(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary"

PITTSBURGH THEOLOGICAL 
SEMINARY LIBRARY 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



\ 



. http://www.archive.org/details/bulletinofwest192022west 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



VOL. X/U. OCTOBER 1920 - JULY 1921 



INDEX 



ARTICLES 

Page 
John INIasefield 17 

George C. Fisher . . 
Pittsburgh as a Social Center 131 

Charles C. Cooper 

Revised Version and Other Recent Translations of the Bible, The 28 

David E. Culley 

Significance of the jNIinistry for the World To-day 5 

James A. Kelso 

LITERATURE. 

Title Reviewer 

Christian Home, The — By William W. Paris 49 

David R. Breed 

Children's Great Texts of the Bible, The — Edited by James Hast- 
ings 44 

Stanley A. Hunter 
Education, A National System of — By Walter Scott Athearn 48 

Robert Scott Calder 
Epistle to the Galatians, The — By Ernest Dewitt Burton 144 

Frank Eakin 

Freedom and Advance — By Oscar L. Joseph 41 

A. P. Kelso, Jr. 

History of the Hebrew Commonwealth, A — By Albert E. Bailey and 

Charles Foster Kent 135 

D.wid E. Culley 
Life and Letters of St. Paul — By David Smith 136 

George Taylor, Jr. 

Luke the Historian in the Light of Research — By A. T. Robertson . . 142 
Arnold H. Lowe 

^lenace of Immortality in Church and State, The — By John Roach 

Straton 45 

Edward A. Hodil 

My First Communion — By Hugh Thomson Kerr 45 

George N. Luccock 

43 (215) 



I NDEX— Continued 



Page 

National System of Education, A— By Walter Scott Athearn 48 

Robert Scott Calder 
Originality -of the Christian ^Message, The — By H. R. ^Mackintosh .... 148 
James H. Snowden 

Personality of God, The — By James H. Snowden 146 

William Adams Brown 

Pharisees and Jesus, The — By A. T. Robertson 140 

J. Milton Vance 

Theology of the Epistles, The — By H. A. A. Kennedy 39 

Frank Eakin 

Truth About Christian Science, The — By James H. Snowden 46 

Andrew C. Zenos 

MISCELLAN-OUS. 

Alumniana 50 

Catalogue 57 

Financial Report 208 

Graduating- Class, The 214 

Dr. Kelso's Twentieth Anniversary 180 

Librarian's Report ^ 210 

Necrology 1 53 

Ninety-first Commencement 177 

President's Report 196 



44 (216) 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Western Theological Seminary 

A Revie^w Devotea to tne Interests or 
Tneological Education 

Publisbed quarterly in January, April, July, and October, by tte 
Trustees of tbe Western Theological Seminary of tbe Presbyterian Cburcb 
in tbe United States of America. 

'Eaited by tbe Presiaent witb tbe co-operation of tbe Faculty. 

(UtintmtB 

Page 
The Significance of the Ministry for the World To-Day. 5 
James A. Kelso 

John Masefield 17 

Geo. C. Fisher 

The Revised Version and Other Recent Translations 

of the Bible 28 

D. E. Culley 

Literature 39 

Alumniana 50 

Communications for the Editor and all business matters should be 

addressed to 

REV. JAMES A. KELSO, 

731 Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

75 cents a year. Single Number 25 cents. 

Each author is solely responsible for the views expressed in his article. 



Entered as second-class matter December 9, 1909, at the postoffice at Pittsburgh, Pa. 
f North Diamond Station) under the act of August 24, 1912. 



Press of 

pittsburgh printing company 

pittsburgh, pa, 

1920 



Faculty 



The Rev. JAMES A. KELSO, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D. 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation 

The Rev. ROBERT CHRISTIE, D. D., LL. D. 
Professor of Apologetics 

The Rev. DAVID RIDDLE BREED, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. DAVID S. SCHAFF, D. D. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 

The Rev. WILLIAM R. FARMER, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. JAMES H. SNOWDEN, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Systematic Theology 



Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. DAVID E. CULLEY, Ph. D. 

Assistant Professor of Hebrew 

The. Rev. SAMUEL ANGUS, Ph. D. 

Acting Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 



The Rev. FRANK EAKIN, B. D. 

Instructor in New Testament Greek and Librarian 

Pbof. GEORGE M. SLEETH 

Instructor in Elocution 

Mb. CHARLES N. BOYD 

Instructor in Music 



The excercises connected with the public opening of 
the Seminary were held in Swift Hall, September 22, 
1920. The formal address was delivered by President 
James A. Kelso on the theme "The Significance of the 
Ministry for the World To-day", and is printed, with a 
few unimportant omissions, in the current number. 



The Bulletin 

— of the — 

WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Volume XIII. October, 1920. No. 1 



The Significance of the Ministry for the 
World To-day 



President James A. Kelso 

Last winter I heard a spontaneous and impressive 
tribute to the ministry. It was uttered by a prominent 
and influential business man, the vice-president of one 
of the largest manufacturing concerns in the country, 
one which enjoys an international reputation. The 
occasion was the annual meeting and dinner of the di- 
rectors of a business corporation. In the course of the 
postprandial speeches the toastmaster, noticing that 
there were some ministers present, and thinking it would 
b^ an appropriate subject, proposed a toast to the minis- 
try and called on the prominent capitalist to whom I 
have referred to respond to it. He arose and prefaced 
his remarks by stating that he had never made a speech 
in his life and that he had received no previous hint from 
the master of ceremonies, but that he could state his con- 
victions in regard to the ministry of Jesus Christ in a 
single sentence, "The ministry is the only hope of the 
world". 

I have described this incident as an introduction to 
my address because it made a very profound impression 
on my mind, an impression which the intervening months 
have not obliterated. Here was a man of affairs, the 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

executive officer of a large corporation, unaccustomed 
to public speaking, suddenly called to his feet without 
the slightest warning, giving spontaneous utterance to a 
conviction. As he developed the theme, it became in- 
creasingly evident that he had been an intelligent and 
close observer of the Church and the ministry, for the 
speech was not a flattering eulogy, but included dis- 
criminating critcisms and suggestions. I feel that it 
will be suggestive and profitable, at the opening of an- 
other Seminary year, for us to change the assertion of 
the speaker to a question, and search our hearts as we 
inquire. Is the ministry the only hope of the world? Is 
the ministry any hope at all? Of course, as the true 
minister is a representative of Jesus Christ and a 
teacher of the religion of the Prophet of Nazareth, the 
question might be put in other forms such as. Is Chris- 
tianity the only hope of the world?, or, Is the Church 
helping this sin-cursed, troubled world to solve its press- 
ing problem? But, as I am addressing ministers 
and candidates for the ministry, I prefer to put the mat- 
ter in this personal fashion. Are we the hope of the world 
to-day in any sense?, or let us put it in words that are 
less vainglorious, Are we as ministers making, or do we 
hope to make, a vital contribution to the solution of the 
stupendous problems — religious, social, and political — 
which mankind faces in this age of unrest and revolu- 
tion? Does religion in general, or do the teachings of 
our Master in particular, offer any hope and inspiration, 
joy and peace to the world of men to-day, or have they 
outlived their usefulness and must they give place to a 
new philosophy or some more supposedly up-to-date sys- 
tem? 

In order to answer our inquiry intelligently, let us 
look at the world of to-day. We are living in a time of 
upheaval; an awful cataclysm has visited this planet in 
the form of a world war which has soaked the earth with 
blood and has brought mankind to the verge of bank- 



The Significance of the Ministry for the World To-Day 

ruptcy. Prior to 1914 social and political ideas and in- 
stitutions were in a more or less fixed and static con- 
dition. Men in their pride and self-satisfaction, for- 
getting the occurrences of past upheavals, thought of 
them as permanent and unchangeable, but since that 
fateful day, only six years ago but which seems to belong 
to another epoch, in many lands institutions inherited 
from hoary antiquity have been destroyed, and in others 
they have been thrown into a state of plasticity Avhere 
they may yet be swept away by revolutionary move- 
ments or transformed into something new by constitu- 
tional methods. No customs or institutions, however 
ancient or venerated they may have been, are now re- 
garded as inviolable. 

The war has resulted in far-reaching political un- 
rest and upheavals. Note what has happened to four 
strong empires that entered the war with proud boast- 
ings. The Ottoman has ceased to exist as an empire; 
one has been dismembered by the conqueror ; a third lies 
in absolute ruins soaked with the blood of her citizens 
spilled by the hands of fellow citizens; the fourth, the 
proudest of them all, glorying in her military past and 
confident of her position, now lies broken by her con- 
querors, leading a precarious existence as a socialistic 
republic. In ordinary times any one of these political 
changes would have been regarded as epoch-making, but 
they scarcely seem to impress our imagination as their 
stupendous nature is beyond our grasp. 

No less extraordinary or revolutionary are the so- 
cial and industrial movements of the day, which do not 
stand apart by themselves, but involve ethical principles 
and religious beliefs. The Soviet Government of Russia 
has not only toppled over the government of the Czar 
and destroyed an outworn imperialistic system, but it 
has also overthrown the Church, and has struck at the 
very tap root of society, the sacredness of the home, by 
its program of nationalization of women. It is almost 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

needless for me to remark that, although Russia is re- 
mote from us, we have felt in America the repercussion 
of these political and social transformations. 

In England we have witnessed the passing of an 
aristocratic system : a forceful prime minister has risen 
from a humble family and organized labor has been 
formed into a political party actually seated on the op- 
position benches. In our own favored land the nation 
has felt the power of organized labor in the past four or 
five years as never before. While not formally organized 
into a political party, the leaders of the labor unions 
have attempted to dictate the policies of both the Repub- 
lican and Democratic parties, and in the present political 
campaign are taking a very active part in electing con- 
gressmen who are favorable to their programs. During 
the last Congress one important measure at least was 
withdrawn and revised at the dictation of the labor 
unions. 

1 wonder if many of us have been conscious of the 
stupendous revolution which has taken place in the in- 
dustrial life of Italy during the past two weeks in con- 
nection with the nation-wide strike of the metal workers. 
They have seized the factories and have declined to re- 
turn them to their owners, proposing to operate them 
and divide the profits among themselves. The govern- 
ment has been afraid to interfere and has maintained 
neutrality. The editor of one of the leading New York 
journals states the nature of the change very tersely but 
accurately: *' Property rights in industry have been de- 
stroyed without interference from the Government". 
Possibly we can make this clearer to ourselves if we can 
imagine results were the American railroad employes to 
put into operation Mr. Plumb's plan of railroad opera- 
tion, not by legal and constitutional methods as he pro- 
posed, but by seizure of the property, and our Federal 
Government were too timorous to interfere. 



The Significance of the Ministry for the World To-Day 

It is no wonder that amid such stupendous up- 
heavals, when customs and institutions hoary with age 
are passing out of existence, many thoughtful Christian 
men have raised the question, "Can the Church survive 
the changing order?" Furthermore, it is highly signif- 
icant that the signing of the armistice swept away 
the lofty moral idealism that had been bred by the self- 
sacrifice and the high aims of the allied nations. For 
the Frenchman it had been a struggle for the very ex- 
istence of his beloved Patrie, it called forth the highest 
idealism and sacrifice; for the Britisher, a defence of 
public law in Europe as embodied in treaties of neutral- 
ity ; for the American it had been a holy crusade, ' a war 
to end war', 'a strife for oppressed and helpless peo- 
ple', a war to make the world safe for democracy. 
Many, in an ecstasy of delight and approbation, imagined 
a, new era, a veritable millennium was soon to be ushered 
in as a result of the terrible sacrifice which humanity 
had made. The disillusionment came almost over 
night; scarcely had the guns ceased to thunder at the 
front until there began an orgy of extravagance, profi- 
teering, gambling, immorality, and indifference to re- 
ligion among the masses of the people the world over. 
The mood of heroism and exalted idealism had passed 
and a thoroughgoing moral reaction had set in which has 
not by any means spent its force to-day. 

Amid all this political and industrial chaos and con- 
fusion, there is not only an uncertainty as to fundamental 
moral principles but a gross disregard of moral law 
where it touches the very springs of human life and the 
welfare of society. Never were there as many divorce 
cases in our courts and never was there a lower ideal of 
the marriage relation in the minds of the masses of the 
people. Here is the flippant remark, not of a movie 
actress but of a recent Reno divorcee, as it was reported 
by a metropolitan journal: "Marriage is like the mov- 
ies. You can go into the show and if you don't like it 



, Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

you can get up and go out". To what extent does this 
reflect a general sentiment current among the masses of 
the people, or may we regard it with smug complacency 
as the thoughtless utterance of a moral pervert? The 
increase of divorce due to the lax views of marriage is 
not confined to America. England, the most conserva- 
tive land on the earth in this particular, with high ideals 
of marriage, faces the same problem. If you are a 
reader of the London Times, you will be struck with the 
large space given to the divorce court proceedings and 
the many decrees issued by the Court not for vague rea- 
sons like incompatibility but for the Biblical reason of 
adultery committed by one or both parties. 

Immodesty in women's dress and scandalous con- 
duct on the part of young people are two very good indi- 
cations of the low moral temperature which now pre- 
vails. Last winter a well known New York financial 
house, in a booklet setting forth a list of investment se- 
curities, published an essay on the immodesty of women's 
dress. A strange setting for an essay on such a sub- 
ject : but the author, after disclaiming that he was either 
a moralist or a preacher, stated that public interest 
demanded a protest against the manner in which decent 
women were dressing. There was one striking state- 
ment that set forth the situation in sharp relief : ' In the 
dining room of a representative New York hotel or in a 
fashionable cafe or at a ball the character of a woman 
could not be determined by her dress. It was impos- 
sible to distinguish between a respectable woman and 
one of disreputable character, for the former was as im- 
modest in her dress as the latter'. 

There is no question that there has been a general 
jiowering of the moral sense and the ethical ideals, and 
this decline is reflected in the popular social life of re- 
spectable circles. A minister does not need to make any 
excuse or offer any apologies for dwelling upon these 
conditions, when the thoughtful and serious magazines 

10 



The Significance of the Ministry for the World To-Day 

and journals of the country are discussing the matter 
with concern as to the future of the country and the 
safety of our fundamental social institutions. In a re- 
cent number of one of the most influential magazines 
there is a significant article on the cause of the decline 
of the moral sense of the young people of respectable so- 
ciety. The author, after making due allowance for the 
evil influence of the motor-car, the movie, the war, the 
iconoclasm of the radical intellectuals, and the luxury 
of nouveaux riches, writes 'give all the responsibility 
you can heap up to the general abandonment of religion'. 
This woman, for the writer I am quoting is a woman who 
is one of the ornaments of contemporary American let- 
ters, sums up one line of argument by the following em- 
phatic language: "For better or worse, our Western 
jcivilzation has been built up on the Christian religion; 
and if the Christian religion decays, many accidents will 
happen that will puzzle the politicians". Such a state- 
ment is a frank confession of faith that Christianity is 
essential to the well-being and continued existence of our 
much vaunted civilization. What centripetal force is to 
the solar system, keeping the planets in their proper or- 
bits and preventing a smash-up, the moral teachings and 
restraints of our religion are to our social organism and 
our political institutions. Without them we would have 
anarchy and disaster. 

It is exceedingly significant to me that the opinion 
which I have just given to you is not isolated or excep- 
tional. It is recognized by leaders in every sphere of 
thought and action that men and women are in danger 
of drifting away from their old moorings and destroying 
the very foundations of society ; and that the only way of 
keeping them true to moral principles is to bring to bear 
upon them the influence of Jesus and His teachings. It 
is admitted if not universally, yet in quarters so remote 
from each other that there is no possibility of collabora- 
tion or comparison, that the recognition of the principles 

11 



Bulletin of the We.s'tern Theological Seminary 

of Christian morality and their practice by the individ- 
ual is indispensable for the welfare of the world and the 
solution of its insistent problems. Let us look at some 
of these testimonies to the power and worth of the re- 
ligion and faith of which we are teachers. 

Shall we turn first to the sphere of international re- 
lations to make our observations? Could we find a bet- 
jter one in which to make a test? It is a sphere which 
has been absolutely disrupted by the occurrences of re- 
cent years. We are not only suffering from the bitter 
hatreds bred by the Great War, but quite a number of 
wars are still being waged and others threaten to break 
out. Is there any healing for this barbarous state of af- 
fairs? The League of Nations, the subject of bitter con- 
troversy among our politicians, has been advertised as 
the panacea which will bring war to an end. Granting 
to the League of Nations all the influence in this direc- 
tion, that its warmest advocates claim (and I am a firm 
believer in the League of Nations), it will not get us very 
far in the solution of international relations until not 
only the diplomats who deal with international matters 
professionally but the nations which they represent act 
on Christian principles and from Christian motives. 
Many so-called practical men would sneer at this as the 
va,gue idealism of a minister. But let us answer such 
contempt by calling the attention of the practical man to 
the opinion of a brilliant historian and master diplomat, 
none other than Lord Bryce. This man of letters who 
has an intimate and practical knowledge of international 
relations has recently said: "The one sure hope of a 
permanent foundation for world peace lies in the exten- 
sion throughout the world of the principles of our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ". Lord Bryce has only ut- 
tered the sober truth. It makes no difference whether 
the present League of Nations or an Association of Na- 
tions is put into operation ; it remains a fact that either 
one will be nothing but scraps of paper in the day of 

12 



The Significance of the Ministry for the World To-Day 

testing, if the peoples which are represented in the 
Covenant do not recognize the moral sovereignty of Je- 
sus Christ. 

