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Full text of "Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences"

NliW YORE 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 
^TANICAL 

OARDEN 



SUPPLEMENT 



BULLETIN 

)outl3crn (J^alifoniia ^Icatiemp of Sjciencesf 



1902 



W- S o :> -:^ 

^oi 1-3 



INDEX TO VOLUME 

Numbers I to 10. 



ONE. 



Actaeon, 69 
Agapostemon, 70 
Alcidamea, 139* 
Ammania, 93 
Ammanita, 74 
Anchomma, 71 
Aniella, 27 
Aphis, 40 
Apocrypha, ji 
Arabis, 89 
Argopyron, 89 
Aspidiotus 17 
Aster, 15* 
Astragalus, 89 
Astronomical Notes, 94 
Atriplex, 40 
Audibertia, 68 

Batterea, 93 
Bombus. 70 
Bromus, 87 

Callidryas, 90 
Calochortus, 102, 120, 122* 
Cassia, 90 
Castanopsis, 89 
Castilleja, 68*. 69 
Cercocarpus, 89 
Chelostoma, 139 
Chelynia 139 
Corypbella, 17 
Cremastogaster, 40 

Dirina, 26 

Erigeron, 39* 
Rschscholtzia, 89 
Eulabis, 71 
Euphorbia, 68 

Facelina, 17 

Gilia, 45 
Geological Notes, 95 

Habeuaria, 6 
Halictoides, 140* 
Heuchera, 67, 89* 
Helianthus, 42 
Heriades, 139*, 140 
Hesperapis, 7: 
Horkelia, 89 

Icerya, 17 

Lecanora, 27 
Lecidea, 27 
Leonids, 16 



Lepideum, 89 
Lepturus, 87 
Limnorchis, 6 
Lupinus, 41, 89 
Lycaena, 17, 40 

Malvastrum, 106, 107, 108 
Megachile, 70*, 137*, 138 
Melica, 89 
Morchella, 74 
Mylitaspis, i; 

Nasturtium, 93 

Pandora, 69 
Panicum, 45 
Parnassia, 67 
Pectea, 51 
Pentstemon, 141 
Phiiaris, 89 
Pinus, 87 
Piperia, 6 

Pogonomyrmex, 70 
Presidential Address, 109 
Prehistoric California, 81. 97, 113, 
129 

Quercus, 89 

Ramona, 68 
Reviews, book 42, 140 
Ribes, 67*. 89* 
Rocella, 26 
Rosa, 45 87* 

Saisvetia, 17 

Scrophularia, 26* 

Silvery Footless Lizard, 27 

Sitanion, 87 

Spectrograph, LoweObservatory, 23 

Spergularia. 93 

Sphaeralcea, 74 106,107.108 

Sphaerostigma, 45*, ' 18* 

Stenamma, 70 

Terias. 90 
Tethys. 7 
Thecacera, 17 
Thecla, 41 
ThysanocarpU8, 7 

Uranotes, 41 

Volumitra, 17 

Zacosmia, 70 
Zauschneria, 4*, 6, 10 



Note — The asterisk denotes new species. 



Coi\trib\itors to Volume 1. 1902 

Nos. 1 to 10 



Abrams, LeRoy. 

New or Little Known S. California Plants. 
Additions to the Flora of Los Angeles Co. I. 

Baumgardt, B. R. 

The Orbit of Venus. 
Celestial Photographs. 
Annual Report of Academy. 

Brackett, Prof. 

November Meteors of igoi. 

COCKERELL, T. D. A. 

New Plant Louse from S. California. 

Hymenoptera of S. California. 

Notes on Sphaeralcea and Malvastrum. 

CoMSTocK, Dr. T. B. 

Presidential Address. 
Geological Notes. 

Davidson, Dr. A. . 

A New Zauschneria. 
Scrophularia glabrata, sp. nov. 
Sphserosdgma erythra, sp. nov. 
Pentstemon Parishii, a hybrid. 

Greata, Louis A. 

Tribal Characters in the Separation of the Style — branches 
in the Compositse. 

Greene, Prof. Edward L. 
Two New Erigerons. 

Hasse, Dr. H. E. 

The Genus Dirina in North America. 



Knight, Wm. H. 

Introductory Address. 
Astronomical Notes. 

IvARKiN, Edgar L. 

The New Spectrograph at the Lowe Observatory. 

Parish, S. B. 

Aster Greatai. 

A New California Rose. 

The Southern California Species of Calochortus. 

Rivers, Prof. J. J. 

Silvery Footless Lizard or Snake. 

Discovery of Another Food Plant of Uranotes Melinus. 

Myrmicophillous Coleoptera of Ant-loving Beetles. 

Pandora Grandis. 

Butterfly Emigrants. 

WiLi^iAMSON, Mrs. M. Burton. 

A Monograph on Pecten Aequisulcatus. 

Yates. Dr. Lorenzo G. 

Prehistoric California. 



Page 


74. H 


Page 


71, li 


Page 


87. li 


Page 


102, li 


Page 


103, li 


Page 


103, li 


Page 


120, li 


Page 


120, li 


Page 


122, li 



ERRATA. 

ne I — For medium, read median. 

ne I — For medium, read median. 

ne 13 — For petals 4, read petals 5. 

ne 29 — For habital read habitatal. 

ne 32 — For costal read coastal. 

ne 22 — For Eucalochortus, read Mariposa. 

ne 8 — Before broadly insert petals. 

ne 25 — Before ovate insert sepals. 

ne 26 — For cor3'mb read corm. 



VOlv. I. 



JANUARY, 1902 



NO. I 



BTJILiILiETIlSr 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifornia Academu of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBI,ICATION : 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozibr T. B Comstock, Ph. D. 



CONTENTS : 

Frontispiece — Photographic Reproduction of the moon . 

Page 
Introductory, Wm. H. Knight 3 

A New Zauschneria, A. Davidson, C. M., M. D 5 

Notes 6 

Transact'ons 7 

The Orbit of Venus, Diagram by B. R. BaumGARDT.. 9 

Caleiidar of Meetings for January, 1902 12 



Published for the association by 
R. BAUMGARDT & CO. 
231 WEST First St., Los Angkles, Cai,. 



Yearly Subscription , $1.00 



Single Copies, 10 cts 



ikwmn 




L^_ 



The Moon 



Original negative taken at the Lick Observatory October 8, 1896, 15h. 
6m. 8s. 

Moon's age, 20 days and 17 hours. 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Soui)li6rn Galllornia flcademii oi Sciences 

VOL I LOS ANGELES, CAL, JANUARY, 1902. NO. I 

INTRODUCTORY. '•'OTANiJCAL 

In the year 1891 some twenty persons interested in scientific lore and 
research met in a small hall in Los Angeles and formed the Southern 
California Science Association, subsequently reorganized under its. present 
title, The Southern California ^Academy of Sciences. 

Dr. M. H. Alter called the first meeting to order and was elected 
president. He was succeeded by Dr. Anstruther Davidson, V/m. H. 
Knight, W. A. Spalding, Abbot Kinney, and again by Wni. H. Knight, 
who successively presided over the deliberations of the Academy. 

An important of^cer in a scientific body is the secretary. During the 
first two years this position was filled by Mrs. Mary E. Hart, but in 1893 
the society was so fortunate as to secure the services of Mr. B. R. Baum- 
gardt, who has served in that capacity and been closely identified with the 
growth and prosperity of the institution from the date named to the present 
time. 

A mere list of the titles of the scientific lectures and papers which have 
been read before this Academy, either at the general meetings or at its 
various sctions, during the past decade of its existence, would occupy more 
space than we shall use in this entire initial number of our Transactions. 

Yet many of these papers were of high value, both from a scientific 
and literary point of view. Some of them have been published in local 
and eastern journals, thus enriching the archives of science, but many 
others of high merit have been utterly lost to the world. 

To rescue further contributions of value from oblivion, or at least tr 
make a record and synopsis of the themes discussed, is the object of estab- 
lishing this monthly resume of the Academy's work. 

The Bulletin will be issued on the first of the month and will 
contain advance announcements of the various meetings to be held during 
the current month, and also a brief account of the proceedings of the 
meetings of the preceding month. Every member can thus be kept fully 
apprized of the work of the Academy in all its departments, and need not 
miss any of the meetings or (iiscussion§ in which he may be specie 
interested. 



4 

The Bulletin will be under the able editorship of Dr. A. David- 
son, who brings to a congenial task an extensive knowledge of general 
science, and is a specialist of national repute in the science of botany. 

The Southern California Academy of Sciences is fortunate in having 
for its field of investigation an environment which is in many respects 
unique. It is in a semi-tropic and semi-arid region, traversed by lofty 
mountain ranges rich in mineral wealth, interspersed with valleys and 
plains abounding in strange forms of plant and animal life. Two mighty 
currents of the Pacific Ocean meet off the shores of Los Angeles County, 
and here are innumerable marine forms which furnish inexhaustible mate- 
rial for the researches of the biologist. 

In this broad, virgin field, embracing the great Southwest, are tireless 
and ardent investigators, and it will be the province of our Academy, 
through its organized work and through this medium of publication, to 
gather and preserve to science and to the world the results of their labors. 

And now a word to other scientific bodies. We begin the publication 
of our Transactions with a modest pamphlet of a few pages, but as our 
societ}' has grown from a membership of twenty to nearly two hundred, 
so we look forward to a substantial growth of our monthly periodical until 
it shall be ecjual in dimensions and usefulness to the scientific journals in 
the east and abroad. We therefore feel justified in asking all scientific 
societies to place our Bulletin on their exchange list, and we hope that 
the benefits arising from this interchange of favors will be reciprocal. 

Wm. H. Knight, President. , 



A NEW ZAUSCHNERIA. 

BY A. DAVIDSON, C. M., M. D. 



ZAUSCHNERIA ARIZONICA Sp. IIOV. x 

Stems one to two feet high, decumbent, branching from the base ; 
whole plant villous, not at all tomentose ; leaves ovate, one to one and a 
quarter inches long and half an inch broad, broadly sessile and usually 
strongly denticulate, feather veined and markedly villous on mid-rib, veins 
and edges ; lower leaves frequently obovate ; flowers scarlet, large, one 
and a half inches long above the ovary ; caly?: tube cylindrical for three 
lines above the globose base, minutely villous, lobes three lines shorter 
than the corolla ; style exserted one inch or more ; stamens somewhat less ; 
capsule pedicellate, one and one-quarter inches long, slightly villous at 
base ; seeds large, in form resembling those of Z. Californica, var. micro- 
phylla. Gray. (Fig. i.) 

Arizona : Chase Creek, Metcalf ; Aug. 1900, A. Da-i'idson, 365. Not 
uncommon in the moist sand of this rocky creek at 5000 feet altitude. 
Those found growing on drier ground, though of stricter habit and some- 
what less villous, are quite as handsome in flower. 




Fig. I. Zauschneria Arizonica. Natural Size. 



Prof. E. L. Greene, in his revision of Zauschneria in Pittonia, Vol. 
1 :25, is, I believe, correct in classifying them according to the venation of 
the leaves. Of the feather-veined species two are there described : Z. 
latifolia, Greene, and Z. tonientella, Greene. The new species here de- 
scribed is closely related to Z. latifolia, Greene, but the flowers are much 
larger, the leaves more ovate, and the whole plant more . villous. When 
Greene wrote, latifolia seemed to have been unknown south of Santa Bar- 
bara. All our collections here show it to be quite common in the Sierra 
Madre and San Bernardino ranges, at from 2000 to 5000 ft. altitude. In 
the neighborhood of Los Angeles, it descends as low as 500 ft., and in 
Blysian park it may be found growing in close proximity to Z. Calif ar- 
nica, var. niicrophylla, Gray. Z. latifolia, as represented here, has , com- 
pared with Z. Arisonica, long, narrow, lanceolate leaves, seldom more 
than one-quarter inch broad, flowers smaller, not more than one inch long 
and having styles and stamens not exserted more than half an inch. 



NOTES. 

Mr. Rydberg, in the Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 28, No. 11, has 
given a careful revision of the genus Habenaria, and following the Euro- 
pean custom has subdivided this genus. 

It has long been apparent to us here that the plant known as 
Habenaria leucostachys, Wats. Bot. Cal., did not conform to the descrip- 
tion given. Rydberg has re-established H. Thurberi, Gray, as Limnor- 
chis Thurberi. This is the common species here, and is reported also from 
San Bernardino by Parish and from Fresno by Hall and Chandler. L. leii- 
costachys, Lindl., is retained for the plant common in N. Cal., Wash, and 
farther north. 

Of the West American species listed, two are new, viz: L. Arisonica, 
and L.ensifolia. In the genus Piperia our Californian species as now 
named are : 

Piperia Cooperi, (Wats.), San Diego. 

P. lancifolia, Rydb; a new species found on Sierra Santa Monica, 
by Dr. Hasse. 

P. longipetala, Rybd., mountains East of San Diego. 

P. multi-flora, Rybd., Monterey. 

P. elegans, (Lindl) ; Santa Lucia Mts. 

L. longispica, (Durand) ; Santa Monica and Cucamonga Mts., Mon- 
terey. 

P. Michacli, (Greene) ; San Bernardino Mts. 

P. Maritinia, (Greene) ; San Francisco Co. 

Those interested in the introduction of the salt-bushes (Atriplex), 

now so much in demand as a forage plant on alkaline soils will find in 

Pulletin 2^, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, a complete description of the 

various seeds most commonly used. The seeds described are beautifully 

illustrated. 



A new shell allied to Tethys Calif ornicus, Cooper, was found at San 
Pedro last summer by T. D. A. Cockerell. It is described in the Dec. 
Nautilus as T. Ritteri, Cockl. 

Professor Greene, in the latest Pittonia, Vol. IV, Part 25, describes 
a wealth of new species from all over North America ; many of them it is 
interesting to observe have been trodden over by eastern botanists for 
many decades. Among the western additions is a new Crucifer, Thysano- 
carpus afUnis from the collection of Mrs. Blanche Trask, Catalina Island. 

Dr. Harry Beale Torrey of the University of California is making- 
some studies during the December low tides of the sea anemones with 
particular reference to their reproduction. Pie has also looked over the 
collection of marine hydroids dredged last summer during the session 
of the San Pedro Biological Laboratory and found about thirty-five forms, 
over twenty-five of which have not been described. 

The subject for the February lecture of the Academy of Sciences will 
pertain to Libraries. The speaker will be Miss Mary L. Jones, the librarian 
of our Public Library in Los Angeles. 

Prof. W. W. Campbell, Director of the Lick Observatory, will be 
with us in March and will lecture before the Academy on the second 
Tuesday of the month. The subject will be announced later. 



TRANSACTIONS. 
Southern California Academy of Sciences. 

Los Angeles, Cal., Dec. 9, 1901. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Southern California Academy of 
Sciences was held this evening at 724 South Broadway. 
President Knight occupied the chair. 

The minutes of the November meeting were read and approved. 
Ten candidates for membership, whose applications had previously, 
in accordance with the By-Laws, been passed upon by the Board of 
Directors, were elected into fellowship. Those elected were : 

Dr. Robert D. Emery, Dr. Geo. H. Hull. 

Irvin G. Lewis, Rev. H. K. Walker, 

Miss Edith Claypole, Dr. Geo. L. Cole, 

Bishop J. H. Johnson, Miss Agnes Claypole, 

Albert B. Ulrey, Colton Russell, 

Mr. S. B. Parish of Redlands was elected an honorary member of 
the Academy. 

The Secretary read a letter from Mr. A. M. Shields of San Fran- 
cisco, who desired to donate to the Academy some valuable ornithological 
and zoological specimens. 

A preliminary report of the Leonid meteoric observations, made at 
Claremont College under the directorship of Prof. E. K. Brackett, was 



read. The summary of the observations of meteors for the three years, 
1898, 1900 and 1901, was as follows: 

1898. 1900. 1 90 1. 

November 14 134 49 137 

November 15 172 49 1454 

November 16 22 63 5 

It will be noticed that no observations were reported by Prof. Brackett 
for the year 1899. '^'^^ reason given was the incessant cloudy weather. 

Comaiienting- upon Prof. Brackett's report, President Knight ex- 
pressed the opinion that he considered the Leonid observations made at 
Claremont College to be the best and most systematic work in this field 
of astronomy made anywhere in the country. 

The Chair called the attention of the meeting to a number of valuable 
scientific lectures recently given in Philadelphia under the auspices of the 
Franklin Institute, the Museum of Sciences and Arts of the University 
of Pennsylvania, and the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Some of the subjects dealt with were: "Divisibility of the Atom," "The 
Period of a Rod Vibrating in a Liquid," "Molecular Physics," "Cuban 
Archaeology," "Insect Life History," "Excretory Organs," and "Nitric 
Acid." 

The speaker of the evening was then introduced, Mr. Irvin G. Lewis, 
who presented an interesting paper on 

"The South Sea Islands." 

The speaker dealt with the topography and geography of the islands 
and called special attention to the scarcity of harbors and the depth of the 
ocean between the groups of islands. The atolls and coral formations 
were described, and the various theories of their formations and growth 
entered into. Mr. Lewis stated the remarkable fact that the fishes found 
in the lagoons formed by the atolls were all poisonous, while the same fish 
found outside of the atolls could be eaten wdth impunity. The various 
languages of the natives, their history, their huts and former cannibalism 
(a subject which the speaker said the natives today avoid referring to), 
the appalling mortality since they have come in contact with Caucasian 
civilization, were all dealt with in an instructive way. 

A discussion followed, after which the meeting stood adjourned. 

B. R. Baumgardt, Secretary. 



ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 

The meeting was called to order at the usual hour by Chairman Baum- 
gardt. 

A letter to the President of the Academy from Director W. W. Camp- 
bell of the Lick Observatory was read to the Section, expressing Prof. 
Campbell's appreciation of the invitation extended to him by the President 
to deliver a lecture before the Academy, and making a conditional promise 
to do so early in the spring. 

Chairman Eaumgardt then, by aid of a diagram on the blackboard, 
gave a very interesting and instructive exhibition and explanation of the 
movements of the planet Venus, now at her greatest eastern elongation, 
and predicting the dates of her greatest brilliancy, inferior conjunction, 
and greatest western elongation. 



^/°/?/z Jo, /9 OA 




The subject of the Leonids was then taken up and many facts brought 
out concerning these interesting bodies by Messrs. Knight, Baumgardt, 
Colhns, and others. 

Reference was then made to the false report of a comet having been 
discovered by the weather bureau observer at Chicag-o, and the explanation 
of the error offered by Prof. Campbell to the effect that the deceptive 
appearance of the Pleiades in cloudy weather had probably given rise to 
the mistake. 

President Knight then gave a condensed sketch O'f the great comets 
that have been visible during the nineteenth century, and added that it 
having been about nineteen years since the last great comet appeared, it 
was near the time when another comet of note should visit the solar 
system. 

President Knight then read a carefully prepared paper relative to the 
phenomenon of the new star in Perseus,, giving credence to the theory that 
a star in its movements had come into contact with a nebulous mass of 
sufficient density to offer much resistance, thus giving rise to a great deal 
of heat and luminosity, both of which would pass away after contact 
ceased. The discussion of this topic was participated in by several mem- 
bers, after which the meeting adjourned. 

Melville Dozier, Secretary. 



10 

BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

At the regular meeting" of the Biological section, Tuesday evening, 
I\ov. 19th, Miss Edith Claypool of Throop Polytechnic Institute, gave an 
account of the work of Prof. Simon Henry Gage, Professor of Anatomy, 
Cornell University. 

The account included a reference to his early life, how by hard work 
he made his way through college and that this capacity for work together 
with technical knowledge of photography gained then, contributed ma- 
terially to his eminent success as a teacher of Anatomy. 

A review of his published works was given with special reference 
to "Anatomical Technology" and ''L^se of the Microscope." Among 
his original contributions to science his studies on the lake lampreys have 
been the most valuable., 

A description was given of the laboratories and the laboratory 
methods used at Cornell L'niversity in Prof. Gage's department. He was 
one of the pioneers in requiring individual work of students in the prep- 
aration of histological material for their own studies. Some sets of slides 
of the normal animal tissues were shown to demonstrate what the aver- 
age student was able to accomplish in this laborator3^ 

Dr. Frank Gordon, Secretory. 

BOTANICAL SECTION. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Botanical section was held on 
I\Ionday, December 23rd. at eight o'clock in the evening, in room 85 
Temple block, the usual time and place. The following gentlemen were" 
present ; ]\Iessrs. Ernest Braunton and H. S. Budd, and Drs. Adolf 
Kraemer. Carl Schwalbe and Anstruther Davidson. 

IMost of the evening was occupied in looking over and discussing an 
extremeh' interesting collection of Euphorbiaceae submitted by Mr. Budd, 
and some plants from San Diego, shown by Dr. Kraemer. 

Dr. Davidson presented to the section for the herbarium, a new and 
handsome species of Zauschneria collected by him in Arizona and pub- 
lished by him in this Bulletin as Z. Arisonica. After discussing this plant 
as compared with Z. Calif ornica, there being no formal business to be 
transacted, the meeting adjourned until January 27th, 1902. 

Louis A. Greata, Secretary. 

GEOLOGICAL SECTION 

This Section met at the rooms of the Southwestern Miners' Associa- 
tion, Tuesday evening, November 26th, 1901, George W. Parsons, pre- 
siding. 

The subject for discussion was: "Quicksilver, its occurrence. Pro- 
duction and L'ses," by Mr. R. S. Baverstock. 

The speaker stated that California had extensive quicksilver re- 
sources, San Francisco being the center of the quicksilver producing 
district. He stated that the principal producing quicksilver district at 
the present tune was San Luis Obispo County, and that Los Angeles cap- 
ital had awakened to the importance of securing a part of the trade. Mr. 
Baverstock also stated that a man who had been working Santa Barbara 
sand for gold, obtained a few flasks of quicksilver which he disposed of 



in Los Angeles. He gave a very extensive and interesting description of 
the process of smelting and distilation of the ores, illustrating the sub- 
ject by the aid of charts. 

He also exhibited some fine specimens of ore from the San Joaquin 
Ranch in Orange County, as well as from other districts in California. 

He stated that mercury is found amalgamated with gold, lead and 
other metals, and that the supply in Mexico was inadequate to the demand, 
and that the output in California was decreasing, yet the ore is found 
in considerable quantities in the counties of Napa, Santa Clara, San 
Benito, Lake, Trinity, Sonoma, San Luis Obispo, Colusa, Monterey, 
Marin, Santa Barbara, Siskiyou, Mendocino and some of the other Coun- 
ties of California. 

It is expected that Dr. S. M. Woodbridge will discuss the subject of 
Nitrates, Phosphates and Potash at the January meeting. 



G. Major Taber. Secretary. 



The December meeting of the section was not held on account of 
the Southern California Teachers' Association, which held its sessions 
at this time. 

Los xAngeles, Cal., Dec. 6, 1901. 

Meeting of the Board of Directors at the Office of the President. 

A meeting was held this afternoon, with President Knight in the chair. 

Those present were. President Knight, Prof. Dozier, Dr. Davidson, 
Mr. Kinney and Mr. Baumgardt. 

The President announced the subject for the next general meeting of 
the Academy. 

Nine new members were elected, as follows : 
Robert D. Emery, O. D., Colton Russell, 

Irvin G. Lewis, Miss Agnes Clavpole, 

Miss Edith Claypole, ; Geo. L. Cole, M. D., 

Bishop J. H. Johnson, •" Rev. PL K. Walker, 

Albert B. Ulrey. 

On a motion of Dr. Davidson, Mr. S. B. Parrish was recommended 
for honorary membership in the Academy. 

It was moved by Prof. Dozier that the Chair appoint a committee of 
three on publication. Carried. 

Action on publishing Mr. Parrish's Botany of Southern California 
was postponed to the next meeting of the Board of Directors. 

Adjourned. 

B. R. Baumgardt, Secretary. 

Los Angeles, Cal., Dec. 10, 1901. 
Meeting of the Board of Directors at the Office of the President. 

A meeting was held this afternoon. Members present were Messrs. 
Davidson, Campbell, Johnson, Dozier and Baumgardt. 

In the absence of President Knight, Prof. Dozier was elected to act as 
chairman. 

The Secretary presented the name of Dr. Geo. S. Hull of Pasadena 
for membership, which application was passed upon favorably. 

Adjourned. 

B. R. Baumgardt, Secretary. 



CALENDAR OF MEETINGS FOR THE MONTH OF JANUARY. 



January 7. — Meeting of the Astronomical Section at 724 South Broad- 
way. Subject: "The Metric System," by Prof. Melville Dozier. 

January 14. — Meeting of the Academy at 724 South Broadway. Sub- 
ject : "Landscape Gardening and Floriculture," by Mr. Ernest Braunton, 
•editor of the California Floriculturist. The lecture will embrace the effect 
of gardening upon civilization, its history and development, rules for land- 
scape gardening, the right and wrong w^ays and the dictates of nature, 
California gardening in general and Los Angeles in particular, the planting 
and care of trees, shrubs and plants, floriculture in general and the rose in 
particular. The subject will be illustrated with charts showing several 
economic and artistic ways of laying out an ordinary city lot. 

January 21. — Biological Section wall meet at the State Normal School. 

January 2y. — Botanical Section will meet at room 85, Temple block. 

January 28. — Geological Section wall meet at the Southw'est Miners' 
Association rooms. First and Main streets. 



H 




FEBRUARY I, 1902 



NO. 2 



BULLETIISr 



OP THE 



Soutfiern Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBI^ICATION: 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Mblville Dozibr T. B Comstock, Ph. D. 



CONTENTS: 

Page 

Calendar of Meetings for February 13 

Frontispiece, Aster Greatai, full page illustration 14 

Aster Greatai, by S. B. Parish ., 15 

November Meteors of 1901, Report of Observations 

made by Prof. F. P. Brackett and Assistants 16 

Notes 17 

Transactions 18 



PUBLISHED FOR THE ASSOCIATION BT 

B. R. BAUMGARDT & CO. 
231 West First St., Los Anoblbs, Cal. 



Yearly Subscription , |1,00 



Single Copie«, 10 ct« 



i 



13 



Calendar for February, 1902. 



Feb. 4 Astronomical Section meets at 724 South Broadway. Illus- 
trated lecture by Prof. Edgar L. Larkin, of the Lowe Observatory. Sub- 
ject : "Spectrum Analysis." The lecture will include Recent Research in 
Radiant Energy and the Search for Zero Temperature. 

Feb. If. General meeting of the Academy. Lecture by Miss Mary 
L. Jones, Librarian of Los Angeles Public Library. Subject : "The Li- 
brary Historically and Locally Considered," to be preceded by a brief paper 
on '"Modern English" by Mr. A. L. Bancroft. 

Feb. 18. Meeting of the Biological Section at the State Normal 
School. Lecture by Dr. Albert B. Ulruy. Subject : ''Some Practical Sug- 
gestions on the Study of Biological Problems of this Region with Special 
Reference to Animal Ecology. 

Feb. 24. Meeting of Geological Section at the Southwest Miners' 
Association, First and Main streets. Lecture by Dr. S. M. Woodbridge. 
Subject : "Phosphate and Other Deposits in New Mexico Suitable for Fer- 
tilizing." 

Feb. 25. Meeting of Botanical Section at 85 Temple Block. There 
will be a report by Mr. Louis A. Greata, on a Collection of Northern Plants. 



N. B. All the meetings commence at eight o'clock in the evening. 



14 




Fig. 2. ASTER GREATAI, -3 NATURAL SiZE. 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 



SouiHsrn Gaiilornia ftGademij o! Sg1gog6 



VOL. I LOS ANGELES, CAL, nzBE^UARY I, 1902. NO. 2 



/ LIBRARY 

s/ Aster GreatOLi. NEW YORK^ 

sp. nov. BOTANICAL 

By S. B. Parish, San Bernardino, O^R^^^^ 

Siems erect or assurgent, 4 17 dm. high, glabrous, or above 
sparsely hirtellus; leaves thin, ovate, oblong-lanceolate, or lan- 
ceolate, 6- [5 cm. long, the scabrid margins few-toothed, and the 
base clasping, the uppermost usually reduced to linear or 
linear-lanceolate bracts; heads (5 mm. high by 10 mm. wide) in 
an ample panicle; involucral scales loosely imbricated in a fev^^ 
series, lanceolate, green, minutely ciliate; rays 30-40, light pur- 
ple, nairow, acute, 5-10 mm. long; achenes hirsute. (Fig. 2.) 

Acton, Dr. Hasse, Canyons of the San Gabriel Mts., near 
Pasadena; McClatchie, Sept. 1892; L. A. Greata, Sept. 1900, 
(type); Mr. and Mrs. Grout, Sept. 1900. 

A handsome species of the ViUgaris section, and near A. 
Fremonti, Gray. The recognition of it is due to Mr. Greata's 
notes and excellent specimens, and it fittingly may connect his 
name with the flora of which he is so earnest a student. 

[This tsbue mailed Jan. 31, 1902.] 



i6 



November Leonids of 1901. 

REPORT OF OBSERVATIONS MADE BY PROF. F. P. BRACKETT AND ASSIS- 
TANTS AT POMONA COI,I.EGE, CLAREMONT, CAL, 

Volunteers from the Astronomy Class maintained a systematic watch 
on the mornings of November 14th, 15th and i6th, from midnight till day- 
light. The watch was divided into half-hour periods, for each of which two 
or more observers were responsible. 

On the morning of the 14th, 137 meteors were seen, of which only 57 
were positively identified as Leonids. 

On the morning of the 15th, 1449 meteors were seen, of which only 
22 were indentified as not being Leonids. 

A fog on the morning of the i6th precluded observation. 

Of the 1449 meteors observed on the 15th, 1130 were seen in the two 
hours from 3:30 to 5:30 a. m., being at the rate of 9.4 per minute. 

Between 4:30 and 5 a. m. their frequency amounted almost to a ver- 
itable shower. During that period 400 meteors were seen — falling at the 
average rate of one for each 19 seconds, though at some portions of that in- 
terval several meteors were seen moving across the sky at the same 
moment. 

About one-quarter of the meteors were of the first magnitude or 
higher. About half were of the third magnitude or less. 

The prevailing color of those under third magnitude was white, while 
that of the higher magnitude was orange. A few green and blue ones 
were seen. 

The length of the path was usually proportional to the magnitude of 
the meteor. 

Several meteors were seen to burst and scatter. Three left trails 
which were visible for a long time, one of them about 20 minutes. 



The very excellent, elaborate and painstaking report above epit- 
omised, covers 38 pages of descriptive and tabular matter, and reflects great 
credit upon Prof. Brackett and his assistants, Messrs. Ludden, Moles, Ven- 
huizen, Bert and Reynolds, and Misses Craig, Wolcott and Rice. It is a 
valuable contribution to meteoric astronomy. Wm. H. Knight. 



I? 

Notes. 

A complete summary of the last season's work of the San Pedro 
Biological Station of the University of California is made by Dr. W. E. 
Ritter in Science, Jan. lo, 1902. 

Prof. W. W. Campbell, Director of the Lick Observatory, will lecture 
before the Academy at the March meeting. 

"Last July, at Downey, Los Angeles, County, California, I had an op- 
portunity to examine an orange orchard. I was greatly interested to find 
Mytitaspis beckii {^N\\\c\i.,\.\.\x^&^\.o be said, would not live in California) 
excessively abundant and injurious on the leaves and fruit. On the same 
trees the old California pests Saissetia olece, Aspidiotus aurantii and Icerya 
purchasi were also present, but in such insignificant numbers that all three 
combined would not do any appreciable damage. I had difficulty in get- 
ting enough of the Icerya for certain identification. I do not know how 
widespread this condition of aflfairs may be; Dr. Howard, to whom I men- 
tioned it, told me it was new to him." — T. D. A, Cockerell, in Entom. 
News, Jan., 1902. 

The Chayote, a tropical vegetable of the gourd family, said to be su- 
perior to the summer squash and vegetable marrow of cultivation, is recom- 
mended in Bulletin No. 28, U. S Dept. of Agricult., as a probable valuable 
food plant for Californians. It has been grown at Santa Barbara for some 
years and is a rapid growing vine with an abundance of fiowers that pro- 
duce much honey. 

The Delphiniums of the west threaten to become as much of a puzzle 
to our botanists as the blackberry bush was to the English. Miss Alice 
Eastwood (Torrey Bulletin, Dec. 19c i) discusses D. decorum, and its allies, 
and, by way of elucidation, adds three new species and two varieties, all 
native of northern and middle California. 

The Academy of Sciences of Southern California aims to make its 
Bulletin the best representative magazine of its kind in the west. To fully 
attain this end we require and desire help from all workers in nature's field. 
The entomologist, zooiogist, geologist and botanist will be accorded space 
for any article of scientific value; if illustrations are forwarded these will be 
reproduced without any expense to the writers. Lists of species and ad- 
ditions to lists already published always prove useful to investigators. 

Quite a respectable number of new species have been added to the 
flora of the west during the season just passed. We have made arrange- 
ments to present one or two of these with illustrations in each succeeding 
number of the Bulletin. 

Mr. Henry Skinner (Entomological News, Jan. '02) describes two new 
butterflies from California. Lycaena neutona, from Doble, San Bernardino 
county, and Lycaena chlorina from Tehachapi. 

In the Journal of Malacology, 1901, Vol. VIII, pt. 3, Mr. T. D. A. 
Cockerell reports three new Nudibranchs from Califoi-nia. Coryphella 
cooperi and Facelina stearnsi, from San Pedro; and Thecacera velox, from 
La Jolla, San Diego county. 

Volutomitra Alaskana, a new deep water shell ranging from Alaska 
to San Diego, is described by Mr. Dall in Nautilus, January, '02. 



i8 

Transactions. 

ACADKMY OF SCIENCES. 

The regular meeting of the Academy of Sciences was held in Ebell Hall 
January 14th, 1902. President Wm. H. Knight called the meeting to order. 
The Secretary, Mr. B. R. Baumgardt being absent, Mr. G. Major Taber 
acted as Secretary pro tern. 

Mr. Ernest Braunton, editor of the "California Floriculturist," was 
introduced as the speaker of the evening, his subject being "Landscape 
Gardening and Floriculture." 

The speaker took a broad and scientific view of the subject, and said 
in part: — "That the effect of gardening on civilization hadbeen very marked. 
That Ivydia had been famed for her gar ! ens 2000 years before the Christian 
era, as also the hanging gardens of Babylon which Nebuchadnezzar made 
the wonder of the world The study of the picturesque was the order of 
the day down to 600 years B. C. 

He stated that Ptolemy laid out magnificent gardens at Alexandria 
containing avenues, statuary and fountains, and that the Greeks were noted 
for their art in landscape gardening. 

The speaker advocated following as near to nature as possible, and 
remarked that A.J. Downing, the pioneer of landscape gardening, assisted 
by Fredrick S. Umslead, laid out the Central Park in New York City, and 
that it was one of the most beautiful parks in the world. He spoke very 
highly of the Golden Gate Park of San Francisco. 

The speaker laid down three rules as underlying principals, that of 
preserving open lawn centers, planting in mass, and avoiding straight lines. 

He made the assertion that California had not yet developed a system 
of her own, but had imitated eastern methods, and that Prof. Bailey was in 
favor of California adopting a distinct method, owing to her superior ad- 
vantages of climate. He asserted that the possibilities in L,os Angeles were 
greater for landscape gardening than in any other country, and yet they 
were far behind many of the eastern cities, and that many of the eastern 
nurseries contained a greater variety of plants and flowers than could be 
found in our own nurseries here. He stated that the trees and shrubs bor- 
dering the streets were not the best adapted for the purpose. The speaker 
criticized the unartistic design of the 6th Street Park, and suggested the 
planting around the Park a hedge to make it more secluded. For shade 
trees for the roadside, he preferred the Sterculia Diversifolia, sometimes 
called the "Bottle Tree." 

The speaker took up the subject of the cultivation of the Rose, giving 
direction as to pruning, watering and fertilizing, going into the subject very 
thoroughly. During his remarks he called the attention of the audience to 
several designs of lawns, explaining the rules governing the artistic points 
in the laying out of them. 

The President in a few appropriate words, thanked the speaker in 
the name of the audience for his interesting lecture. 

G. Major Taber, Sec'y pro temporary. 



19 
ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 

Jan. yth, 1902. 

The section was called to order at the usual hour bj' Chairman Baum- 
gardt, and the minutes of the last meeting read and approved. 

The chairman announced that Director Campbell of the Lick Ob- 
servatory, expected to deliver a lecture before the Academy of Sciences at 
the regular meeting in March next. 

He also called attention to the fact that the planet Venus is now at 
its maximum brilliancy, and would henceforth rapidly approach the Sun, 
disappearing in his rays on the 22nd of next month, shortly after which she 
would appear as a Morning Star. The paper of the evening was then read 
by Mr. Melville Dozier, being a brief summary of the defects of the present 
s\stem of weights and measures in use in this country and Great Britain, 
followed by a concise history of the construction and adoption of the Metric 
System, together with an exposition of its remarkable advantages over the 
common system; the simplicity and comprehensiveness of the system being 
illustrated by use of the blackboard. The paper was followed by a discus- 
sion of the comparative merits of the systems and the question of the com- 
pulsory use of the Metric System in the United States. It was resolved 
that the Academy be recommended to adopt a resolution asking Congress 
to pass a law making the use of the Metric System compulsory in all gov- 
ernmental business. The meeting then adjourned. 

MELVILLE Dozier, Secretary. 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

At the January meeting a paper was read by Dr. C. A. Whiting on 
"Some Problems of Nutrition." 

The paper discussed the nature of the food principles and their 
changes by means of the digestive ferments. Particular attention was 
given to the role of proteids in nutrition, and how, under certain conditions, 
they may supply deficiencies in carbohydrates. Proteids are the tissue for- 
mers, while fats and carbohydrates are the energy producers of the human 
body. 

The paper was illustrated by blackboard diagrams of processes and 
chemical reactions. 

The discussion which followed brought out a review of Dr. Loeb's 
recent experiments on the vitality of the cell. 

Dr. Frank Gordon, Secretary. 



GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 
The Geological Section met in the rooms of the Southwest Miners 
Association on Tuesday evening, January 28th. The attendance was large, 
including a delegation from Dr. F. Lee Fuller's Y. M. C. A. Class in Min- 
ing and Mineralogy. 



20 

In the absence of Chairman Geo. W. Parsons, Mr. Wm. H. Knight 
presided. Tne minutes of the preceding meeting of the Section were read 
by the Secretary and approved. 

The meeting was addressed by Mr. Fred H. Brown on "Detecting 
the Presence and Ivocating the Position of Ore Bodies in Mineral Veins by 
Electricity." It was interestingly illustrated by means of electrical apparatus, 
numerous charts and blackboard diagrams. 

Mr. Brown said that the principle involved is the well-known law 
that an electrical current always seeks the path of least resistance. The 
metals are good conductors, while the earth is a poor conductor and oflFers a 
comparatively high resistance. If a current is sent from a point A to a 
point B, 500 feet distant, and the resistance recorded by the ohm-indicator is, 
say 1000 ohms, while a currant sent from A to point C in another direction 
encounters a resistance of only 200 ohms, the inference is that somewhere 
below the surface between A and C there is a body of metallic ore offering a 
low resistance to the current. B^^ repeated cross-sectional surveys the 
depth and position of the ore body can be approximately determined. 

Beautiful experiments, illustrating the principles involved were, 
made with copper fillings, with a mass of galena two feet in diameter, and 
with a chalk-like substance which proved to be nearly a non-conductor. 
Mr. Brown was assisted in his experiments by Messrs. J. A. Shelhamer and 
Wm. D. Kelly. An animated discussion was participated in by Messrs. J. 
H. Dockweiler, G. Major Taber, E B. Avery, W. W. Webster of Pasadena 
and others. G. Major Taber, Secretary. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTED ON PUBLICATION: 

A. DAVtDSO^F, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Mblville Dozeer T. B Comstock, Ph. D. 



CONTENTS : 

Page 

Frontispiece, Spiral Nebula in Canis Venatici 22 

New Spectograph at Lowe Observatory, by Edgar 

Iv. Larkin (111.) 23 

Scrophularia Glabrata, sp. nov. (111.) Dr. Anstru- 

THER Davidson 26 

The Genus Dirina in North America, Dr. H. E. 

Hasse 26 

Silvery Footless Lizard or Snake (111.) Prof. J. J. 

Rivers 27 

Notes 28 

Books and Pamphlets Received 28 

Transactions 29 

Calendar of Meetings during March 32 

Officers and Directors 33 



Published for the Association by 

B. R. BAUMGARDT & CO. 

231 West First St., I,os Angeles, Cal. 



Yearly Subscription , $1,00 



Single Copies, 10 cts 




spiral Nebula in Canis Venatici. from photograph taken w iih the 
Crossley Reflector at the Lick Observatory, May lo, 1899. Expos- 
ure, 4 hours. Illustrating the genesis of suns and worlds. 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 



SouiHern Galilornla ftGadeiiiy ol Sciences 



VOL. I LOS ANGELES, CAL, MARCH I, 1902. NO. 3 



NEW YORfe 
I \NICAL. 

^ RDBN 

The New Spectrograph at the Lowe Observatory. 

BY PROF. EDGAR I.. PARKIN. 

DIRECTOR OF THE LOWE OBSERVATORY 

The lyOwe Observatorj^ is now receiving a fine new spectro- 
graphic outfit through the kindness of generous donors. Two 
ladies, tourists from Allegheny, Penn., called at the observatory. 
They desired to see the solar spectrum with the Fraiinhofer. 
They were shown and explained, as best might be, with the 
home-made, wood-mounted heliostat. They saw this remark- 
able revolving mirror and asked if it was the only heliostat in 
the observatory. Being informed that it was, they called for pen 
and paper and immediately made an order on the Brashear Opti- 
cal Co. for anew one, to order, the finest made. This cost $123.00. 
It is here and is a marvel of precision and beauty; its polished 
mirrors are of exceeding brillianc}^ They since have asked what 
more was needed to render the lyOwe Observatory able to enter 
the list with others in original research. They were in- 
formed that a spectrographic outfit was necessary to do work on 
current line 1 of astro and solar physics. This was ordered and 
is now being made by Brashear. The names of these liberal and 
intellectual women who are doing so much here and elsewhere 
in aid of science are the Misses Jennie M. and Matilda H. Smith. 
They said they were not "society" women. 

[ This issue mailed March 3, 1902.] 



24 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 




The New Spectrograph of the Lowe Observatory 



The cut shows a photograph of the spectroscopic apparatus 
now in the observatory. The new spectrograph is not here — 
probablj' will be in April. The two instruments to the right are 
Nos. I, 2, 3, the heliostat, and 4 is another mirror to reflect the 
band of light elsewhere if desired. The axis (2) of the heliostat 
is parallel to the axis of the earth, the brass box (i) contains a 
double clock which turns the mirror 3 upon which the sunshines, 
to keep up with the rotation of the earth. This keeps the light 
as long as required on a straight line entering the slit of the 
spectroscope (5). The rays pass through the collimator (6) to the 
defraction grating (7), which disperses the band into a magnificent 
spectrum of gorgeous colors, crossed with over 4200 Fraunhofer 
lines. These lines can be read as a telegraphic dispatch and 
constitute the language or alphabet of the universe. The grating, 
ruled with a diamond 14,438 lines to the inch, reflects the light 
throuoh the lens (8) to another lens (at 9), where the eye is 
placed. But the telescope (8), (9), is to be replaced bj' the new 
spectrograph, which will take photographs of all that appears on 
the grating. The entire instrument will rank with the finest in 
the world. The other instruments shown cannot be explained 
here for want of space. 




Fig 3. SCROPHUivARiA GlabraTa. (Natural Size.) 



26 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 
V ScropKularia glabrata, sp, nov. 

BY A. DAVIDSON, C. M., M. D. 

Perennial light green glabrous; the whole upper part of the 
plant studded with microscopic glands: stems slender, two feet 
high, much branched: leaves ovate lanceolate, coarsely dentate. 
1 to i}4 in. long accuminate at apex, narrowed at base, not 
prominently nerved, petioles }2 in. long; flowers dull purple in 
almost leafless thyrses averaging 6 in. in length; bractlets most- 
ly opposite, slender ascending; calyx ovate, acute shorter than the 
tube; corolla dull, purple not contracted, upper lip erect, lobes 
rounded, sterile stamen obovate purple; capsule ovate acute — 
Arizona. Mountain streams at Metcalf at 4000 to 5000 ft. alt. 

(Fig- 3)- 

This species is readily distinguished from all other Scrophu- 
lariae by the shape of the leaf and the total lack of hairs on any 
part of the plant. 



The Geiwis Dirina irv North America. 

BY DR. H. E. HASSE. 

In 1872 Tuckerman wrote (Gen. lyich. p. 130), "It (Dirina) 
has not yet occurred nearer to the North American continent 
than the Sandwich Islands." It will hence be of interest to 
Lichenologists that this Lichen, hitherto known from the Eng- 
lish and Mediteranean coasts, from Chili, Japan and Sandwich Is- 
lands, has now been found to be represented by two new species 
on this continent, both occurring within the boundaries of Los 
Angeles county. Dr. A. Zahlbruckner, of the Botanical De- 
partment of the Royal Museum of Vienna (the author of our 
species), alluded to the circumstance that, true to the predilec- 
tion of this Genus these two species likewise favor a maritime 
habitat, conforming herein to Roccella, to which, according to 
the views of recent authors, Dirina is allied. This view has 
been foreshadowed by Tuckerman (1. c.) and others. 

Dirina rediunta (Stiz.), Zahlbr., was found by the writer in 
1S95 on Catalina upon the bark of Heteromeles arbutifolia, and 
sitice also on the mainland upon the California Walnut and 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 27 

Quercus agrifolia. The late Dr. Stitzenberger recognized it as a 
n. sp., placing it under Lecanora. Subsequently Dr. Ny lander, 
in view of the dark brittle hypothecium, transferred it to Lecidea 
as L. sublugens Ngl. It has now been recognized by Dr. Zahl- 
bruckner as a true Dirina. Ann. K. K. Natur. Hist. Hofmus. 
xvii. 8r. Vienne, 1901. 

Dirina hassei Zahlbr. n. sp. Ball. Torr. Bot. xxvii. 644, 
1901. The original, and so far only known, station on the 
beach near Santa Monica, on bark of Rhus iaurinum. 

It is not improbable that further search along our coast 
and adjacent islands may be rewarded by the discovery of other 
species of Dirina. 



Silvery Footless Lizard or Snake. 

Aniella piilcJira. Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
Aniella nigra. Fisher, Abh. Nat. Verein Hamburg (Var.) 

BY PROF. J. J. RIVERS. 




Fig. 4. Silvery Footless Lizard. ( -A, Natural Size) 

An anatomical digest of the relationship of Aniella to other 
lyacertians is to be found in the U. S. Natural Museum Reports, 
Vol. 17, page 345, by Dr. Baur. This lizard inhabits the sand 
dunes from Marin county to San Diego, Cal. Its food consists 
of larvae of insects, its time of activity is during the night when 
many species in the larval form are seeking their vegetable food. 
Both the reptile and the insect are invisible during the day as 
both have the habit of burrowing for the purpose of concealment. 
But prowling in the dark does not ensure safety for the vege- 
table feeder succumbs to the insectivorous and the insectivorous 
become the prey of the birds of the night. 
Ocean Park, Santa Monica. 



28 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Notes. 

We have received from Dr. L,. G. Yates a reprint from Bulletin 3 of the 
Santa Barbara Natural History Society which contains a list with the known 
localities of the Marine Algae of Santa Barbara county. The list is some- 
what smaller than we would have anticipated and further investigation will 
probably add many other species to the number. 

Students of Mycology will be charmed by the illustrations in Bulletin 
No. 3 of the Lloyd Library, Cincinnati. Mr. Lloyd particularly desires ripe 
specimens of Earth stars and Puff-balls from anywhere and everywhere. 
Any specimens sent will be gratefully received and duly acknowledged. 

The California Academy of Sciences has recently acquired a specimen 
of the Elf Owl from near San Bernardino and a Rivoli hummingbird 
from the San Gorgonio Pass — both first records from California. Auk, Vol. 
XIX, No. I. 



Books, PaLinphlets, Etc., Received. 

The Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, Vol. Nos. i 
and 2. 

Missouri Botanic Garden Reports, Vols. 11 and 12. 

Bulletin of Department of Geology of the University of Cal., Vols, i 
and 2. 

Publications of the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture for sale by the Superin- 
tendent of Documents. Corrected to July I, 1900. 

Suggestions to prospective forest students. Circular 23, U. S. Dept of 
Agriculture, Bureau of Forestry. 

Report of the Forester for 1901, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden, Vol. 2, No. 6. 

Experiment Station Record, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Vol. XIII, 
No. 5. 

Proceedings of the Thirteenth annual meeting of the Association of 
Economic Entomologists. — U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 29 



Trarvsa-ctions. 



ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The regular meeting of the Academj- was held at Ebell Hall Feb. 11, 
1902. President Wm. H. Knight called the meeting to order. In the 
absence of Secretary B. R. Baumgardt, Mr. G. Major Taber acted as secre- 
tary pro tem. 

The following persons were elected to membership in the Academy: 
Dean William T. Randall, Prof. James H. Hoose, and Paul Arnold, of the 
University of Southern California; Miss Alice G. Cooper, Miss Louise Lyde, 
Dr. D. L. Tasker, and Dr. Fred L Brown. 

A paper contributed by Mr. A. L. Bancroft, was read by Prof. Mel- 
ville Dozier. Subject: "Modern English from the Standpoint of Useful- 
ness." The author proposed a revision, enumerating the advantages that 
would result from the adoption by all the English speaking nations of the 
phonetic system. Prof. Dozier moved that the paper be referred to a Com- 
mittee of Three for further consideration by the Academy. 

The President then introduced Miss Mary L. Jones, City Librarian, 
who addressed the meeting, her subject being "Libraries, Historically and 
Locally Considered." Miss Jones gave account of some of the first libraries 
established in this country, stating that Benjamin Franklin organized the 
first subscription library at Philadelphia in I73i,and from that effort public 
libraries had been established all over the country. The speaker explained 
the decimal system of classifying books and other interesting features of 
modern library work. She stated that more books were read from the 
Los Angeles Library in proportion to its population, than is the case in any 
other city in the United States. She favored locating the newspaper read- 
ing rooms in the new Chamber of Commerce building, thus making more 
table room at the Public Library for book users The speaker deprecated 
the too frequent changes in the personel of the library board as detrimental 
to the best interests of the institution. 

G. Major Taber, Secretary pro tem. 



ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 

The meeting was called to order by Chairman Baumgardt, and the min- 
utes of the last meeting were read and approved. The Chairman again 
called attention to the approaching transition of Venus from an evening to 
a morning star, and to the proximity of its conjunction with the Sun. 



30 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

President Knight referred to a paragraph from the pen of Prof. Kapteyn, 
published in a European journal, relative to a theory accounting for the 
new star in Perseus. Mr. Knight compared it with his own theory as stated 
before the section at the December meeting. 

The lecture of the evening was then delivered by Prof. Larkin director 
of the Lowe Observatory., being an exposition of the nature, law, and prac- 
tical applications of Spectrum Analysis. Prof. Larkin, by the aid of many 
diagrams, illustrated the development and the construction of the spectro- 
scope, and gave a most lucid and instructive account of the important dis- 
coveries due to its use, and of the invaluable place it occupies in astro- 
nomical investigation and calculation. The evening was one of unusual 
profit and interest. 

Melville Dozier, Secretary. 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Los Angeles, Cal., Feb. i8, 1902 

Prof. Ulrey of the University of Southern California, addressed the Sec- 
tion. He gave an interesting sketch of the history of Biological research. 
Beginning with Aristotle, he traced the evolution of the science through 
Pliny, Wotton, Linaeus, Lamarck, Lyell and Agassiz. 

Finally, he said the researches and convincing arguments of Darwin 
and Wallace gave us "Natural Selection." These in their turn were fol- 
lowed by Weissman who opposed the idea of acquired characters being in- 
herited. 

The comparatively new line of research in experimental embryology 
and comparative physiology is well illustrated by the experiments of Roux. 
He destroyed one part of the developing egg of the frog and the remaining 
part developed, first into a half embryo and later this half produced the 
whole animal. 

Herbst showed that by changing the composition of sea water, sea 
urchins' eggs wonld develop into a form very different from the species 
from which it came. Loeb's researches are along the same lines. 

Some of the problems suggested for local study were: (i) Variations 
under known environment. (2) Inheritance of acquired characters. (3) 
Hybridization. (4) Effects on developing embryos of abnormal conditions. 
(5) Regeneration experiments. 

Besides this, such pioneer work should be carried on as: (i) making 
lists of species in this region with particular reference to the data of their 
environment and (2) distribution of certain forms and their abundance. 

In the discussion which followed plans were considered as to these- 
practical lines of work which the section might undertake. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 31 

GROLOGICAL SECTION. 

Los Angeles, Feb. 25th, 1901. 

The Geological Section met at the rooms of the Southwestern Miners' 
Association, at 8 pm. In the absence of Chairman Parsons, President Wm. H. 
Knight called the meeting to order. The minutes of the last meeting were 
read by the Secretary and approved. 

Mr. Wm. Hodgson placed on exhibition a number of bones found on 
the desert some sixty miles from Mojave, which were apparently fossils of 
gigantic animals belonging to a previous geological era, also several 
Indian relics found in that vicinity. 

Mrs. Mary E. Hart gave a brief sketch of her mining experience at 
Nome, having lately returned from that section. She exhibited a collection 
of photographs of the inhabitants of Alaska, also of reindeer and other curi- 
osities, also samples of tundra, moss which comprises almost the exclusive 
food of the reindeer, Alaska cotton, and samples of gold dust. Her report 
of that section was full of interest. Capt. J. J. Healy and Col. A. B. Hamil- 
ton of Seattle, formerly Alaska miners, were present and added much to the 
interest of the occasion with their reminiscences. The section then ad- 
journed. 

G. Major Taber, Sec'y. 



BOTANICAL SECTION. 

The proposed meeting was postponed on account of the inclemency o 

the weather. 

L. GreaTA, Secretary. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

A meeting of the Board of Directors was held in the office of the Presi- 
dent. A full quorum was present. 

Seven applications for membership were passed favorably. The names 
of the applicants were as follows: Dean W. T. Randall, Miss A. G. Cooper, 
Miss Louise Lyde, Prof. J. A. Hoose, Paul Arnold, Dr. D L. Tasker, Fred 
Brown. 

The offer of Prof W. W. Campbell, Director of the Lick Observatory, to 
lecture before the Academy at the regular monthly meeting in March was 
accepted and the Secretary instructed to make arrangements for a hall of 
suflBcient capacity for the occasion. 

Bills to the extent of $45.65 were passed. 

There being no further business the meeting stood adjourned. 

Secretary. 



32 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Calendar for March. 



March 4. Astronomical Section me. ts at 724 S. Broadway. Informal 
talk on the International Date L,ine, introduced by Mr. Melville Dozier. 

March 11. General meeting of the Academy at the Ebell Hall, Broad- 
way. Lecture by Prof. Willis m Wallace Campbell, Director of the Lick 
Observatory. Subject: ''The Motion of the Solar System." Illustrated 
with numerous lantern slides. Also a few slides showing the nebula sur- 
rounding Nova Persei, and slides of photographs of nebulae obtained by the 
late Director Keeler. 

Referring to the Lick Observatory, Prof. Simon Nemcomb says: "But 
its most epoch-making work is due in recent years to Campbell, by meas- 
urements ot the motion of stars in the line of sight with the spectroscope. 
Armed with the best spectrograph that human art could make, he has, by 
the introduction of every refinement in his method, brought into these 
measures a degree of precision never before reached." 

March 18. Biological Section meets at the State Normal School. 

March 24. Botanical Section meets at 85 Temple Block. 

March 25. Geological Section meets at the Southwest Miners' Associa- 
tion, First and Main Streets. Subject: "The Oynx Deposits of Arizona." 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 33 



)outi)cnt (j^alifornia ^[catiemp of fe)ctcnce^ 



OFFICERS ARD DIRECTORS 

1901' 1902 

Wm. H. Knight, Room 2 Bryson Block, Los Angeles President 

J. D. Hooker First Vice-President 

Abbot Kinney Second Vice-President 

Anstruthkr Davidson, M. D Treasurer 

B. R. Baumgardt, 231 West First Street, Los Angeles Secretary 

Prof. J. A. Foshay Prof. Melville Dozier 

Dr. John R. Haynes A. Campbell Johnson 
Dr. S. M. Woodbridge Dr. T. D. Comstock 



SECTIONS 

Astronomical Section 

B. R. Baumgardt Chairman 

Prof. Melville Dozier Secretary 

Meets First Tuesday of Month at 724 South Broadway, Los Angjeles 

:Biological Section 

Prof. B. M. Davis '. Chairman 

Meets Third Tuesday of Month at State Normal School 

^Botanical Section 

A. Campbell Johnson Cliairuuni 

L. A. Greata Secretary 

Meets Fourth Honday of flonth at 85 Temple Block, Los Angeles 

Geological Section 

George Parsons Chairman 

G. Major Tabor Secretary 

Meets Fourth Tuesday of Monlh at Northeast Corner First and Main Streets, 
Los Angeles 

Bgricultural jEi'petimental Section 

Dr. S. M. Woodbridge Director 

Office and Laboratory, 115 North Main Street, Los Angeles 



VOIv. I. 



APRIIv I, 1902 



NO. 4 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION: 

A. Oavidsont, C, M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Doziek T. B Comstock, Ph. D, 



CONTENTS : 

Page 

Frontispiece, Rich Stellar Region in Sagittarius 38 

Two New Erigerons by Edward h. Greene 39 

New Plant Louse from Southern California, by T. D. 

A. CoCKERELL 40 

Discovery of Another Food Plant of Uranotes Melinus 

by Prof. J. J. Rivers 41 

Notes 42 

Book Reviews 42 

Publications Received 43 

Transactions 44 

Calendar for April 46 



PUBLISHED POR THE ASSOCIATION BY 

B. R. BAUMGARDT & CO. 

231 West First St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Yearly Subscription , $1,00 



MAILED APRIL 3, 1902 



Single Copies, 10 cts s 




One of the richest regions in the Milky Way in the Constellation Sagitarius, from 
photograph by Barnard/at the Lick Observatory, June 19, 1892. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Somiicrn Galllornla flcademy ol Sciences 

VOL I LOS ANGELES, CAL, APRIL I, 1902. ,, HO. 4 

^Two New Erigerons !!f!^ J^l'lt 

BY EDW. L. GREENE. BOTANICAL 



Er I GERON FRAGiLis.y Tufted stems erect, rigia. sTenaer, 2 
or 3 feet high, very leafy up to the corymbose summit, dark-green 
or even purplish, scaberulous: leaves linear- filiform, ij4 to 2 
inches long, ascending, rigid, very fragile when dry, rough with 
minute pustulate incurved hairs: corymbose panicle loose and 
ample, of 10 to 15 heads, the branches ascending: subulate bracts 
of the broad-campanulate involucre in about 3 series, nearly 
glabrous: rays numerous and narrow, deep-violet: achenes oblong- 
linear, nearly glabrous, or with obvious setiform hairs on and 
near the raised margins: inner pappus finely capillary, scaberulous 
and very fragile, the outer present but inconspicious, composed 
of very short and fine bristles. 

Trabucco Canyon, Orange Co. California, June, 1901, Te 
Roy Abrams. (n. i8o[.) Species in some sort intermediate be- 
tween E. foliosus, Nutt. and E. tenuis simits, Greene. 

Erigeron STRiATus.y Stems 2 or 3 feet high, stoutish, very 
erect, bright-green, glabrous and notably striate, very leafy up 
to the corymbose summit: leaves oblong-linear, about lyi inches 
long, obtuse, carinately-nerved beneath, glabrous on both faces, 
the margins remotely scabrous-denticulate: heads 5 to icon 
slender rigid ascending bracted peduncles :involucres campanulate 
their oblong-linear acute bracts in about 3 series and glabrous: 
rays rather few and very narrow, deep-violet: achenes oblong- 
linear, sparsely strigulose or almost glabrous, the margins not 
prominently raised or thickened; inner pappus fine and very 
scabrous, not fragile, the outer scanty and wholly inconspicious, 
consisting of few and very short bristles. 

Huston Flat, San Bernardino Co., CaL, August, 1900. 
Dr. W. R. Shaw, 

The specimens communicated by Le Roy Abrams. In habit 
and foliage this is much like the northern mountain E. inornatus, 
Greene, but the heads and flowers are of a very different character. 
The Catholic University of America, 

Washington, D. C- 



40 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 
A New Plarvt-Louse from Southern California. 

BY T. D. A. COCKERELL. 

Aphis tetrapteralis, n. sp. Length of body about 1230 
micromills, of wing about 2130 micromills: wings hyaline, stig- 
ma 5^ellowish; head and thorax dark grey; abdomen sage green, 
with very faint lateral spots; legs very pale yellowish, tarsus and 
apex of tibia blackish; antennae short, blackish. Nectaries cyl- 
indrical, short, about 60 micromills long and 30 wide; style prom- 
inent, about as long as nectaries; hind tibia about 630, hind tar- 
sus about 100 micromills; a very small tubercule at base of an- 
tennse in front; antennae with the apical half of joint three 
conspiciously darkened, with six large sensoria, arranged more or 
less in three pairs; one sensorium at apex of fifth joint: length of 
antennal segments in micromills: (i) 36; (2) 36; (3) 198; (4) 
135; (5) 138; (6a) 95; (6b) 63. 

The apterous forms are bluish-green or greyish, about the 
color of the food plant, but a little brighter. Mounted specimens 
appear greenish-j-ellow. 

Hab. La Jolla, California, Aug. 9, 1901, very abundant on 
Atriplex canescens tetraptera (Obione tetraptera, Benth. Bot. Sulph., 
p. 48.) The aphis does not distort the plant, but it is followed 
by a black fungus. There were some galls of AspJiondylia atrip- 
licis (Townsend) — new to California — on the same plant; and 
the butterfly Lycaena exilis (the larva of which feeds on the Atrip- 
lex) was flj^ing around. 

Aphis tetrapteralis differs from A. atriplicis, by its smaller 
size, mode of life and much shorter nectaries. It seems to be 
related to A. monardae, Oestlund. 



Note on the Ant WKicK Attends Aphis Tetrapteralis. 

The original specimens of Aphis tetrapteralis at La Jolla were 
attended by a small ant of the genus Cremastogaster. I collected 
a couple of these and sent them to Prof. W. M. Wheeler, who 
reports as follows: 

"The Cremastogaster ii!. either a new variety of C. lineolata 
near coarctata, Mayr, or an entirely new species. The sculpture 
is very peculiar, especially on the nodes and abdomen. In cer- 
tain respects it agrees with C. vermiculata, Emery, a form de- 
scribed from very few specimens. Am extremely sorry that you 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 41 

did not secure more specimens. The variation among the workers 
of a single nest of ants is often very great, and more specimens 
oi this form would probably show whether it deserves to rank as 
an independent species. I believe it safe at present to call it C, 
lineolata, Say, subsp. coarctata, Mayr. n. var." 

I quote the above in the hope that some member of the South- 
ern California Academy of Sciences may be able to secure more 
material of this new ant. The species of Cremastogaster are 
rather easily recognized by their abdomen, which is more or less 
heart-shaped and shiny. Specimens should be sent to Prof. W. 
M. Wheeler, University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

E. lyAs Vegas, N. M. 



Discovery of Another Food Plant of Uranotes (Theckla) 
Melinus, Hub. 

BY PROF. J. J. RIVERS. 

A flat or somewhat compressed larva was found feeding upon 
the parenchyma of a pod of a cultivated pole bean (known as 
Irwin's bean); when disturbed the larva lost its hold and fell to 
the ground. A slight examination told that it was of the Ly- 
caenidae. Many pods were excavated after the manner of Dia- 
brotica, but only to theextent of the inner lining of the legume. 
Others bored through and attacked the seed and devoured a con- 
siderable part of a large bean. 

In Dr. Holland's book on butterflies Uranotes melinus, Hab. 
is mentioned as "one of the hop butterflies" but this citation is 
incomplete and a little misleading for the butterfly is common 
where no Htiinulus grow. Another author records it feeding 
upon Hiimuhis and Crataegus. Thecla humiili Harris, as cited in 
"Prof. G. H. French's Butterflies" appears synonymous with U. 
melinus. Hub. As this species has shown in California a partial- 
ity for Leguminosae it would not be very prophetic to suggest 
that it might be found upon Lupinus CJiam.issonis so common on 
our coasts. The tone of color of the larva and the bean pod 
agree and the texture is similar, the larva having a short, smooth 
pile, while the pod is less conspicuous, being coated with a bloom 
having a semi-velvet appearance. 

Chrysalis: held by a few silken threads. The chrysalis is of 
a dark brown color, head and thoracic parts having an undertone 



42 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

of rusty, but after the escape of the imago therefrom it becomes 
a lighter brown. The abdominal region much congested and 
much flattened on the underside. At the anterior portion where 
the convexity ceased there are a few short stiff hairs; the anal 
portion is covered by a close-set pile. Size: length, i imm, width, 
6 mm. 

Ocean Park. 



Notes 

From analysis and experiments conducted by the Dept. of Agriculture 
on the value of the many Insecticides and Fungicides sold to the public the 
following conclusions have been arrived at : "Slug Shot," "Bug Death" 
and "Black Death," are of little or no value. "P. D. Q," "Instant Louse 
Killer" and Lambert's "Death to Lice," as lice killers are frauds. "Grape 
Dust" and "Veltha" contain 35 percent, of sand or other useless ingredients. 

Mr. A. A. Heller, author of the "Catalogue of Plants of North America," 
made a flying visit to Los Angeles on his way to Santa Rosa. He expects 
to locate in the latter place for a year or so. 

Railroad improvements in East Los Angeles are likely to exterminate 
our rarest sunflower, Helianthus Oliveyd. Some members of the botanical 
section are distributing roots in the hope of perpetuating this plant. To 
any one interested in the preservation of the species, we will forward roots, 
on the receipt of the small sum necessary to pay the cost of transmission. 

The New York Botanical Gardens are this season offering prizes of $50, 
$30 and $20, for the best essays on the preservation of our native plants. 
This amount spent annually in the actual preservation of our rare plants 
would seems to us the best solution of the question. 

Some species of flesh fungi seem to require a much greater time to re- 
spond to the stimulus of moisture than others, a fact that has probably much 
to do with the seasons for the different species. It will be interesting to 
observe whether the unusually late but abundant rains, will produce a plen- 
tiful crop in the usual succession, but a month or more later than ordinary. 



Book Reviews 

A REVISION OF THE GENUS C.^LOCHORTUS BY CARI. PURDY. 

We have been anticipating with considerable interest the above revision 
which has now appeared as No. 4, Vol. 2, Proc. Cal. Acad, of Sciences. In 
this revision due credit is justly given to Watson, whose accurate descrip- 
tions in the Botany of California have been found to agree closely with those 
of all subsequent investigators. Mr. Purdy's method of classifying the 
species is more likely to appeal to the florist than to the technical botanist. 
The many intergradations or varieties he prefers to consider as "strains," 
and he has grouped the variable species accordingly. 

In group VII for example (the type of which is splendens) C. Catalinae 
is included. Neither in shape of flower {splendens is obconic while Cata- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 43 

linae is cup shaped) nor in pod or testa is Catalinae at all allied to splendens, 
and the latter is we think best retained in a separate group as Watson has 
done. Some of the varieties the author believes hybridize freely but this 
will require practical demonstration. Our attempts at hybridization of the 
the common species have, like those of the author, always resulted in failure. 
The author might with advantage have paid more attention to the 
characteristic shape of the pods, the recurving of the sepals in some species, 
and the quality of the hairs on the petals. Some of the observations on the 
latter do not agree with our investigation on the same species in Southern 
California. Here C. ve?iusta has the hairs simple, C. splendens has them 
not only matted but glandular. C. Pabneri the author has not seen, all those 
sent him as such being either C. invenustus or C. splendens, var. montanus 
What we understand as C. Pabneri Wats, is still abundant at its original 
station, the Mojave River, and on the higher hills on the desert slope as 
far as Rock Creek. The author has added several new species, and among 
the illustrations are drawings of the petals of many of the species. These 
from a diagnostic point of view are the most important of the illustrations. 
The other illustrations are the least satisfactory features in a work that is 
otherwise a useful contribution to botanical literature. 



Publica-tions, Etc., Received 

Market Milk, apian for'its improvement. U. S. Dept. Agriculture, 
Bureau of Animal Industries. 

Dairy products at the Paris Exposition of 1900. U. S. Dept. of Agri- 
culture, Bureau of Animal Industries. 

Insecticides and Fungicides, U. 8. Dept. of Agriculture. Farmers' 
Bulletin, No 146. 

Carbon bisulphide as an Insecticide. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Farm- 
ers' Bulletin, No. 145. 

Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. Vols, i, Nos. i-io; 
Vol. 2, Nos. 1-6. 

Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. Vol. 3, No. 25, 

The Berkeley Hills, a detail of Coast Range Geology, by Andrew C. 
Lawson and Charles Palache, Bulletin of the Department of Geology, 
University of California. Vol. 2, No. 12. 

Fourteenth Annual Report of the Agricultural Experiment Station of 
the University of Tennessee for 1901. 

New Bees of the Genus Andrena, from Wisconsin, by T. D. A. Cocker- 
ell. A reprint from Canadian Entomologist, Feb., 1902. 

The value of corn, skim milk and whey for fattening swine. Bulletin 
of Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Tennessee. Vol. 
15, No. I. 



44 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Transatctions. 

ACADEAIY OF SCIENCES. 

March ii, 1902. 

The regular monthly meeting was held this evening at 724 South Broad- 
way. 

Nine applications for membership were received and referred to the 
Board of Directors. 

The report of the committee on "Modernized English" as read by Mr. 
G. Major Taber was adopted. 

The following resolution was introduced by Mr. G. Major Taber: 

Rhsolvp;d: That the subject of a paper read before the Academy by 
Mr. A. L. Bancroft, entitled "Modernized English from a Standpoint of 
Usefulness," be referred to a committee of five to consider the advisability 
of issuing a circular letter to be mailed to the scientific bodies and educa- 
tional institutions throughout the United States and other English speaking 
countries requesting them to unite with this Academy in the inauguration 
of a general movement in favor of a phonetic system. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. 

The President then introduced Prof. W. W. Campbell, Director of the 
Lick Observatory, who delivered a lecture on "The Translation of the Sun 
Through Space." 

The lecture was illustrated with numerous lantern slides from spectro- 
graphic views taken with the Crossley reflector at the Lick Observatory. 
Some interesting views of Novo Perseus, the Nebula in Orion, the Pleiades 
were also shown on the screen. 

Prof. Campbell gave a comprehensive review of the Astro-Physical work 
carried on at the Lick Observatory, explaining all the instruments used and 
the methods adopted for the pursuit of desired ends. An outline was given 
of the results so far obtained in the line of sight observations of the stars 
and a statement made of the purposes for which the branch of the Lick Ob- 
servatory was at present being established in South America, The net 
result of the lecture may be expressed in the following statements: 

1. The sun is moving through space with a velocity of 12% miles per 
second. 

2. The direction of the solar motion points to the neighborhood of 
Alpha Lyra. 

3. The distance of the average star is about 3000 light years. 

4. The type of our solar system is comparatively rare in the universe. 

5. The latest investigations would seem to prove the universe to be 
limited. 

The lecture was highly appreciated by the large audience present. 
A discussion followed at the close, after which the meeting stood ad- 
journed. B. R. BaumgardT, Secretary. 

ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 

March 4th, 1902. 
The Astronomical Section met at the usual hour this evening, and was 
called to order by Chairman Baumgardt. The minutes of the last meeting 
were read and approved. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 45 

Mr. Kuight spoke of the successful lecture tour of the chairman at San 
Francisco, under the auspices of the Santa Fe Railway Co., in the interests 
of a reading room, established by the Company, for the use and benefits of 
its employes. 

Mr. Knight also called attention to the lecture to be delivered before 
the Academy on March nth, by Prof. Campbell, Director of the Lick Ob- 
servatory, and read some highly commendatory statements relative to 
Prof Campbell, from the pen of Prof, Newcomb. 

The chairman also emphasized the importantance of the approaching 
meeting of the Academy in view of the high standing of Prof. Campbell 
among the astronomers of the world. 

The discussion of the evening was then introduced by Mr. Melville Do- 
zier, being an exposition of the effects of longitude and latitude upon the 
measurement and division of time and the fixing of dates. The question of 
the so-called "International Date Line" was elucidated, and by the aid of 
diagrams, its true nature and practical value made clear. Other points of 
interest, growing out of the revolution of the earth on its axis, were inci- 
dentally involved in the discussion, in which many took part. 

After the reading by Mr. Knight of a humorous paraphrase of the 
astronomical terms the meeting adjourned. Mei,ville DoziER, Sec'y. 

BOTANICAL SECTION. 

The regular monthl\- meeting was duly held on the evening of Mon- 
day, March 24th. Mr. Austin Campbell-Johnston, Chairman of the Section 
presided, and there were also present Messrs. Braunton, Russell, Davidson 
and Greata. 

There being no especial business before the meeting, the evening 
was devoted to the examination and discussion of various plants. 
Among the most interesting of the specimens examined were Rosa Moha- 
vensis, Parish, collected by Mr. Parish at a place called Cushenberry 
Springs, on the edge of the Mohave Desert, and Sphaerostigma erythra, 
collected by Dr. Davidson near Clifton, Arizona. This species will be des- 
cribed in a subsequent issue of the Bulletin of the Academy. 

Mr. Greata submitted a collection made by him in the neighborhood of 
Lake Tahoe in June last. The beautiful red Gilia, G. aggregata, was per- 
haps the most striking plant in the collection, although by no means the 
most interesting. Many old friends of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino 
Mountains were found to occur in the Tallac region, and it was not uninter- 
esting to find the Desert Sage growing in close proximity to Mountain 
Flora. 

A very handsome Panicum, from the neighborhood of Mount Shasta, 
was deposited by Mr. Greata with the Division of Agrostology at Washing- 
ton, and has been published by the Division as Panicum shastense. It is 
near P. dichotomum. Louis A. GreaTa, Secretary. 

GEOLOGICAL SECTION. No meeting held. 

BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 
The meeting for March was postponed on account of the inclemency of 
the weather. 



/6 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Calentrar for april 



APRIL I. Astronomical Lecture at 724 South Broadway. 
Lecture by Prof. J. F. Chamberlain. ,^ Subject: 
^♦Glaciers.'' 

APRIL 8. Academy of Sciences. Regular Monthly Meeting:. 
Two papers will be read^ (I) ^*Rhus diversiloba'^ 
(Poison Oak) illustrated with drawing's, by Dr. C. 
Schwalbe; (2) ^' The Germination of Seeds/^ by 
Dr. C. A. Whiting". 

APRIL 15. Biolog:ical Section meets at southeast corner Tenth 
and Flower Streets. Exhibition and examination 
of histological and anatomical material. 

APRIL 2 J. Meeting of Botanical Section. 

APRIL 22, Meeting of Geological Section. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 47 



)outf)ern (j^aliforiiia ^Icatiemp of &)ciencei^ 



OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS 
1901 = 1902 

Wm. H. Knight, Room 2, Bryson Block, Los Angeles President 

J. D. Hooker First Vice-President 

Abbot Kinnev Second Vice-President 

Anstruthrr Davidson, M. D Treasurer 

B. R. Baumgardt, 231 West F'irst Street, Los Angeles Secretary 

Prof. J. A. Foshay Prof. Melville Dozier 

Dr. John R. Havnes A. Campbell Johnson 

Dr. S. M. Woodbridge Dr. T. D. Comstock 

SECTIONS 



Bstronomical Section 

B. R. Baumgardt Chairman 

Prof. Melvili^e Dozier Secretary 

Meets First Tuesday of Month at 724 South Broadway, Los Angeles 

:JStological Section 

Prof. B. M. Davis Chairman 

Meets Third Tuesday of Month at State Normal School 

JSotanical Section 

A. Campbell Johnson Chairman 

L. A. Greata Secretary 

Meets Fourth Honday of Honth at 85 Temple Block, Los Angeles 

Geological Section 

George Parsons Chairman 

G. Major Taber Secretary 

Meets Fourth Tuesday of Month at Northeast Corner First and Main Streets, 
Los Angeles 

Bgricultural ;6j:penmental Section 

Dr. S. M. Woodbridge Director 

Office and Laboratory, 115 North Main Street, Los Angeles 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION: 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier T. B Comstock, Ph. D. 



A Monograph on Pecten Aequisulcatus, Cpr. 



MRS. M. BURTON WILLIAMSON. 



PUBLISHED FOR THE ASSOCIATION BY 

B. R. EAUMGARDT & CO. 

231 West First St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Yearly Subscription , $1.00 



Single Copies, 25 cts. 



MAILED MAY 10, 1902 



J 



Calentiar for M^V* 



MAY 13* Annual Meetings of the Academy of Sciences. 
Reports of the Secretary and Treasurer. Election of 
Board of Directors for the ensuing year. Discussion 
of Prof. Newcomb^s article, ^'The Problem of the 
Universe/^ which appeared in the April number of 
the International Magazine. 

MAY 20. Biological Section. Dr. Houghton^ of Chicago, will 
report on the work done by Dr. J. Loeb. Short 
reports will be made on ^'Variation in Weight of 
Eggs during Incubation" and the '^Growth of Mould." 

MAY 26. Botanical Section will meet at room 35^ Temple 
Block. 

MAY 27. Geological Section will meet at Southwest Miner^s 
Association, First and Main Streets. 

MAY 27. Geological Section — Lecture by Prof. G- E. Bailey, 
of the State Mining Bureau- Subject: ^'The Geo- 
logical History of Death Valley," with maps and 
illustrations. 



PLATE IV 




BULLETIN 

OF THE 

SoutHern Galllornla flcaflemii o! Sciences 

VOL I LOS ANGELES, CAL, HAY I, 1902. NO. 5 



BO" 
A Monograph on Pecten Aequisulca-tus, Cpr. 
CIslSs Pelecypoda.. 

BY MRS. M. BURTON WILWAMSON 



Order Prionodermacea. Suborder Isodonta. Family 

Pectenid^. 
Pecfen {Plagiocteniuvt) aqeitisulcatus Cpr. Monterey, California, 
to Todos Santos Bay, Lower California. 
Shell circular in shape excepting at the hinge margin which is 
straight, occasionally the posterior part of the shell is somewhat 
oblique. The ears or auricles of the shell are situated at either 
end of the hinge margin. The hinge line is narrow and there is 
an internal cartilage pit which is not broad but rather deep. 
The beaks are prominent and are close together. There are 
usually twenty strong ribs on each valve, although occasionally 
nineteen, and, less often, twenty-two are found*. There are 
usually the same number of ribs on each valve, but sometimes 
there is one more on one of the valves. The lines of growth be. 
tween the ribs are very noticable. The anterior, right auricle is 
narrower than the ear on the left valve as the byssal opening or 
notch is found at this point. Directly under this notch in the 
shell are 4 or 5 points or teeth. Occasionally less and sometimes 
more than this number are plainly discernable under a magnify- 
ing glass. The auricles on the posterior side of both right and 
left valves are equal. The valves are rather convex in shape, 
the lower, or right one being more ventricose especially near the 
umbones or beaks. The valves are pointed on the ventral mar- 
gin and the shell closes excepting at the byssal notch and the 
ends of the two auricles which are always widely apart, compar- 
atively. The color of the shell is white or a yellowish tint, al- 

*The size of the specimen does not regulate the number of ribs . I once found 23 ribs on 
one valve and 22 on the other of a shell less than 2^ inches across, while specimens as 
large as sJ^ inches averaged 20 or 21 ribs and no valve had over 23 ribs. 



52 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

most a saflfron color in some pectens. The valves are marked 
with zigzag stripes or mottled with a variety of shades of color. 
Dark red with pink and reddish brown and yellow and yellowish 
brown in varying shades are the prevailing colors. White shells 
generally show reddish brown clouds and color markings and 
shells with yellowing tints are marbled with yellowish brown. 
The under or right valve is uniformly of a lighter color — 
sometimes almost white. Occasionally a white valve with 
yellow color markings will be joined to a valve with reddish 
brown color marks, in fact, variety in color effects is one of the 
great charm of the species. The color variation is so noticable 
that the writer, in making a limited statistical study of the ribs 
in a given number of specimens, also listed color variations in or- 
der to make a comparative study. . A partial study was made of 
four lots of shells collected respectively in the years 1893, 1894, 
1897 and 1901 . The first named were collected by a fisherman 
in Alamitos Bay (this is the extreme southern portion of the 
larger bay San Pedro, but is locally called Alamitos Bayj. The 
collection of 1894 was made by the writer. These pectens were 
collected on a mud-flat on East San Pedro, on the channel side 
of the bay. The pectens — extra large — of the 1897 ^^^ were 
dredged in sand by a fisherman in San Pedro Bay, as was also 
the lot of 1901, which was dredged by Mr. H. B. Torrey for use 
in his class in the marine biological laboratory at East San Pedro= 
Colors on the upper valve show more tendency to uniformity 
than tints on the lower ones, being much darker as a rule. Colors 
on lower valve, pure white, white mottled or marbled with red- 
dish brown, saffron yellow, saffron mottled with brown; occasion- 
ally a dirty grey with a few dashes of white but this color is 
more generally represented on the upper valve. 

Pecten {Plagiocteninin) aequisulcatus Cpr. are sand dwellers, 
In San Pedro Bay they are dredged in water from 4 to 14 feet, 
but at very low tide, when a long stretch of wet sand lies un- 
covered by the water, before the morning sun breaks his way 
through the misty fog, a colony of scallop shells may be found in 
a sandy mud flat. In this mud flat there are numerous little de- 
pressions and in these, covered with water, Pecten aequisulcatus 
are seen opening and shutting their valves so rapidly one hears 
the sound in every direction, and, at the same time the scallop 
throws out a stream of water while occasionally one of the seal- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 33 



PLATE V 




6.3, « ^i^ 



^..* 









h^MWiM&if^^ 





54 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

lops makes a spring in the water. When the shell is opened by 
the little animal the body appears to be of a bright orange yellow 
color. In each open valve of this headless moUusk one can see 
the mantle border fringed in gay colors and also a row of bright, 
black ocelli (eyes) that with the gay color of the body* of the 
shell fish forms a picture never to be forgotten. When uncov- 
ered with water pectens outline their shell in the sand where 
mounds of it reveal their rounded form. 

ANIMAL. 

Mantle: Filmy, white, showing very plainly the scalloped 
impression of the ribs of the shell. Above this scalloped im- 
pression the mantle is very thin and transparent. (Fig. 4, plate 11) 

The mantle is open entirely on the byssal side and ventral 
edge but is closed near the adductor muscle, just below the post- 
erior auricle or ear of the shell. The mantle is open at the mar- 
gin of both auricles. Is closed along the dorsal edge of the shell, 
that is, below the hinge line. (Why is the mantle open under 
each auricle of the shell? Is it for the entrance and exit of water? 
I have not satisfactorily found an answer to this question.) 

The mantle has a double border, one that has been referred to 
as white, bearing the impress of the ribs of the shell, and, the 
other close to the ventral margin of the pecten, which shows the 
ocelli and rows of points or tentacles lying closely together. (Figs. 
3 and 5, plate V). These form a heavy fringed border. This 
border is yellowish alternating with black caused by the tentacles 
of the mantle border being a yellowish or dirty white color with 
black lines covering the base of these fringes. Short nodules, 
also with fine stripes of black fill in the interstices between the 
numerous ocelli. These ocelli are situated on nodules or short 
tentacles that are somewhat rounded, not sharp pointed like the 
tentacles without the ocelli or e^'-es. The ocelli are bright green 
with red centers which I may, for convenience, call the pupil. 
(Fig. 3, page V.) Besides the green color of the iris (?) there is 
present a purple color giving the eyes an irridescent effect. This 
is in some lights, in others the ocelli have a bluish tint and each 
center or pupil is opaque or a dull white color. These eyes do 
not extend the length of the mantle border. Besides the well 
developed ocelli there are always present a number, sometimes 

♦While the yellow part visible appears to be the body or visceral mass, it is in fact one 
or more organs of that body. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 55 




A part of a gonad from a mature Pecten showing the 
sperm gland. 

The gonad from a young Pecten showing both the 
ova and sperm glands. 

A part of a gonad from a mature Pecten showing the 
ova glan(p| 

A dividing cell from the gonad of ihe Pecten, found 
on the liver. 



S6 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

more than others, of immature eyes; these are found on the man- 
tle border on either side of the mature ocelli. The number of 
fully grown ocelli in each specimen varies from about 46 to 50; 
23 to 25 in each valve. These eyes are not situated at equal dis- 
tances, nor do they lie one in each scallop. In a specimen num- 
bering 21 ribs on one valve there were 23 large ocelli besides the 
undeveloped ones. 

Branchiae or Gills: The branchiae or ctenidium are double and 
there are two , one on either side of the body . They are semi-circu- 
lar in shape ( Fig .1,2 and 8 , plate V ) . They extend on either side of 
the body from under the liver — which is situated on the anterior 
portion of the shell just below the dorsal margin — ^across to the 
adductor muscle around to the point where the rectum lies close 
to the adductor muscle. At this point both the double gills 
meet, but are not attached to each other. The gills are attached 
on the inner circle to a white, translucent, crescent shaped mem- 
brane (Plate V, figs. I and 3). This membranous body is in 
turn attached to the adductor muscle excepting at the extreme 
posterior end where for % inch this transluscent body is free. 
This is just above the end of the rectum. The gill membrane is 
not so filmy as the mantle and is very much thicker. The 
branchiae or gills are composed of transparent tubes or filaments 
(Figs. 12,6 and 7 plate V). These are easily broken asunder, 
when the gills appear only like single tubes attached at the top. 
The connective tubes or tentacular junctions when present are 
plainly discernable under the microscope. The edge of the gills 
are formed of deep scallops — not seen by the naked eye- — under 
the microscope each scallop is found to be composed of about 17 
scallops. 

The color of the branchiae is a yellowish brown, but under the 
dissecting glass each tube is of a bright yellow color before the 
animal has been placed in alcohol. 

Foot: Tongue shaped and small. (Figs. 3, 5 and 7, plate IV, 
has a groove on the under side (a. b, fig. 8, plate IV) next to 
the byssal notch in the shell. In adult specimens there is no 
byssus present. I once found an exception to this rule when the 
animal had three or four strong byssal threads growing out of 
the foot. 

Adductor muscle is large and is situated below the dorsal mar- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 57 

gin of the shell beginning near the middle of the shell on the 
posterior portion. (Fig. 2, 3, 4 and 5, plate IV.) 

Byssus: As remarked, adult shells are not furnished with a 
byssus, the exception noted being extremely rare. The young 
swim or dart through the water and are capable of forming a 
byssus whenever they find themselves near to any object to which 
they desire to become attached . When first formed the byssus 
appears only like threads of mucous. 

Siphon: None. 

Month: Is situated above the foot, near the byssal opening in 
the shell. The mouth is furnished with palpi (fig. 6, plate IV) 
that are coarsely ridged and somewhat fan-shaped; these palpi 
are joined to lips that are convolute or circinate in form. The 
lips appear only as an extension of the palpi toward each other. 
Besides being circinate they are coarsely striate and the outer 
edges are scalloped. 

Kidney or Nephridium: The kidney lies on the anterior por- 
tion of the adductor muscle, beginning under the liver region and 
extending somewhat along the region of the gonad . The shape 
of the kidney is elongate or tube like. (Fig. 5, plate IV, 
fig. 8, plate V). There are two kidneys or nephridia. 

Gonad or reproductive organs: The gonad lying under the gills 
are highly colored, the ovum of a bright orange, the sperm of a 
deep cafe au lait color . These two glands are not separated but 
form what appears to be an attachment and extension of the foot 
— the sperm gland being the same color and apparently con- 
nected with the foot. The reproductive organs do not com- 
mence at the foot however, but occupy considerable space 
above and between the foot and adductor muscle. The ova 
encircles the kidney or nephridium and extends partly around 
the adductor muscle. (Fig. 8, plate V). It is the 

presence of the highly colored gonad which gives the animal its 
orange color. The spermatazoa gland partly encircles the ova 
gland. The relative size and position of the hermaphrodite gland 
varies in specimens; in one shell the ova may begin a little nearer 
the foot and the sperm gland or testes, may occupy a smaller 
space; this is obvious. Besides this hermaphroditic gonad, on 
the liver, there is a network of greenish-white bodies — the green- 
ish appearance probably due to the dark liver which shows some- 
what through the semi-transparent substance, or at least, between 



38 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

the interstices of this granular layer. These greenish (?) white 
bodies or spermatazoa are grouped into irregular masses of lace- 
like layers on either side of the liver.* (fig. 5, plate iv.). 

The statistical tables are given merely to approximate variation 
of the San Pedro scallops, not as conclusive proof of the variation 
of species in form and color in that bay. 

The color given is the basic color with mottled variations. In 
order to find the true color the shells were cleaned with acid and 
water. When not cleaned the shells are usually of a saffron yel- 
low or a dirty grey or white color, especially isthesafi"ron yellow 
discernable on the lower valve. As will be seen in the table, the 
Alamitos examples have specimens that are of a saffron or orange 
yellow even when cleaned with acid, that is, when the periostra- 
cum or outer coating was removed the shells were still shown to 
be of a saffron color. This was not the case with many other 
specimens. The interior of the majority of shells was of a rich, 
reddish brown color up to and around the muscle scar. 

Los Angeles, California, Sept. 30, 1901. 

PLATE IV. 

Fig. I. Pecten {Plagioctenium) aeqiiisulcatits , Cpr. Right 
valve — lower one. 

Fig. 2. Upper or left valve of the same, showing interior. Ad. 
adductor muscle impression. (Size of shell, 2 in. high, 2^ long.) 

Fig. 3. Showing organs in situ after the upper mantle has 
been removed to show the gills: mo, mouth; 1, liver; g, genera- 
tive organ on the liver; f, foot; ad, ad. mus.; br, branchia or gill; 
go, gonad or reproductive organs. 

Fig. 4. Upper side of the mantle; under edge containing 
ocelli, not visible: 1, liver; m. c, mantel cavity; ad, ad. mus.; u. 
m., upper edge of mantle. 

Fig. 5. Upper mantle removed; gill removed to show the re- 
productive organs: 1, liver; g, generative organs on the liver; h, 
heart: r,rectumandanus. a, ad. mus.; mo, mouth; f, foot; k, kidney 
or nephridium; s, sperm; o, ova; m, mantel border with ocelli. 

Fig. 6. Mouth, lips and palpi. 

Fig. 6. Three views of the foot, upper and lower side and one 
showing the foot muscle . 

*In order to confirm the opinion of the writer as to the character of the granular layers 
found on the liver, cross sections were prepared and mounted under the direction of Prof. 
C. A. Whiting, of I,os Angeles, to whom thanks are due. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 59 

PIvATE V. 

Figs. I and 2. Branchia or gill. Section* of gill magnified, 
showing filaments or tentacular junctions. 

Figs. 6 and 7. Views of filaments and tentacular junctions, 
more highly magnified than figures i and 2. 

Figs. 3, 4 and 5. Ocelli and tentacles of the mantle-border. 
Figs. 3 and 5 show the relation of eyes or ocelli to the tentacles, 
the first named, figure 3, slightly enlarged. Fig. 4 has tentacles 
alone, also enlarged. 

Fig. 8. Showing the gill membrane around part of the ad- 
ductor muscle: g, generative organ; k, kidney; g. m., gill mem- 
brane; br, branchia or gill; a, anal aperture; r, rectum; h, heart. 

Fig. 9. Another view of the heart, auricles and ventricles, 
with the intestine passing through. 

Fig. 10. A second view of the gill-membrane, somewhat en- 
larged, detached from the adductor muscle and spread out, also 
part of the gill: p. m., point of the membrane that at all times is 
free frotn the adductor muscle. 

♦Excepting the gill sections, the drawings, for the most part, were made natural size. 
As they were made from several specimens, some alcoholic, they represent an idealized. 
Pecten. 

Thanks are due Miss Alice Cooperfor her accurate reproduction of the author's sketches 
The shell, figs. 1 and 2, plate IV, was drawn from the original by Miss Cooper. 

The author is indepted to Prof. C. A. Whiting, for photographic reproductions of cross 
sections, and also for a drawing of the same. 



6o SOUTHERN CAUpORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



PECTEN .^QUISULCATUS— Col. Alamitos * 1893 
Color of Lower Valve— Upper not given. 



y 

> 
u 

V 

a 
p. 

t3 


> 

> 
>-< 

<u 
fe 
o 
i-T 


u 

1 2. 
i 8 

^^ 

^ ° 

cu a 


m in 

5"^ a 
o-o r 

^Qi 
J3.t! 




o _, 

75 




SB 
a 


XI 

.2? 


a 

V 


<u 
C > 
O tH 
en > 

.5 S3 

o fe 


Notes for Tables 
Lo'WER Valve 
Measurements 


Ribs 


Ribs 












mm. 


mm. 






20 


20 
20 
21 
20 
20 
19 
22 
19 
20 
22 
21 
20 




X 








60 
51 
59 
47 
57 
55 
55 
48 
53 
43 
53 
40 


62 
63 
60 
47 
57 
55 
56 
49 
53 
43 
53 
40 


X 


Height measured from 


19 




X 








20 




X 






X 
X 


umbo to the ventral mar- 


20 


X 










19 


X 








gin in mm. 


20 




X 






X 




23 




X 








19 


X 
X 










21 










X 
X 


anterior to posterior edge 


21 


X 








. 21 






X 
X 


X 
X 




19 














Col. in San Pedro Bay in July, 1894. 



23 
20 
20 
20 
20 
21 
19 
19 
21 
21 
21 
20 










X 
X 
X 

........ 

X 
X 


70 
80 

72 

76 
70 
71 

75 
75 

75 
79 
75 


72 

82 
74 
72 
76 
72 
70 
76 
75 
77 
77 
79 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 




















X 




























X 












X 
X 
X 
X 



























♦Alamitos Bay is the extreme south of San Pedro Bay and part of the bay. 

These shells were much smaller than others. 

Pectens in the 1894 collection that had one or more crepidula on the lower valve were 
white mottled with reddish brown where the crepidula were attached; the rest ot the 
valve was of a saffron yellow mottled or marbled with brown. 

Upper valve measurements not given in these tables. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 6i 



PECTEN ^QUISULATUS— Col. in San Pedro in March, 1897 (Dredged. 









T3 




■o 




•o 








> 
> 


V 

> 


V 

u 

3 

a 
1 




1 -o ^ 

& ii o 





Si 


a 








g 


a 




.tj 


ii^T. 


2r.n 


t/3 


oJ: 


h'^ 


-5 






cu 


P. 


o 

1-} 


t 


n 








& 








X 
X 

X 


Ribs 


Ribs 








mm. 

"99" 
100 
113 


mm. 

90 
91 
104 


21 


21 
21 
22 




X 
X 
X 






' 




21 












23 












<?2 


21 




X 












105 


95 


X 


21 


22 




X 












103 


102 


X 


20 


21 
29 




X 








X 


X 


110 
101 


1 7 
95 


X 
X 


20 








20 


20 
22 
20 
19 




X 
X 
X 

X 










X 

X 


102 
118 
105 
loO 


95 
113 
101 
100 


X 
X 
X 


22 










21 










19 












21 


21 




X 












113 


105 


X 



I,ower Valve Measure- 
ments. 



San Pedro Bay, August, 1901 — Dredged by Mr. H. B. Torrey for use in the Marine 
Laboratory. 



21 
22 
21 
21 
22 
23 
21 
21 
24 
23 
19 
22 




X 
X 
X 
X 
X 












93 
75 

77 
82 
80 


90 

74 
70 
77 
75 
82 
77 
91 
72 
70 
70 
70 


z 

X 

z 
z 

X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 










































76 
74 
93 
75 
72 
70 
72 


















X 
X 
X 
X 

X 



































62 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Transactions. 



ACADEMY OF SCIENCE. 

Los AngeIvES, April 8, 1902. 

The regular monthly meeting was held this evening at 724 South 
Broadway. 

President Knight occupied the chair. 

EleT;en new memberships were voted upon favorably by the Academy, 
as follows : Dr. Fitch C. E. Mattison, C B. Boothe, W. A. Boyd, M. D., 
Dr. Wm. Capps, H. B. Perkins, S P. Channell, O. H. Goodwin, James A. 
Chamberlain, Adolf Kraemer, H. P. Barnes, Rabbi S. Hecht, D. D, 

The first paper of the evening was by Dr. C. Schwalbe on 

POISON OAK AND THE CAUSE OF THE POISON. 

(This paper will be published in extenso in a subsequent issue of the 
Bulletin.) 

Professor C. A. Whiting followed with a lecture on 

THE GERMINATION OF THE SEED. 

After a short description of the parts of the flower necessary to pollina- 
tion, the process of germination was explained, as was also the value of 
cross-fertilization n the quality of the seed produced. The seed of dico- 
tyledons and monocotyledons were described. Stories of seeds germinating 
after centuries of rest are almost cert-iinly without foundation in fact, he 
said The method of absorption and cell growth, the upward growth of 
the stem and the downward tendency of the root, were explained and 
illustrated by the growing bean, punikin and melon. The influence of 
bacteria in elaborating nitrogen in the roots of Legumes, and its conse- 
quent value was noted. The lecture was illustrated throughout by color 
drawings by J. E Stuart. 

Adjourned. B. R. Bauiigardt, Secretary. 



ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 

April 1st 1902. 
The Astronomical Section was called to order by the chairman, B. R. 
Baumgardt, who made preliminary remarks touching astronomical topics 
of interest. The paper of the evening was a discussion of the subject of 
Glaciers, presented by Prof. J. F. Chamberlain of the State Normal School, 
who considered the subject from standpoints of history, science and 
observation, communicating many facts of interest and holding the closest 
attention of his hearers. The discussion was continued with much interest 
by those present, to the profit of all. 

Melville Dozier, Sect'y. 



BOTANICAL SECTION. 
The monthly meeting on April 2Sih was well attended. The evening 
was occupied with the examination of specimens and the discussion of 
arrangements for the field meetings. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 63 

GEOIvOGICAL SECTION. 

The Geological Section met at the rooms of the Southwestern Miners 
Association, on Tuesday evening the 22d inst. 

Chairman George W. Parsons called the meeting to order. 

The attendance was large, and a very interesting description was given 
by the Chairman of "Desert Mining," and his observations by the wayside, 
on a 1000 mile trip in connection with Prof. W. L. Watts, over the eastern 
part of San Bernardino County and the southwestern part of Nevada. 

The Chairman's description of the Desert Flora, the necessity of devel- 
oping water, and his suggestions in regard to the duties of the Supervisors 
in caring for the wells along the route over the desert, were on practical 
lines. 

The Chairman separated the usual mining schemes into two classes — 
good and bad — and cited an instance where Prof. Watts had examined a 
mine which was afterwards sold for seven times his estimate of its value. 

The speaker emphasized the importance of having good roads constructed 
by the Supervisors through the mining districts, and the necessity of 
developing water supplies for the convenience of the miner and prospector 
as well as for the agricultural possibilities. 

At the conclusion of the Chairman's remarks Prof. Watts gave a scien- 
tific description of the geological formation of the section ihrough which 
they had traveled. 

Col. G. E. Bailey, who is temporarily connected with the State Mining 
Bureau, gave a very interesting talk on the borate and nitrate fields of Cal- 
ifornia and elsewhere. 

Remarks were made by President W. H. Knight and others. 

G. Major Taber, Secretary. 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

The regular April meeting was held at the laboratory of Dr. C. A. 
Whiting instead of the usual meeting place, the State Normal School. 

A short account of the modern technique of Neurological investigation 
was given by B. M. Davis. The subject was outlined from an historical 
standpoint in which the contribution of each method was shown. Dr. 
Whiting called attention to some interesting points in regard to proteid 
transfer in animal bodies. 

The latter part of the meeting was made informal in order to examine 
the laboratory and the specimens of work on exhibition. 



Notes. 

The summer session of the Biological laboratory of the University of 
California will be held at San Pedro beginning about the 15th of June and 
continuing six weeks. Only advanced 'students will be admitted. The 
laboratory will be in charge of Dr. H. B. Torry and Dr. Charles A. Kofoid. 

Regular weekly field excursions are being made by the members of the 
Botanical Section. The following localities were visited and explored 



64 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

during April : Glendale Hills, Millard's Canyon, Monrovia and the hills 
west of Temple street. 

The first excursion in May by the Botanical Section will be to Glen- 
dora. Members wishing to unite with the Section on this occasion may 
learn particulars by applying to the Secretary of the Botanical Section, Mr. 
Louis A. Greata, Room 85 Temple Block. 

With the June issue of the Bulletin we will begin the publication of the 
History of Prehistoric California, by Dr. L. G. Yates, of Santa Barbara. 
This work for which Dr. Yates has been gathering material for nearly half 
a century, will be copiously illustrated with wood cuts and photo-engravings 
of the choicest specimens of the many ancient weapons and utensils found in 
California. As many of the originals from which these drawings have been 
made are now scattered among the museums of the civilized world, no future 
work can possibly equal in interest or value the one we are about to publish. 

The copies of the Bulletin published are limited to 500, most of which 
are distributed to the members of the Academy. The few remaining num- 
bers are open to general subscription. Those wishing to subscribe, please 
do so at once. Terms, $1.00 per annum. In future no single numbers of 
the Bulletin will be sold. 



n 



VOL. I. JUNE I, 1902 NO. 6 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifornia Academu of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON' PUBLICATION: 
A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 

MBLVILLE DOZtER T. B COMSTOCK, Ph. D. 



CONTENTS : 

Page 
New or Little Known Southern California Plants, 

Le Roy Abrams 67 

Pandora (Kennerlia)Grandis, Dall.PROF. J. J. Rivers 69 
Hymenoptera of Southern California T. D. A. 

CocKEREi.L 70 

Myrmicophillous Coleoptera or Ant-Loving Beetles, 

Prof. J. J. Rivers 71 

Report of the Secretary for the Year ending May 13, 

1902, B. R. Baumgap^dt 71 

Notes 74 

Geological Notes, Dr. Theo. B. Comstock 74 

Transactions 78 

Publications, etc.. Received 80 



) ' Published for the Association by 

I B. R. BAUMGARDT & CO. 

S 2:;i West First St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

L Yearly Subscription , $1.00 Single Copies, 25 cts. \ 

MAILED JUNE 13, 1902 ? 



i 




WILLIAM H. KNIGHT, 
Past President, Southern California Academy of Sciences 




PROF. THEODORE B. COMSTOCK, 
President Elect, Southern California Academj^ of Sciences 



LIBRARY 

RIM I r-TIVI NEW YORK 

BULLETIN BOTANICAL 

OF TME ■ QAKbBN 



Sootliern Galilornia flcafleiiiii ol SGieooes 

VOL I LOS ANGELES, CAL, JUNE I, 1902. NO. 6 



331 West First Strb 



Ne\v or Little Known Southern California Plants. 

BY LU ROY ABRAMS. 

Parnassia cirrata. Piper. Erythea, 3:128, 1899. The type 
locality of this species is Mt. San Bernardino, where it was 
first collected by Parish Bros, in 1879. In August, 1900, it was 
again collected for the second tirfie by Dr. W. R. Shaw on the 
Bear Valley and Redlands road. 

V ^ RIBES MALVACEUM VIRIDIFOLIUivI, R. glntiiwsum, 
of local lists, not R. glutiuosuin, Benth. Shrub 1-2 m. high, 
rather compact, the young branchlets short pubescent and more 
or less densely glandular with stalked glands ; leaves, rather 
thick, 2)-y cm. broad, slightly or not at all rugose, bright green 
minutely scabrous and somew^hat glandular with sessile glands 
above, pale and glandular-pubescent beneath ; petioles beset with 
stalked glands, and more or less puberulent, dilated at base, the 
margins ciliate ; inilorescence glandular-pubescent, racemes rather 
long, peduncled, drooping, many-flowered ; bracts ovate i cm. 
long, ciliate toothed above ; pedicels 3-4 mm. long ; calyx 2 brac- 
teolate at base, rose color below, becoming nearly white above, 
its tube cylindric, pubescent within, 4 mm. broad, 12 mm. long, 
its lobes broadly ovate, rounded at apex, 4-5 mm. long; petals 
rounded, 2 mm. broad, obscurely cordate at base, its claw very 
short ; anthers nearly sessile, 2 mm. long ; style 6-7 mm. long, 
pubescent ; berries becoming reflexed at maturity on short ped- 
icels, pubescent and rather sparsely beset with coarse gland- 
tipped hairs, apparently purple, i cm. long. 

Wilson's Peak and Pasadena Trail, Los Angeles Co., No. 
1525. April 15, 1901. 

This differs from the type in having larger and greener fo- 
liage, more glandular inflorescence and larger floral organs, and 
like the tvpe, it can easily be distinguished from R. hhtfinosum, 
Benth, bv its pubescent stvle and reflexed fruit. R. giiifinosum 
has a glabrous style and the berries are on rather long, slender 

^spreading pedicels. 

; ^'HEUCHERA ELEGANS. Scape 25-35 cm. high, from 
stout creeping root-stocks,- villous-hirsute ; leaves thickish, round- 



68 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

cordate, 1-2 cm. broad, crenately lobed and toothed, the margins 
ciliate, otherwise glabrous ; petioles 2-2.5 cm. long villous, stipules 
scarious, the free portion narrowly lanceolate, 2-3 mm. long, cili- 
ate with long, slender hairs; panicles 14-18 cm. long, villous 
pubescent throughout and somewhat glandular, its branches 
cymose, 3 cm. long, usually 9 flowered, the uppermost becoming 
reduced ; bracts subtending the branches about 4 mm. long lacer- 
ate, those subtending the pedicles similar but somewhat smaller; 
calyx pink, villous, 8-10 mm. long, narrowly campanulate, its 
lobes narrowly oblong, about 3 mm. long, 1-1.5 mm. broad ob- 
tuse ; petals wdiite, blanceolate-spathulate, 5-6 mm. long, about 
1.5 mm. broad, obtuse at apex, narrowed below to slender claw; 
stamens included 3 mm. long, their anthers rounded, about 0.5 
mm. long; styles ecjualling the calyx-lobes; seeds about 0.7 mm. 
long, slightly curved. 

^^oMartin's Camp, Los Angeles Co., No. 1903, July 10, 1901. 
. Euphorbia Melanadenia, Torr, Pacif. R. Rep. 4:135.1857. 

E. cincrascens, v. appendicnlata, Engelm. Bot. Mex. Bound. 
186. 1859. 

E. polycarpa I'cstita, Wats. Bot. Cal. 2:73.1880. 

This is perfectly distinct from B. polycarpa, Benth., and 
easily distinguished by pubescence and habits. The type locality 
is "low or wet places near San Gabriel, California, Alarch 22, 
(iSS^)" collected by Dr. Bigelow. 
/^''^Ramona pachystachya (Gray). 

Audihertia incana pachystachya, Gray, Syn. Fl. 2. 461. 1888. 

Audihcrtia pachystachya, Parish, Erythea 6:91.1898. Type 
- j-ocality Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mts. 

"^'CASTILLEJA CALIFORNICA. Stems slender, f-agile, 
branching from a rather thick, woody root, erect and more or 
less branching above, 4-5 dm. high, sparsely and minutely pu- 
berulent ; upper -stem leaves linear, remotely and obscurely den- 
ticulate or entire, 2-4 cm. long, 2-3 mm. broad, obtuse or rounded 
at apex with shorter slender leafy branchlets in their axils ; ra- 
cemes at first viscid-pubescent or villous, becoming nearly glab- 
rous, 10-20 cm. long; bracts red or red-tipped, about 2 cm. long, 
3-4 mm. wide, entire or rarely with i or 2 very short lateral 
teeth ; calyx about 2.5 cm. long, cleft about equally before and 
behind its lobes i cm. long, cleft at the apex, the teeth lanceo- 
late, 3-4 mm. long, acute ; corolla 2.-5-3 cm. long ; galea about 
three-fourths the length of the tube, green on the back, the face 
bright red ; the tube greenish-yellow. 

This species is related to C. Doiiglasii, Benth., but differs 
from that in foliage habit and flowers. 

Big Tcjungau'ash, Los Angeles Co. The slender stems strag- 
gling among low shrubs. No. 1368, April 6, 1901. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 69 

r CASTILLEJA MARTINI. Stems several from a rather 
stout woody root-stock, erect or spreading, about 3 dm. long, 
villous and viscid throughout ; lower leaves linear or broadly 
linear, entire, 2.5-3 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide ; the uppermost some- 
wdiat broader, divided to near the middle into 3-lobes, the two 
lateral lobes narrow, spreading, shorter than the middle one ; 
bracts similarly lobed, slightly dilated, scarlet tipped; racemes 
narrow and becoming rather loose, 1-2 dm. long; calyx 1.5 em. 
long, cleft nearly to the middle behind, scarcely as deep before, 
its segments broadly lanceolate, toothed ; the teeth less than 2 
mm. long, the anterior one much the shorter ; galea reddish along 
the inner margins, i cm. long, equalling or slightly exceeding 
the tube ; capsule acute i cm. long. 

This species is closely related to C. Brczvcri Fcniald., and 
mav prove to be only a form of that little-known species. It is 
what has been locallv known as as C. ininiata, Dougl, but it can 
DC no near relative of that species. 

JVilsoii's Peak, Los Angeles Co. No. 1881. July 10, 1901. 



Pandora. (Kennerlia.) GraLi\dis, Dall. 

BY PROF. J. J. RI\'ERS. 

The above named shell is one of the latest discoveries in the 
fossil state, of a shell species that, according to the chronologist 
Dall, exists now in the living state in the cold waters of Alaska. 





The Neocene stratifications have numerous investigators, but 
the ever-changing percentages caused by additional discoveries 
leave the geologic truth not c[uite established. 

Actacon traskii, Stearns. 

This large and robust species recently discovered and named 
by Dr. R. E. C. Stearns is found in numbers in the quaternary of 
Santa Monica. 



70 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 
Hymenoptera of Southern California. — I. 

BY T. D. A. COCKERELL. 

Pogonoinyrinex calif oniiciis, Buckl. San Pedro, 1901. 
(Cockerell). Determined by Prof AA\ ]\I. \Mieeler. 

Stcnanuiia {Mcssor) aiidrei, ]Mayr. La Jolla, San Diego 
Co., 1901. (Cockerell). Determined by Prof. \A'. AI. Wheeler. 

Agaposfcmoii tcsauiis. Cresson. San Pedro, Julv. (Cock- 
erell).^ 

Agapostcnioii califoniiciis, Crawford. San Pedro, July 8. 
(Cockerell) ; La Jolla, August. (Cockerell). 

Zacosiiiia uiacidata (Cresson). San Pedro, Tulv 10. ( Cock- 
erell) . 

Boinhus califoniiciis. Smith. A ariety with face of female 
covered with yellow hair. San Pedro, July 8. (Cockerell) . 

Megachile davidsoni. n.sp. Female, length 16 mm., black. 
Allied to M. chilopsidis, Ckll., but differing as follows: Larger; 
mandibles broad and massive at base, having beneath a large 
concavity, bounded on the distal side by a projecting tooth-like 
rim ; inner edge of mandibles without an orange fringe ; the inner 
side broad and concave, and the upper margin of the mandibles 
near base produced into a large thick ascending tooth ; clypeus 
shining, with sparse strong punctures, produced into a couple of 
large, thick triangular processes, standing at right angles to the 
face, and separated by a wide interval ; thorax less hairy, no white 
hair-band between mesothorax and scutellum. This agrees with 
chilopsidis in the massive occipital region, the wide opening be- 
tween the mandibles, the close punctures of head and thorax, the 
simple antennje, the ventral scopa yellowish-white or white, black 
on the last segment, etc. 

This is a most extraordinary insect, and it is much to be 
desired that its habits should be observed, so as to explain the 
meaning of the "peculiar clypeus and manibles. The process on 
the face suggests at first that the insect may be a Litluirgiis, but 
it is a veritable Megachile. as is indicated bv the sculpture, 
tarsi, etc. 

Two specimens from Southern California, collected by Dr. 
A. Davidson. One from near Los Angeles ; the other from 
Switzer's Camp. 

Megachile angelannii, 11. sp. Female, length ii}^ mm., black, 
abdomen parallel-sided, rather narrow, with narrow white hair- 
bands ; ventral scopa white, black on last segment ; hair of head 
and thorax white or whitish, very scanty above; no hair-band 
between mesothorax and scutellum, nor white patches on anterior 
part of mesothorax ; antenna? short. Allied to M. prosopidis. Ckll., 
but differs as follows: Smaller; broad apical margin of mandi- 
bles with two teeth at apex, and a notch near inner angle; semi- 
circular excavation of anterior margin of clypeus without a me- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 71 

dium process, but with a pair of rounded shining denticles ; clyp- 
eus confluently punctured, without a median ridge ; flagellum 
barely rufescent beneath ; hair on thorax as described above. 

One from Dr. A. Davidson, marked "So. Cal., 1893;" pre- 
sumably collected near Los Angeles. 

If the excavated clypeus is a generic character, then it would 
seem thatil/. aiigclaruui, along with M. prosopldis, Ckll., and M., 
izU'Cara, Cresson, should go in Robertson's genus Chelojtomosides. 

Hesperapis cumorplia is the proper name for Parandrena 
eumorpha (misprinted ciunarpha) , Ckll., Tr. Am. Ent. Soc, xxv, 
p. 187. (So Cal). ^^^__ 

Myrmicophillous Coleoptera. or Arvt-Loving 
Beetles. 

BY PROF. J. J. RIVJiRS. 

In Europe and America many entomologists give great at- 
tention to beetles found living in or about ants' nests in social 
relationship. There are several peculiar species of several genera 
in the family of Stephalinidje that are taken in no other situation. 

It is not a rule among insects that the "lion lies down with 
the lamb," yet among ants this law is a natural one with certain 
favorites. In the neighborhood of Santa Monica the following 
species occur with ants: Eidabis laticoniis, Casey; Eulabis pu- 
hescens, Lee; Anclwuiina costatiiui, Lee; Apocrypha anthicoi- 
des, Esch. 

The two species recorded in order first and second run along 
the well-worn paths with the ants in perfect harmony, and enter 
their nests; the latter two are found with ants under stones in 
perfect social peace. 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY FOR. THE YEAR. 
ENDING MAY 15. 1902. 

Los Angeles, Cal., May 13, 1902. 
To the Board of Directors and Members of . the Southern California 

.Academy of Sciences: 

I have the honor of presenting herewith my eighth annua! report as 
Secretary of the Southern Cahfornia Academy of Sciences. 

MEETINGS. 
The total number of meetings held during the year ending May 13, 
1902, has been forty-four, divided as follows : 

Academy of Sciences 10 

Astronomical Section 9 

Biological Section 8 

Botanical Section . 8 

Geological Section 9 

■Total 44 

In addition to the- above meetings the Botanical Section has held four 
field sessions, at Glendale, Millard's Canyon, Monrovia and the hills 
west of Temple Street. 



7^ SOUTHERiX CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Ihe total number of lectures and papers presented has been thirty- 
five. 

The summar}- of titles and authors is as follows : 

Cosmical Induction and Potential, b:v Prof. Edgar L. Larkin. 

Scientific Ideals (President's Annual Address). Mr. Wm H. Knight. 

The Homing Pigeon, by Mr. Louis van Meter. 

A Still Hunt in Nesting Time, by Mrs. Elizabeth Grinnell. 

The Harm of Wanton Destruction of Birds, by Dr. Francis Sey- 
mour. 

The ^Marine Laboratory at San Pedro, by Prof. Wm. A. Ritter. 

Some Late Researches in the Land of the Clifif Dwellers, illustrated, 
by Dr George E. Cole. 

Origin. History and List of Academies of Science, by Mr. G. Major 
Taber. 

Modern Telephony (with experiments), by Prof. J. H. Shults. 

Report on the Summer work at the Marine Biological Station at San 
Pedro, b}' Drs. C. A. Whiting and Lyman Gregory. 

The Latest Results in Celestial Photography, b}' B. R. Baumgardt. 

The South Sea Islands, by Mr. Louis van Meter. 

The New Star in Perseus, by yiv. Wm. H. Knight. 

The Work of Prof. Simon Henr\- Gage, by Miss Agnes Claypole. 

