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Full text of "Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture"

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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Department Bulletins 



Nos. 151-175, 

WITH CONTENTS 
AND INDEX. 



Prepared in the Division of Publications. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1916. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

epartment bulletin no. 151. — experiments in crop production on 
Fallow Land at San Antonio: 

Introduction. 

Climatic conditions 1 

Soil conditions 

Fallowing experiments 2 

Vegetative growth of crops on fallowed land 4 

Soil-moisture studies 5 

Summary 10 

Department Bulletin No. 152. — The Eastern Hemlock: 

Introduction 1 

Geographical range 2 

Commercial range 3 

Amount of standing timber 4 

Value of standing hemlock 5 

Utilization of hemlock 7 

Structure and development of the tree 15 

Associated species 21 

Effect of light, soil, and moisture on the composition of the stand 22 

Reproduction 23 

Rate of growth 24 

Susceptibility to injury 27 

Hemlock in forest management 29 

Appendix 31 

Department Bulletin No. 153.— Forest Planting in the Eastern United 
States: 

Opportunities for forest planting. 1 

Status of forest planting in the region 3 

Establishment of plantations 6 

Care of plantations 13 

Mistakes in tree planting 21 

Yields and returns - 22 

Individual species 23 

Appendix 36 

Department Bulletin No. 154.— The Life History of Lodgepole Pine 
in the Rocky Mountains: 

Geographic distribution and altitudinal range 1 

Size, age, and habit - 2 

Climatic, soil, and moisture requirements 3 

Light requirements •- 6 

Reproduction 9 

Growth 16 

Causes of injury 19 

Associated species 26 

Permanency of lodgepole type 27 

Ground cover 28 

Age classes 28 

Yield 29 

Department Bulletin No. 155.— Wood Pipe for Conveying Water for 
Irrigation: 

Introduction 

History 

Continuous stave pipe 3 

Machine-banded pipe : 24 

Durability of wood pipe and factors affecting it 33 

3 



4 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 

Tage. 

Department Bulletin No. 156. — Wireworms Attacking Cereal and For- 
age Crops: 

Introduction 1 

Kinds of wireworms 3 

Natural enemies 25 

Remedial measures 29 

Department Bulletin No. 157.— Tillage and Rotation Experiments at 
Nephi, Utah: 

Introduction 1 

Description of the substation 

Experimental work 4 

Summary 43 

Department Bulletin No. 158.— The Nitrogen of Processed Fertilizers: 

Introduction - - 

Base goods a type of processed fertilizer 2 

The chemical examination of base goods 3 

Isolation and identification of definite compounds from the processed fer- 
tilizer - 8 

The chemical changes involved in processing 12 

Availability of the nitrogen of organic fertilizers 19 

The chemical principles underlying the utilization of nitrogenous trade 

wastes 22 

Summary 23 

Department Bulletin No. 159. — Soils of the Sassafras Series: 

Definition of the series 1 

Geographical distribution 2 

The North Atlantic Coastal Plain 4 

Sassafras sand lj> 

Sassafras loamy sand 23 

Sassafras fine sand 24 

Sassafras gravelly loam 26 

Sassafras sandy loam 28 

Sassafras fine sandy loam 32 

Sassafras loam 34 

Sassafras silt loam 37 

Crop uses and adaptations 44 

Summary 50 

Department Bulletin No. 160.— Cactus Solution as an Adhesive in 
Arsenical Sprays for Insects: 

Introduction 1 

Experimental work with cactus - 2 

Cactus compared with whale-oil soap as an adl sive 12 

Copper sulphate as a preservative for the cactus 13 

Experiments with other preservatives - : 14 

The common prickly pear cacti and their chemical composition 15 

Superiority of cactus from dry land 17 

Advantages in the use of cactus as an adhesive 17 

Quantity of cactus to use 17 

Zinc arsenite as an insecticide. 18 

Ferrous arsenate as an insecticide 18 

Iron arsenite as an insecticide 

Final results from spraying 

Recommendations for control 19 

Departmental Bulletin No. 161.— The Mediterranean Fruit Fly in 
Bermuda: 

Introduction 

History of the fruit fly in Bermuda 

life history 1 

Host fruits in Bermuda 3 

Possibility of eradication 5 

Bermuda as a source of danger to the United States 6 

Conclusion ' 



CONTENTS. 5 

Page. 

Departmental Bulletin No. 162. — Horticultural Experiments at the San 
Antonio Field Station, Southern Texas: 

Introduction 1 

( 'limatic conditions of the region 2 

The soil conditions 3 

Scope of the experiments 4 

Variety tests 5 

Summary 25 

Department Bulletin No. 163.— A Field Test for Lime-sulphur Dipping 
Baths: 

Introductory 1 

Method of executing the test 2 

Utilization of results afforded by the test 6 

Department Bulletin No. 164. — Field Test with a Toxic Soil Con- 
stituent: Vanillin. 

Introduction 1 

Effect of vanillin on clover in pots 2 

Effect of vanillin on wheat in pots 3 

Effect of vanillin on cowpeas, string beans, and garden peas grown in the 

field , 4 

Presence of vanillin and its effect in the soil six months after application. . 7 

Department Bulletin No. 165. — Quassiin as a Contact Insecticide: 

Introduction 1 

( hemical literature on quassiin 2 

Extraction of quassiin from solutions 4 

Determination of purity of quassiin used 4 

Inseetieidal value of quassiin 5 

Conclusion 7 

Department Bulletin No. 166. — Ophthalmic Mallein for the Diagnosis 
of Glanders: 

Introduction 1 

Various methods for diagnosing glanders 2 

The ophthalmic mallein test 2 

Report of the American Veterinary Medical Association on the ophthalmic 

test 10 

Conclusion 10 

Department Bulletin No. 167. — Paradichlorobenzene as an Insect 
Fumigant: 

Introduction 

Effects of inhalation of the vapor 1 

Paradichlorobenzene as an insecticide 2 

Diffusion of the vapor 3 

Directions for using 3 

How put up and cost 3 

Applical >ility to various insects 3 

Experiments with paradichlorobenzene as a fumigant 4 

Conclusion 6 

Chemical and physical properties of paradichlorobenzene 6 

Department Bulletin No. 168. — Grades for Commercial Corn: 

Classification of corn 1 

How the various factors should be determined 2 

Securing a representative sample from the bulk 3 

Mixing samples for detailed analyses 4 

Size of samples 4 

Sieves for screening samples 4 

Moisture tests 5 

Damaged corn 

Determination of damaged corn 

Foreign material 8 

Cracked corn ° 

Color 9 



6 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 

Page. 

Department Bulletin No. 169. — Injury by Disinfectants to Seeds and 
Roots in Sandy Soils: 

Introduction 1 

Soil characters 1 

Experiments at Halsey. Nebr 2 

Experiments at Morrisville, Pa 30 

General discussion and conclusion 31 

Summary 34 

Department Bulletin No. 170. — The European Pine-shoot Moth; a 
Serious Menace to Pine Timber in America: 

Introduction 1 

History of the species in Europe 2 

Food plants 3 

Introduction and distribution in America 4 

Life history 5 

Character of injury 6 

Description 7 

Allied American species 7 

Natural enemies 8 

Method of control 9 

Bibliography 10 

Department Bulletin No. 171. — Food op the Robins and Bluebirds op 
the United States: 

Introduction 1 

Robin 2 

Varied thrush, or Oregon robin 16 

Eastern bluebird 19 

Western bluebird 25 

Mountain bluebird 29 

Department Bulletin No. 172. — The Varieties of Plums Derived from 
Native American Species: 

Introduction 1 

Geographical origin of varieties 2 

Parentage of varieties 3 

Varieties classified by species 4 

Origin and species of native varieties of plums and of hybrids 8 

Department Bulletin No. 173. — The Life History and Habits of the 
Pear Thrips in California: 

Introduction 1 

History 3 

Economic importance 7 

Character of injury 11 

Description 19 

Systematic position 22 

Anatomy 22 

Life history and habits 24 

Natural enemies 51 

Department Bulletin No. 174. — Farm Experience with the Tractor: 

Introduction 1 

Designation of tractors 2 

Steam and gas tractors 3 

The gas tractor and the horse 4 

Tractor ratings 5 

Source of data 6 

Observations of business men 7 

Opinions of tractor owners 8 

Reports of satisfied and dissatisfied owners 10 

Gasoline and kerosene tractors 18 

Fuel supply 20 

Fuel consumption 21 

Lubricating oil 23 

Cross section of plows drawn and area plowed by tractors 23 

Breaking 24 

Combination work 25 

Depth of plowing 26 



CONTENTS. 



Department Bulletin No. 174. — Farm Experience with the Tractor— 
Continued. 

Packing soil by tractors 27 

Comparison of different sizes of tractors 28 

Size of farm 30 

Use of tractors at night 33 

Custom work 34 

Repairs 35 

Displacement of horses by tractors 37 

Conditions essential to success with the tractor 39 

Summary 41 

Department Bulletin No. 175. — Mushrooms and Other Common Fungi: 

Introduction 1 

Morphological structure of mushrooms and certain other fungi 3 

Descriptions of species 4 

Agaricaceae 5 

Polyporaceae 37 

Hydnaceae 43 

Tremellaceae 44 

Clavariaceae 46 

Gasteromycetes 47 

Ascomycetes 54 

Poisonous or suspected mushrooms 56 

Glossary 56 

Recipes for cooking mushrooms 58 

Reference books useful to the amateur 64 



INDEX 



Abbreviated wireworm, description, occurrence 

Acer saccharinum. See Maple, silver. 
Acid. See Hydrochloric; Sulphuric. 

Agaricaceae, key to genera 

Agaricus spp., description, and occurrence 

Agriculture, Secretary, authority for establishing grades 

of corn 

Agriotes mancus. See Wheat wireworm. 

Alabama, wireworm pest, note 

Alfalfa, injury by sugar-beet wireworm 

Allen, Zacharias, forest planting in Rhode Island, 1820, 

per cent on investment, etc 

Almond, growing, San Antonio region, experiments. . . 

Almonds, injury by pear thrips, note 

Amanita, genus, characters, description of species, etc.. 

American plum, stock for San Antonio region 

Ammonia, determination in "base goods," methods, etc 
Amygdalus davidiana — 

adaptability to San Antonio conditions, note 

stock for stone fruits, San Antonio region 

Apples — 

growing — 

San Antonio region, experiments, notes 

sassafras soils, notes 

injury by pear thrips, character, and extent 

Apricots — 

growing in San Antonio region, experiments and 

remarks 

injury by pear thrips, note 

Arginine, isolation from processed fertilizer, method 

Armillaria, genus, characters, descriptions of species, etc 
Arsenate — 
ferrous — 

use and value as insecticide 

uses with cactus solution against cucumber 

beetles, experiments 

iron — 

use and value as insecticide 

use with cactus solution against cucumber 

beetles, experiments 

lead, use with cactus solution against cucumber 

beetles, experiments 

zinc, use and value as insecticide 

Arsenical insecticides, value of different kinds 

Arsenite, zinc, use with cactus solution against cucum- 
ber beetles, experiments , 

Asaphes decoloratus, clover pest, note 

Ascomycetes, key to family 

Ash- 
green — 

forest plantation, cost, yield and profits on 

different soils 

planting, requirements, management, etc 

price 

61217°— 16 2 



Bulletin. 



156 



19-20 



175 
175 


5-6 
32-33 


168 


1 


156 
156 


17 
19 


153 
162 
173 
175 
162 
158 


5 
20 
19 

7-9 
23 

4-5 


162 
162 


6 
23-24 


162 
159 
173 


18 
31,43 

18 


162 
173 
158 
175 


18 

19 

10 

11-12 


160 


18-19 


160 


7-9, 11 


160 


18-19 


160 


12 


160 
160 
160 


5-6 

18 

18-19 


160 
156 
175 


2-4, 10-11 
24 
54 


153 

153 
153 


32 

31-32 
32 



10 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 



Ash — Continued . 

growth habits 

white — ■ 

planting, requirements, management, etc 

soil requirements and growth habits 

Asparagus, growing on sassafras soils 

Atlantic coastal plain, north, topography, geological 

formation, etc 

" Autocultivators," use of term 

' ' Autoplows, ' ' use of term 



Back, E. A., bulletin on "The Mediterranean fruit fly 

in Bermuda' ' 

Bark beetles, damage to lodgepole pine 

Bark, hemlock, use in tanning, prices, etc 

"Base goods" — 
chemical — 

changes in processing 

examination 

definition 

nitrogen content — 

before and after treatment 

determination, forms, etc . ... 

organic compounds, isolation and determination, 

methods, etc 

treatment for fertilizer 

Beal, F. E. L., bulletin on "Food of the robins and 

bluebirds of the United States " 

Beans, string, relation to vanillin in the soil, experiments 
Beef tongue fungus, description, occurrence, and value. 
Beefsteak fungus, description, occurrence, and value 
Beetles, control, use, and value of paradichlorobenzene. 

"Belt" horsepower, use of term 

Bermuda — 

fruits hosts of Mediterranean fruit fly 

Mediterranean fruit fly — 

eradication, suggestions, possibilities, etc 

situation, investigation 

peach industry, damage by Mediterranean fruit fly. 
Bibliography — 

Evetria buoliana 

forest planting 

mushrooms, for amateurs 

Birds- 
enemies to wireworms, list 

robins and bluebirds of United States, food 

Bird's-nest fungi, key to family 

Bitter panus, mushroom, description and occurrence... 
Black locust. See Locust, black. 

Blair, S. E., and Stephen H. Hastings, bulletin on 
"Horticultural experiments at the San Antonio 

field station, southern Texas " 

Bluebird — 

eastern, habitat, food habits, etc 

Mexican. See Bluebird, western, 
mountain — 

destruction of injurious insects, note 

habitat, food habits, etc 

western — 

habitat, food habits, etc 

service in California 

subspecies 



Bulletin. 



153 

153 
153 
159 

159 
174 

174 



161 
154 
152 



158 
158 
158 

158 
158 

158 
158 

171 
164 
175 
175 
167 
174 

161 

161 
161 
161 

170 
153 
175 

156 
171 
175 
175 



162 
171 



171 
171 

171 
171 
171 



31-32 

31-32 
31-32 
22,43 

4-16 
2 
2 



1-8 
20 

12-13 



12-19 

3-8 

2 

3 

3-8 

8-19 
2-3 

1-31 

7 

42 

42 

3-4 

5 

3-5 

5-6 

1-8 

1 

10-11 

37-38 

64 

26-27 

1-31 

52-53 

26 



1-26 
19-25 



29 
29-31 

25-29 
26 
26 



INDEX. 



11 



Bulletin. 



Bluebirds — 

food (with robins) in United States 

western, examination of stomachs, contents, etc.. 

Boletus — 
genus — 

characters, occurrence, etc 

descriptions of species 

luteus, description, occurrence, and value 

Bonsteel, J. A., bulletin on "Soils of the sassafras 
series " 

Boring machine, wood pipe, invention and use, note. . . 

Bovista, genus, characters and description of species.. 

"Brake" horsepower, use of term 

Bridgeton area, geological formation and deposits 

Broad-gilled collybia, mushroom, description and occur- 
rence 

Bulgaria, genus, characters and descriptions of species. 

Burbank plum, characters, adaptability to San Antonio 
region, etc 

Busck, August, bulletin on "The European pine-shoot 
moth: serious menace to pine timber in 
America " 

Cactus — 

advantages as adhesive in sprays 

dry-land, advantages as adhesive in sprays 

singeing for cattle feed, note 

solution 

adhesive in arsenical sprays for insects 

adhesive in sprays, comparison with whale-oil 

soap, experiments 

preservatives, experiments 

spiny, gluten content, comparison with spineless 

variety 

use as adhesive in sprays, proportions 

Caesar's mushroom, description, common names, com- 
parison with fly amanita 

California — 

farm tractors, number, effect on industry, financial 

investment, etc 

pear thrips, life history and habits 

Santa Clara Valley, depredations of pear thrips. .. 
Calvatia, genus, characters, descriptions of species, etc. 

Canning mushrooms, directions 

Cantaloupes, growing on sassafras soils 

Cantharellas. genus, characters, description of species, etc 

Cape May area, geological formation and deposits 

Cardon, P. V., bulletin on "Tillage and rotation experi- 
ments at Nephi, Utah" 

Carnations, growing, damage by wireworm, note 

Carrol, Eugene, statement on durability of stave water 

pipe at Butte 

Castellow, W. C, statement on destruction of straw- 
berries by robins 

Catalpa, hardy — 

growth habits, soil requirements, etc 

planting, eastern United States, cost of stock, etc. 
Catastoma, genus, characters, and description of species 

Catsup, mushroom, preparation 

Cattle, lime-sulphur dipping baths, field test 

Cauliflower, growing on sassafras soils 

Cebrio tricolor, description, occurrence 



171 
171 



175 
175 
175 

159 
155 
175 
174 
159 

175 
175 

162 



170 



160 
160 
160 

160 

160 
160 

160 
160 

175 



Page. 



1-31 

26-29 



38-40 

38-39 

39 

1-52 

2-3 

50 

5 

11 

18 
54 

11,12 



1-11 



17 

17 

2 

1-20 

12-13 
13-15 

3 
17-18 



174 


6,8,9 


173 


1-52 


173 


7-11 


175 


49-50 


175 


62-63 


159 


22,48 


175 


13-14 


159 


9-10 


157 


1-45 


156 


9 


155 


34-35 


171 


4 


153 


33-34 


153 


33-34 


175 


50-51 


175 


63 


163 


1-7 


159 


22,26 


156 


24-25 



12 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 



Bulletin. 



Ceratitis capitata. Set Fruit fly, Mediterranean. 

Cereal crops, wireworms attacking (with forage crops). . . 

Cereals, winter, seeding, time, methods, rate, etc 

Cereals. See also under specific name of product. 
Chanterelle, mushroom, description, value, occurrence. 
Chapin, Robert M., bulletin on "A field test for lime- 
sulphur dipping baths " 

Charles, Vera K., and Flora W. Patterson, bulletin 

on "Mushrooms and other common fungi" 

Cherries — 

destruction by robins, note 

growing in San Antonio region, experiments, notes. 

injury by pear thrips, character and extent 

Cherry thrips. See Pear thrips. 
Chestnut — 

bark, use in tanning, extract, importance 

damage by Endothia parasitica, note 

planting in eastern United States, remarks 

tanning extract, consumption 1900, 1905-1909 

tongue fungus, description, occurrence and value.. 
Chestnut-backed bluebird. See Bluebird, western. 
Chinese date, growing in San Antonio region, experi- 
ments, notes 

Chlorosis, cause, notes 

Citranges, growing in San Antonio region, experiments. 
Citrus fruits, growing in San Antonio region, experi- 
ments and discussion 

Claudopus, genus, characters, description of species, etc. 
Clavaria — 

genus, characters 

pistillaris, description, occurrence and value 

Clavariaceae, key to family, descriptions of species, etc. 

"Click-beetle," source of wire worm, note 

Clitocybc, genus, characters, descriptions of species, etc.. 
Clover — 

crimson, growing on sassafras soils of various types.. 

growing on sassafras soils of various types 

relation to vanillin in the soil, experiments 

Coastal Plain, North Atlantic, topography, geological 

formation, etc 

Collared — 

mushroom, description and occurrence 

wireworm, description, occurrence 

Codington soils, comparison with sassafras soils, note 

Collybia, genus, characters, descriptions of species, etc.. 
Colorado, lodgepole pine region, weather conditions at 

different elevations 

Cones, lodgepole pine — 

behavior in different conditions. 

production per tree, seed scales, size, etc 

Conifers — 

injury from "red belt" 

transplanting, suggestions 

See also Fir; Hemlock; Larch; Pine; Spruce. 
Continuous stave pipe. See Pipe, continuous stave. 

Cooking, recipes for mushrooms 

Cooper, Ellwood, statement on destruction of olives by 

robins - • 

Cooperage, slack, hemlock, production 

Copper sulphate, preservative for cactus solution, be- 
havior in arsenical sprays, experiments 

Coprinus, genus, characters, descriptions of species, etc. 



156 
157 

175 

163 

175 

171 
162 
173 



152 
153 
153 
152 
175 



162 
162 
162 

162 
175 

175 

175 
175 
156 
175 

159 
159 
164 

159 

175 
156 
159 
175 

154 

154 
154 

154 

153 



175 

171 
152 

160 
175 



1-34 
21-31 

14 

1-7 

1-64 

4 

18 
18 



11 

34 
34 
13 

42 



20-21 

3-1 

19 

18-19 
26-27 

46 

46 

46 

1 

14-16 

19, 24, 27, 30, 36 

19, 24, 27, 30, 

32, 36, 41 

2-3 

4-16 

25 
24-25 

- 2 
17-19 

4,5 

9-11 
9-11 

25-26 
6 



58-64 

12 
14 

13-14 
35-36 



INDEX. 



13 



Coral fungi, key to family, descriptions of species, etc. 

Cordwood, consumption, value, suggestions 

Corn — 

classification, authority for establishing grades. . . 

cracked, classification .----. 

damaged, grades, types, and determination 

food plant of wireworm 

grades of commercial stock 

grading — 

color determination and classification 

determination of various factors, methods 

rules 



growing — ■ 

on fallow land, San Antonio, Tex., experiments 

on sassafras soils of various types, yield, etc., 
notes 



Bulletin. 



injury by wireworms 

intertilling with wheat, yields, experiments 

moisture tests 

Bamples for grading, size, screening, etc 

sampling from bulk for determination of grade 

sweet, growing on sassafras soils 

wireworm — 

description, life history, injury to crops 

description, life history, occurrence, etc 

remedial measures, suggestions 

Corymbites — 

caricinus, injury to fruit blossoms, note 

cylindriformis, occurrence in Maryland 

inflatus, description, life history, occurrence, etc... 

noxius. See Dry-land wireworm. 

species, descriptions, nature, and damage to crops. . 

tarsalis, injury to fruit blossoms, note 

Cotton — 

food plant of wireworms 

growing on fallow land, San Antonio, Tex., experi- 
ments 

injury by wireworms 

wireworm, description, life history, injury to crops. 
Cottonwood — ■ 

plantation, cost, yield, and profit on different soils.. 

planting in groves, requirements, yields, and re- 
turns 

value of stumpage, uses, etc 

Coupling shoes, continuous stave pipe, requirements 

Cowpeas — 

growing on sassafras soils 

injury by wireworms 

relation to vanillin in the soil, experiments 

Crossties — • 

durability of different woods 

hemlock, production, durability, etc 

Crown-gall, fruit trees, San Antonio region, note 

Crucibulum, genus, characters and description of species. 

Cryptohyphus abbreviates, description, occurrence 

Cucumber beetle — 

control measures, recommendations 

use as arsenical sprays with cactus solution, ex- 
periments 

Cyathus, genus, characters and descriptions of species — 
Cystine, determination in "base goods," methods, etc.. 



175 
153 

168 

168 
168 
156 
168 

168 
168 
168 

151 

159 

156 

157 
168 
168 
168 
159 

156 
156 
156 

156 
156 

156 

156 
156 

156 

151 
156 
156 

153 

153 
153 
155 

159 
156 
164 

152 
152 
162 
175 
156 

160 

160 

175 
158 



46 
2 

1 
8-9 

6-8 

8 

1-11 

8-11 

2-11 

1-2 

2, 3, 4, 5 

19, 24, 25, 27, 

29, 30, 33, 35, 

41, 42, 44, 49 

5, 7, 8, 10-11, 

18, 19, 20, 21 

41, 42, 43 

5-6 

3-5 

3^ 

42 

7-9 

16-18 

18 

2 

9 

10-12 

9-12 
2 

8 

2,3,4,5 

8 

7-9 

24 

23-24 

23-24 

11 

19,24 

8 

4-6 

14 

14 

4 

53 

19-20 

19-20 

2-12 

53 

5 



14 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 



Bulletin. 



Date, Chinese, growing in San Antonio region, experi- 
ments - 

Dates, growing in San Antonio region, discussion 

Death cup, description and poisonous nature 

Dendroctonus — 

monticolae, damage to lodge-pole pine 

murrayanae, injury to lodge-pole pine - — 

Denmark, pine-shoot moth, outbreaks, damage to pine 

forests, etc - - - 

Destroying angel, poisonous mushroom, description 

Dewberries — 
growing — 

in San Antonio region, Texas, experience of T. 

R. Dillon. . . 

on sassafras soils, note - - - - 

Diabrotica balteata, control, use of arsenical sprays with 

cactus solution, experiments 

Diamino acids, sources in ' ' base goods " 

Dictyophora, genus, characters, description of species, 

etc 

Dillon, T. R., dewberry growing in San Antonio region, 

experience 

Diospyros — 
lotus — 

resistance to chlorosis 

stock for persimmons in San Antonio region 

texana, stock for persimmon in San Antonio region, 

experiments 

virginiana, grafting stock, objections 

Dipping baths, lime-sulphur, for sheep and cattle, field 

test 

Disinfectants — 

damage to seeds and roots in sandy soils 

injury— 

to pines and weeds, tests of various kinds 

to seed and roots, experiments at Halsey, Nebr. 
Doremus, A. F., statement on durability of bored wood 

water pipe 

Douglas fir, planting, eastern United States, remarks . . . 
Drasterius, spp., descriptions, occurrence, life cycle, etc. 

"Drawbar " horsepower, use of term 

Dried mushrooms 

Drupe fruits, growing in San Antonio region, experi- 
mental work 

Drupe fruits. See also Almonds; Cherries; Peaches; 

Plums. 
Dry-land wireworm — 

description, life history, occurrence, etc 

remedial measures 

Duckett, A. B., bulletin on " Paradichlorobenzene as 

an insect fumigant " 

Duvel, J. W. T., bulletin on "Grades of commercial 
corn " 

Eastern bluebird, habitat, food habits, etc 

Edson, John M., statement on destruction of field peas. . 

Eichhorn, Adolph, and John R. Mohler, bulletin on 
" Ophthalmic mallein for the diagnosis of glan- 
ders " 

Elater, large-eyed, Indian name "tuiskuwa" 

Elateridae, source of wireworms 

Eleodes, enemy to cereal crops, occurrence 

Elkton soils, comparison with sassafras soils, note 

Endoihia parasitica, menace to chestnut timber, note 

Engine, tractor. See Tractor. 



162 
162 
175 

154 
154 

170 
175 



162 
159 

160 
158 

175 

162 



162 
162 

162 
162 

163 

169 

169 
169 

155 
153 
156 
174 
175 

162 



156 
156 

167 

168 

171 
171 



166 
156 
156 
156 
159 
153 



INDEX. 



15 



Entoloma, genus, characters, description of species, etc. 

Europe, pine-shoot moth, damage to pine forests 

European pine-shoot moth — 

menace to pine timber in America 

See also Pine-shoot moth. 
Euthrips — 

use of term 

See also Pear thrips. 
Evetria buoliana — 

bibliography 

synonymy 

See also Pine-shoot moth. 

Exidia, genus, characters 

Experiment — 

farm, Nephi, Utah, cooperation with Bureau of 

Plant Industry 

substation, Nephi, Utah, establishment, directors, 
etc 



experi- 



Fairy-ring fungus, description and value .... 
Fallow — 

crop production at San Antonio, Tex 

ments 

economic considerations, San Antonio region 

experiments, San Antonio, Tex., treatment of 

plats, yields, etc 

Land — 

cultivation, influence on moisture, yield, etc . . 
vegetative growth, observations at San Antonio, 

Tex 

moisture tests on different dates and depths, Nephi 

experiment farm, Utah 

soil moisture, comparison with continuously cropped 

land, San Antonio experiment farm 

use of term 

False chanterelle, mushroom, description and occur- 
rence 

Farm- 
experience with the tractor 

land, improved, decline in eastern United States.. 
lands — 

abandoned, acreage 

abandoned, utilization for forest planting 

abandoned, value for Scotch pine forest 

worn-out, value for ash plantation 

worn-out, value for Norway pine plantation. . .. 

nursery, forest, suggestions 

Farmers, use of tractors, opinions 

Farming, traction, effect on industry, opinion of busi- 
ness men 

Fence posts, farm demands, increase in price, sugges- 
tions 

Ferrous arsenate — 

insecticide, use and value 

use with cactus solution against cucumber beetles, 

experiments 

Fertilizer, processed, isolation and identification of 

compounds, methods, etc 

Fertilizers — 

organic , availability of nitrogen 

processed , nitrogen of 

use on sassafras soils 

utilization of nitrogenous trade wastes, chemical 
principles 



Bulletin. 



175 
170 

170 



173 



170 
170 

175 



157 
157 
175 

151 
151 

151 

157 

151 

157 

151 
151 

175 

174 
153 

153 
153 
153 
153 
153 
153 
174 

174 

153 

160 

160 

158 

158 
158 
159 

158 



16 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 



Bulletin. 



Field mushroom, description, occurrence, and value... 
Figs, growing in San Antonio region, experiments, and 

discussion 

Finkle, F. C, statement on durability of redwood 

stave water pipe in California 

Fir- 
Douglas — 

injury from smelter fumes 

planting, eastern United States, remarks 

use for water-pipe staves .• 

value for water pipe, tests 

Fire, protection of forest plantations 

Fires, forest, injury to lodgepole pine stands 

Fistulina, genus, characters, and description of species. 

Flies, egg-laying habits, note 

Fly— 

amanita, description, poisonous nature and uses... 
Mediterranean fruit — 

in Bermuda 

See also Fruit fly, Mediterranean. 
Fomes, genus, characters, descriptions of species, etc. . 
Forage crops, wireworms attacking (with cereal crops).. 
Forest — 

fires, effect on reproduction of lodgepole pine 

nursery stock — 

planting methods, considerations, practices, 

and suggestions 

requirements in forest planting in eastern 

United States 

officers, State, list 

plantations — 

care 

cultivation, practices, cost, and profits 

establishment in eastern United States, methods 

and suggestions -. 

mixtures, advantages, list 

mixtures, mistakes, instances 

pruning young trees, management, caution... 

thinning, suggestions 

yields and returns 

young, injury from live stock 

young, sources of injury, protective measures, 

etc 

planting — 

bibliography 

by farmers, assistance of States, methods 

direct seeding, methods 

eastern United States 

methods in eastern United States 

prairie regions, practices, progress, etc 

various soils and regions, eastern United 

States, methods, and species 

seeds and seedlings, injury by disinfectants in 

sandy soils 

Formalin, injury to pine seed and seedlings and weeds 

in sandy soils, tests, and discussion 

Fortier, S., statement on durability of stave water 

pipe at Denver 

Foster, S. W., and P. R. Jones, bulletin on "The life 
history and habits of the pear thrips in Califor- 
nia" 

Fraxinus — 

americana. See Ash, white. 
lanceolata. See Ash, green. 



175 
162 
155 

154 
152 
155 
155 
153 
154 
175 
161 

175 

161 

175 

156 

154 
153 



32 

19-20 

35 

23 
35 

6 

35-37 

21 

19 

42 

2 

7-8 

1-8 

40 
1-34 

14-16 
7-12 



153 


6-7 


153 


36-37 


153 


13-18 


153 


13-14 


153 


6-12 


153 


18-19 


153 


21-22 


153 


16-18 


153 


14-16 


153 


22-23 


153 


20-21 


153 


19-21 


153 


37-38 


153 


2-3,5 


153 


8 


153 


1-38 


153 


7-12 


153 


3-5 


153 


35 


169 


35 


169 


23, 24, 25, 29-30 


155 


33 



173 



1-52 



INDEX. 



17 



Frothingham, E. H., bulletin on "The eastern hem- 
lock" 

Fruit — 
fly- 
Mediterranean, in Bermuda 

Mediterranean, introduction from Bermuda, dis- 
cussion 

Mediterranean, introduction into Bermuda 

Mediterranean, life cycle in Bermuda 

Mediterranean, life history 

growers, losses from pear thrips, Santa Clara Valley 

growing, San Antonio region, variety tests 

injury by wireworm, note 

trees — 

growing on "black land" of Texas, disadvan- 
tages 

San Antonio region of Texas, diseases 

See also under name of specific product. 
Fruits — 

Bermuda, hosts for Mediterranean fruit fly 

food of robins 

growing in San Antonio region, testing resistant 

stocks 

menace by pear thrips in San Francisco Bay region. 

Fuels, tractor engines 

Fumigant, insect, para dichlorobenzene 

Fungi — ■ 

injurious to lodgepole pine 

mushrooms and other common fungi 

pore, key to family 

Garbage tankage, nitrogen content 

Gas tractor — ■ 

advantages over steam tractors, demand, etc.. 

demand, relation to horse supply 

use of term 

Gasoline tractor — 

use of term i 

use with tractors, comparison with kerosene 

Gasteromycetos, key to order 

Geaster, genus, characters, and description of species. . 
Germany, pine-shoot moth, outbreaks, damage to pine 

forests, etc 

Giant puffball mushroom, description, occurrence and 

value 

Glanders — 

diagnosis, use and value of opthhalmic mallein... 
ophthalmic mallein test — 

method, reliability, effect on animals, etc 

report of American Veterinary Medical Asso- 
ciation 

Glossary, mushrooms 

Gonzales plum, characters, adaptability to San Antonio 

region, etc 

Goodrich, Edward E., statement on destruction of 

olives by robins 

Grapes, growing — 

in San Antonio region, tests of varieties 

in San Antonio region, use of native stock, experi- 
mental work 

on sassafras soils 

61217°— 16 3 



Bulletin. 



] 52 



161 



Page. 



1-43 



161 
161 
161 
161 
173 
162 
156 


6-7 

1 

1-2 

1-2 

11 

5-11 

25 


162 

162 


3-4 
3-4 


161 
171 


3-5 

4-5 


162 
173 
174 
167 


21-24 

7-11 

13-14 

1-7 


154 
175 
175 


21-22 

1-64 

37-43 


158 


3 


174 
174 

174 


3-5 

4-5 

2 


174 
174 
175 
175 


2 

18-19 

47 

51 


170 


2-3 


175 


50 


166 


1-11 


166 


2-9 


166 
175 


10 

56-58 


162 


11,12 


171 


11-12 


162 


14 


162 
159 


22 
31 



18 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 



Bulletin. 



Page. 



Great Basin, wheat growing, time of seeding, rate, 
methods, etc 

Green- 
ash. See Ash, green, 
gill, mushroom, description, poisonous nature, etc. 

Guanine, isolation from processed fertilizer, method . . . 

Guepinia, genus, characters, description of species, etc. 

Gyromitra, genus, characters, description of species, etc. 



Hair tankage, nitrogen content 

Hairy lentinus, mushroom, description and occurrence.. 

Hardwood region, unproductive lands, utilization for for- 
est planting, practices, and suggestions 

Hardwoods, planting, use of sprouted nuts 

Hardwoods. See also Ash; Chestnut; Locust; Maple; 
Oak; Pecan; Walnut. 

Harrowing, wheat in spring, effects 

Hartley, Carl, bulletin on "Injury by disinfectants 
to seeds and roots in sandy soils " 

Harvest, wheat, at different stages of maturity, yields, 
experiments ' 

Hastings, Stephen H., and R. E. Blair, bulletin on 
"Horticultural experiments at the San Antonio 
field station, southern Texas " 



Hay, growing on sassafras soils, yield, etc 

Hemlock — 

associated species, effect of environment on stand, 
etc 

bark, use in tanning, consumption, prices, etc.. com- 
parisons with other species, 1900, 1905-1909 

botanical characters 

cordwood, prices 

eastern '. 

distribution 

habitat and commercial ran°:e 

lumber cut, 1899-1913 

lumber cut, by States, percentage of total, etc., 

1909-1913 _ 

standing timber, amount, proportion of forest, 

etc. , by States 

stumpage value, comparisons with associated 

species, 1912 

stumpage value, 1889, 1899, 1907, 1912, by 
States 

forest management 

growth, habits, reproduction, etc 

injuries from insects, disease, wind, etc 

logs- 
prices, 1910-1913 

season checks, cause of waste, note 

lumber, value by years and States, 1899-1912 

pulp- 
manufacture, sulphite process 



seed, description, weight, germination 

tanning extract, consumption, 1900, 1905-1909. 
timber — 

measurement tables 

utilization 

tree, structure and development 



157 



152 

152 
152 
152 
152 
152 
152 
152 

152 

152 

152 

152 
152 
152 
152 

152 
152 
152 

152 
152 
152 
152 

152 
152 
152 



22-28 



175 

158 
175 
175 




10-11 
12 

45-46 
55 


158 
175 




3 
26 


153 
153 




4 

8 


157 




33-35 


169 




1-35 


157 




36-37 


162 
159 


1-26 
f 19,24,30,33, 
1 36, 41 



21-23 

12-13 

16-19 

12 

1-43 

2 

2-3 

7 



4-5 



6 
29-30 
19-27 
27-29 



10 
10 
19 
13 

31-43 

7-15 

15-16 






INDEX. 



19 





Bulletin. 


Page. 


Hemlock — Continued. 

waste from "wind-shake" and "butt rot" 


152 
152 

160 
175 
158 
162 
151 
175 

156 

174 

174 
174 
174 

174 

166 

174 

166 

162 

155 
175 
175 

169 

175 

175 

158 

156 

156 
156 
156 

156 
156 
156 
175 

165 
167 

160 
160 

160 
167 
171 
154 


28-29 


wood characters strength and durability 


8,16 


High, M. M.. bulletin on "Cactus solution as an adhesive 
in arsenical sprays for insects " 


1-20 


Hirneola genus, characters and description of species 

Histidine, isolation from processed fertilizer, method 

Hog plum, stock for San Antonio region 

"Hog wallow" land, description, nature, value, etc 

Honey-colored mushroom, description and varieties 

Honistonotus uhlerii. See Corn wireworm; Cotton 

wireworm. 
"Horned toad," enemy to wireworm 


45 

9 

23 

2,5-9 

12 

27 




38 


Horsepower — 

comparison of horses with machine motors 


5-6 


tractor ratings 


5-6 




5-6 


Horses — 

displacement bv tractors on western farms 


37-39 


glanders, use and value of ophthalmic mallein in 
d iagnosis 


1-11 


supply relation to demand for gas tractors 


4-5 


testing for glanders with ophthalmic mallein, 
method, dosage, etc 


5-8 


Horticultural experiments, San Antonio field station, 
southern Texas ■ 


1-26 


Hosea, R. M., statement on durability of stave water 
pine 


36 


Hydnaceae, characters and kev to family 


43 


Hydnum, genus, characters and descriptions of species 

Hydrochloric acid, injury to pine seedlings and weeds 
in sandv soils, tests 


43-44 

23, 24. 25, 26-27 


Hygrophorus, genus, characters, descriptions of species, 
etc 


23^-24 


Hypholoma, genus, characters, descriptions of species, 
etc 


34-35 


Hypoxanthine, isolation from processed fertilizer, 
method 


12 


Hyslop, J. A., bulletin on "Wireworms attacking cereal 
and forage crops " 


1-34 


Idaho wireworm depredations, notes 


10,13 


Illinois, wireworm pest, occurrence 


24 


Indiana wireworm pest, notes 


17,18 


Inflated wireworm — 


1-3 




10-11 


life history, hosts and distribution 


10-12 


Inky cap, mushroom, description, occurrence, and value. 
Insecticide — 

contact, value of quassiin, experiments 


35 

1-8 


pararlichlorobenzene 


1-7 


Insecticides, arsenical — 

sprays, use of cactus as adhesive, value, etc., ex- 


1-20 


value of different kinds 


18-19 


Insects — 

arsenical sprays, use of cactus solution as adhesive. . . 

control, value and use of paradichlorobenzene 

food of Oregon robin 


1-20 

1-7 

17 


Injurious to lodgepole pine ^. 


20-2 1 



20 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 



Bulletin. 



Page. 



Intertilling, potatoes with wheat, yields, experiments.. 
Iowa — 

farm tractors, number, effect on industry, financial 
investment, etc 

wireworm pests, notes 

Iron arsenate — 

insecticide, value 

use with cactus solution against cucumber beetles, 

experiments - 

Irpex, genus, characters and description of species 

Irrigation water, conveying in wood pipe. . 

Ithy phallus, genus, characters and description of species. 
Ixoreus naevius. See Robin, Oregon. 

Jayne, S. O., bulletin on "Wood pipe for conveying 

water for irrigation " 

Jones, P. R., and S. W. Foster, bulletin on "The life 
history and habits of the pear thrips in Califor- 
nia" - 

Juglans — 
nigra — 

stock for Persian walnut, San Antonio region. . 
See also Walnut, black. 
rupestris, stock for Persian walnut, San Antonio re- 
gion ' 

Jujube, growing in San Antonio region, experiments, 
notes 



Kansas — 

farm tractors, number, effect on industry, financial 

investment, etc 

wireworm depredations, notes. . . .' 

Kentucky, wireworm pest, note , 

' ' Kerosene tractor, ' ' use of term , 

Kerosene, use with tractors, comparison with gasoline. . 

King, Vernon, statement on corn and cotton wireworm, 

damage to crops, etc 



Lacon rectangularis, wheat pest, note 

Lactarius, genus, character, descriptions of species, etc. . 
Land — 

fallow. See Fallow. 

fallowing, purpose 

"unimproved, " use of term 

Lands, waste, utilization for forest planting 

Larch, European — 

planting in mixtures, soil requirements, etc 

uses on farm 

value for telephone poles, prices, demand 

value in forest plantations, cost, etc 

Larix europaea. See Larch, European. 
Lathrop, Elbert C, bulletin on "The nitrogen of pro- 
cessed fertilizers " 

Lead arsenate, use with cactus solution against cucum- 
ber beetle, experiments 

Leaf coral, fungus, description and value 

Leather, roasted, nitrogen content 

Lentinus, genus, characters, descriptions of species, etc. 
Leotia, genus, characters and descriptions of species. . . 
Lepiota, genus, characters, description of species, etc. . 
Letteer, G. R., bulletin on "Experiments in crop pro- 
duction on fallow land at San Antonio " 



157 



174 
156 

160 

160 
175 
155 
175 



155 
173 
162 



158 



151 



41, 42, 43 



6,8,9 

V 

18-19 

12 

44 

1-40 

48 



1-40 

1-52 

22-23 



162 


22-23 


162 


20-21 


174 
156 
156 
174 
174 


6,8,9 

17,22 

17 

2 

18-19 


156 


8-9 


156 
175 


24 
20-22 


151 
153 
153 


1 

1 

4,5 


153 
153 
153 
153 


26 

26 

26 

25-27 



1-24 



160 


5-6 


175 


46 


158 


3 


175 


25-26 


175 


55 


175 


10-11 



1-10 



INDEX. 



21 



Bulletin. 



Leucine, isolation from processed fertilizer, method 

Lime — 

application to sulphuric-acid treated soils, effect 

on plants 

use on sassafras soils 

Lime-sulphur — 

baths for sheep and cattle, testing methods and 

apparatus ■ 

dipping baths for sheep and cattle, field tests 

Limonius — 

calif "ornicus, injury to alfalfa 

discoid eus, injury to fruit blossoms, note 

species, description, occurrence, food plants 

Live stock, damage to young forest plantations 

Lizard, enemy of wireworm, habitat, etc 

Locust — 
black — 

character and value for posts 

planting, eastern United States. . 

borer, menace to black locust plantations in eastern 

United States 

Lodgepole pine — 

age and size of trees 

associated species : - — 

beetle, injury to forests in Colorado and Wyoming. . 

climatic and soil requirements 

cones, production, behavior under different condi- 

dition seed scales, etc 

forests, injury causes 

geographical distribution 

growth — 

habits 

rate, tables, factors influencing, discussion 

injury — 

by wild animals 

from smelter fumes 

life history in the Rocky Mountains 

permanence of type - 

range, botanical, altitudinal, and commercial 

region, climate, data ;.---- 

reproduction, requirements, density of stands, effect 

of fire - 

seed, production, dissemination, etc 

stands — 

age classes 

density, management 

ground cover 

thinning effect - • 

yield, factors influencing, etc., discussion and 

tables 

windfall, susceptibility 

Logging, breaking jams, note - - 

Long Island area, geological formation and deposits. . . . 
Lounsberry, C. W., statement on durability of stave 

water pipe in different soils 

Lubricating oil for tractors 

Ludius — 

hepalicus, note 

species, note 

Lukfata grape, origin, adaptability to San Antonio 
region 



158 



169 
159 



163 
163 

156 
156 
156 
153 
156 



153 
153 

153 

154 

154 
154 
154 

154 
154 
154 

154 

154 

154 
154 
153 
154 
154 
154 

154 
154 

154 
154 
154 
154 

154 
154 
152 
159 

155 
174 

156 
156 

162 



10-11 

20-23 
30, 36, 39 



1-6 

1-7 

19 
2 

18-19 

20-21 

27 



34 

34 

34 

2-3 

26-27 

20-21 

3-6 

9-11 

19-26 

1-2 

2-3 
16-19 

26 

22-23 

1-35 

29 

1-2, 5 

4-5 

9-16 
9-11 

28-29 

12-13 

28 

8-9 

29-35 

23-24 

7 

8-9 

35 
23 

25 
25 

14 



22 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 



Lumber — 

eastern hemlock — 

cut of 1909-1913, by States, percentage of total, 

production 1899-1913 

hemlock, value, by years and States, 1899-1912 
Lycoperdacese, key to family - - - 

Lycoperdon, genus, characters and descriptions of species. 
Lysine, isolation from processed fertilizer, method 



Machine — 

boring, for wood pipe, invention and use 

spraying, compressed air 

Machinery — 
farm — 

experience with tractor 

See also Tractor. 
Mallein — 

ophthalmic — 

for diagnosis of glanders 

preparation for diagnosis of glanders, methods, 

etc 

test for glanders, report of American Veterinary 

Medical Association 

Maple, silver — 

stumpage value 

value for forest plantation requirements 

yield value and profits from plantations on differ- 
ent soils 

Marasm.ius — 

genus, characters, description of specise, etc 

rotula, description and occurrence 

Maryland wireworm pest, note 

Mason, D. T., bulletin on "The life history of lodge- 
pole pine in the Rocky Mountains " 

Mealworm, larva of Tenebrio moliter, occurrence 

Mediterranean fruit fly — 

in Bermuda 

See also Fruit fly, Mediterranean. 

Melanophila fulvoguttata, injury to hemlock 

Melanotus, species, occurrence, life history, remedial 

measures 

Melons, growing on sassafras soils 

Merulius, genus, characters and description of species . . 

Metarrhizium anisoplise, enemy to wireworms, note •. 

Mexican bluebird. See Bluebird, western. 

Michigan, wireworm pest, notes 

Minnesota, farm tractors, number, effect on industry, 

financial investment, etc 

"Mission pear," description, occurrence and chemical 

composition 

Missouri, wireworm outbreak 

Mistletoe, infestation of lodgepole pine 

Mohler, John R., and Adolph Eichhorn, bulletin on 
"Ophthalmic mallein for the diagnosis of 

glanders " 

Monoamino acids — 

isolation from processed fertilizers, method 

sources in ' ' base goods " 

Monocrepidius — 

auritus, description and occurrence 

bcllus, description and distribution 

lividus, description, occurrence 

species, descriptions, occurrence 

vespertinus, description, occurrence 



Bulletin. 



Page. 



152 
152 
152 
175 
175 
158 



155 
160 



174 

166 

166 

166 

153 
153 

153 

175 
175 
156 

153 
156 

161 

152 

156 
159 
175 
156 

156 

174 

160 
156 
154 

166 



3 

7 

9 

48-49 

49 



2-3 
5,6 

1-44 



1-11 

5 

10 

25 
25 

25 

25 
25 
17 

1-35 
1-2 

1-8 

27-28 

16-18 

22,48 

42-43 

29 

17 

6,8,9 

16 
8-9 

22 

1-11 



158 


10 


158 


14 


156 


21 


156 


20 


156 


20,21 


156 


20-21 


156 


20, 21-22 



INDEX. 



23 



Montana — 

farm tractors, number, effect on industry, financial 
investment, etc 

lodgepole-pine region, weather conditions at differ- 
ent elevations 

Morchelln, genus, characters and description of species. . 
Moth, European pine-shoot — 

history, outbreaks, and injury to forests in Europe.. 

menace to pine timber in America 

See also Pine-shoot. moth. 

Moths, fumigation with para-dichlorobenzene, effect 

Mountain — 

bluebird. See Bluebird, mountain. 

pine beetle, damage to lodgepole pine 

Mowry, H. H., and Arnold P. Yerkes, bulletin on 

"Farm experience with the tractor " 

Mushroom — 

catsup, preparation 

salads, preparation 

Mushrooms — 

and other common fungi 

bibliography for amateurs 

canning, directions 

collection, care, note 

descriptions, glossary 

dried 

morphological structure 

poisonous, list 

preservation — 

in oil, directions 

methods 

recipes for cooking 

species, list and descriptions 

study by public, encouragement by foreign govern- 
ments 

use while fresh, importance ' 

Mutinus, genus, characters and descriptions of species... 
Myeena, genus, characters, descriptions of species, etc. .. 

Nebraska — 

farm tractors, number, effect on industry, financial 

investment, etc 

Halsey, forest nursery, effect of disinfectants on 

seeds and roots in sandy soils, experiments 

wireworm depredations, notes 

Nectarines, growing in San Antonio region, experiments, 

notes 

Nephi substation — 

description, location, soil, climatic conditions, etc.. 

experimental work in tillage and rotation 

New England, forest planting, practices, conditions, etc. 

New Hampshire, farm lands abandoned, acreage 

New York, wireworm outbreak, note 

Nidulariaceae, key to family 

Nitric acid, effect on pine seedlings and weeds in sandy 

soils 

Nitrogen — 

availability in organic fertilizers, ammonification, 

etc 

forms in " base goods' ' — 

determination by Van Slyke method 

partition, methods, etc 

processed fertilizer 



Bulletin. 



174 

154 
175 

170 
170 

167 



154 



174 



174 

169 
156 

162 

157 
157 
153 
153 
156 
175 

169 



158 

158 

158 
158 



Page. 



6l, 8, 9 

4,5 
54-55 

2-3 
1-11 



20 



1-44 



175 


63 


175 


61 


175 


1-64 


175 


64 


175 


62-63 


175 


2 


175 


56-58 


175 


63-64 


175 


2-1 


175 


56 


175 


63 


175 


62-64 


175 


58-64 


175 


4-5, 7-55 


175 


2 


L75 


2 


175 


48 


175 


19-20 



6,8,9 

2-30 
17 

18 

2-4t 

1-45 

4-5 

5 

5,17 

52-53 

23, 24, 25, 26-27 



19-22 

15-17 

5-8 

1-24 



24 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 



"Nopal azul," occurrence, description, chemical com- 
position, etc 

"Nopal de castilla," description, occurrence, and chem- 
ical composition • 

"Nopal," description, occurrence, and chemical compo- 
sition ■ 

North t)akota — ■ 
farm tractors — 

custom work, annual repairs, etc 

number, effect on farming industry, service, 

length of life, etc 

profitableness, fuel used, motive power main- 
tenance, etc • 



use, profitableness, etc., investigations. 



wireworm pest, note 

Norway — 
pine — 

growth habits, note 

See also Pine, Norway, 
spruce. See Spruce, Norway. 
Nurseries — 

forest, injury to seed and roots by disinfectants in 

sandy soils 

injury of seed and roots by disinfectants, preventive 

measures 

location on sassafras soils, note 

menace by European pine-shoot moth, occurrence, 

distribution on stock, etc 

Nursery stock — 
forest — 

planting, cost with different species, methods, 

and soils, table 

trees, prices 

planting in eastern United States, requirements ... 

Nut culture, San Antonio region, experiments 

Nuts, sprouted, planting 



Bulletin. 



Page. 



Oak- 
consumption, 1900, 1905-1909 

use for tanning extract, comparison with hem- 
lock 

use in tanning, advantages 

red — 

characters, growth babits, and value for forest 

planting • 

planting, eastern United States 

tanning extract, consumption 1900, 1905-1909 

tongue fungus, description, occurrence, and value.. 
Oats — 

damage by wireworm, notes 

growing — 

on fallow land, San Antonio, Tex., experiments 

on sassafras soils 

Ohio, wireworm pest, notes 

Oil, lubricating, for tractors '- 

Olives, destruction by robins . 

Omphalia, genus, characters, description of species 

Ophthalmic mallein — 

test for glanders, report of American Veterinary 

Medical Association 

use in diagnosis of glanders 



160' 
160 
160 

174 
174 

174 
174 
156 

153 



169 

169 
159 

170 



153 
153 
153 
162 

153 



152 

152 
152 



153 
153 
152 
175 

156 

151 

159 
156 
174 
171 
175 



166 
166 



15,16 
15,16 
15,16 



16-17 
6, 8, 9, 12, 14, 
15, 16, 17 

14-15 

6,8,9,12,14-15, 

16-19,22,24,25, 

26,29,34,39, 

17 



29 



1-35 

9-12 

36 

4-5 



9 

36 

6-7 

20 

8 



13 

13 
12 



33 

33 

13 

• 42 

10 

1,2,3,4 

29,41 

17 

23 

10-12 

16 



10 
1-11 



INDEX. 



25 





Bulletin. 


Page. 


Opuntia lindheimeri. See Prickly pear. 
Orchard — 

fruits, production on sassafras soils, decline of in- 


159 
162 
173 
162 

154 
175 

175 
175 
152 

167 
167 
167 
167 
167 
175 

160 

165 

175 
175 

162 

162 
162 

161 

162 
162 

162 
173 

162 

162 

162 

162 
162 

162 
162 

173 
173 
173 
173 
173 


23, 31, 33, 36 

24-25 

4 


management, San Antonio region, suggestions 

pear, injury by pear thrips 


San Antonio region, space between trees 


25 


Oregon — 

robin. See Robin, Oregon. 

Wallowa and Whitman National forests, lodgepole 
pine, damage by mountain pine beetle 


20 


Oyster mushroom, description and occurrence 


13 


Panstolus, genus, characters, description of species, etc. 
Ponus, genus, characters, description of species, etc. . . . 
Paper, quality from hemlock pulpwood 


37 
26 
10 


Paradichlorobenzene — 

chemical and physical properties 


6-7 


diffusion of vapor, advantages 


3 


directions for use, experiments, etc., 


3-6 


nature, advantages over other f umigants 


1-3 


use as insect f umigant 


1-7 


Parasol mushroom, description and occurrence 


11 


Paris green and lime, use with cactus solution against 
cucumber beetles, experiments 


4-5 


Parker, William B., bulletin on "Quassiin as a con- 
tact insecticide " 


1-8 


Patterson, Flora W., and Vera K. Charles, bulle- 
tin on "Mushrooms and other common fungi".. 

Paxillus genus, characters, descriptions of species, etc. . 

Peach- 
Chinese wild, adaptability to San Antonio condi- 
tions, note 


1-64 

28-29 

6 


growing — 

resistant stock, value of Spanish seedlings, note. 
San Antonio region, variety tests 


24 
5-11 


industry, Bermuda, damage by Mediterranean fruit 
fly, note 


1 


orchard, distance between trees, San Antonio 


25 


wild, from China, stock for San Antonio region. . . 
Peaches — 

growing from Mexican seed, experiments at San 
Antonio, descriptions of 10 varieties 


23-24 
8-10 


injury by pear thrips, character and extent 

North China varieties, growing in San Antonio 
region, experiments 


18-19 

5,7 


peen-to varieties, growing in San Antonio region, 
experiments 


5,7 


Persian varieties, growing in San Antonio region, 
experiments 


6,7 


South China varieties — 

growing in San Antonio region, experiments 

ripening dates at San Antonio, Tex 


5,7 
10 


Spanish varieties, growing in San Antonio region, 
experiments 


5,7 


types resistant to chlorosis, San Antonio region 

Pear— 

thrips — 

anatomy 


10-11 
22-24 


California, life history and habits 


1-52 


damage to plants, character 


11-13 


destructiveness 


7-11 




4-6 



26 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-1*75. 



Bulletin. 



Pear — Continued . 

thrips — Continued. 

emergence from ground, time, relation of weather, 

and blossoming trees, records 

enemies, natural 

entomological classification 

food plants - - 

importance in economic conditions 

in j ury to orchards - 

larvae, appearance, feeding, depth in soil, etc... 
life cycle, description of egg, larva, pupa, etc.. 

literature 

migratory habits 

original home, theories 

pupations, stages, effect of weather, etc 

reproduction, oviposition, eggs, larvae, etc 

seasonal history 

study in Santa Clara Valley, establishment of 

laboratory, work, etc 

trees, injury by thrips 

Pears — 

injury by pear thrips, character and extent 

growing — 

in San Antonio region, experience of G. A. 

Schattenberg 

on sassafras soils 

Peas — 

garden — 

growing on sassafras soils 

relation to vanillin in the soil, experiments 

intertilling with wheat, yield, experiments 

Pecan tree, requirements 

Pecans, growing in San Antonio region, experiments.... 
Pennsylvania — 

Morrisville, experiments with sulphuric acid on 

pine seed in sandy soils 

wireworm depredations, notes 

Pensauken area, geological formation and deposits 

Pepper cap, mushroom, description 

Peridermium — 

harknessii, damage to lodgepole pine, note 

montanum, damage to lodgepole pine, note 

Persian walnut, grafting on Juglans nigra stock, experi- 
ments 

Persimmon, injury by chlorosis 

Persimmons — 

growing in San Antonio region, experiments 

stock for San Antonio region, tests, experiments, etc 

Phallaceae, key to family 

Pholiota, genus, characters, descriptions of species, etc.. 

Phrynosoma douglasii douglasii, enemy to wireworm 

Picea excelsa. See Spruce, Norway. 
Picrasma excelsa. See Quassia. 
Pine- 
forests, Europe, depredations of pine-shoot moth... 
lodgepole — 

life history in the Rocky Mountains 

See also Lodgepole pine. 
Norway — 

forest plantation in eastern United States, sug- 
gestions 

growth habits and requirements 

growth habits, value in mixtures with white 
pine, note 



173 
173 
173 
173 
173 
173 
173 
173 
173 
173 
173 
173 
173 
173 

173 

173 

173 



162 
159 



159 
164 
157 
162 
162 



169 
156 
159 
175 

154 
154 

162 
162 

162 
162 
175 
175 
156 



170 
153 



153 
153 

153 



24-36 

51-52 

22 

11 

7-11 

4 

43-49 

19-21 

3-4 

36-38 

6 

49-50 

38-50 

50-51 

1-2 

4 

13-16 



12-14 
31, 36, 43, 49 



22 

6-7 

41, 42, 43 

16 

15-16 



30-31 
17 

10-11 
22 

22 
22 

20 
15 

15 
21-22 

47 
29-30 

27 



2-3 

1-35 



32-33 
32-33 



29 



INDEX. 



27 





Bulletin. 


Page. 


Pine — Continued. 
Scotch — 


153 
153 
153 
153 

153 

169 
169 
155 

170 
155 

153 

153 

153 
153 

153 
153 
153 
153 
153 
155 

170 
170 
170 
170 

170 
170 
170 
170 

155 

155 
155 
155 
155 
155 
155 

155 

155 

155 

155 
155 


28 




27-28 




.27 


soil requirements, planting in mixtures, etc 

variety from central Germany, characters, ob- 


27-28 
27 


seedlings, relation to disinfectants, tests of various 


23-26 


species resistant to sulphuric acid disinfectant 


15-18 
34,36 


timber, menace by European pine-shoot moth in 


1-11 




34-35 


western yellow, planting in eastern United States, 


34 


white — 


28-29 


forest plantations, yield and profit on different 


29 


forest planting, in eastern United States 

forest planting in New England, danger from 


28-29 
5 




28 




29 




5 




28-29 




34 


Pine-shoot moth, European — 


7-8 




6-7 




7 




3 


introduction and distribution in America, by States 


4-5 




5-6 




1-11 




8-10 


Pinus — 

contorta. See Lodgepole pine. 

resinosa. See Pine, Norway. 

strobus. See Pine, white. 

sylvestris. See Pine, Scotch. 
Pipe — 

continuous stave — ■ 


22-24 




3-24 


durability, investigations 


33-10 


steel bands, specifications for various sizes 


7-11 
3-4 




6-7 




17-19 


lines — 


15 




15-16 


continuous Btave, early structures, location, 


33-40 


continuous stave, location and construction 

intakes and outlets, requirements, descriptions. 


21-22 
12-14 



28 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 



Pipe — Continued . 

machine-banded — 

coating with asphaltum 

description and manufacture, note 

wood, laying and maintenance, cost, etc 

wood, use and cost 

wood, use for municipal water supply, objec- 
tions 

woods used, construction, couplings, etc 

stave, joining to steel pipe, methods 

wood — 

carrying capacity, measurement formula 

joining, methods 

joints, types, descriptions 

use for conveying irrigation water 

Pistache nut, growing in San Antonio region, experi- 
mental work 

Pissodes strobi, injury to white pine 

Planesticus migratorius. See Robin. 

Planting, forest nursery stock, methods, cost, etc 

Platopuntia — 

engelmannii, occurrence and chemical composition. 
lindheimeri, description, occurrence, chemical com- 
position, etc 

tuna, description, occurrence and chemical compo- 
sition 

Pleurotus, genus, characters, descriptions of species, etc. 
Plowing— 

cost of fall and spring work, comparisons 

wheat growing, experiments with different methods 

at Nephi experiment farm, Utah 

Plum- 
American, stock for San Antonio region 

orchard, distance between trees, San Antonio 

region 

Plums — 

derivation from native American species, varieties. . 

geographical origin, by States 

growing in San Antonio region, tests of varieties 

hybrid varieties, parentage, etc 

hybrids and varieties, list 

native varieties and hybrids — 

list, sources of material in preparation 

origin and species, list 

parentage of varieties 

species, abbreviations used in designation 

stock for San Antonio region 

varieties, classified by species 

Pluteus, genus, characters, description of species, etc 

Poison oak, California, dissemination of seed by robins. . . 

Polyporaceae, characters of family, key, etc 

Polyporus — 

genus, characters, descriptions of species, etc 

schweinitzii, damage to lodgepole pine 

Polystictus, genus, characters, descriptions of species, 

etc 

Pomegranate growing, San Antonio region, experiments, 

varieties tested, etc 

"Poor man's weather glass," description and occurrence. 
Poplar, yellow, planting in eastern United States, re- 
marks 

Populus deltoides. See Cottonwood. 

Porcupines, injury to lodgepole pine 

Portsmouth soils, comparison with sassafras soils, note. . 



Bulletin. 



155 


25 


155 


3 


155 


28-33 


155 


25-28 


155 


26 


155 


24-33 


155 


16-17 


155 


5 


155 


16-17 


155 


11-12 


155 


1-40 


162 


20 


153 


29 


153 


7-12 


160 


15,16 


160 


15,16 


160 


15,16 


175 


12-13 


157 


10-11 


157 


6-16 


162 


23 


162 


25 


172 


1-44 


172 


2-3 


162 


11-12 


172 


6-8 


172 


8-44 


172 


9 


172 


8-44 


172 


3-4 


172 


9 


162 


23 


172 


4-8 


175 


27 


171 


14-15 


175 


37-43 


175 


40-42 


154 


21 


175 


41-42 


162 


20 


175 


51 


153 


34 


154 


26 


159 


2 



INDEX. 



29 



Potatoes — 

growing on sassafras soils of various types, yield, etc. 

injury by wireworms, notes 

intertilling with wheat, yields, experiments 

sweet, growing on sassafras soils 

Prairie region, eastern United States, forest planting, 

practices, progress, etc. 

Preservative treatment, crossties, value 

Prickly pear — 

spineless, description, occurrence, chemical com- 
position 

use in whitewash 

varieties, chemical composition, etc 

See also Cactus. 

Proteoses, sources in "base goods" 

Prune — 

growing industry in California, note 

thrips. See Pear thrips. 
Prunes — 

injury by pear thrips, character and extent 

size, prices, etc., Santa Clara Valley , 

yield for Santa Clara Valley 1900-1912, by years... 

Pruning, forest tree, management, caution, etc 

Prunus — 

americana — 

lanata, varieties , 

varieties 

anguslifolia — ■ 

varians, varieties , 

varieties 

watsoni, varieties 

besseyi, varieties 

Tiortnlana — 

mineri, varieties 

varieties , 

maritima, varieties 

mexicana, varieties 

munsoniana, varieties 

nigra, varieties 

pumila, varieties 

snbcordata, varieties , 

Psathyrellla, genus, characters, description of species, etc . 
Pulp- 
hemlock, uses 

mills, price for pulpwood, requirements, note 

Pulpwood — 

ground , price per ton 

hemlock — 

marketing, condition, price, etc , 

prices in different regions, comparison with 

other species , 

stumpage, price in Wisconsin 

Purine bases — 

isolation from processed fertilizer, method 

sources in ' ' base goods " 

Pyrophorus luminosus, enemy to Lachnosterna larvae. . . 
Pyrus betulaefolia, stock for persimmon in San Antonio 
region 

Quassia — 
chips — 

formulas for insecticide spray 

use against hop aphis, note 



Bulletin. 



159 

156 
157 
159 

153 
152 



160 
160 
160 

158 

173 



173 
173 
173 
153 



172 
172 

172 

172 
172 
172 

172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
172 
175 

152 
152 

152 

152 

152 
152 

158 
158 
156 

162 



165 
165 



21,27,30, 

43, 46, 47, 49 

18 

41,42,43 

21, 31, 47, 49 

3^ 
14 



15,16 

2 

15-16 

17-19 

16 



16-18 
9 
8 

16-18 



5 
4-5 

6 
5 
6 
6 

5 
5 
6 
5 

5 
4 
6 
5 
36 

10 
12 

10 

10-12 

11 
12 

11-12 

13-14 

3 

22' 



30 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 



Bulletin. 



Quassia — Continued. 

Jamaica, forms, descriptions, extraction methods, 
etc 

Surinam, constituents, forms, etc., comparison 

with Jamaica quassia 

Quassiin — 

chemical nature, extracts from publications 

extraction from solutions, method 

insecticide, use 

nature and description 

purity, determination 

solubility, tests 

spray solutions, requirements 

value as insecticide, experiments 

Quercus rubra. See Oak, red. 

Razoumfskya americana, infestation of lodgepole pine 

Recipes, mushrooms 

"Red belt," injury to conifers 

"Red rot," injury to lodgepole pine, nature and devel- 
opment 

Redwood — 

use for water pipe staves 

value for water pipe, tests 

Ring scale fungus, injury to lodgepole pine 

Robinia pseudacacia. See Locust, black. 
Robin — 

description, habitat, breeding habits, food, etc... 

food among insects 

Oregon, habitat, food habits, etc 

regurgitation habits, notes 

stomach, presence of "wad " of fibers, note 

vegetable food 

Robins — 

examination of stomachs, contents 

food (with bluebirds) in United States 

Oregon, examination of - stomachs, contents, etc... 
Roosevelt, Robert B., statement on destruction of 

cherries by robins 

Rooted collybia, mushroom, description and occurrence. 

Root-rot, fruit trees, San Antonio region, note 

Roots, injury by disinfectants in sandy soils 

Rotation, experiments at Nephi, Utah 

Rusk citrange, adaptability to San Antonio region, 

note 

Russell, J. L., forest planting in Massachusetts, 1819, 

note --- - 

Russula, genus, characters, descriptions of species, etc. 

Rust, injury to lodgepole pine 

Rye, growing on sassafras soils of various types, yield, 
etc 



Salads, mushroom, preparation ., 

Salicylic acid, preservative for cactus solution, experi- 
ments 

San Antonio — 

experiment farm, crop production on fallow land . 

field station, horticultural experiments 

San Pedro bluebird. See Bluebird, western. 

' ' Sand toad, ' ' enemy of wireworm, habitat, etc 



165 
165 



2-3 



165 


2-3 


165 


4 


165 


1-8 


165 


3 


165 


4-5 


165 


4 


165 


7 


165 


5-7 


154 


22 


175 


58-64 


154 


25-26 


154 


21 


155 


6 


155 


34-35 


154 


21 


171 


2-19 


171 


7-10 


171 


16-19 


171 


13 


171 


15 


171 


10-15 


171 


8-10, 13-1 


171 


1-31 


171 


18-19 


171 


4 


175 


19 


162 


4 


169 


1-35 


157 


1-45 


162 


19 


153 


5 


175 


22-23 


154 


22 


159 


19, 29, 33 


175 


61 


160 


14 


151 


1-10 


162 


1-26 



156 



27 



INDEX. 



31 



Sassafras soils — 

comparison with associated soils 

general characteristics 

series 

See also Soils, sassafras. 
"Satyr's beard," fungus, description and occurrence.. 

Sawfly, damage to European larch, note 

Sawlogs, prices in different localities, 1900, note 

Scabies, cattle and sheep, lime-sulphur dipping baths, 

field test 

Scaly lentinus, mushroom, description and occurrence. 
Schattenberg, G. A., pear growing in Texas, expe- 
rience 

Scleroderma, genus, characters, descriptions of species, 

etc 

Sclerodermaceae, characters of family 

Secretary of Agriculture, authority for establishing 

grades of corn 

Seed- 
hemlock, description, weight, germination 

lodgepole pine, production, dissemination, etc 

weed, destruction, method 

Seeding, winter cereal, time, method, rate, etc 

Seedling peaches from Mexican seed — 

experiments at San Antonio, Tex 

growing at San Antonio, description of ten varieties. 
Seedlings, injury by use of disinfectants in nursery, 

description 

Seeds, injury by disinfectants in sandy soils 

Shaggy mane, mushroom, description and occurrence. . 

Sheep, lime-sulphur dipping baths, field test 

Shingles, hemlock — 

durability 

production and value 

Sialia — 

currucoides. See Bluebird, mountain. 
meocicana. See Bluebird, western. 
sialis. See Bluebird, eastern. 
Sieves, corn, use in grading corn, description and re- 
quirements 

Silver maple. See Maple, silver. 

Skinner, J. J., bulletin on "Field test with a toxic soil 

constituent : Vanillin " 

"Skip-jack," source of wireworm 

Smelter fumes, injury to forest trees 

Smooth lepiota, mushroom, description, caution 

Snapping beetle, source of wireworm, note 

Snow, Roswell, statement on durability of stave water 

pipe in different soils 

Sodium benzoate, preservative for cactus solution, ex- 
periments 

Soil, "black lands" of Texas, formation, lime content, 

etc 

Soil-moisture — 

data at Nephi substation, Utah, methods of collec- 
tion 

studies- 
fallow land at San Antonio experiment farm. . 

San Antonio experiment farm 

tests — 

of land plowed to different depths, Nephi ex- 
periment farm, Utah 

spring and fall plowing, Nephi, Utah 



Bulletin. 



159 
159 
159 

175 
153 
153 

163 
175 

162 

175 

175 

168 

152 
154 
156 
157 

162 
162 

169 
169 
175 
163 

152 

152 



168 



155 



160 



162 



157 

151 
151 



157 
157 



2 
1-2 

1-52 

43 

26 

2 

1-7 

26 

12-14 

52 
52 



19 

9-11 

15-16 

21-31 



8-10 

7-9 

1-35 

36 

1-7 



14 



4-5 



164 


1-9 


156 


1 


154 


22-23 


175 


11 


156 


1 



35 



15 



3-4 



5-9 
5-9 



11-13 

7-9 



32 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 



Soils— 

Elkton, comparison with sassafras soil, note 

forest nursery at Halsey, Nebr., and Morrisville, Pa., 

characters, analyses, etc "•-.-.- 

sandy, damage to seeds and roots by disinfectants 

in forest nurseries 

sassafras — 

crop uses and adaptations 

distribution • 



North Atlantic coastal 



series 

series, occurrence 

plain 

series, types, characters, and productive value. . 
series, types, occurrence, crops suitable, man- 
agement, etc 

Texas, San Antonio experiment farm, types, nature, 

etc - 

vanillin, relation to plant life, field test 

South Dakota, farm tractors, number, effect on industry, 

financial investment, etc 

Sparassis crispa, description and value 

Sparassis, genus, characters 

Spraying machine, compressed-air, for quassiin solution. 
Sprays, arsenical, for insects, cactus solution as adhesive. . 
Spruce — 

Norway — 

planting in mixtures 

planting, soil requirements, value, etc 

stumpage value 

white, planting, eastern United States, note 

Staves, water pipe, dimensions, requirements, etc 

' ' Steam tractor, ' ' use of term 

Steel bands — 

protective coating on wood pipe 

wood pipe construction, requirements 

Stone fruits, growing in San Antonio region, experi- 
mental work 

Strawberries — 

destruction by robins, note . 

growing on sassafras soils of various types 

Strobilomyces, genus, characters, descriptions of spe- 
cies, etc 

Stropharia, genus, characters, description of species, etc . 

Subsoiling, cost, comparison with plowing 

Sugar-beet wireworm, damage to alfalfa 

Sulphuric acid — 

application to nursery soil, method, effect on seeds 

and roots, etc 

damage to seeds and roots, relation of strength to 

damage 

disinfectant for forest nurseries, injury to seeds and 

roots in sandy soils 

effect on various plants 

Sun scald, injury to lodgepole pine 

Sunderland area, geological formation and deposits 

Sweet potatoes, growing on sassafras soils of various 
types 



Bulletin. 



Taeniothrips pyri. See Pear thrips. 

Talbot area, geological formation and deposits. 

Tanbark, consumption, 1900, 1905-1909 

Tankage, nitrogen content of different kinds.. 



159 

169 

169 

159 
159 
159 

159 
159 

159 

151 
164 

174 
175 
175 
165 
160 



153 
153 
153 
153 

155 
174 

155 
155 

162 



171 
159 

175 
175 
157 
156 



169 

169 

169 
169 
154 
159 

159 



159 
152 
158 



2 

1-2 

1-35 

44-50 

2-4 

1-52 

4-16 
16-50 

16-50 

2 



6,8,9 

46 

46 

5.6 

1-20 



30 

30 

30 

35 

6-7 

2 

12 

7-11 

5-12, 18, 

21, 23-24 

4-5 
22-23, 31-32 

39-40 
34 

15-16 
19 



2-9, 30-31 

12-14 

2-9 

16-19, 30-31 

24 

13, 14, 15 

21, 31, 47, 49 



11-13, 14, 15 

13 

3 



INDEX. 



33 



Tanning — 

extract, consumption and prices 1900-1909, com- 
parison of hemlock, chestnut, and oak 

use of hemlock bark, consumption, prices, etc 

Telephone poles, European larch, value, prices, demand 

Tenebrio molitor, occurrence 

Tenebrionidae, source of wire worms 

Tenehah plum, stock for stone fruits, value in San 

Antonio region 

Texas — 

crop production on fallow land at San Antonio, 
experiments 

San Antonio region, climatic and soil conditions 

southern, horticultural experiments at San Antonio 

field station 

Thrips, pear — 

life history and habits in California 

use of term 

See also Pear thrips. 
Thrush, varied. See Robin, Oregon. 

Therevidae, enemies to wireworm, note 

Tillage- 
acreage per horse and per horsepower of tractor 

comparison 

experiments at Nephi, Utah 

Tillotson, ('. R., bulletin on "Forest planting in the 

Eastern United States' ' 

Timber, hemlock. See Hemlock timber. 

Tobacco, smoking, growing on sassafras soils of various 

types. 

Tomatoes, growing on sassafras soils of various types, 
yield, etc 

Toxic salts, injury to pine seedlings and weeds in sandy 

soils, tests 

Traction farming, effect on industry, opinions of business 

men 

Tractor- 
farm — 

as investment, opinions of business men and 

owners 

experiences with 

farming, conditions essential to success, discussion, 
gas. See Gas tractor. 

ratings 

steam, disadvantages, decline in use, etc 

tillage acreage per horsepower 

Tractors — 

designation of various kinds 

farm — 

annual repairs 

custom work, number, profitableness 

distribution west of Mississippi River, by States 

experience with, sources of data 

fuels used, North Dakota and other Western 

States 

profitableness, fuel used, motive power, main- 
tained, etc 

service rendered annually, length of life, etc., 
on western farms 



Bulletin. 



152 


13 


152 


12-13 


153 


26 


156 


1-2 


156 


1 



162 



151 
J151 
\162 

162 

173 
173 



156 



174 
157 

153 



23 



1-10 
fl-2 
\2-3 

1-26 

1-52 
7 



28 



38 
1-45 

1-38 



159 




30, 33, 43 


159 


J21, 24, 
\48, 49 


36, 42, 


169 






27 


174 






7-8 


174 
174 
174 






7-10 

1-44 

39-41 


174 

174 
174 






5-6 
3 

38 


174 






2 


174 
174 
174 
174 






17 
16 

6 
6 


174 






13-14 


174 






14-15 


174 






11-13 



34 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 



Bulletin. 



Tractors — Continued. 

repairs, annual, percentage of cost 

use by farmers, effect on financial standing, opin- 
ions of bankers 

Trade wastes, nitrogenous, chemical principles in utili- 
zation 

Trametes pini, damage to lodgepole pine 

Transplanting, forest seedlings, methods, time, cost, etc. . 
Tree planting, forest plantations, mistakes, instances. . . . 
Tremella, genus, characters, description of species, etc. . . 
Tremellaceae, characters, key, and descriptions of 

species 

Tremtllodon, genus, characters, description of species, etc. 
Tricholoma, genus, characters and descriptions of species. 

Truck crops, growing on sassafras soils of various types 

Tsuga — 

canadensis. See Hemlock, eastern. 

caroliniaim, habitat, note 

' ' Tuiskuwa, ' ' Indian name for large-eyed elater 

Tyrosine, isolation from processed fertilizer, method 



Urruda, genus, characters and description of species. 
Utah, Nephi, tillage and rotation experiments 



Vanillin — 

effect on wheat, experiments 

occurrence in vegetation 

presence in soil, persistence, effect on plants six 

months after application, investigations 

toxic — 

effects on vegetation and leguminous crops. 

soil constituent, field test , 

Valhallah grape, origin, adaptability to San Antonio 

region 



Vegetables, growing on sassafras soils of various types. . . 

See also under specific products. 

Veneer, hemlock, consumption, value, etc 

Vermont, wireworm pest, note , 

Virginia, wireworm pest, note 

Vitis candicans, stock for grapes, San Antonio region , 

Volvaria, genus, characters and description of species. . . 

Wallowa National Forest, damage to lodgepole pine by 

mountain pine beetle 

Walnut- 
black — 

forest plantation, yield, and profit on different 

soils 

growth habits, underplanting, etc 

planting, soil requirements, etc 

stock for Persian walnut, San Antonio region. . . 
Persian, growing in San Antonio region, experi- 
mental work 

Walnuts, growing in San Antonio region, experimental 

work 

Washington, wireworm depredations, notes 

Waste — 

farm lands, value for Scotch pine forest 

lands, utilization for forest planting 



174 
174 



154 



153 
153 
153 
162 

162 

162 
156 

153 
153 



36 



7-fi 



158 






22-23 


154 






22 


153 






7-12 


153 






21-22 


175 






45 


175 






44-46 


175 






46 


175 






1617 




[20, 


22, 


26, 27, 


159 


31, 
147 


36, 


45, 46, 


152 






1 


156 






1 


158 






11 


175 






54,55 


157 






1-45 


164 






3-4 


164 






1 


164 






7-9 


164 






2-3, 4-7 


164 






1-9 


162 






14 




(20. 


22, 


26, 27, 


159 


31, 


36 


45, 46, 




U 


48 




152 






14-15 


156 






17 


156 






17 


162 






14 


175 






27 



20 



31 
30-31 
30-31 
22-23 

22-23 

20 
10, 12, 13, 17 

27-28 
4,5 



INDEX. 



35 



Water — 

conduits, wood pipe, use in irrigation 

pipe- 
wood, coating, practices, advantages, etc 

wood, decay, causes and preventive measures. . 

wood, early use and manufacture, history 

See also Pipe, continuous stave; Pipe, ma- 
chine-banded; Pipe, wood. 

Watermelons, growing on sassafras soils 

Weed seed, destruction, method 

Weeds — 

destruction by sulphuric acid 

effect of various disinfectants, tests 

growth in plats treated with sulphuric acid followed 

by lime, experiments 

West Virginia, wireworm pest, note 

Western bluebird. See Bluebird, western. 
"Wet mixed " fertilizer. See "Base goods." 
Wheat- 



damage by wireworm, notes 

growing — 

experiments at Nephi, Utah 

in Pacific Northwest, wireworm pest, note, 
intertilled crops, experiments, yields, etc. 



Bulletin. 



on sassafras soils of various types, yield, etc 

harvesting at different stages of maturity, yields, 

experiments 

relation to vanillin in different soils, experiments. . 
Turkey winter, growing at Nephi experiment farm, 

experiments 

winter, seeding, time, methods, rate, etc., Nephi 

experiment farm, Utah 

wireworm — 

description, life history, remedial measures 

food plants 

yield — 

factors influencing, experiments at Nephi, Utah . 
from fall-plowed and spring-plowed plats, Nephi 

experiment farm 

on plats plowed to different depths, Nephi ex- 
periment farm 

on summer cultivated fallow, comparisons 

relation to time of sowing, experiments 

yields from continuous and alternate cropping, 

Nephi experiment farm, Utah 

White pine. See Pine, white. 

"White rot," injury to lodgepole pine, nature and de- 
velopment 

Whitewash, use of prickly pear 

Whitman National Forest, lodgepole pine, damage by 

mountain pine beetle • 

Wicomico area, geological formation and deposits 

Wight, W. F., bulletin on "The varieties of plums de- 
rived from native American species " 

Windbreaks, trees for, notes 

"Wind-shake," injury to hemlock 

Wireworm — 

infestation of child, instance 

vitality, nature of damage, danger of importation, 
etc 



155 

155 
155 
155 



159 
156 

169 
169 

169 
156 



156 

157 
156 
157 

159 

157 
164 

157 

157 

156 
156 

157 

157 

157 
157 
157 

157 



1-40 

38-40 

37-10 

2-3 



22,48 
15-16 

16-17, 19 
23-26 

21,22 

17 



8, 10, 13, 
17, 22, 24 

5-20 

4 
41-43 

19,24,25,27,29, 
33,35,36,41,42 

36-37 
3-1 

6-20 

21-28 

4-7 
6-7 

32-43 

10-11 

11-13. 14-16 

22 

22-23 

37-39 



154 
160 


21 
2 


154 
159 


20 
12, 13, 14 


172 
153 
152 


1-44 

28, 30, 35 

28-29 


156 


3-4 


156 


2-3 



36 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, BULS. 151-175. 



Wireworms — 

attack on cereal and forage crops 

economic status 

enemies 

food plants 

minor species, descriptions, occurrence, etc 

remedial measures, experiments, and results 

sources, description, and characters 

species, nature of damage, occurrence, etc 

Wisconsin, wire worm depredations, notes 

"Witch's broom," infestation of lodgepole pine 

Wood- 
hemlock, characters, structure, etc 

pipe- 
use for conveying irrigation water 

See also Pipe, continuous stave; Pipe, ma- 
chine-banded; Pipe, wood. 
pulp- 
hemlock, percentage manufactures by various 

processes 

sulphite, price per ton 

"Woodland," use of term 

Wyckoff, A., invention of boring machine for wood pipe 

Wyoming, lodgepole-pine region, weather conditions at 

different elevations 

Yellowstone National Park, weather conditions at differ- 
ent elevations 

Yerkes, Arnold P., and H. H. Mowry, bulletin on 
' ' Farm experience with the tractor " 

Youngs, L. B., statement on durability of Douglas-fir 
water pipe 

Zinc — 

arsenate, as insecticide, use and value 

arsenite, use with cactus solution against cucumber 

beetle, experiments 

Ziziphus spp., growing in San Antonio region, experi- 
ments 



Bulletin. 



Page. 




152 
155 



152 
152 
153 
155 

154 



16 
1-40 



10 

10 
1 
2 

4,5 



154 


4,5 


174 


1-44 


155 


36 


160 


18 


160 


2-4, 10-11 


162 


20-21 



o 




BULLETIN OF THE 



No. 151 



Contribution from the Bureau of Plant Industry, Wm. A. Taylor, Chief 
September 19, 1914. 




EXPERIMENTS IN CROP PRODUCTION ON FALLOW 
LAND AT SAN ANTONIO. 1 

By C. R. Letteer, Assistant, Office of Western Irrigation Agriculture. 
INTRODUCTION. 

The practice of fallowing land varies widely in different regions. 
In the experiments conducted at San Antonio, Tex., and reported 
in this paper the word "fallow" is used to mean thorough cultiva- 
tion of the land from the time it is plowed after the removal of a 
crop throughout the next season and until the crop is planted at 
the beginning of the second season. The fallow period at San 
Antonio varies from 16 to 19 months, depending on the crops grown. 
The chief ostensible purpose of fallowing in this region is to store 
in the soil for the benefit of the next crop the moisture which falls 
during the fallow period. 

In order to determine whether or not this practice is to be recom- 
mended in the San Antonio region, the experiments reported herein 
were started in 1910. 

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS. 

The climatic conditions at San Antonio are much different from 
those in the dry -farming regions farther north. 

The conditions fluctuate irregularly from semiarid to humid. 
Droughts of many weeks' duration are common and may come at 
almost any season of the year, but they are more frequent and more 
serious during the summer months. The mean annual rainfall at 
San Antonio for a period of 33 years, as reported by the United 
States Weather Bureau, is 26.83 inches. The mean annual rainfall 
for the 7-year period from 1907 to 1913, inclusive, as measured at 
the San Antonio Experiment Farm, 5 miles south of the city, is 
24.66 inches. While the normal precipitation would appear to be 
sufficiently large to make crop production fairly certain, yet on 
account of the unequal distribution of the rainfall and the high 

i From January, 1910, to October, 1911, the experiments here reported ware under the direct supervision 
of Mr. S. EL Hastings, superintendent of the San Antonio Experiment Farm. Mr. C. R. Letteer has had 
direct charge of the work since October, 1911. 
52770°— 14 



2 BULLETIN 151, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

evaporation the effect of the precipitation is much lessened. The 
mean annual evaporation from a free water surface, as measured at 
the experiment farm for the 7-year period specified, is 65.88 inches. 
The winters are mild, } r et periods of cold weather or "northers" 
are not infrequent during the winter season. The thermometer 
seldom registers a temperature below 15° F. in winter, and conse- 
quently plant growth continues practically throughout the year. 

SOIL CONDITIONS. 

The San Antonio Experiment Farm is located on what is called 
locally black " hog-wallow land. " This local name is due to the fact 
that the soil, when drying, shrinks and opens long, wide cracks, and 
the filling of these cracks with loose surface soil results in irregular 
depressions, which resemble hog wallows. The soil is a black clay 
loam, having a rather small proportion of sand and becoming very 
sticky when wet. It is classified by the United States Bureau of 
Soils * as Houston black clay loam and San Antonio clay loam. 

The first 3 feet of soil is fairly uniform in character and is under- 
lain with a white gravelly material which is rich in lime. This under- 
lying gravel has a relatively low moisture-holding capacity, while the 
surface soil has a high moisture-holding capacity, averaging from 
25 to 30 per cent. When wet, the soil has a tendency to pack 
and become impervious, so that during torrential rains the loss of 
water from run-off is high. The soil is rich in mineral plant food and 
produces abundant crops when supplied with sufficient moisture. 

FALLOWING EXPERIMENTS. 

In 1910 experiments were inaugurated for the purpose of studying 
the effect of producing a crop only on alternate years, as compared 
with producing a crop every year on the same land. The crops of 
1910 were grown on land which had not been previously fallowed, 
so that the results for that year are not considered here. The results 
here presented are from the years 1911, 1912, and 1913. 

The crops used in these experiments were corn, cotton, and winter 
oats. For this purpose six £-acre plats were used, as follows: Plats 
A4-1 and A4-2 were used alternately for cotton, one plat being 
cropped and the other fallowed each year. In a similar way plats 
A4-3 and A4-4 were used for corn and A4-5 and A4-6 for winter oats. 
For purposes of comparison with these biennially cropped plats, use 
has been made of results obtained from three plats which are part of 
another experiment. These three plats are cropped each year and 
are given the same tillage treatment as the alternately cropped plats, 
except that the fallow period is 12 months shorter. The plats that are 
cropped annually have been under test since 1909, when the large 

i Field Operations of the Bureau of Soils, 1904. 



CKOP PRODUCTION ON FALLOW LAND AT SAN ANTONIO. 3 

rotation and tillage experiment of which they are a part was started. 
The plats which are continuously cropped are as follows: B5-1, 
corn; B5-3, cotton; and B5-8, oats. The plats are each 264 feet long 
and 41.25 feet wide, and they are separated by alleys 4f feet wide. 

TREATMENT OF THE PLATS. 

Figure 1 shows graphically the cropping system practiced on the 
plats considered in this report, from the time the biennial cropping 
experiments were started until the close of the year 1913. 

The winter oats were seeded early in November and harvested in 
May, the corn was planted the latter part of February and harvested 



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Fig. 1.— Diagram showing the cropping system practiced on the plats where biennial cropping has been 
tested in comparison with continuous cropping at the San Antonio Experiment Farm. 

in July, and the cotton was planted early in April and the harvest 
completed in October. 

In all cases except plat B5-8 (oats cropped annually) the plats 
were plowed about 8 inches deep as soon as practicable after the crop 
was removed . Plat B5-8 was left unplowed until just before planting 
time. After plowing, the plats were harrowed after the first heavy 
rain came, to soften the clods. They were then harrowed or disked 
after each rain of consequence and also whenever it was necessary 
to keep them clear of weed growth and to maintain a soil mulch. 
For the most part the spike-tooth harrow was sufficient to maintain 
an adequate mulch throughout the greater part of the fallow period. 



BULLETIN 151, U. S. DEPAETMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



YIELDS OBTAINED. 

Table I gives the yields of various crops from the plats cropped 
biennially, as compared with the yields of the same crops on plats 
cropped annually, and the average yields of the various crops from 
all plats planted to each crop in the rotation experiments. The aver- 
age yields are obtained by considering all of the plats in the rotation 
experiments and should be fairly representative of results from good 
farming in that region. 

Table I. — Crop yields from plats cropped biennially, as compared with plats cropped 
annually and with all plats used for these crops in the rotation experiments. 1 









Biennial 


cropping. 




Average of all rota- 
tion plats. 




Year and crop. 








Annual 
cropping. 






Actual. 


Percentage 
of annua! 


Yield. 


Number of 
plats 










cropping. 






averaged. 




1911. 














Corn 

Cotton 
Oats 


1912. 


bushels.. 
pounds. . 
bushels.. 


3.2 
318.0 

10.1 


59.2 
71.3 
160. 5 


5.4 

446.0 

6.3 


10.6 

483.0 

8.5 


29 
25 
11 


Corn 

Cotton 
Oats 


1913. 


bushels., 
pounds., 
bushels.. 


21.7 
448.0 
37.0 


92.9 
94.6 
181.5 


26.6 

474.0 

20.4 


34.1 
621.5 
26.75 


26 
25 
10 


Corn 

Cotton 
Oats 


AVERAGE, 1911-1913. 


bushels. . 
pounds., 
bushels. . 


30.7 
350.0 
38.0 


92.8 

53. 9 

369.0 


33.1 

508. 

10.3 


34.9 

560.1 

11.7 


21 
30 
9 


Corn 




bushels. . 
pounds., 
bushels.. 


19.5 
372.0 

28.4 


89.9 

78.2 

231.* 


21.7 

476.0 

12.3 


26.5 

554.9 

15.7 








Oats 









i The rotation experiments are conducted on 82 quarter-acre plats. They include continuous cropping, 
biennial cropping, and 2-year, 3-year, and 4-year rotations, combined v.'ith various tillage methods, manur- 
ing, and green manuring. In general, it would be expected that the average yields in these experiments 
would be larger than those obtained from the continuously cropped plats. 

It is shown in Table I that in no instance has cotton or corn yielded 
as much on biennially cropped as on annually cropped land. The 
average yields of cotton and corn on all the rotation plats have been 
higher than those secured from either biennial cropping .or annual 
cropping, indicating that neither fallowing nor continuous cropping 
for corn and cotton is to be recommended as a general practice under 
San Antonio conditions. 

On the other hand, winter oats on land biennially cropped have 
consistently yielded higher than where planted annually on the 
same land and higher than the average from all oat plats in the 
rotation experiments. 

VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF CROPS ON FALLOWED LAND. 

It has been observed during the past two years that during the 
greater part of the growing period oats made a less rank growth on 
the fallowed plat than on the plats in the rotation experiments. 



J 



CROP PRODUCTION ON FALLOW LAND AT SAN ANTONIO. 5 

This comparatively light vegetative growth appears to have been 
favorable to the production of grain. In 1912 and 1913, especially 
the latter season, oats on the rotation plats lodged badly, owing to 
excessive vegetative growth. It has been found at San Antonio that 
any treatment which has a tendency to retard the early vegetative 
growth of the oat plant results in increased yields of grain. An 
instance substantiating this statement is afforded by the unfavorable 
results from manuring on land planted to oats to be harvested for 
grain. In a 4-year test with oats, manuring has noticeably decreased 
the yield of grain in two out of the four years, while in the other two 
years the yields were practically the same as those obtained from 
unmanured land. It appears, therefore, that the increase in yield of 
oats on fallowed land has not been due to the fact that conditions 
were more favorable to growth, but rather to a depressing effect on 
the vegetative growth. 

Crops grown on fallowed land have invariably shown irregular and 
slow early development as compared with the same crops on other 
plats. The corn and cotton on the fallowed plats have been notice- 
ably smaller than on the other plats in the rotation experiments, and 
the plants have lacked uniformity in size and appearance. Observa- 
tions on other plats of the experiment farm where cotton has been 
grown on fallowed land corroborate this conclusion. While the 
differences with oats have not been so marked, in 1913 the oats on 
fallowed land were smaller and made slower growth than on land 
continuously cropped or having other treatments. On account of 
the difficulty with the lodging of grain crops, as already indicated, the 
depressing effect of fallowing on the growth of the plants results in 
high yields of oats, while it has the opposite effect on corn and 

cotton. 

SOIL-MOISTURE STUDIES. 

Soil-moisture determinations have been made on the fallowed plats 
considered in this report and also on the continuously cropped plats 
devoted to the same crops. Samples have been taken monthly or 
oftener during the summer throughout the three years. A standard 
soil tube was used for securing the samples. At each sampling two 
cores were taken from different parts of the plat, corresponding foot- 
sections being composited to a single sample. Thus either three or 
six samples were secured from each plat, depending upon the depth 
to which the sampling was done. In most cases samples were taken 
to a depth of 6 feet. 

In figures 2, 3, and 4 the diagram at the top shows the crop, 
stubble, and fallow periods for each plat considered in this report, 
and the curves below show the moisture content of the different 
plats at the time the moisture determinations were made during the 
four years from 1910 to 1913, inclusive. 



BULLETIN 151, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Moisture determinations have been made on each ol the plats at 
planting time and just before or just after harvest, to determine the 



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Fig. 2. — Diagram showing the average moisture content of the soil on plat B5-1, which was cropped 
annually to corn, and on plats A4-3 and A4-4, which were cropped biennially to corn, at the San 
Antonio Experiment Farm, January, 1910, to October, 1913. On each sampling date all the plats 
were sampled to a uniform depth, in most cases 6 feet, but in some instances 3 feet. 

amount of moisture present at planting time and the amount of 
stored moisture used from each plat. 



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Fig. 3.— Diagram showing the average moisture content of the soil on plat B5-3, which was cropped 
annually to cotton, and on plats A4-1 and A4-2, which were cropped biennially to cotton, at the 
San Antonio Experiment Farm, January, 1910, to October, 1913. On each sampling date all the 
plats were sampled to a uniform depth, in most cases 6 feet, but in some instances 3 feet. 

By observing carefully the curves showing the moisture content 
in the various plats it will be seen that the moisture content of the 



CHOP PRODUCTION ON FALLOW LAND AT SAN ANTONIO. 



plats of corn (fig. 2) and cotton (fig. 3) was generally highest in the 
spring at about planting time for these crops; that there was a gen- 
eral decline in the moisture content of the cropped plats until har- 
vest and also a slight decline in the moisture content of fallowed 
plats; and that there was only a slight difference in the moisture 
content of the fallowed and continuously cropped plats at either 
planting or harvest time, the tendency being for the curves to coin- 
cide at these periods. 

The moisture content of the oat plats (fig. 4) was generally highest 
during the months of January and February and lowest in June, at 
about harvest time. At planting time for oats in the autumns of 



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PLAT A<?-5 '. 

pc^tr 0S-s '. 



Fig. 4.— Diagram showing the average moisture content of the soil on plat B5-8, which was cropped 
annually to oats, and on plats A4-5 and A4-6, which were cropped biennially to oats, at the San 
Antonio Experiment Farm, January, 1910, to October, 1913. On each sampling date all the plats 
were sampled to a uniform depth, in most cases 6 feet, but in some instances 3 feet. 

1910 and 1912 the moisture content of the fallowed plat was somewhat 
higher than that of the continuously cropped plat, and in 1911 it was 
nearly the same. At harvest time in 1911 and also in 1912 the 
moisture content of the fallowed plat was somewhat lower than that 
of the continuously cropped plat, and in 1913 the moisture content 
of both plats was about the same. 

It appears from this that fallowing resulted in a higher moisture 
content in the fall at planting time for oats, and that when the land 
remained fallow until time for planting corn and cotton, fallowing 
did not store any appreciable quantity of moisture in the soil in 
excess of that stored in land continuously cropped, plowed in the 
fall, and left fallow during the winter. 



8 



BULLETIN 151, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



For the most part the curves show only slight variations in the 
amount of moisture present in the fallowed and continuously cropped 
plats during the period when crops were on the land. There was a 
somewhat higher moisture content in the soil of the fallow plats at 
the time when crops were growing on the other plats; hut, as already 
stated, the difference generally disappeared by the next planting 
time. 

RUN-OFF FROM FALLOWED PLATS. 

The uniformity in soil-moisture content at planting time, already 
noted, is probably accounted for by the higher loss by run-off from 
fallow plats than from those which were cropped every year. Dur- 
ing the years covered by this report the precipitation during the 
winter and early spring was comparatively heavy. Consequently, 
so far as the rainfall during the winter and spring immediately pre- 
ceding corn and cotton planting was concerned, land cropped each 
year and plowed as soon as possible after the removal of the crop 
had the same opportunity to store moisture as fallowed land had 
during the same period. Even though the fallowed land contained 
a larger amount of moisture at the time of seeding oats in the fall, 
a larger amount of run-off from the fallowed plats during the winter 
would result in approximately uniform moisture conditions in all 
the plats at the time of planting corn and cotton the following 
spring. That there is a difference in the run-off from the different 
plats is proved by the results of determinations shown in Table II. 

On February 16, 1912, three days after a rain of 3.3 inches, soil 
samples were taken on one plat of oats and on five fallow plats where 
the length of time since plowing varied from 3 to 18 months. Table 
II shows the moisture content at the last sampling before the rain and 
again three days after the rain, together with the increase in moisture, 
the run-off in inches, and the percentage of rainfall lost by run-off. 

On February 26, samples were again taken on the same plats after 
a 2-days' rain of 2.9 inches. The results are also given in Table II. 

Table II.— Absorption and run-off from rains in February, 1912, San Antonio Experi- 
ment Farm. 





Fallow period 
or crop. 


Samples taken on Feb. 16, three days after a 3.3-inch rain. 


Plat \'o. 


Average moisture 
content in 3 feet. 


Increase. 


Kun-ofL 




5 days 
before 
rain. 


3 days 
after 
rain. 


Per cent. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Percent- 
age of 
rainfall. 


A4-1 


3 months 


Per cent. 
15.8 
19.1 
17.2 
20.0 
18.4 
18.1 


Per cent. 
19.9 
21.6 
19.8 
23.0 
20.6 
22.3 


4.1 
2.5 
2.6 
3.0 
2.2 
4.2 


1.92 
1.17 
1. 22 
1.40 
1.03 
1.96 


1.38 
2.13 
2.08 
1.90 
2.27 
1.34 


41.8 


A4 2 




64.5 


A4-3 


5 months 


63.0 






57.5 


A4-5 


6 months 


68.8 


A4-6 


Oats 


40.6 











CROP PEODUCTION ON FALLOW LAND AT SAN ANTONIO. 9 

Table II. — Absorption and run-off from rains in February, 1912, San Antonio Experi- 
ment Farm — Continued. 





Fallow period 
or crop. 


Samples taken on Feb. 26, one day after a 2.9-inch rain, when 
the soil was already wet. 


Plat No. 


Average moisture, 
content in 6 feet. 


Increase. 


Run-ofl. 




7 days 
before 
rain. 


lday 

after 
rain. 


Per cent. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Percent- 
age of 
rainfall. 


A4-L... 




Per cent. 
15.2 
16.8 
15.3 
16.7 
15.5 
16.3 


Per cent. 
16.6 
17.2 
16.8 

17.8 
16.2 

- 18.4 


1.4 
.4 
1.5 
1.1 

.7 
2.1 


1.3 
.37 
1.4 
1.03 

.66 
1.96 


1.61 
2.54 
1.51 

1.88 

2.25 

.95 


55.3 


A4-2 .. 


15 months 


87.1 


A -1-3 . 




51.7 






64.6 


A4-5 . . 




77.3 


A4-6 . 


Oats 


32.6 









Tabic II shows that the rim-off from land that had been fallow for 
several months was greater than from land plowed a comparatively 
short time before the heavy rains. The proportion of run-off from 
the second rain was somewhat greater than that following the first 
rain, and the difference in run-off from plats fallowed for a short time 
and from those which had been fallow for a longer time was more 
marked. The run-off from the oat plat was materially less following 
both rains than that from any of the fallow plats. 

ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS. 

The question of whether it is desirable to make a practice of 
biennial cropping for certain crops must be considered from two 
standpoints: (1) The effect upon the crop and (2) the cost of pro- 
duction as compared with annual cropping. It must be remembered 
that in the first case only one crop is grown in two years and that 
fixed costs, such as the interest on the investment in land for two 
years, must be charged against one crop. Under the conditions at 
San Antonio, where plant growth continues practically the entire 
year, making necessary the cultivation of the fallow to kill weeds 
and maintain a mulch, the expense of fallowing is nearly, if not quite, 
as much as that of growing a crop on the land. Other items, such as 
the depletion of the humus and the possible ultimate effect on fertility, 
are matters deserving consideration in connection with the practice 
of biennial cropping. It must be concluded, then, that even though 
biennial cropping gave increased yields of winter oats at San Antonio 
it is not necessarily desirable as a farm practice in growing that crop 
there. In other words, the results of these experiments indicate 
that biennial cropping is not to be recommended for the San Antonio 
region, at least for cotton, corn, and oats. 



10 BULLETIN 151, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

SUMMARY. 

(1) Tests of biennial cropping in comparison with annual cropping 
have been carried on at the San Antonio Experiment Farm for 
three years. 

(2) The yields of corn and cotton have been less on biennially 
cropped land than on annually cropped land. The yields of winter 
oats have been somewhat larger on the biennially cropped land. 

(3) Soil-moisture studies made in connection with these tests do 
not show any important differences in the amount of soil moisture 
present in fallowed land and in continuously cropped land at planting 
and harvest time for corn and cotton. In the plats used for oats 
there was more moisture present at planting and less at harvest time 
on the biennially cropped land -than on the annually cropped land. 
In other words, the oats grown biennially used more water and made 
less vegetative growth, but gave larger yields. 

(4) Observations made after heavy rams show that in most cases 
the proportion of run-off from heavy rains was greater on land which 
had been fallow for several months than on land which had been 
fallow for a comparatively short time. The run-off from an oat plat 
was less than from any of the fallow plats. 

(5) Considering both crop yields and cost of production, the results 
of these experiments indicate that biennial cropping, at least for 
corn, cotton, and oats, is not to be recommended for the San Antonio 
region. 



WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1914 





BULLETIN OF THE 

No. 152 

Contribution from the Forest Service, Henry S. Graves, Forester. 
February 3, 1915. 




THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 1 

(Tsuga canadensis (Linn.) Carr.) 
By E. H. Frothingham, Forest Examiner. 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction 1 

Geographical range 2 

Commercial range 3 

Amount of standing timber 4 

Value of standing hemlock 5 

Utilization of hemlock 7 

Structure and development of the tree 15 

Associated species 21 



Effects of light, soil, and moisture on the 

composition of the stand 22 

Reproduction 23 

Rate of growth 24 

Susceptibility to injury 27 

Hemlock in forest management 29 

Appendix 31 



INTRODUCTION. 

Though excelled in most respects by other trees in the region of 
its growth, eastern hemlock is none the less a most important mem- 
ber of the remaining old-growth forests. Its lumber, once held 
nearly worthless, now serves many purposes for which pine was 
formerly demanded; its wood supplies more raw material for paper 
pulp than does any other in the United States except spruce, while 
the amount of its bark used for tanning exceeds that of all other 
native species combined. Compared with pine, hemlock has been 
lumbered for only a short time, but this exploitation, accompanied 
as it has often been by waste and fire, has already greatly reduced 
the supply of standing timber. If the present rate of cutting con- 
tinues hemlock will before very long be as scarce as old-growth pine. 

In spite of its present importance, hemlock is not a tree of promise 
for forest planting. White and red pine will yield better lumber in 
a much shorter time and on poorer soils, are less suceptible to decay, 
and are more easily grown. Spruce serves as well for the protection 
of watersheds and stream sources, and produces better pulpwood 

i There are two species of hemlock in the eastern United States, but one— Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.— 
Is restricted to the Southern Appalachians, and is of only local importance. This bulletin treats only 
of the other species — Tsuga canadensis (Linn.) Carr. 

Note.— This bulletin describes the more important characteristics of hemlock, presents tables of its 
volume and rate of growth, and gives the chief facts regarding its utilization. Acknowledgment is due to 
Messrs. E. M. Griffith, State Forester of Wisconsin, and R. S. Kellogg, Secretary of the National Lum- 
ber Manufacturers Association, for assistance rendered in the field study and in the course of preparation 
of this bulletin. 

60235° — Bull. 152 — 15 1 



2 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

and lumber. Several other species produce fully as good tan bark 
or extract in a shorter time. Nevertheless hemlock will undoubtedly 
persist in the old-growth forests and natural second-growth in many 







Fig. 1.— Botanical distribution of hemlock. 

regions, and its presence in these stands may be of decided benefit to 
them. For this reason it must be considered in forest management. 

GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE. 

Hemlock finds its home in the white pine region of eastern North 
America. This also is the region inhabited by the characteristic 



THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 3 

beech-birch-maple forest — the " northern hardwoods " — of which hem- 
lock is often a conspicuous member. The tree's northern limit cor- 
responds roughly with the forty-seventh parallel of latitude, from 
Nova Scotia to east central Minnesota (Carlton, St. Louis, and 
Aitkin Counties, and the St. Croix Kiver), whence it extends south 
to central Wisconsin, southern Indiana (Floyd County), central 
Ohio, and northwestern Delaware. It is important in the mountain- 
ous portions of New England, New York, and Pennsylvania, and 
extends along the Appalachian Mountains, through western Mary- 
land, eastern West Virginia, southwestern Virginia, eastern Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee, and western North and South Carolina, into 
northern Georgia and Alabama. It grows neither so far north nor 
so high in the mountains as the eastern spruces and firs, 1 and reaches 
its greatest size in the coves of the mountains of western North 
Carolina and eastern Tennessee. 



COMMERCIAL RANGE. 

About two-thirds of the total cut of eastern hemlock lumber 
comes from Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in the order 
named, with West Virginia, New York, and Maine following. The 
other States within its range aggregate about 11 per cent. The 
shifting of the relative importance of different States in hemlock 
production within recent years is shown in Table 1, based on data 
collected by the Census Bureau and the Forest Service. 

Table 1. — Hemlock lumber cut in different States, in per cent of the total cut of hemlock, 
and rank of States in order of production. 

[From United States Census reports for 1899, 1904, and 1906-1912.] 





1913 


1911 


1909 


1907 


1899 


State. 


Propor- 
tion of 

total 

cut. 


Rank. 


Propor- 
tion of 

total 

cut. 


Rank. 


Propor- 
tion of 

total 

cut. 


Rank. 


Propor- 
tion of 

total 

cut. 


Rank. 


Propor- 
tion of 
total 

cut. 


Rank. 




Per 

cent. 
100 
28.7 
19.0 
14.2 
8.9 
5.3 
3.1 
1.8 
1.6 
1.3 
1.3 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


Per 

cent. 

100 

26.6 

21.8 

18.2 

10.3 

5.0 

3.3 

1.4 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
9 


Per 

cent. 

100 

23.2 

20.1 

22.5 

9.2 

5.3 

3.6 

1.2 

1.3 

2.0 

2.2 

1.4 

.8 

.9 

.7 

4.2 
1.4 


1 

3 

2 

4 

5 

6 

11 

10 

8 

7 

9 

13 

12 

14 


Per 

cent. 

100 

23.3 

20.4 

25.2 

8.0 

6.1 

3.6 

1.2 

.9 

2.2 

2.6 

1.1 

.8 

.8 

.7 

2.1 
1.0 


2 
3 
1 
4 

5 
6 
9 
11 
8 
7 
10 
13 
12 
14 


Per 

cent. 

100 

11.7 

24.6 

45.6 

2.5 

8.9 

2.5 

1.2 
1.3 

.4 
.1 
.6 

.02 

.58 




Wisconsin 


3 

2 

1 

5 

4 

6 

18 

16 

8 

7 

15 


Michigan 


Pennsylvania 

West Virginia 


Maine 






Vermont 


1.5 
1.5 
1.2 
1.0 


8 
7 
10 
11 


New Hampshire 

Virginia 


Massachusetts 






10 
12 








Maryland 










g 


States producing west- 
ern hemlock 


12.2 

2.6 




7.0 
1.2 






All other States 





1 Hemlock is not found where the average temperature during the four growing months is less than 55° 
F., and but seldom where the average is below 58°. (For. Quart., Vol. XI, No. 1, pp. 64-66, "Northern 
Limits of East Canadian Trees in Relation to the Climate," by H. R. Christie.) 



4 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

AMOUNT OF STANDING TIMBER. 

Reliable estimates of the amount of standing hemlock are very 
difficult to obtain, because of the widely varying proportion which 
the tree forms of the mixed forests in which is usually grows. For 
this reason past estimates have been greatly at variance with one 
another. Thus the total stand was estimated to bje 20,165 million 
board feet in 1880 by C. S. Sargent; 56,571 million board feet in 
1903 by R. A. Long; 100 billion board feet in 1905 by the American 
Lumberman; and 75 billion in 1909 by R. S. Kellogg. In 1880 
Sargent estimated the amounts of standing hemlock in Pennsylvania, 
New York, and New Hampshire to be 4^ billion, 3 billion, and 165 
million board feet, respectively. The stand in Pennsylvania was 
estimated to be 5 billion board feet in 1896 by Dr. B. E. Fernow, and 
10 billion board feet in 1907 by J. E. Defebaugh. 

By far the most careful estimates are those for the Lake States pre- 
pared by the Bureau of Corporations in 1910. * According to these 
the amount of standing hemlock in the Lake States is 26.6 billion 
board feet, of which Michigan has 15 billion and Wisconsin 11.6 
billion. Hemlock comprises 34.6 per cent of all the standing timber 
in both States — 31.5 per cent of that in Michigan, and 39.7 per cent of 
that in Wisconsin. Compared with these estimates the production 
of hemlock lumber in Michigan and Wisconsin during 1909 repre- 
sented 4.1 per cent and 6.1 per cent, respectively, of the total stand. 
For all species combined this relation was 4 per cent and 6.9 per cent, 
respectively, which makes it evident that the cutting of hemlock pro- 
ceeds at a rate very close to the average for all species — more rapid 
than for hardwoods and much slower than for pine. 

Hemlock may form a very small or a very large proportion of the 
forest, while between these extremes are all gradations. One of the 
largest remaining stands of hemlock in the Lake States is on the 
Menominee Indian Reservation. The total stand of all species was 
estimated about 1910 to contain 1,750,000,000 board feet, running 
15,000 per acre, of which more than 40 per cent, or 6,000 per acre, 
was hemlock, the timber varying in size from 6 to 33 logs to the thou- 
sand board feet. 

In 1905 and 1906 the Forest Service 2 secured from local timber 
operators estimates of the amount of standing timber in each county 
of the Southern Appalachian region. The estimate of standing 
hemlock was as follows: 

Board feet. Board feet. 



Georgia 205, 000, 000 

Kentucky 452, 000, 000 

Maryland 60, 000, 000 

North Carolina 668, 000, 000 

South Carolina 93, 000, 000 



Tennessee 1, 387, 000, 000 

Virginia 505, 000, 000 

West Virginia 3, 550, 000, 000 



Total 6, 920, 000, 000 



i Report on the Lumber Industry, Part I: Standing Timber. Washington, Government Printing 
Office, 1913. 
2 Study of Forest Conditions of the Southern Appalachians, under the direction of Walter Mulford. 



THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 5 

According to this, hemlock is the most abundant conifer in the 
mountainous regions south of Pennsylvania. Its nearest com- 
petitor is spruce, with a total of less than 3,000,000,000 board feet. 
In Maryland nearly all the hemlock is in Garrett County. In West 
Virginia over 80 per cent is in the high mountains of Pocahontas, 
Randolph, Tucker, and Webster Counties, and the western part of 
Grant and Pendleton Counties, where it covers large areas just below 
the spruce belt. Eighty per cent of the hemlock in Virginia lies west 
of New River, and 50 per cent is in Grayson, Smyth, and Washington 
Counties. Here, also ; the heaviest bodies lie below the spruce in the 
"spruce and hemlock region." Farther south hemlock forms a smaller 
proportion of the stand, though it is often very dense in the coves 
and lower slopes. It becomes less abundant as the mountains become 
lower, and fails altogether where the foothills and plains begin. 

VALUE OF STANDING HEMLOCK. 

The stumpage value of hemlock is generally lower than that of the 
other important eastern trees. White and red pine, white ash, 
basswood, elm, oak, and hickory all considerably exceed it. Birch 
and maple, which average a little less in value than hemlock in the 
northeast, exceed it in the Lake States and Southern Appalachians. 
Beech is perhaps the only important species in the Lake States whose 
average stumpage value is jaot greater than that of hemlock, while 
in the South hemlock is the least valuable of all the species. Table 6 
gives the relative stumpage values of hemlock and associated species 
in 1912, based on a large number of reports of timber sales received 
by the Forest Service. 

Table 6. — Comparative stumpage values per thousand board feet of hemlock and 

•associated species, in 1912} 



Species. 



North- 
eastern 
States. 



Lake 

States. 



Southern 
States. 



Hemlock . . 
White pine 

Ash 

Basswood . 

Elm 

Maple 

Birch 

Beech 



$6.28 
8.44 
9.03 
8.40 
6.71 
5.98 
5.61 
4.38 



S3. 78 
10.39 
5.82 
6.30 
5.87 
4.58 
4.85 
3.67 



$2.62 
3.91 
6.16 
4.92 
3.41 
3.45 
3.33 
2.86 



1 From the reports of sales collected by the Forest Service, Office of Industrial Investigations. The 
States included under the headings of "Northeastern States," "Lake States," and "Southern States" are 
those given in Table 7. - 

Stumpage values are derived by deducting all logging, transporting, 
and manufacturing costs from the value of the lumber or other 
salable product. Wide ranges in stumpage value due to differences 
in accessibility may prevail within the bounds of a single State. As 



6 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

a rule, however, the stunipage value of most of the old-growth timber 
in a region is uniform enough to justify comparison with other regions. 
Table 7 gives such a comparison of average stumpage values of hem- 
lock in 1889, 1899, 1907, and 1912, within the States where it is 
commercially important. 

Table 7. — Stumpage values per thousand board feet of hemlock in different States, for 
1912, l 1907, l 1899, and 1889. 





1912 


1907 


1899 


1889 


State. 


Average 
values 

(sales). 


Reports. 


Average 
values 
(esti- 
mates). 


Reports. 


Average 
values 
(esti- 
mates). 


Average 
values 
(esti- 
mates). 


Northeastern group: 


$4.72 
5.57 
5.40 
6.44 
7.46 
7.35 


30 
10 
5 
9 
29 
21 


$4.48 
5.22 
4.03 
6.10 
5.48 
7.38 


33 
17 
32 
24 
33 
62 


$2.52 
3.19 
2.01 


$1.63 
















2.98 
2.75 






1.45 








6.28 




5.72 


















Lake States: 


5.07 
3.21 


14 

32 


4.22 
3.31 


85 
63 


2.25 
2.16 


1.05 




.96 








3.78 




3.83 


















Southern States: 


*4.25 
2 3.17 
6.00 
2.50 
2.50 
2.17 


23 

h 

3 

6 


3.88 
2.98 
3.26 
2.14 
2.07 
1.43 


4 
13 
45 

9 
11 

7 




2.50 










2.19 




























3.05 




2.84 



















1 The figures for 1912 and 1907 are averages of reports collected by the Forest Service. For 1912, reports 
of both estimates and sales were collected. The averaged estimates (not shown for 1912) were slightly 
higher for almost every State than the averaged sales. 

2 Estimates. 

The table shows that recently the rate of increase in value of hem- 
lock has fallen off, at least in the Northeastern and Lake States. In 
Pennsylvania, for example, the stumpage value increased more than 
fivefold between 1889 and 1907, but during the next five years there 
was practically no increase. In 1889 hemlock was as yet practically 
unmerchantable in many parts of its range, and its cheapness and low 
taxable value assured large profits. At present, however, the 
increase in stumpage value is hardly rapid enough to yield a large 
profit, while taxes, insurance, and other annual charges often add 
substantially to the cost. To yield a return of 6 per cent compound 
interest it would be necessary for the stumpage value to double at 
least every 10 years. This, of course, applies only to old stands in 
which growth is very slow or is entirely offset by decay. In young, 
thirfty stands there is an increase in the amount of stumpage which 
may make the investment profitable without a great increase in 
stumpage value. 






THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 



UTILIZATION OF HEMLOCK. 

Though hemlock first came into use because of the growing scarcity 
and increasing value of better trees, it can no longer be considered 
merely a substitute for these species. In the three large industries 
to which it contributes — lumber, pulp, and bark — it has become prac- 
tically indispensable. 

LUMBER. 

Small quantities of hemlock lumber were produced locally in the 
northeast during the early days, but not until the bulk of the pine 
had gone was it able to find a wider market. As long as the best 
grades of pine lumber could be had for very little more than the cost 
of production, hemlock could not be disposed of profitably. As late 
as 1880 hemlock lumber of the first quality had so little market value 
in New York and Pennsylvania that it could be shipped only at a loss, 
and was often sold at the mill to local consumers for as little as $4.50 
per thousand board feet. Hemlock logs, cut and peeled for tanbark, 
could, not be hauled with profit even for short distances, and large 
numbers of them had to be left in the woods to rot. When peeled 
and well dried, hemlock logs float nearly as well as pine, and because 
of their slipperiness are useful, when driven with pine and spruce 
logs in breaking jams. Peeled logs check badly in drying, however, 
and necessitate heavy and wasteful slabbing. In spite of this draw- 
back hemlock formed an average of about 10 per cent of all lumber on 
the Penobscot River in Maine from 1851 to 1895, with a steady rise of 
from 7 per cent in 1851 to 15.3 per cent in 1895. * 

During the last five years hemlock has ranked fifth in importance 
among the lumber trees of the United States, being exceeded only by 
yellow pine, Douglas fir, white pine, and oak. Table 2 shows the 
annual production of hemlock lumber during recent years, and its 
proportion in the total annual lumber production. 

Table 2. — Hemlock 2 lumber production during recent years, from census reports. 



Year. 


Annual cut. 


Proportion 

of total 

lumber 

cut. 


Year. 


Annual cut. 


Propor- 
tion of 

total 
lumber 

cut. 


1899 


Thousand 
board feet. 
3, 420, 673 
3, 268, 787 
3,537,329 
3,373,016 
2, 530, 843 


Per cent. 
9.9 
9.6 
9.8 
8.4 
7.6 


1909 


Thousand 
board feet. 
3,051,399 
2, 836, 129 
2,555,308 
2,426,554 
2,319,982 


Per cent. 
6 9 


1904 


1910. . 


7 1 


1906 


1911... 


6 9 


1907 


1912... 


6 2 


1908 


1913 


6.0 









1 From statistics contained in the Third Annual Report of the Forest Commission of the State of Maine, 
1896, Appendix, p. 7. 

'Including western hemlock, an entirely distinct timber tree, which increased from 0.02 per cent of all 
hemlock cut in 1899 to over 12 per cent in 1913. 



8 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGEICULTUEE. 

As the higher grades of pine grew scarce and expensive, hemlock 
acquired a modest value of its own as a competitor with the succes- 
sively lower grades of pine which were being introduced. Only the 
best hemlock was at first put on the market, but afterward lower 
grades came in for box manufacture and other purposes for which 
high-grade lumber was not required. 

The production of only the best grade of hemlock necessarily 
involved a great deal of waste both in logging and sawing. Partially 
defective logs were culled out in the woods, because the lumber they 
contained would not pay for their removal. Hemlock, when mature, 
is commonly wind shaken and rotten at the butt, and branchy and 
tapering at the top, so the amount thus left was naturally very large. 
Many trees which contained some sound lumber were left standing. 
In the mill, peeled logs had to be heavily slabbed to remove season 
checks, and much of the heartwood might be unsalable because of 
knots and shakes. Many of the slabs and edgings were made into 
laths, but far more were burned. As lower grades of lumber became 
salable there was less waste; trees were cut farther into the top and 
shorter butts were taken, while slabs and edgings were sold to pulp 
mills. In some parts of the country the broken logs and tops left 
after logging are now cut into bolts and used for pulp. Means of 
utilizing waste are rapidly increasing, and the present problem is, 
which of these will pay best? 