Let us turn to another but closely related question, 
the world-wide problem of social unrest, a nightmare at 
the present time to the governments of the world. We 
give it the convenient and for most of us rather vague 
designation of Bolshevism. It is found the world over 
and it is Protean in its forms. A year ago it manifested 
itself in the police strike at Boston and to-day in Italy in 
the illegal seizure of property. What form it may take 
to-morrow no man can predict. The great questions for 
governments are its control and suppression. All 
practical men will acknowledge that it is an almost in- 
superable difficulty. With reference to its solution the 
New York Evening Post recently published a remark- 
able statement for which the financial correspondent of 
the paper in London was responsible. According to this 
authority, business men in England had come to the con- 
clusion that there were only two ways of coping with the 
Bolshevist spirit. First the governments might take 
sterner measures for its control, but they realized in the 
present inflamed state of public feeling that such treat- 
ment would be very dangerous. The other solution, 
really the only practical one, was a revival of re- 
ligion. The correspondent went out of his way to 
make clear that this was not the opinion of religious 
fanatics or crafty politicians but the well weighed opin- 
ion of the most practical of men, hard headed business 
men. In a very striking fashion this judgment would 
agree with that of the historian Lecky in his reasons for 
England escaping the horrors of the French Revolution. 
Lecky, who had no special predilection for Christianity, 
regarded the conversion of John Wesley as an epoch in 
English history because of the profound influence of 
this great divine upon the minds of the masses of the 
people. When the eighteenth century closed, Europe 

13 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

was as much torn to pieces by the influences emanating 
from France as a result of the revolutionary movement 
in that land as it is to-day on account of the consequences 
of the World War and the Soviet revolution in Russia; 
yet England, just across the narrow waters of the Chan- 
nel, for various reasons escaped all the horrors of the 
reign of terror, but, according to Lecky, "a prominent 
place must be given to a new and vehement religious en- 
thusiasm which was at that very time passing through 
the middle and lower classes of the people, which had en- 
listed in its service a large proportion of the wilder and 
more impetuous reformers, and which recoiled with hor- 
ror from the anti- Christian tenets that were associated 
with the revolution in France". 

I shall mention another large and influential group 
who have come to realize that disaster will overtake 
them and the present social order if men do not recog- 
nize the principles of Jesus Christ and practice them as 
individuals and groups. I have in mind the leaders of 
the Labor Movement, especially those of Great Britain. 
I wonder how many in this audience are aware that an 
International Conference on Labor and Religion was 
held in London just one year ago, Sept. 1 — 5. It was 
called, not by the bishops of the Anglican Church, and 
not by the leaders of the Free Churches, but by the re- 
cognized heads of the Labor Movement, who frankly 
stated that with its growth in power and its success in 
politics their movement was in danger of being over- 
whelmed by the influence of gross materialism. They 
needed the purifying and ennobling spirit of religion 
among the masses whom they represented if they were 
to achieve the goal which they had set before them. 

The stenographic record of the speeches and dis- 
cussions of the Conference in printed form came into my 
hands only the other day. The volume is full of ma- 
terial of the profoundest significance and of the great- 

14 



The Significance of the Ministry for the World To-Day 

«st interest for the minister of Jesus Christ. Take, for 
example, the titles of some of the speeches : ' ' The Perils 
to the Workers from Materialism", or ''Has Socialism 
Lost its Soul?", or "Religion Implicit in the Labor 
Movement". Still more suggestive are the two follow- 
ing titles: "Back to the Gralilean!" and "The Need of 
Religious Power". 

A quotation or two will have to suffice to suggest 
to you the spirit of this Conference. A Norwegian so- 
cialist, in a speech of some length, said some very strik- 
ing things. "I consider, consequently, a good relation- 
ship between Labor and Religion — both of which stand 
for brotherhood — to be the most central and important 
problem of to-day And it is not enough that social- 
ism revises its economic and political theories in our 
time. It is also necessary to renew the movement from 
religious sources In my opinion Labor and Reli- 
gion are engaged in the same work and ought to work 
along converging lines to a common end". 

I feel sure that all of us will be ready to subscribe 
without any reservation to the sentiment uttered by a 
lady who took part in a discussion following one of the 
speeches. "Might I venture a few words. Christ will 
come. He worked at a carpenter 's bench. He scourged 
those who misused the temple, not because they were 
doing business, but because they were doing business in 
a corrupt and illegal and immoral manner. He said 
that true religion was to 'love thy God with all thy heart 
and with all thy soul and with all thy strength ; and thy 
neighbor as thyself. He did not say thy Socialist 
neighbor, thy Capitalist neighbor, thy Liberal neighbor, 
or thy Conservative neighbor. He said 'thy neighbor' 
without any distinction. And if it were possible to love 
our neighbors even only a little as we love ourselves, 
there would be no strikes and no immoral oppression, 
nothing at all to prevent the world from becoming one 
brotherhood under one God of love" (p.79). 

15 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

I could bring forward a great many more facts and 
incidents to prove to you the need of the recognition of 
the moral sovereignty of Jesus Christ and a realization 
of the spiritual poverty of mankind. Such a condition 
constitutes a Macedonian call to young men to devote 
their lives to the preaching of Jesus Christ, not only that 
individual men may be saved, but that political and so- 
cial institutions may enjoy a degree of stability. 

The situation and the realization of the danger 
clearly indicate the nature of our task as ministers of the 
Gospel. It is not our function to advocate new economic 
theories or develop social programs, but to remember 
that we are to preach Jesus Christ and preach the prin- 
ciples of life and duty which he taught, to inspire 
men with a lofty idealism and instill into their minds 
the conception of the Kingdom of God on earth. It 
involves setting forth of the ideal that Christ is to domi- 
nate the whole circle of life — personal life, social life, 
political life, industrial life, international relations, and 
whatever other legitimate relations men may find them- 
selves. It is exactly what the older ministers termed 
'preaching Christ', but only a Christ who dominates the 
whole circle of life rather than one small arc. 



16 



John Masefield * 



Rev. George C. Fisher 

The renaissance of poetry, both in the reading and 
writing, is one of the literary phenomena of our day. 
Half a score of names have become very familiar in this 
field within recent years. No great singer, no master 
seer, has yet arisen to take the place of the great Victor- 
ians, but there are eager watchers expectantly awaiting 
the swimming into our ken of some star of the first mag- 
nitude. Said the subject of this sketch on the occasion 
of his visit to America in 1918: "America is making 
ready for the coming of a great poet. In England, in 
Chaucer's day, many people were reading and writing 
verse, then he came. The same intense interest in poet- 
ry was shown again just before the coming of Shakes- 
peare. And now in this country you are all writing 
poems or enjoying them. You are making ready for a 
master. A great poetic revival is in progress". No 
one should more eagerly welcome the advent of a master 
singer than the preacher, for in the deepest things of life 
they are akin, both must be seers ; of the preacher at his 
best as well as of the poet it must be said, 

"He saw thro' life and death, thro' good and ill, 

He saw thro' his own soul. 
The marvel of the everlasting will, 

An open scroll, 
Before him lay." 

While not ranking with the great poets of time, the 
subject of this sketch is by many counted one of the 
greatest, if not the greatest, English poet of the day. A 
modern critic writes thus of him, ''To say John Mase- 
field is a great poet is to say he has Chaucer's gift of 



*This paper was written before the publication of Masefield's 
very recent poems and hence contains no allusion to them. 

17 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

catching and showing the flavor of persons and circum- 
stances; much of the delicate perception of beauty that 
was in Keats; much of the color that was in Coleridge, 
and the plain earth wisdom of Burns; much, even, of 
the sap and savor of life that was the power of Shakes- 
peare". I shall not attempt a close estimate or critical 
study of his work, I shall pretend only to speak of some 
of its phases which have interested or helped me. 

First, I would say I have found him interesting. I 
have experienced in his reading something of the thrill 
and delight one remembers in Chaucer. His major 
poems are narrative and abound in human interest, color, 
and movement. He carries one along. Dante, Goethe, 
Milton, Browning, the high angels of song, are for our 
wrestling hours, when, lil^e Jacob at Jabbok, we cling 
and cry, "I will not let thee go except thou bless me". 
But one can read Masefield when he is weary and per- 
haps know the experience he describes, — 

"And men in desert places, men 

Abandoned, broken, sick with fears. 
Rose singing, swung their swords again 

And laughed, and died among the spears." 

Then he is quotable. Vulgar and utilitarian may be 
the motive, but I like a poet that is quotable, for to me, 
that is always a purple patch in a sermon or discourse 
where the thought is lifted and lighted by an apt quota- 
tion in verse. Browning is supremely the preacher's 
poet, but he is difficult for the speaker to remember and 
for the average audience to grasp. Masefield 's thought 
may lack profundity, but now and again he hits off a 
truth in happy phrase. How well the fact that a man's 
reaping is always like his sowing is put in this stanza: 

"All that I rightly think or do, 

Or make, or spoil, or bless, or blast, 
Is curse or blessing justly due 

For sloth or effort in the past. 
My life's a statement of the sum 

Of vice indulged or overcome." 

Eobertson could have found in *'The Seekers", apt que- 
ls 



John Mase field 

tations for Ms great sermon on ''The Illusiveness of 
Life". 

"Friends and lovers we have none, nor wealth nor blessed abode, 
But the hope of the City of God at the other end of the road. 
Not for us are content, and quiet, and peace of mind. 
For we go seeking a city that we shall never find. 

We travel the dusty road till the light of the day is dim. 
And sunset shows us spires away on the world's rim." 

Any mother would sympathize with this, — 

"He who gives a child a treat 
Makes joy bells ring on heaven's street. 
And he who gives a child a home 
Builds palaces in Kingdom Come, 
And she who gives a baby birth 
Brings Savior Christ again to earth." 

Passing with mere mention the rythm and beauty of 
much of Masefield's verse that brings rest and delight to 
the spirit, I would dwell on what is probably the most 
significant characteristic of onr author — his democracy. 
He has been termed "the greatest among all modern 
poets of the people". His exceedingly wide and varied 
experience of life, bringing him into contact with the 
masses of men, gives him sympathy with humanity in 
the rough, and to them he dedicates his songs in ' ' Conse- 
<jration". 

"Not of the princes and prelates with perwigged chariotiers 
Riding, triumphantly laureled, to lap the fat of the years, — 
Rather the scorned — the rejected — the men hemmed in 
with the spears; 

"The men of the tattered batallion which fights till it dies. 
Dazed with the dust of the battle, the din and the cries, 
The men with the broken heads and the blood running into 
their eyes. 

"Others may sing of the wine and the wealth and the mirth. 
The portly presence of potentates goodly in girth; — 
Mine be the dirt and the dross, the dust and scum of the 
earth." 

In his introduction to the ''Scarlet Letter" Haw- 
thorne acknowledges that, though going back two cen- 
turies for the setting and characters of his immortal 
tale, there lay, in the lives of the commonplace men that 
surrounded him in the dreary custom house, abundant 

19 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

material for romance. "The page of life that was 
spread out before me seemed dull and commonplace only 
because I had not fathomed its deepest import. A bet- 
ter book than I shall ever write was there". Markham 
has a fine sentence about the poet, — "All of life is ma- 
terial for his seeing eye and his thinking heart, as he 
makes the wonderful familiar and the familiar wonder- 
ful" — a sentence that has its application for the 
preacher as well as the poet, by the way. 

Now it is from the page of life spread out before 
him that Masefield takes his characters, and his seeing 
eye and thinking heart enable him to clothe with the 
glory of poetry their common and almost vulgar life. 
All the heroes of his longer poems, if heroes they may be 
called, are common people, very common, some of them. 
Saul in "The Everlasting Mercy" is one of Begbie's 
"Twice Born Men", with his duplicate in almost any 
Salvation Army Barracks. His "Widow in the Bye 
Street", "who rose from ragged mattress before sun 
and stitched all day until her eyes were red, and had to 
stitch, because her man was dead" may be found down 
many a by street. "Dauber", the would-be painter of 
the sea, is a man of high dreams and mediocre ability. 
Lion, Michael, Mary, in "Daffodil Fields" are ordinary 
children of ordinary farmers. These common people 
Masefield sets forth in the ordinary surroundings of 
their native habitat, portrayed in the language common 
to their sphere. He paints them with the wart. But 
to him they are not common, and when we enter into 
sympathy with him we begin to share his sense of the 
wonderful in the familiar. 

I think no one can read Masefield sympathetically 
without a deepening sense of the pathos and tragedy of 
common life. His ear is sensitive to the "Still, sad, mu- 
sic of humanity" — and who that has not heard that note 
can be either poet or preacher? Old Alcinous, marking 
the tears of Odysseus as the bard Demodicus sings of 

20 



John Masefield 

the fall of Troy, asks ''And tell me why you weep and 
grieve within your breast? This the Gods wrought, 
they spun the thread of death for some, that others, in 
time to come, might have a song". Back of the song, 
underneath the song, the tragedy, the sorrow; the two 
inextricably mingled in life. Masefield is sensitive to 
this. He tells us his purpose in writing "The Widow in 
the Bye Street". When he had finished "The Everlast- 
ing Mercy" he felt he ought to write something unlil^e it, 
that "as I had shown one thing that often happens in 
life, the seemingly unworthy person made happy for no 
apparent reason, so I ought to write of the opposite, the 
seemingly worthy woman made heartbroken for no ap- 
parent reason". The setting of the poem is sordid; the 
withered old mother in all the poverty and barrenness of 
her life; Jim, her son, "The squab" as Anna calls him, 
the youth in the puppy love stage; Anna, the woman 
whose feet take hold on hell, the spider who weaves her 
thread about the callow youth, ' ' married or not, she took 
men by the brain, sucked at their hearts and tossed them 
back again"; Shepherd Ern, Anna's paramour, Jim's 
rival, for whose murder he is hung. These are the char- 
acters. "So the four souls are ranged, the chess board 
set. The dark invisible hand of secret fate brought it to 
come to being that they met after so many years of lying 
in wait". The setting is the sphere in which such peo- 
ple move; the scene, one enacted again and again in 
life. But it is not a story of lust and murder, though 
lust is pictured with rather a realistic pen ; it is a story 
of the love, patience, suffering, and heroism of a mother 
heart beating in the withered breast of the blear-eyed old 
woman. One rises from the reading realizing afresh 
the tragedies enacted in common life, prepared to say of 
many a common scene, as Jacob said of Bethel, — 
' ' Surely God is in this place and I knew it not ' '. 

"Daffodil Fields" opens with a description of 
ordinary English landscape, nothing about it to sug- 

21 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

gest romance or tragedy, — '^The smoke of all three 
farms lifts blue in air as though man's passionate mind 
had never suffered there"; but Quiller— Couch says, 
''Neither in the design nor in the telling did or could 
Enoch Arden come near the truth of Daffodil Fields". 

"The Dauber" feels in his breast the sting and hun- 
ger of the artist's creative instinct, the quenchless thirst 
for beauty; he would paint ships, the sea, and seamen. 
He goes to sea that he may learn through experience. 
Cursed, kicked, ridiculed by the rough crew, his sketches 
erased, his ideal unappreciated, he follows the gleam, 
keeps his ideal undimmed ; in the awful hell of the Horn 
where ''in that month's torment while she wested he was 
never warm nor dry, nor full nor rested" he mns his 
manhood, conquers fear, gains the respect of the crew; 
then just as fair skies and quiet seas are won, a few days 
out from Valpariso, he falls from the rigging and dies. 
It is the pathos of Moses on Pisgah, the pathos of Lin- 
coln dying when the war was won, the pathos of souls 
that have dreamed great dreams and suffered for them, 
then died in sight of the promised land. 

He feels the pathos in a life going out without a 
tear. At least we think we catch the pathetic note in his 
bit of verse entitled "Bill". 

"He lay dead on the cluttered deck and stared at the cold 
skies, 
With never a friend to mourn for him nor a hand to close 

his eyes; 
'Bill, he's dead,' was all they said; 'he's dead, 'n there 
he lies.' 

"The mate came forward at seven bells and spat across the 

rail: 
'Just lash him up wi' some holy stone in a clout o* rotten 

sail, 
'N, rot ye, get a gait on ye, ye'r slower 'n a bloody snail.' 

"When the rising moon was a copper disk and the sea was 
a strip of steel. 
We dumped him down to the swaying weeds ten fathom 

beneath the keel. 
'It's rough about Bill,' the fo'castle said, 'We'll have to 
stand his wheel.' " 

But, though he feels the pathos of life, let us not think 

22 



John Mase field 

there is about our poet any sickly sentiment, any note of 
whimper, any flutter of white flag, in his attitude to- 
wards life. He is tremendously virile. He exults in the 
thrill of abounding physical life, the play of supple mus- 
cle, pulse of bounding blood, zest of contest. Again and 
again occur stanzas reminding one of Browning's lines 
in "Saul" 

"Oh, the wild joys of living! the leaping from rock up to 

rock. 
The strong rending of boughs from fir trees, the cool silver 

shock 
Of the plunge in a pool's living water." 

Take Saul Kane's contempt for men 

"Who'd never felt the boxers trim 
Of brain divinely knit to limb. 
Nor felt the whole live body go 
One tingling health from top to toe." 

Or test by your own youthful experience the lines, 

"The men who don't know to the root 
The joys of being swift of foot, 
Have never known divine and fresh 
The glory of the gift of flesh. 
Nor felt the feet exult, nor gone 
Along a dim road on and on. 
Knowing the bursting glows. 
The mating hare in April knows. 
Who tingles to the pads with mirth 
At being the swiftest thing on earth." 