Quicksilver. Its Occurrence, Production and L^ses, by ^Ir. R. S. Baver- 
stock. 

Landscape Gardening and Floriculture, by Mr. Ernest Braunton. 

The ^letric System, by Prof. Melville Dozier. 

Some Problems of Nutrition, by Dr. C. A. Whiting. 

Detecting the Presence and Locating the Position of Ore Bodies in 
Mineral Veins by Electricity, by !Mr. Fred H. Brown. 

Recent Research in Radiant Energy and Search for Zero Tempera- 
ture, by Prof. Edgar L. Larkin. 

The Library. Historically and Locally Considered, by ]\Iiss ]Mary L. 
Jones. 

Modern English, by yir. A. L. Bancroft. 

Some Practical Suggestions on the Study of Biological Problems of 
this Region with Special Reference to Animal Ecology-, bv Dr. A. B. 
Ulrey. 

The Translation of the Sun through Space, by Prof. W. W. Campbell. 

The International Dateline, by Prof. ^lelville Dozier. 

Poison Oak and the Cause of its Poison, by Dr. Carl Schwalbe. 

The Germination of Seed, by Dr. C. A. Whiting. 

Glaciers, by Prof. J. F. Chamberlain. 

Desert Mining and Observations on the Wayside on a looo Mile Tour 
over the Eastern part of San Bernardino County, by Mr. George W. 
Parsons. 

Modern Technique in Neurological Investigation, by Prof. B. M. 
Davis. 

FINANCIAL. 

Receipts 

Cash on hand -Slay lO. 1901 $223.89 

Total Receipts during past year 52.3-CO $746-89 

Ezpenditures 

Rent 85.00 

Commissions on Collections 60.60 

Lecture Expenses 62.50 

Reception Expenses 16.00 

Postage Publications and Supplies 291.90 

Cash on hand with Treasurer 230.89 $746.89 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 73 

MEMBERSHIP. 
The total membership at the beginning of the fiscal year 1901- 

1902 was 134 

The total membership at present is 216 

Number of admissions to membership during year 78 

Withdrawals 22 

Deaths 4 



NECROLOGY. 

Prof C. Sjolander. Dr. Edward W. Claypole. 
Samuel. M. Parsons. M. J. S. Parker. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

Commencing January. 1902, the Southern California Academy of 
Sciences has issued monthly a "Bulletin" of its Proceedings and Trans- 
actions. From its commencement this undertaking has proved an im- 
portant factor in the advancement of the interests and purposes of the 
Academy. It has been the means of placing the Academy on the ex- 
change list of nearly all the leading scientific institutions in this country. 
The total number of scientific publications received in this way since 
the first issue of the "Bulletin" was published amounts to 93. 

It has been the purpose of the Committee on Publication to devote the 
"Bulletin" to the 

Publication of Articles based on original Scientific Research. 

Publication of the Transactions and the Minutes of the Academy, 

and its Various Sections. 

Announcement of Publications received, and to 

Scientific Notes of General Interest to the Members of the Academy. 

That the "Bulletin" has been favorably received by other Scientific in- 
stitutions is shown by the increasing demand for the five numbers so 
far published. 

I append herewith a list of monographs based on original scientific 
investigation which have appeared in the "Bulletin" : 

A New Zauschneria Dr. Anstruther Davidson. 

Aster Greatai Prof. S. B. Parish. 

November Leonids of 1901 Prof. F. P. Brackett. 

The New Erigeron Edward L. Greene. 

The New Spectrograph of the Lowe 

Observatory Pof. Edgar L. Larkin. 

Scrophularia Glabrata Dr. Anstruther Davidson. 

The Germs Dirina in North America Dr. H. E. Hasse. 

Silvery Footless Lizard or Snake Prof. J. J. Rivers. 

A New Plant Louse from Southern California, T. D. A. Cockerel. 

Discovery of Another Food Plant of Uranotes 
Melinus Prof. J. J. Rivers. 

A Monograph on Pecten Aequisulcatus. 
Cpr Mrs. M. Burton Williamson. 

In every way the Southern California Academy of Sciences is in a 
presperous condition. It is entering now on its twelfth year of useful 
activity with everv prospect of continued success. While it has but a 
small balance to show in the bank, it has no indebtedness of any kind. 
Its membership is gradually increasing. Its library is growing rapidly. 
The general scientific activity among its members is unfaihng and en- 
couraging. On its membership roll may be found the names of many 
whose contributions to science are known far and wide. 

Respectfully submitted, B. R. Baumgardt, Secretary. 



74 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Notes. 

Dr. Adolf Kraemer. member of the Botanical Section, reports a new 
station for Sphaei alcea Fcndlcri Calif ornica, Parish. Mr. Parish col- 
lected a single plant of this species near Colton in 1894. In 1899 a single 
plant made its appearance on the Campbell-Johnston Ranch (San Rafael 
Rancho). It was in a place exposed to cattle and children, and fearing its 
extinction. Mr. Austin Campbell — -Johnston transplanted it and reports 
that it is doing well under cultivation. In publishing the plant, (Zoe, Vol. 
v., p 71 ; 1900) the authos states that a plant collected at San Pedro by 
Prof. McClatchie in May 1896 is probably this species, but the specimen 
was not in bloom. The new station descovered hy Dr. Kraemer is at 
Glendale, roadside at edge of cultivated fields, near foothills. The plant 
is a welcome addition to the flora of the region ; it is beautiful and inof- 
fensive. 

Mr. L. R. Abrams is at present in Los Angeles preparing for a botan- 
nical exploration of the coast ranges of Southern California. 

We anticipate new discoveries by this ardent collector. 

Mr. Chas. Amadon Moody, one_of the members of the Botanical Sec- 
tion has sent in some specimens of Morcliclla conica. This has been re- 
ported by Prof. McClatchie as occurring in this region, but it seems to 
be seldom collected and the find is therefore interesting. 
. . . .Ammaiiita phalloidcs (Death Cup) is now to be found lurking under 
the oaks. Woe to him who mistakes it for an edible species. It is the 
most deadly of the fungi. There are at least two more species of Ammanita 
occurring here. One. like the Death Cup seems to prefer the seclusion 
of the oaks ; the other is often found in the fields in company- with 
Agaricus campestris. Both species are probably unnamed and untested as 
to their poisonous qualities. 

A fine bronze bust of the late Dr. Edward W. Claypole, Plonorary 
Member of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, and Professor 
of Geology in the Throop Polj^technic Institute of Pasadena, has been pre- 
sented to that institution, the formal ceremonies taking place in the As- 
sembly Hall on the anniversary of his birthday, June 2, 1902. Addresses 
were made by Past President Wm. H. Knight, of the Academy, and Dr. 
Norman Bridge, of the Board of Trustees. Dr. Claypole's most notable 
contribution to science related to the Ice Age and the formation of the 
great North A.'meriean lakes, and his observations and conclusions were 
quoted and accepted as authority. 

GEOLOGICAL NOTES. 

EY PR. THEO. B. COM STOCK. 

The geology of California presents more features of interest and offers greater 
rewards to students than almost any equivalent field in the world. In a paper pub- 
lished more than eight years ago by one of the most vigorous workers, the following 
terse sentences well express the present situation as regards the more recent epochs.* 

"No clearly defined ideas seem as yet to have been developed in geological liter- 
ature as to the nature and extent of California in post-Pliocene time. * *s. * 
The recency of the record, the vastness of the events, the precision with which they 
may be established, all contribute to make it the most fascinating, as well as perhaps 
the most important chapter of our local geological history. * * * In no 

part of the continent is the interest so intense as in California. Nowhere is the 



*The Post-Pliocene Diastrophism of the Coast of Southern California. Andrew 
C. Law-son, Bull. Dep't Geology, Univ. of Cal., Vol. i. No. 4, p 116. Berkeley, 1893.; 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 75 

record so legible. Nowhere will greater discoveries reward the enthusiastic geologist. 
Yet how few have been the workers in this field ! How scant are the opportunities 
afforded by State aid for systematic research!" 

The field is large enough and enticing enough to engage the attention of numerous 
active workers for years to come. Speaking more particularly for Southern Cali- 
fornia, we are very deficient in literature bearing upon local geology. Professor 
I^awson, in the quoted paper, shows that the existing coastal margin has been up- 
lifted in modern time from 800 ft. to 1500 ft., from the Golden Gate to San Diego, 
and that this movement was of wide extent inland, but of less degree in the "Valley 
of California," between the coast area and the Sierra Nevada. 

Dr. Lawson's studies confirm those of Dr. A. S. Cooper, announced as early as 
1863, and they also emphasize the fact, not always properly appreciated, that the 
whole region west of the Great Basin, or Plateau, has been and is now an area of 
erogenic displacement. The evidences afforded in numerous mines in Nevada, Ari- 
zona, California and Mexico, and in surface studies over a wide expanse in the same 
field, all point conclusively to the same generalizations. 

The late Dr. E. W. Claypole had made equivalent deductions from his work in 
the Sierra Madre,* and the writer has verified and slightly extended the application 
in unpublished work along the coast from Santa Barbara to Santa Monica and in the 
low coastal ranges farther inland. 

The theory of "isostasy," or equilibration, affirms that elevation and subsidence 
are due merely to adjustment of the equilibrum of a floating crust, from which follows 
the idea that sedimentation has caused the subsidence of large tracts and that erosion 
has been responsible for regional elevation in great measure. Dtitton** carries the 
theory to its limit in suggesting that even volcanic action may result from the same 
isostatic tendency. The principle is as old as the writings of L,yell and Herschell, 
and it has been amplified and reiterated by the leading American geologists until very 
recently. The late eruption in ?,Iartinique and St. Vincent. West Indies, are probably 
rightly attributed largely to this cause in their local effects. LeConte, in 1859, and 
other eminent geologists in later years, have given adherence to this explanation of 
vast earth movements, but in 1884 and subsequently Dr. LeConte sided with a new 
school of students who have come to regard this cause of undulation in the crust as 
of minor importance. These hold that "the converse proposition is much more true, 
viz. : that subsidence is the cause and necessary condition of sedimentation, and ele- 
vation the cause of exceptional erosion. "t A very interesting paper, published in 
1896, by F. I^eslie Ransomei, criticises the theory of isostasy as applied to the region 
between the Sierra Nevada and the Coast ranges. The discussion cannot be narrowed 
to this region, however, and the work of Lawson in the coast areas is quoted by Ran- 
some in partial support 'of his contentions. We have here a striking illustration of 
our initial thesis; for, as Dr. Claypole remarks, in the paper previously cited, "geol- 
ogists who have worked principally in the East witness with surprise the enormous 
development and the excessive diastrophism exhibited by Tertiary and even very late 
Tertiary strata in the West, and these characters are as well seen in California as in 
any other Western state. 

It is not proper to leave this subject without mention of Dr. Lawson's reconnois- 
sance north of the Golden Gate, where he obtained evidence of very similar history 
in the recent elevation of the coast. H 



*Sierra Madre near Pasadena. E. W. Claypole. Paper read before the Cordil- 
leran Section, Geol. Soc. America. Abstract published in Bull. Geol. Soc Am., Vo.. 
12, igoo. 

**Haivaiian Volcanoes. 4th annual report, U. S., Geol. Surv., 1884, pp. 190-195- 

tr/iff Elevation of the Sierra Nevada, Amer. Journ. Sci., Vol. CXXXII, 1886, 
p. 167. 

tThe Great Valley of California. Bull. Dept. of Geol, Univ. of Cal. Vol. i. 

No. 14, p. 371- „ , 

tiThe Geomorphogeny of the Coast of orthern California. Bull. Dept. Geol., 
Univ.' of Cal., Vol. i,^No. 8, p. 241, Nov. 1894. 



76 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Mr. Oscar Hershey, of Berkeley, has also done some work in Southern California. 
His paper on the Quarternary * and another of later date, on earlier strata** present 
modestly an outline of the general structure, which is more complicated and inter- 
esting than has been usually understood by geologists unfamiliar with the region. 
Numerous movements of elevation and subsidence, which have extended over vast 
areas from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Coast, have been almost overlooked 
until within recent years. The labors of various members of the U. S. Geological 
Survey and of the staffs of the Universities at Berkeley and Palo Alto have been 
fruitful of results. And some good work has been done also by the State Min- 
eralogists's corps in different years, particularly by Cooper, Watts and Bailey. But 
there is a dearth of investigators in Southern California. We have competent 
men in the local colleges and it should become one of the main objects of the 
Geological Section of the Academy of Sciences to organize and sequester the 
records, which abound in this locality, of geologic phenomena of great interest, 
easily studied. Hershey shows, in his paper on the Quaternary, that "aside from 
the marine terraces pretty thoroughly discussed by Lawson,t FairbanksJ and 
Smithtt, and the associated sands and gravels studied by Arnold, the Quarternary 
of Southern California is virtually a virgin field." Mr. Ralph Arnold's paper 
was read last December before the Cordilleran Section of the Geological Society 
of America, but has not yet fully appeared in type. Only a few salient points in 
the discussion, can here be lightly touched. Once more the amiable controversy 
between field geologists and office paleontologists, which Mr. Bailey Willis has 
recently been attempting to clear up in a measure, crops out in the effort to define 
a conventional break between Pliocene and Pleistocene strata in California. There 
is a profound orographic element which is not always represented by abrupt changes 
in fossils, and Mr. Hershey justly claims that physical criteria are of greater mo- 
ment in recent stratigraphy than any variations in faunal types which could pos- 
sibly occur under the known conditions of those closely related periods. On this 
score he demurs in part to the correlation tables proposed by Arnold and others. 

The skeleton of our local geology may thus be broadly summarized: The 
Sierra Madre-San Bernardino range, and the Tehachapi range — uplifted to some 
extent as a part of the Sierra Nevada orographic disturbance, and probably rising 
more or less gradually for a long continued era of pre-Tertiary times, — fur- 
nished by erosion a vast accumulation of detritus which was carried downward 
to the ocean, forming thick sedimentary terranes through the Tertiary Period. 
Moderate disturbances in earlier epochs, accompanied by volcanic outbursts, cul- 
minated at the close of the Pliocene in the great movement above mentioned, which 
has elevated portions of the old Pliocene plain from 3000 ft. to 8000 ft. Mr. 
Plershey traces much of the Sierra Madre uplift also to this epoch, and he shows 
that the great Antelope Valley, north of these mountatins, was separated from 
that by faulting which occurred at the beginning of the Quarternary. Since then 
our local area has been mainly rising by successive minor throes until we have 
numerous terraces of Ouarternary and recent beach gravels and alluvial deposits. 

This is the coast border which has for long been gradually reclaiming from 
the sea. Professor Hershey has begun the work of unraveling the skein of super- 
ficial layers and he outlines five epochs of Ouarternary (Pleistocene) time, as be- 
low (the first being earliest) : 

1. Santa Claran Epoch, characterized by erosion with land level normal. 

2. Red Bhtff Epoch, characterized by deposition, land level below normal. 

3. Los Angelan Epoch, erosion of normal land surface. 



*The Quaternary of Southern California. Bull. Dept. Geol., Univ. of Cal., No. 
I, p. I. 

**Somc Crystalline Rocks of Southern California. American Geologist, V^ol. 
XXIX, No. 5, May, 1902, p. 273. 

Voc. c'i.. ante. 

tOsc'llat-'ons of the Coast of Calif orn in during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. 
Dr. H. W. Fairbanks. Amer. (ieol., Vol. XX, Oct., 1897, pp. 2:3-245. 

tt.4 Topographic Study of the Islands of Southern California. W. S. Tangier 
Smith. Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. of Cal., Vol. 2, No. 7, Sept., 1900, pp. 179-230. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 77 

4. San Pcdran Epoch, deposition with surface below normal. 

5. Not named Epoch, of erosion prior to glacial epoch. This is assumed on 
the author's premise that the San Pedran epoch is properly correlated with the 
lowan epoch of eastern geologists. 

There is doubt of the propriety of the foregoing assumption, which Mr. 
Hershey clearly admits. 

The Modern Epoch is represented by the flood-plains of our present rivers, and 
it is regarded as an epoch Of deposition, with land level below normal. 

The marine Pleistocene, well exposed in Los Angeles, on Boyle Heights, is 
referred to the Red Blviff epoch by Hershey; his Los Angelan epoch is here 
represented by the silted-up valley of the ancient river, well shown near the 
County Hospital and in the low terrace running partly through the city east of 
Main Street; the Modern epoch allvivium, forming the flood plain of the present 
Los Angeles River, is the next Ouarternary representative know to exist in San 
Pedro hill, near the coast, overlying deposits of the earlier epochs. The marine 
formations at the base of the hill are tentatively referred to the Red Bluff epoch. 

The late volcanic eruptions on Martinique and St. Vincent have proved a 
"nine days' wonder" for the newspaper writers, but the ' scientific import has 
been but barely touched as yet. Aside from the dynamic geological features, which 
we may have occasion to discuss hereafter, there will undoubtedly be many very 
startling revelations in physiography, terrestrial physics, chemical geology and other 
branches of enquiry. We may look for the tinted atmosphereic effects hereabouts 
within a few weeks. In a former instance of the kind, trained observers were 
enabled to deduce new and unexpected movements of serial currnts actually follow- 
ing them by the dust tracks several times around the earth. Chimical stvidies of 
the ash accompanying the recent West Indian outbreaks show that the quality of 
material is unlike that thrown out half a century earlier, and some interesting con- 
clusions have already been drawn concerning the gaseous products of eruption, 
which are supposed to have been the immediate cause of the annihilation of the 
inhabitants. 

In some respects, in minute degree, our local coast and insular geology is akin- 
to that of the West Indies, but we cannot predict the future history with certainty 
from our limited understanding of tlie sub-structure. The theory of isostasy has, 
at first glance, received unwelcome support from the catastrophe of Martinique, 
but it is too early to generalize on that subject. From the investigations already 
undertaken by members of the U. S. Geological Survey much valuable knowledge 
may be anticipated. Dr. Angelo Heilprin and Dr. Robert T. Hill have gone to 
study the district for that organization. 

The U. S. Geological Survey has just issued Sheets i and 2, (of a series of 
three maps of Southern California), including Orange County, the major portion 
of Los Angeles County and parts of Riverside and San Bernardino counties. The 
scale is approximately four miles to the inch, size 21 in. x 33 in.( Price 10 cents 
each; to be had on application to the Survey at Washington, D. C. 

As this Bulletin goes to press, we receive word that Dr. Robt. T. Hill, Pro- 
fessor Israel C. Russell and C. E- Borchgrevink went together, on the Dixie relief 
fessor Israel C. Russell and C. F. Borchgrevink went together, on the Dixie 
ciety, of W'ashington, D. C. The selection has been peculiarly fortunate and we 
shall soon have authentic information from these gentlemen, all of whom are 
acknowledged authorities in this line of study. Dr. Hill has predicted the erup- 
tions for a long time past. 



7S SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 
Tra-nsactiorvs. 

ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Los Angeles, May 13, 1902. 
The regular monthly meeting of the Academy was held this evening 
at 724 South Broadway. 

President Wm. H. Knight occupied the chair. 

New members were elected as follows : Dr. A. Conrad, Mr. J. M. 
Clark, Mr. Lucius K. Chase. Dr. LeMoyne Wills, Dr. W. Jarvis Barlow. 

The report of the Secretary and Treasurer for the iiscal year ending 
May 13, 1902,, was read and approved. (The report is published in full 
in this number of the Bulletin.) 

A motion was made that a committee be appointed by the Chair 
for the purpose of nominating a Board of Directors to serve for the 
year 1902- 1903. Carried. The Chair appointed the following Nominating 
Committee : Dr. Woodbridge, Dr. Emery, Mr. Macleod, Mr. Collins and 
Secretary Baumgardt. 

The Committee, after having retired for deliberation, returned the 
following ticket : 

William H. Knight G. Major Taber 

Anstruther Davidson, M. D. J. D. Hooker 
Dr. John R. Havnes Prof. Melville Dozier 

Dr. T. B. ComstGcK Dr. S. M. Woodbrige 

George R. Parsons Dr. C. A. Whiting 

B. R. Baumgardt 
A motion was made and seconded that the candidates named by 
the Nominating Committee be elected a Board of Directors for the year 
1902-1903. Carried. 

The Chair then announced the new Board of Directors. 
The remaining part of the evening was devoted to the reading and 
discussion of an article by Professor Simon Newcomb, entitled "The 
Problem of the Universe." 

Adjourned. B. R. B aumgardt. Secretary. 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 
Regular meeting. 

Report of observations on weight of chick egg during incubation was 
given by J. O. Hunt.' The loss was nearly uniform until day before hatch- 
ing. Total loss was 20 per cent, of weight of egg before incubation. Un- 
fertilized eggs showed uniform loss for same time with a total loss of 15 
per cent. 

A report on growth of moulds was given bv Miss Louise Burns. The 
paper was illustrated by camera lucida drawings of different stages. Her 
experiments showed that certain kinds of mould had the power of forming 
starch grains from the filtered juice of potato and other starch-forming 
plants. 

GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

The Geological Section of the Academy of Sciences met at Ebell Hall 
on Tuesday evening. May 27th. Chairman George W. Parsons occupied 
the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

After a few preliminary remrks, the Chairman introduced Prof. 
G. L. Bailey as the speaker of the evening. 

His subject was "Death Valley, Its Geological Origin, Saline De- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 79 

posits, Topography, Scenery, Climate and Water Supplies." The 
speaker gave an intensely interesting description of the desert, de- 
scribing it as a great storehouse of mineral wealth which in time would 
be developed and utilized. He stated that the preat valley between the 
Sierra Ncvadas on the west and the Wasatch range of mountains on the 
east, was once a great lake, and that the large deposits of nitrates, soda 
and borax found on the Mojave desert owed their existence to a similar 
process of long continued evaporation. The lecturer claiined that this 
barren waste was a storehouse of wealth preserved by nature for what 
the adjacent country most needed. He estimated that in the past year 
through the shipment of oranges from Southern California there was taken 
from the soil 5,000 tons of nitrogen which could be replaced from the 
nitrates of the desert. The lecture was full of incidents and sugges- 
tions. 

A vivid description was given of the oppressive lonliness and death- 
like stillness of the desert, and it was stated that sometimes men in cross- 
ing Death Valley lost their reason when too much alone. 

The lecturer congratulated the Academy upon the good work ac- 
complished, which he asserted deserved the hearty suooort of the citizens 
of Los Angeles. 

Upon motion. Prof. Bailey was tendered the thanks of the audience 
by a rising vote for his interesting lecture. 

Mr. W. H. Knight gave notice of a meeting to be held at tne Throop 
Institute on June 2nd at which time a bust of the late Prof. E. W. Clay- 
pole would be presented to that institution. 

Adjourned. G. Major Taber, 

Secretary. 

BOTANICAL SECTION. 

The regular meeting was devoted to the examination of a collection 
of Carices from the herbarium of Dr. Kraemer. The secretary reports 
the completion of the numbering and cataloguing of the botanical col- 
lection. Reports of the field meetings were made; the following places 
having been visited during.' the month of May: Glendora, Azusa, San 
Antonio and "Old Baldy jnountain, Rivera, Studebaker, Nigger's Slough, 
Redondo. Santa Monica Canyon, and Laurel Canyon. As the result of 
these explorations quite a few new records have been made for Los An- 
geles County and Southern California, full details of which will be pub- 
lished in future numbers of the Bullitin. 

L. A. Greata, Secretary. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

Los Angeles, May 17, 1902. 

The first meeting of the newly elected Board of Directors was held this 
afternoon at room 2, Bryson Block, Los Angeles. 

The Directors present were : Knight, Davidson, Comstock, Whiting, 
Taber, Parsons, Baumgardt. 

The Secretary announced that the purpose for which the Board had 
convened was the election of Officers. 

The Board elected officers as follows : 

President Dr. T. B. Comstock 

First Vice-President J. D. Hooker 

Second Vice-President Prof. Melville Dozier 

Treasurer Dr. Anstruther Davidson 

Secretary B. R. Baumgardt 

Adjourned. B. R. Baumgardt, Secretary. 



8o SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

PUBLICATIONS. ETC., RECEIVED 

List of Bulletins and Circulars issued bv the U. S. Dept. of Agricul- 
ture, and available for distribution. Corrected to October 15, 1900. 

Methods of Steer Feeding. The Pennsylvania State College Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. Bulletin No. 57. 

The Tuberculin Test of Imported Cattle, United States Department 
of Agriculture. Bulletin No. 22. 

Extermination of Gophers and Ants ; University of Arizona Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. "Timely Hints," No. 39. 

The Instability of the Rochester Nomenclature, by M. L. Fernald. A 
reprint from the Botanical Gazette, November, 190 1. 

The Northeastern Carices of the Section Hyparrhenae, and the Va- 
riation of some boreal Carices, by Fernald. Contributions from the 
Gray Herbarium of Harvard University. No. 22. 

Fertilizer Inspection, Maine Agricultural Experiment Station. Bul- 
letin No. 81. 

Feeding Stuff Inspection. Maine Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Bulletin No. 80. 

Field Operations of the Division of Soils, United States Dept. of 
Agriculture, igco. The Algerian Durum Wheats : A classified list with 
descriptions. United States Dept. of Agriculture. Bulletin No. 7. 

Las Rhyolitas de Mexico. Boletin del Instituto Geologico de Mex- 
ico. No. 15. 

Bulletin of the State Universitv of the State of Missouri. Vol. 3. 
No. 2. 

Observations on the rise of Alkali, University of Arizona Agricultu- 
ral, Experimental Station. No. 40. 

Experimental Station Record, United State Office of Experiment 
Stations. Vol. 13. No. 7. 

Bulletin of the New York Botanical Gardens, Vol. II, No. 7. 

The opening chapters of the Prehistoric History of California, which 
we promised our readers to begin in this issue have, through lack of 
space, been held over for one month. 



VOL. I. 



JULY I, 1902 



NO. 7 



n 



BULLBTIN 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifomia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION: 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier T. B Comstock, Ph. D. 



CONTENTS : 

Page 
Prehistoric California, Dr. Lorenzo Gordin Yates 81 

A New California Rose, S. B. Parish 87 

Additions to the Flora of Los Angeles County, Le 

Roy Abrams 87 

Butterfly Emigrants, Prof. J. J. Rivers 90 

Publications, etc.. Received 90 

Transactions 91 

Notes 94 



Published for the Association by 

B. R. BAUMGARDT & CO. 

231 West First St., I<os Angeles, Cal. 



/ Yearly Subscription, $1.00 



Single Copies, 25 cts. 



L., 



MAILED JULY 1, 1902 



LIBRARY 

RIM I F T I Kl ^^"^ ^^^^ 

L) U L L L I I IN BOTANECAL 

OF THE Q^RDE 



SootHern Galilornia flcadeniy of SclenGcs 

VOL. I LOS ANGELES, CAL, JULY I, 1902. NO. 7 

231 West Firsx Street. 



PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA. 



Its TopogracpKv. Flora. a.nd Fauna. — With the Evidence of 
the Time of the Advent of Man, a.nd His Development, 
Fronn the Records of His Pa.st Found in the Soil. 

BY DR. LORENZO GORDIN YATES. 

In the following- pages an attempt will be made to present 
to the mind of the reader some idea of the appearance and con- 
ditions prevalent in what is now known as California, previous 
to ,and at the time of the first appearance of its human inhabi- 
tants. 

And later to illustrate and describe a sufficient number and 
variety of the unique and interesting' implements and other evi- 
dences of man's occupancy of the region, to assist the student in 
unravelling- the mythical history of the aboriginal tribes and peo- 
ples who have become, or soon will be extinct. And, further, to 
preserve the records of some of the most characteristic forms of 
the handiwork of the vanishing- race, or races of Prehistoric 
California, especially as' many of these forms have been selected 
from the few collections with us which are liable to be removed 
from the State, unless more interest is taken to retain them than 
has been in the past. 

Many of the originals from which the illustrations to be 
used in the following pages were made, have, since the writer 
executed the drawings, been removed to other States and coun- 
tries. 

As to the success of the writer's efforts to throw light on 
the dark pages of the history of the former inhabitants of Cal- 
ifornia, each reader must decide for himself, for where so few 
reliable data are available and such widely different opinions 
prevail, no one writer can be expected to decide satisfactorily 
upon the relative merits of so many diverse theories. 

To the pursuit of material for the elucidation of the objects 
herein specified, the writer has, during the past forty years, de- 
voted much time and study. 

This line of research has been carried out by systematic and 
thorough exploration of aboriginal village sites, mounds, burial 
places, shell heaps, islands, caves, rock shelters, ancient trails, 



S2 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

temporary camping places, of objects scattered over the surface 
of the ground, and the results of mining exploitation. 

And, further, by a continued search for, and study of, the 
animal life of the region, from its earliest appearance to the pres- 
ent time, especially with a view to ascertaining what species of 
animals occupied the region anterior to, or, contemporaneous 
with, our "oldest inhabitants." The correct answers to these 
cjuestions throw much light upon the subject under considera- 
tion, as will hereafter become apparent. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

In order that we may be able to realize something of the 
great changes in the topography of California which preceded 
the advent of its human inhabitants, it is deemed necessary to 
go back in the world's history to the close of the Cretaceous or 
Reptilian Age, at which time the region now known as California 
— with the exception of the Sierra Xevada ]yIountain Range, and 
portions of the Coast Range — was lying at the bottom of the 
ocean. 

It is probable that some portions of the Coast Range, as 
well as of the Sierras, formed detached islands in the Cretaceous 
ocean. 

During the Cretaceous Age a large portion of the present 
continent of Xorth America, including the Rocky ^Mountain Re- 
gion, was under water, as shown bv the marine and fluviatile 
deposits now found in the regions which, at that time, formed 
the ocean's bed. 

The Gulf of INIexico extended northward along what is now 
the Valley of the Mississippi to the confluence of the Ohio and 
Mississippi rivers, where a great bay received the waters of 
those rivers. 

Westward it extended to the region of the Colorado River, 
and probably to the Pacific Ocean, and from the southern por- 
tion of California -a cretaceous sea flanked the eastern slope of 
the Sierra Nevadas, extending northerly to the Arctic Ocean, 
where the Mackenzie River and its tributaries are now found. 

It also covered the present watershed of the Missouri and, 
Yellowstone rivers. Cretaceous seas covered the ''Great Plains" 
Prairie region and the summits of parts of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, to where the eastern slope ol the AA'ahsatch ^Mountains 
now are. 

These lofty ranges have since been raised, and in part the 
elevation took place before the epoch of the Tertiary, whose ma- 
rine beds lie at their base.^ 

Abundant evidences of this extensive submersion during 
the Cretaceous Ag-e are found throuo'hout California. 



I. See Dana's "Manual of Geology," pps. 490 and 503. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 83 

Large areas in Butte, Lake, Shasta and other counties lying 
north of the Bay Region ; and in Contra Costa, Alameda, and 
other counties south of that region, and on the eastern slope of 
the Coast Range nearly the entire length of the San Joaquin 
Valley show cretaceous strata, and prove their submersion at 
that time. 

In Santa Barbara and the northern portion of Ventura, there 
is undoubted evidence that the entire region during the Creta- 
ceous Age was submerged to a great depth. 

In the southeasterly portion of Santa Barbara County, at 
an elevation of seven thousand feet above the sea, the writer 
found well preserved shells of cretaceous age, Ammonites, Au- 
cellas, Dentaliums, etc. 

Allowing for the erosion of past ages, since the mountains 
were uplifted, and for the depth of their submersion while being 
formed, it is probable that an elevation of at least two miles 
above sea level has occurred at that point. ("Pine Mountain of' 
Santa Barbara"). 

The estimated depth of the deposit is "at least twenty-five 
thousand feet," ^ thus indicating for the lower portion of the 
deposit, which is exposed at some distance easterly, an elevation 
of five or six miles, without taking into consideration the depth 
of the water in which the deposit was made. 

In San Benito County, on the eastern side of the Mt. Diablo 
Range, there is an exposed thickness of twenty thousand feet 
of rocks of this age. 

Thus it will be seen that the Pacific Coast of that time was 
probably connected with,, and was practically a part of Asia, a 
Avide sea separating it from the portion of the present conti- 
nent east of the Wahsatch Mountains ; while Florida, Texas, 
New Mexico, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Indiar) 
Territory and other portions of the country now lying south 
and east of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers 
were submerged, together with portions of Colorado, Wyoming. 
Montana, Nebraska, Dakota, and a large portion of Western 
Canada, and the Pacific Ocean extended to the foothills of the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains. 

We now come to what the late Professor Joseph Le Conte 
termed "one of the Critical Periods of the History of the Earth." 

These Critical Periods he defines as "periods of very general 
readjustment of the crust of the earth, and therefore of wide- 
spread changes in physical geography, so great and so general 
as to affect profoundly and widely the climates of the earth. 
These physical changes, in their turn, gave rise to still more 



Fairbanks in "Geology of the Coast Ranges." p. 95. 



S^ SOUTHERN CALItORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

marked changes in organic forms ; and finally all these changes 
together form a rational basis for the primary divisions of 
time." ^ 

He gives as one of the signs of Critical Periods, the birth 
of great mountain ranges. 

This Critical Period brings its to the Tertiary or Alam- 
malian Age, inaugurated by the bodilv upheaval of the whole 
western half of the continent, so that the great interior Creta- 
ceous sea, which had previously divided Xorth America into two 
parts, was drained off, and the continent became one, so that 
this great "Critical Period" was a continent making, as well as 
a mountain making period, and the climatic changes were doubt- 
less commensurate with the change in the physical geography. 

At the commencement of the Cretaceous period the sedi- 
ments accumulated along the then Pacific shore bottom, during 
the Jura-trias period, yielding to the lateral pressure, were 
mashed together and swollen up into the Sierra and Cascade 
Ranges. (Le Conte). 

This change in the topography of the Pacific Coast, marked 
by the elevation of those ranges (which in time reached to 6.000 
or 7,000 feet) was gradual. The rivers were therefore at first 
smaller than now, and the region, as Hayden inferred from the 
great fresh-water Tertiary deposits, was covered by one or more 
-vast fresh-water lakes. (Dana). 

This change also resulted in the formation of the long 
peninsula, and the islands which were the nuclei of the present 
Coast Range system of this region. 

The geological evidence shows that, as I have already 
shown, the Cretaceous sea was very deep over Southern Cali- 
fornia, so deep that in many places there is an almost entire 
absence of fossil organisms, thus presenting great diffiiculties to 
the proper reading of the pages of the geological history of 
the region. 

Over Central and Xorthern California the indications are 
that there was a gradual rise from the abysmal depths to more 
shallow water. 

We find in Alameda, Contra Costa, Butte, Shasta and other 
interior counties, that the marginal bottom of the Pacific Ocean 
teemed with molluscous animal life ; in some places the cepha- 
lopods are represented by immense numbers of individuals of 
many species of Ammonites, Eaculites and their contemporaries 
in such a remarkable state of preservation that the iridescence 
is as finely shown as in our most beautiful living shells. 

At other localities the near proximity of the dry land of the 
period is indicated by the presence of fossil wood, some of which 



3. LeConte's "Elements of Geolog3^" 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 83 

shows the work of the Teredos or aUied genera ; and the shal- 
lowness of the water is shown by the fossil remains, or casts, 
of Fucoids and other marine plants. 

After this elevation of the western portion of the continent, 
and the formation of the Coast Range, by folding of the strata, 
and subsequent to a period of erosion, the entire region was 
again submerged, and the eroded summits of the mountains of 
Cretaceous and Eocene (older Tertiary) sedimentary forma- 
tions were buried under several thousand feet of sediment at 
the bottom of the Miocene sea. 

This later formation consists of sandstone, light-colored, 
banded slates, and gypsum-bearing clays. 

(Some of the results of this submersion may be seen in 
the Miocene capping the present mountain ranges. In some 
instances the horizontal strata of Miocene age may be seen cap- 
ping the nearly vertical strata of the later Cretaceous or Eocene 
rocks at altitudes of about five thousand feet.) 

While the former elevation drained the Cretaceous sea of 
the region, the submergence following it allowed .the Miocene 
sea to occupy the place of the former Cretaceous, the elevation 
of the Miocene period raised barriers which formed an inland 
sea which continued during a part of the Pliocene period. 

After this came a series of elevating and sinking move- 
ments in the region. The Pliocene sea broke through the bar- 
riers and was drained into the Pacific Ocean, and the present 
interior valleys were occupied by fresh-water lakes, and still 
later by the bodies of salt water now occupying the so-called 
"Bay Region" of Central .'California. 

Referring again to the Post-Cretaceous period, we find 
that the reniarkable changes in the physical geography of the 
earth's crust resulted in corresponding climatic variations. 

These culminated in a revolution in the organic life of the 
time, which was perhaps the greatest which has occurred in the 
world's history. 

The evidences of these great surface alterations are seen in 
the almost universal unconformity of the rocks of the Tertiary 
strata with those of the Cretaceous and other periods which 
preceded it. 

The unconformities and breaks in the record characterizing 
this critical period are almost universal throughout the world, 
the most notable exceptions being the plateau region of the 
North American continent, and some portions of California, 
where the crust oscillations appear to be less marked, and the 
stratification is doubtfully continuous. 

The next critical period occurred at the close of the Ter- 
tiary, when another great revolution took place which re- 
sulted in the destruction of a large part of the organic life of 



S6 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

the period, and the substitution of new and more dominant 
forms. 

The cHmatic conditions resulting from the changes in the 
physical geography, permitted, or caused, the migration of ani- 
mals and plants. 

LactT migrations were also forced by subsequent changes 
and the resulting environments, and were further made 
possible by the land connections between continents and con- 
tiguous islands, (previously separated by bodies of water) by 
the elevation of the land. 

This elevation, connected possibly with astronomical and 
other causes not thoroughly understood, brought about the Gla- 
cial Period, which may be termed the last critical period which 
has occurred. 

This was also attended by well-marked oscillations of the 
earth's crust by elevations and depressions, and especially is this 
apparent in high latitudes where the immense areas of the ice 
bodies, gradually flowing towards the equator, planed down the 
most accentuated irregularities of the surface caused by the up- 
heavals. 

These ice bodies picked up large bodies of projections upon 
which they were formed, or with which they came in contact, 
and transported them to long distances, crushing and grinding 
them up on the way by their irresistible power, thus forming 
boulders, gravel, sand, and soil, which, as the ice approached 
the less elevated and warmer latitudes: and was gradually 
melted, were deposited in the valleys and on the plateaus. 

It will be thus seen that, the glaciers were important fac- 
tors in preparing the earth for its occupancy by man and the 
higher animals, and as will be shown as we proceed, the ice 
drove animal and vegetable organisms towards the equatorial 
regions, causing an admixture of the faunas and floras of widely 
separated regions. 

After the recession of the great ice fields and glaciers con- 
sequent upon another depression, there came a period when our 
coast enjoyed the advantages of a tropical climate, during which 
time many genera of plants and animals inhabited the land and 
probably continued until the epoch of volcanic disturbances, 
when, instead of being buried under a sheet of ever-moving 
ice, the country was overwhelmed by a cataclysmic flow of 
molten lava, which doubtless destroyed all the animal and veg- 
etable life of the region, filling up the river channels, and en- 
gulfing the mountains of ordinary altitudes ; a time when 
the higher peaks, instead of being islands surrounded by ice 
fields, or water, were left projecting from an immense sea of 
molten lava, which congealed and may be still seen spreading 
over vast areas of land. ,,,, , .. ,, 

( lo be continued). 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 87 

A New CaliforniaL Rose. 

BY S. B. PARISH. 

V Rosa Mohavensis sp. nov. (R. Califoniica glabrafa. Par- 
ish, Erythea, C. 88. (1898). 

Stems slender, 5-10 dm. long, destitute of infrastipular 
spines, but armed with slender scattered prickles, which are 
straight or nearly so ; glandless and glabrous throughout, except 
the inner surface of the sepals, which are canescently tomentose ; 
leaves crowded on short branchlets ; stipules narrow ; leaflets 
3-5, oval, 5-15 mm. long, mostly obtuse at apex, cuneate or nar- 
rowed at base, serrate with erect teeth, shortly petiolate ; flowers 
solitary, or in corymbs 2-3, short pedicellate ; sepals lanceolate- 
accuminate, the tips enlarged ; petals 4 pink obovate, entire, about 
15 mm. long; styles distinct; fruit (immature) ovoid-globose, 
contracted into a short neck. 

Type 2481 ParisJi, June i, 1892, collected by watercourses 
at Cushenberry Springs, at the desert foot of the San Bernar- 
dino Mts., alt. about 4000ft. Since received from ^Ir. H. M. 
Hall, who collected it in 1900 on the desert slope of San Antonio 
Mt. Also collected long ago at Rock Creek, in the same region, 
by Dr. Davidson, and probably not uncommon on the borders of 
the Mohave Desert. 

It is, indeed, the desert analogue of Rosa Califoniica. Ch. 
& Schl., from which it differs in the smaller size of all its parts, 
and in the absence of infrastipular spines, or of any glandular or 
hirsute indument. Even on young and vigorous shoots the leaves, 
which are then more distant, have leaflets (about 7) not exceed- 
ing 25 mm. in length.- Early in June of last year I again had an 
opportunity of observing this rose at the type station, and it ap- 
peared so distinct that I ventured to propose specific rank for it. 
In doing so I avail myself of this occasion to change the name 
formerly given, and which had been used already more than once 
in the genus. 

The figure is drawn from a specimen collected June 2, 1901, 
at Cushenberry Springs, by ^Ir. Louis A. Greata and myself. 

San Bernardino. 



Additions to the Flora of Los Angeles County, I. 

By Le Roy Abrams. 
Pinus Murrayana Balf. Summit of Mt. San Antonio. 
Sitanion rigidwn J. G. Smith. Summit of Mt. San Antonio. 
Bromiis carinatus Californiais (Nutt. ) vShear. Fruitland , along 
irrigating ditches. 

Leptiiriis cylindricus Trin. Mesraer. 




Rosa Mohavensis. Plate VII. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. S9 

Melica imperfecta minor Scribn . Canyon near Chatsworth Park . 

Phalaris Lemmoni Vasej-. Ingle wood. 

Argopyron Parishii laeve Scribn. & Smith. Ballona Creek, 
near Mesmer. 

Alopecurus geniciilatus L. Not typical, perhaps a distinct form. 
Mr. Elmer D, Merrill of the Department of Agriculture informs 
me that the same form has been collected near San Diego. 

Querciis lobata Nee. There are some excellent trees of this 
species at Chatsworth Park. 

Quercus Wislizeni A. D. C. This species is frequent on the 
coast slope of the Sierra Madre Mountains. I have also obtained 
it in the San Antonio, San Bernardino and Santa Ana Ranges. 
Only the scrubby form seems to occur with us, and it has been 
confused with Quercus duinosa Nutt. 

Castanopsis sempervirens (Kell.) Dudley, N. A. Fauna, No. i6, 
1899. {Cmitanea scDipervirens Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. 1:71. 
Castanopsis chrysophylla Parish, Zoe 4: 346, not of A. DC.) 

This species occurs in the San Antonio Mts., above 8000 ft. 

EscJischoltzia Californica Cham. Sierra Madre; Chatsworth 
Park. — Perennial. 

Eschscholtzia peninsularis Greene. The common species. — 
Annual. 

EscJischoltzia hypecoides Benth. Saddle Peak, Santa Monica Mts. 

Lepidiuvi lasiocarpinn Nutt. Sand -Dunes, Ballona Harbor. 

Arabis Virginica (L. ) Trelease ( A . LndcviciannvijCh . Meyer. ) 
Inglewood. 

Henchera elegans Ahr?ivas. Wilson's Peak; Mt. I^ow^e. Heii- 
chera riibescens of local lists, not of Torr. 

Henchera rnbescens Torr- Mt. San Antonio. 

Ribes cereum Dougl. Mt. San Antonio. 

Ribes inalvaceum viridifolium Abrams. R. ghitinosum of local 
lists, not of Benth. San Gabriel Mts. above 3000 ft.; Santa 
Monica Mts. 

Horkelia platy calyx ^y^Lh. Indian Hill, Claremont. 

Horkelia sericea (Gray) Rydb. Ballona Harbor, edges of sand- 
dunes. 

Cercocarpus ledifolins Nutt. Mt. San Antonio, 9000 ft. alt. 

Litpinus gracilis Agardh. San Fernando Mountain. 

Astragalus Parishii Gray. Chatsworth Park. 



90 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 
Butterfly Emigrants. 

BY PROF. J. J. RIVERS. 

Is the climate changing in CaHfornia? Certain southern 
butterflies have taken up their abode in Santa ]\Ionica that form- 
erly were not credited to this locality, viz., CaUidryas eubule, 
Linn. ; and Terias nicippe, Cram. Both these butterflies are 
among the commonest butterfly residents, and have taken up per- 
manent quarters. Extending the area of their domain could not 
be successful on climate alone, as these species are particular as 
to their diet. C. eubule is known to feed upon Cassia and Tri- 
folium. The inhabitants here have a great liking for the blazing, 
flowering Cassia Horihunda, and have planted it extensively ; the 
butterflies are equally rejoiced, and have shown great apprecia- 
tion by establishing themselves in great numbers upon every tree 
to the detriment of its beauty, thus causing an antagonistic atti- 
tude on the part of the inhabitants, and many shrubs have been 
already rooted out. 

Ocean Park, Cal. 

Pxiblications, Etc., Received. 

Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden. Vol. 2, No. 7. 

Water supply and Irrigation papers of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
Nos. 57 and 61. 

Report of the Maine Agric. Station, igoi. 

Cell Studies I. '"Spindle Formation in Asave," bv W. J. \'. Osterhout, 
Proceed. Cal. Acad. Sci. Botany, Vol. IT, No. 8. 

"New Species from the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California," 
b}' Alice Eastwood. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. Botany Vol. II, No. 9. 

"Some New Species of Pacific Coast Ribes," bj^ Alice Eastwood. 
Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. Botany Vol. II, No. 7. 

"The Quaternary of Southern California," by Oscar H. Hershey, 
Univ. Cat, Dept. Geology. Vol. 3, No. i. 

Minnesota Botanical Studies. Part VI. 

"The Seeds of Rescue Grass and Chess." U. S. Dept. Agricult. Bull. 
No. 25. 

In Memoriam : Edward Waller Claypole. Throop Polytechnic In- 
stitute. 

"A Descriptive List of the Plants Collected by Dr. F. E. Blaisdell 
at Nome City, Alaska,'' by Alice Eastwood. Reprint from the Botanical 
Gazette. 

"Insect Enemies of the Pine in the Back Hills Forest Reserve." U. 
S. Dept. Agricult. Bull. No. 32. 

"Colemanite from Southern California : a Description of the Crystals 
and of the Measurement with the Two Circle Goniometer," by Arthur 
S Eakle, Univ. Cal. Dept. Geology. Vol. 3, No. 2. 

Eparchfcan Interval, a criticism of the use of the term Algonkian, 
by Andrew C. Lawson. Univ. Cal. Dept. Geology. Vol. 3, No. 3. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. y/ 

Transactions. 



Academy of Sciences — Annual Reception. 

The regular June meeting of the Academy, the last of the season of 
1891-1902, was held at the Woman's Clubhouse on Tuesday evening, June 
10, 1902. 

Retiring President Wm. H. Knight conducted the proceedings. In 
his introductory remarks he stated that eleven years ago a little band 
of 21 persons interested in general science, and especially in learning 
more of the scientific features of our region and environment, organized 
the Southern California Science Association, which name was subsequently 
changed to the Southern California Academy of Sciences. 

The society first met in the hall at 119 Spring street, but owing to 
increase in numbers — now 240 — and the march of improvement in the 
city, the Academy has since occupied the halls, successively, at 330 Broad- 
way and 724 Broadway for its general meetings, and such other halls as 
were convenient for its section meetings. The new board of officers hope 
to secure a permanent home where all the meetings can be held and the 
library and collections can be accommodated. 

New members were elected as follows : 
E. Bennet Adams. W. J. Schaefle. Prof. F. P. Brackett, 

R. H. Behrens. D. L. Durand. Samuel S. Partello. M.D. 

H. A'. Behrens. Mark R. Lamb. James R. Rogers, Ph. D. 

Wm. J. Canfield. Alfred Fellows, M.D. 

The report of the Committee on Modern English was referred to 
the Board of Directors for further consideration. 

Hon. Abbot Kinney addressed the meeting on "How to Identify the 
Forest Trees of Southern California without being a Botanist." His in- 
structive remarks were illustrated by branches and cones of the the dif- 
ferent varieties of pin€, fir, spruce and other trees found on the slopes 
of the Sierra Madre and other ranges of mountains in this region. He 
explained how the pine needles spring in groups of from one to five 
from a single sheath, according to the species to which they belong, and 
described the characteristics of the cones peculiar to each variety. 

Tlie Pinus mnnophylla, (Pinon) has one leaf or needle in sheath, 
nut edible, small globose Cone . 

Tlie Pinus contorta, (Tamarack pine) has two short leaves, small 
cone, thin bark with resinous exudations. 

The Pinus ponderosa, (Yellow pine) has three emerald green leaves, 
yearling cone green, when ripe oblong. Bark in plac[ues like alligator skin. 

Pinus leffreyi, (Black pine) three paler leaves, yearling cone purple, 
when ripe large and pyramidal ; found higher on the mountains than the 
yellow pine. 

Pinus Coultcri, (Coulter pine) has three very long leaves; largest 
pine cone in the world, sometimes weighing 8 to 10 pounds, and with 
large hooks on scales. 

Pinus altcnuata has three leaves, cone horrf-shaped, only opens after 
long periods. 

Pinus ii'.signii, (Monterey pine) three leaves; medium sized cone with 
knobs near base ; a coast pine. 

Pinus quadrifolia, four leaves but not regular; small cone; found 
on the San Jacinto mountains. 

Pinus Lambertiana, T Sugar pine) five short, bluish green leaves; 
cones longest in the world ; bark dark with reddish or purple tinge. 



92 SOUTHERN CALIFOR^UA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Piniis albicauUs, (flexiler) five dark green leaves, bark white; found 
only near snow line. 

Psciido-tsuga macrocarpa. (Southern California spruce) short, flat 
leaves springing from short stem; long pendant cone has three-pronged 
bracts protruding between scales. 

/ibies concolor, (Balsam fir) short leaves without stems; dark bark; 
cylinder-shaped cones stand erect on limbs, and when rTpe scales fall off. 

Lihocedrus decurrens, (Incense cedar) flat, bright green leaves; small 
horn-shaped cone; bark light yellow to cinnamon, in long ridges. 

The acorns and leaves of four characteristic oaks were exhibited and 
described. Mr. Kinney spoke of the importance of preserving our forests 
from the ravages of fire, from the woodmans' axe, and from the spoilia- 
tion of the sheep-herder, as forests conserve the rainfall and minimize the 
disastrous effects of floods and drouths . 

Upon introducing Dr. John Uri Lloyd, President of the Eclectic Med- 
ical Institute of Cincinnati, and author of several scientific works, Mr. 
Knight exhibited the monster tooth of a gigantic animal recently exhumed 
from a bed of gravel near the County Hospital in this city, and said that 
Prof. Lloyd would take it for a text and speak of the mastodon bones 
found near his boyhood home in the salt licks of Kentucky. Indulging 
in a philosophical vein of thought, the professor said that Kentucky is 
the great mid-land region of the country. Into its rich valleys came the 
mastodons and mammoths of pre-glacial ages, the buft'aloes, elks, deer and 
other herbivorous animals of modern times, and it became the rich hunt- 
ing-ground, first of the North American Indian tribes, then of the white 
races which focalized there from the east, from the north, and from the 
west and south, to secure its abundant wild game. There are still vestiges 
of buft'alo roads fifty feet in width, tramped by innumerable herds. While 
the Indians roamed those primeval forests to replenish their winter stores 
of meat, they established their homes north of the Ohio river or south of 
the Tennessee. The size of the animals of the tertiary and quarternary 
ages which fed in these rich valleys is almost bej^ond belief. The ribs of 
some of them had been used for tent-poles by some of the early settlers 
in that region. The best skeleton of a mastodon in existence, 35 feet 
in length, was dug up there and sent to England. 

Why were the bones of these huge animals found in that region? 
Because great springs of salt water issue from the earth, overflowing 
the adjacent ground, and making an immense salt marsh of a depth so 
great that it has not yet been probed to the bottom. Into this yielding 
soil the gigantic beasts who came to lick its saline incrustations, ventured 
too far, and sunk and were buried alive, and their monster bones are the 
playthings of wondering children, and the curios of zoological cabinets 
today. 

Dr. Theodore C. Comstock, the president-elect, was then introduced 
by Mr .Knight as a gentleman of high scientific attainments, of wide ex- 
perience in geological research, having conducted U. S. exploration parties 
in the field, and has been a successful educator in both eastern and west- 
ern institutions. 

Prof. Comstock took for his theme "The Mission of the Local Acad- 
emy of Sciences." and began by giving a synopsis of the history and work 
of the American Association, and suggested that our local body had 
reached a numerical strength and stage of development to be permanently 
organized on a basis for doing the best work, and for affiliating with 
other similarly organized scientific bodies. 

An abstract of Dr. Comstock's address will appear in Bulletin No. 8. 

Mr. B. R. Baumgardt gave a spirited recitation — Mrs. Stetson's "The 
Rock and the Sea," followed by paragraphs from Tyndalls' address before 
the British Association at Belfast, 28 years ago. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. <,'S 

The addresses were interspersed with excellent music, the following 
selections being finely rendered : Piano solo, Schubert-Liszt, by Miss 
Mary L. O'Donoghue; vocal solo, by Mrs. Beatrice Hubbell Plummer; 
violin solo, Vieuxtemps, by Miss Laura Mabel Johnson. 

Wm. H. Knight. 
(N.B. — The Secretary was occupied with duties incidental to the recep- 
tion. At his request, therefore, the above minutes were compiled by Mr. 

Knight.) 

BOTANICAL SECTION. 
At the regular meeting Messrs. Johnston and Braunton showed spec 
mens of Gillias. Dr. Davidson distributed specimens of Ainniaina coccinea 
Nasturtium ciirvisiliqua, and Spergularia gracilis, from Bixby Slough. 
The secretary distributed a fungus collected at Hueneme by Mr. Theo. 
Payne which he had forwarded to Mr. I^loyd who replied as follows: "The 
plant is Baiterea Digiieli described in the Journal de Botanique some three 
or four years ago from specimens from California. It is in my opinion the 
same plant that was re-described last summer under the name Batterca 
laciniata. It is needless to say that as I have never had specimens of this 
plant previously I am more than grateful for them." 

The members reported the following plaees visited since the last 
regular meeting, viz: Rubio, Millards, Santa Monica Canyons, Cienega 
and Ballona. 

Specimens of Mycenastrum spinulosum and Morchella conica have 
been received from Mr. Payne. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

Los Angeles, California, May lo, 1902. 
A meeting of the Board of Directors Was held this evening at 940 Fig- 
ueroa street. President Comstock occupied the chair. 

The following applications for membership were acted upon favorably : 

E. Bennet Adams. W. J. Schaefle. Prof. F. P. Brackett, 

R. H. Behrens. D.;L. Durand. James R. Rogers, Ph. D. 

H. A. Behrens. Mark R. Lamb. Samuel S. Partello, M.D. 

- Wm. J. Canfield. Alfred Fellows, M.D 

A committee of two, consisting of the President and Secretary, was 
appointed to procure a suitable hall for the meetings of the Academy and 
its .Sections for the ensuing year. 

There being no further business the meeting stood adojurned. 

B. R. Baumgardt, Secretary. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

Los Angeles, California, June 14, 1902. 

A meeting of the Board of Directors was, held this afternoon. Presi- 
dent Comstock in the chair. 

The minutes of the meeting held June 10 were read and approved. 

The report of the "Committee on Publication of Mr. A. L. Ban- 
croft's Paper on Modernized English" was received. 

The following Resolution was introduced and carried : 

"That it is the sense of this Board that it is inexpedient at the pres- 
ent time to proceed with the publication of Mr. Bancroft's paper on 
'Modernized English from the Standpoint of Its Usefulness,' or to form a 
Section within the Academy to be devoted to Philological Subjects." 

Mr. Tabor called the Board's attention to the fact that the Academy 
was not yet incorporated, and made a motion that a committee of three 



94 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

be appointed to draft the Articles of Incorporation and then report to 
the Board of Directors. Carried. 

The following Committee on Incorporation was appointed : Com- 
stock, Knight and Davidson. 

Those present were : Comstock, Knight, Davidson, Parsons, Tabor, 
Whiting, Dozier and Baumgardt. 

Adjourned. B. R. Baumgardt, Secretary. 



Notes. 

The County Supervisors report that lo.ooc acres in the neighborhood 
that have been infested by the Russian thistle have been so vigorously at- 
tacked that it is estimated that this plague will be stamped out in a year 
from now. We may be allowed to doubt the probability of any political 
body ever rooting out any pest in this county or any other. We called at- 
tention to this pest in our county in 1892. Shortly afterwards there was 
a spasmodic attempt to spend some money in the so called extermina- 
tion of the thistle. A few years after 200 acres were reported to be afifected 
near Redondo. This ground was gone over and subsequently reported 
clean. A few years have passed and now 10,000 acres are infested. When 
this pest was first discovered $100 judiciously expended might have saved 
the country; now there is no limit to the money that may have to be 
spent to save the farmer. 

Prof. Elwood Mead and Prof. J. M. Wilson, of the University of 
California, and Prof. Stout of the University of Nebraska, have gone 
to Fresno to investigate the alkali lands, with a view to improving the 
condition of the soil. They will spend a portion of the $15,000, which was 
appropriated by Congress upon the recommendation of President Benja- 
min Ide Wheeler and Prof. Eugene Hilgard of the State University. 

The professors will endeavor to find a feasible system whereby the land 
may be reclaimed from alkali deposits. 

The Academy of Sciences meetings will adjourn during the vacation 
season and will resume in September. The section meetings, with the ex- 
ception of the Botanical, will adjourn until that date. The botanical sec- 
tion will meet as usual on the fourth Monday of each month. 

Prof. Dudley of Stanford, while botanizing in the mountains east 
of Visalia, was bitten on the ankle, by a rattlesnake. The latest reports 
of his condition are verv favorable. 



ASTRONOMICAL NOTES. 

By Mr. Wm. H. Knight. 

Sir Norman Lockyer has advanced the opinion that a careful examina- 
tion of earthquake and volcano records will disclose a connection between 
those phenomena and sun-spot minimums and maximums. He cites the 
minimum of 1867 when Mauna Loa was active; the maximum of 1872 
when the West Indies were violently disturbed; and the maximum of 1883 
when the explosion of Krakatoa occurred. "At Tokio, in a country where 
the most perfect seismological observatories exist, it is notable that at 
periods near both sun-spot maximum and minimum the greatest number 
of disturbances have been recorded." 

Richard Conrad Schiedt, Ph. D., professor of natural science 'it 
Franklin and Marshall College, announces in the Philadelphia Times a 
new theor}- of terrestrial construction and evolution. He thinks there 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 95 

is a solid concentric sphere of a thickness which can be mathematically 
computed, enclosing a hollow interior filled with gass of an enormously 
high temperature, and under great pressure. Volcanic eruptions are oc- 
casional successful attempts of this interior to escape. These are generally 
in the neighborhood of deep sea bottoms where the concentric sphere is 
thinnest and consequently weakest. 

"The sky," says a writer in the New York Times, "is a vast im- 
movable dial plate. The moon moves along the illuminating figures, trav- 
eling the dial c[uickly, like a second hand, once a month. The sun, like 
a minute hand, goes over the dial once a year. Various planets stand for 
hour hands, moving over the dial in various periods, reaching up to 164 
years for Neptune. The earth like an exploration ship, sails the infinite 
azure , bearing the observers to different points where they may inves- 
tigate the infinite problems of the mighty machinery." 

Prof. Henry A. Ward, formerly of Ward's Natural Science establish- 
ment in Rochester, visited Mexico recently for the purpose of examining 
"the largest meteorite in the world." It lies embedded in the erath 350 
miles northwest of Mexico City. It is of almost solid iron, its outer 
surface pitted and scarred. The object measures 13 feet in length, 6 
feet in heighth, and 5 feet 4 inches in width, and its weight is estimated 
at 50 tons. 

Prof. G. W. Meyers, acording to a recent statement of Prof. Larkin, 
has determined certain elements in the very interesting spectroscopic 
binary Beta Lyrae. Period of revolution around mass center, 13 days ; 
distance between centers of suns, 30,000,000 miles; mass of large sun, 18 
times that of our sun ; mass of small sun 9 times that of our sun ; velocity 
of small sun, no miles per second. 

Uranus is now in opposition, and the rare opportunity to see it dis- 
tinctly with the naked eye is presented to amateur observers. An opera 
glass tourned upon the star Theta in the right foot of Ophiuchus will in- 
clude the planet in the field. Its brightness is between the fifth and sixth 
magnitude. 



GEOLOGICAL NOTES. 

By Dr. Theo. B. Comstock. 



Since the last issue of the Bulletin, Professor Oscar H. Hershey has 
published* additional notes of studies of the Quaternary of Southern Cali- 
fornia, in which he develops interesting features of the region between the 
San Gabriel and Tehachapi ranges, farther east than the area of his 
previous work in that district. He announces a local patch of Pliocene 
strata (Mellenia and Escondido beds) at an altitude of 1700 feet, and deduces 
from his work the existence of a Pliocene river valley in the general course 
of the present Santa CUra river, coming from the region of Antelope Valley. 
This is consistent with o^bservations by others, including the writer, and 
tallies well with the investigations of Professor Davidson, formerly of the 
U S. Coast Survey (now at head of the Department of Geography.University 
of California), whose researches prior to the year 1900 determined the posi- 
tion oflf-coist of twenty-one submerged channels bet ween Cape Mendocino 
and San Diego § Two of these lie adjacent to the Santa Barbara Channel 
and Dr. Joseph LeConte announced more than ten years ago th^t "the 
hollowing out of the submarine channels was the work of the Pliocene 



* American Geologist, June, 1902, Vol. XXX. 

^ Suhmerged l^alleys of California, etc. I'roc. Cal. Acad. Sci., San Francisco, 3d Ser., 
Geology, Vol. I No. 2, pp. 73-103, 1897, 9 PI. 



96 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

alone," and it was at this period that the principal islands of Southern Cali- 
fornia were brought above sea. 

Professor Ritter, of the San Pedro Marine Biological Station, has 
recently contributed an interesting article to Science on the work of that 
well conducted institution, in which he refers to one of these submerged 
valleys, possibly a part of the former course of the Los Angeles river or the 
San Gabriel river. The fact of the existence of these old channels is well 
known to geologists and Professor Davidson's valued contributions to the 
subject are held in high esteem. As LeConte sagely remarked in the paper 
quoted above:! " It is impossible to conceive a more inviting field for the 
study of the higher problems of geology than is aflForded by the phenomena 
of the liver-beds of California " 

We have here in IvOs Angeles a beautiful piece of river carving, as 
exhibited in the gorges of the Los Angeles River and Arroyo Seco. Fine 
sections and very instructive erosion etchings are also afforded by Ihe 
canons reaching the sea through the Santa Monica Mountains, Irom Port Los 
Angeles westward to Point Duma. These are particularly- mentioned because 
they elucidate paragraphs in the later chapters of the geologic volume, j 

It is to the interest, and an important part of the dutj-, of our Academy 
of Sciences to enlist young people in the studj' of these phenomena. Let us 
organize field work in the Geological Section as early as possible in the 
autumn, and, meanwhile, consider it your individual work to gather earnest 
students into this organization .From Archceanto Recent, the whole record 
is within easy travel of this city and. actually, we ourselves are the very 
most ignorant of the meaning of it all. 

Messrs. Delos and Ralph Arnold have published (Feb. -March, 1902) 
in the Journal of Geology some of the results of their work on "The Marine 
Pliocene and Pleistocene Stratigraphy of the coast of Southern California." 

Professor R. E. Dodge presented a timely paper on "Arroyo Formation" 
before a late meeting of the N. Y. Academy of Sciences, in which he gives 
a caution against too explicit reliance on a single factor in interpreting the 
rate of erosion or deposition in arid regions. It is peculiarly difficult to 
correlate separated deposits and to assign time-values in our Pleistocene 
terraces and silted channels. Generalizations not based on very exact data 
or cumulative evidence are untrustworthy and can only be adopted tenta- 
tively. 

The recent discovery of the remains of extinct Mammals in Quaternary' 
deposits in the city of Los Angeles makes probable the unearthing of others 
which may have great value in settling points of local geology. It often 
happens, as in this particular case, that the bones, tusks and other parts are 
soft or crumbling. It is possible to handle these in such manner as to 
prevent their loss and to preserve them intact, if the aid of some one familiar 
with the work is secured in time. In all such cases, before the workmen 
are permitted to disentomb the relics, word should be sent to the President 
of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, office 534 Stimson Building, 
who will be ready to superintend the excavation in the interest of Science. 
Public spirited owners of such specimens will donate ^hem to the Academy 
for preservation; but, at any rate, give us a chance to make observations 
and to ensure the relics against irreparable damage. 



f Tertiary and Post-Tertiary Changes of the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts. Bull. Geol. Soc. 
Amer., Vol. 2, p. .32.3-328, March, 1891. 

JUiider date of June 24th, 1902, Professor Davidson writes me that there have been 
"noted on recent charts two orniore such vallej's on the West coast of South America." 



VOL. I. 



AUGUST I, 1902 



NO. 8 



BULLETIlSr 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION: 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville DoztER T. B Comstock, Ph. D. 



CONTENTS : 

Page 

Prehistoric California, Dr. Lorenzo Gordin YaTes 97 

Plate VIII, Calochortus Striatus : loi 

The Southern California Species of Calochortus, S. 

B. Parish 102 

Notes on Sphaeralcea and Malvastrum, T. D. A. 

CocKRELL 106 

Marine Biological Station, San Pedro, Cal 108 

Abstract of Address by Prest., Dr. T. B. Comstock.. 109 



Published for the Association by 

B. R. BAUMGARDT & CO. 

231 West First St., I,os Angeles, Cal. 




Single Copies, 25 cts. 




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BULLETIN 

OF THE 

SooiDern Galilornla flcademn ot hmmh 

VOL I LOSANOCLES, CAL, AUGUST I, 1902. MO. 6 

231 \VE?iT FiKST Street. 



PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA. 

(Continued from July Bulletix ) 



BY DR. LORENZO GORDIN YATES. 

This was followed by a period of excessive precipitation of 
rain, when rushing torrents of water cut deep chasms where 
mountains had formerly separated the river channels, and filling 
up the valleys, thus made more marked alterations in the to- 
pography, bringing down immense quantities of detritus, de- 
stroying large forests of timber and scattering the remains of 
the huge animals which had inhabited them, carrying away much 
of the deposits of soil which had accumulated during a period 
of comparative inaction of the elements, and leaving the surface 
of the earth nearly in the condition in which we find it today. 

It has been shown that there have been several well 
marked revolutionary epochs which affected large areas of the 
earth's crust, and also (especially since the Miocene period) 
large numbers of changes which have been restricted to small 
areas, and caused local (orogenic) displacements. 

These local changes in the physiography of the region oc- 
curred at different, but not widely separated epochs of time ; they 
were gradual in their development and are still going on, as may 
be shown by the gradual elevation, or depression, at various points 
along our present coast. 

That portion of California lying south of the Golden Gate 
seems to exhibit the greater number of these local displacements. 

In some instances are showai upthrusts of the older (some- 
times granitic) rocks ; this changed the water courses, and new 
ones were formed ; or, the uplift closed the exits of large bodies 
of water lying in the interior depressions, forcing them to find, or 
cut, new outlets. 

Professor Lawson says that, during the Pliocene numerous 
peaks and ridges rose above the general level. Numerous islands, 
large and small, fringed the coast of California. There were nu- 
merous submerged valleys, so that the Coast was well supplied 
with harbors. In a word, the coast of California at the close of 
the Pliocene had the aspect of an archipelago. The archipelagic 
condition endured into the early Pleistocene, and from this con- 
dition it has been gradually recovering up to the present day." 



pS SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

( x\ndrevv C. Lawson, in Bulletin of the Department of Ge- 
ology, University of California, Vol. I., No. 4, p. 158.) 

Professor Lawson also notes the presence of pliocene de- 
posits of one mile in thickness, lying- south from San Francisco. 

The evidences of physiographical changes near the shore 
line are abundant and well marked. 

The question of how and when the benches or shore terraces 
were formed has caused much discussion among geologists, 
among whom they are generally considered as water-formed de- 
posits, and entirely the result of changes in sea level. 

Professor George Davidson, for many years the able Super- 
intendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Surveys, who 
had unrivalled opportunities for the detailed study of our coast 
line, is of the opinon that the terraces resulted from the action of 
ice sheets, or an ice belt contiguous to the continental shores, 
which he claims skirted our shore, and bv its continuous move- 
ment planed down the irregularities of up-tilted and contorted 
surfaces of rock of varied character. He says "That some few 
of the smaller ones which are composed of gravel, etc., were made 
by the action of water, and may mark ancient sea levels, may be 
admitted ; but those that exhibit on an extended scale level pla- 
teaus of rock, which have every degree of inclination, and an in- 
finite variety of texture, cannot have been so wrought. See 
Plate I. 

Other forces more powerful and more uniform and constant 
in action than water, shaped these flat-topped rocky benches or 
plateaus." 

An examination of some of these plateaus will show that the 
later deposits of gravel, sand, silt, etc., lie unconformably on a 
surface of rock which appears to have been absolutely planed 
off and the different degrees of hardness of the stratification have 
no apparent influence upon the mechanical forces at work." 

It is probable that both of these theories are correct, in part, 
and that in some localities, at least, the ice planed down the first 
or oldest plateau, upon which were subsequently deposited the 
more recent formations, which, by the elevations of different ep- 
ochs, formed the raised sea beaches or plateaus. 

The islands forming the southerly boundary of the Santa 
Barbara Channel, present many interesting features illustrative 
of the changes in the topography or physiography of the region. 

These islands were formed either by an overflow of lava 
from some crater on tne mainland, the locality of which is un- 
known, or, by the opening of a fissure by the pressure of molten 
lava beneath the surface, which released it and allowed it to flow 
out and fill up the valley's and other depressions on the surface, 

Of these two theories the latter seems to be the most plau- 
sible. 

The earlier flows of lava were, after cooling, broken up into 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 99 

angular fragments by the later intrusion of molten lava from be- 
low, which enveloped the fragments of the earlier lava, forming 
a volcanic breccia, in which the later or cementing material, is 
softer and more readily disintegrated when exposeu to the ele- 
ments, and allows the included fragments of the earlier flow to 
weather out and become separated from the mass. {See Plate 2). 

Either the shrinkage of the mass, or the irregularity of the 
elevation and depression of the region caused the lava to crack 
across the stream (the line of least resistance) and these cracks 
or fissures allowed the elements to act more readily upon the lines 
of the fissures, until openings were formed which resulted in the 
breaks separating the different islands. {See Plate j). 

Soft places in the lava rock have allowed the waters of the 
ocean to form the numerous caves, ocean-floored caverns, col- 
umns, arches and fantastic outlying rocks, for wdiich the islands 
are noted. 

Professor Lawson (loc. cit.) in describing the rocks of San 
Clemente Island, says : "On the clifl^s and stream canons of this 
side of the island, there are numerous caves and cavernous re- 
cesses. These appear to be an original characteristic of the lava 
flows, and are only exposed, not formed, by erosive agencies." 

An extensive study of the islands lying west of the San Cle- 
mente, including the Anacapas, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San 
Miguel, have convinced me that, however weL his theory may 
fit to San Clemente, it will not apply to any of the other islands 
I have mentioned ; for where so many miles of perpendicular vol- 
canic blufifs are exposed there would, on this theory, certainly be 
many of these caves visible above the ocean level, whereas of the 
large number of caves visited by me, I know of two only which, 
in ordinary times, have any portion of their floors exposed above 
the ocean level, and one of those is covered at high tide, and the 
other is dry by reason of its lying back of a mass of rocks which 
have fallen from the bluff. 

The beating of the waves has worn these caves and tunnels 
into the vesicular basalt, carving out chambers whose roofs are 
supported by grand pillars ; or into low, cavernous, arched tunnels 
which extend to unknown distances under the island. In some 
instances the openings are high, gradually decreasing in height 
until the roof becomes so low that the crests of the waves touch the 
roof and fill the caves, the confined air causing reverberations 
similar to the discharge of artillery. 

In time, some of these caves or tunnels are cut throu?;h the 
islands, in the narrowest places, and later the roof falls and the 
Island is divided. 

After the roof has fallen, the passages wear away more rapidly, 
and form passages of widths varying from a few yards to three 
or four miles in width, as may be seen in the channels which sepa- 
rate the various islands from each other. 



loo SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The channel between Santa Rosa and San Aliguel ; Santa 
Rosa and Santa Cruz ; Santa Cruz and the Anacapas are from 
three to four miles in width, while the passages which separate the 
three Anacapas from each other are, in one, less than a quarter of 
a mile, the other only sufficiently wide to permit the passage 
of a row boat. 

This manner of division of the islands is plainly shown at the 
eastern end of the Anacapas, where an individual arch is left 
standing at some little distance from the extremity of the Eastern 
Island, and between it and the island a column which formerly 
supported two other arches which connected the present arch with 
the island. 

After the lava flow the islands were submerged and an ex- 
tensive series of strata of sand, gravel and silt were deposited, of 
which the greater portion have since been eroded. 

Some of these strata contain well-preserved fossil shells, and on 
Santa Rosa Island bones and teeth of the Fossil Elephant have 
been found by the writer and others, showing the connection of 
the island with the mainland during recent geologic periods. 

In the southern portion of San Diego County there are fos- 
sil shells of species now found living in the Gulf of Lower Cali- 
fornia, showing that the region was, until recently, covered by 
the waters of the Gulf. 

And now, having endeavored to out line the condition of our 
State in prehistoric times, the next chapter will be devoted to the 
animals and plants of the same period of the earth's history. 

( To be Continued). 



Plate 6 represents a view from the southwesterly side of Cuyler's Har- 
bor, San Miguel Island. In this harbor Cabrillo, the Portuguese navi- 
gator in the service of Spain, who discovered the islands, wintered in 
1542-43, and it is> where he is said to have been buried. 

The dark portions seen on the northerly shore of the harbor are the ex- 
posed portions of the volcanic rock, over which the sand (represented by 
the light-colored portion of the illustration) is driven by the prevailing 
northwesterly winds. 

These winds are so prevalent during summer, that they are known as 
"the trade winds" and they are so strong that the\' carry the sand across 
the channel represented in Plate 3, to Santa Rosa Island, where a por- 
tion is deposited, to be again carried by the wind across its western end, 
which is shown in the illustration, and eventually into the ocean. 

The sand accumulates on the top and down the face of the steep bluff, 
as seen in the illustration, until its weight causes it to slide down into the 
harbor, like a snow slide from a steep mountain side. An occurrence of 
this character took place several years ago which attracted widespread 
notice, and the results of the sudden shifting of such an accumulation was 
such as to wreck a sloop anchored in the harbor, casting her ashore on 
the opposite side. 

One of the San Francisco dailies sent a special to investigate, and 
printed an entire page giving a highly colored account of "The Great 
Earthquake on San Miguel Island." 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. loi 

PLATE VIII 




CALOCHORTUS STRIATUS, PARISH. 



I02 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



The Southern CaLliforniat Species of Calochortus. 

BY S. B. PARISH. 

This paper was prepared before the appearance of Mr. Carl 
Purdy's recent " Revision of the Genus Calochortus," ^ but by 
the delay in its publication I have been able to revise it with 
the aid of his helpful treatment. Mr. Purd}^ has favored me 
also with some valuable manuscript notes. 

Mr. Purdy's monograph is the first attempt, since that of 
Dr. Sereno Watson, ^ at presenting a systematic treatment of those 
species of Calochortus which grow in the United States. His 
acquaintance with these plants, both in their native haunts and 
under cultivation, exceeds that of any other botanist, so that his 
views respecting them are entitled to great deference. It is, 
therefore, with no little hesitancy that I am obliged to dissent 
from his disposition of some of the Southern California species, 
especially as my field acquaintance is confined, for the most part, 
to the few species which occupy this little corner of the vast 
region inhabited by the genus. 

At the outset of any attempt to establish lines of specific 
separation in the genus, we are met by the necessity of relying 
largely upon color and color-markings, characters unstable at 
best, and unsatisfactory, and seldom more so than in the present 
case. Colorations the most distinct, and apparently fixed are 
found to fade away at times in infinite variations. Elsewhere I 
have directed attention to this evanescence in the brilliant and 
distinct markings of C.veiuistus, '^ markings which in one locality 
may be repeated in thousand of flowers wiih substantial same- 
ness, while in another they may be confused, or disappear, so that 
extreme forms are referable to the species onl}^ from habital 
propinquity. 

Great diagnostic importance must be assigned, also, to the 
character of the petaline glands, their shape and indument ; yet 



1 Carl Purdy. A revision of the Genus Calochortus. Proc. Cal. Acad. Ser. Ill, Bot. 
2:1D7-156, t. 15-19. Dec. 1901. 

2 Sereno Watson. Revision of the North American Liliaceae. Proc .Am. Acad. 
14:213-288. July, 1879. 

3 S. B. P.iRiSH. Variations of Calochortus venustus, Benth. Zoe, 3:352. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 103 

in some cases these glands are subject to variation, or even may 
become obsolete. The size of the flower in individuals of the 
same species often varies greatly, but the proportional dimen- 
sions of the petal, and the relative lengths of petals and sepals, 
are commonly, but not invariably, preserved. The character of the 
tips of the sepals, as to remaining erect, or becoming more or less 
recurved, or even coiled, has been relied upon, but appears of 
slight value. The color and shape of the anther, and to some 
extent the proportionate length of the filamant in respect to it, 
are of value in the discrimination of some species. 

In the grouping of the Southern California species, at least, 
the most reliable character appears to be the presence or absence 
of hairs on the inner surface of the petals, their nature, and the 
area occupied by them when present. 

The corms of Calochortus are usually solitary, rarely two or 
three, or even several, together, and each corm produces a single 
stem, or sometimes two or three stems. They grow at a depth 
of six inches or more, commonl)' in dry gravelly or stony soil, and 
usually in the protection of shrubs. This is not however an 
invariable habit; C. invenust7is sometime grows in wet meadows, 
C ■ Keunedyi frequently in hard clay, and C. striatus is found in 
soil strongly alkaline. The flowers in Eucalochortus are 
generally produced in a sort of few-flowered umbel, the branches 
subtended by reduced leaves, or bracts. The basal leaves, one 
or more in number, are long, narrow and grasslike. 

In the accompanying table the local distribution of the 
various species, both regional and altitudinal, is shown. The 
region between the Sierra Nevada range and the sea has been 
designated, for lack of a better name, as the Intramontane 
Region, since it is composed oreographically of valleys lying 
between mountain ridges. It contains two well marked sub- 
regions; the Costal, extending 25-30 miles from the ocean, and 
usually not exceeding 500 feet in altitude; and the Interior, the 
remaining portion, including the foothills, and heaving an alti- 
tude of 1,000 to 4,000 feet. The islands off the coast may be 
separated advantageously as a third subregion. The Nevadan 
Region is practically delimited by the pine belt of the Sierra. 
The Mojave subregion of the Desert only is given, as no species 
of Calochortus are known from the Colorado desert. 



I04 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



The dagger (f) indicates that the species is common; the 
minus (-)sign that it is rare; and the asterisk (*) that it is local. 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES OF CALOCHORTUS IN 
SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 







REGIONAL 








AIvXITUDINAL 








Intra- 
montane 



> 

* 

* 

t 


n 

133 

> 

t 


8 

t 

* 


o 

8 

t 

t 
t 

t 
t 


4; 
o 

8 

M 

t 

t 

t 
* 


o 

8 

t 

* 

t 

* 

t 

* 


'Si 

o 
o 
o 

t 
t 


-tJ 

'^ 
8 

o 
* 


8 

o 

t 


o 
o 
o 

t 






u 
C 

t 


5 



a 

t 

t 
* 

t 


* 

t 
t 

* 
* 


0) 

a 

o 

8 

ON 


C. albus 




C. Catalinse 

C. Weedii 

C. Plummerse 




C. clavatus 

C. concolor 

C. splendens 




C. sti'iatus 




C. Palmeri 




C. invenustus 


* 


C. Dunnii 




C. Kennedyi 

C. venustus 



















KEY TO THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIAN SPECIES 
OF CALOCHORTUS. 



Flowers subglobose, nodding 
Flowers open campanulate, erect 
Capsule oblong, obtuse 
Capsule attenuate upward, or beaked 
Petals denseh^ hairy on the lower half 
of the inner surface 
Petals more or less ciliate at summit, 

yellow 
Petals not ciliate, purple 
Hairs slender 
Hairs clavate 
Petals with scattering hairs on the lower half 
Petals not striate 

Petals and anthers yellow 
Petals lilac, anthers purple 
Petals striate, light purple 
Petals nude, except at or near the gland 
Petals never oculate 

Stems bulbiferous at base 



I . C. albus 



2 . C. Catalinae 



3- C. 


Weedii 


4- C 


Plummerse 


5. C. 


clavatus 


lalf 




6. C. 


concolor 


7- C. 


splendens 


8. C. 


striatus 



II . 


C. 


invenustus 


12 . 


C. 


invenustus 
montanus 


lO. 


C. 


Dunnii 


13- 


C. 


Kennedy! 


14. 


C. 


venustus 


15 


C. 


venustus 




purpurascens 


16. 


C. 


venustus 
sulphureus 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 105 

Gland large, ill-defined; claw brown g. C. Palmeri 
Gland small, circular or oblong 
Petals greenish- white, claw 
purple 

Petals clear purple, claw yellow . 
Stems not bulbiferous at base 

Petals white 

Petals vermilion 
Petals normally oculate 

Petals white, or pale lilac 

Petals deep lilac, or purple ] 

Petals light yellow ] 

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES. 

§ EucALOCHORTus — Petals arcJied and broadly pitted, the 
gland transversely crested ; capsule broadly elliptical, deeply 
triquetrous , the thin compressed lobes acute or winged, septicidal ; 
seeds ascending, the testa close and pitted, mostly brownish. 

Flowers subglobose, nodding. 
^ Calochoktus albus, Doug. ex. Benth. in Maund & Heuse, 
Bot. 98. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 14:262. Purdy, Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Ser. 3, Bot. 2:117. 

Glaucous ; stems 15-45 cm. high, mostly branching; bracts 
foliaceous, lanceolate-acuminate; sepals shorter than the petals, 
greenish; petals white, ovate-orbicular 15-25 mm. long, bearded 
above the gland with long white hairs; gland lunate, shallow, 
with four transverse upwardly-imbricated scales, fringed with 
short glandular hairs; anthers oblong, obtuse, mucronate ; cap- 
sule 2-5 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide; seeds pitted. 

Open, wooded slopes, from near Julian to Los Angeles and 
Pasadena. North to Butte count}^, according to Purdy, and to 
Ukiah, according to Jepson. 

§ Mariposa — Flowers open-canipamilate ; gland usually 
densely hairy ; sepals often spotted within; seeds zvith minutely 
pitted white testa; pedicels stout, erect. 

/ * Capsule oblong, obtiise at both ends, zvinged ; testa close. 
^' Calochortus Catalin^E, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
14:268. Davidson, Erythea 2:2. Purdy, I.e. 145. C. Lyoni, 
Watson, 1. c. 21:455. 



io6 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES- 

Stems 3-6 dm. high, bulbiferous at base ; leaves and bracts 
linear; sepals ovate-lanceolate, purple spotted near the base, 
nearly equaling the petals ; petals cuneate-obovate, 3-5 cm. high, 
light to darker lilac, with a large ovate purplish blotch at base ; 
gland oblong, j^ellow or brown, covered with brown or yellowish 
hairs ; anthers obtuse, light pink, 5 mm. long, on filaments 
thrice their length ; capsule 2.5-5 c^- ^o'^g- about i cm. wide. 

Near the coast on lower hills, from lyos Angeles, where it 
is abundant, to Santa Barbara, and on the adjacent islands. Mr. 
Purdyis in error in reporting it from as far inland as San Ber- 
nardino. It is strictly a coast species. The type was collected 
on Catalina Island, in June, 1878, by Paul Schumacher. 

** Capsule narrowly oblong, xvitli thick obtusely angled lobes, 
attenuate into a beak ; testa loose, spongy . 

f Petals densely hairy witJiin on the lower half. 
V Calochortus Weedii, Wood, Proc. Phila. Acad. 1868, 
169. Watson, 1. c. 264. Purdy, 1. c. 132. 

Stems 3-5 dm. high, not bulbiferous at base ; bracts linear ; 
sepals oblong with an acuminate tip, nearly as long as the 
petals, or exceeding them, yellow, orange spotted at base; 
petals cunate-obovate, sometimes truncated, 2.5-3.5 cm, long, 
deep yellow, usualh' brown-dotted, the upper margin ciliate, 
densely clothed with yellow hairs at least on the lower half ; 
gland small, circular to oblong, densely hairy ; anthers oblong, 
acute, longer ( i cm.) than the slender filaments ; capsule 4 cm. 
long. 

Dry hills in the coast mountains of San Diego county. 
The type was collected at " San Diego". This seems to be one of 
the most constant species in coloration, but varies somewhat in 
the relative length of sepals and petals. 

(To be Continued). 



Notes on Sphaeralcea a-nd MaLlvaLStrvim. 

BY T. D. A. COCKERELL. 

v' I notice on p. 74 some observations on Splixralcea fendleri 
Californica, Parish. The original description of this form {Zoe, 
Sept. -Oct., 1900) is not very detailed, but I strongly suspect that 
it is the Sphaeralcea variabilis, Cockerell, Avier. Nat. April 1900, 
p. 291 — the common plant of vSalt River Valle}', Arizona. This 
seems the more likely, because it has been found in California 
only here and there, as if accidentally introduced. At the end 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 107 

of March of the present year I had a fresh opportunity ot siud\- 
ing 6". variabilis in Salt River Valley. It certainly deserves its 
name, for almost every plant seems to have marked peculiarities. 
Here are some notes I made in the field : 

(i.) Tempe, Ariz. The style-branches and stigmas deep 

crimson; anthers grey, pollen olive-green. The flowers 

seem not to open so wide as 5. fendleri. 

(2.) Phoenix, Ariz. Flowers paler than in the Tempe plant 

just described; styles and stigmas pale purplish-pink; 

anthers and pollen yellow. L,eaves greyish, tripartite, 

the lateral lobes separated down to the base; median lobes 

about 45 mm. long and 22 broad; lateral lobes about 22 

mm. long and 19 broad; all coarsely crenate. Green 

fruit shows no signs of cusps; it is maliform, densely 

stellate-pubescent; sides of carpels reticulate. This may 

stand as form tripJiylla; it is parallel with 6". incana form 

dissecta (var. dissecta, Gray, PI. Wright, i. 21). 

(3.) Phoenix, Ariz. Styles and stigmas whitish, with a faint 

purplish tint: anthers with deep purple lobes; pollen p le 

yellow; petals short, long. 11, lat. 10 mm., vermillion; 

leaves long and narrow, wavy-margined, with basal lobes; 

fruit about as in f. tripliylla. 

(4.) Phoenix, Ariz. Styles and stigmas deep crimson ; 

anthers dark crimson, becoming black at maturity; pollen 

yellow; flowers bright vermillion; petals long. 15, lat. 13 

mm.; leaves fairly broad, tri-lobed. 

Growing mixed with the S. variabilis^ both at Tempe and 

Phoenix, I found Malvastrinn Cctilieri, Watson, with deep 

orange flowers — an exquisitely beautiful plant. This has been 

referred to Sphcvralcea, but it has the fruit of a Malvastriun, and 

belongs there if there is an}' validity in the characters used to 

separate these genera. 

There is no doubt that ^. variabilis is closelj^ related to 
.S. fendleri, and perhaps it should stand as a subspecies of it. 
Then Xh^ fendleri series will be classified thus: — 
(i.) Sphoeralcea fendleri, Gray. This is the form with deeplv 
lobed rather short leaves; I have a tracing of the type, 
kindly sent by Dr. B. L,. Robinson. The flowers are 
bright red in life, not " rose-red". The plant is common 
in New Mexico, from Las Vegas and Santa Fe to the ^ 
Mesilla Valley. 
(2.) Spliceralcea fendleri f. lobata (5". lobata, Wooton, Bull. 
I'orr. Bot. Club, xxv. 306). This differs in the form of the 
leaves, which are longer and larger; it is really comm')ner 
than XxM^ fendleri, with which it completely intergrades. 
Professor Wooton informed me, however, that the 5. 



loS SOUTHERN CALItORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

fendleri of the White Mountains, New Mexico, was ap- 
parently well differentiated from lobata. Perhaps this is a 
subspecies not hitherto recognized, and not the txn& fend- 
leri, which is sureh' the plant of the region about Santa 
Fe, etc. 
(3.) SpJiceralcea fendleri per pallida {S. lobata perpallida, CklL, 
Bull. Tarr. Bot. Club, xxvii. 88). Rincon, N. M., may 
be considered the type locality ; the plant occurs from 
there northward as a well-segregated race, apparently not 
mixed with the tj'pe. The leaves are rather narrow and 
deeply lobed, but ver\- variable. 
(4.) Sphceralcea fendleri variabilis {S. variabilis, Ckll, xAmer. 
Xat., 1900, p. 291), with f. triphylla, described above. 
►/\S. cuspidata, (Gray) Britton, has been confused with the 
fendleri series, but is entirely distinct. The first spring leaves 
of ciispidata are long and narrow; those oi fendleri alwaj'S very 
broad. 

Our common Malvastrian at Las Vegas, X. M., is M. dis- 
sectnin, (Xutt.) CklL, Dr. P. A. Rydberg writes me that he 
thinks this is the veritable J/, coccineinn (Pursh) Gray; but it 
seems to me doubtful whether Pursh 's plant can be certainly'' 
identified, or proved to be different from that of Xuttall. It 
would probabh' cause least confusion to drop the name r(?ra««^;;z, 
and call the plant I referred to coccineinn in Bull. Torn Bot. Club, 
xxvii. 88 b}' the name Malvastriim elatinn {M. coccinenvi var. 
elatnm, E. G. Baker, Journ. Bot. xxix 171). IMr. Baker kindly 
sent me a tracing of the leaves of his plant, so I feel assured of 
its identity, though his actual t^'pe was doubtless more robust 
than usual. 

Ma.rirve Biological StOLtiorv, SslFI Pedro, CqlI. 

The second session of the " 2\Iarine Biological Station" of 
the University of California at San Pedro, opened June 26. 

The laboratory occupies the same quarters as last year, con- 
sisting of a large general laborator}' with lockers, store-room and 
aquaria, and also a number of smaller rooms for private work. 
This, together with microscopes, reagents, apparatus, and refer- 
ence books from the department of Zoology of the Universit3'' 
make a good working equipment. 

As announced in the circular of information, the object of 
the station is mainly research. All the students have had pre- 
liminary training and are doing advanced work, individually 
instead of in class, under the direction of Dr. C. A. Kofoid and 
Dr. H. B. Torre}'. Each student is given a special independent 
problem or line of work, and general zoology comes in incident- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 109 

ally. The following lines of investigation and study will indi- 
cate the scope and importance of the work going on. 

Habits of the Enteropneusts (one species being very 
abundant at San Pedro), by Professor W. E. Ritter, head of 
department of Zoology of University of California . 

Parasite Protozoa, by Dr. C. A. Kofoid, department of 
Zoology of University of California. 

Regeneration of Corymorpha and other Coelenterates, by 
Dr. H. B. Torrey, department of Zoology, University of Cali- 
fornia. 

Food of Harenactis (a sand anemone) and comparison of 
some San Pedro Holothurians with related species of Hawaii, 
by Mr. I^oye Miller, Professor of Zoology, Oahn College, Hono- 
lulu, Hawaii. 

Nervous System and Life History of the San Pedro Enter- 
opneusts and growth and regeneration of Alcynaria and other 
colonial Coelenterates, Mr. B. M. Davis, department of Biology, 
State Normal, Los Angeles. 

Study of heart beat of the Ascidian (Cione), Mr. Easterly, 
graduate student, University of California. 

Embryology of Shark, by Mr. Townsend, student Uni- 
versity of California. 

A sexual development of anemones, by Mr. Forest Whit- 
aker, Los Angeles. 

General Zoology, by Miss Hannah, student of University of 
California ; Miss Edna Watson, student, State Normal, Los 
Angeles, and Miss Romola Adams, Los Angeles. 

Many interesting facts have already been brought to light 
and when published will form important contributions to Bi- 
ological literature. 

With the exception of a short trip for taking temperature 
and soundings the work of the Biological survey was not re- 
sumed. The work will probably be taken up next year. 

The unqualified success of the two summers' work here has 
emphasized the desirability of a permanent station at San Pedro. 
While nothing more definite has been announced than that the 
work will probably go on next year, it is hoped that more sub- 
stantial and permanent quarters may be secured. B. M.D. 



Abstract of Address by Prest. Dr. T. B. Conistock 



Delivered a.t the Annual Meeting of the SoutKern Ca.lifornia. Aca.derr\y 
of Sciences, May 13, 1902. 

No settled policy and no fruitful effort towards fraternal relations 
among isolated scientific societies appears to have had effect prior to 1840, 
when the American Association of Geologists and Naturalists was or- 
ganized. Through its influence a distinct advance was made in the popu- 
larization of Natural Science, resulting, in 1847, in the formation of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science. This great body- 
now has over 3000 members, including the most prominent workers in all 



no SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

branches represented in its ten sections, covering the whole field of science 
as it is today outlined by investigators. In 1874, it vi^as found necessary 
to provide for two classes of members, and in order to ensure the preserva- 
tion of the prestige and dignity of the organization as a purely scientific 
institution, the governing body has since been composed wholly of "Fel- 
lows," although the officers are chosen by a general committee to which 
non-professional members may be elected. 

My thesis is that the local Academy best subserves its end when, with- 
out losing sight of the value of original research and of the diity to 
perform it which rests on well qualified members, it provides, in a re- 
stiicttd degree, much the same advantages, and secures, in minor meas- 
ure, similar results to those of the American Association. Its objects are 
"to promote intercourse between those who are cultivating science 
* * * *, to give a stronger and more general impulse and more sys- 
tematic direction to scientiirc research, and to procure for the labors of 
scientific men increased facilities and a wider usefulness." 

A suggestion has recentlv been made in Science by Dr. Franz Boas, 
that the various local societies might properly be affiliated with the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of Science, as foster-children. A 
gravitating movement to this end may probably be recognized in the 
changes which have occurred in that boiiv. But the end is not yet. 

I'he changes in methods reauired to adant our machinery wholly to 
such a system would not seriously disturb accepted traditions, nor could 
any but good results ensue. But I believe that two issues will ere long 
be presented to us which can only be settled properly in one way. We 
must develop greater interest in the sections on the part of technical mem- 
bers and avoid popularizing these meetings to the extent of belittling the 
name of science; and we must spare no pains to secure speakers for the 
general meetings who can popularly interpret the results of technical re- 
search. As the means to these ends, it will sometime become necessary 
to adopt the method of the American Association and to give over the 
management of the sections to a select class of Fellows. The Board of 
Directors, as a Council, ought, I think, to be made up by sectional repre- 
sentation, and other slight alterations of the Constitution might be de- 
sirable. 

Strictly speaking, there is no existing association which fairly meets 
the requirements of a National Federation of local Academies, nor can 
this want be satisfied until these bodies have become adjusted to a common 
pattern. But it has seemed to me that the Carnegie Institution, recently 
established at Washington, might well undertake Some missionary work 
in this direction. ■ 

We have, iirst, a goodly fellowship of scientists who are esteemed 
members of National Technical Societies or qualified for such relation- 
ship by their published work ; and, secondly, a larger number of persons 
occupied with business pursuits, whp are deeply interested in the results 
of pure research and glad to lend their aid towards the advancement of 
science by the maintenance of this society. 

Now I realize keenly that the honor conferred upon me, highly as 
I esteem it at your hands, is weighted down with added responsibility aris- 
ing from this complex. There can be no question that the policy of 
this combination is correct. And certainly there is no intention hert to 
contravene it. But it is well for us to confront the situation fairly and 
to clearly ascertain what limitations and what obligations are thereby 
imposed. 

In the first place, we cannot expect to enlist and retain professional 
workers unless some salutary supervision be given to prevent the use of 
the prestige of the Academy for selfish ends, and for the restriction of 
communications to topics germane to the wide enough scope of the or- 
ganization. On the other hand, the support and encouragement needed 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. /// 

from laymen necessitate due attention to their just demands for the 
presentation of papers in less technical form than would be proper before 
learned societies. 

The mission of the local Academy being, as I take it, to elucidate local 
Nature according to its capabilities, to conserve or record natural land- 
marks wherever possible, to inspire rising generations with zeal for re- 
search and to promote and promulgate the results of scientific investiga- 
tions, it does not appear to be any part of its duty to undertake the per- 
formance of work within the purview of strictly technical societies. 

But there is some danger of carrying this idea too far in applying 
it to the sections, unless due regard be had to technical accuracy as con- 
trasted with technical pedantry. 

It is at least possible that the home we sorely need will be provided 
in some way ere many years. This is essential to the right perform- 
ance of the task before us. Already discussion relating to the arrange- 
ment of rooms has been had. Many have taken for granted that a 
museum, library and laboratories are required. It is my opinion that the 
museum should always be held as an educational feature, the books 
should be relegated to the custody of the public library, where they would 
be as accessible as elsewhere and properly cared for by experts in book- 
handling, and the laboratories should be instituted only as required for 
the purpose of carrying on work especially endowed. 

Local collections, as such, are valuable in economic lines and ap- 
propriately housed in museums of applied science. But type specimens 
of plants, animals and fossils ought to be preserved in a central city read- 
ily accessible to students, under the care of trained specialists. An ap- 
propriate place has been provided for such material at Washington in the' 
National Museum. Nor should we narrow the scope of exhibits to the 
local horizon. There is a vast difference in purpose between a Chamber 
of Commerce and a scientific society. 

There are advantages in having a regular means of communication 
between the active officers of the society and its members, and no harm 
can ensue from the printing of papers and contributions which cannot well 
be circulated through more .technical channels. But bulletins of this class 
of organizations are not gdod mediums for publishing results which are 
adapted for presentation ,to national technical societies. Abstracts, sum- 
maries and items of scientific news in untechnical language are appropri- 
ate always. 

In the saying of this, do not imagine that I decry the high-class work 
of which many of our trained members (our Fellows, in fact,} are capable, 
and which they have freely offered in some of our sectional meetings. We 
may be proud, as we are, of their achievements and glad indeed to have 
their results explained to us, but the cause of science is not elevaled by 
making the local general society the grave-yard for technical literature. 
The scientific reputation of any member is to us a source of pride and 
of gain, but we must not forget that our machinery is not itself adapted 
to make such reputation for any one, whatever facilities we may be 
able to afford for fostering and encouraging the work upon which it is 
based'. 

The best methods of promoting the cherished objects of our ossocia- 
tion are matters for discussion. There may be differences of opinion and 
I am merely outlining in the most general way, the character of platform 
upon which you may expect me to stand during my official term as your 
President. So far as my accomplishment may go, bear in mind that it 
will very largely depend upon your hearty approval and the cordial sup- 
port of the earnest Board of Directors elected by you. 

That the Southern California Academy of Sciences has attained its 
present high standing and efficient usefulness speaks loudly for the 
worth and work of the five capable men who have presided since the 



112 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

organization eleven years ago. To. Dr. Wm. Alter, the first President, Dr. 
Anstruther Davidson, W. A. Spaulding, Abbott Kinney and Wm. H. 
Knight, we owe a debt of gratitude for this creditable and influential in- 
stitution, which has become a source of pride to every member and which 
you have too generously confided to my guidance at this juncture. You 
know how long and faithfully Mr. Knight, the retiring President, has 
served you in this capacity, and you may feel less keenly the transfer 
of his office to one imperfectly qualified, when you consider that the 
most important position of Secretary continues to be occupied by one 
who is beginning his tenth year of arduous duty in that capacity. It need 
hardly be stated that my hesitancy in undertaking the responsibilities now 
falling upon me has been overcome chiefly by the fact that the Board of 
Directors, as now composed, includes three out of the five Past Presidents 
and the most efficient Secretary, who would certainly have been Presi- 
dent in my place had it been feasible to spare him from the great work 
he has performed with eminent success. 

Yet, proud as we are of them and of their achievements, I know 
full well that they and the other working members of this society are 
not content to rest on the laurels already earned. We all hope to push 
on to even better things, according as the light of our knowledge may 
guide us in the years to come. And as this hour brings the present duly, 
what shall be our aim for the coming year? No one understands bet- 
ter than the presiding officer how truly must the Directors become serv- 
ants of the whole membership if a successful administration is to be se- 
ctired. Past success implies past service along lines approved by the 
members. The history of the growth of the Academy indicates this be- 
yond question. And yet, it may well be that the old machinery is suscep- 
tible of some improvement. There are two classes of business constantly 
appearing in an organization like this, viz : that relating to its prestige as 
a scientific body, and that which concerns its business affairs. Again,' 
there may be certain matters which relate particularly to one section, 
and others which affect the interests of the whole body. There are things 
peculiarly fitting to be carefully discussed by selected officers, and other 
;tems on which the consensus of opinion of the members is of much 
importance. 

Perhaps the Constitution provides well enough for the adjustment of 
these matters, but personal observation and talks with members lead me 
to think that our machinery has become a trifle worn, and that some pro- 
vision ought to be made for adapting it a little more to the work we under- 
take to perform. Your directors are earnest, capable and practical men, 
and they can and will conduct your affairs well and economically. But 
there are some things they cannot accomplish without your consent and 
interest and your constant co-operation. 

Do not consider the meetings in the light of public lectures, but 
rather as gatherings ■ for general discussion and enlightenment. Don't 
leave to your President the thankless task of running the machine alone, 
but turn in and work, each member regarding himself or herself as a 
standing Committee on Wavs and Means. Moreover, give us the benefit 
of vour advice and help to make it effective for good. We all seek an 
end which is lofty and progressive. "Come then and let us reason to- 
gether," and when once we have decided upon the road to follow, uniter 
let us press forward towards the goal, and, above all, let us get there! I 
pledge you my best endeavor, the consecration of self to the cause, and 
I beg of you to hold up your end, and lend your helping hands. 



rvi; 
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Important meeting of the 
Southern California Academy 
of Sciences, Monday, October 
6, 1902, at eight o'clock, at the 
Womans' Club House, No. 940 
South Figueroa Street. 






Woman?- Club Hall, FiBUcroi st, 

rW«iI"11v.' 

theo. b. comstock. i 



CONSTITUTION. 



VOL. I. 



NOVEMBER i, 1902 



NO. 9 



n 



BTJLLETIN 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



committee; on publication: 

A. Davidsox, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier T. B Comstock, Ph. D. 



CONTENTS : 

Page 

Prehistoric California, Dr. Lorenzo Gordin Yates 113 

Spserostigma erythra, n. sp., A. Davidson, M. D 118 

The Southern California Species of Calochortus, II, 

S. B. Parish 120 

Tribal Character in the Separation of the Style- 
Branches in the Compositae, LouiS A. Greata... 125 
Transactions 128 



Published for the Association by 

B. R. BAUMGARDT & CO. 

231 West First St., I,os Angeles, Cal. 



Yearly Subscription , $1.00 



MAILED OCTOBER 28, 1902 



Single Copies, 25 cts. 








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BULLETIN 



OF THE 



SoutHern Galilornia flcadeiny o! Sciences 

VOL. I LOS ANGELES, CAL, NOVmBCR I, 1902. joNa.9 

331 'West First Street. s-l DK. .' k i\ V 

NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 
GARDEN 

PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA. 

(Continued from August Bulletin) 



BY DR. LORENZO GORDIN YATES. 

Before following the procession of animal life from the early 
Cretaceous Age to nearly the present time, it will be interesting 
to note the character of the flora which furnished food and shelter 
for the great armies of herbivores and carnivores which formed 
some of the divisions of the great faunal procession. 

As before stated, plants, having but limited means of locomo- 
tion, are forced to accommodate themselves to the changes of cli- 
matic conditions which many animals are enabled to escape by mi- 
grations to more favorable localities ; and the changes of tempera- 
ture resulting from oscillations of the earth's surface, and other 
cosmic changes do not affect the flora of a given region so 
quickly, nor thoroughly, as is the case with the animals. 

It is a recognized fact in natural history that, wherever life 
finds suitable conditions, plants thrive and are reproduced ; but 
no one plant, except a few of the lower forms, is found dispersed 
over every part of the earth. Each of the multitude of species and 
forms of plant life which cover the surface of the earth is by its 
organization restricted to some certain zone or region. It grows 
and reproduces its kind only in places where the climate and soil 
are favorable for its particular needs. P/ants, however, like ani- 
mals, are not all equally susceptible to changes of environment, 
nor in the facility with which they adapt themselves to such 
changes of their surroundings ; if they were there would be no 
limit to their distribution, and the flora of the entire earth would 
become uniform. 

Plants are confined within certain specified limits by the diver- 
sity of their individual requirements, and the conditions favorable 
for plants are governed by, and dependent upon, the universal 
factors -of environment — air, light, soil, heat and moisture. The 
last two of these factors are largely governed by altitude above 
the level of the sea, and therefore subject to changes resulting 
from the varying elevations and depressions. "It is a fact well 
established by observation, that the same, or more or less closely 



114 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

related forms will often appear under similar climatic conditions 
in parts of the globe widely separated bv oceans or deserts." 
(Charles Mohr.) 

On the summits of mountains surrounded at their bases by- 
tropical vegetation, but whose tops are covered for the greater 
part of the year by ice and snow, plants are found which are at 
home in the Boreal Zone. And the flora of the Equatorial Zone 
presents the same general features around the globe. This ap- 
plies to representative orders if not to specific and generic types. 

The study of plant life takes us farther back in the earth's 
history than the a2pearance of animal life. Minerals must be 
studied from a much more remote period, and with these we 
are carried back to the beginning, if such a term be admissible. 
This takes us beyond our depth, and to conditions which are be- 
yond our conception. The mind of man, with all his boasted intel- 
ligence and reasoning powers, fails to conceive the immensity of 
space, or the infinity of time or eternity ; we cannot conceive any- 
thing which has neither beginning nor ending, and the more 
closely we study the subject the more befogged our minds be- 
come in trying to solve the mysteries of nature, and the more we 
become convinced that the terms are, to our limited compre- 
hension, meaningless. 

Before the earth was formed, the mineral constituents of 
the gaseous substances from which it was subsequently solidi- 
fied, were in continuous action. No matter whether we call it 
nature, force, energy or any other name, this power controlled 
all matter, and eventuallv evolved plant life, and later, . animal 
life. 

Plants and animals are alike composed of mineral substance 
and are entirely dependent upon the mineral kingdom for sus- 
tenance and continuance. 

For a period of time of the duration of which we can have 
no conception, the forces of nature were occupied in the reduc- 
tion of the gases into liquid and solid matter, and the, to us, in- 
conceivably immense amount of gaseous matter was gradually 
reduced, by cooling and chemical action, to metals, rocks, liquids, 
and the surrounding atmosphere. These changes are continuously 
going on, nor can we conceive the limits ,[if such there be) to 
which these forces of nature may extend. 

As animals and plants have been advancing to higher and 
more complex forms it is probable that the womb of time will 
continue to bring forth still more highly specialized organisms, 
and the time may come when the puerile man of the present 
period, with all his vaunted intelligence, and his assertion that 
he is "Lord of Creation," for whose special benefit the world was 
made, will be relegated to his proper sphere in the plan of creation, 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 115 

by the evolution of organisms as far above the man of the present 
as man considers himself above the worm crawling at his feet. 

These advances are not uniform either along various or 
parallel lines. Forms of life appear, reach their culminating point, 
diminish and finally disappear, to be followed by organisms of 
more or less similarity of character and difference of form. 

The Plants (represented by the Algse, or Sea- Weeds) were 
probably the first to appear in the otherwise supposed lifeless pe- 
riod, and have continued on to the present time. The Acrogens 
(Ferns, Lycop'ods and Equisetas) first appeared in the Devonian, 
or age of fishes, and included rnany genera of trees ; they reached 
their maximum in the succeeding Carboniferous Age, during 
which time they conserved immense quantities of carbon from 
the air, and were important factors in the formation of coal, at 
the same time changing the character of the atmosphere, and 
fitting it for the life of the fauna of that and the subsequent 
Cretaceous Age. 

The Conifers (gymnosperms, or plants with naked seeds) 
first appeared in the Devonian and have not yet reached their 
maximum. 

The Angiosperms (plants having regular flowers and cov- 
ered seed), another division of the Phsenogamous plants, which 
includes the Maple, Elm, Apple, Rose and the majority of our 
present trees and shrubs, also appeared in the Devonian. 

The Cycads, which are related to the Conifers, but totally 
different in habit, appeared in the later Carboniferous, attained 
their maximum in the Cretaceous, and have gradually decreased 
since that time. 

The Palms and Grasses appeared in the later Cretaceous, 
and have continued without diminution to the present time. 

The microscopic Diatoms appeared in later geological pe- 
riods, and their fossil remains form extensive deposits or diatoma- 
ceous rock and diatomaceous earth, which consist principally of 
the silicious cases of these minute plants which are so infinitessim- 
ally small that the strongest powers of the microscope are re- 
quired to bring out their form and beautiful specific characters. 
Their minuteness and comparatively indestructible nature render 
them valuable for the separation of minute particles of the ma- 
terial used in the manufacture of dynamite, and other uses in 
the arts and sciences. 

THE ORIGIN OF NEW SPECIES OF PLANTS. 
The mass of incontrovertible evidence of the continuous 
changes which have taken place in the animal and vegetable life 
of past ages, forces us to the conclusion that the creative force 
or power which evolved life on the earth, is continuous and ever- 
acting, as active today as it was thousands of years ago. The his- 



n6 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

tory of man is too meagre to record more than slight indications of 
a process of change which, if continued for a time equal to those 
ages which were required to bring about the great alterations 
in the topography and in the forms of animal and vegetable life 
already considered, would be as radical and evident as are those 
of the past periods of the earth's history which, in the preceding 
pages, we have endeavored to portray. 

An eminent naturalist of Amsterdam, Holland, in a recent 
publication, has given the results of a long and careful series of 
experiments, and from his conclusions in relation to the origin of 
new species of plants I quote as follows : 

"Plants undergo very long periods of constancy alternately 
with periods in which new species may be produced.,' And that, 
"Each species has originated from another at such a time." For 
this it is held that it is not necessary that the mother species be 
changed in any way, but that it may continue with all its former 
characteristics unchanged. 

His observations were made from plants growing in natural 
conditions, as well as seed collected from wild plants and sown 
in gardens. He has originated from the original wild species 
twelve distinct forms which have come true to seed. The conclu- 
sion is drawn that species originate suddenly without intermediate 
forms or any other preparation. From the beginning they remain 
unchanged during the subsequent generations. 

"Mutation seems to take place in various directions, and 
not in any predetermined manner." (Proc, Sec. Sci. Koninkl. 
Akad. Wetersch. Amsterdam, 1901, iii, pp. 245-247.) 

FOSSIL PLANTS. 

The fossil plants of a given region are not as definitely in- 
dicative of the comparative duration, and the dividing lines be- 
tween the minor geological epochs as are the fossil animals, but 
they serve as valuable records of the well defined periods and 
ages of the earth's history. The fossil remains of animals may 
be likened to the paragraphs of a book of which the fossil plants 
resemble the chapters. Or, the records of the lives of fossil 
animals may be considered as representing the minutes, and those 
of the plants as the hours of the day in considering the geological 
history of the earth. 

The science of palaeontology is in its infancy, and much 
remains to be discovered and studied before the geological history 
of the earth can be satisfactorily translated and transcribed for 
man's reading. 

One of the most noted localities for fine fossil remains, and 
one which also represents some of the most interesting and in- 
structive lessons in the history of the world, is the Isle of Shep- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 117 

pey, in the British Channel, where the writer when a small boy 
amused himself collecting fossil shark's teeth, fishes, turtles, birds, 
crabs, lobsters, mollusks and other animal remains, found with 
fossil fruits of unknown extinct palms and other trees, which all 
occur there in a remarkable state of preservation. These fossils 
in which the original substances have been replaced by iron pyr- 
ites are in such abundance that they are collected on the sea shore 
by the inhabitants and sold by the ton to the manufacturers of 
sulphuric acid and sulphate of iron (copperas). 

These fossils afford abundant evidence of the material 
changes in the topography and climate of the region in compara- 
tively recent geologic times, and prove the former existence, dur- 
ing the Eocene Period, of a large river which formed an estuary 
near the present mouth of the river Thames, where the immense 
amount of material representing tropical animals and plants were 
deposited. 

The banks of this ancient river were lined by magnificent 
palms, ferns, and other tropical plants, inhabited by curious birds, 
reptiles and extinct mammals, while its waters teemed with sharks, 
fishes and reptiles. 

"But suddenly, from causes yet unknown, 
All Northern latitudes were clad with ice, 
So tense the cold great lakes and rivers froze 
In mass, and teeming lands were thus bereft 
Of animated life, which perished there 
In one vast frozen sepulchre " 

• FOSSIL WOOD. 

Among the most widely distributed of the relics of past 
ages are fragments of the leaves, flowers, fruits and branches of 
fossil plants, and the wood,. and sometimes the entire trunks of 
trees are found in abundance in strata of the earth's crust. Va- 
rious minerals have replaced the original substance, rendering 
them practically proof against the destructive action of the ele- 
ments. 

This substitution is so complete that the specific characters of 
the plant or tree are perfectly preserved and the species may be 
readily determined. 

The minerals which are the most common substitutes for 
the original material are Silica in various forms ; Carbonate of 
Lime; Carbon, and Sulphuret of Iron ("Iron Pyrites"), and the 
substitution of pseudomorphism is so complete and perfect that, 
thin sections prepared for the microscope present all the optical 
characteristics and minute details of the living plants. Ores 
of Copper and Iron, Native Sulphur, Sand, Silt, Salts of Lime, 
and other mineral substances form casts in the moulds made by 



ii8 SOUTHERN , CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

the decay of the original plants. These preserve only the form 
and the exterior characters of the original. See PI. i and 2. 



Plate 2, from a photograph taken on San Miguel Island, one of the 
islands forming the southern line of the Santa Barbara Channel, on the 
coast of California, shows the casts of trees which were probably killed 
by volcanic agency, and afterwards decaj-ed, surrounded by shells of dead 
snails of a nearly extinct species. The molds formed by the decay of the 
trees were filled with drifting sand and cemented by mineral substances 
held in solution by the water which permeated the surrounding soil. 

The soil was subsequently carried away by the prevailing winds, leav- 
ing the casts as shown in the illustration. Tlie reason for this was that 
after the advent of the whites thousands of sheep and cattle were turned 
loose upon the island and increased so rapidly that they eventually de- 
stroyed large areas of the vegetation which had protected the surface from 
the disturbing agencies of the elements ; the soil thus exposed was carried 
away by the wind and rain and the surface covered by drifting sand. 

The land snails thus deprived of the succulent vegetation upon which 
they had subsisted, perished by millions, leaving acres upon acres of ground 
covered with their dead shells, as seen in the illustration. 

These shells (Helix Ayresiana) are foun only on the islands of San 
Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and one or more of the Anacapas, where 
the "sheep and cattle industries" have nearly exterminated them, thus il- 
lustrating the effects of the destruction of the vegetaion upon some of the 
forms of the animal life of a region. 

Twenty-five years ago the writer found extensive areas of the same 
character on Santa Rosa Island, the casts of trees were then standing, and 
the ground was covered with dead snail shells in greater abundance than is 
shown on this illustration. 

(To be Continued.) 



Sphaerostigmat erythra, n. sp. 

BY A. DAVIDSON, M. D. 

Annual, slender, upright, branching freely 6 in. to i ft. high, 
whole plant minutely puberulent and glandular throughout, stem 
generally purplish especially in the taller specimens, epidermis 
not flaking: lower leaves ovate-lanceolate 1 \.o lyi inches long, 
% inch wide, tapering to petiole, slightly repand-denticulate, 
midrib prominent beneath; floral leaves similiar, above entire and 
much smaller; petioles of radical leaves i in. long, those of the 
lower cauline ]4: inch.: flowers numerous, axillary, minute, 
petals I line long, light red becoming darker in age: sepals reflexed 
in flower, calyx finely puberulent and glandular, tube obconic 
very short; capsule 2 in. long, ^ line broad, obtusely angled, 
slightly curved with almost truncate tip, sessile, not adnate to 
the leaf. 