Though inferior to yellow pine and Douglas fir where great strength 
is required, hemlock lumber makes good building material and is said 
to give greater strength and firmness than white pine. It is well 
adapted for frames, sheathing, roofing, floor lining, and other con- 
struction purposes. It is softer and fighter than southern pine or 
Douglas fir, but holds nails as well. As drop siding it makes an 
excellent outside finish for barns and houses, if kept well painted. 
The best grades make attractive inside finish wherever a soft wood is 
appropriate. 

The durability of the wood depends very largely upon the nature of 
its use. In contact with the soil it is very perishable, and is not well 
adapted for ground sills unless treated with a preservative. If kept 
in a dry place, however, it is extremely durable. Even as outside 
covering it will give good service if placed so that it dries out rapidly 
and thoroughly after being wet. There are instances of hemlock 
barns which still stand after 50 or more years' use. Shaved hem- 
lock shingles, if of good, straight-grained wood and used on a mod- 
erately steep roof, are practically as durable as white pine shingles. 
An important defect of hemlock for such uses is its liability to 
check and split when exposed to the sun. Hemlock laths are 
said to make a firmer and better wall than pine, though harder to 
nail than either the latter or basswood. 



THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 



Table 3 gives the average mill-run value per thousand board feet 
of hemlock lumber in different States for years for which census figures 
are available. 

Table 3.— Average value per thousand board feet of hemlock lumber, by years and States. 





Value of lumber per 1,000 board feet. 


State. 


1912 


1911 


1910 


1909 


1908 


1907 


1906 


1904 


1899 


Northeastern group: 


$14.53 
15.08 
15.59 


$14.64 
14.89 
14.65 
16.51 
15.50 
15.54 

12.44 
13.03 

14.33 
13.75 
14.66 
12.36 
11.89 
11.08 


$15. 87 
14.99 
14.96 
16.59 
16.68 
17.08 

12.51 
12.25 

14.94 
11.25 
14.69 
12.27 
10.57 
9.73 


$14.03 
15.02 
14.38 
15.59 
16.70 
17.56 

11.86 
12.06 

12.97 
13.02 
14.81 
13.31 
13.64 
11.61 


$13. 75 
13.98 
14.95 
13.39 
15.00 
16.29 

12.02 
12.34 

14.53 
12.71 
13.68 
13.02 
11.76 
12.07 


$15. 37 
15.49 
16.04 
15.84 
20.00 
16.42 

14.79 
14.60 

16.63 
13.86 
15.56 
14.65 
13.72 
12.29 


$14. 76 
14.85 
16.51 
14.88 
19.00 
17.16 

13.40 
14.43 

15.69 
14.49 
16.12 
12.64 
13.99 
13.14 


$11.66 
11.72 
12.54 
13.28 
13.96 
12.65 

11.22 
11.07 

12.98 
13.51 
11.52 
11.23 
11.85 
9.51 


$10.83 




10.70 
10.19 




11.84 




15.98 
15.41 

13.19 
13.00 


11.10 




10.46 


Lake group: 


9.00 




9.37 


Southern group: 


7.98 






9.95 




14.64 


8.29 




9.05 






8.97 


North Carolina 




9.87 






13.59 


13.85 


13.95 


13.65 


15.53 


15.31 


11.91 


9.98 









From table 3 it will be seen that the value of hemlock lumber has 
fluctuated from year to year, both locally and for the country as a 
whole. The price was highest in 1907, and the effect of this upon 
stumpage values during the subsequent years is shown elsewhere in 
this bulletin. There are, of course, local deviations from the average 
values given for a State. In central Wisconsin, for example, an aver- 
age price of about $15.40 per thousand board feet, mill run, prevailed 
in December, 1912. Apportioned by grades this amounted to $17.50 
per thousand for No. 1, $15.50 for No. 2, and $10.50 for No. 3 lumber. 
During 1911 average prices of $15.40, $12.65, and $7.44 per thousand, 
respectively, were received for the same grades by one large firm in 
the same region. Compared with these values the prices paid for 
hemlock logs are high. Prices paid by operators at Wausau, Wis., 
are about as follows : 



Length of 
logs. 


Winter of— 


1912-13 


1911-12 


1910-11 


Feet. 
12 to 14 
16 to 16 
18 to 20 
22 to 24 


$9.50 
10.00 
10.50 
11.00 


$7.50 
8.00 
8.50 
9.00 


$8.00 
8.50 
9.00 
9.50 



The logs were scaled by the Scribner "Decimal C." rule. 
60235°— Bull. 152—15 2 



10 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

PULP. 

In 1905 hemlock formed 11.8 per cent of all the wood used for 
pulp. In 1906 and 1907 it supplied 14 per cent of the total amount; 
in 1908, 17 per cent; in 1909, 14 per cent; and in 1910, 15 per cent. 
During the latter year its consumption was 50 per cent greater than 
in 1905. 

Hemlock pulp is used for news, wrapping, and other cheap grades 
of paper, and is manufactured chiefly by the sulphite process. In 
this process the wood is first chipped and then cooked in a solution 
of calcium sulphite, which frees the fibers by dissolving the sub- 
stances that unite them. The dissolved substances comprise about 
half the original weight of the dry wood, without bark. Hemlock 
also furnishes a small amount of ground wood pulp, but the great 
bulk of this is spruce. Ground wood is inferior to chemical pulp, 
since the fibers become broken in grinding, while the pulp contains 
the useless constituents which are dissolved out in the chemical 
process. As a result it is mealy and less interlaceable, especially in 
the case of hemlock, the fibers of which are shorter than those of 
spruce. In spite of this, a very serviceable grade of news paper can 
be made from hemlock pulp, 75 per cent ground and 25 per cent sul- 
phite, with almost the strength, finish, and appearance of that made 
chiefly of spruce. 1 

Since the value per ton of ground wood is only about $15, as com- 
pared with $47 for sulphite pulp, the former is used as the basis for 
news and other cheap grades of paper, to which a small amount 2 of 
sulphite pulp is added for strength. Spruce once furnished prac- 
tically all of both kinds of pulp, and still supplies 90 per cent of the 
mechanical pulp. Its increasing cost has brought about the use of 
cheaper woods in the sulphite process, during which so much of the 
volume is lost. Spruce now supplies less than 60 per cent of the sul- 
phite pulp, while hemlock supplies about 25 per cent. The propor- 
tions of hemlock manufactured by the various processes for the six 
years from 1905 to 1910, inclusive, were — 

J • Per cent. 

Sulphite process - - 94. 75 

Mechanical process 4. 5 

Soda process * 

Sulphate process 05 

100. 00 

Hemlock pulpwood is marketed both as cordwood and in the log. 

In Wisconsin pieces 8 inches and over at the small end are ordinarily 

cut in log lengths and sold by the thousand board feet, 1,000 

board feet usually being considered equivalent to 2 cords. Pieces 

i J. H. Thickens: "Experiments with Jack Pine and Hemlock for Mechanical Pulp." Dept. of Agri- 
culture, Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory Series, June 11, 1912. 

2The usual proportion is from 70 to 84 per cent ground pulp to from 16 to 30 per cent sulphite. 






THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 



11 



less than 8 inches at the small end are sold by the " gross cord," or 
cord containing 128 cubic feet of stacked (not solid) wood, with the 
bark on. Unlike most cordwood, however, the pieces are not cut in 
4-foot lengths, but usually in lengths of 8 feet, 12 feet, etc., according 
to the demands of the mill to which they are sold. Pieces less than 4 
inches at the small end are rarely accepted. About 65 per cent of 
the wood is sold with the bark on, 33 per cent peeled, and about 2 
per cent rossed. 

The use for pulp of waste material left after lumbering has recently 
been introduced in parts of Pennsylvania (see PI. II, fig. 2). Hem- 
lock tops and broken and defective logs are peeled, cut into 5-foot 
lengths, piled in the woods, and sold by the cord. The success of 
this practice disposes of the contention that the knots in hemlock 
tops make their use for pulp impracticable. From 250,000 to 260,000 
cords of slab wood and other sawmill waste are now consumed every 
year for pulp. About 85 per cent of this is manufactured as sulphite 
pulp, and practically all the rest as ground wood. In 1908 hemlock 
formed 41 per cent of the sawmill waste used, and its average value 
was $4.07 per cord — about two-thirds that of hemlock cordwood in 
the round. In Wisconsin, sawmills often sell their hemlock slabs to 
the paper mills for $3 per cord, dry, or $2 green. 

The cost and value per cord and per thousand board feet of pulp- 
wood vary somewhat in different regions, and there are constant 
fluctuations due to changing business conditions. The price also 
depends upon whether the wood is sold peeled, rossed, or with the 
bark on. In 1909, according to census reports, wood with the bark 
on sold for $5.98 a cord, while peeled wood brought $6.58, and the 
small amount of rossed wood $12.31 a cord. 

The average f. o. b. value per cord of hemlock in different regions 
in comparison with other pulpwoods is shown in Table 4. 

Table 4. — Average /. o. b. value per cord of hemlock pulpwood compared with other 

species. 

[Compiled from census reports for 1907, 1908, and 1909.] 



Region. 



Total... 

New England 

New York 

Pennsylvania 
Lake States... 







Spruce 
(domes- 




Year. 


Hemlock. 


Balsam. 






tic). 




f 1907 


$5.68 


$8.55 


$7.59 


\ 1908 


6.02 


8.76 


7.23 


I 1909 


6.30 


9.32 


8.28 


/ 1907 


7.10 


8.48 


8.30 


\ 1908 


7.18 


8.51 


7.58 


/ 1907 


6.79 


8.13 


9.17 


\ 1908 


7.47 


8.58 


8.22 


/ 1907 
1 1908 


5.13 
5.05 


9.26 
10.94 




9.53 


/ 1907 


5.83 


9.88 


5.84 


\ 1908 


»6.36 


10.05 


6.39 



Poplar 
(domes- 
tic). 



$7.85 
8.01 
7.96 
7.51 
7.54 
8.25 
8.49 
8.62 
9.16 
4.45 
4.93 



1 During the financial depression of 1908 the market value of hemlock logs in northern Wisconsin dropped 
in some cases to $7 per thousand board feet (equivalent to $3.50 per cord) f. o. b. cars. No logger would 
deliver hemlock pulpwood for less, and of this amount, $2.50 would probably go to the jobber to whom the 
work was let out. 



12 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPAETMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Pulp mills may pay as high as $12 per thousand board feet, in the 
log, and accept crooked logs. This fact is important in view of the 
low "mill run" value of hemlock lumber, which is rarely much over 
$15 per thousand board feet at the mill, and for which crookedness 
is a more or less serious defect. The pulp mills also prefer to receive 
their wood peeled, and will often pay $1 more per thousand board 
feet for peeled than for unpeeled logs. Peeled logs are cheaper to 
transport and more durable than unpeeled ones, and there is no ex- 
pense for rossing. On the other hand, stripping tanbark from saw 
logs often greatly reduces their value, due to the serious checking 
which results. Bark peeling can be done more profitably when logs 
are cut for pulp than for lumber. 

The value of hemlock cordwood in Wisconsin is about $3.50 per 
cord when logs are selling at $8.50 per thousand board feet, and about 
$4 per cord when logs sell at from $9 to $12 per thousand. The cost 
of getting out cordwood is about $2.50 or $3 a cord. Until quite 
recently hemlock pulpwood stumpage at many places in Wisconsin 
has been valued at 50 cents a cord. 

TANNING. 

Hemlock bark has been used in tanning practically ever since the 
beginning of the industry in America. Oak bark is preferred, since 
it makes the leather softer, more pliable, and less permeable to water 
than does hemlock; but there is not as much of it, and for many 
years its annual consumption in tanning has been less than half that 
of hemlock. With the introduction of tanning extracts, hemlock 
and oak were the first native species to be used, but after the process 
by which extract could be made from chestnut wood was perfected, 
about 1900, the latter species became the leading source of supply. 
In 1909 it supplied practically half the extract used, while the amount 
supplied by hemlock had fallen to about 3 per cent of the total quan- 
tity. The amount of hemlock bark made into extract was never a 
large part of the total hemlock bark consumed in tanning; in 1900 it 
formed about 1 per cent, in 1907 and 1908 slightly exceeded 8 per 
cent, and in 1909 had fallen to less than 3 per cent. 

Table 5 gives the total annual consumption of tan bark and extract 
in the United States, with the proportion supplied by each of the 
leading native species, and the value per cord of hemlock and oak 
bark. The figures are from census reports for different years. For 
convenience, the percentage figures, when they include decimals, are 
expressed as the nearest whole number. 



Bui. 152, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate !. 




A Mature Hemlock Tree. 
The clean, columnlike bole indicates an advanced age. North Carolina. 



Bui. 152, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate !i. 




Fig. 1.— Bark Peeling to a Diameter of Less than 4 Inches in the Top. 







Fig. 2.— Hemlock Top Wood and Broken Logs once Left to Rot after Logging 
now bring a Good Price as Pulpwood. 



CLOSE UTILIZATION OF HEMLOCK IN PENNSYLVANIA. 



THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 

Table 5. — Consumption of tanning materials: 1900, 1905-1909. 
[Compiled from census reports for these years.] 



13 







Consumption of bark. 


Proportion of total. 


Average price per 
cord. 




Total. 


Hemlock. 


Hemlock. 


Oak. 


Hemlock. 


Oak. 




Cords. 
1,616,065 
1,104,045 
1,371,342 
1,214,401 
1,127,400 
1,078,910 


Cords. 
1, 170, 131 
799, 755 
931, 152 
815,840 
810, 231 
698,365 


Per cent. 
72 
73 
68 
67 
72 
65 


Per cent. 
28 
27 
30 
31 
27 
30 


$6.28 
6.32 
8.49 
8.60 
8.89 
9.21 


$7.12 




10.44 


1906 


10.87 




10.51 




10.80 




10.90 








Consumption of 
Extract. 


Proportion of total. 


Average price per barrel. 


Year. 


Total. 


Hemlock. 


Hem- 
lock. 


Oak. 


Chest- 
nut. 


Hem- 
lock. 


Oak. 


Chest- 
nut. 




Barrels. 
67, 043 
292, 399 
658, 777 
729, 599 
784, 202 
773. 635 


Barrels. 
12,812 
52, 430 
68,811 
80, 267 
81,617 
21, 725 


Per ct. 
19 
18 
10 
11 
10 
3 


Per ct. 

81 

64 

9 

8 

6 

10 


Per ct. 


$11.78 


$10. 14 






17 
39 
38 

37 

48 




1906 


12.31 
12.06 
12.78 
12.72 


9.91 
10.38 
10.60 

9.52 


$9.13 


1907 


9.51 


1908 


9.72 


1909 


9.80 



























This table shows that there has been a gradual but steady decline 
in the quantity and an increase in the value per cord of hemlock bark 
used directly by the tanneries. By far the largest part of the hem- 
lock bark and extract used is produced in the States of Pennsylvania, 
Wisconsin, Michigan, New York, and West Virginia, ranking in 
importance in the order named. 

Sales of hemlock bark, though nominally by the cord, are actually 
by the ton, and in most cases the cord must weigh 2,240 pounds. The 
bark is peeled in the spring and piled in the woods. The peelers are 
paid by the bulk cord — 8 by 4 by 4 feet. Trees as small as 8 inches 
in diameter breast-high are sometimes peeled, but the bark of small 
trees is thin and light, and rolls up when dry, so that a cord (by 
weight) may be a pile 12 feet ^instead of 8 feet long. Wisconsin bark 
is thinner and lighter than bark from Michigan, and tanners will not 
pay as much for it. Lumbermen commonly assume that a half cord 
of bark can be obtained for each 1,000 board feet of lumber. This is 
about right for trees 20 inches in diameter. Smaller trees yield more 
bark per 1,000 board feet and larger trees less. Economy in bark 
peeling is rapidly increasing, and trees are now peeled to much 
smaller diameters in the top than formerly (PI. II, fig. 1). 

The volume of bark obtainable from trees of different sizes is shown 
in Tables 18, 19, and 20, Appendix. 



14 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



MINOR USES. 

SHINGLES. 



Because of the prevalence of shake, hemlock is not well adapted for 
shingles, unless these are carefully sawed and well graded. It ranks 
seventh or eighth among the species most used. Census figures show 
a steady decrease in the manufacture of hemlock' shingles from 1899, 
when nearly 392 million were made, until 1911, when only about 26 
million were produced. These figures correspond to 3.2 per cent and 
0.2 percent, respectively, of the total annual production of shingles. 



CROSSTIES. 



About 2.5 per cent of all crossties used in the United States are of 
hemlock, which ranks about ninth among the tie-producing species. 
Between 1906 and 1911 the annual production of hemlock ties in- 
creased from 2,058,000 to 3,686,000. Nearly all of these are hewed 
ties and are used by steam railrpads. Oak and cedar are more 
durable, but hemlock compares favorably with the other woods used, 
and is said to hold spikes better than the cedar without tie plates. 
The average cost of hemlock ties is from 28 to 38 cents, which is, in 
general, lower than for other species. 

Untreated hemlock ties have been estimated 1 to last about 5 years, 
which is also the estimated life of untreated beech, birch, and maple 
ties. The estimated duration of cedar ties is 11 years; of white oak, 
8; of chestnut, 1\\ of tamarack and spruce, 7; and of black oak, 4 
years. Preservative treatment is said to triple the life of hemlock 
ties. In 1911, 535,255 hemlock ties— 14.5 per cent of all produced— 
were treated with preservative, nearly all — 98.5 per cent — with a 
mixture of zinc chloride and creosote; the remainder with creosote 
alone. 

SLACK COOPERAGE. 

Slack cooperage is primarily a hardwood industry, and aside from 
pine, which leads in the production of heading and is second in that of 
staves, the conifers are but poorly represented. Hemlock has never 
supplied much material for this industry, and its importance is 
rapidly diminishing. In 1909, which is the last year for which hem- 
lock is listed separately in census statistics, it ranked sixteenth among 
the species supplying the industry, and contributed less than 1 per 
cent of either staves or headings. The annual production of hem- 
lock staves is from 10 to 12 millions, and of headings, about 1,200,000 
sets. 

VENEER. 

A very small amount of hemlock — less than 1 per cent — is used 
annually for veneer manufacture. In 1909, hemlock ranked twenty- 

i "Wood Preservation," by W. F. Sherfesee and H. F. Weiss, in Report of National Conservation Com- 
mission, 60th Cong., 2d sess., S. Doc. 676, 1909, p. 663. 



THE EASTEEN HEMLOCK. 15 

fourth among veneer-producing species, with an annual consumption 
of 207,000 board feet of logs. Most of the hemlock veneer is made in 
New York, while Maine, Pennsylvania, Ohio, North Carolina, and the 
Lake States contribute small amounts. It is employed chiefly in the 
manufacture of shipping packages of various kinds, laminated or built- 
up lumber, etc. 

Because of heart defect (knots, shake, and decay) hemlock cores 
left after veneer production are of little value for anything but fuel. 

STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE TREE. 

During youth, hemlock is the most graceful and beautiful of 
eastern conifers. Though young trees in dense shade are usually 
flattened and unsymmetrical, saplings which receive enough light will 
develop a straight, slender, tapering stem, and a sharply conical, 
symmetrical crown. The terminal shoots and branch tips lack the 
rigidity common to pine, spruce, and fir, and the crown is formed of 
slender, horizontal branches with graceful sprays of branchlets and 
twigs. The branches are rather uniformly distributed over the 
stem, though not in regular whorls, as in white pine. The "leader," 
or terminal shoot, droops in a direction away from the prevailing 
wind. 

Full-grown hemlocks have very straight, symmetrical, undivided 
trunks. The taper is greater than that of white or red pine, or, in 
fact, of most of its common associates, and is due to the remarkable 
persistence of live branches along the stem. The crown is very long 
and dense and of a conical shape. In mature trees it commonly covers 
the upper two-thirds of the stem, and may be 60 or 70 feet long by 30 
or 40 in total spread. It is formed of slender, horizontal, or somewhat 
drooping limbs, which clothe the tree densely and evenly on all sides. 
When the growth is vigorous and the side shade very dense, the limbs 
of mature trees are killed to a height of 50 or even 60 feet above the 
ground, but the dead limbs are retained tenaciously, so that even 
under these conditions an actual clear length of 30 feet is uncommon 
except in very old trees (PI. I). The mature trunks usually bear 
numerous small, sound, dead stubs almost to the ground, and good- 
sized limbs at 20 or 25 feet from the ground. 

When full grown, hemlock varies in total height from about 100 
feet, in good soil in the western part of its range, to over 160 feet in 
mountainous portions of West Virginia, North Carolina, and Ten- 
nessee. Diameters at breastheight of 3 or 4 feet are now exceptional, 
though trees 5 and even 6 feet in diameter have been measured. One 
tree cut near Hermon, N. Y., measured 115 feet in height, 5 feet in 
diameter, and contained 5,562 board feet. 1 Trees yielding 10,000 

i From the "Paper World," Jan. 4, 1902. 



16 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

board feet each are reported to have been cut in Tucker County, 
W. Va. Such dimensions sometimes are found to correspond to an 
age of 500 or 600 years. 

The average contents in cubic feet and board feet of hemlock trees 
of different heights and diameters are given in Tables 12 to 17, 
Appendix. In addition, Tables 21 and 22, Appendix, show the diam- 
eters, inside bark, at different heights from the ground corresponding 
to the small ends of 8 and 16 foot logs. 

THE WOOD. 

Hemlock wood is soft, light, stiff, but brittle, not strong, splintery, 
and commonly cross-grained. Its worst defect, aside from a tendency 
to decay, is "shake," which is the tearing apart of the wood between 
annual rings caused by the tree bending in the wind. This condition 
is very common, especially in old trees. "Shaky" lumber splits so 
easily as to be worthless for many purposes. 

In color the wood is light buff with a red-brown tinge. In structure 
it differs from pine and spruce wood in the more abrupt transition 
between the hard, dark summerwood and the soft, light, spring- 
wood, a contrast which gives the lumber a handsome figure. The 
fuel value of hemlock is low, though slightly higher than that of 
white pine. The per cent of ash is 0.46. Sargent 1 computes the 
specific gravity of absolutely dry hemlock wood at 0.4239, a cubic 
foot weighing 26.42 pounds. The shipping weight per thousand 
board feet of ordinary seasoned rough lumber varies from 2,400 
pounds for 1-inch board to 3,500 pounds for heavy timbers. 

BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

BARK. 

The bark of merchantable trees in the Lake States comprises about 
19 per cent of the total cubic volume, and this proportion varies but 
little with the size of the tree. In the Southern Appalachians the 
proportion varies from 15 per cent for 6-inch trees to 19 per cent for 
trees 26 inches and over. When 15 or 20 years old the bark begins 
to break up into thin, partly loosened flakes, or scales, and still later 
becomes traversed by deep, longitudinal fissures. In old trees the 
bark is often 2 or 3 inches thick at the stump, gradually decreasing 
with height to a thickness of from 0.3 to 0.5 of an inch at the point 
where the tree is 6 inches in diameter. It consists of two distinct 
layers, the inner relatively very thin, white, and fibrous, the outer 
thick, deep red, and brittle. 

ROOTS. 

Seedlings form a slender taproot during the first year, which is later 
lost in the development of lateral branches. These are numerous, 

i C. S. Sargent, "Silva of North America," vol. 12, p. 65, 1898. 



THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 17 

and the older ones become very large. The latter are covered with a 
thick firm bark, the outer and thicker layer of a pale red color, the 
very thin inner layer white. On the whole, hemlock is a shallow- 
rooted species, and can thrive on very shallow soil. In deep soils, 
however, the roots often penetrate to some depth. 



The leaves are small, flat, and narrow, and differ from those of 
other northeastern conifers, except Carolina hemlock and the 
Canadian yew or ground hemlock, in that their bases are contracted 
into a very short stalk or petiole. (See c, fig. 2). They are usually 
from one-third to two-thirds of an inch long and about one-fifth as 
wide. Their color when they first appear is a fresh, light green, which 
soon changes to a dark, lustrous green on the upper and whitish 
green on the under surface, where the stomata are located. The 
leaves fall during their third season. 

BUD SCALES. 

The few exterior scales of both flower and leaf buds are thick and 
dark brown in color, while the inner scales are numerous, whitish- 
green, becoming brown with age, thin, but of an exceedingly firm 
structure. The scales remain persistent after the buds have expanded, 
those of the leaf buds not wholly disappearing until the fifth or sixth 
year. Up to this age the persistence of the scales affords a. ready 
means of determining the age of a branch. 

FLOWERS. 

In the latitude of central New York the flowers expand about the 
first of June. The male flowers appear in the axils of leaves on 
shoots of the previous year, or less frequently on twigs which are 
two or sometimes three years old (fig. 2). The female flowers are 
borne singly at the ends of the twigs. 



The female flower, after fertilization, grows rapidly, and by 
October becomes the ripened fruit —the cone. (See d, fig. 3.) Cones 
are from one-half to three-fourths of an inch long and of equal breadth 
when dry and the scales expanded, but only half as broad when closed. 
They are pale green in color until maturity, when they become dark 
brown. Only about 20 of the scales in the center of the cone are 
seed bearing, the others being small and rudimentary. In a mature 
cone, when dry, the scales are widely separated from each other, 
standing at an angle of about 45 degrees with the axis, but when wet 
they become appressed and closely overlap each other. 

i The description of the following parts of the tree are drawn largely from a manuscript report on the 
general structure and anatomy of hemlock by Prof. Atbey N. Prentiss, of Cornell University. 

60235°— Bull. 152—15 3 



18 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 




Fig. 2 — Tsuga canadensis, a, Branchlet showing staminate flowers in early spring; 6, staminate flowers 
fully developed; c, detached staminate flower, enlarged. 



THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 19 

The cones are extremely sensitive to moisture, a small amount of 
water causing the scales to close rapidly. When thoroughly wet 
the scales of a cone become completely closed, in some cases within 
10 minutes and in most cases within 20 minutes. Even a damp 
atmosphere, without the actual contact of water, will cause the cones 
to close to some extent. 

The advantage to the species of this property of the cone is appar- 
ent. The cones when mature expand their scales so as to permit 
the seeds to escape, but as the latter are attached to a membra- 
nous wing which adheres to or rather forms a part of the inner face 
of the scale, they do not easily fall out. A passing shower or a rain 
causes the scales to close, again to open as the air becomes dry. 
This process continues for many months, with the effect of loosening 
the seeds successively from autumn until spring, and thus a bearing 
tree makes a succession of sowings extending over a considerable 
length of time. As a result the wind, blowing during this period 
from different points, carries the seed now in this direction and now 
in that, and thus a fruiting tree stands in the center of a considerable 
area which it has sowed with seed. 



The seed (see/ and g, fig. 3) is about one-sixteenth of an inch long 
and about two-thirds as broad. The attached wing, an exceedingly 
delicate and almost transparent membrane, extends about a fourth of 
an inch beyond the end of the seed, and is an eighth of an inch broad 
at its widest point. On the under side, next to the cone scale, are a 
number of minute glands or vesicles, usually from 4 to 8, each con- 
taining a minute drop of oil. The seed of the Carolina hemlock has 
15 or 20 vesicles, which are much smaller in size than those of the 
common species. 

According to Forest Service determinations, there are about 
400,000 clean seed (without wings) per pound. The seeds weigh 
1.13 grams (0.04 ounce) per 1,000, and the germination per cent is 
from 30 to 60. 

MANNER OF GROWTH. 

In the climate of central New York the growth of a vigorous tree 
usually begins during the first half of May. The terminal buds are 
the first to open, and in about two weeks develop into shoots a half 
inch long, thickly set with the half-grown, yellowish-green leaves. 
The dark-green twigs and branches appear as though fringed with 
gold; and it is now that the hemlock tree takes on its most striking 
and peculiar beauty. The shoot continues its growth during the 
season, being constantly tipped with a rosette of small, forming 
leaves, while those previously formed are scattered on the constantly 
growing stem. 



20 



BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 










Fife. 3.— Tsuga canadensis, a, Seedling a few days old; 6, seedling, one month old; c, seedling, one year 
old; d, mature foliage and ripe cones; e, lower side of detached cone scale; /, upper side of cone scale 
with its seeds and views of latter detached; g, lower side of seed showing resin glands (twice natural 
size). 



THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 21 

The stem does not grow throughout its whole length, but at a 
certain point it becomes mature, and growth ceases. During the 
season this point lies something more than an inch back from the 
tip, and is constantly moving forward as the stem grows, until at 
the close of the season it coincides with the end of the stem. 

While the shoot of the season is growing in length, it is also at the 
same time developing lateral growths or branches. (See a, fig. 2.) 
These lateral growths begin to appear about the middle of June, in 
the form of minute rosettes of leaves similar to that at the end of the 
main shoot, and grow in a manner similar to the main stem, only far 
more slowly. In vigorous plants the main shoots often reach a length 
of 8 to 12 inches, while the strongest of the lateral shoots scarcely 
reach an inch in length. 

Winter buds begin to form about the middle of September at the 
end of the main shoot and of its branches, and also in the axils of 
many leaves of the main shoot. 

The tree reaches its fruiting stage usually when from 20 to 40 years 
old and from 15 to 25 feet in height. The staminate flower buds 
begin to develop about the 1st of July and by the last of the month 
have become well formed. In general appearance they resemble the 
lateral leaf buds, but are twice the size and more conical in form. 
Sometimes every leaf, or at least a portion of a flower-bearing shoot, 
has a flower bud in its axil. 

The pistillate flower buds also begin to develop early in July, but 
grow more slowly than the staminate buds. When fully formed they 
are about the same size as the latter, but their exterior scales are of 
a much firmer texture and deeper brown in color, while their bases 
are covered with the overlapping scale processes of the neighboring 
leaves. Though both kinds of flower buds occur on the same general 
branch, they are both rarely borne on the same shoot. In other 
words, while the plant as a whole is monoecious, the shoots of the 
season are dioecious. 

A wide difference exists in the vigor and size of flower-bearing and 
leaf -bearing shoots. On young and thrifty trees the latter are often 
8 to 10 inches in length, while on trees of fruiting age they rarely 
exceed an inch or an inch and a half in length. 

ASSOCIATED SPECIES. 

In one part or another of its range hemlock grows in mixture with 
a number of tree species. There are, however, four kinds of forest 
in which it is a characteristic and important element; hemlock in 
mixture with either yellow birch, beech, or sugar maple, or with all 
three; hemlock with white pine; hemlock with red spruce; and hem- 
lock in practically pure stands. Other species than those just men- 



22 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

tioned are always scattered through these forests, and an extra 
abundance of one or more of them in mixture with hemlock may 
give rise to distinct local forest types. Among such species are white 
spruce, balsam fir, white and rock elms, basswood, paper birch, sweet 
birch, red maple, and black cherry. In the South, yellow poplar, 
shagbark and shellbark hickories, white, red, and post oaks, and 
cucumber often grow with hemlock in the coves, while black, scarlet, 
and chestnut oaks, pignut and mocker nut hickories, and chestnut are 
its usual associates on slopes and ridges. 

EFFECT OF LIGHT, SOIL, AND MOISTURE ON THE COMPOSITION OF 

THE STAND. 

The heavy foliage of hemlock adds greatly to the density of any 
stand in which the tree grows. Since it will endure a heavier 
shade than any of its associates, hemlock finds little difficulty in 
establishing itself under them, even when their crowns form a fairly 
dense cover. For this reason the forests of which it forms a princi- 
pal part nearly always contain trees varying widely in age and size. 
This is especially true when it grows in mixture with species like 
beech, sugar maple, spruce, and balsam, which are also shade enduring. ^ 
Trees like white pine, which require more light than hemlock, can 
succeed in mixture with it only by growing more rapidly and to a 
larger size, thus keeping their crowns above or at least as high as 
those of the hemlocks. In mixed stands of white pine and hemlock 
there is usually a dense understory of the latter species, which is the 
only one able to establish itself in the shade of the crowns. In this 
way hemlock is able to creep into stands of pine and other species, 
and by its superior shade endurance gradually assume predominance. 

(PL III.) 

Under the particularly dense shade of hemlock and spruce stands, 
and in thickets of rhododendron and other heavy-f oliaged undergrowth, 
hemlock seedlings find it exceedingly difficult to survive, and the few 
which do survive grow with extreme slowness as long as the shade 
remains heavy. (Pis. IV and V.) When, however, light is admitted 
not too abruptly they rapidly recover from suppression. 

Hemlock is essentially a tree of fresh or moist soils; in other respects 
its soil requirements are not exacting. In mixture with hardwoods 
it usually grows on loamy soils, ranging from sand loam to clay loam, 
rich in decayed vegetable material; and with white pine on sandy 
soils, well mixed with humus. Hemlock will grow on limestone soils, 
if not too dry, as well as on moist, almost swampy, loamy clays. 
Like all its common associates, it does best on deep, fertile, moist, 
but well-drained soils, where it and the hardwoods tend to crowd out 
the more light-needing white pine. 



THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 23 

The shallow roots of hemlock are extremely sensitive to drying out 
of the surface soil, which in part accounts for the death of trees ex- 
posed to increased light, as when a road is cut through the woods, or 
near-by trees are removed in lumbering. 

In mountainous regions hemlock usually occupies the cool, moist, 
northerly and easterly slopes, coves, benches, and sides of ravines, 
often reaching the edges of streams, but avoiding extremely wet and 
swampy places. On north and east slopes of ridges it often ascends 
to the crest, and may grow along the edges of rocky cliffs and bluffs. 
In New Hampshire it ranges from near sea level to about 2,400 feet, 
but in Georgia and Alabama it is not found below an elevation of 
about 800 feet, and reaches this level only in cool and humid situa- 
tions. 

REPRODUCTION. 

Hemlock is a prolific seed bearer, but reproduces poorly. Trees 
receiving a moderate amount of light begin to bear seed when from 
30 to 50 years old. As a rule seed is produced abundantly every 
two or three years, but ordinarily only from 30 to 60 per cent of the 
seeds are fertile. The cones mature in a single season, and the seeds 
fall from them during the late autumn and winter, germinating in the 
spring, from March to the end of May. On account of their small 
size and their large, membranous wings, the seeds may be borne con- 
siderable distances by the wind. They will germinate and take root 
in poorly drained situations, on moss-covered logs and decayed stumps 
as well as in fresh, mineral soil; but the best seed bed is a moist, well- 
decomposed leaf litter in which the seeds become completely buried. 

Too much or too little shade will kill hemlock seedlings. For this 
reason reproduction is rarely found either under the heaviest shade 
of the parent trees or in clearings and burned-over areas, but is 
usually abundant in the more open portions of the hemlock forest 
or under the lighter shade of hardwoods or pine in mixture. If the 
water in the soil is not stagnant, more seedlings will survive in very 
moist than in relatively dry situations. The seedlings grow best 
when in deep, moist layers of mellow decaying leaves and twigs 
overlying fresh but well-drained loamy soils. The decay of the 
leaves and twigs breaks down their chemical structure and releases 
various food materials for the seedling hemlock. These materials 
become available largely or only through the agency of certain 
fungi, called mycorrhiza, which exist as felted layers of fine, thread- 
like mycelium, completely inclosing and even penetrating the root- 
lets. Many of the threads extend out into the mass of decaying 
humus, and through these the products of decay are conducted from 
the decomposing leaves to the felt, and thence into the rootlets, 
where they become serviceable for nutrition and growth. It is 



24 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

probable that the best conditions for the development of hemlock 
mycorrhiza exist where the soil is sweet or only slightly acid and 
where a good crown cover is maintained. 1 

Hemlock reproduction is rarely found in clearings, a condition for 
which fire is chiefly responsible, though other causes, such as intense 
sunlight and evaporation, no doubt play a part. Fire, however, 
while actually promoting the reproduction of many species by exposing 
the mineral soil, may at the same time entirely prevent that of hem- 
lock by destroying the organic constituents of the forest soil. In the 
relatively few hemlock regions from which fires have been kept out 
after logging remarkably thrifty stands of second growth have often 
developed. Such second growth hemlock in the Tionesta Valley and 
elsewhere in the northern Alleghenies is undoubtedly due to the 
absence of fires in these localities in the past, while the entire absence 
of hemlock in other localities as favorable to its growth can be 
attributed to the burning of seedlings and soil. 

Even-aged stands of hemlock second growth are very rare. Small 
groups occur in protected valley bottoms and lower slopes in the 
Allegheny and Catskill Mountains. One of these, which occupied a 
few square rods in a ravine bottom, was 40 years old and contained 
about 12 thrifty trees per square rod, the dominant ones 30 feet high 
and 3 inches in diameter. The stand was very dense, and there were 
many small dead trees which had been killed by the shade. 

RATE OF GROWTH. 

Under the shade of the mature forest the growth of the average 
hemlock is extremely slow. The period of suppression commonly 
lasts from 30 to 70 years, but if the shade remains dense it may con- 
tinue for more than 200 years. Even at an advanced age, however, 
a suppressed tree will respond to an increase in its light supply by a 
proportionate increase in its height growth. If it ultimately attains 
a dominant position in the stand with plenty of light, it will grow 
fairly rapidly in diameter and volume. 

Individual hemlocks show a wide variation in rate of growth, 
according to the amount of fight they receive. Trees of the same 
diameter in the same stand may differ in age by more than a century. 
The average growth of hemlock obtained from measurements of 
many individual trees therefore represents many different degrees of 
suppression and does not indicate what a tree would do if given full 
light. The maximum growth, similarly obtained, more closely 
resembles the growth of a tree in the open, though even here the 
retarding influence of suppression is felt to some extent. 

i Cf. " Roots of the Hemlock," by S. H. Harlow, In Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard., July, 1900, Vol. I, No. 7, 
100-101. 



Bui. 1 52, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate III. 




Bui. 152, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate IV. 




Group of Mature Hemlock, Mitchell County, N. C, Showing Hemlock and 
Pine Reproduction Competing with Rhododendron. 



THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 



25 



Local variations in growth are also caused by climate and the 
quality, depth, drainage, and moisture of the soil. Growth is most 
rapid on the best soils. Hemlock is especially favored by a temper- 
ate, humid climate and long growing season, combined with moist 
but well-drained soils — conditions which it finds in the coves and 
slopes of the southern Appalachians. 

Tables 8 to 1 1 show the growth of hemlock in localities in various 
parts of its range. The tables give the maximum, minimum, and 
average rates of growth in height, diameter, and volume, and are 
based on measurements of many forest-grown trees differing widely 
in amount of suppression. Though not based on crown-class dis- 
tinctions, the maximum figures may safely be regarded as represent- 
ing the average growth of dominant trees on good soil, and the mini- 
mum that of suppressed trees which have reached merchantable 
size. The average figures, however, may represent the growth both 
of trees of the middle crown classes and of dominant trees in situa- 
tions of poor quality. These data were averaged separately for 
diameters, heights, and volumes, so that only an approximate 
relation exists between the values for any given age. Furthermore, 
the variation in height and volume among trees of a given diameter 
is considerable, as shown by the volume tables in the Appendix. 



Table 8. — Growth of hemlock in Leelanau County, Mich. 1 



Age. 


Diameter, breast-high. 


Height. 


Volume. 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Cubic feet. 


Board feet. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Aver- 
age. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Aver- 
age. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Aver- 
age. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Aver- 
age. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Years. 
20 
30 
40 
50 

60 
70 
80 

90 
100 

110 
120 
130 
140 
150 

160 
170 
180 
190 
200 


0.3 
.6 
.9 

1.3 

1.6 
2.0 

2.4 
2.7 
3.1 

3.4 
3.8 
4.3 
4.8 
5.3 

5.9 
6.6 
7.3 
8.0 

8.7 


0.7 
1.3 
2.1 
2.9 

3.8 
4.7 
5.7 
6.7 

7.8 

9.0 
10.0 
11.2 
12.3 
13.4 

14.5 
15.5 
16.5 
17.5 
18.4 


2.0 
3.9 

5.7 
7.6 

9.4 
11.1 
12.8 
14.5 
16.1 

17.7 
19.4 
21.0 
22.6 
24.2 

25.7 
27.2 


6 
7 
8 
10 

11 
13 

14 
15 

17 

18 
20 
21 
23 
25 

27 
29 
31 
33 
35 


8 
12 
16 
20 

25 
30 

35 
40 
44 

49 
53 
57 
60 
63 

66 
68 
70 
72 
74 


18 
31 
42 
53 

62 
70 
76 

82 
85 

88 
91 
94 
96 
98 

100 
102 


























2.2 

6.6 

12.4 
20.0 
29.0 
39.0 
50.0 

64.0 
78.0 
94.0 
112.0 
131.0 

152.0 
174.0 










7 

20 
35 
50 
67 
86 

110 
130 
150 
180 
210 


13 

31 
56 
80 
130 
180 

240 
320 
410 
500 
600 

700 

810 

910 

1,020 

1,130 










1.0 

1.8 
2.6 
3.4 
4.6 
5.9 


i.8 

3.6 
5.9 

9.2 
12.5 
17.1 
22.0 
28.0 

34.0 
40.0 
47.0 
54.0 
61.0 



1 Based on measurements of 186 trees, 109 to 325 years old, made by S. J. Record in 1905. 



26 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

Table 9. — Growth of hemlock in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. 1 





Diameter breast-high— inches. 


Height — feet. 




All types. 


Slope type. 


Cove 
type. 


All types. 


Slope type. 


Cove 

type. 


Age. 


West 
Vir- 
ginia. 


Ten- 
nessee. 


North 
Caro- 
lina. 


West 
Vir- 
ginia. 


Ten- 
nessee. 


North 
Caro- 
lina. 




Mini- 
mum. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Aver- 
age. 


Aver- 
age. 


Aver- 
age. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Aver- 
age. 


Aver- 
age. 


Aver- 
age. 


Years. 
20 


0.1 

.7 

1.2 

1.8 

2.3 
2.8 
3.3 
3.8 
4.3 

4.8 
5.2 
5.6 
6.0 
6.4 

6.8 
7.2 
7.6 
8.0 
8.3 


4.0 
6.7 
9.0 
11.2 

13.1 
15.0 
16.9 
18.8 
20.6 

22.5 
24.3 
26.2 
28.0 
30.0 

31.9 
33.8 
35.7 
37.5 
39.5 


0.4 

.9 

1.3 

1.9 

2.4 
2.9 
3.6 

4.2 
4.9 

5.6 
6.4 
7.3 
8.1 
8.9 

9.9 
10.9 
11.9 
12.7 
13.5 


0.2 

.9 

1.9 

3.0 

4.1 
5.3 
6.7 
8.0 
9.4 

10.7 
11.8 
12.9 
14.0 
15.1 

16.1 
17.1 
18.1 
19.1 
20.0 






29 
41 
53 
63 

71 
79 
86 
92 
98 

103 
107 
111 
114 
117 

120 
122 
125 
127 
129 








30 


1.1 
2.2 

3.4 

4.7 
6.2 
7.6 
9.1 
10.5 

11.9 
13.2 
14.5 
15.5 
16.5 

17.4 
18.3 
19.2 
20.0 
20.7 


9 
11 

14 

16 
19 
21 
23 
25 

28 
30 
32 
34 
35 

37 
39 
41 
43 
44 


11 

14 

17 
20 
24 
27 
31 

34 
39 
43 

47 
51 

56 
60 
64 
67 
70 


9 
16 
23 

30 
37 
44 
51 
58 

64 
69 
73 
77 
81 

84 
87 
90 
93 
95 


15 


40 


23 


50 


30 


60 


36 


70 


42 


80 


47 


90 


53 


100 


58 


110 


62 


120 


66 


130 


70 


140 


73 


150 


76 


160 


78 


170 


81 


180 


83 


190 . 


85 


200 


87 










Volume — cubic feet. 


V 


olume — 


board feet. 




All types. 


Slope type. 


Cove 
type. 


All 
types. 


Slope type. 


Cove 

type. 


Age. 


West 
Vir- 
ginia. 


Ten- 
nessee. 


North 
Caro- 
lina. 


West 
Vir- 
ginia. 


Ten- 
nessee. 


North 
Caro- 
lina. 




Mini- 
mum. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Aver- 
age. 


Aver- 
age. 


Aver- 
age. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Aver- 
age. 


Aver- 
age. 


Aver- 
. age. 


Years. 




















30 




3.8 
10.3 
19.7 

31.0 
45.0 
62.0 
82.0 
105.0 

130.0 
157.0 
188.0 
220.0 
257.0 

297.0 
340.0 
381.0 
422.0 
460.0 














40 






1 


4 

30 

68 
120 
180 
260 
350 

450 
580 
730 
910 
1,130 

1.380 
1,650 
1,920 
2,170 
2.400 






















60 
















70 




1.7 
3.0 
4.8 
7.0 
10.0 

13.5 
17.7 
22.0 
27.0 
32.0 


1.5 

4.2 
8.0 
12.4 

17.9 
24.0 
31.0 
38.0 
46.0 

54.0 
64.0 
74.0 

86.0 
98.0 


3.1 
6.2 
10.5 
15.9 

22.0 
29.0 
36.0 
44.0 
52.0 

60.0 
68.0 
77.0 
86.0 
94.0 








go 










90 










100 








14 


110.. 




10 
22 
39 

58 
80 


20 
39 
60 
85 
110 

150 
190 
230 
270 
310 


34 


120... 


1.2 
1.6 
2.2 
2.8 

3.5 
4.3 
5.2 
6.1 
7.1 


56 


130 


79 


140 


100 


150 


130 


160 


160 


170 


200 


180... 


250 


190 


300 


200 


350 







Based on the following data, collected by Walter Mulford, 1905-1906: 

West Virginia, Greenbrier County 47 trees, 137 to 200 years old. 

Tennessee, Johnson County 131 trees, 11 1 to 200 years old. 

North Carolina, Mitchell County 308 trees, 89 to 200 years old. 



THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 
Table 10. — Growth of hemlock in Otsego County, N. T°.' 



27 



Age. 


Diameter breast-high. 


Height. 




Volume. 




Inches. 


Feet. 


Cubic feet. 


Board feet. 


Mini- 


Aver- 


Maxi- 


Mini- 


Aver- 


Maxi- 


Aver- 


Maxi- 


Aver- 


Maxi- 




mum. 


age. 


mum. 


mum. 


age. 


mum. 


age. 


mum. 


age. 


mum. 


Years. 






















20 
30 
40 
50 

60 
70 


0.1 
.3 
.5 

.7 
.9 


0.4 
.9 
1.4 
1.9 

2.5 
3.3 


1.5 
2.9 
4.4 
5.9 

7.4 
8.9 


5 

6 
7 

8 
9 


7 
10 
13 
16 

20 
24 


17 
28 
39 
49 

58 
66 




























2.8 

6.4 
11.4 












30 


80 


1.1 


4.0 


10.5 


10 


28 


73 




18.1 




55 


90 


1.3 


4.7 


12.1 


11 


32 


79 




26.0 




86 


100 


1.5 


5.5 


13.8 


13 


36 


84 


1.7 


36.0 




120 


110 


1.9 


6.4 


15.4 


15 


40 


88 


3.1 


47.0 




170 


120 


2.1 


7.3 


17.1 


16 


45 


91 


5.0 


60.0 




230 


130 


2.4 


8.3 


18.7 


17 


50 


94 


7.9 


75.0 


16 


300 


140 


2.7 


9.4 


20.4 


19 


54 


97 


11.1 


91.0 


29 


380 


150 


3.0 


10.5 


22.1 


20 


59 


100 


15.5 


108.0 


44 


480 


160 


3.3 


11.6 


23.9 


22 


63 


102 


20.0 


126.0 


61 


590 


170 


3.7 


12.7 


25.7 


23 


66 


105 


24.0 


145.0 


80 


710 


180 


4.1 


13.5 


27.4 


25 


69 




29.0 




100 


850 


190 


4.4 


14.3 


29.1 


27 


71 




34.0 




120 


1,000 


200 


4.9 


15.1 


30.9 


29 


72 




39.0 




140 


1,150 



Based on measurements of 176 trees, 48 to 420 years old, made by J. G. Peters in 1902. 

Table 11. — Growth of hemlock in Vermont. 2 
(Average.) 



Age. 


Diameter 
breast-high. 


Volume. 


Years. 
130 
140 
150 

160 
170 
180 
190 
200 


Inches. 
7.0 
8.0 
9.0 

10.2 
11.4 
12.6 
13.9 
15.2 


Bd.ft. 


34 

48 

69 
100 
140 
180 
230 



2 Data contained in Vermont Experiment Station Bulletin 161, "Hemlock in Vermont," by A. F. Hawes. 
Volumes scaled by Vermont rule. . 

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INJURY. 

As before stated, hemlock is extremely sensitive to sudden changes 
in the density of the forest. Middle-aged and full-grown trees appear 
to be the most susceptible. 

The most destructive of the insect enemies of hemlock is the flat- 
headed eastern hemlock bark borer, Melanophila fulvoguttata Harr. 
According to Mr. H. E. Burke 3 this insect "has caused the death of 

a "Injuries to forest trees by flat-headed borers." Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture, 1909; 
pp. 405-406. See also following articles by Dr. A. D. Hopkins: 

"Catalogue of exhibits of insect enemies of forest and forest products, etc.," Bui. 48, Bureau of Ento- 
mology, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1904, p. 38. 

"On the study of forest entomology in America," Bui. 37, Bureau of Entomology, 1902, p. 22. 



28 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

a large amount of hemlock timber throughout the Appalachian and 
Northeastern States. It mines the bark on living, injured, and dying 
trees and kills them outright or hastens their death." Whenever 
large quantities of hemlock are found to be dying, search should be 
made for the work of this insect, and, if found, special advice in 
regard to combating it should be obtained from the Bureau of Ento- 
mology, Division of Forest Insects. 

Hemlock is comparatively free from serious parasitic fungous 
diseases. Damping-ofT, the great enemy of many conifers in the 
seedling stage, is almost unknown with this species. While there 
are several diseases of the living tree, they seem never to occur in 
serious epidemics. This is no doubt largely due to the fact that the 
tree usually grows in mixed stands. The timber when cut is very sus- 
ceptible to decay, and a large number of saprophytic fungi attack it. 1 

The shallow-rootedness of hemlock makes it very susceptible to 
fire. A ground fire which burns through the humus will usually kill 
hemlock trees, though deeper-rooted species may escape with slight 
injury. Even a severe surface fire may dry out the humus or damage 
the roots sufficiently to kill the tree outright, or at least to lay it open 
to attack by fungi and insects. Severe crown fires are invariably 
fatal. Fires of all kinds are most to be feared after logging opera- 
tions in adjacent timber, when the ground is covered with the dry 
and highly inflammable tree tops and branches. The best safe- 
guard is to burn this debris under conditions making it impossible 
for the fire to escape. The danger can be lessened by lopping away 
all branches from the tops, and either piling them or scattering them 
close to the ground. 

Because of its relatively short, stout, tapering trunk, hemlock is 
less subject to windfall than its shallow root system would lead one to 
expect. Where it grows as an understory among taller neighbors it 
is rarely thrown except by winds strong enough to overthrow all 
species alike. Severe damage is often done, however, to stands con- 
sisting principally of hemlock, especially when located on shallow 
soil and in situations exposed to the wind. In September, 1896, a 
heavy storm near Wilkes-Barre, Pa., blew down over 6,000,000 feet 
of hemlock in one tract, and similar cases are not uncommon. Where 
the roots are fairly secure, the trunk^ or the crown may be snapped 
off by severe winds. 

The most common and in the aggregate the worst injury to hem- 
lock from wind is the so-called " wind-shake," which is a separation 
of the rings of wood caused by the tree being rocked back and forth. 
Wind-shake is always found in the butt, which is thereby rendered 

1 This paragraph regarding diseases was prepared by Perley Spaulding, pathologist, Investigations in 
Forest Pathology, Bureau of Plant Industry. Further information on fungous injury to hemlock is con- 
tained in "Diseases of the eastern hemlock," by Dr. Spaulding, in Proc. Society of American Foresters 
Vol. IX, No. 2, pp. 245-256. 



Bui. 152, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate V. 




THE EASTEKN" HEMLOCK. 29 

unfit for lumber. In connection with the prevailing "butt rot/' 
this has made necessary the custom of cutting high stumps and sawing 
off the butts until they reveal solid wood. Where there is a market 
for pulpwood, high stumps and butts left in the woods represent a 
great deal of unnecessary waste. 

HEMLOCK IN FOREST MANAGEMENT. 

Hemlock grows too slowly and is of too little commercial value to 
be recommended for planting or for encouragement among natural 
second growth as a timber tree. An understory of hemlock, how- 
ever, like one of spruce or fir, is useful for soil protection, especially 
in stands of oak, chestnut, pine, and other species, when these do 
not themselves cast a sufficiently heavy shade. As a decorative tree 
for parks it is very desirable, and its heavy foliage and shade endur- 
ance give it exceptional value for the protection of stream sources. 

The management of hemlock will ultimately be restricted to lands 
useless not only for agriculture but also for growing many kinds of 
commercial timber. Poorly accessible mountain lands, where log- 
ging is difficult and expensive, can well be devoted to raising hemlock 
and other slow-growing timber through long rotations and to large 
sizes. The expense entailed by such a procedure, however, will ordi- 
narily be too great to warrant private investment, and the manage- 
ment will therefore be a State problem. In such places lumber pro- 
duction will tend to become secondary to protection as an object of 
management. 

Hemlock's tolerance of shade adapts it for growth as a subordinate 
stand among other kinds of timber. In such cases it materially in- 
creases the yield per acre and at the same time protects and enriches 
the forest soil, thereby tending to accelerate the growth of the other 
species. 

To increase the proportion and accelerate the growth of hemlock 
in the mixed stands where it is now found, the selection ("single- 
tree") method of management is best. This involves the removal at 
stated intervals of scattered mature trees or small groups of trees, 
and should not open up the stand enough to endanger it from wind- 
fall or from too sudden access of light and air. On steep slopes the 
cutting must be especially fight, to prevent erosion. Besides accel- 
erating the growth of the hemlock understory by admitting light, the 
system also insures a constant growth of timber without the long, 
unproductive period of reestablishment which follows clear cutting. 
In all selection cutting the branches should be lopped and scattered. 

Pure or nearly pure hemlock second growth should be thinned 
very lightly and often, so as to insure to each tree a good supply of 
light and growing space. Additional thinnings should be made when- 
ever the crowns close together. 



30 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

A great deal of the remaining old-growth hemlock timber occupies 
fertile soil, suitable either for agriculture or for raising timber crops 
of rapid-growing species. The expense of selection cuttings to favor 
hemlock on lands of this quality is not warranted. Clear cutting, 
therefore, is the best in such cases. Attempts to secure hemlock 
reproduction in the ensuing second growth, however, are obviously 
out of place. Unless the land is claimed for cultivation, some of 
the more rapid growing species which appear in the second growth 
are usually of more promise as the principal crop. 

The management of hemlock on level lands thus becomes a prob- 
lem of the best use of the existing timber, with no special effort to 
secure hemlock reproduction. What constitutes best use is deter- 
mined by market and labor conditions in any given region. The util- 
ization of all species constantly becomes more intensive, and the pre- 
mium once placed on waste both in the woods and at the mill is growing 
less as new uses are introduced and the value of wood increases. 
Paper-pulp and fiber-board manufacture has presented good opportu- 
nities for profitably disposing of waste. In some regions hemlock is 
going into pulp instead of lumber. It is in connection with pulpwood 
logging that tanbark gathering can be done most economically, since 
peeled logs are more suitable for pulp and less suitable for lumber 
than unpeeled. The use of hemlock for pulp has the further ad- 
vantage that it includes crooked and small logs of little or no value for 
lumber and of knotty tops and broken and defective logs that would 
otherwise be left in the woods to rot. Quantities of hemlock slabs 
are now sold to pulp mills by sawmills ; but much low-grade hemlock 
lumber is still produced, the value of which is often less than that of 
an equal wood volume made into pulp. Among the economies of 
the future one of the most important will be a closer discrimination 
between logs and portions of logs which will make high-grade lum- 
ber and those which will pay better for pulp. 



APPENDIX. 

Tables 12 to 15 show the volumes of average hemlock trees, in board 
feet, Scribner rule, in the Lake States and the Southern Appalachian 
region. These are based both on the total height of the tree and on 
the number of logs. Table 16 gives both the cubic-foot and the board- 
foot volumes (by actual measurement, not by log scale) of small- 
sized hemlock in northern New Hampshire. Table 17 gives the mer- 
chantable cubic volume of hemlock (including bark) in the Lake 
States. Cubic volumes may be reduced roughly to cords by dividing 
by 90. The volume without bark can be obtained approximately by 
deducting 19 per cent from the total volume for Lake States figures 
and the following per cents for Southern Appalachian measurements: 



Diameter 
breast-high. 


Bark volume 
in proportion 
to total volume 


Inches. 
6- 9 
10-15 
16-21 
22-27 


Per cent. 
15 
17 
18 
19 



Table 12. — Volume of hemlock, in board feet, Wisconsin (Marinette and Vilas Counties) 
and Michigan (Gogebic County). 





[Based on 


total height of tree 


Scaled by the Scribner rule.] 




Diam- 
eter 
breast- 
high. 


Height of tree — feet. 


Diam- 
eter 

inside 
bark 

of top. 


Basis. 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


Volume — board feet. 


Inches. 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 


5 

8 
12 

16 
20 
25 
30 
36 

41 


7 
14 
22 

29 
37 
46 
56 
65 

76 
87 
100 


13 
22 
32 

42 
53 

65 
77 
90 

110 
120 
140 
160 
180 

200 
220 


20 
29 
40 

51 

64 
78 
95 
110 

130 
150 
180 
200 
230 

260 
290 
330 
360 
390 

430 
470 
500 
540 
570 


25 
35 

47 

60 
76 
94 
110 
130 

160 
180 
210 
240 
280 

310 
350 
380 
420 
460 

510 
550 
590 
640 
680 


30 
40 
52 

67 
84 
100 
130 
150 

180 
210 
240 
280 
310 

350 
390 
440 
490 
530 

580 
640 
690 
750 
800 






Inches. 
6 
6 
6 

6 

7 
7 
7 
8 

8 
8 
8 
9 
9 

9 
10 
10 
10 
10 

11 
11 
11 
11 

12 


Trees. 
53 
72 
56 

53 
46 
35 
18 
31 

25 
30 
14 
16 
20 

11 
13 
4 
6 
9 

4 
8 
6 
3 
1 










75 
93 
110 
140 
160 

190 
220 
260 
300 
340 

380 
430 
480 
540 
600 

660 
720 
780 
850 
920 


200 
240 
280 
320 
360 

„ 410 

470 
520 
580 
650 

720 
790 
870 
940 
1,030 



































































31 



32 



BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Table 12. — Volume of hemlock, in board feet, Wisconsin {Marinette and Vilas Counties) 
and Michigan (Gogebic County) — Continued. 



Diam- 
eter 
breast- 
high. 


Height of tree— feet. 


Diam- 
eter 

inside 
bark 

of top. 


Basis. 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


Volume— board feet. 


Inches. 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 
38 










720 
760 
810 
850 


860 

930 

990 

1,050 

1,120 

1,180 


990 
1,070 
1,140 
1,220 
1,300 

1,380 
1,470 
1,550 


1,110 
1,200 
1,290 
1,380 
1,480 

1,570 
1,670 
1,780 


Inches. 
12 
12 
12 
13 
13 

13 
13 
14 


Trees. 
2 
1 
3 

1 
1 














































































542 



Scaled from taper curves, mostly in 16.3-foot logs, with a few shorter logs. Stump height, 2 feet. 

Table 13. — Volume of hemlock, in board feet, Wisconsin ( Marinette and Vilas Counties) 
and Michigan (Gogebic County). 

[Based on number of 16-foot logs per tree. Scaled by the Scribner rule.] 



Diam- 
eter 

breast- 
high. 


Number of 16-foot logs. 


Diam- 
eter 

inside 
bark 

of top. 


Basis. 


1 


n 


2 


2J 


3 


3} 


4 


4* 


5 








"V 


olume 


—board feet. 






Inches. 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 

25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 
38 


18 
19 
20 

23 
25 
26 
28 
30 

32 
34 
36 

38 
40 


28 
30 
32 

39 
45 
53 
63 
72 

82 
94 
110 
120 
130 

150 
170 


38 
42 

47 

57 
66 
79 
92 
110 

120 
140 
160 
180 
200 

230 
260 
280 
310 
330 

360 














Inches. 
6 
6 
6 

6 

7 
7 
7 
8 

8 
8 
8 
9 
9 

9 
10 
10 

10 
10 

11 
11 
11 
11 

12 

12 
12 
12 
13 
13 

13 
13 

14 


• Trees. 
53 
72 
56 

53 
46 
35 
18 
31 

25 
30 
14 
16 
20 

11 
13 
4 
6 
9 

4 
8 
6 
3 
1 

2 
1 
3 
1 
1 














60 

72 
86 
100 
120 
130 

150 
180 
200 
220 
250 

280 
310 
340 
370 
400 

430 

470 
500 
530 
560 






















110 
130 
140 
170 

190 

210 
240 
270 
290 

330 

360 
400 
440 
480 

520 
560 
600 
640 
680 

720 
770 
820 
870 


















170 
200 

220 
250 
280 
310 
340 

380 
420 
460 
510 
560 

600 
660 
710 
760 
820 

880 

930 

990 

1,050 

1,140 

1,210 
1,270 
1,330 


























320 
350 
390 

430 
480 
530 
580 
640 

700 
770 
830 
900 
960 

1,040 
1,110 
1,180 
1,250 
1,340 

1,420 
1,500 
1,580 


















530 
600 
660 
730 

810 

880 

960 

1,040 

1,110 

1,200 
1,280 
1,370 
1,450 
1,550 

1,640 
1,730 
1,830 


920 
1,000 
1,090 
1,180 
1,270 

1,370 
1,460 
1,560 
1,670 
1,760 

1,870 
1,970 
2,080 






• 












































































































542 



Scaled from taper curves, mostly in 16.3-foot logs, with a few shorter logs. Stump height, 2 feet. 



THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 



33 



Table,. 14. — Volume of hemlock in board feet, Southern Appalachian region. 1 
[Based on total height of trees. Scaled by Scribner Decimal C rule.] 



Diam- 
eter 

breast- 
high. 






Height of tree— feet. 






Height 

of 
stump. 


Diam- 
eter 

inside 
bark 

of top. 


Total 
basis. 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


110 


120 


Volume— board feet (in tens). 


Inches. 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 
38 
39 

40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

46 
47 
48 
49 
50 


1 
2 
3 
4 
6 
7 

9 
10 
12 
14 
17 

19 
22 
25 

29 


1 
2 
4 
5 

7 
8 

10 
12 
14 
17 
20 

23 
26 
29 
33 
38 

42 
47 
52 
58 
63 


2 
3 
4 

6 
8 
9 

11 
14 
17 
20 
23 

26 
30 
34 
39 
43 

48 
53 
59 
64 
70 

76 
82 
88 
94 
100 


1 








Feel. 
2.1 
2.2 
2.2 
2.3 
2.3 
2.4 

2.4 
2.4 
2.5 
2.5 

2.5 

2.5 
2.6 
2.6 

2.6 
2.6 

2.6 
2.6 
2.6 
2.6 
2.6 

2.7 
2.7 
2.7 
2.7 
2.7 

2.7 
2.7 
2.7 
2.8 
2.8 

2.8 
2.8 
2.8 
2.8 
2.8 

2.8 
2.8 
2.9 
2.9 
2.9 


Inches. 
7 
8 
8 
9 
9 
10 

10 

11 

11 

12 

12 

13 
13 
13 
14 
14 

15 
15 
15 
16 
16 

17 
17 
18 
18 
19 

19 
19 
20 
20 
21 

21 
22 
22 
23 
23 

24 
25 
25 
26 
26 


Trees. 
6 
3 
9 

23 
33 
59 

64 
65 

77 
83 
68 

80 
81 
86 
67, 
81 

62 
64 
67 
54 
34 

33 
37 
29 
33 
19 

21 
9 
10 

8 
7 

5 
5 
6 
4 
3 

1 

1 
2 

1 
2 


3 
5 
7 
9 
11 

13 
16 
20 
23 
26' 

30 
34 
39 
44 
49 

54 
60 
66 

72 
78 

85 
92 
99 
106 
114 

122 
131 

140 
149 
158 








5 

8 
10 
13 

16 
19 
23 
27 
31 

35 
40 
44 
50 
55 

61 
67 
73 
80 

87 

95 
102 
111 
120 
129 

138 
148 
158 
168 
179 

189 
199 
209 
220 
230 


;::::;:::" 










12 
16 

19 
23 
27 
31 
35 

40 
45 
50 
56 

62 

68 
74 
81 
89 
97 

105 
114 
124 
134 
144 

154 
165 
176 
187 
198 

209 
220 
232 
244 
255 

266 
278 
289 
301 
312 










24 
28 
32 
36 
41 

46 
51 
56 
62 
69 

75 
83 
90 
98 
107 

116 

126 
136 
147 
158 

170 
182 
194 
206 
218 

230 
242 
254 
267 
279 

291 
303 
315 
327 
340 


41 
46 

51 
57 
63 
69 
76 

83 
91 
99 
108 
117 

127 
138 
150 
162 
174 

187 
200 
212 
225 
238 

251 

264 
277 
290 
303 

316 
329 
342 
355 
368 














































































































































1,402 



i From data secured under the direction of Walter Mulford, 1905-6. 






34 BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 

Table 15.— Volume of hemlock in board feet, Southern Appalachian region. 1 
[Based on number of 16-foot logs per tree. Scaled by Scribner rule.] 



Diam- 
eter 
breast- 
bigh. 



Number of 16-foot logs. 



2} 



4^ 



5J 



6* 



Diam- 
eter 
7 inside 
bark 
of top. 



Volume— board feet. 



Basis. 



Inches. 



11 
12 
13 
11 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 

25 

26 
27 
2S 
29 

30 

31 

32 

33 
34 
35 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

46 
47 
48 
49 

50 



43 130 



29 


40 


33 


46 


38 


53 



140 
160 
180 
200 
220 

240 
250 
280 
310 
330 

360 

3 SO 



110 

130 
150 
160 
180 
200 

230 
250 
280 
310 
340 

370 
400 
440 
480 
510 

550 
590 
630 
660 



52 

ei 

71 

84 
97 
110 

no 

150 

170 
190 
210 
240 
260 

290 

320 
360 
400 
430 

470 
510 
560 
600 
640 

690 
740 
780 
830 



930 



63 

74 

87 

100 
120 
140 
160 
180 

210 
240 
260 
290 
320 

360 
400 
440 
480 
530 

570 
620 
670 
720 
770 



120 
140 
170 
190 
220 

250 
280 
310 
340 
380 

420 
470 
510 
560 
620 

670 
720 
780 
840 



820 960 
880 1,030 



930 

990 

1,050 

1,110 
1,160 
1,210 



1,090 
1,160 
1,230 

1,300 
1,360 
1,430 
1,500 
1,570 

1,650 
1,710 



170 

190 
220 
250 

280 
320 
350 
400 
440 

490 
530 
590 
650 
700 

770 
830 
890 
960 



900 1,030 



1,100 
1,180 
1,260 
1,340 
1,420 

1,500 
1,580 
1,670 
1,750 
1,840 

1,930 
2,020 
2,110 
2,200 
2,300 



310 
360 
400 
450 
500 

550 
610 
660 
730 
790 

870 

930 

1,010 

1,090 

1,170 



610 
680 
740 
SKI 



980 
1,050 
1,130 
1,230 
1,320 



1,260 1,420 



1,350 
1,440 
1,530 
1,630 

1,710 
1,820 
1,910 
2,010 
2,120 

2,230 
2,320 
2,430 
2,540 
2,660 



2,400 2,780 
2,920 
3,050 
3,200 
3,320 



1,520 
1,630 
1,730 
1,840 

1,940 
2,060 
2,160 
2,280 
2,400 

2,520 
2,640 
2,760 
2,900 
3,030 

3,170 
3,310 
3,450 
3,600 
3,750 



890 
970 

1,080 
1,170 
1,270 
1,370 
1,470 

1,580 
1,700 
1,820 
1,930 
2,050 

2,170 
2,300 
2,420 
2, 560 
2,690 

2,820 
2,960 
3,100 
3,250 
3,400 

3,550 
3,710 
3,880 
4,030 
4,200 



1,190 
1,300! 
1,410 1.550 
1,510 1,660 
1,630 1,790 



1,750 
1.87Q 
2,010 
2,150 
2,270 

2,410 
2,560 
2,700 
2,840 
2, 

3,120 
3,280 
3.440 
3,600 
3,760 

3,940 
4,110 
4,300 
4,480 
4,670 



Inches. 
6 
6 
6 

6 

7 
7 
7 



1,950 



1,910 2,070 



2,060 
2,200 
2, 360 
2,490 

2,650 
2,820 
2,960 
3,130 
3,270 

3,420 
3,600 
3,770 
3,960 
4,140 

4,330 
4,520 
4,730 
4,930 
5,140 



2,240 
2,390 
2, 580 
2,710 

2,890 
3,090 
3,250 
3,410 
3,550 

3,720 
3,930 
4.100 
4,310 
4,510 

4,720 
4,940 
5,150 
5,360 
5.630 



Trees. 
17 
17 
19 

7 
15 
29 
35 
62 

71 

74 
71 



79 
77 
82 
70 
73 

59 
66 
56 
46 
26 

34 
29 
14 
25 
19 

12 
4 
9 
3 
3 

2 
2 
4 



1 



1,370 



i From data secured under the direction of Walter Mulford, 1905-6. 



THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 



35 



Table 16. — Volume of hemlock in cubic feet and board feet, southern New Hampshire. 

[Based on total height of tree. 1 ] 



Diam- 
eter 

breast- 
high. 


Height of tree— feet. 


Num- 
ber of 
board 

feet 
per 1 
cubic 

foot 
of log. 


Diam- 
eter 
inside 
bark of 
last 
log. 


Basis. 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


Volume of used length. 


Inches. 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 


Cu.ft. 
1.8 
2.7 
3.9 
5.0 
6.4 

8.0 
10.2 
12.2 


Bd.ft. 
5 
10 
17 
26 
36 

47 
60 


Cu.ft. 
2.8 
3.8 
5.0 
6.5 
8.5 

10.5 
12.8 
15.2 
17.7 
20.0 

22.5 


Bd.ft. 

20 
28 
36 
46 

58 
72 
88 
107 
126 

148 


Cu.ft. 
3.7 
5.0 
6.6 
8.4 

= 10.6 

13.0 
15.4 
18.3 
21.2 
24.4 

27.6 
30.8 


Bd.ft. 


Cu.ft. 


Bd.ft. 


Cu.ft. 


Bd.ft. 


4.5 
5.0 
5.3 

5.5 
5.6 

5.6 
5.7 
5.7 
5.8 
5.9 

6.1 
6.2 


Inches. 
4.4 
4.4 
5.1 
5.3 
5.7 
5.5 
6.0 
6.7 
6.1 
6.4 

6.7 
5.9 


Trees. 
4 
17 
40 
57 
57 

41 
42 
17 
14 
14 

6 
8 


30 

39 
49 
59 

72 
86 
104 
125 
148 

171 
197 


6.3 
8.1 
10.0 
12.5 

15.2 

18.2 
21.5 
25.0 
28.8 

33.0 
37.7 


42 
50 
60 
71 

86 
103 
124 
147 
172 

200 
233 










11.8 
14.3 

17.3 
20.8 
24.3 
28.2 
32.8 

37.5 
42.8 


86. 

103 
123 
148 
173 
204 

240 
281 






















317 



1 Prepared by C. A. Lyford and Louis Margolin, 1906. The volumes in board feet are for actual saw cut, 
and therefore run much higher than if they were based on log scale. The volume in cubic feet includes 
bark. 

Table 17. — Volume of hemlock in cubic feet (including bark), Wisconsin (Marinette and 
Vilas Counties) and Michigan (Gogebic County). 
[Based on total height of tree.] 






Diam- 
eter 

breast- 
high. 


Total height of tree— feet. 


Basis. 


30 


40 


50 60 70 


80 


90 


100 


Volume — cubic feet. 


Inches. 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 


1.0 
2.0 
3.1 
4.1 

5.4 
7.0 

8.6 
10.6 
12.5 
14.8 
17.0 

19.3 


1.2 
2.6 
4.1 
5.5 

7.4 
9.5 

11.8 
14.4 
17.0 
20.0 
23.0 

26.0 


1.7 
3.3 
5.2 
7.3 
9.3 
11.9 

14.6 
18.0 
21.0 
24.0 
28.0 

32.0 
36.0 
41.0 

45.0 
50.0 












Trees. 
18 
16 
28 
53 
72 
56 

53 
46 
35 
18 
31 

25 
30 
14 
16 
20 

11 

13 

4 

6 
9 

4 
8 
6 
3 
1 
2 
1 
3 
1 
1 












5.9 

8.4 
10.9 
14.1 

17.2 
21.0 
24.0 
28.0 
33.0 

38.0 
43.0 
48.0 
54.0 
60.0 

66.0 
72.0 
79.0 
85.0 


















12.3 
15.7 

19.6 
24.0 
28.0 
33.0 
38.0 

44.0 
50.0 
56.0 
62.0 
69.0 

76.0 
83.0 
91.0 
99.0 
107.0 

116.0 
123.0 
131.0 














22 
26 
31 
37 
42 

48 
54 
61 
69 

77 

85 
93 
102 
111 
120 

130 
139 
147 
157 
169 

180 
192 










33 

39 
45 

51 
59 
67 
75 
83 

91 
100 
109 
119 
131 

144 
155 
167 
179 
191 

204 
218 
231 
246 
260 
275 


54 
62 
71 
79 

87 

98 
109 
119 
129 
143 

156 
169 

182 
195 
208 

222 
237 
252 
267 
283 
299 


































































































































































604 



Based on taper curves. Volume includes stem with bark between a 2-foot stump and a 4-inch top. 
Bark forms 19 per cent of the total volume of the stem. 



36 



BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Table 18 shows the average amount of bark obtainable per 1,000 
board feet from hemlock trees of different sizes in the Southern 
Appalachians. 

Table 18. — Cords of bark per 1,000 board feet (Doyle-Scribner) for hemlock trees of 
different sizes in the Southern Appalachians. 1 



Diameter 


Cords per 


Diameter 


Cords per 


Diameter 


Cords per 


breast- 


1,000 board 


breast- 


1,000 board 


breast- 


1,000 board 


high. 


feet. 


high. 


feet. 


high. 


feet. 


Inches. 




Inches. 




Inches. 




12 


2.8 


18 


1.1 


25 


0.6 


13 


2.3 


19 


1.0 


26 


.6 


14 


1.9 


20 


.9 


27 


.5 


15 


1.6 


21 


.8 


28 


.5 


16 


1.3 


22 


.8 


29 


.5 


17 


1.2 


23 
24 


.7 
.7 


30 


.4 











1 From data secured under the direction of Walter Mulford, 1905-6. 

Table 19. — -Volume of hemlock bark, in cords, for trees over and under 100 feet in height, 
Southern Appalachian region. 1 





Trees 100 


Trees 100 






Trees 100 


Trees 100 






feet and 


feet and 






feet and 


feet and 




Diameter 


under. 


over. 


Basis. 


Diameter 


under. 


over. 




breast-high. 






breast-high. 






Basis. 


Volume of bark. 


Volume of bark. 


Inches. 


Cord. 


Cord. 


Trees. 


Inches. 


Cord. 


Cord. 


Trees. 


10 


0.10 




1 


31 


0.42 


0.48 


26 


11 
12 
13 
14 


.11 
.11 
.12 
.13 




1 
2 
5 
12 


32 
33 
34 
35 . 


.43 
.45 
.47 

.48 


.50 
.52 
.55 
.57 


18 
23 
20 
14 








15 


.14 


.0.18 


14 


















36 


.50 


.59 


14 


16 


.15 


.19 


20 


37 


.52 


.62 


S 


17 


.17 


.21 


30 


38 


.53 


.64 


11 


18 


.19 


.23 


35 


39 


.55 


.67 


5 


19 


.21 


.25 


33 


40 


.56 


.69 





20 


.23 


.26 


28 


















41 


.58 


.72 


4 


21 


.25 


.28 


36 


42 


.60 


.75 


6 


22 
23 
24 
25 


.27 
.29 
.30 
.32 


.30 
.32 

.34 
.36 


35 
50 
30 
36 


43 
44 
45 




.78 
.81 
.84 


1 






1 




26 

27 
28 


.34 

.35 
37 


.38 
.40 


33 
38 


46 

47 
48 




.87 
.91 
.94 


2 
2 
o 








29 


.39 


.44 


22 








6S2 


30 


.40 


.46 


27 














1 Prepared under the direction of Walter Mulford, 1905-6. 






THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 



37 



Table 20. — Volume of hemlock bark in stacked cords — Vermont. 1 



Diameter 


Volume of 


Diameter 


Volume of 


breast-high. 


bark. 


breast-high. 


bark. 


Inches. 


Cord. 


Inches. 


Cord. 


8 


0.03 


21 


0.25 


9 


.05 


22 


.28 


10 


.06 


23 


.31 


11 
12 


.0/ 
.08 


24 
25 


.34 
.37 


13 


.09 


26 


.40 


14 


.10 


27 


.43 


15 


.12 


28 


.46 


16 


.14 


29 


.50 


17 


.16 






18 


.18 






19 


.20 






20 


.22 







i From "Hemlock in Vermont," by A. F. Hawes, State forester; Vt. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bulletin 161 (Janu- 
uary , 1912) , p. 8. The table was constructed by ' ' subtracting the volumes of the trees inside the bark from 
their volumes outside the bark, and multiplying by 0.4, on the assumption that 40 per cent of an average 
stacked cord of bark is solid bark." The accuracy of this factor (taken from Schenck's " Forest Mensura- 
tion," 1905, p. 14) was borne out by investigations of a few piles of bark. 

The following taper tables give diameters inside bark at different 
heights for average hemlock trees of various sizes in the Lake States 
and Southern Appalachians. The distances from the ground are in 
units of 8.15 feet above a 2-foot stump. These units represent the 
half of a 16.3-foot log. The practical use of these tables is to permit 
scaling trees of given size in terms of any desired log rule, but they 
also serve as a basis for comparing hemlock with other species in regard 
to form. The tables were prepared from existing measurements by 
W. B. Barrows. 

Table 21. — Diameters inside bark at different heights above the ground for trees of different 
sizes, based on measurements of 614 trees in Wisconsin ( Marinette and Vilas Counties) 
and Michigan (Gogebic County). 
[The heights above ground represent 16.3-foot logs and half logs, plus a stump height of 2 feet.] 





30-foot trees. 


40-foot trees. 


50- foot trees. 


60-foot trees. 


Diameter 
breast- 










Height above ground— ft 


et. 










high out- 
side bark. 


10.15 


18.3 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 


34.6 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 


34.6 


42.75 


50.9 












Diameter inside ba 


rk — in 


5hes. 










Inches. 
4 


3.0 
3.9 

4.7 
5.6 
6.4 
7.4 
8.1 


1.4 

2.0 

2.5 
3.2 
3.9 

4.5 
5.1 


3.1 
3.9 

4.8 
5.7 
6.6 
7.5 

8.3 

9.2 
10.0 
10.9 
11.8 
12.7 


2.4 
3.1 

3.9 
4.7 
5.3 
6.0 

6.8 

7.5 
8.2 
8.9 
9.6 
10.3 


1.6 
2.1 

2.6 
3.1 
3.6 

4.1 
4.6 

5.1 
5.7 
6.2 
6.8 
7.3 






















5 






















6 


5.3 
6.1 
6.9 

7.7 
8.5 

9.3 
10.1 
10.9 
11.6 
12.3 

13.0 
13.8 
14.5 


4.5 
5.3 
6.1 
6.8 
7.6 

8.3 
9.0 
9.8 
10.5 
11.2 

11.9 
12.6 
13.3 


3.6 
4.1 

4.8 
5.4 
6.1 

6.6 
7.3 
7.8 
8.5 
9.0 

9.7 
10.2 
10.8 


2.4 
2.8 
3.2 
3.6 
4.0 

4.4 
4.8 
5.2 
5.6 
6.0 

6.4 
6.9 

7.3 














7 

8 

9 

10 

11 


6.0 
6.8 
7.6 
8.5 
9.2 
10.0 
10.8 
11.6 
12.5 

13.3 
14.1 

14.8 
15.7 
16.4 

17.2 
17.9 


5.5 
6.2 
6.9 

7.8 

8.5 
9.5 
10.1 
10.9 
11.6 

12.5 
13.2 
14.1 
14.9 
15.7 

16.5 
17.3 


4.7 
5.3 
6.1 
6.8 

7.5 
8.3 
9.0 
9.7 
10.4 

11.1 
11.8 
12.5 
13.2 
13.9 

14.7 
15.4 


3.6 
4.2 
4.8 
5.4 

6.0 
6.6 

7.2 
7.8 
8.4 

9.0 
9.5 
10.1 
10.7 
11.3 

11.9 
12.5 


2.4 
2.9 
3.3 

3.7 

4.1 
4.6 
5.0 
5.5 
5.9 

6.4 
6.8 
7.3 

7.7 
8.2 

8.6 
9.0 


1.3 
1.5 
1.7 
2.0 

? ?, 


12 






9, 4 


13 






? 6 


14 






2 9 


15 






3 ? 


16 






3 6 


17 












3 7 


18 












4 1 


19 












4 4 


20 




















4 7 


21 




















4 8 


22 




















5 n 

























38 



BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Table 21. — Diameters inside bark at different heights above the ground for trees of different 
sizes, based on measurements of 61 A trees in Wisconsin (Marinette and Vilas Counties) 
and Michigan (Gogebic County) — Continued. 





70-foot trees. 


80-foot trees. 


Diameter 








Height above ground — feet. 
































high out- 
































side bark. 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 


34.6 


42.75 


50.9 


59.05 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 


34.6 


42.75 


50.9 


59.05 67.2 




Diameter inside bark— inches. 


Inches. 
































9 

10 

11 


7 7 


7 1 


6 4 


5 5 


4.3 


3.0 


1.5 


















8.5 
9,3 


7 9 


7 1 


6 1 


4 9 


3.5 


1.9 


















8.6 


7.9 


6.8 


5.5 


3.9 


2.2 


9.3 


8.7 


8.1 


7.4 


6.4 


5.1 


3.6 


2.1 


12 


10.1 


9.4 


8.5 


7.4 


6.1 


4.3 


2.5 


10.2 


9.4 


8.8 


8.1 


7.1 


5.6 


4.0 


2.3 


13 


10.9 


10.2 


9.3 


8.2 


6.7 


4.8 


2.7 


11.0 


10.2 


9.5 


8.7 


7.6 


6.2 


4.4 


2.5 


14 


11.7 


10.9 


10.1 


8.8 


7.2 


5.3 


3.0 


11.8 


11.0 


10.3 


9.4 


8.3 


6.7 


4.8 


2.6 


15 


12.5 


11.7 


10.8 


9.5 


7.8 


5.7 


3.3 


12.5 


11.7 


11.1 


10.1 


8.8 


7.3 


5.2 


3.0 


16 


13.2 


12.4 


11.6 


10.2 


8.4 


6.2 


3.6 


13.3 


12.4 


11.7 


10.8 


9.5 


7.8 


5.6 


3.3 


17 


14.0 


13.1 


12.3 


10.9 


8.9 


6.6 


3.9 


13.9 


13.2 


12.5 


11.5 


10.1 


8.3 


6.1 


3.6 


18 


14.7 


13.8 


13.0 


11.6 


9.6 


7.1 


4.1 


14.6 


13.9 


13.2 


12.2 


10.7 


8.9 


6.5 


3.8 


19 


15.4 


11.5 


13.6 


12.2 


10.1 


7.5 


4.3 


15.4 


14.7 


14.0 


12.9 


11.4 


9.5 


7.0 


4.1 


20 


16.2 


15.1 


14.4 


12.9 


10.7 


7.9 


4.6 


16.1 


15.3 


14.7 


13.6 


12.1 


10.0 


7.4 


4.4 


21 


16.9 


15.9 


15.1 


13.6 


11.3 


8.4 


4.8 


16.9 


16.0 


15.3 


14.3 


12.7 


10.6 


7.8 


4.7 


22 


17.6 


16.4 


15.8 


14.3 


11.9 


8.8 


5.1 


17.6 


16.7 


16.0 


15.0 


13.3 


11.1 


8.2 


4.9 


23 


18.3 


17.3 


16.4 


14.9 


12.5 


9.3 


5.3 


18.3 


17.4 


16.7 


15.7 


14.0 


11.7 


8.7 


5.2 


24 


19.0 


17.8 


17.1 


15.5 


13.1 


9.7 


5.6 


19.0 


18.0 


17.3 


16.4 


14.7 


12.3 


9.0 


5.4 


25 


19.7 


18.5 


17.7 


16.1 


13.6 


10.1 


5.8 


19.8 


18.8 


18.1 


17.1 


15.4 


12.9 


9.5 


5.6 


26 


20.4 


19.2 


18.3 


16.8 


14.2 


10.5 


6.0 


20.5 


19.4 


18.7 


17.7 


16.0 


13.4 


9.9 


5.9 


27 


21.1 


19.8 


18.9 


17.4 


14.8 


10.9 


6.2 


21.2 


20.1 


19.5 


18.5 


16.6 


14.1 


10.3 


6.1 


28 


21.9 


20.4 


19.4 


18.0 


15.3 


11.4 


6.4 


21.9 


20.7 


20.0 


19.1 


17.3 


14.6 


10.7 


6.3 


29 
















22.7 
23.3 

24.1 
24.7 


21.4 
22.0 

22.7 
23.3 


20.7 
21.3 

22.0 
22.6 


19.8 
20.5 

21.1 
21.8 


18.0 
18.7 

19.4 
20.1 


15.2 
15.8 

16.5 
17.0 


11.1 
11.5 

12.0 
12.4 


6.6 


30... 
















6.8 


31 ... 
















7.1 


32.. 
















7.3 

























90-foot trees. 


100-foot trees. 


Diameter 








Height above ground — feet. 






















high out- 
side bark. 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 


34.6 


42.75 


50.9 


59.05 


67.2 75.3510.15 


18.3 26.45 


34.6 


42.75 


50.9 59.05 


67.2 


75.35 


83.5 










Diameter inside bark— inches. 






Inches. 








































13 


11.0 
11.7 
12.5 

13.2 


10.2 
10.9 
11.7 

12.4 


9.6 
10.3 
11.1 

11.7 


8.7 
9.5 
10.2 

10.9 


7.7 
8.5 
9.2 

9.9 


6.7 
7.3 
8.0 

8.6 


5.3 
5.8 
6.4 

6.9 


3.9 
4.3 
4.6 

5.0 


2.4 
2.6 
2.9 

3.1 






















14 












































16 


12.6 


11.7 


11.3 


11.0 


10.4 


9.3 


7.9 


6.4 


4.9 


3.3 


17 


14.0 


13.1 


12.5 


11.7 


10.6 


9.3 


7.5 


5.4 


3.3 


13.4 


12.6 


12.2 


11.8 


11.1 


10.0 


8.5 


6.9 


5.3 


3.5 


18 


14.7 


13,9 


13.2 


12.4 


11.3 


9.9 


8.0 


5.8 


3.6 


14.3 


13.4 


12.9 


12.5 


11.7 


10.6 


9.1 


7.5 


5.7 


3.7 


19 


15.4 


14.6 


13.9 


13.1 


12.0 


10.6 


8.5 


6.2 


3.9 


15.1 


14.2 


13.7 


13.3 


12.4 


11.2 


9.7 


8.0 


6.0 


4.0 


20 


16.1 


15.3 


14.7 


13.9 


12.8 


11.2 


9.1 


6.6 


4.1 


15.8 


15.0 


14.6 


14.0 


13.1 


11.8 


10.3 


8.5 


6.4 


4.2 


21 


16,9 


16.0 


15.4 


14.6 


13.4 


11.8 


9.7 


7.0 


4.3 


16.7 


15.9 


15.3 


14.7 


13.7 


12.4 


10.9 


9.0 


6.7 


4.4 


22 


17.6 


16.7 


16.1 


15.3 


14.1 


12.4 


10.3 


7.4 


4.6 


17.5 


16.7 


16.1 


15.4 


14.4 


13.0 


11.5 


9.5 


7.1 


4.6 


23 


IS. 3 


17.5 


16.8 


16.0 


14. 8 13. 1 


10.8 


7.9 


4.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.9 


16.1 


15.0 


13.7 


12.1 


10.0 


7.5 


4.8 


24 


19,0 


18.1 


17.5 


16.7 


15. 5 13. 7 


11.3 


8.3 


5.1 


19.1 


18.3 


17.6 


16.8 


15.7 


14.4 


12.7 


10.5 


7.9 


5.0 


25 


19.9 


18.9 


18.2 


17.4 


16.214.3 


11.9 


8.7 


5.4 


19.9 


19.1 


18.5 


17.5 


16.4 


15.0 


13.3 


11.1 


8.4 


5.3 


26 


20.6 


19.6 


18.9 


18.1 


16. 8 1 15.0 


12.4 


9.2 


5.8 


20.7 


19.9 


19.2 


18.3 


17.0 


15.6 


13.9 


11.6 


8.7 


5.6 


27 


21,4 


20.4 


19.7 


18.8 


17. 5 15. 6 


13.0 


9.7 


6.0 


21.5 


20.7 


20.0 


19.0 


17.7 


16.3 


14.5 


12.0 


9.1 


5.8 


28 


22.1 


21.2 


20. 3 


19.4 


18.2 


16.3 


13.5 


10.0 


6.2 


22.3 


21.4 


20.6 


19.7 


18.4 


16.9 


15.1 


12.5 


9.4 


6.1 


29 


22.9 


21.9 


21.1 


20.2 


18.9 


16.9 


14.1 


10.4 


6.5 


23.2 


22.3 


21.5 


20.5 


19.2 


17.6 


15.6 


13.0 


9.8 


6.2 


30 


23.6 


22.6 


21.8 


20.8 


19.5 


17.6 


14.5 


10.8 


6.8 


23.9 


23.0 


22.2 


21.2 


19.8 


18.2 


16.2113. 5 


10.1 


6.4 


31 


24.3 


23.3 


22.5 


21.5 


20.1 


18.2 


15.2 


11.2 


7.1 


24.7 


23.8 


22.9 


21.9 


20.5 


18.9 


16.914.1 


10.5 


6.6 


32 


25.0 


24.0 


23.1 


22.1 


20. S 


18. f 


15. f 


11.6 


7.4 


25.4 


24.5 


23.7 


22.6 


21.1 


19.5 


17.514.6 


10.8 


6.8 


33 


25,8 


24.8 


23.9 


22.8 


21.4 


19.5 


16.2 


12.0 


7.6 


26. J 


25.3 


24.4 


23.3 


21.8 


20.1 


18.015.1 


11.2 


7.0 


34 


26,5 


25. 5 


24.6 


23.4 


22.0 


20.2 


16. f 


12.4 


7.S 


27.1 


26.1 


25.1 


24. t 


22.5 


20.8 


18.615.6 


11.5 


7.1 


35 


27.3 


26.2 


25.3 


24.1 


22.7 


20.8 


17.3 


12.9 


8.2 


27.9 


26.8 


25.9 


24.7 


23.2 


21.5 


19.216.1 


12.0 


7.3 


36 


28.1 


26.9 


25.9 


24.7 


23.3 


21.4 


17.7 


13.2 


8.5 


28.7 


27.6 


26.6 


25.4 


23.9 


22.2 


19.916.6 


12.3 


7.5 


37 


28,9 


27,7 


26.7 


25.4 


23.9 


22.0 


18.? 


13.7 


8.f 


29.5 


28.4 


27. a 


26.2 


24.7 


22.8 


20.417.1 


12. 7 


7.7 


38 


29.6 


28.3 


27.3 


26.1 


24.5 


22.5 


18.8 


14.2 


9.1 


30.3 


29. 1| 28. 


26.8 


25.3 


23.4 


21.017.6 


13.0 


7.9 



THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 



39 



Table 22. — Diameters inside bark at different heights above the ground for trees of different 
sizes, based on measurements of 1,548 trees in the Southern Appalachian region. 

[The heights above ground represent 16.3-foot logs and half logs plus a stump height of 2 feet.) 



■ 


20-foot 
trees. 


30-foot 
trees. 


40-foot trees. 


Diameter breast-hign outside bark. 


Height above ground— feet. 




10.15 


10.15 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 




Diameter inside bark — inches. 


Inches. 
2 


1.1 
1.9 
2.6 
3.3 


1.3 
2.1 

3.0 

3.8 

4.7 
5.5 
6.3 
7.3 
8.1 








3 








4 


3.2 
4.1 

4.9 
5.8 
6.6 
7.5 
8.3 

9.2 
10.1 
10.9 
11.8 


2.6 
3.1 

3.9 
4.6 
5.3 
6.1 
6.8 

7.6 
8.3 
9.1 
9.9 


1 6 


5 


2.0 


6 


2 5 


7 




3 


8 




3.6 


9 




4 


10 




4 5 


11 




5.0 


12 






5.5 


13 






6 


14 






6.5 













50-foot trees. 


60-foot trees. 


Diameter 
breast-high 


Height above ground— feet. 


outside 
bark. 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 


34.6 


42.75 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 


34.6 


42.75 


50.9 




Diameter inside bark— inches. 


Inches. 
4 


3.3 
4.1 

5.0 
5.8 
6.6 

7.4 
8.4 

9.2 
10.1 
10.9 
11.8 
12.6 

13.6 
14.4 
15.3 
16.1 
17.0 


2.6 
3.5 

4.2 
5.0 
5.8 
6.6 
7.4 

8.2 
9.0 
9.8 
10.6 
11.4 

12.3 
13.1 
13.9 
14.7 
15.5 


2.0 
2.7 

3.3 
4.0 
4.6 
5.3 
5.9 

6.6 
7.2 
8.0 
8.6 
9.3 

10.0 
10.7 
11.4 
12.1 
12.8 


1.3 

1.8 

2.2 
2.7 
3.1 
3.6 
4.0 

4.5 
4.9 
5.4 
6.0 

6.5 

7.0 
7.5 
8.0 
8.6 
9.1 


0.6 

.8 

1.0 
1.2 
1.4 
1.7 
1.9 

2.1 
2.3 
2.6 
2.9 
3.2 

3.5 
3.7 
4.0 
4.3 

4.7 














5 














6 


5.1 
5.9 
6.8 
7.6 
8.5 

9.3 
10.1 
11.0 
11.9 
12.7 

13.6 
14.4 
15.3 
16.1 
17.0 

17.8 
18.7 
19.6 
20.4 
21.3 

22.1 
23.0 


4.4 
5.3 
6.1 
6.9 

7.7 

8.5 
9.4 
10.2 
11.1 
11.9 

12.7 
13.5 
14.4 
15.1 
16.0 

16.7 
17.6 
18.3 
19.1 
19.9 

20.6 
21.4 


3.8 
4.5 
5.2 
6.0 
6.7 

7.5 
8.3 
9.0 
9.8 
10.6 

11.4 
12.1 
12.9 
13.7 
14.4 

15.2 

15.9 
16.7 
17.4 
18.1 

18.8 
19.5 


3.0 
3.6 
4.2 
4.9 

5.5 

6.2 
6.9 

7.5 
8.2 
8.9 

9.6 
10.2 
10.9 
11.5 
12.2 

12.9 
13.5 
14.2 
14.8 
15.4 

16.0 
16.6 


2.1 
2.5 
3.0 
3.4 

3.9 

4.4 
4.9 
5.4 
6.0 
6.5 

7.0 
7.5 
8.0 
8.5 
9.0 

9.5 
10.0 
10.5 
11.0 
11.4 

11.9 
12.4 


1.0 
1.2 
1.5 
1.7 
1.9 

2.2 
2.4 
2 8 


7... 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


3.0 

3.3 

3.6 
3.9 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


4.5 
4 8 


20 


21 


5 1 


22 












5 4 


23 












5 7 


24 '. 










6 1 


25 










6 3 


26 










6 7 


27 




I 




7 






1 







40 



BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGEICULTUEE. 



Table 22. — Diameters inside bark at different heights above the ground for trees of different 
sizes, based on measurements of 1,548 trees in the Southern Appalachian region — Con. 





70-foot trees. 


80-foot trees. 


Diameter 










Height above grounc 


—feet. 










breast- 




























high 


































outside 
bark. 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 


34.6 


42.75 


50.9 


59.05 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 


34.6 


42.75 


50.9 


59.05 


67.2 


73.35 












Diameter inside bark- 


-inches. 










Inches. 


































g 


6.8 
7.9 
8.5 


6.2 
7.0 
7.9 


5.7 
6.5 
7.3 


5.0 

5.8 
6.5 


4.0 

4.7 
5.3 


2.9 
3.4 
3.8 


1.7 
2.0 
2.2 




















9 




















10 


8.7 


8.1 


7.5 


6.9 


6.1 


5.0 


3.7 


2.2 


1.1 


11 


9.4 


8.8 


8.1 


7.2 


5.9 


4.2 


2.4 


9.5 


9.0 


8.3 


7.7 


6.8 


5.5 


4.1 


2.4 


1.2 


12 


10.2 


9.5 


8.9 


7.9 


6.4 


4.7 


2.7 


10.3 


9.8 


9.2 


8.5 


7.5 


6.1 


4.5 


2.6 


1.3 


13 


11.1 


10.4 


9.7 


8.7 


7.1 


5.1 


2.9 


11.1 


10.6 


9.9 


9.2 


8.2 


6.7 


4.9 


2.9 


1.4 


14 


11.9 


11.2 


10.5 


9.5 


7.8 


5.6 


3.2 


12.0 


11.4 


10.7 


9.9 


8.8 


7.3 


5.4 


3.1 


1.5 


15 


12.7 


12.0 


11.4 


10.2 


8.4 


6.0 


3.5 


12.9 


12.2 


11.5 


10.6 


9.5 


7.8 


5.8 


3.4 


1.7 


16 


13.6 


12.8 


12.1 


10.9 


9.0 


6.5 


3.7 


13.7 


13.0 


12.3 


11.4 


10.1 


8.4 


6.2 


3.7 


1.8 


17 


14.4 


13.7 


12.9 


11.7 


9.6 


7.0 


4.1 


14.5 


13.7 


13.0 


12.1 


10.8 


9.0 


6.6 


3.9 


1.9 


18 


15.3 


14.5 


13.7 


12.3 


10.2 


7.6 


4.4 


15.3 


14.5 


13.7 


12.7 


11.3 


9.5 


7.0 


4.1 


2.1 


19 


16.1 


15.2 


14.4 


13. 


10.8 


8.1 


4.7 


16.2 


15.3 


14.4 


13.4 


12.0 


10.1 


7.5 


4.4 


2.2 


20 


17.0 


16.0 


15.2 


13.7 


11.4 


8.6 


5.0 


17.0 


16.0 


15.2 


14.1 


12.6 


10.7 


7.9 


4.6 


2.3 


21 


17.9 


16.8 


15.9 


14.4 


12.0 


9.1 


5.3 


17.9 


16.9 


15.9 


14.8 


13.3 


11.2 


8.4 


4.9 


2.4 


22 


18.7 


17.6 


16.6 


15.0 


12.5 


9.6 


5.6 


18.7 


17.5 


16.5 


15.5 


13.9 


11.8 


8.9 


5.2 


2.5 


23 


19.6 


18.4 


17.3 


15.7 


13.1 


10.0 


5.9 


19.6 


18.4 


17.3 


16.1 


14.5 


12.3 


9.2 


5.5 


2.7 


24 


20.4 


19.1 


18.1 


16.3 


13.6 


10.5 


6.2 


20.4 


19.1 


18.0 


16.8 


15.1 


12.8 


9.7 


5.8 


2.8 


25 


21.3 


19.9 


18.7 


17.0 


14.2 


10.9 


6.5 


21.3 


19.9 


18.8 


17.4 


15.7 


13.4 


10.1 


6.0 


3.0 


26 


22.1 


20.6 


19.4 


17.5 


14.7 


11.3 


6.8 


22.1 


20.7 


19.5 


18.1 


16.2 


13.9 


10.6 


6.3 


3.1 


27 


22.9 


21.4 


20.1 


18.2 


15.3 


11.7 


7.1 


23.0 


21.5 


20.3 


18.8 


16.9 


14.4 


11.0 


6.6 


3.3 


28 


23.7 


22.1 


20.9 


18.8 


15.8 


12.2 


7.3 


23.8 


22.2 


20.9 


19.4 


17.4 


14.8 


11.3 


6.9 


3.4 


29 


24.6 


22.9 


21.6 


19.5 


16.4 


12.6 


7.6 


24.6 


23.0 


21.7 


20.1 


18.0 


15.3 


11.8 


7.2 


3.6 


30 


25.4 


23.7 


22.3 


20.1 


16.9 


12.9 


7.9 


25.5 


23.8 


22.4 


20.8 


18.7 


15.9 


12.2 


7.5 


3.8 


31 


26.2 


24.5 


23.0 


20.8 


17.5 


13.3 


8.2 


26.3 


24.6 


23.1 


21.4 


19.2 


16.3 


12.5 


7.7 


4.0 


32 


27.0 


25.2 


23.7 


21.4 


18.0 


13.7 


8.5 


27.1 


25.3 


23.7 


22. C 


19.7 


16.7 


12.8 


8.(1 


4.1 


33 
















28.0 
28.8 
29.7 


26.1 
26.8 
27.6 


24.4 
25.2 
25.9 


22.6 
23.4 
24.0 


20.3 
20.8 
21.4 


17.1 
17.5 
18.0 


13.1 
13.4 
13.9 


8.2 
8.4 
8.7 


4.2 


34. 
















4.4 


35 
















4.5 























90-foot trees. 


Diameter breast-high outside 


Height above ground — feet. 


bark. 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 


34.6 


42.75 


50.9 


59.05 


67.2 


75.35 


83.5 


91.65 










Diameter inside bark— inches. 






Inches. 
10 


8.7 
9.5 
10.3 
11.2 
12.0 
12.9 

13.7 
14.5 
15.4 
16.2 
17.1 

17.9 

18.8 
19.6 
20.5 
21.3 


8.3 
9.1 
9.9 
10.7 
11.5 
12.3 

13.1 
13.9 
14.6 
15.3 
16.1 

16.8 
17.6 
18.4 
19.2 
20.0 


7.8 
8.6 
9.4 
10.2 
10.9 
11.6 

12.4 
13.1 
13.8 
14.5 
15.2 

16.0 
16.7 
17.4 
18.2 
18.9 


7.3 
8.0 
8.8 
9.5 
10.2 
10.9 

11.6 
12.3 
13.0 
13.7 
14.4 

15.2 

15.8 
16.5 
17.2 
17.9 


6.8 
7.4 
8.1 
8.8 
9.4 
10.1 

10.7 
11.4 
12.1 
12.7 
13.4 

14.1 
14.7 
15.3 
16.0 
16.6 


6.0 
6.6 
7.2 
7.9 
8.5 
9.1 

9.7 
10.2 
10.8 
11.4 
12.0 

12.6 
13.1 

13.7 
14.2 
14.8 


4.8 
5.4 
5.9 
6.5 
7.0 
7.5 

8.0 
8.4 
8.9 
9.4 
9.9 

10.4 
10.9 
11.4 
11.9 
12.4 


3.4 
3.9 
4.3 
4.7 
5.0 
5.4 

5.8 
6.2 
6.6 
6.9 
7.3 

7.7 
8.1 
8.5 
8.9 
9.4 


2.1 
2.4 
2.6 
2.9 
3.1 
3.3 

3.6 
3.8 

4.1 
4.3 
4.6 

4.9 
5.1 
5.4 
5.6 
5.9 


0.9 
1.0 
1.2 
1.2 
1 3. 
1.4 

1.5 
1.6 
1.7 
1.9 
2.0 

2.1 
2.2 
2.3 
2.4 
2.5 




11 




12 




13 




14 




15 




16 




17 




18 




19 




20 




21 




22 




23 




24 




25 





THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 



41 



Table 22. — Diameters inside bark at different heights above the ground for trees of different 
sizes, based on measurements of 1,548 trees in the Southern Appalachian region — Con. 



Diameter breast-high outside 
bark. 



Inches 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 



12 
13 

14 
15 

16 

17 
18 
19 
20 

21 

22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27. 
2S 
29 
30 

31 

32 
33 

34 
35 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

41 

42 
43 
44 
45 



90-foot trees. 



Height above ground — feet. 



10.15 18.3 26.45 34.6 42.75 50.9 59.05 67.2 75.35 83.5 91.65 



Diameter inside bark — inches. 



22.2 


20.7 


19.7 


18.6 


17.2 


15.3 


12.9 


9.8 


6.1 


2.6 


23.0 


21.5 


20.4 


19.3 


17.9 


16.0 


13.4 


10.2 


6.5 


2.8 


23.8 


22.3 


21.1 


19.9 


18.4 


16.5 


13.9 


10.6 


6.7 


2.9 


24.7 


23.1 


21.9 


20.6 


19.1 


17.1 


14.4 


11.0 


7.1 


3.1 


25.5 


23.8 


22.6 


21.3 


19.7 


17.6 


14.9 


11.4 


7.3 


3.2 


26.3 


24.6 


23.3 


22.0 


20.3 


18.2 


15.4 


11.8 


7.6 


3.4 


27.2 


25.4 


24.0 


22.6 


20.9 


18.6 


15.8 


12.2 


7.8 


3.5 


28.0 


26.2 


24.8 


23.3 


21.5 


19.2 


16.4 


12.6 


8.1 


3.6 


28.8 


27.0 


25.5 


24.0 


22.1 


19.7 


16.8 


13.0 


8.4 


3.7 


29.6 


27.7 


26.2 


24.6 


22.7 


20.2 


17.3 


13.4 


8.6 


3.8 


30.5 


28.6 


26.9 


25.4 


23.3 


20.7 


17.8 


13.7 


8.8 


3.9 


31.3 


29.3 


27.7 


26.1 


23.9 


21.2 


18.3 


14.2 


9.2 


4.0 


32.2 


30.1 


28.4 


26.8 


24.6 


21.7 


18.7 


14.6 


9.4 


4.1 


33. 


30.8 


29.1 


27.4 


25.2 


22.2 


19.2 


15.0 


9.7 


4.2 


33.8 


31.6 


29.8 


28.1 


25.7 


22.7 


19.6 


15.3 


9.9 


4.3 


34.6 


32.4 


30.6 


28.7 


26.4 


23.3 


20.1 


15.7 


10.3 


4.6 


35.4 


33.2 


31.3 


29.3 


26.9 


23.8 


20.5 


16.2 


10.8 


4.8 


36.2 


34.0 


32.1 


30.0 


27.6 


24.4 


20.9 


16.6 


11.1 


5.0 



100-foot trees. 



10.3 


9.9 


9.4 


8.9 


8.3 


7.6 


6.7 


5.4 


4.0 


2.6 


11.2 


10.7 


10.1 


9.6 


9.0 


8.3 


7.2 


5.9 


4.4 


2.9 


12.0 


11.5 


10.9 


10.3 


9.7 


8.9 


7.7 


6.3 


4.7 


3.1 


12.9 


12.3 


11.6 


11.0 


10.4 


9.7 


8.3 


6.8 


5.2 


3.4 


13.8 


13.0 


12.4 


11.8 


11.1 


10.1 


8.9 


7.3 


5.6 


3.8 


14.6 


13.8 


13.1 


12.4 


11.8 


10.8 


9.5 


7.9 


6.0 


4.0 


15.5 


14.6 


13.8 


13.1 


12.3 


11.4 


10.1 


8.4 


6.4 


4.3 


16.2 


15.3 


14.5 


13.8 


13.0 


12.0 


10.7 


8.9 


6.8 


4.6 


17.1 


16.1 


15.3 


14.5 


13.6 


12.6 


11.3 


9.3 


7.2 


4.8 


18.0 


16.9 


16.0 


15.2 


14.4 


13.3 


11.8 


9.9 


7.6 


5.1 


18.8 


17.7 


16.8 


16.0 


15.0 


13.9 


12.3 


10.3 


8.0 


5.3 


19.7 


18.5 


17.5 


16.6 


15.7 


14.6 


12.9 


10.8 


8.3 


5.6 


20.5 


19.2 


18.3 


17.4 


16.4 


15.1 


13.5 


11.3 


8.7 


5.7 


21.4 


20.0 


18.9 


18.1 


17.1 


15.8 


14.0 


11.8 


9.0 


6.0 


22.2 


20.8 


19.7 


18.7 


17.7 


16.3 


14.6 


12.3 


9.4 


6.2 


23.1 


21.6 


20.5 


19.6 


18.5 


17.0 


15.2 


12.8 


9.8 


6.5 


23.9 


22.3 


21.3 


20.2 


19.1 


17.6 


15.8 


13.3 


10.1 


6.7 


24.7 


23.2 


22.1 


21.1 


19.9 


18.3 


16.4 


13.8 


10.5 


6.9 


25.5 


24.0 


22.9 


21.8 


20.5 


18.8 


16.9 


14.3 


10.8 


7.1 


26.4 


24.7 


23.6 


22.6 


21.2 


19.4 


17.5 


14.8 


11.2 


7.4 


27.2 


25.5 


24.4 


23.3 


21.9 


20.1 


18.1 


15.2 


11.5 


7.6 


28.1 


26.3 


25.2 


24.1 


22.6 


20.7 


18.7 


15.8 


12.0 


7.9 


28.8 


27.0 


25.9 


24.8 


23.2 


21.3 


19.2 


16.3 


12.3 


8.0 


29.7 


27.8 


26.7 


25.5 


23.9 


22.0 


19.8 


16.8 


12.7 


8.3 


30.5 


28.6 


27.4 


26.2 


24.6 


22.6 


20.3 


17.2 


13.1 


8.6 


31.4 


29.4 


28.2 


26.9 


25.3 


23.2 


20.9 


17.7 


13.4 


8.8 


32.2 


30.1 


28.9 


27.6 


25.9 


23.8 


21.4 


18.1 


13.7 


9.1 


33.1 


30.9 


29.6 


28.3 


26.6 


24.5 


22.0 


18.6 


14.1 


9.3 


33.8 


31.7 


30.3 


29.0 


27.3 


25.1 


22.6 


19.1 


14.4 


9.5 


34.7 


32.4 


31.1 


29.8 


28.1 


25.8 


23.1 


19.6 


14.8 


9.7 


35.5 


33.3 


31.8 


30.5 


28.8 


26.4 


23.7 


20.1 


15.1 


9.9 


36.3 


34.0 


32.5 


31.2 


29.5 


27.1 


24.3 


20.6 


15.5 


10.3 


37.1 


34.8 


33.2 


31.9 


30.2 


27.7 


24.9 


21.1 


15.9 


10.5 


37.9 


35.5 


34.0 


32.6 


30.9 


28.4 


25.5 


21.5 


16.3 


10.9 



42 



BULLETIN 152, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Table 22.— Diameters inside bark at different heights above the ground for trees of different 
sizes, based on measurements of 1,548 trees in the Southern Appalachian region— Con. 





110-foot trees. 




Height above ground— feet. 










Diameter breast-high 
outside bark. 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 


34.6 


12.75 


50.9 


59.05 


67.2 


75.35 


83.5 91.65 


99.8 


107. 95 




Diameter inside bark— inches. 










Inches. 
15 


13.0 

13.8 
14.7 
15.5 
16.3 
17.1 

18.0 
18.8 
19.6 
20.5 
21.3 

22.2 
23.1 
23.9 
24.8 
25.6 

26.5 
27.3 
28.1 
29.0 
29.9 

30.7 
31.5 
32.3 
33.1 
33.9 

34.7 
35.6 
36.4 
37.3 
38.1 


12.4 

13.0 
13.8 
14.6 
15.3 
16.1 

16.9 
17.6 
18.4 
19.2 
20.1 

20.8 
21.7 
22.5 
23.3 
24.1 

24.9 
25.7 
26.4 
27.2 
28.0 

28.7 
29.5 
30.3 
31.1 
31.9 

32.7 
33.5 
34.2 
35.0 
35.8 


11.7 

12.4 
13.2 
13.9 
14.6 
15.4 

16.1 
16.9 
17.7 
18.4 
19.2 

19.9 
20.7 
21.4 
22.2 
22.9 

23.8 
24.5 
25.3 
26.0 
26.9 

27.6 
28.4 
29.2 
30.0 
30.7 

31.5 
32.3 
33.0 
33.8 
34.6 


11.2 

11.9 
12.7 
13.3 
14.0 
14.7 

15.5 
16.2 
17.0 
17.6 
18.4 

19.1 
19.9 
20.5 
21.3 
22.1 

22.8 
23.5 
24.3 
25.1 
25.9 

26.6 
27.4 
28.2 
29.0 
29.7 

30.4 
31.2 
32.0 
32.7 
33.5 


10.8 

11.4 
12.1 
12.7 
13.4 
14.0 

14.7 
15.3 
16.1 
16.7 
17.5 

18.1 
18.9 
19.6 
20.4 
21.1 

21.9 
22.5 
23.3 
24.0 
24.8 

25.5 
26.3 
26.9 
27.7 
28.5 

29.2 
29.9 
30.6 
31.4 
32.1 


10.1 

10.7 
11.3 
12.0 
12.7 
13.3 

13.9 
14.5 
15.2 
15.8 
16.5 

17.1 

17.8 
18.5 
19.2 
19.8 

20.6 
21.2 
21.9 
22.7 
23.4 

24.1 
24.9 
25.5 
26.2 
26.9 

27.6 
28.3 
29.0 
29.7 
30.4 


9.3 

9.9 
10.5 
11.0 
11.6 
12.2 

12.8 
13.4 
13.9 
14.6 
15.2 

15.8 
16.4 
17.0 
17.7 
18.3 

19.0 
19.6 
20.3 
20.9 
21.6 

22.2 
22.9 
23.5 
24.2 
24.8 

25.5 
26.1 

26.8 
27.4 
28.1 


8.1 

8.6 
9.2 
9.7 
10.3 
10.8 

11.3 
11.9 
12.4 
13.0 
13.5 

14.1 
14.7 
15.3 
15.9 
16.4 

17.0 
17.5 
18.1 
18.6 
19.2 

19.7 
20.3 
20.9 
21.5 
22.1 

22.7 
23.2 
23.9 
24.4 
25.1 


6.6 

7.0 
7.5 
8.0 
8.5 
9.0 

9.5 
10.0 
10.5 
11.0 
11.5 

12.0 
12.5 
12.9 
13.4 
13.8 

14.3 
14.7 
15.3 
15.7 
16.3 

16.7 
17.2 
17.6 
18.1 
18.6 

19.1 
19.6 
20.1 
20.6 
21.1 


4.8 

5.2 
5.5 
5.9 
6.3 
6.7 

7.1 
7.4 
7.8 
8.3 
8.7 

9.1 
9.5 
9.8 
10.1 
10.5 

10.9 
11.3 
11.8 
12.2 
12.6 

13.0 
13.3 
13.7 
14.0 
14.4 

15.0 
15.3 
15.7 
16.1 
16.5 


3.1 

3.3 
3.5 
3.7 
3.9 
4.1 

4.4 

4.6 
4.9 
5.2 
5.5 

5.8 
6.1 
6.4 
6.7 
6.9 

7.2 
7.5 
7.8 
8.1 

8.4 

8.7 
9.0 
9.3 
9.7 
10.1 

10.3 

10.6 
11.0 
11.3 
11.7 


1.7 

1.7 
1.9 
1.9 
2.0 
2.1 

2.2 

2.4 
2.5 
2.6 
2.8 

2.9 
3.1 
3.2 
3.4 
3.5 

3.7 
3.9 
4.1 
4.2 
4.5 

4.6 
4.8 
5.0 
5.3 
5.5 

5.7 
6.0 
6.2 
6.4 
6.8 




16 




17 




18 




19 




20 




21 




22 




23 




24 




25 




26 




27 




28 




29 




30 




31 




32 




33 




34 




35 




36 




37 




38 




39 




40 




41 




42 




43 




44... 




45 










120-foot trees. 


16 


14.0 
14.8 
15.6 
16.4 
17.3 

18.0 
18.9 
19.6 
20.5 
21.3 

22.1 
22.9 
23.8 
24.6 
25.5 

26.4 
27.3 
28.1 
29.0 
29.8 

30.7 
31.6 
32.4 
33.3 
34.1 

34.9 
35.8 
36.6 
37.5 
38.2 

39.1 
40.0 


13.1 

13.9 
14.7 
15.5 
16.3 

16.9 
17.7 
18.5 
19.3 
20.1 

20.9 
21.7 
22.5 
23.2 
24.1 

24.8 
25.7 
26.5 
27.3 
28.1 

28.9 
29.6 
30.5 
31.2 
32.0 

32.8 
33.6 
34.4 
35.2 
35.9 

36.8 
37.6 


12.4 

13.2 
13.9 
14.7 
15.5 

16.3 
17.0 
17.8 
18.6 
19.3 

20.1 
20.9 
21.6 
22.4 
23.2 

24.0 
24.8 
25.6 
26.4 
27.1 

27.9 
28.7 
29.4 
30.2 
31.0 

31.7 
32.5 
33.3 
34.1 
34.8 

35.7 
36.4 


11.7 
12.5 
13.2 
13.9 
14.7 

15.4 
16.2 
16.9 
17.7 

18.5 

19.3 
20.1 
20.9 
21.6 
22.5 

23.3 
24.1 
24.9 
25.6 
26.4 

27.1 
27.9 
28.6 
29.4 
30.2 

31.0 
31.7 
32.5 
33.3 
34.0 

34.7 
35.5 


11.1 
11.9 
12.6 
13.3 
14.0 

14.7 
15.4 
16.2 
16.9 
17.7 
18.4 
19.3 
20.1 
20.9 
21.7 

22.5 
23.3 
24.0 
24.8 
25.6 

26.3 
27.1 
27.8 
28.6 
29.3 

30.1 
30.8 
31.5 
32.3 
33.0 

33.7 
34.5 


10.5 
11.2 
12.0 
12.6 
13.3 
14.0 
14.8 
15.5 
16.2 
16.9 

17.6 
18.4 
19.1 
19.9 
20.6 

21.4 
22.1 
22.9 
23.6 
24.4 

25.1 
25.9 
26.6 
27.3 
2S.0 

28.8 
29.5 
30.2 
31.0 
31.6 

32.3 
33.1 


9.8 
10.4 
11.0 
11.7 
12.4 

13.1 

13.8 
14.4 
15.1 
15.8 

16.5 
17.2 
17.9 
18.5 
19.2 

19.9 
20.8 
21.5 
22.3 
22.9 

23.6 
24.3 
24.9 
25.7 
26.4 

27.1 

27.7 
28.5 
29.2 
29.9 

30.6 
31.3 


9.0 
9.6 
10.2 
10.8 
11.4 

12.0 
12.6 
13.3 
13.9 
14.5 

15.2 
15.8 
16.5 
17.1 
17.7 
18.4 
19.1 
19.7 
20.4 
21.0 

21.6 
22.3 
22.9 
23.6 
24.2 

24.9 
25.5 
26.1 
26.8 
27.4 

28.1 
28.8 


7.8 
8.4 
8.9 
9.5 
10.0 

10.6 
11.2 
11.7 
12.3 
12.9 

13.5 
14.0 
14.6 
15.2 
15.8 

16.4 
17.0 
17.5 
18.1 

18.7 

19.3 
19.9 
20.5 
21.0 
21.6 

22.2 
22.8 
23.3 
23.9 
24.4 

25.0 
25.6 


6.2 
6.7 

7.1 
7.7 
8.1 
8.0 
9.1 
9.6 
10.0 
10.6 

11.1 
11.6 
12.1 
12.6 
13.2 

13.7 
14.2 
14.7 
15.3 
15.8 

16.3 
16.9 
17.4 
17.9 
18.4 

18.8 
19.3 
19.8 
20.3 
20.8 

21.3 
21.8 


4.4 
4.8 
5.2 
5.6 
5.9 

6.3 
6.6 
7.0 
7.4 
7.9 

8.3 
8.8 
9.2 
9.6 
10.0 

10.5 
11.0 
11.4 
11.9 
12.4 
12.8 
13.2 
13.6 
14.1 
14.6 

15.0 
15.4 
15.9 
16.3 
16.8 

17.1 

17.6 


2.6 
2.9 
3.2 

3.6 
3.7 

4.0 
4.3 
4.6 
4.9 
5.2 

5.5 
5.8 
6.1 
6.5 

6.8 

7.1 
7.5 
7.8 
8.2 
8.5 

8.9 
9.3 
9.6 
10-0 
10.3 

10.7 
11.1 
11.6 
11.8 
12.2 

12.5 
12.9 


1.6 


17 


1.3 


18 

19 

20 

21 


1.5 
1.9 
2.0 

2.2 


22 


2.5 


23 


2.6 


24 


2.8 


25 


3.0 


26 


3.2 


27 


3.4 


28 


3.6 


29 


3.9 


30 


4.0 


31 


4.3 


32 


4.4 


33 


4.7 


34 


4.9 


35 


5.1 


36 


5.3 


37 


5.6 


38 


5.8 


39 


6.1 


40 


6.3 


41 


6.6 


42 


6.8 


43 


7.1 


44 


7.3 


45 


7.6 


46 


7.8 


47 


8.0 








THE EASTERN HEMLOCK. 