And not less virile is our poet's attitude towards 
man's spiritual life. Here again one is reminded of 
Browning in his high courageous note. "He welcomes 
each rebuff that turns earth's smoothness rough". He 
exults in a soul rising triumphant over hardship, failure, 
apparent defeat, schooled and disciplined by adversity. 
From the terrible experience of a sailor in rounding the 
Horn, the Dauber comes forth a man. He has lost fear: 
^'He sang as he scrubbed, for he had done with fear, 
fronted the worst and looked it in the face; he had got 
manhood at the testing place". His fine poem on the 
ship "Wanderer" has the same theme. Three times the 
beautiful ship puts out to sea only to come limping back, 

23 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 
the victim of storm or accident, — 

"So, as though, stepping to a funeral march. 
She passed defeated homewards whence she came. 
Ragged with tattered canvass white as starch, 
A wild bird that misfortune had made tame." 

At last her name is associated by the sailors with mis- 
fortune and defeat and spoken in contempt. They ex- 
pect her to return, a coward, beaten, thing. But one day 
she puts out and does not return. The poet sailor 
watches for her long months and years till one day he 
sights her in a southern port at Christmas tide, — 

"Come as of old a queen untouched by time, 
Resting the beauty that no seas could tire, 
Sparkling as though the midnights rain were rime. 
Like a man's thoughts transfigured into fire." 

As he looks, one of her crew begins to sing some tune of 
Christmas day; soon men on other ships join in the 
song, 

"Over the water came the lifted song — 
Blind pieces in a mighty game we swing; 
Life's battle is a conquest for the strong; 
The meaning shows in the defeated thing." 

With Browning, he glorifies life's ideal. "What I 
aspired to be and was not, comforts me". He who fol- 
lows some high and holy vision will find in it strength 
and comfort in weakness, and final rest and victory, 
though he die with his ideal unattained. So it is with 
'''The Dauber". Beauty is the ideal of this man. He 
would set down on canvass all the various scenes, all the 
shifting beauty of the sea. In this ideal he loses him- 
self ; it enables him to forget the rough horse play of the 
sailors, 

"He dipped his brush and tried to fix a line. 
And then came peace and gentle beauty came 
Turning his spirit's water into wine, 
Lightening his darkness with a touch of flame: 
O, joy of trying for beauty, ever the same. 
You never fail, your comforts never end; 
O, balm of this world's way: O, perfect friend." 

It strengthens him for experiences before which his very 
soul trembles. As the ship approaches the Horn where 

24 



John Masefield 

lie must bear his part with the sailors, they tell him of 
its many terrors he may expect, — ''Hell of continued 
toil in ice and snow, frostbitten hell in which the westers 
blow shrieking for days on end, in which seas gulf the 
starving seamen till their marrows freeze". Then a 
thought occurs within the painter's brain "like a bright 
bird", — this experience will enable him to paint things 
never attempted before. 

"That was what his work meant; it would be 
A training in new vision — ^a revealing 
Of passionate men in battle with the sea, 
High on an unseen stage, shaking and reeling; 
And men through him would understand their feeling, 
Their might, their misery, their tragic power, 
And all by suffering pain a little hour." 

So it is loyalty to his ideal that enables the Dauber 'Ho 
bring his honor round the Horn unstained". For the 
joy that is set before him he endures the cross. Tough- 
ened, virilised by his rough experiences, established at 
last in the respect of the creAV, the Mate thinks to wean 
him from the folly of his painting,- — -"And now you'll 
stow that folly, trying to paint. Cape Horn has sent 
you wisdom over the bow if you've got sense to take it. 
You are a sailor. By God, before you were a woman's 
tailor". But the Dauber answers "No". Then comes 
the fall from the mast. Death cuts short the artist's 
dream. But he is undefeated. Broken, dying, on the 
deck he cries "It will go on". There is in the closing 
stanzas of this great poem something reminiscent of the 
mood of "The Grammarian's Funeral". The Dauber lies 
in majestic quiet on the deck under a sail cloth far be- 
yond the cut of the blast or the chill of the wave. 

"Night fell, and all night long the Dauber lay 
Covered upon the table; all night long 
The pitiless storm exulted at her prey. 
Huddling the waters with her icy thong. 
But to the covered shape she did no wrong. 
He lay beneath the sail cloth. Bell by bell 
The night wore through; the stars rose, the stars fell. 

"***** all night through 
The green seas on the deck went washing by, 

25 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Flooding the half deck; bitter hard it blew. 
But little of it all the Dauber knew — 
***** jje was off duty." 

The body is committed to the sea and soon the ship- 
makes Valpariso. One can but think that in his beauti- 
ful picture of the boat coming majestically into the 
haven Masefield is thinking of Dauber's spirit that has 
come into port grandly and never struck sail to a fear. 

"Onwards she thundered, on; her voyage was short, 
Before the tier's bells rang her into port. 

"Cheerily they rang her in, those beating bells. 
The new come beauty stately from the sea, 
Whitening the blue heave of the drowsy swells, 
Treading the bubbles down. Three times three 
They cheered her moving beauty in, and she 
Came to her berth so noble, so superb; 
Swayed like a queen, and answered to the curb." 

In its spirit Masefield 's poetry is profoundly reli- 
gious. Perhaps his two best known poems are "The 
Everlasting Mercy" and ''The Widow in the Bye 
Street". In the first he pictures a man made happy 
without reason, and this happiness comes through con- 
version. Boldly and powerfully, Saul Kane tells his 
life story. Scenes and words may savor of coarseness 
sometimes but there is always present the ring of sin- 
cerity. To the student of religious psychology the en- 
tire poem is worthy of careful study. 

At its close ''The Widow in the Bye Street" rises to 
great religious height. The old Mother is kneeling with 
her condemned son in his cell calling his mind away from 
the thought of coming doom to things eternal. 

"Don't think of that, but think, the mother said. 
Of men going on long after we are dead. 

"Red helpless things will come to birth. 
And hear the whistles going down the line. 
And grow up strong and go about the earth. 
And have much happier times than yours and mine; 
And some day one of them will get a sign. 
And talk to folk, and put an end to sin. 
And then God's blessed kingdom will begin. 

"God dropped a spark down into everyone. 
And if we find and fan it to a blaze 
It'll spring up and glow, like — like the sun, 

26 



John Mase field 

And light the wandering out of stony ways. 
God warms his hands at man's heart when he prays, 
And light of prayer is spreading heart to heart; 
It'll light all where now it lights a part. 

"And God who gave his mercies takes his mercies, 
And God who gives beginnings, gives the end. 
I dread my death; but it's the end of curses, 
A rest for broken things too broke to mend. 
O Captain Christ, our blessed Lord and Friend, 
We are two wandering sinners in the mire. 
Burn our dead hearts with love out of thy fire. 

"And when death comes. Master, let us bear it 
As of thy will, however hard to go; 
Thy cross is infinite for us to share it. 
Thy help is infinite for us to know. 
And when the long trumpets of the judgment blow 
May our poor souls be glad and meet again, 
And rest in Thee." "Say, 'Amen,' Jim." "Amen." 



Latrobe, Pa. 



27 



The Revised Version and Other Recent Trans- 
lations of the Bible. 



By Rev. David E. Culley, Ph. D. 

The present generation seems destined to witness a 
multiplicity of revisions and new versions of the Scrip- 
tures and parts of the Scriptures. Already in recent 
years the whole Bible, or portions of it, have been re- 
peatedly translated or revised in most of the languages 
of the Christian world, and in Great Britian and Amer- 
ica this phase of Christian activity has been specially 
marked. It is true that in this particular the New Testa- 
ment has received the lion's share of attention hitherto. 
That such should be the case is but natural, however, 
and to be expected in view of the fact that the motives 
operative in the production of new versions of the Scrip- 
ture are likely to make themselves felt first in the sphere 
of the New Testament, just as any fresh enterprise 
touching the Scriptures of both Testaments almost 
always concerns itself first with the New as likely to pro- 
duce results of greater interest and moment to the 
Christian world, and the present activity in Scripture 
translation is no exception to the rule. 

In the entire history of the Church in the English 
speaking countries two periods only have been very 
active in the production of new versions of the Bible. 
The interest of other ages was centered elsewhere so 
that they, no doubt, experienced no great need for activ- 
ity in this direction. The periods referred to are: first, 
the Reformation, or, to be more exact, the century fol- 
lowing the break from Rome; and second, our own age. 

The particular problem that the Reformation period 
attempted to meet was the need to acquaint the common 
man with the Word of God. The zeal that fired T3rn- 
dale, Coverdale, and their successors in the great en- 

28 



The Revised Version and Other Recent Translations of the Bible 

terprise of the period grew out of their ambition to see 
the ploughboy, and the merchant too, able to buy and 
read a copy of the Word of God in English. In brief, 
the one problem which lay before all these workers from 
Tyndale to the Jacobean Committee, to whom we owe 
the Authorized Version, was a problem of intelligibil- 
ity, how to present the Scriptures to their readers in 
the most intelligible English form. Having this as their 
one object, they were not so much concerned about the 
accuracy of the original text, or knotty problems of 
Hebrew or Greek syntax, and lexicography, as they were 
about English phrase and vocabulary. As a result, their 
work is not a reflex of the Hebrew or Greek Bibles, but 
rather more closely mirrors the Latin text of the Vul- 
gate. It was not a time for concern about the form of 
the text in the original Biblical languages, and some of 
them made no pretense about it but confessed freely 
in their prefaces that their translations were based up- 
on the Latin and German versions; for their purpose 
a rendering of these versions into English sufficed. 
For them the urgent need was to give their generation 
the "Word of God in their own language wherein they 
were born, and, in fulfilling this high mission, these 
excellent artists succeeded in performing a magnificent 
service to the English Church of their age. And as a 
matter of fact also they builded better than they knew 
at the time, for, while they sought to serve their own 
day, their work satisfied the demands of the English 
speaking Christians for the Scriptures for generations 
to follow; and when the Version of 1611 had made its 
way into the hearts of the subjects of King James, it 
was destined to remain the accepted and acceptable form 
of the Word of God down to the age of Queen Victoria. 

But another and very different problem in connec- 
tion with the Sacred Scriptures arose in the Christian 
world during the 19th century. In the years interven- 
ing between the Jacobean Age and the Victorian Age, 

29 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

and especially during the last century, Biblical scholar- 
ship had made such strides forward, on the one hand, 
and the languages into which the earlier generations 
had first rendered the Scriptures had so completely 
changed, on the other hand, that the obligation that 
rested upon the Church to foster the virtue of Christian 
knowledge demanded a new and modern version for the 
new and modern age. The great advance made in the 
science of textual criticism of the new Testament and 
in its lexicography, together with a better knowledge of 
the language, gave the scholarly world a New Testament 
to which the ploughboy and the merchant no longer had 
access in their mother tongue. 

So the work of translation or revision of the Sacred 
Books must needs be begun anew and carried forward 
with a zeal equal to that which fired the energy of Tyn- 
dale and Coverdale in the earlier day, if the most far- 
reaching gains made in Biblical scholarship in the new 
age were to be conserved to the Church and the world. 
But the task was no easy one. To many in the 19th 
century it must have seemed exceedingly uninviting. 
The difficulties involved were so tremendous. Theirs 
was no longer the situation which faced the translators 
of the earlier period. It was no longer a matter of 
English Bible or no English Bible, but of a better Bible, 
an English Bible that would be as nearly a mirror of 
the original Scriptures as they left the hands of their 
writers as that may be possible in a translation. That 
was the new ideal. There were reasons why men who 
were best qualified for this great undertaking should 
hesitate before putting their hands to the work. There 
were first the technical difficulties of the task itself of 
which more anon, but the chief deterrent must have been 
the objection that great numbers of Christian people were 
sure to offer to a version that sought to displace the 
English Bible of their fathers in their study and affec- 
tions. Millions then living had been brought up on the 

30 



The Revised Version and Other Recent Translations of the Bible 

Authorized Version. It was a most sacred heritage 
and so not lightly to be set aside or superseded, even 
by a version that promised the advantage of greater 
accuracy and could claim to represent a more authorita- 
tive text of Scripture. 

But in spite of these difficulties, the work was finally 
undertaken, and when completed a new era was inaugu- 
rated in the history of our English Bible. Let us hasten 
to acknowledge the indebtedness of the English speak- 
ing Christian world to the devoted scholars who so faith- 
fully did their work and so courageously met the im- 
perative need for a more accurate English Bible. And 
let us not hesitate to acknowledge also, before going 
further, that the results of their labors were all that 
could be hoped for, if not all that could be desired, in the 
light of the aims the revisers had set themselves. For, 
of course, it is in the light of these aims that we must 
judge their work. They did not propose to neglect the 
work of the Jacobean Committee or to displace it. The 
Church was not likely to be tolerant of such a step at 
that time, so, as the earlier committee "never thought, 
from the beginning, to make a new translation but to 
make a good one better, '' the revisers undertook to make 
the King James Version better. The wonderful felicity 
of phrasing of the Authorized Version — its rhythm, its 
strength and melody, which had contributed so much to 
make it the first classic of our literature, they sought to 
leave unchanged in so far as that was consonant with 
their chief aim, which we may now define as two-fold: 
first, that of modernizing the English of the older ver- 
sions in those instances only where its obsolete charac- 
ter completely obscured the meaning for a reader of the 
19th Century; and second, that of conforming the Eng- 
lish version to the text of the Old and New Testaments 
in the original languages. 

Such was the general aim of the revisers and our 
question is whether they succeeded in attaining unto it. 

31 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

And the answer to this question must be in the affirma- 
tive. They changed the older version only in those 
places where it was necessary to modernize its obsolete 
vocabulary and where the Authorized Version failed to 
represent the original text. 

But when we ask ourselves whether their work is 
satisfactory from our point of view, a point of view which 
is much more modern than was theirs, we are compelled 
to answer this latter question in the negative. And, for 
the purpose of a clear understanding of the situation in 
pointing out why this is so, we must distinguish between 
the work of the New Testament Committee and that to 
which we owe the Eevised Old Testament. For while 
in the one part of the general task — that of preserving 
the language and phraseology of the older version — the 
work of both connnittees was nearly or more nearly 
on a par, in the more important element of their under- 
taking — that of conforming their version to the original 
texts — their work was very unequal. 

In the first place so far as the English of the new ver- 
sion goes, although the Old Testament scholars outrival- 
led their New Testament colleagues in this phase of the 
work it must be confessed that the failure of both commit- 
tees in this part particular was all too conspicuous. It was 
one of their own number, was it not, who is reported 
to have remarked at the completion of their work that 
it was ''the greatest literary bankruptcy of the 19th 
Century"? The chief mistake of both committees was 
that they ever attempted to revise the older version. 
To tamper with the style, diction, phraseology of another 
and very di:fferent age is always to court failure, and 
this is just what the revisers undertook to do. As well 
might one attempt to wear the dress of Shakespeare's 
day on the streets of London or New York today and 
endeaver to seem natural. Elizabethan English cannot 
be recast into the forms of a Victorian Age any more 
than the Nineteenth Century can breath the atmosphere 

32 



The Revised Version and Other Recent Translations of the Bible 

of the Sixteenth. But in dealing with the other phase 
of their double task, the Revisers had more chance of 
succeeding. Here it was a technical problem which con- 
fronted them. Here they must discover the very best 
text of the originals and translate it in accord with the 
best knowledge of the idiom of the Greek and Hebrew. 

Now it is just here that the work of the two commit- 
tees shows the greatest inequality. It is true that the 
New Testament Committee had considerable advantage 
over their coworkers on the Old Testament. The science 
of textual criticism of the New Testament had arrived at 
definite results when the work of the Revisers was begun. 
Tischendorf, Tregelles, Westcott and Hort, and others 
had prepared the way. And, although lower criticism 
had by no means given the world a finished New Testa- 
ment text — nor is it completed today for that matter — 
yet the text of the New Testament can be said to have 
reached a fairly satisfactory state of restoration at the 
time when the Revisers were busy upon it. And the 
New Testament Committee took advantage of this fact. 
The Old Testament scholars, on the other hand, had a 
very different situation to deal with. It is, of course, 
true that they had the same Hebrew text of the Old 
Testament which we possess today. It has not changed 
one vowel point since the days of the Massoretes. It is 
the same text which the post-Reformation scholars had 
before them. So in working out this part of their task 
the Old Testament Revisers simply attempted to make 
their translations conform to the Massoretic Hebrew text. 

Now again it was precisely this attempt to render 
the Massoretic Text into English that was the cause of 
their comparative failure. Perhaps we may say that 
their work was done too soon. In the first place, the 
science of textual criticism had not been developed for 
the Old Testament as it had for the New. Some work 
had been done — yes, we may say that considerable work 
had been accomplished by scholars here and there work- 

33 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

ing independently — but for some reason the revisers were 
somewhat timid in breaking with the view of the past on 
the value of the Massoretic Text. Many of them cer- 
tainly knew that it was unrealiable — yes, hopelessly cor- 
rupt in many passages — yet with remarkably few excep- 
tions they refused to break with it, preferring the 
Hebrew Bible of Josephus and the Jews and refusing to 
use the Greek Bible of Paul and the early Christian 
Church as a corrective or control of the Hebrew text. 
It is true that to use the ancient versions of the Old 
Testament (Greek, Latin, Syriac) as a critical appara- 
tus upon the basis of which to emend the Hebrew text 
was a practice that was not yet extensively followed by 
Old Testament scholars, yet it is the only textual control 
to which we have access in the absence of ancient Hebrew 
MSS. and moreover the practice offers excellent results 
today to the Old Testament student. And so it is that 
it may be said that, in consideration of the stage reached 
by textual study in the Old Testament, the Revised Ver- 
sion was made too soon. 

