any account. 
They had been simply ungrafted, seedling trees. Such an experience 
forever disgusts the ordinary farmer with fruit growing. If these 
trees had been purchased from a reliable nursery no such loss would 
have been experienced by the grower. Reputable nurserymen are in 
the business to stay in it, and they take pains to grow only useful 
varieties and exercise the greatest care to keep varieties true -to name. 

In the following pages will be found lists of varieties of each of the 
classes of fruits that can be grown in North Carolina. Although a 
great deal of thought, travel and research have been given to the mak- 
ing of these lists, they are by no means to be taken as absolute or per- 
fect. No effort has been spared to make them as accurate as possi- 
ble, yet the behavior of varieties depends so much upon conditions 
that the lists are to be considered as suggestive rather than dogmatic. 
There are many old and standard varieties that from wide dissemi- 
nation by nurserymen have shown themselves to be cosmopolitan in 



4 The Bulletin. 

habit, and their behavior in any locality can be counted on with a fair 
degree of certainty. Some newer varieties, of high quality and 
exceptional promise, have not yet been widely enough grown to guar- 
antee their good behavior in all locations. Other varieties have shown 
themselves to be rather fastidious of location, and give in some situa- 
tions exceptional results and in others utter failures. To this class 
belong such fine varieties as Albemarle, Jonathan, Baldwin and Spy. 
In the preparation of the following lists the idea has been especially 
to encourage commercial fruit culture. In doing this it has been the 
aim not to make an extended and exhaustive list of all varieties that 
are now in cultivation within our borders, but to recommend those 
which have shown themselves to have the especial excellence that war- 
rants them displacing other varieties. For this reason growers may 
be surprised at the absence of certain varieties from these lists. The 
present lists are the product of many years of work in horticulture, 
together with the revision of all former lists published by this Depart- 
ment. A careful comparison of nursery catalogues has been made, 
and data on varieties collected from over a thousand letters from fruit 
growers in this State. I beg to acknowledge, also, the valuable sug- 
gestions on varieties from Prof. H. H. Hume, formerly of this De- 
partment, and of Prof. F. C. Reimer, of the North Carolina College 
of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 

In the making of these lists of varieties for commercial culture it 
has been kept in mind that quality should be as high a consideration 
with commercial varieties as with those for home consumption. These 
lists may therefore be followed with safety for use in the home 
orchard and garden. The descriptions of varieties, arranged in 
alphabetical order, will give intending planters the nature and habits 
of each variety recommended. As the State of North Carolina ex- 
tends from the surf of the Atlantic Ocean to a height of over 7,000 
feet, the highest altitude east of the Rocky Mountains, it naturally 
divides itself into three horticultural zones. These are defined at the 
head of the fruit lists as Mountain, Piedmont and Coast. As fruits vary 
in earliness with altitude, what will be a summer fruit in the coastal 
region will usually be classed as an autumn fruit in the mountains. 
In classifying fruits allowance must always be made for altitude. 

The general soil requirements for the succeeding classes of fruit 
may be briefly catalogued as follows : 

Apples . Rich loams and clays. 

Pears Heavy clays. 

Pl lims Clays and loams. 

Peaches Loose sandy or shaley soils. 

Cherries Deep rich loams. 

G ra p es Well-drained loams. 

Quinces Deep moist loams. 

Pigs Rich moist, sandy loams. 



The Bulletin. 



Raspberries Rich moist loams. 

Currants , .Rich moist loams. 

Blackberries and Dewberries Rich moist loams, and sands. 

Gooseberries ......." Rich moist loams. 

Strawberries Very cosmopolitan, almost any soil. 

Crab Apples Deep rich loams. 

Mulberries Deep rich loams, and sands. 

Pecans Sandy loams. 

Pomegranates Sandy loams. 

Japanese Persimmons Loams and sands. 

APPLES. 

SUMMER VARIETIES. 

Mountain. Piedmont. Coast. 

Chenango, Chenango, Early Harvest, 

Early Harvest, Early Harvest, Early Colton, 

Maiden Blush, Early Colton, Horse, 

Oldenburg (Duchess), Horse, Red Astrachan, 

Red Astrachan, Maiden Blush, Red June, 

Red June, Oldenburg (Duchess), Sweet Red June (Eckel), 

Summer Pearmain, Red Astrachan, Williams, 

Sweet Red June (Eckel), Red June, Yellow Transparent. 

Yellow Transparent. Summer Pearmain, 

Sweet Red June (Eckel), 

Williams, 

Yellow Transparent. 

AUTUMN VARIETIES. 

Belleflower, Bonum, Bonum, / 

Bonum, Buckingham, Buckingham, 

Buckingham, Grimes Golden, Mother, 

Grimes Golden, Gravenstein, Virginia Beauty. 

Gravenstein, Jefferis, 

Jefferis, Mother, 

Mother, Virginia Beauty. 
Virginia Beauty. 

WINTER VARIETIES. 

Albemarle Ben Davis, Ben Davis 

(Yellow Newtown), Dula Beauty, Gulley (Mangum), 

American Golden Russet, Gano, Horse, 

Baldwin, Hoover Mattamuskeet, 

Ben Davis, (Baltimore Red), Shockley, 

Fallawater, Limbertwig (Red), Stayman, 

Gano, Limbertwig (Royal), Winesap, 

Hoover Mammoth Blacktwig Yates, 

(Baltimore Red), (Arkansas), York Imperial 

Jonathan, Pope (Seedling), (Johnson Fine Winter). 

Mammoth Blacktwig Rome Beauty, 

(Arkansas), Smith Cider, 

Northern Spy, Sparger, 

Rome Beauty, Stark, 

Roxbury Russet, Stayman, 

Smith Cider, Winesap, 

Smokehouse, York Imperial 

Spitzenburg (Esopus), (Johnson Fine Winter). 
Stayman, 
Winesap, 
York Imperial 

(Johnson Fine Winter). 



6 



The Bulletin. 



pears. 

Of late years, on account of the ravages of pear blight, the -present 
list of varieties of pears is necessarily very short. Owing to the 
deadly work of this fatal disease of the pear, most of the high-quality 
varieties are disappearing from cultivation. The names of old stand- 
ard varieties are in most fruit regions passing into ancient horticul- 
tural history and are disappearing from orchard and nursery lists. 
With the exception of the resistant Seckel, it is extremely risky nowa- 
days to set for commercial growing any varieties of pears except the 
resistant low-quality sorts of the Chinese class, such as Garber, Le 
Conte and Keiffer. Pears are most resistant of blight when grown 
slowly on clay land without being stimulated by cultivation. 



Mountain. 

Anjou, 

Bartlett, 

Early Harvest, 

Flemish Beauty, 

Garber (Chi.), 

Howell, 

Keiffer (Chi.), 

Le Conte (Chi.), 

Seckel, 

Sheldon, 

Winter Nelis. 



PEARS. 

Piedmont. 

Anjou, 
Bartlett, 
Early Harvest, 
Flemish Beauty, 
Garber (Chi.), 
Howell, 
Keiffer (Chi.), 
Le Conte (Chi.), 
Magnolia (Chi.), 
Seckel, 
Sheldon, 
Winter Nelis. 

PLUMS. 



Coast. 

Garber (Chi.), 
Keiffer (Chi.), 
Le Conte (Chi.), 
Magnolia (Chi.), 
Seckel, 
Smith (Chi.). 



Our list of cultivated plums is made up from several sources. We 
have our American plums, represented by the Miner, Weaver and 
Wild Goose, which are suited to our climate and grow and bear well 
in all parts of the State. This class of plums does not, however, com- 
pare in quality with the domestic class of plums introduced from 
Europe. The varieties, Bradshaw, Coe, General Hand and Imperial 
Gage belong to the European class. Unfortunately the European 
plums do not thrive well except in the cooler mountain regions. In 
the last decade or so very valuable additions have been made to our 
list of plums by importation from Japan. The Japanese plums thrive 
well in all parts of the State, but are especially valuable for the coast 
region, where the European plums are not successful. Abundance, 
Burbank and Kelsey are varieties of the Japanese class. 



Mountain. 

Abundance (Jap.), 
Bradshaw (Eur.), 
Chabot (Jap.), 
Coe (Golden Drop, Eur.), 
Damson (Eur.), 
General Hand (Eur.), 
Imperial Gage (Eur.), 
Lombard (Eur.), 



PLUMS. 

Piedmont. 

Abundance (Jap.), 
Chabot (Jap.), 
Clifford (Amer.), 
Climax (Jap.), 
Damson (Eur.), 
Golden Beauty (Amer.), 
Kerr (Jap.), 
Miner (Amer.), 



Coast. 