43 



Table 22. — Diameters inside bark at different heights above the ground for trees of different 
sizes, based on measurements of 1,548 trees in the Southern Appalachian region— Con. 





130-foot trees. 


Diam- 
eter 






Height above ground— feet. 




































high 
outside 


10.15 


18.3 


26.45 


34.6 


42.75 


50.9 


59.05 


67.2 


75.35 


83.5 


91.65 


99.8 


107.95 


116.1 


124.25 


bark. 


































Diameter inside bark— inches. 


Inches. 
































18 


15.4 


14.5 


13.8 


13.1 


12.4 


11.7 


10.9 


9.9 


8.7 


7.4 


6.0 


4.6 


3.3 


2.0 




19 


16.4 


15.3 


14.6 


13.9 


13.2 


12.5 


11.7 


10.6 


9.3 


8.0 


6.5 


5.0 


3.6 


2.2 




20 


17.3 


16.1 


15.4 


14.7 


14.0 


13.3 


12.5 


11.3 


9.9 


8.6 


7.1 


5.5 


3.9 


2.4 




21 


18.2 


17.0 


16.2 


15.5 


14.8 


14.1 


13.3 


12.1 


10.7 


9.2 


7.6 


6.0 


4.2 


2.6 




22 


18.9 


17.7 


17.0 


16.3 


15.6 


14.8 


14.1 


12.8 


11.4 


9.8 


8.1 


6.3 


4.5 


2.8 




23 


19.9 


18.5 


17.8 


17.1 


16.4 


15.6 


14.8 


13.6 


12.1 


10.4 


8.6 


6.7 


4.8 


3.0 




24 


20.7 


19.3 


18.6 


17.9 


17.2 


16.4 


15.5 


14.3 


12.7 


11.0 


9.1 


7.1 


5.1 


3.2 




25 


21.6 


20.2 


19.5 


18.7 


18.0 


17.2 


16.4 


15.0 


13.5 


11.7 


9.7 


7.5 


5.4 


3.4 




26 


22.3 


21.0 


20.2 


19.5 


18.8 


18.0 


17.1 


15.7 


14.1 


12.4 


10.2 


7.9 


5.7 


3.6 




27 


23.2 


21.8 


21.1 


20.4 


19.7 


18.9 


17.9 


16.5 


14.9 


13.0 


10.8 


8.4 


6.0 


3.8 




28 


24.0 


22.7 


21.8 


21.1 


20.4 


19.6 


18.6 


17.2 


15.5 


13.6 


11.2 


8.7 


6.3 


4.1 




29 


24.8 


23.4 


22.7 


22.0 


21.3 


20.5 


19.4 


17.9 


16.2 


14.2 


11.8 


9.2 


6.6 


4.2 




30 


25.6 


24.2 


23.4 


22.8 


22.1 


21.2 


20.1 


18.6 


16.9 


14.8 


12.3 


9.6 


6.9 


4.4 




31 


26.5 


25.0 


24.3 


23.7 


22.9 


22.0 


20.9 


19.4 


17.6 


15.5 


12.9 


10.0 


7.3 


4.6 




32 


27.3 


25.8 


25.0 


24.4 


23.7 


22.8 


21.6 


20.1 


18.3 


16.1 


13.4 


10.4 


7.6 


4.9 




33 


28.2 


26.6 


26.0 


25.2 


24.5 


23.6 


22.3 


20.8 


19.1 


16.8 


13.9 


10.9 


8.0 


5.1 




34 


29.0 


27.4 


26.7 


26.0 


25.3 


24.4 


23.1 


21.6 


19.7 


17.4 


14.5 


11.3 


8.3 


5.3 




35 


30.0 


28.2 


27.5 


26.8 


26.1 


25.2 


23.9 


22.4 


20.5 


18.0 


15.1 


11.8 


8.7 


5.6 




36 


30.8 


28.9 


28.2 


27.5 


26.8 


25.9 


24.7 


23.1 


21.1 


18.6 


15.6 


12.2 


9.0 


5.8 




37 


31.7 


29.7 


29.1 


28.4 


27.6 


26.7 


25.4 


23.8 


21.8 


19.2 


16.1 


12.7 


9.4 


6.0 




38 


32.5 


30.5 


29.9 


29.1 


28.3 


27.4 


26.2 


24.5 


22.4 


19.7 


16.6 


13.1 


9.7 


6.3 




39 


33.4 


31.3 


30.7 


29.9 


29.1 


28.2 


27.0 


25.2 


23.1 


20.4 


17.1 


13.6 


10.0 


6.4 




40 


34.2 


32.1 


31.4 


30.7 


29.8 


28.9 


27.7 


25.9 


23.7 


20.$ 


17.5 


13.9 


10.3 


6.6 




41 


35.1 


32.9 


32.2 


31.5 


30.6 


29.6 


28.4 


26.6 


24.5 


21.7 


18.1 


14.4 


10.7 


6.9 




42 


35.9 


33.7 


33.0 


32.2 


31.3 


30.4 


29.1 


27.2 


25.1 


22.2 


18.5 


14.8 


11.0 


7.1 





43 


36.8 


34.6 


33.7 


33.0 


32.1 


31.0 


29.8 


2S.1 


25.8 


22.8 


19.0 


15.2 


11.4 


7.3 




44 


37.6 


35.3 


34.5 


33.7 


32.8 


31.8 


30.5 


28.7 


26.4 


23.2 


19.4 


15.6 


11.7 


7.6 




45 


38.6 


36.3 


35.3 


34.5 


33.5 


32.5 


31.2 


29.4 


27.0 


23.9 


20.0 


16.1 


12.1 


7.8 




46 


39.3 


37.0 


36.1 


35.3 


34.4 


33.2 


31.8 


30.0 


27.7 


24.4 


20.4 


16.4 


12.3 


7.9 




47 


40.3 


37.9 


36.8 


36.1 


35.1 


34.0 


32.6 


30.7 


28.4 


25.1 


20.9 


16.8 


12.6 


8.1 






140-foot trees. 


24 


20.6 


19.4 


18.8 


18.4 


17.7 


16.8 


15.7 


14.6 


13.4 


12.2 


10.7 


9.1 


7.4 


5.6 


3.6 


25 


21.5 


20.2 


19.6 


19.2 


18.5 


17.6 


16.4 


15.3 


14.1 


12.8 


11.3 


9.6 


7.7 


5.8 


3.7 


26 


22.3 


21.1 


20.5 


20.0 


19.3 


18.3 


17.2 


16.0 


14.8 


13.5 


11.9 


10.1 


8.1 


6.0 


3.9 


27 


23.1 


21.8 


21.3 


20.7 


20.0 


19.1 


18.0 


16.8 


15.5 


14.1 


12.5 


10.5 


8.4 


6.3 


4.1 


28 


24.0 


22.6 


21.9 


21.4 


20.7 


19.8 


18.8 


17.5 


16.2 


14.7 


13.0 


11.0 


8.8 


6.5 


4.2 


29 


24.8 


23.4 


22.8 


22.3 


21.5 


20.6 


19.6 


18.4 


17.0 


15.4 


13.6 


11.4 


9.2 


6.8 


4.5 


30 


25.7 


24.3 


23.5 


23.0 


22.3 


21.4 


20.3 


19.1 


17.8 


16.0 


14.1 


12.0 


9.5 


7.1 


4.7 


31 


26.5 


25.1 


24.4 


23.8 


23.1 


22.3 


21.2 


19.9 


18.4 


16.7 


14.7 


12.4 


9.9 


7.4 


4.8 


32 


27.4 


25.9 


25.2 


24.6 


23.9 


23.1 


22.0 


20.6 


19.1 


17.3 


15.3 


12.9 


10.3 


7.6 


5.0 


33 


28.2 


26.7 


26.0 


25.4 


24.6 


23.9 


22.8 


21.4 


19.8 


17.9 


15.8 


13.4 


10.7 


7.9 


5.1 


34 


29.1 


27.6 


26.8 


26.2 


25.5 


24.6 


23.5 


22.2 


20.6 


18.6 


16.4 


13.9 


11.1 


8.2 


5.3 


35 


29.9 


28.3 


27.5 


26.8 


26.1 


25.4 


24.3 


22.9 


21.3 


19.3 


17.0 


14.4 


11.4 


8.5 


5.5 


36 


30.8 


29.2 


28.3 


27.6 


26.9 


26.1 


25.0 


23.6 


22.0 


19.9 


17.5 


14.8 


11.8 


8.7 


5.7 


37 


31.6 


30.0 


29.1 


28.4 


27.7 


26.9 


25.7 


24.3 


22.6 


20.5 


18.1 


15.3 


12.2 


9.1 


5.9 


38 


32.5 


30.9 


29.9 


29.2 


28.5 


27.6 


26.5 


25.1 


23.4 


21.2 


18.7 


15.8 


12.6 


9.4 


6.1 


39 


33.4 


31.6 


30.7 


29.9 


29.2 


28.3 


27.3 


26.0 


24.2 


21.9 


19.3 


16.3 


13.0 


9.7 


6.3 


40 


34.3 


32.5 


31.5 


30.7 


29.9 


29.0 


28.0 


26.7 


25.0 


22.6 


19.8 


16.7 


13.3 


10.0 


6.5 


41 


35.2 


33.3 


32.3 


31.5 


30.7 


29.9 


28.7 


27.4 


25.7 


23.3 


20.4 


17.1 


13.7 


10.3 


6.7 


42 


36.1 


34.1 


33.0 


32.3 


31.5 


30.6 


29.5 


28.1 


26.5 


24.0 


20.9 


17.6 


14.1 


10.7 


7.0 


43 


37.0 


34.9 


33.9 


33.1 


32.3 


31.4 


30.2 


28.9 


27.1 


24.7 


21.6 


18.1 


14.5 


11.0 


7.2 


44 


37.9 


35.7 


34.6 


33.8 


33.1 


32.1 


31.0 


29.6 


27.9 


25.3 


22.1 


18.5 


14.9 


11.3 


7.5 


45 


38.8 


36.5 


35.4 


34.6 


33.8 


32.9 


31.8 


30.4 


28.6 


26.0 


22.7 


19.0 


15.3 


11.7 


7.7 


46 


39.7 


37.4 


36.2 


35.4 


34.6 


33.6 


32.4 


31.1 


29.4 


26.7 


23.2 


19.5 


15.6 


12.0 


7.9 


47 


40.5 


38.2 


37.1 


36.2 


35.2 


34.3 


33.2 


31.9 


30.1 


27.4 


23.8 


19.9 


16.0 


12.2 


8.1 


48 


41.5 


39.1 


37.8 


37.0 


36.0 


35.0 


34.0 


32.8 


31.0 


28.0 


24.3 


20.3 


16.4 


12.5 


8.3 


49 


42.3 


39.9 


38.8 


37.8 


36.8 


35.9 


34.8 


33.5 


31.6 


28.7 


24.9 


20.9 


16.8 


12.8 


8.5 


50 


43.3 


40.8 


39.5 


38.6 


37.6 


36.5 


35.5 


34.2 


32.4 


29.3 


25.5 


21.3 


17.1 


13.1 


8.7 



WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT FEINTING OFFICE : 1915 






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OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

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V 




BULLETIN OF THE 



No. 153 



Contribution from the Forest Service, Henry S. Graves, Forester 
January 28, 1915. 





FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED 

STATES. 

By C. R. Tillotson, Forest Examiner. 
OPPORTUNITIES FOR FOREST PLANTING. 

Nearly every farm includes one or more pieces of land which can 
be more profitably planted to timber than to an agricultural crop. 
Such an area may be some small corner not easily accessible, or else 
a piece of poor, sandy, 
swampy, or worn-out land, 
or it may be an old woodlot 
in poor condition and not 
fully stocked with growing 
timber. 

The 1910 census shows 
that the average farm in the 
United States contains 138 
acres, of which 75 are re- 
corded as improved and 63 
as unimproved, the latter 
consisting of "woodland" 
and "all other unimproved land." 1 The woodland and other unim- 
proved land covers the enormous total area of 400,346,000 acres. 
Of this nearly 245,000,000 acres are in the States east of Texas and 
the Kocky. Mountains, about 175,000,000 acres of which are in wood- 
lots. There remain about 70,000,000 acres of unforested and un- 
improved land in this eastern portion of the country, most of it best 
suited for growing timber. This area will be reduced by draining 
the swamp lands potentially adapted to agricultural crops, but will 
be increased by the addition of lands becoming worn out and unfit for 
growing field crops. 

Since 1S70 in New England the proportion of improved farm land 
has gradually declined as follows: In 1870, 61.3 per cent; in 1880, 

i "Woodland" includes all land covered with natural or planted forest trees which produce, or later may 
produce, firewood or other forest products. " All other unimproved lands " includes brush land, rough 
or stony land, swampy land, and any other not improved or in forest 

Note.— This bulletin is of interest to landowners throughout the northeastern United States, as shown 
by the shaded portion of the sketch map on this page. 
60370°— Bull. 153—15 1 



Fig. 1. 



-Sketch map of the United States, the shaded area 
showing section studied in this bulletin. 



2 BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

61.2 per cent; in 1890, 54.4 per cent; in 1900, 39.6 per cent; in 1910, 
36.8 per cent. These figures indicate a tendency to discontinue the 
use of land for purposes for which it is unfitted. Most of the un- 
improved farm land in the East and the Middle West is best suited 
to the growing of timber. Conditions hi this region, moreover, are 
particularly favorable for fire protection, intensive management, and 
a maximum yield. 

Timber brings the highest price, of course, where the natural supply 
is becoming scarce. In 1900 the average value of sawlogs in the 
United States was $6.28 per thousand feet, board measure; in Iowa, 
Indiana, and Ohio it was $12.16, $9.39, and $9.47, respectively. The 
higher prices in these States were due partly to local scarcity and 
partly to the fact that the timber consisted almost entirely of the 
more valuable hardwoods. 

Lumber is manufactured usually in the locality of the standing 
timber. Wood-manufacturing plants in some States formerly rich in 
certain kinds of timber are now compelled to obtain their raw mate- 
rial from neighboring States. At one time four-fifths of the area of 
Indiana was covered with forests of valuable hardwoods. In 1900, 
82 per cent of the lumber manufactured in that State came from 
outside. 

The price of fence posts of the more valuable species has doubled 
in some places during the last 20 years. To what extent the price 
will continue to advance is difficult to say, because of the introduction 
of preservative treatments for the poorer, cheaper kinds of timbers, 
making them fully as useful as the higher grade timbers untreated, 
and also because of the increasing use of concrete posts. Wooden 
posts will always be needed for temporary fences, however, and many 
farmers will undoubtedly always prefer them for permanent ones be- 
cause of their light weight. A farm of 160 acres requires annually 
75 to 100 posts for the repair of fences and often additional ones for 
temporary fences. A small plantation of trees suitable for fence 
posts appears, then, to be a very desirable farm asset. 

Another class of forest products for a timber plantation is that of 
cordwood for domestic use and for sale. The annual consumption 
of cordwood in the United States to-day is about 86,000,000 cords. 1 
In large cities— those of 30,000 inhabitants or more — at the present 
day, the average value of firewood is about $7 per cord, and in cities 
of 1,000 to 30,000 population this value averages about $4 per cord. 

A number of the States, through demonstration areas and the 
distribution of stock free of charge or at cost, are taking active steps 
to encourage forest planting. Sixteen States 2 have sought further 

1 Forest Service Circular 181. 

2 Alabama, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Maine, Minnesota, Nebraska, New 
Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming. 



FOEEST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 3 

to induce planting by systems of tax exemptions, bounties, or prizes. 
Such provisions, however, have not always been carefully drawn. 
In some cases the application of the law has been restricted to a cer- 
tain list of trees from which valuable species well adapted to planting 
have been omitted ; the number of trees per acre specified for planting 
and the regulations regarding thinnings have not always been drawn 
in accordance with scientific principles of forestry ; the period of 
exemption, or bounties, has sometimes been too short, applying only 
when the trees are small and the taxes on them normally light. 
Assessors, moreover, have sometimes adopted the practice of adding 
enough to the assessment of some other property of the timber owner 
to make up for the reduction on his plantation. Laws of this kind, 
however, even though they may have shown little in the way of 
results, indicate a willingness on the part of the various States to 
encourage forest planting. 

STATUS OF FOREST PLANTING IN THE REGION. 

PRAIRIE REGION. 

The settlers in the prairie region came from wooded countries and 
knew the value of trees for protective purposes. In consequence, 
they planted timber trees primarily for protection against the cold 
winds of winter and the hot, drying winds of summer. Wood pro- 
duction was a secondary consideration. By 1885 Kansas had 147,340 
acres of forest plantation, and Iowa, at about the same time, had 
100,000 acres. From 50 to 75 per cent of the trees set out were the 
hardy, rapid-growing cottonwood, silver maple, and willow. Among 
the other species represented were green ash, black walnut, butternut, 
balsam fir, European larch, Norway spruce, white spruce, black 
cherry, arborvitse, red cedar, Scotch pine, white, pine, black locust, 
osage orange, honey locust, and hardy catalpa. In one portion or 
another of the prairie region each of these species has found conditions 
favorable for growth. 

However, the hardwoods that were most generally planted arc 
not so good for windbreak purposes as are the conifers, which retain 
their foliage through, the winter. Because of this fact, and also 
because many of the older plantations are maturing, the latter are 
now being removed. Much of the land they have occupied is worth 
from $100 to $150 or more per acre when put in agricultural crops. 
For this reason forest planting is no longer being carried on to any- 
thing like the extent it once was, though extravagant claims made 
for hardy catalpa by certain tree agents have resulted in a consider- 
able quantity of this species being set out recently for post and pole 
production. 



4 BULLETIN 153, TJ. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

As the old plantations are cut and the need is felt for new wind- 
breaks to take their place, trees will be planted for this purpose. 
White pine, Norway spruce, and white spruce are likely to be the 
favorite species. There will be some planting to provide shade for 
stock and to grow fence posts and other products for use on the farm. 
Such plantations, however, will be restricted to the less valuable 
land, and their extent will depend very largely on the success of those 
already established. 

In some of the more newly settled districts, as yet practically 
treeless, planting of the rapid-growing hardwoods is still going on, 
and will probably continue for some time. 

CENTRAL HARDWOOD REGION. 

The central hardwood region comprises Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, 
and southern Michigan. Thus far very little planting has been done 
in any of these States. When the settlers in Iowa, Nebraska, and 
Kansas were setting out trees, the men of the central region were 
engaged in clearing their land of one of the finest hardwood forests 
in the world, which stood as a barrier against agricultural develop- 
ment. 

Within the past 5 or 10 years, however, forest planting has received 
a stimulus through the activities of State forest officers, and also 
through the distribution by some of the States, either free or at cost, 
of forest-tree seedlings raised in State nurseries. By 1910 Ohio had 
distributed more than 1,000,000 of such seedlings, and in 1907 and 
1908 Michigan distributed 396,000. Indiana and Michigan have 
State demonstration areas where different species are planted 
experimentally. 

As the soil in portions of the hardwood regions deteriorates under 
cultivation, larger and larger areas will find their best use in the pro- 
duction of timber. In Indiana alone some 6,000,000 acres are at 
present unproductive. The chief purpose of planting will probably 
be to secure fence posts, handle material, and other products which 
can be grown in a comparatively short time. At present the species 
most widely planted are black locust and hardy catalpa. Others 
being set out include white ash, white, Scotch, and western yellow 
pine, yellow poplar, various oaks, European larch, Norway spruce, 
chestnut, and black walnut. 

NORTHEAST REGION. 

Early conditions in the northeast region, comprising Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, New York, and the New England States, were much the 
same as in the central hardwood region. There was an abundance 
of natural timber which was gradually removed with the develop- 
ment of agriculture. Yet the first experiments in forest planting in 



Bui. 153, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate I . 




2 * 



is?** - «».<-*•*> <%ifm6 






• -■■ 










FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 5 

the United States were made in New England. One of the earliest 
plantations of which there is record was set out in 1819 near Chelms- 
ford, Mass., when the Rev. J. L. Russell transplanted a large number 
of pitch-pine seedlings from a field he wished to cultivate to a stretch 
of barren drift sand. In 20 years ne had a fine stand of pine from 
6 to 8 inches in diameter. In 1820 Zacharias Allen planted about 
40 acres of waste land at Smithfield, R. I., with oak, hickory, and 
locust. A careful account of all expenditures and receipts was kept, 
and at the end of 57 years the books showed a profit of 6.92 per cent 
on the capital invested. 

Present-day conditions in New England well illustrate the prin- 
ciple that in older communities the size of the farm reflects the poten- 
tial value of the soil for agricultural crops. The poorer the soil the 
larger will be the individual farm and the less intensive the culti- 
vation. Thus in the period between 1850 and 1910 the size of the 
average farm in Maine increased from 97.2 to 104.9 acres; in Vermont, 
from 138.6 to 142.6 acres; and in New Hampshire, from 116 to 120.1 
acres; while during the same period the average farm in Ohio 
decreased from 125 to 88.6 acres; in Indiana, from 136.2 to 98.8 
acres: and in Illinois, from 158 to 129.1 acres. 

In the States with the poorer soils, as indicated by the increasing 
size of the average farm, forest planting by private owners may be 
expected to increase. Of the approximately 10,000,000 acres of 
abandoned farm lands, 1,000,000 acres are in New Hampshire, and 
large areas lie within the other New England States. On most of 
these lands natural reforestation is slow, except in the case of inferior 
species, such as gray birch. White pine is the tree being planted 
most in New England. Though admirably adapted to the region, 
it is subject to serious damage by the white pine weevil (Pissodes 
strobi), and for this reason some other species, possibly Norway 
pine, may to some extent take its place in future planting. The 
eastern region is adapted to the growth of any of the northern hard- 
woods or conifers, and the choice of species will depend largely upon 
the relative rate of growth and the value of the products which it is 
possible to obtain. Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Con- 
necticut, and New York all distribute tree seedlings. In 1910 the 
demand by private owners in New York for State-grown white pine 
transplants amounted to nine times the supply available for distri- 
bution. Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York also main- 
tain State demonstration areas. Because of the relatively large 
proportion of wornout land the eastern region offers exceptional 
opportunities for forest planting. As a matter of fact, forest plant- 
ing as a commercial enterprise is being more widely agitated in New 
England to-day than anywhere else in the United States. 



6 BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF PLANTATIONS. 

NURSERY STOCK. 

In choosing planting stock the planting site and the probable care 
of the growing seedlings must be taken into account. With hard- 
wood trees, such as ash, maple, locust, or catalpa, 1-year-old stock 
is suitable. It costs less, is cheaper to plant, and is just as likely to 
thrive as older stock. 

With coniferous trees, such as pine or spruce, 2-year-old seedlings 
or transplants or 3-year-old transplants are best. Transplant stock 
of conifers, when 2 or 3 years old, has a more fibrous and better 
developed root system than corresponding seedling stock, and is 
more likely to succeed than the latter, especially under unfavorable 
conditions. Transplant stock should always be used on heavy soils 
where for any reason, cultivation is impossible and the young trees 
must compete with a heavy growth of grass. This would apply, for 
example, to cut-over areas filled with roots of old trees and to very 
steep slopes. 

Tree seedlings, especially of hardwoods, can be raised on a farm at 
low cost and with almost as little trouble as a bed of vegetables. 
The seed may be purchased or collected locally and planted in drills 
in soil prepared in the same manner as for vegetable crops. Stocks 
thus raised can be left in the seedbed until it is convenient for the 
owner to plant it. This plan avoids possible damage to the stock 
during shipment from a commercial nursery or unforeseen delays in 
planting the stock after it is received. One-year-old hardwood stock 
varies in height from less than a foot to more than 4 feet. A tree's 
height growth during the first year usually indicates its future vital- 
ity. Thus the taller trees grown in the seedbed should be given 
preference in planting. In the case of a plantation of black locust 
in Indiana, where the planting stock was raised by the owner, the 
smaller stuff was about 3 feet and the larger 7 feet tall after two 
years' growth in the seedbed. The larger and smaller trees were 
planted separately on similar sites. After four years the 7-foot seed- 
lings were 20 feet high, while the 3-foot seedlings were only 12 feet 
high. 

Advantage could be taken of this characteristic by planting the 
more and the less vigorous trees in mixture, the shorter ones merely 
as fillers to be cut out when the stand becomes crowded, the taller 
trees to constitute the stand to be left until maturity. 

Conifers are not so easily propagated as hardwoods, and it would 
ordinarily be best to purchase coniferous seedlings or transplants 
rather than raise the stock at home. Conifer stock should be pur- 
chased either from reputable nurserymen or from those State nurseries 
which offer it for sale. If a fairly large number of young plants art* 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 7 

desired, it is usually possible to obtain them at a reduced price if a 
contract is made with the nurseryman some time in advance. Lists 
of dealers in nursery stock may be secured from the Forest Service, 
Washington, D. C. Stock from local nurseries is usually preferable 
to that secured from a distance. 

METHOD OF PLANTING. 

FACTORS DETERMINING CHOICE OF METHOD. 

The cost of the actual planting operation is one of the fundamental 
factors in fixing the final cost of the plantation, and so the method 
to be followed in this operation should be given careful consideration. 
What method should be applied depends upon the species and size 
of stock, character of site, condition of stock, and region. 

If for any reason large stock with large root systems must be 
planted, such as hardwoods 2 or more years old or conifers several 
years old, holes must be dug either with a spade or mattock for each 
individual tree. But if smaller stock can be used a more rapid, 
cheaper method may be followed. 

The character of the species alone may be the single factor in de- 
termining the method of planting. For example, the nut trees 
develop so deep a tap root that it is impracticable with them to adopt 
any method of planting except that of sowing the seed directly on 
the permanent site. 

The character of the site alone may also determine the planting- 
method. A very rocky situation may preclude all planting methods 
except that of digging a hole for each individual tree. 

The condition of the particular stock to be planted may make one 
method preferable to another. If, for instance, the trees are received 
in poor condition, or if they happen to have a very poor root system, 
it may be necessary to plant them with particular care. 

The region, together with the species, is an important factor in 
determining the planting method. The climate in one region may 
favor a given species more than that in another region, and hence 
more rapid, less careful methods of planting may be used in one region 
than in another. 

DESCRIPTION OF METHODS. 

Slit method. — The planting method which has probably been most 
often used is that known as the "slit method." A wedge-shaped 
hole is opened in the ground by inserting a spade and moving it 
backward and forward. The roots of the seedling or transplant are 
then inserted back of the spade in the cleft thus formed, the spade is 
removed, and the earth pressed with the foot firmly around the 
plant. A mattock is sometimes used instead of a spade. With 
this the soil may be loosened over a spot from 10 to 12 inches in 
diameter, and the cleft then made in the center of this loosened soil. 



8 BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The slit method has proved very successful throughout the region of 
this report, both with hardwoods and with conifers. 

Direct seeding. — The method of direct sowing of seed in rows on the 
planting site has been followed with much success. In a few cases 
walnut seed which during the previous winter had not been properly 
prepared by stratifying was sown in the spring with rather unsatis- 
factory results. A portion of the seed sprouted the first summer, but 
the larger part of it remained dormant in the soil through the follow- 
ing winter and then sprouted. Such cases as this merely emphasize 
the need for treating such seed before planting it. 

Broadcast sowing also deserves some attention. In Iowa one 
plantation of green ash was started by broadcasting the seeds on 
ground prepared by plowing and harrowing and then covered by 
harrowing. The trees came up very thickly; after 17 years a sample 
plot 50 feet square showed 135 living and 63 dead trees. Ordinarily 
such good results could not be expected, but these figures show that 
a very dense stand may sometimes be secured by broadcast sowing. 
Similar results might be obtained with species other than green ash, 
but success is not as likely as in the case of other methods of sowing 
or planting. 

Planting of sprouted nuts. — A rather novel but very successful 
method of planting black walnut was that followed by one planter in 
Indiana. He buried the walnuts in a shallow pit during the winter 
so that they might be subjected to the action of frost and moisture 
before jdanting. Upon uncovering the nuts the following spring he 
found that many of them had formed sprouts 3 or 4 inches long. 
These were planted on well- tilled ground by scooping out a little 
soil with the hands, a method similar to that of planting cabbage. 
This method reduces the possibility of fail places in a plantation, 
and may be used with species like black walnut, butternut, hickories, 
and oaks, wherever the nuts sprout before the planter is able to set 
them out. Sprouting does not in the least injure the quality of the 
seed, although it may necessitate such a method of planting as the 
one described. 

Furrow method. — Another method is to plant young trees in a 
plowed furrow. This is rapid, and in good soil has proved successful 
with such hardwood trees as Cottonwood, maple, and ash, and also with 
such coniferous trees as pine and spruce. It is especially applicable 
in the case of cottonwood and willow cuttings of 1 or 2 year old wood 
taken from old trees. 

Individual hole method. — This method, which has not been used 
extensively, consists simply of digging a hole for each individual tree. 
It is undoubtedly the surest method, but at the same time the most 
expensive. 



FOEEST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 



COSTS OF DIFFERENT METHODS. 



Table 1 shows the cost of planting operations, exclusive of the cost 
of the stock itself, where different species and methods were used. 

Table 1. — Cost of planting with different species and methods. 



Case 
No. 


Species. 


Stock. 


Method of planting. 


Soil. 


Cost 
per M. 




Black locust 

do 


1-year seedlings 

do 


Holes dug 


Yellow clay silt 

Sand 


$5.35 


2 


Slit method 


1.25 


3 




.do 


do 


Yellow clay silt 

Sand 


3.00 


do 


.do 


....do 


1.50 


5 




Wild stock 5 to 6 
inches high. 


Holes dug 


Black loam 


6.00 


6 


do 


do 


do 


5.00 


7 


do 


3-year seedlings 


Slit method 


do 


3.00 


8 


do 


do 


Yellow clay silt 

Black loam 


3.00 


9 


do 


2-year seedlings 

Seed .. 


Furrow plowed 


1.25 




Black walnut 

do 


do 


1.00 


11 


....do 


Dropped in intersec- 
tions made by corn 
marker. 


do 


.75 


12 


do 


...do 


do 


.50 


13 


do 


....do 


Dropped into old corn 

hills. 
Like cabbage plants. . . 


do 


.50 


14 


....do 


Seed, sprouted 

Seed 


Black sandy loam. . . 
do 


5.50 


15 


do 


.50 


16 




3-vear seedlings 6 to 

8 feet tall. 
1-year seedlings 




Sand 


7.85 


17 


do 


Slit method 


Black loam 


2.00 


18 


do 


do 


Sand 


2.00 


19 


do 


....do 


do 


do 


1.50 


20 


do 


...do 






2.00 


21 




.do 




do 


1.00 


22 


.do 


Seed 




Yellow clay loam 

Sand 


.50 


23 


Cottonwood 

.do 


1-year seedlings 


Slit method 


1.50 


24 






.25 


25 


Norway spruce 

E uro pean larch 

do 


2-year transplants. . . 




do 


0.00 


26 


do 


do 


5.00 


27 


do 




do 


3.00 


28 


do 


....do 


....do 


do 


1.00 


29 








do 


5.00 


30 


.do . 


2-year seedlings 

4-year transplants. . . 




do 


3.00 


31 


.do 




do 


3.00 


32 




.do 


....do 


2.00 


33 




Seed 


Hoe 


do 


.35 


34 




.do.... 


...do 


....do 


.35 


35 


White spruce 


1-year transplants. . . 




do 


1.25 











Table 1 is based largely on estimates of cost made by actual planters. 
Since in most cases no exact records were kept the figures are only 
approximate, though they show very closely the relative costs of the 
different methods of planting. In order of cheapness the four princi- 
pal methods rank as follows: Direct sowing of seed; planting in fur- 
row; slit method; digging a hole for each tree. Apparent discrep- 
ancies in the table are due to the special conditions of each case, such 
as topography and soil, and the care exercised by individual planters. 



MERITS OF THE- DIFFERENT METHODS. 



For those species to which it is adapted, direct sowing has the 
advantages of rapidity and cheapness. On the other hand, the seed 
may be eaten by birds or rodents, or it may be defective. Again, the 
small size of the trees during the first year makes proper cultivation 
difficult, nor can the method be relied upon in unfavorable sites or 
seasons. In spite of these objections, however, it has p roved success- 

60370°— Bull. 153—15 2 



10 BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

ful with walnut, butternut, ash, silver maple, red and bur oaks, black 
cherry, and white, Scotch, red, and pitch pines. 

The seed of the nut trees (walnut, butternut, the hickories, and 
black and red oaks) should either be planted in the autumn or, what 
is better, buried in a shallow, rodent-proof pit out of doors during the 
winter, and then planted on the permanent site in the following spring. 
Seed thus buried during winter is said to be "stratified." Silver maple 
seed must be gathered during the spring in which it is planted. Seed 
of the remaining species mentioned in the preceding paragraph should 
be gathered during the fall or winter previous to planting and stored 
away until spring. Pine seed is best stored in a sealed fruit jar or 
other air-tight container, though it, and also cherry seed, may be 
stored in cloth sacks hung out of the reach of rodents in a cool, well- 
ventilated room. Stables, however, should not be used for storage 
purposes. Ash seed is best stored with an equal volume of moist 
sand in boxes kept in some cool place. 

Planting in furrows is rapid and is the least expensive of all meth- 
ods for seedlings, transplants, or cuttings. It has proved successful 
with both hardwoods and conifers, but there is danger that the trees 
will not be set deeply enough in the ground . The method of covering 
the roots — simply plowing a second furrow toward them — is very 
likely to result in either covering the young trees or leaving the roots 
exposed. Frequently the earth is not well firmed over the roots, 
though this may be done after the plow has passed. The method can 
be practiced, of course, only where the ground permits of plowing. 
Because of its low cost it is recommended, if carefully done, for small 
seedlings or transplants without a pronounced taproot system, on 
good soil, and also for Cottonwood and willow when propagated by 
cuttings. 

The slit method of planting has proved very successful, and is 
fairly rapid and cheap. It may be recommended for small stock of 
nearly all species unless the soil is very poor or uncommonly dry at 
the time of planting, or unless the stock used is exceptionally high 
priced or in poor condition. 

Digging a hole for each tree is necessary under such conditions as 
those just cited. This is an expensive operation, however, and should 
not be used where any other method would prove successful. In case 
16 in Table 1 the stock used consisted of 3-year-old seedlings between 
6 and 8 feet tall. As compared with the other cases the cost of plant- 
ing was very high. The soil was almost a pure sand, which made 
digging easy, but a hole 2 feet deep had to be dug for each tree. The 
trees grew so poorly at first that after a couple of years the owner cut 
them back to the ground. Sprouts have come up from the stumps, 
but these are only a little larger than some 1 -year-old seedlings set 
out three years later on the same site. Large stock is only to be rec- 
ommended where hogs are to run among the trees soon after planting. 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 11 

TIME OF PLANTING. 

Practically all of the plantations examined in the region have been 
started in the spring, which seems the best season for setting out 
seedlings on the permanent site. As compared with autumn plant- 
ing, spring planting has at least two distinct advantages — the stock 
has a whole growing season in which to become established before 
being subjected to the rigors of winter, and it is not subject to the 
immediate danger of being heaved out of the ground by alternate 
freezing and thawing. On the other hand, a dry season immediately 
after the trees are set out in the spring may prove fatal to the planta- 
tion. 

In the case of direct sowing, the time of planting is best determined 
by some characteristic of the seed to be planted, particularly the time 
of ripening. Silver maple and elm seed, for example, lose their vital- 
ity soon after they ripen in the spring and must be sown at the latter 
time. Walnut, butternut, hickory nuts, and red oak seed must be 
kept moist for a considerable period before they will germinate well; 
hence they must either be planted in the autumn or else stored over 
winter in some place where they will come in contact with damp 
soil. Any freezing which occurs, during this period will be helpful 
in opening the hard shells. 

Cloudy days should be selected for planting, especially in the case 
of conifers. Exposure to the sun, even for a short time, will kill the 
young roots, and thus the plantation will fail at the very start. The 
roots of the young trees, whether hardwoods or conifers, should be 
kept moist up to the very moment when they are planted on the 
permanent site. The stock may be carried to the field in a bucket, 
with the roots immersed in water, or the roots of a bunch of trees 
may be wrapped in wet burlap, one tree being drawn out at a time 
and planted. 

1 PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. 

Plowing and harrowing the planting site before setting out the 
trees is a wise practice. It puts the soil in good tilth, facilitates 
planting, conserves soil moisture, increases the proportion of success- 
ful trees, and induces rapid initial growth. On very sandy soils 
which do not support a heavy sod of grass, however, preparation 
is not necessary; and on very steep slopes and among rocks or large 
roots may be too expensive. 

Fall seems to be the best time to prepare the ground, since the soil 
is thus exposed to the action of the winter frost, and has time to 
settle before receiving the young trees. The trees in a 5-year-old 
plantation of black locust in southern Michigan, on fall-plowed 
ground, were fully as large as those in a 6-year-old plantation set on 
an adjoining strip plowed in the spring. 



12 BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



The proper spacing for trees in a plantation depends largely on 
the habit of the species and the character of the site. In general, 
the more tolerant the trees and the more unfavorable the site the 
closer should be the spacing. White pine is so tolerant that it must 
be planted as closely as 4 by 4 feet, in order to have the lower branches 
killed by shading at an early age. Close-spaced stands must be 
thinned sooner than open-spaced ones, and if the owner does not 
intend to make such a thinning when needed he should use a wider 
spacing. With practically all species close spacing requires a thin- 
ning before the stand is 20 years old, and in the case of some, especially 
intolerant or rapid-growing trees, such as cottonwood, by the time 
it is 10 years old. The trees removed in the early thinnings required 
by close spacing would usually be unmerchantable; hence, if the site 
is favorable, a wider spacing is usually best. Wide spacing, more- 
over, reduces initial cost and will give larger trees than can be grown 
in the same time in a closely spaced plantation in which early thin- 
nings are not made. 

On the less favorable sites, however, close spacing is best. The 
greater number of trees per acre offsets the higher mortality among 
the young plants on poor situations and also gives a thicker crown 
cover, and hence better protection of the soil. The relatively large 
amount of falling leaves and litter, moreover, mixes with the soil, thus 
actually improving it. 

Close spacing gives clearer but comparatively slender boled trees; 
wide spacing results in more or less branchy trees of comparatively 
large diameter. This is well illustrated in the case of two plantations 
of white pine near Clermont, Iowa, on very similar sites. In one 
of them the trees were originally spaced 1 by 6 h, feet and in the other 
16 by 16 feet. When 43 years old the trees planted 1 by 6| feet had 
reached an average diameter of 1\ inches and an average height of 
53 feet; the lower branches were dead to a height of from 20 to 30 
feet and were falling off. At the same age the trees planted 16 by 
16 feet had reached an average diameter of 12.3 inches and an average 
height of 60 feet, and though the lower branches were dead to a 
height of from 20 to 30 feet they were still persisting. Of two plan- 
tations of European larch near Sac City, Iowa, on similar sites, one 
spaced 8 by 8 feet has, after 28 years, reached an average diameter 
of 7.6 inches and a height of 47 feet, with the lower branches dead 
to a height of from 20 to 30 feet. The other, spaced 10 by 12 feet, 
at the same age shows an average tree diameter of 9.2 inches and a 
height of 43 feet, the trees having been pruned artificially to a height 
of 20 feet. 

Old plantations have done much to indicate the relative spacings 
to which different species are adapted. These spacings are given 
under the discussions of the respective species. 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 13 

CARE OF PLANTATIONS. 

CULTIVATION. 

Most forest plantations should be cultivated for two or three years 
after being set out. On the heavy soils of the treeless and hardwood 
regions cultivation becomes almost necessary. Though even on 
these latter soils the trees will survive without cultivation, they take 
a number of years to become well established, and meantime make 
very little height growth. If cultivated, however, they become well 
established during the first or second season and grow vigorously in 
height during this time. This contrast is brought out by two plan- 
tations of green ash, one in Iowa and one in Ohio. The soils in the 
two regions, though somewhat different in character, are both con- 
ducive to the growth of the species. In the Iowa plantation the trees 
v/ere well cultivated and had reached an average height of 9 to 10 
feet when only 4 years old. Cultivation was impossible in the 
Ohio plantation, because the soil was full of old roots; in consequence 
a heavy growth of grass came in and the trees, when 8 years old, had 
reached a height of only 8 feet. 

Cultivation serves several purposes. It conserves soil moisture, 
keeps out grass and weeds which would ordinarily compete with the 
trees for moisture, hastens the establishment and growth of the seed- 
lings, lessens mortality among the planted stock, and shortens the 
rotation. This last point is of special importance in commercial 
plantations of the fence-post trees, such as hardy catalpa, Euro- 
pean larch, black locust, Russian mulberry, and Osage orange, grown 
on a rotation of from 15 to 25 years on soil with an annual rental 
value of $4 to $6 per acre. 

On poor sandy or rocky soil, where trees of commercial value 
can not be produced in less than 50 years, cultivation is generally 
not advisable. On such soils the growth of grass and weeds is usually 
insufficient to interfere very much with the growth of the trees, and 
the expense of cultivation, when figured at compound interest for 
40 or 50 years, more than offsets the value of the resulting increased 
growth. 

In cultivating a plantation there is always the danger of con- 
tinuing the operation too late in the season. Forest trees, like 
fruit trees, are subject to damage by heavy, early frosts, and, if their 
wood is particularly succulent at the time when these occur, may be 
severely injured. Late cultivation is conducive to this condition 
of the wood, and no work of the kind should be continued beyond 
the first or middle of July. The grass or other vegetation coming 
in after this serves a good purpose in drying out the soil, thus checking 
the growth of the trees and hardening their wood. The danger of 
late cultivation can not be emphasized too strongly, since young 



14 BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

plantations, even of the hardy black walnut, have been killed back 
to the ground by severe early frosts and winter freezing when culti- 
vation was continued too late in the growing season. 

It is not necessary that the entire cost of cultivation be borne 
by the plantation. Field crops of corn, potatoes, or beans may be 
grown between the rows for the first one or two years. These will 
not only yield a revenue to the owner, but then cultivatiion will 
benefit the young trees. Sometimes all of the cost of cultivating can 
be charged against the field crop, making a considerable difference 
in the final cost of the plantation. 

The number of years in which cultivation is necessary and the 
amount of it each year will depend, of course, upon the rapidity of 
growth of the species planted and the spacing of the trees in the 
plantation. Some planters have found two cultivations a year for 
three years sufficient, except under unusually trying conditions. 
A three-year period should be ample, with possibly three or four 
cultivations during each of the first two seasons. The work may be 
done at first with a two-horse cultivator, and later, when the trees 
become larger, with a one-horse cultivator. 

THINNING. 

Every forest plantation reaches a condition after a few years 
when some of the standing trees should be cut out. The removal 
of undesirable trees is called a thinning. The principle is the same 
as that applied by truck gardeners to vegetable crops which are 
thinned out in order to get the best development of a portion of the 
crop rather than a meager development of the whole. The struggle 
for existence between the trees of the stand first induces rapid height 
growth and kills the lower branches, but, if allowed to continue, the 
more vigorous trees are prevented from making their best diameter 
growth by the presence of the less vigorous ones. 

Where there is a poor market for the product from thinnings 
the operation will scarcely pay for itself; where the market is good, 
however, thinnings have been made at a net gain of from 10 cents 
to $2 per cord. 1 In the more widely spaced plantations thinnings 
will not be necessary until the product is of merchantable size. The 
future, moreover, promises a better market for small-sized material 
than exists at present, which will make thinnings profitable in stands 
in which now they would not be. In small plantations thinnings 
may be carried on by the owner at odd times at no cost other than his 
own labor. When poles are cut for some farm use a little care in 
their selection looking to the betterment of the stand will insure a 
crude form of thinning. 

i Bulletin No. 2, State Forester's Office, Massachusetts. 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 15 

The presence of dead or dying trees in the stand, a very dense 
crown cover, or an apparent stagnation in the growth of the living 
trees indicates that a thinning is needed. The usual practice is to 
thin when the product is of sufficient size to pay for the operation 
and to repeat the process thereafter as often as the material has 
accumulated in sufficient quantity to again pay for the cost. Many 
plantations, however, need their first thinning before they reach this 
state. Silver maple, black locust, and other species have a decided 
tendency to grow toward openings in the crown canopy, and in 
then- efforts to reach these the trunks become crooked. Under such 
conditions a thinning should be made whether the operation will pay 
for itself or not. The first thinning may be needed by the time the 
stand is 10 years old. 

As a rule, trees of the least potential value should be the ones 
removed in a thinning. In the early life of a stand the trees range 
themselves into several crown classes — dominant, codominant, in- 
termediate, suppressed, and dead. The dominant trees are the 
tallest ones, whose crowns receive almost complete sunlight; co- 
dominant trees are those of slightly less height, with relatively narrow 
crowns which are not fully exposed to sunlight; intermediate trees 
are considerably smaller than those of the first two classes, but 
still healthy, because their crowns continue to occupy open spaces 
in the canopy; suppressed trees are those hopelessly behind in height 
growth, and which will eventually be killed by the shade of the other 
decs. The trees which remain after a thinning should, as a rule, 
be those which are most vigorous, of the best form, and presumably 
of the highest final market value. This does not mean that no 
codominant or dominant trees should ever be cut, or that no intemie- 
diate and suppressed trees be allowed to remain. High-grade trees 
must sometimes be cut to obtain the proper opening of the crown 
canopy, and inferior trees may serve the useful purpose of shading 
the soil, thus tending to retard evaporation and prevent the growth 
of harmful vegetation on the forest floor. Except where needed for 
soil shading, however, suppressed and intermediate trees should 
generally be thinned in preference to the larger trees of the first two 
classes. When it can be done cheaply dead trees should be removed 
in order to rid the stand of material likely to increase the danger 
from fire. 

The extent to which the crown of a stand may be opened depends 
largely upon the rate of growth of the species and their demand for 
light. In general, openings should not be so large that they will not 
close again within from three to five years by the growth of the remain- 
ing crowns. Rapid-growing trees, such as cottonwood or silver maple, 
should have their crowns opened to a much greater extent than 



16 



BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



stands of slower growing species, such as ash, oak, or walnut. Intol- 
erant trees, such as cottonwood, European larch, black locust, or 
black walnut, require large openhigs in the crown cover. Cottonwood 
and European larch in particular die for no apparent cause except 
insufficient light, even when apparently receiving an abundance. 
For white pine and Norway spruce the openings need not be large. 

There are no instances in this country where thinnings have been 
systematically carried on, and for this reason it is not possible to 
cite examples of their effect. The comparative size of trees grown 
in open-spaced and close-spaced stands, however, is something of an 
indication of the results to be expected from thinning, and a few exam- 
ples of this sort are given in Table 2. Comparisons should be made, 
of course, only between stands or rows of nearly the same age. 

Table 2. — Size of trees in open and close spaced stands. 



European larch. 


AVhite pine. 


Cottonwood. 


Nature of 
stand. 


Age. 


Spac- 
ing. 


Aver- 
age di- 
ameter 
breast 
high. 


Nature of 
stand. 


Age. 


Spac- 
ing. 


Aver- 
age di- 
ameter, 
breast 
high. 


Nature of 
stand. 


Age. 


Spac- 
ing. 


Aver- 
age di- 
ameter 

breast 
high. 


Grove 

Do 

Grove 

Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 


Yrs. 
28 
28 
28 
35 
35 
37 
35 
39 
40 


Feet. 
8x8 

;io x 12 

0) 

8x8 
74x74 

8x8 

3x7 
3| x3| 

4x4 


Inchts. 

7.6 

9.2 

10.6 

10.0 

11.2 

10.0 

7.4 

7.0 

8.3 


Grove 

Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 

Grove 


Yrs. 
35 
37 
39 
43 
43 
53 
53 


Feet. 
6x7 
8x9 
4x4 
16 x 16 
lx6J 
( 2 ) 
6x7 


Inches. 
8.8 
9.7 
8.1 
12.3 
7.5 
14.1 
11.1 


Grove 

Do 

Do 

Row 

Grove 

Do 

Do , 


Yrs. 
12 
13 
35 
35 
36 
40 
41 


Feet. 

54x8 
4x5 

84x84 

( 3 ) 
Jx 10 
2x36 
6x6 


Inches. 
8.4 
3.9 
13.3 
19.3 
13.4 
17.6 
12.3 



1 5 feet apart in row. 



2 Trees 6 feet apart. 



PRUNING. 



1 2 to 4 feet apart in row. 



Pruning is the removal of living or dead branches from a tree. 
The purpose is to improve the tree's form; to increase growth in its 
leading shoot by eliminating some of the lateral shoots and to improve 
the quality of the lumber by getting rid of the source of knots. 

Most trees in forest plantations, especially those closely spaced at 
the start, will prune themselves; the additional value gained by 
pruning them by hand is usually not sufficient to pay for the opera- 
tion. The cost, therefore, would have to be reckoned as a fixed 
charge, to run at interest, against the final cost of the plantation. 
In small plantations, however, it may be possible for the owner him- 
self to do the pruning at odd times, and thus avoid an additional 
charge. Side branches can not well be pruned to a greater height 
than a man can reach from the ground with an axe, and this amount 
of pruning will scarcely have much effect in increasing the stumpage 
value of the timber. 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 17 

Another objection to pruning is the danger of overdoing it. If a 
tree is pruned too far up it may become top heavy and be broken off 
in a severe wind. Catalpa, ash, and black cherry are particularly 
susceptible to injury in this way. The stems of young black cherry 
and ash, when pruned far up, bend over by their own weight nearly 
at right angles. Sucker sprouts then shoot up from the bent stems, 
making a deformed tree. In a stand of black cherry 8 year.s old in 
Indiana, where the trees w T ere pruned to a whip, 11 per cent had been 
broken off by the wind. 

Pruning also reduces the amount of leaf surface, the food-making 
part of the tree, and hence reduces its rate of growth. 

Especially valuable species and trees with very persistent branches 
should be trimmed at least of their dead branches and sometimes of 
their living ones. Of the species commonly planted, white pine, 
black walnut, hardy catalpa, and black locust sometimes need 
pruning. 

The lower branches of white pine are large and persist for many 
years after dying. Sometimes, but not as a rule, it will be profitable 
to prune the best trees in the stand by simply knocking off the limbs 
with an axe after they are dead and have become brittle. Black 
walnut seldom needs pruning, though occasionally dead branches 
persist for a number of years which are likely to form loose knots 
in the lumber. Such branches should be removed. Hardy catalpa 
has very persistent branches, though the presence of knots in fence 
posts, the chief product of catalpa plantations, scarcely impairs 
their value. The dead branches are objectionable, however, because 
they become loose and allow the entrance of wood-rotting fungi. 
Since, therefore, these branches are a menace, they should be removed. 
Catalpa, moreover, does not form a terminal bud, but ordinarily 
develops three buds at each node. From those at the node nearest 
the tip of the last year's shoot three new shoots arise, any one of 
which may develop into a leader. In order to increase the devel- 
opment of one of these shoots and thus control the tree's form, one 
or both of the other two shoots on the node should be removed. 
An effective and cheap way of doing this is to pinch off these shoots 
just as they are developing from the buds. Black locust ordinarily 
prunes itself readily, but when widely spaced the main stem often 
forks into two or more main branches. In one young plantation 
of black locust in Illinois, spaced 8 by 11 feet, fully 43 per cent of the 
trees showed this fault. Such trees should if possible be pruned of 
all but one of their leaders. 

The lower branches of Norway spruce are very persistent, but 
not very large; hence for ordinary purposes the tree requires no 
pruning. The ashes ordinarily prune themselves of their lower 
60370°— Bull. 153—15 3 



18 BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

branches, but the leader from year to year seems to develop as 
commonly from one of the lateral buds as from the terminal one, 
resulting in a crooked bole. The ash plantations examined have 
grown too slowly to make pruning a profitable operation, but if 
especially straight stuff is desired it can be obtained either by very 
close spacing or by pruning. Ash will grow fairly straight if spaced 
closely, and pruning should accomplish the same result as close 
spacing. One method of pruning is to cut off each year the lateral 
shoots which threaten to compete with the leader; another is to 
pinch off the lateral buds formed near the tip on the terminal shoot. 

The branches of European larch die early, but are very persistent. 
Pruning this tree does not pay, however, because the products of 
the plantation (chiefly posts and poles) are ahnost, if not fully, 
as valuable when somewhat knotty as when clear. 

Cottonwood prunes itself exceptionally well, and soft maple, black 
cherry, and Scotch pine also lose their branches readily. The oaks, 
as a rule, are not good self-pruners, but they grow so slowly that 
pruning is not a profitable operation. 

MIXTURES. 

Comparatively few plantations of mixed species have been set 
out in the region under discussion, and in the few cases where this 
has been done the mixture has usually proved unsuccessful. This 
has been due, however, more to the planters' ignorance of the require- 
ments of the species planted than to any essentail defect in the 
method itself. A mixture of two or more species is often desirable. 
Some trees, such as cottonwood and European larch, need to be 
spaced widely, while others, like black walnut and black locust, 
have such a scant foliage that they do not shade the ground com- 
pletely enough to prevent the growth of a heavy sod of grass. In 
such cases a mixture will more completely utilize the area planted, 
thus increasing the yield, and at the same time will bring about 
better forest conditions in the plantation. 

Mixtures are desirable for other reasons. Planting stock of such 
species as white pine and European larch is expensive, and a less 
valuable species mixed with the main crop, and removed later in 
thinnings, will keep down the first cost. If a species to be planted 
is susceptible to serious insect or fungous attack, as is white pine 
or black locust, the mixture of another species not susceptible will 
provide for a stand of trees on the area in case the pine or locust 
is killed. When such species as European larch, white pine, or black 
walnut are widely spaced, in order to promote the most rapid 
growth, it may be advisable to interspace the area with some more 
tolerant and slower-growing species. 

A number of mixtures are given below which should prove suc- 
cessful on soils adapted to both species of the mixture, and which 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 



19 



arc likely to have ono or more of the advantages cited. The prin- 
cipal species in each mixture is named first; and where they take 
equal rank the fact is indicated by an asterisk (*): 



10. 



Cottonwood and silver maple. 
Cottonwood and Norway spruce. 
Cottonwood and white spruce. 
Cottonwood and green ash. 

* European larch and white pine. 

* European larch and red oak. 
European larch and white spruce. 

* European larch and Norway spruce. 
White pine and Scotch pine. 

* White pine and Norway pine. 



11. White pine and hard maple. 

12. White pine and red oak. 

13. Black walnut and white spruce. 

14. Old open stands of black walnut 

underplanted with white pine. 
Many of the old groves, particularly in 
Iowa, are of soft maple. These may be 
gradually replaced by underplanting 
with white spruce and removing the 
maple. 



PROTECTION. 

INSECTS. 



The locust borer has completely destroyed many plantations of 
black locust; the white-pine weevil kills the leading shoot of white 
pine; the gipsy and brown-tail moths defoliate the hardwoods, par- 
ticularly the oaks, and in some cases have attacked conifers; while 
the sawfly has defoliated and killed much of the native larch and has 
attacked also the European larch. Before setting out any trees the 
prospective planter should communicate with the Bureau of Ento- 
mology of the Department of Agriculture, or with the State experi- 
ment station, in order to find out whether insect enemies of the species 
he proposes to plant are prevalent in the neighborhood. At the first 
sign of insects hi an established plantation the owner should likewise 
communicate with the Bureau of Entomology to ascertain the best 
methods of combating them. 



FIELD MICE AND RABBITS. 



Young trees are sometimes girdled by field mice and rabbits. 
Where these pests are numerous it is almost impossible to prevent 
them from eating the bark of trees during the winter when green food 
of other kinds is absent. If the grass around the tree is killed by 
cultivation there will be less danger from field mice, since these work 
largely under the grass covering. Poisoning is not always an efficient 
method of getting rid either of mice or rabbits; and poisoned food 
may kill some valuable domestic animal. 

WIND, SNOW, AND FROST. 

High winds often break or twist off the trees hi a plantation. Such 
damage may be avoided to some extent by planting wind-firm species 
around the edge of the plantation, or by spacing the trees more closely 
on the windward sides. 



20 BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Snow and frost may also cause considerable damage; the former 
weighs down and breaks off branches and leaders; the latter, when 
occurring late in spring or early in autumn, may kill the succulent 
wood. Damage from snow is less likely with hardwood trees than 
with conifers, because the bare branches of the former do not permit 
as much of it to accumulate. Frost damage may be partly avoided 
by planting hardy species or by utilizing sites on north, northeast, or 
northwest slopes, where growth begins comparatively late hi spring 
and stops early in the fall. Low sites on which there is poor circu- 
lation of air should be avoided. 

GRAZING ANIMALS. 

Sheep, cattle, or horses should never be allowed in a young planta- 
tion. They browse upon leaves and tender shoots and trample the 
trees, which become crooked, branchy, and dwarfed. If pasturing is 
continued the trees will eventually be killed. Bulletin 200 of the 
Wooster (Ohio) Agricultural Experiment Station, sums up, for Ohio, 
the damage from this source : 

The acres of young forest which have been needlessly destroyed within the State 
foot up into the millions. Their value, had they been protected from live stock, would 
to-day amount to double the sum which has been realized from the pasture. This is 
demonstrable, for the investigations of the experiment station have shown that the 
value of young forest-tree growth exceeds the value of woodland pasture more than 
two to one. There is no such thing as profitable woodland pasture. The combination 
of grass and forest is incompatible. Cattle derive but little, if any, benefit from brows- 
ing or from the shaded innutritious grasses, but they do damage the trees. The losses 
from this practice are larger to-day than ever before because of the constantly increas- 
ing value of the trees which are destroyed. 

In a plantation of green ash at Kanawha, Iowa, trees which had 
been protected from cattle were from 10 to 17 feet high, while others 
of the same age which had been browsed by cattle were for the most 
part only 4 feet high. In a 5-year-old plantation of black locust in 
Michigan, grazed by both sheep and cattle, ungrazed trees had 
reached an average height of from 8 to 14 feet, when those browsed 
by the stock were only from 2 to 3 feet high. In a 10-year-old plan- 
tation of black walnut in Indiana, grazed by cattle, 25 per cent of the 
living trees had been broken by stock, and averaged from 5 to 6 feet 
in height; the unbroken trees were from 19 to 25 feet high. The 
owner stated that the trees were pretty well tramped out at one time, 
which accounts for the fact that of the trees originally planted 78 per 
cent are now missing. 

In older plantations the damage done by stock consists largely in 
packing, of the soil. As a result of the stock running at large, the 
humus is destroyed and the roots of the trees exposed and perhaps 
wounded, while the soil becomes impervious to water. The stand, of 
course, suffers accordingly. Moreover, fungi may enter the trees 
through wounds around the base or in the roots. 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 21 

Hogs root up the soil and expose the tree roots to the air, or even 
devour the roots themselves. In Iowa hogs completely destroyed one 
plantation of European larch in this way. Young trees are very 
likely to be rooted completely out of the ground. 

If shade and protection for stock can be obtained in no other way, 
the animals can be admitted to one portion of a plantation and 
excluded entirely from the other portions, which should be devoted 
exclusively to the growing of timber. 



Whenever there is any danger from fire, definite steps should be 
taken to guard against it. Most of the smaller plantations already 
established are located near the owner's residence, where they can be 
kept under observation, but in some of the larger plantations, where a 
close watch has not been kept, fires have done considerable damage. 
The owner of a large plantation should certainly make some provision 
to protect it, especially if it is near a railroad or is likely to be visited 
by picnic parties. Fire lines might be constructed, and a general 
watch should always be kept. Roads often make good fire lines, and 
when so used should be kept free from grass. Where no roads pass 
through the tract, fire lines from 6 to. 8 feet wide may be plowed 
around the area, or else a strip of this width burned or otherwise kept 
cleared of all inflammable material. A fire line ceases to be a fire fine 
wherever it becomes covered with fitter or a heavy growth of grass. 

DISEASES. 

The diseases to which the different kinds of trees are subject and the 
methods of combating them can best be ascertained by consulting 
with the Office of Forest Pathology, Bureau of Plant Industry, Wash- 
ington, D. C, or the State experiment station. Prospective planters 
are strongly advised to do this before purchasing their trees. Nursery, 
stock, particularly that from abroad ; s often diseased. 

MISTAKES IN TREE PLANTING. 

Forest plantations have too often been started by those with little 
knowledge of the requirements of the trees set out, and who were 
often influenced in their choice of species by advertisements of tree 
agents. It is little wonder, then, that mistakes have been made. 
Planting operations should not be undertaken until a thorough inquiry 
has convinced the owner as to which species is best adapted to his pur- 
pose and which will succeed on the planting site selected. Advice and 
aid can be obtained by prospective planters from their respective State 
foresters, a list of whom is given in the Appendix. The Forest Service 
of the United States Department of Agriculture also gives advice in 
regard to the best species to plant and methods of planting. 



22 BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

To enable planters to avoid errors made by other planters in the 
past, some of those observed in the course of the study are described : 

(1) Planting European larch and silver maple in mixture killed the larch, which is 
the more valuable tree of the two. 

(2) Planting black walnut under green ash killed the walnut, which must have mil 
sunlight in order to succeed. 

(3) Catalpa planted under black locust grew very slowly. Catalpa requires full 
sunlight for good growth. 

(4) European larch planted under catalpa did not live. Larch requires full sun- 
light. 

(5) Box elder planted in mixture with green ash at first grew more rapidly than the 
other species and shaded out much of it, though ash is the more valuable tree. 

(6) Cottonwood planted on a gravel knoll did not live. The situation was too dry 
for it. 

(7). The roots of cottonwood planted in a "blowout" in sandy soil were exposed by 
the shifting of the sand; the trees, when observed, were very scrubby and dying. 

(8) Catalpa planted on a gravel knoll was only about 2 feet tall after 7 years. Such 
soil is not suited to catalpa. 

(9) Catalpa trees planted in soil with a hardpan about 8 inches below the surface 
were only 3 or 4 feet high after 7 years of growth. Catalpa requires a deeper, well- 
drained soil. 

(10) Ash planted in a "blowout" in pure sand, while still alive after 5 years, was not 
much larger than when set out. A pure sandy soil is not suited to ash. 

(11) Black walnut and green ash planted in low wet ground made a scrubby growth. 
The soil was not well enough drained for either of them. 

(12) Osage orange planted in pure sand failed to survive. Osage orange requires a 
fairly good soil. 

(13) Three-year-old ash stock, which cost a good deal in the first place, and had to 
be set in by the most expensive methods, grew so poorly that it was necessary to cut 
the trees back to the ground after a couple of years. The stock was too large when 
planted to succeed well. 

YIELDS AND RETURNS. 

The yields in products and the money returns to be expected from 
plantations are given in the tables for individual species (pp. 24 to 32). 

Existing plantations do not, as a rule, afford a good basis for 
estimating possible yields and returns from plantations started now, 
for species have often been planted on inhospitable sites, spacing has 
been too wide or too close, almost no attention has been given to 
proper thinnings, and live stock has been allowed to run among the 
trees. Moreover, the cost of planting stock has often been excessive; 
$20 a thousand for European larch and $20 to $25 a thousand for 
hardy catalpa is unduly high. It has been practically impossible to 
obtain wholly reliable cost data for a given plantation or the exact 
amount of products secured from it prior to the time when it was exam- 
ined. In many cases the original planters have died or moved away, 
or have kept no accurate record of costs or returns. 

In reckoning the cost of an income from plantations, interest has 
been calculated at 3 per cent, compounded annually. The land values 
and tax rate assumed are undoubtedly lower than those now in effect, 
but it should be remembered that neither averaged as high during the 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 23 

life of the plantation as the present figure. In estimating future 
returns from plantations started to-day, the land values assumed 
should be as high as those at present in effect, and even somewhat 
higher if the general trend in land values of the region is upward. 

Even at the low interest rate of 3 per cent growing trees on land 
worth $100 to $150 an acre for the sole purpose of obtaining lumber 
and other products will not, at the present stumpage prices, prove a 
profitable undertaking. But if the plantation serves also as a pro- 
tection against wind such planting should pay very well. It has 
been found that due to the protection afforded by the most efficient 
grove windbreaks the yield in farm crops is increased to the extent 
of that grown on a strip three times as wide as the height of the 
tr^es. 1 The protection afforded by his grove of ash and maple has 
been estimated by one farmer in Iowa to save him $300 per year in 
feed for his stock. 

In view of advancing stumpage prices, it seems safe to estimate the 
yields from future plantations as being equal at least to the highest 
yields from plantations made in the past on similar sites. Timber 
products, moreover, will almost certainly advance in value, though it 
is open to question whether this advance will be sufficient to offset the 
rapidly increasing value of the land. 

INDIVIDUAL SPECIES. 

COMMON COTTONWOOD (Populus deltoides Marsh.). 

The common cottonwood is the most rapid growing of the trees 
commonly planted. It is not exacting in regard to soil, but requires 
an abundance of moisture. It is very hardy and is especially adapted 
for planting on poor, sandy river-bottom sites where the water table 
is within from 4 to 6 feet of the surface. When 30 or 40 years old 
the trees begin to die in the tops and the stand to deteriorate. For its 
best development cottonwood requires an abundance of sunlight, and, 
if planted in groves, a wide spacing of 12 by 12 to 12 by 15 feet is 
needed. Closer spacing not only adds to the initial expense but 
results in the death of many trees from crowding before they are large 
enough to be of much value. When planted in groves, however, 
cottonwood should be underplanted with some such species as silver 
maple, in order fully to utilize the ground. This would insure better 
forest conditions than are generally found in open groves of pure 
cottonwood, and would promote the production of clear timber of a 
fairly high value. The main product derived from cottonwood is 
lumber, and from maple, cordwood. 

A stumpage value for cottonwood of $8 per thousand board feet is 
considered low. In Iowa it brings from $10 to $12. For inside 
dimension timbers cottonwood is as good as higher priced material. 
The timber has been used for corncribs and barns. Heavy cotton- 
wood planks, because of their toughness when seasoned, are especially 
desirable for the sides of horses' stalls. 



' Forest Service Bulletin 8fi, "Windbreaks." 



24 



BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Cottonwood cordwood is difficult to split after it becomes dry, but 
considerable quantities, in addition to lumber, are produced in groves 
or in rows. A value of $2.50 per cord on the stamp is considered a 
fair average for the tree throughout the region in which it has been 
planted most extensively. 

Cottonwood is easily propagated from cuttings. It has done well 
in Iowa, and probably would thrive throughout the whole eastern 
region, ev^en to the New England States. 

Table 3 gives the yield and value of cottonwood in Iov/a. In this 
table and in the tables for the other species the total costs to date 
are determined by means of the formula, Cost=(S + E + C) 
1.0p n — (S + E), where S = average value of land per acre, E = capi- 

Annual taxes 



talized value of taxes 



C = cost of initial operations 



rate of interest' 

(preparation of soil, cost of stock, planting, and cultivation), and 
1.0p n = amount of $1 compounded annually at 3 per cent for a period 
equal to the age of the plantation. Total profit or loss per acre 
equals the amount by which the present value of products per acre 
exceeds or falls below the total amount of costs to date when com- 
puted at 3 per cent compound interest. Positive amounts are an 
excess profit above 3 per cent; negative amounts indicate the sums 
by which the profit fails to equal 3 per cent. Annual profit or loss 
per acre equals the total profit or loss per acre divided by the amount 
of SI per annum at 3 per cent compound interest for a period equal 
to age of plantation. 

Table 3. — Yield and value of cottonwood (Populus deltoides) in Iowa. 





Soil. 


M 

3 
o 

| 

o 


© 
u 

o 

II 

a ^ 

3 u 
3 ° 

PI ft 

"3 

o 

ft 


C3 

G> 

U 
CD 

3-Sf 

<s 
c3 

o 

> 

< 


1 

.3 
CD 

to 

03 

a 
r> 

< 


Yield per acre. 


ft_£3 

T3 ft 
a! O 

oS 

Iff 

"3 . 

a cd.S 

t- ^- — 

? s s 

< 


u 

<D 

ft 

o . 

"S o 

a o 
a 03 

O 

Eh 


3> 

£ " 

ft§ 

o5 . 

3.3 ^ 

~-a 

P -~ '3 

3 J3 
5 n 53 

£fto 


Profit (+) or 
loss ( — )per 




© 

a 


~ ~h cd 
T3 II •* 
o ". o 

o ~ C3 

•p _• DO 
O S^ 
O 


acre. 


Age. 


"5 
o 


"3 

3 

a 
< 


Yrs. 

12 
17 


Sandy black loam. . . 


Ft. 
5Jx 8 

5x8 
5x6 

2Jx 3 

6ix 74 
6"x 7* 

7x7 

S£x 8J 

8x8 

5 xlO 

2 x36 

6x6 

8x8 

8x8 


372 
291 
204 
370 

66 
126 
/ 2 45 
\3 273 
137 
160 
125 
233 
193 

74 

89 
137 

83 


Ins. 
8.4 
9.2 
11.4 
10.0 
13.9 
14.5 

| 14.0 

13.3 
12.1 
13.4 
17.6 
12.3 
15.9 
13.9 
19.3 
17.1 


Ft. 

54 
66 
56 
58 
68 
87 

85 

77 
72 
74 
100 
93 
71 
65 
82 
71 


Bd. ft. 

3,900 
10,350 
12,320 
10,800 

6,400 
23,850 

10,850 

24,500 
10,850 
15,820 
49,926 
14,700 
12,600 
15,500 
32,900 
16,000 


Cords. 
23.79 
16.37 
17.38 
29.17 
7.19 
12.20 

59.07 

9.34 
17.69 

6.35 
55.47 

7.74 

5.38 

29.41 
3.83 


$70. 00 
70.00 
65.00 
60.00 
60.00 
50.00 

20.00 

40.00 
50.00 
60.00 
40.00 
30.00 
40.00 
30.00 
50. 00 
40.00 


§39.90 
63.24 
100. 32 
102. 09 
113.00 
103. 70 

55.49 

87.77 
119.92 
144.25 
116.88 

92.50 
135. 67 


$90. 68 
123.72 
199. 33 
159. 80 
69.18 
221. 30 

234. 48 

450. 8-5 
131.03 
142.43 
538. 07 
136. 95 
115.25 


+$50. 78 
+ 60.48 
+ 99.01 
+ 57. 71 

- 43.82 
+ 117.60 

+ 178.99 

+369. 08 
+ 11.11 

- 1.82 
+421.19 
+ 44.45 

- 20.42 

- 12.48 
+230. 17 
+ 30.06 


+$3.58 
+ 2.78 


28 
29 


do 

.do 


+ 2.30 
+ 1.27 


30 


...do 


- .92 


34 


..do 


+ 2.04 


34 




+ 4.06 


35 
35 
36 


Loamv sand 

Black loam 

.do 


+ 6.10 
+ .18 
- .03 


40 
41 
43 


Quite sandy loam . . . 
Black sandy loam. . . 


+ 5.58 
+ .57 
- .25 


50 
4 35 


Black sandy loam. . . 


136.73jl24.25 
106. 331336. 50 
107.54il37.60 


- .11 

+ 3. SI 


4 40 


do 




+ .40 

















i In addition to the board feet shown in preceding column. 

2 Cottonwood. 

3 Maple. 

4 Single rows reckoned as 50 feet wide by S71 feet long= 1 acre. 



Bui. 1 53, U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate II. 




Bui. 1 53, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate III. 





OfBQ. 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 



25 



SILVER MAPLE (Acer saccharinum Linn.). 

Silver maple is a rapid-growing tree, probably ranking next to 
Cottonwood in this respect among the species discussed. It is also 
very hardy and comparatively free from serious insect or fungous 
attack. The tree, which reaches maturity in from 35 to 40 years, 
forms a rather crooked, twisted bole, and so yields very little lumber. 
Its chief value is for cord wood, or to insure a windbreak in a short 
time. Silver maple is occasionally used for posts for temporary 
fences, but is not durable hi contact with the soil, and unless treated 
with a preservative, will not last more than two or three years. 

Since silver maple is easily and cheaply propagated, it is a good 
tree to plant for the production of cordwood in the Middle Western 
States, and probably also in any part of the Northeast, provided the 
plantation- is made on well-drained soils which are not subject to 
excessive drying out. A spacing of 6 by 8 feet is close enough. 

In Table 4 $2.50 per cord has been assumed as the average stump- 
age value for the species. 

Table 4. — Yield and value of silver maple (Acer saccharinum). 



Age. 



Yrs. 
9 
12 
18 
20 
20 
26 
127 
34 
34 
35 
35 
35 
35 
40 



Location. 



Illinois. 

Iowa . . . 

..do... 
...do... 
...do... 
...do... 
...do... 
...do.. . 

..do... 
...do... 
...do.. . 
...do... 
...do... 
...do... 



Soil. 



Black loam 

Black sandy loam . 

Black loam 

do 

do 

Quite sandy loam . 

Black loam 

do 

do 

Clay loam 

Black loam 

do 

do 

Black sandy loam. 



Origi- 
nal 

spac- 
ing. 



Ft. 
5x8 
4x5 

3§x 4 J 
5x9 
4x4 
3|x 7 
6 x 8% 
8x8 
3x5 
8 xl4 
4x7 
6x8 
7§x 7i 
8x8 



B S 



1,018 
1,000 
979 
376 
530 
323 
267 
328 
294 
166 
274 
177 
240 
298 



s 



Ins 
4.0 
4.1 
4.4 
6.2 
6.1 
7.1 
8.3 
6.8 
8.9 

10.8 
8.1 

10.4 

11.8 
8.5 



& - ' 

fc! 3- 



Ft. 
36 
41 
43 
46 
46 
51 
58 
53 
60 
55 
74 
52 
71 
66 



Cords 
16.2 
19.8 
(?) 
20.1 
29.5 
34.7 
31.1 
19.0 
46.9 
36.7 
38.0 
32.8 
91.8 
40.4 



_2 o 



O 03 - 



SI 25. 
70. 
60. 
60. 
60. 
60. 
50. 
40. 
50. 
50. 
40. 
50. 
50. 
50. 



3 <o 

II 



03 <8+= 

> u"~ 
o o 

o — -S 
'{■ ~ a 
33 ^ t» 



540. 50 

49.50 

(?) 

50.25 

72.75 

141.39 

422. 75 

47.50 

117. 25 

91.75 

95.00 

82.00 

229. 50 

101.00 



Profit (+) or 

loss ( — ) per 

acre. 



$2.10 
5.42 



- 8.68 
+ 2.19 
+ 44.85 
+346. 10 

- 42.64 
+ 6.72 

- 21.15 
+ 4.42 

- 36. 92 
+ 110.58 

- 43.68 



-SO. 20 

- .38 
(?) 

- .32 
+ .08 
+ 1.16 
+ 8.50 

+ 



13 

35 
+ .19 

- .61 
+ 1.83 

- .58 



EUROPEAN LARCH (Larix europaea deC). 

European larch has been planted quite extensively in Illinois and 
Iowa, and to some extent in Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massa- 
chusetts. Results, however, do not bear out the claims made for it 
(see Table 5). This is in part because plantations in this country 
have not been made in situations similar to the native habitat of the 
species which is in the higher, cooler altitudes; the trees have not 
always been properly spaced, and the cost of planting stock has 
often been excessive (in one case $51 per thousand and in several 

1 The complete record kept of the amount of cordwood cut each year accounts for the large value of 
the products for this plantation. 



26 BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

others $20). Probably the most important reason for the poor 
returns, however, has been the lack of market for European larch 
telephone or telegraph poles, claimed to be the most valuable form of 
product. For this reason the owners have been unable to realize 
any profit from their plantations. In one instance in Iowa the owner 
secured from a local farmer's telephone company SI each for poles 
6 inches in diameter at the butt and 20 feet long, and $1.50 for slightly 
larger ones. As a rule, however, there is no demand for the poles, 
and lumber dealers do not handle them. They are considered as no 
more durable than white cedar poles, are much heavier than the 
latter, and the wood is so hard that it is difficult for a lineman to force 
his climbing irons into it. The values assumed for European larch 
poles are much less than those ordinarily received for similar-sized poles 
of other species : 15-foot poles, 20 cents; 20-foot, 30 cents; 25-foot, 
50 cents; 30-foot, 75 cents; 35-foot, $1.25; 40-foot, $2; 45-foot, 
$3; and 50-foot, $4.50. First-class posts 4 to 6 inches in diameter at 
the small end and 7 feet long have been valued at 10 cents each, and 
cordwood at $1 per cord of 90 solid cubic feet. 

European larch is exceedingly intolerant; closely spaced stands 
rapidly thin themselves, and thus do not fully utilized the ground. 
It seems advisable, therefore, to use a wide spacing of 10 by 10 or 
12 by 12 feet, and fill in with some tolerant, slightly more slowly 
growing species, such as white pine, white spruce, or red oak. This 
wider spacing is especially desirable, since larch stock is expensive 
and the initial cost may be considerably reduced by filling in with 
a cheaper species. Larch requires a fresh, well-drained, moderately 
heavy soil. It does not do well in light, very sandy soils, or in very 
poorly drained, heavier ones, 

It is not advisable to plant European larch in the New England 
States, because old plantations are now beginning to be attacked 
by the sawfly. In the Middle West it is questionable whether 
European larch would be as profitable if planted on the good soils 
(on which the present plantations stand) as some other species. It 
does not grow as rapidly as certain hardwoods which furnish fully 
as good post material, and it lacks their capacity to send up sprouts. 
Nothing excells it, however, in producing straight timber, and a few 
larch trees trees should be planted on every farm in the Middle West, 
in order to produce sticks for hay poles, braces, beams, scantlings, 
or other general utility purposes. Larch starts growth very early 
in the spring, and it is difficult to get stock for planting at that time 
which has not already started growth in the nursery. 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 



27 



Tablk 5. — Yield and value of European larch (Larix europaea). 



Age. 



Loca- 
tion. 



Yrs.l 

18 Iowa. 
27... do.. 
28 ...do.. 
28i Conn. 
28l Iowa. 
28'. ..do.. 

..do.. 

Conn. 

Mass . 

..do.. 
35j...do.. 
35 Iowa. 
35... do.. 
35j...do.. 
35 ...do.. 



SoU. 



37 
39 
39 

40 
41 
41 

50 
60 

= 28 



..do.. 
111.... 
Iowa . 

...do.. 
...do.. 
...do.. 

Mass. 
..do.. 
Iowa . 



Sandy loam... 

Black loam 

do 

Loam 

Black loam 

do 

Clay loam 

Loam 

do 

White sand . . . 
do........ 

Black loam 

do 

do 

Clay loam 

Black loam 

do 

Black sandy 
loam. 

Black loam 

do 

Black sandy 
loam. 

White sand . . . 

Clay loam 

Black loam 



Ft. 

4 x4 
4 x4 
3} x 6 
4 x4 
10 x 12 
8 x8 
4x5 
4x6 

(?) 
4x4 
4x4 
8 x8 
lh x 7i 
4 x6 

3 x7 
4x4 

(?) 
3Jx3i 

4 x 4 
4x4 
8 x8 

6 x6 
6x6 

5 



>.m 

506 
1,107 
1,120 
189 
487 
526 
380 
212 
527 
1,324 
221 
192 
498 
475 
330 
571 
522 



299 
292 

316 
155 

l.ooo 



Ins. 
4.9 
7.2 
3.7 
4.3 
9.2 
7.6 
7.6 
6.4 
6.5 
6.6 
4.5 
10.0 
11.2 
7.4 
7.4 
8.9 
7.7 
7.0 

8.3 

9.4 
8.3 

7.3 
9.7 
10.6 



Yield per acre. 



_j - 



ft O-H 



No. 

296 
110 

'l.sll 

363 
35 i 
330 
124 
219 
27 
214 
191 
325 
466 
308 
391 
378 

342 
274 
285 

264 
153 
608 



No. 
336 
299 

'ill! 

132 

92 
42!) 
240 

32 
141. 
216 
170 
155 
305 
308 
330 
162 
269 

193 
429 
435 

71 
162 

340 



3 = 






Cords. 
13.73 
11.74 
15. 56 
19. 69 
1.89 
10.41 
10. 48 
9.35 
4.94 
12.48 

20. 9 
3.97 
3.00 

10.33 
10.72 
6.26 

12. 10 
12.91 

7.44 
10. is 
6.51 

6.71 
2.96 
5.81 



0-3 

§2 

o a> 

03 C3 



o 2 . 



IB M5J 

:- ac 



00 133. 
00 163. 



30. 00 
30. 00 
40.00 

10.00 
10.00 

65. 00 



160. 78 

147. 12 
137. 28 

84.36 
117.58 
115.32 



212.04 
226. 03 
223. 01 

103. 61 
110.06 
189.92 




-$50. 
+ 2. 

- 61. 
-175. 

- 51. 
+ 32. 
+ 78. 
+ 117. 
-115. 
+ 62. 

- 1. 
+ 40. 
+ 71. 

+ 163! 
+ 58. 

- 58. 

- 84. 



+ 51.26 

+ 78.91 

+ 85.73 

+ 19.25 

- 7. 52 

+ "4.60 



-82. 15 

+ .06 

- 1.43 

- 4.09 
-1.20 
+ .75 
+ 1.58 
+ 2.14 

- 2.09 
+ 1.03 

- .02 
+ .67 
+ 1.18 

- .09 
+ 4.35 
+ .88 

- .80 

- 1.17 

+ .68 

+ 1.58 

+ 1.09 

+ .17 

- .05 
+ 1.74 



1 In addition to the poles and posts shown in preceding columns. 

2 Single row reckoned as 25 feet wide by 1,742 feet long = 1 acre. 

SCOTCH PINE (Pinns sylvestris Linn.). 

Scotch pine will grow in all sections of the eastern United States, 
and is well adapted for sandy soils too poor for agriculture or even 
for the growth of white pine. The tree seems to do equally well on 
the poor, sandy, Norway pine lands of Michigan and on old worn- 
out lands of New England. For the first 15 or 20 years Scotch pine 
makes very rapid height growth, often from 20 to 30 inches a year. 

Because of its hardiness and freedom from disease, it is to be 
regretted that the Scotch pine already planted consists largely of a 
variety from central Germany, the trees of which, when about 20 
years old, become crooked, irregular, ragged, and of very poor tim- 
ber form, yielding only one or two logs per tree. In Europe, on the 
other hand, trees grown from seed collected in the Scotch pine 
forests of the Baltic provinces of Russia, ordinarily called the Riga 
variety, have straight, cylindrical, well-developed trunks, and yield 
wood of a higher quality than the Scotch pine of central Germany. 
Unless, therefore, the Riga variety can be secured, the planting of 
Scotch pine is not recommended. 



28 



BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



The tree is decidedly intolerant, and a rather wide spacing, 6 by 
8 or 8 by 8 feet, is advisable, or it may be planted in mixture with 
white pine on soils adapted to both species. In the latter case a 
spacing of 6 by 6 feet,~with the two species alternating, will probably 
give the best results. 

Stumpage values for Scotch pine in the Middle Western States are 
placed at $8 per thousand board feet for lumber and $2 per cord for 
cord wood. 

Table 6. — Yield and value of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris). 











o 
P. 

03 
03 


09 




Yield per 
acre. 


09 

O 


0J 


o< o 
Pi 

"8 3 


Profit (+) or 

loss ( — ) per 

acre. 




Loca- 
tion. 


SoU. 


oi 

a 

a 

a 

'5b 

•d 


O 
ST! ® 

.2 8 

a* 

a 
a 


u 

9 

<s 

c5 

> 


.£? 
'3 

A 
a 
be 
03 
M 




la 
_ o 

O 03 

es a 
. 3 


p 

03 

§2 

c5 

"3 

o 


2"^ 
^> 

M 

<« a) 

03 3 . 

2^ ^ 

cs a to 

Sod 
03 i'n 




Age. 


o 

a 


o8g 

OS ° 

ill 

£ m 


"3 

O 


3 
a 

a 








o 


fc 


< 


<< 


H 


o 


««! 


E-i 


C^ 


tH 




Yrs. 






Ft. 




Ins. 


JF7. 


Bd.ft. 


Cords. 












37 


Iowa.. 


Black loam. 


4x4 


884 


6.4 


49 


2,478 


60.00 


$40. 00 
50.00 


S127. 67 


$139. 82 


+$12. 15 


+$0. 18 


39 


...do... 


...do 


4x8 


497 


8.4 


44 


6,971 


31.11 


179.58 


117.99 


- 61.59 


- .85 


40 


...do... 


...do 


8x11 


362 


9.6 


44 


7,943 


24.43 


50.00 


183.80 


112. 40 


- 71. 40 - .95 


41 


Ill 


...do 


7xl6J 


375 


8.5 


41 


5,781 


26.74 


80.00 


233.72 


99.73 


-133.99- 1.70 


40-50 


Mass.. 


Poor sand . . . 


6x6 


521 


6.S 


29 






10.00 














1 



1 In addition to. the board feet shown in preceding column. 
WHITE PINE (Pinus strobus Linn.). 

White pine seems well suited to the climate of the whole eastern 
portion of the country from New England to Iowa. It is not par- 
ticularly exacting as to soil, but requires good drainage. It nourishes 
on the worn-out pasture lands of New England, on the almost pure 
sands of Cape Cod, and on the good agricultural soils of the Middle 
West. It will also undoubtedly thrive on some of the poor, sandy 
farm lands of the Indiana and Ohio region. 

White pine is fairly tolerant, and in order to secure a clear bole 
very close spacing, 4 by 4 feet or 4 by 6 feet, is necessary. In practice, 
however, a spacing of 6 by 8 feet to 8 by 8 feet is usually close enough. 
In a stand 50 years old, spaced 6 by 8 feet, the branches die to a 
height of 40 to 50 feet, and though they persist, the knots are usually 
sound and the timber of fairly good quality. In a three-row wind- 
break in eastern Iowa, 52 years old and spaced 6 by 7 feet, the owner 
cuts timber which, although somewhat knotty, sells as lumber for 
from $36 to $38 per thousand feet board measure. White pine is 
recommended for windbreak planting in the Middle West, since it is 
an excellent t^ee for the purpose and produces a large amount of 
timber of good quality. 



Bui. 153, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate IV. 




Jul. 153, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate V. 




Fig. 1.— Scotch Pine Plantation, Cape Cod, Mass., 35 Years Old, on very Sandy 

Soil. 




Fig. 2.— Twenty-Three-Year-Old Plantation, Iowa. Scotch Pine on Right, 
White Pine on Left. Shows Characteristic Appearance of Scotch Pine in 
this Region after Age of 20 Years. 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 



29 



Where white pine grows well there is no object in planting it in 
mixture with other species. In certain regions, however, particularly 
in New England, the tree is subject to attack by the white pine weevil 
(Pissodes strobi Peck), which kills the top of the leading shoot through 
a year or two of its growth. A new leader is ordinarily formed by 
one of the side shoots, which in turn is subject to attack. The result 
is a crooked, unsightly tree, whose value for timber is considerably 
impaired, especially in stands grown on a short rotation, when there 
is not sufficient time for the crooks to be covered through growth of the 
bole. Wherever the weevil has appeared it would be better to plant 
Norway pine with the white pine than to plant the latter species 
alone. Young Norway pine grows as rapidly in height as the white, 
and though its lumber is less valuable, it is less subject to attack 
by the weevil. 

In Table 7 the white pine plantations listed are all in the Middle 
West. Similar figures for New England plantations appear in other 
publications of the Forest Service and of various New England 
States. For the Middle West white pine stumpage has been given 
a value of $10 per thousand feet for stands with an average diameter 
under 11 inches, and of $12 for stands 11 inches and over, both of 
which are very conservative. White pine is usually cut by small 
portable sawmills, and the felling and sawing together do not cost 
more than $12 per thousand feet board measure for lumber which 
brings from $36 to $38 per thousand. 

Table 7. — Yield and value of white -pine (Pinus strobus). 





Loca- 
tion. 


Soil. 


f 

c3 
ft 
to 

.a 




cd 
t-i 



« £ 

S d 
3 ** 
a p, 

"3 

x> 

CO 

<£> 
M 

ft 


+3 

C3 
O 

,5 

M 

CD 

g so 

cd 
so 

a 

S 

> 

< 


5 

.££ 

'cd 

<o 

to 

03 
u 
CD 
> 


s 

1 

M 

CD 
g 
O 

09 

H 

ft 

2 


3° 

CS CD 

~9 

si 

> 
o oa 

60^ — 
03 , O 
'T ED " 

> ftft 


u 

CD 

ft 
1» 

+^ 

a ° 

O CD 

18 

Eh 


CO CD 

S3 

3 c3 
■3 > 
O co 
fc. a, 

ft-a 
"o^: -A. 

■is.s 

■' o a 

0) 1.V 

£fto 
ft 


Profit (+) or 

loss ( — ) per 

acre. 


Age. 


«3 
o 
En 


"3 

3 

< 


Yrs. 
21 


Iowa.. 
...do.. 
...do 
...do.. 

Ill 




Ft. 
11 x 14 
6x 8 
6x7 
8x9 

(?) 
4x4 


215 
409 
391 
549 
371 
788 


Ins. 
8.7 
7.3 
8.8 
9.7 
8.5 
8.1 


Ft. 
39 
39 
52 
50 
39 
47 


BA.il. 
4,760 
4,273 

12, 031 

22,513 
7,380 

16, 136 


$80. 00 
30.00 
25.00 
40.00 
80.00 
40.00 


$68. 31 
48.23 
75.67 
113. 96 
272. 59 
173. 73 


$57.60 
62.73 

120. 31 

225. 13 
73.90 

201.36 


-$10. 71 
- 14.50 
+ 44.64 
+ 111.17 
-198. 69 
+ 27.63 


-$0. 72 


23 




- .17 


35 
37 




+ .74 
+ 1.68 


39 


do 


— 2. 75 


39 


Iowa.. 


Black sandy loam 


+ .38 


» 41 


...do.. 

...do.. 
...do.. 
...do.. 
...do.. 
...do 




8x8 

1 x 6A 
16 x 16 

6x 7 

4 

6 


408 

850 
158 
374 
560 
435 


f 2 9. 4 

Vio. 1 

7.5 

12.3 

11. 1 

16.0 
14.1 


62\ 
64/ 

53 
60 
59 
60 
59 


16, 748 

15, 206 
13,175 
26,400 
86, 640 
50,500 


30.00 

30.00 
30.00 
20.00 
30. 00 
30.00 


113.00 

107. 73 
98. 21 
137. 59 
127.93 


260.81 

152.06 
158. 10 
316. so 
346. 56 


+ 147.81 

+ 44.33 
+ 59. 89 
+ 179.21 
+ 21S. 63 


+ 1.89 


42 

42 

52 

* 48 


do 

do 

do 

do 


+ .54 
+ . 73 
+ 1. 17 
+ 2.09 


<52 


do 


108. 581202. 00 93.42 


+ . 77 















1 Mixture of white pine and European larch. Larch products are included in the returns. 

2 Pine. 

3 Larch. 

i Single rows reckoned as 25 feet wide by 1,742 feet long=l acre. 



30 BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

NORWAY SPRUCE < Picea excelsa Link). 

Norway spruce lias not been planted very extensively anywhere in 
the eastern United States. Because of its compact crown, especially 
when young, and the tenacity of its lower branches, this species has 
found favor in the Middle West for windbreaks of one to three or 
four rows. It will probably increase in favor. The tree prefers a 
fresh, well-drained, loamy soil, but in New England has succeeded 
fairly well on a sandy one. A young plantation on very sandy land 
in central Michigan, however, while still alive, is making a height 
growth of only 2 or 3 inches a year, while Scotch pine on a similar 
site is growing at the rate of from 6 inches to 2 feet a year. 

Norway spruce is decidedly tolerant, and to obtain timber of the 
best form it should be spaced as closely as 5 by 5 feet to 6 by 6 feet. 
For windbreak purposes, however, the spacing should be not less 
than 12 by 12 feet, in order to insure that the lower branches will 
remain alive and bear foliage. Timber from such trees, while not 
clear, is of fair quality, and has been used in the Middle West for 
farm buildings. Norway spruce is also suitable for underplanting 
old groves of trees with naturally open crown covers, such as black 
walnut or cottonwood, and stands becoming open through deteriora- 
tion. The species grows nearly as fast as white pine, and on loamy 
soils would probably be a good tree to plant in mixture with the latter. 
It appears to be hardy as far west as central Iowa, but west of that 
it is ragged and scrubby when mature, at the age of about 40 years. 
Some nurserymen attribute this to the severe winds in that region; 
though the extremely high summer temperatures and low humidi- 
ties may have something to do with it, since spruce is naturally a 
tree of relatively cool regions with high humidities. Where exposed 
to severe winds, as on the New England coast, the tree is likely to be 
broken off or its top bent. 

For the Middle West, Norway spruce has been assigned a stump age 
value of $9 for lumber and $2.50 for cordwood, and for the northeast 
region $5 for lumber and $1 for cordwood. 

BLACK WALNUT (Juglans nigra Linn.). 

Black walnut does well throughout the central hardwood region, 
and as far west as the Missouri River. It is a hardy tree, and though 
seldom planted in the Eastern States there is no reason why it should 
not succeed there. For its best development, however, the tree 
requires deep clay or sandy loam soils, which, of course, are also 
excellent for agriculture. For this reason alone it is not likely to be 
planted to any great extent. 

Black w r alnut is easily propagated by planting the nuts in the fall 
on the permanent site. The tree is decidedly intolerant, and sheds 
its lower branches readily even with a relatively wide spacing. One 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 



31 



of 6 by 8 feet or 8 by 8 feet is close enough. The older trees, however, 
have open crowns, and should be underplanted as soon as they cease 
to cast shade enough to prevent a growth of grass on the forest floor. 
For such underplanting, white pine, white or Norway spruce, or red 
oak, should prove satisfactory. 

Black walnut does not grow very rapidly, and takes from 60 to 
100 years to produce the best timber. In general, it is not a partic- 
ularly good tree for private owners to plant. 

The only value given to black walnut in plantations has been $4 
per cord on the stump. (See Table 8.) This is undoubtedly too 
high for cordwood alone, but since much of the material can be used 
for braces or small poles, the valuation is probably a fair one. 

Table 8. — Yield and value of black walnut ( Juglans nigra). 



Al;!'. Location. 



Yrs. 



Indiana. 

Iowa 

...do..... 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Illinois.. 

Iowa 

...do 



Soil. 



Black sandy loam. 

Black loam 

do 

do 

Black sandy loam. 

Black loam 

do 

Black sandy loam. 

Black loam 

do 

do 

do 



Feet. 
44 x 

8"x 8 



8 X 
l*x 
4"x 



4x5 
5 x 13 
8x9 
8x8 
8x8 
4x4 
7 x 12 



a ft 



512 
359 
5 (8 
70S 
342 
492 
239 
149 
136 
303 
321 
138 



<i 



Ins. 
3. 
6.3 
5.5 
4.1 
7.0 
7.0 
8.3 
8.7 
7.7 
8.6 
8.3 

12.3 



3-1 
pV. 



13 £ 2 

%~ a 

2 = oo 



Cords 

7.5 

14.8 

17.9 

8.6 

20.0 

34.6 

24.2 

12.4 

9.1 

33.8 

31.8 

39.6 



a> a 

CL03 

■o ft 
OS o 



2a 



0" a 



ft-3 



X&2 

cs : -a 



a *3 



130.00 

59.20 

71.60 

34. 40 

80. 00 

138. 40 

96.80 

49.60 

36.40 

95; 135. 20 

92127.20 

62|158. 49 



Profit ( + ) or 

loss ( — ) per 

acre. 



-89. 97 

-20.57 
-20. 07 
-62. 76 
-16.02 
+ 45. 28 
+ .81 
-60. 20 
-99.39 
-70. 75 
+ 12.28 
+37. 87 



80. 70 
.56 
.47 
1.46 
.37 
.91 
.02 
1.00 
1.60 
1.02 
.16 
.46 



ASH (GREEN AND WHITE) (Fraxinus lancecolata Borkh. and Fraxinus ainericana Linn.). 

Green ash has been planted to some extent in Iowa and Illinois, 
while east of these States white ash has been given preference. In 
the Prairie States green ash withstands more trying conditions, 
especially drought, than white ash, but with suitable soil conditions 
cither species should succeed in any part of the eastern region. Both 
species prefer good, fresh, well-drained clay or sandy loam soil, but 
both also give promise of growing well on the poor, worn-out clay, 
or rocky clay farm soils of the central hardwood region. This fact 
may make them valuable trees for planting on those lands, since the 
lumber of mature trees has a high value and may be closely utilized 
for handle material. Ash, moreover, may be easily and cheaply 
propagated simply by sowing the seed on the permanent planting 
site. Ash is intolerant and sheds its lower branches well, and consid- 
ering this reason alone it would seem that a rather wide spacing should 
be used. But on account of its habit, discussed on page 18, of com- 



32 



BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 



monly forming its leader from one of the side shoots, it seems best 
to use a closer spacing, 4 by 4 feet to 4 by 6 feet, in order, if possible, 
to correct the habit. The stand should then be thinned as soon as 
needed. 

Green ash has come up naturally under cottonwood, and should 
prove a good tree for underplanting old stands of that species. 

In the plantations examined ash has not grown as rapidly as in 
natural stands. Lack of knowledge regarding the tree's requirements 
is probably responsible for this, and both green and white ash should 
be given a further trial on various kinds of soil, though it would not 
pay to plant them on good agricultural land. Young green ash trees 
are inclined to be somewhat crooked, but the timber is strong and can 
be used for many purposes on a farm. A valuation of $4 per cord 
has been put upon cordwood (Table 9), since most of the timber so 
classed can in fact be put to more valuable use. 

Table 9. — Yield and value of green ash (Fraxinus lanceolata). 











a 
3 


1 






S p| 


u 

CD 


CO CD 

o.3 


Profit ( + ) or 










-*^ 


M 




^« 


T3 Oh 




73 l> 


loss ( — ) per 
















■OH . 






o TO 






























Location 


SoU. 


to 

.a • 

o 

C3 

a, 

'bCj 




73* 

<B 
bo 
03 

lH 

CD 
> 


to 
'3 
ji 

CD 

SO 
C3 
M 

> 


73 3 
.22-11 


OS 

®T 

"3.9 

^73 a 
to S 

OQd 

> c3 +^ 


— S3 

o-o 

a ° 

°i 

i * 

"3 
o 


^73 

"S3 • 

~> "In 
3.9 " 

■3-9 
a ^Js 




Age. 


3 


"3 








O 


fc 


< 


< 


f* 


< 


H 


Ph 


& 


< 


Yrs. 






Ft. 




Ins. 


Ft. 


Cords. 












17 


Iowa 


Yellow clay loam 


Broad- 
cast. 


2,386 


3.1 


27 


17.7 


$80.00 


$59. 20 


$70. 80 


+$11. 60 


+$0. 53 


20 


...do 

...do 




5x 9 
4x 4 


541 
679 


4.8 
5.0 


39 
39 


13.2 
21.4 


60.00 
60.00 


70.10 
72.37 


52.80 
85.60 


- 17.30 
+ 13.23 


- .64 


20 


do 


+ .49 


26 


...do 


do 


12x12 


299 


5.6 


35 


9.2 


60.00 


84.74 


36.80 


- 47.94 


-1.24 


28 


...do 


do 


6x 6 

4x 4 


121 
745 


8.6 
5.2 


49 
46 


11.5 

22.2 


60.00 
40.00 


101. 74 

98.52 


46.00 

88.80 


- 55. 74 

- 9.72 


- 1.30 


37 


...do 


do 


- .15 


40 


Illinois . . 
Iowa 


do 


(?) 
lx 4 


283 
382 


8.5 
6.6 


59 
49 


39.3 
11.5 


80.00 
40.00 


219. 25 
101. 74 


157. 20 
46.00 


- 62.05 

- 55. 74 


- .18 


41 


Quite sandy loam 


- L30 



NORWAY PINE (Pinus resinosa Ait.). 

Norway or red pine is especially adapted for planting on poor, 
sandy or gravelly soils which will not even support a good growth of 
white pine. On good loam soils in Iowa trees 40 years old have 
reached a height of from 50 to 55 feet and a diameter of 8 inches, 
while on very poor, sandy soil in Rhode Island and Massachusetts a 
height of 40 feet and a diameter of 8 to 10 inches have been attained 
in 40 years. Norway pine is decidely intolerant, and a spacing of 
6 by 8 feet is close enough. Planting stock is usually rather expen- 
sive, because of the difficulty of obtaining seed, and the wide spacing 
has the additional advantage of reducing the planting costs. 

Norway pine lumber is less valuable than white pine, and the pro- 
duction per acre is not so large, but the tree is very hardy and excep- 
tionally free from disease. It is less subject to attack by the pine 



Bui. 153, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VI. 




Black Walnut Plantation, Indiana, 20 Years Old. 



153, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 



Plate VII. 




NORWAY PINE PLANTATION, RHODE ISLAND, 33 YEARS OLD, VERY SANDY SOIL. 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 33 

weevil, and therefore is preferable to white pine where there is danger 
from this insect, as in portions of New York and New England. It 
also does well when mixed with white pine. 

RED OAK (Quercus rubra Linn.). 

Largely on account of their slow rate of growth, the oaks have not 
been planted extensively in this country. Red oak, however, grows 
rather rapidly, and has much to commend it. It can be easily and 
cheaply propagated by planting the acorns directly on the site in 
the spring, after stratifying them over winter; it is hardy through- 
out the eastern region; it is a persistent grower after becoming estab- 
lished; it produces valuable material; and it is especially well fitted 
for growth on poor, wornout clay soils. This last fact alone makes 
it well worth considering. Catalpa has done poorly on some very 
poor, rocky, clay soils in the Middle West where red oak would 
doubtless have been successful. Red oak is quite tolerant, and should 
prove valuable for underplanting old, deteriorating stands on poor 
soils; also for planting in mixture with more rapid growing, intoler- 
ant trees such as European larch, or with equally rapid growing 
tolerant trees such as white pine. When planted pure, it should be 
spaced about 6 by 6 feet. A Rhode Island plantation on poor sandy 
soil has reached an average diameter of 9 inches and a height of 45 
feet in 34 years; another plantation on good black agricultural soil in 
Illinois has reached an average diameter of 5 inches and a height of 
38 feet in 25 years. 

HARDY CATALPA (Catalpa speciosa Warder). 

In gathering data for this report very little attention was given 
hardy catalpa plantations, because the tree has been considered in 
previous publications. Hardy catalpa requires for its best develop- 
ment a fresh, well-drained loamy soil, or a sandy river-bottom soil, 
where the water table is within a few feet of the surface. A spacing 
of from 6 by 6 feet to 6 by 8 feet is close enough. The tree grows 
rapidly and sprouts vigorously from the stump, thus insuring several 
crops from one planting. It needs cultivation and pruning, and 
produces material chiefly valuable for its durability in contact with 
the ground. The species is hardy in the Middle West as far north as 
central Iowa, and in Michigan near the lake shore as far north as 43° 
latitude. In the interior of Michigan, however, it is frozen back at 
this latitude. Although not yet planted extensively in New England, 
some young plantations in Connecticut and Rhode Island indicate 
that it will do well there, unless planted on the most exposed sites. 
On good soils in the Middle West plantations have reached a diameter 
of from 6 to 7 inches and a height of from 40 to 50 feet in 20 years. 

Hardy catalpa gives promise of growing well on some of the poorer 
wornout clay soils of the Middle West, but with our present knowledge 



34 BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

of the tree's requirements it can not yet be recommended for such 
sites. It is also growing on sandy upland soil in Rhode Island, but 
has not attained a large size there. Much catalpa has been planted 
under circumstances which practically insure financial loss. Agents 
have exaggerated the good qualities of the species, and have sold a 
large amount of stock at $20 to $25 per thousand, advising that it 
be planted on almost any soil, good or poor, which happened to be 
available. Prospective planters should consult their State forestry 
officials or the United States Forest Service. 

BLACK LOCUST (Robinia pseudacacia Linn.)- 

Were it not for the locust borer, black locust could be recom- 
mended as one of the best trees for forest planting tliroughout most 
of the eastern region. It grows well on poor, sandy, gravelly, or clay 
soils, sprouts vigorously, and is hardy as far north as southern Mich- 
igan, but farther north is killed back in winter. One exceptionally 
good plantation in Indiana has reached a diameter of 7 inches and a 
height of 45 feet in 13 years. The wood is very durable in contact with 
the ground, and makes valuable fence posts. But on account of the 
likelihood of destructive attacks by the locust borer the planting of 
black locust for commercial purposes can not be recommended. 
Some plantations, it is true, have not been attacked by the insect; 
some localities are at present free from it; but plantations from Kan- 
sas to New England have been seriously injured, and to set out black 
locust to-day for commercial purposes would be a very doubtful 
venture. 

OTHER SPECIES. 

Certain other species promise well for the eastern region, although 
they have not all been tested to the age of maturity. Young planta- 
tions of western yellow pine are growing well on poor, rocky clay 
agricultural lands in Ohio and southern Michigan, and on dry, dee]), 
sandy lands in, New York, and there seems to be no reason why the 
species should not do fully as well in New England on similar soils. 
It is quite hardy and resistant to drought. 

Chestnut would be an excellent tree to plant, particularly in south- 
ern New England, Pennsylvania, and parts of New York and Ohio, 
were it not for the very virulent fungus, Endothia parasitica (Murrill) 
Anderson, which has killed a great many trees and threatens to 
destroy most of the remaining stands. No practical method of com- 
bating this disease has been devised, so it is not advisable at present 
to start plantations of chestnut. 

Yellow poplar should do well in the eastern region on moist hill- 
sides with good, well-drained soils, or along the banks of streams. 
It produces valuable timber, commands a high stumpage price, and 
makes fairly rapid growth. 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 



35 



Douglas fir has been planted on poor stony soils in southern Michi- 
gan and Ohio and on poor sandy soils in Rhode Island, and so far 
has done very well. It is hardy and grows fairly rapidly. The 
Rocky Mountain or northern Idaho variety should prove to be an 
admirable tree for planting in the eastern region, but the Pacific 
Coast variety may be damaged by frost. 

White spruce has lately come into favor in the Middle West as a 
tree for windbreaks, and would probably do as well in the northeast. 
It does not grow as rapidly as Norway spruce, but retains its lower 
foliage better, and at the age of about 40 years, when Norway spruce 
is likely to become ragged, is in its best condition for windbreak pur- 
poses. For this purpose it should not be spaced more closely than 
12 by 12 feet. On account of its tolerance, it is well adapted for 
underplanting old deteriorating stands of cottonwood or maple. 

Table 10. — Species and methods for planting in different regions. 

TREELESS REGION. 



Species to plant. 



Cottonwood . 



Silver maple — 

Green ash 

Hardy catalpa.. 

Black walnut... 
European larch. 



SoU. 



White pine. 



White spruce. . . 
Norway spruce. 



Moist soil; sandy 
river bottom 
best. 



Fresh to moist 

loam or sandy 

loam. 
Well-drained loam 

soil. 
Well-drained loam 

or sandy loam. 

do 

do 



Well-drained 
sandy or loam 
soils. 

Fresh to moist 
loam. 

do 



Spacing. 



15 x 15 and under- 
plant with silver 
maple, or plant 
2 to 4 feet apart 
in rows. 

6x8 



4x4. 
6x8. 



6x6 

12 x 12; fill in to a 
6x6 spacing 
with white pine. 

6x6 



For windbreak 

10 x 10. 
do 



Planting method. 



Plant cuttings in 
a furrow. 



Sow seed direct . 



Sow seed direct or 

slit method. 
Slit method 



Sow seed direct. 
Slit method 



Slit or furrow 
method. 



do 

Slit method. 



Products. 



Lumber and cord- 
wood. 



Cordwood. 



Handle material, 

farm timbers. 
Posts 



Lumber 

Poles, posts. 



Lumber. 



Lumber, pulp, 

cordwood. 
do 



Age. 



Years. 
30-40 



25-40 

40-50 

18-20 

50-75 
25-40 



HARDWOOD REGION. 



Black walnut.. 



White ash. 



Green ash 

Hardy catalpa. 
Tulip poplar... 
White pine 



Red oak . 



Well- drained 
black or clay 
loam. 

do 



do 

do 

Moist loam 

Sandy soil or grav- 
elly loam. 
do 



4x4. 

4x4. 
6x8. 
8x8. 
6x6. 

6x6. 



Sow seed direct Lumber, pulp, 

cordwood. 

Sow seed direct or i Handle material, 
slit method. farm timbers. 

do do 

Slit method Posts 

do Lumber 

do do 



Sow seed direct do. 



NORTHEAST REGION. 



40-50 

40-50 

18-20 

40-50 

50 

50 



White pine. 






Norway pine . . . 
Norway spruce. 



Red oak 

Yellow poplar ' . 



6x6. 



Sandy or gravelly 
loam; rocky hill- 
sides. 

Poor sandy or 
gravelly soils. 

Heavier loam soils. 5 x 5 to 6 x I 



6x8. 



Sandy or clay soils. 6x6. 
Moist loam soil 8x8. 



Sow seed direct; 
dig hole for each 
tree; slit method, 

do 



Slit method; dig 

hole for each tree. 

Sow seed direct. . . 

Slit method 



Lumber. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



50 

50-60 

50-«0 

50 
40-50 



I Yellow poplar should not be planted farther north than southern New York or southern New England. 



APPENDIX. 

Below are given the prices quoted for planting stock by certain nurserymen. 
Prices, of course, vary somewhat from year to year. Where large lots of seedlings or 
transplants are desired, the planter can usually secure much lower quotations by 
contracting for the whole lot with a reliable nursery. A List of dealers handling 
different species of forest trees may be obtained from the Forest Service upon request. 

Prices quoted for nursery stock by nurserymen. 



Variety. 



Price per thousand. 



1-year 
seedlings. 



2-year 
seedlings." 



3 -year 
transplants. 



Cuttings. 



Silver maple 

Red oak 

Black locust 

White elm 

Honey locust 

Cottonwood 

Hardy catalpa 

Russian mulberry 

White ash 

White willow 

Black walnut 

Osage orange 

Green ash 

Yellow poplar 

Jack pine 

Norway or red pine . . 

N orway spruce 

White pine 

Scotch pine 

European larch 

Western yellow pine . 



$3. 00-S6. 00 
3. 00- 7. 00 
2. 00- 3. 00 
2. 00- 5. 00 
2. 50- 7. 00 
2. 50- 5. 00 
3. 00- 7. 00 
3. 00- 4. 00 
2. 50- 5. 00 



8. 00-10. 00 

2. 00- 4. 00 

3. 00- 5. 00 

6.00 



S3. 00 



3.00 

3.00 

S3. 00-4. 00 

3. 00-6. 00 

3. 50-4. 00 



82. 00-4. 00 



56. 00-810. 00 
6. 00- 12. 00 
6. 00- 12. 00 
5. 00- 10. 00 
5. 00- 10. 00 
6.00 
7.00- 12.00 



S3. 00 



The following is a list of State forest officers, who will be glad to give advice and 
assistance in matters relating to forestry or forest fires to those living within their 
respective States. 



Alabama 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Do 

Minnesota 

Montana 

New Hampshire . 
New Jersey 



Officer in charge. 



Secretary, commission of forestry 

State forester 

do 

do 

State board of forestry > 

Professor of forestry, Georgia State forest school . 

Superintendent of forestry. 

State land commissioner 2 

Secretary, State board of forestry 

State forestry commissioner 

State forester 

do...; 

President, State conservation commission 

State forest commissioner 2 

State forester 

do 

do 

Forest fire warden - 

State forester 

do 

do 

do 



Address. 



Montgomery. 
Sacramento. 
Fort Collins. 
New Haven. 

Athens. 

Honolulu. 

Boise. 

Indianapolis. 

Des Moines. 

Manhattan. 

Frankfort. 

New Orleans. 

Augusta. 

Baltimore. 

Boston. 

Lansing. 

Do. 
St. Paul. 
Helena. 
Concord. 
Trenton. 



36 



i Authorized by law but not yet organized. 



2 Forest fires only. 



FOREST PLANTING IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 



37 



State. 


Officer in charge. 


Address. 






Albany. 
Chapel Hill. 


North Carolina 


Forester of State geological and economic survey 


North Dakota 




Ohio 


do 




Oregon 


do 








Harrisburg. 
Chepachet. 




do 


South Dakota 


Forester of the commission of school and public lands 








Do 




Do 


Vermont 




Burlington. . 


Virginia 




Do 






Washington 




Olympia. 
Belington. 


West Virginia 


Forest, game, and fish warden 2 , 













i Authorized by law but not organized. 



2 Forest fires only. 



The following publications of the Department of Agriculture deal with forest 
planting. Application for any of them should be made to the Division of Publications, 
Department of Agriculture. 



No. 



Forest Service Bulletins. 



37. The Hardy Catalpa. 

42. The Woodlot: Handbook for Owners of Woodlands in Southern New England. 
65. Advice for Forest Planters in Oklahoma and Adjacent Kegions. 
76. How to Grow and Plant Conifers in the Northeastern States. 
86. Windbreaks: Their Influence and Value. 
121. Reforestation on the Sandhills of Nebraska and Kansas. 

Forest Service Circulars. 

37. Forest Planting in the Sandhill Region of Nebraska. 
41. Forest Planting on Coal Lands in Western Pennsylvania. 
45. Forest Planting in Eastern Nebraska. 

54. How to Cultivate and Care for Forest Plantations on Semiarid Plains. 

55. How to Pack and Ship Young Trees. 

56. Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa) . 

57. Jack Pine (Pinus divaricata) . 
60. Red Pine (Pinus resinosa). 

62. Shagbark Hickory (Hicoria avata). 

64. Black Locust (Robinia pseudacacia) . 

65. Norway Spruce (Picea excelsa). 

67. White Pine (Pinus strobus). 

68. Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris). 

72. Western Yellow Pine (Pinus ponderosa). 

73. Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana). 

74. Honey Locust (Glcditsia triacanthos) . 

75. Hackberry (Celtis oceidentalis) . 
81. Forest Planting in Illinois. 

83. Russian Mulberry (Morus alba tartarinae). 

84. White ash (Fraxinus americana). 

85. Slippery Elm ( Ulmus pubescens). 

86. Boxelder ( Acer negundo). 

87. White Willow (Salix alba). 

88. Black Walnut (Juglans nigra). 

90. Osage Orange ( Toxylon pomiferum). 

91. Coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus) . 






38 BULLETIN 153, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

No. 

92. Green Ash (Fraxinus lanceolata). 

93. Yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). 
95. Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) . 

106. White Oak (Quercus alba). 
145. Forest Planting on the Northern Prairies. 
154. Native and Planted Timber of Iowa. 
161. Forest Planting in Western Kansas. 

182. Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata). 

183. Loblolly Pine (Pinus laeda). 

195. Forest Planting in Northeastern and Lake States. 

Bulletins of the Department of Agriculture. 

11. Forest Management of Loblolly Pine in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. 
13. White Pine under Forest Management. 
24. Cottonwood in the Mississippi Valley. 

Farmers' Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture. 

622. Basket Willow Culture. 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OP Tins PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED fUOM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

10 CENTS PER COPY 




BULLETIN OF THE 

D 



No. 154 




Contribution from the Forest Service, Henry S. Graves, Forester 
January 14, 1915, 



THE LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN THE 
ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 

By D. T. Mason, Assistant District Forester, District 1. 
GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND ALTITUDINAL RANGE. 

Loclgepole pine (Pinus contorta Loudon) is one of the most widely 
distributed western conifers. Its botanical range, shown in figure 1, 
extends from the Yukon Territory southward through the Cas- 
cade, Sierra Nevada, and San Jacinto Mountains to northern Lower 
California, and through the main range of the Rocky Mountains 
to northern Xew Mexico. Its commercial range, however, is much 
more restricted. At present loclgepole is being lumbered exten- 
sively only in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and the Uinta Moun- 
tains in northeastern Utah. Large areas also occur in Idaho, Wash- 
ington, Oregon, and California, but in these regions the tree is 
rendered less important commercially by the presence of other and 
more valuable timber trees. 

The " lodgepole region " — that in which lodgepole is the preemi- 
nently important species — is mountainous, frequently interrupted by 
broad, open valleys, or plains, partly fertile and devoted to farming, 
and in part suitable only for grazing. The forests, as a rule, are con- 
fined to the mountains. 

The altitudinal range of lodgepole pine in the Rocky Mountains 
decreases from south to north. In Colorado and southern Wyoming 
the tree is found at altitudes ranging from 7,000 feet to timber line, 
or 11,500 feet; in northern Wyoming at from 6,000 to 10,500 feet; and 
in southwestern and central Montana at from 4,500 to 9,000 feet. As 
a rule, however, it forms commercial stands only within an altitudinal 
belt from 2,000 to 2,500 feet in width. In Colorado the best stands 
are usually between 7,500 and 9,500 feet ; in Wyoming between 7,000 
and 9,000 feet; and in southwestern and central Montana between 
6,000 and 8,500 feet. In the more humid northwestern portion of 
Montana, outside of the main lodgepole region, the species grows at 
62799°— 15 1 



2 BULLETIN 154, U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

an altitude as low as 1,800 feet, and occurs as a temporary type fol- 
lowing fire with little regard to elevation. 




Fig. 1. — Botanical distribution of lodgepole pine. 
SIZE, AGE, AND HABIT. 

Lodgepole is one of the smallest of the commercially important 
pines. In well-developed stands approximately 140 years old, at 
which age the tree may be considered mature, most of the merchant- 



LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 3 

able trees are from 8 to 14 inches in diameter breasthigh, and from 
60 to 80 feet in height. However, trees up to 20 inches in diameter 
and 85 feet in height are common. The largest lodgepole of record in 
the Eocky Mountains is one on the Gunnison National Forest, Colo., 
which is 34 inches in diameter and 100 feet tall. On the Deerlodge 
National Forest in Montana is a tree 26 inches in diameter and 115 
feet tall, containing six 16-foot logs and scaling approximately 1,000 
board feet. Individuals over 30 inches in diameter have been found 
at other places in the lodgepole region. In California there are in- 
dividuals much larger in diameter than any mentioned, but these 
are usually short and limby. 

Lodgepole pine seldom attains a very great age because of fire and 
insect damage. Stands over 250 years old are uncommon, and stands 
over 300 years very rare. The oldest stand on record is one on the 
Beaverhead National Forest, Mont., which has attained an age of 
about 450 years. 

As a forest tree lodgepole characteristically forms a straight, slim, 
gradually tapering trunk with a compact, conical crown. In very 
dense stands trees which have been crowded throughout life may 
have extremely narrow crowns with a spread of only 3 or 4 feet and 
occupying only from 10 to 20 per cent of the stem length. In such 
cases the crown is usually irregular, and often appears as a mere 
bush at the top of the tree. In stands of moderate density the 
crown is still characteristically narrow, though more regular, and 
occupies from one-half to one-third of the stem length. Even in 
open-grown stands the crown seldom spreads more than from 16 to 
20 feet, but the branches often come down nearly to the ground and 
the taper is usually rapid. 

CLIMATIC, SOIL. AND MOISTURE REQUIREMENTS. 

The climate of the lodgepole region is comparatively dry. Table 
1 gives the essential climatological facts, so far as they are available 
from United States Weather Bureau reports. It indicates roughly 
the precipitation requirements of the various forest types of the 
region, data being given for stations in open country below timber 
line, where there is too little moisture to permit natural tree growth, 
up through the various timber types to the area above timber line. 

Lodgepole will probably grow only where the average annual 
precipitation is 18 inches or more. As a rule the best-developed 
stands occur where the precipitation exceeds 21 inches. It is not 
total precipitation alone, but the amount of available moisture in the 
soil, which determines the possibility of tree growth. This latter 



4 BULLETIN 154, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

varies with the degree of slope, ground cover, and the permeability, 
kind, and depth of soil, and its degree of exposure to wind and 
sun. Air humidity also plays a part. 

Table 1. — Climate within the lodgepole region. 
[Compiled from United States Weather Bureau reports.] 



Station. 



Colorado: 

Gunnison 

Moraine 

Marble 

Grand Lake 

Georgetown 

Longs Peak .... 

Redcliffe 

Columbine 

Frances 

Breckinridge . . . 

Spruce Lodge. . . 

Leadville 

Carona 

Wyoming: 

Centennial 

Woodrock 1 

Dome Lake 2 . . . 
Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park: 

Port Yellow- 
stone. 

Tower Falls 3 ... 

Riverside 3 

Sylvan Pass 3 . . . 

Snake River 3 . . 

Fairview 3 

Fountain 3 

Geyser Basin 3 .. 

Norris 3 

Lake Yellow- 
stone. 3 

Grand Canyon 3 . 
Montana: 

Helena 

Livingston 

Bozeman 

Anaconda 

Butte 

Pipestone Pass. 

Bowen 

Fish Creek 



Type of land or forest 
at station — timbered 
or open. 



Below timber line 

Yellow pine 

Lodgepole 

....do 

Yellow pine (cut over). 

Lodgepole 

....do 

Engelmann spruce 

Lodgepole 

....do 

Engelmann spruce 

Open 

Above timber line 



Below timber line. 

Lodgepole 

Alpine 



Juniper 

Douglas fir. 
Lodgepole. 

....do 

do 

Douglas fir. 
Lodgepole . 

do 

do 

do 



.do. 



Below timber line. 

....do 

do 

Juniper 

Below timber line. 