Again we must conclude that the attempt was un- 
timely from the point of view of the then current knowl- 
edge of Hebrew syntax and lexicography. Great strides 
forward have been made in both these spheres since 1890. 
Perhaps it is not too much to affirm that the average 
Hebrew student leaving our seminaries today knows his 
Hebrew idiom better than did some of the scholars on 
the Revision Committee. At least he can be trusted, I 
hope, not to make some of the errors in translation which 
mar many passages in our Old Testament in the Revised 
Version. Comparative Semitic Grammar has aided 
greatly in supplying this better knowledge of Hebrew. 
And when we recall that Wright's Comparative Gram- 
mar did not appear until 1890, and that it was a pioneer 
in this field, it will be evident that the Old Testament 
revision was attempted a little too soon. But just as 
Comparative Semitic Philology has aided in the recovery 

34 



The Revised Version and Other Recent Translations of the Bible 

of the knowledge of Hebrew idiom, so we liave gained 
mucli also from the same source for Hebrew lexicography. 
Onr access to Babylonian and Assyrian Literature, for 
example, has clarified many an obscure word or passage 
in the Hebrew Old Testament. 

And so it is that the new version is already out- 
distanced by the advance in our knowledge, and new 
translations are as necessary now in view of the Revised 
Version as the Revised Version was necessary in view 
of the Authorized Version. 

But we are not going to have to wait long for new 
versions. In fact some excellent new translations have 
alread}^ appeared for the New Testament, such as Dr. 
Weymouth's translation, ''The Twentieth Century New 
Testament" and Dr. Moffat's translation. Dr. Wey- 
mouth's work — in fact all these translations — came as a 
protest, we may say, against the barbaric English of 
the Revised Version. In this sense their aim was a more 
intelligible English, and Weymouth's and Moffat's trans- 
lations combined with this an attempt after a better rep- 
resentation of the original Greek text both from the point 
of view of the text itself and the idiomatic language in 
which it was written. Dr. Moffat's translation especially 
is a work of great merit. It combines literary beauty 
with accuracy of scholarship to an unusual degree and 
cannot too highly be recommended to all students of the 
New Testament. 

In the sphere of the Old Testament we are not so far 
along. No translation of the entire Old Testament has 
appeared in English since the Revised Version except 
the New Jewish version which was published in 1917, 
a praiseworthy translation deserving consideration. 
But we are naturally more concerned about the work of 
Christian scholars; and while they have furnished us 
with no version of the entire Old Testament, yet they 
have produced several excellent translations of separate 
books. Professor Driver translated certain books, such 

35 



Bulletin of the IVesrern Theological Seminary 

as Jeremiali and the Psalter, alo Professor Cheyne. 
And we should mention here also the translations found 
in the Polychrome Bible. Other scholars have combined 
translations with commentaries. The most notable of 
these is Sir George Adam Smith's translation of the 
Minor Prophets, in the Expositor's Bible, a work of the 
highest merit. Its English is above reproach, and its 
use of our best helps for textual control is on a par with 
the most satisfactory work done today in this important 
sphere of Old Testament study. Another more recent 
work, incorporating a translation, is that of Prof. Burney 
in his Commentar}^ on Judges, reviewed by the present 
writer in the April number of the Bulletin for this year^ — 
a modern translation in every particular. But the work 
of the greatest importance that has yet been done in 
rendering the Old Testament text into modern English 
is that of Prof. John E. McFadyen, Professor of Old 
Testament Language and Literature in the United Free 
Church College, Glasgow. The following books in his 
translation have appeared to date: The Wisdom Books 
(Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastics), Lamentations, The Song 
of Songs, The Psalms, Isaiah, and Jeremiah. They 
bear the titles ''Psalms in Modern Speech", "Isaiah in 
Modern Speech", etc. These translations are rich 
in vivid and happy renderings of their poetic originals. 
They make the great literar}^ and spiritual personalities 
of the Hebrew people stand out for us, and their messages 
come with a clarity and vivid character which they 
have not hitherto had in any English rendering. With- 
out going into detail, the following features characteriz- 
ing these translations may be briefly noted. 

(1) Professor McFadyen has based his translations 
on the best resultant text of the Old Testament to be 
had today; that is to say, he has not hesitated to allow 
the text of the great ancient versions to take the place 
of the Massoretic Text when the former had evidently 
preserved the better text. And at times he has even 

36 



The Revised Version and Otke-- Recent Translations of the Bible 

resorted to conjectural emendations, a course that is 
occasionally a necessity if we are to arrive at any mean- 
ing whatsoever in many passages of the Old Testament. 

(2) Passages that are evidently poetry are printed 
as such. This fact in itself is a great aid in understand- 
ing and appreciating a given passage. Of course the 
revisers followed the same practice in Job, Psalms, 
Proverbs, and the Song of Songs; but much of the 
prophetic writings is poetry, a fact which is much more 
easily appreciated when poetic passages are printed in 
rhythmic form. 

(3) Quotation marks are used quite as we would 
use them in modern writing, and why not? Even this 
slight matter helps the reader to grasp the force of many 
a passage. 

(4) Occasionally Professor McFadyen has found it 
necessary to rearrange the order of the verses, or certain 
passages, and even at times to confess that it is impossi- 
l)le to translate a passage- — we have lost its meaning en- 
tirely — and in this latter case the wise course to pursue 
is obviously to acknowledge that we cannot decipher the 
thought in the present condition of the text. 

And so Professor McFadyen and other scholars, 
working upon their own initiative, are doing for us what 
the revisers failed to do, and soon, let us hope, we will 
have a modern English version of the Bible that will be 
abreast of the best Biblical knowledge of our age and 
couched in English that the ploughboy can read and un- 
derstand, and which the cultured student of the Scrip- 
tures can appreciate and enjoy. 

The revisers did their work in their day and per- 
haps the results, for the time being, were more happy 
than they could have been had the workers proceeded 
upon the basis of a more thorough and more scientific 
handling of their original text. They prepared the 
Christian world for later, more accurate, and better 

37 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

translations, and for this we owe' them our gratitude. 
We scarcely realize what a storm of protest their work 
met from devout Christian people and how courageously 
and patiently they answered their objectors. They were 
pioneers, and they who come after them have an easier 
and more pleasant road over which to go and we may 
expect greater and better things from them in the present 
and not far-distant future. 



I 



38 



Literature. 



The Theology of the Epistles. By H. A. A. Kennedy, D.D., D. Sc. 
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1920. $1.35. 

Dr. Kennedy is Professor of New Testament Exegesis and 
Theology in the United Free Church College at Edinburgh and is 
well known in theological circles in both Europe and America 
through his books. The present work belongs to the "Studies in 
Theology" series, familiar to ministers and students as including 
Peake's "Critical Introduction to the New Testament," Souter's 
"Text and Canon of the New Testament," Moffatt's "Theology of the 
Gospels," and other titles scarcely less notable. It is a good series, 
and the book before us is a good book. It is good without being 
large, which fortunately is possible. There are only 255 pages, one 
of the requirements of the series being brevity. 

Now it would be easy to assume that the writing of a small 
book, having as its aim a semi-popular summary of a limited and 
already well worked field, would call for no more than a moderate 
equipment of scholarship. But this assumption would be a great 
mistake. To produce a really successful book of this character and 
scope is in fact a difficult task. It demands not only a mastery of 
facts but also a balanced judgment and a sense of proportion such 
as only ripe scholarship can give. Another important factor is the 
matter of style. To cover an enormous field of investigation under 
constant limitations of space, and to turn out a finished product that 
anybody will read — this is a result which few can hope to achieve. 

Happily Professor Kennedy has the requisite scholarship. We 
would have learned that from this book if we hadn't known it 
before. 

And he has the other requisite of style. Witness this (with 
much as good) on a subject so threadbare as that of the personality 
of Paul: — "No figure in early Christianity stands out before us in 
such glowing clearness as its greatest missionary. The frankness of 
his self-revelation, the overmastering sway of his personality, the 
sheer force and sweep of his Christian faith, the enthusiasm of his 
devotion to Christ, all combine to focus our interest on this master- 
builder of the early Church" (p. 6). Or this, about "Hebrews": — 
"More careful research has shown that the book is unique in New 
Testament literature. Its affinities with crucial conceptions of 
Paulinism are obvious. But it especially represents the blending of 
a distinct type of culture with Christian belief, and serves to remind 
us of the varieties of thought which found a home in the Christian 
society" (p. 11). Or this, expressing so vividly the changed atmos- 
phere which one feels upon turning from the Letters of Paul to later 
Christian writings such as I. Clement, Hermas, and Barnabas: — 
"The splendid enthusiasm of Paul's spirituality has vanished, and in 
its stead there has emerged a correct, commonplace piety which 
claims from its adherents self-control, patience, obedience, and 
brotherly love, and furnishes them with an elaborate series of 
maxims, intended to regulate their conduct from day to day. We 
sorely miss the freshness and spontaneity of Paul's experience. 
There are no surprises of heroic faith, no outbursts of self-forgetting 
devotion to Christ, no bold ideals of service and consecration. 'A 
common greyness silvers everything'" (pp. 222-23). 

39 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

One is tempted to go on quoting, for the book is eminently 
quotable. The following extracts will illustrate the balanced judg- 
ment which characterizes the discussion of almost every point: — 

"Here [on the question of the extent to which primitive Christi- 
anity was influenced by its environment], it may be admitted, the 
materials for arriving at a judgment are accumulating in bewildering 
variety. Hasty conclusions are attractive, and usually erroneous. 
In no field of inquiry is it more needful to resist large generaliza- 
tions, until the evidence has been adequately sifted, and its bearings 
carefully weighed" (p. 2). The next extract is a sane contribution 
to the discussion of an important subject that has been much to 
the fore since the appearance of Deissmann's "Bible Studies" and 
subsequent books: — "Hence we have to keep in view, on the one 
hand, the artless and occasional character of Paul's letters, and, on 
the other, their claim, born of a personal assurance of contact with 
the Divine, to be the medium of a Gospel, a redeeming message, 
which has a right to challenge attention and obedience. If we give 
each of these aspects its due place, we shall be able to avoid two 
easy misconceptions: we shall not demand a rigid logic in the 
apostle's pastoral counsels and instruction, nor painfully labour to 
harmonize apparent inconsistencies in order to reach completely 
rounded ideas; and we shall remember that he does not write as a 
contributor to the sum of human knowledge, even the knowledge 
of God, but as a man redeemed by Christ, who is convinced that he 
holds the Divine secret of peace of conscience and life eternal for 
all the burdened children of men" (p. 5). 

Yet it should not be inferred that Dr. Kennedy's positions are 
always mediating, or that he is lacking in independence of thought. 
Commenting on Paul's wrestlings, in Romans 9-11, with the prob- 
lem of God's dealings with Israel, he says: — "But in the course of 
his argument he tries to account for the actual circumstances of the 
case by the Pharisaic theory that God has mercy on whom he pleases 
and makes stubborn whom he pleases. This is plainly to ignore the 
moral conditions of the Divine activity" (p. 62). Again, having 
occasion to refer to the eschatology of the Synoptic Gospels, he has 
the following word anent the attitude of Jesus toward the "last 
things": — "In an atmosphere of such eager expectation of the 
Parousia as that in which the report of Jesus' words was handed 
down, his sayings were exposed to modifications likely to stamp 
them with eschatological features. But after due allowance has 
been made for such influences, there remains a residuum of evidence 
which cannot be explained away. Here we can only touch the sub- 
ject. Various utterances of Jesus appear to imply that he expected 
the Kingdom of God to be consummated within a comparatively 
short period" (p. 110). 

It is interesting to note that I. Peter is treated as a genuine 
work of the Apostle and as therefore a witness, with Paul's writings, 
to the thought of Christian leaders in the primitive period. The 
Johannine Epistles are omitted from consideration entirely. The 
reason, stated in the Preface, is obvious. Their thought "could not 
be adequately treated apart from the Fourth Gospel." The remain- 
ing "Catholic Epistles," together with the "Pastoral Epistles" 
traditionally ascribed to Paul, are grouped together as presenting 
"The Theology of the Developing Church." They are characteristic 
products of the "post-Pauline evolution. . ., having in view a wide 
circle of Christian communities and dealing principally with the 

40 



Literature 

perils which beset Christian life and doctrine between, say, 90 and 
150 A. D." 

Professor Kennedy, with some other writers, prefers to speak 
of "heathen-Christians" rather than "Gentile-Christians." It may 
be questioned whether the phrase is a happy one, for American 
readers at least. 

Another minor criticism may be ventured. It has to do with 
the references, in foot notes and in the Bibliography at the close, to 
French and German works of which good translations are not only 
available but are in general use. What is gained, in a book of this 
character, by constantly using the original titles in referring to such 
works? It may give the book an added appearance of learning, but 
it is idle to suppose that Dr. Kennedy has been influenced by any 
such consideration as this. Yet he consistently refers to Deissmann's 
"Licht vom Osten" rather than to "Light from the Ancient East," 
to Cumont's "Les Religiones Orientales dans le Paganisme Romain" 
rather than to "Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism," and so 
with other works. 

FRANK EAKIN, '13. 
Western Theological Seminary. 



Freedom and Advance. By Oscar L. Joseph. New York: The Mac- 
millan Company. 1919. 269 pp. $1.75. 

The author informs us in his foreword that he has done his best 
in the midst of a busy parish to produce this book. He appends a 
list of a hundred and eighty books, mostly recent, which he quotes 
and uses for sources in what might be termed a study of the Tend- 
ency of Modern Theology. The subjects he deals with are chosen 
not from any theoretical or systematic standpoint but because they 
are the questions he has found, in his position on the staff of the 
"Methodist Review," which are uppermost in the minds of the reli- 
gious leaders of the day. 

He has aimed at being stimulating and suggestive rather than 
exhaustive. I would characterize his work as sane, safe, and satis- 
factory rather than stimulating or suggestive. For to be suggestive 
one must indicate a large reserve of significant facts, whose study 
may support or destroy the position taken, and he has thrown the 
whole subject open. And to be stimulating one must be heretical, 
at least from the reader's standpoint, and even pugnacious in tone. 
It is of significance however in showing the interests, the tendency, 
and the condition of the modern, successful American minister's 
mind. 

I. The first four chapters of the book deal with the problems 
of Authority, the Bible, the Person and the Work of Christ. 

The voice of authority, according to him, is to be "a type of 
preaching with a spiritual accent and a note of dynamic assurance." 
How far we have moved, not merely from the ban, the bull, and the 
encyclical, but from a book of discipline, a confession, a creed! He 
reviews, rapidly, the change wrought in this tone by the Protestant 
Reformation, whose essence is individualism. He is led, by Forsyth, 
and the Neo-Hegelian influence, to God as the ultimate authority. 
He immediately adds the additional belief in the authority — the 

41 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

"final authority" — of God in Christ. I would have expected a liberal 
to only admit that Christ was an authority "on" God. He winds up 
this discussion by indorsing the liberal's demand that "the tentative 
character of dogma and the finality of faith" be not confused. This 
chapter, rapidly read, will no doubt satisfy both sides equally. 
However, it is not on a scale generous enough to be an irenicon 
between the religious bolshevists and the theological bitter-enders. 

The Bible, of course, is the crux of the matter. After telling 
us that it is a vital book and to be studied historically, that we may 
see the channels through which the river of grace flows, he adds that 
it is to be studied religiously. Not merely is it an extraordinary 
literary treasure, but it cannot be understood fully by logic and 
speculation (exegesis and theology) but by "the sympathetic intui- 
tions of a vital Christian experience." This is very close to the 
Catholic position, which argues, quite cogently, if this position is 
taken, that the bulk of the Church are not spiritually fit to read 
the Bible. It is interesting, I believe, in showing how the free and 
advanced are returning to what is really the reactionary positions 
which the Reformation destroyed. Of course he maintains the 
rights of criticism, on the very effective ground that the Master and 
his great follower were very free in the use of the Old Testament. 
But what can one ask for more than to hear that the New Testament 
is the land of corn and wine and the "most joyous book" in the 
world? 

The Roman Catholics possess and value most highly the Christ 
of Experience, and the Protestants, the Jesus of History. These two 
are one. Here Mr. Joseph would part company with some of the 
free and advanced leaders. He thinks the most promising avenue 
for the new Christology to take is not logic, but psychology. " We 
are to think of the incarnation in terms of redemptive experience. 
I should judge that he means that the Nicene formulas were crea- 
tions of the intellect, even if intellects of Greeks, and that we need 
formulas that are an outcome of actual experience. But as long as 
we draw a line, however vague, between experience and history, I 
do not see how we can ever have a formula for the Church, though 
each Christian may be able to work one out for himself. Still he 
admits that even metaphysics, though largely arid and fruitless, can- 
not be safely discarded. The verdict of a Hindu ascetic is accepted 
as a prophecy (of the new Christological formula?). "There is this 
difference between Christ and the other religions of the world. All 
the others are passing away or will pass away. Christ alone re- 
mains." 