Abundance (Jap.), 
Chabot (Jap.), 
Clifford (Amer.), 
Climax (Jap.), 
Damson (Eur.), 
Excelsior (Amer.), 
Golden Beauty (Amer.), 
Kerr (Jap.), 



The Bulletin. 



Mountain. 

Lady Washington (Eur.), 
Miner (Amer.), 
Red June (Jap.)? 
Weaver (Amer.), 
Wild Goose (Amer.). 



Piedmont. 

Munson (Amer.), 
Ogon (Jap.), 
Red June (Jap.), 
Weaver (Amer.), 
Wickson (Jap.), 
Wild Goose (Amer.). 

PEACHES. 



Coast. 

Miner (Amer.), 
Munson (Amer.), 
Ogon'(Jap-), 
Red June (Jap.), 
Weaver (Amer.), 
Wickson (Jap.), 
Wild Goose (Amer.). 



The list of peaches that can be grown in North Carolina is such a 
long one that one has to cut down rather than build it up. The fol- 
lowing varieties have been selected as those having the most desirable 
characteristics. Peaches do best in light or sandy soils. 



Mountain. 

Bilyeu, 
Carman, 
Chairs Choice, 
Crawford Early, 
Crawford Late, 
Elberta, * 
Greensboro, 
Mountain Rose, 
Mathews Beauty, 
Smock, 
Sneed. 



Coast. 

Belle of Georgia, 

Carman, 

Champion, 

Chinese Cling, 

Connett, 

Crosby, 

Elberta, 

Greensboro, 

Hale, 

Heath, 

Ingold, 

Mayflower, 

Salway, 

Smock, 

Sneed, 

St. John. 



PEACHES. 

Piedmont. 

Belle of Georgia, 

Bilyeu, 

Carman, 

Champion, 

Chinese Cling, 

Chairs Choice, 

Connett, 

Crosby, 

Elberta, 

Greensboro, 

Heath, 

Ingold, 

Mayflower, 

Mountain Rose, 

Reeves, 

Salway, 

Smock, 

Sneed, 

St. John. 

CHERRIES. 

Cherries are divided horticulturally into two classes, the Dukes or 
Morellos and the English or Sweet cherries. These two types are 
quite different in form and in hardiness. The Duke or Morello cher- 
ries are characterized by a slow, firm growth of wire-like branches 
with very smooth, tough, leathery bark. The trees will grow over a 
much wider area than the Sweet cherries, and are much more resistant 
in the coastal region or cotton belt. The Sweet cherries are large, 
rapid-growing trees with thick, heavy twigs and branches. The 
Sweet cherries grow to perfection in the rich soils and cool climate of 
the mountains. They will do fairly well in the piedmont region, but 
are almost invariably unsuccessful in the coastal plain. 



Mountain. 

Black Tartarian (sweet), 
Dyehouse (sour), 
Eagle (sweet), 
Early Richmond (sour), 
Gov. Wood (sweet), 



CHERRIES. 

Piedmont. Coast. 

Black Tartarian (sweet), Dyehouse (sour), 

Dyehouse (sour), Early Richmond (sour), 

Eagle (sweet), May Duke (sour), 

Early Richmond (sour), Montmorency (sour), 

Gov. Wood (sweet), Morello (sour). 



s 



The Bulletin. 



Mountain. 

May Duke (sour), 
Montmorency (sour), 
Morello (sour), 
Napoleon (i-*oyal Ann) 

(sweet), 
Reine Hortense (sweet), 
Wragg (sour), 
Windsor (sweet), 
Yellow Spanish (sweet). 



Piedmont. 

May Duke (sour), 
Montmorency (sour), 
Morello (sour), 
Napoleon (Royal Ann), 

(sweet), 
Wragg (sour), 
Windsor (sweet), 
Yellow Spanish (sweet). 

GRAPES. 



Coast. 



The grapes grown in this State are of two native types, the Labrus- 
cas or bunch grapes and the Muscadines or "Bullaces." The bunch 
grapes have a very wide range of growth and will thrive in all parts 
of the State. The Muscadine grapes, which are represented by the 
varieties Scuppernong, James, Meisch and Flowers, are native in the 
coastal plain and grow there to great perfection. They can be grown 
to some extent in the lower piedmont, but will not thrive in the moun- 

tains - GRAPES. 



Mountain. 



Agawam, 

Brighton, 

Brilliant, 

Catawba, 

Concord, 

Delaware, 

Diamond, 

Lindley, 

Lutie, 

Moore, 

Niagara, 

Worden, 

Winchell. 



Meech Prolific, 
Orange. 



Cuthbert, 

Golden Queen, 

King, 

Loudon, 

Marlboro, 

Miller. 



Piedmont. 

Agawam, 

Brighton, 

Brilliant, 

Catawba, 

Concord, 

Delaware, 

Diamond, 

Ives, 

James, 

Lindley, 

Lutie, 

Meisch, 

Moore, 

Niagara, 

Scuppernong, 

Thomas, 

Worden, 

Winchell. 

QUINCES. 

Meech Prolific, 
Orange. 

FIGS. 

Brown Turkey, 
Celestial. 



RASPBERRIES (RED). 

Cuthbert, 

Golden Queen, 

King, 

Loudon, 

Marlboro, 

Miller. 



Coast. 

Brighton, 

Brilliant, 

Concord, 

Delaware, 

Diamond, 

Flowers, 

Ives, 

James, 

Lindley, 

Lutie, 

Meisch, 

Moore, 

Niagara, 

Scuppernong, 

Thomas, 

Worden, 

Winchell. 



Brown Turkey, 
Brunswick, 
Celestial, 
Ischia (black), 
Ischia (white). 



The Bulletin. 



9 



Mountain. 



Eureka, 

Gregg, 

Kansas. 



Cherry, 
Fay, 

Pomona, 
Red Dutch, 
White Dutch. 



Early Harvest. 



Downing, 

Houghton, 

Pearl, 

Red Jacket. 

Bubach (imperfect), 

Climax (perfect), 

Excelsior (per.), 

Gandy (per.), 

Heflin (per.), 

Lady Thompson (per.), 

Nick Ohmer (per.). 



Red Siberian, 
White Honey, 
Yellow Siberian. 



RASPBERRIES (BLACK). 

Piedmont. 

Eureka, 

Gregg, 

Kansas. 

CURRANTS. 



Coast. 



BLACKBERRIES. 
Early Harvest. 

DEWBERRIES. 
Lucretia. 

GOOSEBERRIES. 



STRAWBERRIES. 

Bubach (imp.), 

Climax (per.), 

Excelsior (per.), 

Gandy (per.), 

Heflin (per.), 

Lady Thompson (per.), 

Nick Ohmer (per.). 

CRAB APPLES. 

Red Siberian, 
White Honey, 
Yellow Siberian. 

MULBERRIES. 

Black English, 

Black Russian, 

Hicks, 

New American, 

Stubbs, 

White English. 

PECANS. 



POMEGRANATES. 

Purple Seeded, 
Sweet. 



Early Harvest. 



Lucretia. 



Bubach (imp.), 

Climax (per.), 

Excelsior (per.), 

Gandy (per.), 

Heflin (per.), 

Lady Thompson (per.), 

Nick Ohmer (per.). 



Black English, 

Black Russian, 

Hicks, 

New American, 

Stubbs, 

White English. 



Curtis, 
Frotscher, 
Schley, 
Stuart, 
Van Deman. 

Purple Seeded, 
Sweet. 



JAPANESE PERSIMMONS. 



Okame, 
Tanenashi, 
Triumph, 
Zengi. 



10 The Bulletin. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF VARIETIES. 



S. B. SHAW. 



APPLES. 