Douglas fir 

Below timber line. 
Lodgepole 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
period 

on 
which 
aver- 
ages 
are 
bRsed. 



Ele- 
va- 
tion. 



Years. 

21 

23 

4 

5 

11 

18 

20 

3 

8 

24 

5 

15 

6 

10 
1 
2 



Feet. 
7,670 
7,775 
7,951 
8,153 
8,550 
8, 600 
8,695 
8,766 
9,300 
9,536 
9,600 
10, 248 
11,660 

8,074 
8,500 
8,821 



6,200 

6,250 
6,500 
7,000 
7,000 
7,000 
7,220 
7,395 
7,500 
7,733 

7,900 

4,110 

4,488 
4,700 
5,300 
5,716 
5,800 
6,060 



Annual precipi- 
tation. 



Annual tempera- 
ture. 



Mean. 



In. 

9.48 
16.13 
29.60 
17.66 
12.82 
20.00 
20.70 
25.00 
25.89 
23.90 
31.64 
14.98 
45.87 

18.59 
44.39 

34.78 



16.93 

16.27 
19.58 
25.48 
27.79 
16.11 
17.90 
21.23 
19.23 
25.04 

25.72 

13.42 
14.36 
18.72 
14.99 
13.80 
18.87 
13.75 
23.31 



Maxi- 
mum. 



Mini- 
mum. 



In. 
13.45 
22.37 
35.66 
22.74 
19.05 
29.84 
30.02 



33. 72 
46.41 
36.12 
23.76 
58.32 

27.68 
44.39 



20.35 

19.29 

23. 85 
27.72 
33.77 
18.83 
19.07 
22.69 
22.62 
42.15 

27.81 

19.94 
19.96 
32.63 
18.89 
20.55 
19.66 
18.56 
24.70 



In. 

6.86 
11.74 
21.82 
12.80 
11.72 
13.93 
10.96 



Dcg. F. 
37.0 
40.8 
40.2 



21.65 
14.22 
26.02 
11.75 
35.90 

5.14 



13.31 

13.63 
14.38 
24.03 
21.32 
11.51 
15.88 
19.33 
17.13 
17.39 

23.62 

6.71 
10.68 
14.18 
9.03 
6.95 
17.61 
10.10 
20. 69 



Mean. 



Maxi- 
mum. 



Dcg.F. 
96 
90 
90 



37.8 



40.6 
33.7 



35.0 
26.2 



38.8 
'30." 7 



38.3 

35.6 
35.3 
34.2 
34.6 
34.9 
33.2 
34.4 
33.4 
31.2 

31.9 

43.3 
45.8 
43.2 
42.1 
42.1 



32.7 
35.1 



Dcg. F. 
-46 
-32 
-29 



85 



40.2 

39.3 

36.8 
34.7 
36.2 
37.0 
35.8 
36.2 
35.8 
33.7 

33.1 

103 
106 
112 

96 
94 



Mini- 
mum. 



-37.9 



-36.3 

-33.6 
-33.9 
-33.7 
-33.2 
-32.9 
-31.5 
-31.6 
-30.4 
-29.4 

-30.7 

-42 
-34 
-53 
-33 
-29 



1 Probably reaches freezing every month; no temperature record. 

2 Likely to get freezing temperature any month. 
8 Freezing temperatures every month in year. 



LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN EOCKY MOUNTAINS. 
Table 1. — Climate within the lodgepole region — Continued. 



Station. 



Colorado: 

Gunnison 

Moraine 

Marble 

Grand Lake 

Georgetown 

Longs Peak 

Redcliffe 

Columbine 

Frances 

Breckinridge . . . 

Spruce Lodge. . . 

Leadville 

Carona 

Wyoming: 

Centennial 

Woodrock 3 

Dome Lake 4 . . . 
Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park: 

Fort Yellow- 
stone. 

Tower Falls 5.. 

Riverside 5 . 

Sylvan Pass 5 . . 

Snake River 6 .. 

Fairview 5 

Fountain '•> 

Geyser Basin 5 . 

Norris 5 

Lake Yellow- 
stone. 5 

Grand Canyon 5 
Montana: 

Helena 

Livingston .... 

Bozeman 

Anaconda 

Butte 

Pipestone Pass 

Bowen 

Fish Creek .... 



Type of land or forest 
"at station— timbered 
or open. 



Below timber line 

Yellow pine 

Lodgepole 

....do 

Yellow pine (cut over). 

Lodgepole 

....do 

Engelmann spruce 

Lodgepole 

do 

Engelmann spruce 

Open 

Above timber line 



Below timber line. 

Lodgepole 

Alpine 



Juniper 

Douglas fir. 
Lodgepole . 

do 

do 

Douglas fir. 
Lodgepole . 

do 

do 

do 



.do. 



Below timber line. 

do 

do 

Juniper 

Below timber line. 

Douglas fir 

Below timber line. 
Lodgepole 



Ap- 
proxi- 
mate 
period 

on 
which 
aver- 
ages 
are 
bpsed. 



Years. 

21 

23 

4 

5 

11 

18 

20 

3 

8 

24 

5 

15 

6 

10 
1 
2 



Mean 
annual 
snow- 
fall. 



Killing frost. 



Inches. 
46.5 
96.1 
157.4 
173.2 
94.0 
119.5 
205.4 
211.5 
183.5 
193.9 
270.7 
134.9 
346.5 

134.8 
321.1 
223.2 



96.7 



102.0 
140.9 
218.8 
73.0 
126.0 
156.8 
153.2 
181.3 

158.5 

54.7 
40.4 
71.1 
40.6 
55.2 

101.3 
70.1 

182.5 



Spring. 



Average 
latest. 



July 10 
June 17 
June 16 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 
July 10 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 
May 29 
July 21 

( 2 ) 
June 15 
July 18 

June 23 
( 3 ) 



May 14 



May 7 
May 20 
May 28 
June 17 
June 5 



Fall. 



Latest 
known. 



0) 

0) 
July 5 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

0) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 
June 14 

0) 

( 2 ) 

June 21 

(') 

July 9 
( 3 ) 



June 3 



Average 
earliest. 



Aug. 20 
Aug. 18 
Aug. 26 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 
Aug. 28 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 
Sept. 10 
Aug. 9 

( 2 ) 
Aug. 31 
Aug. 19 

Sept. 8 
( 3 ) 



Sept. 19 



Earliest, 
known. 



0) 
C 1 ) 

Aug. 
( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 
<») 
( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 

Aug. 

( 2 ) 

Aug. 
0) 

Aug. 
( 3 ) 



25 



Aug. 25 



June 9 
June 20 
...do.... 
July 8 
June 26 



Sept. 28 
Sept. 17 
Sept. 7 
Sept. 6 
Sept. 15 



Sept. 

Do. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

Sept. 



1 Midsummer. 

s No data. 

3 Probably reaches freezing every month; no temperature record. 

* Likely to get freezing temperature any month. 

5 Freezing temperatures every month in year. 

In southwestern Montana lodgepole occurs at elevations as low as 
4,500 feet on northern exposures, where there is the greatest atmos- 
pheric humidity and the least evaporation from the soil. South 
slopes at this elevation, if timbered at all, usually support only such 
species as juniper (Junipeims scopulorum) or Douglas fir (Pseu- 
dotsuga taxifolia), which require less soil moisture than lodgepole 
and are better constituted to resist transpiration. Lodgepole is found 
on southern exposures at about 6,000 feet, provided the gradient is 
less than 10 per cent. A steep south slope is generally too dry for 
the species. 

At the upper limit of its range lodgepole gives way to other and 
more tolerant trees. Increase in soil and atmospheric moisture en- 
courages such species as Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannz) and 



6 BULLETIN 154, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Alpine fir (Abies lasicarpa), while the relatively short growing 
season at high elevations does not furnish the total amount of heat 
which lodgepole needs for its growth. The range of the species is 
thus limited on one hand by lack of moisture and on the other by 
lack of heat. 

Lodgepole occasionally endures for short periods extremes of tem- 
perature varying from approximately 100° F. to —55° F. The 
growing season of the region is short, since killing frosts are likely 
to occur until about the middle of June and the first autumn frost 
comes early in September. In the lodgepole zone frost and snow may 
occur at any time during the growing season. 

May and June are the months of heaviest precipitation, but in the 
lodgepole zone much of this is in the form of snow, which usually 
covers the ground until late April or the middle of June, depending 
upon the elevation and aspect. 

Too much soil moisture is unfavorable to lodgepole, and good 
drainage is essential. The tree will not stand a water content of 
more than 35 per cent in a loam soil and only about half as much 
in gravel or sand. The best water content is between 12 and 15 per 
cent, though in gravel it may even fall below 5 per cent without 
effect upon the tree beyond a decrease in its rate of growth. 1 In 
respect to their moisture requirements the different conifers of the 
region may be grouped as follows, those demanding the least mois- 
ture being placed first : Juniper, limber pine (Pinus jlexilis) , yellow 
pine (Pinus ponderosa), Douglas fir, lodgepole, white bark pine 
(Pinus albicaulis), Alpine fir, and Engelmann spruce. 

Lodgepole is not exacting in its soil requirements, though it does 
best on deep, fresh, well-drained agricultural land. It is able to 
make good growth, however, on shallower, poorer soils, provided a 
reasonable amount of moisture is available. The typical soil of the 
lodgepole region is gravelly, with a considerable admixture of loam 
in valley bottoms and open benches, but with little or none on ridges 
and steep slopes. Unless lightened by a mixture of sand, gravel, or 
loam, clays are usually not well enough drained, while limestone 
soils are apt to be too dry to enable the tree to make a normal growth. 
In the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming, for example, lodgepole is 
rarely found on the limestone soils, though granitic soils immedi- 
ately adjoining show extensive areas of the lodgepole type. 

LIGHT REQUIREMENTS. 

In relation to light, lodgepole pine exhibits three striking char- 
acteristics — intolerance of any considerable degree of overhead shade; 
ability to survive for long periods in a badly crowded or suppressed 
condition in pure, even-aged stands ; and ability to recover and make 

1 Forest Service Bulletin 79, The Life History of Lodgepole Burn Forests. 



LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 7 

increased growth after being released from suppression. For its 
best development lodgepole requires considerable light from above. 
With full sunlight as standard, no vigorous seedlings were found in 
Colorado in light values of from 0.08 to 0.05. Since the light values 
in mature forests range from 0.12 to 0.05, with an average of 0.08 
or 0.07, it is obvious that satisfactory reproduction can not be ex- 
pected in such stands. 1 Seedlings often start under the partial shade 
of moderately open stands, particularly in restricted groups in small 
openings, but their growth and development is slower than in the 
open. Full sunlight will result in the best development at all ages, 
provided sufficient soil moisture is available. In the order of their 
tolerance the species of the lodgepole region may be grouped as fol- 
lows: Alpine fir, Englemann spruce, Douglas fir, white bark pine, 
lodgepole pine, yellow pine, limber pine, juniper. 

Although not as tolerant as most of its associates, lodgepole is 
truly remarkable for its ability to live for long periods in a badly- 
suppressed condition in the shade of larger trees of the same species. 
It is this characteristic which makes dense reproduction undesirable. 
The extremely dense stands which follow fire will remain dense in- 
definitely to the practically complete stagnation of growth. Some 
stands over 50 years old have more than 50,000 live trees per acre 
from 8 to 10 feet high. On Buffalo Creek on the Deerlodge National 
Forest, Mont., in a 70-year-old stand on a north slope, a count on 1 
square rod in a fairly typical situation showed a density at a rate of 
101,000 live trees per acre, together with 79,000 dead ones. (PI. I, 
fig. 2.) The "trees, 1 ' which could be pulled up like so many weeds, 
had an average diameter of about three-tenths inch at 1 inch above 
ground and a height of about 4 feet. The largest tree was 8 feet 
high and 1.5 inches in diameter. The wonderful persistence of the 
individual is shown by the loss of only 45 per cent in numbers after 
70 years of crowding. This behavior of lodgepole, which is evident 
in Colorado and Wyoming, as well as in Montana, contrasts strongly 
with that of yellow pine, an area of which near Missoula, Mont., 
showed only 1,300 live trees per acre after 30 years in a stand which 
had originally numbered 3,500 trees per acre. Of the surviving trees, 
moreover, 310 completely dominated the rest. 

In overdense stands of lodgepole the side branches are killed by 
shading for the better part of the distance up the bole. In moder- 
ately dense stands, however, natural pruning of the side branches is 
not extensive enough to result in the production of clean stems. It 
has been estimated that reproduction at the rate of about 8,000 seed- 
lings per acre is necessary to secure a high degree of natural priming. 
In a stand of 1,500 to 2,000 seedlings per acre, well distributed, the 
lower side branches will remain small and die at an early age. Many 

1 Forest Service Bulletin 79, History of Lodgepole Burn Forests, and Forest Service 
Bulletin 92, Light in Relation to Tree Growth. 



8 BULLETIN 154, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

of these dead branches will, of course, persist for years, but they will 
not be large enough to detract from the value of the timber for the 
purposes to which it is best suited. Even this moderate density would 
be undesirable, however, if the stand could not be thinned fairly 
early in its life — when from 40 to 60 years old. Trees which have 
come up in openings in stands grow more slowly than trees which 
start in full sunlight, but, on the other hand, develop small side 
branches on the lower stem and in the end produce better timber. 

In a typical dense stand of merchantable lodgepoles there is usu- 
ally a large number of suppressed trees from 2 to 6 inches in diam- 
eter. These are not younger than the larger trees in the stand, as 
might be supposed, but are generally of about the same age. 

There is a general belief that lodgepole will not recover from 
suppression when openings are made in the stand. Recent investiga- 
tions, however, prove that recovery does take place and often to 
a remarkable degree. The photograph of the cross section of lodge- 
pole pine (PI. II) shows the effect of a very heavy thinning in 
which the stand was well opened. This particular cross section was 
selected for photographing because the rings formed previous to the 
release are large enough to show, which is not the case in many 
badly suppressed trees. 

Another tree studied was released from suppression 16 years ago, 
when 94 years old. Since then its diameter has increased from 
1.44 inches to 5.06 inches and its height from 15 feet to 25 feet. The 
rate of growth has increased from 1 inch in diameter in 67 years to 
an inch in 4 years and from 1 foot in height in 7 years to" 1 foot in 
1.6 years. After its neighbors were removed the rate of diameter 
growth increased immediately, but for the first 8 years it grew in 
height only at the rate of 1 foot in 4 years. During the last 8 years, 
however, it has been growing in height uniformly at the rate of a foot 
a year. The rate of volume growth has increased 4,680 per cent. 

Another tree which, at the age of 50 years, had a stump diameter 
of nine-tenths of an inch and a height of 5 feet, was opened to the 
light by a cutting made 43 years ago. After 43 years of sunlight 
the tree had grown to a diameter of 6.6 inches and a height of 27 feet. 
The volume of wood produced in the period of accelerated growth 
was about 25,600 per cent more than that produced during the period 
of suppression. 

Even small seedlings which have been badly suppressed will re- 
spond vigorously when the stand is well opened. A seedling about 
30 years old, three-tenths of an inch in diameter at the ground, and 
2| feet high, grew to a diameter of seven-tenths of an inch and a 
height of 6 feet in 5 years after its release. 

Whether or not a tree will recover from suppression depends upon 
the condition of its crown at the time of release, the amount of light 






Bui. 154. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate I. 





■Jail: 


i 'A 

1 
- 








* fli 






1 


.4M 







o 



pp 



.^. I ■ 



8* 5 — 
1 &S 



as O 60 



z P.' 

o - 

O 

O "^ ??"'-'•£ 



■r! at! h 



w S p, g 1 



u. £g H ^ 

oof.s 
i^o £ £ 

as J O o 

.fli-l hCP, 




I-, Or; 
0j O ^ 

g <u 



C- Q o- 



.s - £ « S?g-s 



oS:g'C a. 
M « a/p. 



Li- .s| H £ 

sis* 

S 5 c ^ 



Bui. 1 54, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate II. 




Effect of Thinning Lodgepole. 

After its release this tree increased in diameter from 3.5 to 6.3 inches in 12 years. In the last 
12 years the tree has been growing at the rate of an inch in diameter in 4 years, while in 
the previous 12 years it had been growing at the rate of an inch in 25 years. The tree has 
been growing 772 per cent faster in volume in the last 12 years than in the preceding 12 
years. Note the thin bark. 



LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 9 

admitted to the stand, and probably to some degree upon the tree's 
height. Tall trees with very poor crowns are often killed outright 
when exposed to full sunlight. The more thrifty and vigorous the 
crown and the shorter the tree, the surer the recovery. Trees which 
stand full light immediately show the greatest increase in growth. 
Observations made so far do not tend to show that the quality of the 
site has any effect upon recovery from suppression. 

REPRODUCTION. 

CONE AND SEED PRODUCTION. 1 

Lodgepole pine usually produces a fair crop of seed each year. 
Particularly abundant seed production may occur at two or three 
year intervals, but it is not yet possible to say whether there is any 
uniform periodicity in such years, as is often the case with yellow 
pine and Engelmann spruce. Open-grown trees produce seed at 
an earlier age and in larger quantities throughout life than do trees 
in dense stands. Seedlings in the open have been known to mature 
cones at the very early age of 5 years, while crowded trees in the 
forest may reach an age of 50 years without doing so. In somewhat 
open stands moderate seed production usually begins when the trees 
are from 15 to 20 years old. Careful tests show that seed from trees 
less than 10 years old have as high a germination per cent as seed 
from mature trees. 

Typical lodgepole cones vary in diameter from 1 to 2.5 inches. 
The cones are generally larger on open-grown than on close-grown 
trees, and tend to increase in size with the age of the tree up to its 
maturity. They are nearly always flattened on the side oppressed 
to the parent branch. The extreme basal scales of the cone and from 
3 to 6 scales at the tip do not bear any seeds, but the remainder of 
the scales, between base and tip, nearly always do. Seed-collecting 
operations on nine National Forests in Colorado and Wyoming show 
an average of about 26 seeds per cone. The number of cones per 
tree, and consequently the total seed production, varies greatly. 
Clements has estimated the average annual production of seed per 
tree in certain cases at from 21,000 to 50,000. Hence the total seed 
production of a stand may be enormous. Lodgepole is unquestion- 
ably a more prolific and regular seed producer than any of the species 
commonly associated with it. 

SEED DISSEMINATION. 

Lodgepole cones ripen in late August or September of their second 
year. It is a notable characteristic of the species, however, that the 
cones often fail to open and discharge the seed as soon as mature. 

1 Detailed results of an investigation on this subject made by F. E. Clements in Colo- 
rado are given in Forest Service Bulletin 79. 

62790°— Bull. 154—15 2 



10 BULLETIN" 154, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Sealed cones as old as 75 and 80 years have been found attached to 
the parent tree. Sometimes the lower part, or even the entire cone, 
is embedded in the wood. Closed cones are more common on old 
than on young trees, and on trees growing in dense stands than on 
those in the open. MacDonalcl found on the Targhee Forest that 
on trees less than 55 years old five-sixths of the cones opened at ma- 
turity, while on trees over 55 years old only one-fourth of the cones 
opened. Seeds retain their vitality for many years in sealed cones, 
and in one case had a germination per cent as high as 8 after being 
locked up for about 75 years. 

Clements states that cones open normally as a result of the drying 
out of the cone scales rather than from the action of heat alone. The 
majority of cones capable of opening normally probably do so within 
a short time after maturity, and scatter their seeds while still attached 
to the tree. Some cones, however, after remaining upon the tree 
closed or only partly open for a number of years finally fall to the 
ground with more or less seed still in them. 

There appear to be two distinct periods of general opening, the 
first in the years immediately following maturity and the second from 
10 to 13 years later. The opening during the second period is prob- 
ably due to the fact that the pedicel of the cone breaks about this 
time and the cone no longer receives moisture from the tree. The 
size of the cone appears to have no effect upon the time when it opens. 

Tower 1 states that the amount of lime in the soil has a strong 
influence upon the time when the cones open; that on soils rich in 
silica and deficient in lime the majority of cones open at maturity, 
while on soils rich in lime they remain closed and persist on the trees 
for many years. Observations by other investigators in Colorado 
and Montana, however, indicate that this tendency is not sufficiently 
marked to constitute a rule. Individual trees in the same stand show 
the most extreme differences in cone opening; one tree may have all 
of its cones open, while beside it another tree of the same age may 
have all of its cones closed; and in most cases both open and closed 
cones are found on the same tree. Probably the differences in be- 
havior in this respect observed by Tower indicate merely the general 
tendency of cones to open less promptly on dry soils. This tendency 
is also indicated by the fact that fewer cones remain closed on the 
moister soils and in the moister climates of northwestern Montana, 
northern Idaho, and the Sierras in California. 

The opening of the cone frees the small, winged seeds, which are 
distributed mainly by the wind. Other agents of seed distribution 
are gravity, surface drainage and streams, and such animals as 
squirrels and mice. The distance to which wind distribution is effec- 

U Study of the Reproductive Characteristics of Lodgepole Pine, by G. E. Tower, in 
Vol. IV, No. 1, of the Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters. 






LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN" EOCKY MOUNTAINS. 11 

tive is very apt to be overestimated. One reason for this is that 
natural reproduction has often been credited to wind-sown seed, when 
in reality the seed was already present on the area in sealed cones. 
Hodson, 1 as the result of a study on a large number of cut-over areas 
in Montana and Wyoming, concludes that " the largest amount of 
seed falls within a hundred feet of the seed tree, and the radius of 
effective reproduction is much less than ' is commonly supposed." 
Clements states that the distance to which seed is carried by the 
wind "was never found to exceed 164 feet." Undoubtedly the dis- 
tances seeds are carried varies considerably with the topography and 
the situation of the seed trees. Trees on a ridge exposed to high winds 
will distribute seed the maximum distance. Until more definite in- 
formation is available, it is safe to assume that wind distribution 
should not be relied upon for distances of more than 150 to 250 feet, 
according to the character of the situation. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURAL REPRODUCTION. 

Owing to its intolerance of overhead shade, lodgepole pine will not 
reproduce satisfactorily without considerable direct light. Although 
the seed will germinate with a vary small amount of light, the young 
seedling soon dies without it. In mature stands a heavy thinning 
which reduces the crown density to about one-half is usually neces- 
sary to permit a fair amount of reproduction to start and thrive. 
Where the stand is opened by the removal of groups of trees on areas 
of 3 or 4 square rods or more, reproduction will usually start and 
grow well in the openings. Reproduction starting in this manner is 
more apt to be uneven aged and better divided into height classes, and 
consequently in less danger of stagnation, than in the dense, even 
aged stands of uniform height which so often follow fire. Vigorous 
young growth has been observed under stands in which a heavy and 
uniform thinning had been made, causing the forest to resemble one 
undergoing regeneration by the shelterwood method. In stands of 
only moderate density, however, seedlings are apt to be spindling and 
slow of growth. 

The most favorable seed bed for germination of lodgepole pine 
seed is a mineral soil with plenty of available heat and moisture. 
Needles and undecayed humus are apt to dry out rapidly in the 
spring, before the rootlets of most of the seedlings can reach the 
mineral soil. That mineral soil is not always necessary for germina- 
tion, however, is shown by the fact that on old cuttings in Montana 
where there has been no fire, seedlings apparently start indiscrim- 
inately on patches of mineral soil and in small clumps of pine grass 

1 Silvical Notes on Lodgepole Pine, by E. R. Hodson, in Vol. Ill, No. 1, of the Proceed- 
ings of the Society of American Foresters. 



12 BULLETIN 154, 17. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

(Calemagrostis 7 v ubescens) , the latter usually not more than 8 or 10 
inches high. Furthermore, in full sunlight even mineral soil may 
dry out so rapidly that many of the seedlings will be killed by 
drought. For this reason young stands are usually more dense on 
mineral soil lightly shaded by recently fire-killed trees than in the 
open. On the other hand, they are likely to be more open on sandy 
soil than on soils better able to retain moisture. The densest seed- 
ling stands are apt to occur on north slopes where there is a rela- 
tively small amount of direct sunlight and a large amount of 
moisture. 

Competition with other native vegetation, such as blueberry (Vac- 
ciniu?n) and kinnikinnic (Arctostaphylos) , for light and soil mois- 
ture often greatly reduces the amount of loclgepole reproduction; 
and the seedlings which do start have a much slower growth than 
where there is no competition. Aspen also is a hindrance to lodge- 
pole, through its more rapid growth when young, wherever the two 
start oti the same area. A light, overhead aspen cover, on the other 
hand, may be beneficial by protecting the soil. 

Eodents reduce the seed supply to a certain extent, but there is 
probably always enough seed left for satisfactory reproduction if 
other conditions are favorable. 

OPTIMUM DENSITY. 

The right density for a stand of lodgepole is that at which the 
lower branches become suppressed and die while still small, but with- 
out overcrowding of the trees and consequent decrease in rate of 
growth. Hodson concluded that an original density of 8,000 seed- 
lings per acre is required to produce clean stems at maturity. Later 
investigations show, however, that while this number of seedlings 
would secure good natural pruning, it would be at a great sacrifice 
in diameter growth. In the reconnaissance work on the Deerlodge 
Forest a " normal " seedling stand is considered one of about 1,000 
trees per acre, fairly well spaced and of fairly even height growth. 
By " normal " is meant that degree and character of stocking which 
will produce the maximum yield of merchantable timber of the de- 
sired sizes at the end of the rotation. Stands containing too few, or 
too many, unevenly distributed trees, are abnormal to the extent to 
which they will fail to produce this maximum yield. Normality is 
thus seen to differ materially from "density," which refers to the 
extent to which the crown space is fully utilized. Stands with a 
density of 1.0 are nearly always too crowded for the most satisfac- 
tory development. 

The number of trees constituting a normal stand naturally de- 
creases with the age of the stand. While 1,000 trees per acre, evenly 
spaced, is a satisfactory stocking when reproduction first starts, this 






j|. 154, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate III. 




Fig. 1.— Lodgepole Timber. 
Heavy stand of overmature stull timber about 200 years old, Deerlodge National Forest. 




Fig. 2.— Well-Developed Young Lodgepole. 

This stand is 60 years of age and now has about 250 trees per acre. The thinning was made 
18 years ago, which removed about 250 trees per acre, although at that time the density was 
about normal. The stand now has 3,200 board feet per acre. 



Bui. 154, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate IV. 




Fig. 1.— Lodgepole Reproduction. 

In the center of the picture is a 20-vear-old stand of lodgepole on an old cutting. No fire has 
been over the area. The white streaks mark the location of the original windrows of brush 
only partly decayed. 




Fig. 2.— Lodgepole Reproduction. 

Well-distributed seedlings coming up without fire on a cutting made 10 years ago. The stand is 
about 500 per acre, a density nearly ideal. 



LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 13 

should be reduced to about 500 at the end of 30 years, to about 300 
at the end of 90 years, and to about 250 by the one hundred and 
fortieth year, when the stand may be considered mature. Unfortu- 
nately, owing to the low mortality rate of lodgepole pine, a stand of 
1,000 evenly distributed seedlings 10 years old will not, by natural 
means, be reduced to 500 at 30 years, 300 at 90 years, and 250 at 
110 years. Ordinarily this could be brought about only by thinning. 
If, however, the stand is sufficiently open to arrive at maturity with 
250 stems per acre without thinning, decidedly limby trees will be 
the result. On the other hand, a stand of 1,000 well-spaced seed- 
lings 10 years old, at which age a stand may be considered as 
established, probably will have about half that number of trees 
at maturity. In such a case those of fairly good form and diameter 
may be cut and the others left to grow for an additional period. 
Seedling stands of from 300 to 500 plants per acre are preferable 
to those of 8,000 or more, even when thinning is possible, since for 
many years the latter will not produce material which can be taken 
out with profit in the course of thinning. Thinnings, moreover, 
will probably be impracticable, except in a few localities, and for 
this reason from 300 to 500 seedlings may generally be considered 
preferable to 2,000 or more. A good volume of limby timber is 
better than a large number of poles; besides, the spaces in an open 
stand will gradually fill in with individuals of a more satisfactory 
form. Where thinnings are practicable a density of about 2,000 
plants at the start is best. Plate III, figure 2, shows a well-developed 
60-}^ear-old stand of lodgepole of something less than normal density. 

It should be borne in mind that the figures for density given in 
the preceding paragraph are more or less arbitrary, and in deter- 
mining the normality of a stand as much attention should be given 
to the spacing and height growth as to the number of stems. A 
relatively large number of trees per acre is not undesirable, provided 
there is enough variation in the height of individual trees to pre- 
vent stagnation of growth. 

The production of clean stems is of comparatively little im- 
portance, since lodgepole is used mainly for mine timbers and rail- 
way ties, and in the future is not likely to have additional uses other 
than for telephone poles, pulp, and common lumber. Of far greater 
importance than clean stems are rapid growth and the production 
of large-sized timber. Lodgepole is slow-growing, and there is 
always an abundance of trees of small size. Ordinarily there is 
far greater clanger of overstocking than of understocking. Ob- 
servations on 40,585 acres of young growth on the Deerlodge 
National Forest show 78.7 per cent of the entire area to be over- 
stocked, 20.5 per cent understocked, and only 0.8 per cent normally 
stocked. 



14 BULLETIN 154, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

EFFECT OF FIRE. 

Fire has been one of the most important agencies in the reproduc- 
tion of lodgepole pine. Its effect is fourfold : 4 (1) By softening the 
resin and drying out the cone scales it opens the sealed cones and 
makes available the accumulated seed production of many years; 
(2) by reducing the density of the ground cover it* admits plenty of 
light; (3) by exposing the mineral soil and removing the ground 
cover it prepares a favorable seedbed; (4) by killing and driving away 
for a time the rodents and birds it saves the seed from being eaten. 
Thus aided by fire, lodgepole has been able to replace to a consider- 
able extent all the species within its range, since these usually pro- 
duce seed in abundance only once in several years and discharge it 
immediately. Most of the extensive lodgepole stands now in existence 
have come in as a result of fire. On the other hand, areas formerly 
covered with lodgepole have been made barren by " double burns," 
where stands of young growth which followed the first fire have been 
destroyed by a second one before they were old enough to produce 
seed. Areas of this kind on which all of the trees have been killed 
will not reforest naturally for many years, since the only way repro- 
duction can take place is by seeding from the sides. 

Fire in a mature stand is usually followed by too dense a reproduc- 
tion to permit the most satisfactory development of the young trees. 
Sample plots on the Gallatin National Forest, Mont., show repro- 
duction after the fires of 1910 with a maximum density of about 
300,000 one-year-old sedlings per acre. On the Deerlodge National 
Forest stands following fire have been found which, at the age of S 
years, had a maximum density of about 175,000 live seedlings per 
acre, averaging about 2 feet high. Ten small sample plots on the 
Arapaho National Forest, Colo., in a 22-year-old stand, showed an 
average of nearly 44,000 trees per acre. These figures, of course, rep- 
resent maximum densities on small areas, but as extreme illustrations 
they show that severe overstocking is more than likely to follow fire. 

The effect of fire on cut-over areas may be very different. Where 
all the trees have been felled and the brush piled in windrows — a 
practice in many private operations — a fire in the slash may be fol- 
lowed by reproduction of moderate density. Such a fire usually de- 
stroys all the seeds in the windrows, the locations of which are marked 
by the absence of reproduction, while a moderately dense stand starts 
in the intervening spaces from cones which did not get into the 
windrows and thus escaped destruction. 

On unburned, cut-over areas reproduction is apt to be much less 
dense, and therefore more satisfactory than in the case of burned- 
over uncut stands. Throughout the Rocky Mountains are thousands 
of acres of old cuttings, untouched by fire, upon which the repro- 
duction is decidedly satisfactory. This is especially true of the Deer- 
lodge Forest, near Butte, Mont., where it is unusual to find an old 



LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 15 

cutting on which reproduction is not taking place. Observations on 
32 separate tracts in the 20 and 30 year age classes on this Forest show 
a far more satisfactory reproduction on unburned cut-over areas 
than where stands have been killed by fire. On many clean-cut areas 
which have been left practically without seed trees reproduction has 
taken place solely from cones which remained on the ground after 
logging. Nearly all mature trees bear a considerable number of per- 
sistent, closed cones, some of which fall on the ground when the tree 
is cut, while others remain attached to the branches. These gradu- 
ally open and drop their seed, resulting in fairly uniform reproduc- 
tion if the brush is scattered. If it is piled in windrows, which decay 
very slowly, the spaces so occupied will not reproduce. (Plate IV, 
fig. 1.) Where the stand is not cut clean, or where clean-cut only 
over small areas, seed comes from above or from the side, as well 
as from the cones left on the ground and in the tops of felled trees. 
Sample plots in an unburned stand on the Arapaho National Forest, 
measured six years after the removal of about one-half of the original 
trees for ties, showed an average of 6,000 seedlings per acre, of which 
3,500 had started since the cutting. Even with the same number of 
seedlings per acre reproduction is apt to be more satisfactory on an 
unburned than on a burned area, since the young growth comes in 
more gradually, giving trees of different heights and so materially 
lessening the danger of stagnation. 

The greater part of the reproduction which comes in after either 
fire or cutting usually starts within a comparatively short time. The 
following figures, which represent averages obtained from 181 small 
sample plots, both burned and unburned, in Montana and Wyoming, 
show the proportion of reproduction which came in during each 
5-year period for the first 30 years after the stand was opened up : 

Per cent. 

First five years 69.5 

Second five years 21. 

Third five years 5.4 

Fourth five years .9 

Fifth five years 2.5 

Sixth five years .7 

100.0 

It will be seen that nearly 70 per cent of the reproduction started 
in the first 5 years and over 90 per cent in the first 10 years. Unfor- 
tunately, it is not possible to separate the figures for burned and 
unburned plots. Similar observations on a 9-year-old burn on the 
Arapaho National Forest showed over 49 per cent of the reproduc- 
tion to have started in the first four years and nearly 75 per cent in 
the first six years after the fire. In most places the character of the 
seedbed is so changed in the 10 years following a cutting or fire by 



16 



BULLETIN 154, U. S. DEPABTMENT OF AGBICULTUBE. 



the formation of a thick sod of grass that comparatively few seed- 
lings are able to gain a foothold after that time. 

GROWTH. 

The rate of growth of lodgepole varies greatly with the quality 
of the site and the density of the stand. Other conditions being the 
same, the most rapid growth takes place on the best sites, but over- 
stocking often reduces the rate of growth in such situations to a 
point at which it is considerably less than in more normally stocked 
stands on poorer sites. The effect upon growth of the density of the 
stand is discussed under " Factors influencing yield." 

On account of the wide variation in lodgepole's rate of growth, it is 
impossible to give figures which will be universally applicable. Table 
2 shows what may be expected under certain conditions. The data 
were obtained from 468 average trees cut by the arbitrary group 
method in the course of a yield study on the Deerlodge Forest, con- 
ducted in fully stocked stands on sites better than the average for 
that Forest. Since the stands were approximately fully stocked, and 
in some cases overstocked, the diameter growth shown is somewhat 
less than that which may be expected in the case of trees growing in 
stands of moderate density. On the other hand, since the sites were 
better than the average, the height growth shown is somewhat above 
the average. 

Table 2. — Average growth of lodgepole pine in fully stocked stands on the 
Deerlodge National Forest, Montana, on slightly better than average sites, 
based on 468 average trees, of which 158 were dominant. 





Diameter breast 
high. 


Height. 


Volume. 


Age in years. 


Average 
trees. 


Domi- 
nant 
trees. 


Average 
trees. 


Domi- 
nant 
trees. 


Average 
trees. 


Domi- 
nant 
trees. 


Average 
trees. 


Domi- 
nant 
trees. 


10 


Inches. 
0.4 
1.2 
2.1 
3.0 
3.8 
4.5 
5.2 
5.8 
6.4 
6.9 
7.4 
7.9 
8.3 
8.7 
9.2 
9.6 
10.0 
10.4 
10.8 
11.2 


Inches. 
0.5 
1.9 
3.2 
4.4 
5.6 
6.6 
7.4 
8.2 
8.9 
9.5 
10.1 
10.7 
11.2 
11.8 
12.3 
12.8 
13.3 
13.8 
14.3 
14.7 


Feet. 
3 
10 
19 
27 
33 
38 
42 
47 
51 
54 
58 
61 
65 
68 
71 
74 
77 
80 
83 
85 


Feet. 
4 
12 
20 
32 
38 
44 
49 
54 
58 
62 
66 
70 
73 
76 
79 

81.5 
84 
86.5 
89 
91.5 


Board 
feet?- 


Board 
feet} 


Cubic 
feet* 


Cubic 
feet* 


20 










30 






0.5 

.9 

1.5 

2.1 

3.0 

4.1 

6.2 

8.6 

10.0 

11.4 

13.5 

15.5 

18.0 

• 20.0 

22.0 

24.2 

26.5 

30.0 


1.0 


40 






2.5 


50 






3.9 


60 




5 

20 

35 

45 

60 

75 

90 

105 

120 

135 

150 

170 

190 

215 

240 


5.5 


70 




7.4 


80 




• 9.5 


90 


5 

20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
110 
125 


12.2 


100 


15.3 


110 


18.5 


120 

130 


23.0 
26.0 


140 


30.0 


150 


34.5 


160 


39.0 


170 


44.0 


180 


49.0 


190 


54.0 


200 


60.0 







i The board foot volume is based on a minimum log of 6-ineh top diameter and 16-foot length, scaled by 
the Scribner Decimal C rule. 

2 The cubic foot volume includes only the usable portion of the trunk from above the stump, usually 
from 6 to 10 inches high, to a diameter of 3 inches in the top. 



LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 



17 



This table shows how comparatively slow is the growth of lodge- 
pole pine. One of the most striking points brought out, however, 
is the relatively rapid growth of the dominant trees, particularly in 
volume, amounting to approximately twice that of the average tree. 
This indicates clearly the need for sufficient growing space if the 
maximum development of individual trees is to be secured. 

Measurements which would permit of comparison between the rate 
of growth in Wyoming and Colorado with that in Montana are not 
available. Table 3, however, shows the diameter growth by decades 
on two widely separated Forests in Wyoming, the Medicine Bow and 
the Bighorn. In both cases the growth is typical of the average 
sites on which the bulk of the lodgepole forests of the region are 
found. Since in this case the measurements were collected by fol- 
lowing the sawyers through the woods, the data secured represent the 
growth of trees of more than the average diameter, since only the 
larger timber was cut. Also, the stand on the Medicine Bow was 
probably denser than on the Bighorn, which accounts for the slower 
rate of growth upon the former. On similar sites, and with the same 
stand density, the rate of growth for the two Forests would probably 
be about the same. 

Table 3. — Average diameter growth of lodgepole pine on average sites on the 
Bighorn and Medicine Bow National Forests, Wyo. 1 



Age in years. 


Bighorn 
National 
Forest. 2 


Medicine 

Bow 
Forest. 3 


Age in years. 


Bighorn 
National 
Forest .2 


Medicine 

Bow 
Forest. 3 


Diameter 
breast high. 


Diameter 
breast high. 


Diameter 
breast high. 


Diameter 
breast high. 


20 


Inches. 
1.5 
3.0 
4.4 
5.7 
6.7 
7.6 
8.4 
9.1 
9.7 
10.3 


Inches. 
0.3 
1.6 
2.8 
3.7 
4.4 
5.0 
5.6 
6.2 
6.7 
7.2 




Inches. 
10.7 
11.1 
11.6 
12.1 
12.5 
12.8 
13.2 
13.5 
13.8 


Inches. 

7.7 


30 




8.2 


40 




8.6 


50 




9.1 


' 60 




9.6 


70 


170 


10.0 


80 




10.4 


90 




10.8 


100 




11.1 


no 














i From Forest Service Circular 126, "Forest Tables: Lodgepole Pine." 

2 Based on decade measurements on 49 stumps of various heights, 72 to 340 years old. 

» Based on decade measurements on 430 1-foot stumps, 159 to 300 years old. 

The growth in height of young seedlings in Montana and Colorado 
is shown in Table 4. Figures for Montana are based on measure- 
ments of 86 trees on the Deerlodge National Forest made to deter- 
mine the average age required to reach various stump heights ; figures 
for Colorado are the results of measurements of reproduction on a 
burned area on the Arapaho National Forest. In the white-pine 
region of Northern Idaho lodgepole makes a more rapid height 
growth in the seedling stage than does any other species, with the 

62709°— Bull. 154—15 3 



18 



BULLETIN 154, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



possible exception of larch. Lodgepole seedlings from 5 to 7 years 
old with leaders 36 inches long have been noted. In one case a young 
tree, about 8 years old, had made a height growth of 7^ feet in the 
last 3 years. Another young tree of about the same age had a 45-inch 
leader. 

Table 4. — Average height growth of lodgepole pine seedlings on the Deerlodge 
National Forest, Mont., and the Arapaho National Forest, Colo. 








Height. 


Age in years. 


Height. 


Age in years. 


Deerlodge 

. National 

Forest. 


Arapaho 

National 

Forest. 


Deerlodge 
National 
Forest. 


Arapaho 
National 
Forest. 




Feet. 


Feet. 

0.1 

.2 

.4 

.9 




Feet. 
0.8 
1.0 


Feet. 

1.4 








1.9 




0.4 
.6 




4.5 






7.9 




1 





The growth figures so far given all apply to unthinned stands. If 
it were possible to make thinnings when needed that would favor 
the best trees, the growth of the latter would undoubtedly equal, or 
even considerably exceed, that shown for the dominant trees shown 
in Table 2. Such intensive management, however, could be under- 
taken only in a few favored localities where the market is unusually 
good. Lodgepole pine stands have been thinned in the past only in 
the course of ordinary lumbering, which has usually left the smaller, 
poorly developed trees, many of which could take no advantage of 
the operation. That even trees of this character often respond to 
such haphazard thinning with a remarkable increase in rate of 
growth has already been stated. Out of 91 average trees measured 
on the Deerlodge Forest, representing those which remained when 
the surrounding stand was cut, 54 trees, or 59 per cent of the total 
number, showed a marked increase in growth, while the remainder, 
or 41 per cent, showed no increase. Differences in rate of growth 
before and after cutting are shown in Table 5. 

Table 5— Effect of thinning; average diameter growth of lodgepole pine trees 
left after cutting, Deerlodge National Forest, Mont. 

Part I. [Based on 91 trees, irrespective of whether they showed increased growth or not.) 



Diameter 
breast 
high. 


Trees. 


Periodic annual diam- 
eter growth for 20 
years. 


Time required to grow 
1 inch in diameter. 


Before 
thinning. 


After 
thinning. 


Before 
thinning. 


After 
thinning. 


Inches. 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


Number. 
8 
10 
15 
17 
17 
15 
6 
3 


Inch. 
0.028 
.031 
.037 
.051 
.047 
.059 
.050 
.058 


Inch. 
0.034 
.042 
.039 
.041 
.057 
.064 
.046 
.054 


Years. 
36 
32 
27 
20 
21 
17 
20 
17 


Years. 
29 
24 
25 
24 
18 
15 
21 
18 



LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 19 

Table 5. — Effect of thinning; average diameter growth of lodgepole pine trees 
left after cutting, etc. — Continued. 

Past II. [Based on the 54 trees which showed an increased growth.] 



Diam- 
eter 
breast 
high. 


Trees. 


Periodic annual diam- 
eter growth for 20 
years. 


Time required to grow 
1 inch in diameter. 


Rate of 

increase in 

volume 

growth 

after 

thinning. 


Before 
thinning. 


After 
thinning. 


Before 
thinning. 


After 
thinning. 


Inches. 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


Number. 
5 
6 
7 
8 
13 
9 
4 
2 


Inch. 
0.029 
.030 
.023 
.029 
.038 
.047 
.027 
.022 


Inch. 
0.045 
.050 
.049 
.039 
.061 
.072 

• .042 
.047 


Years. 
34 
33 
43 
34 
26 
21 
37 
45 


Years. 
22 
20 
20 
25 
16 
14 
24 
21 


Per cent. 
140 
169 
127 
59 
112 
98 
70 
125 



CAUSES OF INJURY. 



FIRE. 



Fire has been the most important agent in the destruction of 
lodgepole pine forests, as well as in their establishment. Though in 
some places it has enabled lodgepole to take possession of the ground, 
in others repeated fires have practically eliminated forest growth. 
Lodgepole pine is less susceptible to fire than Engelmann spruce and 
Alpine fir, but more susceptible than the other pines with which it 
grows or Douglas fir. Its susceptibility is due chiefly to its thin 
bark, which at stump height is only from two-tenths to four-tenths 
of an inch thick. Fire is most destructive in dense young stands of 
'•jack pine," as the young trees are often called. Crown fires are in- 
frequent, but may occur with high winds or when a large amount of 
debris litters the ground. When a lodgepole stand is killed by fire 
a period of from 15 to 30 years elapses before the dead trees fall to 
the ground. Fire-killed timber does not completely decay until from 
60 to 120 years after the fire. Such debris, of course, greatly increases 
the fire danger in a new stand. 

In comparatively open stands which have reached maturity with- 
out being burned over there is usually not much debris on the ground 
and consequently less danger of crown fires. Even here, however, 
there is in most cases a ground cover of grasses, weeds, needles, and 
similar litter to invite surface fires, which destroy reproduction, 
occasionally kill mature trees, and seriously injure the butts and 
lessen the vitality of many others. These ground fires, too, by de- 
stroying the organic content of the soil, reduce both its water-holding 
power and its productive capacity, which necessarily results in de- 
creased growth of the surviving trees. 



20 BULLETIN 154, TJ. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

INSECTS. 

Although lodgepole pine in the Rocky Mountains has not suffered 
severely from insect attack in recent years, bark beetles have un- 
doubtedly killed more mature timber than has any other agency 
except fire. In Montana the mountain pine beetle (D endroctorms 
monticolae Hopk.) has done some damage in the vicinity of Swan 
Lake on the Flathead National Forest, and in 1911 an aggressive 
attack by this beetle in the Big Hole Basin on the Deerlodge and 
Beaver Head Forests developed serious proportions. 1 In that year 
approximately 15,000 trees were killed on an area of about 1,500 
acres. On some portions of the area practically all the trees over 
5 inches in diameter were either killed or badly infested, while on 
the remainder of the area the attack was confined to the larger and 
less vigorous trees. The attack appeared to radiate from several 
centers where the damage was particularly severe. It appears likely 
that this infestation resulted largely from injury to the trees by 
adverse weather conditions during the winter of 1908-9, the in- 
sects taking advantage of the trees' weakened condition. The un- 
usually dry summer of 1910 was also thought to have favored the 
attack. Fortunately many of the insects were destroyed during the 
winter of 1911-12, apparently by winter killing, to which the thin 
bark of lodgepole renders them liable. 

In regions other than the one considered in this bulletin, damage 
by the mountain pine beetle has been very severe. On the Wallowa 
and Whitman National Forests in eastern Oregon it has recently 
killed 100,000,000 board feet of lodgepole. Here the infested area, 
which in 1906 covered only about a section, had by 1912 grown to 
approximately 320,000 acres, and the beetle was then extending its 
attack to yellow pine. 

The presence of the mountain pine bark beetle is first made evident 
by pitch tubes, boring dust, and woodpecker work. Most of the 
adult beetles emerge during August, and by early fall are well estab- 
lished in their new hosts. The trees thus attacked usually remain 
green until the following spring, when their tops first turn a yel- 
lowish and then a reddish color. By the time the red-top condition 
is reached practically all the beetles have left the tree. The species 
apparently prefers to attack injured and felled trees; the more 
vigorous, and particularly the younger trees, are often able to drown 
the beetles in exudations of pitch. Thrifty trees, however, are some- 
times killed. 

In Wyoming and Colorado the most common insect enemy of lodge- 
pole pine is the lodgepole pine beetle (Dendroctonus murrayanae 

1 For a complete description of this and other bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus, 
together with methods of control, see Bureau of Entomology Bulletin 83, Part I, by 
Dr. A. D. Hopkins. 



LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 21 

Hopk.) . A few trees apparently killed by its attack have been found 
on the Medicine Bow and Bighorn National Forests in Wyoming, 
and on the Arapaho Forest in Colorado. The attack was confined 
mainly to the bases of the trees and to unhealthy individuals. The 
Oregon tomicus was also found, but it is probable that the dendroc- 
tonus made the first attack. A weevil similar to the eastern white 
pine weevil (Pissodes strobi) has also been found on the Arapaho 
National Forest. This insect destroys the terminal shoot, resulting 
in crooked and forked trees. 

FUNGI AND MISTLETOE. 

Lodgepole has, on the whole, suffered comparatively little damage 
from fungi. This is due chiefly to the dry climate of its range and 
to the fires which have renewed the stands from time to time, thus 
preventing any extensive development of the fungous diseases. Often 
badly fire-scarred trees may remain sound as long as 40 or 50 years, 
except for a small amount of blue stain along the edges of the scar. 
One of the two most common diseases of lodgepole is that caused by 
the ring scale fungus {Trametes pini), often called by woodsmen 
" white rot " or " red rot." Another common disease is caused by the 
fungus Polyporus schweinitzii. The ring scale fungus attacks chiefly 
the older trees, which it may enter at almost any point where a dead 
limb or wound affords an opening. From the point of infection it 
sometimes extends throughout the trunk. The wood at first turns a 
dark reddish brown, the trees at this stage being known to lumber- 
men as " red rot " or " red heart " timber. Later the color of the 
wood becomes lighter and small white spots and strands appear, 
increasing in size and number until the entire heartwood is filled with 
small holes lined with the thin, white cellulose of the wood which has 
not been used as food by the fungus. The wood never rots entirely 
away, but eventually becomes a mass of soft,, spongy tissue. 

The fungus Polyporus schweinitzii usually causes a heart rot at 
the butt. Since it is confined to the first or second logs it is less 
destructive than the ring scale fungus. When the roots are infected 
the tree may fall ; in other cases it may break off close to the ground 
before the rot has had time to spread far into the trunk. The affected 
wood turns a light yellow and gradually dries out so that numerous 
fissures appear. 

»In overmature lodgepole stands from 7 to 10 per cent, or on limited 
areas even 15 to 20 per cent, of the timber may be affected by one or 
both of these fungi to an extent rendering it unmerchantable. It is 
seldom, however, that an entire tree is made worthless by rot, and one 
or more sound logs or ties can usually be obtained. The blue stain, 
which may appear almost immediately in the sap wood of fire-killed 
or insect-killed trees, does not render them unfit for use. 



22 BULLETIN 154, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

In some localities a rust (Peridermium montanum) attacks the 
leaves of lodgepole, causing them to fall prematurely. Another rust 
(Peridermium harknessii) attacks lodgepole in western Montana, 
causing galls to form on the trunk and branches, which stunts and 
sometimes kills the tree. 

One of the false mistletoes (Razoumfskya americana) is often 
found on lodgepole, but does little serious damage except in certain 
localities, where it may greatly affect the growth of the tree. It 
usually attacks young stands, and in dense ones most of the trees may 
be infested. Mistletoe causes an abnormal growth at the point of 
attack, which on side branches forms a compact, bushy mass of 
twigs commonly called " witch's broom." In small trees infested 
steins or branches are sometimes swollen to twice their natural 
diameter. 

SMELTER FUMES. 

The Washoe smefter at Anaconda, just outside of the boundary of 
the Deerloclge National Forest, is the largest copper smelter in the 
world, handling approximately 10,000 tons of ore daily and pro- 
ducing 25 per cent of the copper output of the United States. Chem- 
ists have estimated that at least 2,500 tons of sulphur dioxide and at 
least 25 tons of arsenic trioxide are daily thrown into the atmosphere 
from the top of the stack. The arsenic does not damage the timber, 
but when deposited on the forage is injurious and sometimes fatal 
to grazing animals. Sulphur dioxide is injurious to vegetation in 
general. Experiments have shown that as little as one part of sul- 
phur dioxide with a million parts of air will kill pine seedlings when 
the trees are exposed for any length of time. Even at a distance of 
many miles from Anaconda the air in the smoke stream may contain 
as many as 80 parts of sulphur dioxide to a million parts of air. At 
a distance of 10 miles from the smelter the sulphur is often so strong 
as to cause persons to cough. 

Sulphur dioxide injures trees by destroying the chlorophyll in the 
leaves, which first turn yellow and later red-brown. The damage 
usually extends over several years, especially if the trees are at some 
distance from the smelter. At first only the weaker leaves are killed, 
but later the younger ones succumb to repeated baths in the smoke 
stream. Three stages in the defoliation of trees by smelter fumes 
have been recognized. The first is when the older leaves die and fall 
prematurely, the tree still retaining a considerable amount of foliage 
and the appearance of health. In the second stage the foliage be- 
comes decidedly thin, and in the last or acute one only the needles 
of the current year are left green on the tree. (Plate V, fig. 1.) 
These latter are usually badly damaged or killed during the winter, 
and the tree may fail to put forth fresh leaves in the spring. In 
some cases, however, the acute stage lasts for several years. The an- 



LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 23 

nual rings of trees injured or killed by smelter smoke usually show 
a graduated decrease in size for the last six or eight years. 

With respect to their susceptibility to injury from smelter fumes, 
the species in the lodgepole region may be grouped as follows, the 
most easily killed coming first : 

Alpine fir. 
Douglas fir. 
Lodgepole pine. 
Engelinann spruce. 
Juniper. 
Limber pine. 

As between Douglas fir and lodgepole pine, the two most impor- 
tant species in the smoke zone, the former is considerably more sus- 
ceptible than the latter. Nearly all the lodgepole trees will remain 
green when practically all the Douglas firs in the same locality have 
been killed. Susceptibility varies among different individuals of the 
same species. A few green and flourishing Douglas fir trees will 
often be found after practically all the other firs in the vicinity have 
been killed. 

The injury is not the same in amount at all places equally distant 
from the smelter, since the smoke is carried by the prevailing wind 
along channels formed by the topography. Damage decreases both 
with distance from the smelter and distance from the main channels. 
In places the smoke seems to eddy in a peculiar manner, killing trees 
in isolated groups. The greatest damage, of course, is close to the 
smelter, but at places 9 miles distant most of the lodgepole is now 
dead and the remainder seriously injured. Slight damage at a dis- 
tance of 30 miles has been observed. 

WINDFALL. SUN SCALD, ETC. 

Lodgepole pine is generally regarded as being decidedly susceptible 
to windfall. While to a certain extent this is true, there is a tend- 
ency to exaggerate the danger. The extent of the development of 
the tree's root system, as in the case of any other species, varies with 
the soil conditions and the density of the stand. On deep, fresh soil 
trees in moderately open stands develop good root systems, while on 
very shallow or very moist soils the root system is correspndingly 
shallow and the tree less wind firm. With the same soil conditions, 
the development of the root system varies inversely with the density 
of the stand, so that the denser the stand the less windfirm are the 
individual trees. Experience shows that heavy thinnings in dense 
stands are very likely to result in serious windfall unless the situa- 
tion is well protected. For this reason the leaving of seed trees, 
either alone or in small groups, seldom works satisfactorily. On 
the more exposed situations, with shallow or wet soil, even unthinned 



24 BULLETIN 154, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

stands may be blown down. As a rule, however, solid stands, even 
when overdense, are windfirm, provided they are of sufficient ex- 
tent — not narrower than the height of the trees. Light or even heavy 
thinnings can usually be made without danger of windfall by con- 
forming the operation to the height, age, and density of the stand, 
the character of the soil, and the exposure. 

Haphazard thinnings made on the Deerlodge Forest from 13 to 

25 years ago in the course of ordinary lumbering operations show 
a remarkably small amount of windfall. On only 2 of the 18 blocks 
examined was any windfall evident, and in each of these cases the 
stand had been very heavily thinned by the removal of 82 per cent 
of the original number of trees and 66 per cent of the cubic volume. 
On the remainder of the areas the stand was not so heavily thinned, 
though the cutting was heavier than would be considered advisable 
in present-day Forest Service timber sales. In one of the early For- 
est Service sales on the Deerlodge Forest, on an area partly exposed 
and partly protected from the wind, where the soil was deep, fresh, 
and firm, a selection cutting removed about 40 per cent of the total 
number of trees and 59 per cent of the cubic volume. In the five 
years following the cutting only 3 trees out of the approximately 
5,000 left blew down. All of these were on the exposed portion of 
the sale area, and in each case a defective root system, due to fire 
injury, was the main cause of the fall. These and other observa- 
tions indicate the importance of removing trees with defective root 
systems. 

Another climatic factor which may cause damage to individual 
seed trees is sun scald. In many cases seed trees which have with- 
stood the wind for a number of years have died apparently as a result 
of too great exposure to sun. Owing to the thin bark of lodgepole 
the cambium on the insolated side of the tree is killed first. ' Many 
of the trees crack open on the sunward side before they die. The 
drying out of the ground when it is exposed to the sun probably helps 
to kill such trees. If trees are left so that their trunks do not receive 
full sun during most of the day, the likelihood of damage from sun 
scald is very small. 

Frost cracks sometimes appear in lodgepole pine, and when they 
take a spiral form lessen the value of the tree for saw timber. Strong 
winds sometimes open these cracks in a way to form large seams or 
checks which afford ready entrance for insects and fungi. The 
damage appears" to be more prevalent in overmature than in younger 
stands, and is more often encountered in Wyoming and Colorado 
than in Montana. Frost may also cause injury by heaving 1 or 2 
year old seedlings out of the ground. 

Snow, accumulating on the tops of lodgepole trees 4 inches or 
less in diameter, especially when in dense stands, often bends the 



Bui. 154, U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate V. 









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1 
















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1 V ^1 








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f > 

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- = ■/.- 


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LIFE HISTORY OP LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 25 

poles to the ground or breaks them off at a height of from 10 to 
20 feet. Snow-break may be beneficial in overdense stands which 
are in need of thinning, but may also do considerable damage in 
thinned stands where the individual trees can no longer rely on their 
neighbors for support. 

The so-called "red belt" injury is manifested by the sudden red- 
dening and subsequent death of practically all the needles on the 
exposed portions of the trees in a well-defined altitudinal belt. 
Some are killed outright, though usually the buds remain uninjured 
and the trees later recover, in some cases after complete defoliation. 
The most extensive damage of this nature on record occurred in Jan- 
uary, 1909, when large areas were affected in the Black Hills and 
throughout the Kocky Mountains from Montana to Colorado. The 
belt was generally from 200 to 400 feet in width between elevations 
of 6,500 and 7,000 feet in the lodgepole region, and at lower eleva- 
tions in the northwestern portion of Montana. Trees on all aspects 
were affected, but the greatest damage was done on southerly slopes 
°nd in situations exposed to the wind. The injury resulted from un- 
usual weather conditions during the winter. In 1909 it was caused 
by a chinook of several days, when the ground was frozen and cov- 
-ed with snow. The air was quite warm and the sun very hot, 
especially when reflected from the surface of the snow, causing the 
leaves of the trees to transpire all of their available moisture. Since 
the roots were frozen and additional moisture could not be obtained 
from the ground, the leaves withered, and in some cases the buds 
also dried out excessively. The most satisfactory explanation o£ 
t~e occurrence of the injury in an altitudinal belt is that early in the 
winter, before the ground froze, snow fell at the higher elevations 
above the zone of injury. Later the ground in the belt froze solid, 
but not the ground in the zone below it nor that in the zone above it. 
Later still the entire area was covered by a heavy fall of snow. In 
^ is way the belt was the only part of the region in which the ground 
was solidly frozen and no soil moisture was available to replace the 
water transpired by the leaves. 

Hedgcock grouped the species of the lodgepole region in respect 
to their susceptibility to this injury as follows, naming the most 
susceptible first: 

Yellow pine. 
Douglas fir. 
Lodgepole pine. 
Limber pine. 
Engelmann spruce. 
Alpine fir. 
Juniper. 

Douglas fir unquestionably suffered more than did lodgepole on 
areas where the greatest damage occurred. Many Douglas fir 



26 BULLETIN 154, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

trees were killed outright, while even those lodgepoles which had 
their leaves killed retained their buds and -put out new leaves the 
following spring. Lodgepole saplings affected in 1909 now present 
a peculiar banded appearance, that part of the stem which was 
above the snow at the time of the injury being bare of leaves, while 
that part below it, which was covered by snow, and that part above 
it, which has grown since, are green. 

The red belt injury has sometimes been confused with damage 
from smelter fumes, but its nature is entirely different. (PI. V, 
fig. 2.) Trees killed by the former die quickly as compared with 
those killed by the fumes. Weather-damaged trees which have 
recovered show a quick resumption of normal growth rate and a 
general healthy appearance, a marked contrast to the trees suffering 
from the smoke fumes. 

ANIMALS. 

Porcupines damage lodgepole to some extent by gnawing the bark 
in order to get at the tender cambium. They confine their efforts 
chiefly to young or middle-aged trees, though trees as large as 18 
inches in diameter have been found completely girdled. Usually 
the bark is gnawed near the base of the tree, but occasionally animals 
work in the tops, as high as 50 or 60 feet from the ground, causing 
the trees to become stag-headed. Small branches are sometimes 
girdled near their junction with the main stem. Sometimes the 
attack may result in a beneficial thinning in an overdense stand, 
but porcupines have done considerable damage to trees on the 
Routt National Forest, Colo., where more than half of the trees 
on areas from one to several acres have been girdled, and in several 
localities on the Bonneville National Forest, Wyo., where 25 per 
cent of the trees have been injured- 
Rabbits often bite through the main stem of young seedlings, 
particularly the slender ones in overdense stands. Squirrels may 
cause a slight decrease in the rate of growth by biting off a number 
of the cone-bearing twigs. They also eat considerable quantities of 
seed, the result of which may be harmful in places where reproduc- 
tion is not up to the required density. Sheep grazing unrestricted 
may damage seedlings and very young growth by trampling. 

ASSOCIATED SPECIES. 

Over most of its range lodgepole pine occurs in almost pure stands. 
Other species, however, often grow in mixture with it, particularly 
at the upper and lower altitudinal limits of the lodgepole zone. At 
the lower limit its chief associate is Douglas fir, which tends to take 
possession of areas too dry for lodgepole. Fir reproduction often 
occurs under the latter, and many areas now covered with lodgepole 



LIFE HISTOKY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 27 

would doubtless long since have given way to the more tolerant fir 
had it not been for recurrent fires. On south slopes and on dry, 
rocky knolls and ridge tops the fir may extend almost to the upper 
limits of the lodgepole belt. At the upper limit of the zone the 
chief associates of lodgepole are Engelmann spruce and Alpine fir, 
which come in on the moister sites. Spruce sometimes follows 
stream courses far down into the lodgepole type, where it takes pos- 
session of the moist bottomlands. Both the fir and spruce are much 
more tolerant than lodgepole, and reproduce under dense shade. At 
the higher elevations Alpine fir is apt to be more abundant in repro- 
duction than spruce, but the latter is a longer-lived tree and of much 
greater importance in mature stands. Both species when growing 
with lodgepole assist to a large extent in pruning the latter of its 
side branches. 

In Colorado and Wyoming limber pine and aspen also grow with 
lodgepole, though to a rather limited extent. In Montana white- 
bark pine is usually mixed with lodgepole toward the latter's upper 
limit. 

PERMANENCY OF LODGEPOLE TYPE. 

Many of the present stands of lodgepole undoubtedly occupy areas 
previously covered with other species which have been driven out by 
repeated fires. If fire were kept entirely out of the forests, therefore, 
the lodgepole would in many situations be replaced by the original 
species — at the lower altitudes by Douglas fir, at the upper ones by 
Engelmann spruce and Alpine fir. All of these species are more 
tolerant than lodgepole, and for this reason are able to crowd it out 
on sites adapted to all of them. It is likely, however, that there is 
a middle belt considerably narrower than the present lodgepole zone 
where conditions of soil and climate are more favorable to it than to 
competing species, and where it would probably be able to form a 
permanent type. 

In connection with the ability of lodgepole to maintain itself in 
competition with other species, it is interesting to know that Knowl- 
ton, in his studies of the paleobotany of Yellowstone Park, found in 
Tertiary deposits a serotinous cone of a tree species which he named 
Pinus premurrayana, 1 because he considered it the immediate an- 
cestor of the lodgepole of to-day. A fossil cone, perfectly preserved, 
is slightly longer and narrower than typical lodgepole cones of the 
present. In Yellowstone Park Knowlton also found the fossil re- 
mains of species of Sequoia, Juglans, Hicoria, Fagus, Castanea, 
Ficus, Magnolia, etc. Of all the species now present in the park 
lodgepole is the sole survivor from the Tertiary age. 

x The form of lodgepole pine occurring in the Rocky Mountains, now known as Pinus 
contorta, has also been known as Pinus contorta, var. murrayana, and as Pinus mur- 
rayana. 



28 BULLETIN 154, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

GROUND COVER. 

Lodgepole stands, particularly in Montana and northern Wyoming, 
hare a ground cover of grasses and weeds, many of which are val- 
uable as forage. These include pine grass (C alamagrostis rubescens) 
in very large amounts, timber oats grass (Danthonia intermedia), 
lupine (Lupinus serviceus), fireweed (Chamaenarion augustifoliunb), 
Indian paintbrush (Castilleja chromosa), etc. Other plants worth- 
less for forage include huckleberry (Vaccinium scoparium) , which is 
especially abundant on the poorer sites, arnica (Arnica cordifolia), 
and elk grass (Xerophyllum tenax). In moist places alder (Alnus 
tenuifolia) and willow frequently occur as underbrush. The forage 
plants are less abundant in Colorado and southern Wyoming and Jthe 
huckleberry more prevalent. Ordinarily fallen leaves disintegrate 
so rapidly that there is no accumulation of duff from this source. In 
mature stands there is very little litter as a rule, and one can ride 
through them almost anywhere. 

AGE CLASSES. 

A striking characteristic of lodgepole-pine forests is their even 
age. This, of course, is due to the fact that most of the present 
stands have originated as a result of fire, followed almost imme- 
diately by reproduction. As a rule, the burned areas thoroughly stock 
in a few years, though sometimes the reproduction is very open, the 
blanks filling in slowly with young growth and so producing an 
uneven-aged stand. Young stands often contain a few older trees, 
most of them limby and fire-scarred at the base, which have man- 
aged to escape destruction. 

Clear cutting is usually followed by even-aged stands, though the 
reproduction is apt to be slightly slower in establishing itself, par- 
ticularly if fire is kept out. Some areas cut over 20 years ago now 
have their blanks filled from seed produced by the rather scattered 
reproduction which followed the cutting. 

All the trees in even-aged lodgepole forests are not necessarily 
of the same size. Unless the stand is so dense as to cause stagnation 
some seedlings, especially on the more favorable sites, get a better 
start and develop more rapidly than others. A small, suppressed tree 
often may be as old as another more vigorous one at its side two or 
three times as large in diameter. 

Fires have been so frequent in the region that they have brought 
about a wide range of age classes in the lodgepole zone as a whole. 
In Montana most of the stands are comparatively young. Figures 
collected there show that approximately two-thirds of the timbered 
area is now covered with nonmerchantable, immature growth, while 
the merchantable timber on the remaining third is partly immature, 



LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 29 

partly mature, and partly overmature. In Wyoming and Colorado 
there is a much larger proportion of mature, and especially over- 
mature, lodgepole stands, a difference which leads to the conclusion 
that in the past fire has been less prevalent in Colorado and Wyoming 
than in Montana. 

YIELD. 

FACTORS INFLUENCING YIELD. 

The yield per acre of any stand varies with its age, density, and 
the quality of the site on which it grows. Ordinarily the better sites 
and older stands produce the heaviest yields, provided deterioration 
has not set in. With lodgepole, however, the yield, particularly in 
board feet, is determined more by the density of the stand than by 
either its age or the quality of the site. It is not unusual to find 
young, properly stocked stands of lodgepole with larger yields than 
older, overstocked stands on better sites. The effect of density on 
yield is illustrated in Table 6, which gives the results of measure- 
ments of 10 sample plots, all of approximately the same age. 

Table 6. — Effect of density on yield per acre of lodgepole pine, Deerlodge 

National Forest, Mont. 



Sample plot. 



Age. 



Years. 
110 
109 
109 
108 
107 
107 
107 
104 
101 
105 



Trees per acre. 



Entire 
stand. 



No. 

501 

701 

764 

810 

960 

987 

1,249 

1,495 

1,564 

1,805 



Main 
stand. 1 



No. 
293 
325 
338 
338 
250 
303 
149 
124 
124 
73 



Yield. 



Total. 



Cu.ft. 
4,187 
5,441 
6,286 
7,331 
5,614 
6,178 
5,080 
4,840 
4,668 
4,405 



Scale timber, 

top diameter, 

inside bark, to— 



6 
inches. 



Bd.ft. 

10,542 

8,682 

19,440 

20,400 

15, 260 

12,070 

2,980 

2,480 

2,480 

1,460 



inches. 



Bd.ft. 
3,217 
1,580 
4,387 
2,456 
1,190 
1,610 



Ratio 
of 

board 

feet, 6 
inches 
top di- 
ameter, 
to cubic 

feet. 



2.52 

1.60 

3.09 

2.78 

2.72 

1.95 

.59 

.51 

.53 

.33 



Height 
of aver- 
age 
tree 
(dbh. 8 
in.). 



Feet. 
59 
67 
71 
72 
69 
69 
67 
57 
58 
57 



Diameter of av- 
erage tree. 



All 

trees. 



Inches. 
7.2 
6.5 
6.6 
6.6 
5.7 
5.9 
5.0 
4.7 
4.6 
4.2 



Main 
stand. 1 



Inches. 
8.4 
8.1 
8.4 
8.6 
7.9 
7.8 
7.5 
7.3 
7.5 
7.4 



1 Includes all trees 7 inches and over in diameter, breast high. 

The table shows that an increase in the number of trees per acre 
beyond a certain point results in a marked decrease in the number of 
trees which will make scale timber, in the average diameter and 
height, and in the yield, especially in board feet. Much denser 
stands existed than any of those shown in the table, with corre- 
spondingly smaller yields. One plot 160 years old, for example, con- 
tained approximately 3,500 live trees per acre, not more than 4 
inches in diameter. Such a stand produces only lagging poles. 
Other stands of the same age are still denser, producing nothing of 
value. 



30 



BULLETIN 154, IT. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



AVERAGE AND MAXIMUM STANDS. 

Keconnaissance estimates covering 65,000 acres on the Deerlodge 
National Forest, which may be considered as fairly representative 
of the lodgepole region in Montana, show that the average stand of 
merchantable timber for all ages, densities, and sites is approximately 
5,564 board feet per acre. 1 In Wyoming and Colorado the average 
stand of merchantable timber is estimated to run from 5,000 to 8,000 
board feet per acre. Average stands on timber sale areas are apt to 
run much higher than this, because they usually consist of the better 
timber, and also because the reconnaissance figures apply to a con- 
siderable amount of cut-over land and to areas covered with young 
growth that is barely merchantable. Average stands actually found 
on timber-sale areas on the different National Forests are shown in 
Table 7. 

Table 7. — Average stand per acre of lodgepole pine and associated species on 
timber-sale areas in Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. 



National Forest. 



Yield per acre. 



Lodge- 
pole. 



Other 
species. 



Total. 



Arapaho, Colo 

Cochetopa, Colo 

Gunnison, Colo 

Medicine Bow, Wyo 

Hayden, Wyo 

Bighorn, Wy.o 

Bridger, Wyo 

Deerlodge, Mont 



Bd.ft. 

19,410 
6,880 
2,500 

14, 225 
8,884 
8,300 
2,771 

14.318 



Bd. ft. 



900 
925 



2,571 



Bd.ft. 

19,410 
7,780 
3,425 

14,225 
8,884 
8,300 
5,342 

14,318 



While the stands on the Arapaho, Medicine Bow, and Deerlodge 
National Forests are considerably better than the average, they are 
not as heavy as the stands sometimes found on limited areas in virgin 
forests. Five of the heaviest stands yet measured contained the fol- 
lowing amounts of lodgepole, together with small quantities of 
Engelmann spruce, Alpine fir, and Douglas fir: 

Board feet 
National Forest : P er acre - 

Arapaho, Colo 27, 791 

Routt, Colo 24, 400 

White River, Colo 36.335 

Medicine Bow, Wyo 34, 512 

Deerlodge, Mont 35,935 

In addition to the 35,935 feet of green lodgepole pine, the stand 
on the Deerlodge Forest, which was 200 years old, also contained 
4,610 feet of Englemann spruce and Alpine fir, and 8,090 feet of dead 
lodgepole, a total for live and dead timber of 48,635 board feet per 
acre. 

1 All stands were considered merchantable which contained 2,000 board feet per acre 
or more, based on a minimum log; 16 feet long and 6 inches in diameter at the smaller 
end. Many 7-inch lodgepole trees will yield such a log. 



LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 



31 



DENSELY STOCKED STANDS. 

Table 8 shows the yield of stands which are densely stocked, but 
not so crowded as to cause stagnation of growth. The figures were 
obtained on the Deerlodge National Forest on the best quality of 
site. Most of the sample areas measured were 1 acre each. 

Table 8. — Average yield per acre of densely stocked stands of lodgepole pine at 
different ages on the best sites (Quality I), Deerlodge National Forest, 
Mont. 





Basal 

area, 

square 

feet. 


Trees per acre. 


Aver- 
age 

diame- 
ter, 

main 

stand. 


Aver- 
age 
height, 
main 
stand. 






Annual growth. 


Age in 
years. 


Entire 
stand. 1 


Main 
stand. 2 


Yield. 


Mean. 


Peri- 
odic. 


Mean. 


Peri- 
odic. 


40 


No. 

106 
128 
144 
156 
166 
174 
180 
184 
188 
192 
194 
196 
198 


No. 

1,550 
1,250 
1,000 
825 
725 
650 
600 
535 
500 
460 
430 
415 
400 


No. 
50 

175 
225 
255 
280 
300 
320 
330 
345 
350 
355 
360 
370 


Inches. 

7.0 

7.5 

7.7 

8.1 

8.5 

8.8 

9.0 

9.4 

9.6 

10.0 

10.3 

10.5 

10.6 


Feet. 
36 
46 
56 
60 
64 
66 
68 
70 
72 
74 
75 
76 
77 


Cu.ft. 
1,400 
2,250 
3,100 
3,800 
4,350 
4,900 
5,400 
5,800 
6,200 
6,550 
6,850 
7,150 
7,400 


Bd.ft? 

4,800 
6,200 
7,500 
9,000 
10, 800 
12,600 
14, 800 
17, 200 
19, 800 
22, 200 
25, 000 


Cu.ft. 
35 
45 
52 
54.3 
54.4 
54.5 
54 
53 
52 
50 
49 
48 
46 


Cu.ft. 


Bd.ft. 


Bd.ft. 


50 


85 
85 
70 
55 
55 
50 
40 
40 
35 
30 
30 
25 






60 


80 
89 
94 
100 
108 
115 
123 
132 
141 
148 
156 




70 


140 


80... 


130 


90 

100 

110 

120 

130 


150 
180 
180 
220 
240 


140 


260 


150 

160 


240 
280 







1 Includes all trees 3 inches and over in diameter, breast high. 

2 Includes all trees 7 inches and over in diameter, breast high. 
» To a 6-inch top diameter limit. 



NORMAL STANDS. 

Normal stands are those which at maturity giYe the maximum yield 
possible to obtain under a given method on a given quality site. In 
the case of lodgepole pine properly or normally stocked stands are 
rare. Reconnaissance data, covering many thousands of acres of 
young growth in Montana, show that nearly 80 per cent of the area 
is overstocked, and that on the average the young growth is from one- 
half to six-tenths normally stocked. Because of its slow mortality 
lodgepole must start in comparatively open stands in order to yield 
the maximum amount of merchantable material at maturity. Such 
stands, however, are not dense enough to insure rapid, natural prun- 
ing. As already pointed out, the number of trees per acre adopted 
as the criterion of normality is 1,000 at 10 years, 500 at 30 years, 300 at 
90 years, and 250 at 140 years. With these figures as a guide, and tak- 
ing into account the total yield of the stand, Table 9 has been con- 
structed from the figures obtained from those plots in Table 8 on 
which the stocking appeared to be most nearly normal. The amount 
of data is not sufficient to make the table anything more than indica- 
tive of what may be expected from normal stands of different ages on 
the best and on average sites. The original figures were secured on 
quality I sites, and the yields for quality II sites have been derived by 



32 



BULLETIN 154, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



multiplying the yields for quality I sites by 60 per cent, which seemed 
a fair reducing factor. In the case of board-foot yields strictly accu- 
rate results are not obtained when the same reducing factor is used 
for all ages and stands. The method is, however, sufficiently accurate 
to result in figures which indicate in a general way what results may 
be expected. 

Table 9. — Average yield per acre of normal stands of lodgepole pine at different 
ages, Deerlodge National Forest, Mont. 

BEST SITES— QUALITY I. 





Yield. 


Annual growth. 


Age in 


Cubic 
feet. 


Board feet scaling 
in top to— 


Cubic feet. 


Board feet scaling in top to — 




6 inches. 


8 inches. 


Mean. 


Periodic. 


6 inches. 


8 inches. 




Mean. 


Periodic. 


Mean. 


Periodic. 


10 


150 
450 
950 
1,900 
3,050 
4,000 
4,900 
5,600 
6,300 
6, 800 
7,200 
7,450 
7,600 
7,750 
7,850 
7,900 
7,925 
7,950 
7,975 
8,000 
8,025 
8,050 






15 
22 
32 
47 
61 
67 
70 
70 
70 
68 
65 
62 
58 
55 
52 
49 
47 
44 
42 
40 
39 
37 


15.0 

30.0 

50.0 

95.0 

115.0 

95.0 

90.0 

70.0 

70.0 

50.0 

40.0 

25.0 

15.0 

15.0 

10.0 

5.0 

2.5 

2.5 

2.5 

2.5 

2.5 

2.5 










20 














30 


900 
3,200 
5,600 
8,100 
10, 700 
13,400 
15, 800 
18, 200 
20,500 
22, 700 
24,600 
26, 400 
28, 200 
29,800 
31,200 
32,600 
33, 600 
34,600 
35,600 
36,600 




30 
80 
112 
135 
153 
167 
176 
182 
186 
189 
190 
189 
188 
186 
184 
181 
177 
173 
170 
166 


90 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
240 
240 
230 
220 
190 
180 
180 
160 
140 
140 
100 
100 
100 
100 






40 








50 








60 








70 








80 








90 








100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

ISO 

190 

200 

210 

220 


2,500 
5,000 
7,600 
10, 700 
14,000 
17,300 
20, 400 
23,300 
25, 800 
28,000 
30,000 
31,500 
32, 800 


25 

45 
63 
82 
100 
115 
127 
137 
143 
147 
150 
150 
149 


250 
250 
260 
310 
330 
330 
310 
290 
250 
220 
200 
150 
130 



AVERAGE SITES— QUALITY II. 



Age in years. 


Yield. 


Annual growth. 


Ratio of 
board 


Mean. 


Periodic. 


Mean. 


Periodic. 


feet to 
cubic feet. 


10 


Cu.ft. 
90 
270 
570 
1,140 
1,830 
2,400 
2,940 
3,360 
3,780 
4, 0S0 
4,320 
4,470 
4,560 
4,650 
4,710 
4,740 


Bd.ft A 


Cu.ft. 
9 
13 
19 
28 
37 
10 
42 
42 
42 
41 
39 
37 
35 
33 
31 
30 


Cu.ft. 

9 

18 

30 

57 

69 

57 

54 

42 

42 

30 

24 

15 

9 

9 

6 

3 


Bd.ft. 


Bd.ft. 




20 










30... 


540 
1,920 
3,360 
4,860 
6,420 
8,040 
9,480 
10,920 
12,300 
13,620 
14, 760 
15, 840 
16,920 
17, 880 


18 

48 

67 

81 

92 

100 

105 

109 

112 

113 

114 

113 

113 

112 


54 
138 
144 
150 
156 
162 
144 
144 
138 
132 
114 
108 
108 

96 


0.95 


40... 


1.68 


50... 


1.84 


60... 


2.02 


70... 


2.18 


80... 


2.39 


90... 


2.51 


100 


2.68 


110 


2.85 


120 


3.05 


130 


3.24 


140 


3.41 


150 


3.60 


160 


3.77 







1 Board feet scaled to 6 inches in the top. 



LIFE HISTORY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 33 

It should be noted that these normal yields represent the best that 
have been found in unmanaged virgin forests, not the best which it 
is theoretically possible to obtain under proper methods of forest 
management. Table 2, for example, shows that a dominant tree at 
the age of 140 years is able to reach a diameter of about 12 inches 
and a height of about 75 feet, with a volume of 120 board feet. To 
determine in an approximate way how many trees could be produced 
per acre with the right kind of thinnings at proper intervals, the 
average space in the stand occupied by a tree of this size was meas- 
ured in a number of instances and found to average approximately 
166 square feet. At this rate there should be 262 such trees per acre, 
with a yield of 31,400 board feet, which is 19 per cent greater than 
that given in the table of normal yield for 140-year-old stands on 
the best sites. While it is probable that such a yield could seldom 
be obtained even under intensive management, the illustration serves 
to show the possibility of securing better results with improved 
spacing. 

EFFECT OF THINNING. 

The marked effect which thinnings often have in increasing the 
rate of growth of individual trees is also notable in the case of 
stands. This effect is seen in a number of cut-over areas on the Deer- 
lodge Forest which were culled from 13 to 25 years ago. In every 
case the loggers removed only such timber as suited their purpose, in 
some cases taking the larger material for ties, in others, removing the 
smaller trees for fence posts. Some of the trees left had thrifty 
crowns, and for this reason could be expected to benefit from the 
increased light ; while others were very badly suppressed, with small 
crowns, and could hardly be expected to accelerate their growth to 
any extent. In collecting the data summarized in Table 10, average 
trees were selected for measurement irrespective of the probability of 
their showing an increase in the rate of growth. The various periods 
which had elapsed since the different cuttings were made averaged 
20 years, and for purposes of comparison the figures were all worked 
up on the assumption that the cutting was done just 20 years before 
the date of the investigation. 






34 BULLETIN 154, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Table 10 —Effect of thinning on yield per acre of lodgepole pine in individual 
sample plots on the Deerlodge National For-est, Mont. 

PLOTS SHOWING NO INCREASE IN RATE OF GROWTH. 





Pe- 
riod 
since 
thin- 
ning 

in 
years. 


Stand 20 years ago. 


Periodic annual 
growth (for 20 
years) of trees 
left. 


Increase 


Age at 
time of 
thinning 


Trees. 


Volume. 


Average 
diameter. 


crease 
in rate 

of 
growth 


in years. 


Total. 


Cut. 


Left. 


Total. 


Cut. 


Left. 


Cut. 


Left. 


Before 
thin- 
ning. 


After 
thin- 
ning. 


after 
thin- 
ning. 


48 ' ... 

49 .-- 

106 

108 

123 


18 
18 
14 
20 
20 


Num- 
ber. 

550 
430 

1,600 
690 

1,730 


Num- 
ber. 
290 
320 
1,200 
290 
1,120 


Num- 
ber. 
260 
110 
400 
400 
610 


Cu.ft. 
1,955 
2,336 
6,136 
3,339 
2,267 


Cu.ft. 
521 
1,486 
3,396 
1,594 
1,028 


Cu.ft. 
1,434 
850 
2,740 
1,755 
1,239 


Inches. 
4.3 
5.9 
4.5 
6.0 
3.2 


Inches. 
6.1 
6.7 
6.2 
6.1 
4.3 


Cu.ft. 
45.5 
27.0 
34.0 
17.2 
12.1 


Cu.ft. 
15.6 
19.8 
27.7 

4.7 
8.1 


Per 

cent. 
-66 
-27 
-19 
-73 
-33 



PLOTS SHOWING INCREASE IN RATE OF GROWTH. 



44. 

44. 

45. 

95. 

95. 

95. 
100. 
119. 
125. 
127. 
14L 
151. 
154. 



570 
650 
910 
930 

1,050 
940 
980 
580 

1,030 
520 
840 
440 
585 



280 
420 
500 
730 
500 
610 
770 
470 
680 
270 
490 
176 
485 



290 
230 
410 
200 
550 
330 
210 
110 
350 
250 
350 
264 
100 



951 
1,305 
1,434 
3,146 
2,049 
2,412 
2,454 
2,216 
2,921 
3,443 
5,178 
4,459 
3,769 



399 


552 


697 


608 


563 


871 


2,316 


830 


985 


1,064 


1,058 


1,354 


1,430 


1,024 


1,335 


881 


1,600 


1,321 


1,388 


2,055 


2,887 


2,291 


2,2S6 


2,173 


2,609 


1,160 



4.2 
4.2 
3.5 
4.9 
4.3 
4.1 
4.1 
5.5 
4.4 
5.7 
6.0 
8.9 
6.1 



4.1 
4.4 
4.2 
5.3 
3.7 
5.2 
5.6 
6.5 
4.9 
6.7 
5.9 
6.9 
8.1 



16.1 
21.6 
31.8 

6.2 
15.0 
13.7 

8.2 
10.1 
14.3 
15.9 
15.9 

9.5 

5.5 



22.6 
30.4 
36.3 
17.5 
33.1 
24.7 
21.3 
15.1 
19.1 
21.4 
28.8 
29.2 
10.5 



40 
40 
14 

182 

121 
80 

160 
50 
34 
35 
81 

207 
91 



Of the 18 plots measured, 13, or 72 per cent, showed an increase in 
the rate of growth after the thinning. In other words, the small 
number of trees left after thinning produced more cubic feet of wood 
per acre than would have been produced by the entire stand had it 
been left unthinned and continued to grow at the same rate as before 
the thinning. This result is particularly remarkable when it is re- 
membered that all of the plots had reached an age when the periodic 
rate of growth would ordinarily be decreasing. Table 9 shows that 
in normally stocked stands the periodic rate of growth in cubic feet 
increases rapidly up to 50 years, after which it decreases slowly. 
For this reason the falling off in the growth of the 106 and 123 year 
old plots is no greater than would be the case in unthinned stands of 
the same age, and very likely it is even less. Ihe apparently abnor- 
mal rate of decrease in the rate of growth of the 48 and 49 year old 
plots is probably clue to the fact that they were nearly normal at the 
time of cutting, as indicated by their volume, with the result that the 
rather heavy thining had an injurious effect upon the trees left. The 
108-year-old plot is the only one for which the marked decrease in 
rate of growth can not be satisfactorily explained. 



LIFE HISTOEY OF LODGEPOLE PINE IN EOCKY MOUNTAINS. 35 

If areas logged without thought for the future show such results, 
it is reasonable to suppose that thinnings made with the object of 
improving the stand will result even more satisfactorily, for the trees 
left will be thrifty-crowned specimens of moderate size, which are 
best able to take advantage of the increased light. Next to the exclu- 
sion of fire, the most important respect in which systematic manage- 
ment will improve the growth and yield of lodgepole forests is in 
bringing the stands to a density more nearly normal. 



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IB 



BULLETIN OF T [E 

No. 155 

Contribution from Office of Experiment Stations, A. C. True, Director. 
December 23, 1914. 

3 V YORK 




(PROFESSIONAL PAPER.) 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING WATER FOR 
IRRIGATION. 

By S. O. Jayne, Irrigation Manager. 
INTRODUCTION. 

During the period subsequent to 1880, the manufacture of wood 
pipe has grown to be an industry of considerable magnitude, and 
the use of such pipe is a matter of economic importance. On the 
part of many there has been some skepticism as to the merits of 
wood for water conduits. On the other hand, there are those who 
have had too much confidence in it. As a consequence, the value of 
wood pipe has often not been adequately appreciated, while in other 
instances it has been overrated. Many points upon which opinions 
differed at the beginning could be settled only upon the evidence of 
time and experience. Such experience, extending over a period of 
more than 30 years, affords a great deal of information bearing upon 
various points which have been and are still to some extent debatable. 

The facts relating to the use of wood pipe and practice in its con- 
struction and operation during this period should, if gathered to- 
gether and carefully analyzed, be sufficient to settle most of the dis- 
puted points and establish its status beyond further serious ques- 
tion. That there is need of such information is evident. The 
capital already invested in wood-pipe lines throughout the United 
States amounts to many millions of dollars, and this amount is being 
increased annually. Protection of present investments, therefore, 
demands that existing pipe lines be maintained and operated in 
accordance with what experience has shown to be the practice most 
favorable to long life ; and future investments should be safeguarded 
by and profit from all available knowledge bearing upon the design, 
location, and maintenance of such pipe lines. 

That advantage of available knowledge has not in every instance 
been taken may be seen by inspection of much recent work. This 
has doubtless been due largely to the difficulty of obtaining desired 

Note. — This bulletin will bo of interest to irrigation engineers, owners of irrigation 
works, water power companies, and water departments of municipalities. 

61133°— Bull. 155—14 1 



2 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

information and in part to carelessness or bad judgment. In con- 
nection with irrigation projects many expensive wood-pipe lines 
have been built, perhaps according to good design and careful loca- 
tion, and then turned over to operatives who have no knowledge of 
how to maintain them properly. For this reason it is especially im- 
portant to the irrigation interests of the West that such knowledge 
be made readily available. 

Recent investigations have included the inspection of many pipe 
lines throughout several Western States ; interviews and correspond- 
ence with manufacturers, builders, and operators of wood pipe; 
and a review of published data bearing upon the subject. It is 
believed that the findings should be helpful in arriving at a proper 
estimate of the possibilities as well as the limitations of wood pipe 
for several classes of service; that they should be of special value 
to all who are interested in the construction or maintenance of irri- 
gation projects. The presentation of such findings, in the hope that 
the foregoing may be true, is the purpose of this bulletin. For much 
of the information acknowledgment is due to many engineers, 
managers of waterworks, irrigation systems, power companies, and 
pipe factories, to all of whom the writer wishes to express apprecia- 
tion and thanks. 

HISTORY. 

The first use of wood for water pipe appears to have been several 
centuries ago. It is said that 400 miles of " pump logs " were laid in 
London in 1613, and it is known that the use of wood pipe for munici- 
pal waterworks was common in eastern cities of this country more 
than 100 years ago. 

The primitive wood pipe was usually of elm, pine, spruce, or other 
soft wood which was easily bored, and the holes seldom exceeded 6 
inches in diameter, though it is said that at Philadelphia oak logs 
up to 3 feet in diameter were used with bores of from 6 to 12 inches. 
The logs were cut into lengths up to 12 feet. Boring was clone by 
hand. 1 This. primitive type of pipe has been made in places within 
quite recent years, but its manufacture declined rapidly after 1820 
with the almost universal adoption of cast-iron pipe which, by new 
processes, could be made in sizes much larger than the wood pipe 
of that time. 

In 1885, A. Wyckoff, of Elmira, N. Y., patented a boring machine 
for making pipe from solid logs. The product of his factory and of 
others using the machines secured gradual recognition, first locally, 
and later somewhat generally, in the mining districts of Pennsyl- 
vania and elsewhere, for use under conditions where acids injurious 
to cast iron and steel were encountered. But the notable revival in 

1 U. S. Geol. Survey, Water Supply and Irrig. Paper 43, p. 63. 






WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 3 

the use of wood pipe began about 1880 with the construction, ac- 
cording to new ideas, of what has come to be known as continuous 
stave pipe. The construction of continuous stave pipe was soon fol- 
lowed by the manufacture of stave pipe in sections and improved 
bore pipe, both of which have come to be known as machine-banded 
pipe. Continuous stave pipe and machine-banded pipe are both very 
extensively manufactured and used at the present time. These two 
types of pipe will be considered in this bulletin. 

CONTINUOUS STAVE PIPE. 

This type of pipe is a development of the old stave penstocks, 
many of which were built in the New England States, New York, 
and Eastern Canada from 1850 to 1870. 1 These were usually made 
in tapered sections, banded with flat iron bands. The sections were 
joined by inserting the small end of one a few inches into the large 
end of another. Such joints were faulty, which fact led to building 
pipe in which the ends of staves butted together, thus forming con- 
tinuous stave pipe. This form of construction appears to have been 
first used in 1874. 2 The first extensive use, however, followed the 
construction of pipes designed and built by C. P. Allen, at Denver, 
Colo., about 1884. 

Except in minor details, continuous stave pipe of the present day 
is the same as that built by Mr. Allen in the early eighties. It is 
essentially pipe built continuously in place, of staves having radial 
edges and faces milled to form arcs of concentric circles, the inner 
circle being of radius equal to half the nominal diameter of the pipe. 
The staves are held together by round steel bands secured by shoes 
and nuts, and the butt joints are made tight by the insertion of thin 
steel clips which fit into saw kerfs across the ends of the staves. 
This form of construction is illustrated in Plate I. 

ADAPTABILITY AND USE OF CONTINUOUS STAVE PIPE. 

Continuous stave pipe is adapted to the usual service required in 
conveying water long distances for municipal, power, irrigation, 
mining, or manufacturing purposes. It has a particularly wide 
field of usefulness throughout the West because of the low cost and 
ease with which the material for its construction can be procured, 
transported, and assembled in regions remote from railroads and dim- 
cult of access, where the expense of cast iron or other kinds of pipe 
commonly used in the East would in many instances prohibit their 
use. 

In addition to its low first cost, experience has shown that wood 
pipe has other advantages as compared to cast-iron or steel pipe. It 

1 U. S. Geol. Survey, Water Supply and Irrig. Paper 43, p. 63. 

2 Trans. Amer. Soc. Civ. Engin. (1877), p. 69. 



4 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

is not so subject to injury from freezing, settling, or expansion and 
contraction due to extremes of temperature, while if injury is sus- 
tained, extra material can usually be obtained readily, and repairs can 
be made much more quickly and with less expense than would be re- 
quired for pipes of iron or steel. Furthermore, the capacity of wood 
pipe is probably somewhat greater than that of iron or steel of equal 
size, and may, under favorable conditions, increase with time instead 
of being reduced by tubercles and corrosion such as occur in the other 
kinds of pipe mentioned. 

More continuous stave pipe has been used for conveying municipal 
water supplies than for any other purpose. The Denver Union 
Water Co. has been using it since 1884, and now has upwards of a 
hundred miles installed. Seattle has over 50 miles; Tacoma com- 
pleted about 43 miles in 1912 and has built more since that time ; the 
Butte City Water Co., prior to 1899, had installed about 30 miles; 
Walla Walla, Wash., has 13 miles. It is used to some extent at 
Astoria, Oreg.; Salt Lake City, Ogden, and Provo, Utah; Canon 
City, Pueblo, Loveland, Trinidad, and Fort Collins, Colo.; and in 
many other places in the West that might be mentioned, as well as at 
a few in the Atlantic States. 

The use of this type of pipe in connection with power development, 
though as yet perhaps not so extensive, is coming to be even more 
general than for conveying municipal water supplies, and examples 
might be enumerated by the hundred of pipes in sizes from 2 feet to 
14 feet in diameter that have been installed for this purpose through- 
out the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Alaska. 

The use of wood pipe for irrigation purposes is confined to the 
Western States, but there are few of the more important irrigation 
projects of recent development on which it is not employed at least 
to some extent, its chief adaptability being for " inverted siphons " 
for carrying water across deep ravines or depressions not otherwise 
easily spanned. In a few instances the original gravity ditches have 
been entirely supplanted by continuous stave pipe. It is also very 
frequently used for conducting water from pumps to the points of 
discharge into ditches or reservoirs at higher elevations. 

Continuous stave pipe has, as a rule, been restricted to service where 
the pressure head does not exceed 200 feet, though in many instances 
short sections are required to carry greater pressures rather than 
change to another type of pipe. A few pipes of this kind have been 
built for heads up to 400 feet. 

DESIGNING OF CONTINUOUS STAVE PIPE LINES AND MATERIALS USED IN 

CONSTRUCTION. 

A discussion of the theory underlying the many considerations of 
the economic design of wood-pipe lines is not within the scope or 



WOOD PIPE FOE CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 5 

purpose of this bulletin. Such discussion may be found in published 
transactions of engineering societies and in engineering journals. 
But some points relative to practice in design and use of materials 
will be given in the following pages. 

SIZE OF PIPE. 

Continuous stave pipes have been built in sizes from 10 inches in 
diameter up to 13.5 feet, but this form of construction is not common 
at present in pipes of diameter less than 20 inches. Pipes smaller 
than this are usually machine banded. Sizes greater than 8 feet in 
diameter are exceptional. The size of pipe to use in any particular 
place must be governed by conditions. For gravity lines the quantity 
of water to be carried and the available head are the controlling 
factors. If for conducting water from pumps, the size must be 
determined with reference to the economic relation between velocity 
or permissible friction head and power requirements. A pipe which 
is too small may involve an excessive expense for power, while 
too large a pipe would require initial investment greater than 
necessary. 

The capacity of wood pipe is generally computed according to 
Kutter's formula, in which a value of " n," the coefficient of rough- 
ness, is selected somewhere between 0.010 and 0.013, depending upon 
conditions and the judgment of the engineer. Just what value of 
" n " to assume is a debatable question. Experiments are now being 
made to determine the carrying capacities of wood pipes and 
the proper coefficient of roughness to apply in such formulas as 
Kutter's. 

As a result of measurements of flow in pipes, the following values 
for " n " for specific cases have been determined by various writers : 
Schuyler, 30-inch pipe, 0.0096 ; Gutelius, 24-inch pipe, 0.01 ; Adams, 
18-inch pipe, 0.01; Adams, 14-inch pipe, 0.011; Marx, Wing, and 
Hoskins, 72-inch pipe, 0.012 to 0.015. Smaller values for "n" are 
usually assumed for small pipes than for larger ones, and there ap- 
pears to be reason for believing that " n " may vary also with velocity. 
Moritz, 1 from measurements of pipes 4 inches to 55 inches in diame- 
ter, found V=1.72 D 07 H° 555 and Q=1.35 D 2 - 7 H - 555 , where (^dis- 
charge in second-feet; V, the mean velocity of flow in feet per sec- 
ond ; D, diameter of pipe in feet ; and H, friction loss per 1,000 feet 
of pipe. 

Based either on Kutter's formula or on one of the exponential type, 
various tables have been prepared for convenient use in estimating 
the capacity of pipes, loss of head in friction, etc. Such tables may 
be obtained from the leading manufacturers of wood pipe. 

l Engin. News, 68 (1913), No. 24, p. 668. 



6 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

STAVES. 

In designing staves economy dictates that the width and thickness 
be made such that stock lumber of standard sizes may be used. 
These are 2 by 4 inches, 2 by 6 inches, 3 by 6 inches, 4 by 6 inches, 
and 4 by 8 inches. Without strict adherence to the finer theoretical 
considerations as to thickness, etc., staves for most pipes for ordinary 
heads, and from 22 inches to 44 inches diameter are milled from 
2 by 6 inch stock, finished If inches in net thickness. From this up 
to 60 inches staves 2 inches thick are commonly used, and in some 
instances for pipes 72 inches in diameter. For pipes from 5 to 8 feet 
in diameter staves are usually 2| inches thick. For pipes to with- 
stand extremely high pressure and for those of extremely large 
size the thickness of the staves should be increased accordingly, in 
order to insure safety against crushing or shear of the wood clue to 
the greater tightness of cinching required. The width will be such 
as to cut with least waste from the stock sizes of lumber. 

Western yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa) , Texas pine (Pinus palus- 
tris), spruce, California redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and yellow 
fir (Pseudotsuga douglasii) have all been used for staves; but during 
recent years practically all pipes of this kind have been made either 
of redwood or fir, the other kinds of wood having proved to be less 
A^aluable for the purpose. At the present time fir is used much more 
extensively than redwood. It is less durable than redwood when placed 
in the ground imder unfavorable conditions, but in other respects 
is considered to be just as good or better and costs materially less than 
redwood. The lumber for pipe should be of extra good quality. 
The following specifications for fir staves are typical requirements: 

Staves shall be made of live timber, sound, straight grained, entirely free from 
all dead wood, rotten knots, dry rot, cracks, shakes, or any other imperfections 
or defects that might impair their strength or durability. Pitch pockets will be 
allowed, provided they do not extend more than one-fourth of an inch into the 
staves. Small, tight knots not over three-fourths of an inch in diameter, and 
not occurring oftener than one in 4 feet of stave will be allowed, as will sap- 
wood on the inside of the stave so long as it does not extend more than half 
way through the stave at any point. 

Staves may be from 10 to 30 feet in length, but not more than 10 per cent 
shall be less than 14 feet in length. Timber must be thoroughly seasoned, either 
by kiln or air drying, before being milled into staves. 

Another requirement, not common, however, is that staves shall be milled 
from flat or bastard sawed lumber, those in which the edge grain passes through 
the stave in a distance less than one-half inch more than the thickness of the 
stave will be rejected. 

Other general specifications are — 

That the staves shall be dressed on both sides to true circles, and on the 
edges to conform to the radial lines of the pipe; that all staves shall be of 
uniform thickness, and each stave of uniform width throughout its entire 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 7 

length; that the end of the stave shall be cut square, and shall be fitted with 
a saw kerf for the insertion of a metal tongue; in depth the saw kerf shall 
be one-sixteenth of an inch less than half the width of the tongue, and its po- 
sition must be the same in all staves. 



BANDS. 



For bands, the usual specifications require soft steel of ultimate 
tensile strength equal to 55,000 to 65,000 pounds per square inch; 
elastic limit not less than one-half the ultimate tensile strength; 
elongation in 8 inches not less than 25 per cent, and the bands are 
required to stand bending, cold, 180° around a diameter equal to 
that of the specimen tested, without fracture on either side. Such 
steel is similar in quality to that used for steam boilers. 

It is usual to specify that bands shall be provided with not less 
than 5 inches of cold-rolled thread or have upset ends ; the idea being 
to insure as great strength in the threaded portion as in the body 
of the band. Each threaded end should be supplied with a standard 
hexagonal nut three-sixteenths of an inch thicker than the diameter 
of the band, and a plate washer of proper diameter and standard 
thickness. 

In determining the size of bands many engineers have used a 
formula developed by the late A. L. Adams. 1 Four is the usual 
factor of safety. Bands less than three-eighths of an inch in diame- 
ter are not used. The following table prepared by Mr. Adams shows 
minimum sizes of pipe for which bands of several sizes are applicable. 

Minimum sizes of pipe for which specified bands are applicable. 






Size of 
band. 


S equals 
i ulti- 
mate 
tensile 

strength. 


Band 
pressure 

per 
square 

inch. 


E equals 
band 

pressure 

per 

linear 

inch. 


Least 
external 
radius of 

pipe. 


Band 
pressure 

per 
square 

inch. 


E equals 
band 

pressure 

per 

linear 

inch. 


Least 
external 
radius of 

pipe. 


Inch. 

£ 

I 
ft 

I 


Pounds. 
1,650 
2.250 
2,950 
3.725 
4, GOO 
6,600 


Pounds. 
650 
650 
650 
650 
650 
650 


Pounds. 
122 
142 
163 
183 
203 
244 


Inches. 
13.5 
15.8 
18.1 
20.4 
22.6 
27.0 


Pounds. 
750 
750 
750 
750 
750 
750 


Pounds. 
140 
164 
187 
211 
234 
281 


Inches. 
11.8 
13.7 
15.7 
17.65 
19.6 
23.5 



The particular style of band to use, one piece or two piece, oval 
head or square head, depends upon the size of the pipe, etc. Stand- 
ard patterns of each, as made by one of the leading manufacturers, 
with weights and dimensions, are given as follows . 

1 Trans. Amer. Soc. Civ. Engln., 41 (1898), p. 27. 



BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Dimensions and weights of standard one-piece bands. 
[Dimensions in inches and weights in pounds.] 





Kind. 


Threads. 


Nuts. 


Washers. 


Heads. 


o 

o . 

« 03 


-d 


C3 
ft~ 
O » 

o.ffl 


Weights. 


m 

a 

C3 














U 














O 0? 

h 

2j3 








O 
O . 

S 














CD 






















a 


+j Cj 


13 

% 
& 

o 
a 

DQ 


Head. 


Nut. 


<2> 

s 

.2 

5 


"5. 
a 


2 

.5 

~ 


0> 

a 

.2 

o 

JS 


2 

EH 




5 


d 
tx 

3 
oa 

c 


d 

"3 
W 


2 


- 

Eh 


O 3 

ft<D 
ftK 


.5? 
'3 


d 


S- 
O 
Pi 
DQ 






u 
a> 
ft 

w 

T3 
C3 
<S 

w 


2.2 

"flarH 

O 

Eh 


t 


(Button.. 
j..do.... 
) Square.. 
1. .do.... 
[Button.. 


Square 

Hexagonal 

Square 

Hexagonal 
Square 


1 


4 


14 


8 


1 


i; 


14 


i 


11 

2 


ft 

t 

A 


1 

I 
i 


| 578.3 


f 8.0 
1 7.0 
i 8.0 
[ 7.0 
f 7.5 


1 


[ 2.4 
1 2.5 
f 3.7 


/ 591.1 
\ 590.1 
/ 591.2 
\ 590.2 
/ 781.6 


A 


L.do.... 
[Square., 
[..do 


Hexagonal 

Square 

Hexagonal 


• 


41 


13 


I 


1 

2 


if 


12 


ft 


1 il 


| 766.5 


1 6.5 

7.5 
[ 6.5 


[ 3.9 


1 3.8 


\ 780. 6 
1 781.7 
\ 780.7 


i 

2 


(Button.. 
L.do.... 
I Square.. 
1. .do 


Square — 
Hexagonal 
Square — 
Hexagonal 


l* 


5 


12 


1A 


f 


ii 


12 


1 


ir 


1 


H 

1A 


[l,000.5 


14.0 
I 13.0 
1 14.0 
I 13.0 


[ 4.4 


5.2 
| 6.0 


11,024.1 
\l,023.1 
(1,024.9 
\1,023.9 


ft 


(Button.. 
L.do.... 
1 Square.. 
1. .do 


Square 

Hexagonal 

Square 

Hexagonal 


l- 


5 


11 


1A 


1 


i] 


10 


11 


fi 

1 fi 


A 


l 
1A 


[l,267.5 


12.9 
I 11.9 
1 12.9 
l 11.9 


[ 8.0 


6.0 
|»8.2 


11,294.4 
U,293.4 
11,296.6 
11,295.6 


1 


(Button.. 
L.do.... 
[Square. . 
[..do 


Square 

Hexagonal 

Square 

Hexagonal 


I- 


5 


11 


H 


I 


if 


10 


1 


fiA 
1* 


A 


l 

I35 


|l,564.5 


[ 24.3 
J 20.2 
1 24.3 
I 20.2 


[ 7.7 


f 8.7 
I 11.7 


11,605.2 
\1,601.1 
11,608.2 
11,604.1 


3 

4 


(Button.. 
L.do.... 
[Square.. 
|..do 


Square — 
Hexagonal 
Square — 
Hexagonal 


l« 


5 


to 


if 


i 


2 


10 


7 


jil 


J 

9 
T5 


1A 
11 


[2,253.0 


f 34.0 
1 28.0 
1 34.0 
I 28.0 


[ 9.7 


[ 13.3 
1 20.2 


12,310.0 
12,304.0 
12,316.9 
12,310.9 


« 


(Button.. 
l..do.... 
| Square.. 
L.do 


Square — 
Hexagonal 

Square 

Hexagonal 


l- 


5 


9 


l* 


I 


21 


9 


if 


I' 
jlA 


A 
H 


ii 
if 


[2,644.5 


38.5 
J 30.5 
I 38. 5 
I 30.5 


[ 13.5 


[ 16.5 
1 25.7 


12,713.0 
12,705.0 
12,722.2 
\2,714.2 


i 


(Button.. 
L.do.... 
[Square.. 
L.do 


Square — 
Hexagonal 

Square 

Hexagonal 


I- 


5 


9 


ift 


8 


■2\ 


9 


l 


1A 


1 


1A 
ii 


[3,066.0 


( 36.5 
J 29.0 
1 36.5 
I 29.0 


H 


[ 20.3 
[ 32.2 


13,140.3 
\3,132.8 
13,152.2 
\3, 144. 7 


1 


(Button.. 
L.do.... 
[Square.. 
L.do 


Square 

Hexagonal 

Square 

Hexagonal 


[irV 


5 


8 


if 


1 


23 


9 


l| 


(lA 
I 1 * 


H 

3 


9 5 


U,005.0 


f 53.2 
J 44.5 
1 53.2 
I 44.5 


[ 17.5 


J 27.7 
J 47.8 


14,103.4 
\4,094.7 
14,123.5 
\4, 114. 8 


1ft 


[Button.. 
I. .do.... 
1 Square.. 
L.do 


Square 

Hexagona 
Square — 
Hexagona 


1" 


5 


7 


m 


li 


21 


7 


1 s 


fitt 
|1H 


3. 

el 


1A 

2A 


U,521.0 


( 75.6 
1 62.5 
1 75. e 
I 62. S 


1 20.0 
1 


[ 33.0 
| 57.6 


14,649.8 
\4,636.5 
(4,674.2 
\4, 661.1 


n 


[Button.. 
l..do.... 
[Square.. 
L.do 


Square 

Hexagonal 

Square... 

Hexagona 


l» 




7 


2 


11 


21 


7 


li 


1" 


1 1 

H 


1A 
913 


[5,068.5 


[101. C 
1 87. C 
[101.C 
I 87. C 


19.3 
J 


[ 40.5 
J 67.8 


(5,229.3 
\5,215.3 
(5,256.6 
\5,242.6 



Bui. 155, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate I. 




Bui. 155, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate II. 




Fig. 1.— Intake of Pipe-Line at Logan, Utah. 




Fig. 2-Intake of Pipe-Line Crossing Snake River near Bliss, Idaho. 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 



Dimension* and weights of standard two-piece bands. 
[Dimensions in inches and weights in pounds.] 



Kind. 



Threads. 



A 



H 



U 



Thread each end, 

square nut 

Thread each end, 

hexagonal nut 

Button head each 

end 

Square head each 

end 

Thread each end, 

square nut 

Thread each end, 

hexagonal nut 

Button head each 

end 

Square head each 

end 

Thread each end, 

square nut 

Thread each end, 

, heaxagonal nut 

Button head each 

end 

Square head each 

end 

Thread each end, 

square nut 

Thread each end, 

hexagonal nut 

Button head each 

end 

Square head each 

end 

Thread each end, 

square nut 

Thread each end, 

hexagonal nut 

Button head each 

end 

Square head each 

end 

Thread each end, 

square nut 

Thread each end, 

hexagonal nut 

Button head each 

end 

Square head each 

end 

Thread each end, 

square nut 

Thread each end, 

hexagonal nut 

Button head each 

end 

Square head each 

, end 

Thread each end, 

square nut 

Thread each end, 

hexagonal nut 

Button head each 

end 

Square head each 
end 



61133°— Bull. 155—14- 



Nuts. 



Washers, 



1* 



11 



Heads. 



9, If 



I* 



10 



t' C 



03 O 



P*o 



Weights. 



10 



-'1 



U 



u 



H 



H 



ia « 



578.3 



766.5 



1,000.5 



1,257.5 



1,564.5 



2,253.0 



2,644.5' 



16.0 
14.0 



4.8 



-h BO 

So 

P£ 
*j 03 

03 i-l 

is 



15.0 
13.0 



28.0 
26.0 



25.8 
23.8 



7.7 



48.5 
40.4 



15.9 



4.7 
5. 



7.5 
7.6 



10.4 
12.0 



IA 

13 . 



3,066.0 



68.0 
56.0 



77.0 
61.0 



19.4 



12.1 
16.4 



17.4 
23.4 



599.1 
597.1 
583.0 
583.3 
789.2 
787.2 
774.0 
774.1 
1,037.3 
1,035.3 
1,010.9 
1,012.5 
1,309.2 
1,307.2 
1,279.6 
1,283.9 
1,628.5 
1,620.3 
1,581.9 
1,587.9 
2,340.4 
2,328.4 



26.9 



73.0 
58.0 



35.0 



26.6 
40.3 



2,279.6 
2,293.3 
2,748.4 

2. 732. 4 

2. 677. 5 
2, 695. 9 
3, 174. 
3, 159. 

40.5 3,106.5 
64.4 3,130.4 



33.0 
51.4 



10 



BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Dimensions and weights of standard two-piece bands — Continued. 
[Dimensions in inches and weights in pounds.] 





Kind. 


Threads. 


Nuts. 


Washers. 


Heads. 


t3 
o 

"•d 

o OJ 
«£ 

la 

© o 

^^ 
cana 

si 

a© 
»•- 


t3 

a 
3 
o 

C3 o 
P>~ 

S£ 
1-1 lO 

fc- H 

P-8 
« 2 

.a •- 

'3 


Weights. 


-9 

§ 

§ . 

•_ a 

0> O 

+J> 4) 

60 _ 

"o3 
O 

Eh 


d 

sd 

03 

.a 

O 

o 


s 

o 

a 

S 


3 

M 

n 

CO 

3 


,d 

a 
_g 

J- 

a 

CM 


a> 

a> 

a 

.2 
•3 
+3 

o 

03 


£> 

a 

M 
o 

3 

Eh 


£ 
5 


d 

iZ! 
o 

3 


d 

o 

w 


■d 


CD 

a 
s 

a 

3 

EH 


8 

CD 

P. 

3 


o 

o 

<M 

t-i 

a> 
ft 

CD 

■m 
03 





<N 
U 
CD 

P< 

to 

•O 
03 
3 

w 




Thread each end, 


[lA 


5 


8 


If 


1 


21 


9 


11 








4,005.0 
■4,521.0 
■5,068.5 


106.3 
89.0 


I35.O 


1= 

55.4 
95.6 

|::::: 

66.0 
115.2 

|::: 

81.0 
135.5 


4, 146. 3 




Thread each end, 

hexagonal nut 

Button head each 


fiA 
I 1 * 


H 

1 




4, 129. 
4,060.4 










Square head each f" 


5 


7 


1H 


11 


2? 


7 


lA 


4,100.6 




end 

Thread each end, 


I- 

I 


151. Ill 


4,712.1 


1A 


Thread each end, 

hexagonal nut 

Button head each 


ji« 
UH 


i 


1* 

2A 


124.9 




4,685.9 
4,587.0 












Square head each 


1 

HA 
1 


5 


7 


2 


1} 


21 


7 


H 


4,636.2 




202.1 
174.0 


1 38.6 






Thread each end, 


5,309.1 


11 


Thread each end, 

hexagonal nut 

Button head each 


jiH 


if 
H 


1A 

2M 


5,281.1 
5, 149. 5 












Square head each 


1 














5,204.0 





























For determining the spacing of bands many formulas have been 
developed and diagrams have also been prepared for graphical de-' 
termination. 1 The following formula prepared by S. Fortier has 
been very commonly used: 

d,— rpR in which d equals distance between bands in inches. 

£=maximum tensile strength of each band in pounds. 

P= pressure of water in pounds per square inch in bottom of pipe. 

R= internal radius of pipe in inches. 

<7=coefficient to allow for strain caused by swelling of wood, and 
includes safety factor of about 4 or 5 for bands. 

The spacing of bands on some of the earlier pipes built was as 
wide as 16 inches or more, but at present 10 inches is considered the 
maximum permissible, and on some important recent work the max- 
imum was placed much lower than this, even though the pressures 
did not require it. 

There is a tendency for the ends of staves to spring out when sub- 
jected to high pressure and often under light heads where bands are 
farther apart, if the pipe is exposed to the sun. In order to over- 

iEngin. News, 60 (1908), p. 343. 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 



11 



come this tendency it is now a common practice to specify additional 
bands at the joints, and to bring all joints within a space of 2 to 
4 feet. 

COUPLING SHOES. 

The designing of shoes is now left principally to the manufactur- 
ers, and selection may be made from a number of patterns. Light 
weight in most instances, where not subject to excessive corrosion, 
is the chief consideration after strength equal to that of the bands 
is assured. Cast-iron shoes were used principally during the earlier 
years of continuous stave pipe building. They were heavy and 
easily broken, and on this account common cast iron has given place 
to malleable cast iron and steel. Malleable iron for this purpose 
should be of the most tenacious character, capable of standing con- 
siderable hammering without fracture. The tensile strength should 
be not less than 40,000 pounds per square inch of section. Steel for 
shoes should in quality be equal in all respects to that required for 
bands. 








ACTION 



Fig. 1. — Kelsey joint. 



In designing butt joints, the use of thin steel clips inserted in 
saw kerfs is almost universal. Some variations from this form of 
joint have been tried, however. In the "Dwelle" pipe staves were 
tongued and grooved at the ends. In the " Wheeler " pipe a loose 
oak tongue was used instead of a steel clip, and on a pipe at Victor, 
Colo., clips of papier-mache were used. None of these proved satis- 
factory. Another joint, known as the " Kelsey butt joint," is notably 
different from the usual type. This was used on pipe lines of Provo 
City, the Spanish Fork waterworks, and others in Utah, designed 
by F. C. Kelsey a number of years ago, and on the Blacksmith 
Fork pipe line built in the northern part of the State in 1912. This 
joint (fig. 1) consists of a malleable casting which takes the place of 
the metal clips and also fits tightly over the ends of the abutting 
staves. It is very highly recommended by engineers who have tried 
it, and appears to possess considerable merit. The cost is somewhat 



12 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

more than that of the thin metal clips, but it is claimed that the 
difference in cost is more than offset by the time saved in building 
the pipe and by eliminating expense of saw kerfs. 

For the ordinary clips No. 12 gauge steel or wrought iron is 
used. As a rule they are 1\ inches wide and the length is one- 
eighth inch greater than that of the saw kerf, so as to allow the ends 
to project one-sixteenth inch at each edge of the stave. 

PROTECTIVE COATING OF BANDS. 

The bands of continuous stave pipe are nearly always dipped or 
painted with some form of protective coating, and sometimes the 
shoes also. For this purpose there are numerous patented or trade 
preparations on the market, some one of which may be specified. 
They consist usually of asphaltum in combination with linseed oil 
or other ingredients for tempering and reducing, and, as a rule, are 
to be applied hot. Some manufacturers, however, are coming to 
recommend a cold dip instead of the hot, believing it to be equally 
effective. 

INTAKES AND OUTLETS OF PIPE LINES. 

The design of the intake and outlet of every pipe line must be a 
matter depending upon local conditions and character of service for 
which the pipe is intended. For this reason standard designs can 
not have a wide range of adaptability, but some points that usually 
require consideration in designing such structures for service of 
whatever nature are common enough to merit brief discussion. 

The material used for intakes and outlets is usually either wood, 
concrete, or masonry. Wood has been used extensively and in first 
cost is usually cheaper than other materials. Its life is comparatively 
short, and if economic conditions will permit, something more dura- 
ble should be employed. In connection with power developments, 
wells of cribwork have often been used to give the desired entrance 
head, and the same kind of construction is sometimes employed at 
outlets also. Examples of wood and concrete intakes are shown in 
Plate II. Figure 1 shows the intake to the pipe of the Logan (Utah) 
City Power Co. and figure 2 the intake of the pipe line of the 
Kings Hill irrigation project crossing the Snake Elver near Bliss, 
Idaho. 

The plans of a wooden intake and an outlet box, fairly typical of 
this class of irrigation structures, are shown in a previous bulletin. 1 
These were built in 1894, and after nine years of satisfactory service 
were still in use, though to some extent decayed. Lumber at the time 
these were built cost $15 per thousand delivered along the canal. 

1 U. S. Dept. Agr., Office Expt. Stas. Bui. 131, p. 49. 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 



13 



Due to general advance in the price of lumber in late years and the 
reduction in the cost of cement, concrete has come to be the material 
principally used for structures of this kind. 

For municipal water supplies, intakes may require elaborate con- 
trolling works, including settling chambers, sand gates, etc., and in 
some localities steam pipes for heating the receiving chamber are 
provided as a precaution against freezing. 1 But ordinarily for irri- 
gation or power lines such structures need not be elaborate or expen- 
sive. An example of this type of construction is shown in figure 2, 
the intake of a 72-inch inverted siphon on the Kings Hill irrigation 
project, Idaho. Another example in which the water enters the pipe 



ZL&N 




Fig. 



-Intake of 72-inch pipe on King Hill project. 



from an earth ditch instead of from a flume is illustrated by figure 3, 
intake of Poisin Basin siphon, Kings Hill project, Idaho. In the 
foregoing examples the concrete was poured around the pipe so as to 
form a tight connection, and the portions so incased were given addi- 
tional bands. In some instances a section of cast iron or steel pipe is 
set in the concrete and a junction is made between that and the wood 
pipe. In other instances where the concrete and wood are joined, 
space for calking is provided by making the opening through the 
concrete slightly larger than the external diameter of the pipe. 
Either of the alternatives from the first plan given makes it possible 
to replace or repair the end of the wood pipe with greater facilitj^, 
though the calked joint may be more difficult to keep water-tight. 

1 Engin. Rec, 66 (1912), p. 425. Intake of Denver Union waterworks. 



14 



BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



On most irrigation systems the head of water carried fluctuates 
more or less and, as a rule, is far below normal for a considerable 
period in the spring and again for a time in the fall. At such times 
siphons and pipe lines may not run full. This condition may be 
unfavorable to their life and, as a precaution against it, gates have in 
a few instances been placed at the outlets as a means of throttling 
the discharge so as to keep the pipe full at all times. Such provision 
was made at the outlet of the 84-inch pipe line of the Pueblo Rocky 
Ford Irrigation Co., and the same practice might be followed to ad- 
vantage in many other places. 



HALF f RONT ELEVATION. SECTION A-B 




i Batter I 'in 8' 71 




Pig. 3. — Intake of " Poison Basin " siphon, King Hill project, Idaho. 