After this somewhat dangerous, because uncertain, ground 
taken about the person of Christ, he emphasizes the evangelical 
tenet that it was the cross at Calvary and not the Sermon on the 
Mount that was central in. Christ's work. The early Church was 
impressed by "the unique grace of redemption" rather than by the 
"singular glory of (Christ's) character," and of course even less bj' 
the novelty of his views. Again we have in our advance a return 
to older positions. The liberal may at last see all the truth. 

II. The next four chapters deal with the practical working 
out of the positions assumed in the first four. Christian living is 
the chief element that will give Christianity authority. Its success- 
ful application and vindication in life will give it greater prestige 
than all external trappings and support. It will be proved, scien- 

42 



Literature 

tifically. But Christian Experience cannot be standardized. Hence 
the varieties of Christians and the problem of Christian leaders, or 
ministers. In discussing the origin and function of the Christian 
ministry, he denies that our Lord did more than establish it, not 
defining its position or function. This position — which as Presby- 
terians we are supposed to deny — enables him to accept the principle 
of Newman, of an evolving constitution for the Church. But he 
emphatically rejects the historic episcopate, as a follower of Wesley 
must. He quotes Lightfoot as characterizing the language of 
Ignatius and Cyprian as blasphemous and profane. An historical 
slip is found on page 121. "The theory of apostolic succession is a 
purely legal fiction, first hatched in the brain of Cyprian the lawyer 
and endorsed by Ignatius the one-time slave." Ignatius died 117, 
and Cyprian died 2 58. In this day of Church unity, chaotic or 
coherent, there is no greater problem. Not merely will the char- 
acter of the Church union depend on the answer given, but the char- 
acter of the Church and its Christianity follow on it. It will be 
settled either by a Church council — the united church of Christ in 
America will be presbyterian, even if only for a session, when it may 
throw away the principle of popular, representative government for 
a self-perpetuating group — Bishops, curia, or Board — or retain it 
permanently. The two great tasks of the Church are to provide 
Worship, which is the leading of the soul to communion with God, 
and Religious Education. These two are organically connected. 
Church History shows a great cycle, — The Ecclesia, discens, docens, 
regnans, divisa, Privatoriim, and to-day discens again. 

III. The last four chapters deal with the social tendency of 
modern American Christianity, an account of Comparative Religions, 
which is to shed so much light upon the task confronting the Church 
in Missions. He ends this collection of essays with one upon the 
"Here and the Hereafter.'' The argument for immortality is based 
upon the spiritual progress of the Christian community, which is 
evidence not merely of further spiritual and moral progress here, 
but for the individual hereafter. The argument has all the weak- 
ness of so-called liberal theology, but it is the most effectively 
written paper in the book. 

IV. In conclusion we find that the typical American mind of 
to-day, — and that which is popular and successful is typical, — has 
two outstanding marks. First, a genial, scholarly breadth of mind, 
a little too rear'y to make compromises and to attempt to harmonize 
what never can be harmonized, but which looks down upon idle 
disputes, and is ready for great things. That is eminently hopeful. 
The other mark is less worthy. This "emancipated liberal" mind 
finds it hard to define the What, the Why, and the How of Christi- 
anity. The yoke of dogma has been lifted; it has made belief easier, 
but it has given an infinitely harder goal to be reached, for we 
hardly know where we are going or how we are to get there. One 
wonders whether the exchange is worth what is has cost. 

A. P. KELSO, '10. 

James Millikiu University, Decatur, 111. 

Department of Biblical History and Literature. 



43 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

The Children's Great Texts of the Bible. Edited by James Hastings. 
New York: Charles Scribners Sons. 1920. 6 vols. $3.00 
each. $15 the set. 

Readers of the Expository Times will be glad that the editor 
is making permanent and available a few of the children's sermons 
that have appeared each month in the department entitled "Vir- 
ginibus Puerisque." To these have been added a great many more. 
Dr. Hastings seems indefatigable. It is refreshing to find that the 
scholar who is responsible for such works as "The Encyclopaedia of 
Religion and Ethics" and "The Dictionary of the Bible" is not un- 
mindful of the needs of the children and of those who have charge 
of their religious instruction. 

The first three volumes which have appeared satisfy the high 
expectations aroused by the reputation of the author. He himself 
tells us that they are all original and are "fresh studies in the light 
of God's Word." The arrangement is somewhat the same as in his 
series on "Great Texts" and "Greater Men and Women of the Bible," 
except that the source of the material unfortunately is not given. 
The texts follow the order in which they appear in the Bible, al- 
though the context often must be disregarded. If only the publisher 
will insist on a good index in the last volume, the practical value of 
this collection to the pastor and parent will be enhanced. 

Dr. Hastings is wise In keeping the parent, as well as the 
preacher, in mind. When we consider the reprehensible rubbish 
which even our best denominational book stores still palm off on 
unsuspecting mothers in search of Bible stories for Sunday after- 
noons, we hope that many parents will be introduced to this series 
of sermons. They can well be read aloud, as they abound with in- 
teresting stories and are short, averaging about five pages, with 
over seventy sermons to each volume. The English child, however, 
must be farther advanced in his knowledge of the Bible and general 
literature than the American child, if the knowledge taken for 
granted by Dr. Hastings is a criterion. Here the background is far 
different, and the material must be simplified, and in most cases 
only one point chosen from it to be driven home. 

Books like these are a welcome change after the miserable flood 
of children's "sermonettes" of late years, with all sorts of devices 
to capture attention. Religious education experts warn us against 
the use of objects, but doubtless many ministers will nevertheless 
forget this when they draw upon this material. 

The practice of having a short message for the boys and girls 
of the congregation Is evidently becoming the wise custom in 
England as here. Ministers know that they not only can lodge 
many ideas in the impressionable hearts of their child listeners, but 
occasionally throw out a few needed hints to hardened adults as 
well. Above all, children can be trained in church attendance and 
made to realize that they have a part in the services. 

STANLEY A. HUNTER. 
North Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh. 



44 



Literature 

My First Communion. By Rev. Hugh Thomson Kerr, D.D., LL.D., 
pastor of Shadyside Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication. Pp. 61. 
1920. Price fifty cents. 

Dr. Kerr has compelled advance interest in his booklet by the 
choice of an inviting title. The minister, the parent, the Sunday 
School teacher, and whoever is concerned to have young people con- 
fess Christ and begin the Christian life intelligently, will say at once, 
"This is just what I've been looking for." And indeed the boy or 
girl, looking forward to the First Communion, will with a certain 
shy eagerness welcome these helpful pages. But the author has 
performed his task, not merely to recognize a sentiment, such as 
quite naturally is associated with so blessed and sacred an experience 
as one's First Communion, although that sentiment is most appro- 
priately considered; he has written to instruct and stimulate. 

The young communicant will prize the certificate of church 
membership, signed by the pastor directing the service of reception, 
by whose hands this First Communion was administered. The 
hymn, beginning, "Oh Jesus I have prornised," is significantly de- 
scribed as "My Covenant." A chapter is devoted to a description of 
the feelings with which one comes to the Lord's Supper for the first 
time, with some helpful observations touching the privilege of com- 
ing, and a detailed account of the administration of the Sacrament. 
A second chapter gives the order for adult baptism and for reception 
into full communion of those who had been baptized as children, as 
these orders are suggested in "The Book of Common Worship." 

There are six more chapters, interpreting the meaning of being 
a Christian, the meaning of confessing Christ, the meaning of being 
a Church member, the means of growth in Christian living, the 
temptations that must be faced and the way to meet and overcome 
them, with a final appeal to be "Loyal unto the Last." 

The full value of the booklet cannot be possessed by one pra- 

Communion reading. It is a book to be studied. It will be a good 

basis for pastors' communicant classes. Any one who learns what 

is herein taught will know how his church differs from others, hotw 

his own is made up and governed, what are its major undertakings, 

and what are the outstanding duties he assumes in becoming a 

member. Moreover, the student of these stimulating pages will get 

much more than an outline. He will find himself rejoicing and 

quickened in the direction of the ideals of a good member of the 

Church of Jesus Christ. 

„, , ^^. GEORGE N. LUCCOCK, '81. 

Wooster, Ohio. 



The Menace of Immorality in Church and State. By Rev. John 
Roach Straton, D.D., Pastor of Calvary Baptist Church. New 
York: George H. Doran Company. 1920. $1.75. 

The unsettled condition of the times through which we have 
been passing, during the last few years, has produced a certain 
degree of disregard for law both civil and moral. The result is, 
that many practices which would not have been tolerated a few years 
ago, are in vogue to-day. Not because they are right, nor because 
the moral law has changed, but because of the changed attitude of 

45 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

mind on the part of masses of the people. This change has been 
wrought by the tendency to and the practice of worldliness rather 
than godliness. The evil effects of this worldly attitude have been 
seen in the social circle, the state, and the church. 

Appreciating the moral dangers with which the church and 
state are confronted, and with view to warning the people of the 
same, and helping them to safeguard themselves against the in- 
evitable results of immorality. Dr. Straton has written his book en- 
titled "The Menace of Immorality in Church and State." 

The chapters of the book are sermons which Dr. Straton de- 
livered from time to time from his own pulpit in New York. The 
impressions made by the sermons were so deep, and the demand 
for them in printed form, so great, that the author was finally per- 
suaded to give the same to the public in book form. He does so in 
the hope that the general reading of the book may help to improve 
moral conditions in other localities. The book is composed of six- 
teen plain and pointed discussions of phases and factors in social, 
moral, and religious life. 

Among other subjects mentioned, he speaks of the kind of 
preaching the age needs; he deplores the control of social life by 
worldliness, amusements, and Mammon. He makes a strong plea 
for sexual purity and for a return to the sacred conception of home 
life. He speaks in no uncertain sound against "rag-time" tendencies 
in religion, and makes a strong plea for the sanctity of the Sabbath 
as fundamental to social, moral, and national safety. He closes the 
volume with a plain warning of impending judgment and a clear 
statement of the reality of heaven and hell. 

The author urges a spiritualized instead of a socialized force to 
meet the needs of the hour. He speaks not in the frenzy of a mis- 
guided and misinformed reformer, but with the authority of an in- 
vestigator, therefore his conclusions carry weight and conviction. 

The style of the author is earnest, frank, forceful, and fearless. 
He is never radical, but always truthful. This is due to the fact 
that he makes Bible truth the basis of his discussions. Dr. Straton 
has made a real contribution to the literature of morals and practical 
Christianity. He states conditions, reveals causes, and prescribes 
the cure. The book ought to be read by pastors and laymen 
throughout our land. 

EDWARD A. HODIL, '99. 



The Truth About Christian Science. By James H. Snowden, D.D., 
LL.D., Professor of Systematic Theology in Western Theological 
Seminary. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press. 1920. $2.40 
net. 

It is no disparagement of Dr. Snowden's work to say at the 
outset that it is a compilation of the best .materials to be found on 
the history and workings of Christian Science. His own intro- 
ductory free discussion of the books that have thus far been written 
on the subject amounts to a frank admission on this point. And in 
the nature of the case nothing adequate could have been produced 
at this date on such a subject without making very large use of its 
abundant literature. 

But though reproducing much of what has already been written 
on Christian Science by such writers as Georgine Milmine, Dr. 

46 



Literature 

Peabody, Dr. Powell, and others, Dr. Snowden's work has the 
merit of being a comprehensive one. Miss Milmine has patiently, 
laboriously, and with scrupulous regard for unvarnished facts, 
gathered the materials concerning the life of Mrs. Eddy. Dr. 
Peabody has examined the workings of the movement on its own 
native soil, Mark Twain has turned it over in his keen mind, and 
has shown its seamy side, but none of these writers, nor any other 
so far as appears, has so analyzed its tissue and subjected it to so 
many different kinds of tests as has Dr. Snowden. And no one was 
perhaps as competent to do this as he. His experience as a long- 
time student of metaphysics has given him the acquaintance with 
the fundamental philosophical basis on which such a system as 
Christian Science claims to rest; as a journalist he has had the 
training necessary to reduce its subtleties to simple terms capable 
of being understood by the common people; and as a man of broad 
culture he has the equipment needed to explore the historical aspects 
of the case. All these qualifications Dr. Snowden has put to good 
use. Without undue harshness, yet without in the least disguising 
or abating it, he has put into expression the reaction which an 
innate love for truth must lead one to feel when faced with the 
transparent dishonesty of Mrs. Eddy's declarations regarding the 
origin of her ideas. With the same attitude of restrained but 
indignant condemnation he meets her claim to divine inspiration 
and authority. Her litigious spirit and inordinate greed for money 
he exhibits in their barren nakedness with little comment or 
criticism. Perhaps, however, the most original contribution to the 
discussion is his analytical criticism of the text-book of Chrstian 
Science, Mrs. Eddy's "Science and Health with Key to the Scrip- 
tures." His predecessors seem to have shrunk from the thank- 
less labor of subjecting this volume to a patient and consecutive ex- 
amination. Dr. Snowden has done this with conscientious care. 
Chapter by chapter he expounds its contents and gives his readers a 
fair opportunity to get a full and clear conception of what it is and 
how it is to be estimated. 

Another aspect of Christian Science, sometimes overlooked in 
treatises on the subject, receives a proper amount of attention at 
the hands of Dr. Snowden, namely, the practice and experience of 
the church founded by Mrs. Eddy. The regulations which the 
shrewd founder devised for the perpetuation of her hold upon the 
organization were so ingenious, so detailed, and so strict that she 
evidently expected a smooth and harmonious career for the church. 
As a matter of fact, the opposite of harmony has been its experience. 
Many are asking whether the cult is gaining or losing in these later 
years. The question may not be a very vital one; but Dr. Snowden 
endeavors to throw some light upon it. 

Both in the selection of materials prepared by his predecessors 
in the field and in his own work upon the subject. Dr. Snowden has 
shown himself judicious as well as judicial and entirely worthy of 
the confidence of the public. He has prepared a book designed to 
satisfy a well rounded and natural desire for information and guid- 
ance on a subject of practical interest. 

In a sense the current year is the semi-centenary of Christian 
Science, for whatever uncertainty there may exist as to the exact 
date when Mrs. Mary Baker Eddy first "discovered" Christian 
Science, or as others would have it, decided to utilize her knowledge 
of P. P. Quimby's system of metaphysical healing, there is no 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

question whatever about the time when she first advertised herself 
as the teacher of the new method in Lynn, Mass. This was in the 
year 1870. The question of its standing is, therefore, of importance 
to a wider circle of thoughtful people than those who have sur- 
rendered themselves to its alluring promises. Thus, even though 
Dr. Snowden has not undertaken to write this book as a tribute to 
the achievements of either the founder or the cult, there is an ele- 
ment of timeliness in it, and a justification in his adding one more 
to the many critical and popular expositions of its history and mean- 
ing. 

Not only those who know nothing of the real nature of Christian 
Science, but also those who are thoroughly familiar with it, will 
wish to possess themselves of the volume, because after it has been 
read through it can be used as a reference book on a subject which 
evokes daily discussion and must never be spoken of without minute 
and accurate information. That information is condensed by Dr. 
Snowden into small and easily accessible form in this volume. 

REV. ANDREW C. ZENOS, D.D. 

McCormick Theological Seminary, 
Chicago, 111. 



A National System of Education. By Walter Scott Athearn. New 
York: George H. Doran Company. 1920. $1.50. 

Multimi in parvo : five compact, comprehensive lectures, with 
fourteen full-page graphic diagrams which visualize the correlation 
of schools, both public and religious, and methods of their admini- 
stration, with also a six page classified bibliography especially rich 
in recent periodical literature. 

The author is discussing his favorite topic, on which we have 
heard him before. And he is entitled to speak on this subject, be- 
cause he has studied it, thought it, taught it, talked it, experimented 
on it, and successfully worked it. I should add that he has prayed 
over it, and has seen visions and dreamed dreams about it. That 
is inferential knowledge on the part of the reviewer, but he is sure 
it is not contrary to fact. 

This is a timely discussion. The Great War has been a great 
revealer. It has exposed to our humiliation certain weaknesses in 
our boasted educational system. It has demonstrated to the satis- 
facion of even the indifferent the need and increasing importance of 
that type of education which holds the will in leash to higher re- 
ligious motives and ideals. Religious education, that is truly re- 
ligious and at the same time real education, is the present outstand- 
ing need of church and country, the one sure foundation on which 
pure religion and true democracy can be built and be expected per- 
manently to endure. 

The book is stimulating. It arouses serious, thoughtful con- 
sideration of certain tendencies in our recent educational history 
that have within them potential, if not immediately threatening; 
dangers. It stirs up, too, hopeful anticipations of possibilities that 
are worth while for the individual and for the social welfare, — 
possibilities bound up in the system of education here outlined. 

And it is practical. Indeed the author sets forth with some 
detail the community religious educational program undertaken at 

48 



Literature 

Maiden, Mass., in which the author has had no small part, together 
with something of the actual achievements of this experiment — if we 
may so speak of it — in religious education, and the general influence 
of the effort upon the community life. The author is no impractical 
dreamer. Nor is he a radical or iconoclastic reformer. He sees 
things as they are, and he modestly but very definitely makes his 
suggestions, concretely, not theoretically, as to how they may be- 
come what they ought to be. 

Don't read this book unless you are ready to read more, and 
to do more. For it is a trumpet call to a great work, a challenge 
to meet the educational reconstruction that is inevitable and now 
in progress, with a definite and practical program in religious edu- 
cation that is sound and sane enough and big enough to enlist the 
support of all Christian churches and people and merit recognition 
and co-operation from all educators and our whole public educational 
system. 

ROBERT SCOTT CALDER, '97. 
Lindenwood College. 