ALBEMARLE (YELLOW NEWTOWN): 

Tree vigorous, productive under favorable conditions. Fruit me- 
dium, roundish, oblate; cavity regular, wide, obtuse, deep, russeted ; 
basin wide, ribbed, medium deep. Calyx* open. Surface greenish 
yellow, white and russet veinings; dots distinct, numerous, minute, 
russet. Flesh firm, crisp, juicy, yellow. Flavor rich, subacid. Very 
good. Late winter. 
ASTRACHAN. (See Red Astrachan.) 
ARKANSAS (MAMMOTH BLACKTWIG): 

Tree vigorous, spreading, productive. Fruit large, roundish, ob- 
late, conical. < avity regular, obtuse, russeted. Basin shallow, 
nearly smooth. Calyx closed. Surface yellowish, almost entirely 
covered with red ; dots distinct, many, whitish. Flesh yellow, with 
yellow veinings, firm, juicy. Flavor mild, subacid. Core partly 
open ; seeds few, plump, short. Very good. Winter. 
BEN DAVIS: 

Tree erect, hardy, vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, roundish, 
oblong, conical. Cavity deep, regular, acute, russeted ; basin medium, 
almost regular. Calyx partly open. Surface smooth yellow, almost 
entirely covered with bright ancl deep red splashes and stripes ; dots 
distinct, minute, few, gray. Flesh white, firm, juicy. Flavor sub- 
acid. Good. Winter. ' 

BALDWIN: 

Tree vigorous, upright, spreading, productive. Fruit medium, 
large, roundish, conical. Cavity wide, regular, moderately deep; 
basin deep, narrow, generally plaited. Calyx large, partly closed. 
Surface rich yellow, nearly covered with red and striped with crim- 
son ; dots minute, russet or gray. Flesh yellowish white, crisp, 
juicy. Flavor good, subacid. Core closed. Seeds few, long, many 
imperfect. Very good. Winter. 
BUCKINGHAM: 

Tree upright, moderately spreading, productive. Fruit medium 
large, oblate, conical. Cavity broad, deep, slightly russeted; basin 
large, deep, slightly corrugated. Calyx closed. Surface greenish 
yellow, mostly covered' with shaded stripes and splashes of red and 
crimson ; dots numerous, light brown. Flesh yellowish, tender, juicy. 
Flavor mild, subacid. Core closed ; seeds numerous, long, pointed. 
Very good. Fall. 



The Bulletin. 11 

BONUM: 

Tree upright, spreading, hardy, productive. Fruit medium, regu- 
lar, oblate. Cavity regular, wide, greenish russet; basin wide, shal- 
low, slightly corrugated. Calyx closed. ' Surface yellow, mostly cov- 
ered with red and crimson splashes ; dots numerous, distinct, russet 
with dark center. Flesh white, often stained, firm, tender, juicy. 
Flavor aromatic, mild, subacid. Core small, closed. Seeds numer- 
ous. Very good. Autumn. 
BELLEFLOWER. (See Yellow Belleflower.) 
CHENANGO: t 

Tree vigorous, spreading. Fruit medium, oblong. Cavity regu- 
lar, narrow, acute; basin narrow, shallow, smooth. Calyx partly 
closed. Surface yellowish white, almost covered with crimson stripes, 
sunny side thinly overlaid with whitish veinings ; dots few, distinct, 
white, minute. Flesh white, tender, juicy. Flavor mild, pleasant, 
subacid. Core large, open; seeds fiat, pointed. Very good. Late 
summer. 

COLTON (EARLY COLTON): 

Tree vigorous, upright, spreading. Fruit medium, roundish, 
slightly ribbed. Cavity narrow, regular, shallow; basin shallow, ob- 
tuse, wrinkled. Calyx partly open. Surface light greenish yellow, 
brownish red blush ; dots large, numerous, greenish. Flesh whitish 
green, crisp, juicy. Flavor sprightly, subacid. Good. Summer. 
DULA BEAUTY: 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit large, oblate, conical. Cavity 
deep, obtuse, russeted ; basin wide, shallow. Calyx open. Surface 
dark green, almost entirely covered with dark red, obscurely striped 
with red ; dots few, obscure, whitish. Flesh yellowish white, tender, 
crisp, juicy. Flavor mild, subacid. Core medium, closed; seeds 
numerous, plump, pointed. Very good. Early winter. 
ESOFUS (SPITZENBURG): 

Tree thrifty, erect, with drooping, slender limbs. Fruit large, 
round, oblong, conical. -Cavity wavy, deep, wide, light brown ; basin 
shallow, slightly furrowed. Calyx small, closed. Surface smooth, 
almost entirely covered with red, one side shaded, tinged with yellow ; 
dots distinct, numerous, small, gray. Flesh firm, crisp, juicy. Fla- 
vor rich, spicy, subacid. Core open; seeds large, light-colored, flat. 
Best. Winter. 
EARLY HARVEST: 

Tree fairly vigorous, erect, spreading, productive. Fruit medium, 
roundish, often oblate. Cavity wide, regular with russet patch ; basin 
wide, shallow, smooth. Surface very smooth, clear yellow ; dots few, 
minute, white and green. Flesh very white, tender, juicy, crisp. 
Flavor rich, subacid. Core small, closed ; seeds few, large, pointed. 
Very good. Early summer. 



12 The Bulletin. 

ECKEL (SWEET RED JUNE): 

Tree upright, productive. Fruit large, roundish, oblong. Surface 
red. Flesh white, crisp, juicy. Flavor sweet, aromatic. Good. Early. 
FALLAWATER: 

Tree vigorous, very productive. Fruit large, round, regular. Cav- 
ity regular, narrow, slightly russet; basin narrow, nearly flat. Calyx 
large, open. Surface yellowish green, shaded with dull red; dots 
large, distinct, numerous, gray. Flesh greenish white, crisp, tender, 
juicy. Flavor mild, subacid. Core open ; seeds short, plump. Fair. 
Early winter. 

GANO: 

Tree erect, vigorous, productive. Fruit medium to large, regular, 
roundish. Cavity deep, regular, acute, russeted ; basin smooth, more 
abrupt. Calyx partly open. Surface smooth, dark, solid crimson ; 
dots distinct, few, gray. Flesh white, firm, moderately juicy. Fla- 
vor pleasant, subacid, not rich. Core closed, medium ; seeds large, 
long, pointed. Good. Late winter. 
GRAVENSTEIN: 

Tree vigorous, spreading, productive. Fruit large, roundish, oblate. 
Cavity acute, deep, angular, slightly russeted; basin angular, irreg- 
ular, ribbed. Cavity closed. Surface bright yellow, striped and 
splashed with light and dark red and orange ; dots obscure, few, gray,, 
minute. Flesh yellow with yellow veinings, tender, juicy, crisp. 
Flavor aromatic, sprightly, subacide. Late summer. 
GRIMES GOLDEN: 

Tree erect, spreading,' vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, regu- 
lar, roundish, oblate. Cavity regular, medium, slightly russeted ; 
basin abrupt, uneven. Calyx closed or partly open. Surface even, 
rich golden yellow ; dots many, obscure, white. Flesh yellow, firm, 
crisp, juicy. Flavor rich, aromatic, spicy, subacid. Core small ; 
seeds many, short, plump. Fine. Winter. 

GOLDEN RUSSET (NEW YORK): 

Tree vigorous, spreading, productive. Fruit medium, roundish,, 
oblong. Cavity medium ; basin deep, regular, smooth. Calyx partly 
open. Surface greenish yellow, almost entirely russeted. Flesh 
greenish yellow, fine-grained, tender, juicy. Flavor rich, aromatic,, 
subacid. Very good. Winter. 

GULLEY. (See Mangum.) 
HOOVER: 

Tree erect, spreading, retains foliage late. Fruit medium, round- 
ish, oblate. Cavity large, russeted ; basin slightly furrowed. Calyx 
open. Surface yellowish, splashed and striped with two shades of dark 
red ; dots distinct, light, patches of russet. Flesh yellowish, firm, ten- 
der, juicy. Flavor rich, subacid. Core small. Very good. Winter. 



The Bulletin. 13 

HORSE: 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, roundish, oblate. Cav- 
ity deep, acute, russeted; basin abrupt, corrugated. Calyx closed. 
Surface yellow, shaded with red blush ; dots few, sunken, large, gray. 
Flesh yellow, firm, coarse, tender. Flavor pleasant, subacid. Core 
large, partly open. Good. Late summer. 
JEFFERIS: 

Tree moderate grower, productive. Fruit medium, roundish, 
oblate, regular. Cavity large, regular, rather acute, slightly rus- 
seted ; basin wide, smooth, abrupt, medium deep. Calyx closed. Sur- 
face clear waxen yellow, shaded and splashed with dark crimson ; 
dots numerous, large, white. Flesh yellowish white, very juicy, ten- 
der. Flavor mild, aromatic, subacid. Core closed, small ; seeds 
long, pointed, numerous. Very good. Late summer. 

JONATHAN: 

Tree upright, spreading, vigorous, slender limbs. Fruit medium, 
roundish, oblong, conical. Cavity deep, regular, acute; basin deep, 
smooth, abrupt. Calyx small, closed. Surface smooth, clear, light 
yellow, almost covered with red, deepening into solid brilliant dark 
red on sunny side; dots distinct, numerous, minute, white. Flesh 
white, sometimes stained wine color, very tender and juicy. Flavor 
mild, aromatic, spicy, subacid. Core closed; seeds plump, long, 
pointed. Best. Early winter. 