In habit, this plant somewhat resembles S. strigulosa 
T. & G. but in foliage and flower it is quite different. Collected 
by the author in April, 1900 on the rocky slope of the San Fran- 
cisco River near Clifton, Arizona, at an alt. of 3,500 to 3,800 ft. 

.No. 244. Los Angeles. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, iig 




SPHAEROSTIGMA ERYTHRA,, n. sp Plate IX. 



I20 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



The Southern California Species of Calochortus, II. 

BY S. B. PARISH. 

1/ CAI.OCHORTUS Pi^UMMER^, Greene, Pitt. 2.70. (1890) C. 
Weedii purpurascens, Watson, 1. c. 265. 1879, Purdy, 1. c. 132. 

Stems 3-8 dm. high, biilbiferous near the base; leaves broad; 
bracts linear: sepals lanceolate-accuminate, usually with a tuft 
of hairs within near the base, scarious, about equalling the 
petals; broadly cuneate-obovate, 3 cm. long, rich purple, lighter 
in color and densely hairy on the lower half; gland large, sur- 
rounded with a dense fringe of long hairs; anthers oblong, acute 
mucronate i-i. 5cm. long, equalling or exceeding the filaments; 
capsule 3-5 cm. long. 

Common on dry slopes and mesas along the southern base 
of the San Bernardino Mountains, and ascending there to 5,000 
ft. alt. The type of C. Plunimerce was collected in Mill Creek 
Canyon, by Mr. L,emmon in 1876; the types of Watson's variety 
were from "Cajon pass and Santa Barbara," But the Santa 
Barbara plant has been separated by Mr. Purdy as C. Weedii 
vestus. The flowers vary somewhat in the depth of coloration, 
but otherwise are quite constant. It is well separated geograph- 
ically from C. Weedii. 

(/' Calochortus clavatus, Watson, 1. c. 265. Purdy, 1. c. 

134- 

Stems stout, 3-6 dm. high, bulbiferous'near the base; bracts 
linear; ovate-lanceolate, accuminate, with or without a brownish 
spot near the base, about equalling the j)etals;']|"petals cuneate- 
obovate, yellow, tinged with brown, 3-4 cm. long, the lower half 
clothed with long clavate hairs; gland circular, deep, bordered 
with imbricated scales; anthers purple, obtuse, 8-10 mm. long, 
about equalling the filaments; capsule narrow, about 5 cm. long, 

Foothill canyons near Los Angeles, north to San lyuis 
Obispo. The type was collected at the latter place by]^Mr. J. G. 
lyemmon, in 1878. 

f f Inner surface of the petals clothed ivith scattering hairs. 
/ Calochortus concolor, Purdy, 1. c. 135. C. luteus con- 
color, Baker, Garden, Dec. 7, 1895, t. 

Stems 2. 5-5 dm. high, bulbiferous near the base; leaves 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. /-=>/ 

narrow; bracts short, linear; sepals broadly lanceolate, purplish 
green and strongly ribbed exteriorly, within yellow, with 1-2 
conspicuous red-purple lunate markings near the base; petals 
broadly obovate-cuneate; clear lemon yellow, with a narrow 
horizontal red-purple marking across the center, yellow hairy up 
to this mark; gland circular, brown and hairy; anthers yellow 
obtuse, I cm. long, on filaments of the same length; capsule 
2. 5-3- 5 cm. long. 

Bushy hills from Mill Creek in the San Bernardino Moun- 
tains (alt. 3,500 ft.) to the coast of San Diego County. Mr. 
Purdy is in error in calling this a desert species. All the stations 
named by him are on the seaward side of the mountains, which 
may be taken as the extreme inland boundaries of the species. 
It is a much commoner plant in San Diego County than in 
Riverside and San Bernardino. 

The character is drawn from fresh specimens of the Mill 
Creek plant, and will be seen to differ considerably from Mr. 
Purdy's description, which was based on a plant collected at 
at Laguna, San Diego County, by Mr. D. Cleveland. This 
indicates a considerable degree of variation, and these plants, 
perhaps, might better be left as a variety of C luteus ; but I 
prefer, at least for the present, to follow Mr. Purdy's disposition- 
True C. luteiis does not occur probably south of Monterey ; 
Mr. Purdy's San Diego reference being founded on an appar- 
ently erronious label. 

\/ Calochortus splendens, Dougl. ex. Benth. Trans. Hort. 
Soc. Ser. 2, 1:411, t. 15, f. 1. Watson, 1. c. 266. Purdy, 1. c. 143. 
Stem single, 36 dm. high, usually branched above, bulbi- 
ferous at base; sepals lanceolate-accuminate, j^ellowish, with an 
oval purple spot near the base within; petals obovate-cuneate, 
3-4 cm. high and of greater width, finely erose at summit, light 
lilac with a small purple blotch at base surrounding the roundish 
densely hairy gland, the lower third sparsely hairy to, but not 
below, the gland; anthers dark purple, obtuse, i cm. long on 
filaments of the same length or shorter; stigmas 2 mm. long; 
capsule slender. 

Common on bushy hills or mesas in the interior, and ascend- 
ing the San Bernardino Mountains to 5.000 ft. alt.; north only 
to Santa Barbara, according to Purdy, but to Lake and Colusa 
Counties according to Jepson. 



122 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Calochortus striatus, n. sp. 

Corm small, membraneously coated ; subterranean siem 
usually IO-T2 cm. long, divided at the surface into 2-3 slender 
erect branches 1-3 dm. high; leaves several 4-25 mm. wide and 
nearly as long as the stem-branches; the short rigid accuminate 
bracts hyaline margined; flowers 2-8, umbellate; sepals oblong 
accuminat,e nearly or quite as long as the petals, the tip at length 
reflexed; petals broadly obovate-cuneate, centrally apiculate, 
light purple uniformly striate with darker purple, the lower half 
sparsely white hairy; gland acutely triangular, densely tufted 
with ascending whitish hairs; anthers oblong, obtuse, 5 mm. 
long on filaments of twice the length; immature capsule 4 cm. 
long. 

In alkaline meadows at Rabbit Springs, alt. 2,700 ft., 
Mojave Desert, May, 1882, ij^2 Parish, (type); June, 1884; 
June, 1901, j,ooo Parish. Also at Cushenberry Springs in the 
same region. The original collection was distributed as C. 
flexiwsiis. The so-called "meadows" are barel}^ damp enough to 
support a sparsh growth of Distichlis. The accompanying plants 
are three species of Cleoinella, Hoitttuynia Calif ornica, Cniciis 
Mohavensis.^ and one or two Atriplicis. To find a Calochortus 
growing in such an alkaline association is certainly remarkable. 

f f f Petals nude except at or near the gland. 
/ f f Petals self colored, never oculate. 
/ Calochortus Palmeri, Watson, 1. c. 266. Purdy, 1. c. 144. 

Corymb membraneousl}' coated, oblong stems slender, erect, 
3-5 dm. high, bulbiferous at base; leaves narrow and short; 
bracts linear; sepals oblong, shortly accuminate, with a purple 
stain at base, thetip at length recurved; petals rather narrowly 
obovate-cuneate, about 2 cm. high, white to very light purple, 
the claw brown; gland large, undefined, short, hairy, and with a 
few surrounding scattering hairs; "capsule very narrow, an inch 
long, or more." 

The type was collected "near the Mojave River, n. 527, 
Palmer, 1876." It was almost certainly at the point where the 
Mojave River makes its exit from the San Bernardino Moun- 
tains; a place then known as Holton's ranch, afterwards as 
Borcham's, and now as Los Flores Rancho. The altitude is 
about 3,500 feet. The above characters, except for the capsule, 
which is quoted from Watson, is drawn from specimens collected 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 123 

at this place in May, 1882, 1341 Parish, which accurately match 
Palmer's specimens in the Gray Herbarium. My No. 1857, 
June 14, 1886, collected at Cox's Ranch in the same region, is 
probably the same, but my subsequent distributions under the 
name of C. Palmeri are forms of C. invenustus. The collections 
above cited appear to be the only ones that have been made of 
this still little-known species. It is best recognised by what is 
rather a glandular blotch, than a well defined gland. 
V Calochortus Dunnii, Purdy, 1. c. 147, t, 19, f. 14. 

Stems slender, not bulbiferous at base, 3-10 dm. high; 
leaves narrow, folded, shorter than the stem ; bracts short; sepals 
ovate-acute yellowish green, faintly purple spotted near the base 
within, narrowly scariously margined, about half as long as the 
petals; petals broadly cuneate, rounded above and erose, 2.5 cm. 
broad and as long, white with a brown, ragged transverse band 
crowning the gland; gland round 3 mm. in diameter, densely 
matted with short yellow hairs, a few of which are scattered on 
either side; anthers light yellow, mucronulate, 3 mm. long, on 
hyaline margined filaments of equal length; capsule acnte or at 
most shortly beaked. 

Type collected near Jxilian, San Diego County, by Geo. W. 
Dunn. Described from specimens of Mr. Dunn's collecting, 
co^mmunicated by Mr. Purdy. 

y Calochortus invenustus, Greene, Pitt. 2:71. Purdy, 
1. c. 145. 

Stems 2-5 dm. high, bulbiferous at base; leaves narrow; 
bracts linear short ; sepals ovote-oblong, shortly accuminate, 
striate and scarious-margined, the tips not recurved, shorter 
than the petals; petals about 3 cm. long, obovate-cuneate 
the rounded summit centrally apiculate, dull white, tinged 
greenish and purplish, the short claw purple; gland oblong 
covered with light hairs, and with a few scattered hairs near; 
anthers 5-7 mm. long, obtuse at apex, yellow, on narrowly 
margined filaments a little shorter; capsule 4 cm. long by i cm. 
wide, acute. 

Common on dry slopes in open coniferous forests in the San 
Bernardino (Bear Valley) and San Jacinto (Strawberry Valley, 
Tauquitz Valley; Hall) Mountains, at 6,000-8,900 ft. alt. Oc- 
casionally grows also in damp meadows, according to Mr. Hall. 

The type was collected by Dr. Greene, June 25, 1889, in 



124 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

"the higher mountains to the westward of the Mojave Desert"; 
probably near Tehachapi. It is not a satisfactory species to the 
field student, its great variation in size and color suggesting that 
it may bc no more than a variety of C. splendens. But for the 
present it is best maintained. The color varies from nearly 
white to light purples, usually dull and greenish tinged. 

l/ Calochortus invenustus montanus. C. splendens mon- 
tanus, Purdy, 1. c. 144 at least in part. 

An extreme form of these variations, with shorter and slend- 
er stem; petals clear dark lilac purple, with no trace of the dull 
white or green of the species; claw yellow. 

Same range as the species, with which it grows, and for this 
reason, at least, must go with it, if the species is retained. It is 
well connected with it by intermediates. 

V Calochortus Kennedyi, Porter, Bot. Gaz. 2.79. Watson, 
1. c. 265. Purdy, 1. c. 135. 

Stems 2 cm. -3dm. high, not bulbiferous at base, i-few 
flowered leaves and bracts narrow; sepals ovate-oblong, acute; 
erect, two thirds the length of the petals, brown without vermilion 
within, scarious margined; petals brilliant vermillion, the base 
and claw purple, nude except for a few hairs near the small 
circular, densely-hairy gland; anthers ovate-oblong, 5 mm. long, 
on filaments of twice that length; capsule 4-5 cm. long i cm. 
wide. 

Common on dry gravelly or clayey mesas and hillsides of 
the Mojave Desert at 2,. =^00 to 4,000 ft. alt., and rarely ascending 
the desert slope of the San Bernardino Mountains even to 7,000 
ft. alt. (Gold Mt.) The range of this species extends north to 
Mt. Magruder, Esmeralda Co. Nevada^, and east into Arizona. 
In our region it is very constant in coloration, but orange or 
creamy-yellow flowers are sometimes seen. 
If Petals normally oculate 
'. Calochortus venustus, Dougl. ex. Benth. Trans. Hort. 
Soc. Ser. 2,1:412, 1. 15. Watson, I.e. 265, Purdy, I.e. 140, t.19, f.io. 
Stems 2-6 dm. high basal bulblet single; leaves and bracts 
narrow; sepals oblong-lanceolate, 3-5 cm. long, acute, about 
equalling the petals; petals broadly obovate-cuneate, broader than 
long' white, shaded above with lilac, a conspicuous reddish- 
purple spot near the top, a brownish-yellow arch in the center, 
and a brown base, but these markings sometimes faint and 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 125 

obscure; gland large, oblong or lunate, densely hairy and sur- 
rounded by a few scattered hairs; anthers oblong, obtuse on 
dilated filaments of nearly equal length; capsule narrow, 5-7 cm. 
long 

On open hills Newhall; Elizabeth ]>,ke; Ft. Tejon. This 
appears to be the southern limit of this species, which extends 
as far north as Vacaville^. ^Description from plants growing 
at Elizabeth Lake. 

This species breaks into an infinite variety of coloration, the 
markings assuming different tints or becoming obscured, or en- 
tirely disappearing, the petals becoming self-colored, and of 
various shades. An indefinite number of color- varieties might 
be described; a few have received names. 

Calochortus vEnustus purpurascens, Watson, l.c, 266. 

Petals deep liliac or purple, with marking similiar to those 
of these species. 

Ft. Tejon, Kern County. 

CaLOCHORTUS VENUSTUS SULPHUREUS, Purdy, 1. C. I4I. 

Petals a light warm yellow, with eye in centre, and a rose- 
colored blotch at top. 

Newhall, Los Angeles County, and Alcalde, Kern County, 
according to Purdy. 

sp. V. Covii,i.E, Death Val. Rep. 279. 

sw. Iv. JEPSON, Man. Fl. Mid. Cal. III. San Bernardino, Cal. 



Tribal Cha.ra.cter in tKe Separation 0/ the Style- 
Bra.nches in the Compositae. 

BY I,OUIS A. GREATA. 

The somewhat peculiar appearances of the disk of a developing 
head of Grindelia robusta directed my attention to the fact, that 
the separation of the style-branches of the hermaphrodite florets 
occurs in a different manner in different groups of the Com- 
positae and an examination of a number of plants leads me to 
believe, that this interesting feature is sufficiently constant to 
form a simple and useful aid to classification in that admittedly 
difficult Family. 

In plants examined of the Tribes Inuloideae, Helianthoidese, 



126 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Helenioideae, Anthemideae and Senecionidese, the style-branches 
begin to separate from the apex while in those of the Asteroidese 
examined, they begin to separate from below the apex, forming 
a more or less distinct loop which disappears upon complete 
separation. The former might conveniently be termed Apici and 
the latter Sub-Apici. 

In the determination of a Composite one is, at the outset, 
confronted with a distinction of the style-branches and append- 
ages which is b}^ no means clear, but the difficulty will be 
greatly simplified if it is found that the sub-apicial separation of 
the style-branches is peculiar to and constant in the Asteroidese- 
I therefore venture to examined with a few brief notes: — 

SUB-APICI 

Tribe III. Asteroideae 

Aster. Cultivated species probably A. Novae Anglise 

Bigelovia veneta 

Erigeron foliosus var. stenophyllus 

Gutierrezia Euthamiae 

Heterotheca floribunda 
APICI 

Tribe IV. Inuloidese 

Gnaphalium Sprengelii 
Tribe V. Helianthoideas 

Coreopsis tinctoria var. atro-purpurea (cult.) 

Hemizonia fasciculata var. ramosissima 

Hemizonia tenella 
Tribe VI. Helenioideae 

Chsenactis glabriusculus and other species 
Tribe VII. Anthemidese 

Achillea millefolium var. rosea (cult.) 

Chrysanthemum (cultivated, pompom type.) 

Matricaria discoidea 
Tribe VII I. Senecionideae 

Senecio Douglasii. 

For this examination many of the specimens were preserved 
in diluted alcohol but this was found unsatisfactory and I think 
the characteristics sought would be clearer even in dried speci- 
mens; fresh ones are of course, the best. 

Erigeron does not show the separation well after soaking 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. J27 

but my recollection is that it is easily apparent in fresh material 
and I find this is true of several of the species examined. 

In Heterotheca floribunda the style-branches are not 
especially distinct from those of some other tribes but the sub- 
apicial separation is very marked. 

Both species of Hemizonia examined show long slender 
subulate style branches easily confused with Asteroidese except 
that the separation is apical. This is true also of the Chaenactis 
examined. 

The following plants are reported from memory as having 
been examined. 

SUB-APICI 

Tribe Asteroideas 

Grindelia robusta 

Chrysopsis sessilifolia var. echoides 
Ivcssingia glandulifera 
Corethrogyne filaginifolia 
Tribe V. Helianthoideae 
Helianthus annuus 
I have not had an opportunity to test any of the species of 
the Tribe Vernonaceae. A cultivated Stevia (Eupatoriaceae) 
shows a mode of separation distinct from any of the foregoing. 
In the bud, the style-branches lie flat and complanate. The 
separation is apical but instead of reflecting from the apex, the 
style-branches open out as if hinged near the base and the tips 
show a tendancy to curl inward and as soon as the plant begins 
to wilt, the style-branches become circinate, curled in toward 
each other. 

In Centaur ea melitensis (Cynaroideas) the style-branches do 
not separate; in fact the style is tipped with three short subulate 
lobes scarcely distinguishable except under a compound lens. 

Perezia microcephala (Mutistiaceae) shows style-branches not 
unlike Senecio Douglasii but the Tribe is easily distinguished by 
its labiate florets. 

I believe further investigation in this direction will show 
that it is possible to construct a key to the tribes that would 
obviate the necessity of considering so many confusing features 
as at present. If so, it would be valuable in the field and often 
helpful in the herbarium, and would not interfere with the estab- 
lished order of things. 



128 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Transactions. 

The regular meeting of the Academy of Sciences was held at the 
Woman's Club Rooms at 8:00 p. m., Oct. 6th 1902. The meeting was called 
to order by President Comstock. The Secretary being absent, G. M. Taber 
was appointed Secretary pro tem. The new Constitution and By-Laws were 
read section by section, and after several amendments were adopted as 
amended. A motion was made and carried by a unanimous vote, that the 
Board of Directors be authorized to incorporate the Academy under the 
Constitution and By-Laws adopted. The President stated that in order to 
establish the Sections, it would be necessary for petitions to be presented 
before the Academy of the names of Fellows, in accordance with the 
requirements of the new Constitution. After the regular business of the 
Academy had been concluded, Mr. Wm. H. Knight read a paper on the Life 
and Work of Hugh Miller, the noted Scotch Geologist, it being near the 
looth anniversary of his birth. His paper was full of historical interest, 
interspersed with a statement of his personal life and his distinguished 
work as one of the world's most prominent scientists. President 
Comstock in a brief manner called the attention of the audience to the 
similarity between Major J. W. Powell and Hugh Miller. He also stated 
that in a long and intimate acquaintances with Major Powell, it had 
been of material beneiit to himself when he was a young man. Prof. G. 
Wharton James made a few interesting remarks on the life work of Major 
Powell. The meeting then adjourned. q. Major Taber, See' y pro tem. 

An outdoor meeting of the Astronomical Section was held on the thir- 
teenth of October, at the residence of the Chairman, B. R. Baumgardt. 
About a hundred members were present. The evening was devoted princi- 
pally to telescopic observations of the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Perrin's 
recently discovered comet was shown in the constellation Cassiopea and its 
southwest motion through the heavens towards the sun observed. Excellent 
views were also had of the nebula in Andromeda, the star cluster in 
Hercules, the quadruple star Epsilon Lyra and the binary system Beta Cygni. 
Short addresses were made by some of the members after which the 
meeting- stood adjourned. Melville Dozier, Secretary. 

Regular monthly meeting of the Botanical Section was held Aug. 25, 
1902, Mr. Johnston presiding. 

Mr. Greata submitted for inspection a collection of plants belonging 
to Mr. Geo. B. Grant consisting of Cryptanthes, Plagiobothrys and allied 
genera. 

Mr. Braunton submitted miscellaneous plants including some in- 
teresting specimens of Godetia purpurea, both purple and yellow forms. 

Mr. Davidson reported upon the proposed new constitution of the 
Academy. Adjourned, Louis A. GreaTa, Secretary. 

The Geological Section met at the Woman's Club Rooms, Sept. 22d, 
1902. at 8:00 p.m. Chairman Geo. W. Parsons called the meeting to order. 

Prof. L.J. Stabler was introduced and gave an interesting lecture 
on California Mineral Oils and Their Chemical Analysis." He stated in 
part, that there was no danger of an overproduction of Oil, as the local 
demand at the Los Angeles Refineries was 50,000 barrels per day, besides 
what was used for luel. He explained the advantages of California asphalt 
ever that of Trinidad and Bermuda productions, and stated that the 
Eastern demand for California asphalt was increasing, owing to its superior 
qualities. He enumerated the many uses of its chemical products in the 
arts, and gave 14 different ingredients composing the California oils, where 
the Pennsylvania oils had but 9. He also stated that the California oils 
were superior for lubricating purposes for cold climates or ice machinery, 
but not as valuable lubricants in hot climates. q Major Taber, Sec'y^ 



VOL. I. 



DECEMBER i, 1902 



NO. 10 > 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

A. Uavidsox, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier T. B Comstock, Ph. D. 



CONTENTS : 

Page 

Prehistoric California, Dr. Lorenzo Gordin Yates 121 
Hymenoptera of Southern California, II. T. D. A. 

CoCKRELiv 137 

Pentstemon Parishii, a hybrid, A. Davidson, M. D... 141 

A Botanical Survey of San Jacinto Mountain 141 

Recent Literature 142 

Publications Received 143 

Notes 144 

Transactions 144 



PUBLISHEP FOR THE ASSOCIATION BY 

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231 West First St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



L Yearly Subscription , 



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SomHern Gaiilornia flGadoiiiy ol Sciences 

VOL. I LOS ANGELES, CAL, DCCmBCR I, 1902. MO. 10 

231 "West First Strket. 

NiCAt 

PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA/^^ 

( Continued from November Bulletin ) 



BY DR. LORENZO GORDIN YATES. 

These fossils m many instances owe their preservation to the 
originals having been submerged in alkahne waters holding silica 
in solution, and heated by volcanic action. Sometimes forests oi 
trees have been submerged and still remain standing in the soil 
in which they grew, furnishing unmistakable and indestructible 
evidence of cataclysms resulting irom seismic disturbances, of 
which perhaps no other intelligible records remain. 

In other instances the forests were uprooted or broken down 
by avalanches of volcanic mud, or rushing water and buried by 
volcanic material deposited by the water, or by showers of vol' 
canic ash. 

One of the most noted "petrified forests" of California is 
located in Napa County, about ten miles south of the summit of 
Mount St. Helena, an extinct volcano which is supposed to have 
caused the death of the trees then living and their subsequent 
preservation in the fossil state. The late Professor O. C. Marsh 
described his visit to the locality with a party from Yale College 
in 1870.* He says : 

"A careful examination of the locality where the first pros- 
trate trunks had been discovered soon made it evident that those 
now on the surface had all been weathered out of the volcanic 
tufa and sandstones, which form the summit of this part of the 
mountain ridge. Several large silicified trees were, indeed, sub- 
sequently found in the vicinity, projecting from the side of a steep 
bluff, which had partly escaped denudation. Extending our ex- 
plorations among the mountains for several miles around, we 
were rewarded by the discovery of many additional fossil trunks 
at various points, showing conclusively that this Tertiary deposit 
contained the remains of an extensive forest of very large trees, 
which had apparently been overthrown and entombed JDy some 
volcanic irruption. Portions of nearly one hundred distinct trees 
scattered over a tract three or four miles in extent, were found 

^American Journal of Science and Arts, Vol. I, Ap. 1871. 



130 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

by our party, and the information we received from hunters and 
others, famihar with the surrounding country, renders it more 
than probable that the same beds, containing similar masses of 
silicified wood, extend over a much greater area. 

The fossil trees washing out of this volcanic tufa were 
mostly of great size, and appeared to be closely related to some 
of the modern forests of the Pacific Coast, especially the gigantic 
Conifers. One of the prostrate trunks examined during our ex- 
plorations was partly exposed above the surface, dipping with the 
strata about lo degrees to the northward. Its accessible portion, 
evidently but a small part of the original tree, measured sixty- 
three feet in length, and, although denuded of its bark and very 
much weathered, was over seven feet in diameter near its smaller 
end. All the trees discovered were prostrate, and most of them, 
after their petrifaction, had been broken transversely into several 
sections, apparently by the disturbance of the enclosing strata. A 
majority of the trunks had a general north and south direction, 
probably due to the course of the current that covered them with 
volcanic eruption. Portions of nearly one hundred distinct trees, 
tion in which they had fallen. Several of the trunks had por- 
tions of their roots still attached, and some were evidently much 
decayed internally and worm eatei'' before their entombment. 
All the fossil wood observed was silicified, by means of hot alka- 
line waters containing silica in solution, a natural result of vol- 
canic action, especially when occurring with water, as was evi- 
dently the case in the present instance. 

"Our party discovered on the western side of the ^s'apa val- 
ley, along the base of the ridge, patches of a deposit of stratified 
tufa and gravel, which was evidently identical with that contain- 
ing the fossil trees on the summit. This would seem to implv 
that the upper portion of the valley had once been filled with 
these peculiar beds, and^ through their denudation, gradually as- 
sumed its present proportions. However that may be, this vol- 
canic deposit and its contents is certainly of great interest, even 
in this land of geological wonders." 

The "Auriferous Gravels" and the "Dead Rivers" of the 
western slopes of the Sierra Nevadas, are noted localities for the 
variety of fossil wood called "Wood Opal" found in the mines. 
Many of the specimens found, especially those of a fragmentary 
character, are gem-like in their beauty of coloring and markings ; 
black, browns, reds, yellows, grays and white in all the combina- 
tions ; massive, fibrous, friable, opaque and translucent and inter- 
mediate characters have been found in the gravels. Immense 
trees are often "piped" out in the process of hydraulic mining 
for gold ; some of them are almost adamantine in their hardness ; 
others vary greatly in their character; irregularly shaped, chalce- 
donic, or jaspery masses, compact as quartz crystals, are imbedded 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 131 

in portions of the same tree, which may be granular and friable ; 
Others solid and amorphous throughout, or changing in the 
space of a few inches to a fibrous, easily separable mass of 
silicious, silky threads, or to carbonaceous matter but little 
changed from its original ligneous character. 

Around the bay of San Francisco, and at other localities, 
trunks of redwood trees, which have undergone but little change, 
are often encountered in drilling for artesian wells ; on the east 
side of the bay these fossil trees are usually found at a depth 
of about two hundred feet. 

California during the earlier geological ages not having 
emerged from its ocean bed, had a very scanty flora. During the 
Cretaceous Age, some fragments of the trees which grew on the 
limited area of land were floated out into the cretaceous sea, be- 
came silicified, and were buried in the silt of the ocean bed, and 
may be found occasionally in the cretaceous rocks which have 
been exposed in different localities in the State. Specimens of 
this character, which before being silicified, had been bored by the 
Pholads, or "Boring Mollusks," have been found by the writer 
in the ammonite beds of Shasta County, and other fossilized frag- 
ments in Alameda County, in which locality the fossil wood 
formed the nuclei of concretions of indurated clay and sand. 

In the later geological periods, after the emergence of the 
land, terrestial plants grew upon the entire area of dry land, and 
their fossil remains have been imbedded in the strata of the 
rocks in such an excellent state of preservation that the laminae 
may be separated, showing the leaves and other portions of the 
trees and plants preserved between the laminae, like fossil photo- 
graphs of the vegetable hfe of bygone ages. 

The following is a list of the known fossil plants of Cali- 
fornia, except such as have not yet been determined. 

Some of the species submitted to the eminent paleobotanists, 
the late Professor Leo Lesquereux, and Dr. J. S. Newberry, were 
not published during their lifetime, and will probably be deter- 
mined or described by others. 

CRYPTOGAMAE. 

ALGAE. 

Fucoides are found in the Cretaceous rocks, and in a great many 
localities in the Tertiary ; in Alameda County specimens 
were brought to me as "Fossil Snakes," or "Fossil Eels." 
which proved to be the stems of fossil sea weeds. 

EOUISETACEAE. 

Bquisetiim ( Horsetail ) . 
Bquiscfwn sp. — Corral Hollow, San Joaquin County; Miocene. 
Bquisetum^ undeterminable species, related to E. Wyomingense 
Lesq. Contra Costa County; Miocene. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 133 

GYMNOSPERMS (Plants with seeds). 
CONIFERAE (Coiie-Bearers) , 
Sequoia. 
Sequoia angustifolia, Lesq. ; a kind of Redwood, has been found in 
the Miocene at Corral Hollow, San Joaquin County ; This 
genus is a supposed waning t3'pe of plant life, as of the 
forty or more species which have been found fossil the 
two well-known Californian species are all that have come 
down to the present time. 

Taxites. 
Taxites Olriki, Heer ; resembling the Yew trees; Corral Hollow, 
San Joaquin County ; also found in Alaska and Greenland. 

PAivMAE (Palms). 

Geonoinitcs. 

Geonomites schimperi Lesquereux ; an extinct palm tree ; Contra 

Costa County; Santa Barbara Count)'. 

Sabalites (Palmetto). 

Sabalites Calif ornicns, Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County ; Plio- 

^^"^- APETALAE. 

MYRicACEAE ( Amcutaceae) . 
Myrica (Wax Myrtle). 
Myrica ungcri, Heer ; Plumas County ; Miocene. Nearly forty 
species of this genus are found living, distributed through- 
out nearly all temperate parts of the world ; Two species 
are abundant m North America which have probably de- 
scended from the fossil forms. 

Betula (Birch). 
Betnla aequalis, Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County ; Miocene. 

x-ilniLS ( Alder L 
Alniis corralina, Lesq. ; Corral Hollow, San Joaquin County ; 
Pliocene and Miocene. 

cupuiviEijRAii; (Fugaceae). 
Fagus (Beech). 
Fagiis antipon, Heer; Table Mountain, Tuolumne County, in 
Pliocene and Miocene ; also in Alaska ; British Columbia 
and Europe. 

Qnerciis (Oak). 
Quercns bozveniaiia, Lesq. ; Bowen's Claim, Nevada County; Plio- 
cene. 
Quercus convexa, Lesq. ; Table Mountain, Tuolumne County ; 

Pliocene. 
Quercits distincta, Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County ; Pliocene. 



134 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Querciis claciwides, Lesq. ; Table Mountain, Tuolumne County; 
Pliocene. 

Qucrcus furcijiervis, Rossmassler ; Plumas County, California; 
Bridge Creek and Cascade Mountains, Oregon, under a 
volcanic overflow (Professor Joseph Le Conte). Miocene 
and Eocene. 

Qucrcus goeppcrti, Lesq.; Chalk Bluffs, Xevada County; Plio- 
cene. 

Quercus vwrii, Lesq.: Lassen County; Miocene. 

Quercus nevadensis, Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County ; Plio- 
cene. 

Quercus oiafseiii. Heer ; Table ^fountain, Tuolumne County; Las- 
sen County ; Pliocene and I\Iiocene. Also found in Da- 
kota ; Ctah ; Greenland. 

Quercus pseudo-clirysophylla, Lesq.; Forest City, Sierra County; 
Pliocene ; perhaps the living Quercus densiflora. 

Quercus pseudo-lyrata, Lesq. ; Nevada County ; Pliocene. 

Quercus steenstrupiana, Heer; Forest City, Sierra County; Plio- 
cene and miocene. Also found in the Arctic regions ; 
Greenland. 

Quercus transgressa, Lesq.; Sierra County; Pliocene, perhaps 
the living O. chrysolepis. 

Quercus voyana, Lesq.; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County; Pliocene. 

Castanca (Chestnut). 
Castanea ungeri, Heer: Rock Corral, Placer County; Corral Hol- 
low, San Joaquin County ; jMiocene. Also in British Co- 
lumbia ; Alaska ; Greenland : Europe." 
Cas'anopsis (Chinquapin). 
Cosfanopsis chrysophylloidcs, Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada 
County ; Pliocene. 

SAI^ICINEAE. 

Sali.v (Willow). 
Salix calif ornica, Lesq.; Table ^Mountain, Tuolumne County; 

Pliocene. 
Salix eUiptica, Lesq. ; Chalk BlulTs, Nevada County ; Pliocene. 
Salix Integra, Goeppert ; Corral Hollow, San Joaquin County ; 

]\Iiocene. 
Salix varians, Goeppert: Table [Mountain. Tuolumne County; 

Corral Hollow, San Joaquin County: Tertiary.- Also 

Alaska ; Greenland and Europe. 
Populus balsauwides, Goeppert ; Corral Hollow. San Joaquin 
Populus zaddachi, Heer ; Nevada County ; Tertiary. In the in- 

Populus (Poplar). 

Populus halsamoides, Goeppert; Corral Hollow, San Joaquin 
County ; Pliocene. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, jjs 

Popidus saddachi, Heer; Nevada County ; Tertiary. In the in- 
terior of our county many other species are found. 
Platanus ( Sycamore ) . 

Platanus appendicidata, Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County; 
Pliocene. 
Mountain, Tuolumne County ; Pliocene. Monte Cristo 

Platanus dissecta, Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County ; Table 
Tunnel, Plumas County in the Miocene. 

BALSAMIFLUAE. 

Liquid amber (Sweet Gum). 
Liqnidainbcr calif ornicnm, Lesq.; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County; 
Pliocene. 

urticace;.\e. 

Uhniis (Elm). 

Ulmns califomica, Lesq.; Nevada and Tuolumne Counties; 

Pliocene. 
Ulmns affiiis, Lesq.; Table Mountain, Tuolumne County; Plio- 
cene. 
Uhims psendo-fiilz'a^ Lesq. ; Nevada County; Pliocene. 

Ficus (Fig.). 
Ficus asiminaefolia, Lesq. ; Rock Corral, Placer County ; 
Ficiis appendicidata, Heer ; Lassen County ; Pliocene. 
Ficus sordida, Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County ; Pliocene. 
Ficus tiliaefolia, Al Brogniart ; Forest City, Sierra County, Cali- 
fornia ; Nevada County, Cal. ; Wyoming ; Colorado ; Da- 
kota ; Europe ; Pliocene ; Miocene ; Eocene. 

LAURTNliAE;. 

Laiirus (Laurel). 
Laurus califomica. Lesq.; San Joaquin and Plumas Counties; 

Miocene. (Not the living so-called "California Laurel," 

which is an Oreodaphne.) 
Laurus fiirstenhergi, Al. Brogniart ; Corral Hollow, San Joaquin 

County ; Miocene. 
Laurus grandis. Les. ; Corral Hollow, San Joaquin County ; Mio- 
cene. 
Laurus princeps, Heer ; Corral Hollow, San Joaquin County ; 

Miocene. Also found in Europe. 
Laurus rcsurgcus, Saporta ; Corral Hollow, San Joaquin County, 

California ; Montana ; Miocene. 
Laurus salicifolia, Lesq. ; Corral Hollow, San Joaquin County ; 

Miocene. 
Laiirus socialis, Lesq.; Lassen County. California; Wyoming; 

Miocene. 

Persea (Ahuacata — "Alligator Pear"). 
Persea dollcri, Lesq. ; Shasta County ; Miocene. 




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SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 137 

Persea pseudo-caroUnensis, Lesq. ; Alameda County ; Miocene. 
Persea punctulata, Lesq.; Corral Hollow, Alameda County; 
Miocene. 

Oreodaphne_ (Mountain Laurel). 
Oreodaphne heeri, Gaudichauo; Lassen County; Miocene. 
Oreodaphne Htseaeformis, Lesq. ; Lassen County ; Miocene. 

Cinnamomuni ( Cinnamon) . 
Ciniiaiiiommn ail'iuc, Lesq.; Corral Hollow, San Joaquin County; 
Miocene. Also found in Colorado, Wyoming and Europe. 
Cinnamomum scheuchseri, Heer ; Lassen County; Miocene. Wy- 
oming and Europe. 
It will be seen that the species of this exclusively tropical 
genus of plants are widely distributed, and suggest a warm cli- 
mate. It includes about fifty living species ranging on both sides 
of the equator. 

SAPiNDACEAi; (Aceraceae). 

Acer (Maple). 

Acer aequidentatnm, Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County ; Plio- 
cene. Found also in Colorado and Greenland.* 

Acer arcticum, Heer; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County; Forest Cit>, 
Sierra County; The Bad Lands of Nebraska ; Alaska and 
the Arctic Zone; Pliocene and Miocene. 

Acer bcndirei, Lesq. ; Monte Cristo Tunnel, Spanish Peak, Plumas 
County ; Miocene. 

Acer holaiidcri, Lesq. ; Table Mountain, Tuolumne County ; Plio- 
cene. To be continued. 



HYMENOPTERA OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, II. 

BV T. D. A. COCKEREI.I.. 

Megachile occidentalis, Fox, var. leucotricha, n. var. 

Male. — Length, 14 mm., black, with a rather long, 
parallel sided abdomen. Head broad, facial quadrangle almost 
square; checks swollen with white hair, long and dense beneath; 
vertex broad, shining, with strong well-separated punctures, and 
rather thinly clothed with erect black hair; face densely clothed 
with erect white hair, up to the region of the antennae, where it 
gives way to black; clypeus densely punctured, with a median 
impunctate band; antennae long and slender, flagellum dull ferru- 
ginous beneath, last joint scarcely or not enlarged; mandibles 
massive, sharply pointed, the lower edge produced into a large 

* The fact that fossil plants o f widely different latitudes are found 
in the same region may be accounted for by the differences of altitude in 
the same region where the plants grew, and also from the species having 
"been alternately driven North and South by the climatic changes result- 
ing from tropical heat and glacial cold. 



138 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

triangular tooth, the outer edge of which is densely clothed with 
short orange hair; mesothorax strongly and very densely punc- 
tured, thinly clothed with erect hair, some of which is black or 
blackish; no band of dense hair between mesothorax and 
scutellum; sides and under part of thorax with dense white hair; 
tegulse dark brown, closely punctured; wings hyaline, dusky at 
apex; anterior coxal spines short; legs with abundant white hair; 
hair on inner (or anterior) side of tarsi light orange; anterior tarsi 
nearly simple, but first joint laterally dilated and angularly pro- 
duced on the inner side; second joint slightly dilated; these 
joints densely fringed with white hair on the inner side; second 
joint with a black spot, (due to local absence of pubescence) at 
the base of the white fringe on the inner side; the orange hair on 
the anterior tarsi is wholy on the anterior margin; at the apex of 
each of the first two joints of the middle tarsi is a little comb of 
three reddish-orange spines; abdomen strongly punctured, not 
obviously banded, but the hind margins of the segments have 
lateral white hair-bands; and the third, fourth and fifth segments 
have bands of white pubescence (best developed on the fifth) at 
the base of the normally exposed (punctured) part; ventral surface 
of abdomen, especially towards the base, with much white hair; 
apical dorsal segment very black, with short black hair, its end 
deeply notched, the edges of the notch rounded; its extreme 
lateral margins with a sharp tooth, curved backwards and shaped 
like a rose-thorn; lateral plates of genitalia triangular. 

Hab. — Near Los Angeles; and Switzer's Camp (about 12 
miles from Pasadena, in the San Gabriel Mts ) Two males 
collected by Dr. A. Davidson. 

The entire black legs readily distinguish it from t3'pical 
M. occidentalism the type locality of which is Las Cruces, New 
Mexico, 

Megachile fidelis, Cresson. 

Near Los Angeles, both sexes, (Dr. A. Davidson). 

Megachile angelariiin,, Ckll. 

' An additional specimen is from Rock Creek, Mojave 
Desert, (Dr. A. Davidson). 

Megachile frugalis, Cresson. 

A male from Dr. Davidson, Mt. Disappointment, San 
Gabriel Mts. This species has hitherto been known from Texas. 

Megachile manifesta, Cresson. 

A pair from Dr. Davidson, collected at Banning, River- 
side Co., offer some differences from the Rocky Mountain form of 
the species, and should probably be recognized as a distinct geo- 
graphical race. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 139 

Cheiostoma australis, n. sp. 

FkmalK. — Length about 9 mm., black; head and thorax, 
strongly and densely punctured; white pubescence at sides of 
thorax, on postscutellum, cheeks and sides of face especially, 
that on sides of face forming conspicuous bands; antennae short, 
flagellum faintly ferruginous towards end; anterior edge of 
clypeus with a median stout snout-like projection, keeled above; 
mandibles large, bidentate; tegulae very dark-brown; wings 
hyaline, nervures and stigma black; legs black, the hind femora 
large and bright ferruginous, the inner side of the hind tibiae 
also bright ferruginous; base of metathorax with a short longi- 
tudinally striate area; abdomen ^hining, strongly but only 
moderately densely punctured; first two segments more or less 
ferruginous laterally; ventral scopa white. 

Hab. — Near I,os Angeles, (Dr. A. Davidson). Related 
to Cheiostoma rubifloris (CklL, Can. Ent.. 1898, p. 50, as 
Chelynia rubifloris .,) but easily distinguished by the color of the 
legs. 

Alcidamea uvulalis, n. sp. 

Male. — Length about 10 mm., black, with white pube- 
scence, dense on face and thorax; on abdomen forming narrow 
bands on the apical margins of segments i to 4, and less distinctly 
on 5. Head ordinary; e3''es greenish; mandibles black; antennae 
with the scape greatly swollen, punctured; flagellum broad, 
dark ferruginous, crenulated above, apical joint pointed; vertex 
and mesothorax densely punctured; tegulae black; wings yellow- 
ish; abdomen closely punctured; second ventral segment pro- 
duced into an immense uvula-like projection; third ventral 
segment emarginate in the middle; sixth dorsal segment produced 
into a sharp point at each extreme side; apical segment project- 
ing, ending in a point which is laterally flattened. 

Hab — Lancaster, Mojave Desert, (Dr. A. Davidson.) 
A very distinct species. 

Heriades odontura, n. sp. 

Male. — Length about 9 mm., black, narrow in form; head 
rounded; cheeks with white hair; face and front very densely 
punctured; flagellum slightly ferruginous beneath, last joint sub- 
truncate; thorax densely punctured; parapsidal grooves distinct; 
pleura with short white hair; tegulae shining, piceous, with a 
large ferruginous spot; wings strongly ferruginous; legs entirely 
black; abdomen closely punctured, with narrow white hair- 
bands on apical margins of segments i to 4; second ventral 
segment produced into a blunt eminence; apical segment ending 
in three points or teeth, the middle one having at its base a 
circular depression full ot ochreous pubescence. 



140 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Hab. — Near Los Angeles, Calif., (Dr. A. Davidson). 
The male oi Heriades differ in the structure of the apex of the 
abdomen. Thus H. florisomnois (ly. ) has two truncate processes; 
H. cafripanularmn (Kirby) has two long pointed processes; 
H. nigricornis, Nyl. has the end of the abdomen broadly trun- 
cate, without process; H. Odontiira, n. sp., has three processes. 

Halictoides davidsoni, n. sp. 

Male. — Length lo mm., slender; black, vertex with a 
bluish, mesothorax with a greenish tint; head and thorax 
clothed, not very densely, witti long erect hairs, white on cheeks 
and pleura (very long on cheeks beneath), greyish and blackish on 
thorax above, black at sides of face; clypeus densely covered with 
long white hairs; scape slightly swollen, clothed with long black 
hairs; flagellum long faintly tinged with ferruginous beneath, 
head broad, eyes prominent; mandibles thickened about the 
middle, black, ending in two bright ferruginous teeth, the lower 
one much the longest; from the lower side of each mandible near 
the middle proceeds a very long curled tuft of pale orange hair; 
mesathorax with large close punctures, basal area of metathorax 
well-defined, strongly longitudinally striated; tegulse shining 
very dark-brown; wings yellowish, nervures and stigma piceous; 
legs ordinary, black, with long white hair, middle femora swollen; 
abdomen narrow, closely punctured, clothed with short erect 
dull white hair; extreme apex ferruginous; apical vental seg- 
ment terminating in two sharp teeth; vental surface shining, 
with ver}^ little hair. 

Hab. — One from Dr. A. Davidson, from Bear Valley, 
San Gabriel Mts. Closely allied to H. mtilleri, Ckll., 1898, 
which was described from a female. It seems hardly likely that 
H. davidsoni is the male of mulleri, as the latter has the first 
recurrent nervure entering the second submarginal cell very near 
its base, whereas in H. davidsoni it enters a considerable distance 
from the base as in H. marginahis. 

Halictoides (EpiJialictoides) virgatiis, Ckll., 1898. Southern 
California. The following notes, based on cotypes; are additional 
to m}^ original description. 

Male.— Abdomen tufted beneath at apex; fourth ventral 
segment at sides of hind margin tuberculate. 

Female.— Blade of maxilla 700 (this and the palpal 
measurements are all in micromillimeters); joints af palpi min- 
utely scaly; length of palpal joints, (A.) Labial palpi, (i) 380, 

(2) 340, (3) 220, (4) 190; (B.) Maxillary palpi, (i) 270, (2) 310, 

(3) 260, (4) 210, (5) 210, (6) 200. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 141 

PenLtstemork ParisKii, a. hybrid 

BY A. DAVIDSON, M. D. 

In May of this season in an excursion to the foothilir^ 
Messers Braunton, Greata and Johnston at Glendora, and Dr. 
Kraemer and the writer at Azusa, gathered some specimens of 
Pentstemon that were new to the county and somewhat un- 
familiar. Mr. Parish to whom the specimens were referred 
named them P. Parishii 

The plants were compared and discussed at a subsequent 
meeting, and the evidence seemed conclusive in favor of this 
plant being a hybrid between P. centrantJiifolins, Benth, anc 
P. spectabilis, Thurb. 

In color P. Parishii varies from a livid purple to a bright 
red. The leaves are entire, or occasionally denticulate and clasp- 
ing at the base. In centranthifolms they are entire and scarcely 
clasping, while in spectabilis they are spinulose denticulate and 
connate. The inflorescence is intermediate in shape between 
the virgate raceme of the one and the expanded thyrsus of the 
other. The flowers are less ventricose than those of spectabilis 
and more dilated than those of centranthifolkis. The description 
given in Gray's Snop. Fl. though accurate might with advantage 
be more detailed. The sterile fllaments in our specimens were 
not hooked. 

Since the above was written Mr. Hall's work on the Flora 
of San Jacinto has appeared and I find that he likewise considers 
P. Parishii a hybrid. This is a new addition to our published 
county list. Wallace I believe found it in the neighborhood of 
lyOS Angeles long ago but whether the locality was within the 
present county boundaries I have no means of ascertaining. 



A BotanicacI Survey of Sa-rv Ja.cir\to Mountain — Ha.rvey 
Monroe Hall. 

[Pages 140. Plate 14. University Press, Berkeley, 1902.] 

The botanical publications of the University of California have begun 
most auspiciously with Mr. Hall's careful study of the pine belt of San 
Jacinto Mountain. The southernmost lofty summit of the Sierra Nevada 
rises from a desert base of but 500 feet above sea level with precipitous 
abruptness to an Alpine height of nearly ii,oco feet; to the south and west 
dominating the rugged convolutions that separate it from the sea. San 
Jacinto occupies a position which gives its flora a peculiar interest. To a 
statement of the conditions thus presented, and to the working out in 
detail of the resultant problems, Mr. Hall has devoted his first fifty-two 



142 SOUTHERN CALItORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

■pages. The narrow limits into which the different life-zones are com- 
pressed in these southern mountains, renders accurate delimitation a per- 
plexing task, not to be accomplished without thorough field study; but for 
San Jacinto this task has now been performed most successfully. The 
flora of no other like area in the state has received so complete elucidation. 

The remaining pages are occupied* by a catalogue of the Sperma- 
tophytes growing in the pine belt. These number 456 species and varieties, 
all but one having been collected by Mr. Hall. The following plants are 
here for the first time reported from Southern California : 

Panicum thermale, Bolander; Phleum alpinum, L. ; Poa alpina, L. ; 
P Buckleyana, Nash; Trisetiim nutkaiense, S. & M. ; Carex Hallii, Bailey; 
C. niidata. Boott ; C. Preslii, Steud. ; Listera convallarioides, Torr. ; Po- 
tentilla lactea, Greene. Mr. Hall also finds Sambucus Mexicana, Presl., 
a species whose presence in Southern California has been questioned. He 
also refer to Piniis Hexilis, James, the white-barked pine of our higher 
mountains, heretofore regarded as P. albicaulis, Engelm. The new species 
proposed are Broiiiiis Porferi assimilis, Davy; Elyinus Parishii, Davy and 
Merrill; Poa Howellii Chandleri, Davy; Stipa calif ornica, Merrill and 
Davy; Oxytheca marginata, Hall; an elegant little plant; Potentilla acu- 
minata, Hall; P. callida, Hall; Monardclla macrantlia vars. pinetorwn and 
arida. Hall; Erigevon Jacintens, Hall; and Hiilsea z'estifa callicarpha. 
Hall. S. B. P. 



RECKNT IvITERATURE. 

Three new species of Chroniodoris by T. D. A. Cockerell, Nantilis, 
Vol. 16:2. Discovered at La Jolla and San Diego, Cal. 

Trees of Southein California by Prof. W. R. Dudley. Stanford. Art. III. 
"The timber belt and the high Sierras" with a key to the species. Los 
Angeles Saturday Post. Vol. 6:2. 

"Within the limits of the forest reserve and 10 miles from the General 
Grant National Park has grown the largest Sequoia yet discovered. This 
monster which was measured by John Muir has a diameter of 32 ft. L. A. 
Times, Aug. 2jth, igoz. 

Those interested in the habits of the Aboriginal Indians will find 
Mr. Chestnuts "Plants used by the Indians of Medocino County" a mine of 
interesting facts. The food and medicinal plants used by the Indians are 
enumerated as well as the methods whereby they are rendered available for 
use. The Indians has so modified his old habits that this is probably the 
last work of the kind that can be written from direct observation. 

"The thirteenth annual report of the Missouri Garden" is practically 
a Monograph on the Yuccege, by Dr. Treaiease. Coming from the pen of a 
specialist the work is a most desirable one and its value is very much en- 
hanced by 99 plates illustrating every known species, with maps showing 
their distribution in N. America. The author has considerably modified 
the nomenclature previously adopted b}- himself and other botanist. Our 
Western species as amended now are Hesperoyucca Whipplei, Clistoyucca 
arborescens, Yucca Moliavensis. To the southern species many new 
varieties have been added and a new Genus Samuela has with two species 
has been added to include the gamphyllous forms. The variety gfamini- 
fotia of TT. Whipplei is not endorsed though it appears to the writer to be 
desiring of at least varietal rank. 

Through the effort of ]>[r. Braunton the first accurate catalogue of our 
ornamental shrubs and plants has just been issued by the Sycamore Grove 
Nurseries. As a short description accompanies each species, it becomes a 
useful handbook. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 143 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

Utilizing our water supply," by A. J. McClatchie. Bull. No. 43. 
Agric. Exper. Stat. University Arizona. 

"Triassic Ichthy ©pterygia from California and Nevada", by J. C. 
Merriam. Geology, Vol. 3, No. 4. University California. 

"The Root-tubercules of Bur Clover and of some other Leguminous 
Plants," by G. J. Pierce. Botany, Vol. 2. No. to. Proc. Cal. Acad. Science. 

"Lands of the Colorado Delta in the Salton Basin." Bull. No. 140 
with Supplement. Agric. Exper. Stat. University California. 

"Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, Cal.," by V. K. 
Chesnut. Vol. 7, No. 3. Botany, U. S. Dept. Agriculture. 

"Missouri Botanic Garden," Thirteenth Annual Report. 

' Experimental Station Record." Vol. 13, No. 9. U.S. Dept. Agricult. 

"Experiments with Deciduous Fruits at or near the Southern coas^ 
range sub-station Paso Robles, from 1889 to 1902," by C. H. Shinn. Bulletin 
No. 141. Univ. Cal., Agricult. Exper. Stat. 

"A working plan for Southern hardwoods and its results," by 
J. Foley. Reprint Yearbook Dept. Agric. 1901. 

"Grazing in the Forest Reserves." by F. Roth. Reprint Yearbook 
Dept. Agric. 1901. 

"Some Insects injurious to Vegetable Crops." Bulletin No. 33. 
Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agricult. 

"Principal Insects liable to be disturbed on Nursery Stock. Bulletin 
No. 34. Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agricult. 

"Weeds in general:" Two new comers into Pennsylvania. The 
Pennsylvania State College Agric. Exper. Stat. Bulletin No. 58. 

"The action of copper on leaves." A physiological investigation. 
Bulletin Agricult. Exper. Stat. Uuiv. Tennessee. Vol. XV, No. 2. 

"Annual Archaeological Report," Ontario, 1901. Presented by Mr. 
J. H. Hume, F. R. S. 

"The fog fruit or Lippia nodiflora as an economic plant." Timely 
Hints for farmers. No. 31. Agricult. Exper. Station, Univ. Arizona. 

"Irrigation at the Station Farm." Bulletin No. 41. Agricult. Exper. 
Stat. Univ. Arizona. 

"The cool side of a house in Arizona." Bulletin No. 42. Agricult. 
Exper. Stat. Univ. Arizona. 

"Mycological Notes," by C. G. Lloyd, No. 9, Cincinnati, O. 

"The Geastrse," illustrated with 80 figures by C. G. Lloyd. 

"Btilletin of the Lloyd Library of Botany Pharmacy and Materia 
Medica," Lloyd Bros., Cincinnati, O. No. 5, Mycological Series No. 2. 

"Reference to Capillarity to the end of the year 1900." Bulletin of 
the Lloyd Library. Bulletin No. 4. Pharmacy Series No. i. 

"A Flora of the South Fork of Kings River, from Millwood to the 
head waters of Bubbs Creek," by Alice Eastwood. Publications of the 
Sierra Club, No 27. 

"New Species from the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California," by 
Alice Eastwood. Proc. Cal. Acad. Science, Botany, Vol. 2, No. 9. 



144 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Notes. 

Up to July I, Phcenix showed 175 degrees of heat in excess of the 
normal, yet the effect on the staff of the Agricultural Experiment Station 
seems to have been decidedly stimulating. No less than four Bulletins 
(see "Publicaiions Received ") have been issued from that station in less 
than a month. In one Lippia nodiflora, in use in dry localities as a sub- 
stitute for grass in lawns, is recommended as a soil binder in soils liable to 
wash or on banks of irrigating ditches. The result of "Irrigation at the 
Station Farm," and "Utilizing our water supply" at the farm is ably set 
forth by Prof. McClatchie and the encouraging results attained commend 
the pamphlets to every California farmer. All dwellers in the warmer 
districts of the south-west will find in "The cool side of a house in Arizona" 
the best method of building and the scientific reasons therefor. 

F. P. Brackett, Professor of Mathematics in Pomona College has a 
leave of absence for the coming School year. He will spend the year in 
study and investigation at Clarke University, Worcester, Mass , where he is 
the recipient of an honorary fellowship. The following summer he expects 
to spend at Yerkes Observatory in Spectroscopic investigation. 



Transactions. 

GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Los AngeIvES, Cai. , October 27th, 1902. 

The p^eological Section met at the Woman's Club Rooms at 8 p. m. 
Chairman Geo. W. Parsons called the meeting to -order. Minutes of pre- 
vious meetings read, corrected and approved. The Chairman introduced 
Mr. David C Cunningharo as the speaker of the evening, who gave a very 
interesting description of Chile, its climate, geology and topography. 

He stated in parts, that the natural advantages ot Chile would include 
all the marvels of California, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, Oregon and 
Alaska, as to climate, minerals, desert, forests, agriculture, mountains, 
rivers and lakes, while its climate ranges all the way from tropic to arctic, 
with the same variation of rainfall. 

A portion of the inteiior having fertile plains furnishing wheat, cattle 
and fruits for the less tropical regions in the North. The speaker gave a 
thorough description of its mines and mineral formations, its nitrate and 
borax deposits, some of which were located at an elevation of 12,000 feet 
above sea level. 

In regard to earthquakes, there they realize the genuine article, which 
was frequent' y accompanied with tidal waves which were occasionally very 
destructive. His description of a trip of 17,200 feet of an altitude up the 
mountains was full of interest. He also gave a description of the Birds and 
Animals indigenous to the section, 

G. M.\yoR Taber, Sec'y. 



BOTANICAL SECTION. 

The Section met at 501 Laughlin Block on November i8th. Mr. 
Johnston in the chair. The evening was devoted to the examination of 
our native live-oaks, herbarium specimens of which were shown. 

Mr. C. Russell was elected Secretary for the ensuing year. 

C. Russell, Secretary. 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL, 



INDEX TO VOL. I 



BULLETIN 



Southern California Academy of Sciences 



1903 



INDEX TO VOL. 

Numbers 1 to 9 



11 



Abies, 11 
Allocarya, 13 
Alsine, 67* 
Amarantus, 70, 81 
AmblyopapiJus, 14 
Amsinekia, 13 
Androniciis, 35* 
Arenaria, 67* 
Artbronia, 34, 72 
Aplianisma, 70 
Arthopyrenia, 73 
Astragalus, 26* 
Atriplex, 70 

Baeria, 14, 43 
Batis, 70 
Biatoria, 33, 59 
Blepharipappus, 14 
Blepharopoda, 85 
Brandegea, 81 
Brodiaea, 70 
Buellia, 34, 54, 71 

Car ex, 70 
Cetraria, 53 
■Chiodecton, 34, 71 
■Cliimaphila, 13 
■CheiranthuS, 41* 
Chicoriiim, 43 
•Chenopodium, 70 
■Chrysoma, 43 
•Cicer, 29 
'Cladonia, 23 
Cotyledon, 29, 41* 
Collemadium, 52 
Collema, 52 
Conorhinus, 121 
Convolvulus, 43 
Crataegus, 69* 
Cryptanthe, 13 
Cuscuta, 43, 13 . 
Cycladenia, 70 

Dalea, 83* 
Delphinium, 68* 
Dermatocarpon, 73 



Dendrographia, 23, 54 
Dichelostemma, 65 
Diplotaxis, 29 
Dirina, 33, 59 
Draba, 81* 

Emerilia, 85 
Endocarpum, 72 
Eremocarya, 13 
Eriogonum, 68, 70* 
Eristalis, 85 
Euvanessa, 102 
Evernia, 23 
Exorista, 12 

Galinosoga, 43 
Gnaphalium, 43 
Grindelia, 14 
Gutierezia, 43 
Gyrophora, 53 

Halictus, 84* 
Hassea, 7*3 
Harpagonella, 70 
Helianthus, 30 
Hemizonella^ 43. 
Heppia, 53 
Hesperoonide, 70 
Hookera, 65* 

Juncus, 70 

Krynitzkia, 70, 83 

Layia, 29 
Leeania, 59 
Lecanactis, 34 
Lecanora, 25, 54, 58 
Leeidea, 34, 54, 58* 
Lepidium, 41. 
Lepidopa, 45 
Leptogium, 52 
Lesquerella, 29 
Lipocbaeta, 85 
Linantbtis, 13 
Lupinus, 29 



Malva, 13 
Medicago, 43 
Melanolestis, 85, 120 
Mentba, 70 
Mentzelia, 69* 
Mimulus, 70 
Murgantia, 85 

Pagurus, 85 
Pannaria, 53 
Paragus, 85 
Parmelia, 24, 52 
Pellea, -70 

Pertusaria, 34, 54, 59 
Peucedanum, 43 
Pbyscia, 24, 54 
Pinus, 11, 12 
Placodium, 24, 53, 54 
Plantago, 14 
Platygrapba, 34, 71 
Psoroticbia, 73 
Ptiloria, 14 
Pulex, 118 
Pyrenopsis, 52 
Pyxine, 53 

Scbizopelte, 24, 54 
Solanum, 43 
Sphinctrina, 52 

Thelopsis, 73 
Tbeloscbistes, 24 
Tracbylia, 52 
Tribulus, 43 
Trifolium, 43 
Trillium, 67 
Triteleia, 66* 

Usnea, 23, 52, 54 
Urceolaria, 33, 59. 

Verbena, 70 
Verbesina, 83 
Verrucaria, 35, 72 

Zeuxia, 85 



NOTE — Tbe asterisk denotes new species. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOL. II 
1903 

Numbers 1 to 9 

ABRAMS, LE ROY. 

Additions to the Flora of Los Angeles Co. II. 
New Southern California Plants. 

BAUMGARDT, B. R. 

Annual Report of Academy. 

COCKERELL, T. D. A. 

Diptera from Southern California. 
A New Bee of the Genus Andronicus. 
New Bees from Southern California. 

DAVIDSON, DR A. 

New Plant Records from Los Angeles Co. 
The "Kissing Bug." 

HASSE, DR. H. E. 

Contributions to the Lichen-flora of the Coast Islands. 
Additions to the Lichen-flora of Southern California. 
The Lichen-flora of San Clemente. 

HELLER, A. A. 

Notes on Plants from Middle Western California. 

KNIGHT, WM. H. 

Radium. 

PARISH, S. B. 

Concerning Certain Trees. 

Two New Plants from Southern California. 

A Few New or Rare Southern California Plants. 

RIVERS, PROF. J. J. 

The Late Visit of Vanessa Cardui. 
The Caterpillar Plague. 
Euvanessa Antiopa. 
Concerning Fleas. 

TATES, DR. L. G. 

Prehistoric California. 



BULLETIlSr 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier G. W. Parsons 



CONTENTS : 

Page 

Prehistoric California, Dr. Lorenzo Gordin Yates 145 

Concerning Certain Trees, S. B. Parish 155 

Diptera from Southern California, T. D. A. 

CoCKRELL 156 

Additions to the Flora of Los Angeles County, II, 

LeRoy Abrams .' 157 

Recent Literature 158 

Publications Received 158 

Notes 159 

Transactions 159-60 



Published for the Association by 

baumgardt publishing CO 

231 West First St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Yearly Subscription , $1.00 



Single Copies, 25 cts 



MAILED JANUARY 26, 1903 



> 



BULLETIN ,,,,,,, 

OF THjE , ,,,,^,_ 



SoutHcrn Galllornia flGaflemy o! Sciences 

VOL.2. LOS ANGELES, CAL, JANUARY I, 1903. NO. I 



231 West First Street. 



PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA. 

( Continued from December Bulletin ) 



BY DR. LORENZO GORDIN YATES. 

Acer sextianum Saporta ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County; Plio- 
cene and Miocene, and in the Miocene of France. 

MYRTUS — Myrtle. 

Mytrus oregonensis Lesq. ; Corral Hollow, San Joaquin County ; 
Miocene. 

LONiCEREAE — Caprifoliaceas. 

Viburnum. 
Viburnum zvhymperi Heer : Shasta County ; Miocene, Related 
to the Laurestinus. 

SAPOTACEAE. 

Diospyros — Persimmon. 

Diospyros virginiana turneri Lesq. ; Contra Costa County ; Mio- 
cene. 

ARAEIACEAE. 

Aralia — Spikenard. 

Aralia acerifolia Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County ; Pliocene 
and Miocene.— Nebraska. 

Aralia angustiloba Lesq. ; Chalk Bluff's, Nevada County ; Plio- 
cene. 

Aralia lasseniana Lesq. ; Lassen County ; Miocene. 

Aralia zvhitneyi Lesq.; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County; Pliocene. 

Aralia saddachi Heer ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County ; Pliocene 
and Miocene. 

CORNEAE. 

Cornus — Dogwood. 
Cormis hyperborea Heer; Lassen County; Miocene. — Arctic 
Zone. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 147 

Cornus kelloggii Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County ; Pliocene. 
Corniis ovalis Lesq. ; Table Mountain, Tuolumne County ; Plio- 
cene. 

MAGNOLIACEAE. 

Magnolia. 

Magnolia calif ornica Lesq.; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County; Las- 
sen County ; Contra Costa County ; Pliocene and Miocene. 

Magnolia ingleiieldi Heer ; Lassen County ; Miocene. 

Magnolia lanceolatci Lesq.; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County; For- 
est City, Sierra County ; Pliocene. 

ILICEAE (Aquifoliacese). 
Ilex— HoWy. 
Ile.v prunifolia Lesq. ; Table Mountain, Tuolumne County ; Plio- 
cene. 

RHAMNAEAE. 

Zizyphus — Lotus Tree. 

Zizyphus microphyllus Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County ; Pli- 
ocene. 

Zizyphus piperoidcs Lesq.; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County; Plio- 
cene. 

JUGLANDEAE. 

Juglans — Walnut. 

Juglans calif ornica Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County ; Plio- 
cene. Not the same as the living species of that name, but 
the fossil has the priority. 

Juglans deheyana Heer; Rock Corral, Placer County; Cretace- 
ous or Eocene. 

Juglans laurinea Lesq. ;■ Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County; Pliocene. 

Juglans ore goniana Lesq. ; Oregon ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada 
County, Cal. ; Pliocene and Miocene. 

Juglans rugosa Lesq. ; Lassen County ; Miocene. Also Wyoming; 
Montana. 

HICKOREAE. 

Carya — Hickory. 
Carya hilinica Linger ; Monte Cristo Tunnel, Plumas County ; 
Miocene. 

STERCUUACEAE. 

Pterospermites. 
Pterospermites spectabilis Heer ; Spanish Peak, Plumas County ; 
Miocene. 

ANACARDIACEAE. 

Rhus — Sumach. 
Rhus hozveniana Lesq. ; Table Mountain, Tuolumne County ; Pli- 
ocene. 



14^ SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Rhus dispersa Lesq. ; Table Mountain, Tuolumne County; Pli- 
ocene. 

Rhus heuUeri Heer ; Corral Hollow, Alameda Count}- ; Miocene. 

Rhus metopioidcs Lesq.; Table Mountain, Tuolumne County; 
Pliocene. 

RJius mixta Lesq.; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County; Pliocene. 

Rhus myricaefolia Lesq. ; Chalk Bluffs, Nevada County ; Pliocene- 

Rhus typhinoides Lesq.; Table Mountain, Tuolumne County; 
Pliocene. 

ZANTHOXII^EAE. 

Zanthoxylon. 
Zanthoxylon.diversifolhun Lesq.; Nevada County; Pliocene. 

ROSAFLOREAE. 

Cercocarpiis. 
Cercocarpus antiquus Lesq.; Table JMountain, Tuolumne County; 
Pliocene. leguminosae. 

Colutea — Bladder-senna. 
Colutea hozvcniana Lesq. ; Nevada County ; Miocene. 

Li addition to the above named extinct species, a large pro- 
portion of the plants composing our present flora may be prop- 
erly considered as, in a measure, prehistoric, for the reason that 
the majority of them appeared previous to, or about the time of 
the advent of man. 

California possesses living trees which connect us more 
closely with prehistoric times than can be claimed by any other 
region of country on the earth. These have come down to us 
as living records of an epoch so far distant from the present that, 
since they germinated and commenced their growth, every other 
species of the land plants, and the entire mammalian fauna of 
that epoch have become extinct, and their places occupied by 
new, and in many instances, widely diff'erent species. 

These "Big Trees" of California open up views and give 
vivid impressions of the past such as no other living thing can 
equal, and although their exact ages have not been definitely 
proven, there seems to be no doubt that some of the individuals 
now growing on the w-estern slopes of our Sierras are from two 
to three, or perhaps four, thousand years old. Could these grand 
old Giants of the Forest portray the changes they have wit- 
nessed in their lifetime, what grand and fascinating stories they 
could tell ! 

Prof. C. S. Sargent, in his ''Sylva of North America," says 
of them : "The average height of Sequoia Wellingtojiiana is 
about 275 feet, and its trunk diameter near the ground 20 feet, 
although individuals from 300 to 320 feet tall, with trunks from 




Part of one of the "Big Trees" (.Sequoia gigantea) of the Mariposa grove in tlie Sierra 
Nevada Mountains. The Sequoias rank among the most remarkable trees known to man. 
They grow to incredible heights, straight, tall and columnar, with short and densely spread- 
ing branches. The bark near the ground is from one to two feet thick. A specimen meas- 
ured in August. 1902, by Professor Muir, was found to be 108 feet in circumference one 
foot above the ground. The massive, fluted trunk, straight, strong and adamant as a pillar, 
was free of branches to a height of 175 feet, where its diameter was eleven feet. 



I50 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

25 to 30 feet thick, are not rare. During four or five centuries 
the tapering- stem is clothed with slender, crowded branches, 
which are erect above and horizontal near the middle of the 
tree, and below sweep toward the ground in graceful curves, 
thus forming a dense, narrow, strict pyramid. Gradually the 
lower branches disappear, and those at the top of the tree lose 
their aspiring habit ; the trunk, which is much enlarged and but- 
tressed at the base, and fluted with broad, low, rounded ridges, 
becomes naked for 100 or 150 feet; and the narrow, rounded 
crown of short, horizontal branches loses its regularity, and 
gains picturesqueness from the eccentric development of some of 
the branches or the destruction of others." 

The "Report on the Big Trees of California," issued by the 
Division of Forestry of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 
1900, introduces the subject as follows : Before the glacial pe- 
riod the genus of big trees called vSequoia flourished widely in 
the temperate zones of three continents. There were many spe- 
cies, and Europe, Asia, and i\merica had each its share. But 
when the ice fields moved down out of the north the luxuriant 
vegetation of the age declined, and with it these multitudes of 
trees. One after another the different kinds gave w^ay, their 
remains became buried, and when the ice receded just two spe- 
cies, the Big Tree and Redwood, survived. Both grew in Cali- 
fornia, separate from the other, and each occupying, in com- 
parison with its former territory, a mere island of space. As 
we know them now, the Redwood { Sequoia sempervirens) lives 
only in a strip of the coast ranges 10 to 30 miles wide, extend- 
ing from just within the southern border of Oregon to the Bay 
of Monterey, while the Big Tree (Sequoia zvashiiigfoniana) is 
found only in small groves scattered along the west slope of the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains, from the middle fork of the Ameri- 
can River to the head of Deer Creek, a distance of 260 miles. 

The utmost search reveals but ten main groups, and the 
total number of good-sized trees in these groups must be lim- 
ited to a few thousand. It is, moreover, the plain truth that 
all the specimens which are remarkable for their size do not 
exceed 500. 

The Big Trees are unique in the world — the grandest, the 
largest, the oldest, the most majestically graceful of trees — and 
if it were not enough to be all this, they are among the scantiest 
of known tree species, and have the extreme scientific value of 
being the best living representatives of a former geologic age. 
It is a tree which has come down to us through the vicissitudes 
of many centuries solelv because of its superb qualifications. 
Its bark is often two feet thick and almost non-combustible. 
The oldest specimens felled are still sound at the heart, and fun- 
ofus is an enemv unknown to it. Yet with all these means of 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 151 

maintenance the Big Trees have apparently not increased their 
range since the glacial epoch. They have only just managed 
to hold their own on the little strip of country where the cli- 
mate is locally favorable." 

It will be seen by the foregoing list that the extinct flora 
of California is almost exclusively Miocene and Pliocene, with 
an occasional species from older formations. This might rea- 
sonably be expected when we consider the comparatively recent 
period of the appearance of California above the ocean. 

While California formed a part of a bed of the Pacific Ocean 
and supported innumerable forms of marine life, large areas 
east and north of it were clothed with extensive forests, which 
furnished shelter and food for the many genera and species of 
strange vertebrate animals not found in our own strata. 

From the recognized affinity between the flora of North 
America and that of the Arctic Regions, it is inferred that our 
floras, both fossil and living, had their origin in the North, and 
from there the forms have been gradually distributed south- 
ward. This will account for the fact that a large number of 
species are common to Greenland and North America ; and also 
accounts for the identity or great similarity of vegetable forms 
of the above named regions with those of China and Japan. 
The affinities of the present flora, with those of the middle and 
later Tertiary are unmistakable, although many of the living 
genera have not been discovered in a fossil state, and may have 
been of more recent origin, or later introduction. Many of the 
fossil forms are not represented here in the living species, but 
their representatives are now found in distant parts of the world 
under different climatic conditions from those of the Calif or- 
nici of tod;iy. 

THE FAUNA OF PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA. 

Having outlined the geological vicissitudes which brought 
about and dominated the geography of California from the dawn 
of the Cretaceous Period, or "Reptilian Age," down to the time 
when the earth was prepared for man's occupancy, it will be 
necessary to return to our former starting point, in order to out- 
line the introduction and succession of animal life in California, 
and as the Vertebrates are the dominant and most important of 
the sub-kingdoms, we will give them the most attention. 

The Invertebrates, however, being the oldest and most per- 
sistent, serve as important, and in fact, indispensable aids in de- 
termining the geological formations, and their relations to the 
order of succession of animal and vegetable life through the 
ages. 

Vertebrates are much more susceptible than invertebrates 



152 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

to changes of their surroundings, and consequently more sub- 
ject to modification of form and eventual extinction from en- 
forced migration to unfavorable environment and conditions. 

These unfavorable conditions may result from great cli- 
matic changes caused by oscillations of the earth's surface, or 
other cosmic disturbances, which drive out or exterminate the 
indigenous plants and animals upon which these vertebrates were 
previously dependent for their sustenance. 

The capacity for migration, however, tends to the survival 
of these species that possessed it, for "Organisms which are in- 
capable of moving from place to place in search of food, or of 
migration to escape vicissitudes of temperature, are much more 
completely subject to influences of their environment than those 
that are capable of such movement." 

When, through change of level of the earth's surface, 
drought has overtaken a region, animals capable of the neces- 
sary migrations have escaped. A^'Tien an irruption of destructive 
animal enemies has threatened an animal population with death, 
those members of it whose strength or speed insured them safety, 
were the survivors."* 

When we consider the effects of the vast changes in the 
phvsiographv of the earth described in our former chapter, and 
the danger from other animals, we can realize something of the 
terrific struegle for survival among the orehistoric land animals. 
The effects of these causes are much less perceptible in the 
case of marine animals, either vertebrate or invertebrate. Hence 
we find mollusks, crustaceans, radiates, and the lower forms of 
animal life much more persistent, manv of the genera having 
come down to us in an unbroken life almost from the first ap- 
pearance of animal life. 

The Nautilidfe, or Nautilus family, during the Silurian Age, 
shone with all their lustre, and presented the most varied forms ; 
likewise manv other families of the Mollusca have come down 
to us from the same. 

All the srenera of mollusks are not equally plastic, nor rnod- 
ified by time, the Naticas, Areas, Nuculas, Chitons, Nautilus, 
etc., have lived during a long-er period than have the o^reat ma- 
jority of other forms of animal life, and the extinct forms more 
or less closely resemble the living ones. 

Reptiles' and Mammals do not possess the same resistance 
to modification, and to this absence of plasticity in the Mollusca 
is due the fact that, while the moTlusks persist through manv 
geolosrical aees, the Vertebrates are so subject to change by cir- 
cumstances that the thinnest stratigraphical horizons can be 
characterized, from the comparative rapidity of the changes in 



■■ "Origin of the Fittest," by Prof. E, D. Cope, New York, li 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 153 

the forms of vertebrate life. We look to the mollusca for evi- 
dences of the contemporaneous age of the strata of widely sep- 
arated localities, and the continuity of specific and generic forms 
through countless ages. 

Any attempt to trace the animal life of a region can be 
likened to the 'Voll-call of an army after a series of hard-fought 
battles, when only a few scarred and crippled veterans remain to 
answer to their names." Or rather, it must resemble an array 
of ancient relics dug from some long forgotten field of combat, 
when no survivor remains to tell the tale of the contest. 

Our only source of information is the Book of Nature, from 
which time and the mutability of events have blotted out or mis- 
placed paragraphs, pages, and in some instances entire chapters, 
leaving the gaps to be filled by close study, analogy, inference, or 
the imagination. 

Many of these spaces or blanks may be restored by future 
discoveries ; we can only make the best possible use of the ma- 
terial at hand, trusting to future writers of perhaps later gener- 
ations to make the record more nearly complete. 

By laborious and long continued research the ancient strata 
of the earth's crust have been explored, and have yielded fossil 
skeletons of extinct animals which have proved to be of more 
value to science than rare implements or vessels of bronze or 
gold. 

On the American Continent vertebrate life was introduced 
after the close of the Silurian Period, or at least no fossil re- 
mains of vertebrates have been found in the rocks of that period. 
During the Triassic Period vertebrates had advanced so far that 
the husre Dinosaurs had attained an enormous development in 
America, and left their fossil footprints in the rocks as their 
record. But it was during the Cretaceous Period that reotilian 
life attained its sfreatest development in America, when Turtles, 
Crocodiles and Dinosaurs abounded in the open seas and estu- 
aries of the period. The modern sharks also appeared at that 
time. 

The reptiles were present in immense numbers and great 
varietv, having come down from earlier periods. 

The Mosasaurs, which attained the sfreatest leneth of any 
known saurian, appeared then, growing to a length of from sev- 
enty to eighty feet. 

Weird and terrific reptiles roamed on cretaceous land : and 
others sixty to seventy feet long, preyed upon the smaller habi- 
tants of the cretaceous oceans ; and flyine reptiles with winio-s 
expanding to a width of fifty feet navis'ated the air of the period. 

Immense turtles, with a length of thirteen feet, and a breadth 
of fifteen feet between the tips of their extended flippers, inhab- 
ited the shallow cretaceous seas of our present Plains Region. 



/JV SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The late Professor E. D. Cope g-ave a list of one hundred 
and forty known species of reptiles from the Cretaceous of North 
America. 

This was the era of the introduction of Birds. There were 
hirds with the long- vertebrated tails and toothed jaws of rep- 
tiles ; next the Toothed Birds, entirely different from anv exist- 
ing- order, which, instead of the horny beak characteristic of ex- 
isting- birds, had thin, long, slender jaws, with many sharp, con- 
ical teeth, set in sockets (Odontotornas) ; others with teeth set in 
grooves (Odontalc^e) , and finally the true birds (Ornithes) of 
the present time. 

The Fishes advanced in their evolution from older forms, 
and the typical modern fishes were first introduced in the Cre- 
taceous. 

Of the Mollusks, the Oysters and allied genera, the Aviculas 
and Inoceramus attained to a great size, and there were immense 
numbers of Ammonites, Baculites and Belemnites in great va- 
riety, and of immense size. (The writer found an Ammonite 
in Shasta County which was over two feet in diameter). 

The Ammonites died out at the close of the Cretaceous, after 
taking upon themselves strange forms just previous to their ex- 
tinction. 

These strange forms have been likened bv Agassiz to death 
contortions — forms assumed in the attempt to adapt themselves 
to the new environment, and thus to attempt escape from their 
inevitable destiny. 

With the close of the Cretaceous, the huge marine reptiles 
also became extinct, and their places were occupied by different 
forms. 

The bodily upheaval of the entire western half of our con- 
tinent, which abolished the great interior Cretaceous sea. re- 
sulted in a correspondingly great change in climatic conditions, 
and brought about an extraordinary change of life-system. This 
has been called "a. period of rapid evolution, which characterized 
and accompanied the dawn of the modern history of the earth.'" 
(Le Conte). 

THE AGE OF MAMMALS. 

It may be remarked that no animals have been discovered 
which can be considered as the progenitors of the Mammals. 
Marsupials, which are of course Mammals, have been found in 
the Jurassic, and still exist in some portions of the world. There 
seems to be a gap in the procession of the Mammalia between 
the Jurassic and the Tertiary, when possibly some conditions 
existed on this continent which drove them to other regions, as 
Nature does not repeat itself, nor is the type of an organism which 
becomes extinct ever reproduced. 

In the Tertiary Period animals and plants typical of those 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 155 

of the present day were introduced or became prominent, the 
huge saurians and other reptiles of previous periods having dis- 
appeared, the Age of Mammals was inaugurated. 

"At that time the Pacific shore-line was along the foot- 
hills of the Sierra range, and therefore the whole region occu- 
pied by the Coast ranges, and the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
valleys were then a sea-bottom." 

The general character of the life system of animals was 
similar to the present ; the most important diiferences arising 
from the subsequent extinction of the large mammals. 

(To be Continued). 



Concerning Certain Trees. 

BY S. B. PARISH. 

Abies magnifica — In a recent interesting popular account 
of the trees of Southern California,* mention is made of 
the reputed presence of Abies magmfica in the highest parts of 
San Jacinto Mountain. The occurrence of this tree was hardly 
to be expected so far south, although not impossible ; but it seemed 
highly improbable that, if present, it should have escaped the 
observation of so capable a botanist as Mr. H. M. Hall, who had 
so thoroughly explored San Jacinto. It appeared worth while, 
therefore, to investigate the report, that it might be either veri- 
fied or corrected. It was found to have originated with a non- 
botanical collector, who reported the finding of a small grove on 
the northwest side of Tahquitz Valley. Through the kindness 
of Mr. Abbot Kinney I have received specimens, including ripe 
cones, from one of these identical trees. They unmistakably 
belong to A. concolor, the common species of our mountains. 
A. magnifica, therefore, cannot be included in our silva. 

PiNus TUBERCULATA — A dwarf pine, presumably of this 
species, is said to grow on the slopes of San Jacinto above Ban- 
ning. It grows on the mountain side above the San Bernardino 
Valley, and there is no reason for regarding its presence on San 
Jacinto with suspicion. As yet, however, the report lacks the 
support of specimens, or the indorsement of a botanical observer. 

QUERCUS WiSLizENi — It is desirable that the precise limits 
of this oak in Southern California should be ascertained. It is 
abundant along the slopes of Sierra Liebre, above Antelope Val- 



156 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ley, which it ap])ears to have reached by way of Tejon Pass. 
Should its distribution follow that of other plants that have en- 
tered by the same gateway, it would be unlikely to extend be- 
3^ond the Sierra Santa Monica and the neighborhood of Los An- 
geles and Pasadena. Mr. Abrams reports it from the latter re- 
gion,f and I have a specimen collected on Mt. Lowe by Mr. 
Kinney. Mr. Abrams also reports having obtained it in the San 
x\ntonio, San Bernardino and Santa Ana ranges. I have been 
unable to detect it in the San Bernardino Mountains, and speci- 
mens from that station with which Mr. Abrams has obliged me, 
while indecisive, appear rather to belong to 0. diniiosa, the com- 
mon scrub oak of the region. 

Fruiting specimens should be readily recognized, and it is 
to be hoped that our resident botanists will endeavor to collect 
material whereby its range may be definitely established. 

QuERCUs Engelmanni — That a student of oaks should 
consider this species to have been improperlv segregated from 
0. ohlongi folia, Torr., is conceivable: but that one who admits 
the validity of the former should find Southern California speci- 
mens which he is able to refer to the latter, is matter for aston- 
ishment, yet, in "The Oaks of the Continental Divide, :|: in which 
work the validity of 0. Bngclmanni is admitted, three specimens 
from San Diego County are referred to 0. ohiongifolia. 

It will be difficult to convince those, who have a field knowl- 
edge of the Blue Oaks of our Coast Ranges, that they are of 
more than one species. One of these three specimens is of my 
own collecting, and if it does not represent 0. Engleinanni, that 
species has no existence. 

San Bernardino, Cal. 



Diptera. from Southern Californiot. 

Some Diptera which I obtained last year have been kindly 
identified by Mr. D. W. Coquillett, as follows : 

(i) San Pedro, Calif. : Nansigastcr uniuiaculata. Towns.: Hcli- 
cobia Iielicis (Towns); Chlorops assiniilis. Macq. ; 
Ciller pipiciis. Linn. 

(2) La Jolla, Calif.: E.vorisfa confijiis. Fallen: Sciiotainia trili- 
neata, V. T. Wulp. 

T. D. A. COCKERELL. 



*Prof. W. R. Dudley in Los Angeles Saturday Post, June 7, 1902. 

tLeroy Abrams' Bull. S. Cal. Acad., i :8q. 

tDr. A. P. Rydberg Bull., N. Y. Bot. Card., i :224. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 157 



Additions to the Flora of Los Angeles County, II. 

By LeRoy Abrams. 

Rumex ptdcJier L. Inglewood about the station. 

Malva pusilla Smith. Ballona creek near Mesmer. 

Chimaphila Menziesii Spreng. Summit of Mt. Wilson 
under pines. 

Arctostaphylos patiila Greene. Mt. San Antonio above 
8000 ft. 

Cuscuta salina Engelm. Ballona Marshes growing on var- 
ious marsh plants. 

Allocarya trachycarpa (Gray) Greene. In moist ground 
near Inglewood. 

Cvyptantlie barbigera (Gray) Greene. Santa Monica Mts. on 
the north slope near Cahuenga Pass. 

C. flaccida (L,ehm.) Greene. Chatsworth Park on grassy 
hillsides. 

C. leiocarpa (F. & M.) Greene. Sand dunes along the sea- 
shore between Redondo and Port Ballona. 

Q, muriculata (A DC.) Greene. Mt. Wilson ranging from 
3500 ft. to the summit. 

Ereniocarya lepida (Gray) Greene. Summit of Mt. Wilson. 

Amsinckia lycopsoides I^ehm. What seems to be this plant 
is not infrequent along the coast usually along the sand dunes. 
The plant is the same as the one about San Francisco which Dr. 
Greene calls by this name, but so far as we know no one has 
ascertained just what this species or A. spedabilis F. & M. is. 

A. intermedia F. & M. The common species around Los 
Angeles is identical with the plants of San Francisco Bay region 
which go by this name. 

Linanthns ciliatus (Benth) Greene. Summit of Mt. Wilson. 

Nicotiana Clevlandi Gray. Frequent on the sand dunes be- 
tween Port Ballona and Redondo. 

Orthocarpiis densiflorus Benth. In a set of plants recently 
sent to Stanford University herbarium by Mr. S. B. Parish was 



/S^ SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

an Orthocarpus labeled Q. purpurascens Palnieri Gray. It be- 
longs, bower, to tbe Q. deiisiflonis type and we are unable to de- 
tect any material difference between it and that species. The 
specimens were collected near I,os Angeles by L. A. Greata in 
April, 1899. 

Plantago Bigelovii Gray. In moist ground near Inglewood. 

Grindelia caiuporimi Greene- Wiseburn. 

Belpharipappus elegans (Nutt.) Greene. Big Tejunga wash. 

B. hispidus Greene. Arroyo Seco and LaCanada. 

Baeria chrysostoma F. & M. Port Ballona and the northern 
slope of the Santa Monica Mts. 

B. mutica (Nutt.) Gray. Edges of sand dunes near Port 
Ballona. 

Amblyopappus pusilltis YL. 8l A. On cliffs overhanging the 
sea, Port Los Angeles and between Port Ballona and Redondo. 

Ptiloria pleiirocarpa Greene. Common about Pomona. 

Stanford University, Cal. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

In the Torrey Bulletin for July, 1902, 4 new grasses are described 
by Lamson-Scribner and Merrill. All are Western, and two are of local 
interest, viz., Elymus vehitinus from Deep Creek, San Bernardino Mts. ; 
and Festiica Elmeri, from Stanford. 

In the same issue Miss Eastwood describes live more new species 
of Nemophila. 

Torreya August. Hemisonia grandiflora, Abrams. A new species 
from Crystal Springs Lake, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

"Preliminary sketch of the Mohave Indians,'" by A. L. Kroeber. 
American Anthropologist, Vol. 4, No. 2. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

Experimental Station Record. U. S. Dept. Agricult. Nos. 10 and 11, 
Vol. 13 and Vol. i. No.c i. Vol. 14. 

Monogram of the N. American Umbelliferae, by J. N. Coulter and 
J. N. Rose, U. S. National Herbarium. Vol. 7, No. i. 

The Western Hemlock, by E. T. Allen, Forestry Bulletin No. 33, 
U. S. Dept. Agricult. 

The River-irrigating Waters of Arizona — Their Characters and 
Effects. By R. H. Forbes. Bull. No. 44, Agric. Experiment Station, Univ. 
of Arizona. 

Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Association of 
Economic Entomologists. Bull. 27, Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agricult. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 159 

Notes. 

A. A. Eaton has re-named our Pacific Coast Woodwardia in the 
Fern Bulletin for October, 1901, 9, pp. 86-87, as IVoodwardia spinulosa. 
It is said to differ from Jl\ mdicans in the absence of the scaly bud, and 
ni being- glandular. In the number for January, 1901 (Vol. 9, pp. 7-8), a 
new form of the sword-fern is described by the same writer from near 
Berkeley, under the name Polystichum iminitnin, f. Unbellafuiii. 

J. BuRTT Davy. 

Professor Jepson of Berkeley, with a corps of assistants, is at pres- 
ent engaged on a Flora of Southern California. To those interested in 
botany such a work will be warmly welcomed. We wisli it may make 
an early appearance. 

During the summer we had the pleasure of a flying visit from Marcus 
E. Jones. Mr. Jones has just completed a monograph of the genus Allium, 
and is nearly ready to publish a monograph on the genus Astragalus. We 
learn from him that the Allium collected last summer at Tallac by one 
of the members of the Botanical Section is A. atropurpurcum; that 
Astragalus leocopsis and A. leucophylliis are forms of the same species 
and that leucopsis is the better name : also that A. fastidius is the proper 
name for A. fastidiosus, and that the Academy's specimen of A. Crota- 
lariae is A. Poiuoniensis, rarely collected. 

L. A. G. 



Transactions. 

MEETING OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

Los Angei.es, Cal,., Jan. 15, 1903. 
The Board of Directors of the Southern California Academy of 
Sciences met this evening at 7:30 o'clock with President Comstock in the 
chair. 

Those present were: Messrs. Knight, Hooker, Parsons and Whiting. 
Dr. John Woodbridge was appointed Secretary, pro tem, in the absence 
of the regular Secretary. 

The following applications for membership were received and passed 
upon favorably: 

G. A. Bobrick H. B. Cheney 

G. H. Trevalyan Miss Maude Cooper 

Parran F. Rice Frank W. Pierson 

Dr. M. G. Crow 

Bills to the extent of $91.75 were acted upon favorably. 

The following committees were appointed: 

Publication — Dr. Davidson, Melville Dozier, G. W. Parsons. 

Finance— W. H. Knight, J. D. Hooker, Dr. J. R. Haynes. 

Affiliation — B. R. Baumgardt, W. H. Knight, Dr. John Woodbridge. 

Membership— C. A. Whiting, Dr. John Woodbridge, G. M. Taber. 

Adjourned. 

John Woodbridge, 

Secretary, pro tem. 



Meetings of the Board of Directors. 

Los Angeles^ Cal, Oct. 22, 1902. 

A meeting of the Board of Directors was held this evening at the 
residence of President Comstock, who presided. 

The directors present were Messrs. Comstock, Knight, Whiting, Ta- 
ber, Davidson and Baunigardt. 

Dr. Lorenzo C. Yates was elected to honorary membership. Mr. John 
B. French was elected an active member. 

The President appointed a committee to act as incorporators for 
the Academy. The following members were appointed on the committee : 
Messrs. T. B. Comstock, W. H. Knight, J. D. Hooker, J. C. Nevin, Mel- 
ville Dozier and H. O. Collins. 

It was moved and carried that the Secretary be instructed to issue 
the new Constitution in pamphlet form and to incorporate a revised list 
of the membership in the pamphlet. 

Application for the formation of a Botanical Section, in accordance 
with the new Constitution and By-laws, was received. 

There being no further business, the meeting stood adjourned. 

Los Angeles, Cal, Nov. 14, 1902. 

Directors present, Messrs. Comstock, Knight, Davidson, Tabor, Kin- 
ney and Baumgardt. 

Hon. VV. A. Cheney was added to the committee on incorporation. 

New members elected were Jessie A. Cady, Elfigo Riverall, Adolph 
Petter and C. H. Bailey. Adjourned. b. R. Baumgardt, Secretary. 

Meeting of the Aca-demy of Sciences. 

Los Angeles, Cal, Nov. 3, 1902. 

A meeting was held this evening at 949 South Figueroa street, with 
President Comstock in the chair. 

The report of the Board of Directors was presented at the meeting. 

A list of the active members elected by the Board was presented 
by the Secretary. 

The lecture for the evening was by Mr. James R. Rogers, who 
selected for his subject, ''Scientific Relations of the United States Pat- 
ent Office." Adjourned. , g. r_ Baumgardt, Secretary. 

Los Angeles, Cal, Nov. 17, 1902. 

The Biological Section of the Southern California Academy of 
Sciences was formally organized this evening. 

Dr. T. B. Comstock, President of the Academy, occupied the chair 
and Mr. W. H Knight acted as Secretary, pro tem. 

The following members were enrolled in the Section: Lyman Greg- 
ory, Carl H. Phinney, G. Major Taber, A. B. Ulrey, Dr. A. A. Conrey, 
Edith J. Claypole, Agnes M. Claypole, Dr. D. L. Tasker, B. M. Davis, 
T. B. Comstock, W. H. Knight, Melville Dozier, H. P. Barrows, C. A. 
Whiting and J. O. Hunt. 

Prof. B. M. Davis was elected chairman and Prof. C. A. Whiting, 
Secretary. 

Prof. Davis, the chairman of the Section, appointed a committee con- 
sisting of C. A. Whiting, Agnes M. Claypole, and A. B. Ulrey, to draw 
up and present a constitution for this Section. 

Prof. Ulrey reported that he was interested in the examination of 
the city water supplies from a biological standpoint. He spoke of the 
importance of a close study of the hydra and its ability or inability to 
continue its life when it is turned inside out. 

Dr. Agnes M. Claypole made an interesting report on the butterflies 
in this part of the state. One especially interesting fact was the habit 
of the milk-weed butterflies in hanging together in large masses during 
the night. 

Prof. Whiting made a brief report in relation to the nervous system. 

Prof. Davis read by title a paper on the Hymenoptera of California 
by T. D. A. Cocherell. Adjourned. c. A. Whiting, Secretary. 



n 



VOL. II. FEBRUARY i, 1903 NO. 2 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifomia Academy of Sciences 



committee; on publication 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier G. W. Parsons 



CONTENTS : 

Page 

Prehistoric California, Dr. Lorenzo Gordin Yates 17 
Contributions to the Lichen-flora of the California 

Coast Islands, Dr. H. E. Hasse 23 

Two New Plants from Southern California, S. B. 

Parish 26 

New Records for Los Angeles County, Anstruther 

Davidson, C. M., M. D 28 I 

Publications Received 30 

Transactions: 31 



I 




* Published for the a ssociation by 

baumgardt publishing CO 
116 N. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Yearly Subscription , $1,00 Single Copies, 25 cts. 

MAILED MARCH 7, 1903 



J 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



SoutHern Galilornla flcademy ol Sciences 

VOL.2. LOS ANGELES, CAL, rCBRU/^RV I, 1903. NO. 2 

lie North Broadway « ^ 



EOTANJCAL 

PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA, 

( Continued from January Bulletin ) ' 



BY DR. LORENZO GORDIN YATES. 

After the destruction of the cretaceous sea of the interior, 
barriers were left or formed which caused the fresh water to 
cover -large areas of land. These lakes in connection with a 
probable depression of the land in the interior, created a warm 
and humid climate, suitable for the growth of tropical plants, 
and it may be noted that, pf the nearly three hundred species 
of tropical plants found fossil in the earlier Tertiary, a large 
proportion were Palms, many of them of great size. All of 
these with perhaps one exception (in San Diego county), have 
since migrated, or become extinct, as well as many others 
which will be referred to later on. 

The huge reptiles of the Cretaceous were replaced by Croco- 
diles, Lizards, Snakes and Frogs, and the connecting links be- 
tween the Reptiles and the Birds disappeared. Birds of all 
kinds appear which show a tropical character. The late Pro- 
fessor Cope, one of the most celebrated palaeontologists of the 
time, described a gigantic ostrich-like bird, supposed to have been 
twice the size of the present ostrich. 

The itrue mammals suddenly appeared in great numbers 
during the time of the formation of the oldest Eocene beds'; 
Small marsupials are known to have existed before the Cre- 
taceous, but now the earth fairly swarmed with true mammals. 

This sudden appearance is supposed to have resulted from 
a great rapidity of change of organic forms, "partly caused 
by pressure of changed climate and partly from migration of 
species, and the consequent struggle for life between different 
geographical faunae." (LeConte.) 

A large number of species have been found fossil in the 
Middle Eocene ; Professor O. C. Marsh found more than one 
hundred and fifty species of vertebrates, including some Lemu- 
rine Monkeys. 

This mammalian fauna was not continuous throughout the 
Tertiary, but changed completely several times. 



jS southern CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

These earlier mammals combined the characters of many 
of the more recent forms, and the assumption of the specialized 
forms of today was gradual. 

The Cetaceans or Whales first appeared in the Eocene, the 
oldest form being the Zeuglodon found in great abundance in 
the Eocene. 

For some cause, for which no satisfactory rea,sons have 
been assigned, California had few, if any, of these Eocene Mam- 
mals ; nor has the question been decided as to whether we have 
the Eocene deposits represented, or, whether there is a gap be- 
tween the later Cretaceous and the Miocene or Middle Tertiary. 
Eminent geologists have different views upon the subject. At 
any rate the fact is apparent that, California has few, if any, 
fossil remains of the Eocene IMammals sa abundant in other 
localities. 

Possibly the Sierra Range formed an insurmountable barrier 
to the animals of the tropical interior, or, more probably it was 
because the Pacific shore-line skirted the base of the Sierras, 
and consequently there were no low-lying plains nor tropical 
marshes where such a fauna could thrive, nor interior sheltered 
valleys to accommodate their needs. 

The extensive series of strata which form the mass of some 
of our mountams, by many scientists referred to early Eocene, 
are comparatively barren of fossil remains, possibly from their 
having been deposited at great deptb, below the ocean level. 
(See Plates i and 2, Prehistoric Fauna, which illustrate some 
of the recent fossil Mollusca upon which the theory of the 
Eocene age of the deposits in which they were found is based). 
This period of rapid changes of form in animals seems to 
have developed greater intensity as it progressed, while geo- 
graphical divisions in the fauna and flora became more distinct, 
and the advancement and retardation of characteristic generic 
forms in parallel lines more stronglv marked. 

Remarkable illustrations of the progression and retrogres- 
sion, or retardment in the evolution of contemporaneous genera, 
their geological range and geographical distribution may be 
taken from discoveries in Oregon and California relative to the 
history of some of our living Land Snails. In 1865 the writer 
discovered ? pulmonate gasteropod (Land Snail), which Dr. J. 
G. Cooper (the able zoologist of the California State Geological 
Survey, under Professor J. D. Whitney), to whom the shell was 
referred, found that it belonged to an entirely different group 
of shells from those known to occur on the Pacific Coast ; he 
described a new sub-genus to which he assigned the snail, 
naming it Ammonitella Yatesi, and for many years its known 
habitat was restricted to the locality in Calaveras county, Cali- 
fornia, where it was first discovered. In or about the year 
1883 some fossil shells collected by the late Professor E. D. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. rg 

Cope, and by Professor Condon of Oregon, in the "John Day 
Region," a noted fossil locality, were submitted to Dr. R. E. C. 
Stearns of the Smithsonian Institution (now a resident of Los 
Angeles), who recognized specimens 0:fl a supposed ancestral 
form of the Ammonitella which he named Ammonitella Yatesi 
prascursor, and with these he found ancestral forms of other 
membersj of well known and widely distributed living species 
of the family of Helices, especially the Epiphragmophora fidelis, 
from which many of our recognized living species originated. 
This fossil form Dr. Stearns described as E. fidelis antecedens ; 
Of the Ammonitella (also called Gonostoma Yatesi), Dr. 
Stearns says : "The Cope-Condon collections contain four spe- 
cimens (Mus. No. 13,403) of this interesting and curious form. 
It is apparently the forerunner or ancestor of the living A. 
Yatesi described by Dr. Cooper from specimens collected by 
Dr. L. G. Yates in the cave at Cave City, Calaveras County, 
California, m 1869."* The restricted distribution of A. Yatesi 
and the smaller size of the recent, compared with the fossil 
examples, suggest obsolescence, as well as a survival of the ex- 
traordinary physical changes of the John Day Epoch." 

Dr. Charles A. White in paper "On the Marine Eocene, 
Fresh Water Miocene, and other Fossil Mollusca of Western 
North America," says.f "It is so apparent, from the evidence 
furnished, that these fossil forms represent the living species an- 
cestrally that one may reasonably make the same use of them, 
with reference to their genetic history, as if the continuity of 
that history were known by actual observation. These forms, 
whose genetic history and specific identity have so evidently 
been continued in unbi;oken lines from the John Day epoch to 
the present time, have endured remarkable vicissitudes of 
physical conditions as well as considerable geographical disper- 
sion since Miocene time. Some of the changes which have taken 
place in that region since then are very remarkable. 

"One of the greatest volcanic outflows which the earth has 
known, covering thousands of square miles with melted rock and 
forming the great mountains of the Cascada range, occurred in 
and near that region since those mollusks lived upon the bor- 
ders of the John Day lake. The Glacial epoch has come and 
gone since then, and an immense subaerial erosion has taken 
place over the whole region, the extent of which one cannot 
comprehend without witnessing its results. Not a mammalian 
species or genus now exists indigenously upon the North 
American Continent that existed then, and alF other vertebrate 
forms of continental life have materially changed ; but living 
descendants of those land snails are thriving today in the same 
region and under the same specific forms that their remote an- 
cestors bore." 

It will be seen by comparison with' the present status of 



20 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



these two species that, while the Ammonitella appears to be ap- 
proaching extinction as indicated by its restricted habitat, the 
other species found with it, especially the E. fidelis, has not only 
survived the "remarkable vicissitudes or physical conditions" 
speci'fied, but has evolved or been modified into diverse forms 
which have been distributed over a large area of the Pacific 
Coast region, and are known under various specific names. 

The immense numbers of fossil vertebrates representing a 
large number of species and genera, which have been found in 
the fresh water basins of Miocene age, are fairly bewildering 
and intensely interesting to the zoologist, but being mostly re- 
stricted to the regions lying East of the Sierras, and not found 
in California will be passed over. 

One of the most interesting fossil vertebrates found in Cali- 
fornia is a unique, amphibious mammal allied to the Dugong, 
which was discovered by the writer some twenty-five vears ago. 
It is very distinct from anything before discovered in this 
country, and puzzled the paleontologists of America until the 
late Professor O. C. Marsh determined its affinities and described 
it as the only known species of an entirely new genus. The 
writer discovered portions of the fossil remains of dift'erent in- 
dividuals in three different localities in Alameda county, Cali- 
fornia, and the animal has not been found elsewhere, so far as 
known. Professor Marsh's description, and the illustration as 
published in the American Journal' of Science, Vol. XXXV, 
Jan. 1888, is here reproduced. "Notice of a new FossiIv Si- 
RENIAN, FROM CALIFORNIA; bv O. C. Marsh. 



./^i 




Fio-. I. 



Fig. 2. 



Fig". ,3. 



Fig". I. Part of tooth of Dcsinosfylus hcspcnts. iNIarsli ; end view. 
Fig. 2. The same specimen ; seen from above. 
Fig. 3. The same specimen ; inner surface. 
All the figures are natural size. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY. OF SCIENCES. ^t 

Desmostylus hesperus, gen. et sp. nov. 
"The remains known of the present species indicate an ani- 
mal about fifteen feet (m.4.5)in length, and of robust proportions. 
The most characteristic parts preserved are the molar; teeth, 
which are composed of a number of vertical columns, closely 
pressed together, and in adult animals, firmly united at their 
bases. These columns are thickly invested with enamel, which 
is rugose externally. Inside the enamel, is a body of dentine, 
in which there is a central cavity. * * * 

The specimen figured is apparently the posterior portion of 
a molar tooth. * * * * One of the best preserved speci- 
mens found with these teeth is a lumbar vertebra, which is 
noticeable for the extreme flatness of its articular surfaces. 

"The known remains of this animal are from Alameda 
county, California, and are preserved in the museum of Yale 
College. The type specimen was found by Dr. L. G. Yates." 

In many of the fragments of the teeth of the above described 
animal found by me the individual susps were generally well 
worn, some of them to one-half of their original length, and 
when so worn the grinding surface was always smooth, and 
had a slightly convex surface, so that I cannot agree with my 
friend, Prof. Marsh, that "Before being worn, they have their 
summits smooth and convex, but after some use, the center of 
each column presents a rounded elevation, well shown in the 
figures." 

In the illustration. Figs, i and 2 show the surface of the 
worn portion, and Fig. 3 the outline of the worn portion on the 
outer edge of the tooth. 

Professor Dana believed that the Cretaceous Mollusca of 
this Coast continued down into the earlier Tertiary, as there 
was no great or important convulsion to destroy them until the 
Middle Eocene ; Thus the theoretical dividing line between the 
Upper or Later Cretaceous and the Lower or Earlier Tertiary 
was bridged over, as was suggested by Dr. J- G. Cooper, and 
is not apparent. The marked unconformity of the Miocene witR 
the earlier formations show that some great changes took place 
about the time of the inauguration of the Miocene, or Middle 
Tertiary. 

During the Miocene Period very little of the land we call 
California was above the level of the ocean, a fact which ex- 
plains the absence of remains of land animals of the period, 
found in such abundance in Oregon, Wyoming and Utah ; That 
portion of California lying south of the Bay of San Francisco, 
and from the Pacific shore to the western foot of the Sierras 
was an almost unbroken sea. 

In a paper published by the California Academy of Sciences 
in 1874 Dr. Cooper says : "The fossil evidence which we pos- 
•sess relating to the Miocene epoch in California is, however, 



22 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

abundant and interesting. It so far consists of beds of marine 
shells, found at short intervals throughout the Coast Range and 
the foothills of the Sierra Nevada," which contain the proper 
proportion of living species to prove their age as relatively 
older than the Pliocene." * * * "As the Miocene was else- 
where the culminating point for the large and strange tertiary 
mammals, it is altogether probable that some of them inhabited 
portions of the dry land of California, connected with the re- 
gions in which they were so abundant in the north ; but so far 
the geological surveys have not been sufficient to define their 
limits, either in time or space, within the State." 

It is possible that, in consequence of the great erosion which 
has taken place on the surface, some of the Miocene animal re- 
mains may have been transported from the land of the period, 
either by the action of water or ice, and deposited in the strata 
of more recent formations. 

The Miocene Period in California was, however, rich in the 
number and variety of its mollusca, which are found in a good 
state of preservation. Immense beds of fossil oysters of un- 
rivalled size, were deposited during the period, some of the 
shells being sixteen inches in length, and correspondingly wide ; 
One of these beds has been found on the west shore of the 
Colorado Desert, at an altitude of over one thousand feet ; The 
writer found another bed of these Oysters (Ostraea Titan) near 
the summit between the Livermore and San Joaquin valleys ; 
They are also found near San L,uis Obispo, and in other lo- 
calities. 

In the center of a large concretionary boulder in the Miocene 
region of Alameda County, the writer discovered a well pre- 
served specimen of a new species ot Pinna, figured on Plate 4, 
of this Section, Fig. 53, and a description was published in the 
Report of the State Mining Bureau of California for 1887, p. 
259. (Note — For some unexplained reason the photograph and 
drawing sent to- the State Mining Bureau with the description, 
not used for the illustration, but a poor specimen found some 
years later, in the Pliocene of the San Joaquin Valley was used 
instead.) 

The original type specimen is still in the writer's collection, 
is nearly twice the length of the specimen figured, almost perfect 
in outline, and retains a considerable portion of the original 
shell ; the species was afterward found in Ventura and Kern 
counties, in deposits of Pliocene age. 

(To be Continued). 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 23 

Contributions to the Lichen-flora of the Cali- 
fornian Coast Islands. 

BY DR. H. E. HASSE. 

While the Phaenerogams of these islands have been pretty 
thoroughly canvassed by visiting botanists, scant notice or none 
has been given the lowly but interesting class of lichens, and 
thanks are due Mrs. Blanche Trask for having made some col- 
lections, although it is to be regretted that the matter gleaned 
during several trips has not been more extensive. 

To make this list collective of the known insular lichens, 
some of the species previously reported (Erythea 1895, Torre y 
BoT. Club I^ich. So. Cal. 1898), are re-entered here. Except- 
ing species found upon Catalina by the writer, the collectors are 
mentioned. 

Cladonia pyxidata chlorophaea, Floerk. Catalina. 
" fimbriata tubaeformis, Fr. " 

Subspec. C. fibula, Nyl. Catalina. 
" furcata corymbosa, Nyl. Catalina. 
Dendrographa leucophaea (Tuck.) Darbish. San Miguel and San 

Nicholas Islands. (Trask.) 
Roccella fuciformis (L.) Ach, Catalina. (Trask.) 
" ceruchis Ach. Catalina. (Trask.) 

f. cephalota Auct. On Eycium californicum, 
Santa Barbara Island. (Trask.) 
" homalea, Ach. Shore cliffs, Catalina. (Trask, Hasse.) 
reticulata, (Noehd.) Kremp. Catalina. (Trask.) The 
network is very open meshed with very slender and 
terete branches. 
" combeoides, Nyl. Beach rocks. Catalina. (Trask, Hasse.) 
On Leptosyne gigantea, San Nicholas, and dead twigs, 
Santa Barbara Islands. (Trask.) 
" calicaris fraxinea, Fr. Sterile, Catalina and Santa Bar- 
bara Islands. (Trask). 
" intermedia DC. Catalina. On twigs. 
Usnea barbata hirta, Hoffm. Sterile, on branches. Catalina. 
" '' f. rubiginosa, Michx. Catalina and San Miguel. 

(Trask.) 
" " dasypoga, Fr. Catalina. (Trask.) 



24 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Evernia prunastri, Ach. Catalina and Santa Barbara Islands. 

(Trask.) 
Schizopelte californica, Th. Fr. San Miguel. (Trask.) This 
interesting find extends the range of this species from the 
mainland, where it was originally found at San Diego, (Tuck. 
Sj^n. N. A. Li.), to the archipelago. 
Parmelia physodes enteromorpha, Tuck. Catalina. (Trask.) 
" perlata (L.) Ach. Catalina. (Trask.) 

" olivetorum, Nj'l. As found on the mainland, this insular 

plant is also sterile. Trunks. Catalina. (Trask.) 
" laevigata, Nyl. On quercus dumosa, Catalina. (Trask.) 
conspersa, Ach. Rocks and earth, Catalina. (Trask. j 
Theloschistes chrysophthalmus flavicans,Walk. Catalina. (Trask.) 
' ' lychneus pigmaeus, Fr. Rocks and bleached whale 

bones, San Nicholas. (Trask.) 
" parietina (L.) Norm. Santa Barbara. On dead 

twigs of Iv3'cium californicum, also on Lepto- 
syne gigantea, a form with radiately lobed 
thallus, at the circumference of the lobes cre- 
nate and contiguous or imbricated; toward the 
center glebus or granulated; surface of thallus 
whitish pulverulent. Sp. 8, polarilocular. 14- 
16 mmm. long, 6 mmm. thick, Asci 44 mmm. 
long, 16 mmm. thick. Paraphyses distinct, 
separate, about 44-46 mmm. long, agreeing 
with F. congratulata (Crombie, Br. I j. I-29S.) 
" parietina, (L-) Norm.-f. terrestris Auct. Earth on 

rocks, Catalina. 

Physcia aipolia, Nyl. Rocks, Catalina. (Trask.) 
" stellaris, Fr. Catalina. Trask. 

" comosa, (Sch.) Nyl. Dead twigs of Lycium californi- 
cum. Santa Barbara Isle. (Trask.) 
" hispida (Schreb.) Tuck. Trees, Catalina. (Trask). 
Placodium murorum, (Hoffm.) DC. Catalina. (Trask.) 

" cerinum, Naeg. & Hepp. On dead fruit capsules of 

Megarrhiza, San Miguel. Bone, San Nicolas, 
r.eptosyne gigantea. Santa Barbara. (Trask.) 
" cerinum sideritis Tuck. On rocks, San Nicolas and 

Santa Barbara. (Trask.) 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. ^5 

Placodinm bolacinum Tuck. Rocks, San Nicolas and Santa Bar- 
bara. (Trask.) 
" coralloides, Tuck. Rocks, San Nicolas. The original 

locality of this species is San Francisco, Cal. 
(Tuck. Syn. N. A. Li.); its range is thus consid- 
erably extended. 
" aurantiacum, Naeg. & Hepp. On Lycium californi- 

cum, San Nicolas and Santa Barbara Islands 
(Trask). 
" ferrugineum, Hepp. Rocks and bones, San Nicolas. 

(Trask.) 
" " festivum, (Nyl.) Rocks, San Nicolas. 

(Trask.) 
" " Wrightii, Tuck. On Quercus dumosa, 

Catalina (Trask.) 
Lecanora muralis (Schreb.) Schaer. Catalina. 
" " catalinae, Stiz. Catalina. 

" zanthophanaNyl. Catalina. (Trask, Eastwood, Hasse.) 

Also Santa Barbara Islands. (Trask.) 
" erysibe sincerior, Nyl. Calcareous rock, San Miguel 

(Trask.) 
" subfusca, Ach. Barks, Catalina, and dead Opuntia 

prolifera, San Nicolas (Trask.) 
" campestris Nyl. San Miguel. (Trask.) 
" pallida, (Screb ) Schaer. and the var. cancriformis. 

Tuck. On barks, Catalina. (Trask, Haase.) 
" varia, Nyl. Bark, Santa Barbara. (Trask.) 
" simmictica, Ach. On L3'ciurh californicum, Santa Bar- 
bara. (Trask.) 
" dimera, Nyl. Barks, Catalina. (Trask.) 
" atra, Ach. Catalina. 
" athroocarpa, Nyl. Catalina. (Trask.) 
" cinerea, (Iv.) Somm. Catalina. (Eastwood.) 
" laevata, Nyl. Catalina. 

" sordida, (Pers.) Th. Fr. Catalina. (Eastwood.) 
" spodophaeiza, Nyl. Crombie Br. Ei. I, 487. Sp. 13- 
14 mmm. long, ^ mnim. thick, oblong, ellipsoid, 
entire, on bone, vSan Nicolas, and rocks, Santa 
Barbara. (Trask.) 



26 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

I^ecanora subcarnea, Ach. Catalina. (Trask.) 

" Schleicheri, Nyl. Earth, Catalina. 

" obpallens, Nyl. Earth, Catalina. 
Rinodina radiata Tuck. Catalina. 

" sophodes, Nyl. On caudex of Cotyledon, Catalina. 



Two New Plants from Sovitherrv CaLlifornia.. 

BY S. B. PARISH. 

ASTRAGAI^UvS BRAUNTONII. 

Perennial ; the whole plant canescent with a short, soft pub- 
esence ; stems lignescent at base, 1-1.5 m. long, erect or reclin- 
ate ; stipules membranous, acutely-triangular, erect and adr 
pressed; leaflets 15-20 pairs, oblong 2-5cm. long; flowers and 
fruit reflexed, in cylindrical compactly many-flowered spikes, 
which are borne at the summit of the stem, and on short leafy 
branches below ; calyx teeth slender, as long as the (3mm.) 
campanulate tube; corolla light purple, nearly icm. long; pod 
sessile, coriaceous, oblong, icm. long, beaked, slightly curved, 
deeply grooved on the dorsal and 'prominently ribbed on the 
ventral suture, two-celled by the nearlv complete infolding of 
the dorsal suture for the lower two-thirds seminiferous part, but 
leaving an oval orifice at the upper end of each cell, splitting 
at maturity, and the two cells separately deciduous ; seeds 2-3 
in each cell. 

In the Santa Monica range apparently rare. Above Santa 
Monica, "in sterile clay soil,"' Dr. H. E. Hasse, June 25, 1899, in 
ripe fruit, and May, 1902, (type) in flower and immature fruit. 
Near Sherman, growing in washed decomposed granite at 
2,000 ft. alt."., June 18, 1901, Messrs. Ernest Braunton and 
George B. Grant. Type in Hb. Parish. Plate I. 

This interesting species may associate with the flora of Los 
Angeles county the name of one of its most diligent explorers. 
In its gross aspect the plant resembles A. pycnostacliyus, Gray, 
an inhabitant of the adjacent maritime meadows, but differs 
entirely in flower and fruit characters. The peculiar manner 
in which, at maturity, the cells split apart at the apex and per- 
mit the seeds to escape through the subapical orifices, after- 
wards falling away separately, does not occur in any other 
Astragalus of this region. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 27 



Mr 




A. Calyx 

B. Flower. 

C. Cross Section of Pod. 

D. Pod. 

e;. Cells Splitting. 



ASXRAGAI^US BRAUNTONII. 

Plate I. 