The Christian Home. By William W. Faris, D.D. Philadelphia: 
Presbyterian Board of Publication, pp. 141. 1920. 75c net. 

This is an admirable little book and worthy of a place in every 
household. While it contains many suggestions of much value to 
the pastor who desires to preach one or more sermons on this most 
important subject, it may be of special help to parents who are 
much perplexed in the training of their children. 

It is not particularly brilliant or original, but it is thoughtful, 
sane, and comprehensive. There are twelve chapters, covering much 
ground, including the child's health, habits, studies, plays, reading, 
companions, service for others, religious and church life. 

In these days when there are so many assaults upon the home, 
so little devotion to family life, and so much parental indifference, 
the pastors to whom this may come will do well to read and digest 
the book for themselves and then encourage as many parents as 
possible to make use of it. 

DAVID R. BREED. 



49 



Alumniana 



CALLS 

Rev. D. S. Graham ('01), in service in France, to Fairmount and 

Pleasant Hill, Pa. 
Rev. H. W. Hanna ('02), Claysville, Pa., to Chester, W. Va. 
Rev. E. R. Tait ('02), Herron Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa., to First 

Church, Wilson, Pa. 
Rev. W. R. Craig ('06), Butler, Pa., to First Church, Kingston, Pa. 
Rev. C. E. Houk ('07), Freeport, Pa., to Claysville, Pa. 
Rev. R. M. Kiskaddon ('13), Amity, Pa., to Imperial, Pa. 
Rev. J. O. Miller ('16), Buckhannon, W. Va., to Monaca, Pa. 
Rv. A. R. Hickman ('17), Midland, S. Dak., to Groton, S. Dak. 
Rev. Roy F. Miller, ('20), to Cochranton, Pa. 
Rev. P. S. Sprague ('20), to Albion, Pa. 

INSTALLATIONS 

Rev. J. B. Donaldson, D.D. ('77-p.), St. James Church, Oakland, 

Cal., May 9th. 
Rev. J. J. Srodes, D.D. ('90), Woodsfield and Buchanan, Ohio. 
Rev. L. R. Wylie ('92), Dunbar, Pa., May 6th. 
Rev. E. K. Mechlin ('93), pastor. New Salem, and stated supply, 

Glasgow, Presbytery of Beaver, June 24th. 
Rev. W. E. Howard, D.D. ('94-p.), Hoboken, Pa. 
Rev. R. B. Wilson ('0 4-p.), Loudonville, Ohio, June 2 5th. 
Rev. C. I. Steffey ('15), Conneautville, Pa., April 2 8th. 

ACCESSIONS 

Rev. C. S. McClelland, D.D. ('80), Mt. Washington, Pgh., Pa... 6 
Rev. S. A. Kirkbride, D.D. ('92), Neshannock, New Wilming- 
ton, Pa 20 

Rev. R. F. Getty ('94), Murrysville, Pa 8 

Rev. P. J. Slonaker ('95), Central Church, Pittsburgh, Pa 5 

Rev. W. F. McKee, D.D. ('96), Monongahela, Pa 10 

Rev. J. H. Lawther ('01), Bellaire, Ohio 10 

Rev. M. C. Reiter ('03), Bethel Church, Presbytery of Pgh 20 

Rev. H* M. Campbell ('04-p.), Dormont, Pa 33 

Rev. R. B. Wilson ('04-p.), Loudonville, Ohio 7 

Rev. George Taylor, Jr., Ph.D. ('10), First Church, Wilkins- 

burg, Pa 29 

Rev. W. B. Love ('11), Sidney, Ohio 32 

Rev. G. L. Glunt ('10), Rochester, Pa 7 

Rev. M. A. Matheson, Ph.D. ('11), Prospect Church, Ashtabula, 

Ohio 29 

Rev. M. H. Sewell ('12-p.), New Philadelphia, Ohio 6 

Rev. Maxwell Cornelius ('14), New Bethlehem, Pa., in first 11 

months of pastorate 48 

Rev. G. C. Fohner ('14-p.), Sharpsville, Pa 16 

Rev. A. F. Heltman ('15-p-g.), Broad Ave. Church, Altoona, Pa. 11 
Rev. Harrison Davidson ('18), Two Ridges, Ohio (8); Cross 

Creek (2) 10 

50 



r 



Alumniana 

Rev. Duncan Mackenzie ('18), Elders Ridge, Pa. (9); West 

Lebanon ( 1 ) ; Iselin (6) 16 

Rev. D. E. Daniel ('19), Plumville, Pa. (3); Sagamore (21)... 24 

MARRIAGES 

Rev. William E. Lewis ('07), Miss Mary Louise Dodson, Wilkes- 

Barre, Pa., April 21, 1920. 
Rev. Donald A. Irwin ('19), Miss Mary E. Totten, Pittsburgh, Pa., 

June 4, 1920. 
Rev. Owen W. Pratt ('19), Miss Mildred Ragsdale, Heltonville, Ind., 

May 15, 1920. 
Rev. Roy P. Miller ('20), Miss Florence Lantz, Jacksonburg, W. Va., 

September 7, 1920. ^ 

GENERAL ITEMS 

On Sept. 27, Rev. Wm. F. Brown ('68), of Canonsburg, Pa., 
read a paper before the Presbyterian Ministers' Meeting of Pitts- 
burgh, taking for his subject, "The Old Log College; The Importance 
of Religion as an Educational Factor." 

The Arlington Avenue Presbyterian Church, of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Rev. John H. Kerr, D.D. ('81) pastor, recently observed its thirtieth 
anniversary, and an offering of $2,801.76 was received for the Sun- 
day School building fund. This fund now amounts to $16,262.30. 

During the summer Rev. W. O. Thompson, D.D. ('82), spent 
some time in Pennsylvania as a member of the Arbitration Com- 
mission in the anthracite coal strike. 

Rev. C. P. Cheeseman, D.D. ('84-p.), pastor of the Highland 
Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh, has had dedicated in his honor a 
set of chimes consisting of eleven bells. The chimes, which are a 
mark of appreciation for Dr. Cheeseman's 28 years of service in the 
Highland Church, are the gift of Col. and Mrs. Cameron C. Smith. 

Rev. J. L. Ewing ('93), has resigned the pastorate of the Jersey 
Shore, Pa., Presbyterian Church. 

The First Presbyterian Church of Newark, Ohio, Rev. Calvin 
a. Hazlett, D.D. ('93), pastor, has made remarkable progress during 
the past year. The entire mortgage on the new building has been 
paid off, and in addition $4,000 was contributed to benevolent 
boards, the entire total of contributions during the year being 
$20,000. The spiritual condition of the church also has shown fine 
progress. There were 59 additions to the membership and 34 
baptisms. The membership of the church is now in excess of 750. 

Rev. H. B. Hummel ('93), is the New Era Pastor-at-Large for 
the Presbytery of Boulder. Among other interesting items in his 
report, we note that the churches in this Presbytery last year under 
the New Era plan contributed $27,410 for benevolences — just $11 
short of their quota — which was a gain of $16,713 over the previous 
year. 

The Presbyterian Church of Derry, Pa., has recently added 
$600 to the salary of the pastor. Rev. E. A. Culley ('94). 

Rev. R. F. Getty ('94), Murrysville, Pa., has lately been voted 
an increase of $500 to his salary. 

Rev. Wm. F. McKee, D.D. ('96), of Monongahela City, Pa., has 
just finished his fourteenth year in the pastorate of the First Church. 

51 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

In that time there has been a net gain of 250 members, and bene- 
volences have increased from $850 to $6,650. 

At the last meeting of the Board of Directors of the Allegheny 
County Sabbath School Association Rev. Hugh T. Kerr, D.D. {'97), 
was elected a member of the Board and of the Committee on Educa- 
tion. 

Rev. H. C. Prugh ('98), East Brady, Pa., has been granted an 
increase in salary of $300 per year. 

The First Presbyterian Church, of Ligonier, Pa., is unusually 
active in every department of work. Fifty-one members were re- 
ceived during the year 1919-20. $2,600 was paid through the New 
Era treasurer of Presbytery for benevolences, other disbursements 
for benevolence amounted to $1,000, and the salary of the pastor. 
Rev. William F. Fleming ('03), was increased $200. 

A year ago Rev. T. J. Gaehr, Ph.D. ('04), pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Yellow Springs, Ohio, was drafted into serv- 
ice by Antioch College, located in Yellow Springs, and taught 
Sociology last year. This year the Bible and two classes in History 
were added to his schedule, which, with his church work, no doubt 
keeps hirh busy. 

A Community Teacher Training Class with twenty-five members 
has been organized by Rev. A. C. Powell ('04), pastor of the Pres- 
byterian Church of French Creek, W. Va. 

The Presbyterian Congregation of Dormont, Pa., Rev. H. M. 
Campbell ('04-p.), pastor, are having plans for a new building pre- 
pared. $43,000 has already been subscribed. During the first 
seven months of the year this church received 110 new members. 

Pleasant Valley Church, New Waterford, Ohio, on Aug. 21st, 
celebrated the 100th anniversary of its organization. Rev. W. C. 
Ferver ('07), is pastor of this historic church. 

Rev. William H. Hoover ('09), pastor of the Presbyterian 
Church of Pine Lawn, Mo., publishes an interesting Church monthly 
under the title "Nelson Review." 

Bethesda Presbyterian Church, Millport, Ohio, of which Rev. 
E. J. Travers ('12), is pastor, celebrated its centennial with appro- 
priate services September 24-26. 

Rev. George W. Guthrie ('14), has resigned the pastorate of 
Fleming Memorial Church, Fairmont, W. Va. 

Rev. G. C. Fohner ('14-p.), of Sharpsville, Pa., has recently had 
his salary increased by the addition of three hundred dollars and a 
manse. During the first eight months of Mr. Fohner's pastorate, 
he received a total of forty-eight new members. 

Rev. Alexander Gibson ('17), pastor of the Manchester Pres- 
byterian Church, Pittsburgh, Pa., during the past year had an 
enviable record of additions on confession of faith. The total was 
107, and in addition there were 24 added by certificate. 

The Presbyterian Church of St. Clairsville, Ohio, has recently 
added $1000 per year to the salary of their pastor. Rev. LeRoy 
Lawther ('17), thus making the total increase in the last ten 
months $1500. 

Rev. James Mayne, who won the Seminary fellowship in 1918, 
is studying this year in the University of Edinburgh. His address 
is 2 Brougham St., Edinburgh, Scotland. Since his graduation 

52 



Alumniana 

Mr. Mayne has been pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Mt. 
Pleasant, Pa. 

Rev. W. W. McKinney ('19), pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
of Elizabeth, Pa., preached on "The Religion of Organized Labor" 
the first Sunday of September. The sermon was published in full 
in the local paper. 

Degrees have been conferred on the following Seminary alumni 
by Washington and Jefferson College: Rev. Hugh T. Kerr, DD 
('97), LL.D.; Rev. E. L. Mcllvaine ('98), D.D.; Rev. G M Ryali 
('98), D.D. 

FOREIGN MISSIONARIES 

We regret to announce that the Rev. J. C. R. Ewing, D.D., LL.D. 
('79), the distinguished missionary, has suffered from a slight 
stroke. According to the latest news he has recovered and is taking 
an active part in the work of the North India Mission. 

In February the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church 
in Brazil confirmed the election of Rev. Thomas Porter, Ph.D., S.T.D. 
('84), as President of the Assembly's Theological Seminary. After 
ten years in the Chair of Church History, the directors in 1918 made 
him Professor of Theology. 

Rev. W. M. Hayes, D.D. ('92), after a short furlough, sailed 
from Vancouver, August 26, on S. S. Empress of Asia, for Shanghai. 
His address is Weihsien, Shantung, China. 

The Rev. W. C. Johnston ('95), of West Africa, has been choseu 
by the Young Peoples' Branch of the Presbytery of Pittsburgh as 
their missionary representative. 

One of the most interesting missionary bulletins that comes to 
the editor's desk is "The Kyoto Bulletin," published by Dr. and Mrs. 
Harvey Brokaw. Dr. Brokaw was a member of the class of 1896. 
In the last number an allusion was made to "The World's Sunday 
School Convention" and the fact is related that the Presbyterian 
delegates, with few exceptions, did not use the opportunity to see 
the work of their Church in Japan. 

Rev. Robert P. Fitch, D.D. ('98), who delivered the last course 
of Severance Missionary Lectures in the Seminary, has arrived safely 
at Hangchow, China, and resumed his work as General Secretary of 
the Union Evangelistic Committee of that city. "The Chinese 
Recorder" of August, 1920, published an interesting article on "New 
Methods and Possibilities in City Evangelism" by Dr. Fitch. 

President J. S. Kunkle ('05), of Union Theological College, 
Canton, China, reports the dedication of a new dormitory added to 
the buildings of this successful institution. 

Following is an extract of a recent letter from Rev. Jacob A. 
Reis, Jr. ('12), located at Batanga, Cameroun, West Africa: 
"Cameroun has become quite a different place since the war. We 
have changed of course from the German to the French Government, 
and this has changed all our school work to French as well. We, 
my family and I, are now located down here at Batanga, our coast 
station. I wonder if it gets as hot anywhere else in the world as 
down here. The work is very encouraging. There are five com- 
munion points and about 3 5 evangelistic outposts to look after, and 
this afternoon there are a dozen village school teachers sitting 
around me while I write, waiting for their assignments. Being 

53 



Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

short of help at present, this all falls to the lone missionary of the 
station. Last week I returned from a trip around my field before 
schools begin which kept me away from home four weeks, most of 
the time sleeping in native huts on a camp-bed. I have just re- 
turned this morning from a trip down the coast of 42 miles to our 
southern outpost, down Saturday and two days back." 

Three members of the Class of 1919 sailed for the foreign 
mission field this fall: Mr. Donald A. Irwin and Mr. J. Edward 
Kidder, on the S. S. Nankin, for China; and Mr. John E. Wallace for 
India. 

The following missionary alumni are home on furlough: 

Rev. W. O. Blterich ('88), of Chefoo, China. His teniporary 
address is 919 Union Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh. 

Rev. W. H. Hezlep ('11), Jhansi, India, temporarily located at 
159 La Crosse St., Edgewood, Pa. 

Rev. Paul A. Eakin ('13), Petchaburee, Siam, may be addressed 
Grove City, Pa. He expects to return to Siam about December 1st. 

Rev. E. C. Howe ('14), Canton, China, at present may be ad- 
dressed at Grove City, Pa. 



54 



L 



*«p' h 



<9 
Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

short of help at present, this all falls to the lone missionary of the 
station. Last week I returned from a trip around my field before 
schools begin which kept me away from home four weeks, most of 
the time sleeping in native huts on a camp-bed. I have just re- 
turned this morning from a trip down the coast of 42 miles to our 
southern outpost, down Saturday and two days back." 

Three members of the Class of 1919 sailed for the foreign 
mission field this fall: Mr. Donald A. Irwin and Mr. J. Edward 
Kidder, on the S. S. Nankin, for China; and Mr. John E. Wallace for 
India. 

The following missionary alumni are home on furlough: 

Rev. W. O. Elterich ('88), of Chefoo, China. His teniporary 
address is 919 Union Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh. 

Rev. W. H. Hezlep ('11), Jhansi, India, temporarily located at 
159 La Crosse St., Edgewood, Pa. 

Rev. Paul A. Eakin ('13), Petchaburee, Siam, may be addressed 
Grove City, Pa. He expects to return to Siam about December 1st. 

Rev. E. C. Howe ('14), Canton, China, at present may be ad- 
dressed at Grove City, Pa. 



54 



NORTH 



AVE. 



BEECH 



-AVESTERN 



LYNDALE 





^JA 



WEST PARK 

SHOWING THE LOCATION OF 

WESTERN THEOLOGICAL 
SE MINA RY 

N.S. PITTSBURGH, PENN'A 




A — HERRON HALL C— DR. SNOWDP]N'S RESIDENCE. E— OLD LIBRARY. 

R— DR. KELSO'S RESIDENCE. D— DR. SCHAFF'S RESIDENCE G — SWIFT HALL 



F — MEMORIAL HALL. 



v^ 



CATALOGUE 

1920 - 1921 



THE BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Western Theological 
Seminary 



Published quarterly, in January, April, July, and October 
by the 



TRUSTEES OF THE 

Western Theological Seminary 

OF THE 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA 



Entered as Second Class Matter December 9. 1909, at the Postoffice at Pittsburgh, 
Pa. (North Diamond Station), Under the Act of Aug. 24, 1912 



PITTSBURGH PRINTING COMPANY 
PITTSBURGH. PA. 



CALENDAR FOR 1921 



THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 24th. 
Day of Prayer for Colleges. 

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 27th. 

Written examinations at 8:30 A. M.; continued Thursday, April 
28th, Friday, April, 29th, and Saturday, April 30th. 

SUNDAY, MAY 1st. 

Baccalaureate sermon in the Sixth Presbyterian Church, at 

11:00 A. M. 
Seniors' communion service at 3:00 P. M. in the Chapel. 

MONDAY, MAY 2nd. 

Oral examinations at 2:00 P. M.; continued Tuesday, Maj' 3rd. 
and Wednesday, May 4th. 

THURSDAY, MAY 5th. 

Annual meeting of the Board of Directors in the President's 
Office at 10:00 A. M. 

THURSDAY, MAY 5th. 

Commencement exercises. Conferring of diplomas and address 

to the graduating class, 3:00 P. M. 
Meeting of Alumni Association and annual dinner, 5:00 P. M. 