LIMBERTWIG (RED): 

Tree hardy, productive, spreading, limbs drooping. Fruit me- 
dium, roundish, oblate, conic. Cavity deep, acute, thin green russet ; 
basin small, shallow, uneven. Calyx small, nearly closed. Surface 
greenish yellow, shaded and striped with crimson ; dots large, numer- 
ous, light brown. Flesh white, firm, juicy. Flavor brisk, subacid. 
Core closed ; seeds numerous, large, plump. Good. Late winter. 
LIMBERTWIG (ROYAL): 

Tree vigorous, spreading, drooping limbs. Fruit medium, large, 
oblate. Cavity deep, acute; basin shallow, small. Calyx closed. 
Surface greenish yellow, marked with red; dots numerous, brown. 
Flesh yellow, firm, juicy. Flavor poor, subacid. Good. Late win- 
ter. 

MAIDEN BLUSH: 

Tree vigorous, spreading, productive. Fruit roundish, oblate, me- 
dium. Cavity wide, deep, with trace of russet ; basin wide, smooth. 
Calyx closed. Surface smooth, pale yellow, blushed with red next 
the sun. Flesh white, tender. -Flavor pleasant, subacid. Core 
closed. Good. Early fall. 
MANGUM (GULLEY): 

Tree thrifty, productive. Fruit medium, oblate, conical. Cavity 
broad, russeted ; basin shallow, corrugated. Calyx partly closed. 



14 The Bulletin. 

Surface yellowish, striped and shaded with red ; dots numerous, whit- 
ish or bronze. Flesh yellow, very tender, juicy. Flavor mild, sub- 
acid. Very good. Early fall. 

MATTAMUSKEET: 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, roundish, oblate, conic. 
Surface yellow, shaded and splashed with light and dark red. Flesh 
whitish yellow, crisp. Flavor brisk, subacid. Good only in Eastern 
North Carolina. Late winter. 
MOTHER: 

Tree upright, rather slender, vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, 
roundish, conic. Cavity deep, acute, often a little russeted ; basin 
small, corrugated. Calyx closed. Surface golden yellow, almost 
wholly covered with rich, warm red, splashed and striped with deeper 
red ; dots numerous, minute, light russet. Flesh yellow, tender, juicy. 
Flavor rich, aromatic, subacid. Core medium, closed ; seeds numer- 
ous. Best. Early winter. 
NORTHERN SPY: 

Tree upright, spreading with age, productive. Fruit large, round- 
ish, oblong, conical. Cavity wide, deep, sometimes russeted; basin 
narrow, abrupt, furrowed. Calyx small, closed. Surface smooth, 
greenish yellow, thinly covered with light and dark red stripes, over- 
laid with thin whitish bloom ; dots obscure, few, yellow. Flesh white, 
fine-grained, tender, juicy. Flavor spicy, subacid. Core large, open ; 
seeds numerous, short, plump. Very good. Winter. 
OLDENBURG (DUCHESS): 

Tree hardy, upright, spreading. Fruit medium, regular, roundish, 
oblate ; cavity deep,, regular, acute ; basin abrupt, regular. Calyx 
medium, closed. Surface smooth, yellow, almost wholly covered with 
red stripes and splashes; dots white, numerous, minute. Flesh 
white, juicy. Flavor sprightly, subacid. Good. Late summer. 

RED ASTRACHAN: 

Tree upright, vigorous, spreading, productive. Fruit medium 
roundish, conical. Cavity shallow, regular, obtuse, russeted; basin 
shallow, smooth. Calyx small, closed. Surface smooth, greenish yel- 
low, almost entirely covered with mottled and striped red crimson. 
Flesh white, crisp, moderately juicy. Flavor brisk, acid. Very good. 
Summer. 
RED JUNE: 

Tree erect, vigorous, productive, hardy. Fruit medium size, irreg- 
ular, roundish, oblong, conic; cavity narrow, regular, acute, with 
slight trace of russet; basin narrow, smooth or slightly corrugated. 
Calyx closed. Surface smooth, rich her ; dots minute, obscure. Flesh 
finely grained, white, tender, juicy. Flavor agreeable, subacid. Core 
rather large; seeds black-brown, numerous. Good. Early market. 



The Bulletin. 15 

ROME (BEAUTY): 

Tree moderate grower, round-headed, productive. Fruit large, 
roundish, oblate, conical. Cavity wide, obtuse, lined with greenish 
russet ; basin smooth, deep, abrupt. Calyx closed. Surface smooth, 
pale yellow covered with red, splashed and striped; dots distinct, 
abundant, russet. Flesh yellowish, tender, juicy. Flavor sprightly, 
subacid. Good. Early winter. 
ROXBURY (RUSSET): 

Tree moderately vigorous, spreading, productive. Fruit medium, 
roundish, oblate. Cavity deep, regular; basin smooth, shallow, reg- 
ular. Calyx closed. Surface green, entirely covered with network of 
brownish russet; dots obscure, few, gray. Flesh greenish white, 
moderately juicy. Flavor rich, subacid. Core closed ; seeds pointed 
and plump. Very good. Late winter. 
SHOCKLEY: 

Tree vigorous, upright, very productive. Fruit medium, small, 
roundish, conical, regular. Cavity regular, acute, deep, russeted; 
basin shallow, narrow, corrugated. Calyx small, partly open. Sur- 
face very smooth, pale yellow blushed with red and crimson; dots 
few, minute, obscure, gray. Flesh yellow, crisp, juicy. Flavor rich, 
mild, subacid. Core closed ; seeds many, plump. Good. Winter. 

SMITH (SMITH'S CIDER): 

Tree vigorous, spreading, straggling, productive. Fruit medium, 
round, oblate, conical. Cavity deep, acute, russeted; basin broad, 
shallow. Calyx small, half open. Surface smooth, yellow, shaded 
and striped with red; dots few, distinct, large, gray. Flesh white, 
tender, juicy, crisp. Flavor aromatic, mild, subacid. Core open; 
seeds many, plump, pointed. Good. Late winter. 

SMOKEHOUSE: 

Tree moderately vigorous, spreading head. Fruit medium, round, 
oblate. Cavity wide, acute; basin wide, medium deep, corrugated. 
Calyx closed. Surface yellow, shaded and splashed with red and 
crimson ; dots few, large, gray and brown. Flesh yellow, firm, juicy, 
crisp. Flavor aromatic, subacid. Very good. Winter. 

STARK: 

Tree vigorous, upright, spreading. Fruit roundish, conical. Cav- 
ity regular, obtuse, russeted ; basin shallow, slightly wrinkled. Calyx 
closed. Surface yellowish green, overlaid with red streaks and 
splashes ; dots numerous, distinct, brown and whitish. Flesh yellow- 
ish, crisp, moderately juicy. Flavor mild, subacid. Good. Late 
winter. » 
STAYMAN (STAYMAN WINESAP): 

Tree vigorous, open, irregular, spreading, productive. Fruit me- 
dium, oblong, conical. Cavity wicle, deep, russeted; basin narrow, 
abrupt, shallow, furrowed. Calyx large, partially open, erect. Sur- 



16 The Bulletin. 

face greenish yellow, mostly covered with indistinct red stripes and 
splashes. Flesh yellow, firm, tender, juicy. Flavor rich, mild, sub- 
acid. Core medium. Very good. Late winter. 
VIRGINIA BEAUTY: 

Tree vigorous, spreading. Fruit medium, roundish, conical. Sur- 
face greetiish yellow, streaked and striped with red and purple. Cav- 
ity regular, deep, russeted; basin shallow, broad. Calyx open; dots 
numerous, obscure, bronze. Flesh greenish yellow, firm, juicy. Fla- 
vor sweet. Very good. Late winter. 
WILLIAMS: 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, roundish, oblong, coni- 
cal. Cavity wide, shallow, slightly russeted; basin wide, shallow, 
abrupt, corrugated. Calyx closed. Surface very smooth, yellow, 
almost entirely covered with splashes and stripes of dark red ; dots 
few, very minute. Flesh yellowish white, tender, moderately juicy. 
Flavor mild, aromatic, subacid. Core closed ; seeds few, pointed. 
Good. Summer. 
WINESAP: 

Tree moderately vigorous, open, straggling head, very productive. 
Fruit medium, roundish, oblong, conical. Cavity wide, regular, acute, 
russeted; basin narrow, shallow, corrugated. Calyx closed. Sur- 
face smooth, dark yellow, mostly covered with splashes and occasion- 
ally stripes of rich dark red ; dots few, minute. Flesh yellow, firm, 
crisp, fine-grained. Flavor rich, sprightly, subacid. Core slightly 
open ; seeds medium, few, short, plump. Very good. Late winter. 