28 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

' NEMACLADUS ADENOPHORUS. 

An erect, annual herb 1-2 cm. high, glabrous, diffusely much- 
branched, the branches filiform; the rosulate basal leaves entire, 
oDovate, 5 mm. long, the rameai reduced to subulate bracts ; riow- 
ers scattered on capillary pedicels ; calyx-ttibe hemispherical, less 
than I mm. high ; its teech equal ;lobes 01 the upper lip ot the bila- 
biate corolla about 2 mm. long, the middle margins tringed with 
long hairs, white, the tips purple-brown, which is continued in a 
narrow line down the center, lobes of lower lip somewhat smaller 
and less colored, or entirely white ; filaments monodelphous from 
the base of the style nearly to its summit, free above and below, 
anthers free, oblong, with a minute cusp in the sinus of the emar- 
ginate apex ; style incurved at the summit ; ovar}' surmounted by 
four rounded, yellowish glands, the anterior pair each produced 
into an erect, stipe-like process bearing from its summit three 
parallel, obliquely-declined, pellticid, rod-like appendages ; cap- 
sule 4-valved ; seeds 10-12, oval, minutely tuberculate. 

On dry, barren mesas, at Rabbit Springs, alt. 2,700 ft., on 
the Mojave Desert. 4956 Parish, June i, 1901. 

The characcer is drawn from field notes on the living plants, 
and the remarkable and elegant glandular appendages are dif- 
ficult to make out in dry specimens. The disposition of color in 
the corolla, and the appendages of the glands, which appear nec- 
tariferous, suggest insect fertilization. But the plant is, in fact, 
self-fertilized. At anthesis the anthers are closed over the stigma, 
forming a globular termination to the style, and it is not till they 
have discharged their pollen that they become reflexed on their 
short free filaments, and leave the stigma exposed. 



New Records for Los Angeles County. 

BY ANSTRUTHER DAVIDSON, C. M., M. D. 

Since the publication of my catalogue of the '"Plants of Los 
Angeles Co.," by the Southern California Academy of Sciences, 
in 1896, the botanists of the coast, though few, have been very 
diligent in their explorations, and as a natural result, quite a few 
additions have been made to the county list, while the limited 
range hitherto accorded to many species has been widely ex-- 
tended. 

Mr. Le Roy Abrams has, in the pages of this Bulletin, al- 
ready made record of many species new to the county, and of a 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 29 

few new to science; now to the former list I will add a few yet 
unrecorded. 

The species here listed have all been examined bv me, and 
when not my own record, the name of the botanist discovering 
them is in each case appended. 

Raphainis Raphaiiistniiii L. Two plants of this species were 
found in 1902 on Orchard Ave., in this city. I know of no other 
record of this for Southern California, and it seems to me strange 
that a plant that is in Europe so much more troublesome a pest 
than Brassica ]ti_Q;ra L. should be so late in finding a foothold 
here. The pod being indehiscent, naturally prevents its ready 
dissemination among grain seeds. 

LcsqucrcUa Gonloin, Graw In favorable seasons this mod- 
est crucifer colors the hills of Eastern Arizona with a golden 
sheen that stimulates the glow of a California poppy field. It is 
quite common on many of the sand}- borders of the railway tracks 
and if not a native of California, it may be at any time ex- 
pected to naturalize itself, at least along the desert route. In i8y8 
I found a few plants in the orchard near Little Rock Creek Ho- 
tel. Probably these were accidentally introduced. 

Diplofa.vis fcuiiifolia, D. C. must replace that of D. miiralis 
of the Catalogue. l\Ir. Geo. ['>. Grant reports it as established for 
some years at Pasadena. 

Lupiniis Stiveyi, Kellog. Wilson's Peak. (A. J. Grout). 

Romncya Coitlteri, Harvey . This beautiful poppy, hitherto 
unknown nearer Los Angeles than .Santiago Canon, Drange Co., 
was found lately on the hills near Puente by Mr. Watts, the ge- 
ologist. 

Ciccr aricfininii, L. This is the Egyptian chick pea, I found 
near the entrance to San Gabriel A'alley, growing among the na- 
tive shrubberv in seemingly natural fashion. This pea has lately 
been introduced as a kitchen vegetable. It seems to adapt itself 
readily to this soil. 

Cotyledon iwradciisls. Wats. San Gabriel Mts. 

Cotyledon cdtilis. Brewer. What seems to be this species is 
abundant on/ some shady rocks that bound San Gabriel stream 
near its opening into the valley. 

Layia elegans, Nutt. This is the common "tidy-tips'" of the 
foothills district in the San Gabriel \"alley, and is frequent at 



30 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Pasadena and Arroyo Seco. From Los Angeles to the coast its 
place is taken by L. plafyglossa. 

Hclianthus Parish ii. Gray. One clump exists at Oak Knoll, 
Pasadena (McClatchie). Islr. Parish, I believe, was the first to 
suggest that this plant was identical with H. Oliveri, Gray. Last 
summer I planted roots of both species in my garden. They grew 
as luxuriantly as they might have done in their native haunts. 
The stems, from 8 to 15 feet high, blossomed freely, and were 
quite showy. I could detect no difference between the species. 

The Cienega between Los Angeles and Santa Alonica is the 
type locality for Oliveri. There it still grows in diminished num- 
bers, and the ver}^ tomentose forms seem distinctive enough, but 
all degrees of pubescence may be found in the space of a few 
yards. The most characteristic feature of these plants are the 
large, tuberous roots that resemble somewhat those of a dahlia. 
These are alike in both. In their natural habitat, the moist 
peaty swamps of the cienega, the tubers are quite close to the sur- 
face and are usually wholly submerged during the wet season. 
The swamps around here are fast being drained in the interest 
of "civilization." In the process of clearing b}' burning the tules, 
the tubers of the Helianthus readily perish in the conflagration. 
In a few years it will be totally extinct here. In the old Kurtz 
St. marsh, in the city, a large number grew, but the filling up of 
the marsh necessary to the extension of the railway yards has 
completely exterminated them there. 

501 Laughlin Block. 



Publications Received. 



"Feeding Native Steers." No. 3, Vol. 15, Bulletin, Agricultural Ex- 
perimental Station, University Tennessee. 

"The Relative Value of Protein in Cotton Seed Meal, Cow-pea Hay 
and Wheat Bran." No. 4, Vol. 15, Bulletin Agricultural Experimental Sta- 
tion, University of Tennessee. 

"Experimental Station Record." Nos. 2, 2, 3 and 4. Vol. 15, U. S. 
Department Agriculture. 

" Transactions ot the Massachusetts Horticultural Society." Part i. 
2, 1901. 

"Provisional Methods for the Analysis of Food." Bulletin No. 65, 
Chemistry U. S. Department Agriculture. 

" Foods and Food Control." Parts i and 2, Chemistry Bureau. Bul- 
letin No. 69, U. S. Department Agriculture. 

"The California Peach-Tree Borer," by C. V. Woodworth. Bulletin 
No. 143, Agricultural Experimental Station, Univeisity of California. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES.. 31 



Transactions, February, 1903. 



Los Angeles, Cal. , February 2, 1903. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Southern California Academy of 
Sciences was held this evening, President Comstock occupying the chair. 

No business was transacted. 

The subject for consideration was the second in the series of lectures on 
the subject of "Evolution," which on this occasion was dealt with from a 
biological standpoint. Papers were read by Dr. C. A. Whiting, Miss Agnes 
Clay pole and Professor B. M. Davis. 

A discussion followed, participated in by many members, after which 
the meeting stood adjourned. 

B. R. BaumgardT, Secretary. 



ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 

An unusually large attendance marked the meeting of this Section. 
Chairman Knight occupied the first half hour in presenting items of special 
inttrest in concised form on the following topics: Carnegie Institution 
Appropriations; an interesting meteoric stone that fell on September 13, 
1902, at Antrim Ireland ; star lore for December, 1900; the comet of 1892, 
and several binary stars. 

The chairman then introduced the main subject of the evening, the con- 
sideration of the recent book of Prof. Edgar Larkin, of the Mount Lowe 
Observatory, entitled, "Radiant Energy." The book was highly com- 
mended by the chairman, and Secretary Baumgardt of the Academy, read 
and commented upon several striking passages of the work. Several other 
members were asked to read certain passages of unusual interest, which 
were dilated upon by the author, who, in addition to thoughts suggested by 
the book, favored the Section with a brief account of the recent gathering 
of the Scientific Academy at Washington. D. C. The chairman closed the 
meeting by reading an extract from the proceedings of this important 
gathering relative to the pressure of light. 

MeIvVILLE Dozier, Secretary. 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

The meeting of the Biological Section was called to order by the 

chairman. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The lecture of the evening was delivered by Dr. Agnes Claypole on the 

subject of Modern Physiology. The lecture was one of great importance 



^2 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

and consisted of a discussion of the physiological importance of blood 
study ana of a study of the nervous system. The lecture was illustrated 
by black-board drawings by the lecturer. 

It was discussed at length by a number of the members present, and 
the lecturer was called upon to answer a number of important questions 
suggested by the lecture. 

Several microscopes were on the tables and a number of interesting 
preparations exhibited. About 25 members and visitors were present. 

C. A. Whiting, Secretary. 



GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Los Angeles, Cal., January 26th, 1903. 

The Geological Section of the Academy met at the Woman's Club 
Rooms and opened the meeting at 8 p. m. Geo. W. Parsons in the chair. 
Minutes of previous meeting read and approved. The Secretary read the 
By-Laws prepared by the Committee appointed for the purpose, which were 
adopted. 

Prof. F. Lee Fuller was then introduced and gave a very interesting 
lecture on the comparative Geology of the United States in comparison 
with the Eastern, Middle and Western sections, with remarks on the metal- 
lurgy of zinc. Prof. Fuller remarked that the State ought to complete the 
work in regard to the geological formation of California's deposits, as every 
man was an authority unto himself as far as the Sierra and coast ranges were 
concerned. He stated that the best zinc ores were found in Arkansas and 
Indian Territory, and that there were large deposits in New Mexico, but 
are refractory and not so valuable. He also explained the mode of treating 
the ores in the furnace. He stated that the sublimate of lead used in the 
manufacture of paints is likely to prove of value on this coast, in preference 
to the oxides, for the reason that they resist the action of the salt air. 

The meeting then adjourned. G. Major Taber, Secretary. 



< VOL. II. 



MARCH I, 1903 



NO. 3 



n 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier G. W. Parsons 



CONTENTS : 



Contributions to the Lichen-flora of the California 

Coast Islands, Dr. H. E. Hasse 32 

A New Bee of the Genus Andronicus, T. D. A. 

COCKRELL 35 

Publications Received 36 

Notes and News 37 

Transactions 37 

Astronomical Notes 39 



Yearly Subscription , $1.00 



Published por the Association by 

baumgardt publishing CO 
116 N. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 



MAILED APRIL 10, 1903 



Single Copies, 25 cts. 



N^NxO 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Souili6rn Galllornla ftGafleiiiu ol Sciences 

VOL.2. LOS ANGELES, CAL, MARCH I, 1903. NO. 3 

NEW YORK 



Contributions to the Lichen-flora of the Cali- 
fornian Coast Islands. 

]'.Y DR. H. E. HASSK. 

Rinodina exigua, Fr. On Leptosyne gigantea, Santa Barbara. 
(Trask.) 
angelica, Stiz. Catalina. 
Dirina redinnta, (Stiz.) Zahlbr. Catalina. 

hassei, Zahlbr. Catalina. 
Pertusaria flavicunda, Tuck. Catalina. (Trask.) 

Wolfeni, DC. Twigs, Catalina. (Trask.) 

Urceolaria scruposa (L.) Nyl. and 

Rypsacea, Nyl. Earth, Catalina. 
Biatora sylvana, Koerb. Twigs, Catalina. 

mixta, Fr. San Nicolas (Trask.), Catalina. 
" phaeophora, Stiz. Rocks, Catalina. 
" scotopholis, Tuck. Rocks, Catalina. 
" granulosa, Schaer. Sp. 8-10 u long, 4-5 u broad. Some 
with false septa on old sheep's horn, San Miguel, 
(Trask.) 
" Naegelii; Hepp. On oak, Catalina. 
" spec. Sp. 8 nae, 8-ti u long, 4 u thick, ellipsoid simple 
or often bilocular. On Lyonothamnus floribundus 
var asplenifolia, Santa Rosa. Trask.) 
" coarctata, Th, Fr. Earth, Catalina. 
" franciscana. Tuck. Santa Barbara and San Nicolas. 

(Trask.) 
" decipiens, (Ehrh.) Fr. Sterile squamule, San Nicolas 
(Trask.) 



34 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Lecidea lapicida. Fr. Catalina. (Trask.) 
" " declinans, Nyl. Catalina. 

" aromatica, (Soni.) Ach. Rocks, Catalina. 
" catalinaria, Stiz. Rocks, Catalina. 
" enteroleuca, Fr. Sandstone, Catalina. 

Buellia oidalea, Tuck. On various barks, Catalina. (Trask, 
Hasse.) 

" triphragmia, Nyl. Catalina. 

" Bolanderi, Tuck. Catalina. 

" spuria, Arn. Catalina. 

" halonia, (Ach.) Catalina on Cercocarpus traskiae. 
(Trask.) On Heteromeles arbutifolia. (Hasse.) 

" albo-atra saxicola, Fr. San Nicolas. (Trask.) Cata- 
lina. 

" myriocarpa, Tuck. On Leptosyne gigantea, Santa Bar- 
bara. (Trask.) 
stellulata, Br. & Rostr. Santa Barbara. (Trask.) 
Thallus ochraceous from ferruginous rock sub- 
stratum ( ?). Spores as in the type. 

" badia, (Fr.) Koerb. Catalina. 

" lepidastra. Tuck. Catalina. (Trask. ) 

" petrgee, (Flot. -Koerb.) Tuck). Catalina. 

" atro-albella, Nyl. Li. Paris, 1896 — pag. 99. Catalina. 

Lecanactis californica, Tuck. On Finns, Torreyana, Santa Rosa. 

(Trask.) On barks, Catalina. 
Platygrapha hypothallina, A. Zahlbr. N. SP. Bull. Tor. Bot. 
Club. Vol. XXVn, 645. Catalina. (Trask.) 
plurilocularis, A. Zahlbr. N. SP. Bot. Centralblatt. 
XITL Heft 2, 156. On Rhus integrifolia, 
Catalina. 
Opegrapha betulina, Nyl. On Oak, Catalina. 

vulgata, Nyl. Bark, Catalina. (Trask.) 
Chiodecton ochroleucum, A. Zahlbr. N. SP. I.e. On Rhus in- 
tegrifolia, Catalina. (Trask.) 
" rubeo-cinctum, Nyl. Catalina. (Trask.) 

" sanguineum, Waino. Catalina. 

Arthonia Rhoidis, A. Zahlbr. N. SP. 1. c. On Rhus laurina. 
Catalina. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 35 

astroidea, Ach. On Leptosyne gigantea, San Nicolas. 
(Trask.) On various barks, Catalina. 

" " Swartziana, Nyl. Catalina. More frequent 

and better developed than on the main- 
land. 

" dispersa (Schrad.). Catalina. (Trask, Hasse.) 

" " tetramera, Sitz. On oak,s Catalina. 

" " cytisii, Mass. Catalina. 

" anastomosans (Pers.) Fr. fil. Catalina. 

" stictella, Stiz. Catalina. 

"' orbillifera, Ach. Catalina. 

" impolita, (Ehrh.) Borr. Catalina. 
Verrucaria maura, Wahlenb. Catalina. (Trask, Hasse.) 
punctiformis, Ach. On Heteromeles, Catalina. 

" papillosa, Flk. f. terrestris, Arnold. Catalina. 



A New Bee of the Genus Androrvicus. 

BY T. D. A. COCKERELIv. 



ANDRONICUS HESPERIUS, N. SP. 

Male, length about 12 mm., but appearing less because the ab- 
domen is curved downwards ; entirely black, with scanty pubes- 
cence, which is white and flattened on sides of face and sides of 
clypeus, white, erect and quite long on scutellum and postscutel- 
lum, and less on other parts of the thorax, dull white and scanty 
on cheeks, scanty and purplish fuscous at extreme sides of ab- 
domen; white forming apical bands on abdominal segments 3 to 
5 (most distinct on 5) ; scanty and party fuscous on legs, more 
or less orange- fuscous on tarsi behind ; head and thorax very 
densely punctured, abdomen not so densely (more shining), but 
still closely ; head rounded, rather large, eyes greenish, facial 
quadrangle much longer than broad ; mandibles broadly bidentate 
at apex ; anterior edge of clypeus shining, slightly concave, not in 
the least keeled or produced ; antennae similar to those of Alci- 
damea, except that the apex is not hooked; scape stout, black; 
flagellum somewhat compressed, dark reddish beneath, the basal 
five joints swollen above ; tegul?e dark ferruginous ; wings stained 
with ferruginous, stigma very small, venation as in Alcidamea, 
first recurrent nervure joining second submarginal cell very near 
its base ; legs ordinary ; tarsi slender, claws bidentate at apex- 
pulvillus large ; abdomen narrow and more or less cylindrical ; 
seventh dorsal segment broadly truncate with rounded edges ; 
claspers large and bristly ; first ventral segment produced into a 



36 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

narrov/ spine at apex ; no ventral hump ; second to fourth ven- 
tral segments each with a pair of transversely oval raised tuber- 
cles. 

Hab.— Rock Creek, Mojave Desert, California. Dr. A. David- 
son.) The only species of Andronicus hitherto known inhabits 
the Eastern States. The present insect is really intermediate be- 
tween Andronicus and Alcidamea, tending most, I think, toward 
the former. It is perhaps doubtful whether the two genera should 
be kept apart, unless one is prepared to go to the extreme of pro- 
viding a generic name for every aberrant member of this group, 
such as A.hesperiiis. 

Publications Received. 



"Journal ol the Cincinnati Society of Natural History," Vol. 20, No. 3. 

" The Mango in Porto Rico," U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Bureau of Plant 
Industry. Bulletin No. 28. 

"Two New Ascomycetous Fungi parasitic on Marine Algae," by Minnie 
Reed, Univ. Cal. Botany, Vol. i, pp. 141-164. 

"Experimental Station Record," U. S. Dept. Agricult,, Vol. 14, No. 5. 

"An Experiment in Ginseng Culture," Penna. State College Agricult. 
Exper Station No. 92. 

" Report of the Forester for 1902," U. S. Dept. Agricult. 

"Roup," Ontario Agricultural College, Bulletin 125. 

" Grasshoppers in California," by C. V. Woodworth. Bulletin No. 142, 
Agricultural Experimental Station, University of California. 

" The Peach Worm," by W. T. Clarke. Bulletin No. 144. Agricultural 
Experimental Station, University of California. 

" The Red Spider of Citrus Trees," by C. V. Woodworth. Bulletin No. 
145, Agricultural Experimental Station, University of California. 

" New Method of Grafting and Budding Vines,'' by E. H. Twight. 
Bulletin No. 146, Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Cali- 
fornia. 

" A contribution to the Petrography of the John Day Basin," by Frank 
C. Calkins, Department Geology, No. 5, Vol. 3, University of California. 

"The Igneous Rocks Near Pajaro," by J. A. Reid, Department Geology 
No. 6, Vol. 3, University Cal. 

"Eucalyptus Cultivated in the United States," by A.J. McClatchie, 
Bureau of Forestry, Bulletin No. 35, U. S. Department Agriculture. 

" Report on a Botanical Survey of the Dismal Swamp Region." Divis- 
ion of Botany No. 6, Vol. V., U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

"Biennial Report of the President of the University of California," 
1900-1902. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 37 

Notes and News. 



Anatohnis regulus, n. sp., from the Sierra Madre Mountains, Los An 
geles County. Panipliila sabuleti, var. tecuinseh, n. var. from the high 
sierras of California, and the rare Thecia spadix Edwards, from Mount 
Wilson, are reported by Fordyce Grinnell, Jr., in " Entom. News," Jan., '03. 

According to experiments made by the California Experiment Station 
the English oak {Ouercus robui-) appears to be one of the most rapidly 
growing hardwood trees thus far grown in the state. The Asia Minor willow 
{Salix Salnioni) planted from cuttings in 1895, measured 32 feet in October, 
1897, with truniis 32 inches in circumference. 

The State of New Jersey has not maintained its popular reputation as 
a mosquito infested locality without good reason. Prof. J. B. Smith reported 
recently that he bred twenty species of mosquitos during the last season in 
New Jersey. 

Through inadvertence the paging of the first part of Vol. 2 of the Bul- 
letin was continued from that of Vol. i. This issue is paged as if the first 
part had been begun as page i. 

The culture of the Ginseng root has been more or less engaging the 
attention of horticulturists for some time. The latest authentic experiments 
are indeed encouraging. The Pennsylvania college in a recent bulletin 
gives the probable net profit from one acre as $15,401 in five years. 

Professor J. Burt Davy, late of the University of California, has received 
the important appointment of Botanist and Agrostologist to the Transvaal 
Colony, South Africa. 

Transactions, Ma.rch, 1903. 

ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The regular meeting of the Academy of Sciences met at the Woman's 
Club rooms. President Theo. B. Comstock called the meeting to order at 
8 p. m. In his opening remarks he called the attention of the members to 
the provision of the By-Laws requiring the members of the Academy to 
present the names of members who they desired to fill the offices for the 
ensuing year, which names would be considered by the board for final 
action. 

Geo. W. Parsons was called to the chair. President Comstock gave a 
very interesting lecture on the " Geologic Time and Earliest Stages of 
Earth's Histor\s" illustrating the same by crayon sketches. 

Dr. Agnes M. Claypole read paper on " Physographic Evolution De- 
velopment of Earth's Surface Features." 

Prof. Comstock closed the meeting with remarks on the "Outline of 
Evolution of Life in the Earth." B. R. Baumgardt, Secretary. 



ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 
The Section was called to order at 8 p. m. by Chairman Knight. The 
chairman gave a brief outline of the present position of the planet Mars, 



jS SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

illustrating by diagram, and indicated how and when it would become most 
favorably situated for observation. Mr. Knight then read a sketch of the life 
and labors of Sir George Stokes, scientist and mathematician of England, 
who has recently passed away. 

He also read an extract from a recent publication describing an aerolite 
that fell in Kentucky in November last, weighing thirteen pounds, and 
having the specific gravity of 3.48. 

The chairman then introduced the principal topic of the evening by 
giving a brief sketch of the character and work of Dr. Alfred Russell 
Wallace of England, and requested Mr. B. R. Baumgardt to read a synopsis 
of the recent article of Dr. Walace relative to the earth as the center of the 
universe and man as the chief factor of the universe. 

By request of the chairman, Mr. Dozier also read extracts from an article 
by Prof. Wm. H. Pickering, commenting upon Dr. Wallace's position and 
taking issue with his conclusions. 

The discussion then turned upon Dr. Wallace's conclusions relative to 
the supreme importance of man in the scheme of creation, and involved 
references to religious as well as scientific questions, whereupon the chair- 
man brought the discussion to a close. 

Notice was given that at the April meeting, unless contrary notice were 
given, Mr. Baumgardt would deliver a lecture on Astronomy, in which 
would be exhibited many of the finest and most recent slides illustrating 
some of the recent developments of astronomical photography. The meet- 
ing then adjourned. Melville Dozier, Secretary. 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

The meeting was called to order by the chairman of the Section, 
B. M. Davis. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

As the speaker of the evening, Dr. Beale, was not present, the chairman 
withdrew to escort him to the club house. 

While he was gone, the meeting was addressed on Practical Evolution 
by Prof. Ulrey, Dr. Houghton and Dr. Small. Dr. Beale arrived as this dis- 
cussion came to an end, and at once began his lecture on the Food of Birds 
and Their Economic Relationship. The lecture was intensely interesting 
and led a number of members to ask questions, which the lecturer kindly 
answered. 

On motion the meeting adjourned. About twenty-five members and 
visitors were present. C. A. Whiting, Secretary. 

GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Los Angeles, Cal., February 24th, 1903. 
The Geological Section met at the usual hour at the Woman's Club 
Rooms, which not being opened, Mr. Wm. H. Knight extended an invita- 
tion to the members present to adjourn to his residence, 1012 West Eighth 
Street. Chairman Geo. W. Parsons called the meeting to order. Minutes 
of previous meeting read and approved. There was a general discussion 



• SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 39 

upon several topics in the geological line, which was participated in by 
Prof. W. L. Watts, Dr. Stephen Bowers, who is connected with the State 
Geological Survey, Mr. Wm. H. Knight, and other members present. 

G. Major Tabkr, Secretary. 



Astronomica.1 Notes. 

Much interest is being manifested just now in a theory recently uttered 
by Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace, of England, as follows : 

"First, that the earth, or solar system, is the physical center of the 
stellar universe. 

" Second, that the supreme end and purpose of this vast universe was 
the production and development of the living soul in the perishable body 
of man." 

The following are some of the comments of astronomers relative to 
this theory : 

BY DIRECTOR W. W. CAMPBELL OF LICK OBSERVATORY. 

Lick Observatory, March 2. — T have not yet seen Dr. Wallace's 
article, but in regard to that subject I can say that while we know that our 
solar system is not near the edge of the stellar universe, yet the chances 
are that we are a considerable distance from the center of the stellar system 
The subject is a5suredly thus far one open to a degree of conjecture. In 
fact, we might be a very great distance from the center, although we are 
somewhere near the plane of the Milky Way. But we have no evidence that 
we are the physical center, and the chances are that it is somewhere else. 

As to his suggestions that the supreme end and purpose of this vast 
universe was the production and development of the living soul in the 
perishable body of man, th^t, it seems to me, is more a question for a phil- 
osopher than an astronomer. But we do not for a moment believe that the 
earth is the only body on which intelligent life may exist. 

BY WILLIAM H. KNIGHT, PRESIDENT OF THE LOS ANGELES ACADEMY OF 

SCIENCES. 

Los Angeles, March 2. — No one can assert that the earth is precisely 
in the center of a cluster of suns, nor that this cluster is located centrally 
and precisely in the plane of the Milky Way. But if we were so situated I 
fail to see that there would be any significance in that fact that would have 
the slightest bearing on the question of human development. 

There was a time when it was the popular belief that the earth was the 
center of and most important feature in the universe ; that the sun and 
planets and innumerable stars were simply ordained for the convenience of 
man. It is nearly a century since these views were entertained by any but 
the illiterate. 

BY PROFESSOR A. O. LEUSCHNER OF THE STUDENTS' OBSERVATORY, UNI- 
VERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Berkeley, March 2. — From the reading of the article in today's 
Examiner I can only say that Dr. Wallace has not proved anything. He 



40 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. ' 

has merely offered some pretty speculations. While he has not established 
anything, nobody is able to disprove what he says, because the opposite has 
not been established. The assertions, on the face of them, are not based on 
observational results. 

BY PROFESSOR PICKERING OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 

Boston, March 2. — It is not worth my while to take the time to upset 
another man's theories. We collect facts here and do not devote much 
time to theories. Dr. Wallace has not brought forward, as far as I can see, 
any evidence whatever to support his theories, and to his statement that the 
supreme end and purpose of this vast universe was the production and 
development of the living soul in the perishable body of man, that is a 
question for philosophy to solve, not for astronomy. 

Professor George Davidson, of the University of California, eminent in 
astronomy and other natural sciences, says : 

"Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace is a great authority on birds. He has 
collected enormously for years and has written largely on the birds and the 
geographical distribution of animals. Two or three years ago I heard the 
report that he had taken a sidetrack and gone into spiritualism. As to this 
astronomical matter, he doesn't know what he is talking about. Along his 
own lines, though, he is an authority." 

B. R. Baumgardt, secretary of the Southern California Academy of 
Sciences, says : 

" Neither the earth, nor even the solar system, is the center of the solar 
universe. To be sure, they are situated somewhere near the center of the 
Milky Way; but it must be remembered that what is the center today will 
not be the center tomorrow. As there is a constant flux of force throughout 
the whole sweep of the sidereal universe, so, too, there is a constant motion 
in the bodies that make up its matter. 

" As regards man and his soul, science teaches us the precise opposite 
from the plan proposed by Dr. Wallace. Science tells us that not only man, 
but even the evolution of the whole organic matter, is but one of a series of 
fleeting phenomena making up a chain without beginning and without end. 
The scientific man, be it remembered, sees nothing in the soul but the sum 
total of his own psychic activity." 

Melville Dozier, secretary of the Astronomical Section, says : 

" The fact that the earth itself is in motion around the sun is sufficient 

refutation of Dr. Wallace's proposition that the earth is the center of the 

stellar universe. 

" As to Dr. Wallace's second conclusion, that the chief purpose of our 

earth is the creation and development of the human soul in the perishable 

body of man, there can be no question in my mind that this is the purpoFe 

of the Creator in bringing this earth into existence." 



n 



VOli. II. APRIL-MAY, 1903 NOS. 4-5 



BULLETIISr 



OF THE 



Soutfiern Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier G. W. Parsons 



CONTENTS : 

Page 

New Southern California Plants, Dr. Le Roy Abrams... 41 
New Plant Records for Los Angeles County, AnstruTher 

Davidson, C. M., M. D 43 

Prehistoric California, Dr. Lorenzo Gordin Yates 44 

Additions to the Lichen-flora of Southern California. Dr 

H. E. Hasse 52 and 58 

The Lichen-flora of San Clemente Island, Dr H. E. 

Hasse 54 

Notes and News 55 and 60 

Publications Received 56 

Transactions 57 anti 63 . 

The Late Visit in Force of the "Painted Lady Butterfly. ) 

Vanessa Cardui, L., Prof. J. J. Rivers 57 

Report of the Secretary of the Southern California Acad- 
emy of Sciences , 6t 

Summary of Lectures delivered before the Southern Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences 62 



Published for the Association by 
baumgardt publishing CO 

116 N. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. C 

L Yearly Subscription, |1. 00 Single Copies, 25 cts. \ 

MAILED MAY 31, 1903 ? 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



SoutliGrn Galllornia ftcademy ot Sciences 



VOL 2. ^ LOS ANGELES, CAL, APRIL I, 1903. NO. 4 

116 North liROAx>nAY 



NEW SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA PLANTS. 

BY LE ROY ABRAMS. 

Lepidium acutidens, (Gray). 

Lepidium dictyotnm varf acutidens, Gray. Proc. Amer. 
Acad. 12 : 54. 1876. 

Type locality Yreka, California. 

Branching from the base, the branches decumbent or as- 
cending, 10-20cni. longv pubescent throughout with short 
spreading hairs, leaves linear, tapering at both ends, entire or 
faintly and remotely denticulate, 2-5cm. long, about 2mm. 
wide ; branches flowering about two-thirds their length ; ra- 
cemes rather loose ; pedicels strongly flattened, 3-4mm. long, 
more or less, appressed to the stem to near the middle, then 
curving outward; pod strongly reticulated, sparsely pubescent, 
4mm. long including the acute teeth, about 3mm. broad; sinus 
about 1mm. deep and 2mm. broad at the tip. 

The loose and longer racemes, the spreading pedicels, the 
larger pods, and the spreading acute teeth readily distinguish 
this from L. dictyotnm. 



Cheiranthus suffrutescens. 



Perennial, more or less branched, the branches woody, Ira. 
long or less, often straggling among low shrubs, rough from 
the persistent bases of the old leaves, usually about 5mm. thick, 
the floral branches clustered at the ends of the main ones. 



42 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

slender, 3-4dm. long, leaves scattered along the floral branches, 
densely clothing their bases, very narrowly linear-oblanceolate, 
2-3mm. wide, entire or remotely and obscurely denticulate; 
these as well as the branches cinerous with appressed 2-forked 
hairs, calyx-lobes 6-7nim. long, petals orange or yellow, cruci- 
form, pods in rather short lax racemes, on pedicels about 8mm. 
long, widely spreading, straight or slightly curved upwards, 
4-angled, 1.5-1. 75mm. broad, 5-6cm. long, beak slender, less 
than 1mm. broad and but little longer, seeds brownish, about 
1.5mm. long. 

Quite unlike any known member of this genus in habit, 
but in fruiting characters closely resembling C. angustatus 
Greene. 

Common on the sand dumes along the coast between Port 
Ballona and Redondo. The writer's number 2511, collected at 
Port Ballona, June 10, 1902, is the type. 

v Cotyledon nudicaule. 

Glaucous and densely covered with a white meal; caudex 
short, rather stout, about 2cm. thick ; leaves rosalate, numerous 
ascending, nearly terete, the inner face slightly flattened, 
tapering to an acute tip ; 5-8cm. long, 4-6mm. thick, slightly 
dilated at the very base, scapes 15-30cm. high, 2-2. 5mm. thick, 
with 2 nearly opposite (sometimes abortive) leaf-like bracts a 
little above the middle, other^dse naked, infloresence in a 
rather close, much branched cymose panicle, the main branches 
4cm. long or less, freely branching, each branch and branchlet 
subtended by a short linear bract, flowers on pedicels 2.5-4mm. 
long, sepals ovate acutish, 2mm. long, petals white, united at 
the base, narrowly oblong, acute or somewhat acuminate, 
6-7mm. long, spreading, white, carpels ovate-oblong, united a 
short distance above the base, divergent, 4-6mm. long, tipped 
by the slender style of nearly equal length; seeds few, linear- 
oblong, acute at both ends, slightly over 1mm. long. 

Nearest C. edulis Nutt, in that it has the spreading petals, 
but easily distinguished by its mealy herbage, naked flowering 
branches and rather compact compound panicles. 

Common on rocky clifl^s near the mouth of the San Gabrie^ 
Canon, Los Angeles County. The author's number, 2652, col- 
lected July 4, 1902, is the type. 
Stanford University. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 43 

New Plant Records for Los Angeles Co\inty, 

Part II. 

BY ANSTRUTHER DAVIDSON, C. M., M. D. 

Baeria tenella, Gray, which has been lost to view for a 
number of years, was found at Sycamore Grove and Glendora 
by L. A. Greata. 

Hemizonella minima, Gray, in fair quantity on Wilson's 
Peak. 

Nicolletia occidentalis, Gray. Little Rock Creek. A few 
plants were found along the foothills here; the type station, 
"sandy banks of the Mohave River," is about thirty miles Avest 
of this. 

Chrysoma teretifolia, (Dur. and Hilg.), Greene. Little 
Rock Creek. The type station for this rarely collected plant 
is Fort Tejon, 60 miles to the westward. 

Gutierezia lucida, Greene. Little Rock Creek. This is 
with the two preceeding- plants, are rarely collected in this dis- 
trict as their time of flowering is Sept. and Oct., and when 
not in flower, they are readily mistaken for allied species. 

Chicorium Intybus, L. Naturalized in various places in 
the city, and at Sherman, (Braunton.) 

Gnaphalium purpureum, L. In sandy wastes at Lincoln 
Park. 

Galinsog-a parviflora, Cav. This tropical plant grows 
abundantly in various places along the irrigation ditches at 
Vernon, (Braunton.) This plant has not been previously re- 
ported from California. It probably reached us via. Arizona, 
where it is supposed to be indigenous. 

Peucedanum tomentosum, Benth. Hills north of North 
Pomona, at 3,000 ft. alt., (Braunton.") This is a most interest- 
ing addition to our flora. 

Convolvulus pentapetaloides, L. Rocky Point, San Pedro 
Hills, (Colton Russell.) 

Cuscuta arvensis Beyrich. Redondo, (Grant,) Los Ang- 
geles City. 

Solanum alaeaginifolium, Cav. Has been eradicated at 
East Los Angeles, (Braunton) : but is still fairly abundant at 
San Pedro. 

Tribulus terrestris, L. Along the railway bank at Port 
Los Angeles. A probable permanent introduction from Ari- 
zona. 

Trifoliiim procumbens, L. In fair quantity in Los An- 
geles River-bed, (Braunton.) 

Trifolium obtusiflorum, Hook. Riviera. (Braunton.) 

Medicago apiculata, Willd. Pasadena, (Grant.) East 
Los Angeles. 



44 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA, 

( Continued from February Bulletin ) 



BY DR. LORENZO GORDIN YATES. 



PREHISTORIC FUANA OF CALIFORNIA. 
PLATE I. 

Figures of Fossils from the Cretaceous, and Cretaceous "B" 

(Eocene ?) of California, recently described by Dr. J. G. Cooper, 

for the California State Mining Bureau.* 

I. Tcrebra Watfsiana, Cooper. Portion of anterior whorl broken 
off. Marysville Buttes, California. 

2-4. Stircula crenatospira, Cooper. Fine sculpture not repre- 
sented. Marysville Buttes, California. 

5. Narona Irelaniana, Cooper Half of anterior whorl broken 
off. Marysville Buttes. California. 

6-1 1. Ancilla (Oliverato) califoiiiicd. Cooper. In Fig. 7 shell is 
much worn on the anterior face. ]\Iarysville Buttes, 
California. 

12. Cerifhinin Fairbanksi, Cooper. Very little of the external 

surface remains to show details of sculpture. San Diego 
County, California. Cretaceous. 

13. Potamides ? Daz'isiano. Cooper. Most of the aperture want- 

ing. Marysville Buttes, California. 
14-19. CeritJiidea carhonicola, Cooper. Coal Mines, San Diego 
County, California. (Cretaceous "B".) ■ 



*Catalogue of Californian Fossils. (Parts II, III, IV, and V.) forming 
Bulletin No. 4, published by the California State I\Iining Bureau, Sacra- 
mento, 1804. 









'■-■■'■'0 




PLATE I. 



46 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

PREHISTORIC FUANA OF CALIFORNIA. 

PLATE 2. 

Dr. Cooper's recently described species, continued. 
(The figures 20 to 30 in this Plate are double the natural size.) 

20-21. Sur cilia Inconstant. Cooper. In variety. Marysville 
Bifttes, California. 

22. Cordiera graciUima, Cooper. Plications not well figured. 
Marysville Buttes, California. 

23-24. Pleurotoma Perkinsiana, Cooper. Figures too wide. 
Marysville Buttes, California. 

25-26. Mangilia suturalis, Cooper. Nodules too prominent 
Marysville Buttes, California. 

27. Drillia Ullrcyana, Cooper. Outlines not very correct. 
Marysville Buttes, California. 

28-29. Snrcula monilifera, Cooper. Marysville Buttes, Cali- 
fornia. 

30. Bittium Io)igissh)iii)n, Cooper. Marysville Buttes, Cali- 

fornia. 

31. fitsiis snpraplamis, Cooper. Cretaceous. San Diego, Cali- 

fornia. 

32. Pleiirotomo ? decipiens. Cooper. Cretaceous. San Diego, 

California. 

33-34. CaUiostonia Keuipiana, Cooper. 

35. Tornatina ? crrafica. Cooper. Cretaceous. San Diego, Cali- 
fornia. 

3637. Tornatella normalis, Cooper. Cretaceous. San Diego, 
California. 

38-39. Siphonaria capiiloidcs. Cooper. Cretaceous. San Diego, 
California. 

40. CreneUa santana, Cooper. Cretaceous. San Diego and Or- 

ange Co., California. 

41. Mitra siniplicissinia. Cooper. Cretaceous. San Diego, Cali- 

fornia. 

42. Corbula triangnlata. Cooper. Cretaceous. San Diego, Cali- 

fornia. 
The oblique lines on the anterior end were intended for shad- 
ing. 








25 







29/ 



i^^» 













40 .: 





pirate; II. 



42 




48 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



PREHISTORIC FUANA OF CALIFORNIA. 

PLATE 3. 

Cretaceous Fossils from San Diego County, California, re- 
cently described by Dr. J. G. Cooper. 

(Figures natural size.) 
43. Stomatia intermedia. Cooper. Details of sculpture compiled 
from three specimens ; Cretaceous ; San Diego County, 
California. 
44-45. Astarte semidentata, Cooper. Umbonal angle of 45 too 
narrow. 

46. Bulla assimilata. Cooper. 

47. Crassatella lomana, Cooper. 

48-49. Megerlia dnbitanda, Cooper. Upper and lower odd 
valves. 

50-51. Waldheimia imbricafa, Cooper. 

52. Agasoiua (Trophosycon) Barkeriannm, Cooper. Mouth im- 
perfect. Pliocene ; Kern County, California. 




PLATE III. 



so SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



PREHISTORIC FUANA OF CALIFORNIA. , 

PLATE 4. 

Tertiary Fossils described by Dr. L. G. Yates, and by Thomas 
Conrad. t 

53. Pinna alamedensis, L. G. Yates. Miocene. The type speci- 

men from which this species was described was dis- 
covered by the writer in a Miocene boulder in Alameda 
• County, California, and was nearly twice as large as 
the specimen figured, which was found in Kern County, 
in rocks of Pliocene age. Dr. Cooper says of this shell : 
"Yates' type was nearly twice as long as this, and com- 
plete in form."* 

54. Pinna venturensis, L. G. Yates. "Pliocene. Three-fourths 

the size of largest found, and with fewer ribs. Ven- 
tura County, California. 
55-56. Pecten discns, Conrad. Pliocene. Kern County, Cali- 
fornia. 



*i. Report of State Mineralogist of California for 1887, page 2Sg. 
*Bulletin No. 4. California State Mining Bureau, 1894, page 65. 






^^^ 













PIvATE IV. 



52 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Additions to the Lichen-flora of Southern 
California,. 

BY DR. H. E. HASSE. 

For the very accurate descriptions of the new species 
discovered since 1898, in our territory, Lichenologists of 
North America are indebted to Dr. A. Zahlbruckner, of the 
Eoyal Botanical Museum, of Vienna, and the writer also desires 
herewith to convey his tribute of appreciation to this conscien- 
tious naturalist. Without the detailed diagnoses of Dr. Zahl- 
bruckner, the new material enumerated would be of but 
insignificant value to science. 

Pyrenopsis phaeococca, Tuck. Sandstone boulders in Santa 
Monica Range, forming dull greenish-black 
patches. 
" homoeopsis, Nyl. (Crombie, Br. Li. I. 25.) Argil- 

laceous rocks, SMR. 
Collema crispum, Borr. (Tuck. Syn. N. A. Li.— Crombie, 1. c.) 
Gravelly and sandy soil, Mill Creek Canon, San Ber- 
nardino Mts. 
" nigrescens leucopipta. Tuck. On a decayed stump, 

SMR. 
" cheleum, Ach., forma monocarpum, Nyl. (Cr. 1. c.) A 

microphylline state, on sandstone, SMR. 
" verruciforme, Nyl. On bark, Yosemite Valley. Al- 
though extra limited, a few interesting collections 
from that locality are included. 
Collemodium Schraderi, Nyl. Earth on rocks, San Gabriel 
Range; slate rocks, SMR; Santa Barbara. 
I.e.) On earth, SMR. 
Leptogium lacerum, Gray. Subsp, L. pulvinatum, Nyl. (Or. 
" minutissimum, (Floerk, Schaer.) Mass. Spores 

" 1. c.) on earth. 

are 3-7 septate with some longitudinal septa and 
variable in size and shape. Earth, SMR. 
" muscicola, Pr. (Cr. I.e.) Rocks among moss, 

Yosemite Valley. 
" rhyparodes, Nyl. (Cr. I.e.) Rocks and stones, 

SMR. 
Trachylia (Acolium) chloroconium. Tuck. Bark of Pseudo- 
tsuga, Yosemite Valley. 
Yosemite Valley. 
Sphinctrina microcephala, Nyl. Bark of dead oak, San Gabriel 

Range, 
Stenocybe tremulicola, Norrl. (Bull. Torr. Bot. CI.— Hue Add. 
Nov. Li. Europ. 1886, No. 140.) Distributed as S. bys- 
sacea, a sub-species. On Juglans californica, S. M. R. 
Rocella fuciformis, (L.) Ach. Catalina Island. (Trask.) 



I 



SOU! HERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES S3 

Eamalina linearis, (L.) Sw., (R. canaliculata, Fr. ) Branches, 
SMR. 
" calicaris fastgata, Fr. Near Los Angeles, (Ernest 

Braunton.) 
" geniculata, Hook. & Tayl. Branches, SMR. 
'* eomplanta, (w.) Ach. Branches, SMR. 
Usnea dasypoga seabrata, Nyl. C(r. I.e. 205,) Catalina, (Trask.) 
Cetraria platj^phylla, Tuck. On Finns Lambertiana, near 
Yosemite Valley. 
" jnniperina, Ach. Dead branches of pines, Wanona, 
Mariposa Co. 
Parmelia exasperata, Nyl. Rocks, SMR. 

" prolixa, Nyl. Sterile. Rocks near Elsinore. 
" sphaerosporella, Mull. Arg. on Pinus Lambertina, 
Dr. A. Zahlbruck ner, Beih. Botan. CentrallTl. 
Heft 2, 1902.) New to N. America. 
" stygia, (L.) Ach. Steryle. San Bernardino Mts., 

near Bear Valley. 

• ' lanata, Wahl. Rocks Clouds Rest, Yosemite Valley. 

Nephroma helveticum, (L.) Mass. On bark, Yosemite Valley. 

Physcia stellaris, Nyl. Subspec. P. tenella, Nyl. On fences at 

Ballona. 

" puverulenta, Nyl. Subspec. P. pityrea, Nyl. On 

bark in San Gabriel Mts. 
" astroidea, (Fr.), Nyl. On Quercus agrifolia, SMR. 
Pyxine sorediata, Fr. For several years I have collected a 
sterile Thallus on various barks, but only recently fruit- 
ing specimens were found. The thallus is closely attached 
to the substratum and not ''densly fibrillose beneath." 
The young Apothecia are slightly pruinose with a prom- 
inent, entire margin; the more matured are naked, brown- 
ish-black, with a lecideine flexuous margin and a rogose 
disk. On Sambucus giauca, near the Soldiers' Home. So 
far as known this species has not been previously reported 
from the Pacific coast. 
Gyrophora erosa, Ach. (Cr. I.e. — TJmbilicaria, Tuck. Syn N. 

A. Li.) Frequent on rocks, Yosemite Valley. 
Pannaria brunnea, (Sw.") Mass. On earth in woods near Santa 

Barbara. 
Heppia conchildobata, A. Zahlbruck. sp. nov. I.e. On granite. 
Palm Springs. 
' hassei, A. Zahlbruck, sp. nov. I.e. On granite. Palm 
Springs. 
Placodium bolacinum. Tuck. Rocks, frequent. SMR. 

" ferrugineum Wrightii, Tuck. Catalina. (Trask.) 

" festivum, Nyl. (P. ferrugineum festivum, Nyl."* 

Cr. I.e. Appears to be an athalline form of P 
frrugineum. On rocks, frequent. SMR. 



54 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Placodmm microphillum, Tuck. On dead wood, SMR. 

" coralloides, Tuck. Santa Barbara Island. (Trask.) 

" epixanthuni, Nyl. Rocks. Palm Springs. SMR. 

very similar to P. vitellinnm ; the disk is green- 
ish yellow, with a paler yellow margin, and 
the asci contain eight spores, simple and po- 
lari bilocular. 
" candicans, Schaer. Cr. I.e. Argillaceous rock, 

SMR. 
" teicholytum, Ach. Cr. I.e. Calcareous rock, SMR. 

Lecanora atrynea, Nyl. Cr. I.e. Rocks, San Gabriel Mts. This 
is one of the confusing L. subfusca group which 
Nylauder has split into a number of species, var- 
ieties and forms based upon differing chemical 
thalline reactions, structure of the paraphyses, 
etc., but which seem more or less to intermingle. 
" varia polytropha, Nyl. Tuck. Syn. N. A. Li. (L 

polytropa, Nyl. Cr. I.e.) Rocks, SMR. 
" gyalectodes, Nyl. Calcareous rock Malibu Canon, 
SMR. This species was diagnosed by Dr. Ny- 
lander in 1899, but I have seen no description. 
The thallus forms a mealy white crust. Apothe 
cia are- urceolate with a white pulverlent thal- 
line margin, thick, entire or radiously crenate. 
Disk convex, orange colored. Spores in 8's, col- 
orless, muriform, oblong ovate. 2-4mm. long \>ij 
12mm. thick. 



The Lichen-flora of San Clemente Island. 

BY DR. H. E. HASSE. 

Ramalina I\Ienziesii. Tuck. On Heteromeles. 

" combeoides, Nyl. 

" ceruchis, Ach. DeNot. f. cephalota, Auctt. 

" calicaris farinacea, Schaer. 

" reticulata, Noehd. Kremp. On Quercus. 

Dendrographa leucophaea, Tuck. Darbish. 
Physcia erinacea, (Ach.) Tuck. 
Usnea hirta, Hoffm. Sterile. 
Schizopelte Californica, Th. Fr. 
Placodium coralloides Tuck. Rocks near the beach. 

" sp., undetermined. 

" ferrugineum, Huds. Hepp. 

" aurantiacum, (Lightf.), Naeg and Hepp. 

Lecanora pallida, (Schreb), Schaer. 
" subfusca, (L.), Ach. 
varia, (Ehrh.), NyL 
" Roboris Nyl, (Rinodina confragosa.) On oak. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 55 

Perusaria fiavicunda, Tuck. 
Lecidea enteroleiica, Fr. 
Biiellia oidalea penichra, Tuck. 

" parasema, (Ach.), Th. Fr. 
Lecidea (?), sp. Undetermined. 

The species here recorded were collected by Mrs. Blanche 
Trask. 

The University of California has decided to conduct the 
Sunnner School of Forestry at Idylwild. 



Notes atnd New^s. 



The U. S. steamer Albatross, that has done such good work in in deeji 
sea exploration on this coast, will sail for Alaska to investigate the con- 
dition of the salmon fisheries. Prof. D. S. Jordan will be in charge ot 
the scientists engaged in the work. 

Loren, E. Hunt a graduate of Berkeley, has been placed in charge 
of the Forestry Experiment Station at the University of California. \ 
series of tests are to be made of the physical and chemical properties 
of the durability, strength, and elasticity of the timbers of the Pacific 
Coast. 

Le Eoy Abrams has left Stanford for a prolonged botanical tour of 
the southern counties. 

Encouraged by the success of the Arizona Experiment Station in 
the cultivation of dates, some energetic colonists in the new settle- 
ment of Imperial are taking steps to plant out orchards of date trees 
there. 

Prof. F. E. L. Beale, chief of the Bureau of Ecomonic Ornithology is 
at present visiting California investigating the habits of our native 
birds, what seed they eat, which are useful to the ugriculturist, and 
which are injurious. The professor addressed meetings both at Pomona 
College and at the Biological section nieeting of ourAcademy. 

The difficulty of separating the various pathogenic bacilli from the 
liquid antitoxine they produce has been solved by the director of the 
Jenner Institute in London. By the aid of the liquid air the bacilli are 
frozen, triturated, and thus destroyed. 

Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell has presented the Academy with a number of 
reprints of articles descriptive of new species of plants and insects. 

Two large palms, nearly 60 feet in height were recently transported 
from Los Angeles to adorn the grounds of a private citizen on Knob 
Hill, San Francisco. 

A species of Basil, technically known as Ocimum viride Willd, is 
the latest discovered remedy for mosquitos. It is claimed that this 
shrub, which has liitherto been known as * ' the Sierra Leone fever 
plant," will, by its mere presence in a room effectually secure its in- 
mates from molestation by mosquitos. 

The Park Comission has granted the Sericultural Club of Los Ai^- 
geles the use of four acres of land in Elysian Park to be devoted to the 
planting of mulberry trees. The club are endeavoring to introduce the 
silk worm and develop the silk industry. 

The San Jose scale is now suposed to have been originally intro- 
duced on peach trees brought from China by the late James Lick. 

Mr. L. O. Howard, chief of the Division of Entomology, states that 
the damage done by insects to agricultural products of this country 



S6 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

amounts to $3000,000,000 per annum, and for the control of which the 
government spends only $150,000 a year. 

In a paper read by B. E. Furnow at the meeting of the Americas 
Science Association, the estimates given of the growth and consumption 
000 acres of alkali soil in the "West can by proper drainage be made 
able timber will be exhausted in 30 years. 

The officers of the Bureau of Soils believe that much of the 6,000,- 
of the wood supply of the United States would indicate that all the avail- 
productive. 

As natural immunity to the effects of bee stings is acquired by many 
individuals after being stung from 1 to 30 times, it is suggested that 
artificial immunization might be made possible by means of serum vac- 
cination. 

Publica-tions Received. 

' ' Combating the flat-headed Bprer, " by A. J. McClatehie, Univer- 
sity Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. Timely Hints for 
Farmers, No. 45. 

Thirteenth Annual Eeport Agricultural Experiment Station, Univer- 
sity of Arizona. " 

"The Culture of Mulberry Silkworm,' Division Entomology. Bulle- 
tin No. 39 United States Department Agriculture. 

"Experiment Station Record," No. 6, Vol. 14, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

"The Lime, Sulphur and Salt Wash Used for San Jose Scale," 
United States Department of Agriculture. Circular No. 52. 

'Methods for the. Investigation of Canceling Inks and Other Stamp- 
ing Inks." United States Department of Agriculture, Chemistry Bureau. 
Circular No. 12.. 

"Los Criaderos de Fierro del Cerro de Mercado, Durango. " Bulletin 
of Geological Institute of Mexico. No. 16. 



Transactions. 

Los Angeles, Cal., March 23rd, 1903. 
The Geological Section of the Academy of Sciences met at the 
Woman 's Club Rooms at 8 P. M. Chairman George \V. Parsons called 
the meeting to order. Minutes of previous meeting read and approved. 
Dr. Stephen Bowers, Ph. D., read an article on the ' ' Depest Wells of 
the World." He stated that the Comstock Mine which was 3300 feet 
in depth was the deepest mine on the Pacific Coast; that the heat was 
so great that a large number of shifts were required each day. The 
deepest well ever drilled in the world was in Eastern Silesia, which 
reached the' depth of 6,511 feet, the temperature at the bottom being 
157 degrees. He also mentioned a deep well near Berlin of 4170 feet, 
and one near Leipsie wnieh reached the depth of 5740 feet, with 
temperature of 135 degrees at the bottom. At Wheeling, West Va., 
a well was sunk 4500 feet, the temjierature at the bottom was 110 de- 
grees. The deepest well on tliis Continent was sunk at West Elizabeth, 
Pa. to the depth of 5386 feet. The temperature at the bottom was 127 
degrees. In drilling this well they passed through 137 distinct forma- 
tions, 68 were slate, 22 limestone, 27 sandstone, 7 of red rock, 4 coal 
seams, and stratas of shale; 90 of the stratas were of deep water for- 
mation, and 34 formed in shallow water. They reached the upper 
Silurian or lower Devonian, and each of the 137 formations indicated a 
period of untold ages. Questions and discussions followed in which 
Messrs. Crosby, Parsons and Taber took part. 

G. MAJOR TABER, Secretary. 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

S outHern Galll ornia flcadeiny oi Sciences 

V0L2. LOS ANGELES, CAL, MAY I, 1903. NO^ 

116 I*3'orth: Bkoad^vat" 



The Lette Visiit in force of the "Painted La.dy" 
Butterfly Va.nessa Cardui, L. 

BY PROF. J, J. RIVERS 

This butterfly in California is both endemic and epidemic 
so is at all times an emigrant. Ordinarily its habit is to produce 
two broods in the year, the second brood appearing late in the 
summer, a portion of which hibernate through the winter. 
During some years the insect is scarce, but this spring it has 
appeared in immense numbers calling forth press notices daily. 
One observer states that the cloud of insects was so dense as to 
throw a shadow on the ground. It is quite conjectural why this 
and some other Lepidoptera take on this roaming habit; it 
is possibly atmospheric influences which suggest a suitable time 
to move to pastures new. It is, however, unlikely that these 
great hordes start from one locality, as the taste of the cater- 
pillar is not as omnivorous as that of the grasshopper, and 
therefore are spread over a large area of territory and the army 
increases as it marches along. The "painted lady" butterfly 
ought to be an educated insect, as it is a great traveler, and is 
a positive native of the four quarters of the earth. In heraldry 
it has the right to the globe on its shield, Avith the words 
Europe, Asia, Africa, America. 

The butterflies which are so numerous for about a week 
are no longer to be seen, but rarely and singly. The question is 
what has become of them; have they rejoined the main army 
or have they fulfllled the law of life, deposited their ova and 
died, in accordance with the habit of the Lepidoptera? If this 
latter be the true explanation, then the summer brood will be 
great. 

The agriculturists talk of destroying all the thistles, and 
should they succeed in this, the "Painted-lady" will get even 
with the community by pouncing on the hollyhocks and sun- 
flowers of the gardens. In all probability the main body 
passed on beyond the limits of California. One observer states 
that a large cloud of butterflies took a course to seaward: 
unless a change of wind drove this company to land, most of 
them would perish, though, some might reach a friendly isle 
in the Pacific, having had the luck to get into a high. current. 

The food plants of the larva are chiefly Thistles, Holly- 
hocks and Sunflowers. 



SS SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The following species of Yenessa are also to be found in 
our neighborhood. 

Vanessa carye (Hubner). 

This is our common, everyday butterfly, the caterpillar of 
which feeds upon all plants Malvaceous; this little worm has 
the constructive habit of the genus, by forming a house to live 
in and then eating it. Its method is to draw the lateral edges 
of a leaf together and fasten them with silk, thus forming a 
tubular protection to the larva, which devours its dwelling at 
liesure. This species is a true native, found only in the 
maritime portions of the Golden "West. 

Vanessa Atlanta (Linn). 

The common name of this species is the Eed Admiral. It 
has much the same habits as the "Painted-lady" though its 
range is not so great. It is found all over the United States 
of North America and over all Europe. The food plants of 
the caterpillar are nettles and hops. It is a showy butterfly 
and bears upon each upper wing a strangely marked band of 
red. It is not a common insect and uncertain in appearing. 

Vanessa Huntera (Fab). 

This is also a California insect, the markings of which are 
clearly and beautifully delineated, after the style of the 
"Painted-lady" but a great deal prettier. The food plants of 
its caterpillar are Gnaphalium Californicum, which grows in 
dry places. It may also be found on some species of Artemisia. 

This butter fly inhabits the United States of North America 
and Mexico, is generally distributed, but not common. 

(Ocean Park.) 



Additions to the Lichen-flora of Southern Ca-IiforniBL. 

Pa.rt II. 

BY DR. H. E. HASSE. 

Lecanora spodo.phaeiza, Nyl. (Cr. Ic.) Santa Barbara Island. 

(Trask.) "Spores oblong or fusiform-oblong, 

simple or spuriously I-septate." 
" calcarea (L.) Somm. Eocks, SMK. A Lichen with 

variable thallus. giving rise to several var. and 

forms. 
" giaucocarpa depauperata, (Cr. 1. c.) and the form 

pruinifera. Rocks SMR. and elsewhere ; also a 

multiform Lichen. 
" • simplex, Nyl. f. complicata. Crombie (1. c.) A form 

with merely an angulose and plicate margin. 

Throug'hout. 
(Acarospora) EPILUTESCENS. A. Zahlbr. Spec. 

nov. (1. c). Palm Springs. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 59 

(Acarospora) PELTASTICTA, Zahlbr. spec, nov (1. 
c.) Palm Springs. 
" (Acarpospora) REAGENS, A. Zahlbr. spec. nov. 

, (1. c.) Palm Springs. 

Lecania turicensis CAIjU'ORNIA, A. Zahlbr. var. nov. (1. c.) 
SMR. 

TONINIOIDES, A. Zahlbr, spec. nov. (1. c.) Ballona 
, Bluffs. 
Rinodina succedens, Nyl. On Pseudotsuga. Throughout the 
higher mountain ranges. This species is also reported 
from New Foundland by Prof. Macounin, Catalogue 
of Canadian Plants, 1902. 
Dirina rediunta, (Stiz.) A. Zahlbr. Catalina and on the main- 
land. 
" Plassei, A. Zahlbr. Near Santa Monica and recently 
foiuid also on Catalina on Heteromeles arbutifolia. 
Pex'tusaria leioplaca, (Ach.) Schaer. Santa Monica Range, 
on Oak. 
" ambigens, (Nyl.) Tuck. On Umbellularia Calif or- 

niea,in canyons of San Gabriel Range, 
giobifera (Tuen.) On bark of conifers, near Seven 
Oaks, San Bernardino Mts. New to North 
America. 
Phlyetis agelea, Koerb. On California walnut. SMR. 
Urceolaria scruposa, Ach. subsp. U. bryophylla, Nyl. Running 

over Cladonia pyxidata, SM R. 
Biatora decipiens, (Ehrh.) Th. Fr. Earth, SMR., rare. At Elsi- 
nore and Palm Springs, abundant. 
" granulosa PPIYLLIZANS, A. Zahlbr. var. nov. (1. c.) 
Earth among moss, San Gabriel Range, 
granulosa corallina, Tuck. Barks, SMR. 
Schweinitzee, Fr. Bark of tieteromeles, SMR. 
Nylanderi, Anz. Bark of conifers, San Gabriel Canyon, 
umbrina, (ach.) On rocks at Santa Barbara. 
mutablis, (Fee) On Cupressus, Yosemite Valley, 
fusco-rubella, (Ploffm.) On Heteromeles, SMR. 
(Bilimbia) GYALECTIFORMIS, A. Zahlbr. spec. nov. 
(1. c.) Palm Spring. 
" XANTHOCOCCI, A. Zahlbr. (Bull. Torr. Bot. CI. 
XXYII.) Bark of conifers, near Seven Ooaks, San 
Bernardino Mts. 
Lecidea CINERATA, A. Zahlbr. spec. nov. (Bull. Torr. Bot. 
CI. XXVII, 1900.) On disintegrated granite, SMR. 
" SUBPLEBEIA, Nyl. n. sp. Named by the late Dr. 
Ny lander without having given a description. On 
earth and calcarious pebbles, SMR., 1896. The 
thalUus is crustaceous effigurate, pulverulent 



6o SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

ochroleucous. Apotliecia small, black, immargi- 
nate. Paraphyses articulated, with small globular 
heads. Spores in eights, simple, colorless, broadly 
elipsoid, 10-12 rnmm long, '6-'^ mmm thick. Hypo- 
thecium colorless. 
DOLODES, Nyl. n. sp. Named by Dr. Nylander in 
1897, without a description. Thallus of small, 
loosely contiguous, slightly rugose, convex, crenu- 
late or lobulated margined, brown scales. Apothecia 
sessile, small and ureeolate, becoming larger, disk 
fiat, black, with a permanent, thick^ entire or 
faintly fiexuose, greyish black margin. Internally 
dark. Asci oblong tubular, 80-84 mmm long and 
12 mmm thick. Spores in 8's, globular, 6-7 mmm 
in diameter. Hymenium 100 mmm high. Hypothe- 
cium faintly colored. Paraphyses slender, distinct. 
On Pseudotsuga macrocarpa, San Gabriel Range, at 
Mt. Wilson. 

" parissima, Nyl. (Leighton, Li. Fl. Gr. Brit.) On bark 
of Pseudotsuga macrocarpa, at Mount Wilson. 

" protabacina, Nyl. On granite, near summit of San An- 
tonio Mt., at 3300 metr. alt. Not knowing when or 
where the species has been published, a short de- 
scription is . given. Thallus of cartilaginous, ap- 
proximated, convex, red-brown squamae, 1-2 mmm 
in diameter, entire or sinuous to deeply lobate 
margin, this black edged. Apothecia black, small, 
flat with a turgid, entire or flexuous margin, to 
larger convex and becoming immarginate. Sep- 
arate or several contiguous. Hypothallus black. 
Thallus Ka.. C. Spores in 8's ellipsoid 9-11 mmm 
long, 3-3 '5 mmm thick. Hym. Gel. J-blue, turning 
brown. - 

" ruginosa, Tuck. San Gabr. and SMR. 

melanccheima. Tuck. On Rhus diversiloba, SMR, and 
bark of conifers San Gabr. Range. 

" enteroleuca aequata, Floerk. Rocks, San Gabriel and 
San Bernardino Ranges. 

" enteroleuca ambigua, Anz. (L. parasema Ach.) v. 
tabescens (Koerb.) Leighton L c. 3rd edit. 1879.) 
cyrtidia. Tuck. Sandstone. SMR. 
. " plana, Lahm. Sandstone, SMR. New to North 
America. 

NOTES. 

The final steps in the incorporation of the Sonthern California 
Academy of Sciences have been consummated and the incorporation 
papers have been forwarded to the secretarj^ by the Secretary of State 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 6i 

at Sacramento. The expense of incorporation, filing of documents, etc., 
amounting to twenty-five dollars ($25.00) have been borne personally by 
President Theo. B. Comstock. 

Judge Cheney, a valuable member of our Academy, volunteered his 
legal services in drawing up the incorporation papers entirely free of 
expense to the Academy. To both of these gentlemen the thanks of the 
Southern California Academy of Sciences are due. 

Professor W. J. Hussey, the well-known Double Observer of the Lick 
Observatory, in Southern California at present, is making astronomical 
observations in the interests of science. He has been for the last two 
weeks at Echo Mountain, using the Mt. Lowe sixteen-inch refractor. 
Although, owing to cloudiness, there were but few nights during which 
the telescope could be used to advantage. Nevertheless, no less than 
fourteen new double stars were discovered during this short period of 
time. This is a most gratifying result, testifying eloquently to the 
splendid performance of the Lowe Observatory refractor in the hands of 
a trained and skillful observer, as well as to the excellence of the 
Southern California atmosphere for the most exacting and delicate 
astronomical observations. 



Report of the Secretary of the 
SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 

for the year ending May 4th, 1903. 

Los Angeles, Cal., May 4th, 1903. 

To the Board of Directors and to the Members of the Southern 
California Academy of Sciences: 

Gentlemen: — I ha:ve the honor as secretary of the Southern Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, to present to you this evening my tenth 
annual report, in the drafting of which it has been found convenient 
to divide the subject matter into three particular departments, viz.: 
General statement of the progress of the Academy, a statement of its 
financial standing and a statement of its lectures during the past year. 

The Academy has prospered in every way during the year. It has 
become an incorporated society, and plans and preparations have been 
made to increase even more its activity for good in Los Angeles and 
the surrounding country. The work done by the various sections has 
been satisfactory and has been of such a nature that it has attracted 
many new members into the new incorporation. 

The organ of communication between the various sections has been 
the monthly Bulletin, of which ten issues have appeared during the 
past year. Mary articles of original investigations have appeared here 
for the first time, of which the following are, perhaps, the most 
important: 

Contributions to the Lichen-flora of the California Coast Islands. — 
By Dr. H. E. Hasse. 

A. new Bee, of the Genus Andronieus.— By T. D. A. Cockerell. 

A Monograph on Pecten Aequisulcatus, Cpr. — By Mrs. M. Burton 
Williamson. 

New or Little Know Southern California Plants.- By Le Eoy Abrams. 

Pandora (Kennerlia) Gradis, Dall. — By Prof. J. J. Eivers. 

Hynienoptera of Southern California. — By T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Mymicophillous Coleoptera or Ant-Loving Beetles. — By Prof. J. J. 
Rivers. 

A new California Rose. — By S. B. Parish. 

Additions to the Flora of Los Ano^eles County, 1. — By Le Eoy 
Abrams. 



62 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Butterfly Emigrants. — By Prof. J. J. Rivers. 

The Southern California Species of C'alochortus.— By S. B. Parish. 

Notes on Sphaeralcea and Malvastrum. — By T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Spaerostigma erythra, n. sp. — By A. Davidson, M. D. 

Tribal Character in the Separation of the Style-Branches in the 
Compositae.— By Louis A. Greata. 

Pentstemon Parishii, a hybrid. — By Dr. A. Davidson. 

Concerning Certain Trees. — By S. B. Parish. 

Diptera from Southern California.— By T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Two New Plants from Southern California.— By S. B. Parish. 

New Plant Records of Los Angeles County. — By Anstruther 
Davidson, C. M., M. D. 

The bulletin has been the means of extending the usefulness of 
the Academy beyond the sphere of its own members. On its mailing 
list will be found the leading Scientific Institutions and Libraries in the 
United States, and some of the prominent ones in Europe. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

Balance on hand May 10th, 1902 $ 230.89 

Total collections. . . .' 548.25 

Gift from President Comstock 25.00 

Gift from Mr. J. D. Hooker to Astro. Section 100.00— $ 904.14 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

Rent for hall $ 142.00 

Commissions on Collections 106.80 

Miss Lawson 's Salary 20 . 00 

Reception Expenses, Music, etc 15 . 00 

Engraving 12 . 45 

Lantern , 6 . 00 

One Desk 20 . 75 

Printing, Publication and Postage 363.90 

Expenses of Incorporation 12.50 

Balance on hand May 4, '03 204.74— $ 904.14 



SUMMARY OF LECTURES 

Delivered Before 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

During Year 1902-1903, 

"The Problem of the Universe"— Professor Simon Newcomb. 

"Growth of Moulds"— Miss Louise Burns. 

' * Death Valley, Its Geological Origin, Saline Deposits, Topography, 
Scenery, Climate and Water Supplies" — Professor G. E. Bailey. 

' ' How to Identify the Forest Trees of Southern California without 
Being a Botanist" — Hon. Abbott Kinney. 

"The Mastodon Bones of Kentucky"— Dr. John Uri Lloyd. 

"The mission of the Local Academy of Sciences"— Dr. Theo. 0. 
Comstock. 

"Life and Work of Hugh Miller"— Mr. Wm. H. Knight. 

' ' An Outdoor Field Meeting of the Astronomical Section. ' ' 

"California Mineral Oils and Their Chemical Analysis" — Professor 
L. J. Stabler. 

"Description of Chile, Its Climate, Geology and Topography" — Mr. 
David C. Cunningham. 

"Scientific Relations of the United States Patent Office"— Mr. 
James R. Rogers. 

"Butterflies in This Part of the State" — Dr. Agnes M. Claypole. 



so Ul HERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 63 

"Importance of a Close Study of the Hydra and Its Ability or In- 
ability to Continue Its Life When It Is Turned Inside Out "—Professor 
Ulrey. 

" Hymenoptera of California"— T. D. A. Coekerell. 

"Evolution" — Dr. C. A. Whiting, Miss Agnes Claypole, Professor 
B. M. Davis. 

"Eadiant Energy" — Professor Edgar Larkin. 

* ' The Comparative Geology of the United States in Comparison with 
the Eastern, Middle and Western Sections"— Professor F. Lee Fuller. 

"Geologic Time and Earliest Stages of the Earth's History"^ 
Professor Theo. C. Comstoek. 

' ' Physographic Evolution, Development of Earth 's Surface 
Features"— Dr. Agnes M. Claypole. 

"Outline of Evolution of Life' in the Earth" — Professor Theo. C. 
Comstoek. 

Notes on Certain Peculiar Ores in Canada and the United States" — 
Mr. John M. Stewart. 

"Recent Siderial Astronomy" — ^Professor W. J. Hussey. 

' ' Degeneration ' ' — Professor Ulrey. 

From the above summary it will be seen that some forty lectures 
have been given during the past year. The wide range of subjects dealt 
with comprise: Evolution, Astronomy, Geology, Saline Deposits, 
Forestry, Palaentology, Botany, Mineral Oils, Biology, Zoology, Physics, 
Physiography and Psycology. 

Large audiences have prevailed, and especiallj^ has this been true of 
the more or less technical section meetings. The meetings both of the 
Academy and Sections, have all been open to the public, whether mem- 
bers of the Academy or not, a fact which has been appreciated and 
taken advantage of by many. The influence for good of these meetings 
in the general uplifting of the community can hardly be over-estimated. 

In the opinion of the secretary, no such popular course of free 
lectures can be found anywhere in the country outside of the city of 
New York, and even in that metropolis, the popular public lectures vmder 
the auspices of the Board of Education are not entirely free. 

Considerable expense has had to be met in providing so many 
lectures without charging any admission. The income of the Academy 
from dues, which is its only source of revenue, would not be sufficient and 
there would be a deficiency in the treasury were it not for the voluntary 
financial assistance of a few of its patrons. 

Respectfully Submitted, 

B. R. BAUMGARDT, Secretary 

Transactions. 

Los Angeles, Cal. April 6th, 1903. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Southern California Academy 
of Sciences was held this evening at 940 South Figueroa street. 

The chair was occupied by President Comstoek. The report of the 
Board of Directors on the tickets to be voted at the election on the 
first Monday of May were presented. From this report, the following 
officers and directors were nominated: President^ Theo. B. Comstoek, 
Vice-President, J. D. Hooker; Secretary, B. R. Baumgardt; Directors, 
Melville Dozier, C. A. Whiting, G. Major Tabor. 

A lecture was delivered by Mr. John M. Stewart, entitled, ' ' Notes 
on Certain Peculiar Ores in Canada and the United States." Mr. 
Stewart illustrated his lecture with numerous specimens. At the close 
of the lecture a general discussion followed, participated in by the 
member^ present, after which the meeting stood adjourned. 

B. R. BAUMGARDT, Secretary. 



64 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

April 20th, 1903. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Astronomical Section was held 
this evening, Chairman Knight residing. 

M'^ithont delay, the Chairman, with appropriate remarks relative to 
the valuable work being performed by Prof. W. J. Hussey at the Lick 
Observatory, in connection especially with observations of binary stars, 
introduced that gentleman as the lecturer of the evening. 

The address of Prof. Hussey, beautifully illustrated by stereopticon 
views, was replete with information and interest, lucid in stateni.^nt 
and scholarly in style, and was listened to with marked attention by 
a large audience. After the lecture the professor was asked many ques- 
tions relative to the subject under discussion, to which his answers were 
clear and conclusive in all cases where actual knowledge was available. 

A brief business session of the Section followed, for the purpose of 
electing officers for the ensuing year, resulting in the election of Mr. 
W. H. Knight as Chairman, and Mr. Melville Dozier as Secretary. The 
meeting then adjourned. MELVILLE DOZIEE, Secretary. 



Woman's Club House, April 13, 1903. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The first biisiness was thelection of offi.cers for the ensuing year. 
As a result. Prof. Ulrey, of the University of Southern California, 
was ejected Chairman, and C. A. Whiting, of the Pacific School of 
Osteopathy, was elected Secretary. The speaker of the evening was 
Prof. Ulrey, his subject being "Degeneration." The lecture was a 
scholarly presentation of the subject, and was illustrated by blackboard 
sketches and microscopical preparations. 

The lecture was discussed at some lengthy by a number of the mem- 
bers present. 

A paper on " A New Bee of the Genus ' Andronicus, ' " by T. D. A. 
Cockerell, was read by title. 

About twenty members and visitors were present. 

On motion the meeting adjourned. c. A. Whiting, Secretary. 



Los Angeles, Cal., April 27, 1903. 
Board of Directors of the S. C. A. S. : 

Gentlemen: — At the April meeting of the Biological Section of the 
Academy of Sciences, an election of officers for the ensuing year was 
held. As the result of that election, A. B. LHrey was elected Chairman 
jf the Section and C. A. Whiting was elected Secretary. 

Very respectfully, C. A. WHITING, Secretary. 



Los Angeles, Cal., April 27th, 1903. 

The Geological Section met at 940 South Pigueroa at 8 p. m. The 
Chairman, George W. Parsons, being absent, Mr. Wm. H. Knight occupied 
the chair. "The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

Several articles were read by the secretary on the new metal. 
Radium, supplemented by remarks by the Chairman. 

The secretary exhibited a small specimen of Uranium Ore, which was 
said to also contain Radium. 

The Chairman gave an interesting talk on the pre-glaeial period, 
and Mr. Crosby on ' ' Earthquakes on the Islands in Sicily. ' ' 

An election was then held, and George Parsons was elected Chairman, 
and G. Major Taber, Secretary, for the ensuing year. 

G. MAJOR TABKR, Secretary. 



VOIy. II. 



JUNE, 1903 



NO. 6 



n 



BTJLLETIN 



OF THE 



Southern California Academu of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier G. W. Parsons 



CONTENTS : 

Page 

Notes on Plants from Middle Western California, A. A. 

Heller 65 

New Plant Records for Los Angeles County, AnstruTher 

Davidson, C. M., M. D 7° 

Additions to the Lichen-flora of Southern California, Dr. 

H. E. Hasse 71 

The Caterpillar Plague, Proe. J. J. Rivers 77 

Notes and News 77 

Transactions 7^ 



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MAILED JUNE 30, 1903 



J 



LIBRARY 

BULLETIN ^ZZf. 

OF THE GARDEN 

SouiHern Galilornia flcafleniy o! Sciences 

VOL 2. LOS ANOELES, CAL, JUME I, 1903. HO. 6 



116 jVoeth: Bkoad^vay 



Notes on. Platrvts from Middle Western California.. 

BY A. A. HELIvER. 

The following' descriptions and notes on the writer's 
collection of 1902, made chiefly in the counties of Sonoma and 
Lake, are ofi'ered preliminary to a full report on the season's 
work, which he hopes to publish before the end of the present 
year. The collection is a large and interesting one, consisting 
of over 1000 numbers, among them some twenty species that 
appear to be new, and which have already been distributed 
under the names tliev will bear when described. 



DICHELOSTEMMA VOLUBILIS. (Kellogg.) i 

Macroscapa volubilis, Kellogg. Pacific, June 30, 1854. 

Stropholirion Californicum, Torr. Pac. R. R. Rep. 4; 149. 
1857. 

Rupalleya volubilis, Moriere. Bull. Linn. Soc. Norm. 8: 
313. 1863. 

Dichelostemma Californica, Wood, Proc. Phila. Acad. 1868 : 
173. 1869. 

Brodiaea volubilis, Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. 11; 377. 

No. 5499, collected in Berry Canyon, t^^elve miles southeast 
of Chico, Butte county, May, 1902, where it is not uncommon in 
thickets and on stream banks. This pink-flowered twining 
species is apparently congeneric with the blue-flowered ones, 
first separated by Kunth under the name Dichelostemma, as 
pointed out byMrs. Curran in Bull. Cal. Acad. 1 ; 149, 1885.^ 

1/ HOOKERA SYNANDRA, sp. nov. 

Stems slender, purplish, about 3dm. high from a fibrous- 
coated corm; fully developed umbel about 7cm. long, the 



■66 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

pedicels ascending, incurved, subtended by conspicuous, 
scarious. ovate, acuminate bracts marked by three or more 
reddish veins ; perianth 3cm. long, very slightly constricted 
above the ovary, the tube greenish, a little over 1cm. long, seg- 
ments oblong, violet, somewhat spreading, marked with a dark 
midvein, the outer ones blunt, about 4mm. wide, the inner ones 
acute, somewhat narrower ; staminodia erect, white, 2.5cm. 
long, closely investing the stamens, and slightly exceeding 
them. 

No. 5742, collected at the Petrified Forest, Sonoma county, 
June 23, 1902, growing in dry, open gravelly ground. It 
resembles H. coronaria outwardly, but m that species the 
staminodia lie against the lobes of the perianth, and 
consequently stand entirely away from the stamens. The 
present species and Brodiaea Purdyi, Eastwood, Proc. Cal. 
Acad. II. 6; 427, pi. 58 1896. are the only ones in the genus so 
far noted which have the staminodia erect and closely investing 
the stamens. The perianth of B. Purdyi is rotate, a point which 
is hardly shown in either the description or the plate. It is 
very abundant in the valleys among the foothills near Chico, 
Butte county, the type locality, where it was collected by the 
writer, under No. 5524. 

y TRITELEIA ANGUSTIFLORA sp. nov. 

Scape erect from a deep-seated, heavily coated fibrous 
corm. about 3dm. high, but occasionally much taller; involucral 
bracts lance-acuminate. 1-1. 5cm. long, veined; umbel 5-15 
X flowered, pedicels 1.5cm. long: perianth deep indigo-blue, about 
2.5cm. long, narrow funnelform, slightly unequal below, the 
segments about 1cm. long, the outer ones narrower than the 
inner, acute ; the inner obvate-spatulate, obtuse : anthers 
versatile but- erect, unequally inserted, those opposite the outer 
segments an anther-length shorter than the others. 

No. 5728, collected on Tiburon peninsula along the Bay 
road, Marin county, June 19. 1902. 

Technically there is little to distinguish this species from 
T. laxa, but in the field it is evidently distinct. It. begins to 
bloom at least a month later, has a smaller, less fiaring flower, 
of a rich, deep indigo-blue, and is more confined to wooded 
banks and slopes. It was first noted on the slopes of Tamalpais 
above Mill Valley, and is plentiful throughout Sonoma county 
in favorable situations. 



SOUTHPlRN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 67 



TRILLIUM GIGANTEUM. . (H. & A.) 

Trillium sessile vai-. g-iganteura, H. & A. Bot. Beechv, 402. 
1841. 

Trillium sessile vmi-. angustipetalum. . Torr. Pac. R. R. Rep. 
4: 151. 1857. 

Trillium sessile vai-. chloropetalum, Torr. 1. c. 

Trillium sessile var. Calif ornicum, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 
14: 273. 1879. 

That the Califoriiian plant is distinct from T. sessile of the 
Atlantic seaboard is evident, but whether its various forms, 
founded on the color and shape of the flower segments, are 
worthy of distinctive names is doubtful, for plants with both- 
mottled and unmottled leaves, as well as perianth segments of 
different shapes and color may be found growing in close 
proximity. The writer has seen only purple and white flowered 
forms, but in the dried state the delicate flowers of some of the 
white ones have assumed a greenish tinge. No. 5035. It is 
common in Sonoma county on rich, moist banks. The original 
of Hooker & Arnott was the purple flowered form, collected by 
Douglas, probably near San Francisco. 



ALSINE GLUTINOSA, sp. nov. 

Stems rather weak but ascending, 2-4dm. high, loosely 
branched throughout, the branches slender, divaricate, viscid 
pubescent: leaves sessile with a clasping base, varying from 
narrowly lanceolate below to ovate-lanceolate in the middle and 
upper portion, all more or less acuminate, sparingly short hairy 
and cilate, the largest 7cm. long, 2cm. wide ; flowers solitary in 
the forks of the branches and in terminal two or three flowered 
cymes with long internodes ; calyx about 4mm. long, glandular, 
or the lobes nearly glabrous, these oblong or lance-oblong, 
barely acute ; petals ovate-spatulate, nearly twice as long as the 
calyx, notched ; stamens 10, anthers brownish ; styles 3. 

No. 5880, collected in grassy woods near Summit Lake, Mt. 
Sanhedrin, Lake county, July 15, 1902. 

This species is related to A. Jamesiana of the mountains of 
Colorado, and passes for that species in California, but differs 
in several particulars, notabl}^ in the shape of the petals. These 
are ''oblong . . . cleft about one-third their length, the 
lobes oblong and obtuse." It has a leaf with "margin 
glandularly pubescent," which is not the case in our species. 



ARENARIA GREGARIA, sp. nov. 

Perennial, densely tufted, the parts above ground more or 
less purplish, covered with glandular, spreading hairs; 



6S SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

rootstocks somewhat lignescent, frequently 2-3dm. long; stems 
1dm. high or less, the older ones slender and dichotomonsly 
branched above, the younger ones stouter; leaves 3-7mm. long, 
fascicled and oblong on the young shoots ; on the older 
branches lanceolate, acute, opposite; . sepals 4-5mm. long, 
lanceolate, acuminate, 3-veined, the midvein especially 
prominent; petals white, slightly exceeding the calyx. 

No. 5892, collected on open, stony slopes near Summit Lake, 
Mt. Sanhedrin, Lake county, July 15, 1902. It ia abundant, 
growing in dense mats, often carpeting the ground in suitable 
situations. In California, at least, it has passed for Arenaria 
verna hirta. 

^ERIOGONUM SMALLIANUM. sp. nov. 

Perennial, the lignescent part of the stem gnarled and 
prostrate, covered with brown, flaky bark, sometimes very 
short, or sometimes a decimeter or more in length; stems of the 
season with a maximum length of about 2dm., two or 
occasionally umbellately branched above, clothed with a close 
lanate pubescence ; leaves basal, obovate or obovate- 
spatulate, the largest about 13mm. long, including the petiole of 
2-3mm., densely covered with a, feltdike mat of hairs, especially 
the lower side, which is white, the upper greenish ; umbels 
simple, one to three rayed, the peduncles l-3cm. long ; involucres 
calyx-like, densely, wooly, about 4mm. high, the short segments 
barely acute ; flowers sulphur yellow with a midvein orange 
or red, on slender pedicles of 1mm., the segments about 5mm. 
long, 2 mm. wide, obovate, rounded, or sometimes acutish, the 
stipitiform base about one-fourth the length of the segments. 

No. 5996, collected in open, stony ground, near the summit 
of Mt. Sanhedrin, Lake county, July 28, 1902, and distributed 
as E. croceum. Small but differing from that species in its 
lower, more cespitose growth, denser pubescence, fewer and 
more simple umbels on stouter peduncles, etc. E. croceum, 
originally collected by Mrs. Heller and myself on the "breaks" 
of the Salmon river, northern Idaho, probably does not occur 
in California, although plants similar to our type of E. 
Smallianum have been labeled as such. 

^y'- DELPHINIUM LUTEUM, sp. nov. 

About 3dm. high, somcAvhat branched; stems with very few 
short hairs, purplish: leaves deep green, mostly basal, none 
exceeding the inflorescence, the blade orbicular in outline, about 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 69 

6cm. in diameter, 5-partecl into broad cuneate segments, these 
unequally 3-5-lobed, shortly mucronate, sparsely short liairly on 
both faces ; the long petioles broadened below into a somewhat' 
sheathing, ciliate base ; flowers pale yellow, pubescent, 3cm. 
long, half of that length occupied by the stout, straight or only 
slightly curved horizontal spur; the divisions broadly obvate, 
regular, the mouth about 2cm. across. 

No. 5256, collected on grassy slopes about rocks, near 
Bodega Bay, along the road leading to the village of Bodega. 
A well-marke^' species, its nearest relative being D. nudicaule. 

^CRATAEGUS GAYLUSSACIA, sp. nov. 

A slender tree about 20 feet high, with gray bark, the 
young twigs reddish; branches slender, rather remote, wide 
spreading; thorns stont, scattered, 1cm. long; leaves pubescent 
above, with short appressed hairs, especially on the veins, 
especially on the veins, glabrous or nearly so beneath, those on 
the young shoots broadly ovate, about 4cm. long, 3cm. wide, 
acuminately tipped, irregularly serrate and somewhat three- 
lobed, the teeth callous tipped; the leaves of the older growth 
obovate, cuneate, 3-4 cm. long, including the slender petiole of, 
5mm., irregularly serrate, the teeth sharper and closer than on 
the leaves of the young shoots, the end commonly broad, but oc- 
casionally pointed ; fruit purple-black, small, about 4mm. in di- 
ameter, surmounted by the five short, obtuse calyx lobes ; in size 
and general appearance much resembling the common black 
huckleberry of the East, whence the specific name. 

No. 6052, in fruit only, collected in thickets in low ground 
along the Lagoon at Sebastopol, Sonoma county, August 20, 
1902. Heretofore this distinct species has passed for C. 
rivularies, Nutt., collected originally by Nuttall in the Rocky 
Mountains of Montana, the type of which is preserved in the 
herbarium of Columbia University, New York City, and is quite 
different from our California plant. 

MENTZELIA PINETORUM, sp. nov. 

Annual; 4-6dm. high, pale and somewhat shining, 
especially below; pubescent with short hairs; branched from 
the base, the branches ascending, rather weak; lower leaves 
oblong, with a maximum length of about 8cm., 1cm. wide, 
shallowly sinuate, narrowed below to a clasping base, usually 
blunt, the upper successively shorter and somewhat broader, 
becoming sessile, the ones contiguous to the inflorescence ovate 
and half as broad as long, acute ; calyx only 1mm. long, the lobes 



70 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

oblong, obtuse; corolla 4mm. long, canary-yellow, the lobes 
oblong; filaments not dilated; capsule narrowly linear-clavate, 
2.5cm long; seeds in a single row, short-prismatic, the angles 
and one side grooved, apparently not tuberculate. 

No. 5910, collected on the southerly slope of Mt. Sanhedrin, 
Lake county, July 19, 1902, on the ridge above the sawmill. It 
grew in abundance in dry, gravelly ground near pine trees. 
Although distributed as M. integrifolia (Wats.) Rydb., it is 
evidently distinct from that species, the original of which came 
from the Rocky mountains, or perhaps from Idaho, if "663 
Geyer" is taken as the type, and is said by Watson in Bot. King 
Exped. 114, to have "flowers and fruit as in the ordinary M. 
albicaulis, " the jDctals of which are described as "scarcely 
exceeding the short subulate-lanceolate calyx-segments." 

Ne\v Plant Records for Los Angeles Covinty, 

Part III. 

BY ANSTRUTHEK DAVIDSON, C. M., M. D. 

Cyladenia venusta, Eastwood. San Gabriel Peak. (Rus- 
sell.) San Antonio Mt. This has previously been reported as 
C. humilis Benth. and though smaller than the type it 
undoubtedly is venusta. 

Harpagonella Palmeri, Gray. Avalon. (Grant). 
Krynitzkia Calif ornica, Gray. Gardena. (Braunton.) 
Mimulus rubellus, Gray. Wilson's Peak. (Russell.) 
Verbena Wrightii, Gray. Lamanda Park. A single clump 
of this common Arizona species was discovered by Russell at 
Lamanda Park. 

Mentha rotundifolia, L. Los Angeles River. Braunton.) 
Amaranthus deflexus, L. Redondo. (Greata.) 
Amaranthus chlorostachyus, Willd. Vernon. (Braunton.) 
Aphaniama blitoides, Nutt. Redondo. 

Chenopodium rubrum, L. Occasional in alkaline soil near 
the coast. 

Atriplex Parishii, Wats. Redondo. (Braunton.) 
Batis maritima, L. . Terminal. (Grant.) Newport. 
Eriogonum Parryi, Gray. Rock Creek. 
Eriogonum Palmeri, Wats. Rock Creek. 
Roubieva multifida, L. Pasadena. (Grant.) Studebaker. 
Hesperocnide tenella, Torr. Griffith Park. (Braunton.) 
Brodiaea laxa, Benth. North slope Cahuenga Mts. 
Juncus xiphiodies, Meyer. Rivera. (Braunton.) 
Carex siccata, Dewey. Frequent near Los Angeles and 
Santa Monica. 

Pellaea Wrightiana, Hook. San Antonio Canyon. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 71 

Additions to the Licherv-flora of Southern CatliforniaL. 

Pa.rt III. 

BY DR. H. E. HASSE. 

Biiellia petraea albinea, Tuck. Yosemite Valley. 

" triphragmioides, Nyl. N. sp. So named by Dr. 
Nylander in 1898, without a diagnosis. 

Thallus effuse rugulose pulverulent, light yel- 
lowish grey. Apothecia black, fiat with a thin black 
margin, disk indistinctly pruinose, finally becom- 
ing larger convex, imarginate and epruinose. Dark 
within. Asci oblong, 76-82 mmm long, 16-20 mmm 
thick. Hymenium of equal height with Asci. 
Paraphyses slender, agglutinated Epithec, fuscous 
and granulose. Hypthecium dark brown. Spores 
in eights, broadly fusiform or oblong 4-5 septate, 
26 mmm long, 8 mmm thick. 

On Rhamnus integrifolia, beach, near Santa Monica. 
" Bolanderia, Tuck. On granite, San Gabriel and San 

Bernardino Mts. 
" atro-albella, Nyl. Rocks, Catalina Island. 
" fusco-atra, (L.) Fr. Rocks, Elsinore. 
" . parasitica, (Fl.) Th. Fr. On thallus of Pertusaria 
globifera. 
Opegrapha vulgata, Aeh. On Quercus agrifolia. SMR. 

" vario. var. lichenoides. (Pers.) f. chlorina, Jatta. 

Teste Zahlbruekner, (Bull. Torr. Bot. 01. XXVII, 
1900. On Umbellularia Californica. SMR. 
" UMBELLULARIA, A. Zahlbr. sp. nov. (Bot. 
Centralbl. XIII, 1902.) On Umbellularia Cali- 
fornica, SMR. 
Platygrapha HYPOTHALLINA, A. Zahlbr. sp. nov. (Bull. 
Torr. Bot. CL XXVII, 1900). Schistose rocks, 
Catalina. (Trask.) 
PLURILOCULARIS, A. Zahlbr., sp. nov. (Bot. 
Centrlbl. XIII, 1902). Catalina, on Rhus 
integrifolia. 
Chiodecton OCHROLEUCUM, k. Zahlbr. sp. nov. (Bull. Torr. 
Bot. CI. XXVII, 1900.) On Rhus integrifolia, 
Catalina Island. Trask. 



72 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Artliouia RHOIDIS, A. Zalilbr. sp. nov. (1. c.) Catalina Island, 
Rhus laurina. 
LECANACTIDEA, A. Zahlbr. sp. nov. (1. c.) Beach 
blnffs near San Pedro. On Lycinm Californieum. 
pateUnlata CAESIOCARPA, A. "^ Zahlbr. var. nov. 
(Bull. Torr. Bot. CI. XXVII, 1900.) On Malvas- 
trujn Thurberi. SilR. 
" microspermella, "Willey. (Sj^n. Arthonia H. AVilley, 
1890.) On Sails lasiolepis, Platanus racemosa 
and Jugians Californica. SMR. 
galactitella, Nyl. On Apricot and Oleander, Soldiers 
Home Grounds. 
" taediosa, Nyl. (Willey 's Syn. Arth.) On Platanus, 

SMR. 

" gregaria (Weig.) Kbr. (A. cinnabarina, Wallr.) 

Spores 22-24 mmm long, 8-9 mmm thick, oblong, 

3-4 sptate, upper cell largest. Catalina, on 

quercus tomentella. (Trask.) 

" impolita subfusca, Nyl. (Willey, Syn.) On Jugians 

Californica. SMR. 
" sanguinea, Willey. (Synop. 1. c.) Catalina, on Het- 

eromeles. 
" pyrenuloicles. Mull. Arg. (Willey 1. c.) On Grevillea 

robusta. Soldiers Home grounds. 
" gyalectoides, Mull. Arg. (Willey 1. c.) Catalina 
Island, on Heteromeles. 
Arthothelium PRUINASCENS, A. Zahlbr. sp. nov. (Bull. Torr. 
Bot. CI. XXYII, 1900.) On Malvastrum 
Thurberi, SMR. 
Endocarpum WILMSOIDES, A. Zahlbr. sp. nov. (Bot. Cen- 
tralbl. XIII, 1902.) On argillaceous rock. 
SMR. 
MONICA, A. Zahlbr. sp. nov. (1. c.) on 
argillaceous rock, SMR. 
Verrucaria peloclita, Nyl. (Lichen Flora Gr. Bri., 1879.) 
Macroscopically is similar to '^ . plumbae, but 
differs in the smaller spores. On argillaceous 
rock. SMR. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 73 

Verrucaria DACRYODES, Nyl., sp. nov. So named by the late 
Dr. Nylander in 1898. "E Stirpe V. 
polysticta. ' ' 

Tliallus crustaceous, areolate, dull, greenish 
black. Apothecia small, dull black, partly im- 
bedded in thallus. Spores obovate, 14-17 mmm 
long, 11 mmm thick. Paraphyses gelatinous ,in- 
distinct. On calcareous rock. SMR. 
DISCORD ANS, Nyl. n. sp. Named by Dr. 
Nylander in 1898. "Stirpis propria." Thallus 
crustaceous, finely areolate, dull black. 
Apothecia minute black, imbedded in thallus. 
Paraphyses slender. Spores broadly eliptic,sim- 
ple colorless, 21 to 25 mmm. long and 11 mmm. 
thick. On oaks, western slope of San Gabriel 
Range at 1000 Met. alt. 
Hassea bacillosa (Nyl.) A. Zahlbr. nov. gen. Bot. Centralblatt 
XIII, 1902. This is Verrucaria bacillosa, Nyl., of 
the list of Lichens of So. Cal. of 1898. 
Microglaena SYCTINOGONOIDES, A. Zahibr. sp. nov. (1. c.) 
On Quercus agrifolia, SMR., the original 
locality, and on oaks, western slope of San 
Gabriel Range, along Wilson's new trail. 
" Hassei, A. Zahlbr. sj). nov. 1. c. On Juglans Cali- 

fornica, SMR. Distributed as Pyrenula tliele- 
morpha, Tuk. 
Thelopsis SUBPORINELLA, Nyl. sp. nov. Name without de- 
scription by the author of the species. (Bull. Torr. 
CI. XXV, Dec, 1898.) Original locality, Malibu 
canyon, SMR., on Umbellularia. 
Dermatocarpon ACAROSPOIDES, A. Zahlbr. sp. nov. Bot. 

Centralblatt, 1902. Palm Springs. 
Arthopyrenia PARVULA, A. Zahlbr. sp. nov. L c. Palm 

Springs. 
Psorotichia SQUAMULOSA, A. Zahlbr. sp. nov. 1. c. Palm 
Springs. 



74 SOU! HERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

PREHISTORIC FAUNA OF CALIFORNIA. 

PLATE 5. 

Pliocene and Cretaceous Fossils recently described by Dr. 
J. G. Cooper. * 

57. Planorbis pabloanus, Cooper. 
':>^. Anodonta lignitica, Cooper. 

59. Limnaea contracosta, Cooper. 

The three above named species were found in a bed of 
laminated lignite, discovered about 1868 by Dr. Cooper and the 
writer, along the westerly branch of San Pablo Creek, Contra 
Comity, California. 

The lignite is supposed to have been deposited in a Pliocene 
lake. On the east are deposits of marine ^Miocene fossils, on 
the west altered Cretaceous rocks with "Aucella Piochii." The 
coal-strata have evidentlj^ been uplifted to an angle unusual in 
Pliocene deposits, but there is nothing to fix the date of the 
volcanic outburst Avhich is seen in Eocky Mound, three and a 
half miles distant. 

60. Amnicola Yatesiana, Cooper. ^Magnified five diam- 
eters. 

"This little shell is found in great numbers in Pliocene de- 
posits on both sides of San Francisco bay, at ^fission San Jose, 
on the east (the original locality), also near Stephen's Creek, 
and near Los Gatos on the west. Carninifex Xewberryi and 
other living species occur with it in localities, also some species 
that may, like this be extinct. ^Ir. AYatts obtained specimens 
taken from an artesian well at Lambertson's, Tulare County, 
1. 058 feet deep.'" 

61-62. Cucullaea Bowersiana, Cooper. Cretaceous. Orange 
County. Califoriiia. 

63. Agasoma kernianum, Cooper. Pliocene: Kern County, 
California. 

64. Mytilus dichotomus, Cooper. Cretaceous "B." Coal 
]\Iines, San Diego County, California. 

* Bulletin Xo. 4. Cal. St. Mining Bureau, 1894. (loc. cit.) 
59-60— Fresh water shells. Pliocene. 
61-62 and 64.— Cretaceous. 63 Tertiary. 



PLATE 5. 



"sf 





58 






b:ti-,- 



60 




SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 77 

The CaLterpillacr Placgvie. 

BY PROF. J. J. RIVERS 

The caterpillar that has caused so much damage to culti- 
vated plants throughout Southern California is that of Vanessa 
caryae (the West Coast Lady) a sister to the "Painted Lady." 
The ordinary food plant of this insect is the common mallow 
(Malva pariflora) which, having become exhausted, the cater- 
pillars sought other foods, and failing to find plants of the 
order Malvaceae they indulged in indiscriminate nibbling of 
that which was unsuitable, and there followed in consequence 
Bacterial diseases, which caused death to a large proportion 
of the brood, through an attack of Flacherie. This is one way 
of reducing the over balance of the species in the butterfly state. 
Nearly all the species of the Vanessida are common this season, 
and several in profusion. The abundance in some years, and 
scarcity in others is readily accounted for by the working of 
})arasitic influences. The butterfly can exist without the par- 
asitic fly, but the parasite cannot live without the butterfly. 
The scarcity of the butterfly is followed the next season by the 
scarcity of the parasite, and when the parasite becomes more 
numerous, then the following season the butterfly becomes 
fewer in numbers until in a few seasons the parasite is also 
reduced to the lowest number consonant with existence. This 
state of things goes. 'on alternating indefinitely. 



Notes aLi\d New^s. 

In the Sacramento mountains of New Mexico, Stipa Vaseyi is locally 
known as " sleppy grass" on account of its soporific effect on horses 
and cattle grazing thereon. It has been known by this name for many 
years. Vernon Bailey writes in ' ' Science, March, '03, of his experience 
with a team which fed on this plant. All were affected with sleepiness, 
and in one the stupor lasted three days. The native stock horses and 
cattle, after one experience, will not again partake of it. When a full 
meal is partaken of, the animals are reported to remain in a stupor for 
a week or ten days. Mr. Bailey ate a handful of the rice-like seeds but 
observed no effect. 

We beg to remind our readers that subscriptions for 1903 are 
now due. 

From the Technological Museum, Sydney, N. S. W., there has just 
been issued an exhaustive treatise on the chemical constituents of the 



^S SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Eiiealvptus. Of the existing 120 species, 110 have been examined. In one 
no essential oil was discovered, and in nine instances the specimens were 
not sufficient for examination. In the others the composition of the 
essential oils from any particular species was always found to be 
constant independent of the habit of the plant. This constancy of the 
chemical constituents has been used as an important means of 
identification of the many doubtful species in this complicated group of 
plants. It was also found that while the value of the official oil is 
usually understood to depend on its euealyptol content, so far nothing 
very certain is known as to which is therapeutically the most important 
constituent. 

The Balata tree, which grows abundantly on the upper reaches of 
the Amazon is rej^orted to be capable of furnishing an unlimited supply 
of gutta-percha at a fraction of the cost of rubber. 



Geological Section. 

Los Angeles, Cal., May 25th, 1903. 

The Geological Section met at the Woman's Club Eooms at S p. m. 
Chairman Geo. W. Parson called the meeting to order. Minutes of 
previous meeting were read and approved. 

The Chairman introduced Mr. F. C. Crosby of Washington, D. C, who 
gave a very interesting description of earthquakes, and also report of 
an inspection of the ruins of Pompeii, which has been uncovered, and 
a brief history of the several voleanos around that section of the 
Mediterranean Sea. 

A vote of thanks was tendered him for his very interesting lecture. 
The Chairman announced that the Academy would have a vacation for 
two months. 

G. MA.IOE TABOR, Secretary. 

Dr. W. L. Jepson of the Department of Botany of the University 
of California and A. V. Arnold of the Department of Agriculture will 
conduct a course of Lectures on Forestry at Idyllwild, San Jacinto 
mountains, California, from July 29 to Augiist 10. 

The course will consist of ten lectures by each of the instructors from 
the L'niversity, m addition to any that Mr. Pinchot can be prevailed upon 
to give. Dr. Jepson will treat the subject from a botanical standpoint, 
explaining and illustrating the biology of trees, with special reference 
to their life-history and botanical character; he will also describe the 
trees and forests of California. Professor Stubenrauch will deal with the 
economy of forests, their uses and abuses, silvicultural methods and 
problems of afforestation and reforestation. The lectures will all be of 
a popular nature, and will be fully illustrated by means of charts and 
lantern slides, as well as by the materials at hand, as found in the 
forests surrounding Idyllwild. As opportunity may atford, excursions 
will be -made into the local forests. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 79 

1. Life-history of a Tree.— Dr. Jepson. 

Four lectures on the activities, structure, and methods or repro- 
duction of a typical forest tree. 

2. Classification of Forest Trees. — Dr. -Jepson. 

Three lectures on the classes of forest trees and their salient 
peculiarities. 

3. Forests of California. — Dr. Jepson. 

Three lectures on the forest regions of California, their composition 
and relation to altitude, rainfall and temperature. 

4. The Practice of Forestry.— Professor Stubenrauch. 

Four lectures on the general principles and fundamentals of forestry. 

5. Silviculture.— Professor Stubenrauch. 

Four lectures on silvicultural methods, natural and artificial 
regeneration of forests, proisagation, planting and thinning. 

6. Afforestation and Reforestation. — Professor Stubenrauch. 

Two lectures on the treatment of barren or cut over areas, with 
special reference to conditions in California. 

Fee. — The tuition fee will be six dollars. The payment of this 
entitles the student to admission to all of the lectures and to join in all 
field work of the class. For further information concerning the work and 
the means of reaching Idyllwild on San Jacinto Mountain, address 
Eecorder of the Faculties, University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

In accordance with the usual custom, the Academy of Sciences will 
not hold any regular meetings in the summer months. The publication 
of the Bulletin will also be discontinued during the next three months. 
On October 1st our members may expect the next issue. 



Acak.demy of Science. 

Los Angeles, Cal., .June 1st, 1903. 

The annual receptioa of the Southern California Academj^ of 
Sciences was held this evening at 94-5 Figueroa street. 

President Corastock occupied the chair. 

An outline statement of the plan and scope of the Southern 
California Academy of Sciences was presented by the President, after 
which followed short verbal reports of the respective sections. Th*- 
Secretary announced donations to the Academy, one hundred twenty-fivo 
dollars ($125.00). 

A lecture was delivered by Mr. B. E. Baumgardt on, ' ' Late Results 
in Celestial Photography," illustrated with a number of celestial 
photographs taken at the Ijick and Yerkes Observatories. 

A reception by the members to their friends and visitors closed the 
exercises of the evening. 

B. R. BAUMGARDT, 

Secretary. 



VOL. II. OCTOBER, 1903 





NO. 7 > 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



8outfiem Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier G. W. Parsons 



CONTENTS : 

Page 

A Few New or Rare Southern California Plants, S. B. 

Parish - - - - - - 8r 

New Bees from Southern California, and Other Records, 

T. D. A. Cockerels - - - - 84 

Prehistoric Fauna of California - - - - 87 

The Pliocene or Later Tertiary Period - - 89 

Publications Received - - - - - 93 

Transactions - - - - - - 94 




PUBLISHED BY 

THE ACADEMY, MONTHLY EXCEPT 

JULY, AUGUST AND SEPT. 



Yearly Subscription, $1.00 Single Copies, 25 cts. 

MAILED OCT. 6, 1903 



> 

J 



BULL[:TIN 

or THE 

SooiHern Galllornla flGadeniii ol SGlences 

VOL. 2. LOS ANGELES, CAL, OCT. I, 1903. NO 7 

NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL, 
GARDEN 

A Fe^v New or Rare Southern California Plants 

BY S. B. PARISH 

^^ DRABA CUNEIFOLIA SONORAE. D. Sonorae, Greene^ 

Bull. C'aL Acad.. 12:-")!). 'i'hc only L'alifoniian station given for 
this plant in the Synoptical Flora is "Chollas Valley 
near San Diego." However, it is probably widely spread in 
Sonthern California. We have it from Los Angeles (Davidson), 
Riverside (Hall), and near Colton (Parish). Watson main- 
tained it on the stellate hairs of the pod. in distinction from 
the simple hairs on the pod of the Nnttallian species. But in 
our specimens the sarae^ pod commonly has a comraingiing of 
simple, 1-2 branched, and stellate hairs in varying proportions. 
Even the remaining character, "racemes nearly sessile," is in- 
constant, as they often are more or less leafy below. The 
variety, integrifolia, Wats., is a foi'in of sterile soils, distin- 
guished by its small size, and the absence of hairs on the pods. 
We have it from Santa ^lonica (Hasse), and San Bernardino 
(Parish).' 

AMARANTHUS DEFLEXUS. Linn, Sp. PI. 222. This 
Southern European plant, which has been reported in 
this State only from the Bay Region, was collected in June, 
1902, at Los Angeles, by Mr. Ernest Braunton. 
^ BRANDEGEA PARVIFLORA, Watson ex Rose, Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 5 :120. The type of this species was collected in 
1879 by Mr. W. G. Wright, in West Canyon, at Palm Springs, 
in the Colorado Desert, not "near San Bernardino," as erro- 



PLATE 2. 

■a — Branch, b — Banner, c — Wing, d — Keel, e — Stamens, f — Pistil. 

g — Calyx laid open. // — Immature fruit, i — Leaf. 

a is drawn two-thirds natural size, the others are enlarged four-fifths. 







Dalea Sa^vindersii PairisK- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. S3 

neoiisly stated in AA^atson's original description. *It was col- 
lected also by Parish at the same time and place. 

Since that time it has remained otherwise nnknowii, nntil 
Alay of the present year, when it was rediscovered by Dr. A. 
Davidson, in Martinez Canyon, near Thermal, in the Colorado 
Desert, at no great distance from the type station. 

DALEA SAUNDERSII. 

A shrub 6-lOdm. high, the old bark smooth and gray, the 
new growth sparsely hirsute ; glands few, prominent and 
prickle-like ; leatiets 2-8 pairs narroAvly lanceolate to oblance- 
olate, 5-15mm. long, the margins revolute ; flowers in a narroAV 
elongated raceme, shoi't pedicellate, 1cm. long, "ultra-marine 
blue:'' calyx 5mm. high, its teeth shorter than the tube, acute, 
the upper pair' broadened at base, ciliate ; style hirsute, becom- 
ing 1cm. long; ovules 4. 

Collected in desert sands, near A^ictorville, cir. 3,000 ft. alt., 
in the Alojave Desert, Alay 12-14, 1908, by IMr. C. F. Saunders. 

This bright tiowered shrub adds another species to AVat- 
son's section Xylodalea, so well represented in tliis region, l)ut 
is abundantly distinct. It may bear the name of its discoverer, 
the author of iiiany agi-eeable papers on the aspects and phe- 
nomena of nature. The type material has been divided between 
the Gray Herbarium, and the herbaria of Messrs. Saunders and 
'Parish. 

^' KRYNITZKIA UTAHEXSIS, Gray. Syn. Fl. 2, pt. I :427 
(Supp.) Eritrichmm holopterum submolle, Gray 1. c. 894. .Cry- 
ptanthe submollis, Coville, Death Valley, Rep. 166. Ord ^foun- 
tain in the Alojave Desert; collected by Air. Leech. Previously 
collected in California only by Air. Colville in the Pfinamint 
JMountains, with whose specimens our's entirely agree. 

VERBESINA DISSITA, Gray. Proc. Am. Acad. 20:29. 
Robinson lb. 34 :352. Collected near Arch Beach, Orange Coun- 
ty, Alay, 1903, by Airs. AI. F. Bradshaw. Previously known only 
from Lower California. 



Proc. Am. Acad. 17:373. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



New Bees from Southern California aLnd 
Other Records 

BY T. D A COCKKRELL. 

HALICTUS PETRELLUS, n. sp. 

Female length M];)()iit Tinni.. with quite abiiiidant white 
hair; head and thorax dark yellowish-green, abdomen ferru- 
ginous : strongly suffused with blackish at base, sides and apex I 
legs black, hairy, tarsal joints (especially the hind ones) 
tipped with ferruginous hairs on inner side; tegulae translu- 
cent pale ferruginous, not punctured: wings rather greyish; 
strongly iridescent, nei'vures and stigma dark brown. Head 
longer than broad, face narrowied below; anterior half of 
elypeus shining black, posterior part green and granular, the 
middle reddish;. face and front dull and granular; some distinct 
pujictures on each side of the antennae: antennae black, fLagel- 
lum ferruginous beneath, scape long: mesothorax dull and 
granular, with A^ery numerous small punctures, no distinct 
median groove ; enclosure of metathorax covered with minute 
weak rugae, hardly visible on the posterior part, and not 
bounded by a sharp rim; hind spur of hind tarsi with four 
teeth, the two l^asal ones very long; abdomen dullish, with ex- 
tremely minute j^unctures. Closely allied to H. nymphalis, 
Smith (Florida specimen from Mr. Robertson compared), but 
larger, with dark stigma and nerviu-es. and anterior edge of 
elypeus not testaceous. 

Hab. -San Pedro, Calif., July 11, 1901. (Cockrell). Belongs, 
to Chloralictiis, Robertson. 

HALICTUS CATALINENSIS, n. sp. 

Female length about (iVomm., roluist and thickset; head 
and thorax dark green; abdomen broad, black with a distinct 
brassy lustre, hind margins of the segments with bands of ful- 
vous-tinted hair, apex clothed with the same : legs black, with 
yellowish hair; hind spur of hind tibia with few and large, 
but short teeth; tegulae shining dark reddish-brown; wings, 
greyish, stigma dull fulvous: third subnuirginal cell nuicli 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 85 

longer than second; second nearly square. Head very large, 
face very broad; front with excessively close punctures; nieso- 
thorax with close small but strong punctures ; base of meta- 
thorax with a fine but dense radial sculpture ; first segment of 
abdomen very closely but strongly punctured. Closely allied 
to H. fasciatus, Nyl, and H. meliloti, Ckll., but easily known 
by its very broad face and darkci- tegulae and wungs. It is true 
that such differences in tbe breadth of the face occur elsewhere 
in the restricted genus Halictus withm specii^c limits, so it may 
be that catalinensis is only a subspecies of H. Meliloti; but as 
the three specimens seen are similar, and I know of no inter- 
mediates, I leave the Catalina insect as a species. 

Hab. — Avalon, Catalina Island, California. Aug.. 1901. 
Collected by Miss Ada Springer. Three females. 

DIPTERA. 

The following have been kindly determined for me by 
Mr. Coquillet : 

Paragus tibialis, Fallen; La -lolla. 

Eristaiis tenax, L., Zeuxia rufonotata. Bigot, Ophyra leuco- 
stoma, AA^ied, and Lipochaeta slossonae, Coq., all from San 
Pedro. 

HEMIPTERA. 

Narnia pallidicornis, Stal. Rasahus tlioracicus, Stal, and 
Melanolestes abdominalis, H. S., all from San Pedro ; kindly 
determined by Mr. Heidemann. 

On the cliffs at San Pedro. Isomeris arborea is abundantly 
infested by a nearly blaclv variety of Murgantia histrionica, 
which may be called var. nigricans. 

CRUSTACEA. 

The follownig. collected at San Pedro, have been kindly 
identified by Dr. Benedict of the National JMuseum. 
Lepidopa myops, Stimpson. 
Blepharopoda occidentalis, Randall. 
Pagurus confinis, Benedict. 
Emerilia analoga. 



PREHISTORIC FAUNA 






SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 87 

Prehistoric Fauna, of CaLlifornia. 

PLATE 6. 

65-67 Pecten (Lii-opecten) estrellanus, Conrad. Tertiaiy. 
Liropecten estrellanus, Con., Pacif. R. R. Report, Vol. 

VI, 1850, p. 71, pi. 3, fig. 15. Vol. VII, p. 191. pi. 3, 

figs. 3, 4. 
P. crassicardo. Con.. Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sc Dec. 

1862. p. 291. 
Spondylus estrellanus, Con., Pac. R. R. Rept., Vol. \Ti, 

p. 191, pi. 1, fig. 3. 
Liropecten estrallanus, Con., L. crassicardo, Con., L. 

volaeforniis. Con., Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sc, 1862, 

p. 291. 
Pecten pabloensis, Can., Pac R. R, Rept., VI, P. 71, 
• pi. 3, f. 14. 

Dr. Cooper is of the opinion that these figures on plate 6, from two 
specimens, show the combination of characters assigned by Conrad to 
three species, and that all the above-named species mar be classed under 
two, P. estrellanus and P. pabKieusis. (See Bulletin No. 4, loe. cit.) 

PLATE 7. 

Pliocene Fossils from San ]\Iiguel Island, California: 

1. Mytilus calif ornianus, Conrad. 

Quaternary? 

2. Clementia subdiaphana, Carpenter. 

Three specimens. 

3. Turritella Hoffmani, (Jabb. 

Two specimens. 

4. Conchocele disjuncta, Cabb. 

5. Clypeaster Gabbi, Remond. 

Two specimens. 

6. Ostraea Veatchii, Gabb. 

7. Callista (Amiantis) Callosa, Conrad. 

8. Standella californica, Conrad. 

9. Turbinella caestus, Broderip. 

Two specimens. 

(The above-named fossils were collected by the late C. D. Voy, and 
determined by Dr. Cooper. Voy's manuscript has no reference to the 
figures. The writer having collected the same species, together with 
others not represented on the plate, several years previously, is enabled 
to determine the species from the illustrations.) 



PR.EHISTOR.IC FAUNA 



PLATE 7. 





^: 



^ 




.^y 




Pliocene Fossils from San Miguel Island, CaliforniaL. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 8g 

PLATE S, 

Prehistoric Fossils from Santa Rosa Island. California : 
10. Saxidomus Nuttalli, Conrad. 
11-12. Callista (Amiantis) Callosa, Conrad. 

13. Lucina Borealis, Linnaeus. 

14. Turritella Hoffmani, Cabb. Four specimens. 

15. Mactra (Ilarvella ) Elegans, Sowerby. No-w living at Pan- 

ama ovXj. 