FRIDAY, MAY 6th. 

Annual meeting of Board of Trustees at 3:00 P. M. • 

Session of 1921-22 — 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20th. 

Reception of new students in the President's Office at 3:00 

P. M. 
Matriculation of students and distribution of rooms in the 

President's Office at 4:00 P. M. 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 21st. 

Opening address in the Chapel at 10:30 A. M. 

TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 15th. 

Semi-annual meeting of the Board of Directors at 2:00 P. M. 

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 16th. 

Semi-annual meeting of the Board of Trustees at 3:00 P. M.. 
in the parlor of the First Presbyterian Church. Pittsburgh. 

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 23rd. (Noon) — FRIDAY, NOVEMBER' 
25th. (8:30 A. M.) 

Thanksgiving recess. 

SATURDAY, DECEMBER 17th. (Noon) — TUESDAY, JANUARY 
3rd. (8:30 A. M.) 

Christmas recess. 

3 (57) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 
BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

OFFICERS 

President 

GEORGE B. LOGAN 

Y'ice-Presideiit 

JOHN R. GREGG 

Secretary 

THE REV. SAMUEL J. FISHER, D. D. 

Counsel 

T. D. McCLOSKBY 

Treasui-er 

COMMONWEALTH TRUST COMPANY 



TRUSTEES 



Class of 1921 

Geo. D. Edwards R. D. Campbell 

John G. Lyon *D. McK. Lloyd 

The Rev. S. J. Fisher, D. D. Alex. C. Robinson 

The Rev. Frank W. Sneed, D. D. 

Class of 1923 

Joseph A. Herron Oliver McClintock 

Ralph W. Harbison Wilson A. Shaw 

Geo. B. Logan William M. Robinson 

The Rev. William J. Holland, D. D., LL. -D. 

Class of 1923 

Hon. J. McF. Carpenter Charles A. Dickson 

The Rev. W. A. Jones, D. D. John R. Gregg 

Daniel M. Clemson Sylvester S. Marvin 

Robert Wardrop 

*Died, Dec. 11, 1919. 

4 (58) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



STANDING CO^LVirrTEES 



Geo. B. Logan 
*David McK. Lloyd 



Executive 

F. W. Sneed, D. D. 
Oliver McClintock 



George D. Edwards 
S. J. Fisher, D. D. 



A. C. Robinson 



Auditors 

R. W. Harbison 



Geo. D. Edwards 



John R. Gregi 



Pi'operty 

Geo. B. Logan 
Alex. C. Robinson 



R. W. Harbison 



Finance 

President, Treasurer, Secretary, and Auditors 

Library 

A. C. Robinson F. W. Sneed, D. D. J. A. Kelso, Ph. D., D. D 

Advisory Member of all Committees 

James A. Kelso, Ph. D., D. D., ex officio 



Annual Meeting, Friday before second Tuesday in May, 3:00 P. M.; 
semi-annual meeting, Wednesday following third Tuesday in 
November, 3:00 P. M., in the parlor of the First Presbyterian 
Church, Sixth Avenue. 



•Deceased. 



5 (59) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

OPPICERS _ 

President 

THE REV. CALVIN C. HAYS, D. D. 

Vice-Pi'esident 

THE REV. J. KINSEY SMITH, D. D. 

Secretary 

THE REV. JOSEPH M. DUFF, D. D. 

DIRECTORS 

Class of 1921 

Examining Committee 

The Rev. Thomas B. Anderson, D. D. W. D. Brandon 

The Rev. Jesse C. Bruce, D. D. Dr. John C. Acheson 

The Rev. Joseph M. Duff, D. D. John F. Miller 

The Rev. John A. Marquis, D. D. 

The Rev. J. M. Potter, D. D. 

The Rev. William P. Shrom, D. D. 

The Rev. William H. Spence, D. D., Litt. D. 

Class of 1922 

The Rev. Maitland Alexander, D. D. T. D. McCloskey 

The Rev. Wm. O.Campbell, D. D. J. S. Crutchfield 

The Rev. Geo. N. Luccock, D. D. James Rae 

The Rev. Joseph T. Gibson, D. D. 

The Rev. J. Millen Tlobinson, D. D., LL. D. 

The Rev. John M. Mealy, D. D. 

The Rev. Samuel Semple, D. D. 



(60) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Class of 1923 

The Rev. Calvin C. Hays, D. D. Ralph W. Harbison 

The Rev. Wm. H. Hudnut, D. D. James I. Kay 

The Rev. Hugh T. Kerr, D. D. Wilson A. Shaw 

The Rev. George Taylor, Jr.. Ph. D. 

The Rev. William E. Slemmons, D. D. 

The Rev. J. Kinsey Smith, D. D. 

The Rev. William F. Weir, D. D. 

Class of 1924 

The Rev. William R. Craig, D. D. Charles N. Hanna 

The Rev. David S. Kennedy, D. D. George B. Logan 

The Rev. Frederick W. Hinitt, D. D. Alex. C. Robinson 

The Rev. S. B. McCormick, D. D., LL. D. 

The Rev. William L. McEwan, D. D. 

The Rev W. P. Stevenson, D. D. 

The Rev. A. P. Higley, D. D. 



STANDING COMMITTEES 

Executive 

Hugh T. Kerr, D. D. Joseph M. Duff, D. D. 

S. B. McCormick, D. D. A. C. Robinson 

T. D. McCloskey 

James A. Kelso, Ph. D., D. D., ex officio 

CuiTiciilum 

A. P. Higley, D. D. William F. Weir, D. D. 

Samuel Semple, D. D. J. S. Crutchfield 

Pre-Coniniencenieiit Conference 

J. Kinsey Smith, D. D. J. M. Potter, D. D. W. A. Shaw 

Annual Meeting, Thursday before second Tuesday in May and semi- 
annual meeting, third Tuesday in November at 2:00 P. M., in 
the President's Office, Herron Hall. 



(61) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



FACULTY 



The Rev. James A. Kelso, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D. 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation 

The Rev. Robert Christie, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Apologetics 

The Rev. David Riddle Breed, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. David S. Schaff, D. D. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 

The Rev. William R. Farmer, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Systematic Theology 



Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. David E. Culley, Ph. D. 

Assistant Professor of Hebrew 

The Rev. Samuel Angus, Ph. D. 

Acting Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 



The Rev. Frank Eakin, B. D. 

Instructor in New Testament Greek and Librarian 

Prof. George M. Sleeth 

Instructor in Elocution 

Mr. Charles N. Boyd 

Instructor in Music 
8 (62) 



TJie Bulletin of flip Wesffrn Theolocfical Seyninary 



COMMITTEES OF THE FACULTY 

Conference 

Dr. Breed and Dr. Christie 

Elliott L/ectureship 

Dr. Schaff and Dr. Farmer 

Bulletin 

Dr. Snowden and Dr. Culley 

Curriculum 

Dr. Farmer and Dr. Snowden 

Library 

Dr. Culley and Dr. Schaff 

Foreign Students 

Dr. Culley and Dr. Breed 



Assistant to Librarian 

Miss Sara M. Higgins 

Secretary to the President 

Miss Margaret M. Read 



9 (63) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



LECTURES 

On the Elliott Foundation. 

The Rev. Samuel Angus, Ph. D. 

"The Mystery Religions and Christianity." 

1. "Orientation — The Historical Crises in the Grseco- 

Roman World Bearing upon the Mystery Religious 
and Christianity." 

2. "The General Character of a Mystery Religion." 

3. "The Three Stages of a Mystery Religion." 

4. "Circumstances Favoring the Spread of the Mysteries." 

5. "The Appeal of the Mystery Religions." 

6. "Christianity and the Mystery Religions in Contrast. 

The Failure of the Mystery Religions." 

7. "The Triumph of Christianity." 

Jjeetures on the New Era Movement (5 lectnres). 

The Rev. William S. Holt, D. D., LL. D. 

Conference Lectures. 

"Walt Whitman", The Rev. Joseph H. Bausman, D. D. 
"The Situation in Siam", The Rev. Paul A. Eakin. 
"New Home Missions Program" . ) 

"Home Missions" | ^^^ ^^^'- ^- ^""^^ Eastman 

"Boy Scout Movement", Mr. George W. Ehler. 

"Missions in China", The Rev. W. O. Elterich, D. D. 

"Pastoral Evangelism", The Rev. Charles LeRoy Goodell, D. D. 

"Missions in India", The Rev. C. A. R. Janvier, D. D. 

"Evangelistic Work in Japan", The Rev. Paul M. Kanamori. 

"Home Missions", The Rev. David McMartin. 

"Foreigners in America from a Traveler's Viewpoint", The Rev. 

John Nelson Mills, D. D. 
"New Mexico as a Home Mission Field", The Rev. J. Logan 

Marquis, D. D. 
"The College Man and Industrial Problems", Mr. Fred H. 

Rindge, Jr. 
"The Pilgrims: Their First Experiences and Experiments in 

Plymouth", Dean Talcott Williams, LL. D., Litt. D. 

Day of Prayer for Colleges. 
The Rev. M. M. McDivitt, D. D. 

10 (64) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



AWARDS: MAY. 1920 

The Diploma of the Semhiary 

was awarded to 

Samuel Neale Alter Roy Frank Miller 

George Bardarik Paul Steacey Sprague 

Joseph Albert Martin John Toniasula 

Gill Robb Wilson 

The Degree of Bachelor of Divinity 

was conferred upon 
George Bardarik Donald Archibald Irwin 

The Seminary Fellowship 

was awarded to 
Roy Frank Miller 

The Honniletical Prize 

was awarded to 
Gill Robb Wilson 

The Hebrew Prize 

was awarded to 
Walter H. Millinger 

Merit Prizes 

were awarded to 

George K. Bamford Walter H. Millinger 

Walter L. Moser Paul L. Warnshuis 

John C. Rupp J. Wallace Willoughby 



11 (65) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



STUDENTS 



Fellows 

John Greer Bingham Mercer, Pa. 

A. B., Grove City College, 190 5. 
Western Theological Seminary, 1916. 

Ralph C. Hofmeister Volant, Pa. 

A. B., Cedarville College, 1914. 
Western Theological Seminary, 1918. 

James Mayne, Mt. Pleasant, Pa Edinburgh, Scotland 

University of Pittsburgh 

B. D., Western Theological Seminary, 1918 

Roy Frank Miller Cochranton, Pa. 

B. Sc, West Virginia University, 1915 
Western Theological Seminary, 1920 

Clyde Randolph Wheeland Chicago, 111. 

B. D., Western Theological Seminary, 1917 

Fellows 5 



Graduate Students 

Rev. Alfred D'Aliberti Steubenville, Ohio 

Bloomfield Theological Seminary, 1919 

Rev. Wm. O. Elterich, D. D., Chefoo, China . . 919 Union Ave., N. S. 
A. M., Washington and Jefferson College, 1888 
Western Theological Seminary, 1888 

Rev. Arthur Henry George, Camden, S. C 315 

A. B., Biddle University, 1917 

S. T. B., Biddle Theological Seminary, 1920 

Rev. James Adolph Hamilton, Jerusalem, Palestine 305 

A. B., James Millikin University, 1920 
McCormick Theological Seminary, 1917 

Rev. Hampton Theodore McFadden, Sumter, S. C 315 

A. B., Biddle University, 1917 

S. T. B., Biddle Theological Seminary, 1920 

Rev. Eric Johan Nordlander, Worcester, Mass 305 

A. B., University of Pittsburgh, 1910 

B. D., Divinity Scliool of University of Chicago, 1910 

12 (66) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Rev. Leonard J. Ramsey, Inman, S. C 527 Lovelace St., W. E. 

A. B., Carson-Newman College, 1916 

B. D., Colgate University, 1919 

Rev. David Lester Say Cross Creek, Pa. 

A. B., Grove City College, 1914 
Western Theological Seminary, 1917 

Rev. Theodore Rudolph Schmale 506 Lockhart St., N. S. 

Eden Theological Seminary, 1906 
Western Theological Seminary, 1910 

Rev. Paul Steacey Sprague, Sewickley, Pa 217 

A. B., Wabash College, 1917 
Western Theological Seminary, 1920 

Rev. Grover Elmer Swoyer 1122 High St., N. S. 

A. B., Wittenberg College, 1913 

Chicago Lutheran Theological Seminary, 1917 

Rev. John Tomasula, Lucky, Czecho-Slovakia 316 

Bloomfield Theological Seminary 
Western Theological Seminary, 1920 

Graduate Students, 12 



Senior Class 

George Kyle Bamford, Belfast, Ireland Pittsburgh 

Grove City College 

Leon Buczak, Czahary, Galicia, Austria 303 

Bloomfield Theological Seminary 

Robert Harvey Henry, Saltsburg, Pa 202 

A. B., Defiance College, 1917 

Andrew Jay Hudock, Kingston, Pa 218 

Bloomfield Theological Seminary 

Charles Jesse Krivulka, Belfast, N. Y Box 117, Pittock, Pa. 

Bloomfield Theological Seminary 

Frederick Christian Leypoldt, Philadelphia, Pa 204 

Bloomfield Theological Seminary 

Walter Lysander Moser, Butler, Pa 302 

A. B., Grove City College, 1915 

John Christian Rupp Wall, Pa. 

A. B., Lebanon Valley College, 1906 

13 (67) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Abraham Boyd Weisz 2 6 Elm Lane, Etna, Pa. 

A. B., Grove City College, 1917 

Joseph J. Welenteichick, Tighny, Russia 317 

Bloomfield Theological Seminary 

Senior Class 10 

Middle Class 

Clifford Edward Barbour .... 718 N. St. Clair St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
A. B., University of Pittsburgh, 1921 

Archibald Ferguson Fulton Belle Vernon, Pa. 

A. B., Oskaloosa College, 1920 

Lewis A. Galbraith, Independence, Pa 302 

Park College 

Elgie Leon Gibson, Petrolia, Pa 306 

A. B., Grove City College, 1919 

Daniel Hamill Glenfield, Pa. 

A. B., Waynesburg College, 1919 

Ralph K. Merker 1500 Beaver Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

B. Sc, Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1918 

Walter Harold Millinger 5213 Friendship Ave. 

Litt. B., Princeton University, 1918 

Basil A. Murray, North Warren, Pa 318 

A. B., Westminister College (Pa.), 1917 

Samuel Galbraith Neal, Bulger, Pa 205 

Washington and Jefferson College 

Roscoe Walter Porter, Summerville, Pa 309 

A. B., Muskingum College, 1920 

Emile Augustin Rivard, Charleroi, Pa 304 

McGill University 
Amherst College 

Paul Livingstone Warnshuis, Blairsville, Pa 203 

A. B., Washington & Jefferson College, 1917 

James Wallace Willoughby, 212 Fifth St., Aurora, Ind 306 

A. B., Wabash College, 1919 

Middle Class 13 
14 (68) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Junior Class 

Arthur Dow Behrends. Pittsburgh, Pa 216 

A. B., Wittenberg College, 1912 

Jasper Morgan Cox, Parkersburg, W. Va 205 

Maryville College 

Calvin Hoffman Hazlett, Newark, Ohio 203 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1917 

John Maurice Leister Trafford, Pa. 

A. B., Lebanon Valley College, 1915 

John Lloyd 84 8 N. Lincoln Ave., N. S. 

A. B., Carroll College, 1920 

L. Lane McCammon, West Alexander, Pa 204 

A. B., Bethany College, 1920 

James Martin, Mansfield, Ohio 206 

A. B., Maryville College, 1920 

Willard Colby Mellin, Manorville, Pa 318 

A. B., University of California, 1920 

William Owen 8 41 N. Lincoln Ave., N. S. 

Metropolitan Seminary, London, 1912 

Robert Lloyd Roberts, Marion Center, Pa 206 

A. B., Lafayette College, 1920 

Harry Lawrence Wissinger Murrysville, Pa. 