YATES: 

Tree upright, productive. Fruit small, oblate, conic. Cavity large, 
slightly russeted ; basin shallow. Calyx small, closed. Surface whit- 
ish yellow, shaded, striped and splashed with shades of red ; dots nu- 
merous, small, light. Flesh white, sometimes stained next skin, ten- 
der, juicy. Flavor pleasant, subacid. Good. Late winter. 
YELLOW TRANSPARENT: 

Tree vigorous, upright, round-headed, productive. Fruit medium, 
roundish, oblate, conical. Cavity regular, acute, russeted ; basin nar- 
row, shallow, corrugated. Calyx closed. Surface smooth, light yel- 
low ; dots numerous, large, white. Flesh white, tender, juicy. Flavor 
pleasant, subacid. Core half open. Good. Summer. 
YORK IMPERIAL: 

Tree moderate grower, productive. Fruit medium, roundish, ob- 
long, oblique. Cavity regular, narrow, acute, russeted ; basin smooth, 
deep, abrupt, slightly leather-cracked. Calyx closed or open. Sur- 
face light yellow, almost wholly covered with marbled, washed and 
striped red; dots few, distinct, gray. Flesh yellow, with yellow 
veinings, firm, crisp, juicy. Flavor pleasant, subacid. Core small, 
open; seeds many, plump. Good. Winter. 



The Bulletin. 17 

PEAKS. 

ANJOU: 

Tree productive. Fruit large, regular, oblong, pyriform. Cavity 
shallow, uneven ; basin shallow, small, even. Calyx very small, open. 
Surface greenish yellow, dull red cheek and clouding russet; dots 
numerous, brown and crimson. Flesh yellowish white, melting. Fla- 
vor rich, vinous, perfumed. Best, Late. 

BARTLETT: 

Tree upright, vigorous. Fruit large, oblong, obtuse, pyriform. 
Cavity shallow ; basin shallow, obscurely plaited. Calyx open. Sur- 
face uneven, clear yellow, with blush on sunny side. Flesh white, 
fine grained, buttery. Flavor juicy, sweet, richly perfumed. Very 
good. Late summer. 

EARLY HARVEST: 

Tree upright, vigorous. . Fruit medium, regular, obovate. Cavity 
slight; basin shallow. Surface smooth, golden yellow, with bright 
red cheek. Flesh yellowish white, firm, juicy. Flavor mild, subacid. 
Good. Early. Very resistant of blight. 

FLEMISH (BEAUTY): 

Tree vigorous, hardy, upright. Fruit large, obovate, obtuse, pyri- 
form. Cavity very narrow, deep, regular; basin small, round. 
Calyx open. Surface slightly rough, pale yellow, mostly covered 
with marblings and areas of light russet, becoming reddish brown at 
maturity. Flesh yellowish white, slightly coarse, juicy, melting. 
Flavor sweet, rich, slightly musky. Very good. Early fall. 

GARBER: 

Tree hardy, upright, vigorous. Fruit large, roundish, oblate, pyri- 
form. Surface brownish yellow, with red blush on sunny side. 
Flesh firm, granular, juicy. Flavor acid. Poor. Late summer. 
Very resistant of blight. 

HOWELL: 

Tree upright, vigorous. Fruit large, roundish, obovate, pyriform. 
Cavity narrow, shallow; basin broad, deep, uneven. Calyx open. 
Surface rich yellow, with traces of red in the sun; dots numerous, 
grayish. Flesh whitish, juicy, melting. Flavor brisk, vinous. Very 
good. Early fall. 

KEIFFER: 

Tree hardy, vigorous, upright. Fruit large, oval, nearly obtuse, 
pyriform. Cavity medium; basin shallow, medium. Surface yel- 
low, with brighter shade toward sun, patchings of netted russet. 
Flesh whitish, somewhat coarse, juicy, half melting. Flavor sweet 
when fully ripe. Good. Late fall. Very resistant of blight. 



18 The Bulletin. 

LE CONTE: 

Tree vigorous, upright. Fruit large, roundish, oblong, pyriform. 
Surface yellow, with red on sunny side. Flesh whitish, melting. 
Flavor fair. Midsummer. Very resistant of blight. 

MAGNOLIA: 

Tree dwarfish, prolific. Fruit large, roundish, regular. Cavity 
shallow, acute, uneven; basin, regular, deep, acute. Calyx wanting. 
Surface smooth, yellow, russeted, tinged with red and brown on sunny 
side; dots numerous, obscure, russet. Flesh white, crisp, tender, 
juicy. Flavor mild, subacid. Early fall. 

SECKEL: 

Tree hardy, vigorous, uniform, compact head. Fruit small, regu- 
lar, obovate. Cavity slight ; basin very shallow. Calyx small. Sur- 
face smooth, brownish green at first, becoming dull yellowish brown 
with russet red cheek. Flesh whitish, buttery, melting, very juicy. 
Flavor rich, spicy, aromatic. Best. Late summer. 

SHELDON: 

Tree vigorous, erect, hardy. Fruit large, roundish, obtuse, obo- 
vate. Cavity deep ; basin broad, deep. Calyx open. Surface green- 
ish yellow, with thin russet, slight blush where exposed. Flesh whit- 
ish, juicy, melting. Flavor sweet, vinous, aromatic. Very good. 
Fall.' 
SMITH: 

Tree hardy, productive. Fruit large, roundish, -ovate. Surface 
yellow, with red blush where exposed. Flesh whitish yellow, tender, 
vinous. Flavor astringent, subacid. Good. Resistant of blight. 

WINTER NELIS: 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, obovate, sometimes 
pyriform. Cavity small, narrow ; basin broad, deep. Surface green- 
ish yellow, russeted. Flesh white, tender, juicy, buttery. Flavor 
rich, sweet. Very good. Late. 

PLUMS. 

ABUNDANCE: 

Tree hardy, prolific. Fruit large, roundish, ovoid, unequal sides.. 
Stem short and strong; suture distinct but shallow. Surface yellow, 
washed with purplish crimson; dots numerous. Flesh firm, meaty. 
Flavor pleasant, subacid. Good. Early. 

BRADSHAW: 

Tree upright, vigorous. Fruit large, obovate, sometimes with neck. 
Stem stout, curved ; suture broad, shallow, half round. Cavity small. 
Surface reddish purple, with light blue bloom. Flesh yellowish, 
changing to brownish purple when fully ripe, coarse, juicy. Flavor 
pleasant, subacid. Good. Late summer. 



The Bulletin. 19 

CHABOT: 

Tree upright, productive. Fruit large, oblong, conical. Stem 
short, stout. Cavity large, abrupt ; suture not distinct. Surface yel- 
low, almost covered with cherry-red blush, blue bloom. Flesh yel- 
low, juicy. Flavor rich, sweet. Very good. Late summer. 
CLIFFORD: 

Tree vigorous, j)roductive. Fruit large, long, ovate ; suture light. 
Surface bright scarlet ; dots yellow ; lilac bloom. Flesh yellow., firm. 
Flavor sweet, aromatic, vinous. Very good. Early summer. 
CLIMAX: 

Tree vigorous, prolific. Fruit large, heart-shaped. Stem short, 
stout. Cavity deep, abrupt ; suture distinct, shallow. Surface dark 
red, varied-sized yellow dots. Flesh yellow, firm. Flavor rich, 
sweet. Very good. Early summer. 
DAMSON: 

Tree hardy, prolific. Fruit small, oval. Surface purple, covered 
with thick blue bloom. Flesh melting and juicy. Flavor subacid. 
Good. Late summer. 

EXCELSIOR: 

Tree thrifty, productive. Fruit medium to large, conical, flat- 
tened at top. Stem short. Cavity wide, shallow ; no suture. Sur- 
face solid wine color. Bloom heavy, light blue; dots very small, 
white. Flesh yellowish, with reddish shade next pit, firm. Very 
good. Early. 

GOLDEN BEAUTY: 

Tree hardy, productive. Fruit medium, roundish ; suture distinct. 
Surface golden yellow, with white dots and white bloom. Flesh firm, 
meaty, bright yellow. Flavor mild, subacid. Good. Late summer. 
GOLDEN DROP (COE'S GOLDEN DROP): 

Tree moderately vigorous, productive. Fruit large, oval, short 
neck, unequal sides. Stem long, stout. Cavity shallow, abrupt; 
suture well marked, extending beyond apex. Surface golden yellow, 
with numerous yellow dots ; bloom yellow. Flesh yellow, firm. Fla- 
vor rich,, sweet. Very good. Late summer. 

HAND (GENERAL HAND): 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit large, rounish, oval. Stem me- 
dium, slender. Cavity broad, shallow; suture shallow. Surface 
golden yellow, with marbling of greenish yellow; dots small; bloom 
light colored. Flesh yellow, not, firm, .juicy. Very good. Summer. 
IMFERIAL GAGE: 

Tree thrifty, prolific. Fruit medium to large, oval. Stem one 

inch long, stout. Cavity obtuse, flattened on top. Surface pale 

green, with tinge of yellow; bloom white. Flesh greenish, juicy, 
melting. Flavor rich. Best. Summer. 