16. Glycimeris Generosa, Could. Tavo specimens. 

17. Hinnites Crassa, Conrad. Three specimens. 
18-2(». Ostrea Veatchii, Gal)b. 

21. Pecten pabloensis, Conrad. 

22-23 Liropecten Estrellanus, Conrad. (See foot note to 

Plate 6.) ■ 

24. Turbinella Caestus, P)r()(lei'ii). Found livini;- on ^lexiean 

coast. 



The Pliocene or Later Tertiary Period 

The Pliocene Period of the histoiy of California api)eals 
more strongly to the inhabitants of the State than do all the 
other geological periods "since the world was made." 

First— Because from its dei30sits the larger part of the im- 
mense quantities of gold produced in this State have been 
drawn for more than lifty years. 

Second — The Pliocene Gravel Beds are the burial places 
of large numbers of the huge tertiary ]\Iammals represented by 
the extinct Elephant and Mastodons. 

"We find that, in some unaccountable manner, our territory 
was suddenly invaded by armies of huge tropical mammals, 
whose fossil remains have been found in large numbers im- 
bedded in the gold-bearing gravel of the flanks of the moun- 
tains, the beds of the "dead rivers" of the Pliocene age, and 
the later lacustrine beds and diluvial deposits of the entire 
area of California. 

How came they here? Were they the progenitors of the 
same genera now living in Asia and Africa, whose descendants 



PREHISTORIC FAUNA 










..-^"^ 




Pliosene Fossils. Sa.rvtEs. R.osa Island, Ca-liforrvia. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. gi 

migrated from this continent to those far distant tropical re- 
gions? Or, did they come from those regions by way of s(Mnfc 
land connections which have since been obliterated by cosmic 
changes f With a few exceptions we know of no animals which 
have lived on this continent from which by any known law 
or process of evolution, they could have come. Nor have they 
left any descendants which can in any way be traced back 
to them as progenitors. 

One of the above named exceptions is the Horse, whose 
original home seems to have been on this continent, and of 
Avhich family nearly fifty fossil species have been found in the 
[Tnitod States. These have been traced back to the time when 
they had three, four and fiA^e toes to their feet. Some of the 
species referred to were only \\\o feet high, and one, the 
Eohippus of Marsh, was no larger than a fox, and is the oldest 
known animal of which is clearly referrable to the horse 
family. 

The evolution of this aninuil has been clearly traced 
through the Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene periods, but it 
seems to have disappeared at some time during the Quarter- 
nary. It probably migrated to other continents by the i-oute 
followed by other animals in coming to our continent, as it was 
only re-introdueed in America since written history began. 

■ PROTOHIPPUS. 

Two species of the Protohippus (allied to the horse) have 
been found in California, one named Protohippus insignis, by 
Leidy, beneath the lava of Table Mountain, Tuolumne County, 
at a depth of two hundred and ten feet ; another at a depth 
of sixty feet in Southern California, is probably a different 
species. (Dr. J. G. Cooper). 

MASTODON. 

The writei' in his explo)-a tions in Central California discov- 
ered two or more species of the Mastodon in rocks of Pliocene 
age. The other large mammals treated of in this chapter were, 
mostly, so far as known, confined to the Quarternary, or Post- 
Tertiary. 

It is possible that some of the extinct animals whose re- 
mains have been found in Quarternary deposits lived in Piio- 



c,2 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

cene times, and that their remains were carried from their 
original resting- places and subsequently deposited in the later 
lacustrine beds, and diluvial deposits of Post-Tertiarj^ age, or 
in the deposits of our present water courses. Numerous inci- 
dents of this character have been noted by the writer. Some 
of these will be referred to in the consideration of Man and his 
Contemporaries. In consequence of this uncertainty as to the 
epochs in which these animals lived, it is impossible to follow 
well-marked lines of demarcation between the Pliocene and 
Post-Pliocene, or Quarternary, and I will not attempt to confine 
the consideration of the animals of those epochs within such 
lines. 

Other animals of the Pliocene and Uuarternary disappeared 
from our continent at about the same time as did the horse. 

The ^lastodon, IMammoth. the American Elephant, Rhi- 
noceros, Tiger, Camel and Hippopotamus, all of which formerly 
inhabited California, are now represented by other species of 
the same i>enera living in the tropical regions of the Old 
World. 

In the absence of satisfactory proof that the large mannnals 
above-named originated on this continent, we are obliged to con- 
sider them as having migrated from the Orient, probably 
from Southwestern Asia and Africa (where their ancestral 
forms have been found in the Tertiary formations), by way of 
a land connection where the Bering Straits now separate Amer- 
ica from Asia. 

That typical generic forms of animal life did not originate 
on more than one of the great continents contemporaneously, 
but were disseminated from one common center, has been dem- 
onstrated by scientific research, and it is probable that our 
large extinct tropical mannnals migrated from their original 
homes during periods when there was land communication b^ 
tween the Oriental Continents and America. 

The Mammoth (Elephas primigenius) being fitted for life 
in the temperate, or still colder regions, remained in the high 
latitudes. The American Elephant, i\rast()d(ni, Rhinoeei-os. Hip- 
popotamus. Tiger and other tropical animals migrated further 
south, A^^iere subsequent changes probably caused their ex- 
tinction on this continent. 

The differences between the fauna and flora of North and 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 93 

Soutli Ainorica were larg-ely consequent upon the absence of 
dry land connection between the two continents. The presence 
of marine Miocene formations throughout the tropical re.uions 
of Mexico and Central America prove that the two continents 
Avere not connected until the Pliocene, or possibly later; and 
even then, the extensive areas of swamps and marshes would 
have prevented the mioration of larg-e land animals in that 
direction. On the ;)ther h;',nd, we find that the Elei)hant 
and ^lastodon Were distributed over what is now the entire 
temperate re.oion of North America, from the Pacific to the 
Atlantic. 

We also find that, unlike the Miocene fauna the Pliocene 
shows that the animals of that time inhabited both the Eastern 
and Western slopes of the mountain ranges, causing the fauna 
of California to resemble that of the "Bad Lands" of Nebraska 
and other regions. 



Publications R^eceived 

"The Melon Plant-house nnd the Manteca Disease," Timely Hints 
for Farmers, Xo. 4(i, Agricultural Experimental Station, University of 
Arizona. 

''Experiment Station Eeeord,'' Xo. 7, A^ol. 14, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture. 

''How tlie Mangrove Tree Adds New Lands to Florida,'' by O. P. 
Phillips. Ee])rinted from The Journal of Geography , No. 1, Vol 2. 

Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden, No. 8, Vol. 2. 

Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Convention of the Associa- 
tion of Official Agricultural Chemists, ' ' Bureau of Chemistry Bulletin, 
No. 73, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

' ' Algae of Northwestern America, ' ' with eleven plates, by W. A. 
Setchell and N. L. Gardner, Botany, \o\. t, .pp. 165, 418, University of 
California Publications. 

' ' A Stud}^ of Cider Making, ' ' U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Chemistry, Bulletin No. 71. 

"Experiments in Orchard Culture,'' Maine Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Bulletin No. 89. 

' ' The Water Contents of Creamer_y Butter, ' ' U. S. Department of 
Agricaltnre, Bureau of Animal Industry, Circular No. 39. 

"Eesistant Vines and Their Hybrids," University of California Ag- 
ricitltural Exjjeriment Station, Bulletin No. 148. 

"The Chinch Bug in Maine," Maine Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion, Bulletin No. 91. 



94 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

' ' Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, (Jalif ornia, ' ' by 
W. T. Sclialler, University of California, Geology Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 7. 

" Palaeheite, " by A. S. Eakle, University of California, Geology 
Bulletin, Vol. .3. No. 9. 

"Plumasite an Oligoclase— Corundum Eock, near Spanish Peak, 
California," by Andrew C. Lawson, University of California, Geology 
Bulletin, Vol 3, No. S. 

"Two New Species of Fossil Turtle from Oregon," by 0. P. Hay; 
"A New Tortoise from the Auriferous Gravels of California," by W. 
J. Sincdair; "New Ichthyosauria from the Upper Triassie of California," 
by J. C. Merriam, University of California, Geology Bulletins, Nos. .10, 
11 and 12, of Vol. 3. 

"Studies of Mexican and Central American Plants," by J. N. Rose, 
Part 1, A^ol 8, of Contributions from the U. S. National Herl:)arium. 

"Culture AVork at the Substations," 1899-1901, Bulletin No. 147. 

"The California Sugar Industry," Bulletin No. 149. 

■ • The value of Oak Leaves for Forage, ' ' Bulletin No. 150, Univer- 
sitv of California. 



Transactions, September, 1903. 



ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Los Angeles, California, September 7, 1903. 

The first regular meeting of the Southern California Academy of 
Sciences for the year 1903-1904 was held this evening at 940 South 
Figueroa street. President Comstock occu]ued the chair. The evening- 
was devoted exclusively to a lecture by Alvin H. Low, Escj., a well- 
known attorney of Los Angeles, California. The subject dealt with was 
"Scientific Commercial Standards." The following is a brief abstract: 

Fixity, said tlie lecturer, is the first rec}uisite of a standard of 
length, weight, capacity or value. Alisolute fixity is scientifically impos- 
sible, but practical fixity is attainable. 

The Congress is empowered by the Constitution ' ' To coin money, 
regulate the value thereof and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of 
weights and measures," and it is its duty to do so. Congress has been 
slow to exercise this sovereign function. Most of the weights and 
measures now in use are so by sufferance, the several states and terri- 
tories having exercised a, right lioth as to weights and measures, and to 
interest, not contemplated by the Constitution and to the great confu- 
sion of commerce. Congress has, liowever, legalized the Metric system, 
which should be made compulsory and exclusive. 

Money is the measure of value, and its value slu^uld l)e as fixed 
and certain as the measure of Icngtli. Notwithstanding recent improve- 
ments our money system, fuiuhimeiitally, remains the most barbaric and 
antiquated of all the measuring systems in use. Congress lias at last 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 95 

established the gohl dollar piece as the standard unit of value and the 
touchstone for all other kinds of monej', but has done nothing or worse 
than nothing towards regulating or fixing its value. The value of 
money, like that of every other article of commerce, is subject to the 
law of supply and demand, which is as much a natural law as that of 
gravitation. 

Interest is the premium paid for the use of money, and the rate of 
interest indicates the ratio between the supply of and demand for 
money. There is no fixed value to money while interest varies as to time 
or place. A variable rate of interest is not creditable to a just money 
system. Fixity in value and elasticity in volume to meet the demands 
of commerce are prime requisites of a scientific money system. In place 
of this we have elasticity in value to meet the demands of money- 
lenders, to whom is intrusted the only means of regulating both the 
value and the volume of money — the issue of coined credit — paper money, 
now used under a special license of the government, as a device for 
charging interest on what the money-lenders owe. Coiigress should re- 
claim these sovereign prerogatives from the states and the banking 
associations and, coining all the credit as well as the metal money, pro- 
vide means for its issue to the people at a just and fixed rate of interest 
and compel all other money-lenders to conform to the same rate, leaving 
the demands of commerce alone to determine tlie volume. 

The lecture was followed by an interesting discussion, after which 
the meeting stood adjourned. 

B. E. BAUMGARDT, Secretary. 



ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 

Septeml)er 21, 190.3. 

Chairman Knight introduced the exercises of the evening by a 
brief discussion of tlie facts relative to Borelly's comet, recently ob- 
served, illustrating his remarks by a diagram on the blackboard. 

The discussion was pai'ticipatod in l_iy Mr. Baumgardt and Prof. 
Larkin. 

Mr. Knight also gave some interesting facts relative to the return 
of Brooks' comet, the most striking fact being that, notwithstanding 
the absence of the comet for the past seven years, it was discovered 
within five minutes of arc of the place at which it was predicted to 
appear, a remarkable illustration of the accuracy of astronomical cal- 
culations. 

(Jhairman Knight tlien took up the question of the white spot on 
Saturn, showing that its apparent motion on the surface of the planet, 
as observed by Prof. Barnard, had introduced a doubt as to the time 
of rotation of the planet, which, however, is still believed to lie be- 
tween ten and eleven hours. 

Prof. Larkin was then introduced and proceeded to address the Sec- 
tion on Ether and Gravitational Matter through space. His remarks 



g6 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OE SCIENCES. 

were based upon au article in the Scientific American, written by Sir 
Wni. Tliompsou, and were replete with mathematical intricacies, though 
highly interesting. 

After a few remarks by the Chairman concerning the i^resent favor- 
able attitude of Jupiter for observation, the meeting adjourned. 

^^lELVILLE DOZIEE, Secretarv. 



GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Los Angeles, Cal., September 28th, 1903. 

The Geological Section met at the Woman's Club rooms at 8 p. m. 

Chairman George W. Parsons called the meeting to order. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The Chairman introduced Julius Koebig, Ph. D., as the speaker of 
the evening. Prof. Koebig then addressed the meeting, taking for his 
subject "The Deposits of Alkaline Salts," giving a history of all of 
the well-known deposits of the world, and explained their method of 
formation. He also stated that the alkaline salts of the world were im- 
portant factors in many articles of commerce, giving several interest- 
ing illustrations of the fact. His remarks were full of interest and a 
vote of thanks was tendered Prof. Koebig for his lecture. 

G. MAJOE TABEE, Secretarv. 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

September 14, 1903. 

The first meeting of the new year was called to order by the 
Chairman, Prof. A. B. Ulrey. 

Dr A. D. Houghton, the speaker of the evening, was introduced 
by the Chairman, who spoke on the breadth and scope of Biology. 

The lecture of the evening was on the Cactacea, and was illustrated 
by a magnificent collection of the f)l3iits. It is only just to say that 
the lecture was of high character, and that it means a great future for 
this section, if if "sets the pace" for the present year. 

The lecture was discussed at some length by Dr. Davidson, and a 
considerable number of questions were asked of the speaker. 

About forty members and visitors were present. 

The Section adjourned to meet again on October 12th. 

C. A. WHITIXG, Secretarv. 



\ VOL. II. 



NOVEMBER, 1903 NO. 8 



BULLETIN 



"t)F THE 



Southern Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTER ON PUBLICATION 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier G. W. Parsons 



CONTENTS: 

Page 
Prehistoric California, Dr. Lorenzo Gordin YaTES . 97 

Euvmessa Antiopa 1, Prof. J. J. Rivers 102 

Radium, Wm. H. Knight . 103 

Recent Publications 108 

Publications Received 109 

Transactions • . . . iro 

Notes and News iir 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE ACADEMY, MONTHLY EXCEPT 

JULY, AUGUST AND SEPT. 



Yearly Subscription, $1.00 Single Copies, 25 cts. 

J "Entered September 18, 1903, at IvOS Angeles, Cal., as second-class matter, 

J under Act of Congress, July 16, 1894." 

\ MAILED NOV. 3, 1903 ) 



BULLfiTIN 

or THE 

SouiHern Galilornia flcadeiiiy ol Sciences 

VOL 2. LOS ANGELES, OM., NOV. I, 1903. NO 5 



PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA. 

(Continued from October Bulletin.) 

BY DR. LORENZO GORDIN YATES. -'-.ula 

"A] 

PREHISTORIC FAUNA OF CALIFORNIA. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATK IX. 

(From "Contributions to the Extinct Vertebrate Fauna 
of the "Western Territories," by Professor Joseph Leidy.) 

Figs. 1-2. Mastodon obscurus, Leidy : 

Last lower molar of the left side, natural size, Specimen 

discovered by Dr. Lorenzo G. Yates, in Contra Costa 

County, California, and now in the INIuseum of Amherst 

College, Massachusetts. 

Fig:. 1. VicAv of the triturating surface. 

Fig. 2. Outer view of the same specimen. 

TERTIARY AND QUATERNARY MAMMALS. 

Tig'er — Prof. Joseph Leidy in his ' ' Contributions to the Ex- 
tinct Vertebrate Fauna of the Western Territories," (which 
forms the first volume of the Final Reports of the United 
States Geological Survey of the Territories, under F. V. 
Haj^den), says: "Among a collection of fossils belonging to 
the cabinet of Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana, pur- 
chased from Dr. Lorenzo G. Yates, there are several which 
were kindly loaned to me for investigation. The specimens 
consist of jaw-fragments of a large wolf and tiger." The fos- 
sils are not petrified, and indeed have undergone almost no al- 
teration, and are probably quaternary. He names the species 
of tiger Felis imperialis, and further says : ' ' The specimen in- 
dicates a species as large as the largest living Bengal Tiger, 
and, indeed, is slightly larger than the corresponding part of 
the largest specimen of a skull among many in the Academy 
Museum of Philadelphia." The comparative measurements of 
the fossil as compared with the Bengal tiger from Hindostan 
are given, showing the larger size of the fossil specimen. 




PIvAXE IX. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 99 

Wolf— Dr. Leidy called the wolf Canis Indianensis and 

says : ' ' The fossil specimen pertaining to a wolf consists of a 
right ramus of a lower jaw. The specimen indicates an ani- 
mal larger than any individuals of the recent wolves of North 
America and Europe." The measurements as compared with 
those of wolves from Oregon and Europe show the fossil to be 
considerably larger than the living species. 

Mastodon — On page 231 of the above named report, Dr. 
Leidy says: "Dr. Lorenzo G. Yates has communicated to the 
writer a list of localities in which he has discovered remains of 
mastodons in that State (California). Specimens collected by 
him were sent to Professor C. U. Shepard, of Amherst, Massa- 
chusetts, who has submitted them to the examination of the 
author." "One of the specimens, a last inferior molar tooth, 
represented in figures 1-2, Plate XXI, was found, together with 
the mutilated lower jaw and upper molars, at Oak Springs, in 
Contra Costa County. The remains were obtained from the 
rock at the base of one of the rounded hills, of Tertiary age, 
mentioned in Professor Whitney's Geological Survey of Cali- 
fornia, p. 32, stretching along near the edge of the San Joaquin 
plain. According to Mr. William M. Gabb, the formation be- 
longs to the Pliocene Tertiary period." (See pi. 9.) 

"A small photogi-aph, sent to me by Dr. Yates, exhil)its the 
lower jaw without the ascending portions behind, and with 
straight tusks projecting with an upward direction. The tusks 
appear to be as long as the jaAV was in its complete condition." 

Another specimen received by Professor Leidy from Pro- 
fessor Shepard "consists of the fragment of a tusk, from Dry 
Creek, Stanislaus County, California. It was discovered by Dr. 
Yates imbedded in the bluff of a hill, about ten feet above the 
bed of the creek. The hill, upward of a hundred feet in height, 
is one of those mentioned in Professor Whitney's Geological 
Survey as being scattered over the San Joaquin plain, at the 
base of the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada." 

"The specimen XXX is remarkable from its exhibiting 
characters which indicate the species to have been nearly re- 
lated with the Mastodon angustidens of Europe." 

In the "List of Localities of Fossil Elejhants and Mastodons 
in California," read at a meeting of the Philadelphia Academy 
of Sciences in 1873, referred to by Professor Leidy, the writer 
noted nineteen localities of the Mastodon, four of them discov- 
ered by himself; nine localities where the fossil elephant (Ele- 
phas americanus) had been found in California, four of which 
were discovered by the writer, at one of which he discovered 
the large tooth presented on Plate 10. 



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I'LATE X. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. loi 
PREHISTORIC FAUNA OF CALIFORNIA. 

PLATE X. 

Upper molar of fossil elephant (Elephas americanus), said 
to be "the largest tooth on record; discovered by the writer in 
Quaternary deposit; Alameda County, California. A portion 
of a tusk was found with the tooth, which measured eight 
inches in diameter, or twenty-four inches in circumference. 

DIMENSIONvS OF THE MOLAR TOOTH 

Length of body of the tooth, 385 millimeters (15i/s inches). 
Antero-posterior diameter of grinding surface, 215 milli- 
meters. 

Transverse diameter of grinding surface, 100 millimeters. 
AVeight twenty-five pounds. 

Since that time several new localities have been discov- 
ered; one on the Island of Santa Rosa, California, where the 
writer discovered a portion of the tusk of a fossil elephant, 
and later, Messrs. Voy and Blount found the teeth and bones 
illustrated on plate No. 10, which were erroneously reported 
as Elephas primigenius, or "Mammoth." 

The latest find which has come to the writer's knowledge 
is that of some of the vertebrae of fossil elephant, together with 
other mammalian bones which have not been determined. 
They were found on the tlope Ranch, near Santa Barbara, 
while excavating a tunnel to convey water from the Santa 
Inez Mountains to a lake, under the supervision of Mr. J. K. 
Harrington, who sent them to the writer for determination. 

Fossil Ox. — The fossil ox (Bison latifrons, Leidy), has been 
found in several localities in California. Two of the last upper 
molars in the Yates collection are illustrated on plate XXVIII, 
of Prof. Leidy 's Report (loc. cit.). An entire skull excepting 
the lower jaw was discovered in Alameda County, in close prox- 
imity to elephant's teeth and tusks. It had the largest horn- 
cores of any specimen on record, but unfortunately, when the 
writer moved to Santa Barbara, the specimen not being packed, 
was left with a friend. It was afterward accidentally destroyed. 
Its dimensions, as compared with other skulls, were as follows: 

Fossil Ox. Living Buffalo. 

Distance between base of horn core . 15 inches 12 inches 
Length of horn core along lower 

curvature 21 inches 12 inches 

Breadth of occiput 12 inches 10 inches 

Depth of occiput 7 inches 6 inches 

The horn cores of the fossil were six inches in diameter. 



102 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



EUVANESSA ANTIOPA 1. 

BY PROF. J. J. RIVERS. 

This native butterfly has been commonly known as the 
" Camberv^^ell Beauty." It ditt'ers in its habits in some partic- 
ulars from those in the genus Vanessa, both structurally and 
in the habits of the earlier stages. In Vanessa the eggs are 
laid singly and often not more than one on a plant, but in 
Euvanessa the eggs are deposited around a twig in a mass like 
the egg mass of Neustria Californica Pack. The whole hatch 
approximately at the same time and live socially during the 
larval stages, when they disperse and form their chrysalids in 
different situations, which lessens the chances of destruction. 
The caterpillar feeds upon Avillow and poplar and some other 
trees. 

If you drive a green willow stake into the wet ground 
and it puts forth leaves, a specimen of the "Camberwell 
Beauty" will soon make it a visit, and you will be apt to notice 
that your willow is being defoliated and that your tree is in- 
habited by several hundred caterpillars, which are dark in 
body color with a line along the back, of brick red spots. The 
caterpillars change in turn to a handsome butterfly as named. 
In size it is 2.5 to 3.5 inches and is of a dark maroon color, with 
an outer border of yellowish ; inside of this is a line of gemlike 
spots of blue. 

This butterfly obtained the cognomen of the "Camberwell 
Beauty" because it was the favorite of the London collectors 
of butterflies. Camberwell being about three miles from Lon- 
don Bridge was famous for its willows, and this butterfly, as 
well as for its bowling green, hence the well-known locality of 
Camberwell Green. The groAvth of London has caused the 
extinction of the green, the willows and the butterflies. This 
species, however, is still common in France and other Euro- 
pean countries and is common all over the United States of 
North America. It is double brooded hybernating in the per- 
fect state. 

Ocean Park. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 103 



RADIUM. 

[Extracts from an address before the University Club of Lcs Angeles, October 8, 19(13^ 
by Wni. H. Knight, former 1 resident of the Southern California Academy of Sciences.] 



Eecent discoveries in the chemical and physical sciences have been 
so rapid and so bewildering that the layman who has only time to- 
glance at a fugitive paragraph here and there, gets but a hasty and 
confused idea of the nature, significance and importance of these dis- 
coveries. He reads of the occult X-ray darting through opaque sub- 
stances, and after mastering a magazine article or listening to a scien- 
tific paper on the subject, gets some adequate notion of the connection 
between a Crookes tube, a high vacuum, an electric charge, a stream of 
electrons from the cathode, a soft opalescent light, actinic rays projected 
beyond the tube, and their power to render sensitive plates phosphor- 
escent. 

His mind has hardly grasped the purport of these interesting facts 
when Monsieur Becquerel, scion of a family of distinguished chemists, 
informs him that uranium and other elements of high atomic weight,, 
also possess the X-ray power, and because they possess this property 
they are called radio-active substances. While physicists are busy in- 
vestigating these mysterious phenomena and reconstructing their chem- 
eal theories regarding atoms and the constitution of matter, two liither- 
to unknown chemists, M. and Mme. Curie, focalize the attention of 
the world itpon themselves by announcing the discovery of a new ele- 
ment which seems to defy the laws of nature by giving forth light 
and heat without perceptible loss of its substance or chemical change 
of its particles. This is the wonderful radium. 

In order to prepare your minds for an adequate conception of the 
infinitesimal fractions of matter and time with which our subject 
compels us to deal, I present some statistics which, though startling, 
are not more wonderful to contemplate than are the achievements of 
the human mind, which, by tireless experiments and inexorable logic, 
has reached these startling conclusions. They impress us with the- 
truth that there is a sublimity in the infinitely minute of physics, not 
less than in the infinitely vast of astronomical science. 

Lord Kelvin gives the number of molecules in a cubic centimetre 
of air, measuring four-tenths of an inch each way, as twenty millions; 
of millions of millions of oxygen and nitrogen particles. And yet, these 
innumerable molecules occupy but a fraction of that space, about one- 
sixteentli of a cubic inch, for they have plenty of room to be in con- 
stant motion among themselves, the light shines through them without 
appreciable obstruction, and if liquified by intense cold they will 
form an insignificant globule in one corner of the enclosure. 

Each particle of air moves on an average, not more than one- 
100,000th of a centimetre without hitting one of its fellows, and each 
particle collides wath another particle no less than 5,000,000,000 times- 



104 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

every second. These statistics, thus dealing with the infinitesimal in 
time and matter, are based on well assured scientific data, and are 
accepted by the leading physicists of the world. 

Infinitely small, however, as the molecules of air seem to human 
comprehension, each one is composed of two or more theoretical atoms 
clasped in a firm chemical embrace, and till recently these chemical 
atoms were supposed to be the ultimate, absohttely indivisible particles 
of matter. 

But Sir William Crookes with his vacuum tubes, and Henri 
Becquerel with his radio-active elements and J. J. Thompson, distin- 
guished Professor of Physics in the English University of Cambridge, 
have come upon the stage with experiment and hypothesis, and ruth- 
lessly shattered, both the long established theory, and the seemingly 
infinitesimal atoms, at one fell swoop. 

The marvelous discoveries m the realm of physics which have 
crowded upon each other during the past decade, have not been 
more astonishing to the intelligent layman who but imperfectly under- 
stands their import, than to the man of science who discerns in these 
new revelations of radiant energy the necessity of laying the founda- 
tions of science anew. 

Not by any means that the old working formulae are obsolete. 
Nature does not vary in her methods. The mathematical tables appli- 
cable to electrical phenomena, to the stress of building materials, to 
chemical analysis and synthesis, to the motions of the heavenly bodies, 
remain in force, and their usefulness is not impaired in the slightest 
degree. Undeviating uniformity in her processes, is the law of Nature. 

As a matter of fact, this recent theory of the divisibility of the so- 
called chemical atoms, does not do away with the established theory 
of atomic proportions in the production of chemical compounds. On 
the contrary, a knowledge of the old theoretical atoms is as essential 
to the working chemist as it ever was, and the theory of atomic proper- ' 
tions is as much of a verity as it ever was. 

The new discoveries regarding electrons, Becquerel rays, and 
radium emanations, have obliterated no facts, nor have they changed 
any working formula. What the physicist has learned is, that atoms, 
though still the bases of chemical compounds, are nevertheless di- 
visible. 

But while atoms still retain their technical name, and the chemi- 
cal formulas remain undisturbed, glimpses of new and startling truths 
respecting the constitution of matter, chemism, electricit}^, radiant en- 
ergy, and the mysterious ether of space, are vouchsafed to the student 
of physics. 

Crookes found that by passing a powerful charge of electricity 
through a vacuum tube exhausted to one-millionth of an atmosphere, 
particles of the residual gas are thrown out from the negative pole in 
streams strong enough to set a finely balanced wheel in motion. These 
minute particles so projected he called radiant matter, and other 
physicists have named them ions, electrons, and corpuscles. 

Prof. Thomson investigated these rays or electrons and showed 
that they are particles of matter having a mass only about one-thous- 
andth of that of a hydrogen atom, which has heretofore been looked 
upon as the smallest particle of matter existing. 

Then Wilhelm Eoentgen, a German scientist, appeared upon the 
scene, and showed that certain rays emitted from the Crookes tubes 
possess the power of penetrating opaque substances. After the dis- 
covery of the X-rays all these strange phenomena were studied with yet 
lieener interest, and the nature and origin of the mysterious rays earn- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. /05 

estly sought by the physicists of the best equipped laboratories of 
Europe. 

Wliilst these investigations were going on Henri Becquerel, noticed 
that certain crystalline compounds, notably the salts of uranium and 
several other substances found in pitchblende, not only possess the 
X-ray power, but under certain conditions emit light without sensible 
heat, and these were called Becquerel rays in honor of their discoverer. 

But the close of the nineteenth century was signalized by the dis- 
covery of a new and wonderful element which became an epoch-making 
event in hastening the transition of theories respecting the nature and 
ultimate forms of matter, from the old to the new views. Two French 
chemists, Pierre Curie, in co-operation with his Polish wife, obtained 
from pitchblende a most remarkable element which was not only daz- 
zingly self-luminous, but emitted an X-ray more powerful than those 
proceeding from a Crooke's tube. 

It was appropriately named radium by its discoverers, and is the 
most striking example of terrestrial radiant energy known. Nearly all the 
specimens of this substance thus far produced are chlorides or bro- 
mides of radium, it being very difficult to obtain the element in its pure 
metallic state. The substance with which chemists experiment is one of 
its salts — the chloride of radium. It is a white crystalline powder which 
glows like melted steel when heated to its highest pitch. 

The atomic weight of radium is 22.5, hydrogen being 1, oxygen 16, 
iron 56, and mercury 200. Only two known elements have a higher 
atomic weight than radium — thorium 233, and uranium, 240 — both 
radio-active, and both obtained from pitchblende. 

Pitchblende is a remarkable mineral which, though rare, has long 
been known. It is found principally in Bohemia, and occurs in pitchy 
black, or very dark, masses. Its principal constituent is the oxid of 
uranium. The metal uranium was discovered by Klaproth in 1789, but 
only in recent years was it found to be radio-active. It was then learned 
that thorium, discovered by Berzelius in 1828, is also radio-active. It 
was while investigating this property of uranium and thorium that polo- 
nium, radium and actinium, were discovered. 

One of the most astounding mysteries connected with these radium 
emanations is their complexity. This element shines by its own light, 
apparently without any exciting cause; it sends forth a stream of tha,t 
recently discovered substance, helium, detected by the spectroscope in 
the sun's corona; and it emits three different kinds of rays, namely: 

Alpha rays, easily absorbed by solids, and carrying a positive 
electric charge ; 

Beta rays, more penetrating than Alpha rays, and negatively 
charged ; and 

Gamma rays, intensely penetrating, and not carrying an electric 
charge at all. 

At the same time, b_y some wonderful and inexplicable inherent 
energy, this versatile element maintains a temperature 2.7 degrees F. 
above that of surrounding objects, or, rather, it imparts that higher 
temperature to adjacent objects. 

To summarize, radium shines with perpetual light, is an inex- 
haustible fountain of helium gas, emits positive electrical, negative 
electrical, and non-electrical rays of enormous penetrative power, and 
is self -heating, whether at ordinary temperatures, or plunged in a bath 
of liquid air. Truly, the more this element is studied the more mar- 
velous and inscrutable seem its powers. 

One of the surprising facts brought out in connection with radio- 



io6 SOUTHERN CALHORNIA ACADEMY OE SCIENCES. 

active emanations, is their extreme delicacy. The spectroscope tells us 
what elements are dancing in the flames of a star so distant that its 
light only reaches the eye through the lens of a telescope, but J. J. 
Thomson, in his Belfast address, speaking of the ions projected through 
the glass walls of a Crookes tube and called X-rays, and of other 
radio-active rays, felt warranted in making the statement that "radio- 
activity is 5000 times as delicate as the spectroscope, it matters not 
whether the arc, spark, absorption or phosphorescent spectrum be made 
use of. ^^ 

"We have in the radium salts," says Dr. KaufPmann, an eminent 
German physicist, ' ' a class of bodies which are in the position to throw 
off electrons without any outside influence. We stand before a perfect 
riddle as regards the source of energy, likewise of the whole mechan- 
ism of this phenomenon, especially as it appears that here velocities 
have to be treated which are nearly equal to that of light; velocities 
which we can reach by meatus of electrical forces, in actual cathode rays, 
only after overcoming enormous difficulties. Thick lead plates are radiated 
through at this velocity without a noticeable loss of energy. But just 
this behavior of the electrons at such tremendous velocities seems suited 
to furnish explanations in connection with the deepest questions con- 
cerning the constitution of the electrons, likewise of the atoms." 

Eadium emits ions that have a velocity of 120,000 to 130,000 miles 
per second, and that penetrate solids and blister the flesh. What are ions? 
Certain substances radiate into space myriads of particles far smaller 
than the theoretical atom. Corpuscles, they are called by J. J .Thom- 
son, and ions by other physicists. In the new theory of force, elec- 
tricity, and matter, these ions take the place of ether vibrations in 
fundamental physics. Sir Wm. Crookes suggests that the energy of 
radium is supplied by collisions of air molecules with the radium atoms. 
But the question still obtrudes itself, why are the ions of radium thrown 
off? Air molecules collide with the atoms of other substances and no 
such miraculous effect is promised. For the moment the world must 
content itself by simply stating the facts attending the strange phe- 
nomena. 

A writer in the Engineer says: "It may perhaps turn out that 
radium is doing nothing more in one way than a magnet does in an- 
other. They both develop energy, apparently without help. Why and 
how remains to be explained. ' ' 

Crookes calls attention to some calculations of Johnstone Stoney, 
showing that an enormous amount of energy is locked up in the molecular 
motions of quiescent air, amounting to 140,000 foot-pounds in each cubic 
yard of the atmosphere. He referred to the kinetic energy which 
impels each molecvile to be incessantly bombarding its fellows or the 
objects in its vicinity, which presses with a force of 15 pounds per 
square inch upon all bodies at sea-level. Now Crookes conjectured 
that radio-active bodies of high atomic weight might draw upon this 
store of energy in some unknown or hitherto unexplained manner. 

Though Thompson found by mathematical calculation that there 
are from 700 to 1000 ions or corpiiscles in an atom of hydrogen, and 
from 100,000 to 150,000 in the atoms of highly radio-active substances, 
it is not to be assvimed that these corpuscles occupy the entire bulk, 
infinitely minute as it is, of the atom. 

On the contrary, these ions may be likened to 1000, or 100,000 
particles of dust seen floating in the atmosphere of a small bird cage 
into which the sunshine is streaming. But they are revolving, with 
unthinkable velocity, about a common center, in what is called a vortex 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. w] 

motion — the uniformity and intensity of this motion giving to them the 
quality of rigidity, stability, elasticity, and impentrability, which was 
formerly supposed to characterize the chemical atom. 

Stress in the magnetic field, or violent impact, or intense heat, 
may cause one of these electrons to leap from among its fellows in 
the previously stable atom, and then, electrical equilibrium being de- 
stroyed, turmoil and confusion prevail in the ranks of the remaining 
electrons, and disruption, explosion, and atomic disintegration, ensue. 

What a sublime thought is embodied in the contemplation of this 
miniature catastrophe. We may liken the vortex of whirling ions 
in this atom to the orderly movements of the planets in' the solar 
system, each ion, like each planet, satellite, or comet, performing its 
revolution in its prescribed course and in its appointed time, in accord- 
ance with inflexible law. 

A foreign atom, or perhaps a fugitive electron, dashes with corpus- 
cular velocity against the periphery of the vortex, but with force 
enough to destroy the harmony of this miniature solar system, and 
one after another of the revolving electrons, deprived of its centripetal 
governor, breaks from its control, and flies off into space. It may be 
absorbed by your body, or bj^ the foliage of the tree over your head, 
or by the vapor of a passing cloud, or, eluding all these sublunary 
objects, it may dart out into the infinite depths of the universe towards 
some distant star or nebula, for our sun cannot even slacken its amazing 
speed, or it may wander for uncounted eons in the black and vacant 
chambers of unoccupied space. 

Radium has the peculiar property of rendering adjacent bodies 
of whatever nature, temporarily radio-active. You are aware that a 
steel magnet renders other bars of iron magnetic by coming into tem- 
porary contact with them. Here is an analogous property in radium 
but with a more universal application. 

Thus we have seen that atoms can be split into parts— that ions, 
or electrons, are such parts— and that these parts are carriers of elec- 
tricity. Or possibly, electricity itself consists of these fractured atoms, 
fiying with inconceivable velocity and force, but moving in accordance 
with immutable laws wh'ich may be studied, recognized, and controlled 
for uses of man. 

And now the question arises: If atoms are thus complex, if each of 
these extremely minute particles of matter is not indestructible and 
indivisible, but can be broken into infinitely minuter particles, each 
endowed with amazing projectile force, is it not possible that the 
so-called elementary substances— hydrogen, carbon, iron, gold, and the 
like— are not simple and distinct in their essence, but are, in their 
ultimate forms, reducible to a common and universal element? 

This opens up a broad and fruitful field of speculation, and we 
must speculate before we can generalize. Out of this mental process of 
speculation comes a working hypothesis from which we establish a 
theory that fits all the facts in the case. Speculation, generalization, 
hypothesis, theory, are the successive stages. But in each_ stage of 
inquiry imagination, that wonderful faculty of the human mind, plays 
a master part. 

Sir Oliver Lodge recently said: "Here, then, we appear to have, in 
embryo, a transmutation of the elements, the possibility of which has 
for so long been the guess and the desire of the alchemists. Whether 
the progress of research will confirm this hypothesis, and whether any 
of the series of substances so produced are already familiarly known to 
us in ordinary chemistry, remains to be seen. It is not in the leas'., 
likelv that any one radio-aciive substance can furnish in its stages 



/oS SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

of collapse the whole series of elements; most likely, one substance 
will give us one series, and another substance will give another." 

The flashes of energy produced by an induction coil seemed, for- 
merly, to be dissipated in space. Were they lost ? We now know that 
those impulses are borne in waves that can be received and recorded at 
a distant station; that wireless telegraphy is simply electro-magnetic 
radiation into the ether from a metal conductor; that these Hertzian 
waves can be refracted and reflected as light can be. 

But yet, are we quite sure that we know all thisf Are these im- 
pulses waves, vibrations, oscillations of the ether? Or are they, in 
the new light that is dawning upon us, are they the material projections 
of fractured atoms' I must confess that my mind halts on the border 
line of a tantalizing and perplexing dilemma. 

How shall we account for these apparent caprices in the behavior 
of elementary substances when thus brought into contact in different 
proportions? We cannot account for it at present. All the light that 
has come to us in recent discoveries and experiments has enabled us 
to penetrate the mystery only a very little way. We are, from tim^ 
to time, adding a little to our knowledge of the processes of nature, 
but the why, the why, of those processes is a riddle as insolvable as ever. 



RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 

New or Notewortliy North American Crassulaceae. X. L. Britton and 
J. X. Eose. Bull. X. Y. Bot. Gard. 3:1-45. Sept., 1903. 

Platystemon and Its Allies. Edward L. Greene. Pittonia, 5:139-149. 
Aug., 1903. 

We have here two papers of especial interest to California botanists. 
In the first a great number of new species are described under fifteen 
genera. Seven of these pertaiu whoUj', or in part to the Pacific Coast; 
and but one of them, Sedum, is a familiar name. Tillaea angustifolia, 
Xutt., becomes Tillaestrum angustifolium, Britt. The flat leaved Coty- 
ledons are referred to a new genus. Dudleya, of 59 species, extending from 
Crescent City to Cape San Lucas. Twenty-nine species represent the 
development of this genus in Southern California. For the species with 
terete leaves or semi-terete leaves the genus Stylophyllum is provided, 
and the four already known species are augmented to twelve. Sedum 
variegatum, Wats., becomes the type of Hasseanthus, a genus named in 
honor of Dr. H. E. Hasse, all of whose four species are of Southern Cali- 
fornia. 

The practical usefulness of the paper is lessened by the absence 
of keys, or a synoptical arrangement of the species. In Dudleya, where 
most of the new species are segregates of the old ones, it is to be regretted 
that the authors did not redefine the latter; since after so many sub- 
tractions the original descriptions can hardly apply. And when to this 
is added the assignment of only the vaguest ranges to these species, and 
the absence of any citation of specimens, one is at a loss to understand 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, wg 

what plants, in the conception of the anthors, they are to include. We 
note (page 18) a slight geographical slip, in taking the Coronado Islands 
as belonging to California instead of Mexico. 

We trust that we may expect, from the ability of the authors, and 
the resources at their command, a full and systematic monograph of 
the difficult and neglected family which they have taken in hand. 

In Dr. Greene 's paper Meconella is restored for certain species of 
Platystigma, only one of which, P. denticulata, Greene, is southern. For 
others a new name is proposed, Hesperomecon, of which genus a single 
specimen species, H. lineare, Greene, has been collected in Southern 
California. In Platystemon the single representative heretofore recog- 
nized, P. Californicum, Benth., is restricted to a local maritime plant of 
Monterey. From tlie other ])lants which have been referred to that 
species, 51 new species, and one variety, are segregated. In one instance, 
from "a bunch mounted as single specimen," and x>robably gathered 
in a single handful, the author was able to disentangle the types of 
three new species. Fifteen Platystemons are credited to Southern Cali- 
fornia. 

The usefulness of Dr. Greene's paper is enhanced b}' the provision 
of keys, so that one is not left to grope his way through the maze of 
new species without the aid of a clew. 

Dr. Greene still recognizes the variety, a category more logically 
dropped by the author of the Crassulaceaej and by most segregators. It 
is remarkable that whereas the conception of a species as an abstract 
idea, and not a concrete entity, is universally accepted, in practice 
it is more and more defined by the minute description of a jjarticular 
specimen, to which it is carefully tied. Slight differences, once dis- 
regarded as unimportant, Or relegated to forms or varieties, now become 
the bases of species. Systematists may yet be in danger of losing the 
faculty of generalizing through a too exclusive attention to the study 
of the individual. S. B. P. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

"The Milk Supply of Two Hundred Cities and Towns." U. S. De- 
partment Agriculture. Bureau of Animal Industry. Bulletin No. 46. 

"Wild Eice, Its Uses and propagation." IT. S. Department Agricul- 
ture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Bulletin No. 50. 

' ' The Use of Branding Fluid. ' ' University of Arizona, Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station. Bulletin No. 47. 



no SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



Transactions for October, 1905. 



ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Los Angeles, California, October 5, 3 903. 

The Southern California Acadeniy of Sciences met in regular 
monthly session this evening at 8 o 'clock, at 940 South Figueroa street. 

President Comstoek occupied the chair. ^STo reg-ular business was 
transacted. 

The evening was devoted entirely to a lecture by Professor Larkin, 
of the Lowe Observatory, who selected the subject of "Eadium" for 
consideration. In an interesting manner all the data available upon this 
subject were presented and discussed in detail. The lecture was illus- 
trated with physical apparatus, loaned for the occasion by the Los An- 
geles High School. 

Adjourned. A large attendance was present. 

B. E. BAPMGAEDT. Secretary. 



ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 

October 19, 1903. 

The Astronomical Section convened at 8 p. m.. Chairman Knight pre- 
siding. 

The subject for consideration was the sun, with special reference to 
the sunspots now attracting unusual attention. Mr. Knight introduced 
the subject by reading from current literature several extracts relative 
to this phenomenon; and also a description of the great dark tube or 
shed, one hundred feet in length, recently constructed and dedicated for 
use at the Terkes Observatory, in connection with the work of deter- 
mining the phenomena of sunlight as reflected through this horizontal 
tube by a mirror, and made to pass through a series of lenses. 

Dr. John Woodbridge, the lecturer of the evening, was then intro- 
duced and read a graphic and instructive paper on the subject, ' ' The 
Sun as the Furnace and Light House of the Earth," treating the sub- 
ject under the subdivisions of the sun's distance, dimensions, attractive 
power, visible features, motions, heat, light, envelopes and eclipses. 

A discussion of the subject, emphasizing the spots uow prominent, 
was participated .in by Messrs. Knight, Baunigardt, Taber and Hill. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

MFLYTF.LL DOZIEE, Secretary. 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Los Angeles, Cal., October 26th, 1903. 

The Geological Section of the Academy of Sciences held tlieir reg- 
ular meeting at the Woman's Club rooms, at 8 p. m. 

Chairman Geo. W. Parsons called the meeting to order. Minutes 
of previous meeting read and approved. The Chairman introduced Mr. 
C. J. Callahan, M. E., as the speaker of the evening. His subject was 
the "Origin of Petroleum," and to illustrate the different changes in 
the formation of oil, he exhibited several specimens, giving the different 
degrees of heat at the different depths below the surface, and also the 
oil sand in which the oil had settled after formation. 

He gave an interesting description of the oil fields of the East as 
well as those of California, and stated that there was no danger of 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, in 

the siipply of oil being exhausted, as nature was constantly forming a 
fresh supply. Questions were asked and answered, and the meeting 
was interesting and instructive. The Chairman thanked Mr. Callahan on 
behalf of the Section for his able lecture. 

G. MAJOE TABEE, Secretary. 

BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

The meeting of the Biological Section was called to order, by the 
chairman. The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 
The exercises of the evening consisted of a lecture by Dr. Louisa Burns, 
of South Pasadena, on The Technique of Blood Examination. The method 
of enumerating the corpuscles and estimating the haemoglobin was 
clearly explained and illustrated by a practical demonstration. 

This was followed by a talk from C. A. Whiting on the significance 
of blood examinations. Anemia and the several kinds of Leukemia were 
discussed. 

Dr. B. F. Gamber of Los Angeles was present and followed the 
lectures with a most interesting and instructive talk along the same 
lines. Among other facts he stated that in one case studied by him, 
the removal of the patient from tlie sea level to an altitude of 7,500 feet 
increased the blood count from 4,600,000 corpuscles per cu. m. m. to 
9,000,000. 

The lecture was illustrated by microscope and haemocytometer loaned 
by the Pacific School of Osteopathy. 

About twenty five members and visitors were present. 

C. A. WHITING, Secretary. 
Woman's Club House. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The plant known as Basil, (Ocimum viride) which was so highly 
recommended as a mosquito preventative, has proved on investigation 
to have no value. An equally fallacious belief at one time prevailed 
with regard to the utility of lolue gum trees in making malarious coun- 
tries healthy. ' 

The gun clubs of our neighborhood might greatly increase the sport- 
ing value of the marshes by the extensive sowing of wild rice (Zizania 
aquatiea, L.) so much favored as a food by ducks and other birds of 
aquatic habits. The U. S. Department of Agriculture has just issued 
an interesting bulletin on the uses and the propagation of the plant. 
The mud flats and lagoons of Southern California are eminently suited 
to the cultivation of the plant. 

Science long ago iuA^aded the culinary department of the nursery, 
but now we have the utilitarian gravely suggesting that the nursery 
rhymes be made instructive and suggests among others the following 
modification of "Three blind mice:" 

Three blind boils! 
See how they run! 
They all ran after the farmer's wife 
Had cut oif their heads with a septic knife; 
You never saw siich a mess in your life 
As three blind boils. 

The January issue of the "Fern Bulletin," containing A. A. Eaton's 
revision of the Genus Equisetum is of more than usual interest to Cal- 



112 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ifornians. E. ramosissimus, Desf. is given for Los Angeles; the only 
known locality in the United States. This plant was gathered years 
s^go by Dr. A. Davidson at or near the ' ' half-way house ' ' on the old 
trail to Wilson ^s Peak. E. Funstoni Sp. Nov. with four varieties all 
found in Southern Califoriiia, is the name now given for what has 
heretofore passed as E. laevigatum. 

We recently received from Nome an invitation for our Academy 
of Sciences to attend a meeting of the Alaska Academy of Sciences. 
At this, their first, meeting, ' ' The Marconi System of Wireless Telegra- 
phy ' ' is to be discussed. Their Charter was closed with 100 members. 

In ' ' Science, ' ' September 18, may be found the preliminary re- 
port of the Marine Biolgical Survey Work carried on by the Zoological 
Department of the University of California at San Diego, by Prof. 
Eitter. The results for the funds available, have been large. Many 
new species among the Eadiolaria and other of the lower forms of 
marine life have been added to our coast lists, and not a few new to 
science. Investigation of the water in San Diego bay led Prof. Eitter 
to infer that contrary to the usual belief no large, subterranean body 
of water enters the bay. The extension of the breakwater at San 
Pedro will, for a time at least, spoil what was one of the best zoological 
stations on the coast. In consequence the laboratory will probably be 
permanently stationed at San Diego. With this end in view some of 
the more enlightened members of the Bay City have formed themselves 
into an association for the purpose of raising a permanent endowment 
fund for marine research. 

The first report of the Desert Laboratory, near Tucson, is now in the 
hands of the publishers. The report will contain a number of illustra- 
tions of cacti and other plants native to that region. 

From Mr. Alex. Craw's Eeport to the State Horticultural Commis- 
sion, it would seem that in Scutellista cyanea we have at last found a 
remedy for the noxious black scale. The reports from every point are 
all so far favorable. The parasites in question have survived the last 
winter and have multiplied freely. Should this increase continue we 
will be spared the extermination of the graceful pepper trees that have 
been ruthlessly cut down of late because of their harboring the black 
scale. It is also reported that a parasite has been found in Western Au- 
stralia that destroys f'5 per cent of the Codlin moths. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifornia Academu of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman . 
Mklville Dozier G. W. Parsons 



CONTENTS: 

Page 
Prehistoric California, Dr. Lorenzo Gordin Yates . 113 

Concerning Fleas, by Prof. J. J. Rivers 118 

The Kissing Bug, by Dr. A. Davidson 120 

Publications Received 122 

Ethnological and Archaeological Survey of California . 123 

Transactions • ... 125 

News and Notes 126 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE ACADEMY, MONTHLY EXCEPT 

JULY, AUGUST AND SEPT. 



Yearly Subscription, |1. 00 Single Copies, 25 cts. 

S "Entered September 18, 1903, at IvOS Angeles, Cal., as second-class matter, 

J . under Act of Congress, July 16, 1894." 

( MAILED DEC. IS, 1903 ) 



BULLETIN 

or THE 

SooiUcni Galllornla ftcaflenm ol Sciences 

VOL. 2. LOS ANOCLCS, CAL, DEC. I, 1903. NO- 9 



PREHISTORIC CALIFORNIA. 

(Continued from November Bulletin.) 
BY DR. LORENZO GORDIN YATES. ■ i, 

LLAMA, 
Auchenia hesterna, Leidy. 

On page 256 of . "Contributions to the Extinct A^ertebrate 
Fauna of the Western Territories," (loc. cit.), Dr. Leidy says: 
"Among- the collection of fossils from California belonging to 
the cabinet of Wabash College, Indiana (collected by Dr. Lo- 
renzo G. Yates), there is a well-preserved series of lower molar 
teeth, represented in Figs. 1, 2, Plate XXXVII. These, from 
their size and constitution, would appear to belong to a species 
of llama exceeding in size not only the existing llama, but 
also the camel and the Palauchenia. " 

He further describes the teeth, and names the animal Au- 
chenia hesterna. I quote some of his measurements of the 
teeth, in comparison Avitli those of the camel and llama, as fol- 
lows: Auchenia Auchenia Camel 

hesterna llama 
Fourth premolar lines lines. lines. 

Antero-posterior diameter 13 5^2 12 

Transverse diameter 6 3 7 

Length of crown 20 3^ 4 

First molar : 
Ant. post. diam. triturating surface. .20 7 .18 

Trans, diam. triturating surface lOV^ 5 9 

Length of crown 20 5 5 

Second molar: 

An. pos. diam of trit. surface 26 9 23 

Trans, diam. of trit. surface 8% 5% 10 

Length of crown 36 6 10 

Third molar: 

Ant. post. diam. where greatest 31 13 28 

Trans, diam. where greatest 10 5I/2 10 

Length of crown 41 7 17 



[Yates] Prehistoric Fauna, of California.. plate xi 




Fossil Teeth and Bones of Elephas Americanus. 
Santa Rosa Island, California. 



[YATES] Prehistoric Fauna, of Ca.Iiforrvia. pirate xii 




ii6 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



PREHISTORIC FAUNA OF CALIFORNIA. 

Explanation of Plate 12. 

(From "Contributions to the Extinct Vertebrate Fauna of 
the Western Territories." by Professor Joseph Leidy: loc. cit.) 

Figs. 1-3. Auchenia hesterna, Leidy. 

Specimens from the quaternary of California, and be- 
longing to the cabinet of Wabash College, Cravrfords- 
ville, Indiana: specimens discovered by Dr. Lorenzo 
G. Yates. 

Fig. 1. Outer view of the series of lower molar teeth of the 
left side, one-half the natural size. 

Fig. 2. Triturating surface of the same series, natural size. 

Fig. 3. A second upper molar of the left side, view of the 
triturating surface. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



117 



"The length of the series of lower molars and premolars 
together, in the different species, is as follows : 

Length of the series in the llama 32 lines 

Length of the series in the camel 66 lines 

Length of the series in the Auchenia hesterna 84 lines 

"Accompanying the inferior molar specimens from Cali- 
fornia there is a specimen of an upper molar xxxx which 
from its constitution and size, is supposed to belong to the 
same species, if not the same individual." 

More space has been given to these fossils described by 
Dr. Leidy than might be considered necessary, were it not 
that, I have been informed that they were all destroyed by 
the burning of the College Museum where they were installed, 
so that we have only the illustrations left. The writer secured 
a joint of the vertebra, a metacarpal and some other bones 
of the Auchenia, in an excellent state of preservation ; also 
two portions of lower jaws with teeth, a cervical vertebra 
and other bones of the Auchenia, in the same county (Ala- 
meda). These were in a poor state of preservation, but they 
are packed away among the writer's collections, and at present 
not accessible for illustration. The joint of the vertebra found 
with the teeth described, is over eight inches in length, more 
than twice the length of the corresponding bone of a horse. 

Dr. Leidy mentions another species of Auchenia found in 
California (A. calif ornica,) and one from Mexico which Pro- 
fessor Owen called Palauchenia magna, which approximated 
in size the camel, whereas the Californian Auchenias much 
exceeded it. 

MEGALOMERYX NIOBRARENSIS, Leidy. 
Fossil teeth of another large animal of the camel family, 
named as above, have been found beneath the lava, in Tuo- 
lumne County, Cal., in the Pliocene. 

RHINOCEROS. 

Bones of Rhinoceros (Aphelops) hesperius, Leidy, were 
found under the lava in Calaveras County, at Douglas Flat, 
and Chili Gulch. 

A single molar tooth of Rhinoceros oregonensis f a species 
reputed to have pertained to the Pliocene deposits of Oregon, 



ii8 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

was found by the writer in Pliocene ? deposit of Sonoma 
County. 

HIPPOPOTAMUS 

A fossil tooth of a hippopotamus, or closely allied animal, 
was found with the last named rhinoceros. Both specimens 
are in the Yates Collection. 

BEAR 

The late Professor E. D. Cope found remains of an extinct 
bear in a cave in the limestone of Shasta County, California; 
It was as large as the grizzly ; he named it Arctotherium simum. 
Its teeth differed from those of living species. 

PORPOISE. 

Fossil remains of the porpoise (Delphinus), similar to the 
living species, have been found by the writer and others, at 
various points near the coast, from Santa Barbara to Half- 
Moon Bay, San Mateo County, in Pliocene and Quaternary 
lormations. 



CONCERNING FLEAS. 

BY PROF. J. J. RIVERS. 

Fleas, like all other true insects, pass through stages of 
development. Starting Avith the egg, which yields a larva, or 
grub, this continues toward maturity and when fully fed spins 
a cocoon, as does a silkworm, and assumes the chrysalis state. 
After a period of rest and ripening the tenant of the cocoon 
gives up the dormant period of its life and becomes a lively 
example of its class— a flea. 

To entomologists a large number of different species are 
known, but the common tormentor is not the human flea, Pulex 
irritans, L., but the flea of the dog and cat, Pulex serraticeps, 
Cerv. 

There are curious opinions as to the causes that produce 
fleas. Some persons aver that they breed in the sand by the 
sea shore, as they have often seen them in great numbers in 
such situations; other persons contend they are sure the prox- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, iig 

imity to the beach has to do with their great propagation 
because the flea is a common pest at all seaside resorts and 
they can be seen down to the tidal margin. These persons 
lack technical observation ; the real flea is in evidence without 
doubt at the resorts, but not down in the salt sea sand. The 
little hoppers called fleas are a crustacean and commonly go 
by the name of sand fleas. It is a small species of shrimp. 

There is no actual necessity of being worried by fleas, but to 
gain immunity persons must be less careless of their household 
surroundings and more careful in their selection of their pets. 

The propagation of fleas is a very interesting study and can 
be attained without mental stress. The only apparatus re- 
quired is a clear white glass bottle of any capacity, then ex- 
amine the mat, cloth, carpet, or the place where your dog 
makes his general quarters. Look closely and you will dis- 
cover some very small globular objects beautifully shining and 
looking like pearls. These are the eggs of the flea. Place 
them in the bottle with some shreds of paper or cloth on which 
a few drops of blood have been placed. If. however, you have 
no dog, but have a cat, collect the s^veepings of the room, 
particularly from the corners or from the seams of the flooring 
and place this refuse in a bottle as before mentioned, but with- 
out supplying any blood, and if the eggs are present fleas will 
be the product .just the same as by the before-mentioned 
method. 

The eggs you thus find will hatch out, if newly laid, in two 
days. The resultant larvae after a few moults spin a cocoon 
in which it remains eight days, emerging ultimately as a full 
grown flea in about sixteen to eighteen days after the egg 
Avas deposited. 

A recent article in the "Times," of Los Angeles, gave some 
very erroneous ideas on the habits of fleas and the limits of 
their distribution. The reason of their prevalence on the sea 
coast is the moisture. Moisture (not too much) is essential to 
the breeding of the flea. "Without a certain amount they are 
unable to complete their larval existence. Too dry air is fatal 
to the flea, so that no fleas are to be found above 4000 fee' 
altitude in any part of Southern California. Neither is it to 
be found in our dry interior valleys whether elevated or not. 



120 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The country members of our Academy might supply us with 
suificient information to enable us to issue a map of the dis- 
tribution of this pest in our district. 

At the seaside resorts the slops and sweepings are thrown 
around in a very promiscuous manner and when to this is 
added a small zoological establishment of dogs, cats, birds, 
rats and mice, it is not surprising there are occasionally epi- 
demics of fleas. 

Ocean Park, Cal. 



"THE KISSING BUG." 

BY DR. A. DAVIDSON. 

It is with some temerity that one approaches the subject of 
the so called "kissing bug" nowadays. A few years ago the 
sensational daily papers, the comic, and even the scientific 
jourrials poked so much fun at the insect in question that it 
has this season been almost completely ignored. From the 
year 1899 to 1901 it was frequently commented on. Our most 
representative journal, the "Entomological News '' in its edi- 
torial of September, 1899, says: "During the past summer 
the newspapers of the Atlantic coast have been exploiting 
numerous instances of individuals being attacked or "kissed'' 
by an insect which in consequence of its -asserted habit of 
swelling the lips of its human victim by its bite or sting, re- 
ceived the fatuous name of the "kissing bug." Originating 
in the neighborhood of Washington, D. C, the report spread 
from newspaper to newspaper and with the lay people be- 
came a veritable summer madness. The United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture identified the insect as Melanolestes pic- 
ipes, a hemipter of previously good character, which fact went 
a great way in making entomologists in general sceptical as 
to the whole story, and we are glad to record that the much 
maligned Melanolestes has proven an alibi, as far as the evi- 
dence presented at the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia 
goes." 

In this article there are given the names of about twenty 
insects that had at various times been brought to the Academy 
as the genuine "kissing bug." 

The evidence above quoted is sufficient to discourage the 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 121 

introduction into print of this subject. All popular beliefs, 
or prejudices if you will, have more or less of fact as a found- 
ation and a bug that might with propriety be known as the 
"kissing bug" is, as anyone knows who lives in Arizona or 
Texas, an insect that unfortunately is too well known. 

I spent three years in Easteru Arizona on the San Francisco 
river 3500 feet altitude. The surrounding country is mount- 
ainous in its general character but in no wise differs in its 
fauna and flora from most other parts of Arizona. The ex- 
cessive warmth of summer compels the inhabitants to open all 
doors and windows at night or sleep in the open. In conse- 
cjuence they frequently sufl^er from injuries inflicted by scor- 
pions, centipedes and "kissing bugs." The latter are either 
fairly common or very active, as scarcelj^ a week passed in the 
summer time in which I have not seen one oi- more persons 
suffering from their bite. Though I carefully inquired the 
nature of this "kissing bug" I failed to find any one who ever 
had caught one in the act, and I myself had no idea of the 
exact cause. Dr. Frick, of Metcalf, whom I had enlisted in 
the search proved more fortunate, and last season he had two 
specimens brought him at different times that had been caught 
in the very act. These were examined by J\Ir. Coquillet, to 
whom they were sent, and pronounced to be Conorhinus san- 
guisuga Lee, commonly known as the "blood-sucking cone- 
nose" or "the Texas bed-bug." The injury inflicted is almost 
invariably confined to the lips, generally the lower and at the 
junction of the mucous membrane with the skin. The pain 
is frequently sharp enough to awaken the sleeper and in one 
case reported by Dr. Frick it was followed by slight shock 
and nausea. The part bitten rapidly swells and assumes a 
dark tint. The swelling may vary from the size of an almond 
to a walnut and is well circumscribed in outline. Without 
treatment the swelling usually subsides in a fcAv days. In 
only one instance have I heard of a bite inflicted on any other 
part of the body and that is probably due in part to the insect 
confining its attack to the parts of the body exposed while 
sleeping, or the failure of the bite to cause much swelling when 
received on parts of the body where the skin tissues are less 
lax than those of the lips. 



122 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Tlie circumscribed nature of the swelling is charac- 
teristic of all lip injuries by the "kissing bug" and dif- 
fers considerably from the diffused edematous swelling that fol- 
lows stings by bees and wasps. The similarity of the swelling 
in all cases I have seen is proof to my mind that the insect in- 
jects some poison into the wound and does not merely infect it 
by an accidentally introduced poison. Mr. Marlatt (Bulletin 
No. 4, Division of Entomology U. S. Dept. Agriculture) in 
speaking of this household pest has related a few instances 
where symptoms of general poisoning had followed a bite of 
this insect and he presumes that in these cases the individual 
was poisoned by some irritant accidentally introduced, as it is 
not improbable that these blood-loving insects occasionally feed 
on carrion. 

Last month a gentleman brought me in a specimen of Con- 
orhinus from Victor on the jMohave desert where he said the 
insect this season had appeared in considerable numbers and 
had proved quite troublesome. This proved to be Conorhinus 
protractus Uhler, a species described from lower California, 
which also occurs in the Dragoon ]\Iountains. Arizona, and at 
San Diego. There is a general impression that this insect is 
more common than it used to be, and as the climate is quite 
favorable to its increase in Southern California it may pos- 
sibly be extending its range. 

Los Angeles. 



PUBLICATIONS EECEIVED. 

"Missouri Botanical Garden." Fourteentli Keport. l&OS. 

"Spodnmenefrom San Diego Co., Cal.," by W. T. Schaller. Bull. 
Dept. Geology. Vol. 3, No. 13, University of California Publications. 

' ' The Culture of the Central American Eubber Tree. ' ' Bureau of 
Plant Industry, Bulletin No. 49, V. S. Dept. Agriculture. 

' ' The Description of Wheat Varieties. ' ' Bureau of Plant Industiy, 
Bulletin No. 47. 

"Experiment Station Eecords," Vol. 14, No. 12, and Vol. 15, No. 1, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

"The Cold Curing of Cheese." Bureau of Animal Industry. Bulle- 
tin No. 49, IT. S. Department of Agriculture. 

"Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science." Fifty second meeting, .lanuary, 1903, 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 123 
ETHNOLOGICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 
CALIFORNIA. 

For several years the University of California, 'through its Depart- 
ment of Anthropology and by the liberal assistance of Mrs. Phoebe A. 
Hearst, has been engaged in an ethnological and archaeological survey 
of the State. A large anioitnt of material, illustrative of Indian life 
and culture in past and present times, has been obtained and •will form 
an important part of the anthropological collections which will in the 
future be exhibited in a museum of the University at Berkeley. At 
the present time this collection, with others of the department, is tem- 
porarily placed in one of the buildings of the Affiliated Colleges be- 
longing to the University in San Francisco. Here the large and valuable 
collections are safely cared for until the permanent mtiseum building 
is secured. 

Systematic explorations are being made of the later gravel de- 
posits, of several caves, and of the ancient shellheaps, in order to as- 
certain when man first occupied 'this region. The languages of the ex- 
isting Indians are being studied by experts of the department; the cus- 
toms and mythology of the different tribes are being carefully recorded; 
and collections illustrating their arts are being formed for the museum. 
A study of the physical characters of the various groups of Indians, 
combined with that of the skeletons found during the archaeological 
explorations, is being made in order to determine the physical relations 
of the Indians of California with those of other regions. By correlating 
the physical characters, the particular cultures of the past and present 
Indians, and the various linguistic stocks or families still extant, it is 
hoped to solve the great problem of the relationship of the numerous 
groups of Indians in California, and their relationship with peoples of 
other parts of the continent and possibly with certain tribes of Asia. 

Nowhere in America has there been such a diversity of Indian lan- 
guages as in California, a condition which has long puzzled anthropolo- 
gists. During the past five years more investigations of these languages 
have been made by the University and by eastern institutions than in 
all previous time. These Indian languages are now fast disappearing. 
Several are at the present moment known only by five or six and others 
by 'twenty or thirty individuals, and hardly a year passes without some' 
special dialect, or even language, becoming extinct. For this reason it is 
desired that students should be instructed in the methods of recording 
and studying Indian languages, and then devote themselves to special re- 
search. The University is, therefore, giving instruction in this branch 
of linguistics with the hope of preparing students to carry on the re- 
search before the opportunities pass away. Similar reasons apply to re- 
searches in other divisions of ethnology, and in archaeology; hence the 
training of students in these subjects is also undertaken by the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology. 

The officers of the department make a special appeal to persons in 



124 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

all parts of tlie State and .adjacent regions for aid in this survey. 
Hundreds of Indian objects are found annually, which if carefully 
labeled as to where and how found and sent to the University, would, 
when brought together for comparative study, aid in the settlement of 
many important questions. The distribution of a particular kind of 
stone implement or of an ancient form of basket, and of many other 
objects of Indian manufacture (even the peculiar stone of which an 
implement is made is of great importance), will aid in determining the 
distribution of a tribe or group of which other records may be lost or 
so uncertain that just such confirmatory evidence to establish a partic- 
ular point is required. 

Information relating to the location of caves, shellheaps, old 
burial places, ancient village sites, and scattered fragments or survivors 
of nearly extinct tribes, is earnestly solicited, that such may be inves- 
tigated by the department and may be correctly recorded on its ethno- 
logical and archaeological maps of the State. 

The University is by this survey carrying on a research of great 
importance in obtaining a knowledge of the first peopling of the Pacific 
Coast and of the early migrations, and of the relationships of the recent 
and present Indians, a research that is required by anthropologists and 
by all interested in the early history of man. This work has been well 
begun, but assistance of many kinds is needed for its rapid progress. 
This assistance, it is hoped, will be given to aid the University of the 
State in an undertaking of such general interest. 

Two volumes of the publications of the department, relating 
to the languages, myths and customs of certain tribes of California, 
are now in press and are to be followed by others as the material is 
prepared. 

Correspondence leading to aid in this survey is solicited by the De- 
partment of Anthropology of the University of California. 

BENJ. IDE WHEELEE, 

President of the University. 
F. W. PUTNAM, 

Director of the Department of Anthropology. 

Berkeley, California, October 15, 1903. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 125 

TransaLctions for December, 1903 



ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Los Angeles, California, November 2, 1903. 
The regular monthly meeting of the Southern California Academy 
of Sciences was held this evening at 940 South Figueroa Street. 
President Cumnock occupied the chair. 
No business was transacted. 
The evening was occupied with a lecture by Professor Wm. M. Pris- 
bie on ' ' Oxygen, ' ' illustrated with numerous experiments. A large au- 
dience was in attendance, who thoroughly appreciated Professor Pris- 
bie's lecture. 
Adjourned. 

B. E. BAUMGAEDT, Secretary. 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Woman's Club House, November 9cli, 1903. 

The meeting was called to order by the chairman of the section. 
The minutes of the last meeting meeting were read and approved. 

Two papers were read by title: "Concerning Pleas," by Prof. J. 
J. Elvers; "The So-Called Kissing Bug," by Dr. A. Davidson. 

The lecture of the evening was deliverd by Prof. Jospeh Grin- 
nell, on, ' ' The Midwinter Birds of Los Angeles. ' ' Among other in- 
teresting facts the lecturer stated that careful observation had con- 
vinced him that there are about two Audubon Warblers to the acre in 
this part of California during the winter. This means that this species 
of bird alone numbers some 12,800 in Pasadena, and as each one eats 
about twelve hundred flies each day, they destroy daily about ihree 
and a half millions of insects. 

The Cedar Wax-Wing has the habit of eating the berries of the 
pepper tree and retaining them until the sweet layer of the berries is 
dissolved. When this has occurred, the bird regurgitates the re- 
mainder of the berries. 

Tne lecture of the evening was intensely interesting, and suggested 
a great number of questions, many of which the lecturer answered. 

About seventy members and visitors were present. 

The meeting adjourned to meet again on the second Monday even- 
ing in December, at which time Dr. Gamber will lecture on Malaria. 

C. A. WHITING, Secretary. 



GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Los Angeles, Cal., Nov. 23, 1903. 

The Geological Section met at the Woman's Club Eooms at 8 p. m. 
Geo. W. Parsons in the chair. 

Prof. E. H. Fosdick, City Chemist, was introduced as 'the lecturer 
of the evening. His subject was ' ' The Manufacture of Explosives. ' ' 



126 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

He exhibited samples, giving a scientific dissertation on the manu- 
facture of each, and gave their chemical components. 

The lecture was very interesting and was well attended. 

G. MAJOR TABEE, Secretary. 



NEWS AND NOTES. 



Mr. H. G. Watkins, of Hemet, reports as follows: 

I had the good fortune to see, though imperfectly, on the morning of 
the ISth or 14th inst. A very brilliant meteor crossed from near the 
zenith northwest to a point noc far from 'the horizon, describing a 
wavy, irregular course and exhibiting quite a large "head" at upper 
end of the trail left behind. The light emitted was greenish in color and 
very brighc, lasting four or five seconds, but the meteor giving out no 
sound in its passage, either at the time or afterward. The passage oc- 
curred about 4 'clock a. m., the trail showing for fully ten minutes 
afterward. 

j^'rom Messrs. J. U. and C. G. Lloyd of Cincinnati we have received 
an elegantly printed copy of ' ' Materia Medica Americana Potissimum 
Eegni Vegetabilis, " ' No. 3, of their Eeproduction series. Attached 'to 
the copy is a reminder that they are still desirous of adding to their 
collection of puff-balls and they wish that all interested botanists would 
gather what they can and transmit to them. 

The editor of ' ' The Plant World ' ' makes the interesting state- 
ment that ' ' specimens cut from a single tree have been passed upon 
by experts in the genus to which this tree belongs, who have been able 
thus far, to name sixteen species, all growing from the same root." This 
remarkable revelation is significant of the value of much recent species- 
making. Of such are the greater part, in all probability, of the co- 
pious flood of "new species" discharged Tay some prolific authors, what- 
ever familiar genus they may take in hand. The time is ripe for botan- 
ists cax^able of generalizing, of distinguishing between individual pecu- 
liarities and generic distinctions. It wall be their work to select from 
the indigested masses now being heaped up, whatever may be of real 
value, casting the greater part into the oblivion of synonymy. — S. B. F. 

Through the kindness of the author, Mr. Ealph Arnold, we have 
received a copy of ' ' The Paleontolgy and Stratigraphy of the Marine 
Pliocene and Pleistocene of San Pedro, California." This is issued 
as one of the Contributions to Biology from the Hopkins Seaside Lab- 
oratory of the Leland Stanford University, and is the most important 
work relating to the biology of Southern California that has been pub- 
lished in recent years. To the student of conchology this will be a 
work of valuable reference, and a decided stimulus to further research. 
The work contains, besides a full list of the known fossil shells, 
numerous illustrations of the new species described, with photographs of 
Deadman's Island and the other rock sections that best illustrate the 
nature of the geological formations. 



ISuIIftm 

of tl)e 

>outi)ern California ^catiem^ 
of Sciences 



INDEX 



To Vol. Ill" Jan. to Dec., '04 

(Nine Nos.) 



ft Am 



Aboriginal shell money and orna- 
ments 153 

Abrams, Leroy (paper) 1 

Abronia maritima 94 

Adenostoma 93 

Age of bronze 26 

Age of iron 26 

Age, neolithic 26, 42 

Age, paleolithic 26, 42, 43 

Age of stone 26, 42 

Alameda Creek 8 

Amiantis (Callista) callosa 157 

Anemone aphenophylla, Poepp. ...Ill 
ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

October-November, 1904 112 

November 143 

ANNUAL REPORTS, 1903-1904. 

Secretary 99 

Treasurer 101 

Section of Astronomy 101 

Section of Biology 102 

Section of Geology 102 

Anthidium, (See also Dianthidium) 

5, 6, 23, 56 

Anthidium banningense (n. sp.). 57 
Anthidium bernardinum (n. sp. ). 74 
Anthidium bernardinum, vars. . . 

58, 75 
Anthidum. californicum, Cress 

57, 59 

Anthidium cognatum 56, 60 

Anthidium eollectum, Huard..57, 73 

Anthidium conspicuum 23 

Antliidium emarginatum, var..58, 73 
Anthidium illustre, Cress. ..... 23, 24 

Antliidium jocusum '. . . . 57 

Anthidium larrese, Ckll 23 

Anthidium laterale, Latr 57 

Antliidium lupinellum (n. sp.).57, 58 

Anthidium maculosum 56, 59 

Anthidium manicatum, L 57, 59 

Anthidium montivagum 5 6, 73 

Anthidium mormonum 56, 72, 74 

Anthidium oblongatum, Latr 56 

Anthidium palliventre, Cress.. 57, 60 
Anthidium palmarum (n. sp. ).. 

57, 59 

Anthidium paroselte, Ckll 58 

Anthidium pecosense (n. sp.).58, 74 

Antliidium placitum 75 

Anthidium pondreum (Titus) .... 74 

Anthidium porterte, Ckll 57 

Anthidium saxorum (n. sp.)..57, 72 
Anthidium serranum (n. sp. ).23, 24 

Anthidium singulare. Cress 23 

Anthidium toltecum. Cress 56 

Anthidium tricuspidum, Prov. . . 

57, 59, 73, 74 

Anthophora 87, 161 

Amegilla, Friese, (sub genus).. 87 
V, 86; VI, 159. 

(sub genus) 87 

Anthophora californica. Cress. . . 88 

Anthophora cleomis, Ckll 88 

Anthophora crotchii, Cress 161 

Anthophora marginata. Smith ... 88 
Anthophora quinquefasciata, 

Prov 88, 89 



Anthophora smithii, Cress 88 

Anthopliora tarsata, Dours 88 

Anthophora tarsata, var. subtar- 

sata (N. subsp. ) 88 

Anthopliora texana. Cress 161 

Anthophora walshii. Cress 88 

Antirrhinum speciosum 91, 93 

Aphanisma blitoides 93 

Aquilegia chrysantha, Gray Ill 

Archaeological Institute of Amer- 
ica, Southwest Society 14 

Arizona, Clifton, flora of 110 

Assyrian relics 42 

Astragalus robeartsii, Eastw 92 

Astragalus nevinii 92 

Astragalus traskise 92 

AstroiLoiuical Notes, edited by 

Wm. H. Knight Ill 

Atriplex breweri (?) 94 

Atriplex expansa 94 

Australasia 43 



Baccharis (n. sp.) 

Beads as money 

Beads, glass and enamel 

Beaver, fossil 6, 

Bees of Soutliern California, by T 

D. A. Cockerell 

I, 3; II, 23; III, 56; IV, 72; 

V, 86; VI 

Bombomelecta (genus) Patton. ... 
Bombomelecta edwardsii (Cres- 

son) 

Bombus 89, 

Bombus californicus, Smitli 

Bombus var. columbicus 

Bombus edwardsii. Cress 

Bombus juxtus 

Bombus prunellfe 

Bombus sonorus. Say 

Bombus ternarius 

Borings, deepest in U. S 

Brassica nigra 

Bronze coin 

Building Materials. So. Cal 

Bushmen 

By-Laws of Academy 



94 

157 

39 



159 
160 

160 
90 
89 
89 
89 
89 
89 
89 
89 

168 
93 

154 

163 
43 

120 



Carex 37 

Castilleia 94 

Catalina Island 38, 41, 60 

Catalina Island, Fossil Peak 140 

Catalina Island, Indian relics. 150, 152 
Catalogue of Indian Belies Found 
on Santa Catalina Island, etc., 
bv Mrs. M. Burton Williamson, 

I, 38; II. 60; III, 149 

Catastrophists 12 

Caves, San Clemente Island 91 

Ceanotlius macrocarpus 93 

Cenozic Era, length of 10 

Centris (genus) fabricius 160 



Centris hoffmanseggiEe, subsp. 

npv. davidsoni 160 

Centris cockerelli, Fox 160 

Cercus emory 91 

Chamber of Commerce, Los An- 
geles, Indian relics 38, 40 

Channel Islands 76 

Chrysodomus aphelus, Dall ...71, 72 

Chrysodomus arnoldi (n. sp.) 70 

Chrysodomus griseus, Dall ....71, 72 
Chrysodomus merriami (n. sp.).. 70 

Civilization, ancient 42 

Cladium 36 

Clematis cymbalaria, Pursh Ill 

Clematis drummondii, T. & G....111 

Cleome integrifolia, Flora of Ill 

Clifton, Arizona, Flora of 110 

Cnicus occidentalis 93 

Cockerell, T. D. A. (paper 

3, 23, 56, 72, 86, 159 

Code of Khammurabi 42 

Coins, Bronze 153, 154 

Collinsia bicolor 94 

Comstock, Dr. Theo. B (paper) ... 163 

Constitution of Academy 115 

Convolvulus macrostegius 91 

Contributions to the Phytog'eog'- 
raphy of Southern California. 

By H. M. Hall 19 

Coo'king pots 40 

Corydalls aurea, Willd., var occi- 
dentalis, Eng Ill 

Crossosoma calif ornicum 92 

Cyprje moneta 154 

Cyperaceas 36 

Cyperus 36, 37 

Cyperus bromides, Brit. (Svn.).. 

35, 37, 49 
Cyperus erythrorhizos, Muhl. ..37, 52 
Cyperus esculentus, Linn (Syn.). 

37, 54 
Cyperus inflexus, Muhl. (Syn.). 37, 50 

Cyperus laevigatus, Linn 37, 50 

Cyperus longispicatus, Norton 

(Syn.) 37, 54 

Cyperus melanostachyus, H. B. K. 

(Syn.) 37, 49 

Cyperus parishii, Brit 37, 52 

Cyperus speciosus, Vahl (Sj'n. )... 

37, 4 



Davidson, Dr. A. (papers) .... 24. 110 

Deadman's Island, San Pedro 69 

Dendromecon 91 

Dentalium 156, 157 

Description of Some TJndescribed 
Shells of Pleistocene and Plio- 
cene Pormations of the Santa 
Monica Rang-e. By Prof. J. J. 

Rivers 69 

Dianthidium (Anthidium) 5 

Dianthidium apicale (Cress) .... 6 

Dianthidium bivitallum (Cress) . . 6 

Dianthidium concinnum (Cress) . . 6 

Dianthidium cressonii (D. T.).... 6 

Dianthidium formosum (Cress)... 5 

Dianthidium gabbi (Cress) 5 

Dianthidium lepidum (Cress) 6 

Dianthidium mexicanum (Cress).. 6 

Dianthidium pudens (Cress) 6 

Dianthidium simile (Cress) 6 

Dianthidium singulare, Var. per- 

luteum (Cress) 23 

Dianthidium texanum (Cress) .... 6 



Dianthidium toltecum (Cress) .... 6 

Dianthidium ulkei (Cress) 6 

Dianthidium (genus) 3, 6, 23 

Dianthidium Septem dentatum 

(Latr.) 3 

Dianthidium (sub-genus) Anthi- 

diellum 3 

Dianthidium (sub-genus) Ehr- 

horni (Ckll.) 4 

Dianthidium (sub-genus) consi- 

mile (Ashm.) 4, 5 

Dianthidium (sub-genus) curva- 

tum (Smith) 4 

Dianthidium (sub-genus) david- 
soni (Ckll.) 4, 5 

Dianthidium (sub-genus) gilense 

(Ckll.) 4 

Dianthidium (sub-genus) parvum 

(Cresson) 4, 5 

Dianthidium (sub-genus) robert- 

soni (Ckll.) 4 

Dianthidium (sub-genus) striga- 

tum (Panzer) 4 

Earth, process of growth 135 

EDITORIAL: 

Important to Members 97 

Professor Melville Dozier 100 

This means you I 129 

Thanks to the Ebell 129 

Did You Forget? 145 

A Worthy Example 145 

Eleocharis, R. Br 67 

Eleocharis acicularis, R. & S..67, 68 
Eleocharis acicularis, var. rad- 

icans, Brit. (Syn.) 81 

Eleocharis capitata, R. Br 67 

Eleocharis disciformis (n. sp.).67, 81 
Eleocharis montana, R. & S. (Syn. ) 81 
Eleocharis palustris. R. & S...67, 68 
Eleocharis palustris, var. glau- 

cescens, Gray 68 

Eleocharis parishii, Brit 6 7 

Eleocharis rostellata, Torr ....67, 83 
Eleotherium imperator, L e i d y 

(fossil hog) 6 

Emphoropsis (genus), Ashmead..l61 
Emphoropsis infernalis (D alia 

Torre), subsp. nov 161 

Emphoropsis tristissima 161 

Encelia californica 92 

Eocene, Paris, extinct mammals. . 12 

Eriogonum gigantea 94 

Eriogonum nudum 94 

Eriophyllum nevinii 93 

Eschrichtus davidsonii Cope (fos- 
sil vi'hale) 6 

Eschscholtzia californica 92 

Eschscholtzia mexicana. Gr Ill 

Eschscholtzia ramosa 77, 92 

Eulima raymondi (n. sp. ) 70 

Euphorbia misera . 92 

Explorations, Nippur 42 

Fimbristylis, Vahl 36, 86 

Fimbristylis thermalis. Watson... 86 
Plora of Clifton District, Arizona. 

By A. Davidson. M. D 110 

Plora of San Clemente Island, 

By Blanche Trask I. 76: II, 90 

Possil Peak, Catalina Island. By 

Blanche Trask '140 

Franseria 94 



Galium catalinense 94 

Game Refuges 108 

Game Refuges, Europe 108 

Geologic Time, length of 9 

Gilia nevinii 77, 93 

Gila River Crossing, Government 

plans 140 

Glacial Period, time since 10 

Glauconite, origin of 135 

Government Game Befug'es. By 

Alden Sampson, A. M 108 

Government work, undesirable 

classification of 108, 137 

Graminales 36 

Granites of So. Cal 164 

Graves, Catalina Island 41, 62, 63 

Graves, earliest known 43 

IH 

Hall, W. H., collection 41 

Hazardia 94 

Hemicarpha 36 

Hemizonia Clementina, Brand 95 

Hemizonia fasciculata 95 

HERBARIA: 

Brandegee, T. S 2, 25 

Calif. Acad. Sci 2 

Davidson, Dr. A 35 

Gray, Harvard Univ 50 

N. Y. Botanical Garden 50 

Parish 2, 35 

Stanford Univ 2 

Univ. of Cal 35 

Hieroglyphics 26 

History, Assyrian 42 

History defined 10 

History, earliest records 25, 26 

History, Egyptian 43 

Hog, fossil 6 

Hyalsea tricuspida (n. sp. ) 69 

I 

Implements, bone 38 

Implements, stone 39 

Indian Relics, Catalina Island, 

Miscellaneous 60, 6? 

Indian Relics, Cabrillo's ranch- 

eria 62 

Inscriptions, demotic 25 

Inscriptions, Greek 2 7 

Inscriptions, hieroglyphic 25 

Inscriptions, Runic 25 

Instruments for ocean study. 133, 134 
IRRIGATION, GOVERNMENT 
PROJECTS: 

Klamath River 137 

Sacramento Valley 138 

Yuma 139 

ISLANDS: 

Anacapas 76 

Channel 76 

San Clemente 76 

San Miguel 76 

San Nicolas 76, 92, 94 

Santa Barbara 77, 94 

Santa Catalina 140 

Santa Cruz 76, 91 

Santa Rosa 76, 91 

Isthmus, Catalina Island 41 

Isthmus, graves 41, 62, 63 



Khammurabi, code of 42 

Kjokkenmoddings 2 5 

Klamath River irrigation projects. 137 

I- 

Lake Dwellers, Swiss 26 

Lamarckia aurea 94 

Lava flows, ancient 43 

Lavatera assurgentiflora 94 

Lectures, titles 99 

Limestones, origin of 134 

Lonicera 93 

Lotus traskise '. 94 

Lupinus truncatus, var 94 

Lycium 93 

Lycium calif ornicun:i 93 

Lycium richii 93 

Lyonothamnus florlbundus, var. 

asplenifolius 91 

IVI 

Malaeothrix (n. sp. ) 94 

Malseothrix foliosa, Gr 77 

Malva 93 

Malva parviflora 95 

Malva rosea 94 

Man, evolution of 27, 30 

Mancalla californiensis, Lucas 

(fossil auk) 8 

Marbles of So. Cal 165 

Marubium vulgare 95 

Members, List of 123, etc. 

Mealing stones 40 

Mesembryanthemum 95 

Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. 92 

Mesozic Era, length of 10 

Metals, first historic mention oi 

use as coin 153 

Metates 40 

Miocene, Upper, Los Angeles S 

Money, Shell 154, etc. 

Moritherium giganteum. Cope (fos- 
sil sloth) 6 

Murray, Sir John (paper) . ._ 133 

Myosorus minimus, L * Ill 

IM 

Nebular Hypothesis, notes of dis- 
cussion 158 

Negro Race 42 

Niles, Alameda Co., Cal 8 

Notes and News; Dec, 1903, 15; 

1904: Jan.. 31; Feb., 47; Dec... 166 
Notes on Structural Materials in 
Southern California. By Theo. 
B. Comstock, S. D 163 

o 

Oenothera (n. sp.) 95 

Ocean, currents in 135 

Oc-ean, depth of 133 

Ocean, floor of 136 

Ocean, life in , 134 

Ocean, pressure in depth 13 6 

Ocean, temperature in depth 136 

Oceanolog-y. By Sir John Murraj-. 

K. C. B 133 

Officers of Academy 128. 144 

Oligomeris 94 

Olivella 157 

Opuntia prolifera 91 

Opuntia engelmani, var, litoralis. 91 
Ornaments, Stone 38 



Paleozoic Era, length of 10 

Palmer, Dr. F. M., collections cata- 
logued 38, 40 

Parish, S. B., papers 35, 49, 65 

Peabody Museum, exploration col- 
lections 41 

Penstemon cordifolius . . '. 95 

Phacelia 94 

Phosphates, origin of 135 

Phosphorescent animals 134 

Plant distribution 19 

Plantago insularis 94 

PLATES — 

Southern California Cyperacease, 
Parish: 
Cyperus bromoides, Britton, 

II 51 

Cyperus parishii, Britton, III. 53 
Cyperus longispicatus, Norton, 

IV 55 

Schoenus nigricans, Linn, V. . 66 
Eleocharis disciformis. Parish, 

VI 82 

Fossil Shells of the Santa 

Monica Bang'e; Insert opp. . 69 

No. 1, Eulima micans, Car- 

- penter. 

No. 2, Eulima ramondi. Rivers. 

■No. 3, Eulima hastata, Sow- 

erby. 
No. 4, Eulima falcata. Carpen- 
ter. 
Ahoriffinal Shell Money and 
Ornaments, Yates. 

Plate 1. Insert opp 154 

Plate 2. Insert opp 158 

Pleistocene, Santa Monica Mts., 

Cal 70 

Pliocene (fresh water), Berkeley, 

Cal 8 

Pliocene (fresh water), San Diego 69 
Pliocene (fresh water), Santa 

Monica Mts 69, 72 

Polanisia trachysperma, T. & G. . .111 
Potts Valley, Santa Catalina, Cal., 

Indian Relics 150 

Prehistoric California. By Dr. L. 

G. Yates I, 10; II, 25; 111. 42 

Prehistoric, term defined 11, 25 

Preliminary Synopsis of Southern 
California Cyperacese. By S. B. 
I, 35; II, 49; III, 65; IV, 81; V, 141 

Parish 

Prunus (n. sp.) ilicifolia, var 93 

Psithyrus californicus. Cress 90 

Psithyrus elathus 90 

Publications Received 

12, 30, 44, 78, 95, 103, 162 



Quaternary, San Pedro 69 

Quercus agrifolia 1, 2 

Quercus chrysolepsis 91 

Quercus dumosa 1 

Quercus tomentella 91 

Quercus, Wislizeni 1 



Kecent Literature (reviews) 

78, 113, 167 

Refuges, Government Game 108 

Rhamnus crocea 93 



Rhus integrifolia 93 

Ribes (sp.) 92 

Rivers. J. J. (paper) 69 

Rosetta stone 26 

Sacramento Valley Irrigation Pro- 
ject . 138 

Sagas 25 

Sambucus glauca 93 

Sampson, Alden (paper) 108 

San Clemente Island, Cal 76. 90 

San Pedro, Cal: 

Deadman's Island 69 

Quaternary 69 

Santa Monica Range 69 

Saxidomus 157 

Saxifraga 94 

Schoenus, Linn 36, 65 

Schoenus nigricans, Linn (PL). 65, 66 
Schumacker, Paul, collections.... 41 

Scirpus, Linn 36, 141 

Scirpus americanus, Pres. (Syn.) . 

141, 143 
Scirpus cernuus, Vahl. (Syn.) .... 

141, 142 

Scirpus lacustris 141 

Scirpus microcarpus 141 

Scirpus nanus, Spr. (Syn.) 141 

Scirpus olneyi. Gray 141. 143 

Scirpus paciflcus 141 

Scirpus pauciflorus, Lightf. (Syn.) 

141, 142 

Scirpus tatora 141 

Sedges 35 

Senecio lyoni 77, 93 

Sharks, fossil 8 , 

Shell money of California. . . .156, 157 
Shells used as money. . . .154, 155, 156 
Sigmogomphius LeContei, Merriam 

(fossil rodent) 6 

Sloth, fossil 6 

Smitlisonian Museum, exploration 

collections 41 

Southwest Society, Arch. Inst, of 

America 14 

Stelis (genus) 6 

Stelis costalis 3 

Stelis laticincta, Cresson 3 

Stelis rudbeckiarum (n. s. ) 3 

Structural Materials in So. Cal... 163 

Stylophyllum 92 

Stylophyllum albidum 92 

Stylophyllum virens 94 

Suseda 94 

T 

Tapir, fossil 6 

Thalictrum fendleri, Eng. Var. 

wrightii, Trel Ill " 

Time, geologic, length of 9 

Timm's Place, Catalina Island. .. .152 
Tivela (Pachydesma) crassatel- 

loides 157 

Trachusa (genus) Jurine 159 

Tracliusa perdita 159 

Trachusa serratulce 159 

TRANSACTIONS: 

Academy — Dec, 1903, 13; 1904: 

Feb., 45; June and Sept., 104; 

Oct.. 130; Nov.. 146. 
Directors — 1904: Feb., 45; May, 

June and Sept., 106, 107; Oct., 

131; Nov., 146. 



Sections: 

Astronomy — Dec, 1903, 13; 

1904:. Jan., 30; Feb., 46; 

March, 64; April, 79; May, 

95; Oct., 132; Nov., 147. 

Biology — Dec, 1903, 14; 1904: 

Jan., 31; Feb., 46; April 80; 

May, 96; Oct. 131; Nov. 146. 

Botany — 1904: Oct., 132; Nov., 

148. 
Geology — Dec, 1903, 14; 1904: 
Jan., 31; Feb., 46; March, 64; 
May, 80; April, 106; Oct., 
132. 
Trask, Blanche (papers) .. 76, 90, 140 

Trifolium gracilentum 91 

Trifolium palmeri 91, 93 

Trifolium tridentalum 91 

Tripoxylon apicalis, Fox; Its Nest- 
ing- Habits. By Dr. A. Davidson 25 

Tripoxylon apicalis, Fox 24 

Tripoxylon linyphia • 25 

KJ 

University of Pennsylvania explor- 
ations 42 

V 

Viola pedunculata 92 

Volcanic areas 43 

Volcanic energy . . 43 



Wampum 154, 155, 156 

Whale, fossil remains 6 

Whitney's Place, Catalina Island. . 

151, 152 
Williamson, Mrs. M. Burton 

(papers) 38, 60, 149 

Wislizenia refracta, Eng Ill 

VTork of the U. S. Reclamation 
Service in California. By J. B. 
Lippincott, Supervising Engi- 
neer 137 

Xylocopa 86, 87 

Xylocopa barbata. Fabr 87 

Xylocopa californica arizonensis, 

Xylocopa fimbriata, Fabr 87 

Xylocopa orpifex. Smith 87 

Xylocopa rufescens, Smith 86 

Xylocopa varipuncta, Patton . . . 8^6, 87 

Cress 87 



Yates, Dr. Lorenzo G. (papers) . . 

6, 10, 25, 42 
Yuma Irrigation Project 139 



VOL. III. 



JANUARY, 1904 



BTILiLETIN 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifomia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melvil-le Dozier G. W. Parsons 



CONTENTS : 

Page 
Quercus Wislizeni in Southern California, Lerot Abrams .... i 

The Bees of Southern California, T. D. A. CoCKKREix 3 

Prehistoric California, Dr. IvORENZO GoRDiN Yatbs 6 

Prehistoric Man and his Development, Dr. Lorenzo Gordin Yates 10 

Publications Received 12 

Transactions • 13 

Notes and News . . 15 

PUBLISHED BY 

THE ACADEMY, MONTHLY EXCEPT 

JULY, AUGUST AND SEPT. 

Yearly Subscription , $1.00 Single Copies, 25 cts. 

"Entered September 18, 1903, at I,os Angeles, Cal., as second-class matter, 
under Act of Congress, July 16, 1894." 

MAILED JAN. 12, 1904 



J 



BULLETIN 

or THE 

Souitiern Galllornla flcadeniy ol Sciences 

VOL. \ LOS ANOCLCS, CAL, JAN. I, 1904. NO- I 



]FM>r 



Quercus Wislizeni in Southern California. 

BY LEROY ABRAMS. 

In a former article in this publication (1:89, 1902) I had 
occasion to mention the occurrence of Quercus Wislizeni A. 
DC. in Southern California. Since then INIr. Parish in a later 
number of this publication (11:11, 1903) doubts the determina- 
tion of my specimens, at least as far as the plants from San 
Bernardino Mountains are concerned. He says: "I have been 
unable to detect it in the San Bernardino Mountains, and speci- 
mens from that station with which Mr. Abrams has obliged me, 
while indecisive, appear rather to belong to Q. dumosa, the com- 
mon scrub oak of the region." That this species should be con- 
fused with Q. dumosa can hardly be understood for they have 
nothing in common save that both, in our region, are shrubby. 
This confusion seems to exist, hoAvever, and for that reason it 
may be proper to point out some of the ditferences. The leaves 
of Q. dumosa, as it is now understood, are variable, but they are 
usually blunt and more or less short pubescent and grayish be- 
neath, while those of Q. Wislizeni are usually pointed, a bright, 
glossy green and smooth on both surfaces. These characters 
make them easily distinguished in the sterile condition. In the 
fruit the characters are still more pronounced. Q. dumosa, be- 
ing a white oak, has usually blunt acorns and more or less tu- 
bereulate cups, caused by the thickened scales. Q. Wislizeni, 
on the other hand, is a black oak and has pointed acorns and 
deep cups composed of thin scales, much resembling those of 
the well-known Q. agrifolia, to which species it is much more 
nearly related. This can be distinguished from both Q. dumosa 



2 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

and Q. agrifolia, however, in that it develops the fruit the sec- 
ond year while they mature theirs the first. Some do not seem 
able to detect this fact unless they find the fruit and undevel- 
oped ovules on the same twig, a circumstance seldom met with, 
for only the most vigorous twigs develop fruit two years in suc- 
cession, but when it is known that the flowers appear on the 
young shoots in the spring, it goes without saying that, when 
the fruit develops the first year, it will be found on the twigs of 
the same season's growth, while those that develop the second 
year will be found on last year's twigs. Knowing this, it can, 
in nearly every case, be easily learned which year the fruit de- 
velops. 

Upon the re-examination of my material I became con- 
vinced that my determinations alluded to above were correct 
and that these plants agree well with those from the more 
northern part of the state, and in addition to my former ma- 
terial, I have had the advantage of another season's collecting 
and am enabled to extend the range still further. Besides this 
material I have had the privilege of examining that in the fol- 
lowing herbaria : Brandegee, Parish, California Academy of 
Sciences and Stanford University, in all of which I found more 
or less from our range. I give below a list of the specimens I 
examined, which were collected below the Tehachapi, including 
the collector and the herbarium in which the specimens are to 
be found : 

"^ Cuddy's Ranch, near Gormans Station. Dudley, No. 4366. 
(S. U.) 

Kings Canyon, Sierra Liebre Mts. Dudley, No. 4346. 
(S. U.) 

Mt. Lowe, Dudley, July 20, 1899. (S. U.) 
Mt. Wilson. Abrams, No. 1518. (Abrams, S. U.) 
Lytic Creek Canyon. Hall, No. 901. (S. U.) 
Santa Inez Mountains. Franceschi, 1894. (Brandegee.) 
Mt. Lowe. Kinney, September, 1902. (Parish.) 
Arrowhead (jrade, San Bernardino Mountains. Shaw, Au- 
gust, 1900. (Parish, Abrams.) 

Santa Ana Canyon, San Bernardino Mountains. Shaw, Au- 
gust, 1900. (Abrams.) 

Spencer Valley, San Diego County. Abrams, No. 3875. 
(Abrams, S. U.) 

Cuyamaca Mountain. Abrams, No. 3950. (Abrams, S. U.) 
Walker's Ranch, near Jacumba. Abrams No. 3697. 
(Abrams, S. U.) 

San Pedro Martir, Lower California. Brandegee. (Cal. 
Academy.) 

Stanford University. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



The Bees of Southern California.— 1 . 

BY T. D. A. COCKEREIyL. 

The series of articles to appear under the above title will con- 
tain descriptions and records of Southern California bees, and 
it is hoped eventiially to publish tables for the identification of 
all the species. 

Stelis laticincta, Cresson. 

Wilson's Peak, one male, collected by Dr. Davidson. 

Only the female has been described. The male is similar, but 
only 6 mm. long, with the clypeus, a small supraclypeal mark, 
and a line beneath anterior ocellus, all yellow, in addition to the 
markings present in the female. The yellow stripes behind the 
eyes are continuous right across the top of the head. The an- 
terior and hind tibiae are yellow on the outer side. 

While working up the present insect I have become satisfied 
that the New Mexico insect which has passed for years as S. 
costalis, is quite distinct. It is to be said that Mr. Fox long ago 
compared it with Cresson 's types, and did not think it was 
costalis. It may be known as S. rudbeckiarum, n. sp.. the type 
being my No. 1567, Santa Fe, July, at flowers of Rudbeckia. It 
is about 7 mm. long, varying to 5i/2i cmtl the male agrees with 
Cresson 's description of female costalis, except in the follow- 
ing character: Tubercles and pleura wholly black tegulae 
ferruginous, with a yellowish spot anteriorly; legs black, the 
knees broadly and the tarsi red, the hind femora have a good 
deal of red, and the tibiae show a little reddish on the inner 
s^'de ; yellow band on third abdominal segment not indented. 
The clypeus is entirely black. 

Dianthidium. 

Four species of this genus have been collected in Southern 
California. In the following table they are separated and com- 
pared with several species found elsewhere. 
Scutellum all black in both sexes; size large (Europe).. 

septemdentatum (Latr.) 

Scutellum with at least some vellow or whitish; size smaller 

\ 1 

1. Small, compact species, with the hind edge of the scutel- 
lum produced and sharp-edged, the yellow marks on 
scutellum in a straight line or almost so ; posterior 
coxae without spines. (Anthidiellum, n. subg., type 
strigatum) 2 



4 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Not so ; scutellum less produced, the yellow marks or 
band on scutellum not in a straight line 5. 

2. Band on second abdominal segment nearly as widely 

interrupted as that on first, i. e., reduced to lateral 

marks (Europe) strigatum (Panzer). 

Band on first adbdominal segment reduced to lateral 
marks, but that on second at most very narrowly in- 
terrupted 3. 

3. Hind tibia without black (New Mexico) . . . .gilense (Ckll.) 
Hind tibia mth a good deal of black 4. 

4. End of male abdomen with four little teeth; band on 

second abdominal segment very broadly interrupted 

(Mojave Desert ehrhomi (Ckll.) 

End of male abdomen without such teeth : band on sec- 
ond abdominal segment very narrowly interrupted 
(Southern California) robertsoni (Ckll.) 

5. Yellow band on first abdominal segment broadly inter- 

rupted in the middle (New Mexico) . . . .perpictum (Ckll.) 
Band on first abdominal segment entire in the middle, 
interrupted, if at all, at the sides 6. 

6. Base of abdomen with a good deal of red (Georgia, 

Texas, New Mexico, etc curvatum (Smith.) 

Base of abdomen without red 7. 

7. End of male abdomen strongly trilobed; male with no 

supraclypeal mark; markings of abdomen chrome yel- 
low in both sexes (So. California) consimile (Ashm.) 

End of male abdomen truncate, faintly trilobed; male 
with a small supra ch^^eal mark 8. 

8. Markings of abdomen pale yellow, bands more incised 

laterally (New Mexico, Colorado) parvum (Cress.) 

Markings of abdomen bright yellow, bands less incised 

laterally (Southern California) davidsoni (Ckll.) 

Dianthidiiim robertsoni, n. sp. 

Four specimens collected by. Dr. Davidson, three from Rock 
Creek, one from Los Angeles. Named after Mr. Charles Rob- 
ertson, who first pointed out the presence of pulvilli in the 
genus. Small and compact, 5% to 7 mm. long, the larger being 
females; black, with chrome yellow markings, (Strongly punc- 
tured; apex and apical half of costa of wings broadly fuligin- 
ous, the whole of the marginal and nearly all of the submar- 
ginal cells dark; the only yellow marks on head in the female 
are the large cuneiform lateral face-marks, and the entire occi- 
pital band, but in the male the clypeus and two triangles occu- 
pying the corners of the supraclypeal area and touching or al- 
m.ost touching medially are light yellow; markings of thorax 
and abdomen as in D. gilense, except that the anterolateral 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 5 

stripes on margin of niesotliorax are not bent posteriorly, the 
anterolateral spots on sciitellum are wanting, the abdominal 
bands on the third and following segments are somewhat more 
widely interrupted, and are laterally very deeply incised or di- 
vided altogether, those on four and five always being divided; 
the sixth segment has much black, being in the female black 
with two yellow marks, and in the male usually yellow with a 
reversed black T ; ventral scopa white ; legs in female black, the 
apices of femora, tibiae and tarsi ferruginous ; anterior tibae 
with more than the basal half yellow outside, middle tibiae all 
yellow outside, hind tibiae with a yellow basal spot ; in the male 
the anterior and middle legs are strongly bearded with long 
vvhite hair, the anterior tibiae are yellow outwardly and pale 
reddish within, the middle tibiae are yellow with a very large 
black spot on the outer surface and a similar reddish one on the 
inner, and the hind tibiae are black with the ends broadly yel- 
low, the tarsi have the basal joint yellow and the small joints 
ferruginous ; the apex of the male abdomen is truncate with a 
faint trilobation. 

Dianthidium consimile (Ashmead.) 

Dr. Davidson sends me three collected at Los Angeles; they 
bear dates June 13 and 15. I have identified the species from 
Ashmead 's description, but I find that this, although stated to 
be that of a female, accords with the male of the insect before 
me. In the female the clypeus is black in the middle and yellow 
only at the sides. Except for this discrepancy the description 
applies excellently. The yellow tooth or spine on the hind 
coxae is very small in the female, somewhat larger in the male. 
Dianthidium davidsoni, n. sp. 

Two males collected by Dr. Davidson at Bear Valley, Cali- 
fornia. 

Length 8 to 9 mm. ; black with bright chrome yellow mark- 
ings. In structure and markings similar to D. parvum, but 
larger, with the yellow much brighter, and the abdominal bands 
much less incised. The pubescence of the upper part of the 
head and thorax has a yellowish tint. Apical segment of abdo- 
men yellow, truncate and faintly trilobed, only its extreme 
base, where it is overlapped by the penultimate segment, is 
black; penultimate segment yellow except the overlapped base, 
a median basal pointed process, and two transverse subapical 
marks (in parvum it is black with two light yellow crescents 
joining medially) : first recurrent nervure about as far from 
base of second submarginal cell as the second is beyond its 
apex ; yellow spines of hind coxae very large ; pleura with or 
without a small yellow spot. 

The following species, hitherto placed in Anthidium, must be 
transferred to Dianthidium, D. formosum (Cress.), D. gabbi 



6 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

(Cress.), D. mexicanum (Cress.), D. apicale (Cress.), D. bivitta- 
tum (Cress.), D. toltecum (Cress.), D. agnatum (Cress.), D. 
texanum (Cress.), D. ulkei (Cress.), D. cressonii (Dalla Terra, 
D. lepidum (Cress.). D. simile, (Cress.), D. concinnum (Cress.), 
D. pudens (Cress). The easiest way to distinguish Dianthidium 
from Anthidium is to notice the little pulvillns or pad between 
the claws, this being absent in the latter genus. Stelis looks like 
Disnthidium, but it is a parasitic bee, and consequently the fe- 
male has no scopa for holding pollen. „ „ , 

The species of Dianthidium are "resiniers, " making resin 
nests; Anthidium lines its nest with cottony fibers. 



Prehistoric California. 

(Continued from December Bolletin.) 
BY DR. LORENZO GORDIN YATES. 

WHALE. 

Fossil remains of whales have been found at many locali- 
ties, mostly near the coast. One of these found in the Plicoene ? 
near Santa Barbara by Professor George Davidson was named 
by Professor Cope, who called it Eschrichtius Davidsoni. It 
was as large as the "California Gray Whale," but belonged to 
the "Finbacks." 

THE HOG. 

Elotherium imperator, Leidy, from the Miocene at Doug- 
las Flat, Calaveras comity, under the lava, is described as allied 
to the hog. 

SLOTH. 

Professor Cope named an animal found in Quaternary of 
the Klamath River, at Yreka, the Moritherium giganteum. It 
was an extinct Sloth, and is supposed to have made the tracks 
resemblinggigantic footprints found in the Carson Quarry in 
Nevada. 

Professor Cope named an animal found in the Quaternary of 
the Klamath River, at Yreka, the Moritherium giganteum. It 
was an extinct Sloth, and is supposed to have made the tracks 
resembling gigantic human footprints found in the Carson 
Quarry in Nevada. 

TAPIR. 

The South American Tapir is represented by fossils found in 
the Auriferous Gravel, above the lava, in Tuolumne county. 

BEAVER. 

A fossil rodent, Sigmogomphius Le Contei, Merriam, named 
for the late Professor Joseph Le Conte, was found by Professor 



8 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

John C. Merriam of the University of California in the lower 
deposits of the Pliocene, near Berkeley, in fresh water beds.* 

The writer fonnd skulls of the Beaver (Castor fiber ?) in the 
marshy banks of the San Joaqnin River above Antioch. These 
have not been subjected to critical examination. 

NON-MAMMALIAN VERTEBRATES. 
Sharks. 

Numerous species of fossil sharks have been found in Cali- 
fornia, notably in Kern county, where ten of the species de- 
scribed by Agassiz have been recognized. 

(Numerous specimens of the teeth and bones of vertebrates 
found in the Quaternary by the writer have not, as yet, been de- 
termined.) 

In Volume XXIV. of the "Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum, AVashington, 1902," Dr. Frederic A. Lucas 
has described "A Flightless Auk, Mancalla Calif orniensis, from 
the Miocene of California." 

The genus was founded upon "a nearly complete left hu- 
merus found in excavating Third street tunnel at Los Angeles, 
California, in strata considered \)Y Mr. W. H. Dall as belonging 
to the Upper Miocene or Lower Pliocene, probably the former." 

It is probable, as Professor Whitney and Dr. Cooper sug- 
gested, that the fragmentary bones and teeth of many of the 
extinct mammals which have been found in the Quaternary of 
California are portions of animals inhabiting California during 
the Miocene and Pliocene periods, and that during some of the 
great changes resulting from the erosion and detrition caused 
by the local elevations and depressions of the surface they were 
weathered out and transported to distant localities by the rush 
of waters over their original place of deposit, and were again 
buried in the debris of later epochs. 

All of the fossil remains of the before mentioned animals, 
which the writer has found in undoubted Quaternary deposits, 
indicate that the bones had been thus distributed. 

Some of those found in the Pliocene may have been originally 
deposited in Miocene formations. In one instance the writer 
found in the bed of Alameda Creek, near Niles, Alameda Coun- 
ty, a boulder of very hard, coarse conglomerate in which was 
imbedded a perfect molar tooth of a mastodon. The boulder 
was luidoubtedly a portion of a Pliocene deposit, some miles 
distant, and had been rounded off by the combined action of 
water and the friction of other rocks during its rough journey 
in the rocky bed of the present creek, and had it not been for 

^ Bnlletiu of the Department of Geologv, University of California, 
Vol. I, No. 1.3, 1896. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. g 

the material in which it was imbedded being easily recogniz- 
able, it would have been referred to the Quaternary. We will 
go still further back in its history. The tooth was nearly per- 
fect and had been but little worn, showing that it had not been 
shed during the lifetime of the animal, and not being connected 
with any other portion of the skeleton, it may have belonged to 
an animal of the Miocene Period, whose remains were imbedded 
in the deposits of that period, and had been exposed and sub- 
sequently separated from the other portions of the skeletion by 
the action of the elements and again deposited in one of the 
''Dead Rivers" of the Pliocene Period, to be again disentombed 
and removed after the lapse of many thousands of years. 

Had this tooth been covered up and left where the writer 
found it (in close proximity to an Indian Rancheria), it might 
after other thousands of years, have been discovered by some 
future scientist and been considered satisfactory proof of the 
contemporaneity of man and the Mastodon. 

Such instances show the necessity of close study, careful dis- 
crimination and conservative deductions in an attempt to read 
detailed history from the Book of Nature. 

THE LENGTH OF GEOLOGTC TIME. 

For the benefit of those who have not given much thought to 
the subject of the Earth's age the following estimates made by 
eminent geologists and physicists are given. Those of the 
geologists are based upon the present rate of deposit of marine 
sediment, and the destruction of land by erosion and denuda- 
tion, compared with the total thickness of sedimentary rocks. 
The correctness of the estimates — provided that tlie rates have 
been always uniform^^is evident, but in the absence of that 
assurance the conclusions are uncertain and elusive. 

The estimates of the physicists are based upon the application 
of the laws of heat radiation, and their conclusions have ma- 
terially modified the former theory, that for the deposition or 
formation of the sedimentary rocks a minimum of hundreds of 
millions of years were required, and for the time which elapsed 
since the earth was in a molten state no limit could be given. 

Mr. Clarence King, a former United States Geologist, as the 
result of experiments upon the behavior of certain rocks under 
conditions of heat and pressure, came to the conclusion that it 
cannot be more than twenty-four million years since the earth 
was in a molten state or condition. 

Mr, Warren Upham gives forty-eight million years as the 
age of the stratified rocks and one hundred million of years as 
the age of the ocean. 

Sir Charles Lyell, the eminent English geologist, gave as his 
estimate of the age of the fossil bearing sedimentary rocks, two 
hundred and forty millions of years. 



10 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Sir Archibald Geikie's estimate was 100 million of years. 

Professor J. D. Dana's estimate was 48 million of years. 

Professor Joseph Le Conte's estimate was 30 million of years. 

Mr. C. D. Walcott's estimate was 28 million of years for the 
total period of existence of fossil-bearing sediments. 

And for the time which has elapsed since the earth was in a 
molten state the following eminent physicists drew these con- 
clusions : 

Sir William Thomson's estimate was 100 million years. 

Professor George H. Darwin's estimate was 57 million j^ears. 

Professor Simon Newcomb's estimate was 14 million years. 

Dr. Alexander Winchell's estimate was 3 million years. 

As to the relative durations of the greater geological time 
divisions the conclusions of eminent scientists are more in ac- 
cord. 

For the Paleozoic (Ancient Life), which includes the Silurian, 
Devonian and Carboniferous Ages, seventeen million, five hun- 
dred thousand years. 

The Mesozoic or Mediaeval (Age of Keptiles), seven million 
tAvo hundred and forty thousand years: and for the Cenozoic 
or Recent, which is represented by the Tertiary and Post-Ter- 
tiary Periods, two million nine hundred thousand years. 

' ' The time since the departure of the ice of the Glacial period 
from this portion of the continent has been estimated by several 
eminent authorities, from different data, and their figures fall 
within six thousand to ten thousand years." * 



Prehistoric Man and his Development*. 

BY DR. LORENZO G. YATES, F. L. S. 

Honorary Member Southern California Academy of Sciences, 
President of the Santa Barbara Societj' of Natural Hitory. Etc. 

History is defined as a narrative of past events, oral or writ- 
ten, and is divided into Ancient, Mediaeval and Modern. An- 
cient History treats of the history of man from the earliest rec- 
ords to the destruction of the Roman Empire, A. D. 476; Me- 
diaeval History is the historj^ of the Middle Ages, from A. D, 
476 to the beginning of the sixteenth century, and Modern 
History from the close of the Middle Ages to the present time. 

As the above terms apply to the world at large and man in 
general the study of the history of man as considered in his re- 

* Herman LeEoy Fairchild, in Proceedings of the Eochester Acad- 
emy of Science, Vol. II. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. ii 

lations to the groups and divisions of mankind required a dif- 
ferent term for its definition, and the late Sir Daniel Wilson, a 
Scottish-Canadian archaeologist and former President of the 
Toronto University, coined the word Pre-Historic, using it in 
the title to his "Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scot- 
land," published in 1851. 

This term includes the science of the races of men, their char- 
acter, history, customs, institutions and language, as derived 
from sources other than oral or written evidence, and includes 
that part of Ethnology which relates to the unwritten history 
of the various races, nations and tribes derived from their 
relics. 

Much has been written, and in all probability much more 
Avill be written on the subject of man's origin, and yet but little 
is known as to How, When or Where man first appeared on the 
earth. 

The Book of Nature, which has thrown so much light on the 
origin, evolution and age of the lower orders of animals, gives 
comparatively little evidence which can be utilized for the bet- 
ter knowledge of a subject which is of such interest to the edu- 
cated portion of humanity. 

The "Cradle of the Human Race" has been discovered ( ?) by 
many scientists, and by them located in many and widely sepa- 
rated countries, but so far no incontrovertible evidence has 
been adduced which would give any preponderance of evidence, 
or even probability to any one of the given localities over the 
others as regarding the origin of mankind, and it seems more 
than probable that the locality or localities whence the race 
or races sprang has be-en entirely obliterated by changes in the 
earth's surface, and that the island, continent, or portion of dry 
land first inhabited by man uoav forms the bed of one or more 
of our great oceans. 

The late Professor Joseph Leconte in his "A Century of Ge- 
ology" claimed that "The fundamental idea underlying geolog- 
ical thought is theh istory of the earth. 

"That until the beginning of the nineteenth century the earth 
was not supposed to have any histor5^ ' ' it was supposed to have 
been made at once, out of hand, about six thousand years ago, 
and to have remained substantially unchanged ever since as the 
necessary theater of human history. 