To prevent weeds or coarse debris of any kind from entering 
pipe lines, gratings are usually provided at intakes. However, 
unless carefully watched, the accumulation of weeds at the grating is 
liable to obstruct the entrance so as to cause the water to overflow 
canal banks. The danger of this, and of the serious damage which 
might result in many instances, have led to the removal of gratings 
which could not be inspected frequently. For irrigation service, 
where water is not carried during the winter, iron gratings are very 
satisfactory, but in places where ice is troublesome wooden gratings 
are considered better, particularly if they project above the water, for 
the reason that ice does not form on the wood so readily. 






WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 



15 



SPILLWAYS. 



As a precaution against damage that might result from accidental 
stoppage of the pipe and to facilitate quick emptying in case of acci- 
dent, spillways should be provided near the intake to siphons on 
irrigation systems where it is feasible to do so. 



AIR VALVES. 



At every summit of a wood-pipe line, an air valve or chimney 
should be placed. This is to allow air to enter so as to prevent a 
vacuum and liability of collapse when the pipe is emptied, as well 
as to permit the escape of air that may 
accumulate at such points. Of the various 
types of air valves on the market one in 
common use is illustrated by figure 4. A 
valve of this kind remains open until 
closed by internal water pressure, and by 
means of an angle valve air that accumu- 
lates while the pipe is in service may be 
released by hand. 1 Where practicable, 
iron pipes open at the top are carried to 
a point above the hydraulic gradient in 
preference to the use of air valves at sum- 
mits. Air valves and chimneys are usually 
connected to wood pipe by means of cast 
saddles, which are held in place by steel 
bands (PI. Ill, fig. 1). 

BLOW-OFFS. 

Blow-offs are attached near the bottom 
at low points of the wood pipes in a man- 
ner similar to that of attaching chimneys, 
and a sufficient number should be pro- 
vided so that every section of the pipe line may be drained and 
flushed out. Ordinary gate valves are usually employed for this 
purpose, the size to use being dependent on conditions. In lines 
where a large amount of silt is liable to accumulate, such valves 
should be of large size. 

On the 84-inch pipe of the Pueblo, Kocky Ford Irrigation Co. the 
6-inch blow-offs operating under a head of 75 feet would completely 
clog up with grass, leaves, and debris. To clean the pipe it was 
necessary to cut a number of holes through it. These were made 
30 inches square. New blow-off gates of this size were designed 
to replace the 6-inch ones originally used. 

1 For other designs of air valves see Jour. New England Water Works Assoc, 8 
(1893-94), p. 27; Engin. News, 33 (1895), p. 234; Trans. Amer. Soc. Civ. Engin., 36 
(1896), p. 23. 




Fig. 4.- 



-A type of air valve. 
(Patented.) 



16 



BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OE AGRICULTURE. 



The experience with 6-inch blow-offs on the Kings Hill pipes was 
similar. Silt in the nipples became so compact that water could not 
be forced through, and small holes were bored through the pipe to 
drain it. Then the valves were removed and cleaned. Flushing 
the valves occasionally would perhaps obviate this trouble. Where 
the water carries extraordinary quantities of sand or silt it may be 
advisable to provide sand boxes near the intakes. This was done 
on the Santa Ana Canal in California, 1 the lower Yakima Irrigation 
Co.'s canal in Washington, and on other canals. 

On the 31-inch siphon at Prosser, Wash., a 12-inch valve was 
used. (Sunnyside Canal, U. S. Reclamation Service.) 

Where pipes are 

■S'£- : — *!v , kept full during the 

winter, air valves and 
blow-off gates should 
be protected against 
freezing. 

CONNECTIONS WITH OTHEB 
KINDS OF PIPE. 

On the Sunnyside 
Canal in Washington 
the portions of the 
Mabton and Prosser 
siphons at intake and 
outlet ends where the 
pressures are light are 
made of concrete pipe. 
These are joined to 
continuous stave wood 
pipes wiiich sustain 
the greater pressures. 
In other pipe lines wood is used for heads up to approximately 200 
feet, and steel or cast iron for greater pressures. Again, where 
curves too sharp for the wood pipe are required, in passing under 
railroads and in other situations, it is frequently found necessary to 
join continuous stave pipe to that of some other type. 

A common practice in joining wood and cast iron or steel is illus- 
trated by Plate III, figure 2. The wood pipe is made to overlap the 
metal pipe, and by means of the bands is cinched up to make a tight 
joint. The usual lap is 12 to IS inches, but laps of as much as 4 
feet have been made. 

A connection of this kind is criticized on the ground that it does 
not permit proper saturation of the wood pipe where it overlaps the 




Fig. 5. 



38 f 



-Forty-eight-inch special tee for joining wood 
pipe to cast-iron pipe. 



i Trans. Amer. Soc. Civ. Engin., 33 (1895), p. 129. 



Bui. 1 55, U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate III. 




Fig. 1.— Chimney Attached to Wood Pipe. 







} 










\ 


• 






Hppw>' * f 






























V/ 






//4f 




V 


7 




/[/ / / / /t/r//i 

fSmm -mm 

bGok> 









Fig. 2.— Union of Wood and Steel Pipe. 



Bui. 1 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate IV. 




Fig. 1.— Cradles Used to Support Wood Pipe, King Hill Project, Idaho. 




Fig. 2. 



-Steel Angle in 44-Inch Pipe, Showing Method of Joining Wood and 
Steel and Method of Anchoring Pipe on Steep Slope. 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 



17 



metal, thus leaving it subject to decay. It is considered better prac- 
tice to insert the wood pipe into the metal pipe and calk with lead 
and oakum. To do this usually requires a special coupling either of 
cast iron or steel. An example of a cast fitting illustrating this 
method of joining wood pipe and cast-iron pipe is shown by figure 

5, and another of steel for uniting wood pipe and steel pipe by figure 

6. An important fea- 
ture in both of these 
designs is the thim- 
ble or flange which 
fits inside the wood 
staves to prevent 
them from being 
forced in by the 
calking. 



If continuous 
stave pipes are built 
above ground it is 
usually best to sup- 
port them in " cra- 
dles " or " chairs." 
In the design and 
spacing of supports 
of this kind the ideas 
and judgment of en- 
gineers differ and as 
yet there is no stand- 
ard practice. 

Cradles of the 
general type shown 
by figure 7, A, were 
used on several large 
pipe lines of the 
Kings Hill irriga- 
tion system in Idaho, 
and they appear to ^ " c 

be well designed. 

On some pipe lines the 2 by 12 inch mudsills are continuous; on 
others, blocks 18 inches long are used. The use of short blocks in 
this way is more economical of material, and requires less grading. 
The cradles of the type shown by Plate IV, figure 1, were spaced 6 
feet center to center under a 54-inch pipe, and to support a pipe 100 
inches in diameter cradles of the same type of 8 by 8 inch material 
61133°— Bull. 155—14 3 




Rod, dtft Circle 43 



18 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

were used with 6-foot spacing. Supports similar to the other cradle 
shown (fig. 7, B) have been used on a number of pipe lines. The 
Logan (Utah) city power pipe line rests on such cradles spaced 
4 feet center to center, with no mudsill blocks beneath the 6 by 6 inch 





St 

4'0" 



"Y 



_rr q: 



)'6"- 




Fig. 7. — Cradles for carrying stave pipe. 

timber. The 48-inch pipe of the Portland Flouring Mills Co., at 
Dayton, Wash., is carried on cradles 12 feet apart, and while this 
spacing is unusually wide the support appears to be ample. 

Some large wood-pipe lines carried across rivers and ravines on 
bridges, or trestles of steel, are supported by cradles also of steel. 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 19 

The Snake River crossing of the Kings Hill project, near Bliss, 
Idaho, and the new trestles of the Denver Union Water Co., afford 
good examples of such cradles (fig. 7, C). 

The 84-inch pipe of the Pueblo, Rocky Ford Irrigation Co. is in 
places supported on rock cradles set about 15 feet apart. 

ANCHORING PIPES. 

In order to secure surface pipes against water thrust at sharp 
horizontal curves, and to guard against the tendency to creep on 
steep inclines, anchorage in some manner is sometimes necessary. 
One method of anchoring a 44-inch pipe, as well as the way of de- 
signing an angle too sharp for the curvature of wood pipe, is illus- 
trated by Plate IV, figure 2. Another method is to build around 
the pipe a pier or mass of concrete or masonry to serve as anchorage. 

LOCATION OF CONTINUOUS STAVE PIPE LINES. 

The location of a pressure pipe line is very often a simple matter, 
particularly where the distance traversed is short, but in the case 
of long lines of wood pipe a proper and satisfactory location may 
involve a number of important considerations. This is particularly 
true if the line is to traverse a rough, mountainous region. Many 
such pipe lines have been built without due knowledge or apprecia- 
tion of the importance of certain factors, and failures or unsatisfac- 
tory service may frequently result from faulty location. 

As a rule, a pipe line must follow more or less closely the varia- 
tions of the ground surface, but in both plan and profile sharp curves 
should be avoided as much as possible. The introduction of sharp 
curves tends to increase the cost and difficulty of construction as well 
as of maintenance and repairs and .to decrease the carrying capacity. 
Horizontal and vertical curves should not be placed in the same 
section of pipe, and a tangent between curves is always desirable. 
The degree of curvature permissible depends largely on the diameter 
of the pipe and upon the thickness and kind of staves. A radius of 
60 times the diameter of the pipe is usually taken as a measure of 
allowable curvature, though sharper curves are not uncommon. 

A wooden pipe should be located so as to be under all conditions 
entirely below the hydraulic gradient, and in making extensions, or 
in taking off branches at any time from a line already established, 
care should be taken not to lower the hydraulic gradient so as to 
leave the original pipe above it. Carelessness with reference to these 
considerations has in some instances been the cause of serious damage 
and expense. 

On the point as to what the minimum distance below the hydraulic 
gradient should be, engineers differ in opinion. Assuming that pres- 
sure sufficient to keep the staves well saturated is necessary to pre- 



20 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGEICULTUEE. 

vent decay, some engineers advocate 50 feet as the minimum so far 
as it is possible to secure such location, while others place it at 25 
feet. With reference to the relation of pressure to durability of the 
wood, much may depend on other conditions of the location, par- 
ticularly as to whether or not the pipe is placed in contact with the 
soil. If the pipe is placed in the ground or in contact with the soil, 
a pressure head of 50 feet or more is preferable to anything less, 
but if it is kept free from contact with the soil, 15 feet below the 
hydraulic gradient is as good as 50. By locating the pipe close to 
the hydraulic gradient fewer bands are required, but nothing is 
saved in keeping the pressure lower than 20 feet of head. 

Evidence based on the experience of the past 20 years appears to 
be sufficient to show that, in general, continuous stave pipe lines 
should be located above ground and free from all contact with it, 
though opinions diametrically opposite with reference to this point 
have prevailed and still prevail. By those who favor locating pipes in 
the ground, it is argued that they are thus better protected from injury 
from fire, freezing, falling rocks, falling trees, landslides, etc., and 
that the life of the wood will be prolonged. In answer to which it may 
be claimed that a pipe line properly patrolled and maintained is seldom 
in serious danger from fire; the velocities as a rule are a sufficient 
safeguard against freezing in most places where such pipes are used, 
though wood pipes, even if frozen, may be easily repaired ; in a region 
so rough that danger from landslides or falling rocks is a matter for 
consideration, the cost of excavating a trench is usually very great 
and material suitable for backfilling difficult or impossible to obtain, 
so that other means of protecting the pipe from such injury may be 
much more economical ; and while under ideal conditions as to char- 
acter of soil, depth of covering, pressure, etc., the life of a pipe in 
the ground might be longer than that of one fully exposed, ex- 
perience shows conclusively that in practice there is great uncertainty 
as to conditions; that they are seldom ideal in all respects, and that 
burying has shortened the life of many pipes, both by decay of wood 
and by corrosion of bands. The conditions of a pipe above ground 
may be easily determined at any time, and if repairs are required 
they can be made with much less difficulty and expense than would 
otherwise be possible. If, however, reasons appear sufficient to 
justify placing a pipe in the ground, as they may in some instances, 
it is best to insure a deep covering of a nature that will most nearly 
exclude air from the pipe, particularly if the water pressure is light. 
Gravel, shell rock, or other porous material is not satisfactory for 
backfilling. 

Summits and depressions in the line should be avoided as far as 
consistent with economical location. Where water courses are to be 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 21 

crossed it is usually best to carry the pipe line over the stream rather 
than under it. This facilitates draining the pipe, and repairs can 
be more easily made. 

CONSTRUCTION OF CONTINUOUS STAVE PIPE. 

Where the pipe is to be built in a trench, the excavation is made 
from 1 to 2 feet wider than the diameter of the pipe. Then the 
staves of the lower half of the pipe are set up in a U-shaped form 
made usually of l|-inch gas pipe bent on a curve equal to the outside 
diameter of the pipe. Another piece of gas pipe bent into a circle, 
of diameter slightly less than that of the wood pipe, with the ends 
overlapped and spread so that it will stand alone, is set on the lower 
staves already placed, and serves as a form for the upper part. If 
wooden cradles are used and two-piece bands, the lower section of the 
band, set in a cradle, is sometimes used as the bottom form instead of 
the gas pipe. A few bands sufficient to hold the staves in place are 
then slipped on, and the final banding is completed by other men, 
the spacing of each section being marked along the pipe according to 
tables or profiles in the hands of the foreman. During the progress 
of lining up and partially tightening the bands, the pipe is rounded 
out evenly and the staves are driven up to make the butt joints tight. 
Wooden mallets are used for the " coopering," and in driving home 
the staves iron-bound hardwood blocks are used with sledge hammers. 
The end driving must usually be done repeatedly as the bands are 
tightened, care being exercised not to bruise or injure the staves. 
The final cinching may be delayed somewhat and should be done 
with careful judgment, particularly where the spacing is close, in 
order to avoid crushing the wood or shearing quarter-sawed staves. 
Special braces or wrenches with long shanks and short leverage are 
generally used for this work, each builder, as a rule, designing his 
own tools. Curves are made by crowding or pulling the partially 
banded pipe to the desired position with jackscrews or blocks and 
tackle. 

A pipe-laying gang usually consists of from 8 to 16 men, the num- 
ber depending on the closeness of banding, etc. The speed of con- 
struction depends upon the size of the pipe, spacing of bands, curva- 
ture, etc. On a 48-inch pipe built at Clarkston, Wash., in 190G, 250 
feet was the most that was laid in 10 hours, and the amount ran 
down to as low as 50 feet where work was difficult. 

According to J. D. Schuyler, 1 150 to 300 feet of 34-inch pipe 
was made per day by a crew at Denver, Colo., the number of bands 
placed ranging from 700 to 1,000, while on 44-inch pipe 500 bands 
were placed per day. In 1910 a 48-inch pipe, 10 miles long under a 

1 Trsins. Amer. Soc. Civ. Engin., 31 (1894), p. 135. 



22 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

maximum head of 130 feet, was built for the Denver Union Water 
Co. The contracting firm states that this was done in 75 days, with 
a force consisting of 150 men and 100 teams, and that this included 
hauling 30,000 tons of material an average of 10 miles on wagons. 
This is considered to be very rapid construction for a pipe of this 
size laid in a trench averaging 7 feet deep. 

In building a long line of continuous stave pipe it is customary 
to employ several crews at convenient intervals of a thousand feet 
or more. The different sections of pipe so built are joined by cut- 
ting staves to fit, allowing about one-eighth-inch extra length so that 
when sprung in place the end joints come tight. 

COST OF CONTINUOUS STAVE PIPE. 

The cost of continuous stave pipe of any particular size varies so 
much according to design, spacing of bands, location relative to trans- 
portation lines, conditions affecting erection, etc., that it is impos- 
sible to give general costs, but some data of a specific nature relative 
to certain pipe lines which have been built may be of value for 
purposes of comparison. 

Eighteen-inch — At Astoria, Oreg., 1\ miles of 18-inch pipe built in 1895. 1 
Staves, fir, 1| inches thick, milled from 2 by 6 inch lumber. Bands, seven- 
sixteenths inch diameter upset to one-half inch at threads. Clips No. 12, 
B. W. G., 1J inches wide, treated. Shoes, Allen patent, malleable iron, weight 
10 ounces each. Contract prices of steel in bands, 4.8 cents per pound. Lum- 
ber, gross measurement, $35.40 per 1,000 feet b. m. Average spacing of bands, 
5i 9 s inches. Cost of pipe to the city, 90.33 cents per linear foot, including acces- 
sories or 76 cents excluding them. These figures are not the actual cost of 
building the pipe, as Mr. Adams says: "It is presumable that the contract 
prices represent a profit of from 12* to 15 per cent." The approximate cost 
of replacing this line with one of the same size and length in 1911 was 
$75,000, .redwood staves \\ inches thick being used in the new pipe. The cost 
given includes engineering expense. 

Thirty inch.— At Denver, Colo., in 1889, 2 a 30-inch pipe 16.4 miles long re- 
quired 1,869,000 feet b. m. of Texas pine, which cost $51,399.28, at $27.50 per 
M, and 271,900 half-inch bands, which cost $54,299.55; erection of pipe by 
contract, at 5.1 cents per band, $13,S66.03; total, $119,564.S6, or $1.36* per 
linear foot. Trenching cost 48.3 cents per foot in addition to foregoing. 

At Jerome, Idaho, 1912, 1,529 feet ; 30 inches diameter ; fir staves, If inches 
thick; bands, one-half inch diameter; pressure, to 47 feet; average haul, 10 
miles ; built in trench and buried 2 feet deep. Cost, including everything except 
engineering and administration, $2,922, or $1.91 per linear foot. 

At Idaho Falls, Idaho, 1905 ; S00 feet ; 30 inches diameter ; fir, one-half inch 
bands; maximum head, 34 feet; supported on wood cradles. Cost, $1.55 per 
linear foot, including everything. 

At Kennewick, Wash., 1908; 9,490 feet; 30 inches diameter; head, to 180 
feet; built by contract on prepared foundation for $1.85 per foot. Includes 
delivery of material at railroad point, but no haul or earthwork. 

1 Trans, Amer. Soc. Civ. Engin., 36 (1896), p. 1. 

2 Trans. Amer. Soc. Civ. Engin., 31 (189'4i. p. 143. 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 23 

Thirty-two inch. — At North Yakima, Wash., 1894; Redwood siphon 940 feet 
long; 32 inches diameter; maximum head, 90 feet; bands, one-half inch diam- 
eter; built by force account for $2,500, equals $2.66 per linear foot. Dupli- 
cated by contract, 1903, for same figure. 

At Filer, Idaho, 1901 ; 1,300 feet ; 32 inches diameter ; fir staves, If inches 
thick, at $40 per thousand feet b. m. on basis of 2 by 6 inch lumber; bands, 
one-half inch diameter, 57 cents each ; malleable iron shoes, 4 cents each ; 
tongues, £ by 1^ by d& inches, 3 cents; pressure head, to 40 feet; work done 
by force account ; wages, $2.50 for 10 hours, and foreman $5 ; hauling material 
8 miles, $75; erecting on top of ground, approximately $250. Cost of staves 
and steel laid down at Filer, $1.35 per foot of pipe ; haul and erecting, 25 cents ; 
total approximately, $1.60 per foot. 

Thirty-six inch. — At Jerome, Idaho, 1912; 650 feet; 36 inches diameter; head, 
to 43 feet ; staves, fir, If inches thick ; band, one-half inch diameter ; built 
in trench and buried 2 feet deep; average haul, 4 to 5 miles. Cost, including 
everything except engineering and administration, $1,596, or $2.46 per foot. 

Forty inch. — At Jerome, Idaho, 1912; 3,113 feet; 40 inches diameter; head, 
to 100 feet ; fir staves, If inches thick ; bands, one-half inch diameter ; built 
in trench and buried 2 feet deep ; average haul, 10 miles ; cost, $3,933, or $2.87 
per foot, including everything except engineering and administration. 

Forty-two inch. — At Jerome, Idaho, 1912; 9S0 feet; 42 inches diameter; head, 
to 51 feet ; staves, fir, If inches thick ; bands, one-half inch diameter ; built 
in trench and buried 2 feet deep; average haul, 4 to 5 miles; cost, $2,556, or 
$2.61 per foot, including everything except engineering and administration. 

Forty-four inch. — At Wenatchee, Wash., 1902-3; 9.000 feet; 44 inches diam- 
eter ; maximum head, 235 feet ; bands, one-half inch diameter ; fir staves, If inches 
thick ; laid in trench, and on bridge across W r enatchee River ; contract price for 
pipe, $2.20 per linear foot. Excavating and backfilling not included. 

At Palisades, Colo., 1909-10; 3 fir pipes, 44 inches diameter; 2,850 feet; 1,055 
and 1,150 feet in length ; cost by contract, $3.15, $3.25, and $2.90 per linear foot, 
respectively. No earthwork included. 

Forty-eight inch. — At Palisades (orchard mesa), Colo., 1909-10; for 6 pipes 
48 inches in diameter and varying lengths and heads, the unit prices ranged from 
$2.40 per foot up to $4.75 per foot, the average of the six being $3.52; mate- 
rial, fir. 

At Deer Park, Wash, (about 1909), 94,000 feet of fir pipe; head, to 70 feet, 
built in trench ; contract price, $2.35 per foot, includes delivery of all material 
at railroad point and erection of pipe, but no haul or earthwork. 

Forty-eight inch. — At Clarkston, Wash., 1906; fir staves, If inches thick, ^-inch 
bands ; built in trench by force account, for light head ; cost, $2.25 per foot, no 
earthwork included. Foreman received $3.50 per day and other men $2.50 for 
10 hours. 

Fifty-eight inch.— At Pueblo, Colo., 1907 ; 2,277.5 feet ; cost by contract, $6.14 
per foot, no earthwork included. 

Sixty inch. — At Pueblo, Colo., 1907 ; on 17 fir pipes the unit price per foot 
ranged from $4.19 to $6.58, averaging $5.51. The combined length of 17 pipes 
equals 19,821.5 feet, making the average price per foot on this basis equal $6.27; 
earthwork not included. 

Sixty inch. — At Nissa, Oreg., 1912; 6,700 feet; average head about 65 feet; 
bands, f inch diameter; staves, fir, 2 by 6 inches; built on wooden cradles; con- 
tract price, $4.25 per foot, included material, erecting, and freight, but no haul 
or earthwork. 



24 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Eighty-four inch. — At Pueblo, Colo., 1911; 18,000 feet; maximum head, 70 
feet ; fir staves, 2f inches thick ; bands, f inch diameter ; maximum spacing, 10 
inches ; minimum, about 4 inches ; contract price, $6 per linear foot, including 
everything except hauling and earthwork. Line very crooked, with 14 vertical 
curves. Much of it is about one-half in ground. Total cost of line was about 
$9 per foot, everything included. 

Fir staves at Seattle, Wash. (December, 1912), were quoted at $30 
to $32 per thousand feet b. m., according to size, etc. They take the 
same freight rate as lumber of the same class. Redwood staves at 
San Francisco were quoted at about $45 per thousand. The price of 
malleable iron shoes, at Marion, Ind., was approximately $3.75 per 
hundredweight on lots of from 1,000 pieces to a carload, with an 
additional charge of 10 cents per hundredweight if dipped in rust- 
proof paint. Drop forged steel shoes 3^ inches long were quoted at 
2f cents to 3| cents each at Ballard, Wash., and 5-inch shoes at 3^ 
cents to 4 cents each. 

Bands made at Pueblo, Colo., were quoted f. o. b. Spokane, Wash., 
at $i2.97 per hundredweight for carload lots, 10 cents per hundred- 
weight additional being charged if required to be bent and dipped. 

Steel tongues are quoted at the same prices as bands. 

Pipe coating of a well-known brand used as a dip for bands was 
quoted at $57.50 per ton f. o. b. the Chicago factory. 

MACHINE-BANDED PIPE. 

Machine-banded pipe is being very extensively manufactured on 
the Pacific coast and at several points in the Eastern States. The 
principal factories of the West are at San Francisco, Cal. ; Portland, 
Oreg. ; Tacoma, Wash. ; Seattle, Wash. ; and Vancouver, B. C. Other 
factories are at Elmira, N. Y. ; Bay City, Mich. ; Williamsport, Pa. ; 
and Alexandria, La. 

Redwood is used for the pipe made at San Francisco, while fir is 
used exclusively at the other western points mentioned. The eastern 
factories use white pine and tamarack, principally, for water pipe, 
and hard maple, beech, and birch for special mining purposes. In 
Louisiana, water pipe is made from cypress, which wood is used also 
for steam-pipe casing. 

The original machine-banded pipe consisted of logs turned in a 
lathe, machine bored, and then wound with continuous flat steel 
bands. Pipe of this type in sizes from 2 to 6 inches in diameter is 
still manufactured in Michigan, but most of the machine-banded pipe 
is now made up of staves, the sections ranging in length from 8 feet 
to 12 feet in the East, and to 20 feet in the West. Diameters run 
from 2 inches up to 48 inches. Western factories, however, build 
little pipe of this kind more than 24 inches in diameter. 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 25 

The thickness of the staves varies to some extent. The redwood 
pipe in usual sizes is about 1 inch thick and the fir pipe 1£ inches. 
The eastern pipe is usually 1£ inches thick, while for pressures of 40 
pounds or more and in sizes from 24 inches up, the shell of some of it 
is made 3 inches thick. 

Galvanized steel wire is used exclusively on the Pacific coast for 
banding. The size of the wire varies from No. 8 to No. 0, and the 
closeness of wrapping is regulated according to the pressures for 
which the pipe is designed. These may range from very low heads 
up to 400 feet or more. The eastern factories band their pipes with 
hot rolled steel 14 or 16 gauge, 1 inch wide, and No. 16 and No. 18 
gauge, 1£ inches wide. The banding is done with a machine which 
imposes on the steel a tension sufficient to make a very tight contact 
with the wood, and may even indent the staves somewhat where wire 
is used. The ends of the bands are secured with staples or clips. 

After the pipe is banded and the ends are milled for couplings, 
each section is dipped in a hot asphaltum preparation which thor- 
oughly coats the bands and exterior of the pipe, then it is rolled in 
sawdust or shavings to form an outer covering, which renders it more 
agreeable to handle. 

COUPLINGS. 

Couplings for machine-banded pipe are of several types. Of these 
one of the commonest is the " inserted joint." To make this cou- 
pling a tenon is milled on one end of a section of pipe and a mortise 
on the other, so that the connection is made by simply inserting the 
tenon of one section into the mortise of another and driving together. 
In the western pipe this form of coupling is used principally for low 
pressures. Where greater strength is required reinforcement may be 
applied to this joint by using individual bands. For another form of 
coupling tenons are made on both ends of each section of pipe, and 
with each joint a wooden stave collar or sleeve is used, into which the 
tenons are inserted. These collars for small pipes are machine 
banded the same as the pipe, but for the larger sizes individual bands 
are used. Collars of riveted steel or iron were used with such pipe 
in the earlier days of its manufacture on the Pacific coast, and cast- 
iron collars have been employed also in many places. The latter 
material is still used for bends, crosses, tees, reducers, and other 
specials, but for collars it has been almost wholly supplanted by the 
other forms mentioned. The wooden collars are cheaper, but because 
they often decay quickly are much inferior to those made of iron. 

USE OF MACHINE-BANDED WOOD PIPE. 

Machine-banded wood pipe has had its most extensive use in the 
Pacific coast and Rocky Mountain States for municipal waterworks 
systems, where there is scarcely a city or town of any consequence 



26 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

but what has at some time put in more or less of it, and the demand 
for this purpose continues to require a large output from the fac- 
tories. It is also used a great deal in conveying water supplies for 
manufacturing purposes and fire protection for factories and mills, 
for railway tanks, for power plants, hydraulic sluicing operations, 
etc., and during recent years there has been a great deal of it used 
for irrigation purposes, particularly in the Northwestern States. 
In the East it is used to some extent for municipal water supplies, 
considerably for various purposes in the mining regions, and for oil 1 
conduits, insulated wire conduits, steam pipe casing, etc. 

For municipal waterworks the low first cost of machine-banded 
wood pipe as compared with that of cast iron or steel pipe has in 
most instances been the consideration leading to its use, and many 
communities which now have an abundance of water for domestic 
purposes, fire protection, etc., would still be unsupplied had not some 
such cheap type of pipe been available. 

While possessing some advantages other than that of low first 
cost, machine-banded pipe, according to the experience of many 
localities, has been found inferior in many respects to cast iron and 
steel for city mains and connections. The complaint most fre- 
quently expressed with reference to its use for this service relates to 
trouble arising from leaks, which occur mainly at the joints. Such 
leaks may develop as the result of decayed collars, from carelessness 
in putting the pipe together, from increasing the pressure above 
that for which the pipe was designed, or from other causes. While 
in many cases even a considerable leakage may be permissible, in 
others any material loss is highly objectionable. Leaks are particu- 
larly objectionable where pipes are located in paved streets, and 
owing to the difficulty in avoiding leaks, as well as because its life 
is usually shorter than that of metal, wood pipe is usually replaced 
before paving, and in the larger cities its use for distributing systems 
is now being very generally discontinued. 

For service of a more or less temporary nature, such as hydraulic 
sluicing, dredging, etc., where absolute tightness is not essential, but 
where low cost, ease of transportation, facility of putting together, 
removing, and relaying at small expense are desirable considerations, 
machine-banded wood pipe is peculiarly well adapted. 

The use of machine-banded wood pipe in connection with irriga- 
tion work is confined to the West, particularly the Northwest, where 
hundreds of miles of it have been installed for delivery pipes of 
small pumping plants, for inverted siphons, etc. In a number of 
places the entire water supply is conveyed through such pipes, de- 
livery being made to each unit of area, often as small as 5 acres or 
less. And beyond this, many farmers use wood pipe instead of 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIOATION WATER. 



27 



head ditches or flumes, tapping it and inserting small hydrants 
at the head of each tree row or at closer intervals. 

These hydrants usually consist of three-fourths-inch galvanized- 
iron pipe which is screwed into the shell of the wood pipe, and 
equipped with a cheap valve for regulating the discharge. The cost 
of such outlets, including the threaded nipples 18 inches long and 
the valves, is about 40 cents each. 

The conditions of irrigation service are in perhaps a majority 
of cases unfavorable to a long life of this kind of pipe, and where 
the pipe is empty for several months out of the year decay is often 
very rapid, but except for this disadvantage no substitute has been 
found which meets so many of the other requirements of irrigation 



service. 



COST OF MACHINE-BANDED WOOD PIPE. 



The cost of machine-banded wood pipe varies with the head for 
which it is made, fluctuations in the market prices of materials, the 
kind of wood used, etc., and will differ also in accordance with freight 
or transportation charges from the factories to different points. 

The following prices i o. b. cars at Seattle, Wash., quoted for 
estimating purposes only, will give some idea of the present prices 
of fir pipe, and from the weights given the freight charges to any 
point may be ascertained by consulting railway rates. A minimum 
carload is 30,000 pounds. 

Table showing prices and weights per linear foot of machine-banded wood pipe, 
f. o. 6. cars, Seattle, Wash. 



Diameter. 


Eead. 


Price. 


Weight. 


Diameter. 


Head. 


Price. 


Weight. 


Diameter. 


Head. 


Price. 


Weight. 








Pounds. 








Pounds. 








Pounds. 


2-inch 


50 


SO. 087 


3.1 


10-inch... 


50 


$0. 268 


13.1 


18-inch... 


50 


$0,597 


26.9 




100 


.090 


3.2 




100 


.347 


14.7 




100 


.750 


30.8 




150 


.092 


3.2 




150 


.392 


15.7 




150 


.884 


34.6 




200 


.100 


3.4 




200 


.455 


17.3 




200 


.992 


38.0 




250 


.105 


3.5 




250 


.479 


18.4 




250 


1.266 


45.6 




300 


.116 


3.6 




300 


.503 


19.4 




300 


1.528 


54.8 


4-inch 


50 


.129 


5.8 


12-inch... 


50 


.322 


16.8 


20-inch... 


50 


.655 


29.6 




100 


.131 


5.9 




100 


.413 


18.9 




100 


.828 


34.4 




150 


.134 


6.0 




150 


.450 


19.8 




150 


1.033 


40.0 




200 


.166 


6.3 




200 


.532 


21.7 




200 


1.192 


44.0 




250 


.176 


7.0 




250 


.618 


23.8 




250 


1.428 


52.0 




300 


.189 


7.3 




300 


.660 


25.3 




300 


1.615 


57.5 


6- inch 


50 


.163 


8.3 


14-inch... 


50 


.445 


21.3 


22-inch... 


50 


.773 


33.9 




100 


.168 


8.9 




100 


.550 


23.0 




100 


.990 


40.1 




150 


.184 


9.1 




150 


.629 


25.3 




150 


1.184 


45.2 




200 


.226 


9.6 




200 


.745 


28.2 




200 


1.415 


52.7 




250 


.242 


10.0 




250 


.834 


29.9 




250 


1.710 


59.8 




300 


.258 


10.4 




300 


.916 


32.3 




300 


1.845 


65.5 


8-inch 


50 


.203 


10.3 


16- inch... 


50 


.547 


24.7 


24-ineh... 


50 


.855 


37.3 




100 


.224 


10.5 




100 


.639 


26.9 




100 


1.075 


44.0 




150 


.292 


12.8 




150 


.734 


29.3 




150 


1.334 


51.0 




200 


.332 


13.7 


200 


.871 


33.4 




200 


1.627 


59.3 




250 


.366 


15.6 


250 


.987 


36.2 




250 


1.934 


67.8 




300 


.387 


16.2 


300 


1.132 


40.2 




300 


2.100 


74.3 



The cost of wood pipe is in most places materially less than that of 
cast iron or steel, though direct comparisons are difficult to make. 
At the time the waterworks were built at Astoria in 1895, Mr. Adams 



28 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

estimated that the use of wood effected a saving of 43 per cent over 
steel pipe of similar size, No. 12 gauge, and nearly 50 per cent over 
one of equivalent carrying capacity. In discussing the waterworks 
of Denver, in 1894, J. D. Schuyler states : 

At a moderate estimate the saving effected by the Citizen's Water Co., by the 
use of wooden pipe for their main conduits has been no less than $1,100,000 over 
the cost of cast-iron pipes of equal capacity. The interest on this amount at 6 
per cent would renew the mains every five or six years, or duplicate them as 
often as that if necessary. 

S. Fortier x gives the bids for supplying material and laying the 
following pipes at Salt Lake City, Utah, in 1900 : 30-inch stave pipe, 
$2.95 and $3.10; 30-inch cast-iron pipe $10.20 and $10.85; 30-inch 
riveted steel pipe, $8.65 and $9.15; 24-inch stave pipe at $2.60 and 
$2.55; 24-inch cast-iron pipe, $7.45 and $8.15; and 24-inch riveted 
steel pipe, $5.75 and $6.05. 

At Spokane, Wash., the relative prices for small pipes are about 
as follows : 2 6-inch wood pipe, 25 cents per linear foot ; 6-inch steel 
pipe, 63 cents per linear foot; 6-inch cast-iron, 72 cents per linear 
foot. 

The price per ton of cast-iron pipe at Spokane is about $43 (1913), 
and somewhat less at Pacific coast points. 

LAYING MACHINE-BANDED WOOD PIPE. 

Laying machine-banded wood pipe is a very simple operation, and 
as no calking of joints is required it may be done by unskilled labor. 
Nevertheless, much dissatisfaction in the use of pipe of this kind 
may result from carelessness in handling and laying. 

In shipping from the humid Puget Sound region to the arid or 
semiarid districts east of the mountains wood pipe may shrink very 
materially if allowed to lie exposed to the sun and wind for any 
considerable time, and for this reason it should be protected from 
such influences so far as possible before laying. Otherwise it may be 
difficult to get the pipe tight after water is turned in. Care should 
be exercised in handling the pipe, so as to avoid bruising or in 
any way injuring the tenon ends. The tenons should be carefully 
examined as the pipe is being put together, and, in case bruises 
or scratches occur, the section should be turned so that the injury 
will be on top where it can be easily plugged if a leak should 
develop. 

Pipes up to 4 inches in diameter may be driven together with a 
maul, a tampion being used to protect the end of the pipe. Pipe 
6 inches in diameter and larger can best be driven with a ram which 

'U. S. Geol. Survey, Water Supply and Irrig. Paper 43, p. 71. 

2 Ann. Rpt. Water Div., Dept. Public Utilities LSpokane, Wash.], 1911. 









WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 29 

may be made of a heavy piece of timber about 5 feet long. The pipe 
is usually driven from the coupling or mortised end. 

Deflections of from 2° to 6° per joint can be made with this kind of 
pipe, but a straight line is desirable, and crooks in either vertical 
or horizontal alignment should be avoided as far as possible. Where 
curves are necessary, short sections of pipe may be obtained for the 
purpose. Greater deflections can be made with small pipe than with 
large sizes. 

The backfilling around curves should be thoroughly tamped or 
puddled, as a precaution against blowing out under pressure, and 
metal bends and plugs should also be well staked or reinforced, for 
the same reason. 

To make best progress in laying this kind of pipe a crew of from 
four to eight men is required, the number depending on the size of 
the pipe. The amount that can be laid in a day varies with the 
size of the pipe, experience of the crew, and other conditions. 

The Pacific Coast Pipe Co. estimates the cost of laying western 
pipe at from 1^ cents per foot for 4-inch to 5 cents per foot for 24- 
inch, exclusive of all distribution along ditch and earthwork. The 
Portland Wood Pipe Co. estimates the cost of laying different sizes 
as follows : 4-inch, 1 cent per foot ; 6-inch and 8-inch, 1^ cents ; 10- 
inch, 2 cents; 12-inch, 2£ cents, distribution and earthwork not in- 
cluded. P. A. Devers, manager Pasco Reclamation Co., Pasco, 
Wash., gives the cost of laying pipe at Pasco, as follows : For sizes 
from 8 inches to 14 inches in diameter the labor cost for excavation 
and installation varies from 8 cents to 10 cents per linear foot, ac- 
cording to size. Trenches for some of the larger pipes were exca- 
vated by contract at 25 cents per cubic yard. For installing several 
miles of 6-inch pipe, the trenching and other labor cost was about 6 
cents per linear foot. The rate of wages is not given, but presumably 
laborers were paid from $2 to $2.50 per day of 10 hours. Trenches 
were probably not more than 2 feet deep, and the material excavated 
was mainly a sandy soil. In gravel the cost was increased 15 to 20 
per cent, according to the statement of Mr. Devers. 

MAINTENANCE OF WOOD-PIPE LINES. 

It should not be assumed that large continuous stave pipe lines 
when once installed will forever after take care of themselves. 
Reasonably frequent inspection is advisable, and whenever leaks 
are found, or injuries of any nature are sustained, they should be re- 
paired without unnecessary delay. Negligence in this respect and 
failure to appreciate the importance of such inspection has not only 
shortened the life of many pipe lines, but has in some instances 
greatly increased the cost of repairing. The continued impinging 
of a grit laden jet from a small leak has been known to sever steel 



30 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

bands five-eighths of an inch in diameter, while the failure of a sec- 
tion of machine-banded pipe due to the wire being cut in this way 
is not uncommon. 

Small leaks at the joints or seams of wood pipe are usually stopped 
with wooden wedges. In the case of leaks around the wooden cou- 
plings of machine-banded pipe, the wedges are driven into the staves 
of the coupling sleeve, and not between them and the pipe. If a 
section of machine-banded pipe or a collar fails on account of the 
cutting of the wire, individual bands with coupling shoes similar to 
those used for the large continuous stave pipe can be obtained for 
making repairs. An assortment of these might well be kept on hand 
where likely to be needed. 

The repairs of a large pipe may call for considerable ingenuity 
and unique methods. When several five-eighths-inch bands of the 
48-inch Mabton (Wash.) siphon were cut by a leak, allowing the 
ends of two staves to spring out and break off, a diver was em- 
ployed to make the repairs. At the bottom of the Yakima River, 
15 to 20 feet under water, steel plates with gaskets, one on the inside 
and one on the outside of the pipe, were clamped together with bolts 
so as to stop the leak. 

Under ordinary circumstances the repair of continuous stave pipe 
is not difficult. The removal and replacement of staves or portions 
of them is a matter of frequent occurrence. It is only necessary to 
remove a few bands, take out the defective stave, spring another into 
place, and reband. If the pipe has been buried and the threads on 
the bands have become badly rusted, as they frequently do, any 
change in the position of the nut may necessitate the use of a new 
band, though if the body of the band is fit to be used again a new 
thread may be welded on. This has been done by the Butte 
Water Co. 

Where a pipe is above ground any landslides coming in contact 
with it should be cleared away as a precaution against decay, par- 
ticularly if it is at a point where the pipe is under light pressure. 
If supported in cradles, mudsills or footings should be renewed 
as decay progresses, in order to avoid injury to the pipe from set- 
tling. Weeds permitted to grow along an exposed pipe may, when 
dry, be a source of danger from fire, and on this account if for no 
other reason they should be kept down so far as conditions will 
warrant. 

On many irrigation systems it is necessary to empty the wood 
pipes in the fall, as a precaution against damage from freezing. 
Where this is the case they should be kept full as late as possible, 
and be filled again in the spring just as soon as conditions will per- 
mit. In some instances irrigation managers close the inlets and out- 
lets of wood pipes when emptied in the fall, so as to prevent the 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 31 

circulation of air and the consequent drying of the wood during the 
winter. 

In the operation of pipe lines, especially irrigation " siphons," 
conditions frequently favor the admission of air, which may very 
materially reduce the carrying capacity, and sometimes it is suf- 
ficient to cause pulsations or vibrations so violent as to be a menace 
to the life of the pipe. This difficulty is usually remedied by the 
introduction of air vents at the top of the pipe near the intake, 
carrying them back up along the pipe itself, or perhaps to one side 
of the line to a point above the hydraulic gradient. 

The cost of maintenance in the operation of wood pipe lines varies 
greatly. In many instances where there has been a careful selection 
of materials, good construction, and favorable conditions of service, 
the expense of maintenance may be for many years an almost neg- 
ligible amount, while again, where the above conditions do not ob- 
tain, the cost for repairs and upkeep may be considerable. It is 
usually less during the first few years than it is later on in the life 
of a pipe. 

A. P. Merrill, manager of .the Utah Power Co., in connection with 
his experience in operating a number of pipe lines aggregating 10 
miles or so in length, writes as follows: 

The maintenance of pipe lines depends, of course, on the manner in which 
they are constructed. At this time I have no definite maintenance costs which 
can be given to support any statements that I might make. In general, how- 
ever, I should say that a wood pipe line properly constructed with Kelsey joints 
and laid under sufficient pressure requires practically no maintenance, at least 
during the first 10 years. We have had comparatively new lines, however, 
where the construction was somewhat faulty in some respects, and where the 
butt joints were not used, which require more or less maintenance work during 
each year. 

Eugene Carroll, manager of the Butte Water Co., in writing con- 
cerning the pipes built at Butte in 1892, 1899, and 1900, makes the 
following statement : 1 

The pipe connects our reservoirs, one 13 miles and the other 22 miles out, 
with our reservoirs in town. The watchman, which we have to keep at each 
l-eservoir, makes a trip over the pipe line once a week. Occasionally in making 
these trips it is necessary to dig out the pipe for small leaks, such as worm 
holes on butt joints, but with two exceptions we have never had to use more 
than two men in repairing leaks, and have never had to shut off the water. 
Our two exceptions are, first, during the winter of 1S93 ice formed inside of 
our pipe line, being caused from the fact that our reservoir was not completed, 
and a jam was caused inside the pipe, bursting it, requiring the shutting off of 
the water and about 12 hours to repair it. Last spring on our new pipe line 
a leak developed near one of our valve chambers, and before it was discovered 
and the water shut off a bad washout took place, which washed the supports 
away from the pipe line for about 1,000 feet, necessitating the rebuilding of the 
line, taking about four days to do it. 



1 Trans. Amer. Soc. Civ. Engin., 58 (1907), p. 73. 



32 



BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Writing again seven years later, Mr. Carroll repeats that one man 
on each of these lines is all the labor required, the inspections being 
made about once a week, and he says : 

I attribute our low cost of maintenance to the careful and frequent inspec- 
tions we make of the lines. 

The cost of repairs on the 12 miles of conduit at Astoria, Oreg., 
for 10 years after its construction is given by A. L. Adams as 
follows : 1 

Cost of repairs on 12 miles of conduit. 



Year. 


Cost. 


Year. 


Cost. 


Year. 


Cost. 


Year. 


Cost. 


Year. 


Cost. 


1895 


$108. 58 
15.90 


1897 

1898 


$63. 67 
65.50 


1899 

1900 


$46. 10 
71.59 


1901 .. 


$243. 18 
314.03 


1904 


$350 18 


1896 


1902 


895. 10 



The foregoing figures include the expense of repairing the damage 
resulting from two landslides. Aside from this, most of the cost 
was charged to the 1\ miles of wood pipe. The total cost of repair- 
ing 27 perforations which occurred in the steel pipe in 1902, 1903, 
1904, and 1905 was $297. 

For repairing staves in 48-inch pipe near Clarkston, Wash., in 
January, 1912, K. A. Foster, engineer and manager, Clarkston system 
of Lewiston-Clarkston Improvement Co., gives the following detailed 
cost data : 

Cents. 

Milling staves 3.04 

Hauling, 182 ton-miles, at 37.09 18.24 

Removing old pipe 3.24 

Repairing old bands 2.43 

Subdelivery of material 5.77 

Laying 9. 12 

Replacing bands, 555, at 8.11 cents per band 12.16 

Cook 3. 04 

Food, 71 cents per ration 13.42 

Lost time of men 4.73 

Lost time of team 1-92 

Piling of old lumber saved 1.73 

Superintendence 4. 83 

Cost of lumber, $28 f. o. b. Lewiston 81. 20 

Total 164. 87 

Making total cost per foot, $1.65. 
Wages of men, 25 cents per hour. 

1 Trans. Amer. Soc. Civ. Engin., 58 (1007), p. 69. 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. HS 

For replacing 280 feet JfO-inch pipe, January, 1911. 



Item. 



Cost. 



Cents 
per foot. 



Hauling staves, 7S ton-miles, S37.30 

Excavating and tearing down 

Relaying 

Superintendence 

Piling old lumber 

Lumber, 6.7 M., at 82S 

Total 



S29.30 

41.00 

81.90 

30.00 

9.00 

187.60 



10.4 
14.4 
29.3 
10.7 
3.3 
67.0 



378. 80 



135.1 



DURABILITY OF WOOD PIPE AND FACTORS AFFECTING IT. 

" How long will it last ? " is a question asked perhaps of tener than 
any other in the discussion of wood pipe. It was the common ques- 
tion during the early years of its manufacture, and it is common 
to-day after the experience of more than 30 years of extensive use. 

The failure of wood pipe is in general due either to decay of the 
wood or corrosion of the bands, though wearing out of the wood is 
also under certain conditions a matter upon which the life of a pipe 
may depend. The range of variability with reference to these points 
in the life of the pipes that have been built has been such as to demon- 
strate conclusively that how long any pipe will last can not be accu- 
rately predicted without a thorough knowledge of all the conditions 
involved. 

Sufficient time has not yet elapsed to show the life of some of the 
earliest continuous stave pipes that were built, while others have 
endured but from 5 to 12 years. In support of the foregoing state- 
ment specific data bearing upon the durability of a number of pipe 
lines, several of which were inspected by the writer, are given in the 
following pages. 

In writing of the first continuous stave pipe built in the West, at 
Denver, in 1884, S. Fortier states 1 — 

The pipe was laid in a portion of its length about 15 inches above the 
hydraulic gradient. Native pine, whose durability under unfavorable condi- 
tions is from three to five years, composed the staves, and in the portion of 
the line referred to the pipe was never more than two-thirds full of water. 
The top staves decayed rapidly. In the fall of the year (18S9) the Denver 
Water Co. had bands loosened and the staves from the upper arc removed 
without shutting off the water. It was then found that the lumber was per- 
fectly sound up to the surface of the water in the pipe, and in the next stave 
above on either side, whereas the remaining staves which the water could 
not reach by capillary attraction or otherwise were rotten. 

A part of this line, lying close to the river, under conditions where 
both exterior and interior are kept wet, was said to be still in use 
in 1912. 






'Ann. Amer. Soc. Irrig. Engin., 1802-0.3, p. 11. 



34 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

In 1886-87 the next important pipe line of this kind was built from 
Cherry Creek crossing to Denver. Some of this lasted until 1907, 
when it was replaced by a 30-inch fir pipe. The original line con- 
sisted of about 7| miles in all, of 37, 30, and 24-inch pipe, the mate- 
rial being about two-thirds western yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa) 
and the remainder redwood. 

In 1890 a 30-inch pipe was completed from the Platte Canyon to 
Ashland Avenue, Denver, about 21 miles; 16.4 miles of this line is 
wood — Texas pine and California redwood. It is still in use. In 
the spring of 1890 a 24-inch redwood pipe 5^ miles in length was 
built at Ogden, Utah. In 1911, 4,674 feet of this line was replaced, 
but is still used as an overflow pipe from a reservoir. On a few 
summits, where not always full, the pipe has decayed badly, but 
with these exceptions the original line is in general very well pre- 
served. When inspected in October, 1912, repairs were being made 
at a river crossing, where settling of the bridge had caused the split- 
ting of many staves, which were being replaced. These staves were 
not rotted materially, but about one-eighth of an inch of the interior 
was so softened that it could be easily scraped off with a knife. 
Many of the staves were also split back from the saw kerf several 
inches, thus permitting the outer portion to decay more rapidly than 
the rest of the stave. This portion of the pipe at another point, 
where supported on a trestle protected from the sun by rough boards, 
showed the staves to be in a perfect state of preservation. The 
pressure at the latter point was light, as indicated by the spacing of 
bands, which were 1 foot apart. 

A 48-inch redwood pipe, 2,000 feet long, built by the Bear Valley 
Irrigation Co., at Kedlands, CaL, in 1891, was in continuous use 
until the summer of 1912, when it was replaced by a ditch. About 
500 feet of this pipe at the upper end was completely buried, and 
of the remainder of the line which was originally supported 200 
to 300 feet became partially covered by slides from the slopes. 
Where in contact with the earth the staves of the pipe were consid- 
erably decayed, but in other parts the wood was well preserved at 
the time of its removal. 

In 1892, 48,193 feet of 24-inch redwood pipe was built for the 
Butte (Mont.) Water Co. Eugene Carrol, manager of the company, 
under date of January 15, 1913, states : 

During the past season we had occasion to open this pipe to make a new con- 
nection at the lower end and found it in excellent condition. As far as we 
know, the whole line is in excellent condition, and there has been no deteriora- 
tion noticeable. Of course, the bands are rusted considerably, and when it is 
necessary to remove a band a new one has to be substituted. At one point 
where earth was hard to get we backfilled with broken rock, which allowed 
the air to get to the outside of the pipe. It is our experience that this caused 
the deterioration of the wood, and the broken rock was removed and replaced 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 35 

with sand and earth, carefully tamped around the pipe. This apparently 
stopped the decaying of the wood. The Basin Creek line has now been in 
service 20 years, and it is impossible to estimate how much longer it will last, 
as at present it has shown no signs of giving out. 

An 18-inch redwood pipe 8,600 feet long was built at Logan, Utah, 
also in 1892. This is still in service, but its condition is not known, 
though presumed to be good. 

Koswell Snow, superintendent of waterworks, Provo, Utah, under 
date of January 30, 1913, writes as follows concerning a redwood 
pipe : 

I have been in touch with this pipe for the past eight years, and have been 
taking note of it in the different ground in which it is laid. I find in the clay 
ground it seems to be nearly as good as new, in gravelly ground it is in fairly 
good shape, but in loam and light soil it is nearly gone. It has been in use 
nearly 25 years and I would think that the pipe in the clay ground would last 
20 years longer. 

In the years from 1897 to 1901 and 1902, the Union Hollywood 
Water Co. at Los Angeles, Cal., installed continuous stave redwood 
pipe, which, according to F. C. Finkle, consulting engineer, who ex- 
amined it in 1910, was rotted to a mere shell from one-sixteenth to 
three-sixteenths of an inch thick. This was in a gravity system 
under a head of not to exceed about 50 feet and in places considerably 
less. He states that of another redwood pipe installed at Long 
Beach, Cal., in 1900, 4,000 feet or so was replaced in January, 1912. 
This, under his observation from 1908 to 1912, was found to be badly 
decayed, and the bands were seriously corroded, though none failed. 
It was laid in a compact soil which contained some alkali. The pres- 
sure ranged from 20 to 40 pounds. 

In the fall of 1895, 7^ miles of fir pipe was built at Astoria, Oreg. 1 
In 1905 portions of this line were found to be badly decayed, and in 
1911 it was all replaced by another pipe of redwood. 

G. W. Lounsberry, of the Astoria Water Commission, states : 
Where the line was buried to a depth of 2 feet or more in fine-grained sand 
or clay it lasted much better than where it was laid in black soil mixed with 
decayed vegetation or where it was laid in shale. This, regardless of the water 
pressure, and the staves in the bottom where there was a constant flow of water 
were equally affected with those on top that at times were dry on account of 
the pipe not running full. 

The 72-inch fir pipe, 3 miles in length, built for the Pioneer Elec- 
tric Power Co. at Ogden, Utah, in 1897 is still in service. Repairs 
in the nature of an occasional new stave have been necessary for sev- 
eral years, and in the month of October, 1912, when it was inspected, 
arrangements were being made to replace the upper end where the 
pressure is light. This pipe is in many places but little below the 
hydraulic gradient and in most parts but lightly or partially covered. 

i Trans. Amer. Soc. Civ. Engin., 36 (1896), p. 1 ; 58 (1907), p. 65. 



36 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

At one point some distance below the intake where uncovered for 
repairs, the staves of the lower half of the pipe were found to be de- 
cayed to a mere shell. The 4-inch spacing of bands indicated a fairly 
good internal pressure. The backfill was stony. Near the dam, 
where the pressure was not more than 10 or 15 feet, the staves were 
badly decayed, and it is probable that much of the pipe was in poor 
condition at this time. On a bridge where it had always been fully 
exposed there was no appreciable decay of the staves other than at 
leaky joints, and the same was true along the top of the pipe where 
exposed or covered with only an inch or two of coarse soil, which 
permitted it to remain dry. 

R. M. Hosea, chief engineer of the Colorado Fuel & Iron Co., 
writes as follows about a pipe several miles long : 

The oldest line we have — 28 inches in diameter — was built in 1900. For 
five years past it has been repaired in places by inserting new staves where 
old ones were badly rotted on the exterior. This allows bands to sink into 
soft wood and staves to leak. The rot progresses until one-half to three-fourths 
of the wood is rotted. It occurs in patches, or on certain staves their full 
length, according to amount of pitch in the wood, or some variation in its quality. 
This pipe was of Texas pine staves. I should add also that the bands become 
rapidly corroded where leaks have formed and ground is moist, and I should 
doubt a life of 20 years for this line even if repairs are kept as above indicated, 
where we are constantly putting in new fir staves and some new bands. 

This pipe is laid in fine adobe soil and covered to a depth of 2 feet 
or more. 

By the side of the pipe just mentioned, and under the same condi- 
tions, a 48-inch fir pipe was laid in November and December, 1906. 
Mr. Hosea says that in three years it was decayed sufficiently to cause 
leaks. When inspected in October., 1913, it showed serious decay, 
and was being incased with reinforced concrete. This pipe was 
covered with the adobe soil from 18 inches to 2 feet deep, and where 
examined was under a head of perhaps 30 feet or more. In most 
instances the decay extended half way through the staves. Some- 
times a sound stave occurred, while those on each side of it might be 
badly rotted. The bands were in good condition and only slightly 
corroded. Twenty-five other pipe lines built by this company about 
the same time as this one have also been incased with concrete, decay 
in the case of each having made more or less progress. 

Under date of May 15, 1912, L. B. Youngs, water superintendent 
of Seattle, Wash., writes as follows: 

The first wood pipe that we installed in this city was put in 12 years ago, 
and was made out of our native timber here, known as Douglas fir. * * * 
In clay soils the pipe lasts fairly well, and I would place its life at from 12 
to 20 years ; in sandy and gravelly soils I would place its life at from 7 to 12 
years. However, in the case of large pipe with individual bands the cost of 
reinstallation would be the cost of the wooden part of the pipe only, as we 
find the iron bands to be in good condition after 10 to 12 years' service, so that 
they could be used for the new wood. 



WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 37 

In 1901 the National Sugar Manufacturing Co. at Sugar City, 
Colo., built about 4 miles of fir pipe, which was covered by earth to 
a depth of 2 to 4 feet. The one-half inch steel bands began to give 
way after six years, more of them each succeeding year, causing fre- 
quent breaks in the line and much annoyance, especially in winter. 
In 1910 this line was rebanded with f-inch round, refined bar iron. 

A 24-inch fir pipe 3 miles long was built for the Pueblo (Colo.) 
waterworks in 1904. This was banded with one-half inch soft steel 
bands, buried from 1 to 3^ feet deep, a part in shale, and some in an 
adobe loam soil. About seven or eight years later the bands began 
to fail. Four thousand feet of this pipe was replaced in 1912, and 
the remainder was taken up in 1913. 

The foregoing examples are all continuous stave pipes, but an in- 
vestigation of the life of machine-banded pipe shows a like varia- 
bility, the length of service being dependent altogether upon condi- 
tions. Instances are frequently published illustrating the extremely 
long life of the old bored log pipes which were used in the early 
days, and there is probably a considerable amount of machine- 
banded pipe which under favorable conditions has now been in use 
for 30 years or more, while in a great many places the conditions of 
service have been such as to render the life very short. 

A. F. Doremus, of Salt Lake City, Utah, states that flat-banded 
bored pipe laid for the city water system of Tooele, Utah, in 1890 is 
still generally in good condition, except in places where it was not 
kept wet. This system now consists of about 20 miles of wood pipe, 
much of which is of the modern machine-banded stave type. Some 
of the modern pipe has had to be replaced in three years. A great 
many instances might be cited where the life of machine-banded pipe 
has been only from 4 to 10 years. Based upon the experience in 
Spokane, Wash., the life of machine-banded wood pipe is given as 
ranging from 4 to 12 years. 1 Such short life in most instances is 
probably due to bad judgment in the matter of location or the use 
of pipe under conditions altogether unfavorable to its life. 

Frequently in connection with municipal water systems pressures 
are imposed far in excess of those for which the pipe was designed, 
thus hastening its destruction. For irrigation systems the demand 
by some of the promoting companies for an extremely cheap pipe 
without particular consideration as to its durability has probably in 
some instances led the manufacturers to incorporate poor material in 
the pipe supplied. 

The unfavorable conditions of whatever nature, singly or together, 
result most frequently in the decay of the pipe, thus shortening its 
life. The decay of wood pipe is probably due primarily to the 

1 Ann. Rpt. Water Div., Dept. Public Utilities [Spokane, Wash.]. 1911. 



38 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

growth of fungi, though possibly certain forms of bacteria may assist 
in the final destruction of the wood cells. The growth of fungi to 
an extent detrimental to the life of the wood requires a favorable 
combination of moisture, air, and heat. The exclusion of any one 
of these beyond certain limits inhibits their growth. 

From this it follows that with pipes buried in the ground the wood 
will endure longest where the air is most nearly excluded either by a 
high internal pressure which completely saturates it or by a deep 
covering of very fine soil. In accordance with the foregoing state- 
ment, experience, which might be illustrated by many specific ex- 
amples, shows that in contact with the soil wood pipe decays more 
rapidly under a light head than it does under heavy pressure, and 
other things being equal, it usually decays more rapidly in a porous 
open soil, such as sand or gravel, than it does in a fine soil of silt or 
clay, because the finer soil is more effective in excluding the air. 
Experience appears to indicate also that wood decays more rapidly 
in a loamy soil, rich in humus or partially decayed organic matter, 
than it does in one containing little or none. This is probably due 
to the fact that the presence of organic matter affords more favorable 
conditions for the development of fungus growths and bacteria. 

Pipes fully exposed to the atmosphere and free from contact with 
the soil will, as a rule, be too dry on the exterior to favor the develop- 
ment of fungus spores, and so long as the outside of a pipe remains 
dry no appreciable decay will occur, even though the internal pres- 
sure is very light. Decay of exposed pipes almost invariably starts 
at the ends of staves, as a result of leaky joints. Where water leaks 
out and runs down over the outside of the pipe favorable conditions 
are afforded for the growth of alga?, which usually get a start, then 
mosses may begin to grow in the soil that collects on such spots, and 
decay spreads to adjoining staves. Bruising the staves in handling 
or injuring by too tight cinching of bands renders them more suscep- 
tible to infection by the spores of wood-destroying fungi, thus has- 
tening decay. The life of exposed pipes may be prolonged by 
promptly stopping all leaks as they develop and by keeping the ex- 
terior dry. The decay of buried pipes has also in some instances been 
arrested by removing the covering and leaving them exposed. 

The asphaltum or tar coating applied to machine-banded pipe, 
while intended primarily as a protection against corrosion of the 
bands, doubtless helps also to some extent in preserving the wood. 
Until recently the practice has been to leave the ends of wooden 
sleeve couplings untreated. These couplings almost invariably decay 
long before the main pipe. This may indicate that infection by 
wood-destroying organisms starts principally where the coating is 
absent, though less perfect saturation of the wood in the sleeves may 
be the more largely responsible for the early decay, as it may be noted 









WOOD PIPE FOR CONVEYING IRRIGATION WATER. 39 

also that decay occurs at summits of pipe lines where air accumulates 
much sooner than at depressions. 

The practice of coating continuous stave pipe has not been common, 
but in a considerable number of cases some treatment has been ap- 
plied for the purpose of preserving the wood. There is wide differ- 
ence of opinion as to the value of such treatment, and the effective- 
ness for the purpose intended may depend also greatly on what is 
used and upon how and when it is applied. 

On exposed portions of new pipes the United States Reclamation 
Service has used a paint consisting of 6 pounds of red oxid mixed 
with 1 gallon of boiled linseed oil. One gallon of the paint was suf- 
ficient for two coats on 125 square feet of pipe. On top of the pipe 
where exposed to the sun and where water from leaky joints runs 
down over it this paint does not last long, much of it being gone in 
two years. Repainting while the pipe is in use is visually not prac- 
ticable, because oil paint will not adhere readily to wet material. 
The use of paint on exposed pipes under ordinary conditions prob- 
ably adds very little to their life. 

The Denver Union Water Co. on new work in 1911, used a primary 
coat of linseed oil and lampblack, and a secondary coat consisting 
of an asphaltum mixture. In March, 1914, the "Mabton siphon," 
which had been uncovered the fall previous on account of decay, was 
given two coats of coal tar tempered with creosote. The mixture 
was applied by a machine which pumped the hot mixture through a 
hose and nozzle, shooting it on to the pipe with considerable pressure. 
The same machine was used in cleaning the soil and decayed material 
from the pipe before painting. Other instances might be cited show- 
ing the use of asphaltum or tar on old pipes after uncovering. The 
cost of the work is considerable and its value is questionable, partic- 
ularly where pipes are to remain exposed. 

The staves of a 50-inch pipe built at Burbank, Wash., December, 
1912, were creosoted before construction. This pipe was buried in 
sandy soil and operates under little or no internal pressure. The 
cost of treating the staves was said to be $24 per thousand. Car- 
bolineum was used as an exterior coating on part of a 48-inch pipe 
built at Wenatchee in 1907, and on a 12-foot pipe built in Oswego 
County, N. Y. 

Where pipes are to be placed in contact with the soil, and where 
the internal pressure is not sufficient to insure complete saturation of 
the staves, it is probable that their durability may be increased by 
treating with some preservative. 

A difference in the effectiveness of materials for this purpose is 
indicated by the following example : In 1890 a 54-inch pipe of Texas 
pine was built for the Bessemer Ditch Co., at Pueblo, Colo. About 
1,500 feet of this was subjected to light pressure, and at times the pipe 



40 BULLETIN 155, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

was only partially filled. This portion was badly decayed in five 
years, and 1,100 feet of it was replaced by redwood in 1895. With 
the exception of a 100-foot section near the middle of the new part, 
the redwood was painted with hot coal tar. The 100-foot section was 
painted with asphaltum paint. According to Mr. C. K. McHarg, 
secretary of the company, the pipe coated with tar was found to be 
perfectly sound when examined in 1910, while the 100-foot section 
was badly decayed and had to be replaced. 

Contrary to the theories commonly held 30 years ago, it has been 
found that the durability of wood pipe is usually dependent on the 
life of the wood rather than on the life of the bands. Only in rare 
instances, some of which have been cited, have the bands failed first. 
Corrosion of the bands being a chemical action, requires the presence 
of moisture and oxygen. It usually occurs most rapidly where pipes 
are buried and the backfill is wet, under conditions which, as a rule, 
are most favorable for the life of the wood. Corrosion is greatly 
accelerated by the presence of alkali in the soil. The early failure of 
bands in the few instances cited was due chiefly to this cause. Under 
such conditions the bands almost invariably fail at the bottom of the 

Pipe- 

Wearing out of the wood as a factor in the durability of pipe is a 
matter of small consequence, though it must at times be recognized. 
A 48-inch spruce pipe on the Catlin Canal in Colorado, in 23 years' 
use, was worn nearly through the staves for a distance of nearly 100 
feet at the outlet end. The inlet end of a redwood siphon near North 
Yakima, Wash., had to be lined with sheet iron to preserve it from 
wearing action of grit, and one of the large pipes on the King's 
Hill project in Idaho was nearly cut in two at one place by the cir- 
cular movement of chips and debris floating on the surface near the 
intake where the pipe was not full. 

With so many influences affecting the life of wood pipe no attempt 
should be made to strike an average of durability except in cases 
where attending conditions are known to be the same. Where pipes 
are fully exposed and supported free from all contact with the soil 
the conditions are much less variable than otherwise, and a life of at 
least 20 years may be quite reasonably expected for either fir or red- 
wood if properly maintained. If placed in the ground or in contact 
with the soil, the life of wood pipe may, under very favorable condi- 
tions, be much greater than 20 years, otherwise it may be a great 
deal less. In contact with soil the durability is nearly always a mat- 
ter of some uncertainty. 

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BULLETIN OF THE 

USPEPMlNlOFAffldllM 



No. 156 



Contribution from the Bureau of Entomology, L. O. Howard, Chie 
January 27, 1915. 

(PROFESSIONAL PAPER.) 




WIREWORMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE 

CROPS. 

By J. A. Hyslop, 
Entomological Assistant, Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Wire worms are the larvae of several kinds of hard-shelled beetles 
belonging to the family Elateridae. The beetles are known collo- 
quially as " click-beetles," " skip- jacks," snapping beetles, etc. 1 
These names are all derived from the beetles' unique habit of snap- 
ping the forepart of the body when placed upon their backs or held 
between the fingers. This habit is undoubtedly of use to the beetles 
in righting themselves when accidently overturned, and may also be 
a means of escape from their predatory natural enemies. 

Wireworms are elongate, more or less cylindrical, having a very 
highly chitinized cuticle, and measuring, according to the species, 
from one-half inch to over 3 inches in length. They have three pairs 
of short legs near the anterior end of the body. The color is usually 
yellow or reddish-brown. The cotton and corn wireworm is an 
exception to this description. 

The false wireworms (fig. 1, a) will also answer to the above 
description, but can easily be distinguished by their ability to move 
very rapidly and by the clavate last joint of the antennae; the true 
wireworms, though able to move rapidly in the soil, are not very 
agile when placed on the surface of the ground, and their antennae 
never have clavate terminal joints. The term " wireworm " is also, 
though erroneously, applied to these false wireworms, which are, 
however, the larvae of another group of beetles, the darkling beetles 
(Tenebrionidae). These beetles can not snap the forepart of the 
body. One species of darkling beetle {Tenehrio molitor L., fig. 1. b) 
is common throughout the United States, and its larva, the meal- 

1 The Cherokee Indians recognize the large-eyed elater (Alaus sp.) by the name 
" tulskuwa," which means " one that snaps with his head." This interesting note was 
made by Dr. J. W. Fewkes and communicated to the writer by Mr. F. M. Webster. 

61121°— Bull. 156—15 1 



BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



worm, is found in granaries and warehouses, where it feeds upon 
stored products. Another genus (Eleodes) is found only in the ter- 
ritory west of the Mississippi River, and attacks cereal crops in the 
field. The name " wireworm " is also incorrectly applied to several 
species of millipedes (Jirtus spp., fig. 1, c). 

The true wireworms, from an economic standpoint, are among the 
five worst pests to Indian corn and among the twelve worst pests to 
wheat and oats. They are also important pests to many other crops. 
Since 1841, when Dr. Thaddeus Harris first published an account of 
these insects, 1 the literature of economic entomology has been replete 
with references to their depredations, and from the standpoint of the 

entomologist, as to the diffi- 
culty of combating them, 
they probably rank second 
only to the white grubs 
(Lachnosterna spp.). 

In view of the recently 
enacted Federal quarantine 
bill these insects assume an 
added interest, inasmuch as 
they can easily be introduced 
in the larval condition with- 
in fleshy roots, bulbs, and 
tubers. Mr. E. R. Sasscer, 
of the Federal Horticultural 
Board, recently intercepted 
an elaterid larva in the root 
of Aralla cor data from Ja- 
pan ; the larva was in good 
condition and is still alive 
in our laboratory (October, 
1911). The writer has often 
seen the larva 1 of Agriotes 
mancus Say within potato tubers that had been in a root cellar all 
winter. 

These insects are destructive to cereal and forage crops in the 
larval stage only, although the adults of certain species {Limonius 
discoideus Lee, etc.) do considerable damage to the blossoms of fruit 
trees in the Pacific Northwest, and Fletcher reports 2 similar depre- 
dations of the adults of two other species (Corymbites caricinus 
Germ, and C. tarsalis Melsh.). The forms attacking cereal and 




Fir,. 1. — Larvae likely to be mistaken for wire 
worms : a } False wireworm ; 6. mealworm 
c, Julus sp. All enlarged. (Original.) 



1 Harris, T. W. Report on the Insects of Massachusetts Injurious to Vegetation, 
p. 4G-50. Cambridge, 1841. 

2 Fletcher, James. Report of the Entomologist and Botanist, Central Experiment Farm,. 
Canada, for 1892, p. 4. Ottawa, 1892. 



WIREWORMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 6 

forage crops confine their attention to the seed, roots, and under- 
ground stems and are exclusively subterranean, with the single excep- 
tion recorded by Mr. E. O. G. Kelly, of this office, wherein he mentions 
finding a species (Monocreptdius vespertinus Fab.) damaging wheat 
at Wellington, Ivans., by boring in the hollow of the wheat stems 
and not among the roots. 

Their depreciations are first to be noticed, with the exception of 
the cotton and corn wireworm, immediately after seeding, when they 
attack the seed, eating out the inside and leaving only the hull. 
When they are very numerous they often consume all the seed, mak- 
ing reseeding necessary, and in severe outbreaks a second reseeding 
is sometimes made before a stand is obtained. ' Aside from the extra 
labor and cost of the seed, this delays the planting of the crop, and 
if it be corn, in the Northern States the season is too short to ma- 
ture so late-planted a crop and, except for the fodder, it is a failure. 
Where wireworms are present, even in very small numbers, corn 
will make a poor stand, which will necessitate the planting-in of 
missing hills. In some regions where these insects are quite numer- 
ous it is customary to sow three or four times the amount of seed 
that would normally be necessary in order to get a good stand. 

KINDS OF WIREWORMS. 

Several hundred species of Elateridse occur in North America. 
They vary enormously in their habits, some forms living in dead and 
rotten wood (Alaus, Elater, Adelocera, etc.). Alaus has also been 
recorded as boring in solid wood, though the writer is inclined to 
discredit this observation, and other species live under moss (Seri- 
cosomus). A number of species abound in heavy moist soil filled 
with humus (Melanotus, Agriotes, etc.), while some prefer well- 
drained soils (Corymbites), and still others (Horistonotus) are most 
destructive on high sandy land which is very poor in humus. Many 
wireworms have been recorded as predaceous (Alaus, Hemirhipus. 
Adelocera, etc.). I am told by Mr. T. H. Jones, recently associated 
with the Rio Piedras Sugar Planters' Experiment Station, that the 
large luminous elaterid (Pyrophorus luminosus Illiger) of the West 
Indies is a decidedly beneficial insect, as it feeds on the Lachnosterna 
larva; in the sugar-cane fields. Through the kindness of Mr. G. N. 
Wolcott and Mr. R. H. Van Zwalenburg I now have (October, 1914) a 
Pyrophorus larva from Cuba, one from Jamaica, and several from 
Mayaguez, P. R. All of these larva' are living and apparently thriv- 
ing on the larvae of our native Lachnosternas. That this insect may 
some day be introduced into the southern United States as a natural 
enemy of Lachnosterna is not at all improbable. At least one instance 



BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



has been noted 1 in which a wireworm [Lacon (Agrypnus) murinus 
L.] lived in the stomach of a child. Most of our common species lay 
their eggs on sod or very weedy land, but the wireworms (Corymbites 
spp.) of the dry-farming country of the Pacific Northwest are severe 
pests on land that has been seeded to wheat, by the summer fallow 
method, for the past 15 years, and, as this land was originally sage- 
brush prairie, it probably never was in sod. 

Several distinct kinds of true wireworms are destructive to cereal 
and forage crops in the United States: and since, as has already been 

stated, the different kinds vary more 
or less in their life histories, there is 
consequently a variation in the method 
of control as recommended in the fol- 
lowing pages of this bulletin. It is 
therefore quite necessary to determine 
the identity of the wireworm. and to 
meet this necessity the many species 
of importance as pests to cereal and 
forage crops are treated separately. 




THE WHEAT WIREWORM. 



(Agriotes mancus (Say), fig. 2.) 



Fig. 2. — The wheat wireworm 
(Agriotes mancus) : a, Adult bee- 
tle ; b, larva; c, side view of last 
segment of larva. All enlarged. 
(From Chittenden.) 



The adult of the wheat wireworm is 
a small brown beetle a little over one- 
fourth of an inch in length, quite 
robust, and moderately covered with 
very short, fine hair. The larva is 
pale yellow in color, very evenly cylin- 
drical, and very highly polished. 
When full grown the larva measures 
about an inch in length and is about 
as thick as the lead in a lead pencil. These wireworms will be 
readily recognized by the singly pointed ninth abdominal segment 
and the two black spots on the upper side of this segment near its 
base. 

This is one of the most common wireworms of the northeastern and 
middle western United States. A report of this species as a pest in 
the dry-farming regions of Washington State 2 is undoubtedly a 



1 Sandberg, G. El tilfalde af Coleopterlarvers tilhold i tarmkanalen lios et Menneske. 
In Entomologisk Tidskrift. v. 11. p. 77-80. 1890. 

- Scobey. J. O'B. Wireworms. Washington Experiment Station. (State Agricultural 
College and School of Science, i Bulletin 4, p. 75-80, 3 figs., May. 1892. 



WIREWORMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 

misidentification, the insect probably being C'orymbites sp. The 
wheat wireworm is normally a grass feeder, living on the roots of 
sod, and with the abundance of its natural food supply producing 
no appreciable disturbance in the meadows, but when the sod land 
is broken these wireworms concentrate in the drill rows or hills of 
corn, the usual crop to follow sod in the eastern United States, and 
often cause absolute failure of the crop by destroying the seed 
and eating off the roots of such plants as may germinate. This 
species is usually more destructive, therefore, on land recently broken 
from sod. Last year (1913) the writer investigated an outbreak in 
northern New York and located as many as 10 wireworms to the hill 
in cornfields, rendering the crop, so far as grain was concerned, an 
absolute failure. This year (1914) the same field was again planted 
in corn, and again the wireworms destroyed most of the crop. 

The larvae spend three years in the soil before transforming to 
beetles, so that the depredations of this pest may be looked for during 
the second season as well as the first following the breaking of sod. 



MFE HISTORY. 



The beetles are in evidence early in the spring, and at this 
time can be swept from wheat and, in fact, from any vegetation 
around the fields, or they may be found under boards and rub- 
bish. Mating occurs during April and May, and immediately egg- 
laying begins. The eggs are deposited in grasslands exclusively, so 
far as our observations go, the female burrowing into the ground or 
under rubbish to oviposit. The young larva? feed during the ensuing 
summer, and, hibernating when about half grown, resume feeding 
the following spring. They continue to feed during the second 
summer and hibernate the second winter as full grown or mature 
larva?. The third spring they resume feeding and continue it until 
early in July, when they leave the plants and form small earthen 
pupal cells in the soil. 

In 1913 Agriotes started to pupate about July 15 in northern New 
York. The writer found many mature larva? and pupa? in the fields 
at Bridgeport, N. Y., on the shore of Lake Oneida, on July 17, while 
investigating a severe outbreak of this pest on the farm of Mr. C. J. 
Fisher. Other larva? collected at Bridgeport pupated as late as 
August 12. In 1914 several hundred larvae were reared in the 
Hagerstown laboratory. All that became adult this year pupated 
between the middle and the end of July. The pupal stage varied 
in duration from 15 to 21 days. 

Specimens collected by Mr. J. J. Davis, of this bureau, at Water- 
town, Wis., pupated on August 8. Mr. Pettit found the pupa? in 



6 BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

the rearing cages on August 26 and adults emerged as late as the 
middle of September at Grimsby, Ontario, Canada. 1 

The pupal stage usually lasts from 15 to 19 days. One specimen 
collected at Watertown, Wis., by Mr. Davis pupated on August 8 
and the adult emerged August 19. A specimen collected at Bridge- 
port. N. Y., pupated on August 12 and emerged September 1. Other 
specimens collected July 25 at the latter place became adult Au- 
gust 12. 

The pupal chamber consists of an oval cell, the long axis of which 
is perpendicular, located at a uniform depth of about 5 inches be- 
low the surface of the soil. The dust mulch in the case under dis- 
cussion was 4 inches deep and the pupal cells were about 1 inch 
deeper than cultivation in the moist, firm soil. The pupa stands 
erect in the cell with the head upward, the larval exuvium being 
at the bottom of the cell. 

The adult evidently passes the remainder of the summer in the 
pupal cell, in which it also later hibernates. Matured adults were 
found in these cells in the fields at Bridgeport, N. Y., as late as 
September 15, and in our rearing cages adults passed the winter 
without feeding or drinking. 

Three distinct generations of larvae were collected in the field in 
the summer of 1913— full-grown larvae about to pupate, half-grown 
larva?, and larvae about one-fourth inch long — actively feeding on 
the corn. We have now in the laboratory, subject to outdoor tem- 
perature, two distinct generations of larva? collected in the summer 
of 1913. The first generation — that is, the largest larva? collected — all 
transformed to adults during August. Mr. Pettit and several others 
have made similar observations, and there is no doubt that this 
species, at least in the northeastern United States, spends three years 
as a larva. 

FOOD PLANTS. 

Agriotes mancus was observed at Bridgeport, N. Y., feeding upon 
corn seed and roots, potato tubers, wheat roots, carrots, and the un- 
derground stems of string beans; a single specimen was also found 
within the stem of the common field mushroom (Agaricus campes- 
tris). Other writers have found it attacking the cucumber, turnip, 
and cabbage. Mr. Theo. Pergande, of this bureau, records 2 a larva 
of this species feeding on the larva of a lamellicorn beetle in one of 
his rearing cages. The writer is of the opinion, however, that nor- 
mally this species is not predaceous. 



1 Pettit, J. Description of the wheat wireworm (Agriotes mancus Say). In Canad. 
Ent., v. 4, No. 1, p. 3-6, fig. 1, January. 1872. 

- I . S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Notes, v. 4, No. 2795, Oct. 5, 1882. 



WIREWORMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 7 

REMEDIAL M EASUBES. 

iWe recommend plowing sod land immediately after the first 
hay cutting, usually early in July, when the land is intended for 
corn the following year. This land should be cultivated deeply 
throughout the remainder of the summer. Land that is in corn 
and badly infested should be deeply cultivated even at the risk 
of slightly "root-pruning" the corn. This cultivation should be 
continued as long as the corn can be cultivated, and as soon as the 
crop is removed the field should be very thoroughly cultivated before 
sowing to wheat. In regions where wheat is seeded down for hay 
any treatment of infested wheat fields is precluded. Where wheat is 
not followed by seeding, the field should be ploughed as soon as the 
wheat is harvested. 

Thorough preparation of the corn seed bed and a liberal use of barn- 
yard manure or other fertilizer will often give a fair stand of corn in 
spite of the wireworms, a vigorous plant often being able to produce 
roots enough to withstand the depredations of several wireworms. 

Though we realize that usually this is not practicable, the inter- 
posing of a crop not severely attacked by wireworms. such as field 
peas and buckwheat, between sod and corn would materially reduce 
the number of wireworms in the soil when the corn was planted. 

THE CORN AND COTTON WIREWORM. 

(Horistonotus uhlerii Horn. fig. .".. i 

The adults of the corn and cotton wireworm are small, slender, 
and dusky brown; the largest is a trifle over three-sixteenths of 
an inch in length and can easily be distinguished from other forms 
infesting cereal crops by the heart-shaped scutellum. The wire- 
worms of this tribe (Cardiophorini) are very unlike any of the other 
wireworms. They are not hard and wiry, but soft, membranous, and 
elongate. The body, which is usually white, appears to be composed 
of 26 segments, every third segment being swollen. The last segment 
is simply pointed. The head, which is yellow, is long and slender, 
with a pair of very prominent dark-brown jaws. When full grown 
these wireworms measure about an inch in length and are but little 
thicker than pack thread. 

Unlike most of the eastern wireworms, which are usually most de- 
structive in damp, low-lying fields, these insects seem to be far more 
numerous on the higher parts of the fields in light sandy soil. 

These wireworms are among the most troublesome species of the 
southern United States. Mr. W. A. Thomas records x one species of 



1 Thomas. W. A. Com and Cotton Wireworm (Horistonotus euriotus Say). So. Car. 
Agr. Exp. Sta., Bui. 155. 10 p., figs. [i. <■., pis. | <;, March, 1911. I have since been 
informed by Mr Conradi that Ibis is a misidentification and that the species in question 
is H. uhlerii. 



BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



this genus (H oristonotus cwriatus Say) as one of the worst pests in 
South Carolina. 

Mr. Vernon King, of this office, is at present investigating a very 
serious outbreak of Horistonotus uhlerii in Missouri and has pre- 
pared the following preliminary account of this species: 

Horistonotus uhlerii Horn is a serious pest 
to corn in southeastern Missouri, and to 
corn, cotton, and cowpeas in northeastern 
Arkansas, and has been reported from the 
Oarolinas and Illinois. 

The larva? may be found about the roots 
of their host plants in large numbers, nearly 
50 having been taken from one hill of corn. 
Adults, pupa?, and larvae can be seen in June, 
all beneath the surface of the soil, and later 
the adults will be found above the ground, 
resting on the plants. The eggs are probably 
laid about the end of June in the soil, on or 
about the roots of corn and cowpeas, for 
minute larva? have been taken early in July. 
In May and June the larva? are most plenti- 
ful, but as the season advances they become 
scarce, and finally disappear by the time 
winter sets in. By the third week in August 
the adults can no longer be found. Under 
laboratory conditions the larva? pass the 
winter partly grown, and no doubt in nature 
they hibernate in the same form, but in 
what location is not yet known. 

Although corn, cowpeas, and cotton are 
the main hosts of this insect, the larva? feed 
on the roots of Johnson grass (Sorghum 
halepense) and have been reported as feed- 
ing on crab grass. 

Infested corn plants become wilted and 
stunted, with leaves of a bluish shade, and 
brown at the tips, standing out from the 
stalk stiffly instead of bending over grace- 
fully as in a healthy plant. Deprived of 
most of the roots through the work of the 
larva?, the plant can be pulled up with little 
effort. Weak individuals soon succumb, leaving gaps in the rows, but the 
more vigorous plants put forth new roots in abnormal numbers. These are 
matted together and distorted, and although the plants survive, only nubbins 
are produced. Tall and apparently healthy plants may have larva? among the 
roots without damaging the corn materially. The infestation, therefore, is 
not confined to the impoverished areas. 

In cowpeas the fibrous roots suffer most, the thicker roots being perforated, 
so that the plants become yellow and dwarfed and fail to vine. 

Cotton is injured in the early stages by the larvae boring into the seed and 
injuring the very young plants, checking the growth so much that the plant 
dies or struggles along only to produce little or no cotton. 



b 




Fig. 3. — The corn and cotton wire- 
worm (Horistonotiix uhlerii) : a, 
Adult beetle : b, larva. Enlarged. 
(Original, i 



WIREWORMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 9 

Rolling land infested by this insecl presents a patchy appearance, the sandy 
knolls standing out distinct and bare, being overgrown later with weeds, par- 
ticularly crab grass, briers, and morning-glory. 

The infestation seems to he worst after a crop of cowpeas, l>ut the 
exact significance of this ere]) in relation to wireworin injury has yet to 
he determined. Applications of barnyard manure and of wood ashes have had 
no effect in checking this pest. On account of the susceptibility of the larvae 
and pupa- to exposure, plowing the soil in the heat of the sun would un- 
doubtedly destroy many of the wireworms. The objection to this method, 
however, would be that the planter is occupied with other farm operations at 
that time, and also there would be difficulty in getting at these areas, which 
are often scattered, irregular, and isolated. From the data thus far gathered 
we can not say what effect fall plowing would have on this insect. Further 
investigation, however, will in all probability give a clue to remedial measures. 

WIREWORMS OF THE GENUS CORYMBITES. 

In the literature of American economic entomology there is no ref- 
erence to beetles of the genus Corymbites as pests to cereal and forage 
crops. In the Pacific Northwest two species (C. infatus Say and C. 
noxious Hyslop) are among the worst pests to cereal crops. The 
habits of the two species are quite distinct and will be treated sepa- 
rately. The occurrence of Corymbites cylindriformis Hbst. in enor- 
mous numbers in alfalfa and wheat fields about Hagerstown, Md., 
this spring (1914), and the finding of Corymbites larva? in these 
fields at various times, might indicate that the genus is represented 
among the cereal and forage pests in this region also. 

In Europe the habits of several species of this genus have been 
recorded by Schiodte and Perris. C. pectinicornis L., C . castaneus 
L., and C. sjlandicus Mull, are found living in woody meadows and 
C. ceneus Fal. is found in fields. 1 

C. latus Fab. is recorded 2 as living " in the ground like other insect 
larva-, feeding on roots * * *. They cause great damage to car- 
nations in flower gardens." Following is a note by Mr. Pergande 
from the Bureau of Entomology files : 3 " Elaterid larva in apple tree, 
received from B. C. Hawkins, Horse Cove, Macon County, N. C. A 
larva of an elaterid found in a boring in trunk of apple with a dead 
larva of Saperda bivittata." 

This note, though the correctness of the determination of the wire- 
worm is not certain, is interesting, inasmuch as it seems to indicate 
that some species of Elateridae now classified as Corymbites are 






1 Schiodt<\ J. C. De metamorphosi eleutheratorum observations, pt. 5, p. 52o 522, pi. 
8, fig. 9-10, pi. 10, fig. 4, 1871. 

Perris, Edouard. Larves des Coleopteres, p. 179. Paris, 1877. " Cette larve vit dans 
la terree soit d'autres larves ou insectes, soit de racines. M. de Bonvouloir, en m'en en- 
voyant des echantillons, me l'a signalee comme causant de grands degats aux ceillets de 
son parterre." 

U. S. Dept. Agr., Uiv. Ent., Notes, v. 8. No. G187, Apr. :;, 1894. 

61121°— Bull. 156—15 2 



10 BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

predaceous, while other forms also in this genus are known to be 
exclusively vegetable feeders. 

During the spring of 1909 a reconnoissance was made to determine 
the extent and nature of the damage being done by these insects. 
Circular letters with blank forms inclosed were sent to the agents of 
the warehouse and elevator companies at most of the large grain- 
shipping points in the Pacific Northwest. These men are very inti- 
mately in touch with the farmers and usually know of any serious 
depredations that are likely to affect the production of grain. From 
their replies we found that corn was being seriously damaged at 
Spokane, Pullman, Kiona, Johnson, and Colville, in Washington, 
and Latah and Mineral in Idaho; oats were being almost completely 
destroyed at Ritzville, Downs, Espanola, Govan, and Vancouver, in 
Washington, and Moscow and Latah in Idaho; and that wheat was 
being damaged at Wilbur, Connell, and Govan in Washington. The 
fact that damage to wheat was not reported from more localities 
does not signify that wheat is less susceptible to the attacks of these 
insects. The buyers will not report any damage to wheat for fear 
of starting a scare among the farmers and thereby abnormally rais- 
ing the price asked when the buying opens in the fall. 

THE INFLATED WIREWORM. 

(CorymMtes inflatus Say.) 

The inflated wireworm occurs throughout most of the northern 
United States, but is limited as a pest to cereal crops, so far as our 
observations now record, to the regions of eastern Washington and 
Oregon and western Idaho, known as the semiarid Transition Zone 
and characterized, when not under cultivation, by the presence of 
bunch grass (Agropyron spicativin) and June grass (Poa sand- 
bergii) and by the absence of sagebrush. This region is onry partly 
summer fallowed, crops often being grown on the same land for 
several consecutive years. 

The beetle is robust, but little more than one-fourth of an inch 
in length, and of a slate-gray color, sometimes being almost black. 
The wireworm is about one-half inch long, depressed, with a pair of 
backwardly directed spurs on the ninth abdominal segment, and pale 
yellow. 

In the spring of 1909 Mr. George I. Reeves, of this bureau, re- 
corded finding the larvie of the inflated wireworm damaging seed corn 
at Pullman, Wash. His observations were carried on principally in 
the cornfield of a Mr. Curtis, north of the town. On this farm he 
found from 1 to 10 larvae to the hill when he first investigated the out- 
break, on May 24, 1909. The wireworms were in various stages of 



WIREWORMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 11 

development and were feeding on the seed, which had been planted 
on May 10 and 17, eating out the kernels and leaving onty empty 
hulls. Usually the roots of such plants as had escaped were not 
damaged. The particular field under observation had been in oats 
in 1908 and in wheat in 1907. On June 1 Mr. Reeves again ex- 
amined this field and then found the stand very poor, and the wire- 
worms seemed to be more numerous than when he first examined it, 
as from 18 to 20 were to be found in nearly every hill. At this point 
the im T estigations were turned over to the writer. 

On June 20 the entire field was harrowed and reseeded, the first 
seeding being absolutely destroyed by these wireworms. The second 
seeding started very well and looked as though it would succeed. 
Many wireworms were still present, however, and by July 8 the 
second seeding was about half destroyed and had to be planted in by 
hand. The season was then so well advanced that the crop was 
practically a failure. 

LIFE HISTORY. 

Early in May the beetles emerge from the pupal cells in which 
they pass the winter, a number of beetles having been caught at 
Pullman. Wash., by Mr. Eeeves as early as May 5, 1908. They 
are about in enormous numbers during late May and early June. 
On May 28, 1910, the writer collected over a hundred of these 
beetles in a few minutes from some rosebushes in a fence row along 
the side of a last year's wheat field. The beetles continue abundant 
until early July, and by the middle of this month they have all dis- 
appeared but a few stragglers. During June the beetles mate and 
lay their eggs. The larvae feed during this summer and pass their 
first winter about half grown. The}^ resume feeding the following 
spring and continue to feed during the second summer, passing the 
second winter as nearly mature larvse. The larval life is completed 
early the third spring, when they transform to pupae during late 
June and early July. The last transformation takes place in late 
July and early August, and the adult beetles remain in the pupal 
cells from that time until early the fourth spring. Thus the wire- 
worm, as such, is in the ground during the growing season of three 
years. 

FOOD PLANTS. 

The beetles of this species were observed in large numbers dining 
May, 1910, at Pullman. Wash., on wild rosebushes, where they were 
apparently eating the petals of the unopened rosebuds, as many as 
10 beetles having been counted on a single bud and the buds being 



12 



BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



badly riddled with holes. In a rearing cage the beetles were ob- 
served eating into kernels of wheat which were exposed on the sur- 
face of the ground. The beetles are also to be collected in large num- 
bers in clover fields. The larvae, so far as our records show, attack 
corn, wheat, and potatoes. They also undoubtedly attack oats and 
barley. 

THE DRY-LAND WIREWORM. 

(Corymbites noxius Hyslop, 1 fig. 4.) 

The dry-land wireworm, so far as we at present know, is confined 
to the Upper Sonoran Zone of Washington State, though it will un- 
doubtedly be found in the Upper Sonoran of Oregon. This zone is 




Pig. 4. — The di'y-land wireworm (Corymbites noxius) : a, Adult; b, larva: c, under sur- 
face of head of larva ; d, side of last segment of larva, a, b, enlarged : c, <l, more 
enlarged. ( Original, i 

characterized by the presence of sagebrush and occupies that part of 
Washington lying south of the Columbia River, east of the Cascade 
Mountains, and west of the semiarid Transition Zone, extending up 
the Snake River into Idaho and across the Columbia River into 
Oregon. This region is almost exclusively dry-farming country, 
summer fallowing being necessary to obtain enough moisture to 
mature wheat and other cereals. 



1 Hyslop, J. A. Description of a new species of Corymbites from the Sonoran Zone of 
Washington State (Coleoptera, Elateridae). In Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., v. 27, p. G9-70, 
Mar. 20, 1914. 



WIREWORMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 13 

The beetle of this species is about one-half inch long, quite slender, 
and jet black in color. The wireworm is very similar to the inflated 
wireworm. 

Early in April, 1910, our attention was called to a series of severe 
wireworm outbreaks in the region above outlined. On the 5th of the 
month the farm of a Mr. Dunnigan. at Connell, Wash., was visited. He 
was at that time reseeding L,800 acres of wheat which had been killed 
out by these wireworms. From Connell we proceeded to Govan, Wash., 
and here we found the wireworms also doing considerable damage. 
In a fallow field that had been ruined by wireworms when in oats in 
1909 Ave found them in enormous numbers. These wireworms when 
in the field are usually to be found between the dust mulch and the 
moister earth below. This species is more or less destructive through- 
out its range. During 1910 reports of severe outbreaks were received 
from eight wheat-receiving stations in the States of Washington and 
Idaho. 

LIFE HISTORY. 

This beetle is about during June and July, at which time it 
deposits its eggs in wheat fields, weedy fallow fields, and volunteer 
wheat on fallow land. The eggs are undoubtedly laid underground 
by the female burrowing into the soft earth, as many adults were col- 
lected in the fields at a depth of from 5 to 8 inches below the surface 
which were not in pupal cells. Mr. J. E. Graf, of the Bureau of 
Entomology, has found this to be the case with the sugar-beet wire- 
worm. 2 The young larvae are to be found in the soil during August 
and the remainder of the summer, but their depredations are not 
noticeable at this time, as, in the region where the species occurs, 
wheat is the only extensively grown crop. The young wireworms 
pass their first winter in the soil at a depth of from 12 to 20 inches 
below the surface. The following spring and summer they spend in 
the summer fallow and are not noticed. Their second winter they 
again hibernate as wireworms, and in the spring of their third year, 
the field being now planted to wheat, they turn their attention to the 
seed and young plants, and it is at this time that their depredations 
are so startlingly noticeable. They feed during late March, April, 
and May, and early in June burrow to from 1 to 8 inches below the 
surface, making small oval cells, in which the very fat larvae lie in 
an inactive condition during June, July, and early August, ,when 
they pupate and the adults emerge from the pupal skins the middle 
of that month, but remain in the pupal cells the remainder of that 
summer and the ensuing winter, not emerging from the ground until 
the fourth spring from that in which the eggs were laid. 



-Oral'. John E. A Preliminary Report on the Sugar-Beet Wireworm. U. S. Dept. 
Agr., Bur. Ent., Bui. 11'::, p. 18, Feb. 28, 1914. 



14 BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

In the spring of 1910 a large number of these larvae were col- 
lected in the wheat fields at Govan and Wilbur, in Washington State, 
and confined in a root cage made by sinking a molasses barrel to the 
level of the earth surface in a field at Govan and closing the top with 
a short cylinder of sheet iron covered with wire gauze. The barrel 
was filled with earth and wheat planted therein. The larva? could 
easily be separated into three distinct groups, according to size, 
which indicated a 3 years' life cycle. Later observations on the mate- 
rial in the rearing cage proved this to be actually the case. 

Two lots of larvae were confined in this cage — one on April 11 
and the other on April 30, 1910, so that all must have hatched from 
eggs laid in 1909 or previous to that year. On June 21 the cage was 
examined and a number of the larvae were found to be at from 1 to 
8 inches below the surface, resting quietly in oval cells. They were 
very fat at this time. The cage was not examined again until No- 
vember 4, and at this time 3 adults, evidently of the 1907 genera- 
tion, were found at about the same depth as the larvae observed in 
June. They were still in the pupal cells, as was evident from the 
last larval skins and the pupal skins found with them. The fol- 
lowing spring (1911) the cage was examined on March 29. Several 
larva? were found at this time. They were now moving actively 
about in the soil and almost immediately attacked some seed wheat 
sown in the cage on this date. An adult still in the pupal cell was 
also found at this time. The cage was next examined on July 4, 
at which time an adult was found on the surface of the ground. 
Several full-grown larvae were also found on this date in their cells 
at the usual depth of from 4 to 8 inches below the surface. These 
were evidently the larvae hatched from eggs laid in 1908. On Ali- 
enist 17 the cage was examined and at about 5 inches below the sur- 
face a pupa and an adult were found. The latter had evidently 
just transformed, as it had not yet become quite black and was still 
very soft. The following day the cage was entirely emptied and at 
between 18 and 20 inches below the surface 10 larva' and an adult 
were found in soil that was very hard, and very slightly moistened, 
in fact merely moist enough to prevent its being absolutely dry. 
The larva? seemed to be full grown and had evidently just completed 
a molt, as they were quite soft. These were evidently of the 1909 
generation. 

REMEDIAL MEASURES. 

As will be seen from the life histories of these two species, the 
generations about to become adult are inactive larvae from June 
to August and very delicate pupa? during the early part of the 
latter month. These resting larvae and pupa? are usually at a 
depth of from 4 to 8 inches below the surface, and any disturb- 



WIEEWOEMS ATTACKING CEEEAL AND FOEAGE CROPS. 15 

ance of the soil to that depth at this time would undoubtedly de- 
stroy them. At this time of the year the ground is very hot and 
the air exceedingly dry in this region, and even the resting larvae 
and pupa? that were not actually crushed by the cultivation would 
soon succumb to drying when their cells were broken open. The writer 
had considerable trouble in bringing pupa? in from the field to his 
rearing cages and was forced to resort to tightly closed tin boxes 
which were fitted in the bottom with moistened blotters. 

The usual farm practice in the region where the dry-land wireworm 
is troublesome may be roughly outlined as follows: Immediately 
after seeding the wheat in early spring the fallow land is plowed to 
a depth of from 4 to 7 inches. This is usually in April, but if 
horses and help can be spared from seeding, the summer fallow is 
plowed as early in the spring as the land can be worked. The next 
operation on the fallow land is disking it late in June or early in 
July to maintain the dust mulch and kill out the weeds and volun- 
teer wheat. Many of the more progressive farmers now advocate, 
and a few practice, fall plowing of stubble and only disking the 
fallow land in the spring. The year following the summer fallow- 
ing the field is disk harrowed early in the spring if the land has run 
together during the winter and is caked; otherwise the land is har- 
rowed with a drag or spike-tooth harrow. It is then seeded and 
dragged and receives no further treatment until harvest. The seeder 
is usually set to sow at a depth of about 3 inches, though if the 
moisture is high enough 1 inch is sufficient. Wheat hay is used 
extensively in this country and is cut while the wheat is in the 
dough, which is usually from July 4 to 15. The wheat crop is har- 
vested from the 1st of August until the 1st of September. 

We recommend altering this practice in order to destroy wire- 
worms in the following manner: 

(1) Disk or drag harrow the summer fallow as early as possible 
in the spring, in order to produce a dust mulch and thereby con- 
serve the accumulated winter's moisture: (2) continue dishing us 
often as is necessary to maintain the dust mulch and keep down the 
weeds; (3) plow the summer fallow in July or early in August, 
and immediately drag; (4) plow the stubble as soon as the crop 
is off. 

As these worms are of three different ages in most infested field s, 
and as only about one-third of these will be in the pupal stage each 
year, it is evident that the first year of this practice will not show 
startling results. However, if the practice is continued for a couple 
of years it will undoubtedly reduce the number of these pests very 
considerably. Aside from its beneficial results in killing insects, this 
method of handling the land will materially reduce the weeds. The 
early disking merely softens up the soil and allows all the weed 



16 



BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



seed present to sprout, and the entire crop of weeds is subsequently 
destroyed by the summer plowing. By the present method of farming 
the weed seeds are turned down to such a depth that many can not 
germinate, but lie dormant and sprout whenever they happen to be 
brought to the surface by subsequent cultivation. One crop of weed 
seed is in this manner often a pest for several succeeding years. 

A slight variation of these suggestions will readily adapt them 
to the more humid sections inhabited by the inflated wireworm. 

THE CORN WIREWORMS. 

Several species of beetles belonging to the genus Melanotus are 
recorded as pests to cereal and forage crops in the United States. 

The beetles usually range from 
medium-sized to large forms 
measuring from one-half to 
three-fourths inch in length. 
They vary in color from light 
reddish-brown to almost black. 
The beetles of this genus can 
always be distinguished with 
a low-power lens by the comb- 
like claws on the last tarsal seg- 
ment. 

The wireworms are reddish- 
brown in color, about 1| inches 
long, cylindrical in shape, and 
always with the last joint of 
the body ending in three incon- 
spicuous lobes. 

Many species of this genus in- 
habit decaying logs, and several 
writers record them as predaeeous. 1 A note in the Bureau of Ento- 
mology files, 2 by Mr. Pergande, records a larva of this genus as feed- 
ing on the eggs of a locust, or grasshopper. A similar record, 3 dated 
September 19, 1884, is made by the same observer, wherein a Me- 
lanotus larva was found with locust eggs and reared to the adult con- 
dition by feeding on potato and dead beetle (lamellicorn) larvae. 

These wireworms are a pest to cereal and forage crops in the Mid- 
dle Atlantic States, the New England States, and in the Mississippi 
Valley from Kansas northward. Forbes places Melanotus communis 




Fig. 5. — One of the corn wireworms {Mela- 
notus communis): a. Adult; b, larva; 
c, last segments of same; d, pupa. All 
enlarged. (From Chittenden.) 



1 Ferris, Edouard. Ilistoire des insectes du pin maritime. In Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 
ser. 3, T. 2, p. 139 (seances du 13. Avril, 1853). 

2 U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Notes, v. 4, No. 2883, Oct. 9, 1882. 
3 U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent, Notes, v. 4, No. 2884, Sept. 19, 1884. 



WIKEWOKMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 17 

Gyll. (fig. 5) and M. fss'dis (Say) as among the important corn pests 
of Illinois. Webster found M. communis a very serious pest in 
Indiana and Ohio; Comstock and Slingerland consider M. communis 
one of the worst wireworms in New York State ; and Swenk records 
serious depredations of M. cribulosus Lee, M. communis, and M. 
fissilis in Nebraska. 

In 1907 Mr. E. O. G. Kelly found a species of Melanotus attacking 
corn in North Dakota. In 1910 Mr. W. W. Yothers, of this bureau, 
investigated a very severe outbreak of these wireworms at Corry, Pa. 
At the time he visited the fields as many as 7 to 15 larvae were to be 
found in nearly every hill. This field had been broken from sod in 
1908. In 1912 Mr. Kelly found the larva? of Melanotus communis 
so numerous at Wellington, Kans., that they entirely destroyed his 
experimental corn plantings. He also found the larvae of this species 
attacking kafir seed at Mulvane, Kans., in the spring of 1912. In 
places they had completely eaten out the seed for spaces of from 
4 to 6 feet in the drill rows. In 1911 we received reports of damage 
by wireworms belonging to the genus Melanotus from seven localities 
in Indiana, seven in Wisconsin, six in Maryland, three in Michigan, 
three in Iowa, and one each in Alabama, Ohio, Virginia, Kentucky, 
North Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia. 

Several species occur on the west coast, and 31. communis is re- 
ported as a pest to wheat in Garfield County, Wash., 1 but the writer 
is inclined to believe that the pest in this case was either a false wire- 
worm or a species of Corymbites. 

Mr. Pergande records - this species as attacking lettuce roots, 
wheat, and potatoes. 

LIFE HISTORY. 

The adults of these wireworms are flying about in late April. 
May, and June, when thej^ undoubtedly deposit their eggs in the 
grasslands. The larvae spend two to five years in the soil. That any 
have so short a life-cycle period as two years is not at all certain. 
We have, however, in our outdoor insectary, larvae received from 
Inman, Nebr., April 19, 1912, subject to very nearly natural con- 
ditions. These larvae were well grown when received and were at 
least of the 1911 generation. At the date of this writing (October, 
1914) they are larvae. They have passed the summers of 1911, 1912, 
1913, and 1914 in the soil, and if they pupate next summer (1915) 
the adults will, without doubt, remain in the pupal cells until the 
spring of 1916, making, in this case, five full years from egg to egg. 
These beetles pupate during July and early August. 

1 Scobey, J. O'B. Wireworms. Wash. Exp. Sta. (State Agr. Coll. and School of Sci.), 
Bull. 4, p. 75, May, 1892. 

- t*. s. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Notes, v. I, No. 2884. 

61121°— Bull. 156—15 3 



18 BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Mr. Webster found pupae in the ground August 19, 1885, at La 
Fayette. Ind. 

At the Hagerstown Laboratory over 100 larvae of this genus are 
under observation. Those that emerged as adults this year pupated 
between the end of July and the middle of August. The pupal 
stage varied in duration from 12 to 22 days. 

The adults do not leave the pupal cells, however, until the follow- 
ing spring. Mr. Webster found adults of M. communis in pupal 
cells on March 17, 1891, at Wooster, Ohio, and the writer found 
an adult in a wheat field at Hagerstown. Md., on November 22, 1912. 
This adult was in a cell with its pupal and last larval exuvia. The 
cell was 1 inch below the surface, in the drill row in which several 
consecutive plants had been killed. 

REMEDIAL MEASURES. 

The larva? of the genus Melanotics, so far as our observations go, 
are confined to poorly drained and usually to heavy, sour soil. In 
making a survey of Birch Creek and Eel Creek bottoms in Clay 
County, Ind.. we were informed by nearly all of the farmers that up 
to within the past four years wire worms caused very large annual 
losses to corn growers, while for the past three veurs this pest has 
been quite unknown to them. Coincident with the disappearance of 
the wireworms we find that the land was tile-drained on most of the 
farms. That the tile drainage of the land was actually responsible 
for the disappearance of the wireworms is more than we are prepared 
to say. However, the coincidence is very suggestive. 

WIREWORMS OF MINOR IMPORTANCE. 

The following species, though not serious pests to cereal and for- 
age crops over extensive areas, are, during certain seasons, very 
destructive in restricted localities. 

The wireworms belonging to the genus Limonius are among the 
most important of this group. In 1909 the writer received report of 
serious damage being done to corn and potatoes at Spokane. Wash. 
The outbreak was investigated and proved to be very severe, but at 
the time no larva- were reared. This year (1911), through the kind- 
ness of Mr. William Tews, of Spokane, the writer received a large 
number of these wireworms with the report of another serious out- 
break. From this material we succeeded in rearing adults which 
are Limonius (species undetermined). The confused wireworm 
{Lima n't us confusus Lee.) has made its appearance in Illinois 1 
within the last few years, and although its principal damage was 
confined to potatoes, it was also destructive to corn. The beetle is 

1 Ha vis, .T. J. Preliminary report on the more important insects of the truck gardens 
of Illinois. 7h 111. Farmers' Inst. 16th Ann. Rpt., p. 210-203, 42 figs. Springfield, 1911. 
Wireworms. Limonius conjusus Lee, p. 251, figs. 36-37. 



WIEEWORMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 19 

about three-sixteenths of an inch long, reddish-brown in color, and 
moderately hairy. The wireworm is about three-fourths of an inch 
in length and is depressed, with a shallow emargination in the ter- 
minal segment ; the color, as in the beetle, is reddish-brown. 

The species is recorded as attacking corn, potatoes, tomatoes, 
onions, cabbage, radishes, turnips, horseradish, and spinach. It bur- 
rows into the underground parts of the plants, quite ruining them for 
market purposes, and in the case of corn, tomatoes, cabbage, and 
onions often kills the plant. This species does not seem to attack 
beans, peas, cucumbers, melons, rhubarb, lettuce, and peppers, and 
these crops might be of value in clearing a badly infested field prior 
to seeding it to grain. 

The sugar-beet wireworm (Limonius calij 'orrdcus Mann.) is a 
very serious pest to alfalfa and corn over restricted areas in Cali- 
fornia. 1 Alfalfa is so badly infested in certain localities that it 
lias to be plowed out and reseeded every three or four years. This 
species lays its eggs during late April. The eggs hatch during late 
May and the larvae spend the remainder of that season and the whole 
of the two succeeding seasons in the ground. They pupate during 
July and August of their third summer, the adults remaining in the 
pupal cells until the spring of the fourth year. Alfalfa fields badly 
infested with this wireworm should be plowed out immediately after 
the first crop is harvested and harrowed several times before re- 
seeding. Land intended for corn should be plowed in late July or 
August of the year preceding cropping. Land in corn should be 
deeply cultivated during August. 

The abbreviated wireworm (Cryptohypnus abbreviatus (Say)) oc- 
curs over the entire northern part of the United States, being quite 
common in Xew England and New York, and is recorded from New 
Jersey by Smith. 2 In the upper Mississippi Valley this species is 
also a pest and specimens have been collected in Utah and Wash- 
ington. 

The beetles of this species are very small, being little over three- 
sixteenths inch in length and quite broad and flattened. The color 
is very dark brown to almost black and the forepart of the body is 
very shiny. An obscure yellowish spot ornaments each wing cover 
near the tip. The legs are also obscure reddish-yellow. 

The wireworm is about one-half inch long, flattened, with a pair of 
backwardly directed prongs on the ninth abdominal segment, and is 
pale yellow in color. 

Owing to the confusion of this wireworm with Drasterius elegans 
Fab., the literature relative to either of these insects is very unre- 

1 Graf, John E. A Preliminary Report of the Sugar-Beet Wireworm. U. S. Dept. a_t.. 
Bur. Ent, Bui. l '-'::. 68 p., 9 Bgs., 23 pi., Feb. 28, 191 t. 

2 Smith, J. B. Catalogue of the Insects Found in New Jersey, p. 159. Trenton, 1890. 



20 BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

liable. The best account of the species of which we are cognizant is 
that of Comstock and Slingerlancl. 1 

On March 13, 1912, Mr. J. J. Davis received a communication report- 
ing a very bad outbreak of wireworms on corn at Watertown, Wis., in 
1911. The fields attacked were low-lying peaty muck-lands that had 
been reclaimed by tile draining. The correspondent said that he 
" plowed up a strip of land early last spring and turned up these 
insects by the millions, so that some of the furrows looked real 
white." Larvae were inclosed with this communication and proved 
to be of this beetle. In June, 1913, Mr. Davis visited this locality 
and collected a number of the larvae and sent them to the writer 
alive. They were confined in rearing cages on June 6. August 5 a 
pupa was found, and on August 11 the adult emerged from the 
pupa. Another larva pupated on September 2 and the adult emerged 
on September 11. These two records limit the pupal stage to nine 
days. 

For this species we recommend plowing sodland, intended for corn 
the succeeding year, during late August. Cultivate corn as late as 
possible, and plow small-grain stubble during August, if possible. 

Another genus of importance in this group is Monocrepidius. The 
two species of this genus recorded as attacking cereal and forage 
crops in the United States are quite distinct. One (Monocrepidius 
lividus DeG.) is a large species over one-half inch in length, of a dull, 
even brown color. It is shaped very much like a Melanotus, but can 
easily be distinguished from that genus by the simple tarsal claws. 
The other species (Monocrepidius vespertinus Fab.) is a small 
elongate beetle, a little over one-fourth inch long. The body is prettily 
marked with yellow and dark brown. Both of these species are more 
or less southern in distribution, M. lividus DeG. being distributed 
over the entire southern part of the United States from Florida to 
Texas and northward to northern New Jersey, scattering specimens 
being collected as far north as Massachusetts, while M. vespertinus 
covers the same territory, but is more generally distributed north- 
ward. 

A third species, Monocrepidius bellus Say, is a very small form, 
the beetle being hardly three-sixteenths of an inch long. This species 
is quite often taken in cornfields during the summer and under stones 
in pastures during the winter about Hagerstown. Md. Dr. F. H. 
Chittenden 2 records this species as having been reared from larvse 
feeding on the roots of creeping bent (Agrostis stolonifera) on the 
department grounds at Washington. 

1 Comstock, J. II., and Slingerland, M. V. Wireworms. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta., 
Bui. 33, p. 270, Nov., 1891. 

2 U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Notes, v. 10, No. 7472. 






WIREWORMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 21 

Monocrepidius auritus I II >st. is also quite common about Hagers- 
town, adults being - often found hibernating with Drasterius amabUis 
Lee. under stones. Mr. C. M. Packard, of the Hagerstown laboratory, 
collected a pupa of this species in the insectary garden on August 11, 
1913. The adult emerged from this pupa on August 16. This year 
(1914) Mr. J. J. Davis sent the writer a large number of larvae of 
this species from Indiana. The last two species will probably eventu- 
ally be found to attack crops. 

The largest, and in the southwest the most important, species of 
this genus is Monocrepidius lividus DeG. In the bureau files is a 
note made by Mr. Pergande, dated June 6, 1881. 1 Larvae were found 
in hills of recently seeded sorghum. No locality accompanies this 
note. On July 4 one of the larvae transformed to a pupa, and on July 
11 the adult issued, making the pupal period just a week. 

Mr. Kelly collected an adult in a hay pile March 21, 1911, and also 
a larva of this species burrowing in a young corn plant at Welling- 
ton. Kans., on June 11, 1910. This larva pupated on September 8, 
but was not reared to an adult. He also collected an adult in an 
alfalfa field on May 10 of that year. Another larva, supposed to be 
this species, was collected- June 12 and was kept alive in a rearing 
cage until November 25. indicating that the species hibernates in 
the larval state. The particular specimen, however, died during the 
winter. 

During July, 1911, Mr. G. G. Ainslie found the adults of this spe- 
cies on the fresh silk on the corn ears down in the tip of the husk. 
He found them in the act of eating the corn silk and also the pollen. 

The writer, while investigating an outbreak of the "curlew bug" 
(Spheiiophoims callosus Oliv.) at Hartford, X. C, found several of 
these wireworms in a cornfield. These larvae were collected on No- 
vember 4, 1911. and by December of that year one of the larvae had 
eaten all his comrades and had gone into hibernation in the rearing 
rage in the office at Washington. The data relative to the life history 
of this individual can not be relied upon as of value in determining 
the normal life history, as the office was subjected to great extremes 
of temperature that winter, often freezing at night and being over 
80° F. by noon. However, this larva transformed to a pupa and 
emerged as an adult between May 21 and June 7, 1912. This beetle 
lived in the rearing cage without food until July 24 of that year. 
Mr. G. G. Ainslie collected a larva of this species on March 25, 1914, 
in sod land at Orlando, Fla. 

Undoubtedly second in importance, and in parts of the South 
probably first, is the southern corn wireworm (Monocrepidius ves- 
pertinus (Fab.) , fig. 6) . Mr. Kelly has found the larvae of this species 

1 U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. But., Notes, v. 2, No. 857, June 0, 1881. 



22 



BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



doing considerable damage to wheat at Wellington. Kans. These 
larva 1 attack the wheat in a very unique manner for wireworms. 
They do not seem to attack the roots, but bore into the cavity of the 
wheat stem and feed on its inner wall. In some fields as many 
as one-eighth of 1 per cent of the wheat stems were infested. A 
large number of these larva? were placed in a rearing cage on 
May 6. 1910, and on June 21 four adults were found in the cage. 
Mr. Kelly found the adult beetles of this species numerous on corn 
plants in the field from July 3 to August 23. Early in March. 1910, 
an adult of this species was found in a clump of grass {Andropogon 
scoparius). In 1911 Mr. Kelly succeeded in rearing an adult from 
a pupa collected among the roots of corn. This adult emerged on 
July 19. Mr. T. H. Parks, at that time with this office, found the 
beetles very numerous on young corn at Winfield, Ivans., and Okla- 
homa City, Okla., in 
June, 1910, and Mr. 
R. A. Vickery, also of 
this office, found the 
beetles very numerous 
on corn at Browns- 
ville. Tex., in June. 
Mr. Pergande records 1 
the injury to these bee- 
tles to cotton at We- 
tumpka, Ala., and Dr. 
J. B. Smith found the 
larva 3 injuring beans 
at Da Costa. X. J. 2 
Mr. W. B. McConnell, 
of this office, found the 
larva 1 of these beetles very numerous in alfalfa fields at Carlsbad, 
N. Mex. 

Owing to the superficial resemblance of the larva of Drasterius 
to those of Cryptohypnus, the notes in the files of the Bureau of 
Entomology relative to these two genera are very unreliable. Web- 
ster records 3 Drasterius elegans Fab. as a serious pest to corn and 
wheat in Indiana, and Forbes records finding larva? attacking corn 
in Illinois. 

Drasterius elegans is found throughout the northern half of 
the United States. Drasterius amahiUs Lee. is common in the 
Middle Atlantic States and has also been collected in New England 
and the Mississippi Valley. All of the beetles in this genus are 

1 V. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Notes, v. 11, No. 8668, July 11. 1899. 

2 Smith, J. B. Annual Report of the New Jersey State Museum. Including a Report of 
the Insects of New Jersey, p. 2S5. Trenton. 1900. 

3 Webster, P. M. Report of observations upon insects affecting grains. In U. S. Dept. 
Agr., Div. Ent., Bui. (Old Ser. > 22, p. 52, 1800. 





Fig. 6. — The southern corn wireworm (Monocrepidius 
vespertinus) : a, Side view of larva; 1), top view of 
larva; c, adult beetle; <t, pupa. All enlarged. (After 
Chittenden.) 



WIREWORMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 23 

small, about one-fourth of an inch in length. They are yellow or 
reddish yellow in color, with more or less black marking. The wire- 
worms are about one-half of an inch long when full grown. They 
are depressed forms with two prongs on the ninth abdominal seg- 
ment and are yellowish colored, except the head and first joint, which 
are brownish. 

In the general bureau note files, as well as those of the branch of 
Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations, are many notes referring 
to Drasterius elegans as predaceons, and also many other notes 
referring to this species as a pest to crops. None of these notes is 
at all conclusive, however, and in many cases it is very probable 
that the form attacking corn and wheat is really the abbreviated 
wireworm (Cryptohypnus abbreviatus (Say) ) , and it may be that the 
predaceous form is Drasterius amah/Us, which the writer finds in 
many collections under the name D. elegans. 

Mr. Theodore Pergande, of this bureau, received several larva? of 
Drasterius amabilis from Manhattan, Kans., on May 3, 18TT. 1 He 
says that these larvae were found preying on the eggs of Melanoplus 
spretus. On June 20 some of them were killed and eaten by mites, so 
that nothing but the shell was left. June 25 the other larva? were 
completely covered with small mites, so that they could scarcely 
move, and he believed that probably they would die, also. 

These mites to which Mr. Pergande refers were evidently the 
hypopial stage of some tyroglyphid. In all probability the Drasterius 
larva? ate one another, as this is a common occurrence when these 
larva? are placed together in a rearing cage. He goes on to say: 

May 31, 1878, another larva of this species about half grown was placed with 
an Epicauta larva. It has eaten the Epicauta larva. June 18 pupated. July 
9 issued. 

This note gives a considerably longer pupal period than that ob- 
served by the writer at Hagerstown. In another note under the same 
number there is a record of the finding of a larva of this species with- 
in a potato stalk which was infested with Trichobaris trinotata Say, 
and it was probably feeding on these larva 1 . 

The writer found a very young Drasterius a?nabilis larva eating a 
pupa of Meromyza americana Fitch on July 9, 1912, at Hagerstown, 
Md. Mr. George Dimmock says that "this species (D. amabilis) 
devours locust eggs.'" 1 2 

D raster Jus amabilis is very common in western Maryland, where 
the adults can be found under stones or rubbish from the middle 
of September until early in the spring. 

1 T". S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Mom. XII, Note 762P, May 3-June 25, 1*77. 

3 Standard Natural History, edited by -I. 8. Klngsley, v. 2, p. 361. Boston, 1884. 
" * * * a few of these larv;e are carnivorous, the larvae of Drasterius amdbiUs, In the 
United States, being known to devour locusts' eggs." 



24 BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

A larva was collected at the roots of a corn plant, which, however, 
it did not seem to be damaging, at Hagerstown, Md., in June. This 
larva pupated on July 6, and the adult emerged July 15. The 
beetle remained alive without feeding until September 12 of that 
year. On April 30 a large number of beetles were placed in a small 
root cage in which corn had been planted. On May 6 all the adults 
were removed. On July 31 the cage was examined and three full- 
grown larvae and one pupa were found. This cage was again examined 
September 8, and two adults, which, judging from the color and 
hardness of the integument, were at least a week old. were found. 

Pupae collected in the field emerged July 28, and two larvae col- 
lected July 8 pupated August 10, and one of the beetles emerged 
August 21, the other August 23. 