20 The Bulletin. 

KERR: 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, conical; suture deep. 
Surface orange yellow; bloom cream-colored. Flesh juicy. Flavor 
rich, sweet. Not susceptible to rot. Good. 

LOMBARD: 

Tree vigorous, productive, peculiar crimpled leaves. Fruit me- 
dium, roundish, oval, slightly flattened at ends. Stem short, slender ; 
suture shallow. Cavity broad, abrupt. Surface violet red, with blue 
bloom ; dots whitish. Flesh yellow, juicy. Flavor pleasant, subacid. 
Good. Late summer. 

MINER: 

Tree hardy, productive when planted with other varieties. Fruit 
medium, roundish, oblong. Surface dull purplish red; dots numer- 
ous, small, yellow and gray. Flesh amber-colored, soft, juicy. Fla- 
vor rich, vinous. Good. Early fall. 
MUNSONk 

Tree thrifty, moderately prolific. Fruit medium, long, oval. Sur- 
face yellow, covered with red ; dots numerous, yellow ; bloom lilac. 
Flesh yellow, very soft. Flavor sweet. Good. Early summer. 

OGON: 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, roundish, irregular. 
Stem short. Cavity regular; suture well defined. Surface lemon 
yellow; dots numerous; bloom white. Flesh yellow, firm, meaty. 
Good, not susceptible to rot. Summer. 
RED JUNE: 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit medium to large, roundish, coni- 
cal. Stem medium. Cavity large, regular, deep; suture distinct to 
apex. Surface deep vermillion red, sometimes marbled with purple ; 
dots numerous, small, light-colored. Flesh light, yellowish white, 
veined, firm, tender, juicy. Flavor mild, subacid. Good. Early. 
WASHINGTON (LADY WASHINGTON): 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit very large, roundish, oval. 
Stem % inch long. Cavity wide, shallow; suture obscure except 
near cavity. Surface bright yellow, sometimes marbled with green. 
Flesh yellow, firm. Flavor sweet. Very good. Summer. 

WEAVER: 

Tree productive, thrifty. Fruit large, oblong, flattened at ends. 
Stem medium. Cavity shallow, regular ; suture well defined. Sur- 
face dark marbled red; bloom purplish. Flesh firm, meaty. Very 
good. Summer. 
WICKSON: 

* Tree vigorous, upright, productive. Fruit large, heart-shaped. 
Stem short, stout; suture distinct. Cavity abrupt. Surface dark 



The Bulletin. 21 

red, with bluish bloom ; dots numerous, yellow. Flesh yellow, firm. 

Flavor delicious. Good. Summer. 

WILDGOOSE: 

Tree vigorous, very productive. Fruit medium to large, roundish, 
oblong. Surface light red, attractive appearance. Flesh yellow, 
meaty, juicy. Flavor rich, sweet. Very good. Summer. 

PEACHES. 

BELLE OF GEORGIA: 

Tree hardy, productive. Fruit large, roundish, oblate. Surface 
whitish, with red cheek. Flesh white, firm. Flavor excellent. Pit 
free. Very good. Summer. 
BILYEU: 

Tree hardy, productive. Fruit large, roundish. Surface green- 
ish white, with red cheek. Flesh white, firm, crisp. Flavor sweet. 
Pit free. Good. Early fall. 
CARMAN: 

Tree strong, prolific. Fruit large, broadly oval,, pointed. Sur- 
face white, dotted and blushed with red. Flesh creamy white, tinged 
with red. Flavor vinous, sprightly. Pit free. Good. Early. 
CHAIRS (CHAIRS CHOICE): 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit large, roundish, oval. Cavity 
deep, narrow; suture extending beyond apex. Surface yellow, with 
blush next the sun. Flesh yellow, red at pit. Flavor acid. Pit free. 
Very good. Late summer. 
CHAMPION: 

Tree vigorous, spreading, productive. Fruit large, roundish, regu- 
lar. Cavity shallow; suture distinct, extending two-thirds around. 
Surface yellowish white, mottled with* red on sunny side. Flesh 
whitish, red at pit, tender, juicy. Flavor rich, subacid. Very good. 
Summer. 
CHINESE CLING: 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit large, roundish, somewhat elon- 
gated. Suture shallow. Surface pale yellow, shaded with fine red. 
Flesh white, with red at pit, juicy, melting. Flavor rich, vinous. 
Pit not free. Good. Summer. 
CONNETT: 

Tree prolific, hardy. Fruit large, roundish, oval. Cavity deep, 
abrupt. Suture extends beyond apex. Surface creamy white, mot- 
tled with red next the sun. Flesh yellowish white, without red, ten- 
der, juicy. Flavor excellent. Pit not free. Very good. Summer. 
CRAWFORD'S EARLY (EARLY CRAWFORD): 

Tree vigorous, hardy, prolific. Fruit large, roundish, elongated. 
Suture compressed, extending two-thirds around. Cavity broad but 



22 The Bulletin. 

shallow. Surface bright yellow, with red cheek. Flesh yellow, juicy, 
colored at pit. Flavor sweet, rich. Pit free. Very good. Late 
summer. 

CRAWFORD'S LATE (LATE CRAWFORD): 

Tree hardy, prolific. Fruit very large, roundish, oval. Distinct 
suture. Surface yellow, with red blush next sun. Flesh yellow, with 
red at pit, juicy, melting. Flavor rich, excellent, vinous. Pit free. 
Very good. Fall. 

CROSBY: 

Tree hardy, productive. Fruit medium, roundish. Cavity nar- 
row, deep; suture two-thirds around fruit. Surface yellow, with 
mottlings of red and red cheek, and some bloom. Flesh yellow, juicy, 
quite firm. Pit free. Very good. Late summer. 

ELBERTA: 

Tree strong, prolific. Fruit large, roundish, oval, slightly com- 
pressed. Suture more than half around. Surface yellow, with red 
cheek. Flesh yellow, with red at pit, tender, juicy. Flavor rich, 
sweet. Pit free. Very good. Summer. 

GREENSBORO: 

Tree vigorous, hardy. Fruit large, round. Surface yellow, with 
red and crimson cheek. Flesh white, very juicy. Flavor sweet. 
Pit free. Good. Early summer. 
HALE: 

Tree- hardy, productive. Fruit medium, round. Cavity abrupt, 
deep. Suture extends to apex. Surface creamy white, with red 
cheek and light bloom. Flesh white, tender, juicy. Flavor rich, 
sweet. Pit not free. Good. Early summer. 

HEATH: 

Tree vigorous, prolific. ' Fruit large, oblong, narrowed at both 
ends. Cavity shallow; suture distinct, extending to apex. Surface 
yellowish white, with red cheek. Flesh white, firm, tender, melting. 
Flavor vinous, subacid. Very good. Pit not free. Late summer. 
INGOLD: 

Tree vigorous but not hardy, productive. Fruit medium, roundish, 
irregular. Cavity shallow ; suture distinct. Surface deep yellow, 
with red cheek, almost entirely covered with minute dots and shad- 
ings of red. Flesh yellow, red at pit, firm, juicy. Flavor rich, melt- 
ing, subacid. Pit free. Very good. Summer. 
MATHEWS (BEAUTY): 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit large,' roundish. Cavity nar- 
row. Suture obscure. Surface golden yellow, red-streaked, crimson 
cheek. Flesh yellow, firm, juicy. Flavor rich, subacid. Pit free. 
Good. Late summer. 



The Bulletin. 23 

MAYFLOWER: 

Fruit medium, oblong. High color, excellent quality. Very early. 
New. 
MOUNTAIN ROSE: 

Tree thrifty, prolific. Fruit large, roundish. Cavity abrupt, 
deep. Suture slightly depressed, extending beyond apex. Surface 
creamy white, blushed and sprinkled with red spots. Flesh white, 
with red at pit, tender, melting. Flavor rich, subacid. Pit free. 
Good. Summer. 

REEVES: 

Tree hardy, productive. Fruit medium to large, roundish, ovate. 
Cavity deep, broad ; suture not distinct. Surface yellow, dark red 
cheek ; thin bloom. Flesh yellow, red at pit, tender, juicy. Flavor 
mild, vinous, subacid. Pit free. Good. Late summer. 

ST. JOHN: 

Fruit large, round. Surface yellow, with red cheek. Flesh juicy, 
firm. Flavor rich, sweet. Pit free. Very early. 

SALWAY: 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit large, roundish, somewhat oval, 
one side enlarged. Suture slight, extending beyond apex. Surface 
creamy yellow, crimson blush next sun. Flesh yellow, with red at pit, 
juicy, tender. Flavor vinous. Pit free. Good. September. 