An effort to crowd all the changes which have taken place in 
the history of our earth into the period of time given by the 
Jewish writings as the age of the earth, would be like attempt- 
ing to force all the water of the Pacific Ocean into a lake. 

About the middle of the eighteenth century Buffon brought 
out dimly the idea of an abyss of time, preceding the advent of 
man, in which the earth was inhabited by plants and animals 



12 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY 01 SCIENCES. 

■wholly different from those of the present day, but the priests 
of Sorbonrne compelled him to retract such irreligious views. 

Hutton in the last part of the eighteenth century lirst clearly 
concieved the idea that the science of zoology alone is a view of 
Nature in continuous movement — a life history — an evolution 
of Nature, all other sciences, including astronomy, being but 
"flash-light views of Nature." 

Lyell showed that "causes now in operation" are producing- 
similar effects under our eyes, of changes which have been go- 
ing on since the beginning of time. 

In the early years of the eighteenth century William Smith 
laid the foundations of stratigraphy, and Cuvier, hj his studies 
of the wonderful discoveries of extinct mammals in the Eocene 
Basin of Paris, opened up to the mind of the student in a 
clearer light the existence of other time worlds before the pres- 
ent one. 

It is neither essential nor practicable in this short abstract 
to follow the various opposing theories as to how the changes 
in the sea, earth and its inhabitants were brought about, as 
claimed by Neptunists, Plutonists, Catastrophists and Uniformi- 
tarianists, as these opposing factions were eventually reconciled 
by scientific assimilation. 

The Catastrophists held that the whole history of the earth 
consisted of a series of sudden, violent, supernatural catastro- 
phies which exterminated all life on the globe. These were sup- 
posed to be followed by periods of quiet, during which the new 
earth was re-peopled by direct act of creation, with new forms 
of life adapted to the new conditions. Species were supposed 
to have been created at once, out of hand, without natural pro- 
cess. These spread in all directions, and remained unchanged 
until another luiiversal catastrophe exterminated them. 

The great apostles of this theory were Cuvier and Buckland. 

Lyell advocated the theory of uniformity of changes in the 
inorganic world, but he admitted the supernatural catastrophic 
changes in organic nature. After the publication of Darwin's 
"Origin of Species," Lyell embraced the new theory, which 
reconciled the opposing theories, and became generally ac- 
cepted. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

"The Codling Moth." Division of Entomology. Bulletin Xo. -il U. 
S. Department Agriculture. 

"Olive Oil and its Substitutes." Bureau of Chemistry. Bulletin No. 
77, F. S. Department of Agriculture. 

' ' Bee Products in Arizona. ' ' No. 48, Agricultural Experiment Station^ 
University of Arizona. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. ■ 13 

Transactions for December, 1903. 

ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Los Angeles, California, December 7, 1£'03. 
The regular monthly meeting of the Academy of Sciences was held 
this evening at 940 South Figueroa Street. 
President Comstock occupied the Chair. 

The subject for the evening was a lecture on Sweden, by B. R. 
Baumgardt. The speaker illustrated the subject with 100 lantern views 
and dealt with the ethnology, history, art and literature of that country. 
There being no further business, the meeting adjourned. 

B. E. BAUMGAEDT; Secretary. 



ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 

An unusually interesting and instructive session of the Astronomical 
Section was held on December 21st, the occasion being a "Herbert Spen- 
cer Symposium. ' ' 

The subject was appropriately introduced by Chairman W. H. Knight, 
who first presented Dr. Theodore Comstock, president of the Academy, 
whose theme was "Spencer's Early Papers, Precursors of Recent Scien- 
tific Conclusions." 

The speaker gave a clear and concise exposition of Spencer's early 
works, showing the remarkable insight of the great philosopher into the 
intricacies of nearlj^ all of the sciences, and touching upon the beautiful 
simplicit_y and humility of the life that had commanded the respect and 
reverence of the civilized world. 

Rabbi S. Hecht then presented the topic of ' ' Spencer as a Man. ' ' .He 
went into the boyhood and early manhood of Spencer, emphasizing his in- 
dependence of thought and action and his devotion to the logic of princi- 
ples. He also dwelt upon the encyclopaedic knowledge of the great 
thinker, and his power to use the knowledge he possessed. 

At this stage of the proceedings an unexpected pleasure was derived 
from the reading by Mrs. Calvert Wilson of a poem in praise of the 
virtues and achievements of Spencer^ written by Mrs. Elizabeth Cheney. 

"Spencer's Attitude Toward Metaphysics, and His Contributions to 
the Science of Astronomy, ' ' was the theme of Secretary B. R. Baum- 
gardt 's remarks, who, in his usually clear and forceful style, gave a 
synopsis of the philosopher's views on the more abstruse topics of 
thought and investigation, and gave him due credit for the substantial 
aid rendered by him to the sciences of astronomy and chemistry, notably 
in his attitude toward the nebular hj^pothesis and the theory of the 
nature and origin of the universe. 

Mr. W. A. Spalding was then introduced, and spoke of "Spencer's Law 
of the Development of Society." He represented Spencer as "one who 
set aside Divine revelations except so far as they could be explained on 
iscientific principles," and as "having broken away from the thraldom 
of religious dogma." 

Hon. W. A. Cheney was the last speaker of the evening, and his topic 
was ' ' Spencer on the Phenomena of the Mind. ' ' 

Judge Cheney gave high praise to Spencer's system of philosophy, 
calling it "the philosophic yard-stick of all time to come." 

He claimed that Spencer taught the evolution of the human mind and 
the human soul, as well as of the human body, and that no name of the 
last centurj^ could be compared with his for greatness of conception and 
magnificence of execiition. 

In criticism of the English authorities in denying to him burial in 
Westminster Abbey because of his supposed atheistic sentiments, he said 



14 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

that Spencer was too great for Westminster, and the only appropriate 
place for his interment was in the world of thought. 

The meeting was largely attended and much enthusiastic interest waa 
manifested. MELVILLE DOZIER, Secretary. 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Woman's Club House, Dec. 19th, 1903. 

The meeting was called to order by the Chairman of the Section. 

The minutes of 'the last meeting were read and approved. 

The lecture of the evening was delivered by Dr. B. F. Gamber, on 
tihe subject of "Malaria." The lecture was illustrated by blackboard 
drawings and by a number of microscopical slides. The microscopes 
which were used were loaned by the University of Southern California 
and by the Pacific School of Osteopathy. 

The paper was di&'cussed by Mr. W. H. Knight, Dr. Bishop and a 
number of others. 

About thirty-five members and visitors were present. 

On motion the section adjourned to meet again on the second Monday 
evening in January, 1904. C. A. WHITING, Secretary. 



GEOLOaiCAL SECTION. 

Los Angeles, December 28th, 1903. 

The Geological Section of the Academy of Sciences met at the 
Woman's Club Rooms on the 28th inst. 

Wm. H. Knight acted as Chairman pro tern. President Theo. B. 
Comstoek was introduced and gave a very interesting description of the 
Physical Geography and Geology of Brazil. The lecture was intensely 
interesting, and many questions were asked by the audience after the 
lecture was concluded. g. MAJOR TABER, Secretary. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 

There Jias been organized in Los Angeles the Southwest Society of the 
Archaeological Institute of America, for the purpose of collecting, pre- 
serving and publishing the fast disappearing relics of man and his insti- 
tutions in this prolific field, aided by the parent institute, of which 
Professor Francis W. Kel&'ey, of the University of Michigan, is the 
Secretary. The officers of this local branch are: President, J. S. Slauson; 
Vice-Presidents, F. M. Rindge, Dr. Norman Bridge, Colonel H. G. Otis, 
Rev. George F. Bovard; Recorder and Curator, Dr. F. M. Palmer j Treas- 
urer, W. C. Patterson. 

Executive Committee — Dr. Theo. B. Comstoek, chairman; Rev. Geo. F. 
Bovard, Rev. C. J. K. -lones, Dr. F. M. Palmer, Chas. F. Lummis', Pro- 
fessor J. A. Foshay. 

A lecture of thrilling interest was given on the evening of December 
3rd by Prof. Kelsey, on "Recent Discoveries in Pompeii." Marked in- 
terest is shown by our citizens and the membership is rapidly growing. 
Steps have been taken to conduct researches on the Mexican and Indian 
folk-lore of this region, and the Executive Committee is now planning 
for a demonstration on this subject in January, whicli may come as a 
revelation to those who have not given the subject attention. 

It is mo&'t agreeable to chronicle any event in the history of California, 
which, like this, tends in the general direction of the aims and purposes 
of the Academy of Sciences. 

There should be a general Mitseum here to conserve and illustrate 
every phase of the subjects covered by the Academy of Science^, the 
Historical Society and the Archaeological Institute. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. is 

Through the direct support guaranteed by connection with the na- 
tional organization, there is liope of vitality and permanence in the new 
society, which we bid God speed in its work. The inaugural address of 
President Comstoek, read before the Academy in 190i; and published in 
the June number for that year, of the Bulletin, contains suggestions for 
a very similar union of local Academies of Sciences with the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, or the Carnegie Institution, 
or some other national rallying point. 

We welcome any movement which tends to vivify and consolidate the 
energies of those whose labor of love in the cause of Science lias been 
necessarily disconnected and often disheartening in the past. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



From experiments conctuctea at the Montana Agriculture Experiment 
Station it was found that the evaporation and transpiration from the 
grain was about 16 per cent greater than the evaporation from the 
bare soil. For the period named, the former averages 1 1-7 inch and the 
latter 9-10 inch per week over the surface. For the same period the evap- 
oration from a water surface was 13 to 16 inches per week. . . . The 
crop in every case not only evaporated all of the irrigation water, but 
robbed the soil of part of the moisture whicih it contained at seed time. 

The changing of the sex in plants (Trop. Agr., 22 (1903), No. 11, pp. 
789, 790). — The possibility of chauging the sex of the date palm and of 
the papaw is discussed. About 80 per cent of seedlings of date palms are 
male. The method of the Arabs in some of the oases in the southern part 
of Algeria in ohanging these male plants into bearing trees is to tear 
off all the leaves from the foot stalks, at 2 or 3 years of age, so that the 
medial nerve is split in two from the center to the leaf sheaf. It is 
believed that this tearing process brings about a concentration of the 
aap movement in the same way as is the case in annular incisions, 
resulting in an accumulation of sap, ''which is more necessary for the 
vital functions of the female plant than for those of the male." The 
writer states that it has been his experience that cutting off the terminal 
buds of papaw trees (Carica papaya) as soon as the cnaracter of the 
flower is apparent results in altering that character, inducing the tree 
to yield good fruit in place of the poor specimens borne by the so-called 
male trees. 

Evaporation from a water surface, E. F. Ladd (North Dakota Sta. 
Ept. 1902, pp. 20, 21). — Observations were made as follows: "A galvan- 
ized iron tank 3 ft. square by 14 in. in depth painted black contained a 
second smaller tank 12 by 12 by 12 in. in dimensions, liKewise blackened. 
Theise were sunk in a grass plat level with the surface of the ground. 
The small tank contained distilled water and this tank within the 
larger was surrounded with water. Daily measurements were made of 
the amount of evaporation, and the results by months are given. . . . 
The total amount of water evaporated from a water surface for the five 
months, May to September, inclusive, was 28.12 in., or an average of 
5.624 in, per month, or a daily average of 0.183 in. The total rainfall 
for the same period of time was . . . but little more ttian one-half 
as much as the water evaporation for the same period, or an average of 
2.864 in. per month, or an average daily rainfall of 0.0£'36 in., as com- 
pared with an evaporation of 0.183 in. per day." 

The New Zealand Parliament has passed a bill empowering the 
Governor to introduce after January, 1906, the metric system, which is 
then to become the system of weights and measures for the country. 



j6 southern CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

The Seismologieal Commission of the British Aasociation inferred from 
the data collected that the crust of the earth was not more than forty 
miles thick, the interior having a very high effective rigidity and the 
nucleus being probably more uniform in its chemical and physical condi- 
tions than was usually supposed. — (Science, Yol. XVIII, No. 464.) 

"In Olive Oil and Its Substitutes," there may be found an interesting 
and accurate analysis of the oils imported inlo and produced in this 
countrj^. The following is the summarj^ of the author's investigation a: 

1. The olive oil eonsmned in this country is largely imported from 
France and Italy. The amount produced in California is relatively 
small, although reports warrant the statement that California is capable 
of supplying the entire home demand. 

2. The cos't of production of California oil is so much higher than 
that of the French and Italian oils that it competeis with difficulty with 
the imported oils in the American market, even after the latter have 
paid duty amounting to 50 cents per gallon. 

3. The retail prices of the best grade of oil from the three sources 
are much the same, but the average prices of the imported oils are much 
less than that of the California oil, owing to the large amount of lower 
grade foreign oils that are marketed in this country. 

4. In the examination of olive oils for adulteration, a complete 
analysis is usually necessary to reveal the real nature of tSe oil. In cases' 
of gross adulteration the qualitative tests, specific gravity, and index 
of refraction will often s'how the nature of the adulterant and the extent 
to which it is emj)lo3'ed. 

" 5. The adulteration of foreign oils imported into this country is prac- 
ticed to a much less extent than is popiilarly supposed. Only 5 of the 61 
samples obtained from the customs' officers were found to contain other 
than olive oil, and none of these contained cotton-seed oil. On the other 
hand, oils bought upon the market, bearing labels indicating a foreign 
origin, were found to be quite extensively adulterated with cotton-seed 
oil. It seems, therefore, probable that these adulterated oils bearing 
foreign labels are labeled and modified after leaving the port of entry, 
neither the domestic nor the foreign producer being responsible for them. 
This practice is equall.y injurious to the interests of the California, 
Irench, or Italian manufacturer of pure olive oil and the consumer. 

6. The results of analyses of oils of known purity show that there is a 
wide range in the various values ordinarily considered of importance 
in indicating the inirity of an oil. This is especially true of the iodin 
number, the melting point of fatty acids, and the percentage of solid 
fatty acids. The California olive oils generally have a higher iodin num- 
ber, a lower melting point of fatty acids, and a lower percentage of solid 
fatty acids than the French and Italian oils. 

7. All samples containing other than olive oil were sold as pure 
olive oil, although in one case a careful observation of the label revealed 
the fact that the oil was an olive oil substitute. 

The alfalfa btitterfiy (Colias eurytheme) has so increased in numbers 
since 1895 that the honey flow which used to continue well into Septem- 
ber is now cut short in July. The adulteration of honey, in Arizona, is 
not commercially possible for the excellent reason that freight rates so 
enhance the price of glucose and sugar that these adulterants cannot 
be profitably used.— (' 'Bee-products in Arizona." By R. H. Forbes.) 

The local Historical Society have begun to agitate for State help in 
the establishment of a building to house their valuable historical books 
and relics. We have reached that point in civic evolution where a mu- 
seum is almost an absolute necessity for educational purposes. Our 
Academy sections alone could in a few years stock a museum with all 
the representative objects native to the West. 



S VOIv. III. FEBRUARY, 1904 NO. 2 ? 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Southern Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



committee; on publication 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier G. W. Parsons 



CONTENTS : 

Some Contributions to the Phytogeography of Southern 

California, H. M. Hall 19 

The Bees of Southern California, T. D. A. CoCKERELL -23 

Trypoxylon apicalis Fox. — Its Nesting Habits, Dr. A. Davidson . . 24 

Prehistoric Man and his Development, Dr. Lorenzo Gordin Yates 25 

Publications Received 30 

Transactions 31 

Notes and News 32 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE ACADEMY, MONTHLY EXCEPT 

JULY, AUGUST AND SEPT. 

Yearly Subscription, $1.00 Single Copies, 25 cts. 



"Entered September IS, 1903, at Los Angeles, Cal., as second-class matter, 
under Act of Congress, July 16, 1894." 

\ MAILED FEB. 20, 1904 f 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Soottiern Galltornia Mi\m^ o! Sciences 

VOL 3. LOS ANGELES, CAL, EEB. I, 1904. NO 2 

LIBRARY 

NEW YORK 

^ BOTANICAL 
GARDEN 

Some Contributions to the Phytogeography of 
Southern California. 



There have recently appeared three papers on plant distribu- 
tion, to which the attention of the botanists oi Southern Cali- 
fornia should be called. They are the following: 

Die pflanzengeographische Gliederung Nordamerikas. A. 
Engler. Notizblatt des K. K. Gart. u. Mus. zu Berlin, Appendix 
ix. 1-94. (May, 1902). 

Notes on Plant Distribution in Southern California, U. S. A. 
R. E. B. McKenney. Beihefte zuni Bot. Centralblatt. x. 166-178 
(1901). 

A Sketch of the Flora of Southern California. S. B. Parish. 
Botanical Gazette xxxvi. 203-222, 259-279 (September and Oc- 
tober, 1903). 

A paper of considerable importance to students of plant geog- 
raphy is the one in which Professor JEngler outlines a scheme to 
serve as a basis for the arrangement of American plants in the 
royal gardens near Berlin. The American botanist will be most 
interested in the manner in which he has divided our continent 
into regions and minor divisions. Its first division is into four 
regions (gebiete), the Arctic, Subarctic, Atlantic, and Pacific. 
The Pacific region he subdivides into: (1) the province of Pa- 
cific Coniferae, (2) the Rocky Mountain province, and (3) the 
Western Prairie-, Desert- and Alkali-Steppe province. In the 
province of Pacific Coniferae he finds a Northern zone and a 
Southern zone, the latter comprising: (a) the district (bezirk) 
of tlie coast forests of California and (b) the forest district of 



20 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Western Nevada and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The West- 
ern Desert-Steppe province includes: (a) the transition from 
the Chaparral and Sonora province of the Central American 
Xerophyte region to the Mohave and Gila deserts, (b) the Great 
Basin zone and (c) the Inner California zone. 

A brief description of the flora of each of these regions is 
given and here the numerous errors in regard to the distribution 
of species are to be charged to the account of American botan- 
ists, who are often exceedingly lax in their methods of stating 
ranges, rather than to that of the author himself. In California 
there has been so little done in the matter of working out the 
exact ranges of particular species that we cannot be surprised if 
foreign botanists are unable to get an accurate idea of the differ- 
ent floral belts of the state. Exhibiting as it does the views of 
one of the foremost authorities on this subject, the outline given 
by Dr. Engler will probably serve as a basis for more elaborate 
treatises on the phytogeography of North America. 

In the contribution submitted by Mr. McKenney we have a 
more detailed account of a very limited region. The author, 
who was at one time connected with the Santa Ana schools, 
conflnes himself to a discussion of the plant formations of 
.Orange County, of which seven are distinguished; the Mountain, 
Foot-hill, Canyon, River Bed, Mesa, Bog and Strand formations. 
The principal species occurring in each of these formations are 
mentioned and the character of the vegetation described. As in 
other parts of Southern California, the principal factor affect- 
ing plant distribution in Orange County is found to be moisture, 
the conditions of light and heat being relatively unimportant, 
since they are quite uniform throughout the comity. Except 
in the River Bed formation, soil moisture is of more importance 
than surface moisture and the amount of available soil moisture 
is dependant largely upon soil structure. The chemical nature 
of the soil is a dominant factor on the alkali mesas and along 
the strand. Among the five species of seaweeds given as be- 
longing to the Strand formation algologists will be surprised to 
find three which- have never before been reported from the 
Pacific coast ! The figures accompanying the paper are too poor 
to be of any value and the sketch-map is even worse. The 
paper itself, however, gives one a very good idea of the flora of 
this interesting region and is a welcome addition to our meager 
literature. 

But by far the most important contribution to the phyto- 
geography of Southern California is a recent paper by Mr. S. B. 
Parish. Since this report represents the results of nearly thirty 
years of field work by a botanist who has the ability both to 
make careful observations and to draw trustworthy conclusions 
therefrom, it deserves more than a passing notice^ After pre- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 21 

senting a descriptive account of the region and much necessary- 
information and statistics concerning its climatic character- 
istics, the author enters into a discussion of the various phyto- 
geographic areas into which it is naturally divided. He finds 
that the whole of Southern California may be divided into three 
primary areas. The first of these, termed the Nevaclan area 
from the fact that its flora is in the main a continuation of that 
of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, extends in a Northwest and 
Southeast direction and includes all of the truly montane sec- 
tion, as well as all the forests of the territory. To the East and 
Northeast is a treeless waste, or desert area, while a Cismontane 
area of open plains and chaparral-covered hills occupies the 
territory between the Nevaclan area and the Pacific ocean. 
Above the Nevadan area traces of an Arctic-Alpine zone are 
recognized on Grayback and San Jacinto mountains. The flora 
of this zone is likewise of northern origin and the reasons for its 
exclusion from the Nevadan area are not stated. Within the 
NTevadan area proper three life zones are distinguished: the 
Hudsonian, marked in general by Pinus flexilis; the Canadian, 
roughly indicated by Pinus Murrayana; and the Transition, 
best identified by the presence of Pinus ponderosa. The last of 
these zones is the most important and includes, besides the pine 
just mentioned and its variety Jeffreyi, such conifers as Abies 
Douglasii, Libocedrus decurrens and Pinus Lambertiana. 

Just below this pine belt and above the belt of chaparral 
there occurs what the author terms an intermediate, or true 
Transitional zone. On the Desert side its most characteristic 
plants are Juniperus Californicus and Cercocarpus ledifolius, 
while within its limits such diverse species as Abies concolor and 
Yucca brevifolia are found growing side by side, as also are 
Pinus ponderosa and P. monophylla. On the cismontane flank 
this belt is marked by the presence of Pseudotsuga macrocarpa 
and Pinus Coulteri, the latter, however, extending well up into 
the Pinus ponderosa belt. While this intermediate belt is m 
most places quite narrow the author has done good service in 
pointing out its presence and characteristics. Although it is 
spoken of as a "true Transitional zone," it is not to be confused 
with the broader and much more important zone next above, 
which has been generally known as the Transition zone. 

The Desert area is divided naturally into the Mohave subarea 
and the Colorado subarea. It is shown that the flora of the 
former has its extension to the north while that of the latter has 
its extension toward or into Mexico. The difference in the char- 
acter of these tAvo floras is found to be due only in part to cli- 
matic causes, but is largely influenced by the topography of the 
region. The Cismontane area exhibits three more or less dis- 
tinct floras, each of which is indicative of its peculiar subarea. 



22 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

These subareas are denoted as the Interior, Coastal and Insular. 
It is interesting to note that the names applied by Merriam to 
those life zones occupying all of Southern California except the 
mountains are used by Mr. Parish but once and then only in a 
charts Even here they are applied to what are termed regions, 
the Lower Sonoran region corresponding to the Desert area, the 
Upper Sonoran to the Cismontane area. According to Dr. 
Merriam 's latest published views most of the Cismontane area 
would fall within the Lower Sonoran zone. In our estimation it 
is quite as important to distinguish between the Desert and Cis- 
montane areas as between the Lower and Upper Sonoran zones, 
although both of these distinctions are not without considerable 
value. The splitting up of the Desert area into Juniper, Pinyon, 
Yucca, Larrea and Atriplex "zones" and of the Cismontane 
area into similar zones and subareas, as proposed by Mr. Parish, 
will be very helpful to the field student. It will be noted that 
this use of the term zone is not exactly the same as that assigned 
to it by Merriam, while Engler has used it in a still different 
sense ; and it will be further seen that none of these authors ap- 
ply the term as did Sehimper in his "Piianzengeographie." If 
the confusion arising from the use of this much abused term can 
be avoided in no other way we should like to suggest that these 
minor divisions pointed out by Mr. Parish be termed belts. .It 
seems to us quite proper to speak, for example, of a Juniper 
belt, a Pinon belt, or even of a Chaparral belt. However, the 
adjectives used by Mr. Parish in designating the different zones, 
or belts, are so self-explanatory that there is little danger of 
confusion, no matter to what noun they may be attached. 

A very readable chapter is the one which treats of the adapta- 
tion of plants to climatic conditions and no less interesting is 
the author's discussion of the affinities of the flora. Many other 
important phases of the subject are carefully worked out and 
the paper closes with a brief sketch of the cryptogamic flora. 

This contribution by one so thoroughly conversant with the 
distribution of plants in Southern California will serve as a basis 
for all future work in this territory and the students of our 
California fiora have reason to feel grateful to Mr. Parish, not 
only for the great amount of field work he has accomplished, 
but also for the clear and interesting style in which he has pre- 
sented the results of his observations. 

H. M. HALL. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 23 

The Bees of Southern California. II. 

BY T. D. A. OOCKEREI<L. 

When writing on Dianthidium, I failed to notice that Anthi- 
dium singulare, Cresson, and A. larreae, CklL, hoth belong to 
this genus. The following table separates those species of 
Anthidium and Dianthidium in which the cheeks are partly or 
wholly yellow, and the yellow of the cheeks is connected by a 
line (sometimes slightly interrupted in the middle) across the 
top of the head. 

Lateral margins of abdominal segments 2 to 4 produced into 
hollow, processes, which look like spines directed back- 
wards, when seen from above 1 

Lateral margins of abdominal segments 2 to 4 normal 2 

1. First two abdominal segments with the yellow bands di- 
vided into spots (Nevada) . .Dianthidium singulars (Cresson) 

First two abdominal segments with the yellow bands deeply 

notched, but not divided (South-ern California) 

D, singulare var. perluteum, v. nov. 

2. Pulvillus present; legs red (New jNIexico) 

Dianthidium larreae (Ckll.) 
Pulvillus al)sent ; legs yellow and black 3 

3. Dorsal pubescence of thorax white (Southern California) 

Anthidium serranum, n. sp. 
Dorsal pubescence of head and thorax pale fuscous. 4 

4. Femora with nmch yellow (Nevada, California) 

A. illustre, Cresson 
Femora black (Nevada) A. conspicuum, Cresson 

Dianthidium singulare var. perluteum, T. & W. Ckll, n. var. 

Female, length 12i/^ mm., expanse of wings about 24 mm. ; 
clypeus yellow without anj^ central black dot; supraclypeal 
mark triangular ; yellow bands on first two abdominal segments 
entire (i. e. not interrupted), with large, rounded, sublateral 
posterior notches; abdomen strongly punctured. 

Two collected by Dr. Davidson; Wilson's Peak and Straw- 
berry Valley, California. It is much to be desired that the 
habits of this remarkable insect should be made known. 

Anthidium illustre, Cresson. 

Nevada is the type locality. Fowler has described the male 
from Redlands, California. Dr. Davidson has collected two fe- 
males and a male at Los Angeles. 



24 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Anthidium serranum, n. sp. 

Male, length about 151/2 mm. ; similar to male A. illustre, but 
not so large, and the pnbeseence, even on thoracic dorsum is 
white ; the .color and markings are practically the same in the 
two species. The last dorsal segment of the abdomen is yellow, 
and not so deeply notched as in A. illustre, the incision being 
about twice as broad as deep, with rather a curved margin, 
whereas in illustre it is more angular, with straight sides; the 
median tooth (at the bottom of the incision) is narrow and 
black, and is -separated by a yellow area from the black longi- 
tudinal mark at the base of the^egment, whereas in illustre this 
tooth is very broad (triangular) and broadly united by a black 
band with the base of the segment. The genitalia are of the 
same type in both species, the parts in illustre being more ro- 
bust. A. serranum has a yellow mark on the scape, and the 
third antenna! segment shows a yellow spot. 

Hab.— Rock Creek, Calif., one specimen taken by Dr. David- 
son. Named after Father Serra, the founder of the California 
missions. 

Trypoxylon apicalis Fox—Its Nesting Habits. 

BY DR. A. DAVIDSON 

This wasp is somewhat frequently met with in the neighbor- 
hood of Los Angeles. The young are bred in the hollow stems 
of plants,, the parent apparently utilizing any suitable stem 
of a medium size. The variable diameter of the stems occupied 
by this wasp, and the frequent discovery of other species of 
wasps or even bees, in the same cavity has led me to infer that 
this species does not usually excavate its o^^ti nesting site. The 
hollow stem adopted is divided into cells by concavo-convex 
discs of clay, the concavity in every instance facing upwards. 
These discs are inserted at very irregular intervals, so that the 
cells vary from half an inch to four inches in length. The co- 
coons are straw colored, fragile, diaphanous shells one-half 
inch long, and one-eighth of an inch wide. If, as fre- 
quently happens, the cocoon when woven is too small to 
fill the cavity in which it lies it is not as is most fre- 
quently the case with other wasps simply attached to 
the sides, but is neatly suspended in the center of the 
stem cavity, so that on cross section it appears like a 
wheel with the cocoon as a hub and the irregular suspending 
threads as spokes. The suspending threads are frequently very 
few in number, in one instance I found it centrally supported 
by only four threads. The suspending of the cocoon must in 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 23 

this instance have been a delicate operation, though no doubt 
the erect position of the stem favored its accomplishment. 
Originally I was under the impression that the food supplied 
the larvae consisted of caterpillars, as no remains of food were 
to be found in the cells, but examination of the cells in the early 
part of the season showed that spiders alone were supplied as 
food, and these, strange to say, were all of one species, viz., 
Linyphia. . . . Five to six were the number usually sup- 
plied to each cell. All the smaller species of wasps here who 
feed their young -with spiders apparently capture indiscrimi- 
nately any small species of spider, so that as far as my observa- 
tions go, this Trypoxolon is unique in supplying one species 
only. Necessity rather than instinct is probably the explana- 
tion of this. 

The Trypoxolon appears very early in the season and com- 
pleted cells may be found as early as February. At this time 
few spiders have left their winter quarters, but among the 
earliest to leave are Linphya and these are to be found in num- 
bers at this season. These spiders have, besides a habit of spin- 
ning their webs over the water, which renders them more easily 
observed, and these circumstances pi'obably in a great measure 
determine the Trypoxolon 's choice of this insect as food for its 
larva. 

Prehistoric Man and his Development. 

BY DR. LORENZO G. YATES, F. L. S. 

Honorary Member Southern California Academy of Sciences 
President of the Santa Barbara Society of Natural History, Etc. 

In the present state of our knowledge of the history of man- 
kind the word prehistoric is of varied application and uncertain 
meaning, changing, as it must do, according to the region or 
country to which it is applied, and the extent of the time which 
it is supposed to cover, is continually and rapidly being ex- 
tended by exploration and discoveries. 

For a long time Denmark claimed the credit of the discovery 
of evidence of the existence of man in the ages before written 
history began. The historic period of Scandinavia began about 
A. D. 1000, and the earliest examples of history writing in that 
part of Europe are the. Runic inscriptions and poetic legends of 
that country called ''Sagas," inscribed upon stone monuments 
and other places, which the antiquarians of the past century de- 
lighted to study. 

This study led to the discovery of the Kjokenmoddings, the 
Danish name for kitchen refuse, in which were found large 
numbers of stone implements, weapons and other interesting 
relics of man's handiwork. 



26 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

It was found that these relies could be properly divided into 
three divisions, which would represent three different stages 
of advancement, called the Age of Stone, Age of Bronze, and 
Age of Iron. 

Each of these ages had continued for a long period, and 
reached a high degree of perfection, and from these objects 
much was learned of the early history of man in that region. 

In 1853 public attention was called to the discovery of the 
relics of the Swiss Lake Dwellers of prehistoric times, where 
different stages of advancement were foimd, and the further 
discovery was made that, while the men of ancient Denmark 
polished their stone implements, there had been a previous race 
whose implements were only chipped or flaked, and the Stone 
Age was divided into the Paleolithic or Ancient Stone Age, 
and Neolithic or Recent Stone Age. 

From the time of the discovery of these facts, prehistoric 
anthropology has advanced to an important rank among the 
sciences. 

It was learned that Egypt and China had written history be- 
fore the dawn of civilization in Europe, and the historic period 
for those countries extended back into the more remote ages of 
antiquity, and more recent discoveries resulting from system- 
atic exploration of the sites of ancient and long buried cities of 
Assja'ia and other regions, have demonstrated the use of written 
characters by which fragments of the history of long forgotten 
nations and peoples are brought down to us. have carried the 
Historic Period to and beyond the time when, according to 
former belief, the world itself had not been formed. 

For a long time the markings and hieroglyphics on the ruins 
and buildings of Ancient Egypt and Assyria were looked upon 
as mere ornamentation, or evidence of rude artistic taste of the 
builders, but the long continued study of enthusiastic anti- 
quarians resulted in the discovery that the hieroglyphics were 
symbolic characters, whose combinations formed picture writ- 
ings readily deciphered and interpreted, and that other curious 
combinations of peculiar markings were examples of certain 
dead languages, used by peoples and nations, whose existence 
had been previously conjectured from tradition, or casual men- 
tion in the mythical writings of antiquity. 

One of the most important aids to the interpretation of 
ancient writings was the discovery of the famous ''Rosetta 
Stone" which contains three inscriptions. The first in hiero- 
glyphic or picture writing— styled by the Egyptians, "writing 
of sacred words," — was used on monuments and buildings. 

It is the oldest form of writing known. 

The second is demotic, the stvle in general use among the 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 2-, 

Ancient Egyptians for decrees and other public acts, contracts 
and private transactions. 

The third in the Greelv language, which gave a key to the 
others. 

The inscriptions are to the same purport in each, and were in- 
scribed more than two thousand years ago. 

One of the latest discoveries of importance shows that a high 
state of art, and an advanced degree of civilization existed in 
the Tigro-Euphrates Valley nearly six thousand years ago. 
Another was the engraved code of laws of Hammurabi, king of 
Babylon 2250 B. C, and discoveries and inscriptions shoAving 
that a civilized, city-building people built a city on the site of 
Nippur, the principal city of Babylon, between six and seven 
thousand B. C. 

By the labor and research carried on by the Babylonian Expe- 
dition of the University of Pennsylvania, thousands of in- 
scribed tablets have been found, which when fully deciphered, 
will afford us a first accurate estimate of the remarkable 
height of Babylonian civilization. 

The excavations of this expedition revealed not only the old- 
est known sanctuary, library and school, but also the most 
ancient Archaeological Museum. 

The earliest inscription found in this ancient museum, 
though somewhat fragmentary, contains the titles of Sargon I, 
3800 B. C, a portion of history written nearly six thousand 
years ago. 

THE EVOLUTION OF MAN, AND HIS MIND 

In this age of research and invention, when explorations are 
being made by individuals, scientific societies, and state and 
general governments, for the purpose of becoming better ac- 
quainted with the world of today ; other explorations are being 
carried on, and a large number of thinking people are turning 
their attention to the study of the Ancient, or Prehistoric 
World, and its inhabitants, and the simplest objects unearthed 
by excavation and explorations made on the sites of ancient, 
unknown or long-forgotten cities and dwelling places and 
graves of mankind, are utilized and compared by systematic 
study in the efforts to gain information relative to prehistoric 
man, and his advancement from savagery and barbarism to civ- 
ilization. 

It seems but yesterday that aside from the few reliable inci- 
dents brought down to us by written history, and the fabulous 
traditions passed down to us by our ancestors — comparatively 
nothing was kno^m of nations and races of men Avho inhabited 
the earth thousands of years before our written history began. 

Man had rvot discovered nor opened up the Great Book of 



28 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Nature, by; which geology now enables us to read the history of 
the earth's crust, and trace the changes which have taken 
place for unknown millions of years, from the evolution of our 
planet from its primal gaseous state, to its present solidity. 

We find recorded the advent of plant life, followed by that of 
animals, and the changes in form of the millions of these or- 
ganisms, which have followed each other in a continuous and 
unbroken procession to the present day. 

As the earth evolved from the gaseous form through varied 
conditions to the wonderful combination of mineral, plant and 
animal life of the present, leaving its history imprinted in the 
rock formations now constituting its crust, and still adding to 
its rock-written history from day to day, so mankind has 
evolved from some primal life principle or protoplasm, by a 
process which we do not understand, and can only attempt to 
explain by questionable theories and conjectures. 

With all our boasted knowledge of the tv/entieth century, we 
can no more understand the origin of life than we can compre- 
hend the immensity of space, or an unlimited eternity. 

It was but yesterday that man was scarcely the superior of 
the brute, living in caves, with scarcely a desire beyond the 
means of satisfying his animal appetite, in which condition 
portions of the human race are found today. 

Other portions, with the advantages of better environment, 
made more rapid progress and developed intellectual facilities 
whereby they were enabled to rise above the other orders of ani- 
mals, and in due time dominated the earth, and formed crude 
systems of government. 

At first brute strength was relied upon, and those endowed 
with extraordinary courage ruled and enslaved their weaker 
brethren, and a system of continuous warfare was carried on 
among communities, and between rival families. 

As the mind of man developed intellect, consequent acquire- 
ment of useful knowledge by the more intelligent members of 
communities enabled them to displace those who depended en- 
tirely upon their brute strength for their influence over their 
fellows. 

The evolution of the mind generated a desire to possess a 
method by which their ideas could be communicated to each 
other. 

This desire evolved a system of natural gestures, and eventu- 
ally a sign language. 

It is probable that vocal sounds were used to accentuate the 
gestures and manual signs. As the necessity of a medium for 
the exchange of ideas between individuals increased in accord- 
ance with the growth of the mind, the crude vocal signs were 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 29 

elaborated and crystallized into words and sentences by which 
their desires and wishes were made known to each other; and 
later, incidents and observations made known, and still later, 
traditions of the historians of their own times transmitted to 
their descendants, thus forming oral history and traditions 
which were by this means perpetuated through the ages. 

Written history was evolved at a much later period of man's 
history, commencing with rude outlines of familiar objects 
pecked on the surfaces of rocks, the wall of the cave dwellings, 
and the bark of trees. The meaning of these figures would be 
obvious to all observers. 

These figures of animals and other natural objects were after- 
ward modified and conventionalized until historical incidents, 
geneological histories, and finally, abstract ideas were repre- 
sented by these modified and conventional figures. 

From these simple results of the gradual evolution of man's 
mind have come all our spoken and written languages, and the 
comparatively little we know of the wisdom of past ages, and 
forgotten people. 

The knowledge which we have thus obtained comes down to 
us as incontrovertible evidence of the gradual but cumulative 
evolution of the mind of man, and the resultant growth of his 
intelligence and scientific attainments. 

Until within comparatively recent times, the inhabitants of 
European countries considered themselves to be in possession 
of all the historical and scientific knowledge of the world, and 
that outside of their limited range of observation very little 
was worthy of consideration. 

The desire for the acquisition of further knowledge as a 
result of improved education and growth of intelligence, caused 
some of the more intelligent people to break through the wall 
of ignorance and superstition which for centuries had enveloped 
their minds, and some of the more adventurous among them 
visited regions and countries until then unknown. They dis- 
covered that other nations and races of people had advanced to 
conditions of civilization, which, while differing from their own, 
were, in some respects, equal if not superior to them. 

In many instances, ruins of magnificent temples, erected to 
unknown gods, and other evidences of the former grandeur of 
the people who had formerly inhabited the regions. 

Even then, the wonderful sculptures and pictorial inscriptions 
with which many of the ancient works of man in Egypt, Assyria, 
India, and other countries were covered, were looked upon as 
unique examples of barbaric art, and supposed to have been 
intended for ornamentation only. 

After enthusiastic archaeologists had, by close observation 



30 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE:^. 

and long continued study, discovered that the millions of ex- 
amples of supposed architectural ornamentation were in reality 
word paintings, recording events in the lives of peoples and 
their rulers of thousands of years ago, and the scholars of the 
present, by the discoveries of keys to some of the systems of 
ancient languages, are enabled to read these records of long 
forgotten peoples as readily as we read the pages of a book. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

"Standards of Purity for Food Products." U. S. Dept. Agriculture 
Circular No. 10. 

"The Influence of Environment upon the Composition of the Sugar 
Beet, 1902. " U. S. Dept. A.gi'iculture, Bureau of Chemistry, Bulletin 
No. 78. 

"The Testing of Eoad Materials." U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Bureau 
of Chemistry, Bulletin No. 79. 

' ' An Experimental Investigation Into the Flow of Marble. ' ' Dept. 
Geology, No. 11, McGill University. 

"Muhlenbergia." By A. A. Heller. Vol. I. No. 3. 

"Some Practical Suggestions Concerning Seed Germination." No. 50, 
Agriculture Exper. Stat., University of Arizona. 

' ' A Brief Account of the Principal Insect Enemies of the Sugar Beet. ' ' 
Division Entomology, Bulletin No. 43, U. S. Dept. Agriculture. 

' * The Colorado Eubber Plant. ' ' Bulletin Colorado College Museum, 
No. 1. 



Transactions for January, 1904. 

ASTEONOMICAL SECTION. 

January 18th, 1904. 

The meeting of the Section was' presided over by Chaii-man Knight, 
who introduced the exercises of the evening by remarks on the Leonid 
meteors of November, 1903, giving extracts from observations in Eng- 
land and points on Continental Europe. 

Mr. Knight illus'trated on the blackboard a theory of the meteoric 
phenomena, claiming that the Leonids move in the orbit of a comet, 
which extends beyond the orbit of Uranus, and that they are probably 
distributed in 'bunches or groups throughout the orbit. 

That the earth, in its orbital motion, may when it reaches the point 
of intersection of the two orbits, strike one of these groups, giving rise to 
an extensive meteoric shower; or it may strike a vacant space between 
two groups, giving rise to the absence of any large number of meteors. 

The chairman also exemplified the interesting theory of the revolution 
of binary stars about a common center, and the reniarka'ble agency of 
the spectroscope in determining the direction of stellar movements. 

The cliairman then introduced Prof. George E. Hale, director of the 
Yerkes Observatory, as one who had acquired fame as a careful observer 
and as the inventor of the spectrohelioscope. 

Prof. Hale displayed many photographs taken at the Yerkes Observa- 
tory representing the various instruments in use, the methods of pro- 
cedure, and a num;ber of the heavenly bodies. He spoke at some length 
of the work being accomplished in the closer investigation of the compo- 



so Ul HERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 31 

sition and characteristics of the sun and other bodies, and of the search 
being made for atmospheric conditions more favorable to the photo- 
graphic investigations now being conducted by the Observatory. 

That being the special official mission of Prof. Hale to this section of 
the state, it was gratifying to learn that he had found certain features of 
this atmosphere in the mountainous regions very favorable to good re- 
sults, expressing the hope that it would lead to the establishment of a 
branch of the Yerkes Observatory in this vicinity. Prof. Ha'e exhibited 
a mastery of his subject that rendered his remarks lucid, interesting and 
instructive. 

After thanks to the speaker, the section adjourned. 

MELVILLE DOZIEE, Secretary. • 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION 

Los Angeles, Gal., January 11th, 1904. 

The meeting was called to order by the chairman, Prof. A. B. Ulrey. 
The minutes of the last meeting read and approved. 

The nrst lecture of the evening was by Dr. Louisa Burns on the subject 
of "The Nissi Bodies." The lecture was illustrated by camera lucida, 
drawings made by the lecturer, and by a number of microscopical slides 
made by herself. The lecture gave evidence of the most care-taking and 
accurate preparation. 

The lecture was discussed at considerable length by a number of those 
who were present. 

Ehrlich's hypothesis of immunity was explained at some length by 
C. A. Whiting. The subject was discussed at length by a large number 
of the people present. 

About forty members and visitors were present. On motion the meet- 
ing adjourned to meet again on the second Monday in February. 

C. A. WHITING, Secretary. 



GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Los Angeles, Gal., January 26, 1904. 

The Geological Section met. at the Woman's Club Eooms on t-he evening 
of the 25th inst. Minutes of previous meeting were read and approved. 
The secretary read an article on a recent reported discovery by the use of 
radium, which claimed that by the radium rays the spirit of a dead ani- 
mal could be seen passing out of the body after death. 

Chairman George W. Parsons then introduced Mr. E. M. Wade, who, 
with a few remarks, exhibited the action of platinum and hydrogen, show- 
ing a red heat when united. Dr. Arthur D. Houghton gave a very inter- 
esting and scientific lecture on tihe line of the radio-activity of metals. 

Mr. Wade then exhibited a tube of radium and a specimen of uranium 
after the meeting was over. The meeting was well attended. 

G. MAJOR TABER, Secretary. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The University of CaMfornia has engaged Prof. Hugo De Vries, of 
Amsterdam to lecture at the forthcoming session of the Summer School of 
Forestry. Prof. De Vries has attained much fame by his investigations 
of plant mutation. He believes that species characters arise suddenly and 
that they are ordinaril_y stable from tihe moment they arise. 

E-eclamation of drift sands in Cape Colony, C. D. H. Braine (Agr. Jour. 
Cape Good Hope, 23. (1903).— A description of the extent and character 



32 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY 01 SCIENCES. 

of the drift sands of Cape Colony, with some account of the government 
attempts to reclaim these a-reas, and analyses of Eerste River drift sand 
at different depths and periods. The method of reclamation followed has 
involved the spreading of town refuse on the sand and the planting of 
sand-binding trees and grasses. The average cost of five years' reclama- 
tion work at Eerste Eiver was $48.74 per acre. The trees found most use- 
ful for planting on the sands were Acacia saligna and A. cyclopis. Various 
species of Eucalyptus have also been planted with more or less promise 
of success. 

"The Eabricia (Leptospernum loevigatum) propagates readily, and is 
most effective in arresting Sands in warm climates. Other useful trees 
are the Tamarix gallica, Widdringtonia cupressoides, and the Cupressus 
macrocarpa. ... Of the grasses used in the Cape Colony, by far the 
most successful is the Ehrharta gigantea or pypgrass, the vigor of its 
growth far exceeding that of any other. Perhaps the most useful is the 
indigenous Triticum junceum, which is being used on the exposed littoral 
dune at Port Elizabeth, as it thrives well near tlie sea. The Elymus 
arenarius does not grow freely on the driest parts of the sands, and has, 
on the whole, shown poor germination, although in some cases healthy 
and strong. Extensive experiments have been made with marram grass 
(Psamma arenaria), also known as Ammophila arundinacea and Arundo 
arenaria, but the results have been very disappointing. . . . Other 
useful grasses are the Cynodon dactyl on and Sporobolus matrella, wtich 
were self -introduced at Eereste River and grew vigorously. The Panicum 
and Stenotaphrum are also indigenous grasses that do well on sandy 
soils. ' ' 

In No. 3, Vol. 1. of Muhlenbergia, Mr. Heller describes a number of new 
labiates from California, chiefly in Monardella and Scutellaria, and has 
begun a series of papers on "Western Species New and Old." A new 
Lupine is described by J. W. Congdon. 

Experiments at the Michigan Agricultural Station on tEe warding off 
of frost by the use of extensive fires of wood resnlted in keeping the 
temperature 2 degrees above the surrounding uninfluenced portion of the 
orchard. 

T. D. A. Cockerell (Bulletin of the Colorado College Museum No. 1) de- 
scribes a new Picradenia, the roots of which have been found to contain 
considerable quantities of rubber. The author has reviewed the genus 
and describes one new sj)eeies and two subspecies. 



VOL. III. MARCH, 1904 



BULLETIN 



NO. X \ 



Southern Cafifornia Academy of Sciences 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier G. W. Parsons 



CONTENTS: 

Page 
A Preliminary Synopsis of the Southern California Cyperaceae, 

S. B. Parish 35 

Catalogue of Indian Relics, Etc., Mrs M. Burton Williamson . . 38 

Prehistoric Man and his Development, Dr. L,orenzo Gordin Yates 42 

Publications Received 44 

Tr nsactions • 45 

Note.«: and News ... 47 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE ACADEMY, MONTHLY EXCEPT 

JULY, AUGUST AND SEPT. 

Yearly Subscription, $1.00 Single Copies, 25 cts. 



'Entered September 18, 1903, at Los Angeles, Cal., as second-class matter, 
under Act of Congress, July 16, 1894." 



C MAILED MARCH 17, 1904 S 



BULL[:TIN 

or THE 

hmMw Galilornia ftGademii o! Sciences 

VOL.?).' LOS ANOCLCS, CAL, n ARCH 1,1904. NO 3 



-^Sl^ARv 



A Preliminary Synopsis of the Southern California 
Cyperaceae. 

By S B. PARISH. 

The Sedges have been neglected by most Southern Cali- 
fornia botanists, and consequently they are represented but 
scantily in collections. The number of the species, therefore, 
and their distribution, are known very imperfectly. It seems 
desirable that our knowledge should be augmented, and made 
more accurate : and it is to facilitate this end that the present 
paper has been prepared. 

All the species now known to occur in the southern coun- 
ties are described, and their distribution indicated, so far as 
the scanty material permits. With the exception of a few rare 
species, specimens of which I have not been able to see, the de- 
scriptions are drawn directly from Southern California plants. 

Besides my own material I have had access to that belong- 
ing to the University of California, and to the collections of Mr. 
T. S. Brandagee and Dr. A. Davidson. My thanks are due to 
Mr. H. M. Hall, and to the two gentlemen named, for this oppor- 
tunity, and also to Dr. N. L. Britton, Dr. L. H. Bailey and Prof. 
C. F. Wheeler for valuable assistance. 

The plate of Cyperus bromoides is from a drawing made at 



36 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

the New York Botanical Garden, under the direction of Dr. 
Britton; the drawings for the other plates were made by Miss 
Clara P. Colgan. 

Cyperaceae. 

Grass-like or rush-like herbs, with triangular, quadrangu- 
lar, terete, or flattened, mostly solid, culms, and alternate, 
mostly radical, leaves with closed sheaths, or leafless. Flowers 
perfect or imperfect, solitary (rarely 2) in the axles of imbri- 
cated bracts (scales), in 1-many-flowered, solitary or clustered 
spikelets. Perianth hypogenous, of bristles or inner scales, 
or wanting. Stamens usually 1-3 ; anthers basifixed, 2-celled. 
Style 2-3-cleft, rarely simple or 2-toothed. Ovary 1-celled, ses- 
sile or stipitate, containing a solitary erect anatropous ovule. 
Fruit a lenticular or 3-angled achene. Embryo minute, at th*^ 
base of the copious endosperm. 

A family of over 60 genera, and some 3,000 species : of 
world-wide distribution, but most abundant in the temperate 
portions of the northern hemisphere. 

The two families, the Gramineae, or true Grasses, and the 
Cyperaceae, or Sedges, constitute the order Graminales, char- 
acterized by the production of the flowers in the axles of 
chaffy scales, which are arranged in spikes or spikelets. In 
the Gramineae the fruit is a caryopsis, or grain, and the calms 
are, with few exceptions, hollow; in the Cyperaceae the culms 
are mostly solid, and the fruit is an achene. 

Key to the Genera. 

Flowers all perfect ; spikelets all similar. 

Scales of the usually flattened spikelets 2-ranked. 

Kachis straight. 1. Cyperus. 

Rachis flexuous above. 2. Schoenus. 

Scales of the spikelets spirally imbricated all around. 
Dilated base of the style persistent as a tubercle. 

3. Eleocharis. 
Style wholly deciduous. 

Perianth wanting ; style ciliate. 4. Fimbristylis. 

Perianth of 1-6 bristles, rarely 0; style glabrous. 

5. Scirpus. 

Perianth a minute hyaline scale. 6. Hemicarpha. 

Only the terminal flower perfect. 7. Cladium. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 37 

Spikelets monoecious, androgynous, or rarely dioecious; 

achene inclosed in a utricle. 8. Carex. 

1. Cyperus, Linn. Sp. PI. 44. Galingale. 

Annual or perennial herbs with simple triangular or sub- 
terete culms, leafy at base. Infloresence subtended by conspic- 
uous leafy involucres, irregularly umbellate with unequal raya 
and a sessile central spike, or capitate. Flowers in flattened or 
subterete spikelets of few or many scales. Scales concave, more 
or less carinate, 2-ranked, deciduous or persistent, 1-2 of the 
lowest usually empty. Perianth none. Stamens 3. Style 2-3- 
cleft, wholly deciduous froni the summit of the 3-angled or 
lenticular achene. 

About 650 species are recognized, natives of temperate and 
tropical regions. 

Key to the Species. 

Styles 2-cleft; scales deciduous from the persistent rachis. 
Achenes little flattened. 

Achenes oblong. 1. C. melanostachyus. 

Achenes ovoid. 2. C. bromoides. 

Achenes plano-convex. 3. C. laevigatas. 

Styles 3-cleft; achenes 3-angled. 

Scales deciduous from the rachis of the flattened spikelet. 
Scales with incurved setaceous tips. 4. C. inflexus. 

Scales destitute of setaceous tips. 

Wings of the rachis separating to the base ; annuals. 
Wings persistent on the rachis. 5. C. erythrorhizos. 
Wings readily deciduous. 6. C. Parishii. 

Wings whole adnate to the rachis ; perennial. 

7. C. esculentua. 
Spikelets decidous from the axis of the spike. 
Spikes oblong, compact: spikelets slender. 

8. C. speciosus 
Spikes short, loose and spreading; spikelets broader. 

9. C. long-ispicatus. 



SS SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: 



Catalogue of Indian Relics Found on Santa Catalina Island; 
In the Museums of Los Angeles Chamber of Com- 
merce*, The Smithsonian Institute, and Peabody 
Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

BY MRS M BURTON WILLIAMSON 

The writer acknowledges her great otligation to the following, for 
a complete list of Santa Catalina Indian relics in the above named Mu- 
seums: Mr. Frank Wiggins, secretary Los Angeles Chamber of Com- 
merce; Mr. W. de C. Eavenel, administrative assistant United States 
National Mnsenm, and Prof. F. W. Putnam, curator and Peabody Pro- 
fessor American Archaeology and Ethnology. 



OBJECTS IN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, LOS ANGELES. 

EXPLORATION BY DR. F M PAiMER 

(The luiinber refers to catalogne number. Those found in 
shell mounds are marked M., surface finds, S., and those un- 
marked in graves.) 

Bone Implements. 

No. ■ 
60— Implement 4^/4 in. long., use unknown. 
68— Sword blade, 13^/2 in. long, 1% in. wide. 

Ornaments of Stone. 

101 — Pendant, serpentine. 
140 — Ring, serpentine. 
173 — Charm, fossil. 

^The collection in the Chamber of Commerce contains relics from all 
the islands of Southern California as well as those found on the mainland. 
Some other islands on this coast are represented by a larger number of 
objects than Santa Catalina Island. The large local collection was made 
by Dr. F. M. Palmer and afterward purchased by the Chamber of Com- 
merce of Los Angeles, Cal. The city is greatly indebted to Mr. Frank 
Wiggins, the indefatigable secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, for his 
influence in securing these relics and those from the other Santa Barbara 
islands in Los Angeles county. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AC AD'S MY OF SCIENCES. 39 
No. 

174 to 176— Charms, fossils. 

240— S. Implement uso^d in the mannfacture of soapstone ves- 
sels. 

241 — S. Saw, sandstone. 

242 to 246 — Polishing stones. 
247 — Hammer. 

250 to 258— S. Chisel points, probably used in making steatite 
vessels ; they are from 2I/2 to 7 inches in length ; were 
taken from the steatite quarry on the Island. 

Shell Ornaments. 

293 to 298^ A series of beads of the largest sizes, sections cut 
and ready for being perforated ; also a shell Tivela 
crassotelloides, from which they were all made. 

317— Pendants, abalone (Haliotis.) 

333— Dress ornament, abalone. 

327— Breast ornaments, abalone. 

339 — Buttons, abalone. 

340— Pendants, abalone. 

342 — Dress ornaments, abalone. 

346 — Mosaic inlays, abalone. 

348— Pins, columella of a shell. 

350— Beads, Tivela cressotelloif^es. 

363— Beads, Tivek cressotelloides. 

377— Necklace, 32 inches long. 

Glass and Enamel Beads. 

380 — Necklace, 78 inches long. 

381 — Necklace, 84 inches long. 

384— Necklace, 77 inches long. 

Chipped Stone Implements. 

592 to 600— Arrowheads. 

606 — Pipe, 2-%. inches in length, greatest diameter one inch, a 
mouthpiece made from wingbone of a bird is fastened 
by asphaltum in the opening at the small end. Material 
red sandstone. 

612 — Cylindrical stone tube 10 inches long, 6 inches circumfer^ 
_ ence. The implement is finely made of black serpentine. 

614— Spoon-shaped implement, mottled green and white stone, 
length 3% inches. 

615-- As above. 

623— Mace-head, polished, diameter 2% inches, thickness 1 
inch, perforations % inch. Green serpentine. 

628— Mace-head, polished on one side. Ornamented on polished 
surface by incised lines making five crosses. Green ser- 
pentine. 



40 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OI SCIENCES. 

637— Fish-stone. Representation of a "fin-back whale." 
642— Hook-shaped implement, length 6 inches, width 4 inches, 

thickness 2 inches. Gray serpentine. 
643— As above, length 3^2 inches. Serpentine. 
644 — As above, length 21/0 inches. Serpentine. 
646— As above, length 1 inch. Serpentine. 
662— Spike-shaped implement of close-grained dark sandstone, 

one of the finest wrought pieces in the entire collection. 

Dr. Pal.mer lists this as unlike, in form, anything cata- 
logued elsewhere. 
664— Cup, 21/4 inches in diameter, I14 inches high, resembles a 

cup in a saucer. Pink serpentine. 
667— M. Cup with handle. Beautifully made. Dark green 

serpentine. 
669 — Cup, 4 inches in diameter, 2 inches high. The bottom of 

this specimen has been carved to make a standard upon 

which the cup rests. Green serpentine. 

Cooking Pots. 

680 — Griddle or cooking stone, 6 inches in length. 4 in width. 
Steatite. 

681 — Griddle or cooking stone, 4V2 inches in length. 4 in width. 

Steatite. 

682 — Griddle or cooking stone, 5 inches in length, 2i/o in width. 

Steatite. 
683— Griddle or cooking stone, 5 inches in length, 4 in width. 

Steatite. 
685— Polishing stone. Serpentine. 
686— Polishing stone. Serpentine. 
706— Use unknown. Serpentine. 

Metates or Mealing Stones. 

756— M. Spatula, for use in preparing and applying asphalt- 
um. Shale. 

766— Cup of gray serpentine— form like the bowl of a spoon. 

772— Discoidal stone of green serpentine, probably a mace- 
head. 

803— Spoon, abalone— (Haliotis.) 

818 — Paint-pot containing black paint. Shell. 

823 and 824— Cups of Haliotis, the holes closed with asphaltum. 

825— Cake of red paint. 

838— S. I^nfinished pot. Steatite. 

839 — S. Pot form — opening just commenced. 

838 and 839— From an old quarry on the Island. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 41 

Paul Schumacher Collection. 

Cat. No. 
IT. S. N. M. 

1,834-51 — Soapstone plates, 7 specimens. 

18,352-4 —Soapstone cup or mortar? 3 specimens. 

18,355-8 — Stone pestles. 
188,359 —Stone ring (club head), 1 specimen. 

18,360 — Animal figure carved in stone (hind quarters only), 
1 specimen. 

30.184 —Black flinty pebbles (for money) ? 14 specimens. 

30.185 —Ear pendants of Haliotis shell, 10 specimens. 

30.186 — Bone perforator, 1 specimen. 

Dr. W. H. Hall Collection. 

15,100 — Unfinished stone mortar. 

In the Dall collection from San Miguel Island, numbered 
14,984 to 15,072 inclusive, containing mortars, pestles, stone 
club heads, etc., etc., occurs the following note: 

Only a few of these from Santa Catalina Island and 
those exactly like the San Miguel specimens which compose the 
rest of the lot. 

Explorations Paul Schumacher, Smithsonian Institution, 1875. 

Peabody 

Museum. 

No. 

'9,268 — Cooking stone. 

9,269— Cooking stone. 

9,270— Cooking pot, small. 

9,271 — Pestle, small. 

Exploration of Paul Schumacher for Peabody Museum, Har- 
vard University, 1877. 

Graves at the Isthmus. 
Peabody 
Museum. 
No. 

13,116 to 13,122— Double whistle bone. 
13,123— Bone whistle 13. Fragments. 
13,124— Bone implement. 
13,125— Bone implement daggers, 12. 



42 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Prehistoric Man and his Development. 

BY DR. LORENZO G. YATES, F. L. S. 

Honorary Member Southern Calitornia Academy of Sciences 
President of the Santa Barbara Society of isatural History, Etc. 

Among the many interesting discoveries of late years in 
Assyria is the Code of King Khammiirabi, giving the laws 
which governed his people 4,000 years ago, and there are ample 
evidences that many of the laws therein codified had been 
brought down from much greater antiquity. 

This Code gives proof of the existence of the tradition of 
the "mountain-given law" long before the ^Mosaic reception 
on Sinai. 

At Xippur, the sacred city of the mountain god Bel, the 
scientific explorations of the ruins of the oldest cities of dial- 
dea by the party sent out by the University of Pennsylvania, 
under the direction of Dr. Hilprecht, uncovered twenty-one 
strata of successive towns and cities upon the site, extending 
over a period from Arab times, about A. D. 900, to probably a 
period of 5,000 years before the Christian era, and from the 
evidence of vestiges of buildings, and the recovery and transla- 
tions of ancient inscriptions the earliest settlement cannot be 
placed later than 7,000 years ago. 

An important point in this discovery is that there was 
absolutely no trace of any prehistoric, neolithic, nor paleo- 
lithic age, and there was no period during the time of the occu- 
pation of this site when writing was unknown, and there was 
no Stone Age represented in that locality. 

This ancient civilization seems "to have been brought by 
emigrants from some other region, among whom writing had 
advanced beyond the pictorial stage. 

Copper and silver were worked by these people and a sil- 
ver tariff had replaced a corn standard. 

Other discoveries to the east of the River Tigris indicate 
older settlements showing three different stages of the Neo- 
lithic or Later Stone Age, showing, either that the emigration 
had been from the east, and that its advance had been very 
slow, or that the people living in the Stone Age of the earlier 
settlement had been driven out by a people who were already 
ecpiipped with the first elements of civilization which must 
have taken centuries to develop. 

'\\. W. Flinders Petrie judges, from the pictures of ancient 
men with full foreheads and aquiline noses that in the early 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 43 

man of Egypt we find a European race more or less mixed 
with the Negro. He says that there are 9,000 years' unbroken 
chains of events in Egyptian history, and yet we are far from 
the beginning. There are traces that civilization must have 
come in from another country with copper and fine Avork in 
flint and stone, and good pottery. 

In the earliest graves, figures of a race of the Bushmen 
type were found similar to those found both in France and 
Malta, suggesting that the race may have extended over Africa 
into Europe. There were figures of captive women of the 
earlier race which were Paleolithic. 

Aside from all tradition it would seem that the portion of 
the earth's surface now occupied by the South Pacific ocean 
was once dry land, of which portions of Australasia and some 
of the islands represent all that now remains of a once immense 
continent which has been destroyed by volcanic action, which 
is still at work with diminished force. 

The researches of geologists have shov^^n that extensive 
areas of the dry land of the present have been, and still are, 
covered by volcanic matter, the source of which cannot be sat- 
isfactorily accounted for. The known extinct and active vol- 
canoes are sufficient to account for but a small proportion of 
the great number and extent of ancient overflows. 

The great lava flow of the northwestern portion of the 
American continent covers Northern California, part of Ne- 
vada, Oregon, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and far into Mon- 
tana and British Columbia. It is said to cover not less than 
150,000 square miles, and in some places more than thirty suc- 
cessive layers are shown, extending in some places to a depth of 
perhaps 3,000 feet. In India 200,000 square miles are covered 
from 2,000 to 6,000 feet thick without a visible volcano from 
which the lava could have come. 

Where there are great eruptions of melted matter from 
the interior of the earth there must result corresponding cav- 
ernous chambers beneath the surface, which upon the ingress 
of the waters of the ocean are, by contact with the incandes- 
cent heat, changed into superheated steam, with incalculable 
explosive power sufficient to destroy islands and portions of 
continents. 

Many such instances have occurred within historic times 
and* where the earth's crust is thus displaced the water of the 
ocean fills the depression. 

An instance of remarkable volcanic energy in historic 
times is presented by the blowing off of a volcanic cone called 
Papandayang in the Island of Java, by which it is estimated 
that about thirty billion cubic feet of material was thrown into 
the atmosphere in a single night, the mountain was reduced 



U SOUTHERN CALII'ORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

from its height of 9,000 feet to 5,000 feet and a vast crater 'e-f^t 
in its midst. 

*Ency. Brit. 

If such results are possible in the present comparatively 
feeble action of volcanic force, it seems probable that in the 
earlier periods of the earth's history, intermittent catastrophic 
action resulted in immeasurably greater destruction of the 
earth's surface. 

When we consider that nearly all of the present dry land 
of the earth consists of marine deposits of material derived 
from older formations of rocks thousands of feet in thickness, 
the question arises, Where were these older formations located, 
and What has become of the remnants ? 

"We know by incontrovertible evidence of the rocks and 
their inclosed fossil remains that the earth's crust has been 
subjected to continuous alternations of elevation and depres- 
sion, and what was dry land as continents and islands in one 
period of the earth's history became the bed of the ocean in 
another period, and new islands and continents were raised 
from the bed of the former ocean, bringing up its records. The 
records of the animal aixl vegetable life of the submerged lanfl 
were buried in the bed of the new ocean, there to remain for 
perhaps millions of years, until the wheel of time shall bring 
them again above the ocean level, and supply some future race 
with many of the missing pages of the Book of Nature. 

Among these missing pages it is probable that the records 
of man in the earlier stages of his evolution may be buried. 

What would be the result should the continents of the 
present be submerged, leaving only portions of the highest 
ranges of mountains and islands above the surface of the 
water ? 

The thickly populated countries would be absolutely de- 
stroyed, a few human beings might escape the catastrophe, and 
proceed with Nature's plan of evolution, as it has always been. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

"Wheats and Flours of Aristook County. " Maine Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station. Bulletin No. 97. 

"Fourteenth Annual Eeport." University Arizona Experiment Sta- 
tion. 

"Some Insects Attacking the Stems of Growing Wheat, Eye, Barley 
and Oats." IT. S. Department Agriculture. Division Entomology. Bul- 
letin No. 42. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 45 



Transactions for February, 1904. 



ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Los Angeles, Cal., February 1, 1904. 

The regular meeting of the Academy of Sciences was held at the 
Club House. President Theo. B. Comstoek and Secretary B. E. Baumgardt 
being absent, Professor Melville Dozier was called to tlie chair and G. 
Major Taber appointed secretary pro tempore. 

The chairman announced that at the regular meeting in April the 
following officers would be elected: 

President, Vice President, Secretary and four members of the 
Board, and that at the regular meeting in March the names suggested by 
tlie Board would be announceil, subject to the ratification of the Academy. 

The chairman further announced that at the meeting of the Astro- 
nomical Section, February 1.5, Professor G. E. Hale would deliver a lec- 
ture. 

Professor .Julius Koebig was then introduced and gave an interesting 
lecture on "Food and Food Products and Their Adulterations." 

He opened his remarks by stating that: "Life is an undiscovered 
mystery, and it is necessary to study chemistry to obtain the best 
results for sustaining it. ' ' He also stated that with strict vegetable diet 
there would be on an average 15 days sickness in the year, while with a 
mixed diet the number of days would be reduced to three. 

He explained by charts the relative nutriment contained in both 
vegetables and meats. 

The lecture was scientific and instructive. Questions were asked by 
the audience and answered by the speaker. Several members of the 
Chemical Club were present. 

Adjourned, C MAJOE TABEE, Secretary pro tem. 

Los Angeles, Cal., February 1, 19'04. 

The Board of Directors of the Academy of Sciences met at 7:30 
p. m. at the Woman's Club Eooms. Present, Wni. H. Knight, Melville 
Dozier, George W. Parsons and C. A. Whiting. 

President Theo. B. Comstoek and Secretary B. E. Baumgardt being 
absent. Professor Melville Dozier was appointed chairman and G. Major 
Taber secretary pro tem. 

The following applications were read, and by a vote of the board 
were elected to membership: 

M. ^. Preston, 412 South Hope street, Los Angeles. 

A. G. Adams, 906 West Seventh street, Los Angeles. 

L. ri. Banister, Station "A," Pasadena. 

Paul F. Mohr, 423 Byrne Building. 

G. W. Vosburg,' 1242 West Lake avenue. 

Mrs. Sophia A. P. Wheeler, San Gabriel. 

Mr. William H. Knight and Dr. Albert B. Ulrey were appointed a 
committee to confer with the Chemical Club in regard to forming a union 
of their club with the Academy of Sciences. 

There being no further business the board adjourned. 

G. MAJOE TABEE, Secretary pro tem. 



46 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 
BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

The meeting was Called to order bv the chairman of the section, 
A. B. Ulrej'. . " 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The lecture of the evening was delivered bv Dr. Lyman Gregory on 
"The Ontogeny and Phylogeny of the Eye." The lecture was illus- 
trated by careful drawings made by Dr. Gregory's pupils. 

The lecture was discussed at some length by Professor Ulrey and 
€. A. Whiting. 

A number of slides showing sections of various eyes were ex- 
hibited under a microscope. 

About thirty members and visitors were present. 

On motion the meeting adjourned to meet on the second Monday 
evening in March. p j^_ WHITIXG, Secretary. 

ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 

The occasion was a joint meeting of the Astronomical Section and 
the Academy, to hear Professor Hale of the Yerkes Observatory in his 
intensely interesting presentation of the properties and characteristics 
of the sun. 

The speaker was introduced by Secretary B. E. Baumgardt, and 
opened his remarks by allusions to the striking changes through which 
observatories have passed in recent years, being now more of the nature 
of la'boratories than of places for mere observation. 

The lecturer paid a high tribute to the extent and value of the 
astronomiearwork being accomplished in America, and especially of that 
part which has been and is being contributed by California's great 
observatory, the Lick. 

Professor Hale then introduced the subject proper of his address, 
the composition and phenomena of the sun, and for an hour and a half 
delighted and instructed his audience with an exposition of the methods 
of procedure and the marvelous results obtained in the persistent and 
arduous investigations that have been conducted at the Terkes and other 
observatories, bearing upon the chemistry and physics of the sun. 

The lecture was richly illustrated with stereopticon views, taken 
largely under Professor Hale's own supervision and exhibiting the tre- 
mendous possibilities of the spectrohelioscope, an instrument growing oat 
of his own genius and application. After the lecture an informal dis- 
cussion ensued, during which many questions of interest were asked 
and answered. 

To the great gratification of the audience, Professor Hale spoke in 
the highest terms of the atmospheric advantages of the mountainous 
regions of this vicinity for solar observation, expressing the iiopo rlia' 
arrangements for a permanent observatory of this character may be 
established in this neighborhood. 

A hearty vote of thanks was tendered to the lecturer for his lucid 
and instructive exposition, and the meeting adjourned. 

■ February 1.5. 1904. MELVILLE DOZIEE. Secretary. 

GEOLOGICAL SECTIC)N. ' 

Los Angeles, Cal., February 22, 1904. 
The Geolog'ical Section met at the Woman's Club Rooms at 8 p. m. 
Chairman George W. Parsons called the meeting to order. The minutes 
of previous meeting were read and approved. The chairman then intro- 
duced Professor Frank I. Shepard of the Fniversitv of Southern Call- 



SOUTHERJ\ CALIFORNIA ACADEMy OF SCIENCES. 41 

f ornia, a member of the Chemical and Metallurgical Club of Los Angeles, 
who read an interesting paper on * ' The Chemical Geology of Sedimentary 
Deposits. ' ' 

He said in part, that chemistry had always played an imjjortant part 
in building up the earth 's strata which usually occurred near the surface, 
and that the rivers carried much of this material into the sea, and the 
larger material was deposited near the shore, and the finer matter was 
carried further out. He also stated that mineral substances were held in 
solution, and that in the Lake Superior region the iron was deposited 
chiefly by precipitation. He asserted that it was estimated that 100 
tons of rock material per square mile were dissolved by rain wai,:- • every 
year into the sea, and that limestone was formed in vast quantities on 
the ocean floor, mostly between the surface and at a depth of 2000 
fathoms an.:', remarked that limestone played no Siiiail pari in the 
formation of iron ores as a carbonate or sulphate being derived from the 
decomposition of pyrites and other iron-bearing minerals. He quoted 
several prominent authors who substantiated the opinions advanced. He 
also stated that the area of the ocean floor was estimated to cover 
103,000,000 square miles, and that dead marine animals probably covered 
the ocean floor six feet in depth for many square miles. He also gave 
the reports of 160 analyses of sea water collected by the Challenger ex- 
pedition; stating that of deep-sea deposits on the floor of the ocean, 36.83 
were carbonate of lime, and that 90 per cent, was derived from pelagic 
organisms, and that below 3000 fathoms very little limestone was de- 
posited; that a large percentage of silica is being formed from diatom- 
aceous and radiolarian oozes; that metaraorphism changed nearly every 
kind of sedimentary rock. 

There was a general discussion by members and questions were 
asked and answered by the speaker. The lecture was interesting and of 
a purely scientific character. 

The chairman thanked Professor Shepherd for his interesting and 
instructive lecture. G-. MAJOE TABER, Secretarv. 



NOTES AND ISTEWS. 

One eucalyptus tree, E. naudiniana, Muller, has been discovered in 
Mindanao, the most southern of the Philippine Islands (Science Xo. 4.57). 

Southern California has the distinction of producing some of the 
most interesting mineral gems that have been discovered of late. Dr. 
Kunz, at the New York Academy of Sciences, reported the following: 
Magnificent colored tourmalines from San Jacinto, Mesa Grande and 
Pala; rose beryl also from the latter localities; lilac spodumene from 
Pala and Coahuila; spessarite, a garnet of remarkable beauty, from 
Coahuila and from San Diego; kunzite "in crystals, which for purity and 
beauty of color are unrivaled by any other mineral in North America." 

At Ramona, near San Diego, crystals of pale blue topaz have been 
found that resemble those of the itral region. This is the first noted 
occurrence of this mineral in the state. 

The greatest amount of salt detected in beach sand occurred in a 
sample 'taken at Los Angeles, 0.15 for the first foot, and 0.12 for the 
second foot, an amount not greater than that sometimes occurring in cul- 
tivated land in the United States. We are therefore constrained to at- 
tribute the xerophytic character of sand-strand vegetation to factors^ in 
the environment other than the presence in the soil of an excessive 
amount of soluble salt. (The Salt Content of Seabeach Soils. T. H. 
Kearney.) 



VOL. III. APRIL, 1904 NO. 4 

BULLETIN 

OF THE 

ooutfiern Cafifornia Academuof ociences 

COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 
A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier G. W. Parsons 



CONTENTS : 

Page 
A Preliminary Synopsis of the Southern California Cyperaceae, 

S. B. Parish 49 

The Bees of Southern California, T. D. A. CockereIvI- 56 

Catalogue of Indian Relics, etc., Mrs. M. Burton Williamson . . 60 

Transactions 64 

PUBLISHED BY 
THE ACADEMY, MONTHLY EXCEPT 

JULY, AUGUST AND SEPT. 

Yearly Subscription, $1,00 Single Copies, 25 cts. 

"Entered September 18, 1903, at Los Angeles, Cal., as second-class matter, 
under Act of Congress, July 16, 1894." 

MAILED APRIL 16, 1904 

A Preliminary Synopsis of the Southern California 
Cyperaceae. 

BY S. B. PARISH. 

* Styles 2-cleft; acJienes lentiadar ; racJiis wingless ; spikelets 
in a simple umbel, or capitate. 

-•- Scales folded and sharply carinate ; acJienes little flattened ; 
anmials. 
\/ 1. Cyperiis melanostachyus, HBK. Nov. Gen. 11 :207. 
C. diandrus capitatus, Britton, Bull., Torr. Club*, 13:205.. C 
diandrus castaneus, AVatson, Bot. Cal. 2 :214. 

Culm,s slender, 4dm. or less tall, about equalling the nar- 
row leaves ; spikelets linear-oblong, much flattened, many flow- 
ered, 6-lOmm. long; involucral leaves mostly 3, narrow, 1-2 of 
them much elongated : scales ovate, obtuse, 2mm. long, dark 
brown with pale or green keel ; stamens 2-3 ; achenes oblong, 
subacute, gray, half as long as the scale. 

Common in wet soil, stream banks, etc., in the cismontane 
region below 1,500 feet altitude. Los Angeles ; Braunton, David- 
son. San Bernardino ; Parish, 
by JDr. Britton. 
V 2 Cyperus bromoides, Britton, nom. nov. C. unioloidea 



so SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE^. 

bromoides, C. B. Clarke, Jour. Linn. Soc. 21 :60. Britton. Bull. 
Torr. Club. 13 :206. 

Culms slender, 4-8dm. tall, exceeding the few rough-mar- 
gined leaves; spikelets 4-12, lanceolate, flattened, 10-20-flower- 
ed, 8-18mm. long; involucral leaves 2-4, the longest 1-1. 5dm. 
long; scales acute, yellow-bro^vn, the green keel 3-nerved, and 
the margins scarious, about 4mm. long : stamens 3 : achenes 
ovoid, black, about one-third as long as the scale. 

Cienega, Los Angeles Co., 1884; Oliver. Near Los Angeles, 
Aug. 24, 1888, Dr. Hasse. The first of these specimens is in the 
Grav Herbarium of Harvard University; the second is in the 
Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden. The plant is 
widely spread through ^Mexico and Central America, but in 
the United States is known only from the above collections. 
^LATE II. Drawn from Dr. Hasse's specimen. 

-«-f Scales concave, only slightly carinate ; achenes biconvex ; inflor- 
escence a sessile and apparently lateral cluster of few spikelets. 
1/ 3. Cyperus laevigatus, Linn. ]\rant. 2 :179. 

Perennial from a wiry rootstock : culms few from each 
node, subterete, about 1dm. tall, hardly surpassing the erect 
filiform leaves ; spikelets 1-3, ovate, 3-8mm. long, 6-18-flowered ; 
involucral leaves 2, one erect and apparently continuous with 
the culm, the other very short ; scales broadly ovate, obtuse, 
nearly nerveless, 2mm. long, pale and more or less tinged with 
rich broAvn ; stamens 3 ; achenes ovoid, 1.25mm. long, brown 
and shining, rachis broad, deeply pitted transversely. 

Along streams in wet sand. Los Angeles ; Davidson. San 
Bernardino, below 2,000 feet altitude, and Big ^Morongo, in the 
Colorado Desert, 3,000 feet altitude ; Parish. A species widely 
distributed in warm countries, but in the United States knoAvn 
only from our region. 
"^ ^^^^ Styles j-cleft ; achenes j-angled, 

-»- Scales falling away at'ntaturity frotn the persistent rachis of 
the flattened spikelet. 

l Scales tapering into a curved setaceous tip ; wings inconspic- 
uous ; stamen i. 

t 4. Cyperus inflexus, ^luhl. Cram. 16 Britt. & Brown, 
Stamen 7. 111. Fl. 1:137. C. artistatus, Boeckl. Linnaea. 35:500, 
not Rottb. Watson, Bot. Cal. 2 :214. 

Annual; culms numerous, slender, 2-6cm. tall, about equal- 
ling the narrow leaves ; inflorescence in a dense head , or 
2-3-rayed; involucral leaves 2-3, moderately unequal. l-6cm. 
long ; scales lanceolate, concave, strongly nerved, green, 
l-5mm long; achenes oblong-obovoid. nuicronulate. bro"wn. dull. 
1-1. 5mm. long. 




Cyperus bromoides. Brittorv- 



PLATE II 



32 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE!:^. 

Widely distributed, but nowhere abimdant: ascending the 
mountains to 5,000 feet altitude, and reaching the borders of 
the Mojave Desert. Strawberry Valley, San Jacinto ]\Iount- 
ains: 2623 Hall. San Juan Hot Springs; Xevin. Wet sand 
banks, Lytle Creek, near San Bernardino, and Mojave River, 
near Hesperia : Parish. From Ontario and British Columbia to 
Florida and Mexico. 

W Scales acute or obtuse, without setaceous tips; stamtns j ; 
umbel with elongated rays, or rarely condensed. 

II Wings scarious, soon separating from the rachis to the base ; 
annuals. 
^ 5. Cyperus erythrorhizos, ]Muhl. Gram. 20. 

Culms rather stout, 1-lOm. tall: leaves about 5mm. wide, 
rough margined, usually exceeding the culms, those of the in- 
volucre 4-6, one or two of them much exceeding the rays: 
umbel simple or compound, few-rayed: spikelets 1-1. 5mm long, 
linear, acute, numerous in the elongated oblong spikes : scales 
narrowly oblong, 5mm. long, acute, mucronulate, bright chest- 
nut; achenes sharply three angled, oblong; pointed at both 
ends ; half the length of the scale. 

Reported in the Botany of California to have been collected 
""in the Colorado Valley," by Newberry. An immature speci- 
men of Alderson's from San Diego Co.. may belong here. From 
Northern ^Mexico to the borders of British America. 
^'^ 6. Cyperus Parishii, Britton, n. sp. 

"Annual with fibrous roots: culms tufted, slender, 1-2. 5dm. 
tall: leaves 2-5 mm. wide, shorter than the culm, those of the 
involucre 2-7, the longer ones exceeding the inflorescence; 
umbel simple or somewhat compound, usually several-rayed, 
but sometimes congested, the rays 0.5-5cm. long, slender ; spike- 
lets numerous, densely short-spicate, linear, acute, 12-20mm. 
long, about 2mm. wide: rachis at length wingless, the narrow 
wings early deciduous; scales oblong, lanceolate, purple-green, 
obtuse, about 2mm. long, several-nerved; achenes narrowly ob- 
ovoid-oblong, nearly black, obtuse, mucronulate, about half as 
long as the scale, obtusely trigonous. 

"Southern California to Arizona and New Mexico. T}^e, 
Parish, n. 3816, vicinity of San Bernardino, California, October 
15th, 1895." (Britton in' lit.) 

Growing in wet sand, on the banks of streams. Besides 
the type, we have it from Rock Creek, Los Angeles Co. ; David- 
son, and Edgar Canon, 3,500 feet altitude, San Bernardino 
:\rountains; 1887 Parish. 

Plate III. Plant collected at San Bernardino, X , '2 -a. Scale Xfo. 
b — Achene X 25. 




Cyparvis ParisKii, Britton. 



54 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY 01 SCIENCES. 

II II Wings persistently attached to the racJiis for tlicir whole 
length ; perennial by tuber bearing root stocks. 

7. Cjrpenis esculentus, Linn. Sp. PI. 45. Britt and Br. 111. 
Fl. l:2-il. C. phjonatodes, 3Inhl. Gram. 23. Watson. Bot. Cal. 
2:215. 

Culms stont. 3-8dni. tall: leaves about 5mm. wide, shorter 
than the culms, those of the inyolucre usually 4, the longest ex- 
ceeding the rays; umbel 7-10-rayed, often compound, the rays 
up to 1dm. long : spikelets numerous in loose, spreading spikes. 
5-20mm. long. 10-20-tiowered ; scales yello^Yish broTm. ovate 
subacute, several nerved, 4mm. long : Tvings narrow, shorter 
than the achene. only the pointed tip at length free : achenes 
oblong-obovoid. 1-1. 5mm. long, mucronulate at the obtuse sum- 
mit. 

In dry, sandy soil along streams, or a weed in cultivated 
grounds. Apparently of wide range in the cismontane region 
below 1,000 feet altitude, but not abundant. Los Angeles: 
630, 671 Braunton. Tia Juana : 961 Alderson. San Bernar- 
dino : 2227 Parish. Cosmopolitan, and perhaps not indigenous 
in our region. 

ft Spikelets narrow, subterete, readily detached fro7n the axis 
of the spike, the lowest pair of scales persisting ; wings broad, 
scarious, wholly adnate to- the rachis, and loosely embracing the 
achene; stamens ^ ; annuals. 

v 8. Cypems speciosus, Yahl, Enum. 2 :364. Britt. and Br. 
lU. Fl. 1 :242. C. Michauxianus, Schultes. Mant. 2 :123. Watson 
Bot. Cal. 2 :215. 

Culms l-5dm. tall; leaves rough-margined, 4-6mm, wide, 
not exceeding the culms, those of the involucre longer than the 
rays : umbel usually crowded, compound, the rays few and short, 
not greatly unequal : spikelets narrowly linear. 5cm. long, in an 
oblong spike : scales ovate, subacute. 2mm. long, pale or green- 
ish, with bro^vn margins : achenes pale, oblong-ovoid, half the 
length of the scale. 

Temescal ; Xevin. Los Angeles River : 578 Braunton. David- 
son. New England to Florida, west to Nebraska. Texas and 
Southern California. 

9. Cs^enis longispicatiis, Norton.. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 
12 :37, \.h. Small. Fl. S. E. U. S. 1321. C. ferox, Watson. Bot. 
Cal. 2 :216, not Yahl. 

Culms 3-5dm. tall : leaves 1-1. 5cm. wide, strongly channeled, 
rough on the edges, shorter than the culms, those of the invol- 
ucre 4-6, as long as the rays, or longer : umbel compound, loose 
and spreading, as are the short spikes, the primary ra^'s 6-10, 
3-8cm. long, or the umbel condensed or pseudocapitate : spikelets 




t C^U&^t^.aeV 



PI ATE IV 



.36 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

linear, 1-1. 5cm long. 6-8-fiowered. ; fertile scales oblong, 3mm. 
long, obtuse, stramineous, the midvein green, folded, but at ma- 
turity only concave ; achenes oblong 1-1. 25mm. long, 1mm. thick, 
very obtusely 3-angled, the obtuse apex mucronulate. 

Growing in wet sand along streams ; probably common in 
the cismontane region, below 1,000 feet altitude, but my only 
specimens are of my own collecting at San Bernardino, where 
it is abundant, and at Elsinore Lake. Dr. Britton has obliged 
me with a part of Norton's type specimen, 1248 B. F. Bush, 
from San Antonio. Texas. The spikelets are 2.5cm. long, but 
otherwise the plants do not differ from my own. Immature 
achenes are acutely 3-angied. and acute at both ends, but when 
fully mature they are as described. 

^ Plate IV. From a plantcoUected at Elsinore Lake. X ^ -a. Achene 
X 15 -b. Scale X 8. 



The Bees of Southeri\ California. III. 

BY T. D. A. COCKERELS. 

The following table is intended to separate the males of the 
common tj^e of Anthidium represented by A. maculosum, mor- 
moniim, montivagum, cognatum, &c., in various parts of the 
United States. In addition to the species of Southern Cali- 
fornia, I have included some others for comparison, two (from 
Pecos, Xew Mexico) being new. There are also included some 
species of a type not yet found in our region, one of them (tolte- 
cum) being a Dianthidium. I have a residue of females from 
Southern California which I have not cared to describe, as it 
seems best to describe the species, so far as possible, 
from the males, which possess the strongest characters. 
No doubt further investigation will show that some 
of the undescribed females belong with described 
males, and when this is not the case, the males may 
be discovered, permitting a more exact definition of 
the characters of the species. It is to be understood that 
all the new forms are black bees ornamented with yellow, the 
abdomen having notched or divided bands, the notches always 
anterior except on the first segment, where they are posterior. 

Anthidium; Males. 
Last abdominal segment deeply notched, without a 

median projection 1 

Last abdominal segment, with a median projection 2 

1. ^largin of sixth segment sinuate (^lexico). .toltecum, Cress 
]\[argin of sixth segment with a strong median tooth, 
and also lateral teeth (Europe) oblongatum, Latr. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 57 

2. Lateral lobes of last segment spine-like, pointed 3 

Lateral lobes of last segment broadened 5 

3. Lateral lobes strongly curved; mesotliorax with yellow 

marginal marks (Europe) manicatnm, L. 

Lateral lobes straight; mesothorax all black 4 

4.Size large ; clypeus with two black spots on upper part ; an- 
terior tarsi largely light yellow in front (So. Calif.) 

banningense, n. sp. 

Size smaller ; clypeus all yellow ; anterior tarsi black in 

front. (Pecos, N. M.) lupinellum, n. sp. 

5. Light markings of abdomen confined to sides ; size large 

(Europe) laterale, Latr. 

Light markings of abdomen not confined to sides 6 

6. Last segment of abdomen ferruginous 7 

Last segment of abdomen not ferruginous 8 

7. Yellow of abdomen very bright; the bands continuous 

in the middle on third and following segments (So. 

Calif.) tricuspidum, Prov. 

Yellow of abdomen pale ; none of the bands continuous 
in the middle ; venter of abdomen red (New Mex- 
ico) porterae, Ckll. 

8. Lateral lobes of last segment entirely black, divergent 

and strongly curved inwards at the end ; none of the 

abdominal bands united in the middle (Calif.) 

californicum, Cress. 

Lateral lobes not so ; when entirely black, insect smaller . 9 

9. Tegulae yellow and black, or rarely yellow and reddish. .10 
Tegulae entirely apricot-color (So. Calif) . . palmarum, n. sp. 

10. ]\Iesothorax entirely black ; last abdominal segment en- 

tirely black, or with small yellow spots ; a small yel- 
low spot above each eye 11 

Mesothorax with some yellow on margins ; last abdom- 
inal segment with conspicuous yellow markings, or 
nearly all yellow 14 

11. Lateral lobes of apical segment short and very oroad, 

of the general type of A. jocosum; average size of 

insect smaller (So. Calif.) palliventre, Cress. 

Lateral lobes of apical segment elongated, of the gen- 
eral type of A. cognatum; average size of insect larger. 12 

12. ^Markings of abdomen orange; abdomen shining, with 

sparse punctures (So. Calif.) saxorum, n. sp. 

^Markings of abdomen yelloAV ; abdomen more closely 
. punctured 13 

13. Tibiae with broad yellow stripes (So. Calif.) 

collectum, Huard. 



yS SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Tibiae without such stripes (Fort Collins, Colo.) 

(emarginatum, Say, var ?) TITUSI. nov. 

14. Femora with conspicuous red patches; tiagellum red 

beneath; hair of head and thorax all white (New 

Mexico) paroselae, Ckll. 

Femora without red patches; tiagellum all black 15 

15. Hair of thoracic dorsum white: size small 16 

Hair of thoracic dorsum fulvus or ochraceous 17 

16. Scape all black (So. Calif.) . . bernardinum yar. fragariellum 
Scape j^ellow in front (So. Calif.) . bemardiniim var. aridum 

17. Markings of abdomen lemon-yellow (Peeps. X. ]M.) . . 

pecosense, n. sp. 

Markings of abdomen orange 18 

18. Size small, about 11 mm. long (So. Calif.) 

bernardinum, var. wilsoni 

Size larger, about 14 mm. long (So. Calif.) 

bernardinum, n sp. 

Anthidium banningense, n. sp. 

Male : Length, 141/2 mm. ; black, the markings rather pale 
yellow, pubescence white, abundant on upper part of head 
and thorax. Clypeus, lateral face-marks, mandibles except 
apex, and oblong marks above tops of eyes, pale yelloAv; 
clypeus with two black marks near its upper margin; an- 
terior margin of clypeus without notches or protuberances ; 
mandibles with the apical tooth broad, pointed, falciform, 
but the others hardly developed, the second only a distinct 
nodule : antennae entirely black ; thorax entirely black, only 
the tegulae with a pale yellow patch ; wings only moderately 
stained with brown; first recurrent nervure joining second 
submarginal cell some distance from its base ; basal nervure 
passing considerably basad of transverso-medial ; legs ro- 
bust, black, anterior tibiae with a small yellow spot near 
apex, middle tibiae with a large apical mark, basal joint 
of tarsi light yellow on the outer side : abdomen with the 
band on first segment divided into spots (the middle pair 
small), the others nearly (or quite) divided, the second 
interrupted in the middle line, the third to fifth only emargi- 
nate, sixth segment with two yellow marks, apical all black ; 
segments much more closely and regularly punctured be- 
hind the bands than before them ; sixth segment with large 
lateral curved black teeth; lateral processes of apical seg- 
ment straight or almost so, narrow and pointed; ventral sur- 
face of abdomen dark reddish. 

Hab.— Banning, Calif., 1892. One taken by Dr. Davidson. 
Anthidium lupinellum, n. sp. 

Male ; length about 11 mm. ; a rather small, compact species, 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 59 

with all the abdominal bands divided into spots as in A. 
macnlosum ; pubescence white, some blackish on scutellnm, 
and vertex, and especially just behind ocelli ; clypeus bright 
lemon yellow, not spotted, not at all obscured by hair, its 
narrow lower edge black ; lateral face-marks, mandibles ex- 
cept iipes, and small spot above each eye, yellow; first and 
second mandibular teeth broad and sharply pointed : an- 
tennae entirely black ; thorax all black except two small 
yellow marks on scutellum ; tegulae with a large yellow spot 
in front and a small one behind ; wings not very dark ; legs 
black, with the basal joints of the middle and hind tarsi 
cream-color (but basal joint of anterior tarsus is black) ; ab- 
dominal segments with thin marginal fringes of black hair ; 
sixth segment with four spots like the others, seventh ail 
black ; lateral apical processes long and narrow ; venter of 
abdomen black. 

Hab. — Pecos, New Mexico, at flowers of Lupiniis near Harri- 
son 's store, June 30, 1903, collected by W. P. Cockerell. By 
the structure of the last two dorsal abdominal segments, 
this is closely related to A. banningense; but it is smaller 
and differs in several jjarticulars. 

Anthidium tricuspidum, Provancher. 

Los Angeles, Calif., three collected by Dr. Davidson. Provan- 
cher 's description, is incomplete, but as his material was 
from the same locality, and the rather peculiar bright yellow 
pattern of the abdomen agrees, I assume that I have the in- 
sect he described. The ventral surface of the abdomen is 
light ferruginous. 

Anthidinm californicum, Cresson. 

Los Angeles, Calif., five collected by Dr. Davidson. In these 
specimens the hair on vertex and thorax above is white, not 
dull yellow. I have not seen authentic material of A. cali- 
fornicum, but the Los Angeles insect fits the description so 
nearly that I assume it to be the same. 
Anthidium palmarum, n. sp. 

Male; length about 9 mm.; pubescence Avhite, dense on face, 
covering clypeus : clypeus and very small lateral face-marks 
(separated from orbital margin), mandibles except tips, and 
small spots above eyes, light yellow ; mandibles with first 
and second teeth acute ; antennae entirely black ; thorax all 
black except an interrupted yellow line on scutellum ; teg- 
idae a warm red; wings rather clear; legs black, marked 
with light yellow and ferruginous, the lighter colors includ- 
ing the knees, stripes on anterior and middle tibiae, and 
spots at base and apex of hind tibiae, the last also being red- 
dish behind; basal joint of tarsi yellow, the other joint light 



6o SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

ferruginous ; the tibial ornamentation really consists of basal 
and apical yellow spots jointed by a red stripe, the stripe 
being absent on the hind tibiae ; abdominal markings shin- 
ing, orange-yellow, the band on the first segment divided 
into four spots, on the second almost divided, on the others 
successively somewhat less so, but all divided in the middle ; 
sixth segment with two very large yellow marks; lateral 
apical lobes marked with yellow, moderately broad ; ventral 
surface of abdomen black, except sides of first segment, 
which are ferruginous. 

Hab. — Tvv^o collected by Dr. Davidson; the type from Palm 
Spring; the other (reddened by cyanide), Los Angeles. 
Easily known by the apricot-colored tegulae, the orange- 
yellow markings of abdomen, &c. The end of the abdomen 
is constructed in the manner of A. cognatum, but the lateral 
lobes are a little broader and somewhat divergent, and the 
lateral spines of the sixth segment are practically straight. 
Anthidium palliventre, Cresson. 

With some hesitation I refer here four males, one from Logan, 
Utah (L. Bruner, No. 17), the other three collected by Dr. 
Davidson in California, at Los Angeles, Tehachapi and Bear 

Valley. A. palliventre was described from a female collected 
in California, and females of this group have few distinctive 
characters. A female collected by Dr. Davidson at Los An- 
geles seems to be palliventre, but the ventral scopa is black- 
ish in the middle and white laterally. It has the face en- 
tirely black. 

Catalogue of Indian Relics on Santa Catalina, etc. Cont. 

BY MRS. M. BURTON WILLIAMSON 

No. 

13.126. Bone Dagger. 

13.127. Fragment of handle to 13,126. 

13.128. Bone implement with hole. 

13.129. Bone needles— 3. 

13.130. Bone needle, long. 

13.131. Bone Awls, small-4. 

13.132. Vertebra of fish. 

13.133. Fragments of baskets. 

13.134. Fragments of baskets, wound. 

13.135. Strings, one wound in ball. 

13.136. Fragments of cloth. . 

13.137. Red paint, powdered and in lumps. 

13.138. Red paint, in worked shapes— 5. 

13.139. Black paint, powdered. 

13.140. Shells with paint in them. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 6i 

13.141. Fish vertebrae, paint in them. 

13.142. Small stones for grinding paint. 

13.143. Small steatite pot, ornamented with lines. 
13,144-46. Small pot, steatite, plain. 

13.147. Small ladle, steatite (toy). 

13.148. Pipe of steatite, bone month piece. 

13.149. Stone pipe, with bone mouth piece. 

13.150. Stone pipe ,broken, with bone month piece— 2. 

13.151. Stone pipe, without mouth piece. 

13.152. Fragments stone rings— 2. 

13.153. Perforated stone ornaments— 5. 

13.154. Stone ornament. 

13.155. Perforated stone, weight for digging. 

13.156. Perforated stones, weights, for digging — 6. 

13.157. Stone beads- 3. 

13.158. Stone implements— 2. 
13,159-64. Comali for cooking tortillas. 

13.165. Comali, with 3 holes. 

13.166. Comali, with band. 

13.167. Comali, Avith lines. 

13.168. Stone implement, grinding shells"? 

13.169. Stone pestle. 

13.170. Stone implement. 

13.171. F. dagger. 

13.172. Spearpoint, triangular, obsidian. 

13.173. Arrowhead. . 

13.174. Spearpoint, obsidian, leaf-shaped. 
13,175-78. Shell beads-2. 

13,179. Shells. Abalone-3. 
13,180-84. Shell ornaments, broken— 3. 

13.185. Shell fishhooks, different stages of manufacture— 11. 

13.186. Stone implements used in cutting 13,185 — 12. 

13.187. Stone implements used in cutting 13,185, broken— 6. 

13.188. Ilair brushes. 

13.189. Copper cup, containing cloth, basket, string of beads 

and part of human scalp. 

13.192. Copper plate, covered with cloth and containing veg- 

etable products — seeds. 

13.193. Copper cup, covered with cloth and skin. 

13.194. Copper bowl, containing cloth and human hair. 

13.195. Copper bowl. 

13.196. Copper jar. 

13.197. Implements and ornaments of copj^or. 

13.198. Broken spoons. 

13.199. Bell. 

13.200. Sleigh bell. 

13.201. Bell clapper, copper. 



62 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

13.202. Vase. 

13.203. Three fibulae tied together. . 

13.204. Fibulae. Buckle, copper. 

13.205. Bosses, ornamented with shell. 

13.206. Medals of Catholic Church— 3. 

13.207. Thimbles; worn as beads. 

13.208. Copper implement. 

13.209. Buttons, strung together. 

13.210. Buttons and beads strung together. 

13.211. Copper awl. 

13.212. Strings of glass and shell beads. 

13.213. Brass rings and beads on strings. 

13.214. Glass and part of ring (for making fire). 

13.215. Earthen bowl made on wheel. 

13.216. China bowl, crackled ware. 

13.217. Leather band. 

13.218. Glass beads. 

13.219. Beads. 

13.220. Cigarette holder. 

13.221. Iron hoe. 

13.222. Iron axes-4. 

13.223. Iron cannon balls— 2. 

13.224. Iron swor.ds. 

13.225. Iron scissors. 

13.226. Iron spear point. 

13.227. Iron knife blades. 

13.228. Fragments gun barrels? 

13.229. Iron buckles, implements, etc. 

13.230. Iron bowl, small, broken. 
13,231-45. Skull and bones— human. 
13,246-59. Human crania. 

13.260. Human Cranium and bones. 

13.261. Diseased bones. 

13.262. Pelvis, belonging with 13,260. 

13.263. Fragment of cloth. 

Cabrillo's Rancheria. 

13.264. Copper band, with cloth inclosed. 

13.265. Copper buckle. 

13.266. Copper implements — 2. 

13.267. Iron ladle. 

13.268. Iron implements, broken — 2. 

13.269. Stone ornament, perforated. 

Graves, Johnson's Place, Santa Catalina, Cal. 

13.270. Boat-shaped dish of steatite. 

13.271. Whale of steatite. Tov. 

13.272. Whale of steatite. Toy. 

13.273. Perforated stone. Weight. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEflll OF SCIENCES. 63 

13.274. Sinker? 

13.275. Sharpeuing stone. 

13.276. Stone. 

13.277. Stone worked. 

13.278. Wooden implement. 

13.279. Bone awl. 

13.280. Shell fishhooks in process of mannfacture. 

13.281. Shell ornaments. 

13.282. Shell beads. 

13.283. Glass beads. 
13;284. Red paint. 

13.285. Bones of child. 

13.286. Hnman skull and bones. 

13.287. Hnman sknll and bones. 

Graves, Whitney's Place, Santa Catalina, Cal. 

13.288. Stone arrow straightener. 

13.289. Comalis for cooking tortillas. 

13.290. Stone pipe. 

13.291. Grooved stone. 

13.292. Stone dipper. 

13.293. Stone ring-weight for digging. 

13.294. Stone chips. 

13.295. Worked stone sinker? 

13.296. Shells of abalone. 

13.297. Shells of abalone, with red paint. 

13.298. Cone of red paint. 

13.299. Shell fishhooks in process of manufacture. 

13.300. Shell ornament, sabre shaped. 

13.301. Shell ornaments— 8. 

13.302. Bone implements. 

13.303. Claws. 

13.304. Shell implements. 

Workshop, Frank Whitney's Place, Santa Catalina Cal. 

13.305. Shell of Abalone, with seed. 

13.306. Fishhooks, shell, in process of manufacture. 

13.307. Shell ornaments. 

13.308. Fish vertebrae. 

13.309. Skull of crow. 

13.310. Asphalt. 

Shell Mound, F. Whitney's Place, Santa Catalina, Cal. 
13,311-15. Soapstone pot, rude. 
13,316. Soapstone pot, ornamented with lines. 
13,317-27. Small pot of steatite. 
13,328-31. Small stone pot. 
13,332-34. Steatite pot, with groove on bottom. 
13,335-39. Comali, with groove on bottom. 
13,340-42. Perforated Comali, steatite. 

(Continued in May Number.) 



64 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Transactions for March, 1 904. 



ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 

The meeting was presided over by ChairmarL W. H. Knight, who 
introduced the exercises of the evening by a statement of current astro- 
nomical phenomena, giving an account of the observations made at the 
Lick Observatory on '.the motio'ns and peculiarities of Borelli's comet, 
laying special emphasis upon the remarkable characteristics of the sev- 
eral tails of the comet. Mr. Knight also read an account of the appear- 
ance and movement of three remarkable meteors observed on the Pacific 
by the commander of the United States Steamship Supply. The varia- 
tions in the apparent miotion of these meteors cannot be accounted for 
by any known theories of meteoric mo'tion. 

The chaii-man read an extract comparing all the time that is supposed 
to have elapsed since the earth iDecame a solid to a day of twenty-four 
hours, showing by comparative subdivisions of the two periods, that the 
six thousand years of the recorded history of man is represented by 
the last five seconds of the day that stands for the aeons of the earth's 
existence. 

Mathematics being the major topic of the evening, the chairman read 
so'me interesting extracts from famous mathematicians relative to the 
beauty and practical value of mathematical principles. 

Mr. B. E. Bau'mgardt was then introduced and presented the subject 
of logarithms, explaining the principles tipon w-hich the system is based 
and the? stupendous saving of time and labor due to the use of 
logarithms in all calculations involving large numbers and numerous or 
long multiplications and divisioxLS. 

Mr. Baumgardt then exemplified the principle of the conchoid curve, 
which gave rise to a discussion of the cycloid curve and its application to 
a theoretically accurate pendulum. 

The meeting was concluded with the reading by Mr. Baumgardt of a 
graphic account of the partial solar eclipse of May, 1£'00, as witnessed 
from Mount Lowe by the members and friends of the Astronomical 
Section. 

MELA^LLE DOZIEE, Secretary. 

March 21, 19'04. 



GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Los Angeles, Cal., March 28, 1904. 
The officers of the Geological Section met at the Woman' Club 
Booms, but owing to the inclemency of the weather the attendance was 
small and the meeting adjourned to April 2.5th, when the Eev. H. B. Gage, 
of Long Beach, will deliver a lecture on the "Minerals of Eiverside 
County," and the secretary will exhibit specimens of the crystallization 
of iron and copper. 

G. MAJOE TABEE, Secretary. 



VOL. III. MAY, 1904 NO. 5 

BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Soutfiern Cafifor nia Acad emu of Sciences 

COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 
A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier G. W. Parsons 

CONTENTS : Page 

A Preliminary Synopsis of the Southern California Cyperaceae, 

S. B. Parish 65 

Descriptions of some Undescribed Fossil Shells of Pleistocene and 

Pliocene Formations of the Santa Monica Range, Prof. J. J. RiVERS 69 

The Bees of Southern California, IV, T D. A. Cockerell 72 

Flora of San Clemente Island, by Blanche Trask 76 

Transactions 7^ 

PUBLISHED BY 

THE ACADEMY, MONTHLY EXCEPT 

JULY, AUGUST AND SEPT. 

Yearly Subscription, $1.00 Single Copies, 25 cts. 

''Entered September 18, 1903, at Los Angeles, Cal., as second-class matter, 
under Act of Congress, July 16, 1894." 

MAILED MAY 24, 1904 

A Prelimmary Synopsis of the Southern California 
Cyperaceae. 

/ BY S. B. PARISH. 

2. SCHOENUS, Linn. Gen. n. 6§, in part. 

Herbs, mostly perennial, varying in habit. Inflorescence cap- 
itate, or variously spicate, or paniculate. Flowers in flattened 
spikelets of few scales, rarely only one. Scales 2-ranked, 1-8 of 
the lowest empty and contiguous. Rachis of the fertile flowers 
prolonged and flexuous, or in the 1-flowered species produced 
beyond the flower, curved and bearing an empty scale. Per- 
ianth of 6, or fewer, bristles, which are often ciliate, sometimes 
scale-like, or wanting. Stamens 3, rarely fewer, or 4-6. Style 
3-cleft, little or not at all enlarged at base, wholly deciduous 
from the summit of the 3-angled, or 3-ribbed achene. 

A genus of some 60 species, mostly natives of Australia 
or New Zealand. Represented in America only by the follow- 
ing species, which is also European. 

1. Schoenus nigricans, Linn. Sp. PI. 43. 

Culms erect, terete and striate, 5-6 dm. tall ; leaves shorter, 
narrowly linear, stiff and erect, their dark purple or blackish 
bases enlarged and clasping; involucral leaves 2, similar, the 
lower erect and 6-12 cm. long, the upper very short or a little 
exceeding the head; spikelets numerous, aggregated in a dense 
head, 5-15 mm. long; the flexuous upper part of the rachis 




SCHOENUS NIGRICANS, Lintl 

Plate 5. Plant collected at Arrowhead Hot Springs xX- 

a. Pistil X 10. c. Perianth Scale X 20. e. Scales 5. 

b. Rachisx5. d. Stamens x 10 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 67 

readily separating from the lower straight part ; scales dark 
reddish brown, strongly folded, 5-8 mm. long, deciduous, the 
lower infertile scales ^S, smooth and acute, the fertile 4-6, of- 
ten scabrid on the keel and mucronulate, the uppermost often 
staminate, or empty ; perianth scales 2-5, accuminate, or aristate, 
ciliate toothed, 0.5mm. long, persistent; anthers tipped with 
a conical cellular appendage ; style dark, about 1 cm. long ; 
achenes white, smooth and shining, ovoid, obtusely 3-angied, 
1.5 mm. long. 

Arrowhead Hot Springs, near San Bernardino, and Lone 
Pine Canyon, near Cajon Pass; Parish. Furnace Creek Canyon, 
Death Valley; Coville and Funston. The species is known in 
America, in addition to the above stations, only from Ash Mea- 
dows, Nevada, and from Florida. All the western plants grow 
in alkaline soil. Plate V. 
^ J ELEOCHARIS, R. Br. Prodr Fl. Nov. Holl. 1:224. 

Annual or perennial herbs with tufted, angular, flattened, 
or terete culms. Leaves reduced to basal sheaths, the lowest 
rarely bearing a short blade. Flowers in solitary, erect, non- 
involucrate spikelets. Scales concave, scarious-margined, 
spirally imbricated around the rachis. Perianth of 1-12 re- 
trorsely barbed bristles, or rarely none. Style 2-cleft and the 
achene lenticular, or 3-cleft and the achene 3-angled or turgid, 
its conical or flattened tubercular base persistent on the sum- 
mit of the achene. 

- A genus of about 100 species, growing in, wet places, from 
the tropics north to the Arctic regions. 

Key to the Species. 

Style 2-cleft ; achene lenticular. 

Annual; achene black, tubercle flat. 1. E. capitata. 

Perennial ; tubercle conical. 2. E. palustris. 

Style 3-cleft, achene 3-angled or turgid. 

Achene cancellate ; tubercle conical. 3, E. acicularis. 

Achene puncticulate ; tubercle disc -like 4 E. disciformis. 

Achene smooth and shining. 

Tubercle not continuous with the achene. 

Tubercle broader at base than the apex of the achene ; 

spikelet oblong. 5. E. montana. 

Tubercle calyptrate : spikelet lanceolate 6 E. Parishii. 

Tubercle continuous with achene : conical. 7 E. rostellata. 

* Styles 2-cleft and achenes lenticular; tubercle constricted at base. 

v^ 1. Eleocharis capitata, R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Holl. 1:225. 

Annual, culms slender or filiform, terete, erect, 1-1.5 dm. 
tall; upper sheath 1-toothed; spikelets ovoid, obtuse 4-5 mm. 



68 SO Ul HERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE^. 

high and 3 mm. thick; scales ovate, obtuse, about 2 mm, long, 
brown with a green midvein ; stamens 2 ; bristles 4-6, obscurely 
toothed, equalling the achene, or none ; achenes broadly obovoid 
0.75 mm. high, black and shining, tubercle flat and disk-like. 

In wet sand San Bernardino ; 1293, 5276, 5277 Parish. Palm 
Springs in the Colorado Desert ; 1160 Parish. A species of wide 
distribution in tropical regions. 
y" 2. Eleocharis palustris, E. & S. Syst. 2 :151. 

Perennial by horizontal rootstocks ; culms stout, terete, 
striate, 3-15 dm. tall; basal sheaths brown, the uppermost very 
obliquly truncate ; spikelets ovoid-cylindrical, acute 1 cm. long ; 
scales ovate, obtuse or subacute, purple-brown, with green mid- 
vein ; stamens 2-3 ; bristles 4, equalling the achene, or none ; 
achenes ovoid-oblong, 2 mm. long, yellow-brown, smooth and 
shining, tubercle triangular-conic, less than one-fourth as long 
as the achene. 

Probably common in wet places in the Cismontane region, 
but the only specimen seen was collected by myself, at San Ber- 
nardino. Cosmopolitan. 

1/ Eleocharis palustris glaucescens, Gray, Man. ed.5, 558. 
Britt. & Br. 111. Fl. 1 :252. 

Culms slender, 3-5 dm. tall; spikelets oblong, 5-10 mm. 
long, acute ; upper sheaths horizontally truncate ; tubercle nar- 
rower and more acute. 

In swamps and ditches and along streams ; probably com- 
mon. Lake Surprise, 8,200 ft. alt., San Jacinto Mts. ; 2489 Hall. 
San Bernardino Valley; 1185 Parish. Common throughout 
J^forth America. 

** Styles j-cle ft ; stamens usually j ; plants perennial by hori- 
zontal rootstocks except n. ^. 

■^-Uppermost sheaths i- toothed, with a fmre or less indurated ring 
at the horizontally truncate summit ; tubercle not continuous with 
the summit of the obscurely j-angled, turgid, achene. 

-^^Achenes having intermediate ribs and minute transverse ridges 

3. Eleocharis acicularis, E. & S. Syst. 2 :154. 

Culms tufted from filiform rootstocks, setaceous or fili- 
form, 3-15 cm. tall ; spikelet narrowly oblong, or ovate, acute, 
2-3 mm. long, acute, 3-9-flowered ; scales ovate-oblong, aeutish, 
1 mm. long, pallid or greenish ; bristles 3-4, Aveak, exceeding the 
achene, often none ; achenes pale, oblong-ovoid, 1 mm. long ; 
tubercle conic, one-fourth the length of the achene. 

Banks of the Santa Ana river, near San Bernardino ; 1061 
Parish. • An immature specimen collected at Los Angeles, by 
Davidson, may belong here. Throughout North America. 

(To be continued.) 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 69 

Descriptions of Some Undescribed Fossil Shells of 

Pleistocene and Pliocene Formations of 

the Santa Monica Range. 

BY PROF. J. J. RIVERS. 

Dr. Ralph Arnold in his memoir of the fossils of San 
Pedro published in June, 1903, made no mention of the species 
now described. His very excellent treatise scarcely touched 
upon the riches of the Santa Monica Range though he almost 
exhausted the gifts of nature in fossil Mollusca of San Pedro 
together with those yielded by the rocks of San Diego and 
Santa Barbara. 

The Santa Monica Range has the same deposits as those 
of San Diego, San Pedro and Santa Barbara judging from 
the fauna found in this range. The San Diego Pliocene is 
represented here by co-types of the following species : 

Ostrea veatchi Gabb., Pecten expansus DalL, Pecten hastatus 
Sow., Pecten bellus Con , Pecten caurinus Gld , Pecteyi liemphilli 
Dull., Pecten stearnsii Dull., Pecten op2intia Dall., Pecten svbven- 
tricosus Dull., Pecten ventricosns Sow.. Pecten hericevs. Old., 
Pecten subnodosns Dall and several other Pectens together with 
Opalia varicostata Stearns and Pisania fortis Carp. 

The formations of Santa Barbara, San Pedro and San 
Diego have each yielded Brachiopods, but the middle Pliocene 
deposits of the Santa INIoniea Range have furnished all the 
known species found hitherto discovered in the other three lo- 
calities, viz : Terebratalia smithi Arnold. Terebratalia hem- 
philli, Dall, Laqueus Jeffreys! Dall.. Laqueus calif ornicus Koch. 

Santa Monica Range furnishes a wide field of geological 
investigation being rich in Pliocene deposits. There appears 
to be three distinct Pliocene epochs; the oldest is a thick 
deposit with few fossils and its matrix is formed out of the 
first erosion of the Miocene and contains chunks of the shale 
uneroded and fossils not yet identified. The strata has been 
tilted to the perpendicular and crushed and crossbedded so 
that when the fossils are disturbed they do not crumble but 
break to pieces. 

The next older strata are the representatives of the San 
Diego hard sandstone series yielding the Pectens. The later 
Pliocene is the same as represented on Deadman's Island, San 
Pedro. These are capped everywhere by Quaternary beach 
gravels and by erosion debris as well as by glacial drift. The 
canons of the coast yields glacial pebbles not profusely but 
commonly and a student in geology can identify them' easily. 

Hyalaea tricnspida n. sp. 

Shell opaque white ; dorsal plate widely convex ; smooth on 



70 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

the disc; a lateral spine on either side and a terminal append^ 
age short and truncate behind ; parallel to the lateral spijies is 
a carina ; on the disc of the other side are five longitudinally 
situated carinae : aperture sharply truncate on dorsum, but 
strongly rounded on the opposite plate ; the slit reaching 
quite to the lateral spines. 

Dimensions : Longitude 8 mm., latitude 7 mm. 

Geology: Pleistocene of Santa Monica Kange, Cal. 

Eulima raymondi n. sp. 

Form : Very attenuate : shell in texture as usual in this 
genus smooth, glossy, and white in color; whorls eleven; 
sutures scarcely impressed: strongly oblique: the three last 
whorls equal to the remainder: aperture 2.2 mm. long and 
1 mm. wide. Longitude 11 mm., latitude 2 mm. 

Not known to be living. 

Geology : Pleistocene Santa Monica Range, Cal. 

This cannot be confounded with any of the described spec- 
ies belonging to this coast it being much more attenuated in 
form comparing length with width, the mouth more pro- 
duced forward and elongated and narrowed behind. Eleven 
specimens have been secured and are true to form and pro- 
portions. 

Chrysodomus amoldi n. sp. 