From the foregoing data it is evident that the life cycle is com- 
pleted within one season, a very exceptional condition in this group of 
beetles. The beetles leave their hibernating quarters in early spring 
and deposit their eggs early in May. The wireworms feed during 
Msiy and June, and sometimes even throughout July. They start to 
pupate in early July, continuing pupation throughout Jury and 
early August. The pupal stage lasts from 8 to 13 days. The adults 
emerge from the ground in late summer and in the fall seek hiber- 
nating quarters under stones, boards, and rubbish. 

Forbes records x a species of wireworm (Asaphes decoloratus 
(Say) ) as attacking clover in Illinois. This species is also recorded 2 
as a pest in Xew York State. 

Mr. Kelly is now investigating an outbreak of a wireworm (Lacon 
rectangularis (Say) ) in Kansas. This species has not heretofore been 
recorded as a wheat pest, but in a recent letter to the writer Mr. 
Kelly says: 

In one wheat field at Argouis, Kans., in the spring of 1912, as many as 27 
per cent of the plants had been bored into and mined in some spots, with an 
average of about 18 per cent for the field. Later, however, the damage was 
much greater, and it was a question whether the grain was worth cutting. 

The collared wireworm (Cebrio bicolor Fab., fig. 7) has not as yet 
been recorded as an actual pest to any crops, but as several notes 
wherein this species has been recorded as feeding on cultivated plants 
have come to the notice of the writer, and as one of these plants is a 
cereal, we believe it pertinent to make a short note of this species, that 
it may be readily recognized should it ever become a serious pest. 

The beetles of this species are not now considered as belonging to 
the same family as the true wireworms, but they are so intimately 

1 Forbes, S. A. Insect Injuries to the Seed and Root of Indian Corn. Til. A«r. Exp. 
Sta., P.ul. 44, p. 226, May, 1896. 

- Oomstock, J. II., and SUn^erland, M. V. Wireworms. N. Y. Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta., 
Bui. 33, p. 258-262, Nov., 1891. 



WIREWOEMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 



25 



related to these insects and the larvae are so very wireworm-like 
that they can be treated, from an economic standpoint, as wireworms. 
The beetle is about three-fourths of an inch long, rather slender, with 
\^yy prominent scythe-like jaws: the color is brown. The wireworm 
is cylindrical. The first joint of the body is very Large and extends 
forward under the head, so that the head is partly inserted within it; 
the last joint is long- and thimble-shaped. The wireworm when full 
grown measures 1| inches in length and is nearly an eighth of an inch 
thick. The color is reddish brown. 

The genus is recorded by Schiodte' as living in moist earth in 
Europe. In the bureau files is a note 2 by C. V. Riley which records 
the finding of a pupa at 
the roots of a grapevine in 
July. 1874. No locality ac- 
companies the note, which 
is with other notes made at 
St. Louis. Mo. On July 11 
an adult emerged. In the 
same files another note 3 
records this wireworm as 
injuring peach and other 
deciduous tree roots near 
Fairmont. Cal. In April, 
1911. Mr. G. G. Ainslie 
sent a larva of this species 
to the writer, stating that 
he found it feeding on oat 
plants near Jackson, Miss. 
He sent two other larvae of 
this insect to the writer 
from Orlando. Fla.. where 
they were found in black, 
sandy soil. 

Another interesting record of a wireworm (Ludius hepatims 
Germ.) of decidedly minor importance is found in the bureau files. 4 
Four larvae of this species were found attacking cruciferous plants 
at Georgiana. Fla. Our only other record of this genus is one in 
which adults were actually reared from larva' of Ludius attenuatus 
(Say) found in rotten wood; these larva 1 were predaceous. 

NATURAL ENEMIES. 

Probably the most important factor in keeping wireworms in 
check are the birds. The following list of birds known, by examina- 

1 Schiodte, J. C. De metamorphosi eleutheratorum observationes, pt. 5, p. 530, 1871. 
-U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Mem. VII, No. 350X, July 11, 1874. 
■■ U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Notes, v. 5, No. 3681, June 24, 1885. 
4 U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Notes, v. 4, No. 3570, Feb. 23, 1882. 




. — Tlic collared wireworm (Cebiio Mcolor) : 
Larva ; It, beetle. Enlarged. (Original. 



26 



BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



tion of the crops and stomachs, to feed on Elateridae, either as larvae 
or as adult beetles, is compiled from the records of the Biological 
Survey of the United States Department of Agriculture: 



Franklin gull (Larus franklini). 
Herring gull (L. argentatus). 
American black tern (Hydrochelidon 

n. surinamensis) . 
Wilson snipe (Gallinago delicata). 
Woodcock (Philohela minor). 
Upland plover {Bart ram ia longicauda) . 
Killdeer ( Oxyeeh us vociferus t . 
Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) . 
California cpiail (Lophortyx califor- 

nica ) . 
Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). 
Mourning dove (Zenaidura maeroura 

carolinensis) . 
Red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus). 
Red-tailed hawk (Buteo boreaUs). 
Broad-winged hawk {Buteo platypte- 

rus). 
Yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus ameri- 

canus). 
Black-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus erij- 

throphthalmus) . 
Red-cockaded woodpecker (Dryobates 

borealis ). 
Downy woodpecker (Dryobates pubes- 

cens). 
Hairy woodpecker (Dryobates vil- 

losus). 
Arctic three-toed woodpecker (Picoir 

ihs arcticus). 
Yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus 

varius). 
Pileated woodpecker (Phlccotomus 

pi I cat us). 
Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes 

erythrocephalus) . 
Red -bellied woodpecker (Centura* 

Carolina s). 
Flicker (Colaptes auratus luteus). 
Whippoorwill (Antrostomus rod fe- 
rns). 
Nighthawk (Chordeiles virginianus). 
Texan nighthawk (Chordeiles a. tex- 

ensis). 
Ash -throated flycatcher (Myiarchus 

einerascens). 
('rested flycatcher (Myiarchus crini- 
tas). 



Scissor- tailed flycatcher (Muscivora 

forflcata). 
Kingbird (Tyrannus 1 y ran n as). 
Arkansas kingbird (Tyrannus verti- 
cal is). 
Cassin's kingbird ( Tyrannus vocife- 

rans). 
Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe). 
Black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans). 
Say's phoebe (Sayornis saya). 
Wood pewee (Myiochanes virens). 
Western wood pewee < Myiochanes 

richardsonii) . 
Olive-sided flycatcher (Nuttallornis 

boreal is). 
Western flycatcher (Empidonax diffl- 

cilis.) 
Least flycatcher (Empidonax mini- 

m us ) . 
Traill's flycatcher (Empidonax trailli). 
Yellow-bellied flycatcher (Empidonax 

flaviventris) . 
Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax vires- 

cens). 
Horned lark (Otocoris alpestris). 
Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata). 
Steller's jay (Cyanocitta stelleri). 
California jay (Aphelocoma Cali- 
fornia! ) . 
Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). 
Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzicorus). 
Cowbird (Molothrus ater). 
Yellow -beaded blackbird (Xanthoce- 

phalus xanthocephalus) . 
Bicolored red-wing ( Agelaius guberna- 

tor calif ornicus) . 
Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phce- 

niceus ) . 
Meadowlark (Stufnella magna). 
Baltimore oriole (Icterus galbula). 
Bullock's oriole (let eras bullock) ). 
Orchard oriole (Icterus spurius). 
Rusty blackbird (Euphagus carolinus). 
Brewer's blackbird (Euphagus cyano- 

cephalus) . 
Purple graekle (Quiscalus q. qais- 

cula ). 
Great-tailed graekle (Mcgaquiscalus 
major). 



WIREWORMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 



27 



English sparrow (Passer domesticus) . 

Vesper sparrow (Pocecetes gramineus) . 
Henslow's sparrow (Passerherbulus 

henslowi) . 
Sharp-tailed sparrow ( Passerherbulus 

can da cut us). 
Sandwich sparrow {Passerculus sand- 

wichensis). 
Ipswich sparrow (Passerculus prin- 

ceps ) . 
Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodrainus 

s. australis). 

( Chondestes gramma- 



Field sparrow (Spizella pusilla). 
Chipping sparrow ( Spizella passerina >. 
Junco (Junco hyemalis). 
Lincoln's spa rrow (Melospiza lincolni). 
Song sparrow (Melospisa melodia). 
Fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca). 
Chewink (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) . 
California towhee ( Pipilo f. crissalis i . 
Spurred towhee (Pipilo in. montanus). 
Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). 
Rose - breasted grosbeak (Zamelodia 

ludoviciana) . 
Black-headed grosbeak (Zamelodia 

melanocephala) . 
Bine grosbeak (Guiraea cwrvlea). 
Indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea). 
Lazuli bunting (Passer inn a in una). 
Painted bunting (Passerina ciris). 
Dickcissel (Spisa americana). 






Lark sparrow 

cus). 
White-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia 

aloicollis) . 
White-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia 

leucophrys) . 

In the desert regions of the Northwest a small lizard (PJirynosoma 
douglasii douglasii, fig. 8), locally called the "sand toad," eats the 
adult Elaterida? in large numbers. A pair of these small lizards 
kept in the insectary would eat C oryrribites inftatus beetles as fast 
as these could be fed to them. That this is a large part of their 
natural food is evidenced by the contents of the stomachs of three of 
these lizards collected at Govan, Wash., on April 21, 1910. In the 
stomach of lizard No. 1, 60 per cent of the food was ants, 8 per cent 
click-beetles, and 30 per cent other beetles; in lizard No. 2. 90 per 
cent was click-beetles and 10 per cent ants ; and in lizard No. 3, 75 per 
cent ants, 15 per cent click-beetles, and 10 per cent other beetles. 
Several other kinds of these lizards inhabit the more southern desert 
lands of the West and are usually called " horned toads " in these 
sections. 

In rearing cages wireworms are often infested with small mites 
(Tyroglyphida?). The writer received a shipment of Melanotus 
larva 1 from Inman, Nebr., in April, 1912. This material when re- 
ceived was apparently free from any vermin. When examined again, 
on June 17 of that year, some of the larvae were found to be badly 
infested with these mites in the hypopial stage. The mites were so 
close together on the last two segments of the wireworms* bodies that 
they gave the impression of an incrustation. On June 21 all the 
wireworms were infested with these mites. Mr. Pergande also found 
these mites on larvae of Melanotus com/munis in his cages at Wash- 
ington, D. C, in March, 1900. 1 Mr. Banks is of the opinion that 
these mites are not attacking the wireworms, but merely make use of 
insects as a ready means of dispersal. He is evidently correct in 

i U. S. Dept. Agi\, Div. Ent, Notes, v. 4, No. 2884, Oct. 9, 1882. 



28 



BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



this opinion, as the larvae in question from Inman, Nebr., are alive 

at the present writing (October, 1914). 

A gamasid was found attached to the body of an adult of Alaus 

oculatus at St. Louis, Mo., by Mr. E. E. Fisher. This mite was 

under the wing covers. 1 Another mite [Chelifer alaus) is recorded 2 

as a parasite of the adult Alaus oculatus. 

The writer has published 3 a record of a fly (Thereva egressa Coq.) 

the larva of which actually attacks and feeds upon wireworms. The 

larva was found in a wheat field 
near Pullman, Wash. .and when 
found had its head and first 
four anterior joints within the 
body of a wireworm and was 
eating out the insides. This 
larva was brought into the 
insectary and fed upon wire- 
worms, of which it ate usually 
two a day. On June 10 it 
pupated, and on June 24 the 
adult fly emerged. Two other 
species of There vidae (Psilo- 
cephala aldrichii Coq. and P. 
munda Coq.) were reared by 
the writer from larva.; taken 
in the field, associated with 
wireworms, in the Pacific 
Northwest. These flies in 
their larval stages are prob- 
ably predaceous on elaterid 
larva?. Forbes mentions 4 
rearing a parasitic fly from an 
elaterid larva. A Procto- 
trupes has been reared from 
an elaterid larva in England 
by Curtis. 5 In the same work Curtis refers to a similar record by 
Bierkander. 




Fig. 8. — A horned toad (Phrynosoma douglasii 
douglasii), an enemy of the western wire- 
worms. (Original.) 



1 U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Note 165R, July 21, 1S89. 

2 Leidy, J. Remarks on the seventeen-year locust, the Hessian fly. and a Chelifer. In 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. [v. 29], 1877, p. 260-261, Juno 19, 1877. 

3 Hyslop, J. A. Therera egressa. In Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., v. 12, No. J, p. 98, .Tune 
15, 1910. 

4 Forbes, S. A. Insects Insects to 1he Seed and Hoot of Indian Corn. Univ. of 111. 
Agr. Exp. Sta., Bui. 44, p. 228, May, 1896. 

B Curtis. John. Farm Insects, p. 181. London, 1860. 






WIREWORMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 29 

Bierkander obtained through a correspondent a Filaria from a 
wireworm. 1 The author found a skin of a Melanotus larva firmly 
attached to the pupa case of a hymenopteron from which the parasite 
had emerged. The case was very similar to that of Typhia sp. 

Several records have been made of elaterid larva? being attacked 
by fungous diseases. An interesting note is made by Girard 2 in 
which he records Cordyceps attacking wireworms in Trinidad. A 
note in the files of this office " records a larva of Agriotes sp. received 
from Halifax. Nova Scotia, and placed in a rearing cage in the in- 
sectary at Washington, as being found later dead and filled with the 
mycelium of a fungus which Dr. Flora W. Patterson, of the Bureau 
of Plant Industry, determined as PeniriUium anisopMce Viull. This 
fungus is known as a parasitic disease of other insects and without 
doubt killed the larva in question. Comstock records 4 larvae in his 
rearing cages being killed by Metarrhizium (inisoplue. 

The writer found a larva of Corymbites inflatus in a rearing 
cage at the laboratory in Pullman, Wash., which had evidently been 
killed by a parasitic fungus. It was filled with white mycelium, which 
distended the body and even grew out between the segments. The 
specimen was sent in to Washington, but was received in too poor 
condition for determination. 

Early in June, 1913, a large amount of the culture of the white- 
grub fungus (Metarrhizium anisopliw) was sent to the writer by 
Mr. J. J. Davis. This material was introduced into a field at Nisbet. 
Pa. On revisiting the inoculated field on July 14 of that year, a 
larva of Melanotus was found dead and completely covered with a 
green fungus. This specimen was sent to Mr. Davis, who tentativelv 
determined the fungus as M. anisoplioe. From this culture material 
the insectary room at the Hagerstown Laboratory became infected, 
and during the past summer, despite all precautions, at least one- 
half of the Elaterida 1 in our rearing cages were killed by this disease. 

REMEDIAL MEASURES. 

Remedial measures have been given with each of the more impor- 
tant wireworms treated in this paper. Here we wish to report on a 
number of measures that have been suggested from time to time as 
efficient in combating these insects. We have actually tried most 
of these measures, and to prevent repetition of these more or less 
costly experiments we publish here the results. 

1 Gardner's Chronicle, London [v. ?,], p. 4.)::, June 24, 1843. 

2 Girard, A. Une nouvelle espece d'Entomophyte. Cordyceps hunti, n. sp. (Cham- 
pignon), parasite d'uno larve d'Elateride. In Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Bui. des seances, 

1895, p. CLXXXI-CLXXXII. 

3 U. S. Dept. Agr.. Bur. Ent.. Webster Note No. 4751. 

4 Comstock, J. II., and Slingcrland, M. V. Wireworms. N. V. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. 
Sta., Bui. .°>.°>, p. 211, November, 1891. 



30 BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Remedial measures may be classified under three headings: (1) 
Seed treatment to prevent insects eating the seed; (2) introduction 
of poisonous or noxious substances into the soil; and (3) cultural 
methods. 

TREATMENT OF SEED. 

Under the first head many substances have been used and reported 
as more or less efficient, among which might be mentioned Paris 
green and coal tar, gas tar, coal oil, tar, Paris green, and arsenate of 
lead. In 1884 Webster used kerosene as a treatment of seed corn to 
protect seed from wireworms. Although his experiment did not 
apparently impair the vitality of the seed, a farmer who attempted 
to apply the recommendation claimed that the vitality of the seed 
was destroyed thereby. In 1888 Forbes treated corn seed with Paris 
green, and though wireworms fed on corn so thoroughly coated as to 
be quite green they seemed to experience no ill effects. He also ex- 
perimented with alcoholic solutions of arsenic and water solutions 
of strychnine and potassium cyanid. 

In the spring of 1911 wireworms were very numerous on the wheat 
land at Wilbur, Wash., and the writer carried on a series of very 
extensive experiments to determine the value of some of these sub- 
stances and also added a few which, to his knowledge, had not been 
tried before. 

Three sacks of wdieat (6 bushels) were treated on March 24 with 
arsenate of lead. Six pounds of insecticide were used for the batch. 
The arsenate was thinned to the consistency of thick whitewash, 
with water, and thoroughly mixed into the seed in a large box. 
The seed, when dry, was very white and well coated. On the same 
date two sacks (4 bushels) were treated with coal tar. The tar was 
applied with a paddle, the paddle being first dipped into the tar and 
then stirred around in the wheat until the seed was well coated. 
The seed was then mixed with sand and allowed to dry. One sack 
of wheat was treated with strychnine, 2 ounces of this poison being 
used to 2 bushels of wheat. The strychnine was dissolved in 2 quarts 
of hot water and 1 pound of sugar was added as an adhesive. The 
seed was then soaked in this liquid and allowed to dry. On March 
31 all of these treated batches of seed were sown. The sowings 
were made in plats which w r ere about half a mile long. They were 
made in an 11-foot wheat seeder, and were arranged as follows: 

2 seeder widths of seed treated with strychnine. 
2 seeder widths without treatment, as a check. 

2 seeder widths of seed treated with coal tar. 

4 seeder widths check. 

5 seeder widths of seed treated with lead arsenate. 
5 seeder widths check. 

3 seeder widths of seed treated with coal tar. 
9 seeder widths check. 

4 seeder widths of seed ti-eated with arsenate of lead. 



WTREWOHMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 



31 



These plats were carefully staked and examined from time to time, 
but at no time could any appreciable difference be noted as to their 
appearance. Wireworms were as numerous in all the treated plats 
as in the checks. Wheat was very generally attacked and no dead 
wireworms were found. 

A number of wireworms were confined in a large tin cage with 
wheat treated with strychnine as their only food. After two months 
these larvae were still alive and apparently unaffected by the poison, 
though they ate the poisoned grain. 

While these experiments were going on at Wilbur a more intensive 
series was being carried on at Spokane. Here, instead of wheat, 
sweet corn was used. These experiments were carried on in a field 
recently cleared of timber. The soil was quite heavy and very 
moist. Wireworms were very numerous and apparently quite gen- 
erally distributed. 

On April 5, seed corn was treated in the following manner : 

Lot 1. Coal tar was applied very heavily and Paris green dusted onto it 
until it was quite green. 

Lot 2 was treated by soaking for a few minutes in copper sulphate and then 
drying rapidly in the sun. Several potatoes also were soaked, cut into small 
pieces, in a saturated solution of strychnine. 

This field was all in corn in 1000 and was badly infested with 
wireworms. In 1010 it was half in wheat on fall plowing and half 
in potatoes on spring plowing, and was also badly infested this year 
with wireworms. A plat of each treatment with a check row be- 
tween each plat was planted on each half of the field. Seventy hills 
of corn were in each plat. All the plantings were made on April 
24. The coal-tar treatment prevented about 00 per cent of the seed 
so treated from germinating, so this precludes the use, at least as 
applied to this experiment, of this seed treatment. On May '2 the 
hills were dug out and the wireworms in each hill counted. Wher- 
ever wireworms were present they were attacking the seed. The 
results of this count appear in Table I: 



Table I. — Results of experiments <if/<iiitst wireworms with treated seed. 






Row. 


Treat ment . 


Number 

of bills 

<"- amined. 


rumberof 

wireworms 
found. 


Number of 
wireworms 

per hill 
! average 1. 


Total aver- 
age number 

of wire- 
worms per 
hill for each 
treatment. 


1 




10 
24 
24 
24 
3 
24 
24 
13 
24 


40 
138 


4 

5. 75 




11 




1.87 


5 








do 








2 










4 


do 


"'35' 

40 
22 
93 


1. 158 
1.667 
1.692 
3. 875 




(j 


...do 




8 


do 




10 


do 


1.758 









32 BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

From the last experiment we conclude that the use of coal tar and 
Paris green is not a remedial measure to be recommended. However, 
Dr. H. T. Fernald has published 1 an account of a series of experi- 
ments that seem to reach quite the opposite conclusion, and it is 
very probable that gas tar will not prevent germination as did the 
coal tar of our experiments. 

The copper-sulphate plat was more severely infested than the 
check plats, so this treatment is quite useless as an insecticide for 
wireworms. The potato bait poisoned with strychnine was a fail- 
ure because the potatoes were allowed to dry up before being placed 
in the ground. 

Mr. G. I. Reeves carried on an experiment at Pullman, Wash., 
using a commercial tobacco extract applied to the seed corn as a re- 
pellent. This experiment was carried on in a root cage. On May 27, 
1909, he treated 15 kernels of seed corn by soaking for 24 hours in a 
solution of commercial tobacco extract, 1 part to 16 parts of water. 
The seed Avas dried before planting and was sown with alternate 
untreated seeds as a check. Wireworms were introduced at the time 
of seeding and also on June 2. The experiment was discontinued 
on June 10, and all the seed carefully examined. Of the treated 
seeds, eight were eaten into by Avireworms, AAhile nine of the un- 
treated seeds were destroyed. It is very evident from this experi- 
ment that tobacco solution as a repellent is quite useless, at least for 
AA T ireworms. 

Soaking the seed in formalin has been suggested as a means of 
repelling wireworms. This measure is quite useless. In the re- 
gions of the Pacific Northwest where the author aahs studying 
severe Avireworm outbreaks nearly all the seed wheat had been 
treated with formalin as a means of preventing the deAelopment 
of smut fungus. 

Mr. O. A. Johannsen and Miss Edith M. Patch have published 2 
the results of a series of experiments carried on in Maine. They 
treated seed corn with tar and Paris green, and with arsenate of lead, 
and found both of these treatments inefficient. 

SOIL TREATMENT. 

The second group of remedial measures — soil treatment — has re- 
ceiA'ed considerable attention. Experiments with soil fumigants are 
now being carried on by the writer, but as the methods haA T e not as yet 
been placed on a practical basis this matter will not be treated herein. 

1 Fernald, H. T. A new treatment for win-worms. In Jour. Econ. Ent.. v. 2, No. 4, 
p. 279-280, August, 1909. 

2 Johannsen, O. A., and Tatch, Edith M. Insect Notes for 1911. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta., 
Bui. 195, p. 229-248, December, 1911. 



WIREWORMS ATTACKING CEREAL AND FORAGE CROPS. 33 

Webster carried on experiments at Cedarville, Ohio, in 189-1 
to determine the effectiveness of kainit as an insecticide. The fer- 
tilizer was applied at the rate of 500 pounds to the acre without 
any effect whatever. He also carried on a series of experiments at 
La Fayette, Ind., in 1889, to test the efficiency of an often-recom- 
mended substance — table salt, Pots were used in these experiments, 
and table salt applied to the surface and washed in with water. 
Three dosages were used at the rate of about 500 pounds, 1,000 
pounds, and 25,000 pounds per acre, respectively, and in no case were 
wire worms killed by the application. 

The Maine experiment station has tried a patented preparation 
composed largely of slaked lime, a " soil fungicide," and tobacco 
dust, applied to the hills in cornfields infested with wireworms. and 
has found all of these treatments quite useless. Experiments ' with 
chlorid of lime, gas lime, chlorate of potash, bisulphid of carbon, 
crude petroleum, kerosene, and emulsions of crude petroleum and 
kerosene, applied to the soil, have demonstrated that none of these 
substances is of practical value in destroying wireworms. However, 
the use of petroleum products as soil sterilizers is suggestive, and will 
be further investigated. 

Mr. J. J. Davis- has found that a soil fumigant highly recom- 
mended by some English entomologists is quite useless in combating 
Limonius confusus. 

CULTURAL METHODS. 

The third group of remedial measures — cultural methods — is the 
only one which so far has been actually proved to be of practical 
value. 

Flooding land where irrigation is practiced would be of little 
avail unless long continued, as we have records of severe outbreaks 
of wireworms on land in Indiana that is annually overflowed by 
the rivers. Fall plowing is of but little use in combating these 
insects. The cornfields so severely attacked by the wheat wire- 
worm at Bridgeport last year had been plowed in the spring. The 
garden patch, however, was fall plowed, and potatoes on this patch 
were absolutely destroyed by wireworms. Another piece of fall- 
plowed land on another part of the farm planted to corn was 
practically free from worms, which illustrates how easily faulty 
conclusions can be arrived at, with insufficient data. Mr. O. A. 
Johannsen and Miss Edith Patch record observations made at Mon- 
mouth, Me., in 1911, wherein a field was plowed after the ground 



1 Tomstock, J. H., and Slingerland, M. V. Wireworms. X. Y. Cornell Univ. AgT. Exp. 
Sta.. Bui. 33, November, 1891. 

2 Davis, J. J. Insect notes from Illinois for 1909. In Jour. Econ. Ent, v. 3, No. 2, 
p. 182, April, 1910. 



34 BULLETIN 156, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

had been stiffened by frost in the fall, and which was so badly in- 
fested the following spring that the crops were absolutely destroyed. 
The fatality to the beetles caused by the destruction of the pupal 
cell in the fall has been apparently somewhat overdrawn. In our 
cages at the field station at Hagerstown, Md., we had, in March, 1914, 
many adults of Agriotes mancus alive in cages wherein they were 
subjected to outdoor weather conditions. These adults were removed 
from their pupal cells during September, 1913. 

Two other remedial measures have been suggested from time to 
time, the first of which is trapping the larva 1 in potato and other 
vegetable baits and hand killing; the second is killing the adults 
with poisoned bait of several kinds — clover, sweetened liquids, bran 
mash, potatoes and other vegetables, and rape cake. Miss Ormerod 
found a true rape-seed cake quite useless, but reports 1 " Kurrachee 
cake," made from mustard seed, as killing the larvae which fed 
upon it. These methods have been found very inefficient, and even 
\vere they successful in killing the insects they would be impractical 
so far as the extensive cereal and forage crops are concerned. 

1 Proc. Ent. Soc. London, 1882, p. xix. 



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BULLETIN OF THE 



No. 157 




5 Contribution from the Bureau of Plant Industry, Wm. A. Taylor, Chief. 
January 21, 1915. 

TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, 

UTAH. 1 

By P. V. Cardon, 

Scientific Assistant, Office of Cereal Investigations. 

(In cooperation with the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station.) 

INTRODUCTION. 

The experimental work at the Nephi (Utah) substation has been 
conducted cooperatively since 1907 by the Office of Cereal Investiga- 
tions of the Bureau of Plant Industry and the Utah Agricultural 
Experiment Station. The memorandum of understanding between 
these two parties specifies that "the objects of these cooperative 
investigations shall be (1) to improve the cereals of the intermountain 
region by introducing or producing better varieties than those now 
grown, especially with regard to drought resistance, yield, quality, 
earliness, etc.; (2) to conduct such other experiments as might seem 
advisable for the accomplishment of the greatest possible good to 
the dry-land interests of the State." Most of the experiments 
which have been conducted have dealt directly with cereal investi- 
gations as specified in the first clause of the memorandum of under- 
standing; but, as provided in clause 2 of this memorandum, a num- 
ber of experiments have been carried on with methods of tillage 
and with minor dry-land crops. 

A preliminary report of all the work at Nephi was published in 
1910. 2 This report was rather general in its nature, owing to the 

i The Nephi substation was established in 1903 by the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station. From 
that time until July 1, 1907, it was operated as one of several "county -farms" located at various points 
in the State. Prof. L. A. Merrill, agronomist of the Utah station, directed the work from 1903 to 1905. 
Thereafter until 1907 it was under the direction of Prof. W. M. Jardine, agronomist of the Utah station. 
On July 1, 1907, cooperation between the Utah experiment station and the Bureau of Plant Industry 
was effected, and Mr. F. D. Farrell, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, was placed in charge of the 
substation. He was succeeded on March 15, 1910, by Mr. P. V. Cardon. From the time of the establish- 
ment of the station until July 1, 1912, at which time he was succeeded by Mr. A. D. Ellison, Mr. Stephen 
Boswell was foreman. From 1907 to 1912 the State of Utah has been represented through Prof. L. A. Merrill, 
agronomist in charge of arid farms. On July 1, 1913, Mr. Ellison succeeded Mr. Cardon as superintendent, 
and Dr. F. S. Harris, agronomist of the Utah station, succeeded Prof. Merrill. 

2 Farrell, F. D. Dry-land grains in the Great Basin. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Plant Indus. Cir. 61, 39 p., 
2 pi., 1910. 

Note.— This bulletin should be of interest to agronomists and to dry-land farmers, particularly in the 
Great Basin area. 

63648°— Bull. 157—15 1 



2 BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

fact that the experiments had been conducted during only a brief 
period and no conclusive results were available. In 1913 a detailed 
report of varietal and improvement work with cereals was issued. 1 
The present bulletin presents the results of the cultivation experi- 
ments with dry-land cereals. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE SUBSTATION. 

A detailed description of the Nephi substation and a full discussion 
of the climatological data collected there were given in a previous 
publication; 1 hence, only a brief description of the substation will 
be given here, and, except in special cases, the climatological factors 
will not be considered further than to give general averages. 

LOCATION. 

The Nephi substation is located 6 miles south of Nephi, in the 
eastern part of Juab County, Utah, near the center of the State. 
It comprises 100 acres of land lying near the top of the north slope 
of the Levan Ridge, which transversely crosses the Juab Valley. 
The top of this ridge is approximately 6,000 feet above sea level 
and about 500 feet higher than the bottom of the valley. When the 
substation was located in 1903, the Levan Ridge was covered with 
a dense growth of sagebrush, from 2 to 5 feet in height. Now, 
dry farming is practiced generally on the ridge and from 150,000 
to 175,000 bushels of winter wheat are produced annually in the 
vicinity of the substation. 



SOIL. 



The soil of the substation, like most soils of the Great Basin, is 
alluvial and very deep. It is reddish brown in color and varies in 
texture from clay loam to sandy loam, the latter appearing most 
generally beneath the 4-foot level. Above this level the soil con- 
tains about 15 per cent of clay. This comparatively high per- 
centage of clay makes the soil "heavy" and rather difficult to work 
under certain conditions. In wet weather it becomes very sticky, 
while in extremely dry weather that on which a crop has been grown 
becomes very hard. The preparation of a good seed bed, however, 
usually is not difficult. 

RAINFALL. 

The average annual precipitation at the Nephi substation for 1898 
to 1913, inclusive, was 13.4 inches. During this period the annual 
precipitation was above normal 6 years and below normal 10 years. 
The wettest year was 1906, with 18.48 inches precipitation; the 
driest year was 1910, with 9.08 inches. During the progress of the 
experiments reported herein, the annual precipitation was above 

i Cardon, P. V. Cereal investigations at the Nephi substation. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 30, 50 p., 9 figs., 
1913. 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 3 

normal in 1908 and 1909, with 10.66 and 16.19 inches, respectively; 
while in 1910, 1911, 1912, and 1913 it was below normal, with 9.08, 
10.11, 12.61, and 12.34 inches, respectively. The average annual 
precipitation for these last four years was only 11.03 inches. 

Most of the annual precipitation of the past 16 years has fallen 
during the months of March, April, and May, the latter month having 
the highest average. The months of June and July have been by 
far the driest months. A large part of the precipitation from Novem- 
ber to March, inclusive, has fallen in the form of snow. 

Most of the rainstorms at Nephi have been small and generally 
almost negligible. This is especially true of the storms which have 
occurred from March to August, inclusive. Such showers are of 
little value to the crops, because they fall upon a hot, dry surface 
and the moisture is soon lost by evaporation. It has been observed 
that showers of less than 0.5 inch are of little value when considered 
singly. When wet days follow each other consecutively, however, 
thus reducing the evaporation and leaving the surface soil wet, a fall 
of even 0.5 inch of rain is of value. 

EVAPORATION. 1 

The average evaporation at Nephi during the six months from 
April to September, inclusive, has been about 45 inches. The lowest 
total evaporation, 40.53 inches, was recorded in 1909; the highest, 
50.26 inches, was recorded in 1910. The lowest average daily evapo- 
ration has been recorded in April and the highest in July; however, 
there was little difference in the evaporation of June, July, and 
August. 

WIND. 

Strong winds or protracted hot winds are practically unknown in 
the vicinity of the Nephi substation, while many summer days pass 
without any appreciable movement in the atmosphere. When wind 
does blow, it is usually from the south or southwest in the morning, 
changing gradually during the day until by evening it is blowing from 
the north or northwest. The average velocity for any one day sel- 
dom reaches 10 miles an hour. 

TEMPERATURE. 

The highest mean and maximum monthly temperatures during the 
growing season have been recorded in July, while the lowest have 
been recorded in April and October. No records have been kept 
from November to March, inclusive. Comparatively low tempera- 
tures are reached in winter, sometimes as low as —20° F., but serious 
injury to the fall-sown crops does not result if the ground is covered 

1 Instruments for measuring evaporation, wind velocity, and temperature, and the apparatus used in 
making soil-moisture determinations were furnished by tho Biophysical Laboratory of the Bureau of Plant 
Industry, which is cooperating in the work at Nephi. 



4 BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

with snow. When there is no snow, however, winterkilling of fall- 
sown cereals is not uncommon. 

Only two months of the year, July and August, have been free 
from frost. Normally, however, there are from 90 to 100 days in the 
frost-free period, extending from June 15 to September 15. 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK. 

All experiments were conducted under field conditions, the treat- 
ment differing from common farm practice only in the tillage method 
under test. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATS. 

Rectangular tenth-acre plats were used for all experiments except 
one, in which fifth-acre plats were used. The tenth-acre plats were 
36 by 121 feet, while the fifth-acre plats were 72 by 121 feet. The 
plats lay in series running north and south. The series were in pairs, 
the two in each pair being separated from each other by a 5-foot alley, 
while between the pairs of series there were roads 13 feet wide. The 
plats within each series were separated by 5-foot alleys. Thus, each 
plat was separated from the others by a 5-foot alley on two sides and 
one end and by a 13-foot road on the other end. 

Two sets of plats were used for each experiment, except in the case 
of the continuous-cropping test. These two sets of plats permitted 
the alternate cropping and fallowing of each plat, a practice which was 
followed regularly. 

SOIL-MOISTURE DATA. 

Soil-moisture data were collected on most fallow plats and on 
some cropped plats. The number of samples taken varied with the 
plan of the experiment. Soil tubes were used in sampling, the soil 
being taken out in foot sections to depths of 6 to 10 feet. Each foot 
section was placed in a soil can, which was immediately covered 
with a close-fitting lid and taken soon after to the laboratory. From 
two to four cores were taken from each plat on each day that it was 
sampled. 

The moist weight of each sample was obtained soon after its 
arrival in the laboratory. In no case was the weighing delayed 
more than half a day, the sampling usually being done in the fore- 
noon and the weighing in the afternoon. After the moist weights 
were obtained, the samples were placed in an asbestos-board oven, 
where they were subjected to an average temperature of 110° C. 
They were left in the oven until constant weight was reached and 
then the dry weight of each sample was determined. The difference 
between the moist and the dry weights of the sample was then 
divided by the dry weight of the sample, to get the percentage of 
moisture. An average of the moisture content of all samples taken 
on a plat was considered the average moisture content of the plat. 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 5 

TREATMENT OF THE CROP. 

Methods employed. — The Turkey winter wheat (C. I. No. 2998), a 
hard, red variety, was used in all the experiments except where 
otherwise stated. Except in the tests dealing directly with seeding 
problems, the plats of each test were sown on the same date, at a 
uniform depth, and at a uniform rate (3 pecks per acre). After 
seeding, no cultivation was given until the following spring. Then, 
if deemed advisable, the plats were harrowed with a spike-tooth 
harrow to break the crust, which usually had formed as a result of 
conditions in winter and early spring. The breaking of the crust was 
intended to check evaporation and to stimulate the plants. One har- 
rowing was usually all the cultivation the crops received. Occasion- 
ally, however, weeding was necessary, and when hoes were used such 
weeding might be considered as cultivation. 

The crops were harvested with a binder, each plat being cut sepa- 
rately, usually when the grain was in the "hard-dough" stage. The 
bundles were always shocked, and then the plat was raked in order to 
prevent loss from fallen heads. The shocks generally stood in the 
field from three to four weeks before thrashing commenced. 

The grain of each plat was thrashed separately. Before thrashing, 
the entire crop was weighed. The weight of the grain after thrashing 
was subtracted from the total weight of the crop, thus giving the 
weight of straw per plat. The weight of straw or grain, multiplied 
by 5 or 10, according to the size of the plat, gave the yield per acre. 
The acre yield of grain in pounds was then divided by the standard 
weight per bushel to get the yield per acre in bushels. 

Sequence of operations . — The experiments here reported will be dis- 
cussed in the following order, which is based upon their relation to 
the sequence of operations necessary to dry-land crop production: 
Stubble treatment after harvest, plowing, cultivation of fallow, 
seeding the crop, cultivation of the crop, harvesting the crop, fre- 
quency of cropping, and diversity of the crops in the rotation. 

STUBBLE TREATMENT AFTER HARVEST. 

Iii ordinary practice in this region no cultivation precedes the 
plowing of the plats; however, to determine the value of different 
methods of treating the stubble land previous to the time of plowing, 
two tests were inaugurated in the fall of 191 1 . These tests have been 
(1) the burning of the stubble, as compared with plowing it under; 
and (2) the disking of the stubble immediately after harvest, as com- 
pared with no treatment of the stubble previous to plowing. Neither 
of these tests has been in progress long enough to give any dependable 
information. 



c> 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUEE. 



In the plowing experiments at the Nephi substation comparisons 
have been made between spring and fall plowing; subsoiling, deep 
plowing, and shallow plowing; also between deep fall plowing followed 
by shallow spring plowing and shallow fall plowing followed by deep 
spring plowing. Most of the experiments have been in progress since 
1908., and enough data are available to warrant a rather full discussion 
at this time. 

Fall and Spring Plowing. 

Since the test of fall and spring plowing was commenced in the 
fall of 1908, four tenth- acre plats have been used, thus permitting 
the practice of alternately cropping and fallowing the plats. The 
use made of each plat in each year since 1908 is shown in Table I. 

Table I. — Use of plats at the Nephi substation for the years 1908 to 1913, inclusive. 



Plat. 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


12A... 
J3A... 


Winter wheat. 
do 


Fallow 

do 


Winter wheat. 
do 

Fallow 

do 


Fallow 

do 

Winter wheat. 
do 


Winter wheat. 
do 

Fallow 

do 


Fallow. 
Do. 


15P . . . 
16D .. 


Fallow 

do 


Winter wheat. 
do 


Winter wheat. 
Do. 


1 













From 1904 to 1908 the plats were alternately fallowed and cropped 
to winter wheat in the same manner indicated above. During these 
four years all plats received practically uniform treatment, being 
plowed in the fall and allowed to lie until the spring of the following 
year, when they were double disked and harrowed and then fallowed, 
with normal treatment until seeding time in the fall. 

In the fall of 1908 plat 13A was plowed as usual, while plat 12A 
was not plowed until the spring of 1909. During the summer of 
1909 the plats received uniform treatment. In the fall of 1909 plats 
15D and 16D were segregated as alternates to plats 12A and 13A in 
this experiment. Plat 16D was plowed in the fall and left without 
further cultivation until the following spring. Plat 15D was plowed 
in the spring of 1910. Both plats were fallow during 1910 and 
received the same cultivation. 

It will be noticed that dining the last four years each of the plats 
in this test has been fallow two summers and has produced two 
crops of winter wheat, a total of four crops; that each year there have 
been two fallow plats and two cropped plats; that one plat of each 
pair has been plowed in the fall and the other in the spring; and that 
subsequent treatment has been as nearly the same in all cases as 
possible. 

In studying the relative value of spring and fall plowing, moisture 
conservation, yield per acre, and cost of production have been used 
as bases of comparison. 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS" AT NEPHI, UTAH. 



MOISTURE CONTENT OF FALLOW. 



Much of the argument in favor of fall plowing has been based 
upon the belief that the rough surface of fall-plowed land is in 
better condition than unplowed stubble land for absorbing the 
winter precipitation. For the purpose of determining the accuracy 
of this theory, soil-moisture studies were made in connection with 
the experiment discussed here. Soil samples were taken to a depth 
of 6 feet from each fallow plat at the beginning, in the middle, and 
at the end of the season, and the moisture content of each foot 
section was determined, as previously described in this bulletin. 
The data thus collected during the four years from 1909 to 1912, 
inclusive, are presented in Table II, which shows the annual and 
average percentages of moisture in each foot of soil and the average 
percentages in the first 6 feet of soil on each of the fallow plats in 
April, June, and September. 

Table II. — Annual and average percentages of moisture for each of the first 6 feet of soil 
in fallow plats in a test of spring plowing compared with fall plowing at the Nephi 
substation, samples taken in April, June, and September, for the years 1909 to 1912, 
inclusive. 



Season and depth of 
sampling. 



Spring plowing: 
lfoot 

2 feet 

3 feet 

4 feet 

5 feet 

6 feet 



Average. 

Fall plowing: 

1 foot 

2 feet 

3 feet 

4feet 

5 feet 

6 feet 



Average. 



Date of determination. 



1900 



20. 60 
20.37 
20. 10 
20.10 
18. 70 
19. 30 



19. 86 



21.10 
20. 92 
20. 00 
19. 80 
17.97 
18.65 



19.74 



15.90 
19.45 
18.80 
19.10 
19.17 
19.0 



18.58 



14.60 
19.60 
19. 60 
18.85 
17.90 
20. 32 



18. 4S 



17.05 
19.00 
20.45 
20.15 
19.10 
18.40 



19.02 



1910 



21.27 
21. 25 

20.50 
21.07 
21.40 
19. 05 



20.76 



17.65 
17.60 
19.05 
18.95 
17.75 
19. 30 



20. 93 
20.88 
20.13 
19.80 
19.10 
19.57 



18. 38 20. 07 



12.35 
18.93 

18.70 
18.48 
20. 10 

18.80 



11.88 
18.38 
17.65 
15.78 
16.88 
17, 



17.89116.40 



14.45 12.83 
19.4818.05 



18. 20 
19. 25 
18.55 

19. 80 



18.20 



17. S3 
17.75 
17. 05 
16.98 



10.75 



20.48 
19.57 
21.02 
19.34 
17.04 
17.20 



19.11 



1.29 
21.59 
20. 03 
15.24 
16.13 
18.78 



IS. So 



15. 80 
19.36 
19.09 

17.78 
16.69 

17.78 



17.76 



17.98 
19.60 
17. 55 
14.76 
14.79 
16.75 



16. 90 



13. 09 14. 
18. 10;22. 65 
16.93 21.88 
17.12 22.55 
15.34 22.07 
17.73 18.60 

16. 38 20. 46 



12. 26121. 55 
17.76:21.45 



17.43 
15.76 
14.95 
15. 25 



19. 62 
12. 82 
11.39 
14 



16.97 



14.18 
19.80 
19.70 
20.50 
20. 34 
18. 20 



18. 79 



15. 82 
19.63 
18.25 
15.21 
13.30 
18. 40 



Hi. 



12.59 
19.47 
19.55 
19.63 

17.80 
15. 05 



17. 35 



13. 29 
18.67 
18.13 
15.45 
12.40 
14. 49 



15.41 



Four-year 
average. 



19.33 

20.96 
20. 87 
20.76 
19.80 
18.54 



20. 04 



21.22 
2L21 
19.94 
16.91 
16.15 
IS. 00 



18.90 



14.57 
19.38 
19.07 
18.96 
19.08 
18. 46 



IS. 25 



15.71 
19.58 
18.40 
17.02 
16.13 
18.82 



17.61 



13. 65 
18.74 
18.64 
18.17 
17.28 
17.24 

17.29 



14.01 
18.02 
18.11 
16.98 
15.54 
16.50 

16. 53 



Table II shows (1) that in every case except the second and third 
sampling of 1910 the average percentage of moisture in the 6 feet 
of soil was higher in the spring-plowed plat; (2) that the first foot 
of soil in the fall-plowed plat contained, as a rule, a higher percentage 
of moisture than the first foot of the spring-plowed plat; (3) that 
the slight difference in the moisture content of the second foot of 
the plats favored the fall-plowed plat during the spring and summer, 
while it favored the spring-plowed plat at seeding time in the fall; 



BULLETIN 157, IT. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



(4) that the average moisture content of the third, fourth, and fifth 
feet was invariably in favor of the spring-plowed plat; (5) that there 



2/ 




































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^ 











/9/2 



AX/E&AGE 



(0 ^ 



20 






k 

,/s 



Fig. 1.— Graphs showing the average percentage of moisture in the first 6 feet of soil at the beginning, 
in the middle, and at the end of the fallow season, as found in the spring-plowing and fall-plowing 
tests at the Nephi substation, 1909 to 1912, inclusive. 

was little difference in the moisture content of the samples of the 
sixth foot; and (6) that the loss of moisture from spring to fall was 



tj\ 
























APP/L SAMPL/A/G 



JUA/E SAMPL/A/G 



SEPT SAMPL/AJG 












































1 
1 

Jl 




\ 

\ 
\ 
\ 






ll 






\ 
\ 


/ 








> 


/ 


1/ 





















2 3 
DEPTH /AJ 



Fig. 2.— Graphs comparing the average percentage of moisture in each of the upper 6 feet of soil at the 
beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the fallow season, as found in the spring-plowing and fall- 
plowing tests at the Nephi substation, 1909 to 1912, inclusive. 



about the same on both plats, 
in figures 1, 2, and 3. 



These facts are shown graphically 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 



The facts thus brought out seem to indicate that at Nephi stubble 
land allows the winter precipitation to penetrate to greater depths 
than fall-plowed land and that the loose surface of the fall-plowed 
land retains more of the precipitation of winter than the compact 
surface of the stubble land. They indicate, further, that when the 
stubble land is plowed in the spring it loses much of the moisture in 
the surface foot, as does also the fall-plowed land when it is replowed 
or double disked, one of these operations always being necessary in 
the spring on fall-plowed land. This is decidedly to the disadvantage 



22 



SP/P/A/G PLOW/A/G 



FALL PLOW/A/G 




4 S 6 / 
OFPT/J /A/ 

Fig. 3.— Graphs showing the average seasonal decline in percentage of moisture in each of the upper 
6 feet of soil, as found in the spring-plowing and fall-plowing tests at the Nephi substation, 1909 to 
1912, inclusive. 

of the fall-plowed land, which during the winter retains so much 
moisture in the surface foot. Lastly, the facts brought out' show 
that the moisture content of the soil below the surface foot was prac- 
tically constant throughout the season. This was favorable to the 
spring-plowed land, which had allowed the moisture to penetrate 
into the third, fourth, and fifth feet. That winter wheat makes use 
of moisture found at these depths is evidenced by the fact that in 
1910 the roots of a winter- wheat plant growing on the station were 
found to extencl more than 7 feet below the surface of the ground. As 
the spring-plowed plats had some advantage in soil-moisture content 
below the second foot, the higher yields on these plats were anticipated. 
63648°— Bull. 157—15 2 



10 BULLETIN 157, XJ. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

YIELD OF GRAIN. 

The annual and average yields of winter wheat in bushels per acre 
from 1910 to 1913, inclusive, are presented in Table III and are com- 
pared graphically in figure 4. 

Table III.— Annual and average yields of winter wheat from fall-plowed and spring- 
plowed plats at the Nephi substation, 1910 to 1913, inclusive. 





Yield per acre of grain (bushels). 


Treatment. 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Average. 




14 
12 


33 
29 


22 
22 


5 

4 


18.5 




16.8 







The yields reported in Table III agree fairly with the moisture data 
reported in Table II. The average difference in yield of 1.7 bushels 



1{ 



r/eto W BUSHELS PE# Ac/?e 
O /2 /* /6 /3 20 22 2* 26 28 30 32 3* 



/fO 

/20 



^^^rzzzzna 



^(330 

§\2S.O 

^(220 
^\220 

«J I SO 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



wm 



-znn 



(/ssWmWBBU 



v0?. y////y////y. -wfa. wmmz ^ 



— ~; y%y///)v///M//M 



EXPL4M7,'OA/- 
s'Pf?/,V6 P, 



§1 

M 

Fig. 4.— Diagram comparing the annual and average yields obtained in the spring-plowing and fall- 
plowing tests at the Nephi substation, 1910 to 1913, inclusive. 

per acre favors spring plowing, which has given yields equal to or 
greater than fall plowing each year since the experiment began. 
This small difference in yield, however, is not so important in itself 
as it is when considered jointly with the cost of production. 

RELATIVE COST OP TALL AND SPRING PLOWING. 

Fall plowing is more difficult than spring plowing, and for this 
reason it generally costs more. The difference in cost at the substa- 
tion has varied between 15 and 25 cents an acre, with an average of 
20 cents. In addition to this, it has been observed that the plats 
which were spring plowed were more nearly free from weeds and 
volunteer grain during the fallow period than the plats plowed in the 
fall. It was always necessary to replow or double disk the fall- 
plowed plats in the spring, owing to a rather vigorous growth of weeds 
and volunteer grain. Even these operations often failed to destroy 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 11 

all vegetative growth, so that, in order to keep the fallow clean, some 
weeding was necessary two or three times during the summer. It 
seems probable that fall plowing turns under weed seeds and grain 
kernels, some of which lie dormant until they are brought to the 
surface again the next spring by replowing or disking the land. 
Thus the operation which is intended to destroy all growth induces 
further growth by bringing other seeds into a position favorable to 
germination. Their growth requires frequent weeding of the fallow. 
These extra operations were unnecessary on the spring-plowed plats, 
and consequently the cost of producing crops on these plats was reduced 
to a point substantially below that on the fall-plowed plats. 

The average cost of spring plowing was $1.93 per acre, while fall 
plowing cost $2.13. Replowing the fall-plowed land cost on an 
average $1.85 per acre, while double disking the fall-plowed land cost 
about 75 cents per acre, making an average cost of $1.30 and increas- 
ing the cost of fall plowing to $3.43. The subsequent weeding of the 
fall-plowed land cost about 25 cents per acre. This, added to the 
cost of plowing and replowing or double disking, makes the total cost 
of fall plowing $3.68, as compared with $1.93 for spring plowing, a 
difference of $1.75 per acre. These figures, of course, do not include 
the cost of cultivating the fallow, seeding and harvesting the crop, 
etc., which was the same on all plats and hence need not be con- 
sidered here. 

It has been shown that spring plowing has given an average yield 
of 1.7 bushels per acre more than fall plowing. The average market 
value of wheat at Nephi during the past four years has been 75 cents 
per bushel. Spring plowing, then, has yielded $1.28 more per acre 
than fall plowing. The extra income added to $1.75, the amount 
saved by spring plowing as compared with fall plowing, makes the 
difference in net return $3.03 per acre in favor of spring plowing. 

The fact that spring plowing at the substation was done as early 
in the year as possible must receive emphasis at this point. The land 
at that time was in good condition for plowing, and it turned over in 
excellent shape. Later plowing was found to be less desirable. For 
this reason it might be advisable for farmers in distributing their 
farm labor to plow enough in the fall to allow them to plow all the 
rest of their land at the proper time in the spring. This practice is 
followed by many of the more successful farmers in the vicinity of 
Nephi. 

Depth of Fall Plowing. 

Previous to 1908 all of the eight plats used in the fall depth-of- 
plowing test were given treatment as nearly uniform as possible, 
being alternately fallowed and cropped to winter wheat. In the fall 
of 1908 four adjacent plats, 16A, 17A, 18A, and 19A, were set aside 
for this test. Alternate plats, 16C, 17C> 18C, and 19C, were added 



12 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



in the fall of 1909. Since this time the plats have been alternately 
fallowed and cropped to winter wheat, receiving uniform treatment 
in every case except in the depth of plowing. They were replowed 
or double disked each year in order to destroy weeds and volunteer 
grain. 

The depth of plowing on the different plats in the fall of 1908, 1910, 
and 1912 was as follows: 16A, subsoiled, 18 inches; 17A, subsoiled, 
15 inches; 18A, plowed, 10 inches; 19 A, plowed, 5 inches. The 
depth of plowing on the different plats in the fall of 1909, 1911, and 
1913 was as follows: 16C ; subsoiled, 18 inches; 17C, subsoiled, 15 
inches; 18C, plowed, 10 inches; 19C, plowed, 5 inches. 

Table IV. — Annual and average percentages of moisture for each of the first 6 feet of 
soil in plats plowed to different depths at the Nephi substation, samples taken in April, 
June, and September, for the years 1909 to 1912, inclusive. 

SUBSOILED 18 INCHES DEEP. 





Date of determination. 


Depth of sampling. 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


Average. 




CO 
ft 

< 


00 
CN 

a> 

a 

a 

1-5 


CO 
CI 

ft 
m 


CO 

u 

ft 

< 


CO 

a 

a 

3 

1-5 


ft 

CD 


00 

ft 

< 


a 

H5 


ft 
m 


o5 

ft 

< 


00 

CD 

a 

3 


CO 

ft 

CD 
W 


u 

ft 

< 


a5 
a 


ft 
m 


1 foot 


22.00 
21.40 
21.25 
20.00 
19. 05 
19.50 


17.37 
21.35 
19. 55 
19.45 
19.50 
20.22 


18.05 
20.40 
19.55 
19.00 
18. 65 
20.60 


20. 35 
20.70 
20.70 
19.95 
19.15 
20.03 


13.13 
19.48 
19.33 

18.38 
17.83 
18.75 


13.05 

19.80 
16.53 
17.65 
17.83 
18.93 


19.50 
20.45 
15.20 
13.19 

14.72 
16.58 


14.83 
18.41 
16.90 
14.63 
15. 51 
17.79 


15.95 
17.79 
18.17 
17.08 
16.30 
17.46 


20.99 
21.71 
18.61 
12.95 
13.35 
12.47 


18.89 
20. 98 
19.60 
16.65 
14.64 
17.89 


9.68 
18.51 
17.38 
14.98 
10.48 
15.91 


20.71 
21.07 
18.94 
16.52 
16.57 
17.15 


16.06 

20.06 
18.85 
17.28 
16.87 
18.66 


14.18 


2 feet 


19.13 


3feet 


17.91 


4feet 


17.18 


5 feet 


15.82 


6feet 


18.23 








20.53 


19 57 


19 38 


20.15 


17.82 


17.30 


16.61 


16.35 


17.12 


16.68 


18.11 


14.49 


18.49 


17.96 


17.07 











SUBSOILED 15 INCHES DEEP. 



lfoot 

2 feet 

3feet 

4feet 

5 feet 

6 feet 

Average 



21.62 
22.40 
20.65 
20. 20 

18.50 
19.90 



18.20 
20. 80 
19.60 
19.15 
18.30 
21.35 



20.54 



19.57 



18.00|20.27 
19. 70 21. 23 
19. 75 20. 57 



19. 55 
18.90 

20. 25 



19.63 

17.75 
20. 15 



19.3619.93 



14.35 
18.60 

18.78 
17.70 



14.30 
20.25 
18.40 
17.60 



17.6517.28 
19.05 18.90 



17.79 



17.79 



20.73 
21.02 
16.70 
15. 93 
14.81 
18. 20 



17.90 



16.75 
19.68 
13.47 
18.38 
15.20 
19.11 



17.10 



18. 20 

19. 66 
19.50 
17.98 
15.71 
19. 22 



26. 94 
21.50 
18.85 
17.51 
12.70 
18. 25 



16.97 13.82,22.39 
20.3019. 60:21. 54 



16.57 
17.58 
13.52 
19.01 



18.3719.14 



15.91 
13.00 
16.11 



IS. 38 19. 29 17. 33 16. 14 19. 41 17. 95 17. 92 



18.32 
15.94 
19.13 




PLOWED 10 INCHES DEEP. 



lfoot 

2feet 

3feet 

4 feet 

5 feet 

6feet 

Average 



21.63 16.40 
22. 45 21. 05 
21.4519.80 
20. 35 18. 85 
20. 32 IS. 20 
20.67 20.60 

21.14 19.15 



17.70 
20. 00 
19.65 
18.40 
15.95 
is. 90 



18. 43 



20. 95 
21.97 

20. 82 
19.92 

20. 90 

21. 52 



21.01 



14.98 
18.70 
19.25 

17.80 
18.10 

18.88 



17.95 



15. 35 
20. 45 
18.68 

17. SS 
17. 75 

18. 88 



18.17 



20. 90 
18.20 
17.84 
14.46 
15.80 
17.99 



17.80 
20. 83 
19.89 
17.15 
16.14 
18.43 



17.53 



IS. 37 



16. 39 
20. 03 

19. 63 
18. 45 
17. OS 
17.27 



18.14 



17.19 



18. 23 
19. 83 
18.64 
15.38 
13.22 
16.51 



16. o; 



13. 91 
18.63 
18.09 
15.72 
13. 55 
15.59 



21.40 
21.13 
20.13 
17.35 
17.09 
IS. 22 



15. 92 



19.22 



16.85 
20.10 
19.40 
17. 30 
16.42 
18.61 



18.11 



17.66 



PLOWED 5 INCHES DEEP. 



lfoot 

2 feet 

3feet 

4feet 

5 feet 

6 feet 

Average 



21.65 
21.85 
21.20 
20. 30 
19.55 
20. 00 



20. 76 



15.10 
20.40 
19. 35 
18.50 
17.92 
IS. 95 



18. 3' 




18.5119.15 



15. 65 
19. 98 
17.30 
16. 68 
18.93 
15. 93 



17.41 



14. 8.3 
19. SS 
18.50 
18.13 
19.73 
15.50 



17.76 



20. 90 
21.38 
17.48 
13.12 
14.78 
15.23 



17.15 



17.94 
20. 54 
19.17 
17.26 
15.59 
16. 59 



17.50 
19.55 
19.44 
17. 59 
17.20 
17.19 



22. 40 
24. 07 
19.07 
14.25 
16. 42 
16. 20 



18.74 



18.73 
19.40 
IS. 22 
16.29 
17.65 
15. 65 



17.66 



20 21.46 
48 22. 15 
17 19.21 
1516.33 
56! 17. 30 
7516.95 



17.89 18.90 



16.85 
20.08 
18.51 
17.18 
17.52 
16. 7S 



17.82 



16.15 
19.65 
19.28 
18.12 
18.37 
16.79 

18.06 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 



13 



It will be seen from the above that during each year since 1908 
four adjacent plats, each plowed to a different depth, have been 
fallow and that since 1909 these four plats, with four alternates, have 
been cropped or fallowed. This arrangement has afforded an oppor- 
tunity each year to study soil moisture on the fallow plats and yields 
on the cropped plats, as influenced by shallow plowing, deep plowing, 
and subsoiling. 

MOISTURE CONTENT OF FALLOW. 

All of the fallow plats of each year were sampled at the beginning, 
in the middle, and at the end of the season. Samples were taken to 

A90.V /9/0 /3// /9'2 AV&Z4GS 




Fig. 5.— Graphs showing the average percentage of moisture in the first 6 feet of soil at the beginning, 
in the middle, and at the end of the fallow season, as found in the spring-plowing and fall-plowing 
tests at the Nephi substation, 1909 to 1912, inclusive. 

a depth of 6 feet, and the moisture content of each foot section was 
determined separately. Table IV presents the data collected from 
1909 to 1912, inclusive, and shows the annual and average percentage 
of moisture in each foot section of soil and the average of the 6-foot 
section in April, June, and September. 

The data presented in Table IV show (1) that there was very little 
difference in the soil-moisture content of these plats in the spring, 
summer, or fall; (2) that all of the plats uniformly lost much of the 
moisture of the first foot during the spring cultivation necessary to 
rid the plats of weeds and volunteer grain and to prepare them for 
the fallow season; (3) that the moisture below the first foot remained 



14 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



practically the same on all plats during the fallow season; and (4) 
that the average percentage of moisture in the fall was lower for the 
plats subsoiled to a depth of 18 inches than for any of the other plats. 
These facts are shown graphically in figures 5, 6, and 7. 

The points thus brought out show that, so far as soil moisture is 
concerned, there was no advantage in deep plowing or subsoiling, for 
the moisture content of the plat plowed 5 inches deep (shallow plow- 
ing) was as high as that of any of the others. So far as the prepara- 
tion of a seed bed is concerned, however, it was found that in most 
cases the shallow plowing was less desirable because the stubble was 
not turned under as well as by the deeper plowing. Because of this 
the surface of the shallow-plowed plat usually contained much trash, 



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OePTH W FEET 

Fig. 6.— Graphs comparing the average percentage of moisture in each of the upper 6 feet of soil at the 
beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the fallow season, as found in the fall depth-of-plowing 
tests at the Nephi substation, 1909 to 1912, inclusive. 

which interfered somewhat with the operation of the drill when the 
plat was seeded. 

YIELD OF GRAIN. 

The annual and average yields of the plats in these tests are pre- 
sented in Table V and are shown graphically in figure 8. 

Table V.— Annual and average yields of winter wheat on plats used in the depth-of-. 
plowing tests at the Nephi substation, 1910 to 1918, inclusive. 



Subsoiled 18 inches deep 
Subsoiled 15 inches deep 
Plowed 10 inches deep. . 
Plowed 5 inches deep. . . 



Yield per acre of grain (bushels). 



1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Average. 


14. 


2S 


.18 


4 


1G.0 


13 


29 


19 


6 


16.7 


13 


29 


21 


7 


17.5 


12 


27 


20 


10 


17.2 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 



15 



The yields obtained in this test, as shown in Table V, agree with 
the moisture content of the plats, as previously discussed. The 
highest average yield was obtained from the plats plowed 10 inches 
deep, and the lowest average yield was obtained from the plats 
subsoiled 18 inches deep, while the plats plowed 5 inches deep gave 
better yields than those subsoiled 15 inches deep. The widest 
difference in the yields, however, is not significant. The point most 
strongly emphasized by the results is that there was no material 
difference in the yields obtained from plats plowed at depths varying 
from 5 to J. 8 inches. 



RELATIVE COST OP PLOWING AND SUBSOILING. 

Since there was no material difference in the moisture content or 
in the yields of the plats included in the depth-of-plowing tests, it is 



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Fig. 7.— Graphs showing the average seasonal decline in percentage of moisture in each of the upper 
6 feet of soil, as found in the fall de'pth-of-plowing tests at the Nephi substation, 1909 to 1913, 
inclusive. 

well to consider the cost of crop production on the plats to determine, 
if possible, the comparative value of each operation. The subsoiled 
plats were first plowed and then subsoiled, the subsoiler following in 
the plow furrow. The draft of the subsoiler was as great as that of 
the plow ; hence, the subsoiling entailed twice the expense of plowing 
and did not increase the yield of the plat. For this reason there was 
nothing in favor of and much against subsoiling as tested at Nephi. 
There was so little difference between the yields of the two plowed 
plats that it is difficult to see any advantage in favor of deep plowing 
over shallow plowing. In fact, when considered from the standpoint 
of net returns, there was no advantage for deep plowing, because of 
the greater expense incurred. The most evident point in favor of 
deep plowing seems to be, as previously noted, that it covers the 
stubble better and this obviates some trouble at seeding time. Had 
some plats been plowed at different depths between 5 and 10 
inches and some others plowed at these same depths in the spring 
as well as in the fall, it is possible that some more significant data 



16 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



would have been obtained. With the data available, however, the 

question seems to be not so much how deep to plow as how well to 

plow. 

Depth of Fall and Spring Plowing. 

As already stated, there is always need in the spring of replowing 
or double disking land that has been plowed the previous fall. Be- 
cause of this condition, an experiment was commenced in 1911 to 
determine whether it is best to plow deep in the fall and then shallow 
in the spring, or vice versa. In this test, plats 24C and 25C have 
been used alternately with plats 25A and 26A. One plat was plowed 



WELD //V BOSS/ELS PEf? 
8 /O /2 /* /6 /8 



/1C/?E 
20 22 



24 26 28 30 




Fig. 8.— Diagram comparing the annual and average yields obtained in the fall depth-of-plowing 
tests at the Nephi substation, 1910 to 1913, inclusive. 

only 3 inches deep in the fall, while the other was plowed 8 inches 
deep at the same time. The following spring the plat which was 
fall plowed 3 inches deep was replowed 8 inches deep, while the other 
plat was replowed only 3 inches deep. These plats were compared 
with an adjacent plat treated according to general practice in the 
region. 

The soil-moisture determinations made in 1912 show no difference 
between the two methods. The yields of 1913, however, slightly 
favor the plat plowed 8 inches deep in the fall and 3 inches deep in 
the spring, but the difference is not significant. The test must be 
continued for several years before the results will be of value. 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 17 

CULTIVATION OF FALLOW. 

The purpose of the experiments in cultivating fallow land has been 
to determine the value of cultivation as compared with no cultiva- 
tion. Very little has been done to determine the relative value of 
such factors as depth, method, and frequency of cultivation, etc., 
further than to observe and to note differences whenever they were 
apparent. These factors are so variable, however, that the notes 
made do not suggest any established principles. 

Cultivation of Fall-Plowed Fallow. 

Since 1908 two pairs of plats, alternately cropped and fallowed, 
have been used at Nephi in an endeavor to determine the value of 
cultivation as compared with no cultivation of fall-plowed fallow. 
Two adjacent plats were plowed uniformly in the fall of each year, 
and both were allowed to lie in a rough condition through the follow- 
ing winter. During the next spring and summer one of these plats 
received normal cultivation, while the other was not cultivated. 
Both were seeded uniformly in the fall and the further treatment of 
the plats was identical. These two plats alternated with two other 
plats which received the same treatment. 

The cultivated fallow plat was replowed or double disked in the 
spring after fall plowing, to destroy weeds and volunteer grain. It 
was then harrowed, and during the succeeding summer it was har- 
rowed and weeded as often as necessary. At least three harrowings 
were given the plat — one in the spring, one in the summer, and another 
just prior to the time of seeding; and the plat was weeded once or 
twice. On the other plat, weeds and volunteer grain were allowed 
to grow, but all growth was clipped before it matured, in order to 
minimize subsequent weed trouble. 

MOISTURE CONTENT OF FALLOW. 

Soil samples were taken from the fallow plats at the beginning, 
in the middle, and at the end of the season. Six-foot borings were 
made and the moisture content of each foot section was determined 
in the usual manner. The data obtained from these determinations 
are presented in Table VI, which shows the annual and average per- 
centages of moisture in each foot and the average percentages in the 
6 feet in the spring, in the summer, and in the fall for both the culti- 
vated and the uncultivated fallow for the four years 1909 to 1912, 
inclusive. 

63648°— Bull. 157—15 3 



18 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Table VI. — Annual and average percentages of moisture in each of the first 6 feet of soil 
on cultivated and uncultivated fallow at the Nephi substation, samples taken in spring, 
summer, and fall, for the years 1909 to 1912, inclusive. 



FALLOW CULTIVATED NORMALLY. 















Date of determination. 












Depth of sampling. 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


Average. 


IN 
u 

ft 

< 


a 
3 


00 

ft 
m 


ft 

< 


a 

3 


ft 

a> 
CO 


00 

u 

ft 

< 


o 
Q 
3 

1-3 

17.39 
19.53 
19. 63 
18.80 
20. 80 
17.60 


ft 
a> 

CO 


IN 

U 

ft 
< 


IN 

O 

a 

3 

1-5 


o 
ft 

CO 


be 

B 

M 

ft 
CO 


a 

s 



3 

CO 


"3 


lfoot 

2 feet 


19.22 
19.60 
19.50 


16.35 
19.65 
19 50 


17.15 

16.55 
18. 85 
18.70 
IS. 05 
19.35 


14.50 
18. 20 
18.95 
19.33 
19.05 
19.30 


16. 05 13. 53 
18.8019.35 


18.82 
19.69 
18. 65 
14.95 
13.41 
17.44 


12.52 
17.74 
17.72 
16.56 
15.31 
17.89 


21.67 
22. 06 
20. 05 
13.32 
10.44 
15.85 


14.07 
19.87 
18.47 
14.20 
10.95 
13.92 


14.47 

1S.S8 


18.55 

19. 89 


15.97 
19.46 

18.86 
17.88 
17.02 
17. 66 


14.42 
18.13 


3 feet 


17. 85! 18. 03 
19.63118.68 


17. 85 19. 29 
14.1016.75 
12. 53 15.28 
13.54 18.15 

15. 23 1 17. 98 


18.11 


4 feet 


19.4018.90 


17.01 


5 feet 

6 feet 


18.20 
20.00 


18.00 
20. 30 


18.33 
18.80 


19. 15 
18.45 


16.26 
17.31 




19.32 


18.78 


18.11 


18.22 


18.24 


17.86 


17.16 


18.96 


16.29 


17.23 


15.25 


17.81 


16.87 






1 





FALLOW NOT CULTIVATED. 



lfoot 

2 feet 

3feet 

4feet 

5 feet 

6 feet 

Average 



18.60 
19.30 
20.45 
19.35 
19.05 
20. 57 



19.55 



12.6512.3012.85 
15. 80113.20 17.37 
16.55 14.1519.10 
17.5515.2518.93 



18.15 

20. 42 



16.85 



16.15 
18. 95 



19.35 
19.10 



17.79 



10.45 
14.05 

13. 28 
13. 80 
16. 18 
16. 63 



14.06 



S. 05 20. 00 12. 83| 9. 
12. 23 20. 16 14. 99 12. 
11.78 
10. 38 
13. 45 
15.33 



11.87 



61 '20. 

IIS I'll, 



4710.681 7. 
75 12.3611. 



11.10 
13.10 



14.89 
13.94 
18.11 



15.31 



21 1 12. 91 
8311.35 
27 14. 47 
15.76 



15. 78 



12. 92 



10.91 



17.98 
19.30 
18.66 
15.29 
15.19 
16.74 



17.20 



14.79 



9.32 
12.47 
12.35 
12.00 
13.17 
14.65 

12.34 



Table VI shows that the moisture content of the plats was practi- 
cally uniform in the spring, but that the differences increased 
as the season advanced. The moisture in the cultivated plat re- 
mained practically the same throughout the season, while that of 
the uncultivated plat rapidly decreased until by fall it was reduced 
to a comparatively low point. The first 4 feet seemed to lose more 
moisture than the fifth and sixth. These data are shown graphically 
in figures 9, 10, and 11. The fact that the moisture content of the 
second, third, and fourth feet of the uncultivated plat was reduced 
practically as much as on any of the cropped plats sampled suggests 
that a great deal of the moisture loss from the uncultivated plat was 
due to the growth of weeds and volunteer grain. 



YIELD OF GRAIN. 



The difference in the soil-moisture content of the plats, as shown 
in Table VI and figures 9, 10, and 1 1, is reflected in the yields obtained. 
These are reported in Table VII and are compared graphically in 
figure 12. It will be noticed that there is a difference of 4 bushels 
per acre in the average yield for the four years in favor of the culti- 
vated plats. This difference is more than enough to pay for the cul- 
tivation of the fallow. 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 



19 



Table VII. — Annual and average yields of winter wheat on cultivated and uncul- 
tivated/allow at the Nephi substation, for the years 1910 to 1913, inclusive. 





Treatment. 


Yield per acre of grain (bushels). 




1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Average. 




13 
14 


29 
18 


21 
15 


5 
5 


17 




13 


* 





Cultivation of Spring-Plowed Fallow. 



In the spring of 1912 tests similar to the ones last discussed were 
begun on spring-plowed fallow. Both plats produced winter wheat 





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Fig. 9.— Graphs showing the average percentage of moisture in the first 6 feet of soil at the beginning, 
in the middle, and at the end of the fallow season, as found in the summer-cultivation tests of fall- 
plowed fallow at the Nephi substation, 1909 to 1912, inclusive. 

in 191 1 and were left in stubble during the winter. They were plowed 
uniformly as soon as possible the next spring. One was then culti- 
vated normally during the summer of 1912, while the other was not 
cultivated. There were practically no weeds or volunteer grain on 



20 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



either plat, but whatever growth appeared on the cultivated plat 
was destroyed, while on the uncultivated plat it was allowed to remain 
but not to mature. Both plats were seeded uniformly in the fall 
of 1912 and they were treated alike during 1913. Two alternate 
plats were added to the test in 1912. 

Soil samples were taken from the fallow plats, and moisture deter- 
minations were made. These showed no appreciable difference in the 
moisture content of the plats in either the individual foot sections 
or the 6-foot averages. There was a uniform decline in the moisture 
content of the plats from spring to seeding time in the fall. The 



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Fig. 10— Graphs comparing the average percentage of moisture in each of the upper 6 feet of soil at 
the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the fallow season, as found in the summer-cultivation 
tests of fall-plowed fallow at the Nephi substation, 1909 to 1912, inclusive. 

yield of the plats in 1913, 11.9 and 9.5 bushels per acre, slightly 
favored the noncultivated plat, but there was so much winterkilling 
on both that the yields are not significant. 

The value of these tests was increased in 1912 by the addition of 
nine other plats, treated as follows: Two plats, light cultivation; two 
plats, medium cultivation; two plats, heavy cultivation; and three 
plats, no cultivation. 

These nine plats will be kept free from all vegetative growth. The 
noncultivated plats will be weeded with the least possible disturbance 
of the soil, thus affording an opportunity to study the value of cul- 
tivation methods for moisture conservation alone and not in connec- 
tion with weed eradication. 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 



21 



SEEDING WINTER CEREALS. 



Four important factors related to the seeding of winter cereals, 
namely, the time, depth, method, and rate of seeding, have been 
rather extensively considered in the experimental work of the Nephi 
substation since its beginning. All these factors are interrelated and 
are so regarded in ordinary farm practice, but at Nephi each has been 



CULT/VATED NORMALLY. 



A/OT CULT/l/ATEO. 







/O 



PALL 



-SPR/A/G SAAfPL/NG. 
-SUAfMEP r> 



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S 6 / 2 

DEPTAA /A/ P~EE7: 



Fig. 11.— Graphs showing the average seasonal decline in percentage of moisture in each of the upper 
6 feet of soil, as found in the summer-cultivation tests of fall-plowed fallow at the Nephi substation, 
1909 to 1912, inclusive. 

considered apart from the others arbitrarily, and the results are so 
presented herein. 

Time op Seeding Winter Cereals, 
wheat. 

The experiments dealing with the time of seeding winter wheat 
have been in progress since 1903. During that time winter wheat 
has been sown each year at a uniform rate of 3 pecks to the acre on 



22 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



each of the following dates: August 15, September 1, September 15, 
October 1, October 15, and November 1. In the years from 1904 to 
1907, inclusive, the variety used was the Odessa (C. I. No. 3274). 
This variety was replaced by the Koffoid (C. I. No. 2997) in 1908 
and 1909. From 1910 to 1913 both the Koffoid and the Turkey 
(C. I. No. 2998) have been used. Table VIII shows the average 
yields for the 6 years from 1904 to 1909, inclusive; the annual and 
average yields for both varieties for the 4 years from 1910 to 1913, 
inclusive; and the average yields for the entire 10-year period for 

V/ELD /A/ BUSHELS PER ACRE 
O 2 f- e a /O /Z /4 /6 /e 20 22 z* & za so 




Fig. 12.— Diagram comparing the annual and average yields obtained in the summer-cultivation 
tests of fall-plowed fallow at the Nephi substation, 1910 to 1913, inclusive. 

each of the six dates upon which the grain was sown. The average 
yields for the 10-year period are presented graphically in figure 13. 

Table VIII.— Annual and average yields of two varieties of winter wheat for the years 
1910 to 1913, showing also the average yields of one variety for the years 1904 to 1909, 
and of all varieties for the years 1904 to 1913, inclusive, in date-of -seeding tests at the 
Nephi substation. 





Yield per acre of grain (bushels). 






Annual yields. 


" Average yields. 


Date seeded. 


1 
1910 1911 


1912 1913 


1910-1913 


1904- 
1909,i one 
variety. 


1904-1913, 




Kof- 
foid. 


Tur- 
key. 


Kof- 
foid. 


Tur- 
key. 


Kof- 
foid. 


Tur- 
key. 


Kof- 
foid. 


Tur- 
key. 


Kof- 
foid. 


Tur- 
key. 


all 

varieties. 




15.60 
32.20 
12.20 
9.50 
11.70 
14.20 


I 
27.30 21.70 
36.80 17.80 
20. 80 1 33.80 
13.50J 29.90 
16.00 22.50 
17.80! 9.20 


23.50 
28.60 
36.50 
26.40 
6.00 
10.00 


13.50 
6.30 
9.40 

17. SO 
15.70 
4.20 


13.40 
5.30 
7.70 

15.90 
7.30 
7.30 


Failure. 
0.67 
2.67 
3.00 
1.17 
( 2 ) 


1.70 

6.83 
10.83 
10.67 

8.83 

( 2 ) 


12.70 
14.24 
14.52 
15. 05 
12.77 
9.20 


16.48 
19.38 
18.96 
16.62 
9.53 
11.70 


17.95 
20.32 
15.99 
22.00 
22.68 
20.46 


16.61 


Sept. 1 


18. 92 


Sept. 15 


16.29 


Oct. 1 


19.53 


Oct. 15 


18.07 


Nov. 1 


17.12 











i The average yields for the six years from 1904 to 1909 presented here were taken from Circular 61, Bureau 
of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, in which they were presented m connection witn tne 
annual yields for the same period. 

» Not sown, because of stormy weather. 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 



23 



The results presented in Table VIII show no correlation between 
time of seeding and yield. Early seeding has given the best results 
in some years, while in others the best yields have come from late 
seeding, especially those in October. It will be observed, however, 
that as a rule the best' yields have come from seeding between Sep- 
tember 1 and October 15. 



SOIL MOISTURE AT SEEDING TIME. 



Beginning in the fall of 1908, the plats used in the time-of -seeding 
test were sampled to a depth of 6 feet just prior to the seeding of the 
plats. In the later years, when two varieties were sown, composite 
samples of both plats were taken. The percentages of moisture in 



2 4 6 & /O /2 A? 



/s 




zo 



\/9.£ 



Fig. 13.— Diagram comparing the 10-year average yields of winter wheat obtained in the time-of- 
seeding tests at the Nephi substation, 1904 to 1913, inclusive. 

each foot of soil at seeding time as shown by these samples are given 
in Table IX. 



Table IX. — Annual and average percentages of moisture in each of the first 6 feet of soil 
at different dates of seeding at the Nephi substation, for the years 1908 to 1912, inclusive. 



Date of seeding. 


Depth of 
sampling. 


1908' 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


Average. 




1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


16.40 

17.30 

14.12 

12.45' 

12.95 

12.37 


14.60 
19.05 
17.10 
18.30 
20. 60 
18.15 


12.85 
17.44 
16.12 
17.33 
18.25 
17.20 


12.67 
15.55 
10.87 
10.84 
12.24 
14.48 


13.65 
17.75 
14.48 
12.40 
9.88 
11.60 


14.03 
17.42 
14.54 
14.26 
14.78 
14.76 






14.26 


17.96 


16.53 


12.78 


13.29 


14.96 




f 1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 




Sept. 1 


15.95 
18.10 
15.35 
10.70 
9.75 
10.82 


17.30 
18.30 
17.75 
19.45 
17.75 
18.30 


14.73 
17.33 
16.28 
17.05 
16.50 
19.15 


11.60 
15.04 
11.80 
10.75 
8.01 
9.08 


15.65 
18.83 
15.87 
12.03 
10.60 
13.12 


15.05 
17.52 
15.41 
14.00 
12.52 
14.09 






13.44 


18.14 


16.84 


11.05 


14.35 


14.76 




( 1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 




Sept. 15 


16.32 
16.70 
14.92 
10.22 

1(1.57 
11.45 


17.45 
18.75 
17.00 
17.55 
16.85 
17.40 


12.10 
17.38 
16.53 
17.45 
16.22 
17.65 


9.97 
12.53 
11.20 
12.44 
11.93 
11.00 


11.91 
16.69 
15.24 
13. 09 
9.23 
10.61 


13.55 
16.41 
14.98 
14.15 
12.96 
13.62 






13.36 


17.50 


16. 22 


11.51 


12.80 


14.28 









One plat only. In each of the other years the figures given are the average of two plats. 



24 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Table IX.— Annual and average percentages of moisture in each of the first 6 feet of soil 
at different dates of seeding at the Nephi substation, for the years 1908 to 191?, inclu- 
sive — Continued . 



Date of seeding. 


Depth of 
sampling. 


1908' 


1909 


1910 

4 


1911 


1912 


Average. 


Oct. 1 


f 1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 


20.00 
19.40 
15.55 
11.27 
10.77 
12.72 


15.60 
18.90 
16.00 
17.90 
16.70 
17.05 


12.88 
16.43 
16.58 
16.78 
18.38 
16.33 


13.47 
16.07 
14.98 
15.24 
14.34 
14.23 


12.55 
17.00 
14.49 
13.17 
13.57 
13.37 


14.90 
17.56 
15.52 




14.87 
14.75 
14.74 




14.95 


17.02 


16.23 


14.72 


14.03 


15.39 


Oct. 15 


f 1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


16.90 
18.60 
15.35 
14.10 
11.08 
10.92 


15.35 
17.75 
16.55 
16.05 
16.65 
17.75 


14.61 
16.80 
16.65 
16.33 
16.28 
18.00 


12.29 
14.98 
14.63 
13.57 
11.95 
13.14 


17.87 
18.59 
17.40 
15.92 
13.75 
15.45 


15.40 
17.34 
16.12 
15 19 




13.94 
15.05 




14.49 


16.68 


16.44 


13.44 


16.50 


15.51 


Nov. 1 


i 1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


18.55 
20.52 
19.72 
13.90 
11.15 
10.37 


13.95 
17.35 
16.20 
13.95 
14.15 
14.50 


17.85 
18.78 
18.30 
17.63 
17.05 
16.55 


14.68 
18.02 
14.60 
11.25 
8.97 
15.49 


( 2 ) 


f 16. 26 

18.67 
17.21 
14 18 




12.83 
I 14. 23 




15.70 


15.02 


17.69 


13.84 




15.56 











i One plat only. In each of the other years the figures given are the average of two plats. 
2 Stormy weather prevented the sampling and seeding of these plats. 

It will be noticed in Table IX that there was no great difference in 
the average moisture content of the plats. The surface foot, usually 
very dry in the first few inches, varied in moisture content to some 
extent, owing partly to rainfall, but even in this foot the variation is 
within the limits of experimental error. Moisture in the first foot of 
soil is of chief importance at seeding time, because it is here that the 
plant starts life, and for this reason some relation between the moisture 
content of the first foot of soil at seeding time and the yield of the 
crop might be expected. This relation failed to appear, however, in 
any one year. That it was not apparent in an average for the four 
years from 1909 to 1912 is shown, in figure 14, in which the average 
moisture content of the first foot of soil on the six different dates of 
seeding, and the average yields of two varieties of winter wheat seeded 
on those dates are graphically presented. 

Figure 14 shows an apparent relationship between the moisture 
content of the first foot of soil and the yields of the plats seeded 
on the two earlier dates, but for later dates the curves run almost 
parallel to each other. A discussion of the physical factors influenc- 
ing the time of seeding will aid in explaining this condition. 

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE TIME OF SEEDING. 

On the dry lands of the Great Basin the best time for seeding 
winter wheat is greatly limited by climatic conditions. The long, 
dry summers exhaust the moisture of the fallow soil nearly to the 
depth to which the land is plowed, leaving the surface soil almost 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 25 



20 



/S 



/& 



/P 



/« 






dusty to a depth of 4 to 8 inches. This condition, combined with 
continued lack of rainfall, often preveuts the sowing of wheat 
until very late in the fall, sometimes until farmers are compelled 
to sow in order to have 
the seed in the ground 
before snow falls. It 
is impracticable to sow 
seed in the dry soil, be- 
cause it would not ger- 
minate until rain fell, 
and then, if the storms 
brought insufficient 
moisture for continued 
growth, the plant very g 
likely would die after 
sprouting. This makes ^ 
early seeding in dry soil ^ 
precarious. Farmers, Ijj 
realizing this fact, sel- 
dom seed " in the dust, " 
although good yields 
have sometimes been 
obtained from such 
seeding when it is fol- 
lowed by sufficient 
moisture for germina- 
tion and continued 
growth. 

It is almost impos- 
sible to place the seed 
below the dry soil, and, 
if it were possible, it is 
not practicable, b e - 
cause small seeds 
placed so deep often 
have difficulty in get- 
ting their first leaves ti & {£ ft fcj jo 

to the surface. These ^ ( <r> S 

facts explain why date: o/=- ^>^aa/t-/a/& 

tarmerS generally Wait Fig. 14.— Graph showing the average percentage of moisture in the 

for raill to wet the SUr- flrst foot of soil at seeain S time in tne faU and tne average yields 
„ .. of two varieties of winter wheat used in the time-of-seeding tests 

lace SOll before they at the Nephi substation, 1909 to 1913, inclusive. 

sow their wheat. In 

order to obtain the highest yields from winter wheat in the Great Basin, 
however, it is essential that the plants make at least a fair growth before 
winter begins. To get the desired growth, the seed should be sown 



/5 



J-4 



/3 



/2 




/O 



AVFF&GF PES? CF/VT 

OF MOJSTU/PE //V F/f?ST \ 

FOOT OF SO/L \ 

AVFftAGE: y/FLD OF \ 

KOFFO/D. I 

AVF/PAGE V/ELD OF 
TUf?K£y. 



V 

A 



zo 



ts 



ta 



I 



/o 



26 BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

not later than October 1. When seeding is delayed until very late 
in the fall there is great danger of injury to the young plants if 
germination occurs, from what may be termed "fall killing." They 
are in a very critical condition when freezing weather arrives. An 
open winter following this injury results in almost total failure of 
the crop, regardless of the tillage methods used in preparing the 
land and of the amount of moisture stored in it. 

As practical examples of the points brought out in the preceding 
discussion, the past four seasons, 1909-10 to 1912-13, are worthy 
of consideration. The seedings on August 15 and September 1, 
1909, were made when, owing to recent rains, there was plenty of 
moisture in the first foot to cause good growth. The yields of these 
plats in 1910 were high in comparison with those of the plats sown 
later, when the weather was dry and cold. The seedings on Sep- 
tember 15, 1910, were made under conditions similar to those in 
August, 1909. The yields on these plats were higher than those 
seeded "in the dust" in August and those sown late in October. 
In the fall of 1911 and again in 1912 the weather was dry until 
early October, after which time there was plenty of moisture, but 
the weather was cold. As a result of these conditions the yields 
of both early-sown and late-sown crops were low. Figure 15 shows 
the relation of precipitation to yield in this instance. The black- 
ened portions of the figure illustrate the daily precipitation from 
August 1 to November 30, inclusive, and the curves represent the 
yields in bushels per acre of the two varieties of wheat seeded on 
different dates during these months. 

It will be seen that early seeding if done in wet weather gave 
high yields, while it gave low yields, and sometimes almost failures, 
when done in dry weather. It is also shown that late seeding, even 
when there was plenty of moisture, often resulted in serious loss 
because of injury to the tender plants by freezing. There seems 
to have been some difference in the effect of these climatic condi- 
tions on the two varieties. This may have been due to a difference 
in the time of germination between the hard (Turkey) variety and 
the soft (Koffoid) variety. The writer is of the opinion that this 
difference in germination is largely responsible for the differences in 
yield. The soft wheat seems to germinate more rapidly than the 
hard wheat, and for this reason it is more advanced on a given date 
than the latter variety. This may not always be advantageous to 
it, as it may be in a tender stage of growth when drought or cold 
weather strikes it, and thus it may be injured more than the un- 
germinated seed of the hard variety. On the other hand, the soft 
wheat may be sufficiently far advanced to protect it from injury, 
while the slower germinating Turkey wheat may be still in a tender 
stage of growth. 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAII. 27 

The climatic and soil conditions under which these results were 

SE/ISO/V /309-/3/0. 
/It/ GpSr SEPTEMBER OCTQBEf? A/Ol/EMBE/? 




\ 

\ OS- 

o 













rV 


<■ 


'' 


y 


v. 
































jQ& 


!*■-" 












s 


\ 




























** 


fe 
















\ 


t 












































\ 




•-" 












I 












.1 




u 


4 




1 


















1 



SE/\SOA/ /9//-/S/2. 






\,o 
\ os 

ft o 

I 



SE/ISO/V /9/2 - /9/3. 



/.O 
OS 

































































































^k 


& 












&' 


^ 


n 


\ 
























^s^ 

^ 






-Z?i 




>•" 




1 






"V, 


— 1 


_^5 


^v— 














\ 




1 






I 




a 


.! 


n ■ 


s 












i 




1 




































































































































1 






t 


. — U- 




A 




#a 


e 7 l Z 


y/j 




n 








h 


Sa 


1 




1 



\sok 

20 

\ 

/o \ 

i 

•o$ 

"l 

o I 



40 



30 



20 

/O 

o 

Fig. 15.— Diagrams showing the precipitation at seeding time in the fall and curves showing the annual 
yields of two varieties of winter wheat used in the time-of-seeding tests at the Nephi substation, 
1909 to 1913, inclusive. 

obtained present problems of a different nature than those so far 



28 BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

studied. Early seeding, not later than October 1, seems desirable, 
but as this is not always practicable, owing to a dry seed bed, the 
chief problem seems to be a mechanical one involving some im- 
provement of the machinery now used in seeding the grain. The 
improvement believed to be necessary comprises a means for open- 
ing a furrow through the dry surface soil, sowing the seed in moist 
earth at the bottom of the furrow, and leaving the furrow partly 
open so that the plants will not have to force their way through 
several inches of dry soil. It is believed that seed could be sown 
with good results in dry weather by this method, as the seed would 
germinate rapidly and a good stand of grain would be established 
before winter, thus greatly increasing the possibilities of a good crop. 

BARLEY, OATS, AND EMMER. 

In the fall of 1911 date-of-seeding tests with winter barley, winter 
oats, and whiter emmer were begun. Four dates were used for each 
grain, namely, September 1, September 15, October 1, and October 
15. All grains were sown at the rate of 6 pecks per acre on the "oats" 
side of the drill. As has already been explained in connection with 
the discussion of the time of seeding winter wheat, there was much 
winterkilling in the seasons of 1911-12 and 1912-13, and, conse- 
quently, the results obtained from these experiments with barley, 
oats, and emmer are of little value. The tests are being continued, 
however. 

Depth op Seeding Winter Cereals. 

Depth-of-seeding tests with winter wheat have been in progress 
since the fall of 1908, while similar tests with winter barley, winter 
oats, and winter emmer were begun in 1911. In all the tests, seed 
has been sown at three different depths, 1.5, 3, and 6 inches, the 
drill being set in the first, second, or third notch, according to the 
depth desired. In all respects other than depth of seeding, the plats 
in each test were treated uniformly. 

• Each fall the plats were seeded at what was considered the best 
time. Sometimes, as in 1909 and 1910, it was possible to sow the 
seed early enough to obtain a fair growth before winter and, as a re- 
sult, good yields were obtained. On the other hand, as in 1908, 1911, 
and 1912, seeding was not possible until very late in the season, 
resulting in poor yields, for reasons already explained. 

The yields of winter barley, oats, and emmer were so small in 1912 
and 1913, because of late seeding and subsequent freezing, that they 
are not dependable and need not be presented here. The yields of 
winter wheat in 1913 also were very small, but as they are important 
in connection with the results of the preceding four years, the yields 
for the five years are presented in Table X. 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 



29 



Table X. — Annual and average yields of ivinter wheat sown at different depths at the 
Nephi substation, for the years 1909 to 1913, inclusive. 1 



Depth planted. 


Yield per acre of grain (bushels). 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Average. 




4.30 

M.07 

2.10 


20.20 
10.60 
15 


27.70 
28.50 
27.20 


16.30 
16.30 
19.10 


3.20 

2 

2 


14. 34 




13. 49 




13. 08 







i The Koffoid variety (C. I. No. 2997) was used in 1909, while Turkey (C. I. No. 2998) was used from 
1910 to 1913, inclusive. 
2 Average yield of seven check plats. 

The results of five years as recorded in Table X show very little 
difference in the average yield of winter wheat seeded at different 
depths. The yields of 1910, a good season, favored shallow seeding. 
Those of 1911, a better season, showed a slight advantage in favor 
of a medium depth of seeding. In fact, it seems that depth of seed- 
ing is less important than time of seeding, which, as has been 
shown, is governed at present by soil and climatic conditions. 

Method of Seeding Winter Wheat. 

Tests designed to determine the relative value of broadcasting, 
ordinary drilling, and cross drilling have been carried on at Nephi 
for several years. After what has been said concerning the soil and 
climatic conditions which usually obtain at seeding time in the fall, 
it is easy to see why broadcasting has been not nearly so successful 
as drilling. The broadcast plats have been practically failures each 
season that method of seeding has been tested, while the drilled plats 
yielded from 20 to 25 bushels per acre. 

On the cross-drilled plats the drill was first drawn lengthwise 
and then crosswise of the plat. On one plat the usual rate of seed- 
ing, 3 pecks per acre, was used, while on the other twice the usual 
rate, or 6 pecks per acre, was used. In the one case the drill was 
set to sow at the rate of 1.5 pecks to the acre and in the other at the 
rate of 3 pecks, the cross drilling making the quantities sown double 
those just mentioned. Near these two plats there was always one 
seeded in the usual manner at 3 pecks per acre. This plat, being 
usually a check plat, was not always seeded at the same time as the 
others, however, and so its yields are not strictly comparable with 
those of the cross-drilled plats. All are presented, however, in Table 
XI, which gives the annual and average yields for the five } T ears from 
1909 to 1913, inclusive. 



30 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Table XI. — Annual and average yields of winter wheat drilled in the ordinary manner 
and cross drilled at the Nephi substation, for the years 1909 to 1913, inclusive. 1 





Yield per acre of grain (bushels). 


Method and rate of drilling. 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Average. 




5 years. 


4 years. 




M.07 
3.50 


16.60 
18.50 
17.80 


22.30 
26.70 

28.80 


16.30 
17.10 
17.60 


5.17 
6.00 
5.34 


12.89 


15.09 


Cross drilling, 1.5pecks per acre each way 


14.36 17.08 
1 17.39 















1 The Koftoid variety was used in 1909, while the Turkey was used from 1910 to 1913, inclusive. 

2 Average of seven check plats. 

Table XI shows that the difference between the yields of the cross- 
drilled plats and those drilled in the ordinary manner, both seeded at 
the rate of 3 pecks per acre, is very small, almost insignificant when 
the comparative cost of seeding is considered. It is not known 
whether the difference in yield favoring the cross-drilled plats is 
caused by cross drilling or by a possible increase in the rate of seed- 
ing which may have occurred owing to the double seeding, i. e., the 
drill may have seeded more than 3 pecks when set to sow 1 .5 pecks 
each way of the plat. It is believed that the increase in the rate of 
seeding is responsible for the higher yield of the plats seeded at 6 
pecks per acre, since these results agree with those of the rate-of- 
seeding tests with winter wheat. 

Rate of Seeding Winter Wheat. 

Rate-of-seeding tests with winter wheat were conducted at Nephi 
for the three years from 1909 to 1911, inclusive, and they were 
repeated in 1913. There was no test of this kind in 1912. In each 
year six different rates of seeding were used, namely, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 
and 6 pecks per acre. All plats in the test were treated uniformly in 
every way except as to the rate of seeding. The annual and average 
yields in bushels per acre obtained are presented in Table XII. 

Table XII.— Annual and average yields of winter wheat in the rate-of-seeding test at the 
Nephi substation in 1909, 1910, 1911, and 1913. l 





Yield per acre of grain (bushels). 


Rate of seeding per acre. 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1913 


Average. 




4 years. 


3 years 
(1910,1911, 
and 1913). 




4.16 


16.00 
15.30 
19.30 
19.30 
19.30 
17.00 


23.50 
28.50 
21.30 
28.70 
33.70 
30.30 


Failure. 

Failure. 
2.67 
3.00 
2.83 
3.00 


10.92 

14.69 
15.16 
13.16 


13.17 




14.60 






14.42 




7.75 
4.80 
2.33 


17.00 




18.61 
16.77 







i The Kofioid variety was used in 1909, while the Turkey was used in 1910, 1911, and 1913. 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 31 

The principal fact brought out by Table XII is that the higher 
rates of seeding have given the largest average yields. This is rather 
contrary to the belief of dry-land farmers in the Great Basin, who 
fear that heavier seeding than 3 pecks to the acre would be disastrous 
to the crop in extremely dry seasons. That this view is not well 
founded is shown by the fact that in 1910 and 1911, the two driest 
years at Nephi since 1 89S, the highest rates of seeding gave yields as 
high as, or much higher than, the lower rates. The results available 
indicate that a 4-peck or 5-peck rate is the most profitable. 

It is likely that 3 pecks per acre would be sufficient if all seeds sown 
produced plants that matured, but it has been found at Nephi that 
the average winter survival among fall-sown cereals is about 65 per 

W£LD /A/ BOSHELS PER ACPE 
3 /O /2 /4 /6 /3 20 22 




tofaa^^ 



Fig. 16.— Diagram comparing the annual and average yields obtained in the spring-cultivation tests 
of winter wheat at the Nephi substation, 1909 to 1913, inclusive. 

cent, 1 in which case only about 30 pounds of the seed produce plants 
that mature. 

SPRING CULTIVATION OF WINTER WHEAT. 

Two adjacent plats have been used each year since 1909 for testing 
the value of spring cultivation of winter wheat compared with no 
cultivation. These plats were treated uniformly in every other 
respect. Normal cultivation consists of harrowing the crop, usually 
with a spike-toothed harrow, as early in the spring as advisable, 
repeating this operation, if necessary, before the plants are in boot. 

The chief value of spring cultivation, it was thought, would be 
found in its favorable influence upon the yield of the crop by breaking 
the crust which usually forms upon the surface of the ground during 
the winter and early spring. The destruction of this crust was 



!Cardon, P. V. Cereal investigations at the Nephi substation. U. S. Dopt. Agr. Bui. 39, p. •(). 1913. 



32 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



expected to create a mulch which would prevent the evaporation of 
soil moisture and allow the plant greater freedom for growth. These 
factors constitute the basis of a great deal of argument in favor of 
the spring cultivation of winter wheat, a practice which is rather gen- 
eral in the Great Basin area. The results obtained are quite contrary 
to those which were expected. 



YIELD OP GRAIN. 



The annual and average yields of the plats for 1909 to 1913, inclu- 
sive, are given in Table XIII and are shown graphically in figure 16. 

Table XIII. — Annual and average yields of winter wheat obtained from cultivated and 
uncultivated plats at the Nephi substation, for the years 1909 to 1913, inclusive. 1 





Treatment. 


Yield per acre of grain (bushels). 




1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Average. 




8.33 
12.66 


19.00 
19.50 


27.90 
27.70 


14.90 
14.90 


9.83 
10.50 


15.99 




17.05 







1 The Kofloid variety was used in 1909, while the Turkey was used in 1910 to 1913, inclusive. 

It is of peculiar interest to note that in four of the five years there 
has been practically no difference in the yields obtained in this test. 
The yield of the noncultivated plat has been higher in three of the 
five years, while in 1911 the difference of 0.2 of a bushel per acre 
favored the cultivated plat. The yields of 1912 were identical. The 
difference in the average yield of 1 .06 bushels in favor of the noncul- 
tivated plat is largely due to the greater yield of this plat in 1909. 

EFFECT ON SOIL MOISTURE. 

Soil samples were taken each year from each of the plats, usually 
at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the season. Six- 
foot samples were taken, and the moisture content of each foot section 
was determined in the manner previously described in this bulletin. 
The results are presented in Table XIV, which shows the annual and 
average percentage of moisture in each foot and for the entire 6 feet 
in the spring, in the summer, and in the fall. 

Table XIV shows a marked uniformity in the moisture content of 
the two plats at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the 
season, the seasonal loss from both plats being about the same. The 
greatest difference was shown in 1909, when the cultivated plat with 
a thin stand of grain lost moisture less rapidly than the noncultivated 
plat, on which the stand was thicker. In all other years the stands 
were more nearly alike. Figures 17, 18, and 19 illustrate graphically 
the results shown in Table XIV. It is apparent that spring cultiva- 
tion of winter wheat did not conserve any appreciable amount of 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 



33 



moisture in the 6 feet of soil sampled and that, so far as moisture con- 
servation is concerned, no advantage was derived from the cultiva- 
tion of the crop. 

Table XIV. — Annual and average percentages of moisture in each of the first 6 feet of soil 
on the plats used in the test of spring cultivation of winter wheat at the Nephi substation, 
samples taken in spring, summer, and fall, for the years 1909 to 1913, inclusive. 



Treatment and date of determi- 
nation. 



Depth of sampling. 



1 foot. 



2 feet. 



3 feet. 



4 feet. 



5 feet, 



6 feet. 



Average. 



CULTIVATED. 

1909: 

June 26 

August 12 

1910: 

May 15 

June 28 

August 6 

1911: 

April 26 

September 20 

1912: 

Mav 15 

June 27 

August 2 

1913: 

Mav 17 

June 20 

September 6 

Average in spring.. 
Average in summer 
Average in fall 

NOT CULTIVATED. 

1909: 

June 26 

August 12 

1910: 

May 15 

June 28 , 

AugustC 

1911: 

April 26 

September 20 

1912: 

May 15 

June 27 

August 2 

1913: 

Mav 17 , 

June 20 

September 6 

Average in spring... 
Average in summer 
Average in fall 



12.60 
12.75 

13. 05 
10.38 
8.53 

18.28 
9.12 

20.17 
9.92 
9.48 

20.50 
10.83 
10.67 



18.00 
10.93 
10.11 



13.15 
10.65 

14.35 

12.98 
8.75 

18.79 
8.91 

16.77 
12.04 
10.61 

18.88 
10.73 
11.30 



17.20 
12.23 
10.04 



16. 25 
15.20 

16.30 
12.63 
11.35 

21.90 
12. 1.3 

21. 51 
13.11 
13.65 

22.22 
15.77 
13.49 



18.02 
15.45 

17.33 
11.33 
11.10 

20.46 
11.95 

20.17 
12.14 
12.24 

21.38 
15.63 
12.24 



18.50 
18. 95 

17.70 
11.18 
11.15 

18.90 
11.48 

17.99 
14. 25 
11.52 

18.32 
15. 73 
11.43 



19.25 
16.70 

18.15 
13.30 
13.10 

17.80 
14.72 

15.21 
15.23 
13.99 

15.98 
15. 54 
13.58 



20.48 
14.44 
13.16 



19.84 
14.28 
12.60 



18.23 
14.92 
12.91 



16.79 
15. 83 
14.42 



16.15 
12.90 

17.65 
11.83 

11.88 

22.69 
13.39 

21.35 
14.15 
13.69 

20. 59 
15. SO 

12.88 



17.20 
12.20 

18.95 
11.78 
11.65 

21.79 
13.08 

20.21 

14.05 
12.62 

20.20 
17.21 
12.29 



17.28 
10.15 

18.20 
11.05 
11.75 

19.60 
12. 51 

20.22 
18.00 
12.67 

19.10 
15.91 
12.05 



16.85 
11.05 

18.35 
13.20 
13.10 

19.07 
15.13 

19.21 
16.17 
14.78 

17.12 
16.23 
15. 18 



20.57 
14.48 
12.95 



20.29 
15.06 
12.37 



19.28 
15. 56 
11.83 



18.44 
15. 61 
13. 85 



17.63 
12.82 

19.95 

16. 00 
11.38 

15.65 
13.42 

17.04 
16.23 
17.30 

15.54 
15. 06 
12.49 



17. 05 
16.46 
13.48 



15.22 
13.45 

19.45 
17.95 
17.85 

17.78 
13.25 

17.20 

15.99 
16.72 

19.04 
16. 95 
13.83 



18.37 
16.53 
15.02 



17.04 
15.31 

17.08 
12.62 
11.10 

18. S3 
12.14 

18.68 
13.48 
13.03 

18.99 
14. 76 
12.32 



18.40 
14.72 
12.78 



15.97 
11.73 

17.82 
13. 13 
12.50 

19.95 
12.71 

19.16 
15.07 
13.52 

19.16 
15.47 
12. 92 



19.02 
14.91 
12.68 



EFFECT OF CULTIVATION ON THE PLANTS. 



As already stated, the spring cultivation of winter wheat was ex- 
pected to allow the plants greater freedom for development. It is 
not known to what extent this result obtained, but it is reasonable to 
believe that the surface of the soil was placed in better condition for 
plant development than where the crust was left unbroken and the 
plants compelled to push through it. It is, however, almost impos- 
sible to break the crust without injuring some plants. Whether this 
injury is offset by the benefit to others is difficult to determine, 



34 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



though the yields of the past five years indicate that it is not. An 
effort was made in 1913 to determine the exact extent of the injury 
to the plants by harrowing with a spike-toothed harrow, the teeth of 
which were set almost perpendicularly. At this time there was a 
heavy crust on the ground, which the plants were penetrating with 
difficulty. 

On May 21, when the plants were from 3 to 4 inches high, four 
areas were staked off on plat 22D, and the plants in each area were 
counted before the plat was harrowed. Each area was 3.3 feet 
square, thus containing ^^Vo °f an acre > so tnat tne tota ^ area °* t ^ ie 

/ana ia,o /9II /9/2 '9'3 AVS&AGS 



ff /e 

I 
9 





Fig. 17.— Graphs showing the average percentage of moisture in the first 6 feet of soil at the beginning, 
in the middle, and at the end of the crop season, as found in the spring-cultivation tests of winter 
wheat at the Nephi substation, 1909 to 1913, inclusive. 

four units equaled ir ^ m of an acre. About one week after harrowing, 
the plants in each area were counted again and the loss due to har- 
rowing was determined. On the basis of the figures obtained, the 
stand was 218,000 plants per acre before and 193,000 plants per acre 
after harrowing, a loss of 25,000 plants, or 11.54 per cent. This loss 
alone would allow the plants greater freedom for development, and it 
might be expected to increase the number of culms per plant. 

To determine the effect of harrowing on the production of culms 
the total number per unit area was determined just before harvest 
and the average number of culms per plant calculated. The average 



TILLAGE AND EOTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 



35 



number on the cultivated plat was 4.17, while on the uncultivated 
plat it was 4.05. The particular areas which were counted on the 
uncultivated plat, however, showed a thinner stand than those on 
the cultivated plat, so that the number of culms per plant does not 
show entirely the difference in development. The number of plants 
per acre on the uncidtivated plat, as indicated by the areas counted, 
was 165,000 with a total of 663,000 culms. On the cultivated plat, 
the stand was 193,000 plants to the acre, with 805,000 culms, which 
was over 21 per cent more than on the uncultivated plat. On only 
one of the four uncultivated areas counted was the stand as thick as 
on the cultivated areas. On this area the average number of culms 



SPP/A/G S/tMPL/A/G 



SUMMER S/IMPUNG 



FALL SAMPLWG 








































































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DEPTH //V FEET 



Fig. 18.— Graphs comparing the average percentage of moisture in each of the upper 6 feet of soil at 
the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the crop season, as found in the spring-cultivation 
tests of winter wheat at the Nephi substation, 1909 to 1913, inclusive. 

per plant was 3.74. On a cultivated area, with practically the same 
stand, the number of culms per plant was 4.14, an increase of 11 per 
cent. 

On the same areas on the uncultivated plats the average yield per 
unit area 3.3 feet square was 156 grams of straw and 103 grams of 
grain. On the areas in the cultivated plats the yields were 199 
grams of straw and 114 grams of grain. These figures indicate that 
cultivation caused a marked increase (27.6 per cent) in yield of straw, 
but a much smaller increase (10.7 per cent) in yield of grain. The 
yields obtained on the unit areas are contradictory to those from the 
entire plats, as shown in Table XIV, which shows a decrease in yield 
on the cultivated plat of 6.4 per cent. 



36 BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

TIME OF HARVESTING WINTER WHEAT. 

During the period from 1909 to 1912, inclusive, a test of the effect 
of the time of harvesting upon the yield and quality of winter wheat 
was conducted. The milling and chemical tests of the wheat were 
made by the division of chemistry of the Utah station, but the data 
are not available at this time. Only the data on yield will be pre- 
sented here. 



CULT/M7ED A!OffM/)LLX 




A/OT CL/L77K47ED. 



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DEPTH /A/ FEET. 



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Fig. 19. — Graphs showing the average seasonal decline in the percentage of moisture in each of the 
upper 6 feet of soil, as found in the spring-cultivation tests of winter wheat at the Nephi substation, 
1909 to 1913, inclusive. 

The four plats used in this test lay side by side and were treated 
uniformly up to and subsequent to the time of harvesting. One of 
these plats was harvested when the kernel was in the green-dough 
stage and one each week thereafter until all were harvested. In this 
way the grain was cut in four different stages of maturity, namely, 
green dough, hard dough, fully ripe, and overripe. The annual and 
average yields of the plats for the four years are given in Table XV. 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 



37 



Table XV. — Annual and average yields of winter wheat harvested at four different stages 
of maturity at the Nephi substation, for the years 1909 to 1912, inclusive. 





Yield per acre of grain (bushels). 


Stage of maturity when harvested. 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


Average. 




7.83 
8.83 
6.33 
8.50 


8.80 
14.00 
13.80 
12.70 


20.30 
26.40 
24.60 
20.70 


6.50 
10.20 
11.50 
11.80 


10.86 




14.86 




14.06 




13.43 











Table XV shows that with one exception the yield each year 
favored harvesting in the hard-dough stage, though the differences 
are not great. The earliest harvest gave the smallest yields, due 
probably to the shrinking of the grain. The small decrease in the 
average yield from hard dough to overripe was probably due to 
shattering at harvest time. 

FREQUENCY OF CROPPING LAND TO WINTER WHEAT. 

One of the first tests begun by the Utah experiment station on the 
Nephi farm was planned to determine the relative return from 
cropping land to winter wheat continuously, every second year, one 
year in three, and two years in three. This test was conducted on 
four fifth-acre plats until the fall of 1907, when five tenth-acre plats 
were added, to allow the production of a crop under each condition 
each year. Since 1907, then, nine plats have been used. 

The total yields per acre of the four fifth-acre plats obtained pre- 
vious to 1908, the annual and total acre yields of all the plats from 
1908 to 1913, and the total yields of the fifth-acre plats from 1904 to 
1913, inclusive, are reported in Table XVI. 

Table XVI. — Annual and total yields of winter wheat obtained from continuous and 
alternate cropping and from growing one and two crops in three years at the Nephi 
substation, 1904 to 1913, inclusive. 









Yield per acre of grain 


(bushels). 








Frequency of 
crop. 


Total 
yield, 
1904 to 
1907.1 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Total, 

1908 to 

1913. 


Total, 
1904 to 
1913. 


Alternate 

Do... 


60.20 
50.80 


13.41 

32.66 
Fallow. 

32.74 

Fallow. 

21.16 

Fallow. 

Fallow. 

19.16 


14.58 

Fallow. 

2.50 

13.42 
2.50 

Fallow. 

Fallow. 

3.50 

Fallow. 


7.80 

9.90 

Fallow. 

Fallow. 
10. 30 
8.20 

5.00 
Fallow. 

Fallow. 


5.70 

Fallow. 
28.00 

23.60 

Fallow. 

8.10 

Fallow. 

Fallow. 

27.00 


6.00 

4. 80 

Fallow. 

3.90 

<;. 50 

Fallow. 

Fallow. 

10.80 

Fallow. 


4.50 

Fallow. 
1.83 

Fallow. 
6.83 
2. 33 

11.17 
Fallow. 
Fallow. 


51. 99 
47.36 
32.33 

73. 66 
26, 13 

39.79 

16.17 
14.30 
46. 16 


112. 19 
98.16 


Two crops in 

three years 

Do 


25.10 


98.76 


Do 






One crop in three 


49.10 


65.27 


Do 




Do 













i Taken from Bulletin 112 of the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station. 



38 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



The data presented in Table XVI are not wholly dependable, prin- 
cipally because winterkilling so reduced the yields in some years 
that their comparative value was almost wholly lost. The volunteer 
crops on the continuously cropped plat and the plat cropped two 
years in three were less affected by winterkilling than the sown 
crops, for the reason that they made more growth in the fall. As a 
result, uncontrollable factors, such as thin stands, weeds, etc., 
caused wide variations in the results, which did not indicate the 
true value of the methods employed. 

The continuously cropped plat has not failed completely, however, 
in any year, even in the very dry years 1910 and 1911. In 1911, 
when there was very little winterkilling and good growing conditions 
prevailed, the continuously cropped plat and that cropped two years 











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DEPTH /A/ EETT 



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Fig. 20.— Graphs comparing the average percentage of moisture in each of the upper 10 feet of soil at 
the beginning of each season, as found on the alternately cropped and continuously cropped plats 
at the Nephi substation, 1909 to 1912, inclusive. 

in three fell far below the others in yield. Under favorable condi- 
tions, it appears that the plats that have been fallow one or two 
years will give the best results. So much depends upon the time 
of planting, winterkilling, etc., however, that continuous cropping 
sometimes appears to be profitable, owing to the survival of volun- 
teer grain. 

The severe winterkilling in some years completely offsets the 
advantage of some plats in high soil-moisture content. This is well 
illustrated by figure 20, from which it will be seen that in 1909 the 
difference in moisture content of the continuously cropped plat and 
the alternately cropped plat was greatly in favor of the latter at the 
beginning of the season, yet, because of a better stand, due to the 
volunteer grain, the continuously cropped plat yielded nearly seven 
times as much as the other, as is shown in Table XVI. In 1910 
the differences, though less marked, were much the same as those of 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 



39 



the previous year. In 1911, however, under favorable conditions, 
the yields were consistent with the soil moisture. In 1912 there 
was little difference either in moisture or yield. 

These results indicate that where a good stand is obtained in the fall 
and little winterkilling follows, the crops following fallow will yield 
more than those grown on continuously cropped land. To determine 
the relative value of the two systems of cropping, the cost of growing 
a crop and of maintaining a fallow must also be taken into consid- 
eration. In the vicinity of Nephi, the cost of growing and harvest- 
ing wheat is about $3 per acre more than the cost of maintaining a 
fallow throughout the year. This extra cost must be charged 
against the crop which is obtained in alternate years on the con- 
tinuously cropped land. On this basis, the 14 bushels greater yield 
per acre in 10 years from the land continuously cropped have been 
obtained at a cost of $15, for the $3 extra cost has been incurred 
five times in the 10 years. This extra cost is greater than the value 
of the increased yield, which is further evidence that alternate crop- 
ping and fallowing is preferable to continuous cropping to wheat. 

INTERTILLED CROPS COMPARED WITH FALLOW IN ALTERNATION WITH WINTER 

WHEAT. 

The most direct attempt made at the Nephi substation to find a 
successful substitute for the alternation of a cereal crop and summer 
fallow has been in a simple rotation in which winter wheat was 
grown after fallow and after corn, peas, and potatoes in rotation. 
As this test has been in progress since 1908 sufficient data have been 
accumulated to justify consideration at this time. An outline of 
the rotation is given in Table XVII. 

Table XVII.— Rotation of intertilled crops and fallow alternating with wheat. 



Plat. 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


12B 


Wheat 

...do 


Fallow 

Corn 


Wheat 

...do 


Fallow 

Peas 


Wheat.... 
...do 


Fallow. 




Potatoes. 


14B 


...do 


Potatoes . . 
Peas 


...do 

...do 




...do 


Peas. 


15B 


...do 


Wheat.... 
...do 


...do 

Fallow 

Peas 

Corn 

Potatoes . . 


Corn. 


12C 


Fallow 

Potatoes . . 
Peas 


Wheat.... 

...do 

...do 


Fallow 

Corn 


Wheat. 




Do. 


14C 


Potatoes . . 


...do 

...do 


Do. 


15C 




...do 


Do. 















TREATMENT OF PLATS. 



The four plats which had grown wheat were plowed in the fall of 
each year to a uniform depth of about 8 inches. The land then 
received no cultivation until the next spring, when it was double 
disked or harrowed sufficiently to destroy all weeds and make a good 
fallow or a good seed bed. The plat to be summer-fallowed was 
treated normally in the spring and throughout the summer. The 



40 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 



corn, peas, and potatoes were planted in rows far enough apart to 
permit intertillage, the cultivation during the summer being prac- 
tically the same for the cropped and the fallow plats. The corn and 
peas were drilled in rows about 35 inches apart, while the potatoes 
were dropped behind a plow in hills 24 inches apart in rows 3 feet 
apart. 

After the crops were harvested from these plats in the usual manner 
in the fall, winter wheat was sown on them and on the fallow plat at 




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DAYS SAMPLED 
Fig. 21.— Graphs showing the average percentage of moisture in the first 6 feet of soil at the beginning 
and at the end of each season, as found in the rotation experiments at the Nephi substation, 1908 to 
1913, inclusive. 

the same rate and on the same date. The subsequent treatment of 
the plats was identical in every respect. 



MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE SOIL. 

Soil-moisture determinations were made on the plats in the rota- 
tion during each year of the test. The plats growing wheat were 
sampled at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of each 
season, while the other plats were sampled about once a month during 
the season. The moisture content of each foot of soil to a depth of 
6 feet was determined in the usual manner. 

The results indicate that there was very little difference in the 
moisture content of any foot of soil on the different plats. The varia- 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 41 

tions favored one plat one year and another plat the next, changing 
so frequently that no one plat had any marked advantage. The 
average moisture content in the first 6 feet of soil on all plats in the 
rotation at the beginning and end of each season from 1908 to 1913, 
inclusive, is shown graphically in figure 21. It will be noted that 
the average moisture content of the plats was usually surprisingly 
uniform, and that no great difference existed in any case. During 
the wheat years the moisture content of all plats was reduced to a 
minimum, but during the alternate years the moisture content re- 
mained reasonably constant. 

YIELDS OBTAINED. 

The yields of the various crops obtained in these rotation experi- 
ments are presented in Table XVIII. No attention should be paid to 
the yields of wheat from the "B" plats in 1908, as they were occupied 
by four different varieties in the regular varietal test, and varietal 
differences probably affected the yields. In all other years the same 
variety was used on all plats. 

Table XVIII. — Yields obtained in tests of winter wheat l in alternation with fallow and 
with corn, peas, and potatoes in rotation at the Nephi substation, for the years 1908 to 1913, 
inclusive. 

[Yields per acre (wheat and potatoes in bushels, corn and peas in pounds).] 



12B.. 
13B.. 
14B.. 
15B.. 
12C... 
13C. 

14C... 



15C. 



Plat. 



1908 



Crop. 



Wheat. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

Fallow . 
Potatoes. 



Vines 



Peas{ Se{ 



Corn 



Fodder. 
Grain. . 



Yield. 



27.50 
25. 83 
30.16 
22.66 



42. 50' 
,080 
220 
630 

17.5 



Crop. 



Fallow 

Corn (fodder) 

Potatoes 

Peas (vines).. 

Wheat 

do 



.do. 
.do. 



Yield. 



1,240 
84.7 

1,050 
4.66 
2.50 

2.16 
6.50 



Crop. 



Wheat 

do 

do 

do 

Fallow 

Corn (fodder). 

Potatoes 



Peas (vines).. 



Yield. 



13.7 
19.3 
17.2 
18.3 



40 
7.35 



Plat. 



1911 



Crop. 



Yield. 



Crop. 



Yield. 



Crop. 



Yield. 



12B. 
13B. 

14B. 



15B. 

12C. 
13C 

14C. 

15C. 



Fallow. 
Peas . . . 



Corn (fodder). 



Potatoes . 



Wheat. 

....do. 

...do. 
do. 



Failure. 
40 



30 
28.5 



32.1 
29.5 



Wheat 

...do 


14.7 
17.8 


.do 


18.8 


...do 


18.7 






Corn (fodder).. 
Potatoes 


225 
90 
1,420 
32.4 



Fallow 

Potatoes 

Ppa J Vines 

leas \Seed 

(Fodder 

ConK Unshelled 

[ grain 

Wheat 



.do. 

.do. 
.do. 



34.5 
95 
20 
550 

200 
2.0 

4.2 

4.4 
4.2 



i In 1908 the wheat plats were a part of the regular varietal test, so that the results for that year should 
be disregarded. The varieties were as follows: On plat 12B, Crimean (C. I. No. 1433); plat 13B, Crimean 
(C. I. No. 1435); plat 14B, Crimean (C. I. No. 1436); and on plat 15B, Koffoid (C. I. No. 2997). In 1909 the 
last-named variety was grown on all plats, while in 1910 and succeeding years the Turkey variety (C. I. 
No. 2998) was used. 



42 



BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Wheat after corn gave the highest yield obtained in 1909, while 
wheat after fallow yielded better than wheat after either potatoes or 
peas. The yields of 1909, however, were extremely low because of 
excessive winterkilling. Consequently they would be practically 
worthless if they were not relatively the same as those obtained in 
later years. In 1910 wheat after fallow yielded much less than wheat 
after any intertilled crop. In 1911 wheat after potatoes gave the 
highest yield, while there was little difference in the yields of the other 
plats. Wheat after fallow again gave the lowest yield in 1912 and 
1913. A summary of the wheat yields obtained in this test for the 
five years from 1909 to 1913, inclusive, is given in Table XIX. 