SMOCK: 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit large, roundish, ovate. Cavity 
narrow, deep. Suture obscure, except near apex. Surface orange 
yellow, with blush on cheek ; bloom heavy. Flesh yellow, red at pit, 
quite tender, juicy. Flavor rich, sprightly, subacid. Pit free. 
Good. Late summer. 

SNEED: 

Tree hardy, prolific. Fruit medium, roundish, ovate. Cavity 
narrow and deep. Suture obscure. Surface yellow, with slight blush 
on cheek ; heavy bloom. Flesh yellowish white, tender. Flavor ex- 
cellent. Pit nearly free. Good. Early. 

CHEEKIES. 

BLACK TARTARIAN: 

Tree vigorous, erect. Fruit very large, heart-shaped. Stem l 1 ^ 
inches long. Cavity shallow. Surface often uneven. Skin glossy, 
bright purplish black. Flesh colored, half tender. Flavor rich, 
sweet, delicious. Stone small. Very good. Early summer. 
BLACK EAGLE: 

Tree vigorous, moderately productive. Fruit medium, obtuse, 
heart-shaped. Stem medium, slender. Cavity shallow. Surface 



24 The Bulletin. 

dark, purple to black. Flesh deep purple, tender, juicy. Flavor 

rich, vinous, sweet. Best. Early summer. 

DYEHOUSE: 

Tree hardy, prolific. Fruit medium, oblate. Apex depressed. 
Cavity narrow, abrupt. Stem 1% inches long. Skin light red. 
Flesh uncolored, firm. Flavor acid. Fair. Early. 

EARLY RICHMOND: 

Tree hardy, productive, erect, roundish, spreading head. Fruit 
medium, round. Stem one inch long. Cavity broad, sloping. Apex 
depressed. Suture well defined. Skin light red. Flesh soft, uncol- 
ored. Flavor rich, acid. Very good. Early. 

GOV. WOOD: 

Tree vigorous, round, regular head. Fruit large, heart-shaped. 
Stem one and one-half inches long. Cavity broad, shallow. Suture 
well defined. Skin yellow, shaded with red. Flesh tender, juicy. 
Flavor rich, sweet, delicious. Best. Middle of June. 

MAY DUKE: 

Tree thrifty, erect, productive. Fruit roundish, obtuse, heart- 
shaped. Stem one to one and one-quarter inches long. Cavity shal- 
low. Surface bright red, becoming darker. Flesh lightly colored, 
tender, melting. Flavor rich, subacid. Yery good. Quite early. 

MONTMORENCY: 

Tree erect, hardy, productive. Fruit large, roundish, oblate. 
Stem one and one-quarter inches long. Cavity deep. Skin reddish 
amber. Flesh tender, uncolored. Flavor mildly acid. Good. Early 
summer. 

MORELLO: 

Tree very hardy, productive. Fruit medium, roundish, flattened 
at ends. Stem three-quarters inch long. Cavity broad, deep. Apex 
slightly compressed. Surface bright red. Flesh light-colored, juicy. 
Flavor brisk, acid. Very good. Early. 

NAPOLEON: 

Tree vigorous, productive. Fruit very large, heart-shaped, a 
little oblong. Stem short. Cavity narrow. Skin pale yellow, dotted 
with red and marbled crimson on sunny side. Flesh firm, juicy. 
Flavor excellent. Good. Summer. 
REINE HORTENSE: 

Tree hardy, productive. Fruit very large, roundish, elongated. 
Suture a distinct line on even surface. Surface bright red, marbled 
and mottled. Flesh tender, juicy. Flavor mild, subacid. Best. 
Late. 



The Bulletin. 25 

WINDSOR: 

Tree hardy, prolific. Fruit large, round, obtuse, heart-shaped. 
Stem one and one-half inches long. Cavity deep. Skin dark red. 
Flesh yellowish with red tint, firm, juicy. Flavor rich, sweet. Good. 
Late. 
WRAGG: 

Tree strong, hardy, productive. Fruit large, roundish, heart- 
shaped. Stem one and one-half inches long. Cavity small, shallow. 
Skin dark crimson. Flesh and juice light crimson, firm, juicy. Fla- 
vor slightly astringent. Good. Summer. 
YELLOW SPANISH: 

Tree strong, spreading, prolific. Fruit large, obtuse, heart-shaped. 
Stem one and one-half inches long. Cavity wide, shallow. Skin 
light yellow, blush and dots on side next sun. Flesh firm, light yel- 
low. Flavor rich. 

GRAPES. 

AGAWAM: 

Vine vigorous, productive. Bunch large, compact, shouldered. 
Berry large, roundish, oval. Skin dark red. Flesh tender, juicy. 
Flavor vinous, with trace of native aroma. Good. After Concord. 

BRIGHTON: 

Vine strong, productive. Bunch medium to large, compact, shoul- 
dered. Berry medium. Skin dark red. Flesh tender. Flavor 
rich, sweet. Very good. Requires mixed planting. Earlier than 
Delaware. 
BRILLIANT: 

Vine hardy, prolific. Bunch large, conical, shouldered, compact. 
Berry medium, roundish. Skin brownish black. Flesh and skin 
very tender, juicy. Flavor sweet, vinous. Very good. Before Con- 
cord. 
CATAWBA: 

Vine hardy, productive. Bunch medium, shouldered, not very 
compact. Berries quite large, roundish, often oval. Skin pale red 
in shade, deeper red in sun, lilac-colored bloom. Flesh pulpy, juicy. 
Flavor rich, sweet, slightly musky. Good. Early fall. 
CONCORD: 

Vine very healthy, vigorous, productive. Bunch compact, large, 
shouldered. Berry large, globular. Skin almost black, thickly cov- 
ered with bloom. Flesh buttery, juicy, tough near center. Flavor 
sweet. Very good. Late summer. 
DELAWARE: 

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Bunch small, very compact, 
usually shouldered. Berries small, round. Skin handsome light red. 



26 The Bulletin. 

Flesh tender. Flavor rich, sweet, aromatic. Best. Summer. Very 

resistant of rot. 

DIAMOND: 

Vine vigorous, productive. Bunch long, shouldered, compact. 
Berries round, medium. Skin greenish white, with white bloom. 
Flesh juicy, tender. Flavor sweet, vinous. Very good. Summer. 
FLOWERS: 

Of Muscadine class. Bunches have from fifteen to twenty-five ber- 
ries ; black skin ; sweet, vinous flavor. A month later than the Scup- 
pernong. 

IVES: 

Vine vigorous, productive. Bunch medium, compact, shouldered. 
Berries medium, roundish, oval. Skin black. Flesh juicy, pulpy. 
Flavor sweet, quite foxy. Good. Early. 

JAMES: 

Of Muscadine class. Vine hardy, prolific. Bunches small, irregu- 
lar. Berries very large, round. Skin black, slight bloom, thick. 
Flesh firm, juicy. Flavor sweet, aromatic, vinous. Very good. Sep- 
tember. 

LINDLEY: 

Vine vigorous, very productive. Bunch large, long, compact. Ber- 
ries medium, round. Skin pale yellow, violet bloom. Flesh tender, 
juicy. Flavor sweet, slightly aromatic. Very good. Needs mixed 
planting. Summer. 

LUTIE: 

Vine strong, very productive. Bunch medium, long, roundish, 
compact. Berries large, round, pale to dark red, thin bloom. Flesh 
tender, juice uncolored. Flavor aromatic, foxy odor. Early. 
MEISCH: 

Of Muscadine class. Vine vigorous, productive. Bunch medium, 
not compact. Berries medium, roundish. Skin black, slight bloom. 
Flesh juicy. Flavor sweet. Good. Late. 
MOORE: 

Vine hardy, productive. Bunch smaller than Concord, roundish, 
conical, rarely shouldered, compact. Berries large, round. Skin 
black, bloom thin. Flesh firm, juicy. Flavor vinous, slightly foxy. 
Good. Summer. 

NIAGARA: 

Vine very hardy, strong grower. Bunches large, compact, shoul- 
dered. Berries large, round. Skin yellowish white. Flesh juicy. 
Flavor vinous, sprightly. Very good. Summer. 



The Bulletin. 27 

scuppernong: 

Of Muscadine class. Vine hardy, productive. Bunches very 
small. Berries large, round. Skin greenish yellow, sometimes sprin- 
kled with red and patches of russet, thick. Flesh firm, juicy. Flavor 
rich, sweet, aromatic, musky, slightly perfumed. Very good for local 
consumption, Late summer. 
THOMAS: 

Of Muscadine class. Vine vigorous, productive. Bunches very 
small. Berries medium, round. Skin reddish purple. Flesh pulpy, 
tender. Flavor sweet. Good. Late summer. 