Shell thick, robust, chalk white : elegantly, fusiform : 
spire about one-fifth of the whole : spire compressed : whorls 
about five : nucleus and following whorl missing : the third 
and fourth whorls are sculptured with rather wide transverse 
ridges : but the fifth whorl the ridges are nearly obsolete ; 
sutures roughly encrusted: body whorl strongly shouldered 
but not tabled : the sculpture consists of five woolving, flat- 
tened strive or ridges crossed at intervals by strong incre- 
mental lines which perhaps in an unworn example might show 
varices: in the fossil there appears faintly a cancellate pat- 
tern : all the whorls bear an alternate series of fine revolving 
ridges which on the body Avhorl gages two to a mm. ; colum- 
nella medium, twisted : channel open but shallow : incrusted 
thickly interiverity : aperture pyrif orm umbilicus subperf orate 
as in Pisania fortis Carpt. 

Dimensions: Long 40 mm.: lat. 20 mm. 

Geological formation. Pliocene. One specimen. 

Locality: Crawfish Gorge's: San Pedro, Cal. 

Chrysodomus merriami n. sp. 

Shell bucciniform : whorls eight : nucleus eroded : incre- 
mental and fine lines appear as soon as growth begins which 
increase in regular ratio until the body whorl show ridges 
and appressed lines that gage six to a mm. Apex not de- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 7/ 

pressed as it gages 20 mm. ; the whorls are strongly rounded ; 
sutures deeply impressed; body whorl 25 mm. long, much in- 
flated; outer lip not thickened but has a bulging inflation 
turning inwards; the edge being entire. The columnella be- 
ing hid in the matrix but from several fragmentary examples; 
the columnella is short, twisted ; channel wide ; aperture very 
wide. 

This shell was found in the same deposit as C. aphelus Dall 
and C. griseus Dall. 

Geological formation : Pliocenl ; Santa Monica Range. 

Chrysodomus aphelus Dall. 

The U. S. Report on Albatross Mollusca Pro. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. Vol. XII pages 219-362, gives descriptions by Dr. Healy 
Dall of various living Mollusks dredged from near Santa 
Barbara, Cal. 

An examination of the Pliocene strata of the Santa ^lonica 
Range has brought to light two of Dr. Dalls species and a 
third one in the same deposit that the dredge of the Albatross 
did not discover. 

"The living shells, (according to the Albatross Reports) 
occur in 414 fathoms grey sand." The fossils occur in a silty 
formation in which remains of marine and terrestrial flora 
abound. The elevation from sea level of these strata varies 
from a few feet up to seventy or a hundred feet above.. Phe 
height or depth of these strata carries no geological value 
but it is their position and what they contain that yield their 
natural worth ; these strata dip strongly to the southwest at 
various angles and in places tilted to the perpendicular. These 
fossils therefore may have enjoyed at one time a depth of 414 
fathoms, particularly.' so as the deposits dip under a hundred 
feet of nearly horizontal Pleistocene. 

Chrysodomus aphelus Dall. (Albatross Mollusca PI. VI. 
fig. 7.) 

Shell bucciniform ; six whorled, smooth ; nucleus eroded ; 
whorls full, well rounded ; sutures distinct and somewhat deep ; 
sculptum of faint incremental lines which curve to the swell- 
ing of the whorls ; obscure spiral traces ; outer lip thin, smooth, 
polished white, on the inside, which is reflected rather strongly 
at the upper angle but diminishes gradually towards the chan- 
nel; columnella short, not calloused, throat smooth white; pil- 
lar very obliquely truncate. 

Dimensions : Report gives maximum longitude 32 mm. ; 
maximum latitude 18 mm. ; but the fossils give increased di- 
mensions ; the maximum being 40 mm. to 20 respectively. The 
majority of the fossil forms are however much below these 
measurements. 



72 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY 01 SCIENCES. 

Chrysodomus griseus Dall. 

This is anoliier of the "Albatross Molhisca" and Dr. 
Dall's description can easily be followed Avith the shell before 
me. 

Shell thin, rather acutely pointed when perfect;" seven 
or eight whorled; the substratum, pillar, throat milk white 
and smooth ; nucleus eroded, small round ; suture distinct ; 
whorls full and rounded; transverse sculpture twenty or more 
arcuated wave-like ribs, which on the earlier whorls often 
reach from suture to suture but are strongest on the periphery. 
As the shells do not hold to the same relative proportions of 
latitude and longitude, the more elongate the specimen the 
fainter is the sculpture. 

Found in company with B. aphelus Dall in the Pliocene of 
Santa Monica Range, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 

One specimen perfect, tM'o nearly so and several more 
or less fragmental. 

The Bees of Southern California. IV. 

BY T. D. A. COCKERELI.. 

Anthidium saxorum, n. sp. 

Male; length about 11 mm.; pubescence white, faintly tinged 
with ochreous dorsally, abundant on head and thorax, but 
not concealing clypeus ; clypeus, lateral face-marks, man- 
dibles except tips, stripe on scape, and small spot above 
each eye, pale chrome yellow ; mandibles Avitli only one 
large toOth; flagellum black; thorax all black except tu- 
bercles and two marks on scutellum, which are yellow; 
tegulae with a large yellow spot in front, and a small one 
behind ; wings fairly clear ; femora black, with a small 
apical yellow spot on the middle and hind ones ; tibiae with 
a broad yellow stripe on the outer side, which sends a pro- 
cess to the anterior side apically; basal joint of tarsi yel- 
low; abdomen unusually smooth and shining, the bands 
deep orange ; band on first segment broken into four spots, 
those in the middle small and transversely elongated; 
bands on second to fifth emarginate medially and laterally, 
but not broken ; sixth nearly all orange ; seventh with only 
two yellow spots ; lateral apical lobes broad and not much 
produced, very much as in A. mormonum, except that they 
are less curved inward; venter reddish-black. 

Hab. — Rock Creek, California, one collected by Dr. Davidson. 
By the cariniform tubercles, white pubesence, etc., this re- 
sembles A. mormonum, but it differs by having no basal 
spots on scutellum, bands on abdomen not interrupted 
medially, &c. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 73 

Anthidium collectum, Huard : 
Four males obtained by Dr. Davidson are referred here ; two 
from Los Angeles, one from Tehachapi, one from Swit- 
zer's. According to the original description, collectum 
Huard (compactum, Provanclier) differs from tricuspidum 
in being smaller, having no marks on thorax, and the first 
three segments of abdomen with the bands divirl<-J into 
spots. The last character is somewhat variauiv,. ^xiC 
species appears to be very near to A. emarginatum, Say, 
but that has the abdominal bands yellowish-white or white. 
The specimen from Tehachapi represents a distinct variety, 
perhaps species, which may be described thus : 

A. collectum var. ultrapictum, no v. 
-A little larger; scape with a yellow stripe; abdominal bands 
very bright yell(!)W, only that on first segment divided into 
four spots, the others not even divided in the middle, 
though emarginate there and squarely notched laterally; 
sixth segment with two very large round yellow marks, 
touching in the middle line; seventh all black, with the lat- 
eral lobes not so produced as in collectum, and distinctly 
angled on the outer side ; tibiae with more yellow. The 
dorsal pubescence has just a faint ochreous tint. There 
are no sub-apical ventral spines. 

Anthidium (emarginatum, Say var?) Titusi, nov. 

Easily distinguished from typical emarginatum (male) by the 
bright lemon-yellow (instead of yelloAvish- white or white) 
abominal bands, and the tibiae all black except a minute 
basal spot, and an apical one on middle tibia. Clypeus with 
two black dots near upper border ; antennae entirely black ; 
dorsal pubescence dull white; thorax all black except two 
short lines on scutellum ; anterior part of tegulae yellow ; 
wings dusky; basal joint of tarsi light yellow, the other 
joint ferruginous: first abdominal segment with very long 
hair, its band divided into four spots, the middle ones trans- 
versely elongated ; bands on the second and third greatly 
narrowed mesad of the notch, and slightly divided in the 
middle ; on fourth and fifth widely notched, but only emar- 
ginate in the middle : sixth segment with two very large 
comma-shaped yellow marks: seventh all black, formed 
about as in ultrapictum, but the lateral lobes not quite so 
produced ; venter black ; apex of venter strongly tridentate, 
with a large median ferruginous process directed caudad, 
and large black lateral spines directed more downwards. 

.Hab.— Fort Collins, Colorado, June 13, 1900. (E. S. G. Titus.) 
The apical ventral, structures recall A. montivagum. 



74 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Anthidium pecosense, n. sp. 

Male; length about 11 mm., stout and compact; pubescence 
white on pleura, cheeks and face below antennae, but ful- 
vous on upper part of head and thorax ; hair quite dense 
over clypeus ; clypeus, lateral face-marks, mandibles ex- 
cept tips, and small spots above eyes, lemon yellow; cly- 
peus with two dusky dots near its upper margin ; mandibles, 
comparatively narrow, second tooth small but pointed; 
antennae entirely black ; thorax black with the tubercles,, 
a bent stripe on antero-lateral corner of mesothorax, and 
two lines on scutellum, yellow : tegulae black with a large 
pale yellow mark ; wings dusky ; femora black, with more 
or less of a yellow stripe beneath (best developed on the 
anterior ones, but obscured by hair), and the middle and 
posterior ones with very small apical (knee) spots; tibiae 
broadly yellow on the outer side ; basal joint of tarsi yel- 
low, the other joints ferruginous; abdomen with the bands, 
bright lemon-yellow, that on the first divided into four 
spots, the median spots subquadrate ; band on second di- 
Added in the middle and squarely notched laterally, on third 
divided in middle and with small lateral notches, on fourth 
and fifth emarginate only in the middle, and not notched 
laterally; sixth almost all yellow, but emarginate with 
black in middle ; apical segment with two yellow spots ; lat- 
eral apical lobes broad, median process long, lateral teeth 
on sixth segment rather short ; venter black. 

Hab. — Pecos, New Mexico, one at flowers of Heracleum lana- 
tum, June 21, 1903. (Cockerell). The apex of the abdomen 
is of the same type as A. mormonum, from which it is easily 
distinguished by the fulvous hair of head and thorax. From 
A. poudreum, Titus (misprinted pondreum in original 
description). A. pecosense differs by having the ventral 
segments of abdomen thickly pubescent right across, fe- 
mora and tibiae with white hair, dorsum of thorax with 
abundant fulvous hair, no dots before the imes on scutel- 
lum, all the femora with yellow stripes, band on first ab- 
dominal segment broken into spots. 

Anthidium bernardinum, n. sp. 

Male ; length about 13 mm., general appearance of A. tricuspi- 
dum, but differing in many details, and especially in the 
apex of the abdomen, the lobes of which are much shorter, 
broader and more rounded, and yellow with dark brown 
margins, the median spine also being dark brown. The 
real affinity of the insect is with A. pecosense, but it is. 
larger, and very different in its deep orange markings; 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 75. 

the dorsal pubescence of the head and thorax, as in. 
pecosense, is fulvous. Head marked as in pecosense, ex- 
cept that the scape has a yellow stripe (sometimes want- 
ing) and the spots above the eyes are produced and pointed, 
mesad; thorax with the yellow markings of pecosense re- 
placed by orange and more developed, forming a broad, 
band surrounding the mesthorax and scutellum, except for 
a space in front; band on first abdominal segment notched 
behind, or sometimes divided into four spots, in which case 
the median spots are quadrate and qute large ; remaining 
bands laterally notched (not very broadly) in front, and. 
emarginate in the middle, those on the second, third and 
sixth frequently divided; lateral spines of sixth segment 
partly yellow; venter of abdomen ferruginous, with yellow 
spots at extreme sides; apical ventral segment tridentate,. 
the middle tooth broad, ferruginous, and emarginate, the 
lateral ones rather broad and not very long, ferruginous 
edged with black. The femora have broad orange stripes, 
the tibiae are entirely orange on the outer side; basal joint 
of tarsi orange, the others ferruginous. 

Hab.— Five males collected by Dr. Davidson; type from Straw- 
berry Valley, others from ^It. Wilson. With these I asso- 
ciate some females from Bear Valley, Wilson's Peak and 
Lo& Angeles. They are similar to the male, but smaller 
(101/2 mm. lon|g), the clypeus has a blackish median shade,, 
the spots above the eyes are produced into bands which 
nearly meet in the middle line, and the ventral scopa is 
white. The female suggests A. placitum, but the abdomen is 
strongly punctured, and not transversely impressed at base. 

The following three forms are referred as varieties to A. ber- 
nardinum, but they certainly look very different, though 
similar in the details of the markings, &c. 

A. bernardinum v. wilsoni, n. v. 

Male ; length about IOI/2 mm. ; dorsal pubescence pale fulvous ; 
antennae entirely black; band on fourth abdominal seg- 
ment divided in middle, as well as those on second and 
third; apical lobes with the inner angle more prominent; 
yellow on thorax reduced to two lines on mesothorax in 
front, line on tubercles, and two lines and two dots on scu- 
tellum ; venter of abdomen very dark brown ; apical ven- 
tral segment with the median process large, broadly round- 
ed, dark brown, not emarginate, the lateral ones pointed 
black teeth; femora brown-black, the middle ones with a 
yellow apical spot, the hind ones with an apica] stripe. 

Hab.— Mt. Wilson, California, one collected by Dr. Davidson^ 



.76 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEM'Y OF SCIENCES. 

Anthidium bernardiimm v. fragariellum, n. v. 

Male; length 91/2 mm.; dorsal pubescence white; antennae en- 
tirely black; spots above eyes oval, not pointed mesad; 
marginal yellow of mesothoras and scutellnm rather well 
developed; wings decidedly reddish; middle and anterior 
femora with broad yellow stripes beneath, hind femora 
with the apical half striped above and beneath, middle 
femora with a yellow apical patch above, but anterior fe- 
mora all black above : apical lobes of abdomen more curved 
inwards than in bernardiniim ; venter of abdomen brown 
black; last ventral segment with median process ferrugi- 
nous, broad and subtruncate, not emarginate, the lateral 
processes pointed black spines. 

Hab. — Strawberry Valley, California, collected by Dr. David- 
son. A female from the same place appears to belong here ; 
it has two cuneiform black marks on the clypeus ; femora 
black, the anterior and middle ones with a yellow apical 
mark behind: scopa white. It is of the same size as the 
male. 

Anthidium bernardinum v. aridum, n. v. 

Male; like v. fragariellum, but a little larger; scape yellow in 
front : face less hairy : axillar spots absent ; only the first 
abdominal band interrupted in the middle (the second and 
third are interrupted in fragariellum) ; yellow stripe on 
middle femora not extending beyond apical half; lateral 
apical lobes of abdomen more triangular, less rounded; 
venter black. 

Hab. — Rock Creek, California, collected by Dr. Davidson. 
I rather expect that Avhen more is known about these in- 
sects wilsoni and fragariellum will stand as valid species, 
and aridum as a variation cf the latter. 



Flora of San Clemente Island. 

BY BLANCHE TRASK. 



For many years San Clemente has lifted its amethystine 
lieights, as I have followed the trails of Santa Catalina Island; 
a day's trip to the "West End" and a week's camping at the 
"East End," with a long tramp over the crest-line, made me 
doubt the common assertion that "San Clemente is only a tree- 
less waste of sand." 

Visits to the more northern of the Channel Islands— Santa 
Cruz, Santa Rosa, San Miguel and the little Anacapas— claimed 
my attention; and a three months' sojourn at San Nicolas 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 77c 

Island, at three different seasons with a tarrying at tiny Santa. 
Barbara Island and one special trip there, absorbed all my lei- 
sure; while the heights of San Clemente ever upheld their- 
deeps, unknown to me! So near— and yet I knew them not! 

However, last year, after living' there three months, I have 
a real satisfaction in thinking I know something of that Island.. 
When I left I felt I would never again care to see places so ter- 
rible ; but I Und my heart following my eyes from the dear old 
Catalina trails as I see San Clemente this winter lying in all its- 
amethystine beauty, like an Indian arrow-head, tipped with, 
shining stretches of sand, enshrined by the white arms of the- 
sea. 

Eighteen miles long and nearly 2000 feet elevation upon 
its greatest height, it is by far the most inaccessible of all the 
Channel Islands. 

A rolling upland strewn with jagged volcanic rocks, which 
cut the boots at every step, reaches its greatest altitude on the 
north coast— a coast gashed by precipitous and bold gorges, 
not one of which could properly be called a canyon. 

The south coast rises from the sea with perpendicular walls, 
fifty to three hundred feet high, where it surprises you by a 
flat which may be followed the entire length of the south coast, 
over a trail the worst of all the trails which I have followed in 
many thousand miles' tramping on these Channel Islands in 
the last ten years. It winds and turns and breaks into "cuts" 
and never a moment is the foot on level ground, but constantly 
caught in the crevices of the gnawing lava rocks, while a glim- 
mering heat waves under the eaves of the heights, from whence 
great arroyos leap to the river flat below, casting rivers of 
fresh rock upon the already over-burdened rim; between these 
arroyos terraces rise in endless succession. 

You walk there in October and November and the aridity 
is oppressive ; but in May the same trail is a miracle of color. 
Eschscholtzia ramosa starring the way, while Gilia Nevinii,. 
whose heart is the true turquoise, so that I called it "The Tur- 
quoise Daisy," is so plentiful that the arms could be filled with 
it. Senecio Lyoni is nearly as common as everywhere, one to 
three feet tall. 

The sweet "Lava Daisy" — Malcothrix foliosa Greene — is. 
here in its own home and special joy of existence. You marvel 
that it can draw its life from rocks which are hot to the hand 
and which even burn the feet in walking. 

On the north coast from the highest line the gorges leap 
into the sea below, five hundred to two thousand feet, so sud- 
denly, and often so unexpectedly, that no man can follow such 
ways in safety; there are rims of beaches below which can be- 



78 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

looked into directly from the greatest heights: at high tide, 
they are well-nigh covered with surf, for much of the time 
either a north or a west or a "nor-west wind" is sweeping wild- 
ly down the whole length of the island, stirring the waves to 
a foam without warning. 

At the east end are long stretches of sandy beaches and 
low outlying points; at the west end are some two miles of 
dunes and the principal Indian rancherias. 

There are two springs of water on the north coast and two 
on the south coast of San Clemente. At "Gallagher's"— the 
west end — an old ranch-house is situated where rain water is 
caught in tanks for all purposes. There is an artesian well at 
the east end; at the middle of the south coast is a pumping 
plant for a brackish spring. Two shepherds are regularly re- 
tained upon the island by the San Clemente Wool Company, 
who have leased this land from the United States Government. 

I am indebted to the courtesy of the San Clemente Wool 
Company for granting me a pass to all parts of the island, with 
camping privileges; and I pledged myself that not a sheep 
should suffer through my hand or that of my people. 

(Continued in June Number). 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

"Notes on the Angora Goat." Bulletin No. 98. Maine Agricult. 
Exper. Station. 

"Studies on the- Ecology, Morphology and Speciology of the Young 
of Some Enteropneusta of Western North America," by Wm. E. Eitter 
and B. M. Davis. No. 5, Vol. 1. Zoology. University of California Pub- 
lications. 

"Adulterated Drugs and Chemicals." U. S. Dept. Agricult. Bu- 
reau of Chemistry. Bulletin No. 80. 

"Contributions from the Gray Herbarium," by B. L. Eobinson. 
No. 27. 

"The Pliocene and Quaternary Canidae of the Great Valley of Cali- 
fornia," by J. C. Merriam. University of Cal. Geology Dept. Vol. 3, 
No. 14. 

"A Eevision of American Siphonaptera, or Fleas, together with a 
•complete list and Bibliography of the Group, ' ' by Carl F. Baker. U. S. 
National Museum. No. 1361. 

"Muhlenbergia," Vol. 1, No. 4. 

"Experiment Station" Eecord No. 6. Vol. 15 U. S. Dept. Agricult. 

"Thirty-fourth Annual Eeport of the Entomological Society of On- 
tario, 1-03." Ontario Dept. Agricult. 

"Desert Botanical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institute." Carnegie 
Institution, Washington. 

RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 

The Missouri Botanical Garden has recently distributed an elaborate 
Synopsis of the Genus Lonieera, by Alfred Eehder. The number of 
rspecies recognized is 1.57, and, in addition, a large number of varieties, 



SOUTHERA CALIFORNIA ACADEMy OF SCIENCES. 79 

forms and hybrids are noticed. The genus has its largest development 
in Central and Eastern Asia. The North American continent has but 
twenty species, and Europe but eighteen. The species and varieties of 
our own region, as recognized by the author, may be recognized by the 
following key: 
Leaves all distinct, petioled, never stipulate; corollas yellow, pubescent. 

Leaves grayish tomentose beneath. L. subspicata. 

Leaves glabrous. L. subspicata denudata. 

At least the uppermost pair of leaves connate. 

Leaves never stipulate; corollas yellow, glabrous. L. interrupta. 

Middle leaves stipulate; corolla pink. 

Flower whorls few, slender peduncled. L. hispidula. 

Whorls many, in elongated spikes. L. hispidula Californica. 

The first of these plants is common throughout the cismontane re- 
gion, but its variety is confined to the coastal sub-region. L. interrupta 
is a more northern species, but has been collected at Acton by Hasse. 
L. hispidula is also more northern in its range, and its variety is ap- 
parently confined in our region, to Santa Catalina Island. S. B. P. 

Among "Publications Received" our readers will note two original 
works by local scientists. Prof. B. M. Davis in conjunction with Prof. 
Ritter has issued a volume of "Studies on the Ecology, &c., of the En- 
tero'pneusta, ' ' while Prof. C. F. Baker, of Pomona, has, through the U. 
S. National Museum, issued a valuable work on the Fleas of America. 

It is with extreme pleasure we welcome the "Flora of Los Angeles 
and Vicinity. ' ' Its author, Mr. Le Roy Abrams, of Stanford Univer- 
sity, has in recent years personally examined the flora of this district 
and the fruit of his labors are embodied in the handsome volume before 
us. The nomenclature and arrangement are in accordance with the 
latest methods; the typographical work is very good. 

The description of the species are accurate and original, many new 
records have been added to the district and not a few new species. 

This flora will satisfy all the requirements of the ordinary botani- 
cal student in Southern California, while for those of Los Angeles and 
Orange Counties it will be the standard text-book for many years to 
come. In our educational institutions this work is indispensable. We 
heartily recommend the work. Price $2.00 from local publishers. 



Transactions for April, 1 904. 

ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 

At the regular monthly meeting of the Section, held April 18th, 
19U^, Chairman Knight introducc'd the exercises with an interesting ex- 
hibit of relative distances of planets from the sun as compared to the 
relative distances of some of the leading stars from their companion 
stars, showing that the distances that separate the companions of 
Procyon, Sirius, Alpha Centauri and Castor from their respective prin- 
cipals, do not exceed the distance between the sun and our most distant 
planet Neptune. 

Mr. Knight also referred to the apparently remarkable rapidity of 
revolutionary motion of some of the binary stars as indicated by the 
rapid succession of a certain variation in the luminosity. 

Mr. Melville Dozier then presented the subject of the trise-ction of 
an angle, developing a method by which this can be accomplished with- 
out resorting to higher mathematics. The method is also equally ap- 
plicable to the division of an angle into any number of equal parts and 
to the division of a circumference into any number of equal arcs. 

MELVILLE DOZIER, Secretary. 



8o SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OFSCIENCES 

GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Professor Theodore B. Comstock, the president, presided in the ab- 
sence of G-. W. Parsons, the chairman of the Section. Gr. Major Taber, 
secretary of the Section, read a paper on "Mineral Formation and 
Crrstalization" as follows: 

Mineral crystals vary from those microscopic size to several feet 
in length. They are either opaque or transparent, and assume almost 
every conceivable angle, and I note that in all the mineral kingdom 
there are over 700 different classifications. 

Deposits of beryl, apatelite, copper and many other minerals have 
been found weighing several tons. The same mineral in different locali- 
ties exhibits an endless variety of forms, yet their angles are always 
the same under like conditions. 

It has been discovered that all crystals found in nature may be re- 
ferred to sis systems, based on certain relations to their axis. 

The same su<bstance often has wide variations. In carbon, for in- 
stance, the diamond is pure carbon; transparent, usually colorless, brittle 
and extremely hard. Graphite, being principally carbon, is opaque, 
black, tough and soft, and charcoal is very similar. 

The law of crystalization should produce perfectly similar forms of 
the same substance, but disturbing elements and influences produce 
many radical changes. 

Following the paper, Mr. Taber exhibited several specimens of min- 
erals and petrified woods, after which Professor Comstock dwelt at length 
on the formation and crystalization of various minerals. A general 
discussion followed. 

BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Los Angeles, C'al., Chamber of Commerce. April 11th. 1904. 

The meeting of the Biological Section was called to order by the 
Chairman. 

The m.inutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

Mr. Wm. H. Knight made an interesting report on th-e so-called 
Weather Plant, Abrus preeatorius. He also presented a number of the 
seeds to the Section. 

Mr. Ulrey reported on some work which had been done tending to 
show that the germination of seeds was brought about by definite bac- 
teria. 

Mr, Whiting commented somewhat caustically on the action of a 
surgeon in the city who was reported to have operated on a woman for 
a frog which she claimed had -been in her stomach for a year or more. 

The lecture of the evening was delivered by Prof. B. M. Davis, 
his subject being the structure of the Larval Balanoglossus. The lec- 
ture was illustrated by a number of carefully prepared drawings. One 
interesting feature emphasized by the lecturer was that it is in this form 
of life that muscles are first found, springing from the central axis. In 
this and many other representations, the Balanaglossus appears to stand 
at the base of the vertebrate series of life. 

The lecture was discussed at some length by Dr. Houghton. Mr. 
Knight announced that at the next meeting of the Astronomical Sec- 
tion, Professor Dozier would demonstrate his method of trisecting an 
angle 

About thirty members and visitors were present. The Section ad- 
journed to meet again on the second Monday in May. 

C. A. WHITIXCt, Secretary 



VOL. III. JUNE, 1904 NO. 6 

BULLETIN 

OF THE 

ooutfiern Cafifornia Academu of ofiences 

COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 
A. Davidson, C. M., M. D., Chairman 
Melville Dozier G. W. Parsons 



CONTENTS : Page 

A Preliminary Synopsis of the Southern California Cyperaceae, 

S B. Parish 81 

The Bees of Southern California, V, T. D. A. CoCKERKLL, ... . . 86 

Flora of San Clemente Island, by Blanche Trask, II 90 

Transactions 95 

PUBLISHED BY 

THE ACADEMY, MONTHLY EXCEPT 

JULY, AUGUST AND SEPT. 

Yearly Subscription, $1.00 Single Copies, 25 cts. 

"Entered September 18, 1903, at Los .•\ngeles, Cal., as second-class matter, 
under Act of Congress, July 16, 1894." 

MAILED JULY 12, 1904 

A Preliminary Synopsis of the Southern California 
Cyperaceae. 

^ BY S. B. PARISH. 

^ Eleocbaris acicularis radicans, Britton Journ. N. Y. Mier. 
Soc. 5 :105. E. radicans, Kunth, Enum. 2 :142. 

Usually taller ; scales tinged with brown ; tubercle more 
acutely conical, enlarged at base, and more evidently discon- 
tinuous with the summit of the achene. 

Apparently the commoner form throughout the Cismon- 
tane region, ascending the mountains to 8,000 ft. alt. Pasa- 
dena ; Braunton, Greata. San Bernardino ; Parish. Tahquitz 
Valley, San Jacinto Mts. ; Hall Bear Valley, San Bernardino 
T\lts. ; Parish. Texas to Southern California. 
"^^ -»-^- Achenes obscurely puncticulose. 
v^ 4. Eleocharis discifonnis, n. sp. 

Fibrous rooted annual; culms slender, striate, 10-15cm. 
tall; spikelet lanceolate, 5-10 mm. long, 10-15-flowered ; scales 
brown, with a pale midvein, the lowest broadly ovate, the 
others ovate-oblong, obtuse, about 2mm. long; bristles 5, ex- 
ceeding the achene, which is ovoid to obovoid, and 1 mm. long; 
tubercle depressed and disciform, abruptly mucronulate, less 
than one-fourth the length of the achene. 

Eastern base of the San Jacinto Mts., on the borders of 
the Colorado Desert, June, 1901 ; 2013 H. M. Hall. 





-Gi«m«c 




PLATE VI. 

ELEOCHARIS DISCIFORMIS, (Parish). 



Fossil Shells of the Santa Monica Range. 

By PKOK. J. J. RIVERS. 

(See Page 69.) 



i i *. " 

1 M ' 1 





No, 1. EuLiMA MiCANS, (Carpenter). 

No. 2. EuLiMA RAMONDi, (Rivers). 

No. 3. EuLTMA HASTATA, (Sowerb.v). 

No. 4. EuLiMA FALCATA, (Carpenter). 



Errata. 

Line 30, page 70, ought, to read : "the sculpture consists 
of fine revolving flattened striae. 

Line 37, page 70: For "interiverity" read interiorly. 



SOUHTERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMy OF SCIENCES. S3 

Plate VI. Plant life size, drawn from the type specimen 
a, mature, and b, immature achene, from the same spikelet, 
each X35. 

+-!- -i-*- '•r^ Achene s smooth and shtmng. 

^ 5. Eleocharis montana, R. & S. Syst. 2:153. Britt. Jour. 
N. Y. Micr. Soc. 5 :109. E. arenicola, Torr. in Engelm. & Gray, 
Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist. 5 :237. Watson, Bot. Cal. 2 :222. 

Culms clustered, from a slender dark brown rootstock, 
slender, striate, about 1 dm. tall ; spikelet oblong, lem. or less 
long; scales ovate, brown with green middle, 2 mm. long; 
bristles 5-6, exceeding the achene ; achenes oblong-obovoid, 
pale, 1-1. 5mm. long, the tubercle conic, broadened at base. 

Rather common in the Cismontane region. Los Angeles; 
Davidson. Witch Creek, San Diego Co. ; Alderson. San Ber- 
nardino ; Parish. Mexico and north to Florida and South Caro- 
lina; on the Pacific Coast confined to Southern California. 

Plate YII. Plant X2-3, a, Scale X15. b, Achene X20. 
^ 6. Eleocharis Parishii, Britton. Jour. N. Y. ]\Iier. Soc. 
5:110. Coville, Death Vail. Rep. 211. 

Culms slender from slender rootstocks, 1-1.5 dm. tall; 
spikelet linear-lanceolate, acute, 1-1.5 cm. long; scales ovate 
to ovate-oblong, 2-2. 5mm. long, obtuse, castaneous, the mar- 
gins hyaline; bristles 4-5, exceeding the achene; achenes ellip- 
sodial, pale, 1mm. long, the tubercle calyptrate, obscurely 
broadened at base, about one-fourth as long as the achene. 

By stream banks in the Desert region. Palm^ Springs 
(Agua Caliente), 500 ft. alt., Colorado Desert, April, 1882; 
1569 Parish type. West shore of Owens Lake, 3,500 ft. alt., 
Mojave Desert, June, 1891; 999 Coville and Funston. Eastern 
slope of Walker Pass, Kern Co., 3,900 ft. alt., 1014 Coville and 
Funston. 

-! — ^Sheaths somewhat obliquely truncate ; tuber cule continuous 
with the achene, seperable at maturity. 

/?. Eleocharis rostellata, Torr. Fl. N. Y. 2:347. 

Culms slender and wiry, lax, 3-5m. long, the sterile 
culms 1-1. 5m. long, rooting at the apex ; spikelets oblong, acute, 
1cm; long, and a third as thick, 10-20 flowered; scales ovate 
to ovate-oblong, stramineous or light brown, bristles 4-6, ex- 
ceeding the oblong-obvoid (1.5mm.) achene; tubercle conic- 
subulate, less than one-half as long as the achene. 

Probably common in wet meadows throughout the Cis- 
montane region, but the only specimens seen are of my own 
collecting at San Bernardino. The species is found through- 
out temperate North America. 




PLATE VII. 

ELEOCHARIS MONTANA, (R. & S.) 




PLATE VIII 

FIMBRISTYLIS THERMALIS, (Watson). 



86 SO Ul HERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE:^. 

^ FIMBRISTYLIS Vahl, Enum. 2:85. 

Annual or perennial herbs, with culms leafy at base. 
Spikelets terete, several or many-flowered. Scales all fertile, 
spirally imbricated, mostly deciduous. Perianth none. Stamens 
1-3. Style 2-3-cleft, often flattened and ciliate, enlarged at base, 
but wholly deciduous at maturity. Achenes lenticular or 3- 
angied. 

A genus of 150 species, or more, mostly, of tropical or sub- 
tropical climes; sparingly represented in North America. The 
following is the only species reaching our region. 

1. Fimbristylis thermalis, Watson, U. S. Geo. Expl. 40th 
Par. 5:360; Bot. Cal. 2:223. 

Perennial by horizontal, jointed, scaly rootstocks; culms 
few-clustered, flattened, scabridous, 4-6 dm. tall; leaves 2-3 
mm. wide, rough-margined, shorter than the culms; involucral 
leaves 2-4, much shorter than the rays, subulate, with broad 
pubescent bases ; umbel compound, rays 3-8 ; spikelets 5-15, 
ovoid, becoming oblong at maturity and 2cm. long ; scales pale 
brown, concave, oblong, 4 mm. long, the midrib excurrent as 
a stout mucro at the obtuse apex; stamens 3, the filaments 
flattened and the anthers tipped with a subulate appendage; 
style ciliate, 2-cleft ; achenes ash colored, shining, minutely per- 
pendicularly striate, obovoid to globulose, 1mm. long. 

In soil moistened by warm water. Arrowhead and Water- 
man Hot Springs, 1750 ft. alt., in the foothills of the San Ber- 
nardino ^Its., near the town of the same name; Parish. It has 
been collected at hot springs at several places in Kern and 
Inyo counties, and in Ruby Valley, Nevada. The type was col- 
lected in Owens Valley. 

"^ Plate VIII Plant : the umbel at the left in flower, thai at the 
right mature, the scales mostly fallen away. a. Scale X6, 
b. Achene, X12. 

The Bees of Southern California. V. 

BY T. D. A. COCKERELL. 

Xylocopa. 

Fulvous, with fulvous pubescence; very large 1 

Black 2 

Dark blue or green 5 

1. Abdomen largely fuscous (Khasia Hills, India).... 

ruf escens, Smith. 

Abdomen entirely fulvous (So. Calif) 

varipimcta, Patton, male. 

2. Large, over 25 mm. long (So. Calif) 

varipuncta, Patton, female. 

Smaller, less than 20 mm. long 3 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 87 

3 . Clypeus yellow ( California orpif ex, Smith, male. 

Clypeus dark 4 

4. Top of head greenish, face with light hair (Surinam) . . 

: barbata, Fabr., female. 

Top of head black, face with black hair (California) . . 
orpifex, Smith, female. 

5. Bottle-green (Northern California) . .Calif ornica, Cresson. 
Dark steel-blue (So. Calif) 

Calif ornica arizonensis (Cresson.)* 

Xylocopa varipuncta. Patton. 

Collected by Dr. Davidson at Los Angeles; I have taken it at 
the same place. It ranges east to Tempe, Arizona, where 
it has been taken in numbers by Mr. Irish. It is very inter- 
esting to find that an Indian species (X. rufescens) is so like 
the male of varipuncta that it is difficult to point to any 
important distinction. However, in rufescens both sexes 
are fulvous. My material of rufescens is from Mr. Sladen. 
X. fimbriata. Fabr., is said to have been taken in the 
Yosemite Valley, but I have little doubt that the specimens 
were varipuncta. X. fimbriata is a neotropical species ; the 
most northern record that can be trusted seems to be 
Tepic, Mexico. It is easily distinguished from varipuncta 
by the fact that the female has a ridge on the vertex of the 
head, interrupted in the middle, and laterally elevated into 
conspicuous tubercles. 

Xylocopa orpifex, Smith. 

Obtained by Dr. Davidson at Los Angeles, Rock Creek and 
Tehachapi. It goes north to Oregon, and is one of the most 
characteristic bees of the Pacific Coast. 

Xylocopa calif ornica arizonensis, (Cresson). 

Collected by Dr. Davidson at Los Angeles ; it goes east to New 
Mexico, and Dr. L. 0. Howard has collected it as far south 
as San Jose de Guaymas, Mexico. In Northern California 
it is replaced by the true californica. I reduce arizonensis 
to subspecific rank because it seems to have no valid struc- 
tural characters, and the color is not altogether reliable. 
Mr. J. A. Gr. Rehn has very kindly compared Cresson 's types 
of californica and arizonensis, and finds that both have the 
tubercle before the anterior ocellus in the female. The 
color is very different, but Mr. Rehn says that one of Cres- 
son 's types of californica has the abdomen colored as in 
arizonensis. 
*The species from other regions are included for comparison. 
Anthophora. 

There are several species of Anthophora, belonging to the sub- 
genus Amegilla, Friese, in which the hind-margins of the 



SS SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMy OF SCIENCES. 

abominal segments have a chalky- white, ivory-colored or 
occasionally quite yellow appearance, not at all due to 
hair. At first, they look very like the species with white 
or whitish hair-bands, but a close examination shows that 
the color is in the tegument itself. The males of these 
species may be distinguished as follows : 

Face-marks white or whitish 1 

Face-marks yellow 5 

1 . Thorax with black and dull white hair mixed ; sides of 

clypeus very broadly bordered with black ; apex of 
abdomen with two short spines, (New Mexico) . . . 

cleomis, Ckll. 

Thorax without black hair 2 

2 . Hair on thorax pale yellowish 3 

Hair on thorax dull white or grey 4 

3. Clypeus with subbasal black spots (Illinois) 

Walshii, Cresson. 

Clypeus with subbasal short black lines (Colorado &c.) 
Smithii, Cresson. 

4. Clypeus with subbasal black spots; apex of abdomen 

with a concave truncation (New Mexico) 

marg-inata, Smith. 

5 . Thorax with black hair 6 

Thorax without black hair 7 

6. Length 13 mm. (Mexico) , tarsata, Dours 

Smaller (So. Calif) tarsata subtarsata, n. gubsp. 

7. Hair of thorax fulvous (California to New Mexico) . . 

calif ornica, Cresson. 

Hair of thorax whitish (Los Angeles, Calif) 

quinquefasciata, Provancher. " 

There remains one species, A, texana, Cresson, of which the 
male is unknown. The female has the hair of the thorax 
ochraceous, slightly mixed with black. 

Anthophora tarsata subtarsata, n. subsp. 

One of each sex taken by Dr. Davidson at Los Angeles. The 
female is a little less than 12 mm. long, and agrees with the 
description of tarsata except that it is smaller, the hairs 
on the sides of the ventral segments of the abdomen are 
white (pale fulvous in tarsata), the brush on the end of the 
first joint of the hind tarsi is ferruginous (black in tarsata), 
and the legs are black (expect for the hair) with only the 
tarsi dark ferruginous. It agrees in size with A. texana 
(from Texas), but differs by the hair on face and cheeks 
being ochraceous (white in texana), the apical part of the 
mandibles dark reddish (yellowish in texana), the hair of 
vertex and thorax being copiously mixed with black, and 
the abdominal segments beyond the first having much short 



SOUTHERA CALIFORNIA ACADEMy OF SCIENCES. 89 

black hair. The male is a little over 11 mm. long, similar 
to the female but with the labrum, clypeus, supraclypeal 
band, lateral face-marks, large mark on mandibles, and 
under side of scape all yellow (reddened by cyanide in the 
specimen studied). The thoracic pubescence is quite bright 
fulvous, mixed with black. The apex of the abdomen is 
broadly rounded, with a deep median notch; not at all 
spinose. Legs colored as in the female ; middle tarsi simple ; 
hind femora greatly swollen ; hind tibiae broad and thick, 
with a strong apical tooth; basal joint of hind tarsi broad, 
ferruginous, with two teeth, the first one much the longest. 
There is a small black spot on each side of the clypeus. 
I had thought that this might possible be A. quinquefasciata, 
Provancher, which I have not seen; but Provancher de- 
scribes the thoracic pubescence as "blanche," and says 
nothing about any intermixture of black ; neither does he 
mention any spines on the hind tibiae and tarsi. 

BOMBUS. 

Bombus californicus, Smith. 
This handsome species is easily known by its black color, with 
the hair on the anterior part of the thorax, and a band on 
the hinder part of the abdomen, yellow. The typical cali- 
fomicus has the hair of the head black, but in the variety 
columbicus (Dalla Torre) the hair of the face and the mid- 
dle of the top of the head is yellow. In the specimens seen 
by me, the malar space of the female is considerably larger 
in californiCTis than in columbicus, and for this reason I am 
strongl.y inclined to restore the latter to the rank of a 
species. It would be a matter of considerable interest for 
the naturalist ^of California to investigate the matter, and 
see whether the two kinds ever come from the same nest. 
Dr. Davidson has collected both kinds at Los Angeles, and 
the true californicus also on Catalina Island. A worker of 
columbicus was obtained by him at Bear Valley. The 
columbicus form was also collected by Mr. Ehrhorn at Alum 
Rock Park, San Jose, Calif., in 1902. 

Bombus edwardsii, Cresson. 

Two taken by Dr. Davidson at Los Angeles. Differs from B. 

californicus in having the hair of the scutellum and base 

of abdomen yellow. As regards the banding of the abdo- 

• men, B. edwardsii is to B. prunellae, as B. temarius is to 

B. juxtus. 

Bombus sonorus, Say. 

San Pedro, common (Cockerell). Visits fioM^ers of Datura 
meteloides early in the morning. A species with the pubes- 



go SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

cence mainly yellow, but black between the wings and on 
the pleura. 

Psithyrus calif ornicus, (Cresson.) 
Taken by Dr. Davidson at Los Angeles and Switzers. This is 
known only in the male, and in all probability it will prove 
to be a male Bombus, like the structurally similar "P." 
elatus. 



Flora of San Clemente Island. II. 

BY BLANCHE TRASK. 

There is but one man who knows San Clemente Island. 
This is John Robearts, and he has lived on the island over 
twenty years. I have named the most remarkable and pictur- 
esque of all the gorges on the north coast "Robearts' Gorge," 
in commemoration of his heroic explorations for the love of na- 
ture in its sternest forms. This gorge can be plainly viewed 
from a ship at sea, its pinnacles uplifted for a thousand feet. 
It lies a half hour's row westward from Mosquito Harbor and 
can easily be recognized. 

Generally, there is that wind from the west ; at times it 
brings a wild storm of sand, when the very air is thick and you 
have to watch your guy ropes from early morn to night, and 
'tis well if even then the breath abates— yet gentle days inter- 
vene when the placidity is dream-like. 

An interesting phenomenon may be constantly observed 
from the heights. Great banks of cloud seem continually to be 
drawn to the highest elevation on the north crest, and when 
about one mile off shore evidently there is encountered an op- 
posing force, for turmoil ensues and dissolution follows, with 
the result that although the larger part of the cloud-rack con- 
tinues its old course and reaches the height, yet another por- 
tion is lost. It hesitates, is carried far out to sea and eventually 
rounds the extreme west end and drifts along the dunes of the 
"Sou '-west Harbor." 

" — Puts forth an arm and loiters,, 
slowly drawn ' ' 

Once observed-twice-thrice ! You begin to think it is more 
than an accidental occurrence. It gratified me afterward to 
find it was made note of by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey. Johnny says it has been going on ever since he can re- 
member. * 

In the deep gorges under these beclouded headlands and 
on the bold steeps is the growth remarkable as would be ex- 
pected. 

Small stunted groves of Lyonothamnus floribundus var. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, gi 

aspleuifoliiis are occasionally met on the south coast heights, 
but it is on the north coast that it ever follows— who can say 
why— ledges of exposed rocks as trails and under these be- 
clouded crests it marches in long defiles like a conquering army, 
one to two feet in diameter ; ten to twenty-five feet high ; strong, 
heavy trunks, and never an entire leaf; it should stand as a 
species by itself; the same tree which thrives in similar expos- 
ures on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands, while on Catalina, 
the trees have a different aspect ; entire leaves, and assume tall 
tapering figures. 

Under these same heights in San Clemente, too, the oaks 
are seen in companies; Quercus tomentella and Q. chrysolepis, 
low and defiant often, with gray dead tops and outspread limbs ; 
gnarled trunks one to two feet in diameter; you can skirt the 
coast-line in a skiff and look up and count the companies of the 
oaks and Lyonothamnus trees by defiles as you pass rowing; 
count them to the very summits. 

The descent from the heights to the sea in these regions 
is perilous in the extreme. Clovers are four to six feet high, 
Trifolium tridentatum being the most common growth, is so 
dense under the feet that neither trail nor rocks can be dis- 
cerned and you have to feel your way with hands and feet over 
jagged rocks, while the strong clovers trap you at every step 
like vines. 

Trifolium Palmeri is common, nearer the sea than T. graci- 
lentum or T. tridentatum. 

Besides all these hindrances, there is yet to be mentioned 
the chains which guard San Clemente Island, whose links are 
caves innumerable. It is a relief to the eye to come across a 
stretch which has not its gaping rents ; the gorge is everywhere 
present and the rock-strewn terrace and the leaping arroyo ; 
but the light of the caves is the Convolvulus macrostegius. 

There is one open mouth on the "nor '-west" coast where 
the Dendromecon flashes— never in truer glory or more pro- 
fusion of bloom. It was also seen towards the East End at the 
heads of some of the precipitous dips, seven years ago, though 
of course not so large as in this protected mouth. 

Antirrhinum speeiosum is as common in every break as are 
the boulders which take their places as sand on the beaches ; 
happy under all circumstances ; enkindling the darkest gulches 
where the o'er-toppling walls are shutting out the sky. 

Cereus Emory traverses the entire south coast, swinging 
from many a gaping cave, while Opuntia prolifera increases in 
numbers as you near the East End, until it fairly besets the 
trail, making it a serious undertaking for foot of man or beast. 
Opuntia Engelmanni var. littoralis is not frequent, but seems to 
bloom profusely and to bear well in an occasional spot. 



92 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

Dr. Rose finds two new species of Stylopliyllum and 
strangely enough, one hides in the west end and one at the east 
end of the Island— S. albidum and S. virens respectively. 

Johnny tells me Viola pedunciilata is singularly fragrant 
— "like the odor of peaches"; I found only the crisping pods 
and seeds. 

White flowers, or white with veins of magenta, abound 
amid the ordinary magenta ones of Mirabilis California. 

A new Astragalus spreads its silver leaves along the golden 
sands of the West End dunes ; this is to be Robeartsii 
Eastwood, while A. Nevinii looks out at the "Sou 'west" Arrow- 
head Point and seems by its very isolation to be preserved for 
future ages, its shaggy mantle of black hair recalling at once 
A. Traskiae found on San Nicolas Island, although the latter is 
a more handsome plant. 

The Mesembryanthemum crystallinum at the west end very 
properly gives you not a thought beyond recognition of its usual 
happy style ; but when it leaves its dunes and is .your comx- 
panion for miles and miles on the outspread uplands, you be- 
gin to give it more thought and to see that its sway is re- 
markable. Johnny says it increases yearly, and can recall when 
it never left the dunes. It now runs almost to the center on the 
tableland heights, to the exclusion of nearly all other plant-life ; 
it soaks boots and leggings and makes "time" impossible in 
its region. 

The little Eschscholtzia ramosa (which could never be 
confounded with Eschscholtzia Californica by any one who 
had been familiar with the former in the field, is often met in 
arid places, six to twelve inches high, its flowers usually not an 
inch in diameter, with ever a strange glaucous light upon its 
leaves. 

A tree daisy truly is Encelia Californica found in "Chalk 
Cliff Canon ; ' ' one to four inches diameter and ten to twelve 
feet high. 

Euphorbia misera holds a little colony of its own in the 
most picturesque of all the arrow-head points, where, in a 
broken edge, it is one to two feet high and one to three inches 
in diameter, with peculiarly blunted branches and creeping 
ways. 

Ii? many a moist nook of the great north coast gulches, 
thrives a Ribes, appearing strangely domestic and robust in 
these surroundings; becoming tree-like, even twelve feet high 
and eight inches in diameter, although it is usually shrubby. 

The Prunus, which grows in all parts of San Clemente 
where it can gain a foothold, should be given specific rank; it 
is identical with the one at Catalina Island, which is not the 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 93 

variety of Ilicifolia that it has been made. In the deep re- 
cesses of San Clemente's gorges, it attains a height of thirty 
feet with as great a spread, and measures one to three feet in 
diameter. The fruit is luscious — its pulp a quarter of an inch 
thick. The pits have been sent to Santa Ana to the experi- 
mental gardens, where Professor Pierce hopes to reduce the 
stones and increase the pulp, thus securing to California a 
cherry which will thrive in low-lands. 

In one locality, Crossosoma Calif ornicum was seen — a few 
shrubs ten feet tall crowded into a cleft, yet in both flower and 
fruit; a peculiar form of Rhusvata is on the same height, 
about four feet high shrubby. 

Adenostoma is found on the arid heights of the north 
coast and Ceanothus macrocarpus at rare intervals ; both ten 
to twelve feet high and one to six inches in diameter. 

Sambucus glauca is a handsome tree in northern slopes, 
while Lonicera finds a few moist and shaded spots in which to 
thrive. 

In one locality— an old harbor — Brassica nigra flourished 
six feet tall. 

Senecio Lyoni stars the land, along with "the turquoise 
flower," Gilia Nevinii; with the fiery little snap-dragon Antir- 
rhinum speciosum common ; and along the sea-edges 
Eriophyllum Nevinii abides and, remembering the frequency of 
the dainty clover, Trifolium Palmeri, you have in San Clemente 
a galaxy, one plant of which is worth going a hundred miles 
to see. 

The memory of a. little clump of Lycium at the ' ' Nor '-west 
harbor" was fresh in my mind upon my second trip last year; 
it looked different from usual and was of course not L. Cali- 
fornicum, which covers vast areas to westward; both fruit 
and flower upon my second trip confirmed my suspicions. Miss 
Eastwood sends word it is none other than Lycium Richii, the 
only known plant in the United States being at Avalon, al- 
though, to be sure, it is common in Baja California. 

Finding Aphanisma blitoides along the sea-cliff edges and 
Malva exile in old Indian mounds was typical of what is known 
of their habits on Catalina. 

Rhus integrifolia is here a shrub generally, although in 
favored situations it is over one foot in diameter. 

Rhamnus crocea is an occasional sight in the south coast 
arroyos ; old and gnarled trunks twelve to eighteen inches 
diameter. 

A gay rose-pink Cnicus Occidentalis is not typical, but 
occasional here. 



94 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

In the dunes Franseria and Abronia maritima and A. 
umbellata are seen. 

The blending of Collinsia bicolor is on all the favored 
nooks toward the Pyramid Head, East End. 

One shrub of Baccharis holds forth alone in the treeless 
region of the west end; while in the hot days of last Novem- 
ber in the south arroyos, I came across two or three shrubs 
which appeared to be a "sp. nov." of Baccharis, according to 
Miss Eastwood. 

At the far sand reaches of the east end one Atriplex 
Breweri(?) stands besides the sea; in November a beautiful 
sight of waving golden bloom eight feet tall. 

A long disputed ciuestion of species of Suaeda was settled 
by finding a desired development on San Clemente shores; an 
insular form seen on San Nicolas and Sta. Barbara Islands. 

The little Saxifraga blooms brightened all the arid west- 
ern regions in November, bursting as by magic through the 
liard soil; also Eriogonum nudum and E. gigantea were fre- 
quently beheld; while Atriplex expansa was ever "tumble 
weed" in the trail, an actual encumbrance. 

A new Malacothrix overhung many an inaccessible gorge 
in October and November, with its great masses of lavender 
flowers in atonement for its rank leaves ; another Compositae 
which was not in bloom, was found in better condition in 
June and may prove a Hazardia interesting ; also yet another 
species of Hazardia was discovered in a remote canyon. 

Galium Catalinense was often seen in happy state-climbing ; 
Lotus Traskiae in some localities, though rare ; a strange Cas- 
tilleia here flourishes, with rich canary-colored bracts shrubby, 
two to four feet tall. 

On the main southern flats in May, Plantago Insularis and 
Oligomeris were common; while Phacelias lay along the trail 
like bits of fallen sky. 

Lamarkia aurea, the "Knight's Plume" of Catalina 
waves also here. ' 

An old Lupine which has long gro^m at Catalina and 
M^iich seem to be a variety of L. truncatus was frequently seen 
in San Clemente Island also, besides other Lupines which 
sprang easily in that rich old soil. 

Lavatera assurgentiflora was twice found— one tree eight 
inches in diameter — looking into the sea from a cliff near 
IMosquito Harbor; another in a region of Pot's Valley pointed 
out to me by Johnny; it was a foot in diameter and twelve feet 
high : low and bent and splitting at base. 

Johnny tells me that formerly there were many "Malva 
Rosas" as he calls them: some even on the south coast; mostlv 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 95 

eaten by cattle in years when feed was scarce. He recalls 
their forming groves. 

Malva parviflora grows in abundance near Gallagher's; is 
often six feet tall. 

Marubium vulgare is to be seen at the "Nor '-west Harbor" 
along with Salicornia in fine condition in a sort of marsh- 
inland. 

A peculiar form of Oenothera, for long years known at 
Catalina, is to receive recognition at last. Common near the 
sea, prostrate — with curling bark — woody at base. 

An "island" of Hemizonia fasciculata above Pot's Valley 
attracts wonderment amidst the sea of Mesembryantheum 
which surrounds it. 

Hemizonia Clementina Brandegce is a shrubby form which 
is often seen one to two feet tall towards the westward; this 
also grows in Catalina. 

The gay flowers of Pentstemon cordifolius which merit 
the common name of "Coral String" given them in Catalina, 
surprise you in many an opening in a gorge on the north 
coast. 

PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

"Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden," Vol. 3 No. 10. 

"Poultry Management," Maine Agriciilt. Exp. Station. Bulletin No. 100. 

' ' Plantal Yueatanae, ' ' Fie^d Columbian Museum, Val III, No. 2. Bo- 
tanical Series. 

"Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Association of 
Economic Entomologists," U. S. Dept. Agricult. Biilletin No. 46. 
Entomology. 

"Experiment Station Record," U. S. Dept. Agricult. Vol. XV. No, 8. 

"Spindle Formation in the Pollen — mother — cell of Cassia tomentosa. " 
L. bv Henri T. A. Hus. Proceedings of the Cal. Acad. Sciences, 
Vo\ '2, No. 2. Botany. 

"Missouri Botanical Garden, Fifteenth Annual Report." 



Transactions for May, 1904. 

ASTRONOMICAL SECTION. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Section was held this evening 
at the usual hour and place. In the temporary absence of the chair- 
man the meeting was called to order by the secretary, and Mr. B. E. 
Baumgardt was appointed chairman pro tem. This being the con- 
stitutional time for the annual election of officers, that business was 
entered upon, resulting in the choice of Mr. Wm. H. Knight as chairman 
and Mr. Melville Dozier as secretary for the ensuing year. The acting 
ehiairman then read an extract from "Nature," giving the views of 
Prof. Mendeleef, a noted chemical philosopher, relative to the more 
attenuated gases of space, in which he contravenes Thompson 's theory 
of electrons. 

The paper gave rise to some interesting discussion, participated in 
by Dr. Bullard and Mr. Baumgardt, but without definite conclusion. 

Mr. Baumgardt called the attention of the Section to the import- 
ant astronomical constructions and improvements projected and under 



96 SOUTHERN CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

way at Mount' Wilson and Mount Lowe, under the supervision of Prof. 
Hale of the Terkes Abservatory and his associate astronomers. 

This is justly regarded as a matter of congratulation, not only 
on behalf of the Astronomical Section, but as Tvell on the part of the 
entire Academy and the community at large. 

Chairman Knight having arrived, with th* speaker of the evening, 
the chair was surrendered to him and in the course of certain felicitous 
remarks, he introduced Bishop Warren of the Methodist General Con- 
ference. The Bishop, who is the author of some works on astronomy, 
and a man of broad culture and accurate scientific attainments, pro- 
ceeded to entertain and instruct the Section in a most delightful 
manuer. 

In eloquent terms he depicted the fascinating beauties of astronomy, 
intermingling with the serious and the severely scientific much of his 
dharming wit. 

At the close of Bishop Warren's address, the chairman presented 
the subject of La Place's "Invariable Plane," indicating the views 
of certain eminent mathematical astronomers in regard thereto, and 
illustrating the same by diagrams. 

After some discussion of this topic by the chairman and Mr. 
Baumg-ardt, the meeting adjourned. 

MEL^T:LLE DOZIER. Secretarv. 

Mav 16. 1904. 



BIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

The meeting was called to order by the chairman. The minutes of 
the last meeting were read and approved. 

A brief report on the Trichina spiralis illustrated by a microscopic 
specimen was presented by Mr. Whiting. 

Prof. Ulrey reported that Prof. LTngo de Pries was going to carry 
on extensive investigations at the L'niversity of California during the 
coming summer, on the problem of the Origin of Species. 

Prof. A. B. LTlrey was elected chairman and C. A. Whiting was 
elected secretary. 

The lecture of the evening was given by Dr. Leonard, City Bacteriol- 
ogist, on Some Bacilli related to the Baeilli of Tuberculosis. 

The lecture was instantly interesting and highly practical. The 
lecturer pointed out the fact that there are certain barteria which live 
upon grass whose staining reactions are the same as the bacillus of 
tuberculosis. The speaker expressed the opinion that the bacilli of 
human tuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis are identical, but stated 
that further investigation is necessary to positively prove their identity. 

A great many questions bearing on the pra'ctical side of the work 
of the bacteriologist were asked and were clearly answered by Dr. 
Leonard. 

About forty-five members and visitors were present. 

The Section adjourned to hold its final meeting for the year on the 
second Mondav in June. 

C. A. WHITIXG. Secretarv. 

May 9, 1904. 



VOL. III. 



OCTOBER, 1904 



NO. 7 



BULLETIIsT 



OF THE 



ooutfiern Cafifornia Academy of ociences 

COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 
Theo. B. CoMSTOCK, S. D.; A. Davidson, C. M., M. D.; Wm. H. Knight. 



CONTENTS ; 



Page 



Important to Members, Editorial 97 
Annual Reports — Secretary .... 99 

Treasurer 101 

Section Reports — Astronomy ...101 

Biology, Geology 102 

Publications Received 103 

Transactions — Academy 104 

Sections 105 

Directors 106 

Government Game Refuges Al- 

den Sampson, A. M 108 



Flora of Clifton, Arizona, 

A. Davidson, M. D 110 

Astronomical Notes, Edited by 

Wm. H. Knight Ill 

Announcements, Oct. -Nov., 1904.112 

Recent Literature 113 

Constitution and By-Laws 115 

List of Members 123 

Officers, Etc 128 



Yearly Subscription, 



PUBLISHED BT 

THE ACADEMY, MONTHLY EXCEPT 

JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

1.00 



Single Copies, 25 cts. 



" Entered September 18, 1903, at Los Angeles, Cal,, as second-class matter, 
under Act of Congress. July 16, 1894." 



MAILCD OCTOBER 27, 1904 



Important to Members 

The Board of Directors has instructed the Committee on 
Publication to employ> every possible means to make the Bulle- 
tin an efficient means of communication with the members of 
the Academy, and we indulge the hope that our endeavors 
may lead to greater interest than has heretofore been shown 
in the important aims of this worthy organization. 

But we are compelled to be frank and to inform the mem- 
bers that the financial support given to the Board is now 
entirely inadequate to the needs. A little effort on the part of 
each to add to the membership will mean much in growth and 
increased influence of the Southern California Academy of 
Sciences. See that ycur dues are promptly paid, and secure 
one or more members. IT WILL PAY YOU WELL. 

A very important step was taken by the Board m accepting 
the courteous offer, by the authorities of the Southern Cali- 
fornia State Normal School, of the use of suitable rooms for 
the meetings of the Academy and its sections, the limited 
quarters at the Chamber of Commerce having proved expensive 
and inadequate. 



98 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The position occupied by the Southern California Academy 
of Sciences is too little understood in this community. Quietly, 
but steadily, for a dozen years, a little band of devoted workers 
has been building up an organization which is accomplishing 
much good in two important directions. 

First — We do not believe that its own members fully 
realize the extent of its contributions to knowledge of local 
natural history. 

Secondly— The Academy has stood for the popularization 
of Science, not by cheapening nor by lowering the standard, 
but by presenting to the public in simple language the results 
of technical research in various branches. 

There is a spirit in the Board of Directors and in the 
several working sections, which will not permit any falling off 
along these lines. So far as lies in the power of the officers, 
each succeeding year will show adequate gain in strength and 
effectiveness. Already the Bulletin, the official mouthpiece of 
the Academy, has taken high rank for its contributions in 
special lines of Science. We must not stop where we are. 
Surely there are men and women enough in Southern California 
who are in sympathy with the purposes of this organization to 
provide by annual dues for the mere sustentation of such an 
institution in our midst. One good friend, whose modesty 
keeps his name out of this writing, has always shown his faith 
by his works; but among the many whose means are ample, 
there are few to rise to a clear perception of what space our 
Academy actually fills in the moral and intellectual life of this 
region. It is not too late, but neither is it too early, to lay 
plans for wider growth and greater influence. We sorely, 
sorely need a home of our own, centrally located, where the 
library we are accumulating and the museum we can have 
without asking may be housed securely, and where the willing 
hands we have at command may undertake the tasks which 
belong to us, and. not to those who now perform them from 
afar with funds supplied elsewhere. 

What will you do, kind reader, as your share in this under- 
taking? What will you do today? If not a member, aid us by 
joining the Academy, not only to increase needed funds, but 
to encourage us by your presence at lectures and by sugges- 
tions from your experience. If already one of us, do not rest 
content until you have told others of our plans and work. If 
you are benefited, help us to enlarge the sphere of our influ- 
ence by adding to the membership. 

This issue of the Bulletin is especially designed as a cam- 
paign document. Our motto is : "-Never let np, never let downV 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 99 

Annual Report* of the Secretary to May 1 , 1 904 

To the Board of Directors of the Southern Galifornia Aeademy of 
. Sciences: 

Genitlemen. : I herewith present the report of the Southern California 
Academy of 'Sciences for the fiscal year 1903-1904. 

Th© Sessions opened September 11, 1903, and closed May 2, 1904. 

This, the 13th year of activity of the Southern California Academy 
of Sciences, has ibeen one of unusual interest and value to its members. 
The numiber of lectures given by the Academy amd its Sections was 28; 
these have been confined to scientific subjects. While, perhaps, the at- 
tendance has, on the whole, not beem as satisfactory as in former years, 
it has, nevertheless, been as large as could be expected, bearing in mind 
that the Academy has ibeem constraine'd t'o hold its Sessions in the resi- 
dence section of the city. 

The attendance has also been 'S-uch as to indicate that the purpose of 
the Academy lectures should be to lay special stress on popularization 
of science. 

Summary of Lectures by the Academy and Its Sections. 

"Late Eesults in Celestial Photography," by B. E. Baumgardt. 

' ' Earthquakes, ' ' by F. C. Crosby. 

"Scientific Commercial Standards," by Alvin H. Low. 

"Ether and Gravitational Matter," by Edward L. Larkin. 

"Deposits of Alkaline Salts," by Julius Koebig. 

' ' The Cactaceae, " by A. D. Houglhton. 

'■ ' Radium, ' ' by Edgar L. Larkin. 

"The Sun as the Lighthouse and Furnace of the Earth," by John 
W'O'Oidbridge. 

"Origin of Petroleum," by C. J. Callahan. 

"The Technique of Blood Examination," by Louisa Burns. 

"Concerning Fleas," by J. J. Bivers. 

"The So-ealleid Kissing Bug," by Anstruther Davidson. 

"The ManufactuT-e of Explosives," by E. H. Fosdick. 

"Oxygen," with experiments, by Wm. M. Friesby. 

"Sweden," by B. R. Bammgardt. 

"Herbert Spencer's Symposium," by President Comstock, RaJbbi S. 
Hecht, Elizabeth Cheney, W. A. Spaulding, W. A. Cheney, B. E. Baum- 
gardt. 

"Malaria," by F. B. Gamber. 

"Physical Geography and Geology of Brazil," by Theo. B. Corn- 
stock. 

' * The Nissl Bodies, ' ' by Louisa Burns. 

" Radio-Aetivity of Metals," by E. M. Wade. 

"Anemia and Leiukemia and Ehrlich's Theory of Immunity," by 
C. A. Whiting. 

"Food and Food Products and Their Adulterations," by Julius 
Koeibig. 

"Midwinter Birds of Los Angeles, Etc.," by Joseph Grinnell. 

' ' Autogeny and Phylogeny of ttie Eye, ' ' by Lyman Gregory. 

"The Sun" (illustrateid), by George' E. Hale. 

"The Larval Balanoglossus, " by B. M. Davis. 

"The Clhemical Geology of Sedimentary Deposits," by Frank I. 
Shepherd. 

"The Relation of Electricity and the X-Eay to Radioactivity," by 
O. Shepard Barnum. 



100 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

"Mineral Formation and Crystalization, " discussed by G. Major 
Taber and Theo. B. Coimstook. 

"The Principles of Logarithms and the Paradox of the Conchoid 
Curve, ' ' by B. R. Baaimgardt. 

"Some Bacilli Related to the Bacilli of Tuberculosis," 'hj Dr. 
Leonard. 

"Cliff Dwellers of the Southwest," by Mrs. Charles Nelson Greea. 

"The Trisection of an Angle," by Melville Dozier. 

"Desert Views and Desert Development," by Joihn Stewart. 

"Polarization of Light," illustrated. S. J. Keese, demonstrator, 
with explanation by Messrs. Dozier, Whiting, Houghton and Comsitock. 

Financial.* 

Received from, membership land dues $591 . 00 

Gift from Mr. J. D. Hooker 100.00 

Total $691.00 

Paid over to Treasurer $691 . 00 

There has been added to the Academy during the year one life mem- 
ber, Dr. Theodore B. Comstock. 

The only source from which the Academy draws its incomie at pres- 
enr is the membership dues. These are barely sufficient to cover itihe 
expenses, which are principally made up of the expense of publishing the 
Bulletins, hall rent and lantern services. The Secretary, therefore, de- 
sires to take this opportunity of expressing the hope that all members, 
in the future, will pay their dues promptly and that eadh member will 
also consider himiself a committee of one for the purpose of bringing in 
new members to the Academy and especially, if possible, so-me life mem- 
bers. The Aeademy needs funds for various undertakings which, on 
account of the expenses involved in same, it finds itself unable at present 
to undertake. 

B. R. BAUMGARDT, Secretary. 



Professor Melville Dozier, Vice President of the State 
Normal School, now President of the Academy, is peculiarly 
fitted for the honor justly conferred upon him. His work for 
years as a member of the Board of Directors and as an officer 
of the Astronomical Section, as well as his important papers 
read before the Aqademy and Section evince great interest in 
the aims and purposes of the Academy, and he has taken hold 
of the new duties with an earnestness which bespeaks good 
I)rogress in the current year. — [Editor.] 



*The Constitution provides for an annual meeting of the Academy in 
May, at which time it is expected that the reports of Secretary and 
Treasurer will be presented. Inasmuch as the Treasurer goes out of office 
at the beginning of June and his final report must be made up to May 31st, 
there is liable to be some discrepancy in the receipts reported by the two 
officers. This will be overcome by the new rule of the Board placing the 
collections in the hands of the Treasurer. At tlie first meeting of the new 
Board in June, 1904, the Auditing Committee reported the accounts of the 
Treasurer correct and in order, the difference apparent in the two reports 
at the Annual Meeting in May having been due to the above cause. By 
closing the Treasurer's books in June the discrepancy disappeared. — [Ed.] 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES lor 

Annual Report* of the Treasurer to May 31, 1 904 

To the Board of Directors, Southern California Academy of Sciences: 

Gentleinien: I have the honor to submit the following financial re- 
port for the fiscal year ending May 31, 1904. 
Reported receipts by A. Davidson, Treasiirer, May 1 to Sept. 21, 

1903 (including amount on hand May 1) $357.99 

Reported disbursements 306 . 98 

Balance turned over by former Treasurer $ 51.01 

Total receipts from Secretary, Sept. 22, 1903, to May 31, 1904 $468.88 

Total receipts by present Treasurer $51£'.89 

Total disbursements by present Treasurer 519.11 

Balance on liand May 31, 1904 $ .78 

Disbursements, as below: 

Printing of Bulletins and notices of meetings $286.11 

Rent of hall 210.00 

Sundry expenses (colleccions, advertising, hire of lantern, etc.).. 23.00 

Total $519 . 11 

Outsitanding accounts are fairiy offset by uncollected dues of mem- 
bers, there being practically no siirplus above running expenses. 

Respectfully, 

G. MAJOR TABER, Treasurer. 



Report* of Section of Astronomy for Year 
1903-1904 

The Section has held regular monthly meetings during the year, with 
fairly good attendance and excellent interest in the subjects presented 
for consideration. 

The topics considered during the year have covered quite a wide 
range, including some that were purely astronomical, and otihers that 
were astro-plhysical. 

The December meeting was of unusual initeresit, having been de- 
voted to a s^Tnposium on the life and character of Herbert JSpencer, par- 
ticipated in by Sieveral members of the Academy and by several schol- 
arly gentlemen from Tvithout. 

At the January and February meetings the Section was highly fav- 
ored by the pTesenee of Professor Hale of the Yerkes ObservaJtory, who 
delivered most interesting and instructive lectures on the Sun, a subject 
on which he has become a recognized authority. 

In connection with Professor Hale 's work the Section congratu- 
lates itself and the Academy and the scientific interests of the com- 
munity at large that the favorable conditions of our atmosphere have 
induced the authorities of the Yerkes Observatory to establish a station 
for so^ar study and observaition on Mount Wilson. 

This is an enterprise that appeals to th^e appreciation of every 
citizen but especially to that of the Academy of Sciences. 

At the March and April meetings of the Section, the topics were 
in the field of pure mathematics, being respectively the principles and 



I02 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

practical value of logaxithms, the properties of tlie conchoid and of the 
cycloid curves and the method of trisecting an angle, all of "which de- 
veloped points of real interest to the members. 

At the May meeting the Section enjoyed another rare treat in. the 
presence of Bishop Warren of the Methodist Conference, a man of aa- 
tronomieal erudition and reputaxion,- "who m.ade a delightful address 
before the Section. 

The Section is greatly indebted to its energetic and capable Chair- 
man for the well sustained interest in its monthly gatherings. 

MELVILLE DOZIEE, Secretary. 

WM. H. KNIGHT, Caiairman. 



Annual Report* of Section of Biology 

I have the honor to make the following report of the work done in 
the Biological Section of the Academy for the year: 

During the year ending June, 1904, the Biological Section has held 
nine meetings. The average attendance of the meetings has been about 
forty. The subjects discussed in these meetings are of such deep in- 
terest and are so creditable to tthe^ Section that I present you with a list 
of all of the formal lectures: 

Dr. A. D. Houghton, "The Caetaeeae.'^ 

Dr. Louisa Burns, "Blood Examinations and tihe Nissl Bodies." 

Dr. C. A. Whiting, "Anemia and Leukemia and Ehrlich's Theory 
of Immunity. ' ' 

Prof. Joseph Grinnell, "The Mid-Winter Birds of Los Angeles and 
the Geographical Distributon of Animals." 

Dr. B. F. Ga-mber. "Malaria." 

Dr. Lyman Gregory, "The Autogeny and Phylogeny of the Eye." 

Prof. B. M. Davis, ' ' The Larval Balanoglossus. ' ' 

Dr. Leonard, "Some Bacilli Belated to the Bacilli of Tuberculosis." 

Aside from the formal lectures, which I have presented, there have 
been a great number of very interesting and valuable discussions. 

At a considerable number of the meetings there have been exhibi- 
tions of microscopical preparations, some of them of deep scientific 
interest and others very interesting from a popular standpoint. 

Every effort will be made next year to make the work of the 
Section of even greater value to its meonbers and to the public than 
it has been in the past. 

Yery respectftillv submitted, 

C. A. WHITIXG, Secretary. 

A. B. ITLEEY, Chairman. 



Annual Report of Section of Geology for Year 
Ending June, 1904 

The meetings have been well attended and much interest has been 
sihown throug'hout. 

September 28, 1903, Prof. Julius Koebig, city chemist, lectured on 
"The Deposits of Alkaline Salts" and their method of formation. 

October 26, Mr. C. J. Callahan gave an interesting talk on the 
' ' Origin of Petrolettm. ' ' 

Xovember 23, Prof. E. H. Fosdick favored us with a very instrue- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 103 

live lecture on "Explosives, Their Manufacture, etc.," exhibiting sam- 
ples. 

December 28, President Theo. B. Comstock delivered a highly in- 
■structive and en'tertaining lecture on "Physical Geography and Geology 
of Brazil." 

January 25, 1904, Mr. E. M. Wade gave a talk on "Eadium," 
■exhibiting the millionth part of a grain, and was followed by Dr. 
Arthur Hougihiton on " Eiadio-Activixy of Metals." 

FeiBruary 22, Prof. Frank I. Shepard of University of California 
read a very inteTesting paper on "The Chemical Geology of Sedimentary 
Deposits." 

April 25, Mr. G. Major Taber had a paper on "Mineral Formation 
and Crystalization, " and exhibited several specimens. President Corn- 
stock followed, treating the subject from a scientific standpoint. 

May 23, Ex-President Wm. H. Knight read an initeresting poem on 
the Tribolite, and Mrs. Charles Nelson Green of Colorado gave a very 
interesting paper on the ' ' Cliff Dwellers of the Southwest. ' ' 

Owing to the inclemency of the weather, the meeting intended for 
March was necessarily postponed. We sihall hope in the coming year 
to make all meetings of still more value and interest than they have 
been in the past. 

G. MAJOR TABER, Secretary. 

GEO. W. PARSONS, Chairman. 



Publications Received 

"Some Miscellaneous Results of the Woa-k of the Division of Ento- 
mology." Entomology Bulletin No. 44 U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

' ' Carnegie Museum Annual Report, 1904. ' ' Pittsburgh, Pa. 

"The Farm Separator." U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of 
Animal Industrj-, Bulletin No. 59. 

"The Southwest Society of the Archaeological Institute of America. " 
"Something About Its Aims and Its First Year's Work." 

"A List of the Publications of the U. S. National Museum." 
Smithsonian Institute Bulletin No. 51. 

"A Fossil Egg From Arizona." University of California, Geology, 
Bulletin No. 19. 

" Eueeratherium, a Js'ew Ungulate From the Quaternary Caves of 
California." University of California, Geology, Bulletin No. 20. 

"Report on the Habits of the Guatemalan Cotton-BoU-Weevil Ant." 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Entomology, No. 49. 

* ' The Useful Properties of Clays. ' ' U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Circular 17. 

"Methods for the Detection of Renovated Butter." U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Circular 19. 

' ' Parergones del Institute Geologico de Mexico. ' ' Tomo I, No. 2, 
pp. 3-26, 3 PL, 1904. I. ' ' Notes on Physiography, Geology and Hydrology 
of Lower California." By Dr. Ernest Angermann. (Translation.) H. 
"Area Covered by the Eruption of the Volcano Santa Maria, October, 
1902." By Dr. Emilio Boese. (Translation.) 

"Annals of Carnegie Museum" (Pittsburgh). Vol. II, No. 4. Au- 
gust, 1904. 

' ' Mining. Magazine. ' ' New York, Sept., 1904. Vol. X, No. 3. 

"American Journal of Archaeologv. " 2nd Ser. .July-September, 
1904. Vol. VIII, No. 3. 



I04 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

TRANSACTIONS 

I. SESSIONS OF THE ACADEMY. 
1. Academy Keception, June 6, 1904. 

The Annual Eeception of the Academy was held a.t the residence of 
Mr. S. J. Keese, 1509 Shaxto street, on Monday, June 6, 1904, at 8 p. m. 

The President of the Academy, Dr. Theo. B. Gomstock, presided and 
Geo. W. Parsons was chosen Secretary pro tern in the absence of the 
regular secretary, Mr. Baumgardt. 

The Treasiirer presented ihis final report, which was received and 
filed after explanation of apparent differences ibetween it and the re- 
port of the Secretary, due to closing at different daites. 

Eeports of the Sections of Biology, Astronomy and Geology were 
filed in writing by the respective secretaries after Iseing duly read and 
received by the Academy. Dr. S. M. Woodbridge, Secretary- of the Sec- 
tion of Agricultural Ohemigtry, also gave an interestiug verbal report 
of the year 's work. 

All these Section reports show careful and patient work during the 
past year and increasing interest along the several lines of study and 
research, auguring well for the future of the Academy. Mr. Keese, the 
host, then gave an exhibition of Microscopic Projections of Crystals and 
other objects showing the beautiful effects of polarization, explanations 
being made at the same time by Dr. Whiting with physiological speci- 
mens and Professor Dozier of the principles of polarization, in very 
clear and interesting talks, they being followed by Dr. (Jomstock and 
Dr. Houg'hton, who also elucidated clearly and concisely some technical 
points. 

A vote of thanks was then tendered Mr. Keese for his kindness and 
trouble in providing entertainment. 

Dr. Theo. B. Comstoek retired from his office as President of the 
Academy, in a few well chosen words, and Professor Dozier assumed 
the ofiiee with expressions of congratulation for work done faithfully 
and ably by the retiring president. Dr. Gomstock responded, thanking 
all for the earnest and hearty support given him during his two years 
of administration. Dr. Whiting, in strong terms of praise for wliat Dr. 
Gomstock had accomplished, proposed resolutions of thanks, to be 
spread upon the minutes and an engrossed copy sent to retiring presi- 
dent. Dr. Houghton heartily seconded the motion, which was carried 
unanimously, the resokitions to be drawn up by the movers thereof and 
duly presented. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

GEO. W. PARSOXS. Secretary Pro Tern. 

2. Regular Session, September 5, 1904. 

The first general meeting of the Academy for t.he season of 1904- 
1905 was held at the Ghamber of Commerce hall Monday evening, Sep- 
tember 5, 1904, President Melville Dozier in the chair. It was ad- 
dressed by Prof. Wm. H. Pickering, of the Harvard Observatory. He 
spoke of his recent observations of the moon, made in the clear skies 
and "good-seeing" atmospihere of (the Lowe Observatory on Echo 
Mountain. He had detected what he believed to be evidences of 
activity and possibly of vegetable life on the moon. He noticed that, 
after the long lunar night of two weeks, small patches of white would 
turn to a grayish or brownish hue under the powerful rays of the sun 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 105 

in the lomg luttar day. Also that deep cracks or ravines — lat first almost 
black— changed to a grayigh 'tint and broadened out to a measurable 
extent. He accounts for tihie latter phenouieuon by assuming that 'there 
is a little moisture beneath the surface in 'these localities, and that 
the iheat of the sun melts tbe frozen crystals and instantly transforms 
them into vapor which rises to the surface and fills the depressions, 
broadening out to visibility. 

Eegarding the brown patches, he thinks there may be a low form 
of vegetation capable of quick growthj and development, whidh would 
account for the slight change in color perceived from the vantage site 
of the Lowe Observatory, but also previously noticed at the Arequipa 
Observatory in the high Andes, over which Prof. Pickering presided for 
some years. Other astronomers have noted these lunar markings and 
their verity is now conceded, but there is not a perfect agreement as 
to their cause. 

Eeferring to the so-called canals of Mars, Prof. Pickering believes 
they are caused by the same agency, but acting on a larger scale, and 
on a body in which the atmosphere and vapor are not wholly absorbed 
into the interior. He does not admit that there are any seas on the 
surface of Mars. Btit the canal appearance is produced by vapor 
being exuded from long, deep cracks and spread along the margin to 
such an extent as to make the phenomenon visible under good-seeing 
in our powerful telescopes. 

Prof. Pickering's lecture was preceded by Secretary Baumgardt's 
account of an interesting gathering of astronomical workers on Mount 
Wilson. Prof. Geoirge E. Hale, Director of the Yerkes Observatory; 
Dr. Herbert H. Turner, Director of the Oxford University Observatory; 
Prof. G. W. Eitchey, Optician of tbie Yerkes Observatory, and Prof. 
Wm. H. Pickering of the Arequipa Observatory in South America were 
among the distinguished astronomers Mr. Baumigardt met on that oc- 
casion. They were on Mount Wilson inspecting the new instrument 
now being installed by Prof. Hale for furtherinig reseaTches into the 
constitution of the sun. This instrument is a coelostadt, and tiie tube, 
five feet in diameter, is 145 feet in length, and imbedded in solid 
granite. The tube is horizontal and fixed, a large plane, movable 
mirroT Teflecting objects froim every portion of the tieavens into the tube 
where the image is magnified to any desired degree. The summit of 
Mount Wilson is 5886 feet above sea level and about thirty miles north- 
east of Los Angeles. It was selected from among many other sites 
examined as being the most suitable from which to conduct Prof. Hale's 
asitrophysieal investigations of the sun. 

President Dozier announced that an arrangement has been effected 
with the Trustees of the State Normal School which gives the use of 
one of the halls to the Academy of Sciences for its general and section 
meetings on each Monday evening during the season of lf'04-1905. 

WM. H. KNIGHT. 



II. MEETINGS OF SECTIONS. 

No meetings of Sections are held in June. The Board of Direc- 
tors, by advice of the Chairmen, on account of the difficulty of getting 
speakers and gathering audiences earlier than October, ipassed a resolu- 
tion susrpending the meetings of aid Sections in September, also. Eegular 
meetings will be resumed in October, at the State Normal School. 



w6 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Section of Geology, April, 1904. 

(Througili inadvertence tlie following brief minute of the April meet- 
ing of the Section of Geology was omitted from the May Bulletin, the 
■ proceedings of the Section for May being substituted therefor.) 

The regiilar meeting of the Geological Section was iheld at the 
Cha-mber of Commerce hall April 23d. In the absence of Ohairman 
Parsons, Dr. Theo. B. Comstock presided. After the reading of an 
amusing poean on the Trilobite by Mr. Wm. H. Knig'h't, the Chainnan 
and Secretary introduced Mrs. Charles Nelson Green, Vice Eegent of 
the Cliff Dwellers' Association of Colorado, who gave an interesting ac- 
count of the Cliff Dwellers of the Southwest. Witih some reference to 
the various speculative theories of the origin of the Cliff Dwellers the 
speaker remarked that the once abundant foot prints in the arid lands 
of Colorado, Utah, Xew Mexico and Arizona of millions who once in- 
habited those regions have long since passed away. The traces of their 
occupancy are noTv to be found in the utensils, pottery and mummified 
remains wihich constitute, with tlie relics of their dwellings, their legacy 
to history. S'he described the evidences of their mode of life to be 
gleaned from pictures on t'he rocks and from remains of their homes 
sculptured out of the rocks or walled up tenements on the cliffs. 

In the profitable discussion which followed, remarxs were made 
"by the speaker and by Mrs. C. E. Olney, Messrs. Knight, Butterworth, 
Comstock and others. 

At the close of the meeting tli-e officers of the Section, Mr. Geo. W. 
Parsons, Chairman, and Mr. G. Major Taber, Secretary, were re-eleeted 
to serve for the vear 1904-1905. 

G. MAJOE TABEE, Secretary. 

III. DIRECTORS' MEETINGS. (Not Previously Reported.) 

The Board met May 13, 1904, at the Office of President Comstock, 
who occupied the chair. All members present except Mr. Hooker. Mr. 
M. E. Preston was elected to membership in the Academy. Mr. Geo. 
W. Parsons tendered his resignation as member-elect of the Board for 
the following year, and the same was accepted. 

An earnest discussion followed on the prospects for a permanent 
home for the Academy. Dr. Woodbridge, who had previously been ap- 
pointed a committee of one for this purpose, reported progress in the 
matter. 

Voted that the Constitution and By-laws and list of members be 
printed in the next number of the Bulletin. 

A num'ber of bills were approved and ordered paid. 

B. E. BAITMGAEDT, Secretary. 

The Board met at 1:00 p. m., June 4, 1904, at the Office of President 
Comstock, who presided. Eeport of previous Board Meeting, May 13, 
was read and approved. The report of Auditing Committee was re- 
ceived and referred back for adjustment of reports of Secretary and 
Treasurer to an equivalent date, as of June 1, 1904, in accordance with 
the Constitution, with instructions to audit the Treasurer's accounts and 
report at first meeting of the new Board. 

Professor A. H. Chamberlain, of Throop Institute, of Pasadena, was 
elected to membership. 

Upon motion of B. E. Baumgardt, voted that in the future all col- 
lections of membership dues and other resources of the Academy be at- 
tended to by the Treasurer, with the aid of the Assistant Treasurer,. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 107 

tlius relieving the Eecordiag Secretary of all responsibility for these 
collections. 

Vo'ted tbat the membership dues be hereafter pro-rated by 'dhe 
month, for the first year, of persons joining the Acade^my aflter the be- 
ginning of the fiscal year. 

Adijo'urned sine die. 

B. E. BAUMGAEDT, Secretary. 

Board met at Chamber of Commerce Committee Eoom on Tuesiday, 
June 7, 1904, at 4:30 p.m. President Dozier presided. Present, Messrs. 
Comstock, Knight, Taber, Parsons and Baumgardt. To fill the vacancy 
in the Board of Directors caused by the resignation of Mr. G. W. Par- 
sons, Dr. C. A. Whiting was unanimously elected. 

Mr. Parsons, "wihose resignation had previously been accepted, is 
returned to the Board by virtue of his election as Chairman of the 
Section of Geology. 

Mr. G. Major Taber was re-elected to the office of Treasurer of the 
Academy. 

Voted that, unless the financial condition of the Academy be im- 
proved, the Bulletin' shall be issued quarterly, beginning with the issue 
for Octoiber, 1904. 

President Dozier announced the appointment of the Standing Com- 
mittees, as provided by the Constitution, the Secretary being added to 
the Program Comanittee by vote of the Board at this m.eetinig. 

(See list of Standing Committees elsewhere in t'his Bulletin.) 

Adjourned'. 

B. E. BAUMGAEBT, Secretary. 

Board met at Chamber of Commerce Committee room at 4:30 p.m., 
September 12, 1904. President Dozier presiding. All members present 
except Mr. Hooker. 

President Dozier announced that the authorities of the State Normal 
iSchool had granted permission to use such rooms as may be required on 
Monday evenings, for the meetings of the Academy and its (Sections, 
the necessarj' expenses of such meetings to be paid by the Academy. 
The courtesy was gratefully accepted and an unanimous vote of thanks 
tendered. By vote of the Board the weekly meetings will hereafter be 
held at this place. 

This disposing to some extent of the hindrance from lack of funds, 
it was resolved to continue the monthly issue of the Bulletin for the 
remainder of the calendar year, in the hope that enough interest may be 
aroused to enable the Publication Committee to continue the same 
monthly next year. 

Mr. B. E. Baumgardt, Secretary of the Academy, was chosen as 
Delegate to the International Congress of Arts and Sciences to convene 
at St. Louis September 19-25. 

A proposition of Dr. Davidson to recommend to the Academy a re- 
duction in the amount of annual dues now assessed was discussed and 
made special order for the next meeting of the Board. 

Voted that no meetings of Sections be held in the month of Septem- 
ber this year. 

Adjourned. 

B. E. BATJMGAEDT, Secretary. 



1 08 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



Governments Game Refuges 



* 



BY ALDEN SAMPSON, A. M., HAVERFORD, PA. 
( Read before the Academy Oct. 3, 1904) 

The arguments here adduced are the result of personal 
observations and special studies made in a trip, aggregating 
some thirteen thousand miles, during the summer of 1903, 
while engaged in inspecting forest reserves of California and 
Washington for the purpose of selecting tracts to be set aside 
as refuges and breeding grounds, and to enable the representa- 
tive of the Government to report intelligently on this general 
plan of Game Refuges. 

The existing conditions are not conducive to the most 
satisfactory results in game preservation, so far as the control 
of public forest reserves is concerned. It is my o'wn opinion 
that the Department of Agriculture, through its efficient Bu- 
reau of Forestry, should have the charge of the forest areas. 
The Land Office, a bureau of the Interior Department, is now 
in actual control of the reserves, although the Bureau of For- 
estry — a scientific, non-political body — is often supposed to 
be responsible for what it has no power to prevent. It should 
be clearly understood that, however free this department may 
be to act in certain directions, it cannot prevent depredations, 
the kindling of forest fires, or the destruction of game, except 
in very limited degree. 

The idea of establishing game preserves, as such, is not 
new. In Europe, e. g. in Russia, Germany and Great Britain, 
certain wild animals have long been protected by governmental 
edict, not always from motives higher than the assurance of 
pastime for royalty or the maintenance of the chase among 
the gentry. Game laws are not rare in our several states, and 
to a certain extent, more especially with the smaller species, 
these are fairly effective hindrances to extinction of wild ani- 
ntals. In the case of big game, however, several causes have 
operated to distract attention of law-makers and public spir- 
ited citizens, who have rested secure in the belief that possible 
danger from excessive breeding is a convincing argument in 
favor of the "let alone" policy. Such persons could not have 
been aware of the ruthless slaughter which has been going on 
for decades past, and which has resulted in all but extinction 
of several types of the larger animals, such as the Bison, 
Grizzly Bear, Elk, Antelope and Mountain Sheep. Fortunately 
the refuge afforded by the Yellowstone Park has checked this 



*The author of the paper of which an abstract is here given, was 
recently Game Preserve Expert in the U. S. Biological Survey. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 109 

devastation, at least in the cases of the bison, antelope and elk, 
and the experience thereby gained has taught good lessons for 
our future guidance. 

Whether the control of the forest reserves shall pass to 
the Bureau of Forestry, or otherwise, there can be no more 
appropriate site for big game refuges than within these tracts. 
The same spirit which was the cause of reckless waste of 
wealth in timber, through forest fires and the grazing of sheep, 
is evident in the wanton destruction of hordes of game for the 
mere lust of killing, which is as far removed from sportsman- 
ship as bloody war from the homely arts of peace. But the 
craft of the hunter is now more sorely taxed by the cleverness. 
of the hunted, who have come to know their danger and to 
flee from it. It is surprising how quickly the pursued learn 
to realize the safety of the refuge tracts. This fact disposes 
of all the force there might be in the argument that the reser- 
vation of such protected areas will destroy the rightful hunter's 
privilege, and require the segregation of vast areas of unpro- 
ductive territory. 

From careful observation and experience elsewhere, it is 
now very apparent that the best results M-ill come from small 
refuges, say about four townships, or twelve square miles, scat- 
tered with considerable intervals intervening. 

There is far more immediate danger, and greater future 
menace to vested interests and the progress of civilization, in 
the threatening devastation by tame sheep than could ever 
arise from undue multiplication of the most ferocious wild 
animals. As a matter of fact, bears and mountain lions do not 
attack man unless wounded. Sheep do untold injury by 
browsing on the short vegetation, nibbling close enough to kill ; 
by destroying the young forest growth, the future dependence 
for all forest products of value ; their sharp hoofs cut out the 
roots of grasses and grind the soil to dust, which is washed off 
by rains. In this way untold damage ensues, not only to the 
forests, but to the farms in the valleys, which depend upon 
the undergrowth of these forests to retain the water for regu- 
larity of distribution. 

California's — nay the world's — greatest living prose poet, 
beloved John Muir, has stated that every great public issue of 
a similar nature requires about ten years of unswerving devo- 
tion from its votaries before it may become an accomplished 
success. We can wait, therefore, not without hope, for already 
the sentiment, which first bitterly opposed the work at hand, 
is changing enough to ensure respectful hearing. I thank you 
cordially for the support you have given by your attention and 
sympathy upon this occasion. 



no SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Flora of Clifbon Dist»rict», Arizona 

BY A. DAVIDSON, M. D. 
(Paper read before Section of Botanj' Oct. 18, 1904) 

In due course of time some enterprising botanist will give 
ns. if not a flora, at least a local list, of the plants of Arizona. 

Arizona possesses probably the most interesting and varied 
flora of any state in. the Union. Many of its plants are consid- 
ered rare and local, but this "rarity is probably more apparent 
than real. The greater part of the country is practically un- 
known to the naturalist and many years must elapse before the 
work of exploration is even superficially performed. 

The lack of facilities for travel and accommodation are 
the least of the difficulties. The climatic conditions are the 
deterrent factors. Contrary to the usual belief, Arizona is by 
no means an arid country. The average rainfall, even in the 
south, is probably at least seven inches and in the north it is 
more. The greatest precipitation is normally in the summer 
time, beginning with the 1st of July and ending the end of 
August, or middle of September. The winter's snow or rain- 
fall appears in January and December. Thus there are two 
floras, contingent on the rainfall in spring and autumn. To 
thoroughly explore any district the same ground would require 
visiting after each rain, but the summer rains are so unequally 
distributed that a locality explored one spring might not re- 
ceive sufficient summer rain for the two or three seasons fol- 
lowing. 

Last autumn I visited Chase Creek and found it practi- 
cally destitute of vegetation, while the country ten miles away 
was a carpet of green. These experiences are common. As 
you go botanizing in the summer time, with the thermometer 
around 90 degrees at midnight, you clothe yourself in a silk 
shirt and a pair of duck trousers and pray for rain, and when 
it catches you on some rocky slope or treeless plain in the form 
of a cold, drenching thunderstorm you pray again for warmth. 
Altogether the conditions are not favorable to good and philo- 
sophic work. 

As many years are likely to elapse before the country is 
sufficiently closely explored to give a clear idea of the distribu- 
tion of its numerous species, any list of plants now published 
will prove of immense value to future investigators. 

In this number I have begun the publication of the plants 
secured by me in the neighborhood of Clifton. The district 
covered extends from the New ^Mexico border near Duncan, 
twenty-five miles south of Clifton, to the Blue River, a tribu- 
tary of the Frisco, nearly twenty miles north of Clifton, and 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES iii 

west along Chase Creek for twelve miles. The River Frisco, 
with its tributaries, traverses the district, as it flows southwards 
to join the Gila about twelve miles below Clifton. 

LIST OF PLANTS. 

Anemone sphenophylla Poepp. Clifton. Longfellow. 
April. 

Aquilegia chrysantha Gray. Moist banks Chase Creek and 
Blue River. May. 

Thalictrum Fendleri Eng. var. Wrightii Trealease. Met- 
calf. July. 

Clematis Drummondii T. & G. Fairly common. Septem- 
ber. 

R. cjnnbalaria Pursh. Gila River at Guthrie. May. 

Myosorus minimus L. River at Clifton. May. 

Eschscholtzia Mexicana Greene. Common. May. 

Corydalis aurea Willd. var. occidentalis Eng. Frequent 
along shaded river banks. 

Wislizenia refracta Eng. On the Gila banks at Sheldon. 
October. 

Cleome integrifolia T. & G. Locally abundant in sandy 
soils. May. 

Polanisia trachysperma T. & G. Widely distributed May 
to October. 



ASTRONOMICAL NOTES. 

EDITED BY WM. H. KNIGHT. 

The new instrument which is being installed on Mount Wilson by 
Director Hale of the Yerkes Observatory, will be known as the Snow 
Memorial Telescope, and is Dhe largest of the kind in the world. This is 
made possible by the liberal contribution of Miss Snow in connection 
with an appropriation of $13,000 from the Carnegie research fund. In 
connection with this great instrument there will be spectographs, spec- 
troheliographs, and the finest astronomical apparatus possible to obtain. 
It is expected that it will be ready for research work in December of 
this year, and will be used in observing the phenomena of sunspots and 
solar disturbances during the maximum sunspot year of 1905. 

Regarding the possibilities of this research work Professor Hale 
says: "The solar observer may be the spectator of physical and chem- 
eial experiments on a scale far transcending any 'that can ever be per- 
formed in a laboratory. In this enormous crucible, (the sun), heated to 
temperatures greatly exceeding those attainable by artificial means, im- 
mense masses of luminous vapor, including most of the elements known 
on earth and many not yet discovered here, may be seen undergoing 
changes and transformations well calculated to assist in the explanation 
of problems which the .laboratory cannot solve. ' ' 

An important astronomical event is the return of Encke's comet 
under favorable conditions for observation, similar to those of 1805, 1838, 
and 1871. It will be at perihelion January 4, 1905. Its nearest approach 
to the earth will be about 35,000,000 miles, when, early in December, it 



112 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

may be visible to the naked eye near the star Altair. It will be five 
degrees north of Beta Pegasi on November 1, its course being westward. 

Sir David Gill of the Royal Observatory at Cape Town has deter- 
mined the parallax of the star Antares as 0.021 sec, making its distance 
in round numbers one quadrillion miles. From photometric considera- 
tions J. E. G-ore computes the mass to be 88,000 times thac of our sun. 
"If/' says Prof. Edgar Larkin, "its density is equal to that of our sun, 
the diameter of that stupendous world would be 37,000,000 miles, or 
about equal to the radius of the planet Mercury." 

There is confirmaton of the existence of a ninth satellite revolving 
around the mighty system of Saturn, far out in space beyond all the 
satellites of that body hitherto known. It was discovered by the photo- 
graphic method, by Professor Wm. H. Pickering, with the Bruce 24-inch 
telescope at Arequipa, Peru. This new moon has been given the name of 
Phoebe by its discoverer. 

ANNOtnsrCEMEjSTTS FOE OCTOBER-NOVEMBER, 1904. 

Many members of the Academy were enabled to enjoy the illustrated 
lecture of Mr. Alden Sampson at the Woman's Club House, on Friday 
evening, September 30, through the courtesy of the Friday Morning Club 
and the local section of the Sierra Club, by whom the invitations were 
given. 

We have also to express thanks to the Ebell Club for their esteemed 
invitation to the Academy to join with them in welcoming Sir John 
Murray, who was expected at their meeting on Monday afternoon, Octo- 
ber 11. We share their regret at the contretemps which delayed their dis- 
tinguished guest, depriving all of delectable and profitable entertainment. 
But later, upon the arrival of Sir John in the city, it became possible to 
arrange a joint meeting of the Ebell and the Academy at the State 
Xormal School, when the lecturer aroused much enthusiasm by his very 
interesting and important address upon the subject of " Oceanology. " 

The Section of Biology met Monday evening, October 10, at the 
Xormal School, the program being varied and of the nature of general 
discussion upon current topics. These occasions are always profitable to 
members and others who attend. 

The Section of Botany met October 18, 8 p. m., at Eoom 501, Laugh- 
lin Building. Dr. Anstruther Davidson spoke on ' ' The Botany of Ari- 
zona, " to which he has given particular attention in the field. We are 
able to give an abstract of his paper in this issue of the Bulletin. 

The regular session of the Section of Geology will take place at the 
Xormal School, Monday evening, October 24, when Mr. J. B. Lippincott, 
supervising engineer of the Eeelamation Service of the U". S. Geological 
Survey, for this district, will outline the work of his division. Xothing 
can now occur of more general interest or importance to the welfare of 
this community, and we bespeak for him a large attendance of members 
and their friends. 

The Academy will have a lecture on the evening of Xovember 7, by 
Dr. Theo. B. Comstock, on the subject: "Wild Xature in the Eocky 
Mountains, Around and About Yellowstone Park," illustrated by lantern 
slides, mostly colored. Dr. Comstock was the geologist of Capt. Wm. A. 
Jones' Expedition in 1873, which discovered four passes not previously 
recorded on any map, among them two which had been pronounced myth- 
ical theretofore. The lecturer has collected a large number of views of 
remarkable and very little known scenery and natural groups of wild 
animals, many of which cannot be duplicated. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 113 

The several Sections are preparing interesting and profitable pro- 
grams for November, ibut we go to press too early to give decails in 
this place. 

RECENT LITERATURE. 

Tlie Annual Report of the Carnegfie Museum, Pittsburg-h, for the year 
ending March 31, 1904, possesses interest to us in Southern California in 
several ways. First, it shows what can be done by enliglitened public 
spirit assisting and assisted by donations from tliose who have the good 
sense to appreciate the prime value of scientific worli and museum col- 
lections as educational and reflning influences. Secondly, it adds to our 
discredit for the meager accomplishment liere, by disclosing the purclrase 
of A. W. Anthony's collection of ten thousand birds of the Pacific Coast, 
taken out from under the noses of local men of money. But still more, 
we liave let go to this same museum a valuable collection of plants from 
Soutliern California, sold by Professor H. M. Hall, of Berkeley. Thirdly, 
it stands as an example of what opportunity lies open to us, if only we 
can get togetlier funds enough to make a decent start in conserving what 
i.s near to our hands. The experience of the Southwest Society of the 
Archaeological Institute of America, in simply pushing- to the front clearly 
indicates that ripe fruit needs plucking here in Los Angeles, and the 
harvest awaiting the reapers of the Academy of Sciences is far more 
abundant than many of us realize. "Let us then be up and doing"." (C.) 

"A Possil Eg-g" From Arizona" is the title of a paper by Wm. Conger 
Morgan and Marion Clover Tallman, issued as Bulletin No. 19, Vol. 3, of 
University of California Publications. The specimen was found embedded 
in a pebble picked up from gravel on the Gila River. Its age, though 
not absolutely determinable, was probably as old as the Quaternary (Pleis- 
tocene) Period. The markings of the shell and the interior structure are 
well preserved, and the condition of the contents affords proof of actual 
transformation of animal tissue into bituminous matter. The bulk of 
the inner space is filled with the mineral, colemanite, with small patches 
of a tarry stibstance closely allied to the petrolene series of natural as- 
phalts. The authors fairlj^ demonstrate the impossibility of external 
origin of the tarry ingredient. (C.) 

Bulletin No. 20, Vol. 3, of University of California Publications, is a 
paper on "Euceratherium, a New Ungulate From the Quaternary Caves 
of California," by Wm. J. Sinclair and E. L. Furlong. This discovery in 
places in Shasta county, is interesting to technical students, who will 
see in it a link in the chain of ancestry of an important group composing 
the Sheep Family. The name, signifying beautiful-horned wild beast, is 
taken from the gentle curve of the horns, which are smaller than those 
of the Bighorn Mountain Sheep, although the head was larger. (C.) 

"The Useful Properties of Clays," by Allerton S. Cushman, appears as 
Circular No. 17, Bureau of Chemistry, of the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture. The intimate relation of clays to progress in civilization, the back- 
wardness of America in the fashioning of works of art and beauty from 
this material, and the lack of any cause therefor except indifference of 
the people, are briefly presented. Then follows an explanation of the 
reasons for the prestige attained by certain potteries and the final passage 
of celebrated wares into the domain of the lost arts, mainly because of 
very slight differences in chemical composition of the materials used. 
Every deposit of clay is a problem by itself and men skilled in the work- 
ing of one grade may be entirely at a loss how to manipulate another 
which differs only in minute particulars. The claj's of the United States 
are as diverse and as well adapted to the production of art pottery and 
fine porcelains as tliose of Europe; and yet in 1902, 11.5 per cent, in bulk 
and over 56 per cent, in cost, of all clays used in this country were im- 
ported. 

Mr. Cushman gives valuable information on varieties, physical prop- 
erties, treatment, uses and methods of testing. Eighty-eight modes of 
use are given, on the authority of the U. S. Geological Survey, and the 
list quoted does not comprise all that might be mentioned. (C) 

"Informe Acerca de la Fisiografia, Geolog"ia e Hidrologia de los Alrede- 
dores de La Paz, Baja California, por Ernesto Angermann, Dr. Phil." 1904. 
26 p. This document forms the first paper of Vol. 1, No. 2, of the Transac- 
tions of the Instituto Geologico of Mexico. It contains a map made up 
from the previous work of Dr. Gustav Eisen, the Instituto Geologico and 
the imperfect railway maps in the Mexican Official Guide, with correc- 
tions and additions by the author. Upon a tracing sheet superimposed the 
geological terranes are outlined. Interesting facts regarding the topo- 



114 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

graphic divisions, water supply, etc., of the southern portion of Lower 
California are given. (C.) 

"The Southwest Society of the Archaeolog-ical Institute of America; 
Something- About Its Aims and Its Tirst Year's Wort. :Mr. Chas. F. 
Lummis, tireless worker; faithful, persevering and efficient Secretary 
of the local branch of this great scientific body; indefatigable, versatile 
and consistent recorder and elaborator, has, in this illustrated reprint of 
an article from Out "West, entitled "Old Art in America,'" given the his- 
tory of the priceless Cabelleria collection of old Mission paintings, now 
preserved through the efforts of the Southwest Societj-. The Executive 
Committee of this young, but virile organization has sent this out as a 
campaign publication, adding thereto a "Brief Summary" of the first year's 
work of the Society. The thorough work being done in the phonographic 
recording and the harmonizing of Indian and Mexican folk-songs, by 
Messrs. Farwell and Lummis, the vigorous and scientific labors of Dr. 
F. M. Palmer, the most modest, but most competent of local archaeolo- 
gists, in collecting and arranging relics of earlier man in this region, and 
the advanced stage of progress in the plans of the Execeutive Committee 
towards the erection of a Museum in Los Angeles; all these and other 
accomplishments of the Society in much less than one year are grounds 
for great local pride. But when it is understood that no other branch of 
the Institute has ever accomplished anything like this amount of work 
in twice the same time, we are strongly admonished that the Southern 
California Academj' of Sciences must look to its laurels at once. If here- 
tofore, we have not believed enough in ourselves and have been too self- 
confident of the worth of our aims, let us now pursue a more aggressive 
policy and compel the attention of tliose who now neglect their abundant 
opportunity to put where they rightfully belong the potent factors for 
good in this community. 

The Quarterly issue of the Journal of the Archaeologrical Institute of 
America, Vol. 'VIII, No. 3, is replete with details of discoveries in classical 
archaeology \>y the American schools at Athens and Rome, maintained by 
the Institute, and voluminous discussions of archaeologic questions, be- 
sides numerous notes of recent work all over the world. Tliese invaluable 
records are presented in good form and they add one more to the long 
list of contributions to archaic science made by this vigorously active 
organization. 

"El Area Cutaierta por la Ceniza del Volcan de Santa Maria, Octubre, 

1902," by Dr. Emil Boese. is the second paper of Vol. 1, Xo. 2, of Trans- 
actions of Instituto Geologico de Mexico. He scores Dr. Gustav Eisen for 
remarks regarding the distribution of ash by this volcano in Guatemala 
In the eruption cited. In the region visited by the author, where Eisen 
had given the depth from one inch to ten feet. Dr. Boese finds a maximum 
of less than one foot, and in other places cited as important, the covering 
varied from traces to considerably less than one-half inch (less than one 
centimeter.) (C.) 

"Annals of Carneg-ie Museum, Pittsbiirg-h.^' Vol. II. Xo. 4, August, 1904, 
contains article Xo. IX, and an appreciative memorial sketch of John Bell 
Hatcher, whose death leaves a gap which no other student of vertebrate 
paleontology can essay to fill. The sketch is by Dr. W. J. Holland, Direc- 
tor of the Museum and Editor of its publications. Tlie bulk of the 
volume is made up of an exhaustive treatise on "The Birds of Erie and 
Pres(iue Isle, Erie County, Pennsylvania," by "W. E. C. Todd. We cannot 
give space for a proper review of this important contribution to Science,, 
but may note the strong tone of protest uttered by Mr. Todd against in- 
discriminate hunting, rather slaughter, of birds, which occurs in his field 
as in too many other districts in this country. 

Mining- Magazine, September, 1904. The continuation of the Pacific 
Coast Miner as a monthly magazine is evidently meeting with favor, if 
we may judge from the increased advertising patronage in this third 
number under the new form. The articles are timely reviews by appro- 
priate authorities on subjects interesting to those who cannot digest more 
technical treatises for lack of time or preliminary training. For busy 
engineers and otliers who need access to such technical articles, without 
leisure or facilities for assorting from the mass of literature published, 
a very complete mining index is given each month. This, and the able 
Mining Digest, which constitutes a regular department, furnish just what 
is required by amateur and professional in order to keep abreast of the 
world's work in the mining field. The first issue, in July, was excellent, 
but improvement may be detected in each succeeding output. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 115 
( Incorporated March 21, 1902 ) 

CONSTITUTION AND BY=LAWS 

(Adopted October 6, 1902) 
CONSTITUTION 

ARTICLE I. 

NAME AND OBJECT. 

Section i. The name of this Association shall be Southern 
California Academy of Sciences. 

Sec. 2. The objects of the Academy are: 

(i) To promote intercourse among those who are culti- 
vating science; (2) to elicit public interest in the results of 
technical investigation by the dissemination of correct informa- 
tion relating thereto; (3) the study of local natural features 
and phenomena ; (4) the conservation of material illustrating 
local phases. 

ARTICLE IL 

MEMBERSHIP. 

Section i. The membership of the Academy shall consist 
of Active, Affiliated and Corresponding Members, Fellows, 
Patrons and Honorary Members. 

Honorary Members shall be chosen with life tenure, they 
shall be exempt from the payment of dues and shall receive the 
publications of the Academy, but shall not be entitled to vote or 
to hold office. 

Active Members and Fellows shall have the right to vote 
and hold office, subject only to the restrictions imposed by this 
Constitution, and they may acquire life tenure in their respec- 
tive classes under the provisions of this Constitution. Patrons 
and Honorary Members shall be chosen with life tenure, and 
Corresponding Members may be elected with lirnited tenure or 
life tenure at the option of the Board of Directors. 

Sec. 2. Any person living in California, south of Latitude 
37°, may become an Active Member of the Academy upon sub- 
scribing to this Constitution, after formal election as herein pre- 
scribed, and due compliance with the By-laws in force at the 
time of election. 

Sec. 3. All duly qualified members, in good standing, of 
any affiliated local society shall be enrolled as Affiliated Members 
of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. 

Sec 4. Corresponding Members may be elected (with 
limited tenure or life tenure) from duly qualified persons, non- 
resident in Southern California, in the same manner as provided 
for the election of Active Members of the Academy. 



ii6 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Sec. 5. Fellows shall be chosen from among the Active 
Members and Affiliated ]\Iembers of the Academy, as provided in 
Article III, Section 3, of this Constitution. 

Sec. 6. Any person contributing in any one year the sum 
of Five Hundred Dollars shall be classed as Patron, with all 
the privileges of a Life Member. Should such patron be at the 
time a Fellow of the Academy, the status shall become that of 
Life Fellow. 

Sec. 7. Honorary Members may be elected from outside 
the membership of the Academy, in manner prescribed in Article 
III, Section 4, of this Constitution. 

Sec. 8. Life Members and Life Fellows shall be such as 
may commute by the payment of Fifty Dollars at one time, which 
payment shall exempt from all dues thereafter during life, with 
all privileges appertaining to the class to which the member or 
fellow then belongs. 

ARTICLE III. 

ELECTION OE MEMBERS. 

Section i. Candidates for Active Membership shall be 
proposed by two members, in writing, and all such proposals shall 
be acted upon by the Board of Directors. The names of elected 
members shall be announced at the first regular meeting of the 
Academy following election. 

Sec. 2. Corresponding Members shall be elected by the 
Board of Directors. The names of those so elected shall be an- 
nounced at the first regular meeting of the Academy thereafter. 

Sec. 3. Fellows may be elected by the Board of Directors 
in virtue of their scientific attainments or services. All such 
elections shall be by ballot and seven affirmative votes shall be 
necessary to elect. Only Active Members and Affiliated Members 
shall be eligible for election as Fellows. Provided, however, that 
all Active Members enrolled prior to October 1, 1902, shall have 
the option to become Fellows, zvithout formal election, not later 
than November 15, 1902, iipon compliance with the other pro- 
visions of this Constitution and of the By-law\s in force at the 
date of exercising this option. 

Sec. 4. Honorary members may be elected at the annual 
meeting of the Academy, by unanimous vote of the members 
present at said meeting. If the vote be not unanimous, the 
matter shall be at once referred to the Board of Directors for 
final action. 

ARTICLE IV. 

W^ORKING SECTIONS. 

Section i. There may be organized, as occasion warrants, 
separate working sections, corresponding in scope to individual 
branches of science. Each section shall elect its own officers 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 117 

and conduct its scientific work, per se, subject to the limitations 
of the Constitution and By-Laws and the supervision of the Board 
of Directors. All legislative acts passed by any Section shall 
be inoperative until formally approved by the Board. 

Sec. 2. No Section shall be formed without petition pre- 
sented at a regular meeting of the Academy, signed by at least 
five members, of whom not less than three shall be Fellows. Such 
petition shall be read before the Academy and referred to the 
Board of Directors for action. 

Sec. 3. Upon authorization, as provided in Article IV, 
Section 2, the President and Secretary of the Academy, as tem- 
porary officers of the proposed section, shall call a meeting of 
members interested and proceed to organize the section in man- 
ner following : ■ 

1. Calling Meeting to order. i 

2. Reading of Petition and Minutes relating to same. ' 

3. Signing roll by organizing members. : 

4. Election of Chairman and Secretary. 

5. Formal announcement of organization. 

Upon organization, the Section shall adopt a set of By-Laws 
in no way conflicting with the Constitution and By-Laws of the 
Academy, which shall thereupon be submitted to the Board of 
Directors for approval. When so approved and attested by the 
President and Secretary of the Academy, the Section shall be 
regarded as fully established on equivalent basis with any and 
all other Sections of the Academy. 

Sec. 4. All members and Fellows of the Academy shall be 
free to unite with any or all Sections and no Section shall adrriit 
to voting privileges any non-member of the Academy. 

ARTICLE V. 

AI-'FILIATED SOCIETIES. 

Section i. Any local scientific society within the limits 
prescribed in Article II, Section 2, may enter into affiliation with 
the Academy, upon the terms and in manner prescribed in the 
succeeding sections of Article V of this Constitution. 

Sec. 2. Application for affiliation must be made by the 
President and Secretary of the society, upon a bjank form author- 
ized by the Board of Directors, giving evidence that the applica- 
tion is made in accordance with the vote of a clear majority of 
the members of said society, and that the objects and purposes 
of the society are similar to those of the Academy. Each appli- 
cation must be accompanied with a fee of five dollars. 

Sec. 3. Application for affiliation shall first be referred tp 
the Standing Committee on Affiliation, who shall investigate and 
report to the Board of Directors. Notice of favorable action 
by the Board shall be given at the first regular meeting of the 



ii8 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Academy thereafter, and such action shall be regarded as final, 
unless objection be raised by at least two members, when the 
question shall be at the disposal of the Academy by a vote of 
not less than two-thirds of all the members present. 

Sec. 4. Societies affiliated under the provisions of the three 
foregoing sections of this Article V, shall contribute annually 
in advance to the treasury of the Academy a sum equivalent to 
one dollar for each and every voting member of said affiliated 
society, whereupon that number of persons shall be enrolled 
as Affiliated Members of the Academy, with all the privileges 
of Active Members, except the right to vote and hold office. For 
each additional member thus enrolled, the sum of one dollar 
must be paid at the date of enrollment. 

ARTICLE VI. 

OFI^ICERS. 

Section i. At the annual meeting of the Academy and 
at the annual meetings of Sections, there shall be elected a Board 
of eleven Directors, in manner following: 

The Academy shall elect three Fellows to serve as Presi- 
dent, Vice President and Secretary of the Academy, respectively, 
and as many more Directors (from the Active Members or Fel- 
lows) as may be required to complete the number of eleven, 
after allowing one representative from each established Section 
of the Academy. Each Section shall then elect from among the 
Fellows thereof, a Chairman, who shall be the accredited repre- 
sentative of the Section on the Board of Directors. But, should 
any Chairman of a Section be already a member-elect of the 
Board of Directors, then the Section shall elect another repre- 
sentative on the Board of Directors from its own membership. 
Provided that the eleven Directors elected by the Academy in 
May, 1902, shall serve until the expiration of their respective 
term in 1903. 

Sec. 2. The financial and general business transactions of 
the Academy shall be entrusted to the Board of Directors, who 
shall have the care and control of all real and personal property 
and shall receive, disburse and invest all funds of the Academy 
by drafts drawn on the Treasurer by the President and counter- 
signed by the Secretary. 

Sec. 3. At the first meeting of the Board of Directors a 
Treasurer shall be chosen from the members of the Board, whose 
duty shall be to receive and disburse all funds of the Academy 
in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution and the 
instructions of the Board of Directors. 

ARTICLE VII. 

ELECTION OE OFEICERS 

Section i. Annual elections of officers and Directors shall 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES iig 

be held on the date of the annual meetings of the Academy and 
its Sections in the month of May, by method prescribed in the 
By-Laws, and the administrative officers shall be installed at 
the annual meetings of the Academy and Sections in June fol- 
lowing. The incoming Board of Directors shall assume control 
immediately on the adjournment of the June meeting, and the 
officers-elect of Sections shall be duly installed at the June meet- 
ings of their respective Sections. 