Table XIX. — Annual and average yields of winter wheat obtained after corn, potatoes, 
■peas, and fallow, at the Nephi substation, for the years 1909 to 1913, inclusive. 





Yield per acre of grain (bushels). 


Rotation. 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Average. 




6.50 
2.50 
2.16 
4.66 


19.30 
17.20 
18.30 
13.10 


28.50 
32.10 
29.80 
30.00 


18.80 
18.70 
17.80 
14.70 


4.40 
4.20 
4.20 
2.00 


15.50 




14.94 




14.39 




12.89 







Table XIX shows that the average yield of wheat for five years 
was less after fallow than after corn, potatoes, or peas. 

A summary of the total crop yields of all plats since the test began 
is given in Table XX, where it will be noticed that plats 12B and 
12C, wheat after fallow, have given the lowest total returns per acre. 

Table XX. — Summary of total crop yields from the intertillage and fallow rotation plats 
at the Nephi substation, 1908 to 1913, inclusive. 





Total yields per acre. 


Years and plats. 


Wheat. 


Corn. 


Peas. 


Potatoes. 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Seed. 


Hay. 


1909 to 1913: 


Bus. 
28.40 
37.10 
36.00 
37.00 

36.66 
35.20 
38.66 
40.20 


Bus. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Bus. 


13B 


None. 

None. 

2.9 


1,240 

40 

550 


Failure. 
20 
None. 


Failure. 

95 

1,050 


34.50 


14B 


84.70 


15B . 


4.00 


1908 to 1913: 




13C 


None. 

None. 

17.5 


40 

1,420 

630 


90 
220 
None. 


225 

1,080 

35 


42.50 


14C . 


7.35 


15C. . 


32.40 







Table XX shows that the wheat yields on the "B" series are 
greatly in favor of the plats which produced an intertilled crop in 
alternate years, the differences in acre yields varying from 8 to 9 
bushels. In addition to yielding as much wheat as plat 12C, the 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 43 

other plats on the "C" series have given good yields of the intertilled 
crops. From these results it appears that the production of inter- 
tilled crops had some effect on the soil which was beneficial to the 
following wheat crop. It is difficult to determine the nature of this 
effect, but that it was present can not be doubted. 

The intertilled crops were sometimes unprofitable, in some instances 
total failures, but the losses thus accruing were offset by profitable 
yields in more favorable seasons. The cost of growing these crops 
was somewhat higher than the cost of maintaining fallow, but the 
yields of the intertilled crops and the higher wheat yields following 
made up for this difference in cost. It is quite impossible to deter- 
mine with any great degree of satisfaction the relative value of these 
rotations, since the total yields of some of the intertilled crops were 
so small, and because the production of such crops on the dry lands 
of the Great Basin is practically unheard of, there is no standard for 
estimating values. Perhaps the greatest value that will come from 
the results of the above experiment will be to point out the possibili- 
ties of such a rotation and to encourage greater effort in the develop- 
ment of better varieties of intertilled crops or better methods of pro- 
ducing the varieties now used. 

SUMMARY. 

The Nephi substation is located in the Juab Valley, in the eastern 
part of Juab County, in central Utah. The soil in this locality is 
very deep. It ranges from clay to sandy loam. In the virgin state 
it is covered with a dense growth of black sagebrush. 

The average annual precipitation in the Juab Valley during the 
past 16 years was 13.40 inches. During the progress of the experi- 
ments reported herein (1908 to 1913), the precipitation in 1908 and 
1909 was above normal, while in 1910, 1911, 1912, and 1913 it was 
below normal. The winter and spring precipitation is the heaviest 
of the year. The rains of summer have been small and consequently 
of little value to the growing crops. 

The average evaporation at the Nephi substation during the six 
months from April to September, inclusive, has been about 45 inches. 
The average wind velocity for any one day has not exceeded 10 miles 
per hour. Protracted hot winds are unknown. Only two months 
of the year, July and August, have been free from frost. Normally, 
however, there are from 90 to 100 clays in the frost-free period, ex- 
tending from about June 15 to September 15. 

Most of the experiments reported upon have been in progress 
since 1908. A few are of longer duration, while some were begun 
as late as 1911. The tests have dealt with stubble treatment imme- 
diately after harvest; time and depth of plowing; cultivation of 



44 BULLETIN 157, U. S. DEPAETMENT OF AGEICULTUKE. 

fallow; seeding, cultivation, and harvesting the crop; frequency of 
cropping; and diversity of crops in rotation. 

The tests dealing with stubble treatment immediately after harvest 
were begun in the fall of 1911. The results so far obtained are not 
conclusive enough to warrant publication. 

The average results for five years, 1909 to 1913, inclusive, show 
that spring plowing was better than fall plowing for moisture con- 
servation, in yield of grain, and in cost of producing the crop. Spring 
plowing gave an average yield of 18.5 bushels per acre, as compared 
with 16.8 bushels for fall plowing. Owing to this difference in yield 
and the lower cost of producing the crop, spring plowing gave a net 
acre profit of $3.03 more than fall plowing. 

The results of five years show that there was no advantage in 
deep plowing or subsoiling over shallow plowing so far as moisture 
conservation is concerned. There was no material difference in the 
yields obtained from plats plowed at different depths, varying from 
5 to 18 inches. The highest average yield was obtained from plats 
plowed 10 inches deep, and the lowest average yield was from the 
plats subsoiled 18 inches deep, while the 5-inch plowing yielded 
higher than the 15-inch subsoiling. 

One year's results from a test of deep fall plowing and shallow 
spring plowing compared with shallow fall plowing and deep spring 
plowing show no difference in soil moisture and but slight difference 
in yield. 

The results of five years' experiments on fall-plowed fallow show 
that the moisture of the cultivated plats remained practically the 
same throughout the season, while that of the uncultivated plats 
rapidly declined, until by fall it was reduced to a comparatively 
low point, It is probable that weeds and volunteer grain were 
important factors in this loss of moisture. The average acre yield 
of the cultivated plats was 17 bushels, as compared with 13 bushels 
on the uncultivated plats. 

The results of one season on spring-plowed fallow show no differ- 
ence in the moisture content of the plats cultivated or not cultivated. 
The yields, 11.9 and 9.5 bushels per acre, favor the noncultivated 
plat. 

The results of 10 years show no correlation between the time of 
sowing winter wheat and the yield, but the best yields have usually 
been obtained from plats seeded between September 1 and October 
15. There was no significant difference between the average mois- 
ture content of the plats for any one or for all years. The chief 
problem in the time-of-seeding tests of winter wheat now seems to be 
a mechanical one involving some improvement of the machinery 
used in seeding. It is believed that tins will obviate the necessity of 



TILLAGE AND ROTATION EXPERIMENTS AT NEPHI, UTAH. 45 

waiting for rain before seeding, thus permitting early seeding, which 
seems desirable, and allowing the crop time enough to make a fair 
growth before the advent of winter. Late planting is often followed 
by much winterkilling, which completely offsets the value of any 
tillage method used in preparing the land and of the quantity of 
moisture stored in it. 

The average result of five years' tests shows no difference in the 
yields of winter wheat seeded at different depths. The yields were 
greatly influenced by conditions at seeding time. 

The ordinary drilling of winter wheat has given more profitable 
yields than broadcasting or cross drilling. 

The results of three years' experiments show that winter wheat 
sown at the rate of 4 to 5 pecks per acre is more profitable than when 
sown at 3 pecks per acre, the rate ordinarily used on the dry lands of 
the Great Basin. 

The average yields of five years favor no spring cultivation of 
winter wheat, The noncultivated plats yielded 17.05 bushels, 
as compared with 15.99 bushels from those cultivated. There was 
no apparent difference in the moisture content of the plats. A test 
made in the spring of 1913 showed that 11.54 per cent of the plants 
were killed by one harrowing. This loss offsets all benefits that might 
have come from harrowing. 

The results of four years favor harvesting when the grain is in 
the hard-dough stage. 

Where a good stand was obtained and little winterkilling followed, 
winter wheat after fallow yielded more than winter wheat on con- 
tinuously cropped land. This depended largely upon the season, 
however, and the continuously cropped plat, owing to volunteer 
grain, yielded as well or better than other plats in the test in seasons 
of much winterkilling. 

The average acre yield of winter wheat for five years was less 
after fallow than after corn, potatoes, or peas. 



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V 



BULLETIN OF THE 




Contribution from the Bureau of Soils, Milton Whitney, Chief. 
November 10, 1914. 

(PROFESSIONAL PAPER.) 










THE NITROGEN OF PROCESSED FERTILIZERS. 

By Elbert C. Lathrop, 
Scientist in Soil Fertility Investigations. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Organic compounds have lately taken on a deeper significance in 
their relation to the complex problems of the soil and of crop produc- 
tion, for not only do they affect the physical conditions and chemical 
reactions of the soil but they also have been shown to be directly con- 
nected with fertility or infertility, some of them being essentially bene- 
ficial to the growth of plants, while others are distinctly harmful. 
Of the organic compounds thus far isolated from soils, a large number 
contain nitrogen, and of these nitrogenous substances, some have 
been found rather widely distributed in soils varying as to location, 
climate, methods of cropping, etc. These nitrogenous compounds 
occur either as plant constituents or arise from the decomposition of 
plant or animal protein, brought about by the various biological and 
biochemical agents in the soil. Not only compounds of this class 
found in soils but also many other protein decomposition products 
have been studied, both alone and in conjunction with the three fer- 
tilizer elements, in respect to their action on plant growth, and they 
have been shown in a number of cases to exert a beneficial influence; 
furthermore, these complex compounds are available for use by the 
plant without first being changed by chemical or biochemical means 
into ammonia and then to nitrates. 1 

That these facts have an immense practical bearing on fertilizers 
and the fertilizer industry, both from the standpoint of the producer 
and of the consumer, is at once obvious. The old high-grade nitrog- 

i A Beneficial Organic Constituent of Soils: Creatinine. By Oswald Schreiner, E. C. Shorey, M. X. 
Sullivan, and J. J. Skinner. Bui. 83, Bur. Soils, U. S. Dept. Agr., 1911. 

Nitrogenous Soil Constituents and Their Bearing on Soil Fertility. By Oswald Schreiner and J. J. 
Skinner, Bui. 87, Bureau of Soils, U. S. Dept. Agr., 1912. 

This investigation is a contribution to the knowledge of the nature of the changes brought about in the 
manufacture of some of the processed fertilizers, and of the character and availability of such processed goods 
in mixed fertilizers when used in farm practice. 

63138°— Bull. 158—14 1 



2 BULLETIN 158, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

enous fertilizers, such as cottonseed meal, dried blood, fish scrap, 
etc., are being used more and more for feed purposes, and the time 
can not be far distant when their use as fertilizers will cease to be 
economic; thus a necessity for other and cheaper fertilizers of this 
type arises. Coupled with this is the desire of the chemist and tho 
manufacturer to utilize in one way or another all waste products, 
whatsoever their nature, so that the number and kinds of nitrogenous 
materials which are used in the manufacture of fertilizers is on the 
increase. Described in the patent literature and found on the 
market are a large number of fertilizers which may be characterized 
as "processed," that is, the crude materials, not in themselves per- 
missible as fertilizers, are made to undergo some decided chemical 
change to render them suitable as plant nutrients. It has been 
found that the "availability" of the crude substances is nearly al- 
ways greatly increased by such processing and that a much larger 
percentage of the nitrogen in the finished product is soluble in water, 
although the actual chemical changes produced seem to have re- 
ceived little attention. The chemical compounds in processed fer- 
tilizers which are here shown to have direct fertilizer significance 
have not been determined, other than to show that ammonia is 
formed during processing and that ammonia is more readily pro- 
duced from the processed goods. 

Since the wastes from which this type of fertilizer is made contain 
more or less protein, or proteinlike substances, it seemed quite 
obvious that the finished fertilizers must contain more or less of the 
chemical compounds which would arise by such treatment from pure 
proteins in the laboratory. Since the action on plants of many of 
this class of compounds has been determined it is evident that the 
finding of such compounds in the fertilizers would throw much light 
on the question of the "availability" of the nitrogen in the fer- 
tilizer itself. 

BASE GOODS A TYPE OF PROCESSED FERTILIZER. 

For a chemical study of processed fertilizers a sample of "wet- 
mixed" or "base goods" fertilizer was chosen as a representative of 
this type of fertilizer material. The base goods was obtained directly 
from the factory for use in this investigation. This fertilizer is made 
by the treatment of various trade wastes and refuse, such as hair, gar- 
bage tankage, leather scraps, etc., with rock phosphate and the 
requisite amount of sulphuric acid. These materials are mixed to- 
gether in a "den" and the resulting mass is allowed to stand for sev- 
eral days, until it is cool enough to be conveniently handled. ^ In the 
course of the reaction the mass reaches a temperaturo approximating 
100° C, and the identity of the original substances is almost or en- 
tirely lost. Under these conditions it is certain that more or less 



THE NITROGEN OF PROCESSED FERTILIZERS. 3 

hydrolysis of the proteins in the crude materials takes place, with the 
formation of proteoses, peptones, polypeptides, or the simple amino 
acids, the kinds and number of products formed necessarily depending 
on the proportion of the different proteins in the original materials, 
on the amount and strength of the acid, the length of time of the 
reaction, and the temperature reached during the treatment. 

Hartwell and Pember 1 have recently made a study of base goods 
in order to determine the availability of the nitrogen contained in 
it as compared with that of the high-grade nitrogenous fertilizers. 
The product which they used was made from hair tankage, garbage 
tankage, and roasted leather, together with rock phosphate and sul- 
phuric acid. From their report the following figures for the analysis 
of the crude materials used in producing the fertilizer and of the 
finished product are taken* 



Table I. — Total nitrogen in cruae materials and finished product. 

Pember. ) 



{Hartwell and 



Nitrogen. 



Hair tankage 

Roasted leather 

Garbage tankage 

Base goods, including the above 

Water soluble nitrogen in base goods... 
Water insoluble nitrogen in base goods 



Per cent. 
6.28 
6.49 
2.87 
1.68 
1.28 
.40 



Table II.- — Percentage of the total nitrogen -present in different forms. {Hartwell and 

Pember. ) 



Before put- 
ting into 
the den. 



After re- 
moving 
from the 
den. 



In ammonia 

In water soluble organic matter . . 
In water insoluble organic matter 



6.5 
7.8 
85.7 



14.3 

57.7 
28.0 



The experimental work of the present investigation was along two 
separate lines : (1 ) Analytical, involving total nitrogen determinations 
and the separate estimation of the various forms in which nitrogen 
may occur; (2) a determination of the definite chemical compounds 
present in the fertilizer by suitable methods of isolation and identifi- 
cation. 

THE CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF BASE GOODS. 

TOTAL NITROGEN AND AMMONIA. 

Total nitrogen. — The total in the base goods was determined by the 
Kj eld ahl-Gunning- Arnold 2 method and was found to be 1.61 per 
cent. 



i J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 4, 441 (1912). 

'TJ.S.Dept. Agr., Bureau of Chemistry, Circ, 108, 15(1912); T. C Trescot, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 5,914 
(1913). 



BULLETIN 158, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Ammonia. — Considerable difficulty was experienced in obtaining 
concordant results in the determination of the nitrogen in the form 
of ammonium salts. Boiling weighed amounts of the base goods with 
water and magnesium hydroxide, according to the official method, 1 
for the determination of ammonia in f ertilizers, did not give duplicate 
results sufficiently close for the purpose of this research. Owing to 
the acidity of the sample, it was impractical to use barium carbonate, 
but litharge was used with varying results. Finally, the determina- 
tion was made by using the vacuum distillation method, which gave 
concordant results. This method, which gives only the nitrogen 
found as ammonia or as ammonium salts, is used for the determina- 
tion of amide nitrogen in the products of acid hydrolysis of proteins. 
A weighed quantity of the fertilizer was placed in a Claisen flask con- 
nected up with a cooled receiver of 1 liter capacity and a small guard 
flask of 200 cubic centimeters capacity. Both flasks contained 0.1 N 
sulphuric acid. To the fertilizer was added 100 c. c. of neutral 95 
per cent alcohol and 100 c. c. of distilled water, together with enough 
10 per cent suspension of calcium hydroxide to make the mixture 
decidedly alkaline in reaction. The ammonia was then distilled 
under a pressure of from 10 to 12 mm., the temperature of the bath 
not exceeding 40° C. In the table which follows are given the results 
obtained by the three methods here used for the determination of 
ammonia. 

Table III. — Nitrogen in the form of ammonia or, ammonium salts. 



Method. 



Expressed in 

per cent of 

total nitrogen 

in base goods. 



Magnesium hydroxide distillation 

Lead oxide distillation 

Vacuum distillation 




23.60 
24.16 
24.47 
25.09 
23.23 
23.23 



An examination of these results shows that by boiling with mag- 
nesia or litharge, somewhat more nitrogen is found as ammonia than 
really exists in this form in the base goods. It is therefore probable, 
that there are in the base goods nitrogenous compounds which are 
broken down into ammonia by the action of these alkaline reagents 
at a temperature of 100° C. The use of magnesia at boiling tem- 
perature for the purpose of determining the amount of ammonia 
split off by acid hydrolysis from certain proteins which contained 
cystine, was found to give unreliable results. 2 The reason for this 

1 Bui. 107, 9 (Revised), Bureau of Chem., U. S. Dept. Agr. 

a Embden, q-.oted by Giimbel, Hofmeister's Beitrage, 5, 297 (1904): Hart, Zeit. physiol. Chem., 33, 354, 
1901); Folin,ibid., 39, 476 (1903); Denis, J. Biol. Chem., 8, 427 (1910). 



THE NITROGEN OF PROCESSED FERTILIZERS. 5 

was found to be that magnesia under such conditions changes a part 
of the amino nitrogen of cystine into ammonia. In this laboratory- 
it was also found that by boiling cystine with lead oxide one of the 
amino nitrogen groups of this compound was split off almost quanti- 
tatively, with the concurrent splitting off of hydrogen sulphide. 
Furthermore, it has been shown that if the amide nitrogen from 
protein hydrolysis is determined by distillation with a weak alkali, 
such as calcium hydroxide, at a temperature not to exceed 40° to 
42° C. in the bath and at a pressure of from 10 to 12 millimeters, 
no decomposition of cystine takes place. 1 

In the manufacture of base goods the hair which is used contains 
proteins which on acid hydrolysis yield a high percentage of cystine. 
This fact, together with the analytical results just discussed, suggest 
rather strongly that there is present in the base goods more or less 
cystine, although this evidence can not be considered conclusive, 
since it is possible that in such a heterogeneous mixture there may 
be present other nitrogenous compounds which would be decomposed 
by magnesia or litharge with the liberation of ammonia. 

NITROGEN PARTITION. 

For the purpose of determining the different forms of nitrogen 
present in the base goods the method of Van Slyke 2 was followed 
in its essential details, except that the determination of cystine, 
was not made. The method for the determination of this compound, 
according to the procedure used by Van Slyke, depends not upon a 
nitrogen determination but upon the determination of the amount 
of sulphur in the compounds precipitated by phosphotungstic acid. 
This determination when made on the hydrolytic products of acid 
digestion of pure protein may give quite satisfactory results, but the 
raw materials from which base goods are made contain many organic 
compounds other than proteins or protein decomposition products, 
and this is of course particularly true in the case of garbage tankage. 
It is well known that many plant and animal substances contain 
sulphur in a variety of linkages, and garbage tankage no doubt con- 
tains sulphur in other forms than that of cystine. The hair and 
leather used have both undergone some decomposition before the 
acid treatment and it is not impossible that the cystine originally 
present in the proteins may have been changed into sulphur com- 
pounds of a different chemical nature. No doubt some sulphur com- 
pounds other than cystine are precipitated by phosphotungstic acid, 
so that a determination of cystine depending on the sulphur content 
of the phosphotungstic acid precipitate would be of uncertain value 
in dealing with material of unknown origin and of such a hetero- 
geneous character as fertilizer goods. 

1 Gttmbel, Hofmeiater'a Beitrage, 5, 207 (1904; , sj. Biol. Chem., 10, 1.5-55 (1911). 



6 BULLETIN 158, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGEICULTUEE. 

It should also be stated that although the results from the Van 
Slyke analysis are expressed in the usual way, arginine N, histidine 
N, etc., that it is not intended to convey the impression that these 
fractions contain pure arginine, histidine, etc., since as will be shown 
later, other compounds are included under these analytical terms. 
However, the nitrogen so expressed is that which is contained in 
compounds which give the various reactions upon which the Van 
Slyke method depends. 

Two 20-gram samples of base goods were extracted for analysis. 
The first sample was extracted with boiling water until the extract 
ceased to give an acid reaction. The second sample was boiled for 
24 hours with hydrochloric acid, sp. gr. 1.115, the resulting solution 
was filtered by suction and the insoluble residue washed with hot 
water until the washings ran free from chlorides. The two extracts 
were then concentrated to the consistency of a sirup in vacuo to expel 
the free volatile acid, and each was finally made up to a volume of 
250 c. c. * 

Total nitrogen. — Total nitrogen in solution was determined by sub- 
jecting 50 c. c. of the solution to Kjeldahl analysis. The water ex- 
tract contained 1.372 per cent and the hydrochloric-acid extract 1.435 
per cent of the base goods. 

Amide nitrogen.- — Amide nitrogen was determined by distilling in 
vacuo the remaining 200 c. c. of solution, to winch were added 100 c. c. 
of 95 per cent alcohol and 20 c. c. of a 10 per cent suspension of cal- 
cium hydroxide, as described under the determination of ammonia. 
The water extract contained 0.374 per cent and the hydrochloric acid 
extract 0.882 per cent. 

Humin nitrogen. — The residue from the amide nitrogen determina- 
tion was used for the determination of humin nitrogen. The precipi- 
tate, formed by the addition of calcium hydroxide, was filtered off and 
washed with distilled water in the same manner in which Van Slyke 
directs that the phosphotungstic acid precipitate be washed. The 
washing was continued until no reaction for chlorides or alkalinity 
was obtained. The nitrogen remaining in the precipitate and in the 
filter paper was then determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The humin 
nitrogen was 0.031 per cent for the water extract and 0.074 per cent 
for the hydrochloric acid extract. 

Diamino acid nitrogen. — The combined filtrate and washings from 
the humin precipitate were neutralized with hydrochloric acid, con- 
centrated in vacuo to a volume of about 100 c. c. and then transferred 
to a 300 c. c. Erlenmeyer flask. To this solution were added 18 c. c. of 
concentrated hydrochloric acid together with 15 grams of purified 
phosphotungstic acid x and the whole diluted with water to a volume 
of 200 c. c. The flask was placed on a steam bath and heated until 

1 Winterstein, Zeit. physiol. Chem., 34, 153 (1901). 



THE NITROGEN OF PROCESSED FERTILIZERS. 7 

the phosphotungstates were almost redissolved, when it was set aside 
for 48 hours in order to allow them to recrystallize and fully pre- 
cipitate. The precipitate was then filtered, washed, and dissolved 
in 45 per cent sodium hydroxide as described by Van Slyke. The 
phosphotungstic acid was precipitated with barium chloride and 
filtered off. The filtrate and washings from this precipitate were 
concentrated in vacuo and made up to a volume of 200 c. c. 

Arginine nitrogen. — Arginine nitrogen was determined in 100 c. c. 
of this solution by boiling with 12.5 grams of solid potassium hydroxide 
for six hours and collecting the ammonia formed in 0.1 N sulphuric 
acid. Under these conditions one-half of the nitrogen in the argjnine 
and 18 per cent of the nitrogen of cystine is split off as ammonia. 

Total nitrogen in the diamino acid solution. — Total nitrogen in the 
diamino acid solution was found by subjecting the solution remaining 
after the arginine determination to Kjeldahl analysis and adding to 
the ammonia so obtained the amount obtained from the arginine nitro- 
gen determination. 

Amino nitrogen. — Amino nitrogen was determined by means of the 
Van Slyke apparatus. 1 

From these three figures the nitrogen was calculated as arginine N, 
histidine N, and lysine N according to the two formulas: 

(1) Histidine N= 1.667 non-amino N— 1.125 arginine N; 

(2) Lysine N = total N — (arginine N + histidine N). 

The results obtained were as follows: For the water extract argi- 
nine 0.111 per cent, histidine nitrogen 0.117 per cent, and lysine nitro- 
gen 0.081 per cent; for the hydrochloric-acid extract they were 
0.104, 0.070, and 0.117 per cent, respectively. 

Total nitrogen of the monoamino acids. — To the combined filtrate 
and washings from the phosphotungstic acid precipitate 45 per cent 
caustic soda was added until the solution became turbid by the pre- 
cipitation of lime; acetic acid was then added until the solution 
cleared. This solution was placed in a 500 c. c. flask and made up to 
the mark. Total nitrogen was estimated in 100 c. c. portions, using 
the Kjeldahl method. 

Amino nitrogen. — Amino nitrogen in the form of monoamino acids 
was determined by use of the Van Slyke apparatus. 

From the two figures obtained the amount of nitrogen present as 
non-amino nitrogen in monoamino acids was found by difference. 
The amino nitrogen in the form of monoamino acids in the water 
extract was 0.543 per cent and in the hydrochloric acid extract 0.546 
per cent. The non-amino nitrogen in the monoamino acid fraction of 
the water extract was 0.114 per cent and in the hydrochloric acid 
extract it was 0.133 per cent. 

1 For the description of this apparatus and the details of the procedure employed, see: Van Slyke, Jour, 
Biol. Chem., 12, 275 (1912). 



8 BULLETIN 158, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Van Slyke has shown that certain corrections must bo applied in the 
method, owing to the fact that the phosphotungstates of the diamino 
acids are slightly soluble, and these corrections have been applied 
just as though the fractions contained only the hydrolysis products 
of pure proteins. In Table V the combined results of the analyses are 

given. 

The above analytical procedure which separates the nitrogen into 
different groups, gives results than can only bo rigidly interpreted 
when the products of the acid hydrolysis are known. The results of 
the analysis of base goods by this method can only be clearly under- 
stood when further facts regarding the compounds, in which th3 
nitrogen is contained, are discovered. A description of the methods 
used in isolating and identifying certain of these compounds follows. 

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF DEFINITE COMPOUNDS FROM 
THE PROCESSED FERTILIZER. 

Ten pounds of base goods were extracted by boiling for 1 hour with 
20 gallons of water in a steam-jacketed kettle. The solution was 
filtered from the insoluble residue, made exactly neutral with caustic 
soda, the precipitate formed filtered off, and the filtrate concentrated 
in a steam kettle to a volume of about 3,500 c. c. 

This solution contained phosphates, sulphates, and much other 
mineral matter. In order to separate as much of these salts as pos- 
sible from the organic compounds a cold saturated solution of barium 
hydroxide was added to the solution until no further precipitation 
took place. The heavy precipitate which formed was filtered off by 
suction and washed many times with water. The filtrate was exactly 
neutralized with sulphuric acid and concentrated to a volume of about 
2,000 c. c. After cooling, this solution was made acid to 5 per cent 
with sulphuric acid and a solution of phosphotungstic acid was added 
to slight excess, and the mixture allowed to stand. 

After 3 days the precipitate which formed was filtered off and 
washed with water containing about 5 por cent sulphuric acid and a 
little phosphotungstic acid. The precipitate was carefully dissolved 
in 45 per cent caustic-soda solution, using phenolphthalein as an indi- 
cator and adding at no time more than two drops of the alkali solution. 
Water was added so that a volume of about 1,500 c. c. was reached, 
and barium hydroxide solution was added until the phosphotungstic 
acid was precipitated. After filtering off the barium phosphotung- 
state, the free alkali was just neutralized with sulphuric acid, and the 
solution was then evaporated almost to dryness with barium carbonate 
in order to ex^el all of tho ammonia. The residue was takon up in 
about 1,000 c. c. of hot water and filtered, and the precipitate washed 
with hot water. Tho filtrate was placed in a 5-litcr flask and treated 
while hot with solid silver sulphato, which was added slowly until the 



THE NITROGEN OP PROCESSED FERTILIZERS. 9 

solution contained sufficient to give a yellow precipitate, when a drop 
was removed and tosted with a solution of barium hydroxide. The 
solution was then filtered, and the separation of tho three hexone 
bases was carried out according to the mothod of Kossol and Kut- 
schor. a Tho solution was cooled to 40° C. and saturated with finely 
powdored barium hydroxide The precipitate which was formed was 
colloctod and stirrod up in a mortar with solid barium hydroxide, 
when it was again filtered off and washed with barium-hydroxide 
solution. This procipitato contains tho silver salts of histidine and 
arginine, while tho filtrate contains the lysine. 

Lysine. — The abovo filtrato was acidified with sulphuric acid and 
froed from silver with hydrogen sulphide. Lysine was precipitated 
from this solution as tho phosphotungstate, and the free base was 
obtained by deconrposing this salt with barium hydroxide. From a 
concentrated solution of the base, which was strongly alkaline in 
reaction and which showod no tendency to crystallize on standing, 
the picrato salt was prepared. This compound showed the solubility, 
characteristic crystalline appearance, and properties of lysine picrato. 6 
When taken up in boiling water and allowed to crystallize slowly, 
it formed in rather large yellow prisms, but when in small amount 
the crystals assumed a fernliko appearance. The lysine was 
further identified by the preparation from the picrate of the hydro- 
chloride salt, C 6 H 14 2 N 2 .2 HC1, and the platinum chloride salt, 
C 6 H 14 2 N 2 .H,Pt C1 6 + C 2 H 5 OH. c 

The silver precipitato which would contain the arginine and histi- 
dine was suspendod in water acidified with dilute sulphuric acid and 
broken up with hydrogen sulphide. Tho silver sulphide was filtered 
off, the sulphuric acid was removed with barium hydroxide solution, 
and after filtering the solution was made slightly acid with nitric acid. 
Silver nitrate solution was addod until a test drop with barium 
hydroxide gave a yellow precipitate. Histidine was completely pre- 
cipitated as the silver salt by the careful addition of barium hydroxide 
solution. The precipitate was washed with barium hydroxide solu- 
tion until tho washings ceased to give a test for nitrates. 

Histidine. — The histidine silver was suspended in water acidulated 
with sulphuric acid and treated with hydrogen sulphide. The pro- 
cedure described by Kossel and Kutscher was followed, and the 
histidine was finally separated as the dihydrochloride salt. The 
method of obtaining this compound and the characteristic crystal- 
line form of the dihydrochloride salt d are sufficient to establish its 
identity as histidine. 

a Zeit. physiol. Chem.,81, 166 (1900). 

6 Kossel, Zeit. physiol. Chem., 25, 180 (1S98); 26, 586 (1899). 

cUedin, Zeit. physiol. Chem., 21, 299 (1S95). 

dSchwantko, Zeit. physiol. Chem., 29, 492 (1900); Kossel, ibid., 22, 182 (1896). 

63138°— Bull. 158—14 2 



10 BULLETIN 158, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Arginine. — The method of isolating arginine is simply a further 
step in the method used in the isolation of histidine. Arginine was 
isolated first as the acid nitrate salt, which crystallized in the form 
of plates, 1 and was further identified by preparing the neutral nitrate 
salt and the copper nitrate salt both in characteristic crystalline 
form. 

Monoamine) acids. — The filtrate from the phosphotungstic acid 
precipitate was made alkaline with barium hydroxide in order to 
remove the sulphuric and phosphotungstic acids, and filtered. The 
filtrate was concentrated and nearly neutralized with sulphuric acid. 
This slightly alkaline solution, about 500 c.c. in volume, was treated 
by boiling with freshly prepared copper hydroxide, and was then 
poured into about 3,000 c.c. of 95 per cent alcohol and allowed to 
stand over night, in order that the insoluble mineral matter might 
settle out. The deep-blue alcoholic solution was then filtered, the 
insoluble salts redissolved in water, and reprecipitated by pouring 
into alcohol as before. The alcoholic solutions were combined and 
evaporated to dryness, the residue was taken up in hot water and 
the copper removed by treatment with hydrogen sulphide. After 
filtering from the copper sulphide, the solution, which contained 
considerable color, was boiled with animal charcoal. The filtered 
solution was made faintly alkaline with ammonia and treated with 
freshly precipitated copper hydroxide, keeping the volume of the 
solution at about 1,000 c.c. The solution was filtered from the 
excess of copper hydroxide and evaporated to dryness on the steam 
bath. The solid residue was then scraped from the sides of the 
dish and extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with absolute methyl 
alcohol until no further blue color was imparted to the alcohol. 

Leucine. — The alcohol insoluble portion was dissolved in a large 
volume of boiling water and the copper removed with hydrogen 
sulphide. The solution was filtered, boiled down to a volume of about 
50 c.c. and treated with ammoniacal lead acetate until no further 
precipitation took place. The precipitate was washed with 95 per 
cent alcohol and was finally decomposed with hydrogen sulphide after 
suspending in water. On concentration of a portion of this solution 
the characteristic crystals of impure leucine formed. These crystals 
separated in concentric nodules 1 closely resembling fat, but which 
were composed of concentrically grouped highly refracting needles. 
These crystals were redissolved in water and added to the original 
solution which was boiled up with animal charcoal until the color 
disappeared. The leucine was then purified as before by the forma- 
tion of the copper salt and the basic lead salt. On concentrating the 
solution obtained from this purification, crystals of pure leucine were 
obtained. These crystals formed in pearly scales, which somewhat 

iSee Gulewitsch, Zeit. physiol. Chem.,27, 178 (1899). 



THE NITROGEN OP PROCESSED FERTILIZERS. 11 

resemble cholesterin. When dry the crystals were light, had a 
satiny glossy appearance, and were not easily wet again with water, 
They were extremely soluble in hot water and quite easily soluble 
in cold water. Leucine was further identified by the fact that it 
sublimed, 1 and by the crystalline form and solubility-of the copper 
salt, 2 and by its two color reactions with quinone, 3 red with a solution 
of leucine and quinone and violet when in addition sodium car- 
bonate was used. 

Tyrosine. — The methyl alcohol solution of the copper salts was 
evaporated to dryness, and the residue taken up in water. The 
copper was removed with hydrogen sulphide and the solution was 
boiled with animal charcoal. After filtering, the solution was con- 
centrated and long thin silky needles began to separate. These 
needles, which closely resembled tyrosine, were filtered off, and the 
filtrate further concentrated, when another crop of needles was 
obtained. These were filtered off and added to the first fraction and 
were then extracted with boiling 70 per cent alcohol. The crystalline 
residue was recrystallized from water a number of times and dried 
on a porous plate. This compound crystallized in the stellate groups 
of long slender silky needles which are characteristic of tyrosine. 
These crystals were relatively insoluble in cold water, 4 very insoluble 
in cold 90 per cent alcohol, easily soluble in hot water, and were 
tasteless, colorless, and infusible. The compound was further 
identified as tyrosine by the formation of the copper salt, which was 
rather insoluble in cold water and fairly easily soluble in hot water, 
by the fact that a solution of the compound gave a red color when 
boiled with Millon's reagent, 5 and that a sulphonic acid prepared from 
the compound gave a violet color with ferric chloride. 6 

Purine hases. — Five pounds of base goods were boiled up with 10 
liters of water, filtered, neutralized and concentrated to a volume of 
about 2,500 c. c. The solution was made strongly alkaline with 
sodium hydroxide and the purine bases were precipitated with 
Fehling's solution and dextrose according to the method of Balke. 7 
The supernatant liquid was decanted from the copper precipitate 
and this was washed, until free from alkali, with a solution of sodium 
acetate, by repeated decantations. The precipitate was filtered, 
freed from sodium acetate by washing with alcohol, and the copper 
removed by suspending the precipitate in water and treating it with 
hydrogen sulphide. After filtering off the copper sulphide the solu- 
tion was concentrated and the purine bases reprecipitated by means 

" Schwanert, Liebig's Ann., 102, 224 (1857). 
'Hofmeister, Liebig's Ann., 189, 16 (1877). 
> Wurster, Centrlb. Physiol., 2, 590 (1889). 

* Erlenmeyer and Lipp., Liebig's Ann., 219, 161 (1883). 

» Millon, Compt. rend., 28, 40 (1849); Lassaigne, Ann. Chem. Phys. (2) 46, 435 (1830). 

• Piria Liebig's Ann., 82, 252(1852). 
'Jour, prakt. Chem. [2], 47, 537 (1893). 



12 BULLETIN 158, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGEICULTUEE. 

of a solution of silver nitrate and ammonia. After washing with 
water the silver precipitate was boiled with 10 c. c. of nitric acid, 
specific gravity 1.1, and filtered. From this solution, on cooling and 
standing, crystals were deposited which were filtered off. 

The nitrate was diluted with water, made alkaline by the addition 
of ammonia, and a solution of silver nitrate added. IS T o precipitate 
was formed showing the absence of xanthine. 

Guanine. — The precipitate from the nitric acid solution was washed 
with water, suspended in water, and decomposed with hydrogen 
sulphide. The solution was filtered and concentrated to about 
10 c. c. when strong ammonia was added producing a white gelatinous 
precipitate which was filtered off and washed with a little cold water. 
The precipitate was dissolved in a little warm hydrochloric acid and 
tested for the presence of guanine by means of the xanthine reaction 
and Weidel's test, both of which were positive. From the remainder 
of the solution the characteristic picrate of guanine described by 
Capranica * and the dicromate described by Wulff 2 were prepared. 
The method of obtaining this base, its solubility in water, ammonium 
hydroxide, and hydrochloric acid, the solubility of the silver salt in 
nitric acid, specific gravity 1.1, the color reactions, and the formation 
of the two characteristic salts, the picrate and dichromate, are suffi- 
cient to establish the identity of the compound as guanine. 

Hypoxanthine. — The filtrate from the ammonia precipitation of 
guanine was boiled to expel all the ammonia and to a portion of the 
solution a solution of picric acid was added, but no precipitate was 
immediately formed, showing the absence of adenine. To another por- 
tion of the solution hydrochloric acid was added and the solution was 
concentrated when crystals resembling those of hypoxanthine hydro- 
chloric separated out in whetstonelike crystals or bunches of prisms. 
Hypoxanthine forms a characteristic silver nitrate salt 3 and a char- 
acteristic silver picrate salt 4 both of which are crystalline and rela- 
tively insoluble in water. Hypoxanthine does not give the xanthine 
reaction, but when treated with nitric acid and bromine water a 
yellow color is produced which on addition of sodium hydroxide 
turns red, and on heating acts like the xanthine reaction. By means 
of these reactions the substance was identified as hypoxanthine. 

THE CHEMICAL CHANGES INVOLVED IN PROCESSING. 

The compounds which were isolated from the base goods are tabu- 
lated in Table IV according to the sources from which they have been 
derived and the chemical groups to which they belong. While it was 
not possible to isolate these compounds in a strictly quantitative 
manner, nevertheless it was evident that the purine bases were 

i Zeit. physiol. Chem., 4, 233 (1880). » Neubauer, Zeit. analyt. Chem., 6, 34 (1867). 

» Ibid., 17, 477 (1893). * Brans, Zeit. physiol. Chem., 14, 555 (1890). 



THE NITROGEN OF PROCESSED FERTILIZERS. 13 

present in exceedingly small quantities, although the method used in 
their isolation was subject to no more error than some other of the 
isolation methods ; this would indicate that the nitrogen of the purine 
bases makes up but a small percentage of the total nitrogen present 
in the fertilizer. 

Table IV. — Organic compounds isolated from sample of base goods. 



Compound. 



Chemical group. 



Source of compound. 



Arginine 

Histidine 

Lysine 

Leucine 

Tyrosine 

Guanine 

Hypoxanthinc. 



Diamino acids or 
hexone bases. 

Monoamino acids. . 

Purine base 

....do 



Products of protein hydrolysis by acid treatment of raw materials. 



Plant constituent, or product of hydrolysis of nucleoprotein. 
Plant constituent, or product of conversion of nucleoprotein-base. 



Purine bases. — It will be noticed that the two purine bases are 
listed in the table as coming from different sources. It is a well- 
known fact that the purine bases may exist in plant tissues and plant 
extracts as such; that is, they are not linked up in more complex 
compounds in such a way that their peculiar chemical identity is 
lost. In the garbage which has entered into the manufacture of 
the fertilizer there were doubtless many sorts of plants or plant 
remains which contained some or all of the purine bases, and this 
fact alone would account for the presence of hypoxanthine and 
guanine in the finished product. This, however, is not the only 
source of the purine bases. Levene 1 and his associates have 
demonstrated that some of the purines enter into the composition 
of the nucleic acids, which are decomposition products of nucleo- 
protein and that they may be obtained by a process of hydrolysis 
from these nucleic acids. Of the four purine bases commonly en- 
countered, only guanine and adenine have been found to be con- 
stituent parts of the nucleic acid molecule, it matters not whether 
the nucleic acid be a decomposition product of animal or plant 
nucleoproteins. But it has been shown that the two purines found 
in the nucleic acids may be changed, both by chemical and bio- 
chemical agencies, into the two other purine bases, xanthine and 
hypoxanthine, so that these are frequently encountered. Thus by the 
treatment of guanine with nitrous acid Fischer 2 changed it into 
xanthine and in the same manner Kossel 3 changed adenine into 
hypoxanthine. Furthermore, Schittenhelm and Schroter 4 have 
shown that the putrifactive bacteria, especially the colon bacillus, 

i Levene and Jacobs, Ber., 44, 74G (1911); Biochem. Zeit., 28, 127 (1910); Levene, Abderhalden'a Bio- 
chem. Arbeitsm., II, 605 (1910); Ibid., V, 489 (1911). 
*Liebig's Ann., 215, 309 (1882). 
*Zeit. physiol. Chem., 10, 258 (188G). 
<Zeit. physiol. Chem., 41, 284 (1904). 



14 BULLETIN 158, U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

were able to convert adenine and guanine into hypoxanthine and 
xanthine. They also show that the bacteria have the power of split- 
ting the nucleic acid itself. This same change is also brought about 
by the action of certain enzymes, such as erepsin, on nucleic acid. 

With these facts at hand it is possible to draw the following con- 
clusions as to the source of the two purine bases in this fertilizer: 
The guanine and hypoxanthine may be derived from plant remains 
which originally contained these two compounds; the guanine may 
arise by the acid hydrolysis of certain vegetable or animal nucleo- 
proteins which were present in the original materials; and the 
hypoxanthine may have been formed by the processes of natural 
decomposition, such as the action of bacteria and enzymes, which had 
taken place in the crude materials before they were subjected to the 
acidulation process or during the process itself. It is not improbable 
that the guanine and hypoxanthine come from all of these sources. 

Diamino acids. — Of the three diamino acids lysine was obtained in 
much the largest amount, arginine next, and histidine in the smallest 
amount. These compounds are products of protein hydrolysis by 
acids, but may also be produced under certain conditions by the 
action of bacteria. Since one or more of the diamino acids have 
been found to be present in every protein so far examined, and since 
the method for the analysis and the isolation of these bases is almost 
quantitative, the determination of the number and amounts of the 
diamino acids present in a mixture of protein hydrolysis products is 
of importance in deciding the nature and character of the original 
material which entered into the processed goods. 

Monoamino acids. — Although leucine and tyrosine, which are pro- 
tein decomposition products, were found in about the same quanti- 
ties, the methods of isolation were so far from being quantitative 
that this relationship is of no significance. The isolation and identi- 
fication of the other monoamino acids from the complex products of 
protein hydrolysis can only be accomplished, in the majority of 
cases, by means of the esterification method of Emil Fischer. This 
method is not a strictly quantitative one and requires large amounts 
of materials for a successful separation, and consequently was not 
used in this investigation. The use of methods other than that of 
esterification failed to isolate any other monoamino acid in quantities 
large enough for identification. As will be shown later, a number of 
monoamino acids besides the two isolated must be present in the 
processed goods. 

Establishing the presence of these products of acid hydrolysis of 
proteins, namely, the diamino acids, arginine, lysine, and histidine, 
and the two monoamino acids, leucine and tyrosine, in the amounts 
in which they were found is of itself sufficient evidence to demonstrate 
that by the acid treatment of the crude materials used in the manu- 



THE NITROGEN OF PROCESSED FERTILIZERS. 



15 



facture of the base goods the proteins contained therein have been 
changed. This change is shown to be a deep-seated one, since five of 
the compounds which are known to be final products of protein 
hydrolysis by acids are found. This, however, can not be taken to 
mean that the proteins have been completely hydrolysed by the acid 
treatment since it is possible to have present in the product of partial 
hydrolysis of proteins not only the diamino and monoamino acids, 
but also such intermediate compounds as polypeptids, peptones, 
proteoses, etc. 

In this connection the results obtained by use of the Van Slyke 
method, which are given in Table V, are of particular interest. As 
has been already stated, the base goods were extracted (1) with boil- 
ing water and (2) with boiling acid. In the former case only slight 
further hydrolysis of the materials in the base goods is to be expected 
since the free acid in the fertilizer is extremely weak, and the boding 
temperature, 100° C, is that which was reached in the process of 
manufacture. In the case of the second extract complete hydrolysis 
of all the proteins or proteinlike materials is certainly to be expected, 
since in addition to the original hydrolysis the material was boiled 
with strong hydrochloric acid for 24 hours, which treatment in the 
case of most proteins is sufficient for complete hydrolysis. The dif- 
ferences in the results obtained from the analyses of the two extracts 
may, therefore, be expected to throw some light on the question of 
the completeness of hydrolysis of the original proteins by the acid 
processing. 

Table V. — Nitrogen forms as determined by the Van Slyke method. 



Form of nitrogen. 


Results expressed in per 
cent of base goods. 


Results expressed in per 
cent of total N in base 
goods. 




H 2 extract. 


HC1 extract. 


H2O extract. 


HC1 extract. 




1.610 

11.372 

1.238 

.374 

.031 

.111 
.117 
.081 

.543 
.114 


1.610 

1.435 

1.175 

.382 

.074 

.104 
.070 
.117 

.546 
.133 








185.24 

1 14. 76 

23.23 

1.95 

6.89 
7.26 
5.06 

33.75 
7.10 


88. C4 




Ul. 36 




23.70 




4.61 


Diamino acid fraction: 


6.46 




4.38 




7.26 


Monoamino acid fraction: 


33.92 




8.27 







1 Obtained indirectly. 

First it will be noticed that total soluble nitrogen in the hydro- 
chloric acid extract is 88.64 per cent of the total N, while that of the 
water extract is 85.24 per cent, showing a difference of 3.4 per cent 
soluble N produced by further hydrolysis of the materials in the 
base goods. Correspondingly there is a decrease of insoluble N. 



16 BULLETIN 158, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

There is an increase of 0.47 per cent amide N in the hydrochloric 
acid extract over that in the water extract. This is due to the 
splitting off of ammonia from some nitrogenous compounds by the 
hydrochloric acid and suggests the presence of some product of par- 
tial protein hydrolysis in the fertilizer which contains an acid amide 
linkage. 

The statement has already been made that nitrogenous compounds 
other than arginine, histidine, and lysine are included under the fig- 
ures given for these compounds in the table. This is due to the fact 
that the phosphotungstic acid which is used as a precipitant of the 
diamino acids also precipitates peptones, proteoses, etc., as well as 
the purine bases, cystine, and possibly other compounds. Since ni- 
trogen compounds other than proteins existing in the original ma- 
terial and susceptible to decomposition with hot acid, would have 
been already broken up in the processing, it follows that the changes 
produced by further boiling with acid would result from peptones, 
proteoses, etc. The difference noted between the results obtained 
from the two extracts for the diamino acids are therefore due to 
some interferring substances of the nature of proteins and not to 
such substances as the purines or cystine. Moreover, the latter com- 
pounds will produce the same relative error in analysis in the case 
of both extracts. 

Of the diamino acids the only one determ in ed directly is arginine. 
Its determination depends on the fact that when arginine is boiled 
for some time with strong potassium hydroxide, half of the nitrogen 
of the arginine is split off as ammonia. However, if cystine is present 
18 per cent of its nitrogen is evolved as ammonia, together with the 
arginine nitrogen. As has already been stated this figure should be 
the same for the two extracts providing that there is present in the 
base goods no substance precipitated by phosphotungstic acid, and 
giving off ammonia when boiled with strong alkali or strong hydro- 
chloric acid. A comparison of the results obtained for arginine in 
the two extracts shows that the figure for arginine in the water ex- 
tract is higher than that of the hydrochloric acid extract by 0.43. 
In other words, there appear to be present in the diamino acid frac- 
tion compounds which on boiling with alkali give off ammonia 
amounting to 0.22 per cent of the total nitrogen. These compounds 
are broken up by the further hydrolysis with acid. 

Further information may be obtained by a consideration of the 
figures for lysine and histidine, which are obtained not by a direct 
determination, but by calculation from the figures obtained for argin- 
ine N, total N in the fraction, amino N and non-amino N. Lysine 
contains only amino N, histidine contains one-third amino N and two- 
thirds non-amino N, while arginine contains one-fourth amino N 
and three-fourths non-amino N. Since histidine N is in a measure 






THE NITROGEN OF PROCESSED FERTILIZERS. 17 

obtained by difference from the non-amino N and the arginine N 
according to formula (1) on page 7, it is evident that if there are pre- 
cipitated by the phosphotungstic acid compounds which contain non- 
amino N other than arginine and histidine, such nitrogen will be 
classed as histidine N, because the arginine N is determined directly. 

A comparison of the results for histidine shows that there is 2.88 
per cent less N calculated as histidine in the hydrochloric acid ex- 
tract than in the water extract and at the same time there is an 
increase in lysine N in the hydrochloric acid extract amounting to 
2.20 per cent. This shows that by the hydrolysis with hydrochloric 
acid some substance which reacted as though it contained non- 
amino N has been decomposed with the formation of an almost cor- 
responding amount of amino N. Here again the indications are that 
this substance is of the class of compounds related to the proteins. 

This is further borne out by the fact that in the monoamino acid 
fraction the nitrogen listed as amino N has increased in per cent 0.17 
and the nitrogen as non-amino N has increased in per cent 1.17 by 
hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. 

A comparison of the figures for humin N shows an increase of 2.66 
in the hydrochloric acid extract, but since the nature of the com- 
pounds in which this class of nitrogen exists is not understood no inter- 
pretation can be given to this figure. 

Proteoses. — In order to prove the presence of some intermediate 
product of protein hydrolysis, which is thus indicated by analytical 
methods, an aqueous solution of about 2.5 pounds of base goods was 
made and the diamino acids were precipitated with phosphotungstic 
acid, in the presence of 5 per cent sulphuric acid. The precipitate 
which formed was allowed to stand over night and after filtering off 
it was washed well with 5 per cent sulphuric acid. The precipitate 
was dissolved in sodium hydroxide, the phosphotungstic acid precipi- 
tated by adding barium hydroxide solution, and after filtering the 
excess of barium was removed by adding sulphuric acid until a neu- 
tral reaction was obtained. Portions of this solution were tested for 
peptones, proteoses, etc., with the following results; The biuret test 
was positive; a precipitate was obtained on saturation of the solution 
with ammonium sulphate, or with sodium chloride; when the filtrate 
from the latter solution was treated with acetic acid a cloudy precipi- 
tate developed. Precipitates were also obtained with sulphuric acid, 
hydrochloric acid, phosphomolybdic acid and with phosphotungstic 
acid. A precipitate was formed on the addition of alcohol to the 
solution. This precipitate was filtered off, dissolved in dilute alkali, 
and on addition of very dilute copper sulphate solution the biuret 
reaction was again obtained. These reactions are those which are 
given by proteoses and by the proteins and confirm the conclusions 



18 BULLETIN 158, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

arrived at from the results obtained with the Van Slyke method. 
The Millon reaction and the Hopkins-Cole reaction were both nega- 
tive, showing the absence from this proteinlike compound of the 
tyrosine and the tryptophane radicles. 

A very large number of compounds intermediary between the pro- 
tein and its primary hydrolysis products may occur, depending on a 
great variety of conditions so that the actual identification of the com- 
pound under discussion would be a difficult matter. However, the 
nature of this compound may be approximately determined by the 
results obtained in the study of the two extracts by the Van Slyke 
method. These results have been already discussed and they indi- 
cate the presence in the base goods of a compound of a proteose na- 
ture, which because it gives a biuret test, must be composed of at 
least three amino acids. The results indicate still further that the 
compound is composed of acid amide radicals, diamino acids, particu- 
larly lysine, and monoamino acids, those containing amino nitrogen 
and especially those containing non-amino nitrogen. Since the fig- 
ures obtained by the nitrogen partition method are subject to a cer- 
tain amount of error when applied to such a mixture the figures can 
only be taken as approximate for the various forms of nitrogen which 
make up this compound. 

The figures given for arginine in the table are probably only influ- 
enced by any cystine present. Attempts to isolate cystine from the 
base goods failed, although it seems unlikely that this compound can 
be absent. The figures for histidine and lysine are undoubtedly too 
high, since they include all of the other nitrogenous compounds pre- 
cipitated by phosphotungstic acid, so that the absolute amount of 
these compounds in base goods can not be correctly determined by 
this method. The figure given for the amount of amino nitrogen 
present as monoamino acids may be a little high, while the non- 
amino nitrogen figure is open to considerable error. 

In Table VI are given the primary hydrolysis products of a number 
of proteins which may be present in the base goods. These results 
were obtained by the esteriflcation method and show how the differ- 
ent proteins vary in the nature and amount of the units composing 
them. Many monoamino acids, besides leucine and tyrosine, occur 
in these proteins, and there must consequently be present in the base 
goods amino acids other than the two isolated. This is apparent 
from the composition of the various proteins shown in the table. 
Owing to the large amount of amide nitrogen present in the fertilizer, 
which was split off by the acidulation of the original proteins of the 
trade wastes, it may be concluded that considerable quantities of 
aspartic or glutamic acids are present in this sample of base goods. 

The conclusions which are to be drawn from the results obtained 
by the examination of this fertilizer by means of the analytical and 



THE NITEOGEN OF PROCESSED FERTILIZERS. 



19 



isolation methods are as follows: The process by which the nitrogen 
of certain trade wastes, such as hair, leather, garbage, etc., is made 
more available, is recognized as a process of partial hydrolysis of the 
complex protein contained in such materials, resulting in am m onia, 
amino acids, etc., all of which are more available than the original 
protein material. This hydrolysis is almost complete, the nitrogenous 
compounds formed being principally the primary products of protein 
hydrolysis, together with a small amount of proteoselike compound 
which has not been fully decomposed. 

Table VI. — Products of acid hydrolysis of various proteins. 



Compound. 


"Synotin" 
"from 
cattle 
flesh, i 


"Keratin" 

from 

sheep's 

horn. 2 


"Keratin" 
from 

sheen's 
wool. 3 


"Keratin" 
from 

horse's 
hair. 4 


Halibut 
muscle. 6 


Ox 
muscle. 6 


"Legu- 

min" from 

pea.? 


Glycine 8 


0.5 

4.0 

.9 

7.8 


0.5 

1.6 

4.5 

15.3 


0.6 
4.4 
2.8 
11.5 


4.7 
1.5 
.9 
7.1 


. 0.0 

(?) .8 
10.4 


2.1 

3.7 

.8 

11.7 


0.4 




2.1 








8.0 








2.5 
2.2 


1.9 

3.6 
1.1 

7.5 
3.7 




.0 
3.2 

.6 
8.0 
3.4 


3.1 
2.4 

(?) 


3.2 
2.2 

(?) 


3.8 


2.9 

.1 

7.3 

4.4 


1.6 




.1 










3.3 


3.2 


5.8 


3.2 






Aspartic add 8 

Glutamic acid 8 


.5 
13.6 


2.5 
17.2 


2.3 
12.9 


.3 

3.7 


2.8 
10.1 

(+ 6.4 
7.5 
2.6 
1.4 


4.52 
15.5 

7.5 
7.6 
1.8 
1.1 


5.3 
17.0 

(+) 




5.1 

3.3 

2.7 

.9 


2.7 
.2 




4.5 
1.1 
.6 


11.7 






5.0 






1.7 








2.1 












Total 


47.3 


62.3 


49.2 


39.6 


50.7 


07. 5 


02.4 







i E. Abderhalden and T. Saski, Zeit. physiol. Chem., 51, 404 (1907). 
i * 3, E. Abderhalden and A. Voitinovici, ibid., 52, 348 (1907). 

« E. Abderhalden and H. G. Wells, ibid., 46, 31 (1905); A. Argiris,ibid.,54, 86 (1905). 
' T. B. Osborne and F. W. Heyl, Arner. J. Physiol., 22, 433 (1908). 
«T. B. Osborne and D. B. Jones, ibid., 24, 437 (1909). 
' T. B. Osborne and F. W. Heyl, J. Biol. Chem., 5, 197 (1908). 

8 Physiological action on plant growth has been determined and reported in Bui. 87, Bureau of Soils, 
U. S. Dept. Agr. 

AVAILABILITY OF THE NITROGEN OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS. 

The question of the availability of the different kind of nitrogen 
contained in organic fertilizers is one that has caused considerable 
discussion. A number of methods have been proposed for determining 
this factor, and while some of them give helpful results, all excepting 
the plant method are open to more or less objection. The reason for 
this is that the methods are empirical and the nature of the compli- 
cated compounds in which the nitrogen is linked in the fertilizer is 
unknown or only guessed. When these nitrogen compounds are 
known and their action on plants as well as the action of the com- 
pounds which will be formed from them during their decompo- 
sition in the soil, has been determined, then the question of the 
availability of the nitrogen of organic fertilizers can be understood. 
Originally it was held that plants were only able to use nitrogen when 



20 BULLETIN 158, U. 6. DEPABTMENT OF AGEICTJLTUBE. 

it was offered to them in the form of nitrates; this idea, however, 
was modified when it was discovered that under .certain conditions 
plants used ammonia or ammonium salts without their conversion 
into nitrates quite as well as they used the nitrates themselves. 
During the past few years it has been clearly demonstrated that 
plants not only use nitrogen in the form of nitrates and ammonia but 
that they can also use nitrogen in the form of complex organic com- 
pounds. 1 The action of a number of these nitrogenous compounds 
has been tested in this laboratory in conjunction with the three 
fertilizer elements and it has been found that in some cases the 
nitrogen compounds are not only used as a source of nitrogen for the 
growing plant, without any change in the compound, but that these 
compounds were apparently nitrate sparers; that is, the plant used 
them in preference to the nitrates. Instead, then, of only one kind 
of nitrogen compound, nitrate, or at most two, nitrate and ammonia, 
there appears to be a very large number of nitrogenous compounds 
which have properties of physiological importance to plant growth. 
The question of the availability of nitrogen compounds can therefore 
be answered only when the nitrogen compounds contained in the fer- 
tilizer can be determined in amount and at the same time classified 
according to their physiological action on plant growth. It is hardly 
necessary to state that such a method does not exist at present and 
that- the physiological action of only a part of the total number of 
nitrogenous compounds present in fertilizers is known. 

The physiological action on plants of all of the nitrogenous com- 
pounds isolated from base goods has been determined by means of 
water cultures 2 and the results obtained may be stated briefly, as 
follows: Both of the purine bases are used by the plant as a source 
of nitrogen and are beneficial to plant growth; furthermore, the 
hypoxanthine acts as a nitrate sparer, there being less nitrate used 
by the plant in the presence of hypoxanthine than when the hypo- 
xanthine is absent. Histidine, arginine, and lysine 3 are all bene- 
ficial to plant growth, causing nitrogen increases in the plant, and 
the two first diamino acids act as nitrate sparers; this may also be 
true of lysine, although this property of lysine has not been studied. 
Leucine is also beneficial to plant growth, and tyrosine, in the light 
of later investigations, is somewhat doubtful in action. Of the other 
monoamino acids which may be present in base goods, aspartic acid, 
glutamic acid, and glycocoll have been found to be beneficial. The 
action of alanine is somewhat doubtful, it apparently being bene- 
ficial in low concentrations, and the action of phenylalanine is re- 
ported as harmful. Thus we see that six of the seven compounds 

i Hutchinson and Miller, Centralbl. f. Bakt., 30, 513 (1911); Schreiner and Skinner, Bui. 87, Bureau of 
Soils, U. S. Dept. Agr., 1912. 
2 Bui. 87, B :reau of Soils. 
s Unpublished data. 



THE NITROGEN OF PROCESSED FERTILIZERS. 21 

isolated from the base goods are actually available to plants as such 
and have a beneficial action. Of the monoamino acids, other than 
the two isolated from base goods, which have been studied in regard 
to their action on plant growth, three have been found to be beneficial, 
one doubtful, and one is reported as being harmful. 

The high-grade nitrogenous fertilizers, such as dried blood, are 
considered to have a high availability owing to the fact that the 
nitrogenous materials when placed in the soil quickly undergo the 
process of ammonification and nitrification, the nitrogen thus being 
changed into a form which can be immediately used by the plant. 
In fact, Lipman * has proposed a method for the determination of the 
availability of the nitrogen of organic fertilizers, depending on the 
amount of ammonia produced under certain conditions in a given 
length of time. It is evident from the above consideration that such 
a method does not tell the whole story, since in the decomposition of 
protein materials like dried blood intermediate compounds are 
formed which are undoubtedly in themselves beneficial to plant 
growth. In order, therefore, to understand the complete action of 
the nitrogenous materials in the base goods it is necessary to know 
how the compounds contained in it are acted upon by ammonifying 
bacteria. Jodidi 2 has shown that the amino acids, and acid amides 
are quite readily ammonified when placed in the soil, the rate of 
ammonia formation and the amount of ammonia formed depending 
apparently upon the chemical structure of tho particular compound 
under consideration. In general, he found that the simpler the chem- 
ical structure of the nitrogen compound the more quickly and readily 
it was ammonified. In the light of these facts it appears that poly- 
peptids, peptones, proteoses, and proteins would be ammonified still 
more slowly than the amino acids since their structure is increasingly 
more complex. 

Hartwell and Pember 3 in their study on the availability of the 
nitrogen of base goods, by means of plant tests found that it had 
apparently as high an availability as dried blood; the water soluble 
nitrogen having even a higher availability. From the nature and 
amounts of the compounds present in the base goods this might be 
predicted. In the case of the dried blood, the nitrogen is practically 
all in the form of complex protein material which must be broken 
down into simpler compounds by bacterial action, with the formation 
of ammonia and other nitrogenous compounds, some or all of which 
may be of physiological importance to plants. With the base goods 
the case is a little different, the greater part of the nitrogen is at 
once available for plant use, and at the same time these available 
compounds may be changed more easily and quickly by the bacteria 

i B 1. 240, New Jersey Expt. Sta., 1912. 

2 Research B .1. No. 9, Iowa Expt. Sta. 

3 Loc. cit. 



22 BULLETIN 158, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

of the soil into ammonia and nitrate, which in turn are used by the 
plant. The soluble nitrogen of base goods should therefore be in a 
more readily available form than the nitrogen of dried blood or 
other nitrogenous fertilizers which are entirely of a protein nature. 

THE CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE UTILIZATION OF 
NITROGENOUS TRADE WASTES. 

In these days of conservation and scientific management more 
and more attention is being paid to the trade wastes from the various 
industries and to the municipal scrap heaps. Things which were 
formerly thrown away are now often made to pay for the entire cost 
of production. After the resources of the chemist and inventor have 
failed in finding any other use for some industrial waste, if it 
be of a nitrogenous nature, the fertilizer industry is turned to as a 
last resort. Here, however, all is not plain sailing since many of 
these nitrogenous substances are of such a nature that the nitrogen 
is said to be "unavailable" for plant use, that is, the substance is 
of such a nature that it is not readily decomposed by the natural 
agencies at work in the soil, so that for the purpose of plant nutri- 
tion the nitrogen of such substances is worthless or of little value. 
In order to render available this type of nitrogenous material many 
different kinds of treatment have been suggested, and the patent 
literature abounds in inventions of this sort. 

It has already been stated that in order that the plant may make 
use of the nitrogen of even high-grade organic fertilizers, it is necessary 
for the proteins therein to be at least partially decomposable by the 
biological and biochemical agencies of the soil. The low-grade organio 
nitrogenous fertilizers resist decomposition by these biological and bio- 
chemical soil agencies, and their nitrogen is therefore considered to be 
less available for plant use. The guiding idea behind the processes 
proposed for the treatment of trade wastes, which will not decompose 
easily in the soil as such, is to change the nitrogen compounds con- 
tained in them in such a way that ammonia is formed and that their 
decay in the soil is more rapid. 

Much of the nitrogenous materials in trade wastes is of a protein 
nature, since the products from which these wastes are derived are 
either of animal or vegetable origin. Such is the case with the wastes 
Used in the manufacture of base goods. It has been shown that by 
the process used in the case of this fertilizer the nonavailable nitroge- 
nous materials have been made highly available, not only because the 
nitrogen compounds can be ammonified quickly in the soil, but also 
because these compounds are directly utilizable by plants. This 
change in the nature of the nitrogen compounds has been brought 
about by the partial hydrolysis of the proteins contained in the various 
trade wastes used in the manufacture of the fertilizer. When proteins 



' 



THE NITKOGEN OP PROCESSED FERTILEZEP.S. 23 

decompose through natural conditions, be they in the soil or out of it, 
a certain amount of hydrolysis of the proteins takes place and if the 
decomposition is allowed to proceed long enough under proper condi- 
tions complete hydrolysis will result. 

The principle involved in making the nitrogenous material in the 
soil available and in increasing the availability of low-grade nitrog- 
enous materials by factory treatment is therefore the same. In other 
words, the general chemical principle to be applied in making avail- 
able the nitrogen of low-grade fertilizers, trade wastes, etc., is that of 
complete or partial hydrolysis by any suitable means of the proteins 
contained in the wastes. Partial hydrolysis of proteins may be accom- 
plished by means of heat, boiling, steaming, heating under pressure, 
and both partial and complete hydrolysis may be obtained by treating 
with strong acids or alkalis, either in the cold for a long time or heating 
to a high temperature, the extent of hydrolysis depending on the sev- 
eral conditions. In a number of processes already in use various of 
these treatments are practiced, resulting in different degrees of hydrol- 
ysis of the original proteins. While the availability of the nitrogen 
of a fertilizer depends on the substances in which the nitrogen is con- 
tained, it also depends on the extent of hydrolysis of the proteins used in 
the manufacture. It may be stated that in general the more extended 
and final the hydrolysis the more available the nitrogen of the com- 
pounds formed, since as has been shown, the final products of hydroly- 
sis are utilized by the plant as such and are at the same time more 
readily changed into ammonia by bacteria, etc., than are the interme- 
diate compounds produced by partial hydrolysis. 

SUMMARY. 

The base goods used as a type of processed fertilizers is an organio 
nitrogenous fertilizer which contains acid phosphate. This product 
is produced by the action of sulphuric acid on certain trade wastes; 
the heat is generated by the interaction of the acid with the organic 
wastes and rock phosphate in the course of the manufacture of acid 
phosphate. It is here shown that the hydrolysis of the protein is 
almost complete, the nitrogenous compounds in the finished fer- 
tilizer being principally the products of primary protein decomposi- 
tion, together with a small amount of a proteoselike compound 
which has persisted. 

From the sample of base goods were isolated the following nitrog- 
enous compounds, two purine bases, guanine and hypoxanthine; 
the three diamino acids, arginine, histidine, and lysine; and two 
monoamino acids, leucine and tyrosine. A proteoselike compound 
was also obtained and its general nature established. 

By means of the Van Slyke method the approximate proportions 
of the different forms of nitrogen contained in the fertilizer were 



24 BULLETIN 158, IT. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

estimated, and the extent of the hydrolysis of the original proteins 
was determined. It was also shown by this method that the proteose- 
like compound was composed of acid amide radicals, diamino acid 
radicals, especially lysine, and mbnoamino acid radicals, particu- 
larly the monoamino acids which contain non-amino nitrogen. 

The question of the availability of nitrogen is discussed and from 
a consideration of the amount and the physiological action on plants 
of the different forms of nitrogen present in the fertilizer it is con- 
cluded that the water soluble nitrogen of this fertilizer should have 
an availability equal to or greater than the nitrogen of dried blood, 
or other high-grade fertilizers. These results are in accord with the 
results obtained by the plant method of determining availability. 

The general chemical principle which underlies the method for 
rendering available the nitrogen contained in most trade wastes, 
which are to be used as fertilizing materials, is shown to be either 
partial or complete hydrolysis of the protein of the wastes by any 
suitable means. 

The more complete the hydrolysis the more available the nitrogen 
in the fertilizer becomes, since the products of complete hydrolysis 
of proteins are not only utilized by the plants themselves as nutrients 
but they are more easily ammonified when placed in the soil than are 
the more complex compounds, such as peptones, proteoses, and the 
proteins themselves. 

This investigation aims only at an explanation and exposition of 
the general chemical principles involved in the treatment of trade 
wastes and other organic material to render the nitrogen contained 
therein more available for agricultural purposes. It does not aim to 
present the research methods here employed as general methods for 
analyzing such fertilizers, nor can the quantitative figures obtained 
be expected to apply to all products of similar manufacture, for the 
reason that the different kinds of nitrogen compounds will necessa- 
rily show different proportions according to the nature of the mate- 
rials which enter into the mixture. 



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Contribution from the Bureau of Soils, Milton Whitney, Chief. 
January 14, 1915. 

SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 

By J. A. Bonsteel, 
Scientist in Soil Survey. 

DEFINITION OF THE SERIES. 

The soils of the Sassafras series are distinguished by the charac- 
teristic brown or yellowish-brown color of the surface soils and by the 
yellow or reddish-yellow color of the subsoil. At depths ranging 
from 2 to 3 feet the deeper subsoil is frequently sufficiently tinged 
with red to become a pale orange. In the dry condition both the 
surface soils and subsoils of the more sandy members of the series 
are decidedly yellow, but when moist the deeper brown shade is 
usually developed. A fresh cut in the subsoil of practically every 
member of the series will usually show a distinct reddish coloration 
below a depth of 2 feet. 

Practically all of the typical occurrences of the soils of the Sassa- 
fras series show the existence either of a distinct bed of medium to 
coarse gravel or of fine gravel mixed with coarse and medium sand 
at depths which range from 2J to 5 feet. In the case of large areas 
of the Sassafras silt loam the underlying gravel bed is covered to a 
depth of 8 to 10 feet by the heavy, compact, silty loam soil and sub- 
soil. It is generally true that the gravel is coarser and the beds are 
more continuous and thicker near the inland border of the region 
where these soils are found, becoming thinner and grading into fine 
gravel and coarse sand as the seaward margin of the various types is 
approached. 

In certain localities, as on Long Island, along the lower courses 
of the Delaware River, and opposite the mouth of the Susquehanna 
River, large blocks of stone or bowlders derived from various forma- 
tions of the Appalachian and Piedmont regions are found within the 
underlying gravels or scattered sparingly over the surface of the 
different soil types. Otherwise the different soils of the series are 
characteristically stone-free. 

All of the different types consist of water-laid materials, chiefly 
formed as marine, estuarine, and fluvial terraces, although some of 
63555°— Bull. 159—15 1 



2 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

the areas consist of closely related outwash material deposited in 
connection with the glaciation of the Long Island area and others 
seem to be derived from older coastal plain deposits. The materials 
entering into the formation of the soils of the Sassafras series have 
been derived from the Appalachian Region, the Piedmont Plateau, 
from glaciated areas immediately to the north of the principal areas 
of their occurrence, and from the underlying Coastal Plain deposits 
reworked in some cases. The latter materials are dominant in the 
sections nearest to tidewater while the mingling of materials from 
other sources is more pronounced along the inland border of the 
general region in which these soils occur. 

The soils of the Sassafras series are distinguished from those of 
the Norfolk series by the predominant gray color of the surface soils 
and the yellow color of the subsoils of the latter series and by the 
reddish color and presence of the underlying beds of gravel or coarse 
sand in the case of practically all areas of the Sassafras soils. 

The soils of the Elkton series, which are found closely associated 
with those of the Sassafras series, are marked by the gray aolor of 
the surface soils and the mottling of yellow and gray in the sub- 
soils. They are characteristically not so well drained as the soils 
of the Sassafras series. 

The soils of the Portsmouth series, which are also associated with 
those of the Sassafras series, are distinctly dark gray to almost black 
at the surface and light gray in the subsoils. They are always 
poorly drained in their natural state. 

The soils of the Collington series are darker in color at the sur- 
face and usually show a greenish tinge, due to the presence of green- 
sand marl in the subsoil. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The soils of the Sassafras series are confined to the northern por- 
tion of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. (See fig. 1.) Considerable areas 
of the soils of this series have been mapped in the central and west- 
ern portions of Long Island. A broad belt of soils classed with the 
series has been found to extend through central New Jersey from 
the vicinity of New Brunswick southwestward to the region around 
Camden and thence southward along the Delaware River and Dela- 
ware Bay to Bridgeton, N. J. This belt is interrupted by occur- 
rences of other Coastal Plain soils, and is more nearly continuous 
after the Delaware drainage area is reached. The same general area 
is continued west of the Delaware by narrow areas along the river 
in the extreme southeastern part of Pennsylvania. 

A large part of northern and central Delaware from the vicinity 
of Wilmington to that of Dover is occupied by the different soils 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFEAS SERIES. 



of this series, while considerable areas of some of the types are 
found thence southward to the Virginia counties east of Chesa- 
peake Bay. 




GLACIAL 
PROVINCE 



APPALACHIAN 
PROVINCE 



PIEDMONT 
PROVINCE 



COASTAL PLAIN 
PROVINCE 



PROVINCE 
BOUNDARY 



SECTIONAL SASSAFRAS SERIES SASSAFRAS SERIES 
BOUNDARY DOMINANT PRESENT 



EEE3 



D 



Fin. 1. — Soils of tho Sassafras scries. 



The soils of the Sassafras series are extensively developed in the 
eastern counties of Maryland from the mouth of the Susquehanna 
River to the Delaware line and southward. In these counties, also, 



4 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

other soil series become more extensive toward the south. The soils 
of the Sassafras series, however, dominate in area all the Maryland- 
Delaware Peninsula from the head of Chesapeake Bay to the lati- 
tude of the southern boundary of Delaware. 

To the west of Chesapeake Bay, in the Maryland counties which 
lie between the bay and the Potomac River, the soils of this series 
are found in considerable area although they do not dominate the 
section. They are principally found along the lower forelands and 
terraces which border the bay and along the estuarine rivers which 
empty into it, although some areas also extend across the lower 
divides separating these waterways. 

South of the Potomac River the soils of the Sassafras series are 
chiefly confined to low terraces along the tidewater estuaries and to 
the low divide separating the Potomac and Rappahannock River 
drainages. The soils have not been mapped in detail in any of this 
territory. A small area of one type has been found in the vicinity of 
Norfolk, Va. It is not believed that any large areas of the Sassa- 
fras soils will be found south of the Rappahannock River, since the 
materials and manner of derivation of more southern Coastal Plain 
soils would not be expected to give rise to soils of this class. 

It will be seen that the total area within which the soils of the 
Sassafras series have been encountered is restricted to an elongated 
oval whose broader southern extremity' lies approximately in lati- 
tude 37° N., and its narrow northern extremity is found upon 
Long Island in latitude 41° N. 

The extreme length of this region from northeast to southwest 
is approximately 300 miles, while the extreme breadth, in the lati- 
tude of Washington, D. C, is a little over 100 miles. 

Within the region outlined, the soils of the Sassafras series 
occupy approximately one-third of western Long Island; one-half 
of the Coastal Plain portion of the soil survey of the Trenton area, 
New Jersey; nearly three-fourths of the area included in the soil 
survey around Salem, N. J.; from 50 to 80 per cent of the various 
soil survej^s in the Coastal Plain region of the Maryland-Delaware 
Peninsula as far south as the southern line of Delaware ; only about 
one- fourth of the soil survey area of Worcester County, Md. ; more 
than one-half of the soil survey of Anne Arundel County, Md. ; and 
from 15 to 25 per cent of the areas which have been surveyed south 
of this county and on the western side of Chesapeake Bay. 

THE NORTH ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN. 

The northern part of the Atlantic Coastal Plain consists of a low- 
lying, gently sloping region which intervenes between the coast line 
and the more elevated interior. It is only within the portion of this 
physical division which extends from the southern end of Chesa- 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 5 

peake Bay to the western end of Long Island, N. Y., that the soils 
of the Sassafras series have been encountered. 

In general, the coast is fringed by long, narrow stretches of 
Coastal beach between which and the main land there are included 
narrow sounds and bays and stretches of Tidal marsh. The main 
land rises gently inland through the greater part of the coast coun- 
try, although low coastal bluffs are locally found and the Navesink 
Highlands, with an elevation of 276 feet, approach within a mile of 
the shore line in east-central New Jersey. Elsewhere the rise 
toward the interior is gentle and for the first few miles does not 
usually exceed 5 feet to the mile. Near the interior margin the rate 
of slope rapidly increases to 10 or even 20 feet per mile. From the 
vicinity of Raritan Bay to the Delaware River and thence near the 
inner line of the Coastal Plain as far as the Potomac River there is 
a sharp slope toward the interior and the main body of the Coastal 
Plain is separated from the Piedmont Plateau and from other 
Coastal Plain deposits along its front by an irregular valley. The 
general trend and extent of this depression is outlined by the direc- 
tion of the Pennsylvania and the Baltimore & Ohio Railroads, which 
follow it from Newark, N. J., to Washington, D. C. In part this 
valley is a land feature, as across central New Jersey and from 
Baltimore to Washington, but in part it has been occupied by estu- 
arine waters as along the Delaware River from Trenton to Salem, 
N. J., around the headwaters of Chesapeake Bay, and in the west- 
ward bend of the Potomac River immediately south of Washington, 
D. C. 

From the vicinity of Fredericksburg, Va., southward this valley 
feature is lacking and the elevated interior margin of the Coastal 
Plain directly overlaps the Piedmont Plateau. 

Within this northern section of the Atlantic Coastal Plain there 
are four subdivisions which possess different details of elevation 
and relief. 

The portion which lies west of the Chesapeake Bay, from the 
James River to the mouth of the Susquehanna River, consists of an 
elevated inner section of the Coastal Plain, which is deeply dis- 
sected by broad estuarine stream valleys. Both in eastern Virginia 
and in the southern counties of Maryland the remnant of the higher 
portions of the Plain takes the form of narrow or broad plateaulike 
ridges, which are locally known as " river necks." These have an 
elevation of 100 to 250 feet along the inner edge of the region, but 
their axes sink gradually toward Chesapeake Bay until they are 
terminated by a low escarpment or end in wave-cut cliffs along the 
bay shore. The larger estuarine rivers within this section are 
usually bordered on one or both sides by low-lying terraces. The 
lowest terrace rises from the water as a gentle slope or is bordered 



6 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

by a low cliff. Thence its surface rises very gently, seeming almost a 
plain, to an inner escarpment, whose base is 30 to 40 feet above tide 
level. Frequently another terrace intervenes, at an altitude of 50 
to 80 feet, between the lowest terrace and the inner plateau. In fact, 
the entire section consists of a series of steplike terraces rising from 
tide water to the general level of the upland except where wave or 
river cutting has destroyed the lower terrace forms. Such terracing 
is shown in Plate I, figure 1. 

The section lying between the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay, 
generally known as the Maryland-Delaware peninsula, possesses 
somewhat different topographic forms. The eastern shore of Chesa- 
peake Bay from near the mouth of the Sassafras River, southward, 
is bordered by a tract of low land which corresponds in elevation 
with the lowest of the terraces on the western side of the bay. This 
swings eastward and forms the greater part of the peninsula south 
of the Delaware State line including, also, the southeastern portion 
of Sussex County, Del. It forms the lower portion of both shores 
of Delaware Bay and Delaware River as far north as Trenton. It 
is probably represented along the Atlantic coast of New Jersey 
by the belt of lowland, extending from Cape May nearly to the 
Navesink Highlands. 

Along the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay this lower terrace is 
bounded, inland, by a low escarpment which extends from near the 
mouth of the Sassafras River southward past Easton, Md., to the 
mouth of the Choptank River. Between this low ridge and the 
shore of Delaware Bay the higher terrace stretches as a gently 
undulating to nearly level upland. The highest elevations are found 
in the western portions of Cecil and Kent Counties, Md., where 
altitudes of 80 to 100 feet are attained. From these the general 
slope is gently seaward. 

In southern New Jersey the surface features are somewhat dif- 
ferent. As has been indicated, the lowest terrace of the Chesapeake 
Bay region extends along both shores of the Delaware River and 
Bay as a distinct topographic feature. It is possibly found along 
the Atlantic coast in the form of the low slope which rises from 
tidewater to an elevation of about 50 feet. In New Jersey the 
marked topographic feature of the Coastal Plain is formed by 
the ridge of dissected hills which extends from the Navesink High- 
lands on the northeast to the vicinity of Bridgeton, N. J., on the 
southwest. From this ridge the land surface declines rather rapidly 
toward the interior valley, separating the Coastal Plain from the 
Piedmont Plateau. The descent toward the sea is long and gentle 
in extreme southern New Jersey but short and steep as the eastern 
end of the ridge is reached in the Navesink Highlands. 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 7 

On the western end of Long Island, N. Y., the narrow belt of 
Coastal Plain rises rather steeply from the coast line to the front 
of the ridge which forms the northern border of the island. The 
plain terminates against the front of this ridge at elevations of 
100 to 240 feet above tide level. Within this sloping plain there 
are also outlying hills and ridges, consisting of old glacial moraine, 
which rise to considerable elevations above the surrounding sur- 
face. These roughly divide the plains into a higher interior plain 
and a lower coastal slope. These coalesce through intervals in the 
ridge. Otherwise the plain is interrupted only by shallow stream 
channels which are normally dry during a greater portion of the 
year. 

The materials which constitute the older deposits of the North 
Atlantic Coastal Plain are chiefly unconsolidated gravel, sands, 
loams, clays, and marls, although there are local occurrences of in- 
durated clays and iron-cemented sands and gravels of little thickness 
and of limited extent. 

These sediments of varying degrees of coarseness have been de- 
rived from the adjacent, interior land areas, transported to the older 
shore lines, and deposited at various periods of geologic time as 
successive layers or strata in the older marine or estuarine waters. 
The surfaces of all of these older deposits are marked by a seaward 
slope and the oldest formations reach the surface along the inner 
margin of the Coastal Plain while the younger ones are successively 
encountered at or near the surface in a seaward direction. These 
older formations, from the Cretaceous to the Miocene in geologic 
age, form the basal structure of the Coastal Plain. They reach the 
surface chiefly along the lines of greatest erosion near the inner 
margin of the region and they are very extensively covered by later 
deposits, forming the terraces and the greater part of the seaward 
slopes of the present land surfaces. These later deposits are referred 
by geologists to the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods. They im- 
mediately preceded the present geologic time. 

The soils of the Sassafras series are chiefly derived from the de- 
posits of the Pleistocene age. This is the latest completed geologic 
period before the present time. It was marked in the northern por- 
tion of the area under discussion by two or more invasions of glacial 
ice. During the period of ice occupation, and particularly Avhile the 

I ice sheet was melting and its front receding, large amounts of ma- 
terial were deposited near its front in the form of glacial outwash. 
At the same time other glacial material was carried down all of the 
larger streams of the region to be deposited as a part of the material 
of the Pleistocene terraces, which were being formed at the same time 



8 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Even the streams considerably to the south of the region directly 
affected by glaciation were considerably swollen and their courses 
were blocked by river ice during portions of the year. This gave 
rise to the transportation of considerable amounts of coarse gravel, 
and even of stones of large size, which were carried in floating ice. 
When the ice melted along the coast or in the estuarine waters this 
coarser material was mingled with the finer grained sediments 
brought under normal conditions of erosion and transportation. Thus 
the Pleistocene sediments along the margin of the glaciated region, 
and even to a considerable distance to the south, have been directly 
or indirectly influenced by the glaciation of the more northern region. 

Long Island, N. Y., lies within that portion of the region which 
was directly invaded by the ice during the glacial period. 1 As a 
result all of the older formations were overridden by the sheet of 
glacial ice, which advanced at one time as far south as the line of 
hills that extends from the vicinity of Westbury to Montauk Point. 
These hills represent the deposition of material as a terminal moraine 
while the ice stood along this line. Later the glacial ice receded and 
then readvanced to a position along the more northern belt of hilly 
territory, which follows the northern shore of the island, where addi- 
tional morainal material was deposited. At the time of this halting 
there was spread out over all of the southern portion of the island the 
thin sheet of gravelly, sandy, and loamy material which constitutes 
the present surface of the land. The sloping plains which intervene 
between the two lines of morainal hills and which sink below the 
water level along the southern shore of the island were formed at 
that time by the deposition of material partly transported by the ice 
from mainland to the north and partly derived from the older for- 
mations, which formed the surface upon which the ice rested. 

A large part of this deposition took the form of cross-bedded sands 
and gravels and of rather coarse sand, washed out by water from the 
melting ice. Where these coarser materials form the present land 
surface they give rise to the areas of Sassafras sand as mapped upon 
the western end of Long Island. The higher, interior plain and a 
large part of the marginal plain which intervenes between the north- 
ern hills and the south shore west of Farmingdale are occupied by 
a gravelly silty loam formed at a late stage of the deposition of this 
material. This gives rise to the extensive areas of the Sassafras 
gravelly loam mapped there. Small areas of loamy material were 
deposited immediately to the West of Jamaica Bay. This forms the 
Sassafras loam. A large part of the material built into these deposits 
is undoubtedly of direct glacial origin. 

1 Professional Paper No. 82, U. S. Geol. Survey. The Geology of Long Island, N. Y., 
by M. L. Fuller. 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFEAS SERIES. 9 

It is certain that the Delaware River carried a large amount of 
material from the glaciated area around its headwaters to its sub- 
merged lower course, thus contributing glacial material to the marine 
and estuarine sediments which were being formed along the coast 
line. 

The Susquehanna River was also affected by glaciation along its 
upper courses and carried glacial material in some volume to be con- 
tributed to the deposits near its mouth. 

While the rivers farther to the south had no direct connection 
with the glaciated area, yet conditions of erosion and transportation 
were so affected that large amounts of the fine-earth materials from 
the Appalachian and Piedmont sections were carried seaward and 
deposited through the Chesapeake Bay region. With these finer 
sediments small amounts of coarse material in the form of gravel 
and large blocks of stone were transported and deposited. The lat- 
ter constitute the only direct evidence of the changed climatic con- 
ditions since they were evidently carried within or upon floating 
masses of ice of considerable size. 

To the west and south of the mouth of the Hudson River the land 
area which now constitutes the surface of the Coastal Plain was 
formed at different stages of submergence and emergence, chiefly 
in the form of successive terraces. It is probable that each of the 
different terraces represents a period of submergence of the land 
area followed by emergence. In general the oldest terrace at pres- 
ent occupies the highest elevation and each younger terrace is found 
at successively lower elevations. 

The different terraces are developed to very unequal extents in 
the different portions of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain from south- 
ern New Jersey to tidewater Virginia. 

In New Jersey the terrace- form development of the later Coastal 
Plain deposits is generally indistinct except in the case of the latest 
and lowest terrace. This has been called the Cape May formation 
by the New Jersey Geological Survey. 1 It fringes the Atlantic 
coast in a narrow border rising from sea level to about 50 feet in 
elevation. Its chief development is found from Cape May north- 
ward along the Delaware Bay and River to the vicinity of Trenton, 
N. J., where its deposits merge with those brought down by the 
river from the glaciated region to the north. From this circum- 
stance it can be correlated with the latest glaciation of the more 
northern region. 

Along the water front the elevation of this terrace varies from 
marshy stretches at tide level to low cliffs of 5 to 10 feet in height. 
The land surface of the main portion of the terrace is nearly level 

1 See N. J. Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 1S98, and Trenton and Philadelphia Folios, U. S. 
Geological Survey. 

63555°— Bull. 159—15 2 



10 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

although streams have cut shallow channels within the terrace and 
low ridges and swells give a slightly undulating character to the 
surface. There is normally a gentle rise toward the interior and 
the landward margin of the terrace along the Delaware Eiver side 
is marked by a sharp rise or by steeper slopes. In the Atlantic 
coast portion of southern New Jersey this interior escarpment is 
not marked or may be entirely lacking. In the Delaware Valley 
phase of this formation the upper level of its deposits lies between 
35 and 50 feet above sea level. The interior margin of this forma- 
tion is frequently bordered by delta deposits accumulated where 
the larger streams brought other Coastal Plain material to the shore 
of the estuary which was formed along the Delaware embayment. 
These are usually sandy and gravelly in their character. They have 
been derived from several of the older Coastal Plain deposits. 
Within the level area of the Cape May terrace the materials consist 
chiefly of gravel, sand, and loam, with small areas of stiff clay in some 
localities. These materials have been derived both from the other 
Coastal Plain deposits and from the glacial material which was 
brought down by the Delaware Eiver. There has also been a con- 
siderable contribution of wind-blown sand which was either spread 
out as a thin sheet over the surface of the water-laid deposits or even 
heaped into low mounds and ridges. 

In general the surface material of the Cape May formation is 
rather sandy and the soils which are derived from it consist largely 
of the Sassafras sand, fine sand, and fine sandy loam. The Sassafras 
silt loam is also developed to quite an extent in some parts of the 
formation, notably near Salem, N. J. Even the level areas of the 
Sassafras sand and fine sand are frequently underlain by this heavier 
material and in some .localities by Miocene and Cretaceous clays, 
and it is probable that in such situations they constitute a surface 
deposit of wind-transported material laid down over the older 
sediments. 

The next higher and older formation of Pleistocene age in south- 
ern New Jersey has been called the Pensauken by the New Jersey 
Geological Survey. It occupies elevations from about 50 feet above 
tide level to an altitude of more than 200 feet in- different parts of 
the Coastal Plain. The Pensauken formation is most extensively 
developed along the flanks of the Delaware Valley and on the slope 
from the Coastal Plain toward the Piedmont Plateau between Tren- 
ton and New Brunswick. Considerable areas are also found on the 
slope between the high ridge within the Coastal Plain and the 
margin of the Cape May formation along the Atlantic. 

The Pensauken formation is chiefly made up of cross-bedded 
gravel and sand having a thickness ranging from 2 or 3 to 50 feet. 
Over some portions of this coarser material there has been deposited 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 11 

a thin layer of silty loam, which is not considered as an essential 
part of the formation by the New Jersey Geological Survey. It is 
very similar to the heavier loam found in the Cape May forma- 
tion and gives rise to the same soil type, the Sassafras silt loam. 
The coarser materials of the Pensauken formation give rise to the 
gravelly and sandy members of the Sassafras series. The soils of 
this series are thus found in almost continuous development from 
near tide level in the Cape May formation to altitudes of 150 to 200 
feet in the area covered by the Pensauken formation. 

It is worthy of note that the soils of the Sassafras series have 
been encountered in their widest development in the State of New 
Jersey within the Delaware Valley and upon the slopes of the valley 
which separates the main body of the Coastal Plain from the Pied- 
mont Plateau. These soils thus occupy a position where their ma- 
terials were affected during deposition by contributions from the 
glaciated area immediately to the north. They may consist, in any 
one locality, of material largely derived from older, underlying 
Coastal Plain formations, but where typically developed there is 
usually evidence that the glaciation to the north contributed a con- 
siderable amount of both fine and coarse material while a still larger 
amount was originally derived from both the Piedmont and Appa- 
lachian regions. 

The oldest deposits of the Pleistocene age in the New Jersey por- 
tion of the Coastal Plain are called the Bridgeton formation by the 
New Jersey Geological Survey. They cap the higher hills in south- 
ern New Jersey above an elevation of about 150 feet. The materials 
are largely gravel and sand, although large bowlders give evidence 
that this formation was also affected by the earlier glaciation of the 
land areas to the north. It is probable that this formation gives rise 
to considerable areas which will be correlated with the soils of the 
Sassafras series. 

Areas of the different soils of this series are also found to coincide 
closely with the portions of these three terraces found on the western 
side of the Delaware River in the extreme southeastern part of 
Pennsylvania. 

In the Maryland-Delaware Peninsula the terrace form of the de- 
posits of Pleistocene age is marked and three terraces have been iden- 
tified by the Maryland Geological Survey. 1 The lowest and youngest 
of these terraces has been called the Talbot formation within this 
State. It is continuous with the Cape May terrace of the New 
Jersey Geological Survey and can be directly correlate*! with it. It 
forms a low, nearly level terrace along the entire eastern boundary of 
Delaware, narrow in the northern part and broadening to a width 

1 Sec Maryland Cool. Survey, " Pliocene and Pleistocene," ami Dover Folio, U. S. 
Geological Survey. 



12 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

of 15 or 16 miles in southern Delaware, and completely occupying 
the greater part of the peninsula south of the Delaware State line. 
Thence it is developed as a broad, low-lying plain along the southern 
part of the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay as far north as the 
mouth of the Choptank River. From this vicinity to the mouth of 
the Sassafras River it becomes narrower but occupies all of the fore- 
lands and islands. North of the Sassafras River to the head of 
Chesapeake Bay it is but sparingly represented by lowlands along 
the water front. 

Throughout the peninsula the Talbot (Cape May) terrace rises 
gently from the water level either with a low slope or by a low wave- 
cut scarp. Its surface is a very gently sloping plain, which is chiefly 
relieved by the tidewater channels of streams which cross it and by 
low ridges which merely serve to render the surface gently undulat- 
ing. The terrace is continued for some distance up the channels of 
the estuarine rivers which are the chief tributaries of the Chesapeake 
Bay from the eastern shore. 

The portion of the Talbot terrace which lies along the Delaware 
Valley and the Atlantic Ocean rises to an altitude of about 45 feet 
above sea level, where it merges into the next higher terrace, usually 
without any marked topographic break. At most a low slope or 
scarp may occur locally. On the side toward Chesapeake Bay the 
inner margin of the terrace is much more sharply marked by a low 
scarp of 10 to 25 feet in elevation, which extends interruptedly from 
near the mouth of the Choptank River to the mouth of the Sassafras 
River. The Talbot terrace is also extensively developed as a low 
front land along the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay from the 
mouth of the Susquehanna River to the mouth of the Patapsco River. 

The materials which enter into the structure of the Talbot terrace 
are all unconsolidated and consist of gravel, sand, loam, and some 
areas of clay. It is probable that a large part of this material was 
brought to its present position from the Piedmont and Appalachian 
regions by the Delaware and Susquehanna Rivers. The presence of 
large ice-borne blocks from both of these regions is noticeable along 
the upper waters of Chesapeake Bay and even some of the finer 
material bears close resemblance to the existing surface materials in 
the adjacent Piedmont region. There can be little doubt that the 
Talbot formation of Maryland and the Cape May formation of New 
Jersey are one in origin and mode of formation, and it is probable 
that both are of about the same age as the youngest glacial material 
found upon, the western end of Long Island. 

The Talbot formation contains large areas of soils which have 
been correlated with those of the Sassafras series. The areas of 
Sassafras sand and loamy sand along many of the estuarine embay- 
ments of the Maryland-Delaware Peninsula and the Sassafras sandy 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 13 

loam, loam, and silt loam of the better-drained portions of this for- 
mation all cover large areas. 

The next higher and older terrace of the Pleistocene is known as 
the Wicomico formation in Maryland. Within the peninsula it occu- 
pies all of the higher interior portion from a line drawn between 
Wilmington, Del., and Elkton, Md., southward a little beyond the 
southern line of Delaware. 

As has been noted, it is separated from the Talbot terrace only by 
low slopes or indistinct scarps on the seaward side. Thence its sur- 
face rises gently nearly to the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, but 
sinks sharply to the surface of the Talbot formation or to the waters 
of the bay along its western margin. A few small remnants of this 
terrace are also found along the steeply sloping boundary between 
the Piedmont and Coastal Plain from the vicinity of Wilmington to 
that of Baltimore. 

The materials which constitute the Wicomico formation in this 
section consist chiefly of bowlders,, gravel, sand, and loam. The 
coarser materials are generally found at the base of the formation, 
and these are usually overlain by either a sandy loam or a rather 
heavy silty loam surface deposit. Generally the gravel constitutes 
a basal stratum rather sharply bounded by the underlying materials 
of various older formations, while it grades upward into the loamy 
covering which forms the Sassafras loam and silt loam. The slopes, 
where somewhat eroded, give rise to a mingling of the loam with 
underlying gravel, forming the Sassafras gravelly loam. Around 
the head of Chesapeake Bay some areas of the Sassafras sand are 
found within the limits of this formation. 

The highest Pleistocene terrace is represented on the Maryland- 
Delaware Peninsula only by fragments, which are found along the 
ridge of high land on Elk Neck and to a limited degree along the 
steep slope which marks the inner border of the Coastal Plain around 
the mouth of .the Susquehanna River. This highest Pleistocene ter- 
race is called the Sunderland formation by the Maryland Geological 
Survey. A small portion of its surface is composed of materials 
giving rise to the Sassafras silt loam. 

The Maryland-Delaware Peninsula constitutes the region within 
which the soils of the Sassafras series are most widespread. They 
are found at all elevations from the vicinity of tide level to altitudes 
of more than 100 feet, while small remnants occur along the inner 
margin of the Coastal Plain at elevations up to 240 feet. 

The materials which give rise to these soils consist of a mingling of 
earthy matter from the Appalachian region and the Piedmont 
Plateau with other materials derived from the underlying and older 
Coastal Plain formations. In general, the coarser gravel and sandy 



14 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

materials form a basal bed underlying loam or silt loam coverings, 
although extensive areas of sandy surface material are found along 
the estuarine rivers of the section and within the seaward margin 
of the Talbot formation. 

The influence of glaciation to the north is shown by the presence 
of large ice-borne blocks within all parts of the terrace formations. 

The Talbot terrace is continued to the west of Chesapeake Bay 
in the peninsula lying between the bay and the Potomac River. 
This region is locally known as southern Maryland. 1 The lowest 
terrace is fairly well developed from Baltimore south to the northern 
end of Calvert County, Md., as a gently sloping front land rising 
from water level to an altitude of 40 or 50 feet. Its shore line is 
either low or defined by a wave-cut cliff of a few feet in height. 
The terrace itself constitutes a slightly relieved plain with a gentle 
slope toward tide water. From this region south to the mouth of 
the Patuxent River it is almost entirely wanting, having been cut 
away by the active erosion of the waters of Chesapeake Bay. 

It is again developed along both shores of the Patuxent River to a 
limited degree and much more extensively along the shores of the 
estuarine portion of the Potomac River. In all of these localities it 
forms the low front lands interruptedly bordering these estuaries. 

The origin of the materials of the Talbot formation in southern 
Maryland is approximately the same as upon the Maryland-Delaware 
Peninsula, although a larger proportion of material derived from 
older Coastal Plain formation is incorporated. The succession of 
materials is about the same and the base is marked by gravels and 
coarse sand, while the present surface is formed by silt loam, loam, 
and rather fine sandy coverings. Wherever this formation is well 
drained, considerable areas of the Sassafras soils are encountered. 

The next higher terrace, the Wicomico, is rather sparingly de- 
veloped in southern Maryland. It occurs at elevations ranging from 
50 to 80 feet in the estuarine valleys and along the bay shore. Its 
surface also rises with the gradient of some of the tributary streams 
until elevations of 100 feet are attained near the Piedmont border. 

In general the surface of the Wicomico terrace is separated from 
both the Talbot and Sunderland terraces by a distinct scarp. In 
some instances the narrow remnants of the formation have been so 
eroded that neither the flat surface nor the bounding scarps may be 
readily distinguished. In almost all instances this formation occurs 
as narrow, fragmentary benches of small area in this section of the 
Coastal Plain. 

The materials entering into the composition of the Wicomico 
terrace are chiefly gravel, sand, and the capping of loam or silt loam, 

*See Patuxent, St. Marys, and Nomini Folios, D. S. Geol. Survey. 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFEAS SERIES. 15 

which is characteristic of this formation east of the Chesapeake Bay. 
The chief areas of the Sassafras silt loam found in southern Mary- 
land occur upon its surface. 

The highest Pleistocene terrace in southern Maryland is called the 
Sunderland formation. It occupies a large part of the broad, nearly 
flat interstream areas, especially along the Chesapeake Bay and the 
lower reaches of the Potomac River. It is in reality a gently sloping 
plain which has been dissected into broad, irregular plateaus, sepa- 
rated by the present tidewater estuaries. 

A considerable proportion of the area of the Sunderland formation 
in southern Maryland consists of materials that do not give rise to 
soils of the Sassafras series. The heavy, silty soil of gray color which 
predominates on the plateau surface is classed as the Leonardtown 
loam. Upon somewhat more rolling surfaces and along certain of 
the uplands there are found soft sandy loams and fine sands derived 
from this formation and formed by its partial erosion and mingling 
with underlying materials which have been correlated as the Sassa- 
fras sand, fine sand, fine sandy loam, and loam. These areas are of 
somewhat mixed origin, but owe their chief characteristics to the 
influence of the material derived from the Sunderland formation. 

A large area in the northern part of southern Maryland is occupied 
by the highest Coastal Plain terrace, referred to the Lafayette forma- 
tion, and by the exposed outcrops of some of the older Coastal Plain 
strata. None of these give rise to soils of the Sassafras series. 

All the occurrences of the soil of the Sassafras series in southern 
Maryland are confined to the areas of the Pleistocene terraces, except 
where erosion has partially removed these formations and mingled 
their remnants with older materials. The largest areas of the soils 
of this series are found along the upper waters of Chesapeake Bay 
and along the forelands which border the principal estuarine rivers, 
particularly the Potomac. Only the better-drained areas of these 
terraces give rise to soils of this series. 

"Examinations of the soil materials of the region south of the 
Potomac River show that the Potomac and the Rappahannock Rivers 
are discontinuously bordered by the lowest terrace, known as the 
Talbot formation * in Maryland. It is also evident that the Wicomico 
ten-ace is represented at intermediate elevations and that the rolling 
or flat-topped interstream areas belong in part to the Lafayette 
formation. 

These different formations are closely related to the similar occur- 
rences in southern Maryland, and soils referable to the Sassafras 
series occur to a limited extent along the low forelands upon the lower 
courses of the rivers. Considerable areas of the Sassafras loam and 

1 See Nomini and Fredericksburg folios, T T . S. Geol. Survey, and Bui. IV, Virginia Geol. 
Survey, Physiography and Geology of the Coastal Plain Province of Virginia. 



16 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

silt loam are also known to exist upon the low flat-topped divide 
between the Potomac River and the Rappahannock River, at least 
as far inland as the western boundary of Westmoreland County, Va. 
Farther to the south, in tidewater Virginia, other soil series occupy 
both the terraces and the interstream divides. These have been 
classed as the soils of the Wickham and Norfolk series. 

A small area of the Sassafras sandy loam has been mapped on 
the low terrace formed by the Talbot formation between Nor- 
folk, Va., and the Atlantic coast. 

It will be seen that the various soils classed in the Sassafras series 
may, almost without exception, be referred to formations of Pleis- 
tocene age in the northern portion of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. In 
the extreme northern portion of this section the relation of these soils 
to glaciation is direct. Farther to the south and west this relation- 
ship is chiefly shown by the presence of limited amounts of ice-borne 
material mixed with the materials brought in from the Appalachian 
and Piedmont regions and with material derived from the older for- 
mations of the Coastal Plain. These have been deposited as a series 
of marine, estuarine, and fluvial terraces which constitute the low- 
lying section between the coast line and the more elevated land to the 
interior. 

While the soils of the Sassafras series do not occupy the en- 
tire extent of these geological formations they are quite generally 
found along the interior margin where the glacial material and the 
fine earth from Piedmont and Appalachian sources were mingled 
with sediments derived from the older Coastal Plain deposits. 

All these classes of soil- forming material were sorted and rear- 
ranged during the processes of transportation and deposited so that 
the coarser materials are most frequently found at the base while the 
surface materials may range from heavy silt loam to medium sand. 

Only the well-drained portions of the different terraces are occu- 
pied by soils of the Sassafras series. Less well-drained areas give 
rise to soils classed in the Portsmouth or Elkton series. 

The area of material referable to the soils of the Sassafras series 
is usually greatest in positions around the mouths of streams which 
issued from the glaciated areas to the north or whose headwaters 
were affected by glaciation. As the terraces are followed to the west 
und south other soil materials become predominant, and the higher 
terraces are occupied by soils of the Norfolk, Leonardtown, and 
Wickham series. 

SASSAFRAS SAND. 

Considerable areas of the Sassafras sand have been mapped in the 
soil surveys of western Long Island, the Delaware River section of 
New Jersey, in the Maryland-Delaware peninsula, and in the south- 
ern Maryland counties lying between the Chesapeake Bay and the 



Bui. 159, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate I. 





















igftT'i 










^';M-^*^3 






dflH 




%*;!,* 






-JrUlI 


P*' ■ 




— — 










' ■"■■ - ''"''" 7 V'.' '' •':', 














ft -' 














: '"-.•■"'.' ',- , 




' 1 ' 


■ r fvU 


« • 


1 >• > ' is 



Fig. 1.— Wheat on the Sassafras Loam, Wicomico Terrace, in Southern 

Maryland. 









fift' 






Sawtffll 


.-'l&iiJP 










V ,'^i 


H^^ 












r* "~ 



Fig. 2.— Rye on the Sassafras Sand, Caroline County, Mi 



Bui. 159, U. S. Dept. of Agiiculture. 



Plate II. 




Fig. 1.— Early Tomato Crop on Sassafras Sand, Southwestern New Jersey. 
Other Truck Crops in the Background. 







Fig. 2.— Picking Strawberries, Sassafras Sand in Southwestern New Jersey. 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 17 

Potomac Kiver. 1 A total area of 337,346 acres has been mapped in 
these various surveys. It is probable that the entire geographic 
range of the type has been outlined, but the total area of this soil is 
undoubtedly considerably greater than the area already included 
within the limits of the soil surveys. 

The surface soil of the Sassafras sand to an average depth of about 9 
inches is a brown or reddish-brown, medium to coarse textured sand. 
Frequently the surface color may grade into yellow or gray tints 
and the texture is sometimes somewhat loamy, especially where a 
considerable amount of organic matter exists in the surface soil. 
The subsoil is most frequently a yellow or reddish-yellow sand, 
usually rather incoherent just below the surface soil, but becoming 
more loamy at a depth of 2 to 3 feet. Frequently the immediate sub- 
soil is underlain at a depth of 3 feet by very coarse sand or by sand 
and gravel mixed. The deeper subsoil is also frequently tinged with 
red so as to become orange or brown in color. 

In some areas small amounts of fine gravel are mingled with both 
the soil and subsoil, especially upon steep slopes, where erosion has 
exposed underlying beds of coarser material. In a few localities 
indurated, iron-cemented gravels give rise to plates and blocks of 
" ironstone," which appear most numerously upon slopes or where 
this soil type merely persists as a capping on partially eroded hills. 
Typically the surface soil is a uniform, medium sand in which the 
chief variations consist of more or less organic matter and in a 
slightly variable amount of the finer-grained soil particles. 

The Sassafras sand is distinguishable from the Norfolk sand, with 
which it is sometimes associated, through the generally gray appear- 
ance of the surface soil and the yellow coloration of the subsoil of the 
latter. 

The Sassafras sand occurs in quite a variety of topographic posi- 
tions, but the greater part of the areas of the type thus far mapped 
is found upon gently sloping terrace plains or upon the slightly 
inclined surfaces of delta deposits. Within these areas there is 
usually a small percentage of the type which occupies the sloping 
sides of streamways or the marginal slopes of the deltas or terraces. 
In some instances, also, erosion has left small areas of the Sassafras 
sand as isolated cappings upon the higher hills. Areas of this 
character are liable to be rougher and more sloping than the char- 
acteristic occurrences of the type. The most extensive areas and 
those of the highest agricultural value exist as gently sloping plains 
and nearly level terrace areas. In such positions the level of the 
ground water is frequently near the surface of the land. This is 
the case along the southern shore of Long Island and along the low 

1 In some of the earlier surveys no distinction was made between the sand and fine 
sand, and both were mapped as Sassafras sand. 

63555°— Bull. 159—15 3 



18 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF- AGRICULTURE. 

terraces which border the Delaware River and the banks of many 
of the estuarine streams of the Maryland-Delaware peninsula. This 
circumstance frequently modifies the natural moisture-holding ca- 
pacity of the type and renders it capable of producing a wider range 
of crops than its rather coarse texture would seem to indicate. 

Generally, the Sassafras sand is well drained, both on account of 
its sandy texture and because it is found in areas where stream drain- 
age has been well established. The higher lying part of the type 
is even somewhat excessively drained and is therefore rather more 
limited in its crop uses than the lower lying areas of which mention 
has been made. 

While there is thus some variation in the circumstances of attitude 
and of natural drainage within the total extent of the type, the Sas- 
safras sand is generally level to gently undulating in its surface 
features, well drained to somewhat droughty, and usually rather 
restricted, because of these facts, in the character of crops which 
may successfully be grown upon it. 

The extent to which the Sassafras sand has been occupied for 
agricultural purposes varies considerably with the geographical loca- 
tion of the different bodies of this soil. In all areas near to the 
great centers of population, such as the areas in central and western 
Long Island, those in central and southwestern New Jersey, and 
those in some parts of southern Maryland, the greater proportion 
of this soil has been cleared and placed under intensive forms of 
cultivation. In other regions more remote from the great markets 
for vegetable and fruit crops, and where the means for rapid trans- 
portation is lacking, considerable areas of the Sassafras sand remain 
in forest growth of pine and scrubby oak, or the areas are farmed 
with varying success for the production of the cereal grains, hay, 
and vegetables for home consumption. It is probable that 75 per 
cent of the type in the vicinity of the larger cities of the northern 
Atlantic coast is occupied for intensive forms of crop production, 
while diminishing percentages are utilized for any agricultural pur- 
pose in more remote locations. It may be roughly estimated that 
not more than one-half of the total area of the type thus far encoun- 
tered in the soil surveys has been utilized for crop production. The 
development of the remaining areas will probably not occur until 
the use of such lands is made desirable by the extension of trans- 
portation facilities and an increased demand for the growing of 
special vegetable and fruit crops. 

Because of the generally porous and unretentive character of both 
the soil and subsoil of the Sassafras sand, it is not found to attain 
to any high value for the production of the staple crops. In fact, 
in localities where such crops are the only ones whose production 
is attempted upon this soil, the yields obtained are usually below 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 19 

the normal averages for the general region, and it is only where some 
unusual circumstance of saturated subsoil, seepage from higher 
lands, or the existence of a denser underlying loam or clay is of local 
influence that corn, the small grains, or the ordinary meadow grasses 
are grown to any marked advantage. This is so general that large 
areas of the Sassafras sand still remain in forest wherever local con- 
ditions do not favor special crop production. 

Corn is more generally grown upon the Sassafras sand than any 
of the other cereals. The yields secured range from less than 20 
bushels to <±0 bushels per acre. The latter yields are only obtained 
in the seasons of heavy and well distributed rainfall, or upon por- 
tions of the type favored by an unusually high water table, the 
presence of retentive materials below the subsoil, or by specially good 
methods of soil management. 

Wheat is locally grown on the Sassafras sand in some portions 
of Maryland. The yields are usually low, rarely exceeding 10 or 12 
bushels per acre. The crop is not at all suited to such a porous soil, 
and is usually grown merely as a part of an established crop rota- 
tion. 

Rye is grown to a limited extent and produces fair yields, ranging 
from 12 to 20 bushels per acre. It is probable that it is the small 
grain best suited to this soil. "Where the straw can be sold to ad- 
vantage, the growing of rye is more profitable than the growing of 
wheat. A good crop of rye grown on the Sassafras sand is shown 
in Plate I, figure 2. 

Crimson clover is coming to be grown as a winter cover crop upon 
portions of the Sassafras sand along the Maryland-Delaware line. 
This crop not only gives an excellent winter growth for protective 
purposes, but it also is cut for hay at a time sufficiently early in the 
spring to permit of the planting of an intertilled crop for the sum- 
mer season. It has also led to increased fertility of the Sassafras 
sand, where it has been used consistently. This is particularly the 
case where the crimson clover stubble or the remainder of the crop 
after it has been grazed during fall and spring is plowed under as a 
manure for the succeeding corn or tomato crop. 

Cowpeas produce good yields of hay upon the Sassafras sand, and 
they are grown to an increasing extent as a summer hay crop. It 
has also been found that the peas maj be produced for seed upon 
this soil, especially in the eastern counties of Maryland, and that 
the yield of seed constitutes a profitable cash crop, while the cowpea 
straw may be used as a valuable fodder. 

None of the meadow grasses are grown to advantage upon the 
Sassafras sand, although a fair stand'of red clover may be obtained 
for one year. Clover is sometimes seeded with the small acreage of 
wheat grown upon the type. The yields of hay are low. 



20 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

While the Sassafras sand does not constitute a valuable soil for 
the production of the usual grain and hay crops, its warm, porous 
condition renders it an especially valuable soil for the growing of 
the special vegetable and small fruit crops. 

Large areas of the type on western Long Island are located so 
close to New York City; other areas in central and southern New 
Jersey are so favorably situated near the Camden and Philadelphia 
markets; and even some areas in Maryland, located near to Balti- 
more, are so accessible to city markets that a considerable use is 
made of them in the production of small fruit and vegetables. 

For the purposes of the market gardener and the trucker the 
Sassafras sand is a very valuable soil. Because of its coarse texture 
and through natural drainage, it is a warm, early soil, which may 
be worked at an early date in the spring and which forces the vege- 
tables and fruits to a rapid growth and an early maturity. When 
heavily manured and properly managed, it gives satisfactory yields 
of a considerable number of such special crops. The type is recog- 
nized through extensive experience as one of the most desirable 
soils of the North Atlantic coast region for trucking and market 
gardening. 

Added to the warm, well-drained character of the soil and the 
location of important areas of it near to market and to favorable 
transportation facilities is the fact that it lies at low elevations, 
and frequently within the protective climatic influences of large 
bodies of tidewater. This is the case with the areas found upon 
western Long Island ; it is generally true of the most important areas 
in New Jersey; and it also applies to the areas of the type found 
near Baltimore, Md. These circumstances give rise to availability 
for crop uses early in the spring and to a lengthening of the grow- 
ing season to such an extent that two or more crops are produced in 
one season from the same ground. 

The vegetable crops grown upon the Sassafras sand frequently 
reach maturity at a date from four days to one week in advance of 
the same crops from the same localities grown upon other finer- 
grained and more retentive soils. 

The Sassafras sand occupies the same relative position as an early 
truck crop soil in the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain that the Nor- 
folk sand occupies in localities farther south. Both are the earliest 
soils of their respective regions. 

A bewildering variety of vegetable crops is grown in rapid suc- 
cession upon the Sassafras sand in all of the developed trucking 
sections of Long Island and southern New Jersey. No census sta- 
tistics are available to give definite acreages of the different crops. 
In general it may be stated that early Irish potatoes, tomatoes, and 
sweet potatoes occupy the largest areas among these crops. 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 21 

Upon western Long Island early Irish potatoes are the most exten- 
sive crop grown upon this type. The yields vary considerably under 
the management of different growers and under different seasonal 
conditions. It may be said that the high fertilization and careful 
cultivation given the crop usually result in yields ranging from 125 
to 150 bushels per acre. The latter yield is sometimes exceeded. 
The early Irish potatoes grown upon the Sassafras sand in both New 
Jersey and upon Long Island are usually smooth, mealy tubers, 
which command a high market price. They reach the market in 
succession with the Irish potatoes grown in the Norfolk section, in 
the eastern shore counties of Virginia, and immediately after the 
crop from central Delaware. The New Jersey crop usually comes 
on the market in late July and early August, while the Long Island 
crop is marketed in greatest quantity from the latter part of August 
to early September. The crops grown upon other soil types in these 
same regions are usually a week or more later in date of maturity 
than the potatoes harvested from the Sassafras sand. 

The Sassafras sand exerts a strong influence upon the production 
of sweet potatoes in New Jersey. From Trenton, N. J., southward to 
the vicinity of Bridgeton, N. J., extensive fields of sweet potatoes 
are annually grown. This is the northern limit of production for this 
crop upon any extended scale. It is only upon the more sandy and 
warmer soils that the crop is successfully produced in this latitude. 
Hence the Sassafras sand and the associated Sassafras fine sand 
come to be the chosen sweet-potato soils of the New Jersey growers. 

The importance of the sweet-potato crop upon the Sassafras sand 
is clearly shown through the fact that 55 per cent of the total acreage 
in sweet potatoes and nearly 60 per cent of the total yield for the 
State of New Jersey are grown in the counties of Gloucester and 
Salem, largely upon this type and upon the Sassafras fine sand. The 
average yield of sweet potatoes for the State is approximately 142 
bushels per acre, but the average yield from Gloucester County, which 
may be taken as representing very closely that of the Sassafras sand 
and fine sand, is in excess of 162 bushels per acre. 

Both early Irish potatoes and sweet potatoes also constitute im- 
portant crops upon the Sassafras sand in Anne Arundel County, Md. 

Tomatoes, both for direct marketing and for the purpose of can- 
ning, are grown to some extent upon the Sassafras sand. In New 
Jersey the crop is chiefly grown for direct marketing as early in the 
season as possible. The soil type is conveniently located near to im- 
mediate markets and the tomatoes are frequently transported by 
wagon from the fields to the retail or wholesale markets of Camden 
and Philadelphia. A field of tomatoes on the Sassafras sand is shown 
in Plate II, figure 1. 



22 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Both in Anne Arundel County, Md., and in the Eastern Shore 
comities of Maryland tomatoes are extensively grown for the can- 
ning factories upon this and associated soil types. 

The Sassafras sand is used to some extent for the growing of 
watermelons in both Gloucester and Salem Counties, N. J., where it 
is recognized as the soil best suited to this crop. Good yields of sweet, 
early melons are secured. Some melons are also grown upon the type 
in the different areas of its occurrence in Delaware and Maryland. 
Cantaloupes are less extensively grown than watermelons on this 
type, but give fair yields of melons of excellent quality. 

For the production of extra early garden peas as a truck crop the 
Sassafras sand is only excelled by the Norfolk sand. In Anne Arun- 
del County, Md., many acres of early peas are annually grown upon 
this soil. In the New Jersey trucking counties and upon Long Island 
early peas are also an important crop. In all of these localities string 
beans are grown to some extent. Both crops take a regular spring 
place in the succession cropping which marks the intensity of truck- 
ing methods, and it is a common sight to see the rows of peas and 
string beans so spaced that cucumbers or cantaloupes may be inter- 
planted, making their growth and fully occupying the tract after 
the early peas and beans have been harvested. 

There is probably no soil in the more northern trucking regions 
which is so well suited to the production of an extra early crop of 
asparagus as the Sassafras sand. The shoots are ready for cutting 
at an early date, they are easily harvested, and they are easily 
blanched to the creamy white demanded by certain markets. While 
asparagus is not grown in any large acreage upon the Sassafras 
sand yet the crop is one of high value, and it is very frequently 
found in small plots upon the market garden and truck farms 
located upon this soil type. 

Numerous other truck crops are grown upon this soil. Among 
these may be enumerated eggplant, which is found to be well suited 
to this soil in the southwestern New Jersey counties; cucumbers, 
grown on Long Island, in New Jersey, and upon the Eastern Shore 
of Maryland; peppers, chiefly produced upon it in New Jersey; 
sweet corn, locally grown in small acreages upon many truck farms ; 
and even extra early cabbage, carrots, turnips, beets, and spinach 
and kale. 

The strawberry is the most widely grown and valuable small 
fruit produced upon the Sassafras sancl. The type is chiefly used 
for growing such varieties as the Superior for early market and the 
Klondyke for midseason markets. The Gandy, a distinctly late 
berry, is grown only to a limited extent upon this soil. It is better 
suited to production upon the more loamy types of the Sassafras 
series and to the mucky, moist conditions of the Portsmouth loam 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 23 

and sandy loam. Since these soils are commonly associated with 
the soils of the Sassafras series in the region of its most extended 
development on the Maryland-Delaware Peninsula, the later berries 
are decidedly restricted to these other types. A good field of straw- 
berries on the Sassafras sand is shown in Plate II, figure 2. 

Both dewberries and blackberries are planted successfully on the 
Sassafras sand. In Anne Arundel County, Md., the dewberry has 
become somewhat a specialty upon this soil. 

In former years peaches were grown to quite an extent upon some 
portions of the Sassafras sand, but the crop is now of diminishing 
importance. 

Early fall varieties of apples are grown upon it, but the Sassafras 
sand may not be considered as a type well suited to apple orcharding. 

To summarize the uses of this soil type it may be said that the 
value of the special crops grown upon it in the various localities 
probably exceeds the value of the general farm crops produced, 
although the acreage is decidedly smaller. The type may be char- 
acterized as below the average in agricultural value for the produc- 
tion of the cereal grains and the common meadow grasses; fairly 
well suited to the growing of crimson clover and cowpeas; and 
especially well suited to the production of a wide variety of vege- 
tables and small fruits where areas of the soil are conveniently 
situated with respect to transportation and market. 

SASSAFRAS LOAMY SAND. 

The Sassafras loamy sand has been mapped to a total extent of 
57,024 acres, found chiefly in the Easton area, Md., but to a limited 
extent in Anne Arundel County, Md. It is undoubtedly a type of 
limited geographical extent and of restricted agricultural impor- 
tance. 

The surface soil of the Sassafras loamy sand to a depth of 6 or 8 
inches is a dull-brown loamy sand. The medium to coarse grades of 
sand form a considerable part of the whole mass and give a coarse 
gritty character to the material. A small amount of white quartz 
gravel is also found in the surface soil. There is present a sufficient 
amount of finer grained material to cause a moist sample of the soil 
to cohere slightly, but when dry the surface soil is loose and uncom- 
pacted, although not quite so incoherent as the Sassafras sand. 