WINCHELL: 

Vine vigorous, productive. Bunch medium, compact, long, shoul- 
dered. Berries small, round. Skin greenish yellow, with slight 
bloom. Flesh juicy, tender. Flavor rich, sweet. Very good. Early. 

WORDEN: 

Vine vigorous, prolific. Bunch large, long, compact, shouldered. 
Berries large, round. Skin black. Flesh greenish, pulpy, juicy. 
Flavor vinous, pleasant. Good. Summer. 

QUINCES. 

MEECH PROLIFIC (MEECH): 

Tree hardy, prolific. Fruit large*, obscure pyriform. Surface 
bright yellow. Flesh, flavor and quality very good, particularly fra- 
grant. Early. 
ORANGE: 

Tree vigorous, prolific. Fruit large, roundish. Surface orange 
color. Flesh, flavor and quality good, particularly fine for preserv- 
ing. August. 

FIGS. 

BLACK ISCHIA: 

Bush hardy, productive. Fruit medium, turbinate, flat at top. 
Surface deep purple. Flesh deep red. Flavor luscious, sweet. Good. 

BROWN TURKEY. 

Bush hardy, prolific. Fruit large, pear-shaped, thick stem. Sur- 
face dark brown, with blue bloom. Flesh red. Flavor luscious. 
Good. 

BRUNSWICK: 

Fruit very large, broadly pear-shaped, short, slender stalk, ribs 
well marked. Eye large, open, with rosy scales. Skin tough, dark 
brown in color, with violet shade. Flesh amber-colored, thick, soft. 
Very good. Early. 



28 The Bulletin. 

CELESTIAL (BLUE CELESTE): 

Bush hardy, productive. Fruit very small, ovate. Surface dark 
violet amber, with bloom at neck. Flesh amber-colored. Flavor 
sweet. Good. 
WHITE ISCHIA: 

Bush vigorous, prolific. Fruit small, round; neck small; stem 
short. Eye open. Surface smooth, bluish green, brown blush. Flesh 
rosy red. Good. 

RASPBERRIES (RED). 

CUTHBERT: 

Bush hardy, very productive. Fruit large, roundish, conical. Sur- 
face scarlet crimson. Flesh firm, juicy. Flavor mild, subacid. Best. 
GOLDEN QUEEN: 

Bush vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, roundish, conical. 
Surface yellow. Flesh soft, juicy. Flavor sweet. Very good. 

KING: 

Bush strong, prolific. Fruit medium, roundish. Surface red. 
Flesh firm. Flavor mild, sweet. Good. 

MARLBORO: 

Bush small, hardy, productive. Fruit large, roundish, conical. 
Surface crimson. Flesh firm, juicy. Flavor subacid. Good. 
MILLER: 

Bush vigorous, productive. Fruit large, roundish. Surface bright 
crimson. Flesh firm, juicy. Flavor sprightly, subacid. Good. 

LOUDON: 

Bush vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, roundish, conical. Sur- 
face bright red. Flesh firm, juicy. Flavor rich, subacid. Very good. 

RASPBERRIES (BLACK). 

EUREKA: 

Bush vigorous, hardy, productive. Fruit medium, roundish. Sur- 
face black. Flesh quite firm, juicy. Flavor mild, subacid. Good. 

GREGG: 

Bush hardy, prolific. Fruit large, roundish, oblate. Surface 
black, with gray bloom. Flesh firm, juicy. Flavor pleasant, sub- 
acid. Very good. Late. 

KANSAS: 

Bush hardy, sprawly. Fruit large, roundish. Surface shining 
black, with slight bloom. Flesh firm. Flavor subacid. Good. 



The Bulletin. 29 

CURRANTS. 

CHERRY: 

Plant strong, stout, erect. Clusters short. Berries large, round. 
Color red. Flesh firm. Flavor quite acid. Very good. 

FAY: 

Plant hardy, upright. . Clusters medium. Berries large, round. 
Color red. Flesh firm. Flavor acid. Good. 
POMONA: 

Plant vigorous, productive. Clusters medium. Berries medium, 
round. Color bright red. Flesh tender. Flavor subacid. Good. 

RED DUTCH. 

Plant thrifty, upright, productive. Clusters medium long. Ber- 
ries large, round. Color red. Flesh firm. Flavor acid. Good. 

WHITE DUTCH: 

Plant hardy, erect, productive. Clusters medium long. Berries 
large, round. Color yellowish white. Flesh tender, mild, subacid. 
Very good. 

GOOSEBERRIES. 

DOWNING: 

Plant upright, vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, roundish, 
oval. Color green, with distinct rib veins and smooth skin. Flesh 
quite soft, juicy. Flavor subacid, mild. Very good. 
HOUGHTON: 

Plant vigorous, branches rather slender, drooping. Fruit small, 
roundish oval. Color light green, shaded red. Flesh tender, juicy. 
Flavor sweet. Very good. 

PEARL: 

Plant hardy, prolific. Fruit medium to large, roundish. Color 
light green, with shading of red. Flesh firm. Flavor subacid. Very 
good. 

RED JACKET: 

Plant vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, roundish, oval. Color 
light green, shaded with red. Flesh tender, juicy. Flavor rich, sub- 
acid, mild. Very good. 

BLACKBERRIES. 

EARLY HARVEST: , 

Fruit medium, roundish, oblong. Surface greenish black. Flesh 
soft, juicy. Flavor rich. Good. Early. 



30 The Bulletin. 

DEWBERRIES. 

LUCRETIA: 

Fruit very large, oblong, ovate. Elesh tender, juicy, almost melt- 
ing. Good. 

STRAWBERRIES. 

BUBACH: 

Fruit large, conical, irregular. Surface dark red or crimson. 
Good. Pistillate. Early. 
EXCELSIOR: 

Fruit medium, roundish, slightly conical. Surface bright red. 
Flesh firm. Very good. Flowers perfect. Very early. 

GANDY: 

Fruit large, regular, conical. Surface glossy crimson. Flesh firm. 
Very good. Flowers perfect. Late. 
HEFLIN: 

Fruit large, uniform. Surface glossy crimson. Flesh firm. Very 
good. Flowers perfect. Early. 
LADY THOMPSON: 

Fruit large, conical, regular. Surface crimson and red. Flesh, 
quite firm. Very good. Flowers perfect. Early. 
NICK OHMER. 

Fruit very large, roundish, conical, often three-sided. Surface 
glossy red. Flesh firm. Good. Flowers perfect. 

CRAB APPLES. 

RED SIBERIAN: 

Tree upright, vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, three-fourths 
inch in diameter, regular, roundish, flattened at ends. Stem long, 
slender; cavity smooth, shallow; basin slight, calyx small. Surface 
smooth, bright scarlet over clear yellow ground. Flesh yellowish 
white, firm, juicy. Flavor brisk, aromatic, acid. Very good. Late 
summer. 
YELLOW SIBERIAN. 

Tree vigorous, prolific. Fruit small, roundish, flattened at ends, 
angular, irregular. Stem long; cavity regular, obtuse; basin flat, 
wrinkled ; calyx closed. Surface smooth, rich yellow. Flesh yellow, 
juicy. Flavor acid. Good. Late summer. 



The Bulletin. 31 

MULBEKRIES. 

BLACK ENGLISH: 

Tree large, vigorous, upright, productive. Fruit medium, oblong, 
slightly curved. Stem one-half inch long, slender. Apex rounded ; 
base oblique, irregular. Druplets flat to circular in outline, compact, 
firm; sutures shallow, narrow. Surface reddish, becoming black. 
Flavor sweetish. Fair. Early summer. 

BLACK RUSSIAN: 

Tree vigorous, small, productive. Fruit medium, short, oval. 
Stem stout, small. Apex blunt, obtuse; base oblique, irregular. 
Druplets large, broad, rounded, irregular, compact; sutures deep, 
open. Surface black. Flavor sweet, slightly subacid. Good. Early 
summer. 
HICKS: 

Tree large,* vigorous, productive. Fruit medium, oblong, some- 
times curved. Stem medium, slender. Apex rounded; base oblique 
or rounded. Druplets medium, flattened, compact. Sutures nar- 
row, shallow. Surface reddish, becoming black. Flavor sweet* in- 
sipid. Poor. Summer. 

STUBBS: 

Tree large, vigorous, prolific. Fruit large, oblong, curved, irregu- 
lar. Apex rounded ; base oblique, irregular. Druplets compact, flat- 
tened, medium. Sutures shallow, narrow. Flavor subacid, vinous, 
sharp. Good. Summer. 

WHITE ENGLISH: 

Tree vigorous, spr