Sec. 2. Election of officers and Directors of the Academy 
shall be by ballot, after nominations duly made as herein pro- 
vided, viz : 

Any person entitled to a vote may nominate, in writing, not 
later than March 30th, one candidate for each position to become 
vacant. The names of all candidates so nominated shall be duly 
considered by the Board of Directors, who shall then freely nomi- 
nate an official ticket, which shall be presented at the April 
meeting of the. Academy, together with such other names as. shall 
have been regularly nominated by not less, than ten Active 
Members and Fellows. The ticket, or tickets, thus announced 
shall constitute the formal nominations, to which the voting rt 
the May meeting must be confined. 

Sec 3. Nominations and elections of the officers of indi- 
vidual Sections shall be in accord with the By-Laws governing 
the particular Section at the time. 

Sec. 4. A vacancy occurring at any time in the Board of 
Directors shall be filled by the remaining members thereof for 
the unexpired term ; should, however, such vacancy leave an\' 
Section without representation on the Board, the Section thus 
excluded shall elect one of its own members to serve as Director. 
Vacancies occurring among the officers of the Academy shall be 
filled by the Board of Directors from its own number. 

Sec. No person shall be eligible for re-election to the 
office of President within one year after having served two 
consecutive terms. 

Sec. 6. The Chairman of a Section shall be chosen from 
the Fellow^s on its membership roll. 

ARTICLE VIIL 

AMENDMENTS, ETC. 

Section i. Alterations of this Constitution, amendments 
thereof, additions thereto, or repeal of any portion thereof, may 
be made at any time, by a vote of two-thirds of the Members and 
Fellows of the Academy; provided, that the changes proposed be 
presented in writing at a meeting of the Academy, and that the 
vote be taken at a subsequent meeting, held not less than one- 
month later. 



120 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

BY=LAWS 
ARTICLE I. 

MEETINGS. 

Section i. Regular meetings of the Academy shall be held 
on the first Monday evening of each calendar month, except 
July and August. 

Sec. 2. Regular Section meetings may be held monthly, at 
such times and places as shall be authorized by the Board of 
Directors, without whose formal consent no change shall be al- 
lowed. Special meetings and field meetings may be arranged by 
the Sections without reference to the Board, but they shall be 
reported in advance to the General Secretary, for the information 
of the Board. 

Sec. 3. As far as practicable, the Board of Directors shall 
provide for meetings of the Academy and of the principal Sec- 
tions- at one and the same place. 

Sec. 4. Special meetings of the Academy may be called 
by the President, and shall be called at the request of five mem- 
bers, provided that the particular business to be transacted be 
stated in the call, and that no other business be consummated 
at such special meeting. 

Sec. 5. Special meetings of any Section may be called by 
the Chairman thereof, and shall be so called at the request of 
three members. The special business for said meeting shall be 
stated in the call, and no other business shall be transacted at 
said meeting. 

Sec. 6. Advice of special meetings of the Academy shall 
invariably be given to all persons entitled to vote, by written or 
printed notices, duly mailed, not less than one week in advance 
of the date thereof. 

Sec. 7. Annual meetings of the Academy shall be held in 
the place of the regular May meeting of each year. 

ARTICLE II. 

ORDER OE BUSINESS. 

Section i. The order of procedure at regular meetings 
of the Academy shall be : 

1. Minutes of preceding meeting. 

2. Report of Board of Directors. 

3. Report of Committees. 

4. (Special business.) 

5. Unfinished business. 

6. New business. 

7. Program for the Meetin ^, with discussions. 

8. Adjournment. 

Sec. 2. At regular meetings of Sections the order of pro- 
cedure shall be : 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 121 

1. Minutes of preceding meeting. 

2. Business of the Section. 

3. Presentation and Discussion of Papers. 

4. Enrollment of Members. 

5. Adjournment. 

Sec. 3. At each June meeting of the Academy the oider of 
procedure shall be : 

1. Brief statement of Plan and Scope of the Academy by 
the President. 

2. Annual Reports of Secretary and Treasurer. 

3. Announcement of donations. 

4. Election of Honorary Members. 

5. Necrolog'y. 

6. Program prepared by the Board of Directors, including 
installation of President elect and incoming officers. 

7. Address by retiring President. 

8. Dismissal by President-elect. 

ARTICLE III. 

QUORUM, ETC. 

Section i. Fifteen members shall constitute a quorum for 
the transaction of business at regular and special meetings of the 
Academy, provided that not less than five Fellows be included. 

Sec. 2. Five members present shall constitute a quorum of 
the Board of directors for the transaction of business not other- 
wise restricted by the Constitution. 

ARTICLE IV. 
■ committees. 

Section i. There shall be the following Standing Commit- 
tees of the Board of Directors : 

1. Committee on Publication. 

2. Committee on Finance. 

3. Committee on Membership. 

4. Committee on Affiliation. 

Sec. 2. The Committee on Publication shall supervise all 
publications of the Academy, subject to the control of the Board of 
Directors. No paper shall be published until after being read, in 
person or by title, before the Academy or one of its Sections. The 
Chairman of the Publication Committee shall be the Editor of 
the Bulletin and other regular publications issued under the 
authority of the Academy. 

Se^c. 3. The Committee on Finance shall act in an advisory 
capacity on matters affecting the appropriation and expenditure 
of funds and the application of grants, donations and bequests, 
and its members shall also perform the duties of an Auditing 
Committee, reporting at the Annual Meeting of the Academy 
upon the condition of the books of the Treasurer. 



T22 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Sec. 4. The Committee on ]^Iembership shall be charged 
with the duty of enlisting suitable members by all appropriate 
means. 

Sec. 5. T'he Committee on Affiliation shall investigate all 
applications for affiliation and report to the Board of Directors 
before final action thereon. It shall be the duty of the Committee 
to co-operate with the President in appropriate efforts to extend 
the influence of the Academy among local societies, and to in- 
duce such bodies to become affiliated with the Academy. 

Sec. 6. There shall be a Standing Committee on Program, 
to consist of the President and the Chairmen of all the Sections, 
whose duty it shall be to arrange suitable programs for all regular 
meetings of the Academy, under such regulations as may be pre- 
scribed by the Board of Directors. 

ARTICLE V. 
dues and fees. 

Section i. Each active member, upon election, shall pay an 
initiation fee of One Dollar. 

Sec. 2. Each active member, upon changing status to Fel- 
low, shall pay a Fellowship fee of One Dollar. 

Sec. 3. Annual dues of Active Members and Fellows, shall 
be Three Dollars, payable January ist, in each year. 

Sec. 4. Special dues assessed by any Section, in addition to 
the established dues of the Academy, shall not exceed One Dollar 
per annum. All such dues shall be covered into the Treasury 
of the Academy and applied solely to the current expenses of the 
individual section, unless otherwise especially authorized by the 
Board of Directors. 

ARTICLE VI. 
election of officers. 

Section i. On the day of the annual meeting, polls shall be 
established as near as may be to the regular meeting place of the 
Academy, which polls shall be open not less than two hours prior 
to the hour set .for the meeting. The President shall appoint 
three judges of election to supervise the voting and three tellers to 
count the votes. All these appointees must be selected from 
without the Board of Directors, and no person who is a candi- 
date for any office at such election shall be eligible as judge or 
teller aforesaid. 

ARTICLE VII. 
adoption of by-laws and amendments thereto. 

Section i. By-Laws for the further regulation of the So- 
ciety may, from time to time, be made, and any By-Law or portion 
thereof, may be temporarily suspended by vote taken at a regular 
meeting of the Academy, two-thirds of the members present con- 
curring; but such act shall not be operative unless the names of 
ten Fellows present are recorded in the affirmative. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 123 



LisL of Members 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Coleman, S. E Oakland, Cal. 

McClatchie, Professor A. J 

Montgomery. J. J Santa Clara, Cal. 

Parish, S. B San Bernardino, Cal. 

Swift, Lewis, Ph. D 

LIFE MEMBERS AND FELLOWS. 

(Fellows are designated by the sign *). 

*Comstock, Dr. Theo. B Stimson Bldg. 

*Hendryx, "W. A Douglas Bldg. 

*Hooker, J. D 325 W. Adams St. 

*Watts, W. L 146 W. 28th St. 



124 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



ACTIVE MEMBERS AND FELLOWS. 

Adams. A. G 906 W. Tth St. 

Allin. T. D Pasadena 

^Arnold, Paul 1111 South Hope St. 

Avery, "Wm. H Laughlin Bldg. 

*Bailey, Dr. C. A lOtli St. and Flower 

Baker. Professor C. T Claremont 

Bannister, L. H Station A, Pasadena 

Barlow, Dr. W. Jarvis Wilcox Bldg. 

Barnum. Dr. 0. S Stimson Bldg. 

Barrows, H. P Ontario 

*Baumgardt, B. R 116 N. Broadway 

BaYerstock, Ralph S 322 W. First St. 

Beats. Professor Frederick H 61.5 W. 5th St. 

I>ehrens, H. A Conservative Life Bldg. 

Behrens, R. H Conservative Life Bldg. 

Behymer, L. H ]Mason Opera House 

Benton, Arthur B 114 X. Spring St. 

Berman, Mrs. R 1689 W. Adams St. 

*Bishop, Dr. H. M 2627 Hoover St. 

*Bobrick, G. A 727 San Fernando St. 

*Boothe, Chas. B 82-4 Bonnie Brae St. 

*Borden, Gail 508 Laughlin Bldg. 

Boyle, J. L 507 Carondolet St. 

-*Brackett, Professor F. P Pomona College. Claremont 

*Bridge, Dr. Xorman 217 S. Broadway 

Brigham, Olivia S 401 Court St. 

Brittain, E. A ; 417 W. 7th St. 

Bro^va, Frederick L Garvanza 

*Bullard, Dr. F. D Bradbury Bldg. 

Bureham, Mrs. C. A 700 Burlington Ave. 

Burns, Dr. Louisa S. Pasadena 

*Butterworth. W. A Pasadena 

*Cadv. Dr. Jessie A 10th and Flower Sts. 

*Callahan, C. J 127 N. Main St. 

*Canfield, Wm. J Johnson Bldg. 

Chamberlain, Professor A. H Throop Inst.. Pasadena 

*Chamberlain. J. F Normal School 

Chandler, Harry Times-Mirror Co. 

Chapin, Dr. A. R Altadena 

Chase, Lucius K Laughlin Bldg. 

Cheney, Hon. W. A Stimson Bldg. 

Cheney, H. D Stimson Bldg. 

Clark, J. ]M 152 Lake Ave., Pasadena 

■*Claypole, Dr. Pxlith J Pa.sadena 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 125 

Cole. Dr. Geo. L 1425 S. Hope St. 

Coleman, S. E Oakland 

Collins, H. Henne Bldg. 

Colwell, W. A 105 W. 5th St. 

(/Omer, J. A Laugiilin Bldg. 

Conaty, Rt. Rev. Thomas J 717 S. Burlington Ave. 

Conrad, Dr. A. C 454 S. Spring St. 

Cook, J. A Currier Bldg. 

Cooper, Alice G 202 W. 27th St. 

Crosswell, Prof esor T. R Normal School 

Crow, Geo. R , Consei-vative Life Bldg. 

Crow, Dr. Louise ,P 676 Westlake Ave. 

Cunningham, D. W 627 W. 18th St. 

Cuzner, James California Club 

*Davidson, Dr. Anstruther Laughlin Bldg. 

*Davis, Dr. H. J 2 Chester Place 

*Dozier, Professor Melville State Normal School 

Durand, D. L 509 W. 23d St. 

Eddy, J. W Bryson Bldg. 

Elliott, J. M First National Bank 

Emery, Dr. R .D. 10th and Flower Sts. 

Fargo, Dr. J. F 139 W. Adams St. 

*Fellows, Dr. Alfred 929 S. Main St. 

Fishburn, J. E 2827 Menlo Ave. 

*Pletcher, Charles R Hotel Lovejoy 

Fletcher, "W. H 312 Westlake Ave. 

Follansbee, Dr. E. A. Laughlin Bldg. 

*Foshay, Professor J. A. . , Chamber of Commerce 

French, John B Pomona 

Gardner, Ellen M 717 Burlington Ave. 

Gardner, Mrs. J. W 717 Burlington Ave. 

Gamber, Dr. B. F Johnson Bldg. 

Germain, Eugene 953 S. Hope St. 

*Goodwin, 0. H 321 W. Ave. 37 

Gordon, Dr. F Braly Bldg. 

Gregory, Professor Lyman High School 

Hahn, Anna 743 S. Hill St. 

Hardison, W. L Tajo Bldg. 

Harriman, George 2144 Flower St. 

Hartley, Mary M 1350 Constance St. 

Harrison, Arthur W 330 W. 30th St. 

Hasse, Dr. H. E Soldiers' Home 

*Haynes, Dr. John R 945 Figueroa St. 

Hecht, Rabbi S., D. D 817 Beacon St. 

Houghton, Dr. Arthur D 417 W. 29th St. 

Howe, F. A 1513 Millard Ave. 

*Hoyt, A. S Pasadena 



126 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

*Hughes, Dr. West 500 W. 23d St. 

*Hunt, Dr. J. C Grant Bldg. 

Hunter, Elmer S 334 S. Figueroa St. 

James, Geo. Wharton. . .• Pasadena 

Jevne, H 849 S. Burlington Ave. 

Johnson, A. Campbell Garvanza 

Johnson, Rt. Rev. J. H 523 S. Olive St. 

* Johnson, Dr. J. H. . . 814 W. 7th St. 

Jones, F. D 226 W. 1st St. 

Jones, i\Iary Public Library 

Jones, W. M 721 W. 23d St. 

Kearney, Dr. Elizabeth F ' 2109 Estrella Ave. 

Keese, Samuel J Trust Bldg. 

Kerckhoff, H. H .638 Maple Ave. 

*Kinney, Abbot Stimson Bldg. 

*Knight, Wm. H 1012 W. 8th St. 

Koebig, Dr. A. H Stimson Bldg. 

*Larkin, Professor E. L Mt. Lowe 

Laughlin, Homer, Jr 315 S. Broadway 

*Lee, Dr. J. M. 723 Coronado St. 

Leslie, Professor Geo. P High School 

Loeber, Jacob 326 S. Broadway 

*Low, A. H 1417 Hoover St. 

Low, T. C 1417 Hoover St. 

Lowe, Professor T. S. C Pasadena 

Mabury, Wm 1008 Diamond St. 

*Macleish, Dr. A. L .Bradbury Bldg. 

*Macleod, Malcolm 600 S. Alvarado St. 

McBride, Dr. J. A Pasadena 

*McClelland, Professor E. S Occidental College 

McConville, J. B Lankershim Bldg. 

*Mattison, Dr. F. C. E Pasadena 

Maude, F. Homer 1720 Brooklvn Ave. 

Miller, Charles M 512 S. Boyle Ave. 

Millspaugh, President J. F State Normal School 

Mohr, Paul F Byrne Bldg. 

Moody, Charles Amadon 115 S. Broadway 

*Moody, Dr. J. D Laughlin Bldg. 

*Moody, Mrs. R. San Francisco 

Moore, Lester Tajo Bldg. 

*Nevin, Dr. J. C 1319 Santee St. 

Palmer, Professor Elizabeth High School 

Parker, 0. K Braly Bldg. 

Parkhurst, Dr. Burleigh Douglas Bldg. 

^Parsons, Geo. W , 107 S. Broadway 

^Patterson, W. C Los Angeles National Bank 

Payne, Theodore 440 S. Broadway 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 127 

Perkins, Professor H. B Pasadena 

Petter, A. J 226 S. Olive St. 

*Phinney, Dr. Carl H 10th --r^d Flower Sts. 

Pierce, E. F 125 W. Second St. 

Preston, M. B 412 S. Hope St. 

Randall, Professor Wm. T lone 

*Rendall, Mrs. T. A 905 S. Alvarado St. 

*Rice, Paran F Stimson Bldg. 

Riversoll, Elfigo 525 Laughlin Bldg. 

Robinson, R. D 1108 W. 30tli St. 

Robinson, Rev. George 52:3 S. Olive St. 

*Rogers, Dr. James R Byrne Bldg. 

Russell, Colton 8148 Kingsley St. 

Schaefle, W. J 218 W. 6th St. 

Seymour, Miss CM 746 W. Adams St. 

Solano, Alfred 226 S. Spring St. 

Spaulding, W. A 322 Wilcox Bldg. 

Stabler, L. J 1122 "W. 30th St. 

Stewart, John 1417 E. 21st St. 

Sweet, Mrs. S. M 1211/0 S. Broadway 

*Taber, G. Major Laughlin Bldg. 

*Tasker, Dr. D. L Grant Bldg. 

Toll, Mrs. Eleanor Joy 1941 S. Union Ave. 

Travelyan, G. Hamilton 1435 W. 23d St. 

*TJlrey, Professor A. B 1435 W. 23d St. 

Variel, R. H. F 302 Tajo Bldg. 

*Vischer, Dr. L. G Laughlin Bldg. 

Vosburg, G. N , 1242 Westlake Ave. 

Vosburg, John S 1012 Boimie Brae St. 

*Wade, E. M 318 E. 1st St. 

*Wadsworth, President Guy W Occidental College 

AVadsworth, T. S Douglas Bldg. 

Walker, Rev. H. K., D. D 1718 S. Flower St. 

Washburn, W. J 1st and Broadway 

Wheeler, Mrs. S. A. P San Gabriel 

* Whiting, Dr. C. A Pacific College of Osteopathy 

Wigmore, Mrs. John 949 W. Adams St. 

Wilson, W. H 410 E. 3d St. 

Winter, F. C 

Wood, R. J. C 1926 S. Grand Ave. 

*Woodbridge, Dr. S. M South Pasadena 

*Woodbridge. John, D. D South Pasadena 

Woollacott, H. J 1006 S. Hope St. 

Wright, B. F ., .1812 Winfield St. 

Yates, Wm , 153 W. 22d St. 



1-28 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 

1904-1905. 

Professor Melville Dozier, President. 

Jolm D. Hooker, Vice President. 

B. R. Baumgardt, Secretary. 

G. Major Taber, Treasurer. 

Wm. H. Kniglit, Chairman Section of Astronomy. 

Dr. Anstrnther Davidson, Chairman Section of Botany. 

Professor A. B. Ulrey, Chairman Section of Biology. 

George W. Parsons, Chairman Section of Geology. 

Dr. S. M. Woodbridge, Chairman Section of Agricul. Chem. 

Dr. Theo. B. Comstock. 

Dr. C. A. Whiting. 

Standing- Committees. 
Program — Ex-officio, Dozier, Knight, Davidson, Ulrey, Par- 
sons, Woodbridge, Baumgardt. 

Publication— Comstock, Davidson, Knight. 
Finance— Parsons, Whiting, Hooker. 
Membership — Taber, Woodbridge, Baumgardt. 
Affiliation — Knight, Ulrey, Davidson. 

Secretaries of Sections. 

Astronomy — Professor Melville Dozier. 
Botany— Colton Russell. 
Biology— Dr. C. A. Whiting. 
Geology— G. Major Taber. 
Agricultural Chemistry— E. M. Wade. 

Meetings, (Every month except July and August.) 

Academy, General, First Monday. 

Section of Biology, Second Monday. 

Section of Astronomy, Third Monday. 

Section of Geology, Fourth Monday. 

Section of Ag'l. Chem., ) , ^ 

o ^- £ -D ^ as arranged.* 

Section of Botany, \ *= 

All regular meetings of Academy and Sections are held at 

the State Normal School, West Fifth and Grand avenue. 

Secretary's Office— 116 N. Broadway. 



*At present these two Sections meet at offices of tlieir respective 
Chairmen. Section of Botany, Third Tuesday Evening, each month. 



VOL. III. NOVEMBER, 1904 NO. 8 

BULLETIN 

OF THE 

ooutfiern Cafifornia Academy of ociences 

COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 
Theo. E. Comstock, S. D.; A. Davidson, C. M., M. D.; Wm. H. Knight. 



CONTENTS : 
Page Page 



Editorial 129 



Fossil Peak, Santa Catalina Island, By 
Blanci.e Trask 140 

A Preliminary Synopsis of the Southern 
California Cyperacea;, By S. B. Parish 141 

Announcements for November, 1904 143 



This Means You ! 
Thanks to The Ebell 

Trans, ctions for October, 1904 130 

Oceanclogy, By Sir John Murray, K.C.B., 

Edinburgh, Scotland 133 

Work of tne United States Reclamation 

Service in California, By J. B. Lippin- 

cott. Supervising Engineer 137 

PUBLISHED BY 

THE ACADEMY, MONTHLY EXCEPT 

JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 

Yearly Subscription, $1.00 Single Copies, 25 cts. 

" Entered September 18, 1903, at Los Angeles, Cal., as second-class matter, 
under Act of Congress. July 16, 1894." 



DECEMBER 7. 1904 



This Means You! 

Don't put this aside until you have accomplished something 
in the way of adding to the membership. There is no organi- 
zation which fills the place of the Southern California Academy 
of Sciences. It provides "a course of forty high class lectures, 
each year, with ample opportunity of publishing much valu- 
able literature, besides preserving the work of local investi- 
gators. It will not keep down and it will continue to prosper 
in spite of any fate or any degree of meager support. But it 
deserves well at your hands and your best interest lies in up- 
holding its work. Act now and do not forget. 

THANKS TO THE EBELL 

The joint meeting of the Los Angeles Ebell and the Academy 
was a great success, owing to the goodness and self-sacrifice of 
the ladies of the Ebell. Disappointed by the tardy arrival of 
Sir John Murray's belated train, they were unable to meet the 
distinguished guest in their own hall, as previously arranged, 
and they generously united with the Academy, transferring 
to it a goodly share of the honors, while themselves sharing 
most heavily in the expense and providing the larger portion 
of the audience. 



I30 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

TRANSACTIONS FOR OCTOBER, 19C4 

1. ACADEMY SESSIONS. 
1, Regular Monthly Meeting. 

The second meeting of the Academy for the fiscal year was held 
at the State Normal School, Mondaj^ evening, October 3, 1904. Presi- 
dent Melville Dozier in the chair. 

In fitting words of commendation of the Government work to- 
wards the preservation of the wild animals now being ruthlessly slaugh- 
tered in American forests, and more especially the effective service 
rendered by the gentleman introduced. President Dozier presented the 
speaker of the occasion, Mr. Alden Sampson, formerly game preserve 
expert of the Bureau of Forestry of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. 

Mr. Sampson read a most valuable pa^^er on tlie ' ' Pi-esent and 
Prospective Game Preserves of the United States, "showing how inci- 
dental to other contemplated objects have heretofore been the refuges 
vouchsafed to the noble game which reckless slaughter has wofuliy 
decimated almost to extinction of some species, as the buffalo, grizzly 
bear, elk, moose, etc." The present anomalous and ineffective policy of 
the Government, due to the lack of segregation of autr.ority, was 
briefly stated and a clear notion was given of the work already ac- 
complished, as viewed by the speaker in a journey of 13,000 miles 
v/hile inspecting the refuges in actual operation. 

This paper was highly appreciated by the audience, as was evinced 
by a warm vote of thanks tendered the speaker at the close. Some 
discussion was participated in by President Dozier and Messrs. Collins, 
Stewart, Knight, Taber, Comstock and others. 

The secretary pro tern, announced the list of new members elected 
by the Boards after which the president made announcements re- 
garding meetings of Sections and the Academy in November, making 
also a strong appeal to the members to aid in extending the influence 
of the Academy by personal effort. 

An invitation from the Ebell Club to members of the Academy 
ti attend the lecture of Sir John Murray, of Challenger fame, to 
be given Monday evening, October 10, was read by the president and 
formally accepted. 

The Session was then adjourned to meet again Monday evening, 
November 7. THEO.' B. COMSTOCK, Secretary Pro T^m. 

2. Extraordinary Meeting. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Section of Astronomy gave 
place October 17 to a gathering of the Academy in association with 
the Los Angeles Ebell Club, at the Normal School, to listen to a 
lecture by Sir John Murray, of Edinburgh, upon " Oceanology. " An 
audience "^of 800 of our leading citizens listened attentively to this 
able and interesting address. President Dozier, of the Academy, pre- 
sided. The distinguished lecturer spoke feelingly and in an entertain- 
ing manner of the work of the Challenger Expedition of 1872, and 
of dredging enterprises under the §iuspices of other governments than 
his own, particularly of those conducted by Americans, including 
that now engaged in the South Pacific under our esteemed Alexander 
Agassiz. The conclusions reached by authorities regarding the topog- 
raphy of the ocean beds and the nature of the deposits accumulating 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 131 

tbereou were clearly outlined, with remarks iadicating the speaker's 
deilnetions from known facts. 

The cordial thanks of the Academy are due the many members 
of the Ebell who were present, and we trust that' they may not be 
averse to meeting often with us in our own sessions. 

An outline of Sir .John's address is given elsewhere in this issue 
of the Bulletin. B. E. BAUMGAEDT, Secretary. 

II. DIRECTORS' MEETING. 

The Board met at the State Normal School, Monday, October 3, 
l'J04-, at 7:30 p. m. Present: President Dozier, Messrs. Knight, Davidson, 
Whiting, Woodbridge, Taber, Comstoek, the latter acting as secretary 
in absence of Mr. Baumgardt from the city. 

The resignation of Mr. S. Gr. Bennett, U. S. Geological Survey, 
now residing in San Francisco, was regretfully accepted at his own 
request on account of removal. 

Bill of Baumgardt Publishing Company for printing, postage on 
Bulletins, etc., amounting to $3.50, was approved and ordered paid. 

Members elected in due form: 

President J. F. Millspaugh, Professors Frederick H. Beats, Charles 
M. Miller and F. A. Hull, of the State Xor^ial School; Mr. Elmer S. 
Hunter, 334 Soutli Figueroa street, and Mr. W. H. Fletcher, 312 
Westlake avenue. 

After considerable discussion relatinbg to proposed changes in the 
Constitution or By-Laws, as regards annual dues and membership fees, 
the Board, in a vote, expressed its approval of the reduction of 
annual dues to $2.00 per annum, beginning January 1, 1905, and abo- 
lition of membership (initiation) fee. Mr. Comstoek was directed 
to report at next meeting of Board whether this will require an 
amendment to the Constitution or a change of the By-Laws. 

The Publication Committee, \>y Comstoek, chairman, reported that 
the Constitution and By-Laws, Reports of Officers and otl'.er official 
matter, with list of members, as ordered printed by tiie Board, will 
]-equire twenty-four pages for the October issue of the Bulletin, and 
authority was asked to issue a double number of thirty-two pages in 
oriler to include other important matter in hand. This action was 
unanimously approved and' a resolution was passed that 1,000 copies 
of this issue of the Bulletin be printed for use as a campaign document 
in securing members. 

Much discussion was had regarding the best nieans of enlarging 
the usefulness of the Academj^ and the increase of its memliership. 

Adjournment followed. 

THEO. B. COMSTOCK, Secretary Pro Tem. 

III. MEETINGS OF SECTIONS. 

1. Section of Biology. 

The regular meeting, October 10, was called to order by the 
chairman, who gave a general outline of the proposed work of the 
Section for the current year. 

Minutes of last meeting read and approved. C. A. Whiting made 
a brief report on the structure and function of the cauda equina. The 
point whicii the speaker attempted to make was that the lumbar 
enlargement of the cord represents about thirteen segments. Consid- 
erable discussion followed. 

A. B. Ulrey made a most interesting report on some pond organ- 
isms which he collected in Westlake Park. He carefully described 



132 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

many of the life processes in these organisms. The whole report 
was intended as an introdLiction to somewhat more technical work 
which is to be presented at the next meeting of the Section, November 
14. The paper was discussed at length hj several imembers. 

About eighteen members were present. 

Mr. Knight, chairman of the Section of Astronomy; Mr. Tabor, 
secretary of the Section of Geology, and the chairman of this Section, 
Mr. Ulrey, announced the subjects of lectures for October and the 
Academy meeting in November. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

C. A. WHITING, Secretary. 

2. Section of Astronomy. 

(As previously stated, no meeting of this Section was held in 
October, owing to tne extraordinary meeting of the Ebell and the 
Academy, which was substituted therefor. Mr. Baumgardt's report 
of his visit to the International Congress at St. Louis, as a delegate 
from the Academy, has consequently been postponed to November 21.) 

3. Section of Geology. 

Eegular monthly meeting Jield at State Normal School, Monday, 
October 24, 8 p. m. Chairman Parsons being absent, Dr. Theo B. 
Comstock presided. 

A brief paper, entitled "Fossil Peak, Catalina Island," by Blanche 
Trask, was read by the chairman. Title of paper by Dr. Theo. B. Com- 
stock was announced, "Notes on Structural Materials in Southern 
California. ' ' * 

Mr. J. B. Lippineott, Supervising Engineer of the Eeclamation 
Service of the U. S. Geological Survey, for this district, was then 
introduced and gave a very interesting account of the plans for 
irrigation of the arid lands in California and Arizona from the waters 
of the Colorado Eiver, known as the Yuma project. A very lucid 
explanation followed of the classification adopted in order to properly 
earrjr out the work. This being now, in his opinion, somewhat com- 
plicated and liable to interference of authority, he recommended a 
businesslike rearrangement of the general plan of administration. Valu- 
able stacistics and some details regarding various projects under way 
were concisely presented and illustrated by blackboard sketches. 

After the address a number of questions put by' members were 
answered satisfactorily. 

Professor Dozier, president of the Academy, made a strong plea 
for greater interest among members, when announcing the subject of the 
lecture for the next meeting, November 7. 

Adjourned to Monday evening, November 28. 

4. Section of Botany. 

This Section met at 501 Laughlin Building, the chairman in the 
chair. Dr. A. Davidson read a paper on the "Flora of Clifton, Ari- 
zona." A number of specimens of the Malvaceae were shown, one of 
which was new to the ITnited States. 

COLTON RUSSELL. Secretary. 

*This paper is crowded out of the Bulletin this month. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 12,3 

Oceanology* 

BY SIR JOHN MURRAY, K. C. B , EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND. 
(.Abstract of Lecture before the Academy and the Los Angeles Ebell, October 17, 190L) 

The ocean was long regarded as unconquerable by man. The 
poet, Byron, expressed this sentiment when he wrote : 
"Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain; 
Man marks the earth with ruin — his control stops 
with the shore. ' ' 

And yet man has not been content to admit his lack of mas- 
tery over even this mighty power in nature. So completely 
has the science of marine engineering overcome the obstacles 
of the deep that I think we may safely claim that vessels are 
now afloat capable of resisting the onset of any storm which 
can occur at sea. 

The methods of study are probably familiar to many of you, 
but some will be interested by a .brief description of the work 
of an expedition and the means adopted, to secure accurate 
evidence for the upbuilding of a science of oceanology. The 
principal observations include : soundings to determine depth 
over the ocean bed, from which to construct maps of its topog- 
raphy; the recording of temperatures at varying depths; the 
collection of samples of mud by dredging over the floor of the 
ocean, and the gathering of animate forms for purposes of 
study of the effect of pressure, temperature and other condi- 
tions of environment. 

For each and all of these, instruments have been constructed 
which are well adapted to their uses. Soundings are taken 
with light strong wire; or with hempen rope, at the end of 
which are attached sinkers, sometimes of three or four hun- 
dred weight, surrounding a heavy iron tube in which is placed 
a registering thermometer, miuI a greased cup for getting mud 
from the sea bottom. ITsually a registering pressure gauge 
is also provided, and a Avater bottle designed to collect from 
the lowest stratum. Bottom dredging is performed in a dif- 
ferent manner. The line is played out for several miles from 
the rapidly moving steamer, so that it does not settle deeply, 
then it is allowed to drop gradually to the ocean floor and is 
dragged slowly to scrape up nuul and such life as may there 
exist. 

The maximum depth of the ocean, which is really local and 
near the nev/ possessions of the United States, in the Indian 
Ocean, is less than six miles. About five miles is the greatest 



*The editor of the BuHetin resrets that he ha.s been unable to submit 
either the proof or the MS. of this abstract to tiie lecturer. Believing 
that he has quoted accurately as to principles, nevertheless, this respon- 
sibility rests wholly with the editor. 



134 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

depth over a considerable area, this also in the Indian Ocean 
and the Paciiic south and north of the equator. Excluding 
cones, buried or but little above the surface of the water, the 
average depth of the whole ocean bed is but little more than 
IS.OOO feet. 

The results of ocean exploration are numerous and interest- 
ing, but there is only time now to go briefly over them. If we 
leave out of account the local effects of inflowing rivers and 
the changes induced by living agents along the coast and the 
borders of islands and more or less submerged cones— i. e., ex- 
cluding the shallow water areas — there is not nnieh diver- 
gence in the composition of sea Avater. And the same holds 
good with respect to depth as well as latitude and longitude. 
That is to say, however much the water of the ocean may vary, 
from point to point, in temperatnre, pressure or otherwise, it 
has about the same chemical ingredients, although there may 
be differences in density. 

At the surface of the ocean plant-life is far more abundant 
than at any point on land. Within 600 feet of tiie surface, plant 
life is profuse but not below that depth, which is the limit 
of light penetration. At deeper levels, down to the maximum 
depth of the floor, animal life exists, and this is fairly prolific 
at the very bottom. All the animals there are of the type 
of mud-grubbers and many of them are provided with or- 
gans especially adapted to their environment, very different 
from those living where light abounds. One form has phos- 
phorescent light at the tips of its tentacles, another has a 
protruding eye-like organ which glows at the end, furnishing 
a light which it can direct at will over a wide field. Eyes 
show a gradual change in various forms at different depths, 
and they are absent in many deep sea animals. 

The light which enables the animals to see at great depths 
is undoubtedly phosphorescent. This source of illumination is 
common at the ocean's surface, as you must have observed fre- 
C[uently on your own sea-coast. In mid-ocean the waves in the 
wake of a moving vessel exhibit it brilliantly at iiight. We 
were frequently able to read fine print by its aid alone on the 
deck of the Challenger, fifteen feet above the water. 

My own views, I must admit, have not been fully accepted 
by all geologists, but I am well eonviuced that the former gen- 
ei-al belief that limestones are mainly detrital will not hold for 
the deposits in mid-ocean. I strongly incline to the opinion 
that all true limestones not made up of cemented aggregates 
of shells, have passed through living organisms. In the deep 
sea, the animals work over the mud. extracting the organic 
matter and rejecting the limy fragments of shells. Coral build- 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 135 

ing organisms secrete lime-rock within their own tissues. 

One point of great importance to geologists is the distribution 
of deposits of phosphates and glauconite. We do not find any 
of these noAv forming, except along the coasts in peculiar sit- 
uations. They are invariably in localities where cold currents 
may, at intervals, rush in to warmer zones of the sea, destroy- 
ing much of its life. Thus, off the coast of Canada and the 
northeastern portion of the United States, we have the report 
from the Fish Conunissioners that untold millions of fish and 
other denizens of the ocean w^ere killed in a stormy period. 
Their remains formed a layer several feet in thickness in parts 
of the tract. From their decaj^ and by processes well enough 
understood beds of phosphate are built up, and in connection 
therewith, glauconite is also formed. 

Thus is explained the location of such deposits in Florida, at 
the Cape of Good Hope, in Algiers and elsewhere, always near 
the coast border's, representing areas of former shallow sub- 
mergence. Something of the same action is also taking place 
along the North Pacific coast, in Canada and the United States, 
and I presume that beds of glauconite and phosphate are there 
to be found. 

The deposition of sand grains is now known to be confined 
almost wholly to degradation of land surface. There is prac- 
tically no accumulation of silica in the deep sea, except in re- 
gions where melting icebergs drop the material which they 
have transported from the land. Diatoms and other organisms 
with siliceous parts thrive in inany parts of the ocean, even 
away from the areas of detrital deposit. The explanation of 
some of these facts is still obscure. 

Contrary to general belief heretofore, there is no evidence 
of convection currents in the deeper layers of the water. Below 
600 feet in depth, both light and heat are independent of atmo- 
spheric infiuences. Not more than one degree of difference in 
temperature, upon the average, is discernible in very deep water 
over the whole area of the oceans. 

The old idea of geologists that the oscillations of the con- 
tmental areas have had their counterpart in changes of the 
great base-level plateau underneath the ocean, do not appear 
to be warranted by the discoveries of oceanologists. They tend 
rather to show that the continents have grown independently 
and that they are now growing by a process of hydration. 
This means the absorption of water from the ocean, producing 
earth masses of less specific gravity than the covered portions 
on the basal plateau. This view explains the known differ- 
ence of action of the pendulum over the land and in mid-sea, 
and gives me reason to conclude that the continents are grow- 



/j«5 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

ing at the expense of the sea. It would then appear that the 
main cause of land movements is pressure from the sea. 

The pressure at great depth in the ocean is, of course, very 
great, amounting to more than 800 pounds per square inch at 
five miles. But the differences in water at the surface and on 
the bottom are not as much as might be supposed. This 
arises from the very great resistance of water to compres- 
sion. If the action of gravity were to cease, the surface of 
the ocean would rise only about 200 feet. The great pressure 
is manifested in all directions, and sometimes thermometer bulbs 
are smashed to dust where not sufficienth^ protected in sound- 
ing. Adequate provision must be made against this enormous 
pressure, both to prevent what oceanologists call "implosion," 
as in the case cited, and explosion by outward bursting of wa- 
ter bottles; for instance, by expansion on reaching the sur- 
face, through excessive diminution of pressure. 

The water at the bottom of the ocean where it is very deep 
is extremely cold, even at the troipcs, there being very little 
difference in temperature at different latitudes. The mud 
brought up in the dredge is cold enough to be used as ice in 
cooling bottled beverages. 

The ocean floor is covered with a deposit made up of frag- 
ments of shells, of vegetable detritus and other fine-grianed ma- 
terial such as may drop from the rich life-zone of the first 
600 feet from surface. There are also commonly found minute 
spherules, of the size of a pin head, say not more than six 
or eight to a pint of mud, which have centers of dense metallic 
iron. These are undoubtedly of meteoric origin, apparently 
contributed from sources outside our own planet. My observa- 
tions and other records all go to show that there is no such 
thing as a continuous shower of cosmic dust over the oceans. 

The limits of my time and the lack of illustrative material 
at hand, as well as the audience before me, forbid more than 
these broad generalizations here. Much as we have learned, 
there remain many questions to solve of great interest and 
of far-reaching importance. Some of these must have great in- 
fluence upon the future development of geographic and geo- 
logical science. I thank you for your attention and the in- 
terest you have shown in this work. 

Dr. Herman L. Fairchild, of the Rochester (N. Y.) University, 

has brought out a new edition of Dana's Manual of Geology, revised 
in accordance with the new concejjtions as put forth by Professor 
Chamberlin. Those who accept these principles have faith that their 
influence upon the science of geology will be as far reaching and as 
stimulative as were the promulgations of Darwin's and Spencer's tenets 
in the field of Biologv. 



SOUTHER S CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 137 

Work of the United States Reclamation Service in 

California 

BY J, B. LIPPINCOTT, Supervising Enginter. 
(Read Before the Section of Geology, Oct. 24, 1904.) 

There is anomaly in the classification of the Grovernment 
work as relates to the administration of certain departments. 
The resulting complications have caused less practical dupli- 
cation of work than would have occurred otherwise, because 
the defects of the system are very well appreciated upon all 
sides. 

The United States Geological Survey has been given charge 
of that portion of the study and construction which relates 
to the utilization of the nation's water supply for the benefit 
of the greatest possible number of inhabitants. Briefly stated, 
the plan of operations in each irrigation district is as follows : 

When the actual owners of the land have accomplished 
the proper organization of an association for water distri- 
bution under conditions now clearly established by law, the 
Government formally agrees to build and operate suitable 
headgates without charge for taxes or interest. The original 
cost must, however, be paid back to the Government by the 
users, in such annual charges for the water as may be neces- 
sary to liquidate the total sum in a long series of years. The 
national Government contracts directly with the local asso- 
ciation, but it is stipulated that from 40 to 160 acres shall 
be the maximum allowance for each land owner and that 
shareholders shall be laud holders only, at one share per acre. 

Under these requirements of law, already a large amount of 
work has been undertaken. Each district is in general charge 
of a supervising engineer, with an adequate corps of engineers, 
assistant engineers and other employes. These gather the 
necessary information and submit projects which are care- 
fully scrutinzed by a board of six consulting engineers. 

The California District extends from Central Oregon to 
and including the Colorado River. Work is now well ad- 
vanced in this large area upon four projects of importance, 
which together are estimated to contain sufficient water, prop- 
erly conserved, to irrigate considerably more than half a mil- 
lion acres of land accessible therefrom. 

Below are given brief outlines of the work thus far under- 
taken in this California District under my supervision : 

Klamath Project.— Klama'th River, outlet of Klamath Lake, 
Oregon, with large swamp areas, feeding by overflow process 



J 38 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

into Little Klamath Lake (Oregon-California) ; thence south- 
westward through Siskiyou, Humboldt and Del Norte coun- 
ties, California, to the Pacific Ocean. Irrigation is here essen- 
tial. The lands are flat, the soil fertile, sandy loam, probably 
capable of economical irrigation. Estimated area to be brought 
under water, 140,000 acres from Klamath River and 72,000 
acres from additional reservoirs, besides about 100,000 acres 
in Butte Creek Valley irrigable by pumping. About 1,104,000 
acres have been segregated for sale, pending examination. 

John T. Whistler and H. E. Green, engineers, made pre- 
liminary reports upon the Klamath project in 1903, justifying a 
further investigation this season. T. H. Humphreys, assistant 
engineer, reporting to the supervising engineer, is now in 
charge, with headquarters at Klamath Falls, Oregon. Topo- 
graphic surveys of the Llorse Fly and Clear Lake reservoir 
sites are being made under direction of T. S. Chapman. Esti- 
mated area of Clear Lake site, about 20,000 acres. 

Near Keno, Oregon, F. K. Lowry is surveying the Klamath 
River to determine the possibilities of lowering and draining 
Lower Klamath Lake. Existing canal systems are also under 
survey with a view to utilization in connection with the gen- 
eral project. Gauging stations are maintained at many points 
and records of fluctuations, evaporation, etc., are carefully 
taken. ]\Iuch other important work is also in hand, some 
of Avhich will be prosecuted through the winter. 

Sacramento Valley Project. — This is the northern portion 
(4,19H sq. mi.) of the great Central Valley of California, 
which, with the mountainous portions, has a total area of 
26,187 square miles. The water supply is very great. From 
1878 to 1885 the mean annual discharge of the Sacramento, 
at Collinsville was 25.936.000 acre-feet. The valley is very 
fertile, but the southern portion is subject to extensive over- 
flow (800,000 acres flooded in March, 1904). 

Comprehensive work is planned in co-operation with the 
State of California and in harmony with the work of the 
Topographical branch of the Survey and the Bureau of For- 
estry of the Agricultural Department. 

The Avestern side of the drainage basin and the northern 
portion as far as Pit River, inclusive, have been examined 
and reservoir sites surveyed aggregating in estimated capacity 
1,800,000 acre-feet. Eight gauging stations are now main- 
tained under the care of J. S. Evans, hydrographer. Stream 
measurements have been regularly taken at numerous points 
on tributaries. Estimates of cost of constructing dams on 
Putah Creek and at Jelly's Ferry have been prepared by H. 
E. Green, engineer. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 139 

S. G. Bennett, engineer, is in charge of field worl\, assisted 
ty L. M. Lawson and J. S. Evans, and they have amassed 
abundance of data relating to this tract. Their contemplated 
vs^ork includes surveys of reservoir sites at Bieber, Canby, Jess 
Valley, Goose Lake, Adin and West Valley. After completion 
of the reports, the assistant engineers will be transferred to 
the Colorado River project. 

Yuma Project. — Maps, plans and careful estimates have 
been prepared, supplemented b}^ detailed observations of river 
fioAv, with a view to the proper utilization of the Colorado 
Eiver for irrigation 'in California and Arizona. The project 
includes head works, and main canals upon both sides of 
the river, with pumping plants for certain portions of the area 
to be watered. 

After very thorough study by oui- engineers and detailed 
examinations by ]Mr. II. A. Storrs, consulting electrical and 
mechanical engineer, followed by scrutiny of the board of six 
consulting engineers, there is a final agreement as to the best 
means to accomplish the ends in view. 

The area to be available under the system is about 86,700 
acres, out of some 107,000 acres accessible, a portion of which 
is too low 01' too high for economical irrigation at present. 

The design adopted for the head works is one which has 
been thoroughly tested on the Nile. It consists of a loose 
rock structure with a paving of stones, the whole being tied 
together with three parallel longitundinal walls of steel and 
concrete between granite abutments. This is further pro- 
tected by an apron of loose rock. The height of the weir is 
to be ten feet above, low water. The upper core wall of con- 
crete wnll rest upon a row of sheet piling driven into the bed 
of the river. 

The handling of the silt is a difficult problem. At each 
end of the weir there will be a sluiceway 200 feet wide, in solid 
granite, closed by large gates operated by hydraulic machinery. 
The capacity of each sluiceway being about five times the 
low water flow of the river, it is believed that the plan will 
prove efl'ective in use. But these figures do not adequately 
express the conditions. The bulk of the silt, as observations 
prove, passes near the bottom of the river. It is, therefore, 
proposed to place a row of flash-boards along the intake, so 
as to admit the water by a skimming process. This will per- 
mit the furnishing of the entire capacity of the canal by 
drawing only one foot in depth from the surface of the 
river. Besides, the first 3,000 feet of canal on each side of 
the river will be so constructed that the movement of water 



I40 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

will be less tlian one foot per second. These settling basins 
are planned so as to be readily scoured through gates opening 
to the river below the weir. 

The construction of the whole system will be substantial 
and costly, but experience has proven this to be most eco- 
nomical in the end. About $1,000,000 will be expended in 
the head works portion and the canals are designed to limit 
seepage and other losses as much as possible. 

A very troublesome matter will be the crossing of the Gila 
River. It has been found necessary to provide for a struc- 
ture of steel and concrete, 3,300 feet in length, to pass several 
feet below the lowest bed of the river. It will also be neces- 
sary to construct levees of considerable extent along the 
reaches of the Colorado and Gila rivers. Drainage canals are 
considered essential also, owing to the natural lay of the land. 

The cost to land owners benefited by these extensive im- 
provements is estimated at near $35 per acre, to be paid back 
to the Gavernment in ten equal annual installments. The 
cost for irrigation will be about $1 per acre per annum. 

The sum of $3,000,000 is now set aside by the Secretary of 
the Interior, upon the recommendation of the Chief Engineer 
of the Eeclamation Service, for the installation of the Yuma 
project. 



Fossil Peak, Santa Catalina Island. 

BY BLANCHK TRASK. 
(Read Before the Section of Geology, Oct. 2i, 1904.) 

The fossil Pecten estrellanus Con. was found three years 
ago on one of our greatest elevations. It appears like a 
powder along the trail, while below, the eroded cliff-edge is 
thick-set with the. shells from one to six inches in diameter. 

Most of them are cracked and packed in the limestone as 
though by heavy pressure. 

An adjacent peak is topped with rolled pebbles, while the 
great dikes of volcanic rock are visible here and there. In 
these erosions rainbows seem to be imprisoned, and when the 
winter rains set the emerald grasses aglow the effect is daz- 
zling. 

In the thousands of miles I have tramped here no other 
trace of fossils has been found. • The elevation is about 1,500 
feet above the sea. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 141 

A Preliminary Synopsis of the Southern California 

CyperaceaB.=' 

BY S. B PARISH. 

5. SCIRPUS, Linn. Sp. PL ^y—BulrvsIi. 

Annual or perennial herbs with leafy culms, or the leaves 
reduced to basal sheaths. Spikelets terete, or obscurely flat- 
tened, solitary capitate, spikate or umbellate, the florescence 
subtended by a 1-several leaved involucre, or non-involucrate. 
Scales spirally imbricated all around, usually all fertile, or 
1-3 lower ones empty. Perianth of 1-6 bristles, or in some 
species none ; stamens, 2-8 ; style 2-3-cleft, not enlarged at 
the base, wholly deciduous, or the base persistent as a subu- 
late tip to the achene.Achene 3-angled, lenticular, or plano- 
convex. 

A genus of some 200 widely distributed species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 
Spikelet solitary. 
Involucre wanting. 

Annuat; 2-5 cm. tall 1. S. nanus 

Perennial; 10-15 cm. tall 2. S. pauciflorus 

Involucral leaf promptly deciduous .3. S. cernuus 

Spikelets normally more than one; involucre persistent. 
Culms 3-angied. 
Principal involucral leaf pungent. 

Leaves 2-6, long and narrow 4. S. Americanus 

Leaves 0-2, short and broad 5. S. Olneyi 

Involucral leaves allfoliaceous. 
Spikelets large, few, in a short-rayed umbel.. . 6. S. Pacificus 

Spikelets small, many, in a decompound umbel 

7. S. microcarpus 

Culms, terete, sheathed at base, tall. 

Umbel of a few short rays; bristles barbed. 8. S. lacustris 
Umbel decompound, long-rayed ; bristles plumose . . , . 

9. S. Tatora 

* Spikelet solitary, termzfial; staviens j; style j-cteft; ackenes 
J -angled; cnlms low, tufted. 

/ 1. Scirpus nanus, Spreng. Pug. 1 :1. Britton, Trans. N. Y. 
Acad. 11:74. Britt. & Br. 111. Fl. 1:262. Eleocharis pyg'maea, 
Torr. Ann. N. Y. Lye. 3 :315. Watson, Bot, Cal. 2 :221. 

Annual; culms filiform, flattened, grooved, leafless, erect, 
2-5 cm. tall; spikelet ovoid-oblong, subacute, 3-8 flowered, 2-3 
mm. long, bractless; scales ovate to lanceolate, 2 mm. long, 
pale green, the lower obtuse, the upper subacute ; bristles 
mostly 6, retrorsely barbed, larger than the achene, or want- 

* Continued from P. 86 (this volume} No 6, June, 190-1. 



142 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

ing; aclienes obovoid, smooth and shining, 1 mm. long, acute. 
Specimens, said to be "too young for positive determina- 
tion," collected April 18, 1854, at Cucamonga, by Bigelow. are 
referred here by Torrey, in Pac. R. Rep. 4 :152. The species 
is not otherwise known from our region, and perhaps does 
not occur here. It is widespread both in Europe and Amer- 
ica, and is usually found about salt marshes. 

5^' 2. Scirpus pauciflorus, Lightf. Fl. Scot. 1078. Britton, 
Trans. N. Y. Acad. 11:75. Britt. & Br. 111. Fl. 1:262. Eleo- 
charis pauciflorus, Link, Hort. Berol. 1 :28-4. Watson, Bot. 
Cak 2:221. 

Perennial by slender rootstocks ; culms slender, rigid, stri- 
ate, leafless, 10-15 cm. tall; spikelets oblong, verj'- acute, com- 
pressed, 4-8-flowered, bractless, 5 mm. long : scales dark brown, 
hyaline margined, lanceolate, acuminate, 3 mm. long; bristles 
2-6, as long as the achene or longer, or none; achene stramin- 
eous, obovoid, pointed, obscurely reticulate, 2 mm. long. 

Bear Valley, 6,500 ft. alt. in the San Bernardino Mts., June, 
1894, 3265 Parish. In our specimens the bristles are wanting. 
The species is a northern one, occurring on the Pacific Coast 
in the Sierra Nevada at considerable altitudes; eastward in 
the Rocky Mts., Minnesota, Western New" York and Canada; 
also in Northern Europe. 

3. Scirpus cemuus, Vahl, Enum. 2 :285. Britton, Trans. 
N. Y. Acad. 11 :76. S. riparius, Spreng. Svst. 1 :208. Watson, 
Bot. Cal. 2:217. 

Annual; culms tufted, setaceous or filiform, erect, 3-angled, 
5-15 cm. tall, the uppermost sheath usually bearing a short 
leaf; involucral leaf solitary, erect, setaceous from a broad 
scarious base, not exceeding the spikelet, very promptly de- 
ciduous ; spikelet ovoid to oblong, 2-5 mm. high ; scales pur- 
ple with pale midvein, or pale Avith brown markings, concave, 
oval, 1 mm. in diameter ; bristles none ; achenes brown, granu- 
late orbicular, the inner face flatter and broader than the 
others, 0.75 mm. in Avidth and height, mucronulate. 

Connnon along the margins of wet streams and ponds, in 
the Cismontane region, below 1,500 ft. alt. Santa Monica; 
Hasse. Los Angeles ; Braunton, Davidson. San Bernardino ; 
Parish. A species of wide distribution in Europe, Australia 
and South America ; Init in North America known only from 
the Pacific Coast. 

** Spikelets several or many, termifial, subtended by one or more 
involucral leaves; bristles r6\ anthers tipped with an appendage, 
which is hist>iduloiis, except in No. 7; styles 2 cleft; achenes plano- 
convex; perennials with stmt, scaly horizontal rootstocks. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 143 

-*- Culms ^-angled; sluatlis ncdu/ose; biistles retrcrsely barbed 
''-^Involucral leaj stiff and ertct. appaieiitly conwntous wtlh the 
culm; scales obtuse or emarginate. the stout mtctvein terminating in 
a short mucro; spikelets in a sessile cluster. 

^ 4. Scirpus Americanus, Pers. Syn. 1 •.'0%. Brittoii, Trans. N. 
Y. Acad. 11 :78. Britt. & Br. Ilk Fl. 1 :265. S. pungens, Vahl, 
Enum. 2 :255. Watson, Bot. Cal. 2 :218. C. triangularis, Mac- 
Mill. Met. Minn. Vol. 99. 

Culms 1-5 dm. tall; leaves 2-6, at length divergent, rigid, 
channeled, 1-3 dm. long-, 1-3 mm. wide; involncral leaf, 2-20 
cm. long, channeled; spikelets 1-1, ovoid to ovoid-oblong, 
acute, 5-10 mm. long; scales dark brown, ovate-oblong, 3-4 
mm. long ; stamens 3, appendages conical ; achenes brown, 
obovoid, 1 mm. long, mucronate, equaled by the bristles. 

Apparently confined in the Cismontane region to the coastal 
subregion. Los Angeles River ; Davidson. San Diego ; Chan- 
dler. > Wet sand banks, San Pasqual; 1565 Parish. Also re- 
ported in the Botany of the Death Valley Expedition as 
abundant in marshes of the deserts of Inyo County. Through- 
out North America, and in Chile. 
■' 5. Scirpus Olneyi, Gray, Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist. 5:238. 

Culms more or less deeply triquetrous, 3-20 dm. tall. 2-3 cm. 
wide; 1-2 of the sheaths usually bearing a thin, broad leaf, 2-5 
cm. long, or leafless: involncral leaf, 3-angled, 1-2 cm. long; 
spikelets 2-20, oblong-ovoid acute, about 1 cm. long: scales 
brown, broadly ovate ; stamens 2-3 ; achenes brown, obovate, 
mucronate, 2 mm. long, ecpaled by the bristles. 

Very common in marshes of the Cismontane region ; oc- 
curring also in the Desert region. Los Angeles ; Davidson, 
Nevin. Temecula: Nevin, Parish. San Bernardino: Parish 
Salt Creek and Palmetto Springs, Colorado Desert: Alderson, 
North to Oregon; on the Atlantic Coast from Florida to 
Rhode Island. 

ANNOUNCEMENTS FOE, NOVEMBER, 1904. 

The audience of 700 of our most intelligent citizens, who greeted 
Dr. Theo. B. Oomstock, the lecturer at the November meeting of the 
Academy, was stimulating and, we trust, an earnest of awakened in- 
terest in the objects of our organization. We should like to see the 
habit formed of regular attendance upon these monthly sessions. 

Monday evening, November 14, the Section of Biology met at 
the State Normal School. There was a most interesting presenta- 
tion of "Studies of Some Forms of Chlorophyll-Bearing Microscopic 
Animal Life of Westlake. ' ' 

1. Relationships of the Micro-Organisms Prof. A. B. Ulrey 

2 Phosphorescnee and Cellulose of Animal Life.. Dr. Eleanor Seymour 
■S. Chlorophyll-Bearing Animals Dr. C. A. Whiting 

This section has in anticipation for its December meeting (Mon- 
day, 12th) a valuable paper by Professor Joseph Grinnell on the 
'■ ' Ecology of Mammals. ' ' 



144 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 
BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 

1904-1905. 

Professor Melville Dozier, President. 

John D. Hooker, Vice-President. 

B. E. Baumgardt, Secretary. 

G. Major Taber, Treasurer. 

AVm. H. Knight, Chairman Section of Astronomy. 

Dr. Anstriither Davidson, Chairman Section of Botany. 

Professor A. B. Ulrey, Chairman Section of Biology. 

George W. Parsons, Chairman Section of Geology. 

Dr. S. M. Woodbridge, Chairman Section of Agricul. Chem. 

Dr. Theo. B. Comstock. 

Dr. C. A. Whiting. 

Standing Committees. 

Program — Ex-officio, Dozier. Knight. Davidson, Ulrey, Par- 
sons, Woodbridge, Baumgardt. 

Publication — Comstock, Davidson, Knight. 
Finance — Parsons, Whiting, Hooker. 
Membership — Taber, Woodbridge, Baumgardt. 
Affiliation— Knight, Ulrey, Davidson. 

Secretaries of Sections. 

Astronomy — Professor Melville Dozier. 
Botany — Colton Russell. 
Biology— Dr. C. A. Whiting. 
Geology— G. Major Taber. 
Agricultural Chemistry— E. ]\1. Wade. 

Meeting's (Every Month except July and August). 

Academy, General, First ^Monday. 

Section of Biology, Second Monday. 

Section of Astronomy, Third Monday. 

Section of Geology, Fourth Monday. 

Section of AgT. Chem., \ -, ^ 

CI .L- s> T> + as arranged. * 

Section of Botany, \ ^ 

All regular meetings of Academy and Sections are held at 
the State Normal School, West Fifth and Grand avenue. 
Secretarv's Office— 116 North Broadway. 



*At present these two Sections meet at offices of their respective 
Chairmen. Section of Botany, Third Tuesday Evening, each montii. 



VOL. III. 



DECEMBER, 1904 



NO 9 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



ooutfiern Cafifornia Academu of ociences 

committee; on publication 

Theo. B. Comstock, S. D.; a. Davidson, C. M., M. D.; Wm. H. Knight. 



CONTENTS ; 



Page 
,145 



Did You Forget? ) 

A Worthy Example \ 

Transactions, Nov. 1904 146 

Academy, Directors 146 

Sections— Biology 146 

Astronomy 147 

Geology. Bolany 148 

Catalogue of Indian Relics, etc., (con- 
tinued) by Mrs. M. Burton William- 
son 149 



Page 
Pre-Hi.storic California, (continued) by 

Dr. Lorenzo G. Yates 153 

Sundry Notes 158 

The Bees of Southern California. VI. 

by T. D. A. Cockerell 159 

Publications Received 162 

Notes on Structural Materials in South- 
ern Cdhfornia, by Theo. B. Comstock, 

S U 163 

Notes and News 166 

Publications Reviewed 167 



Yearly Subscription, 



PUBLISHED BY 
THE ACADEMY, MONTHLY EXCEPT 
JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 
1.00 



Single Copies, 25 cts. 



" Entered September 18, 1903, at Los Angeles, Cal., as second-class matter, 
under Act of Congress. July 16, 1894." 



MAILED JANUARY 



Did You Forget? 

The Editoi' of thi.s Bulletin has secured enough new mem- 
bers, by personal effort, to entitle him to say to each reader : 
' * Go thou and do likewise. ' ' If every member of the Academy 
will accomplish one-eighth as much, per capita, it will very soon 
be feasible to make the editorials more attractive. It is not a 
pleasure, but a disagreeable duty, to urge upon you each month 
to perform what is no more than your due share of the work 
of upbuilding the Academy of Sciences. Kindly avoid over- 
exertion in the cause. 



A Worthy Example 

Mr. J. D. Hooker, who has heretofore contributed more than 
any other person to the funds of the Southern California Acad- 
emy of Sciences, has generously defrayed the heavy expense of 
transporting the equipment of the great Observatory which is 
being constructed on Mt. Wilson under the direction of Pro- 
fessor Hale and others. We need more members of equivalent 
calibre. 



146 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

TRANSACTIONS FOR NOVEMBER 

I. ACADEMY SESSION, NOVEMBER 7, 1904. 

The regular meeting of the Academy for November was held in the 
Auditorium of the State Normal School, a large and appreciative audi- 
ence being present. The speaker of the evening was Dr. Theodore B. 
Gomstock, and his subject, "Wild Nature in the Eocky Mountains." 

The lecturer was appropriately introduced by the president of the 
Academy, attention being called to the fact that Dr. Comstoek would 
speak from the results of his personal observation while engaged in 
exploring the Koeky Mountains in western Wyoming under the auspices 
of the government. After a brief and eloquent introduction to his 
lecture proper, the speaker proceeded to conduct his audience in im- 
agination over the route pursued by his party olf explorers, illustrating 
tis descriptions of the magnificent scenery by stereopticon views of rare 
beauty and excellence. Such exhibitions of the beauty, grandeur and 
extent of our country, indicating the vast undeveloped resources yet to 
be utilized for the blessing of the human race, cannot fail to intensify 
the patriotic pride of our citizenship as well as to add to their enlighten- 
ment and general culture. 

MELVILLE DOZIEE, President. 

11. DIRECTORS' MEETING. 

The Board of Directors met at the Normal School, Monday, Novem- 
ber 21, at 7:30 p.m., the President in the chair and G. Major Taber 
acting as Secretary. Messrs. L. R. Crowell, J. H. Morrow, Geo. H. 
Kress, M. D., Wm. Bebb and Chas. F. Lummis were duly elected mem- 
bers of the x\cademy. Application of Mr. J. W. Badger being informal, 
was approved, subject to formal presentation later. 

Voted to reconsider the resolution passed at previous meeting re- 
garding changes in dues and fees. After some discussion the matter 
was laid upon the table on account of necessity for adjournment to at- 
tend the meeting of Section of Astronomy, it being understood that a 
special meeting will soon be called for careful examination of the whole 
question. 

G. MAJOR TABER, Secretary Pro Tem. 

III. MEETINGS OF SECTIONS. 
1. Section of Biology. 

The regular meeting, at the State Normal School, November 14, 1904, 
was opened by a very interesting voluntary report by Prof. Ulrey on an 
Oegonium which he recently found in the Los Angeles River. The re- 
port was illustrated by black-board drawings. 

C. A. Whiting briefly reviewed a report which appeared in The 
Journal of Neurology to the effect that the trunk of a paralyzed Seventh 
Nerve had been grafted on to the proximal end of an Eleventh Nerve 
and that eventually the Eleventh Nerve assumed the functions of the 
Seventh. Dr. Leonard briefl,y discussed the significance of the phe- 
nomena. 

The minutes of the last meeting were then read and approved. 

Ti'-e subject of the evening was Some Unicellular Organisms Found in 
Westlake Park. Prof. TTlrey opened the subject by a discussion of the 
relationship of the various forms. The talk was illustrated by some very 
beautiful pen drawings as well as by black-board sketches. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 147 

The next subject discussed was that of Phosphorescence by Di'. 
Eleanor Seymore. Her paper was extremely interesting and it dealt 
with Phosphorescence not only among unicellular forms, but also among 
higher organisms, such as insects and the lower vertebrates. A consid- 
erable discussion followed. 

C. A. Whiting then spoke on Chlorophyl in Animal Forms. He briefly 
described the several conditions under which it is found in animals, be- 
ginning with the clearly symbyotic forms and ending with those where 
the Chlorophyll seems to be an integral part of the animal. 

Mr. Knight and Dr. Conistock announced the subjects for the No- 
vember meetings of the S,ections of Astronomy and Geology, respectively. 

Prof. Grinnell will lecture before the Biological Section at its De- 
cember meeting (12th) on Mammalian Ecology. 

About twenty-five members and visitors were present. 

On motion the meeting adjourned. 

C. A. WHITING, Secretary. 

2. Section of Astronomy. 

The Section met in regular monthly session at the Normal School 
on Monday, November 21, 1904. Present a goodly number and Chairman 
Knight presiding. 

Mr. Knight opened the exercises of the evening by reading a num- 
ber of recent extracts relative to meteoric observations at various points 
during the August period, the observations having been confined chiefly 
to August 10th, 11th, and 12tii, and to the Persean group. He also gav<* 
an interesting account of an observation made by himself and daughter 
in November, when they were rewarded with a view of about a dozen 
fine meteors of the Leonid group. Among the facts of astronomical in- 
terest mentioned by Mr. Knight were the following: 

Harvard is to have a sixty-inch reflecting telescope. 

The bright star Aldebaran is to be occulted by the moon on Decem- 
ber 20th, at about 5 o'clock p. m. Aldebaran is said to be eight hundred 
and eighty times the mass of the sun, with a dicxmeter of over 8,000,000 
miles; a distance so great that a meteor traveling at the rate of thirty 
miles per second, would require over three days to cross the disk of 
the star. Yet, notwithstanding the immense volume, the accultation will 
occur in a moment, so great is the distance of the star from us, and will 
continue for about one hour and eight minutes. 

Encke's comet completes its successive periods in about two hours 
less time each. It will appear again on Decemlaer 1st, near Altair, which 
is Alpha Aquilae. 

The planet Jupiter is now in ojjposition for the first time since its 
fifth satellite was discovered by Prof. Barnard, in 1892. Jupiter's period 
of revolution is twelve years, aiid the position- of opposition brings it 
180,000,000 miles nearer the earth than when in conjunction; and is, 
therefore, the most favorable opportunity for observation. 

The satellites of Uranus revolve alDout their primary in a direction 
opposite to the motion of the planet. This movement is apparent rather 
than real, being due to the fact that the inclination of the planet to the 
plane of its orbit is about ninety degrees. 

The chairman introduced Mr. B. E. Baumgardt, the speaker of the 
evening, who proceeded, in his own clear and concise form, to give a 
cursory account of his observations at the World's Fair in St. Louis, 
where he had gone to attend the international astronomical congress. Mr. 
Baumgardt gave it as his ponion that in its personnel, discussions and 
results, this was the most remarkable scientific gathering that has ever 
been held in the history of the human race. This opinion was confirmed 



14^ SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

by a nimiber of eloquent editorial extracts, read by him, descriptive of 
the exceeding excellence and world-wide importance of the congress. 
Special reference was made to the work of the solar research committee, 
which is composed of men most eminent in present astronomical investi- 
gation, and which committee met to determine, among other things, the 
true length of a wave of light and to build upon this unit a scientific 
system of measurements. The speaker gave a most interesting account 
of a great and notable banquet, at which were gathered over seven hun- 
dred recognized scientists of various portions of the world, and at which 
some of the most famous men of the world spoke in response xo toasts. 

He also made very complimentary reference to Japan's industry and 
method of developing the animal life of the ocean, and of her remark- 
able skill and economy in utilizing for valuable purposes the material 
which Americans throw away as waste. 

In Mr. Baumgardt's description of the intensely interesting tests 
being made of the comparative excellencies and efficiency of turbine and 
gas engines at the fair, he expressed preference for the former in mat- 
ters of power, economy of use, and readiness of adaptation. 

The meeting of the Section adjourned, conscious of having enjoyed 
a profitable hour. MELVILLE DOZIEE, Secretary. 

3. Section of Geology. 

Meeting held at the State Normal School Building, November 28, 
1904. Chairman Geo. W. Parsons introduced the speaker, Prof. W. L. 
Watts, who gave a very interesting lecture on the Geology and Physical 
Geography of Southern Mexico. In speaking of the general topography 
of that country he stated that there are two ranges of Sierra Madre 
mountains with a broad plateau between them. The central portion of 
Southern Mexico consists of a network of mountains. Some of the 
peaks are 17,500 feet above sea level. The Tropic of Cancer crosses the 
center of that section, and below this the climate is warm, tropical fruit 
being raised in abundance. The mountains are only in part of sedi- 
mentary formation, the volcanic rocks covering wide areas. In the 
more southern portion, wild rubber and cotton trees are abundant. 
Remains of an old smelter built 100 years ago stand in a locality in 
Oaxaca where suitable ores for treatment therein are not very evident. 
Caves occur in northwest Oaxaca, and there are many mines which were 
formerly worked at a profit. Farther east, near Pueblo, there is a 
pyramid similar to those in Egypt. Professor Watts visited numerous 
mines in several states of Mexico. The geology has been 'but little 
studied, the field for exploration being most enticing. Some coal and oil 
are found in Cretaceous rocks, but the coal is of poor quality. The City 
of Mexico is now 'well sewered and healthy. Some Aztec relics in the 
old temples were also described. 

Chairman Parsons then gave a brief description of what he observed 
in his recent trip to the City of Mexico. Dr. Theo. B. Comstock also' 
made a few remarks relating to the great backbone fault sj^stem extend- 
ing from California, through Nevada, Arizona and Mexico, Professor 
Watts having previously described its occurrence in Southern Durango. 

Some discussion followed in which ladies took part. 

G. MAJOR TAPER, Secretary. 

4. Section ojf Botany. 

At the meeting of the Botanical Section, held November 15, 1904, 
Mr. Theodore Payne and Dr. Davidson presented papers on "The Desert 
Flora of Thermal and Neighborhood." Specimens of the rarer species 
were exhibited. COLTON RUSSELL, Secretary. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 149 

Catalogue of Indian Relics Found on Santa Catalina 

Island.'' 

BY MRS. M. BURTON WILLIAMSON. 

13,343-44. Steatite comali, plain. 
13,345-47. Steatite comali, perforated. 

13.348. Steatite comali, grooved and perforated. 

13.349. Steatite comali, boring unfinished. 

13.350. Stone comali, perforated. 

13.351. Large stone pipe. 

13.352. Stone pipe. 

13.353. Stone pipe, broken. 
12,354-55. Stone pipe, boring unfinished. 

13.356. Stone pipe, with rings. 

13.357. Stone pipe, steatite. 

13.358. Perforated stones— 5. 

13.359. Perforated stones— 3. 

13.360. Perforated stone bead. 

13.361. Perforated flat stone. 

13.362. Perforated stones, polished on one side— 2. 
13,363-65. Stone pestles. 

13.366. Stone pestle, showing how mended. 

13.367. Stone pestle, pear-shape. 

13.368. Stone pestle, round. 

13.369. Small hammer stone. 

13.370. Stone implements— 3. 

13.371. Rude stone implement. 

13.372. Stones for grinding paint. 

13.373. Steatite, with grooves — 2 pieces. 

13.374. Stone implement. 

13.375. Perforated stone saw. 
13.376-78. Stone implements. 

13.379. Implement. 

13.380. Fragments, stone implements— 3. 

13.381. Flint dagger, asphalt on base. 

13.382. Flint dagger, broken. 

13.383. Flint knife. 

13.384. Flint knife. 

13.385. Obsidian arrowhead. 

13.386. Broken arrowhead and chips— 3. 

13.387. Stone ring, broken. 

13.388. Stone for straightening arrows, broken. 

13.389. Bone awls, fragments— 8. 

13.390. Bone implements, fragments. 

13.391. Bone, for extracting marrow. 
*Continuecl from Page 63 (this volume) April, 1904. 



ISO SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

13.392. Bone dagger. 

13.393. Bone implement, broken. 

13.394. Bone-2. 

13.395. Shells. 

13.396. Shells, ornaments and pieces of fishhooks. 

13.397. Perforated shell ornaments. 

13.398. Claws of panther. 

13.399. Fragment, basket work. 

13.400. Charred. 

13.401. Paint. 

13.402. Seeds. 

13.403. Seeds, ground. 

POTTS VALLEY, SANTA CATALINA, CALIFORNIA. 

13.404. Large stone dish, broken. 

13.405. Unfinished pot of steatite. 

13.406. Steatite pot, blocked out. 

13.407. Small steatite pots, blocked out — 3. 

13.408. Small steatite pots, broken — 6. 

13.409. Fragment, steatite pot. 

13.410. Pieces of steatite from ledge. 

13.411. Rude stone implements — 5. 

13.412. Rude implements, chalcedony and quartz — 6. 

13.413. Small steatite pot, broken. 

13.414. Small steatite pot, with groove. 

13.415. Fragment, lava pot. 
13416-17. Steatite comali, perforated. 
13418. Steatite comali, plain. 

13,419-20. Perforated stone, digging weights. 
13,421-25. Perforated stones, various — 5. 

13.426. Stone digging weights, broken. 

13.427. Pipe stone. 

13.428. Arrow straightener. 

13.429. Grooved hammer stone. 

13.430. Round hammer stone. 

13.431. Grooved stone ax. 

13,432-36. Stone pestles— 15 : one broken. 

13.437. Small rubbing stone. 

13.438. Stone ornament, grooved. 

13.439. Stone ornaments, rattlesnake rattle. 

13.440. Perforated stone ornament (bifurcated). 

13.441. Shell. 

13.442. Shell full of seed. 

13.443. Bone mouthpiece to pipe. 

13.444. Ditto, charred. 

13.445. Stone knife. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 151 

13.446. Obsidian kuife. 

13.447. Charred. 

13,448-9. Human skulls and bones— 2. 

13.450. Bones of child found with 13,177, Graves at Isthmus, 

Santa Catalina. 

13.451. Charred f, found %yitli 13,177. Graves at Isthmus, 

Santa Catalina. 

CATALINA ISLAND, CALIFORNIA. 

14.757. Concha zagua. 

14.758. Yerba de la bibora. 

14.759. Seed used in making "Pinole." 

14.760. Cacometas. 

14.761. Cobenas. 

14.762. Also called Cacometas. 

14.763. Cibollas (wild onions). 

14.764. Indian tobacco, dwarfed. 

14,765-70. Pots, form blocked out— Quarry, Catalina Island. 
14,771-73. Steatite pots, unfinished. 
14,774-75. Steatite pots, broken. 

14,776-80. Steatite pots, unfinished, broken— Ancient Quarry, 
Catalina Island. 

14.781. Steatite dish, boat shaped. 

14.782. Fragments, steatite pot. 
14,783-84. Unfinished steatite, coniali. 

14.785. Chisels, slate- 6. 

14.786. Rude scraper, quartz. 

14.787. Rude scraper,. stone. 

14.788. Rude scraper, petrified bone ( ?). 

WHITNEY'S PLACE, CATALINA ISLAND. 

14,789-93. Skull and bones. 

14,794. Stone mortar. 

14,795-97. Small dishes, steatite. 

14,798-800. Large weights for digging sticks. 

14,801-05. Weights for digging stick; 14,802. Polished one 

side; 14,803. With 7 grooves. 
14,806-08. Coniali, steatite, perforated. 
14,809-11. Comali, steatite, toy. 
14,812. Comali, steatite, fragments. 
14,813-16. Sharpening stones, variously marked. 
14,817. Rubbing stone— 6. 
14,181. Implements of steatite — 2. 
14,819. Steatite comali, 2 perforations. 
14,820-21. Pipe stones— 2. 
14,822. Sharpening stone, steatite. 



152 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



14,823. 


Stone knife. 


14,824. 


Stone dagger, broken. 


14,825. 


Stone arrowheads— 2. 


14,826. 


Stone drills. 


14,827. 


Arrowhead, Obsidian. 


14,828-29. Pestles. 


14,830. 


Bone whistle. 


14,831. 


Bone dagger. 


14,832. 


Bone awls. 


14,833. 


Bone implements, bird bone, 


14.834. 


Teeth of Cetaceans. 


14,835. 


Small shell beads. 


14,836-37. Shell beads. 



14.838. Small glass beads. 

14.839. Glass beads. 

14.840. Stone bead. 

14,841-44. Shell ornaments, many. 

14.845. Fragments of shell ornaments. 

14.846. Shell fish-hooks. 
14,847-48. Circular shell ornaments. 

14.849. Small shell dish. 

14.850. Ornament of (?). 

14.851. Fish spine used as paint pot. 

14.852. Vertebra of fish, as paint pot. 

14.853. Red paint. 

14.854. Fragment of basket work, charred. 

14.855. Seed, unknown. 

14.856. Shark's tooth, perforated. 

14.857. Glass and brass beads on string. 
14,858-59. Painted stones, red and white circles. 

N. B. — Timm's Place, Catalina Island, is the site of the pres- 
ent town of Avalon. (Locality of No. 14,859.) 

NOTE.— William Henry Holmes, head curator. Department of An- 
thropology, of the Smithsonian Institution, in "Anthropological Studies 
in California," records a number of curios found by him in an ancient 
grave at the Isthmus: 

' ' There were also parts of three or four steatite vessels, one small 
pot, a round shallow dish, two oblong dishes, and a flatfish oblong plate 
with squared end, probably a baking plate. Other articles were evi- 
dently mere burial offerings made for the purpose and doubtless symbolic. 
The}^ include a steatite hook of a form common in the region, a miniature 
pest of steatite, a peculiar object, apparently a much conventionalized 
fish or finback whale, three ladles of steatite utensils, apparently dipper 
handles, an obsidian arrow point, and some decayed shell ornaments." 

In deposits of kitchen-middens, Mr. Holmes found "many abalone 
shells and some rude stone utensils, the latter including a flatfish spatu- 
late stone, one end of which was covered with asphaltum. " 

(Concluded.) 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 153 

Pre-Historic California^ 

BY DR. LORENZO G. YATES. 

Aboriginal Shell Money and Ornaments. 

One of the peculiar characteristics which distinguish man- 
kind is universally developed acquisitiveness, a trait seldom 
observed among other animals. Ancient history and the oldest 
remains of man demonstrate this characteristic to have been 
one of the heritages common to all peoples, under all circum- 
stances. 

The skeletons of prehistoric man when unearthed by his suc- 
cessors, are accompanied by the rude and simple personal 
effects which were buried with the original owners ; the weap- 
ons and ornaments acquired during life were placed in the 
grave by surviving friends or family, in order that they might 
be of service after death, or to relieve the survivors from the 
unpleasant reminders of departed friends by the sight of their 
former belongings. Later, as man advanced in civilization and 
acquired more wealth, his belongings increased in bulk and 
numbers until it became impossible to bury them all. Then 
selections were made, and perhaps a favorite weapon, horse, 
wife or slave was allowed to accompany the dead on his jour- 
ney to the unknown world. Where cremation was practiced, 
the property was placed in the fire with the deceased. 

Originally exchanges were made between individuals by bar- 
tering one thing for another, and one who owned or possessed 
more of an article of utility or ornament than he required, 
and being desirous of obtaining some other article which he 
did not possess, exchanged a portion of his surplus with some 
other individual who had it to spare. • In time this troublesome 
method was improved upon by the utilization of some peculiar 
or rare form of a particular material, which could be carried 
about the person or transported from place to place, and which 
came to have a recognized or intrinsic market or purchasing 
value, for the acquirement of the necessaries and luxuries of 
life. 

The first authentic history we have of the Ancient Romans 
using metal for this purpose was about B. C. 400. At that 
time the ox was the standard of value. Originally the animals 
were transferred from one owner to another, but this method 
of trade being inconvenient, irregular masses of bronze repre- 
senting the value of an ox were used. These were succeeded 
by bronze imitations of various animals, representing their 
value. 



■Continned from Page 10 (this volume) No. 1, January, 1904. 



154 SOUTHERN CALIFORNfA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 

About two thousand years ago the Romans commenced 
using circular coins of bronze. A coin of this character made 
about 2100 years ago (Fig. 1. PL 1.) is in the writer's collec- 
tion. It was found in the ruins of Herculaneum. 

Among the simplest objects suitable for moneys and adopted 
as such, were handsome natural crystals, or other forms of 
mineral substances, and the beautiful shells of the sea shore. 
These objects, in our age of universal travel and interchange 
of commodities between nations and peoples throughout the 
world, are easily obtained ; but in the ' earlier history of our 
ra'^'^ they were rarely carried far from their original habitat. 
Those peoples or tribes who had the good fortune to occupy 
the regions near a sea shore had a great advantage over their 
neighbors of the interior, in the comparative ease with which 
they could obtain a supply of the shells which, by general con- 
sent and usage, came to represent a bartering or purchasing 
power. At some time during the history of many tribes sea 
shells were recognized as universal media of exchange, and to 
this day the natives of Africa, the Islands of the Pacific, and 
some other countries use the Cowrie as money. This custom 
was so general that when, after long ages of advancement, arts 
and sciences were evolved, and man studied and classified the 
other representatives of the animal kingdom, the marine shell 
referred to was named, and is still known as Cypraea moneta, 
or "The Money Cowrie;" (See Fig. 2, PL 1). In countries 
where the cowrie is not found, or was not attainable, other 
shells of different genera and species were used as representing 
purchasing power. 

In this manner, also, the natural acquisitiveness of the race 
manifested itself. I\Ian did not stop acquiring when he had 
sufficient food, weapons and utensils for his immediate use, 
but these shells were carried on the person, for the purpose 
of purchasing such objects as their possessor might take a 
fancy to acquire or store away, to be brought out and dis- 
played upon great occasions, as material evidence of the wealth 
or importance of the owner. A similar natural pride is shown 
by more civilized peoples in the wearing of fine clothes, jew- 
elry, diamonds and other precious stones, the display of fine 
horses and carriages, expensive and elaborately ornamented 
dwellings, expensive furniture and bric-a-brac. 

The Indian tribes of North America have for many ages 
used portions of marine shells as money, and for more than 
two centuries these shell beads formed the principal medium 
of traffic between the Indians and the white man under the 
name of wampum, or "wampum peage'': and so wide spread 
and common was its use that the whites gave it a legal status 



PLATE I. 






O 3 



THE MONEY COWRIE 




DENTALIUM 



Vz NAT. SIZE. 
PACHYDESMA (TIVELA) CRASSATELLOIDES 





'/2 NAT. SIZE 
ANCIENT ROMAN BRONZE COIN 
ABOUT 200 B.C. 



'/a NAT. SIZE 
SAXIDOMUS ARATUS 



i..e . YATES. DEL. 



UTH. BRmONiiliEY S . F. 



ABORIGINAL SHELLMONEY OF CALIFORNIA. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 155 

by fixing its value and making it a legal tender for any sum 
under twelve pence, at the rate of six beads for a penny. In 
those days (1637) money had a much greater purchasing ca- 
pacity than it has at present. 

In New York, for nearly half a century, wampum was almost 
the only currency in use, and was employed in the Indian trade 
down to nearly the middle of the nineteenth centurj^* Con- 
necticut at one time made it a legal tender for any amount 
and receivable for taxes at four beads for a penny. This 
''wampum" of the Atlantic Coast was the exact counterpart 
of some of the "shell money" of the Pacific Coast, although 
made from different species of shells. 

While cowries and other shells which were used entire, were 
rated by their beauty and their convenient form and size, the 
value of the individual piece of shell forming the beads of 
which the string of wampum Avas composed rested on the 
amount of labor it represented. The cowrie was the lazy 
man's coin, for when found on the sea shore it was ready 
coined by nature ; but. in other cases, the shell was first broken 
into pieces of suitable size, then rubbed on a stone to give the 
proper shape, then pierced with a drill point of stone, when it 
was ready to string, after which the final finish was given by 
rubbing between flat stones. The fragments were sometimes 
used without being strung, when they were called "sewan." 

Strings of white shell beads were most commonly used, and 
they were valued according to the number of beads or the 
length of the string. It was not to its purchasing power alone 
that wampum owed its valuation. The social system of the 
aborigines required that on all state occasions, great public 
acts should be accompanied by a display of wampum. A string 
of wampum was the emblem of the authority by which a mes- 
senger summoned the members of the tribe to council; a string 
of wampum was laid down at the end of each clause of a treaty 
betAveen ambassadors of different powers ; treaties were rati- 
fied by exchange of wampum; war was declared by the formal 
delivery to the offending party of a belt of black wampum. A 
string of black wampum borne by a messenger announced the 
death of a chief, and at his burial large quantities of it were 
placed in the grave with the body, or burned with it if the 
body were cremated; the object in either case being to supplj^ 
the deceased with funds for his journey. 

Major Rodgers, in writing of North America, in 1765, says 
of the wampum used by the Indians of that time : 

' ' They have the art of stringing, twisting and interweaving them 
into belts, collars, blankets, moccasins, etc., in ten thousand different 



156 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

sizes, forms and figures, so as to be ornaments for everj^ part of dress, 
and expressive to them of all tlieir important transactions."* 

"According to the Indian conception, these belts could tell, by 
means of an interpreter, the exact rule, provision, or transaction talked 
into them at the time, and of which they were the exclusive record."** 

They mix and dispose the wampum of diit'erent colors and 
shades, so as to be significant among themselves of almost any- 
thing they please, and by these their words are kept and their 
thoughts communicated to one another, as ours are by writing. 

As there were no restrictions on the production of wampum 
by the white people, the Dutch burghers of New Amsterdam 
embarked in its manufacture. But, although they had the ad- 
vantage of machinery and better tools, they did not make a 
success of the business ; for we learn that the counterfeit was 
so poorly made that Massachusetts and Connecticut were 
obliged to legislate upon the subject of "bad, false, and un- 
finished peage" (wampum peage, or shell money). 

Shell Money of California. 

Although we know comparatively little of the former history 
or the details of the life and customs of the aborigines of our 
coast previous to its settlement by the whites, it is certain 
that they used shells for money and ornaments. Exploration 
of the ancient graves has shown that the custom of burying 
money Avith the dead was practiced long before their contact 
with the white people. The Indians of the northwest used the 
Dentalium, or tusk-shell, as money (See Fig. 3, PL 1) and with 
them its use was almost as common as was that of wampum 
on the Atlantic Coast. Among the Indians of Northern Cali- 
fornia this tusk-shell money was called alli-co-cheek. meaning 
Indian Money. 

These shells are collected by the Indians in the following 
manner : 

' ' An Indian when shell-fishing arms himself with a long spear, the 
haft of which is of 'light deal; to the end of it is fastened a strip of 
wood placed transversely, but driven full of teeth made of bone. The 
whole affair resembles a long comb affixed to the end of a stick with the 
teeth very wide apart. A squaw sits in the stern of the canoe, and 
paddles it slowly along, whilst the man with the spear stands in the bow. 
He sta'bs this comb-like affair into the sand at the bottom of the water, 
and after giving xwo or three prods, draws it up to look at it. If he has 
■been successful perhaps four or five money shells have been impaled on 
the teeth of the spear."*"'" 



*See Horatio Hale, on ' ' The Origin of Primitive Money, ' ' in Popular 
Science Monthly, January, 1886. 

**Ethno-Conchology, by E. E. C. Stearns, in Report of U. S. National 
Museum, 1886-87, p. 313, Washington, 1889. 

*^ ''Report of U. S. National Museum for 1886-87, p. 315. 



PLATE 2. 




UTH.BIfnTONS: REY S .P. 



ABORIGINAL SHELL MONEY OF CALIFORNIA 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 157 

The unit of value of this currency differed somewhat among 
the different tribes ; with some it was a string of the length of 
a man's arm, consisting of a certain number of long shells from 
the end of the fingers to the elbow, and shorter ones above. 
Such a string was formerly valued at from forty to fifty 
Dollars in gold. With others, the standard of measurement 
was a string of five shells, valued according to the length of 
the shells. These were worth from ten to twenty-five dollars 
in gold; or, from two dollars a shell for those of ordinary 
length, to five dollars a shell for the longest. A wife could be 
bought for from three to ten strings of alli-co-cheek. 

This dentalium money was also highly prized by the Indians 
of the interior, and, as late as 1866, ten of these shells would 
buy a superior buffalo robe. Among the Indians of Southern 
California the Dentalium was used in a subordinate way, also ; 
but the use of the "tusk-shells" (Dentaliums) as 
money or ornaments was much less common than in 
the extreme northern portion of the state. The shell- 
money made from the columellas of some of the larger 
univelve shells had a Dentalium imbedded in asphaltum at the 
lower, or larger end, thus reducing the size of the opening to 
make it correspond with the upper end or point of the shell 
bead, to hold it in the proper position when strung with other 
money. 

The Dentalium was, moreover, a very ancient inhabitant of 
California ; for, in some rock recently brought from an altitude 
of over 6,000 feet on the San Rafael Mountains, several speci- 
mens of shells of this genus may be seen. They are also found 
in other localities imbedded in rocks of cretaceous age. 

In Central California the shell money was largely manu- 
factured from the shells of Saxidomus and Olivella. In South- 
ern California, in addition to those named, quite a number of 
other genera were used, principally the Tivela (Pachydesma) 
crassatelloides, the "Big Clam" (See Fig. 4, PL 1). The 
Tivela is a bivalve shell of large size, close texture, fine grain, 
and ivory white color. It is found much larger than here 
figured, and from one-fourth to nearly one inch in thickness. 

Amiantis (Callista) callosa, a somewhat similar shell, which 
was used for the same purpose, is of finer grain and whiter 
color. Beads or ornaments made from either of the two above 
named species of shells can scarcely be distinguished from 
bone or ivory, for which they are often mistaken. 

These represented the bullion from which the money was 
manufactured, the shell being first cut or worked into suitable 
size and form, then rounded and drilled (Figs. 5 to 14, PL 2). 
How the aborigines managed to drill holes of the size and 



138 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

length commonly found is -a. question which has not been satis- 
factorily answered. It will be seen, by reference to Fig. 11, 
that the hole, which is of luiiform size (one millimeter) 
throughout, is considerably curved. A line drawn between 
the two extremities of the hole, on the concave side, would be 
about one-quarter of an inch from the middle of the curve ; 
yet this hole is no larger than an ordinary knitting needle, is 
curved to correspond with the outer line of the bead. No 
drills have been discovered in the graves which would do the 
work referred to. Figs. 12 and 13, PI. 2, represent beads 
drilled with stone tools, but the tapering form of the drill 
made the holes too large at the ends, and glass beads were used 
to reduce them to the size required. This style of work, how- 
ever, was done after the advent of the white people, when glass 
beads were used instead of the dentalium shells formerly used 
for the same purpose.* 

(To be continued.) 



'See also Figs. 18 and 19, PI. 3: (to follow) 



There is much discussion now concerning the theories which have- 
become traditional among geologists. In different directions and upon 
new grounds the nebular hypothesis is being attacked as untenable and 
inadequate to explain phenomena heretofore even used as arguments 
in its favor. Disclaiming here any intention of assuming to speak 
for astronomers, there is a growing belief among geologists that a 
complete revision of the sub-stratum of geologic theorj^ is becoming 
necessary. That the failure of certain theories, which attempt to 
explain natural phenomena, to give explanation of the phenomena 
themselves, has involved geologists in illogical conclusions while em- 
ploying logical methods of reasoning, is the contention of a writer in 
the American Geologist.* The discussion of the paper will be taken 
up in a later issue. 

Professor T. C. Chamberlin, Head Professor of Geology in the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, has long since taken ground against some pre- 
conceived notions in geology, as to the formation of the earth and its 
general life-history. His views also antagonize the nebular hypothesis 
and they are closely in accord with some of the opinions ex!pressed b}- 
Sir John Murray in his recent lecture on " Oceanology, " published in 
this issue of the Bulletin. Professor Chamberlin adopts what is known 
as the planetesimal theory of the earth 's origin, and he believes that 
the compression due to cooling is, as it were, squeezing out gaseous 
ingredients, and that this process, in varying quality, has been going, 
on for ages. In a way this has bearing on the nature of radio-active 
substances, which are now attracting the attention of investigators 
everywhere. 



♦The Untenableness of the Nebular Theory. By N. Mistockles. Part 
I., American Geologist, Vol. XXXIV., No. 4, Oct., 1904. p. 226: Part II.. 
No. 5. Nov., 1904. p. 310: Part III., No. 6, Dec. 1904. p. 361. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 159 

The Bees of Southern California. VI.* 

BY T. D. A, COCKERELIv. 

TRACHUSA, Jurine. 
Trachusa perdita, n. sp. 

Male ; length about 12 mm. ; black ; head and thorax rugose, 
the punctures excessively close, the dorsum of the thorax en- 
tirely dull, its pubescence and that of occiput light 
greyish with a faint yellowish tint; that of face, 
cheeks, pleura and sides of meta-thorax white; 
clypeus and lateral face-marks cream-color; the lateral 
marks triangular, filling the interval between the cly- 
peus and the eyes, and ending a little above the level of the 
upper margin, of the clypeus, the angle formed by the upper 
margin of the lateral face-marks and the eye a right angle; 
clypeus shining, the punctures strong, but well separated, a 
strong median longitudinal ridge ; middle anterior margin of 
clypeus with six little brown nodules; mandibles black; facial 
quadrangle much longer than broad; antennae entirely black, 
third joint longer than fourth; thorax black without markings; 
tegulae very dark brown, strongly punctured; wings stained 
with reddish brown, especially in the marginal cell; second 
recurrent nervure passing beyond tip of second submarginal 
cell ; basal nervure meeting transverso-medial ; legs entirely 
black, except that the tibial spurs are reddish-orange, and 
the claws are ferruginous at base ; pulvilli large ; abdomen 
black without light markings, the hind margins of the seg- 
ments with thin bands of white hair; punctures stronger and 
closer on the second and fifth segments than on the third and 
fourth; sixth segment with a subapical nodulose transverse 
keel from which proceeds a little keel in the middle line to 
the hind margin, which is ferruginous and curved outwards ; 
seventh segment black, broadly and deeply emarginate ; geni- 
talia dark- ferruginous. 

Tehachapi, California ; one collected by ^x. Davidson. The 
,genus Trachusa has hitherto been known from Europe, and 
its discovery in America is of great interest. The present 
species departs from typical Trachusa, and leans towards 
Dianthidium, in the venation; evidently the two genera are 
closely allied. In general, it is remarkable how greatly our 
insect resembles T. serratulae, which I have from Innsbruck 
(Fiese). 



*CorLtinued from p. 90 (this volume) No. 6, June, 1904. 
Erratum. In part V, p. 88, the characters given under 4 in the table 
refer to A. cardui, ekll, A couple of lines were omitted in printing. 



j6o southern CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

BOMBOMELECTA, Patton. 
Bombomelecta edwardsii (Cresson). 

Los Angeles, one male (Davidson). Previously known from 
Ocean View. When sunlight is allowed to fall on the abdomen 
from in front, the surface presents a strong purple lustre. 
CEN IRIS, Fabrtcms. 
Centris hoffmanseggiae, subsp. nov. davidsoni. 

Male ; length about 15 mm. ; black ; face very narrow, the 
eyes large and prominent, pale oehreous when dry; ocelli large, 
distance between the lateral ocelli and the eyes less than the 
diameter of an ocellus ; clypeus, a narrow supraclypeal stripe, 
and labrum cream-color; clypeus shining and sparsely pimct- 
ured: mandibles with a cream-colored stripe on the upper 
margin; pubescence of occiput, mesothorax and scutellum pale 
oehreous ; of cheeks, pleura and metathorax white and strongly 
plumose ; scutellum prominent, shining, with strong pimctures 
well separated; tegulae testaceous: wings rather milky, nerv- 
ures bro^^Ti; legs black, the spurs and small joints of tarsi 
ferruginous; hair of legs white, slightly orchraceous on tibiae 
in front, very dark brown on inner side of basal joint of hind 
tarsi ; abdomen rather densely covered with erect greyish- white 
hair; apex produced and rounded: ventral segments with the 
hind margins whitish. I\Iandibles tridentate. The type of 
hoffmaiiseggfiae, ^^'hen the abdomen is viewed laterally, shows 
short dark fuscous hair on the fourth and fifth segments; 
davidsoni shows larger and entirely light hair on these seg- 
ments, and is a larger insect. 

Banning, Cal., one (Dr. Davidson). 

Dr. Davidson's collections are bringing out the fact that in 
the bees, as in several other groups, species are represented 
in many instances by an inland form, of the arid parts of 
Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, etc.. and a closely allied but 
distinct California form. In the absence of collections from 
many intermediate localities, it is impossible to say in each 
case whether these really intergrade ; but when they are very 
closely allied, I treat them as geographical races of a single 
species for the present. Such a course, while subject to re- 
vision, at all events serves to indicate the obvious relationships. 
Centris cockerelli, Fox. 

I give a new description, as the existing one is rather too 
short. 

Female; length about 12 mm.: black, shining; clypeus (ex- 
cept lateral and superior margins) and labrum reddish in the 
California specimens, but evidently changed from orange by 
cyanide : eyes, when dry, gray : vertex about ocelli very shiny, 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES i6r 

hardly punctured, a tuft of fulvous hair just behind ocelli;, 
hair of occiput whitish, of cheeks white ; antennae black ; facial 
quadrangle longer than broad; hair of thorax very dense, 
tinged with ochreous, and even with fulvous above ; tegulae 
pale testaceous; wings slightly dusky; legs black, with mainly 
black pubescence, but that on anterior femora behind yellow- 
ish-white ; the abundant and coarse scopa of hind tibiae and 
tarsi wholly black; abdomen black, practically nude, only the 
first segment with pale pruinose pubescence. The pectoral 
hair of thorax is variably sooty in this species, so C. foxi, 
Friese, must be separated on the characters of the clypeus and 
labrum, not those of the pubescence. 

Palm Spring, Cal., two collected by Dr. Davidson. Previ- 
ously known from New Mexico. 

EMPHOROPSIS, Askmead. 
Emphoropsis infemalis, (Dalla Torre) subsp. nov. trlstissima. 

Female ; length about 14 mm. ; black, robust, with the pubes- 
cence entirely black, except a little reddish on hind part of 
mesothorax, and dark reddish on inner side of basal joints of 
tarsi ; facial quadrangle broader than long ; inner orbital mar- 
gins straight ; clypeus coarsely rugoso-punctate ; labrum cov- 
ered with black hair; pubescence of thorax and first segment 
of abdomen dense, rest of abdomen rather shining and not 
conspicuously pubescent ; tegulae very dark brown ; wings only 
a little dusky; knee-plates of hind tibiae whitish with a large 
reddish patch, very conspicuous; legs normal, hind tibiae and 
tarsi more or less ferruginous. Lacks the light pubescence 
seen in typical infemalis, which is from Nevada. 

Los Angeles, one, and Lancaster, Mohave Desert, one, both 
collected by Dr. Davidson. 

E. infernaJis was described as an Anthophora, but Dr. Ash- 
mead wrote me, some years ago, that it was an Emphoropsis. 

ANTHOPHORA, Latreille. 
Anthophora crotchii, Cresson. 

Dr. Davidson obtained one at Banning ; I give a new descrip- 
tion, that of Cresson being rather short. 

Male ; length about 16 mm. ; black ; head and thorax with 
abundant yellowish pubescence ; that of abdomen more scanty,, 
whitish basally, but erect and black on the third to sixth seg- 
ments, the sixth fringed with whitish, and a light tuft on each 
side of the apex ; eyes large, reddish when dry ; facial quad- 
rangle considerably longer than broad, narrowest in the mid- 
dle ; ocelli large, a prominent tuft of long ochreous hair just 



i62 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

behind the anterior ocellus: scape flattened, shining and en- 
tirely orange in front, black behind: rest of antenna black: 
clypeus verj^ prominent and convex, it, the labrum, the lateral 
face-marks, a snpraclypeal band, and the greater part of the 
mandibles, orange : a tiift of hair on the lower corner of 
clypeus on each side of labrum: lateral face-marks occupying 
the space between the clypeus and the eye, and sending a 
narrow stripe along the inner orbits to a little beyond the level 
of the antennae ; tegulae piceous ; wings nearly clear, mar- 
ginal cell appendiculate : legs black, the tarsi becoming fer- 
ruginous : middle femora conspicuously fringed with ochreous 
hair behind: middle tarsi with long white hairs, the basal .joint 
with short orange hairs within, the last .joint with a broad 
black fan of hairs like a peacock's feather: hind trochanters 
with a low conical tubercle: spurs of hind tibiae far apart at 
base : hind tarsi normal except that the basal joint is broad- 
ened and flattened: hind margins of the abdominal segments 
narrowly pallid. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

Mining Magazine. Vol. 5, No. 4. Dec, 1904. 

The Hop Aphis. Br Warren T. Clarke. Bull. Xo. 160. 

Tuberculosis in Fowls. By Arch. E. Ward. Bull. Xo. 161. 

Sulphurous Acid and Sulphites as Food Preservatives. By C. E. 
Calm, Ph. D., Chicago. 

Contribution to the Study of Fermentation. Part I. By E. H. 
Twight and Charles S. Ash. Bull. No. 159. 

Univ. of California, Ag'l Exper. Station. California Olive Oil; Its 
Manufacture. By G. W. Shaw. Bull. No. 158. 

Univ. of Arizona, Ag'l Exper. Station. Cost of Pumping for Irri- 
gation. By Sherman M. Woodward. Bull. No. 49. 

U. S. Dept. of Agric, Bureau of Soils. Investigations in Soil Fer- 
tilitv. By Milton Whitney and F. K. Cameron. Bull. No. 23. 

Univl of Cal., Dept. of Geology. A New Marine Eeptile from the 
Triassic of California. Bv John C. Merriam. Bull. Dept. Geol., Vol. 3,- 
No. 21, pp. 419-421. 

Maine Agric. Exper. Station. Soy Beans. By Chas. D. Woods and 
J M Bartlett. Feeding Experiments. By Chas. D. Woods. Alfalfa. 
By Chas. D. Woods. Bull. No. 106, Sept., 1904. Home Mixed Fertilizers. 
By Chas. D. Woods. Bull. No. 107, Oct., 1904. 

'Tomo I, No. 5.— Informe Sobre El Temblor del 16 de Enero rle 1902 en 
el Estado'de Guerrero. Por los Dres. E. Bose y E. Angermann.— Escudio 
de una Muestra de Mineral Asbestiforme, procedente del Eancho del 
Ahuacatillo. Distrito de Zinapecunaro, Estado de Michoaean. Por. el Ing. 
Juan D. Villarello. 

"Parergones del Instituto Geologico de Mexico." Tomo I, No. 4. 
Estudio de la Teoria Quimica propuesta por El Sr. D. Andres Almaraz 
para explicar la Formacion del petroleo de Aragon, Mexico, D. F. Por El 
Ing. Juan D. Villarello.— El Fierro Meteorico de Bacubirito, Sinaloa. Por 
El i)r. E. Angermann (Lamina X).— Los Agvas Subterraneos de Amozoe, 
Puebla. Por El Ingeniero E. Ordonez. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 163 

Notes on Structural Materials in Southern California.^ 

BY THEO. B. COMSTOCK, S. D. 

(Read by Title, Section of Geology, Oct. 24, 1904.) 

The use of natural products in buildings, foundations and 
other structures, of higher class is annually increasing in Los 
Angeles and the surrounding country, notwithstanding that 
concrete has also assumed importance from the boldness with 
which some engineers and architects have recently brought it 
into service. But concrete itself is only artificial in a secondary 
.sense. The ultimate constituents are natural mineral products, 
and one who discusses the subject exhaustively must necessar- 
ily take into account the deposits of rock from which the com- 
ponents of cements, mortars and their various combinations 
are derived. 

In this brief paper it is my purpose to confine attention 
mainly to some particular features of the local natural supply 
of ready-made building materials, such as granite, marble and 
the more commonly used building stones. The elements of 
<?olor, texture, fracture, mineral composition, and even accessi- 
bility to market, not to mention just now the durability and 
suitability in other ways for structural use — all these features 
Jiave been dependent upon geologic history. That is to say, 
the geographic distribution, topographic outlines, exposure for 
working, form of blocks in a given quarry, and the appearance 
and wearing qualitj^ of the rock, as well as the response to 
tooling and polishing, are not mere chance results. These vary 
exactly in accordance with conditions antecedent, which can 
readily be determined and quantitatively estimated by the 
practical geologist from observations in the field. 

A prominent firm who supplied rock upon a contract in Los 
Angeles started upon the delivery without knowing that their 
quarry Avould furnish the needed stint. This risk of loss by 
failure to comply with their agreement was wholly unneces- 
sary, because a competent geologist could have settled the 
matter beforehand with moderate study of the ground. There 
are also certain well-established facts which enable one familiar 
with the details to determine readily whether any given supply 
of rock will become useful in the arts. For instance, a grade 
of marble which is somewhat popular here, although it seriously 
offends the taste of others, was examined some time ago by 
the writer and the result of weathering considered dubious. 



■There is room onlv for an abstract here. 



i64 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The effects predicted have now become prominently objection- 
able in several instances* 

AVe have some excellent gray granites within ready access, 
and many of these are tough, tine grained, fairly homogeneous, 
with texture and mineral components well adjusted for tooling 
and polishing satisfactorily. But there are areas in which the 
lines of jointing and faulting and other structural features 
have so shattered the masses as to make impossible the procur- 
ing of suitable blocks for architectural design. Occasionally 
these deposits may be utilized for rip-rap, rubble masonry and 
other structures not demanding regular courses. Still, it is not 
always safe to employ these without careful examination of the 
local conditions by an expert. Lines of weakness not apparent 
from cursory observation may, perhaps, be detected in the lay 
of the deposit or the geologic conditions of the neighborhood. 
Sometimes mineral streaks giving no evidence of cleavage will 
afterwards develop fracture lines in actual use. Again, certain 
minerals, easily oxidized or disintegrated by wear, may, at first, 
offer an attractive or apparently serviceable surface, which, 
cannot long withstand the influence of city environment. 

These features must be judged on the ground by experts, 
familiar not only with the requirements of construction, but 
also with the geologic and engineering conditions concerned 
in each particular problem. It is a prevalent opinion that ex- 
posures with the rock badly shattered at surface are liable to 
show improvement in this respect at greater depth. This idea 
is commonly erroneous, except as it may apply to deposits 
wheer atmospheric agencies have been responsible for the sur- 
face conditions. And, usually, then the bringing of unexposed 
portions to air will produce similar results. Per contra, it is. 
not always certain that surface exposures of wholly satisfac- 
tory material will hold out the same in depth, although the 
chances are, perhaps, more in favor of such occurrence than 
otherwise. 

There are some black granites in the foothills of the San 
Gabriel Mountains, which ought to find limited use in orna- 
mental work. For parts, or the whole of monuments, and for 
some decorative purposes, they are valuable on account of their 
toughness, variegated appearance and susceptibility of polish. 
They are usually coarse-grained and do not tool as readily, in 
consequence. There is some variety in these particulars. Some 
of our local monument dealers are using fine-grained black 



*I refer to the staining, really the rusting, of the black minerals along- 
the seams, due to oxidation of the iron-bearing minerals. 



SOUTHERN CALIhORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 163 

granites, which appear to work well, but they are less attractive 
to most persons. 

Red granites are not so common. These must pass muster 
on more points lof criticism, and probably few of those in this 
neighborhood are really desirable for general application. 

Marbles are extremely variable in quality and in appearance. 
The desire to utilize local material has carried some of our 
architects beyond the bounds of prudence. Fortunately the 
uses made of this rock are mainly decorative, which places 
them wholly in the class of veneering materials, where they can 
be replaced if found unsatisfactorily. Much of the Catalina 
marble which has gone into prominent office buildings of late 
is regarded as bizarre by persons of refined taste, but its bold, 
bad lines might still be forgiven were it not for the inevitable 
result. It will certainly "paint the town red" in streaks in 
the districts where it is used. The black markings contain 
some ferrous mineral, which must oxidize to a rusty brown on 
exposure to the weather, staining the white lime-rock for some 
inches on either side. This action, aside from the unpleasant 
discoloration, will develop liiies of weakness; and, if carried 
far enough, the slabs will fracture and separate along these 
lines. No serious danger threatens, because the thin veneer of 
marble sustains little besides its own weight, and it can be 
removed without weakening the building to which it is at- 
tached. The white body of this rock is of fair tint and of good 
grain. 

There are some choice marbles in use in Los Angeles which 
contain black or greenish black streaks of resistant quality. 
Some of these have withstod weathering agencies for years 
without discoloration. The determination whether the particu- 
lar mineral compositon in any given case will be suitable or 
otherwise is not very difficult ; but the test should be applied 
beforehand. Otherwise, as has been evident locally, time may 
demonstrate the disadvantage most expensively. 

Red granites and red marbles usually contain iron in ferric 
oxidation, and if they possess the requisite strength, even if 
streaked with red, there is not usually any liability to change. 

The rocks which form the masses of the high mountains in 
Southern California are not usually such as will attain popu- 
larity for building purposes. An experiment in the new Cali-« 
fornia Club building in Los Angeles, using a rock from near 
Chatsworth, gives hope of substantial success with this substi- 
tute for light buff sandstone. It is a fine grained, mixed rock, 
rather tender in fracture, rubbing smooth without polish, show- 
ing little or no difference between exposed and newly fractured 
surfaces. There are diffused grains of a black mineral, which 



i66 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

might suggest the possibility of reddening later by oxidation. 
But these specks are scattered so regularly and the rock has 
apparently been so long exposed, that such result is probably 
not to be anticipated. If such change should occur, it is very 
liable to affect the whole surface evenly, which would do us 
harm unless disintegration were to ensue. This is very im- 
probable. 

Within the bounds of the more recent rock series, which form 
the lowland areas, there are probably some members which may 
eventually become useful in structural work. But they are 
generally thin-bedded or too little indurated to be widely ser- 
viceable. 

We have, however, ample deposits of raw materials suitable 
for cement and for burning to quick-lime, and these have been 
capitalized and now constitute important factors in the market 
supplj' of structural substances. The manufacture of brick and 
tile from our local clays has probably not progressed beyond 
the initial stages of its productive history. Some day there 
will be a much increased demand for this class of products. 

Notes and News 

Dr. R. S. Woodward, of Columbia University, was elected 
President of the Carnegie Institution, by the trustees, De- 
cember 13th. 

An expedition from the Indiana University, under Professors 
John A. Miller and W. A. Coggshall, will go to Spain to observe 
the total eclipse of the sun to take place on August 13, 1905. 

Luther Burbank has been appointed special lecturer at Stan- 
ford. A large grant in furtherance of his masterful researches 
in plant hybridization has been given him by the Carnegie In- 
stitution. 

Dr. J. C. Merriam, of the University of California, and Dr. 
J. C. Branner, of the Leland Stanford Junior University, have 
both recently returned to the United States from vacation trips 
to Europe. 

The American Institute of jMining Engineers will hold its 
summer session in 1905, at Victoria, B. C. A special train will 
leave Chicago June 24th, going direct to Aactoria. Following 
the meeting, an excursion of 21 days by chartered steamer and 
special trains, will take in Snettisham Bay, Junean, Skagway, 
White Horse, Dawson and other Alaskan points, including the 
Treadwell mines on Douglas Island. Returning to Victoria 
five days more will be given to British Columbia mining dis- 
tricts. Eastern participants will reach Chicago, upon the re- 
turn, early in August. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 167 

PUBLICATIONS REVIEWED. 

The Cementing Power of Road Materials. By Logan Waller Page 
and Allerton S. Cushman, of Division of Tests, U. S. Dept. Agrie., Bur. 
of Chem. Bull. No. 85. Washington, 1904. Pp. 24, 1 PL— A timely and 
most valuable contribution to an important subject by worthy experi- 
menters. The methods of testing are clearly described and illustraced 
by cuts in the text. It is demonstrated by their work that the binding 
quality of road metal is not due to particular chemical elements, but 
to the degree of hydration. Therefore, it is not practicable to determine 
the relative values of different rocks, in this i-espect, by lithologic exam- 
ination or by mere chemical analysis. A table of tests already mad<3 
from various widely scattered localities in the United States affords 
interesting suggestions, but it is too early to draw wholly reliable 
conclusions as to the geographic distribution of the most suitable road- 
making materials. Engineers have heretofore given far too little study 
to this important subject. 

The "Institute Geologico" of Mexico continues to send out noces. 
and papers of scientific interest. Vol. I, No. 4 contains a somewhat 
exhaustive study of a theory upon which Dr. Almarez had predicated 
the probability of the existence of petroleum in Aragon. Sr. Villarello 
critically dissects the author's reasoning and concludes that it is in- 
conclusive and inapplicable, and that no evidence of the occurrence' of 
oil there in commercial quantity has been produced. An excellent plate 
of a large meteorite is given by Dr. Angermann, who describes it, with 
an interesting account of its discovery, in 1863, and its announcement 
scientifically, in 1876 and 1889. Dr. Henry A. Ward, of Eochester, N. Y., 
had it exhumed and he more fully described it in 1902. In Vol. I, No. 5 
(titled elsewhere in full), valuable notes on the earthquake of 16th 
Jan'y, 1902, in Guerrero, are given from studies on the ground by Drs. 
Bose and Angermann, both diligent workers, whose labors have been 
earlier announced in the "Parergones. " The article on an asbestiform 
mineral, in the same issue, by Senor Villarello, an engineer of repute, 
is very thorough. He concludes that this is an aluminum hydrosilicate, 
allied to the kaolins, approximating montmorillinite, with some physical 
features of asbestos, from which it materially differs in composition 
and properties. It does not bear out the hope raised for 'its application 
in the arts as a perfect substitute for asbestos, although it has limited 
usefulness in that direction. 

In Dr. Meniam's description of "A New Marine Reptile From the 
Triassic" of Shasta County, there are some points of great technical 
interest and bearing upon the development of vertebrate types. But, 
more than this, we have in the discovery and publica;tion a fitting 
tribute of Miss A. M. Alexander, "who has not only contributed gener- 
ously to the financial support of the work on the vertebrates of the 
Marine Triassic, but was herself the discoverer of the type specimen," 
which has been named in her honor, Thalattosaurus alexandrae. 

Cost of Pumping for Irrigation, in ten examples selected by Pro- 
fessor Woodward, of the University of Arizona, varied from less than 
4 cents to more than 29 cents per acre-foot of water raised one fooc. 
The best results are due to the application of brain power to the 
problem of adapting the machinery to the duty at hand. In ocher 
words, the investigation once more emphasizes the costliness of saving 
engineers' fees at the start. One plant, with wood at lowest cose per 
unit, had the greatest cost per unit of power developed, and the great- 
est cost for attendance, lubricating, repairs, etc., although the duty 



i68 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

required was actually the lowest. An interesting fact brought out is 
that two pumps at the University of Arizona, operated under practically 
the same conditions of duty, were very close in performance and costs, 
one being of reciprocating type, run by steam from wood fuel, the other 
a centrifugal pump, run by electricity. The cost of the electricity is 
given at 5 cents per kilowatt-hour, this apparently being the price paid 
for current to the local electric company. This is not the place to dis- 
cuss the engineering features, nor does Professor Woodward regard the 
small number of tests as more than illustrative of a few general princi- 
ples. But the work is important, and it is to be regretted that the 
removal of Mr. Woodward to take the professorship of Steam Engineering 
in the University of Iowa is about to deprive Arizona of his valuable 
services. 

Dr. Calm, well known in Los Angeles, has done good service by his 
thorough investigations concerning the effects of "Sulphurous Acid and 
Sulphites as Food Preservatives. ' ' His paper cited gives details of 
his researches, from which his own conclusions follow logically. He 
decides that these preservatives are harmless, not only because not dele- 
terious in themselves, but because they cannot preserve any but untainted 
substances; and, if used in excess, the results are such as to give due 
warning to consumers. 

The recent Bulletins of the Agricultural Experiment Station of the 
University of California evince careful work. The lines of investiga- 
tion are jnainly in directions which need long continued study and com- 
parison. The future importance of the olive oil and wine industries 
depend upon the solution of just such problems as are now under examin- 
ation. The laws and methods of fermentation and the effects of tem- 
perature and composition are too little understood. New information 
upon these subjects is continually being brought out by the station 
workers. Although the immediate practical results are often made 
the measure of their worth, and here they rarely fail to pay their way, 
the ultimate gain to pure science is far beyond what many realize. 

The Mining Magazine for December is rich in concise, complete, well 
digested reviews of current progress in mining and metallurgy. The 
iMning Digest and Mining Index are thorough and well arranged for 
convenient reference. Among the many periodicals regularly reviewed 
we find our own Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. 



The deepest well-boring in the United States for oil or gas, ac- 
cording to the Engineering and Mining Journal, is on the Bedell farm. 
West Elizabeth, Pa., twelve miles southwest of Butler. It has a 
depth of 5,575 feet, and was completed in 1898. The diameters of 
casing, from top downward, are: First 40 ft., 10 in.; next 320 ft., 8.25 in.; 
next 1,000 ft., 6.25 in., the remaining distance (below 1,360 ft.) be- 
ing an uncased boring of 6.25 in. diameter. The temperatures, as 
taken by Professor Hallock, of Columbia University, were: At 525 ft., 
57 deg. F.; at 2,252 ft., 64 deg. F.; at 2,397 ft., 78 deg. F.; at 5,010 ft., 
120 deg. F.; at 5,380 ft., 127 deg. F. 

The boring was stopped by accidental loss of string of tools, closing 
up the last 1,000 feet of the hole,\» 



new T OIR DUldMiL-eil \^a\ < 



3 5185 00296 8301