The upper part of the subsoil possesses about the same texture and 
structure as the soil, but is lighter in color, being a pale yellow. At 
a depth of 15 inches there is a perceptible increase in the amount of 
fine material and the deeper subsoil gradually becomes a moderately 
heavy sandy loam. It is coherent when moist, but crumbles into 
granular aggregates when dry. 



24 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The Sassafras loamy sand is an intermediate gradation between 
the Sassafras sand and the Sassafras sandy loam. For the general 
farm crops it ranks below the latter and above the former. 

The most extensive areas of the Sassafras loamy sand are level to 
gently undulating in surface topography and sufficiently elevated to 
be well drained to droughty. There are some areas where the deeper 
subsoil is rather poorly drained, but these are of limited extent. 

A considerable part of the Sassafras loamy sand has been cleared 
and occupied for the production of the general farm crops. More 
recently areas located near to canning factories or to shipping facili- 
ties have been used to some extent for the growing of tomatoes for 
canning, of sweet potatoes, and of melons and cantaloupes. 

Among the grains, corn is most extensively grown. The yields 
obtained are low under ordinary systems of management. Wheat also 
gives low yields upon this soil. Some crab grass is cut for hay. 
Crimson clover has been tried upon this soil and gives fair yields of 
hay, especially when a light application of lime is made with the 
seeding. Cowpeas are also grown to some extent, chiefly as a hay 
crop. It has been found that the other general farm crops produce 
larger yields following a crop of crimson clover, and the practice of 
using this legume as a winter-cover crop and for the purpose of green 
manuring should be extended. 

Where tomatoes are grown for canning moderate yields are secured. 
Crimson clover is frequently grown as a green manure in connection 
with this crop, giving markedly increased yields. 

Buckwheat and rye are grown to a very limited extent. 

The Sassafras loamy sand may be characterized as a rather low- 
grade general farming soil which is much better suited to the grow- 
ing of special crops where a market for such crops, especially toma- 
toes, sweet potatoes, and melons, exists. 

This type is normally deficient in organic matter, and the use of 
stable and green manures is to be recommended. 

SASSAFRAS FINE SAND. 

The Sassafras fine sand has been mapped in the Trenton area, in 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and in Anne Arundel and Prince 
Georges Counties, Md., to a total extent of 78,302 acres. 1 In the 
Trenton area this soil type is found on both sides of the Delaware 
River from the vicinity of Trenton southward. In Maryland no 
areas of the Sassafras fine sand have been encountered, except along 
the upper course of the Patuxent River. It is probable that the 
type is not of widespread occurrence outside of the localities where 
it has already been mapped. 

1 Considerable areas of this soil were included with the Sassafras sand in the Salem 
area, New Jersey. 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 25 

The soil of the Sassafras fine sand, to an average depth of 8 or 10 
inches, is a brown or reddish-yellow fine sand. It is friable and 
powdery when dry but slightly adhesive when moist. The subsoil 
is a lighter colored, yellow or pale orange fine sand which is usually 
rather incoherent to a depth of 2 feet or more but may be somewhat 
cohesive below that depth. 

The surface configuration of the Sassafras fine sand varies con- 
siderably in the different localities where it is found. Along the 
Delaware River it occupies level-topped to undulating terraces at 
elevations varying from 10 feet to 80 feet above tide level. In tin; 
Maryland counties it occurs as level terraces at various elevations 
above the Patuxent River and also as rolling to rather hilly country 
at some distance back from the river. In all of these positions there 
are numerous steep slopes within the limits of the type. The ter- 
race occurrences present considerable areas of level arable land, 
while the rolling areas frequently show not more than half of the 
surface sufficiently level for tillage purposes. In all positions the 
natural drainage of the type is good and sometimes excessive. On 
the steeper slopes there is constant danger from excessive erosion and 
this limits the uses to which the land may be put as well as the 
total area which may be used for tillage. The steeper slopes are 
usually forested with mixed hardwood growths. 

In New Jersey and Pennsylvania the areas of the Sassafras fine 
sand exist near to large city markets and there has been a consider- 
able development of this type for the purposes of market gardening 
and trucking. Very little use is made of it for the production of 
general farm crops. In Maryland, however, it is not favorably 
located with respect to market or to transportation, and the crops 
grown are those of the general agriculture of the community. It is 
probable that nearly three-fourths of the entire area of the Sassafras 
fine sand has been cleared and occupied for some form of agricul- 
tural production. 

The class of crops grown upon the Sassafras fine sand depends 
chiefly upon the market facilities. Thus, upon the larger areas of 
the type along the Patuxent River, corn, wheat, grass, and the 
Maryland pipe-smoking tobacco constitute the chief crops. Corn 
gives moderate to low yields, ranging from 15 to 30 bushels per acre. 
Wheat gives yields which range from 10 to 15 bushels. Hay is not 
generally grown, but where produced yields of less than 1 ton per 
acre are common. The quality of the Maryland pipe-smoking to- 
bacco produced upon this soil is fair to good, but the yields are fre- 
quently low. In fact, the water-holding capacity of the type under 
normal conditions is not great enough to mature large yields of the 
staple crops. Cowpeas and crimson clover have only been grown to 
a small extent upon the Sassafras fine sand. The general introduc- 

63555°— Bull. 159—15 4 



26 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

tion of these crops both for forage and green manuring purposes 
should be encouraged. 

The Sassafras fine sand can not compete with the Sassafras sand 
in maturing truck crops at a very early date, but the crops grown are 
usually satisfactory with regard to yields. For the production of 
early tomatoes, of sweet potatoes, and of garden peas and string 
beans the Sassafras fine sand is well suited. It is used for the 
growing of these and other market garden crops in southwestern 
New Jersejr. It is also used for the growing of cantaloupes and 
is well suited to this crop. 

In general, the Sassafras fine sand is somewhat too porous and 
well drained to be classed as a successful general farming soil. Areas 
suitably situated with regard to market are used for vegetable crops 
and canteloupes. 

In all cases the sandy character of the soil render's the use of 
organic manures and green manuring crops advisable. 

SASSAFRAS GRAVELLY LOAM. 

The Sassafras gravelly loam has been mapped to the extent of 
164,678 acres, chiefly upon western Long Island and in southwestern 
New Jersey. Only small areas of the type have been found else- 
where, chiefly in the Maryland counties on both sides of the upper 
reaches of Chesapeake Bay. 

The soil of the Sassafras gravelly loam to a depth of 8 to 10 
inches is a brown or reddish-yellow sandy loam containing from 20 
to 40 per cent of small, white, quartz gravel, intimately mixed 
through the mass of finer grained material. This is usually un- 
derlain by a yellow or reddish-yellow silty loam which also contains 
considerable gravel. The whole mass rests upon beds of fine or 
medium gravel at depths ranging from 2 to 3 feet. 

The surface features of the Sassafras gravelly loam are somewhat 
variable in the different areas of its occurrence. The extensive area 
mapped on western Long Island constitutes a gently sloping plain 
with a maximum elevation of 200 to 240 feet above tide level where 
it abuts against the latest glacial moraine ridge along the northern 
shore of the island. Thence it slopes gently seaward to the south 
shore, being interrupted by the ridges and hills of an earlier moraine 
in the central part of Long Island. 

The surface is little broken by stream channels although a few 
dry gullies carry off excess water in times of heavy precipitation 
or of melting snow. The natural slope of the land and the presence 
of the underlying, porous beds of gravel give the type complete 
drainage throughout its occurrence upon Long Island. 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 27 

In southwestern New Jersey some areas of the Sassafras gravelly 
loam occur chiefly on upland ridges and sloping plains, where 
erosion has partially removed the original covering of silt loam. 
It also occurs in narrow belts as a gravelly outcrop along stream 
slopes. In both positions it is rather excessively drained because 
of its coarse texture and because of the presence of underlying 
beds of sand and gravel. Upon the more level areas, where erosion 
has not been so severe, there still remains a sufficient amount of 
silty fine earth to render the type capable of fairly successful agri- 
cultural occupation. 

The other areas of the Sassafras gravelly loam are chiefly local 
tracts, where an unusually high content of gravel is found in mate- 
rial resembling either Sassafras sandy loam or the loam. 

Considerable portions of the type are too sloping and too com- 
pletely drained to constitute good farm land. The more level areas, 
such as that upon Long Island, have been utilized to quite an extent 
for the production of special crops. 

In general the staple farm crops are not extensively grown upon 
the Sassafras gravelly loam. In the Maryland areas, however, corn 
gives yields of 20 to 35 bushels per acre upon portions of the type 
which are not too sloping and gravelly to retain sufficient moisture 
for maturing the crop. Wheat is grown in the regular crop rotation, 
giving yields of 12 to 15 bushels per acre. Clover is usually seeded 
with the wheat, returning yields of 1 ton or more per acre. Locally 
cowpeas are grown to a limited extent. Some tomatoes are also 
grown in localities near canning factories. 

Owing to its proximity to great city markets and to the fact that 
the soil is well drained and warm, the market garden and truck 
crops are grown upon it in large acreage on western Long Island. 

Early Irish potatoes are extensively grown and the yields obtained 
with liberal use of manure and fertilizer range from 100 to 200 
bushels per acre. The crop reaches the market late in August and 
is chiefly marketed as fast as it matures. Cabbage for the summer 
and early fall market is also grown. Sweet corn for direct sale con- 
stitutes another important crop, while tomatoes are raised to a small 
extent. 

In New Jersey few general farms crops are grown upon the Sassa- 
fras gravelly loam. In some localities plantings of peaches, plums, 
cherries, and pears have been made. They have been fairly success- 
ful. The growing of market garden and truck crops has also been 
undertaken during the last 10 years and small areas of the type are 
thus utilized. 

For the production of either the vegetables or fruit crops it is 
essential to select only those portions of the Sassafras gravelly loam 
which contain a considerable amount of silt and clay in both the 



28 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

surface soil and subsoil and to avoid the areas of the type under- 
lain at a shallow depth by thick or compacted beds of gravel. Where 
the surface layer of loamy and gravelly soil and subsoil amounts to 
3 feet or more the type possesses a considerable agricultural value. 
Elsewhere it is too completely drained and the gravel bed interferes 
too seriously with root development. 

In general the Sassafras gravelly loam is not well suited to the 
staple farm crops. Certain special fruit and vegetable crops are 
grown where the loam content is greatest and where the local demand 
furnishes a good market for early vegetables or fruits. 

In all areas the Sassafras gravelly loam is benefited by the addition 
of organic manures. 

SASSAFRAS SANDY LOAM. 

The Sassafras sandy loam has been mapped to the extent of 332,410 
acres in the soil surveys which have been made in southern New Jer- 
sey, Delaware, eastern and southern Maryland, and in the vicinity of 
Norfolk, Va, It is one of the most extensively developed and agri- 
culturally important types in the Sassafras series. It is probable 
that additional soil surveys in these general localities will show the 
existence of other areas of this soil. 

The soil of the Sassafras sandy loam to an average depth exceed- 
ing 1 foot is a brown, granular sandy loam. It is characterized by a 
fairly even distribution of the coarse, medium, and fine grades of 
sand with a relatively large proportion of silt, which gives a decided 
coherency to the soil mass. 

The subsoil is a reddish-yellow or brown sandy loam decidedly 
heavier and more coherent than the surface soil. This extends to a 
depth of 2 or 3 feet, where it is normally underlain by coarse sand 
or fine gravel. There are areas of limited extent where the more 
pervious deeper layer is not found and some portions of the type, par- 
ticularly in the New Jersey occurrences, are underlain by a stiff clay. 
These are not strictly typical of the Sassafras sandy loam. 

Upon portions of the type which slope down to stream courses a 
small amount of quartz gravel and occasionally a few small stones 
are found. Such areas are of decidedly limited extent, and the type 
as a whole is a remarkably uniform medium sandy loam. 

All of the more extensive areas of the Sassafras sandy loam possess 
a nearly level or very gently undulating surface topography. They 
occur principally within the low-lying coastal terraces which border 
the Delaware River and Bay and in the broad, gently sloping plain 
which lies between Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay. The abso- 
lute elevation of the surface of the type ranges from 5 to 10 feet 
above tide level near the coast line, to altitudes of 70 or 80 feet above 
tide upon the more elevated inland ridges. West and south of Chesa- 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 29 

peake Bay the areas are of small extent and are found upon low 
coastal or river terraces. 

In all the areas of its occurrence the Sassafras sandy loam is well 
drained in its natural condition and only a very small proportion of 
the type requires artificial drainage to render it suitable for agricul- 
ture. 

The generally level or slightly undulating surface renders the use 
of power machinery possible over practically the entire extent of 
this soil. It is thus admirably suited by its natural characteristics 
for the development of many classes of farming. 

It is probable that more than 80 per cent of the total area of the 
Sassafras sandy loam has been cleared and utilized for some form of 
agriculture. The class of farming developed depends to a consider- 
able degree upon the location of the particular area of the type with 
respect to markets and transportation, since the soil itself is fairly 
well suited to the conduct of a high class of general farming or to a 
more intensive form of special crop production. For both of these 
classes of farming it is held in high esteem and is consequently very 
generally under cultivation. Only local areas of considerable slope 
are left in natural forest. 

Among the staple farm crops, corn is more extensively grown upon 
the Sassafras sandy loam than any other. The yields of corn re- 
ported from this type range from 35 to 40 bushels an acre under 
normal circumstances, while yields of 65 bushels or more have been 
attained under especially favorable conditions of season and where 
extra care was used in the preparation of the land and in the culti- 
vation of the crop. In the latitudes in which the Sassafras sandy 
loam occurs the dent varieties of corn are almost exclusively grown 
for the field crop. 

Wheat is most extensively grown among the small grains and gives 
yields which range from 12 to 18 bushels per acre under normal con- 
ditions, but with authentic yields in excess of 30 bushels per acre. 
The Sassafras sandy loam is rather porous and sandy to be classed 
as a first-rate wheat soil, but the yields obtained show that the crop 
may be used successfully in the general farm rotation. 

Oats and rye are both grown to a small extent upon this soil. The 
yields are not sufficiently high to warrant increasing the acreage. 

Cowpeas are grown to some extent on the Sassafras sandy loam in 
Delaware and the Eastern Shore of Maryland. The crop is not 
common, however. 

Crimson clover, or "scarlet" clover, as it is locally termed, has 
been grown upon the Sassafras sandy loam and associated soils for 
nearly 30 years. Excellent fields in eastern Maryland are shown in 
Plate III, figures 1 and 2. Within the past 10 years the area 
annually seeded to this crop has been greatly increased, and the value 



30 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

of crimson clover both as a forage crop and as a soil renovator has 
led to its quite general introduction into the crop rotation of the 
Maiyland-Delaware Peninsula. The crimson clover is sown in the 
growing corn at the last working or at a special working in early 
August. It is also sown in the tomato fields. After the corn is 
harvested the clover makes a good fall growth and 'then lies dormant 
during the winter. In early spring it grows rapidly and is ready 
for cutting for hay by the middle of May. This allows the cutting 
of a hay crop, ranging from 1 J tons to as high as 3 tons per acre, 
and the plowing down of the stubble in time for the planting of an- 
other crop of corn, tomatoes, or cowpeas. 

Some farmers obtain a crop of corn, follow with a seeding to 
wheat, and after the wheat is harvested either plow or disk harrow 
the wheat stubble, seeding to crimson clover. The next spring the 
clover is either cut for hay or it is grazed off by hogs, sheep, or cattle, 
in which case a considerable residue of the plant is available to be 
plowed under as a green manure for a succeeding corn crop. 

The favorable effect of crimson clover upon the Sassafras sandy 
loam in securing increased yields of the other staple and special crops 
has led to a gradual extension of its production, especially in cen- 
tral Delaware and in adjacent parts of Maryland. The yields of 
corn grown upon a crimson clover sod are materially greater than 
where the crop is grown on land upon which no winter cover crop 
has been planted. 

It has been found desirable to apply lime to a field where crimson 
clover is first to be seeded. This may be done at the rate of 1,000 
to* 2,000 pounds per acre of quicklime, or at the rate of 1 or 2 tons 
per acre of ground limestone. 

Medium red clover is quite commonly seeded in the spring on 
wheat upon the Sassafras sandy loam. The clover usually gives a 
good hay crop, ranging from 1 to 2 tons per acre. To a limited 
extent timothy and clover are used for seeding for mowing lands 
and a fair yield of mixed hay results. The success attained with 
crimson clover and with red clover, however, restricts the area 
seeded to mixed grasses. 

A very small acreage of buckwheat is grown upon the Sassafras 
sandy loam, chiefly as a catch crop or as a winter cover crop. 

In the southern Maryland counties the Maryland pipe-smoking 
tobacco is grown to some extent upon the Sassafras sandy loam. The 
yields range from about 1,000 pounds to as much as 1,500 pounds per 
acre. The quality of the tobacco is usually good. 

While the general farm crops occupy by far the larger acreage 
upon the Sassafras sandy loam, special vegetable and fruit crops are 
also grown to a considerable extent, especially in central Delaware 
and the eastern counties of Maryland. 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 31 

Early Irish potatoes are produced to fair advantage upon this soil. 
The yields are extremely variable, ranging from 75 to 250 bushels 
per acre. The general average is about 100 bushels. The potatoes 
from this type in Delaware reach the northern markets during July 
and succeed the shipments from points farther south. Wherever the 
type occurs, from the vicinity of Norfolk, Va., to the Delaware Bay 
region, it is recognized as a soil well suited to the growing of early 
Irish potatoes. The extension of the production of this crop has been 
rather rapid during the last 10 years. 

Sweet potatoes are also grown in considerable acreage upon the 
Sassafras sandy loam. The yields are fair to good and the quality 
of the potatoes is usually excellent. 

Tomatoes are grown both for shipment to city market and for 
supplying local canning factories. Yields range from 4 to 6 tons or 
more per acre, and the crop has generally been found to be profitable. 

Sweet corn is grown both for direct sale and for canning. 

Peas, cucumbers, cantaloupes, watermelons, and asparagus are all 
grown successfully, but in small acreages, upon the Sassafras sandy 
loam. 

In central Delaware the Sassafras sandy loam has been developed 
as the most important fruit soil of the region. Pears occupy the 
largest acreage, and the Kieffer is the principal variety. It is used 
for canning chiefly. 

Peaches were extensively grown at one time, but the acreage has 
greatly decreased during recent years because of the trouble ex- 
perienced from various diseases, principally yellows and little peach. 
The Elberta peach is the standard variety in the present orchards. 

Many varieties of early summer and fall apples are successfully 
produced upon the Sassafras sandy loam. Among the early varieties 
may be mentioned Yellow Transparent and Early Ripe. Williams 
is grown for the summer market, while Stayman Winesap, Nero, 
Paragon, Winesap, York Imperial, and Rome are planted to supply 
the fall and winter markets. Very considerable plantings of apple 
orchards have been made upon the Sassafras sandy loam in central 
Delaware during the last 20 years. It has been found that this soil 
firings the trees to bearing age in 5 to 12 years. A young apple or- 
chard and a planting of blackberries on the Sassafras sandy loam are 
shown in Plate IV, figure 1. 

Grapes are being planted to quite an extent in the vicinity of 
Dover, Del., largely upon the Sassafras sandy loam. Moores Early 
and Concord are the varieties chiefly grown. Practically all of the 
fruit is shipped for table use. A vineyard in the vicinity of Dover, 
Del., is shown in Plate IV, figure 2. 

Among small fruits the strawberry occupies the largest acreage 
upon the Sassafras sandy loam. The early variety is chiefly the 



32 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Superior, while the Klondyke is grown as a midseason berry. The 
later varieties are not grown with as great success upon the Sassafras 
sandy loam as upon the more mucky and darker colored soils of the 
Portsmouth series. 

Dewberries and blackberries occupy a minor acreage upon the 
Sassafras sandy loam. 

SASSAFRAS FINE SANDY LOAM. 

The Sasasfras fine sandy loam has been mapped to a total extent 
of 101,676 acres in the different soil surveys which have been made in 
the northern portion of the Coastal Plain. The largest areas of the 
type are found in the Maryland counties which border the western 
shore of Chesapeake Bay. Small areas are also found along the 
lower courses of the Delaware River and on the eastern shore of 
Maryland. 

The surface soil of the Sassafras fine sandy loam, to an average 
depth ranging from 9 inches to 1 foot, is a brown to yellowish- 
brown fine sandy loam. In some areas a small amount of quartz 
gravel is found in the surface soil, particularly upon sloping areas. 
There is also an appreciable amount of silt in the lower portions of 
the surface soil in such positions. In general the soil is soft and 
friable, but somewhat coherent when moist. 

The subsoil in all cases is a heavier and more compact yellow or 
reddish-yellow sandy loam, which normally extends to a depth ex- 
ceeding 3 feet. In many areas the subsoil grades downward into 
a more sandy layer which underlies it at depths varying from 3 to 5 
feet. In some cases, especially where the surface is flat and the 
total depth of subsoil is considerable, the deeper subsoil may be 
compact and rather poorly drained. In such cases it is sometimes 
mottled yellow and gray. 

The surface configuration of the Sassafras fine sandy loam varies 
considerably in the different areas of its occurrence. Along the Del- 
aware River and at the lower elevations on the Eastern Shore of 
Maryland and bordering Chesapeake Bay the type occupies low- 
lying, nearly level topped terraces, which extend from the vicinity 
of tidewater to elevations of 25 or 30 feet. These terraces are gen- 
erally fairly well drained, although small depressions or level areas 
somewhat remote from local drainage ways may be semiswampy in 
their natural condition. In Anne Arundel County, Md., where the 
greatest area of this type has been encountered, the surface is rolling 
to sloping in character and lies at altitudes of 40 to 150 feet above 
tide level, and drainage has become well established over practically 
all of the type. Probably three-fourths of the entire extent of the 
Sassafras fine sandy loam is well drained. 



Bui. 159, U. S. Dept. cf Agriculture. 



Plate III. 




Fig. 1.— Crimson Clover on Sassafras Sandy Loam in Eastern Maryland, Ready 

for Cutting. 




Fig. 2.— Harvesting a Heavy Crop of Crimson Clover Hay before Planting 
Corn on the Same Land, Eastern Maryland. 



Bui. 159, U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate IV 









* i_ -J&P? 1 .'*"« * • 




*.i >*- ■ '/.'*,- .i . ~ .V"»- •"'" •'■'•' ■' ■' 




*3 


^^^§3^?SP^i^SQ 


^^ralK^ 


•r *:&*' 






l«aLrl'.:i .-'/*"''' ;'*&'** «e«A& 


SKIB9Efe*U* *** . 



Fig. 1.— Young Apple Orchard and Planting of Blackberries on Sassafras 
Sandy Loam in Central Delaware. 




Fig. 2.— Vineyard on Sassafras Sandy Loam in Central Delaware. 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 33 

Nearly all the well-drained areas of the type have been cleared and 
placed under cultivation, and only the more level and poorly-drained 
areas remain in forest. 

Corn is more extensively grown than any other grain crop upon 
this soil, and the yields obtained range from 20 to 40 bushels per 
acre, probably averaging about 30 bushels for the entire type. The 
dent varieties are almost exclusively grown. 

Wheat also occupies a large acreage upon the Sassafras fine sandy 
loam. The yields of this grain range from 12 to 15 bushels per acre 
to as high as 20 bushels. The general average for the type may be 
stated at about 15 bushels. 

The Sassafras fine sandy loam is generally recognized as being 
well suited to the production of the Maryland type of pipe-smoking 
tobacco, and this crop is quite generally grown as the cash crop 
upon this soil in all of the southern Maryland counties. Its produc- 
tion is confined to these counties and none is grown east of Chesa- 
peake Bay. The yields of tobacco range from 1,000 to about 1,200 
pounds per acre, and the quality is generally good. 

Oats and rye are only grown to a limited extent. 

A seeding to mixed timothy and red clover is frequently made 
with the wheat crop and fair yields of hay, ranging from 1 to 1£ 
tons per acre, are obtained. In some localities clover is seeded alone 
and gives yields of 1|- tons per acre or more. 

Where areas of the Sassafras fine sandy loam are located in prox- 
imitj' to canning factories it has been found profitable to use the 
land for the production of tomatoes. Fair yields, ranging from 
4 to 7 tons per acre are obtained, and the production of the crop 
is being extended in such localities. 

Truck crops are grown to a small extent upon this soil, chiefly 
because the greater proportion of the type is not well located with 
respect to transportation. It has been found that early Irish pota- 
toes, sweet potatoes, cantaloupes, and cucumbers may be success- 
fully grown upon it where market facilities are available. 

In the majority of the areas of its occurrence the Sassafras fine 
.sandy loam has been used to some extent for the growing of peaches, 
pears, apples, and plums. Where the local air and water drainage 
are good the tree fruits may be grown with fair success. 

Whether the Sassafras fine sandy loam is to be used for the pro- 
duction of general or special crop it has been found that it requires 
the use of considerable amounts of organic manure to give large 
yields. Generally, not much live stock is maintained upon the type 
so that the supply of stable manure available is small. The practice 
of growing green manuring crops is not general upon this soil. 
It has been shown that both cowpeas and crimson clover make good 



34 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPAETMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

crops upon the type and the production of both for hay, and as 
green manuring crops, should become more general. 

The Sassafras fine sandy loam may be characterized as a fairly 
good general farming soil, capable of considerable improvement 
through the introduction of leguminous green manuring and forage 
crops into the normal rotation of corn and wheat. It is also a 
fairly good soil for growing some of the vegetable crops wherever 
market facilities are available. It is moderately good soil, in the 
localities where it occurs, for the production of some of the tree 
fruits, although not to be recommended for extensive commercial 
plantings. 

SASSAFRAS LOAM. 

A total area of 128,356 acres of the Sassafras loam has been en- 
countered in the soil survey work. By far the greater part of the 
type is found in the eastern counties of Maryland, between Delaware 
Bay and Chesapeake Bay. Small areas are also found on Western 
Long Island and in southern Maryland. 1 

The surface soil of the Sassafras loam to an average depth of 
8 inches or more is a mellow brown or yellowish-brown loam. It is 
soft and silty in character. It grades downward into a stiff er and 
more compact yellow loam subsoil which becomes distinctly reddish 
in tinge at depths of 24 to 32 inches. The subsoil is usually under- 
lain by fine gravel or coarse sand at depths ranging from 2 to 3A, 
feet. 

The character of the soil and subsoil is such that a considerable 
amount of moisture is easily retained for crop production while 
effective drainage is promoted over the greater proportion of the 
type by the presence of the coarser material lying at greater depth. 

Under ordinary conditions of cultivation the surface soil is easily 
worked and friable. Where the organic matter content of the 
surface soil has become reduced and especially where the land has 
been grazed when the soil was too wet there is a tendency toward 
compacted surface soil and toward breaking into clods and lumps 
when the land is plowed. , 

The Sassafras loam is chiefly developed upon the low, rolling 
uplands of the eastern counties of Maryland and upon the nearly 
level surfaces of the interstream ridges in the counties west of 
Chesapeake Bay. The small area on western Long Island lies at 
low elevations and is gently sloping to nearly level. In general 
there are few steep slopes within the area of this soil type. The 
recognized value of the Sassafras loam as an excellent general farm- 

1 It is probable that considerable areas of the Sassafras loam have been included in 
the areas of the Sassafras silt loam in the surveys of Cecil, Harford, and Kent Counties, 
Md. These can not be separated at the present time. 



SOILS OP THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 35 

ing soil has led to its almost complete occupation for the production 
of various staple crops. 

Throughout the entire extent of its development the Sassafras 
loam is naturally well drained, although minor areas which occupy 
depressed positions or very flat surfaces remote from stream drain- 
age may be somewhat poorly drained and in need of tiling for the 
best results in crop production. Usually the somewhat elevated 
position of the type, its occurrence in regions of well-established 
stream drainage, and particularly the general existence of the more 
porous underlying sandy layer give rise to perfect natural drainage. 

The Sassafras loam is essentially a soil well fitted for the growing 
of the staple field crops which constitute the basis for general farm- 
ing in the areas where it occurs. 

Wheat is the crop most extensively grown upon the Sassafras 
loam. It is probable that it occupies nearly or quite one-half of the 
total area of the type which is annually planted to crops. This 
arises from the fact that a 5-year rotation is in common use which 
consists of corn, followed by wheat with seeding to clover. The 
clover is cut one year and then plowed for another seeding of wheat. 
Clover is again sown on the wheat, cut for one year and the rotation 
returns to corn. While this rotation is much practiced, the 3-year 
rotation of corn, wheat, and clover is also common. The acreage 
statistics in counties where the Sassafras loam is an important soil 
type bear out the indication that wheat is the most extensively 
grown grain crop. 

While there is considerable variation in the average crops of wheat 
secured it may be said that the yields range from 15 to 30 bushels 
per acre with a general average of about 20 bushels. The quality 
of the wheat grown upon this soil is usually better than the average 
and the general opinion is held that wheat is one of the crops best 
suited to the Sassafras loam. It is a notable fact that the counties 
in which this soil and the closely related Sassafras silt loam are 
most extensively developed have increased the acreage and produc- 
tion of wheat during the past 25 years. 

The Sassafras loam may safely be ranked as one of the types best 
suited to wheat in the northern Coastal Plain region. 

Corn is the second crop in acreage and importance upon the 
Sassafras loam. It is probably nearly equaled in extent of acreage 
by the various grass crops, although the failure to seed to grass with 
a portion of the wheat crop annually reduces the area in grasses. 

The yields of corn reported from the Sassafras loam range from 
40 to 75 bushels per acre. It is probable that the general average 
for the type is in the vicinity of 45 bushels per acre. 

It is stated in the Soil Survey of the Easton Area, Md., that — 

Where the soil is kept in a good state of productiveness, as under a 5-year 
rotation of corn, wheat, grass, wheat, and grass, applying barnyard manure 



36 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

and 40 bushels of lime to the broken grass sod preceding corn and about 300 
pounds of good commercial fertilizer to wheat, average yields of 60 bushels 
of corn, 20 bushels of wheat after corn, and 28 bushels after grass, and li 
tons of hay per acre are readily secured. 

While these returns are distinctly above the ordinary yields of 
the type they represent its capabilities as a grass and grain- 
producing soil under the unusually good methods of management 
given. 

A considerable acreage of hay is annually grown upon the Sassa- 
fras loam. Where a regular crop rotation is used and the wheat 
crop is adequately fertilized the yields of clover or of mixed clover 
and timothy range from 1 to 2^ tons per acre. 

Oats are grown to a very limited extent upon the Sassafras loam. 
Rye is an uncommon crop. Cowpeas have been successfully grown 
in some cases, and the type seems well suited to the production of 
this crop. Crimson or scarlet clover is coming to be grown upon 
the Sassafras loam, but the crop is not nearly so common as on the 
more sandy members of the series. The yields obtained are good, 
ranging from 1^ to 3 tons per acre. 

It has been found by progressive farmers that the use of lime on 
the Sassafras loam is a profitable practice. The lime is usually 
applied in the form of lump, quick lime, which is slaked in the field. 
Applications vary from 20 to 40 bushels per acre. The chief benefit 
of liming is held to be in the increased crop of clover secured after 
its application, which later results in improved grain crops grown 
upon the clover sod. It is probable that finely ground limestone or 
oyster shells applied at the rate of about 2 tons per acre would be 
equally beneficial. 

Tomatoes are grown to quite an extent on the Sassafras loam, and 
the yields range from 4 tons per acre upward. The crop is chiefly 
grown for near-by canning factories. 

Market garden and trucking crops are grown upon some areas of 
the Sassafras loam where markets are available. Beans, peas, cab- 
bage, and cantaloupes are the principal crops grown. 

The Kieffer pear is most extensively grown among orchard fruits, 
although Winesap, York Imperial, and other varieties of apples are 
reasonably successful upon this soil. Large nurseries are located 
upon one part of the type and many varieties of fruit trees are 
grown and distributed. 

Peaches were at one time extensively grown, but yellows and 
other diseases have led to the practical abandonment of the crop 
upon nearly all of the Sassafras loam. 

Among the small fruits, strawberries, dewberries, and blackber- 
ries are grown in some localities to a small extent. 

The Sassafras loam is characteristically a general farming soil, 
well suited to the growing of corn, wheat, and grass. The knowl- 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 37 

edge of the adaptation of this soil to these crops is general and the 
agriculture of the type is chiefly based upon the production of these 
three crops. Only locally is the Sassafras loam used for the grow- 
ing of tomatoes and other special crops. The vegetables are chiefly 
grown for home use or to a small extent for special markets. 

Considering the excellent yields of corn and grass attained from 
the Sassafras loam there is a rather small amount of any live stock 
aside from work animals maintained upon the type. Some dairy 
cows are kept as an adjunct to grass and grain farming and a few 
steers are fattened, but the total number of neat cattle kept upon 
the type is small. Nearly every farm principally consisting of this 
soil maintains a few hogs, while some sheep are seen upon it. Yet 
the live-stock industry is subordinate over the greater part of the 
Sassafras loam. 

Few Coastal Plain soils equal the Sassafras loam for the uses 
which have been indicated. 

SASSAFRAS SILT LOAM. 

The areas of the Sassafras silt loam which have been encountered 
in the soil survey are confined entirely to the Coastal Plain portions 
of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland. A total 
area of 518,142 acres of this type has been included in 12 different 
soil surveys in these 4 States. 1 It is probable that the soil type does 
not occur farther north than New Brunswick, N. J., nor farther south 
than Norfolk, Va. 

The surface soil of the Sassafras silt loam, to an average depth of 
9 or 10 inches, is a soft, friable, brown silt loam, occasionally con- 
taining small amounts of fine gravel. This is underlain to a depth 
of 36 inches in nearly all cases, and frequently to a depth of 7 or 
8 feet, by a yellow or reddish^ellow heavy silt loam, which is gen- 
erally sufficiently heavy to be called a clay in the localities where it 
occurs. At a depth varying from 3 feet to 8 or 10 feet this subsoil 
is frequently underlain by beds of gravel or gravel and sand, which 
separate the mass of soil and subsoil from underlying formations. 
This feature is shown in Plate V, figure 1. In the southern por- 
tion of the Maryland-Delaware Peninsula, however, this gravel bed 
is frequently lacking, and the subsoil rests not infrequently on beds 
of sand. AVhile the subsoil is rather stiff and heavy, it is still suffi- 
ciently granulated and friable to give moderate underdrainage, and 
it is only in case of depressions occurring within the type that 
drainage is likely to be deficient. 

Throughout the region in which it occurs the Sassafras silt loam 
occupies low, undulating plains or nearly level terraces, Avhich slope 

1 It is probable that portions of the type as mapped in Cecil, Harford, and Kent 
Counties, Md., should be included with the Sassafras loam. 



38 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

from the inland regions gently to a rather steep frontal escarpment, 
where the type ordinarily terminates, and is replaced at lower levels 
by other soils. In southern New Jersey the soil type is found at 
an altitude of 25 to 50 feet on the low terraces which border the 
eastern shore of the Delaware River and Delaware Bay, and it rises 
gently inland to a higher level at about 140 feet altitude. Some por- 
tions of the type between the low and the higher terrace are rolling 
to sloping in their surface features. In the Maryland-Delaware 
Peninsula the highest altitudes of the type are found in the form 
of narrow terraces where the Coastal Plain section borders on the 
Piedmont. Some of these higher terraces rise to an altitude of 200 
feet or more. In general the highest altitudes of the Sassafras silt 
loam within the Coastal Plain proper are found at about 100 to 110 
feet above tide in the vicinity of Chesapeake Bay, and the surface 
slopes gently eastward toward Delaware Bay through Maryland and 
central Delaware, reaching its lowest level of about 10 feet above 
tidewater in the east-central part of the State of Delaware. In 
southern Maryland the Sassafras silt loam exists along the west 
shore of Chesapeake Bay and along the main tidewater embayments 
tributary to the bay in the form of distinct terraces, having an alti- 
tude of 60 to 100 feet above tidewater. Some of these terraces extend 
a considerable distance inland along the principal streams, and their 
surface rises gently with the slope of the stream bed to altitudes of 
over 100 feet. In all regions where it occurs the surface is so level 
that power machinery may be used upon all parts of the type when 
it is properly cleared of its natural hardwood growth. The altitude 
above the local water level renders the natural drainage effective over 
the greater proportion of the type. Slight hollows and level tracts 
remote from the drainage courses constitute the only exception to 
this general rule. 

Although the Sassafras silt loam is remarkably uniform in its 
inherent characteristics from its most northern extension to its 
southern limits, there are noticeable variations in the yields of the 
general farm crops which are produced upon the type. In the more 
northern regions, where this soil is highly esteemed for general 
farming, it has been the subject of the most careful tillage and treat- 
ment. As a result the yields of all the farm crops are high, and the 
soil is rarely sold at a price lower than $75 to $100 an acre. Farther- 
south, where a different and less effective system of farming has 
been in use, the yields are less, the price of the land is not more than 
one-third as great, and the surface soil is more yellow and lacks suffi- 
cient organic matter. It is also more likely to be compacted and 
clodded when cultivated in a moist condition. These differences in 
its condition indicate the chief limitations upon the producing ca- 
pacity of the Sassafras silt loam. Where a careful and systematic 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 39 

crop rotation is practiced, where stable manure and other organic 
manures are used, and particularly where moderate amounts of lime 
are applied in connection with the seeding down of the grasses and 
clover, maximum yields are always obtained, and the soil is found to 
be in its best condition. On the contrary, where organic manures 
are not used, where liming is never practiced, and where hoed crops 
are cultivated year after year upon the same area, the soil is much 
less productive and much less esteemed for the production of crops. 
The introduction of better methods in the regions last referred to 
will slowly increase the producing capacity of this soil and render it 
as fertile and as valuable as in the locations where it has received 
better treatment in the past. In all cases the natural capacity of the 
soil is above the average for each region where it occurs. 

The necessary,, steps for the improvement of crop yields upon this 
type have already been indicated in the discussion of the limitations 
of such yields. One of the paramount necessities is the application 
of all stable manure which is available, and in case this supply is 
not sufficient to meet the needs some leguminous crop like crimson 
clover or the medium red clover should be produced for the sole pur- 
pose of being plowed under to increase the humus content, preferably 
with an application of 2,000 pounds of lime per acre. In certain 
localities difficulty has been encountered in securing a good stand of 
clover upon this soil type. Liming will largely overcome this diffi- 
culty, and better results can be obtained by seeding the clover with- 
out a nurse crop. 

There are small local areas within the general area of the type 
where additional artificial drainage would prove beneficial. These 
usually consist of small saucer-shaped depressions or of flat inter- 
stream areas where the headwater drainage of the streams is only 
partially established. 

Practically every available acre of the Sassafras silt loam has been 
brought under cultivation in the various regions where it occurs. 
It is one of the most highly prized general farming soils of the 
North Atlantic Coastal Plain section, and the original hardwood 
timber was cleared from its surface from 100 to 200 years ago. The 
soil type was early sought for the production of corn, wheat, and 
grass, and certain special crops have been produced upon it with 
success as transportation facilities and market demands increased. 
While there is considerable variation in the yields produced, owing 
to more or less efficient management, it is naturally an excellent soil 
for general farming. 

It is apparent from the textural characteristics of the Sassafras 
silt loam, from its level to gently undulating surface topography, and 
from the classes of crops best suited for production upon this soil 
that the equipment required for its most economical tillage will 



40 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

differ very materially from the equipment to be used upon the more 
sandy Coastal Plain soils. The Sassafras silt loam should be plowed 
to a depth of 8 or 9 inches, and if the natural soil is not so deep as 
this the depth of plowing should be gradually increased from year 
to year until the desired maximum is reached. 

Economy in the conduct of tillage operations demands that at 
least two-horse teams where each animal will weigh from 1,300 to 
1,500 pounds should be used, and the most economical working of 
land of this class would justify the four-horse hitch, which is used 
to special advantage upon the heavy general farming soils, such as 
the limestone soils of Maryland and Pennsylvania and the prairie 
soils of the Central States. 

For the same reasons the lightweight turning plow used upon the 
more sandy soils of the Coastal Plain is totally inadequate for the 
proper tillage of the Sassafras silt loam. In its place there should 
be used either the one or two gang sulky plow or the two or three 
blade disk plow. These implements, drawn by adequate horsepower, 
are capable of turning and thoroughly pulverizing the surface soil 
to the required depth of 8 or 9 inches. Less powerful equipment, 
either of team or tools, is not competent to bring out the best quali- 
ties and the full efficiency of the soil. The use of adequate tillage 
implements is shown in Plate V, figure 2. 

Both the soil and subsoil require frequent stirring, and it is desired 
to use such implements as the disk harrow, the spring-tooth harrow, 
or the spike-tooth harrow to secure this preparation of the land. 
Wherever possible, horsepower machinery should also be used for 
the planting and intertillage of crops. 

In the same way that heavier teams and tools are required for the 
proper tillage of the Sassafras silt ioam, so also are more expensive 
and commodious farm buildings requisite. These exist in New 
Jersey and on the Maryland-Delavvare Peninsula, where the soil 
type is most profitably tilled. The storage of grain, hay, and straw 
and the proper housing of tools and work stock, even in the absence 
of the dairy industry or of cattle breeding, require the more elabo- 
rate equipment of buildings and barns. Typical farm buildings are 
shown in Plate VI, figure 1. 

Thus the nature of the soil and its characteristic properties de- 
termine the character of the best farm equipment in the form of 
work stock, machinery, and buildings. 

The Sassafras silt loam is probably the best general farming soil 
to be found in the northern part of the Coastal Plain regions. Its 
level surface, its soft, friable surface soil when properly handled, 
the considerable depth of both surface soil and subsoil, and the ade- 
quate drainage features of the type all tend to render it suitable for 



Bui. 159, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



PLATE V. 




Fig. 1.— Gravel Bed which is Generally Found Underlying the Soils of the 
Sassafras Series, Kent County, Md. 




Fig. 2.— Disk Harrow Used in Preparing the Seed Bed on the Sassafras 
Loam and Silt Loam. 



Bui. 1 59, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VI. 




Fig. 1.— Typical Group of Farm Buildings on the Sassafras Silt Loam in 
Eastern Maryland. 




Fig. 2.— Corn on Sassafras Silt Loam in Kent County, Md. 






SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 41 

the production of the principal farm crops of the latitude hi which 
it occurs. 

The Sassafras silt loam is extensively used for the production of 
corn. The dent varieties are principally grown, and the yields 
obtained depend upon the previous preparation of the land and its 
treatment for a series of years. Where the land has been properly 
manured with stable manure, where lime has been applied at least 
once in the rotation, where a regular rotation of crops has been prac- 
ticed for a considerable period of time, the yields of shelled corn 
range from 50 to 80 bushels per acre. The latter yield, of course, is 
only obtained by the best farmers under the most favorable circum- 
stances. It is probable, however, that the average yield for the 
type upon well-tilled areas will be in excess of 50 bushels per acre. 
Excellent fields of corn grown upon the Sassafras silt loam in 
northern Delaware are shown in Plate VI, figure 2, and Plate VII, 
figure 1. Corn is grown not only for the shelled grain but also 
for silage purposes, particularly in southern Xew r Jersey. Yields 
of silage corn frequently exceed 12 tons per acre, although the 
ordinary yield may be stated as from 10 to 12 tons. 

Winter wheat is more extensively grown upon the Sassafras silt 
loam than any other grain crop. It is probable that nearly one-half 
of the cultivated area of the type is annually sowed to wheat. 

In the more northern areas, especially in southern New Jersey, 
wheat yields from 20 to 25 bushels per acre, and yields of 35 and 
even 38 bushels are not infrequently obtained when the land is in 
the best condition and the season is favorable. In the eastern coun- 
ties of Maryland and in Delaware yields of 15 to 25 bushels are 
secured, with an average production of about 18 bushels per acre. 
Such a wheat field is shown in Plate VII, figure 2. The yields in 
the southern counties of Maryland average 12 to 20 bushels on this 
soil. A good grade of hard winter wheat is produced, and even 
where the value of the land is unusually high the excellent yield of 
wheat and its good quality warrant its production upon the Sassafras 
silt loam. 

Oats are not seeded extensively upon the Sassafras silt loam, but 
the yields per acre are good wherever the crop is grown. In some 
of the eastern Maryland counties yields of 40 to 50 bushels per acre 
of oats are reported, and it may be said that a yield of 35 to 45 
bushels may normally be expected. 

Both timothy and red clover are commonly seeded with one or the 
other of the small grain crops in regular rotation in order to furnish 
hay. In general, clover makes a good stand, especially if the land 
has been limed, and timothy is equally satisfactory. The mixed hay 
will yield from H to 2 tons per acre, and where the soil is in par- 
ticularly good condition this yield, even, may be exceeded. 



42 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

These principal farm crops are usually grown upon the Sassafras 
silt loam in regular succession. There is some diversity in the order 
of the crop rotations, but in general the sod land is fall plowed and 
fitted in the succeeding spring for the production of corn. In this 
fitting the application of stable manure, either upon the sod before 
plowing or upon the plowed land before the planting of the corn, 
is the usual practice. In the latter case the manure is thoroughly 
harrowed in to the surface soil. Commercial fertilizers are also used 
in connection with the stable manure and a complete fertilizer, carry- 
ing 3 or 4 per cent of nitrogen, usually about 4 per cent of potash, and 
10 to 12 per cent of phosphoric acid, is quite commonly selected. 
The quantity applied varies considerably in different localities, rang- 
ing from 250 pounds an acre to as much as 500 pounds an acre in 
the more intensively farmed districts. Frequent cultivation of the 
corn during the growing season is the rule where the largest crops 
are obtained. Corn is usually followed by wheat either for one or 
two crops. The second crop of wheat is not infrequently displaced 
by oats. In either case the land is seeded to timothy and clover 
with the second crop of grain and remains in grass for two years or 
more. 

In the Chesapeake Bay region, where the Sassafras silt loam is 
extensively developed upon both sides of the bay, a considerable can- 
ning industry has been developed. This type of soil has contributed 
largely to the maintenance of the industry through the extensive 
production of sweet corn and of tomatoes. The canning corn is 
picked in the husk and' sold, usually by the ton, to the local factories. 
The yield varies from 2| to 3| tons per acre under normal conditions. 
Prices, of course, vary, but the crop usually brings in a cash return 
of $25 to $35 an acre. The blades and stalks remain as rough forage 
to be fed upon the farm, and constitute a valuable by-product to 
those farmers who feed beef stock or dairy cows. 

Tomatoes are produced extensively on the Maryland-Delaware 
Peninsula, and around the head of Chesapeake Ba}^ in general. The 
soil is usually prepared for tomato growing by the application of 
such stable manure as is available and by the application of a com- 
plete commercial fertilizer. The plants are set to be cultivated in 
both directions and are not supported in the field. Yields vary 
materially. Where the ground has not been occupied previously 
for the production of this crop the Sassafras silt loam has been 
known to produce 12 tons or more of tomatoes per acre. In gen- 
eral, average yields, however, run from 6 to 8 tons upon this type 
of soil. The tomatoes are well known for quality and flavor, but 
constitute a late crop suitable for canning purposes rather than an 
early crop for market shipment. 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 43 

The medium to late summer crop of Irish potatoes is also largely 
produced upon the Sassafras silt loam, both in southern New Jersey 
and upon the Maryland-Delaware Peninsula. The preparation of 
the land does not differ materially from that of the preparation 
for corn, although spring plowing is possibly more generally prac- 
ticed for the potato crop. In the fertilization commercial fertilizer 
is used in larger quantities, applications of 1,000 pounds or more 
per acre being made by the best growers. A fertilizer high in potash 
content is usually employed. The yields vary from about 100 
bushels per acre for the early crop to more than 200 bushels for the 
later crop in a favorable season. 

Locally, both in southern New Jersey and on the Delaware-Mary- 
land Peninsula, asparagus is produced to a considerable extent upon 
the Sassafras silt loam. The beds are long-lived and productive, 
but the asparagus, although excellent in quality, is not ready for 
marketing as early in the spring as the crop which is grown upon the 
more sandy soils. 

The Sassafras silt loam was at one time extensively used on the 
Maryland-Delaware Peninsula for the production of peaches, and 
proved its value for this crop. Owing to the invasion of certain 
diseases many orchards have been cut out and their area is at present 
devoted to the general farm crops. 

Recently the Sassafras silt loam has been extensively planted to 
pears, the Kieffer being the variety usually selected. The Kieffer 
is fairly resistant to blight, makes a strong growth, and usually 
gives a heavy yield. In both Maryland and Delaware thousands of 
bushels of Kieffers are annually canned in the local canneries. A 
considerable proportion of this crop is produced upon the Sassafras 
silt loam. A young orchard of Kieffer pears is shown in Plate 
VIII, figure 1. 

The Sassafras silt loam is undoubtedly one of the best soils for 
apple production in the Maryland-Delaware Peninsula and in south- 
ern New Jersey. Several varieties are adapted to this type, but it 
is probable that Winesap, Stayman Winesap, Paragon, and Grimes 
Golden are best suited for this particular soil, under the climatic 
conditions existing in those sections of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
and of the Chesapeake Bay region where the type is developed. 
Wherever apples are to be planted upon this type the site should 
have some elevation and good natural drainage, both for water and 
for air. 

Where the Sassafras silt loam is encountered in southern Mary- 
land a considerable amount of the Maryland pipe-smoking tobacco 
is still grown upon it. The soil is generally considered rather too 
heavy and retentive of moisture to produce the best quality of leaf 
and the area planted to tobacco is gradually being reduced. 



44 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGEICULTUEE. 

It will be seen from the foregoing discussion of the crop adapta- 
tions of this soil that it constitutes one of the best general farming 
types in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. In fact it is generally preferred 
above all others in the North Atlantic district for the production of 
the crops enumerated. It is a strong, fertile, well-drained, level- 
surfaced soil, and every acre of it has usually been cleared and 
placed under cultivation. In the hands of skillfuL farmers its crop- 
producing power has been increased from year to year until yields 
higher than the average for other soils in its localities are habitually 
produced. It is practical!}' the only soil in the Atlantic Coastal 
Plain that compares favorably with the soils of the Limestone 
Valleys for the production of corn, wheat, and grass. It is one of 
the best soils in the Coastal Plain for the production of apples, 
pears, and peaches. It is well suited to the production of Irish 
potatoes, and of tomatoes and sweet corn for canning purposes. 
Its improvement may easily be accomplished through the restora- 
tion of organic material to the surface soil, aided by the application 
of lime. 

As a natural consequence of the suitability of the Sassafras silt 
loam to the production of corn, oats, the grasses, and the leguminous 
forage crops, the type is one of the best soils in the North Atlantic 
Coastal Plain to serve as a basis for the establishment of the dairy 
industry. An excellent dairy herd on the Sassafras silt loam is 
shown in Plate VIII, figure 2. Where the price of land is high, 
ranging from $C5 to $100 or more an acre, the business should be 
run upon a decidedly intensive basis. Pasturage should only con- 
stitute part of the regular rotation, and no land of this type should 
be set aside as permanent pasture. It is possible so to arrange the 
crop production of a farm upon the Sassafras silt loam that the 
corn silage and corn for the grain, peas, oats, and barley as soiling 
crops, rye or winter wheat as an early soiling crop, and the mixed 
grasses, cowpeas, crimson clover, crimson clover and rape, or even 
alfalfa may all be produced for forage purposes. The capability 
of producing these crops, taken together with good transportation 
facilities and the abundance of fresh pure water throughout the 
region, renders the soil ideal as a basis for dairying and stock raising. 

Wherever rough land or pasture land of lower value is included 
in a farm made up principally of the Sassafras silt loam, sheep rais- 
ing is also a profitable industry. The keeping of sheep in connection 
with the dairy industry has proved profitable in several locations. 

CROP USES AND ADAPTATIONS. 

All of the soils of the Sassafras series occur within a region char- 
acterized by a medium to long growing season, an abundant rain- 
fall for the production of the majority of field crops, and generally 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 45 

by a topography which permits of the cultivation of a large pro- 
portion of the land surface. In consequence of these natural advan- 
tages, a relatively high proportion of the total area of each of the 
soils of the series has been brought under different forms of agricul- 
tural occupation. 

The crops grown and the systems of agriculture followed vary in 
different regions with variations in the character of the soil and 
with differences in the market and transportation conditions. It is 
also true that traditional forms of agriculture have to some degree 
influenced the characteristic crop production of some areas where 
these soils occur. 

If consideration is given to the total acreages occupied by the chief 
crops grown upon the soils of this series it is probable that the areas 
given to corn, wheat, and hay and forage crops greatly exceed the 
areas devoted to all of the special crops combined. When the total 
value of the different crops is considered, the special crops take 
high rank, although the regions of their production are decidedly 
limited by market demands and the facilities for transportation. 

The area occupied chiefly by the soils of the Sassafras series may, 
for convenience, be divided into several districts, within which major 
differences in cropping are characteristic. 

On the western end of Long Island the area devoted to the pro- 
duction of miscellaneous vegetables as truck and market-garden crops 
exceeds that given to any other crops. The area planted to Irish po- 
tatoes is second in importance. Relatively small areas are devoted 
to hay and forage and to the cereal grains. Among the latter, corn 
predominates. When consideration is given to the value of the 
product, it may be said that the combined values of the miscellaneous 
vegetables and potatoes amount to considerably more than one-half 
of the total value of crops grown. 

Because of the immediate proximity of this section to the great 
metropolitan markets, and because of the existence of rapid means 
of transportation to market and of a large mileage of good roads, 
the special forms of agriculture have largely supplanted the older 
systems of grass and grain growing, and the soils of the Sassafras 
series on Long Island have become special crop soils wherever they 
are so situated as to be used for any agricultural purpose. 

The market-garden and truck farms on the western end of Long 
Island are usually of small size, and they are laid out in plots of 
small acreage, upon which a constant succession of vegetables is 
kept growing. It is the aim of the market gardener to keep the land 
constantly occupied during the growing season. In the early spring 
kale, spinach, and rheubarb are marketed. Later onions, radishes, 
and lettuce are sold. Their place is taken by early peas, sweet corn, 
and early potatoes. Later in the season crops of tomatoes and cab- 



46 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPAKTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

bage are grown. Kale and spinach are also planted for a late fall" 
and early winter crop. 

A large part of the market-garden crops grown within a radius 
of 25 to 30 miles of the city markets is transported to them by spe- 
cially constructecl two-horse market wagons. The vegetables are 
usually picked in the afternoon, transported to market during the 
night, and the produce sold on the wholesale market in the early 
morning. The direct sale of vegetables to the consumer is only un- 
dertaken by a very few growers. 

The chief specialization in cropping with reference to soil adapta- 
tions in this district consists in the selection of the Sassafras sand 
for the growing of the extra early market garden crops, wherever it 
is available for such uses. The Sassafras gravelly loam is also used 
for market gardening and trucking, but its special value as an early 
Irish potato soil has led to its extensive use for the growing of that 
crop. It is probable that a large part of the potato crop grown on 
Long Island is produced on this soil. 

There is such a demand for every acre suited to the growing of the 
different special crops that the truckers utilize the available land 
for the crops which their experience proves to be profitable, depend- 
ing upon special skill in soil manipulation to a large degree for their 
success in crop production. The opportunities for soil selection for 
special crops is, therefore, somewhat limited or obscured. 

The belt of territory in central New Jersey which is chiefly occu- 
pied by the soils of the Sassafras series is also well located with re- 
spect to great city markets and well provided with means of trans- 
portation. Within this region there is quite a wide variety in the 
character of the available soil types and the different uses of the soils 
of the Sassafras series for characteristic cropping systems is rather 
clearly marked. 

Upon the heavier soils, especially the Sassafras silt loam, the grow- 
ing of hay and forage and the production of corn and wheat con- 
stitute the chief industries so far as acreage occupied is concerned. 
Excellent yields are obtained and the farming tends toward a rather 
intensive form of grain and grass production, generally diversified by 
the growing of one or more special crops for cash sale. Early Irish 
potatoes are most generally grown for this purpose, with tomatoes 
for market probably second in importance. Dairying is carried on 
to some extent for the production of market milk. 

The more sandy soils, such as the Sassafras sandy loam, fine sand, 
and sand, are much more completely occupied for special forms of 
crop production. This arises both from the fact that they are nat- 
urally well suited to the uses of the market gardener and trucker, 
and also from the fact that the larger areas of these types are un- 
usually well situated with respect to market and transportation 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 47 

facilities. Considerable areas of all of these soils are found along 
the low forelands adjacent to the Delaware River and Bay within 
easy hauling distance of the Camden and Philadelphia markets, or 
else in such positions that rail transportation is available. Other 
large areas of these types lie along the main lines of rail communi- 
cation between Philadelphia and New York, and are extensively 
utilized for special crop growing. Early Irish potatoes occupy the 
largest acreage given to any one crop. Those grown upon the Sassa- 
fras sandy loam, fme sand, and sand give fair yields of potatoes of 
good quality at a period when the southern New Jersey region can 
occupy the city markets between the shipments from points farther 
south and those from Long Island. The crop is planted early, early 
varieties are chosen, and the first shipments to market are frequently 
made by the middle of July. The movement of the crop from the 
more sandy soils continues until about the 1st of August. It is 
usually succeeded by shipment from the heavier soil types, especially 
from the Sassafras silt loam. This later crop is marketed from 
about the first to the middle of August. The dates of marketing 
vary with seasonal differences. 

The production of sweet potatoes is decidedly localized and ap- 
proximately one-half of the entire acreage grown in New Jersey is 
produced in Gloucester and Salem Counties, chiefly upon the Sassa- 
fras sand and fine sand. The special value of these types for sweet- 
potato production is well understood. They constitute warm, well- 
drained soils upon which good average yields are secured, and the 
potatoes are of excellent quality. 

The miscellaneous vegetables occupy a considerable acreage upon 
all the soils of the Sassafras series in this region. They are most 
extensively grown upon the Sassafras sand, fine sand, and sandy 
loam where these occur within short distances of transportation 
facilities especially along the Delaware River south of Trenton. 
Tomatoes for market shipment are most extensively grown. The 
sandy soils produce moderate yields of early tomatoes while the 
Sassafras silt loam gives a somewhat larger yield but a later crop. 
Watermelons, cantaloupes, sweet corn, early peas, and beans, egg 
plant and asparagus constitute the other crops chiefly grown upon 
the more sandy soils of the Sassafras series in this region. Straw- 
berries and other small fruits are also grown. 

The greater part of the special crop production is carried on upon 
small farms which are intensively tilled to these crops. The fer- 
tility of these sandy soils is maintained by the use of large amounts 
of stable manure shipped into the district from the cities and sup- 
plemented by heavy applications of special commercial fertilizers. 
This is shown in Plate IX. A succession of market garden and 
truck crops is practiced rather than a crop rotation. Usually cover 



48 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

and forage crops are grown upon a portion of each farm while a 
limited area may be given to grain. 

In general it may be said that the adaptation of crops to soils and 
a consequent adoption of different farming systems have been very 
well worked out in the areas in New Jersey where the soils of the 
Sassafras series chiefly occur. The heavier, more retentive Sassafras 
silt loam is chiefly used for growing hay and forage crops, corn, 
Irish potatoes, and tomatoes. A supplementary dairy business is 
locally developed to a limited extent upon this soil. Its characteristic 
form of agriculture is diversified general farming. 

The more sandy members of the series are utilized for special crop 
production wherever marketing facilities are available. Early Irish 
potatoes, early tomatoes, sweet potatoes, watermelons, and canta- 
loupes constitute the chief crops grown but a wide variety of other 
truck crops is also produced. 

The extent to which these crops are established in this district is 
well shown by the fact that the five counties of Burlington, Camden. 
Gloucester, Monmouth, and Salem produced a total value of 
$8,559,567 of vegetables in 1909 or considerably more than one-half 
of the value for the entire State of New Jersey. This also amounted 
to nearly one-fifth of the total value of all crops produced in the 
State. In these five counties the value of all vegetables amounted to 
approximately one-half of the total value of crops grown. 

On the Maryland-Delaware peninsula there is a rather striking 
adaptation of the cropping systems to the different classes of soils. 

The northern portion of the peninsula, from the Piedmont border 
southward to the Choptank River, is dominated by the heavier soil 
types of the Sassafras and other series. The Sassafras silt loam and 
loam occupy extensive upland tracts in New Castle County, Del., 
and in Cecil, Kent, Queen Annes, and Talbot Counties, Md. In 
this section the farms are large, the fields are level and easy of 
tillage, and drainage is fairly well established. In consequence of 
these natural advantages the typical agriculture consists of the grow- 
ing of the cereal grains and hay. A study of the acreages devoted 
to the principal farm crops shows that wheat occupies the chief areas 
in these counties, while corn is second and hay and forage crops are 
third in rank. The crop rotation most commonly employed is the 
3-year rotation of corn, wheat, and hay, but a 5-year rotation is 
also used where wheat and hay are repeated before corn is again 
grown. Some farmers still follow wheat with corn without seeding 
to any grass crop. 

Tomatoes constitute the chief special crop of this section. They 
are grown for local canning factories or for shipment to others in 
near-by localities. The late crop for canning produces good yields 



Bui. 159, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VII. 




Fig. 1. -Corn Ground Cleared to Prepare for Winter Wheat, Sassafras 
Silt Loam, Northern Delaware. 




Fig. 2.-A Delaware Homestead and Wheat Field on Sassafras Silt Loam, 
Eastern Delaware. 



Bui. 159, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate V!ll 




Fig. 1 .— Kieffer Pear Orchard on Sassafras Silt Loam. A Common Sight on 
the Maryland-Delaware Peninsula. 




Fig. 2.— A Dairy Herd on Sassafras Silt Loam in Central Delaware. 



Bui. 1 59, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate IX, 




SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 49 

upon these heavier soils, although early tomatoes for market are not 
so successfully grown. 

Sweet corn is also grown for canning and Irish potatoes are pro- 
duced for home use and, to a limited extent, for shipment. 

The dairy industry is becoming established in some localities and 
milk and cream are shipped to market or butter is made at cream- 
eries. Some beef cattle are fattened for home use and for local 
markets. Swine are quite generally kept in small numbers, but 
chiefly for domestic supply or for the local markets. Some sheep are 
kept. It is probable, however, that poultry raising is the most im- 
portant form of animal production for sale. 

When the excellent yields of corn and grass secured from these 
heavier soils is considered it is noteworthy that the different forms 
of animal production have not become more generally adopted. 

The southern and southeastern portion of the Maryland-Delaware 
peninsula is generally occupied by the more «andy members of the 
Sassafras series and by soils of other series. The Sassafras sandy 
loam predominates in southern Kent County, Del., and in portions 
of Sussex County. The Sassafras sand and loamy sand are also 
important soils south of the Choptank River. Upon these more 
sandy soils the production of wheat is not so successful as upon the 
loam and silt loam of this series, and the acreage given to corn 
greatly predominates. A smaller production of grass and forage 
crops is also grown and the special crops become of considerable 
importance both in total area and in gross value of the product. 
Tomatoes are extensively grown for canning and to some extent for 
market shipment. Sweet potatoes are an important crop, while Irish 
potatoes for the city markets are coming to be extensively grown. 

The production of tree fruits is of considerable importance, and the 
Sassafras sandy loam is recognized as one of the best soils of the sec- 
tion for growing apples, pears, and peaches. Grapes are also becom- 
ing established upon this type in Delaware. 

Considerable areas of small fruits, particularly strawberries, are 
grown and the earlier varieties are produced- on the Sassafras sand 
and sandy loam. The later varieties are more commonly grown on 
the soils of the Portsmouth series. 

The introduction of the special crops in this section has led to the 
more complete occupation of the sandy soils for agricultural pur- 
poses, and they are highly esteemed for the purposes of fruit grow- 
ing and trucking. 

In general, the crop adaptations of the different soils of the 
Sassafras series are well understood and quite generally followed in 
the farm practice of the Maryland-Delaware peninsula. The 
heavier soils are utilized for grass and grain production; the more 



50 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

sandy soils are little used for wheat or other small grains, but are 
largely planted to corn and to special vegetable and fruit crops. 

Systematic crop rotations are quite generally employed, use is 
made of leguminous crops for forage and for green manuring, and a 
large amount of commercial fertilizers is annually used both by the 
general farmer and the truck and fruit grower. Broad, nearly level 
stretches of territory make the use of the larger farm implements 
possible and profitable. The region is fairly well equipped with 
work stock and machinery and a large percentage of the land area 
is tilled. 

The agriculture on the soils of the Sassafras series in southern 
Harford and Baltimore Counties, Md., consists chiefly of the pro- 
duction of corn, wheat, and forage crops. The growing of sweet 
corn and tomatoes for canning factories is also an important 
industry. 

In the southern Maryland counties there is again a considerable 
difference in the cropping practices of the different sections, varying 
with the character of the soils and with the distance from market. 
In the northern part of Anne Arundel County the more sandy mem- 
bers of the Sassafras series occur extensively and they are used for 
the production of vegetables and small fruits to a very considerable 
extent. In this county the area devoted to vegetable growing nearly 
equals the area in corn and far exceeds the acreage given to any 
other crop. Proximity to market strongly influences the class of 
farming since the soils of the Sassafras series in the southern part 
of the county are chiefly used for the growing of corn, tobacco, 
wheat, hay, and forage. While the soils of the Sassafras series 
occur only to a limited extent in other parts of southern Mary- 
land, they produce fair average yields of corn, wheat, and forage 
crops, while tobacco is also grown extensively upon the more sandy 
members of the series. 

South of the Potomac River the soils of this series are chiefly used 
for the production of corn and wheat. Forage crops are also grown, 
while areas suitably located are used to some extent for growing 
tomatoes for market and for canning and for the production of other 
vegetables. 

SUMMARY. 

The soils of the Sassafras series are distinguished by the yellow 
or brown color of the surface soils, by the yellow or reddish-yellow 
color of the subsoils, and by the prevalence of an underlying layer 
of gravel or of gravelly sand at depths ranging from 2 to 6 feet or 
more. 

They consist of water-laid materials chiefly formed as marine and 
estuarine terraces, but including some areas which were formed 
by the deposition of glacial out wash materials. 



SOILS OF THE SASSAFRAS SERIES. 51 

These soil materials thus comprise debris of glacial origin, sedi- 
ments derived from the Appalachian and Piedmont soil provinces, 
and reworked material from the older Coastal Plain deposits which 
they overlie. 

The soils of the Sassafras series are confined in their distribution 
to the northern portion of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, extending 
from the southern end of the Chesapeake Bay region through 
central and southern New Jersey to the western end of Long 
Island, N. Y. 

Within this region they occupy low-lying terraces which border 
the ocean and the chief tidewater estuaries, tying at altitudes which 
range from approximately sea level to elevations of 200 feet or more. 
In general the surface of the different types is nearly level to gently 
undulating, although some small hills and eroded areas are found. 

The drainage of the soils of the Sassafras series is generally good 
and only the more level areas and those remote from stream channels 
nre decidedly in need of artificial drainage. 

In texture the soils of the Sassafras series range from a gravelly 
loam through sands and sandy loams to a heavy silt loam. These 
differences in soil texture give rise to differences in the crops which 
may be grown to best advantage upon the different types in the 
series. 

The Sassafras sand, loamy sand, and fine sand are best suited, 
under favorable circumstances of markets and transportation, to 
the production of vegetable and fruit crops. 

The Sassafras sandy loam is the coarsest-grained type suited to 
general farm crops and it is also well suited to the growing of 
many of the fruit and truck crops. 

The Sassafras loam and silt loam constitute excellent soils for 
the growing of corn, wheat, and hay and are also used for the plant- 
ing of orchards of apples and pears. 

The character of agriculture conducted on the different types of 
the series differs both with the texture of the soil and with the ac- 
cessibility to markets and to transportation. Areas of the more 
porous soils in the vicinity of large city markets are largely occu- 
pied for market-gardening and trucking, as in southern New Jer- 
sey, portions of Delaware, and some sections of Maryland. Areas 
not thus favorably located are used to a small extent for the produc- 
tion of staple crops with only moderate jdelds. 

The more dense and retentive types are chiefly used for the grow- 
ing of grain and grass. Corn and wheat are the chief grain crops. 
Mixed timothy and clover and clover alone are grown for hay. 
Dairying and stock raising are conducted to a limited degree upon 
portions of these soils, particularly in southwestern New Jersey and 
in the northern part of the Maryland-Delaware peninsula. The 



52 BULLETIN 159, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Maryland type of pipe-smoking tobacco is grown on the fine sandy 
loam, the loam, and to some extent on the silt loam in the southern 
counties of Maryland. 

The farm equipment of buildings, stock, and implements on the 
different types of the Sassafras series varies with the character of 
the farming operations and to some extent with the type of soil. 
The truck and fruit farms on the more sandy types are usually well 
provided with substantial farm buildings, light, but effective work 
stock and tillage implements, and the special equipment needed for 
the conduct of intensive farming operations. The heavier soils of 
the series are usually equipped with adequate dwellings and barns 
and with somewhat heavier work stock and implements for grain 
raising. 

The chief requirements for the improvement of crop yields upon 
the different types of the series are the more extended use of stable 
manure, supplemented with the plowing under of green-manuring 
crops; the use of lime in some form, particularly in conjunction with 
the growing of the leguminous forage and green-manuring crops; 
the adoption in some sections of a crop rotation which shall provide 
for the alternation of grass crops with the prevalent system of grain 
growing: and local underdrainage on small areas of the heavier 
textured types. 

The soils of the Sassafras series constitute a group of soils which 
are suited to intensive tillage for the growing of market garden and 
truck crops upon the more sandy types while the heavier types con- 
stitute the best soils for the production of the staple crops to bo 
found within the northern portion of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. 



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BULLETIN OF THE 



No. 160 



Contribution from the Bureau of Entomology, L. O. Howard, Chief 
January 22, 1915. 




(PROFESSIONAL PAPER.) 

CACTUS SOLUTION AS AN ADHESIVE IN ARSENICAL 
SPRAYS FOR INSECTS. 1 

By M. M. High, 
Entomological Assistant, Truck Crop and Stored Product Insect Investigations. 

INTRODUCTION. 

In the application of arsenical sprays against insects with biting 
mouth parts the object in view is, of course, to protect the plant or 
plants from insect ravages by poisoning the foliage, so that the insects 
will, in feeding, take into their system enough of the poison to pro- 
duce death. Some arsenicals, because they possess a higher percentage 
of free arsenic, act more quickly in this direction than others, but 
these are, as a rule, injurious to most plant foliage, unless mixed with 
some agent that will counteract the free arsenic and produce a more 
uniform distribution on the plants sprayed. Arsenicals containing 
a high percentage of arsenious oxid generally possess only slight ad- 
hesive powers and after a heavy dew or light rain are washed from 
the foliage. 

Certain crops demand very prompt protection from the ravages 
of biting insects; otherwise severe losses are almost certain to be 
incurred, and to insure the preservation of the crop concerned it is 
highly important that a poison with some lasting qualities, as well 
as one quick in action, be applied. Thus it follows that an arsenical 
must adhere to the foliage if the most favorable results are to be 
realized. 

In 1913 and 1914 some experiments were conducted for the 
purpose of discovering a good adhesive which could be obtained 
easily and at little expense to the grower. This adhesive has been 
found in a cactus that flourishes in the Southwest. The variety 
which was most extensively used in the following experiments, and 

1 This bulletin describes the use of cactus solution as ah adhesive in the application of 
arsenical sprays against the belted cucumber beetle. It is applicable to regions where 
prickly pear is easily obtainable and for the treatment of insects of related habits, such 
as the striped and twelve-spotted cucumber beetles, etc. 
65966°— Bull. 160 — 15 1 



2 BULLETIN 160, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

one of the most abundant of the many species to be found in the 
lower Rio Grande Valley, is Opuntia Undheimeri Engelm., com- 
monly known as the "prickly pear." This plant produces a fruit 
that is available about one month in each year and one of which 
the natives are especially fond. Further, the plants themselves 
furnish food to many domestic animals and, it is claimed, prevent 
many cattle from dying during severe droughts because of their 
highly watery composition. Many ranchmen protect their cacti 
during a wet season and save them against the time of drought. A 
gasoline torch, manufactured especially for the purpose, is used to 
burn off the spines, and as soon as this burner is put into operation 
cattle, recognizing the peculiar noise, come at once to obtain the 
food thus rendered available. 

The prickly pear, besides being high in fluid content, is very 
mucilaginous and is invariably used by Mexicans in the manufac- 
ture of whitewash, to promote adhesiveness. The cactus is sliced the 
evening previous to the application and placed in the water or in 
the lime mixture, where it remains for several hours. The white- 
wash is then ready for use. The utilization of cactus in whitewash 
thus suggested to the writer its availability as a factor in promoting 
adhesion in poisonous sprays. 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK WITH CACTUS. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH ZINC ARSENITE. 

On March 23, 1913, 20 pounds of cactus were sliced lengthwise and 
immersed overnight in 50 gallons of water. The next morning 2 
pounds of zinc arsenite in paste form were added, and after a thor- 
ough mixing spraying was commenced on sugar beets which were 
beino- injured by the belted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata 

Lee.). 1 

A previous experiment demonstrated that cactus yields a higher 
percentage of mucilaginous matter if sliced at right angles to the 
spines, and, moreover, the time required for preparation is materially 
shortened by this method. It is best, however, to cut the larger pads 
both ways, since, owing to the cellular structure of the pads, this 
method insures a more copious and rapid flow of the juices. The 
result obtained from the use of the spray, at the rate of 20 pounds 
of prepared cactus to 50 gallons of water, was gratifying; the spray 
not only adhered to the foliage better, but spread more uniformly 
over the surface of the leaves. The quantity of cactus required to 

i Accounts of this species, by Dr. F. H. Chittenden and Mr. H. O. Marsh, have been pub- 
lished in Bulletin No. 82, Part VI, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Departemnt of Agricul- 
ture pa^es 69-71 and 76-82, December 8, 1910. These include illustrations of the stages, 
note's on life history, lists of food plants, and technical descriptions of the different 
stages. 



CACTUS SOLUTION AS AN ADHESIVE. 3 

make 20 pounds is comparatively small. The results of this spray- 
ing operation were favorable, as the number of beetles present four 
days later did not exceed 30 per cent of the original number, and a 
majorrty of these had just arrived from near-by breeding quarters. 

In the next experiment 10 pounds of cactus were used in combina- 
tion with 3 pounds of zinc arsenite and 50 gallons of water. As before, 
the cactus was sliced and placed in water the evening previous to 
spraying, and the following morning the solid particles were thrown 
out before the poison was added. This spraying operation, with 
but 10 pounds of cactus, gave good results, but the spreading quality 
of the material was not as good as in the first experiment, in which 
20 pounds of cactus were employed. 

In the next experiment, on April 3, 15 pounds of cactus were used 
with 3 pounds of zinc arsenite and 50 gallons of water. In this 
case the poison appeared to adhere and spread as well as when 20 
pounds of the cactus were used. It thus appeared that 15 pounds 
of the cactus with spines 1 would be about the proper proportion to 
use with 50 gallons of water in future work. 

The following table shows the mortality of Didbrotica balteata 
placed, on an encaged sugar-beet plant sprayed with zinc arsenite 
at the rate of 3 pounds to 50 gallons of water plus 15 pounds of 
prepared cactus: 

Table I. — Experiment No. 10. — Cactus as an adhesive in combination toitli 
arsenite of sine, Brownsville, Tex., 1913. 



Date. 


Beeiles 
present. 


Living. 


Dead. 


Feeding. 


Not. feed- 
ing. 


Mar. 17 


5 
5 
5 
5 
5 


4 
3 
3 
1 



1 
2 
2 
4 
5 


4 
3 
3 
1 


1 


Mar. 18 


Mar. 19 




Mar. 21 


4 


Mar. 22 









The beetles were placed on the sprayed plant at 6.30 p. m., March 
15, but during several cool days which followed they were quite in- 
active and probably fed but little. Cactus was tested in the insectary 
as an adhesive before experiments were conducted in the lield, to 
insure the absence of any inopportune chemical reaction that might 
injure the plants. This experiment demonstrated that in approxi- 
mately six days after spraying 99 per cent of the beetles succumbed 
to the poison. Simultaneously with the foregoing experiment another 

1 Cactus with spines is preferable to the spineless varieties ; in fact, the spiny variety 
appears to be nearly one-third richer in gluten. The Dairy Division of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry has been conducting some cactus-feeding experiments for dairy cows the 
past two years, and has made several analyses of both the spined and spineless varieties 
of cactus. 



4 BULLETIN 160, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

pot experiment was made, discarding cactus and using the same 
amount of arsenite of zinc. The following results were obtained : 

Table II. — Experiment No. 11. — Arsenite of zinc without cactus as an adhesive. 

Brownsville, Tex., 1913. 



Date. 


Beetles 
present. 


Living. 


Dead. 


Feeding. 


Not feed- 
ing. 


Mar. 17 


7 
7 


6 
4 
4 
3 
3 


1 
3 
3 

4 
4 


6 
4 
2 
3 
1 


1 


Mar. 18 


3 


Mar. 19 


7 


5 


Mar. 21 


7 
7 


4 


Mar. 22 


6 







It will be noticed here that at the end of the sixth day the mor 
tality was much under that of experiment No. 10. The plants in both 
experiments were sprayed thoroughly, but the latter spray did not 
spread as well as the former. In the next experiment cactus was 
again used at the rate of 20 pounds to 50 gallons of water. The same 
amount of zinc arsenite was used in this experiment, or 3 pounds to 
50 gallons of water. Table III shows the number of deaths on 
each date. 



Table III. 



-Experiment No. 12. — Cactus as an adhesive in combination with 
arsenite of zinc, Brownsville, Tex., 1913. 



Date. 


Beetles 
present . 


Living. 


Dead. 


Feeding. 


Not feed- 
ing. 


Mar. 17 


14 
14 
14 
14 


8 
3 
3 




6 
11 
11 
14 


6 
2 
1 




8 


Mar. 18 


12 


Mar. 19 


13 


Mar. 21 


14 


Mar. 22 













The beetles were placed on the poisoned sugar beet at 6 p. m., 
March 15, and in 36 hours nearly all of them were dead. 

EXPERIMENT WITH PARIS GREEN AND LIME. 

In the next pot experiment Paris green was used in place of zinc 
arsenite and at the rate of one-half pound to 50 gallons of water plus 
2 pounds of lime. The plant was sprayed on March 17, and as soon 
as the poison was dry on the sugar beet the beetles were liberated 
inside the cage. Table IV sums up the results. 



Table IV.- 



-Experimcnt No. 13. — Cactus as an adhesive with Paris green and 
lime, Brownsville, Tex., 1913. 



Date. 


Beetles 
present. 


Living. 


Dead. 


Feeding. 


Not feed- 
ing. 




10 
10 
10 
10 


10 
2 





8 
10 
10 


6 
2 




4 


Mar. 10 


8 


Mar. 21 


10 


Mar. 22 


10 







CACTUS SOLUTION AS AN ADHESIVE. 5 

The cucumber beetle appeared, as will be seen from the foregoing 
table, to succumb more readily to the Paris-green spray than to any 
one of the former sprays of zinc arsenite. In the field experiments 
there was not much difference, though the zinc arsenite gave more 
favorable results in that it lasted longer. The dews in the lower Rio 
Grande Valley are usually heavy ones, which would naturally reduce 
the effectiveness of the Paris-green application. But, as already 
shown, in the pot experiment the results appeared much more quickly 
than with the other sprays. 



UNSATISFACTORY RESULTS WITH LEAD ARSENATE. 

Since the experiments with cactus as an adhesive and a spreader 
for zinc arsenite and for Paris green and lime had resulted so favor- 
ably, not only in increasing the adhesiveness of the spray, but also in 
the destruction of the beetle, it was decided to try it in combination 
with lead arsenate. The cactus was placed in a barrel of water about 
12 hours before the arsenate- of lead was added. A few minutes after 
adding the lead arsenate the formation of a precipitate was observed. 
In an hour's time a cottony scum had formed on the surface and 
appeared fairly well distributed throughout the mixture. In the 
meantime spraying had been going on, but with little success, as this 
semiliquid matter clogged the nozzles. In about two hours' time the 
precipitation was more complete and the solution was discarded, since 
its consistency rendered it useless for spraying purposes. Alkalinity 
of the water was at first suspected, and rain water was substituted, 
but with the same results, so that no further attempt was made to use 
the cactus with lead arsenate. The lead arsenate employed was air- 
dried, having been formerly paste which had dried out in an open 
keg ; but no doubt even with fresh arsenate of lead the same precipi- 
tation would have taken place, as the air-dried arsenical had been 
used successfully without the cactus and had remained in solution, 
although it did not adhere well. 

In experiment No. 14 (Table V) arsenate of lead was employed at 
the rate of 3 pounds to 50 gallons of water. As the potted plant was 
quite small, there was not sufficient foliage to support a great number 
of beetles, and on April 4, at 6 p. m., six belted cucumber beetles were 
placed on the plant. 



Table V. — Experiment No. 



lh. — Cactus as an adhesive with arsenate of lead. 
Brownsville, Tex., 1913. 



Date. 



Apr. 6. 
Apr. 7. 
Apr. 8. 
Apr. 9. 
Apr. 11 



Beetles 
present. 



Living. 



Dead. 



Feeding. 



Not feed- 
ing. 



6 



BULLETIN 160, TJ. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



The time required to kill all of the beetles placed on the sprayed 
plant was approximately six days, provided all specimens began 
feeding immediately after being placed on the poisoned plant. 

In the next experiment 2| pounds of arsenate of lead were used to 
50 gallons of water. The host plant was spinach that had been grow- 
ing in the pot for some time. The spraying was done during the 
morning of April 14, and at 4 p. m. on the same date, after the poison 
had dried, 10 belted cucumber beetles were placed inside the cage and 
on the plant where possible. Table VI shows the mortality : 



Table VI.- 



-Expcriment No. 15. — Cactus as an adhesive ivith arsenate of lead, 
Brownsville, Tex., 1913. 



Apr. 16 
Apr. 17 
Apr. 24 



Beetles 
present. 



Living. 



Dead. 



Feeding. 



Not feed- 
ing. 



The spray here used was not so effective as in experiment No. 14, 
the mortality being only 80 per cent at the end of nine days. The 
plant died from some cause about the 24th of April, and probably 
very little feeding was done during the last few days the plant lived 
after being sprayed. 

FURTHER EXPERIMENTS. 

The results obtained in the foregoing experiments had been so 
favorable that further experiments on a larger scale were commenced. 
Several thousand pounds of the prickly pear were used in the work, 
and as the regular " pear burner," or torch, was employed to singe 
the spines from the pads, they could now be handled with some com- 
fort. The work has been conducted in a small way and on a large 
scale with about the same degree of success. It requires only a short 
time to burn the spines from enough cactus to make a sufficient 
amount of adhesive material for several thousand gallons of spray 
mixture. > 

The list of insecticides that have been employed in combination 
with cactus as an adhesive includes Paris green, lead chromate, zinc 
arsenite (in both paste and powder forms), lead arsenate, ferrous 
arsenate, and iron arsenite. The preceding pages give an account 
of experiments with zinc arsenite in the paste form, Paris green, and 
lead arsenate in the paste form, while the experiments that follow 
will include zinc arsenite in the powder form, lead arsenate in paste 
form, ferrous arsenate, and iron arsenite, the last two used in the 
powder. The powdered zinc arsenite gave excellent results in every 
instance when used in combination with cactus water, and the mor- 
tality was in some cases higher than when three times the weight in 



CACTUS SOLUTION AS AN ADHESIVE. 7 

paste form was used. Very favorable results were obtained with 
ferrous arsenate in most cases, while the results with iron arsenite 
were not quite so good. The following tables give results of the 
experiments conducted in the insectary with each of the arsenicals 
here mentioned. 

On March 1, 1914, a cabbage plant was sprayed with ferrous arsen- 
ate at the rate of 1 pound to 40 gallons of water, and as soon as the 
poison had dried on the leaves, or at 6 o'clock p. m. the same date, 
four Diabrotica balteata were encaged on the plant. 



Table VII 



-Experiment No. 16. — Cactus as an adhesive with ferrous arsenate, 
Brownsville, Tex., 101). 



Date. 


Beetles 
present. 


Living. 


Dead. 


Feeding. 


Not feed- 
ing. 


Mar. 2 


4 
4 

4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 


4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
1 












1 


1 

3 
3 
3 
2 
3 
2 

1 


3 


Mar. 3 


4 


Mar. 4 


1 






Mar. 6 


1 


Mar. 7 


2 


Mar. 8 


1 


Mar. 9 


2 


Mar. 10 









It will be seen from the foregoing table that the mortality was 
much too low to pay for applying the poison. It was observed that 
the feeding was light for four or five days after confinement. The 
solution did not adhere and distribute itself well -enough to make a 
good spray. 

About the same time that spraying was done on experiment No. 
16 a second solution was made up, using the same amount of fer- 
rous arsenate or 1 pound to 40 gallons of water. Eighty per cent 
of the water used was taken from a tank where two days previous 
1^ pounds of cactus to the gallon of water had been placed. This 
made an exceedingly glutinous solution which caused the liquid to 
spread uniformly as well as to adhere. On March 2 seven Diabrotica 
balteata were placed on the plant. 



Taelk VI II 



-Experiment No. 11. — ('actus as an adhesive with ferrous arsenate, 
Brownsville, Tex., 1914. 



Date. 


Beetles 
present. 


Living. 


Dead . 


Feeding. 

3 

(1 
6 

8 

4 
3 

1 
4 


Not feed- 
ing. 


Mar. 3 


7 
7 
7 
7 
7 

7 
7 
7 


6 
6 
6 

6 
6 
6 

6 
5 
5 


1 

2 
2 


4 




1 




1 


Mar. 6 


3 




2 


Mar. 8 


3 


Mar. 9 


4 


Mar. 13 


6 


Mar. 14 


3 







8 



BULLETIN 160, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



The death rate in this experiment was very low, which is ac- 
counted for to a certain degree by a decrease in the voracious ap- 
petite of the beetles, which were encaged on a cabbage plant. Feed- 
ing appeared to be more from the underside of the leaves, and usually 
the epidermis was left intact. 

In the next experiment with potted plants spinach was substituted 
for cabbage, since it seemed preferable to the beetles, particularly as 
the cabbage plants had been growing for some time in the pots and 
had become more or less stunted and tough. In this experiment fer- 
rous arsenate was used at the rate of 1 pound to 40 gallons of water, 
in which 40 pounds of cactus had been placed 72 hours previous. 
Table IX shows results and mortality. The plant was sprayed April 
2, and on April 4 five beetles were liberated on the plant and cov- 
ered with a lantern globe. 



Table IX.- 



-Experiment No. IS. — Cactus as an adhesive with ferrous arsenate, 
Brownsville, Tex., 19Uj. 



Date. 



Apr. 4 
Apr. 5 
Apr. 6 
Apr. 7 
Apr. 8 
Apr. 9 



Beetles 
present. 



Living. 



Dead. 



Feeding. 



Not feed- 
ing. 



The results here were much better than in experiments Nos. 16 and 
17, and the beetles appeared to succumb more readily, since they fed 

more rapidly. 

On April 6 a spray was made up of ferrous arsenate, using 1 pound 
to 12 gallons of water in which 10 pounds of sliced cactus had been 
placed 48 hours previous to spraying, insuring thorough glutinous 
consistency in the spray mixture. Some spinach plants in pots were 
sprayed previous to spraying plats in the field. On April 13, or one 
week from date of spraying, six beetles were encaged on a plant and 
observed for 10 days. Table X shows the number of beetles that 
succumbed. 

Table X. Experiment No. 18.— Cactus as an adhesive with ferrous arsenate, 

Broivnsviile, Tex., 1914. 



Dale. 



Apr. 13 
Apr. 14 
Apr. 1.3 
Apr. 16 
Apr. IS 
Apr. 20 
Apr. 21 
Apr. 23 



Beetles 
present. 



Living. 



Dead. 



Feeding. 



Not feed- 
ing. 



CACTUS SOLUTION AS AN ADHESIVE. 9 

This plant began to wilt and appear blighted on April 18, little 
feeding being done from that date, even though the poison had been 
on the plant for nearly two weeks. It is thought that a higher mor- 
tality would have occurred had the plant remained green and living. 

An arsenate of lead spray was made, using the paste form at the 
rate of 4 pounds to 60 gallons of water. In this solution no cactus 
was used. On April 11 five beetles were placed on an encaged cab- 
bage plant in the insectary that had been sprayed five days before. 
Table XI gives the final results. 

Table XI. — Experiment Xo. 20. — Arsenate of lead without cactus, Brownsville, 

Tex., 191J h 



Apr. 13 
Apr. 14 
Apr. 16 
Apr. IS 



Beetles 
present. 



Living. 



Dead. 



Feeding. 



Not feed- 
mi,'. 



This spray did not adhere to the cabbage foliage as well as when 
cactus was used, and the beetles fed very slowly after the first two 
days of confinement. Better results were obtained in the field, as 
the beetles began feeding just after spraying, and where a partial 
uniform coating was secured the poison was effective. If the poison 
could be made to combine or mix with cactus water the results would 
undoubtedly be much better. 

April 2 a solution was made up of iron arsenite, using 1 pound 
to 40 gallons of water. Some difficulty was experienced in bringing 
the poison into suspension, as it settled quite rapidly to the bottom 
of the barrel. April 4 another solution was prepared, using the 
same amoimt of poison to a given quantity of water, with the pre- 
vious addition of cactus at the rate of 1£ pounds to each gallon of 
water, in which salicylic acid had been used as a preservative to 
prevent fermentation of the cactus juice. As a check some potted 
cabbage plants were sprayed. On April 11 ten belted cucumber 
beetles were encaged on one of the cabbage plants that was sprayed 
April 4. Table XII gives the results. 



Table XII.- 



-Exveriment No. 21. — Cactus as an adhesive with iron arsenite, 
Brownsville, Tex., 191J/. 



Date. 



Apr. 13 
Apr. 14 
Apr. 15 
Apr. 16 
Apr. 18 



Beetles 
pre ent. 



Living. 



Feeding. 



Not feed- 
ing. 



65066°— Bull. 160—15- 



10 



BULLETIN 160, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



It is apparent that although the application had been made for 
more than a week, a sufficient amount of the arsenical remained to 
have some effect on the feeding of the beetles. A later experi- 
ment with iron arsenite showed the mortality of the beetles when 
they feed on the plant immediately after spraying has been done. 

While spraying a plat of sugar beets at the South Texas Gardens 
on April 15 the writer also sprayed some plants in the insectary, 
using zinc arsenite in the powdered form. The cactus was used at 
the rate of 1.8 pounds to the gallon of water and the zinc arsenite 
at the rate of 1 pound to 64 gallons. The plants were sprayed on the 
morning of the 15th, and on April 16 eleven beetles were liberated 
inside the cage surrounding the plants. 

Table XIII. — Experiment No. 22. — Cactus as an adhesive with zinc arsenite, 

Brownsville, Tex., 1914- 



Apr. 16 

Apr. 17 

Apr. 18 

Apr. 20 

Apr. 21 

Apr. 23 



Beetles 
present. 


Living. 


Dead. 


Feeding. 


11 


11 





8 


11 


10 


1 


9 


11 


10 


1 


9 


11 


4 


7 


4 


11 


4 


7 


3 


11 


1 


10 






Not feed- 
ing. 



This spray adhered and spread exceedingly well, although much 
less cactus could have been used with equal results. However, no 
precipitation was observed when the cactus was used at this strength. 

In experiment No. 23 a potted sugar beet was sprayed April 11 
with zinc arsenite (powdered) at the rate of 1 pound to 35 gallons 
of water, using three-fourths of a pound of cactus to each gallon of 
water, the cactus having been placed in the water four days before. 
Fermentation was prevented by the use of copper sulphate. On 
April 15 ten belted cucumber beetles were encaged on the plant. 



Table XIV. 



-Experiment No. 23. — Cactus as an adhesive with 
Brownsville, Tex., 1914- 



Hnc arsenite. 



Date. 



Apr. Its 
Apr. 17 
Apr. 20 
Apr. 21 
Apr. 23 



Beetles 
present. 



Living. 



Feeding. 



Not feed- 
ing. 



It will be observed that in this experiment less than half the quan- 
tity of cactus was used than was added in experiment No. 22, but 
the zinc arsenite was increased to nearly twice the amount used in 
the preceding experiment, and there was only a 10 per cent difference 



CACTUS SOLUTION AS AN ADHESIVE. 



11 



in the mortality. The plants used were both sugar beets. The result 
of this experiment shows that by the use of cactus the lasting qualities 
of the poison on the plants may be greatly increased. 

The spraying in experiment No. 24 was done at the same time as in 
experiment No. 22, 1 pound of zinc arsenite being used to 64 gallons 
of water but only one-third of a pound of cactus to each gallon, the 
glutinous matter having been extracted by soaking the cactus for four 
days in water. Salicylic acid was added as a preservative. The 
sugar beet was sprayed on April 15, and on April 16 five beetles were 
placed on the plant. April IT one beetle was found dead and four 
still feeding. April 18 three had died from the effect of the poison 
and two were yet feeding. On April 20 all were dead. During the 
four days the beetles were encaged they appeared to feed very rap- 
idly, as they had been confined for several days without food. This 
proves that 1 pound of powdered zinc arsenite with cactus to make it 
adhere is more effective than 2 pounds in the paste form and just as 
effective as 3 pounds in the paste form. 

The plant in experiment No. 25 was sprayed with 1 pound of zinc 
arsenite to 35 gallons of water and at the same time as No. 23, on 
April 11, with the same quantity of cactus, but the beetles were not 
placed on the plant for six days after spraying. On April 17 three 
beetles were encaged, and by the 22d all were dead. 

On April 5, after spraying a field plat of cabbage with ferrous 
arsenate, several plants were treated in the insectary. The strength 
used was 1 pound to 12 gallons of water. One pound of cactus was 
used to each gallon of water, the cactus water having been made 26 
days when used. It was prepared on March 16 and sodium benzoate 
added as a preservative. On April 11 six beetles were placed on a 
cabbage plant covered by a lantern globe. Table XV gives the 
number of beetles that succumbed in a given period. 



Table XV. 



-Experiment No. 26. — Cactus as an adhesive ivith ferrous arsenate. 
Brownsville, Tex., 191^. 



Date. 



Apr. 13 
Apr. 14 
Apr. 15 
Apr. 16 
Apr. 17 
Apr. 18 
Apr. 20 
Apr. 21 



Beetles 
present. 


Living. 


Dead. 


Feeding. 


6 


6 





4 


6 


6 





5 


6 


6 





5 


6 


6 





1 


6 


3 


3 


2 


5 


1 


4 


1 


5 


1 


4 


1 


5 





5 






Not feed- 
ing. 






The beetles from some cause fed very sparingly the whole time they 
were encaged. Whether the poison was distasteful or the plant had 
become tough, could not be ascertained. 



12 



BULLETIN 160, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



On April 4 a small plat of cabbage was sprayed with iron arsenite 
at the rate of 1 pound to 40 gallons of water. Two pounds of cactus 
were added to each gallon and the decoction was prepared on March 
14 and 15. It was preserved with salicylic acid at the rate of £ 
pound to 50 gallons. It was quite difficult to bring the arsenite of 
iron into suspension. Thorough agitation was required to prevent it 
settling to the bottom of the tank. With a hand sprayer it is impos- 
sible to secure uniformity in the spray. Table XVI gives results with 
10 beetles on one cabbage plant sprayed on April 4, the beetles being 
liberated on the plant April 11. 

Table XVI. — Experiment No. 21. — Cactus as an adhesive with iron arsenite, 

Broumsville, Tex., 1914. 



Not feed- 
ing. 



Apr. 13 
Apr. 14 
Apr. 16 
Apr. 17 
Apr. 18 
Apr. 20 
Apr. 21 
Apr. 23 



Beetles 
' present. 


Living. 


Dead. 


Feeding. 


10 


10 





10 


10 


9 


1 


8 


10 


9 


1 


6 


10 


9 


1 


6 


10 


8 


2 


7 


10 


8 


2 


4 


9 


6 


3 


6 


9 





4 


5 



Feeding was very heavy on this plant, which had been growing 
for some time in the pot and had been seriously attacked by aphides 
on two occasions. Iron arsenite has some value as an insecticide, but 
not as much as ferrous arsenate, even when properly made up, and 
unless an effort is made to apply* it in uniform coating on the foliage 
it has little value as an insect destrover. 



CACTUS COMPARED WITH WHALE-OIL SOAP AS AN ADHESIVE. 

On February 20, 1914, while conducting spraying experiments 
against the belted cucumber beetle and cabbage looper (Autographa 
bras'sicm Riley) on cabbage on the farm of Mr. George Federhoff, near 
Brownsville, Tex., it was decided to make a comparison of whale-oil 
soap and cactus as adhesives, without considering the cost of the 
two products. One acre of cabbage was sprayed with 1 pound of 
zinc arsenite (in powdered form) to 60 gallons of water, with the 
addition of 35 pounds of cactus. The cactus was sliced and put in 
the water on February 19, and had given up its glutinous matter 
to the solution by the time spraying was begun the following 
day. This mixture spread and adhered exceedingly well. The 
next acre was sprayed with the same amount of poison, but whale- 
oil soap was substituted for cactus. This was done both for a 
comparison of adhesive qualities and to observe the effect of the 
soap on the cabbage aphis (Aphis brassicce L.), as in several spots 



CACTUS SOLUTION AS AN ADHESIVE. 13 

in this acre the aphis was making its appearance. The soap was 
used at the rate of 3 pounds to 60 gallons of water. Very careful 
notes were made on the sticking qualities of the soap, and it was 
found that when- compared at close range with the cactus spray the 
soap equalled the cactus in spreading power, although lacking in 
adherence. This information was obtained by observing sprayed 
plants with and without a lens. It was soon seen that the cactus 
spray adhered and dried on the foliage better than the soap spray. 
This favored the cactus, since the heavy dews in the Rio Grande 
Valley will wash poison having but slight adhesive qualities from the 
foliage in a short time. 

COPPER SULPHATE AS A PRESERVATIVE FOR THE CACTUS. 

On April 6, 1914, 50 pounds of cactus were cut into small pieces and 
placed in a barrel with 21 gallons of water, and on April 7, 1 pound 
of copper sulphate was dissolved in 4 gallons of water and added to 
the barrel which was numbered lot 6. 

The solid portion of the cactus or prickly pear was removed before 
adding the copper sulphate. This made 28 gallons in solution. 
No chemical action was observed. The solution kept perfectly for 
about four weeks, when it had to be discarded to make room for 
other experiments. The temperature during this time averaged 
about 70° F. 

COPPER SULPHATE USED WITH ZINC ARSENITE. 

After using the copper sulphate as a preservative for the juice 
extracted from the prickly pear, the possibility of a chemical reac- 
tion upon the addition of the arsenical to the solution was tested. 
Upon the addition of powdered zinc arsenite at the rate of 1 pound 
to 60 gallons of water a slight chemical reaction was noticed, evi- 
dently the copper changing places with the zinc to a small degree. A 
slight precipitate was formed, but not enough to cause any trouble 
when a good pressure was maintained in the tank of the sprayer. 
The precipitate was not increased after the mixture was allowed to 
stand for three hours. No difference was observed in the effective- 
ness of the arsenical, either with or without the addition of the 
copper sulphate. 

COPPER SULPHATE USED WITH LEAD ARSENATE. 

The use of lead arsenate in combination with prickly pear with- 
out the addition of some other chemical has never been a success. A 
precipitate is always formed which makes it impossible to use the 
mixture to advantage as a spray. The same proportion of cactus and 
copper sulphate utilized in the zinc arsenite spray was here em- 



14 BULLETIN 160, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

ployed. On April 13, 1914, 1 pound of lead arsenate in the paste form 
was placed in 20 gallons of cactus water which contained copper 
sulphate in the amount of 1 pound to 28 gallons of water. It was 
at once noticed that the copper sulphate retarded the precipitation 
of the lead arsenate, so much so that the solution could be used as 
a spray with some success, at a normal pressure with a hand pump. 
This was encouraging, as it had been impossible to use lead arsenate 
alone in combination with cactus as an adhesive. The writer would 
recommend, however, that the foregoing combination be used on 
a large scale only when a strong pressure can be maintained through- 
out the operation, or the results will be unsatisfactory. 

The mortality in the experiments was practically the same as 
when the arsenical was used alone. Had more experiments been 
made in the field, in all probability a higher mortality would have 
been observed in the end. 

COPPER SULPHATE AND FERROUS ARSENATE. 

The use of copper sulphate as a preservative for the cactus, com- 
bined with ferrous arsenate to form a spray, did not appear to pro- 
duce any chemical changes, no noticeable precipitate being found 
that would prevent the use of the solution as a spray. It had been 
expected that more of an action would take place when the ferrous 
arsenate was added to the cactus water containing copper sulphate. 
The ferrous arsenate was not altered in insecticidal value when mixed 
with sulphate of copper. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH OTHER PRESERVATIVES. 

SALICYLIC ACID. 

On March 13, 1914, 45 pounds of cactus were sliced and placed in 
32 gallons of water, and in another lot 30 pounds were added to 24 
gallons of water. The following day the solid portion of the cactus 
was removed from the two lots and the water poured from both into 
another receptacle. This made 56 gallons of the liquid to be pre- 
served. One- fourth of a pound of salicylic acid was dissolved and 
added to the cactus water, and the mixture was allowed to stand 
exposed to the air. On April 1 the mixture was found to be in per- 
fect condition. A bluish-white scum was noticed to have formed on 
the surface shortly after the acid was dissolved in the water. To 
dissolve salicylic acid a certain amount of alcohol is necessary. At 
first the acid was dissolved in a 10 per cent solution of alcohol, but 
it was later found that cactus w T ater served equally well for this 
purpose after fermentation was well under way, although action 
was somewhat delaved. 






CACTUS SOLUTION AS AN ADHESIVE. 15 

SODIUM BENZOATE. 

Sodium benzoate was used in a limited way as a preservative for 
the cactus solution. On March 14 one-fourth of a pound was dis- 
solved in a small quantity of alcohol and added to a barrel contain- 
ing 40 gallons of water in which 50 pounds of cactus had been placed 
March 13, after removing the solid portion of the pear. The mixture 
was stirred vigorously for five minutes and later covered. On April 
2 an examination was made and the liquid used as a spray with zinc 
arsenite. Only slight fermentation had taken place, and no diffi- 
culty was encountered in applying the spray. 

The first disadvantage in using sodium benzoate for such a purpose 
is its cost. It is somewhat more expensive than other chemicals 
of this class, and the element of cost is a primary consideration. 
Another feature is that it is not easily dissolved, and unless it is 
thoroughly dissolved its powers as a preservative are considerably 
lessened. 

On April 2 sodium benzoate was again used in the proportion of 
1 pound to 200 pounds of cactus in 100 gallons of water. This was 
quite a concentrated mixture, but it kept in perfect condition for two 
weeks, at the end of which time it was used up. The average temper- 
ature a part of the time was 80° F. 

THE COMMON PRICKLY PEAR CACTI AND THEIR CHEMICAL 

COMPOSITION. 

The common cactus or prickly pear of southern Texas is a variety 
known as "nopal" or "nopal azul" (Platopuntla llndhelmeri 
Engelm.). This is the variety with flat, rounded leaves and growing 
about 4 or 5 feet high, and it is found well distributed over southern 
Texas. It is a native species which varies considerably in coloration 
of spines as well as in its general habit of growth. The fruit is 
purplish throughout, more so than the more spiny variety, Plato- 
puntla engelmannli Salm., which is very similar in habit of growth, 
but usually occurs farther west than the region occupied by this 
species. The large spineless cactus frequently cultivated, but ordi- 
narily not occurring abundantly in the cactus plains of southern 
Texas, is a species which has been called Platopuntla tuna Will. 
It grows much taller than the common "nopal" and is known in 
California as "mission pear" and in Texas as "Nopal de castilla." 
It frequently grows 10 to 15 feet in height, with the trunk 12 inches 
in diameter, and the joints in shape are more elliptical than rounded. 
The fruit is considerably larger than that of the common " noDal " 
and greenish throughout. 



16 



BULLETIN 160, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



The chemical analyses of these plants, taken from Bulletin No. 
60 of the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station, 1 are as 
follows : 

Table XVII. — Chemical analysis of Platopuntia lindheimcri. 



Air drv. 



Sample No 

Spines 

Water 

Ash 

Crude protein 

Crude fat 

Nitrogen free extract 

Crude fiber 

Organic matter 



7515 



7567 



Per cent. 

0.10 

87.36 

2.82 

.60 

.26 

7.54 

1.42 

9.82 



79.88 
4.98 
.45 
.20 
9.55 
4.94 
15.14 



Per cent. 

0.42 

84.82 

2.27 

.96 

.30 

9.84 

1.81 

12.91 



Per cent. 

0.72 

5.65 

21. 05 

4.49 

1.95 

56.26 

10.50 

73.30 



Per cent. 



5.20 
23.45 

2.12 

.95 

44.98 

23.30 

71.35 



Per cent. 
2.60 
6.55 
13.95 
5.92 
1.82 
60.61 
11.15 
79.50 



ANALYSIS OF THE ASH. 

[Sample No. 7515.] ' 

Carbon per cent. . 0. 14 

Sand do 29 

Per cent in pure ash: 

Soluble silica (SiO) 43 

Iron (Fe) '. 20 

Aluminum (Al) ■ 00 

Manganese (Mg) 49 

Potassium (K) 14.22 

Sodium ( Na) 35 

Phosphoric acid radicle ( PO<) 1. 11 

Sulphuric acid radicle (SO<) 1. 15 

Chlorine 2. 15 

Carbonic acid radicle (CO3) 49. 12 

Table XVIII. — Chemical analysis of Platopuntia engelmannii. 







Green. 




Air dry. 




65621 


6575 


7810 


78411 


65621 


6575 


7810 


78411 








P.ct. 


P.ct. 

0.32 

91.07 

2.00 

.32 

.12 

4.95 

1.54 

6.93 


P.ct. 

0.04 

89.41 

1.60 

.35 

.23 

7.21 

1.20 

8.99 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 

3.33 

7.33 

20.80 

3.29 

1.20 

51.43 

15.95 

71.87 


P.ct. 
0.33 
6.83 
14. 05 
3.07 
2.00 
63.48 
10.57 
79.12 


P.ct. 


Water 


89.09 

.91 

.48 

.33 

7.31 

1.88 

10.00 


85.41 
.77 
.46 
.33 

10.03 
3.00 

13.82 


6.20 
7.80 
4.16 
2.85 
62.84 
16.15 
86.00 


3.97 


Ash 


5.07 




3.06 




2.20 




72.58 




13.12 


Organic matter 


90.96 



Table XIX. — Chemical, analysis of Platopuntia tuna. 



_ 


Green. 


Air dry. 


Sample No 


7519 


7577 


7519 


7577 


Spines 


Per cent. 
0.36 
81.86 
4.29 
1.32 
.28 
8.88 
4.07 
14.55 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 

1.82 

5.18 

21.65 

6.68 

1.40 

44.56 

20.53 

73.17 


Per cent. 




92.25 
1.75 
.63 
.16 
4.02 
1.19 
6.00 


8.12 


Ash 


20.80 




7.53 




1.85 




47.60 




14 10 




71.08 







1 Griffiths, David, and Hare, U. F. Prickly pear and other cacti as food for stock, II. 
N. Mex. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. 60, 134 p., 7 pi., November, 1906. 



CACTUS SOLUTION AS AN ADHESIVE. 17 

SUPERIORITY OF CACTUS FROM DRY LAND. 

It has been found that cactus growing near resacas and in low 
wet places yields less glutinous matter to the gross pound than it 
does when growing on high dry soil. Thus time is saved in making 
up a spraying solution if the cacti are collected from the higher re- 
gions, and not in or near standing water. 

On April 13, 1914, 75 pounds of cactus were placed in 40 gallons of 
water. Twenty-four hours later the cactus was removed and al- 
lowed to drain for about one-half hour. It weighed 85.5 pounds, 
or 10^ pounds more than when placed in the water. Another lot of 
110 pounds was increased in weight to 124 pounds by leaving it 
in water 24 hours. However, when the cactus is sliced and allowed 
to remain in water until fermentation is well under way, there will 
be a slight decrease in weight. This will not happen where a pre- 
servative is used. 

ADVANTAGES IN THE USE OF CACTUS AS AN ADHESIVE. 

By the use of cactus as an adhesive not only do the arsenicals 
give better and more lasting results, but considerable expense may 
be saved in another way. In the Southwest, where all insecticide 
material must be shipped in from a great distance, the expense of 
transporting this material is often more than the cost of the in- 
secticide itself, so that material of a poor quality is often used in- 
stead. For some years arsenicals in the paste form have been exten- 
sively used by fruit and truck growers on account of their better 
adherence and lasting qualities, but where a good adhesive is used 
the writer much prefers arsenicals in the powder form. In conduct- 
ing experiments in the insectary and in the field at no time have 
the powdered arsenicals proved less effectn r e, and at times the mor- 
tality would be considerably above that shown in another experiment 
conducted at the same time with arsenicals in the paste form. Better 
results have been obtained in using 1 pound of zinc arsenite in pow- 
der form with cactus than by the use of 3 pounds in the paste form 
to the same amount of water. Thus equal results may be obtained, 
with a reduction of 66 per cent in express and freight charges paid 
in securing arsenicals from a distance. 

QUANTITY OF CACTUS TO USE. 

The amount of cactus that may be used with good results varies 
with the environment under which the plants have been growing. 
If the plants have been growing in or near water it will be neces- 
sary to increase the quantity of cactus used to each gallon of water. 
In general, the correct proportion will range from -J pound to 1 



18 BULLETIN 160, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

pound to every gallon of water used in making up the spraying 
mixture. These proportions have given the most favorable results 
in all experiments conducted so far. When amounts in excess of 1 
pound to each gallon of water are used the adhesive powers do not 
appear to be increased to any great extent, and on the other hand 
difficulty is experienced in applying the spray, particularly where 
very fine nozzles are employed. 

ZINC ARSENITE AS AN INSECTICIDE. 

Zinc arsenite has been used both in the paste and powder forms with 
much success for the belted cucumber beetle, as well as for some other 
insects of this class. It has proved to be one of the most effective 
sprays for use in humid climates, as it appears to last longer. No 
other arsenical has given better results, and in the majority of cases 
the mortality has been higher than with any other arsenical spray. 
The powder when used with cactus to make it adhere is to be pre- 
ferred for general use over any arsenical now on the market. This 
spray in the writer's opinion surpasses in lasting qualities any of the 
arsenicals and at the same time gives a higher mortality. In action 
it is somewhat slower than Paris green, but it gives better results in 
the end. The writer would not recommend, however, that zinc arse- 
nite be used on plants that are nearly ready for market, for the 
poison does not wash off easily. 

FERROUS ARSENATE AS AN INSECTICIDE. 

Ferrous arsenate has given very good results in combination with 
cactus to increase its adhesive powers. No serious effects from its use 
on the most delicate foliage have been observed. The cost of the 
product at the present time places it beyond general use as an insecti- 
cide. The ferrous arsenate in the powder form is very easily brought 
into suspension, requiring less time than some of the other arsenicals 
now more extensively used to destroy biting insects. Another feature 
in the use of this arsenical is that it remains in suspension exceed- 
ingly well and settles very slowly to the bottom of the tank. This 
makes it a most desirable poison for use with small sprayers not 
equipped with agitators. 

IRON ARSENITE AS AN INSECTICIDE. 

Iron arsenite was given a trial against the belted cucumber beetle 
only, and was found to give varying results. The powder was made 
into a spray and applied both with cactus as an adhesive and without 
the cactus. The iron arsenite is quite hard to bring into suspension 
and soon settles to the bottom of the spray tank unless constantly 



CACTUS SOLUTION AS AN ADHESIVE. 19 

agitated. Its effectiveness as an insecticide was disappointing; in 
fact, it is so low that it is doubtful that this arsenical can ever come 
into general use as a spray. Much difficulty was experienced in ob- 
taining uniform distribution over the surfaces sprayed, even when 
used with cactus. The cactus increased its adherence and spraying 
qualities, but not sufficiently to remedy matters completely. The 
foregoing experiments show its effectiveness as compared with fer- 
rous arsenate, zinc arsenite, lead arsenate, and Paris green. 

FINAL RESULTS FROM SPRAYING. 

The pot experiments carried on in the insectary for the belted 
cucumber beetle and the other species concerned were undertaken 
to assist in checking up results in the field. They served for more 
than this, however, for in a short time it was possible to accumulate 
much data as to the effectiveness of each spray that otherwise could 
not have been secured in nearly so short a time, while the estimates 
as to mortality in each of the experiments made would have been 
much less conservative. 

It was found that the beetles could be best controlled by spraying 
with zinc arsenite or with Paris green. The other arsenicals em- 
ployed, while effecting a control in most cases, did not give as high 
mortality as the two arsenicals mentioned. The number of appli- 
cations rendered necessary varied with the location of the sugar 
beets, i. e., their distance from crops where the beetles were breeding 
in large numbers. One plat of sugar beets was sprayed only once, 
while on the other hand several plats of beets, spinach, and cabbage 
were sprayed from two to four times in order to prevent the crop 
from being badly stunted in growth. The greatest damage is done 
from the time the beets begin coming up until the leaves have reached 
a height of 10 inches. Attention should be given the crop from the 
time the seeds are planted, in order that no serious damage may be 
done before remedial measures can be put to practice. 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTROL. 

The control of such pests as the belted cucumber beetle does not 
require the attention necessitated by some of the noxious caterpillars 
and sucking insects. But to keep the injury down to the minimum 
frequent observation should be made while the plants are small, as 
this is the time when the beetles are capable of doing the greatest 
amount of damage. 

If the beetles are present in sufficient numbers partially to defoliate 
a few plants, it is time to begin spraying. It may be necessary to 
spray only once in order to effect control, but this will depend upon 
the surrounding vegetation as well as upon the weather conditions. 



20 BULLETIN 160, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Any of the arsenicals may be used in the form of a spray to control 
this beetle. If arsenite of zinc in paste form is to be used, the writer 
will recommend 3 pounds to 50 gallons of water, in combination 
where possible with some adhesive, in order that best results may be 
obtained. In the Southwest the prickly pear serves the purpose best, 
because better results have been obtained where it was used than 
with any one of several other adhesives. From an economic stand- 
point, also, it has first rank as an adhesive and spreader. It has been 
ascertained that zinc arsenite in the powder form in the proportion 
of 1 pound to 50 gallons of water in combination with cactus gives 
a little higher mortality than 3 pounds in the paste form, and a more 
extensive use of this powdered form is to be recommended, particu- 
larly in the cactus-growing region or where the glutinous matter of 
this plant can be had for use in the spray. 



WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE ! 1915 




BULLETIN OF THE 



No. 161 



Contribution from the Bureau of Entomology, L. O. Howard, Chief 
December 18, 1914. 




THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY IN BERMUDA. 

By E. A. Back, 

Entomological Assistant, Mediterranean Fruit-Fly Investigations. 

INTRODUCTION. 

This paper is the result of an investigation of the fruit-fly situa- 
tion in Bermuda, made by the writer during December, 1913, at the 
request of Mr. C. L. Marlatt, Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Ento- 
mology and chairman of the Federal Horticultural Board, in order to 
gain at first hand information that might be of value to the Horticul- 
tural Board in framing its quarantine regulations against this pest. 

HISTORY OF THE FRUIT FLY IN BERMUDA. 

The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied., was not 
recorded in literature from Bermuda until 1890, when Riley and 
Howard ! report receiving specimens of infested peaches from St. 
George. However, it had been known as a pest in Bermuda many 
years before this date, as Mr. Claude W. McCallan, who forwarded 
these specimens to Washington, stated in his accompanying letter 
of April of that year that peaches had been subjected to its ravages 
during the 25 years previous. About the year 1865 a vessel carrying 
a cargo of fruit from the Mediterranean regions, bound for New York, 
was forced by severe storms to discharge her cargo in Bermuda, and 
it is the general belief that at that time the pest gained its foothold 
in this English possession. But whatever the source of infestation, 
it is a well-known fact that for nearly 50 years the peach industry of 
these islands has been a ruined one, and that at the present time the 
fruit fly is generally distributed over the islands ready to infest all 
host fruits coming to maturity. 

LIFE HISTORY. 

Those wishing a detailed description and life history of the Mediter- 
ranean fruit fly should refer to the publication of Quaintance, 2 pub- 
lished by the Department of Agriculture. 

1 Riley, C. V., and Howard, L. O. The peach post in Bermuda. (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) Order 
Diptera: Family Tiypetidae. In U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Insect life, v. 3, no. 1, p. 5-8, 2 figs., Augus! , 
1S90. 

2 Quaintance, A. L. The Mediterranean fruit fly. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. Circ. no. 100, 25 p., 
lfig., Oct. 5, 1912. 

Note.— This bulletin discusses the history of the fruit fly in Bermuda, the life history of the insect, and 
the possibility of eradicating it from Bermuda; the bulletin is of interest to entomologists. 
66697°— 14 



2 BULLETIN 161, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

EGG, LARVA, AND PUPA. 

Col. W. R. Winter, in his bulletin entitled "The Fruit Fly," pub- 
lished by the Bermuda Department of Agriculture in 1913, 1 gives the 
only data secured in Bermuda on this pest up to that date. He 
states that he has found that to pass through the egg, larval, and 
pupal stages the fly requires from 17 days, during the heat of August, 
when the monthly mean temperature averages about 81° F., to 6 
weeks in winter, when the mean temperature averages about 63.2° F. 

With the assistance of Mr. E. J. Wortley, Director of Agriculture 
of the Bermuda Department of Agriculture, the writer found that the 
pupal stage alone in Bermuda, when the daily mean temperatures 
ranged between 62.5° and about 64.8° F., might be lengthened to 
about 31 days under normal conditions. 

Back and Pemberton have found that a temperature varying from 
58° to 62° F. increases pupal life to from 29 to 31 days. They have 
likewise found that while eggs hatch in from 2 to 3 days in Hawaii 
at a mean temperature of about 79° F., hatching may be delayed 
until 6 days after deposition when the mean temperature drops to 
about 71° F., or until 7 to 14 days when the temperature ranges 
from 54° to 57° F. It has also been found in Hawaii that while the 
larval stage may require a minimum of 5 to 6 days at a mean tempera- 
ture averaging about 79° F., it requires from 36 to 53 days in apples 
at temperatures ranging from 56° to 57° F. 

These data are given to substantiate the belief of the writer that 
the duration of life from the egg to the adult in Bermuda where the 
winter mean averages about 63° F. is somewhat over two months, and 
may even be three months under unfavorable circumstances. 

THE ADULT. 

In the Hawaiian Islands, where the summers are somewhat cooler 
and the winters slightly warmer than in Bermuda, adult flies have 
been kept alive over five months. While the majority do not live 
this long, the belief has been expressed that a few flies may live to be 
over six months of age, especially during such cool weather as ob- 
tains in Bermuda during the winter. Both sexes are sexually im- 
mature when they emerge from the pupa. At temperatures varying 
from 76° to 78° F., the sexes mate when 5 to 8 days old, though not 
until 2 weeks old at 61° to 64° F. One prolific female deposited on 
an average of about 4.5 eggs per day during the first 18 weeks of 
her life, and had not then reached her egg-laying capacity. As 
many as 25 eggs have been laid by a single female in one day. Female 
flies do not lay a large number of eggs at one time and then die, as 
many believe, but lay quite regularly a few eggs nearly every day 
throughout life. 

» Winter, W. R. The fruit fly. Bermuda, 1913. 14 p. (Bermuda Dept. Agr., E. J. Wortley, director.) 



MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY IN BERMUDA. 



HOST FRUITS IN BERMUDA. 

Col. W. R. Winter, in the bulletin previously mentioned, lists 47 
fruits subject to attack. To this list for Bermuda should be added 
the ball kamani (Calophyllum inophyllum), the prickly pear (Opuntia 
sp.), and the acordia. While the list of host fruits given is so large 
that one receives the impression that the fruit fly has an abundance 
of fruit in which to develop, conditions are quite the opposite in 
Bermuda. After having carried on a clean-culture campaign against 
this pest in the Hawaiian Islands, where there exists a very great 
abundance of many host fruits, the writer was surprised at the scarcity 
of host fruits in Bermuda. In Table I is recorded the vegetation 
found growing in portions of the city of Hamilton. 

Table I. — Vegetation in Hamilton, Bermuda, with reference to host fruits for the Mediter- 
ranean fruit fly . l 





Number of different trees on various properties. 2 


Kind of tree. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 

1 
6 
2 

3 
6 
24 
2J 

8 


14 








1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 

1 


1 




1 

1 


10 


7 




1 








1 




















1 












1 
1 

1 
1 
1 


.... 
1 


1 
1 


2 
75 
2 

2 


11 








1 






1 
1 
1 


1 

1 
1 


65 




i 

l 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




15 


























1 
1 






























1 
1 
1 






1 
.... 






3 
6 
2 
9 


1 














1 


1 


10 


4 




i 


1 
1 
























1 




3 




























l 


1 


1 


1 


i 
l 


1 






1 






12 
1 

1 
12 


6 


4 












1 






























1 




1 
1 








1 


1 




1 


22 


10 












1 










1 


















1 






1 


1