A. B., Allegheny College, 1912 

Junior Class 11 



Siinunary of Students 

Fellows 5 

Graduates 12 

Seniors 10 

Middlers 13 

Juniors 11 

Total 51 



15 (69) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

REPRESENTATION 

Seminaries 

Biddle Theological Seminary 2 

Bloomfield Theological Seminary 7 

Chicago Lutheran Seminary 1 

Divinity School of Chicago University 1 

Eden Theological Seminary 1 

McCormick Theological Seminarj^ 1 

Metropolitan Seminary, London 1 

Western Theological Seminary 10 

Colleges and Universities 

Allegheny College 1 

Amherst College 1 

Bethany College 1 

Biddle University 2 

California University of 1 

Carnegie Institute of Technology 1 

Carroll College 1 

Carson-Newman College 1 

Cedarville College 1 

Colgate University 1 

Defiance College 1 

Grove City College 6 

James Millikin University 1 

Lafayette College 1 

Lebanon Valley College 2 

McGill University 1 

Maryville College 2 

Muskingum College 1 

Oskaloosa College 1 

Park College 1 

Pittsburgh, University of 3 

Princeton University 1 

Wabash College 2 

Washington and Jefferson College 4 

Waynesburg College 1 

Westminister College (Pa.) 1 

West Virginia University 1 

Wittenberg College 2 

States and Countries 

Austria . . 1 

China 1 

Czecho-Slovakia 1 

Illinois 1 

Indiana 1 

Ireland , 1 

Massachusetts 1 

New York 1 

Ohio 3 

Palestine 1 

Pennsylvania 34 

Russia 1 

South Carolina 3 

West Virginia 1 

16 (70) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS 
Senior Class 

President: R. H. Henry Secretary: W. L. Moser 

Vice President: A. B. Weisz Treasurer: Leon Buczak 

jVIiddle Class 

President: S. G. Neal Vice President: W. H. Millinger 

Treasurer: L. A. Galbraith 

Junior Class 

President: C. H. Hazlett Secretary-Treasurer: A. D. Behrends 

Y. M. C. A. 

President: W. L. Moser Secretary: L. A. Galbraith 

Vice President: R. H. Henry Treasurer: J. W. Willoughby 



Y. M. C. A. COMMITTEES 

Devotional 

S. G. Neal, Chairman A. F. Fulton 

James Martin C. E. Barbour 

J. M. Cox Mr. Eakin 



Home Missions 

J. J. Welenteichick, Chairman 
B. A. Murray 

Foreign Missions 

F. C. Leypoldt, Chairman 
R. W. Porter 

Athletics 

J. W. Willoughby, Chairman 
L. L. McCammon 



J. C. Rupp 

Dr. Snowden 



A. D. Behrends 
Dr. Culley 



Dr. Schaff 



W. L. Moser, Chairman 



Publicity 



Dr. Kelso 



Social 



R. H. Henry, Chairman 
R. W. Porter 
E. L. Gibson 



E. A. Rivard 
W. C. Mellin 
Dr. Breed 



17 (71) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Historical Sketch 

The Western Theological Seminary w^as established 
in the year 1825. The reason for the founding of the 
Seminary is expressed in the resolution on the subject, 
adopted by the General Assembly of 1825, to wit: "It 
is expedient forthwith to establish a Theological Semin- 
ary in the West, to be styled the Western Theological 
Seminary of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States." The Assembly took active measures for carry- 
ing into execution the resolution which had been adopted, 
by electing a Board of Directors consisting of twenty- 
one ministers and nine ruling elders, and by instructing 
this Board to report to the next General Assemblj^ a 
suitable location and such ' ' alterations ' ' in the plan of 
the Princeton Seminary, as, in their judgment, might 
be necessary to accommodate it to the local situation of 
the "Western Seminary." 

The General Assembly of 1827, by a bare majority 
of two votes, selected Allegheny as the location for the 
new institution. The first session was formally com- 
menced on November 16, 1827, with a class of four young 
men who were instructed by the Rev. E. P. Swift and the 
Rev. Joseph Stockton. 

During the ninety-three years of her existence, two 
thousand three hundred and seventy students have at- 
tended the classes of the Western Theological Seminary ; 
and of this number, over eighteen hundred have been 
ordained as ministers of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. 
A. Her missionary alumni, one hundred thirty-five in 
number, many of them having distinguished careers, 
have preached the Gospel in every land where mission- 
ary enterprise is conducted. 

Location 

The choice of location, as the history of the institu- 
tion has shoAvn, w^as wisel}'- made. The Seminary in 

18 (72) 




H 
P-, 
< 

o 

Q 

Q 

l-H 

pq 
O 

p:; 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

course of time ceased, indeed, to be western in the strict 
sense of the term; but it became central to one of the 
most important and influential sections of the Presby- 
terian Church, equally accessible to the West and East. 
The buildings are situated near the summit of Ridge 
Avenue, Pittsburgh (North Side), mainly on West Park, 
one of the most attractive sections of the city. Within 
a block of the Seminary property some of the finest resi- 
dences of Greater Pittsburgh are to be found, and at the 
close of the catalogue prospective students will find a 
map showing the beautiful environs of the institution. 
It is twenty minutes' walk from the center of business 
in Pittsburgh, with a ready access to all portions of the 
city, and yet as quiet and free from disturbance as if in 
a remote suburb. In the midst of this community of 
more than 1,000,000 people and center of strong Presby- 
terian churches and church life, the students have unlim- 
ited opportunities of gaining familarity with every type 
of modern church organization and work. The practical 
experience and insight which they are able to acquire, 
without detriment to their studies, are a most valuable 
element in their preparation for the ministry. 

Buildings 

The first Seminary building was erected in the year 
1831 ; it was situated on what is now known as Monu- 
ment Hill. It consisted of a central edifice, sixty feet 
in length by fifty in breadth, of four stories, having at 
each front a portico adorned with Corinthian columns, 
and a cupola in the center; and also two wings of three 
stories each, fifty feet by twenty-five. It contained a 
chapel of forty-five feet by twenty-five, with a gallery of 
like dimensions for the Library ; suites of rooms for pro- 
fessors, and accommodations for eighty students. It 
was continuously occupied until 1854, when it was com- 
pletely destroyed by fire, the exact date being January 
23. ' ' 

19 (73) 



TTie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

The second Seminar}^ building, "asnally designated 
"Seminary Hall," was erected in 1855, and formally 
dedicated January 10, 1856. This structure was consid- 
erably smaller than the original building, but contained 
a chapel, class rooms, and suites of rooms for twenty stu- 
dents. It was partially destroyed by hre in 1887, and 
was immediately revamped. Seminary Hall was torn 
down November 1, 1914, to make room for the new 
buildings. 

The first dormitory was made possible by the gen- 
erosity of Mrs. Hetty E. Beatty. It was erected in 
the year 1859 and was known as "Beatty Hall." This 
structure had become wholly inadequate to the needs of 
the institution by 1877, and the Rev. C. C. Beatty fur- 
nished the funds for a new dormitory which was known 
as "Memorial Hall," as Dr. Beatt}^ wished to make the 
edifice commemorate the reunion of the Old and New 
.School branches of the Presbyterian Church. 

The old Library building was erected in 1872 at an 
expenditure of $25,000, but was poorly adapted to library 
purposes. It has been replaced by a modern library 
equipment in the group of new buildings. 

For the past ten years the authorities of the Semi- 
nary, as well as the almuni, have felt that the material 
equipment of the institution did not meet the require- 
ments of our age. In 1909 plans were made for the erec- 
tion of a new dormitory on the combined site of Memorial 
Hall and the professor's house Avhich stood next to it. 
The corner stone of this building was laid May 4, 1911, 
and the dedication took place May 9, 1912. The historic 
designation, "Memorial Hall," was retained. The total 
cost was $146,970; this fund was contributed by many 
friends and alumni of the Seminary. Competent judges 
consider it one of the handsomest public buildings in the 
City of Pittsburgh. It is laid out in the shape of a Y, 
which is an unusual design for a college building, but 
brings direct sunlight to every room. Another notice- 

20 (74) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

able feature of this dormitory is that there is not a single 
inside room of any kind. The architecture is of the type 
known as Tudor Gothic; the materials are reenforced 
concrete and fireproofing with the exterior of tapestry 
brick trimmed with gray terra cotta. The center is sur- 
mounted with a beautiful tower in the Oxford manner. 
It contains suites of rooms for ninety students, together 
with a handsomely furnished social hall, a well equipped 
gymnasium, and a commodious dining room. A full 
description of these public rooms will be found on other 
pages of this catalogue. 

The erection of two wings of a new group of build- 
ings, for convenience termed the administration group, 
was commenced in November 1914. The corner stone 
was laid on May 6, 1915, and the formal dedication, with 
appropriate exercises, took place on Commencement 
Day, May 4, 1916. These buildings are removed about 
half a block from Memorial Hall, and face the West 
Park, occupying an unusually tine site. It has been 
planned to erect this group in the form of a quadrangle, 
the entire length being 200 feet and depth 175 feet. 
The main architectural feature of the front wing is 
an entrance tower. While this tower enhances the 
beauty of the building, all the space in it has been care- 
fully used for offices and class rooms. The rear wing, 
in addition to containing two large class rooms which 
can be thrown into one, contains the new library. The 
stack room has a capaeity for 165,000 volumes. The 
stacks now installed will hold about 55,000 volumes. The 
reference room and the administrative offices of the li- 
brary, mtli seminar rooms, are found on the second floor. 
The reference room, 88 by 38 feet, is equipped and dec- 
orated in the mediaeval Gothic style, with capacity for 
10,000 volmnes. The architecture of the entire group is 
the English Collegiate Gothic of the type which prevails 
in the college buildings at Cambridge, England. The ma- 
terial is tapestry brick, trimmed with gray terra cotta of 

21 (75) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the Indiana limestone shade. The total cost of the two 
completed wings was $154,777.00, of which $130,000.00 
was furnished by over five hundred subscribers in the 
campaign of October, 1913. The east wing of this group 
will contain rooms for museums, two classrooms, and a 
residence for the President of the Seminary. A gener- 
ous donor has provided the funds for the erection of the 
chapel which will constitute the west wing of the quad- 
rangle. The architect is Mr. Thomas Hannah, of Pitts- 
burgh. 

There are four residences for professors. Two are 
situated on the east and two on the west side of the new 
building and all face the Park. 

Social Hall 

The new dormitory contains a large social hall, 
which occupies an entire floor in one wing. This room 
is very handsomely finished in white quartered oak, with 
a large open fireplace at one end. The oak furnishing, 
which is upholstered in leather, is very elegant and was 
chosen to match the woodwork. The prevailing color in 
the decorations is dark green and the rugs are Hartford 
Saxony in oriental patterns. The rugs were especially 
woven for the room. This handsome room, which is the 
center of the social life of the Seminary, was erected and 
furnished by Mr. Sylvester S. Marvin, of the Board of 
Trustees, and his two sons, Walter R. Marvin and Earl 
R. Marvin, as a memorial to Mrs. Matilda Rumsey Mar- 
vin. It is the center of the social life of the student 
body, and during the past year, under the auspices of the 
Student Association, four formal musicals and socials 
have been held in this hall. The weekl}^ devotional meet- 
ing of the Student Association is also conducted in this 
room. 

Dining Hall 

A commodious and handsomely equipped Dining 
Hall was included in the new Memorial Hall. It is lo- 

22 (76) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

cated in the top story of the left wing with the kitchen 
adjoining in the rear wing. Architecturally this room 
may be described as Gothic, and when the artistic scheme 
of decoration is completed will be a replica of the Din- 
ing Hall of an Oxford college. The actual operation of 
the commons began Dec. 1, 1913; the management is in 
the hands of a student manager and the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Student Association. It is the aim of the 
Trustees of the Seminary to furnish good wholesome 
food at cost; but incidentally the assembling of the stu- 
dent body three times a day has strengthened, to a 
marked degree, the social and spiritual life of the insti- 
tution. 

Admission 

The Seminary, while under Presbyterian control, is 
open to students of all denominations. As its special 
aim is the training of men for the Christian ministry, 
applicants for admission are requested to present satis- 
factory testimonials that they possess good natural tal- 
ents, that they are prudent and discreet in their deport- 
ment, and that they are in full communion with some 
evangelical church; also that they have the requisite 
literary preparation for the studies of the theological 
course. 

College students intending to enter the Seminary are 
strongly recommended to select such courses as will pre- 
pare them for the studies of a theological curriculum. 
They should pay special attention to Latin, Greek, Ger- 
man, English Literature and Ehetoric, Logic, Ethics, 
Psychology, the History of Philosophy, and General 
History. If possible, students are advised to take ele- 
mentary courses in Hebrew and make some study of 
New Testament Greek. In the latter subject a mastery 
of the New Testament vocabulary and a study of Bur- 
ton's "Moods and Tenses of the New Testament Greek" 
and Moulton's "Prolegomena" will be found especially 
helpful. 

23 (77) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

An examination in the elements of Greek grammar 
and easy Greek prose is held at the opening of each 
Seminary year for all first year students. Those who 
pass this examination with Grade A are exempt from the 
lingnistic courses in Greek (i. e. Courses 13 and 14). 
Those making Grade B or C are required to pursue 
Course 14, while a propaedeutic course (No. 13) is pro- 
vided for students who do not take this preliminary ex- 
amination or who fail to pass it. (See page 44.) 

College graduates with degrees other than that of 
Bachelor of Arts are required to take an extra elective 
study in their senior year. If an applicant for admis- 
sion is not a college graduate, he is required either to 
pass examination in each of the following subjects, or 
to furnish a certificate covering a similar amount of 
work which he has actually done : 

(1) Latin — Grammar; Translation of passages 
tak^n from: Livy, Bk. I.; Horace, Odes, Bk. I; Tacitus, 
Annals, I- VI. 

(2) Greek — Grammar; Translation of passages 
taken from: Xenophon's Memorabilia; Plato's x\pology; 
Lysias, Selected Orations; Thucydides, Bk. I. 

(3) English — Rhetoric, Genung or A. S. Hill; Pan- 
coast, History of English Literature ; two of the dramas 
of Shakespeare; Browning's ''A Death in the Desert" 
and ''Saul;" Tennyson's "In Memoriam;" Essays of 
Emerson and Carlyle ; Burke and Webster, two orations 
of each. 

(4) General History — A standard text-book, such 
as Fisher, Meyer, or Swinton; some work on religious 
history, such as Breed's "The Preparation of the "World 
for Christ". 

(5) Philosophy — Logic, Jevon's or Baker's Argu- 
mentation; Psychology, James' Briefer Course; History 

24 (78) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

of Philosophy, Weber's, Falkenberg's, or Cushman's 
standard works. 

(6) Natural Science — Biology, Geology, Physics 
or Chemistry. 

(7) Social Science — Political Economy and 
Sociology. 

Students who wish to take these examinations must 
make special arrangements with the President. 

Students from Other Theological Seminaries 

Students coming from other theological seminaries 
are required to present certificates of good standing and 
regular dismission before they can be received. 

Graduate Students 

Those who desire to be enrolled for post-graduate 
study will be admitted to matriculation on presenting 
their diplomas or certificates of graduation from other 
theological seminaries. 

Resident licentiates and ministers have the privilege 
of attending lectures in all departments. 

Seminary Year 

The Seminary 3^ear, consisting of one term, is di- 
vided into two semesters. The first semester closes with 
the Christmas holidays and the second commences imme- 
diately after the opening of the New Year. The Semi- 
nary Year begins with the third Tuesday of September 
and closes the Thursday before the second Tuesday in 
May. It is expected that every student will be present 
at the opening of the session, when the rooms will be al- 
lotted. The more important days are indicated in the 
calendar (p. 3). 

Examinations 

Examinations, written or oral, are required in every 
department, and are held twice a year, or at the end of 

25 (79) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

each semester. The oral examinations, which occupy 
the first three days of the last week of the session, are 
open to the public. Students who do not pass satisfac- 
tory examinations may be re-examined at the beginning 
of the next term, but, failing then to give satisfaction, 
will be regarded as partial or will be required to enter 
the class corresponding to the one to which they belonged 
the previous year. 

Diplomas 

In order to obtain the diploma of this institution, a 
student must be a graduate of some college or else sus- 
tain a satisfactory examination in the subjects mentioned 
on page 23, and he must have completed a course of 
three years' study, either in this institution, or partly in 
this and partly in some other regular Theological Sem- 
inary. 

The Seminary diploma will be granted only to those 
students who can pass a satisfactory examination in all 
dep'artments of the Seminar}^ curriculum and have sat- 
isfied all requirements as to attendance. 

Men who have taken the full course at another Semi- 
nary, including the departments of Hebrew and Greek 
Exegesis, Dogmatic Theology, Church History, and Pas- 
toral Theology, and have received a diploma, will be en- 
titled to a diploma from this Seminary on condition: (1) 
that they take the equivalent of a full year's work in a 
single year or two years; (2) that they be subject to the 
usual rules governing our classroom work, such as regu- 
lar attendance and recitations; (3) that they pass the ex- 
aminations with the classes of which they are members; 
(4) it is a further condition that such students attend ex- 
ercises in at least three departments, one of which shall 
be either Greek or Hebrew Exegesis. 

Religious Exercises 

As the Seminary does not maintain public services 
on the Lord's Day, each student is expected to connect 

26 (80) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

himself with one of the congreg-ations in Pittsburgh, and 
thus to be under pastoral care and to perform his duties 
as a church member. 

Abundant opportunities for Christian work are af- 
forded by the various churches, missions, and benevo- 
lent societies of this large community. This kind of 
labor has been found no less useful for practical training 
than the work of supplying the pulpits. Daily prayers at 
11 :20 A. M., which all the students are required to attend, 
are conducted by the Faculty. A meeting for prayer 
and conference, conducted by the professors, is held 
every Wednesday morning, at which addresses are made 
by the professors and invited speakers. 

Senior Preaching Service 

{See Stiidij Courses 47, 48, 56.) 

Public worship is observed every Monday evening 
in the Seminary Chapel, from October to April, under 
the direction of the professor of homiletics. This ser- 
vice is intended to be in all respects what a regular 
church service should be. It is attended by the mem- 
bers of the faculty, the entire student body, and friends 
of the Seminary generally. It is conducted by members 
of the senior class in rotation. The preacher is prepared 
for his duties by preliminary criticism of his sermon and 
by pulpit drill on the preceding Saturday, and no com- 
ment whatever is offered at the service itself. The Ce- 
cilia Choir is in attendance to lead the singing and fur- 
nish a suitable anthem. The service is designed to min- 
ister to the spiritual life of the Seminary and also to fur- 
nish a model of Presbyterian form and order. The ex- 
ercises are all reviewed by the professor in charge at his 
next subsequent meeting with the senior class. Mem- 
bers of the faculty are also expected to offer to the 
officiating student any suggestions they may deem de- 
sirable. 

27 (81) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Se^ninary 

Students' Y. M. C. A. 

This society has been recently organized under the 
direction of the Faculty, which is represented on each 
one of the committees. Students are ipso facto and mem- 
bers of the Faculty ex officio members of the Seminary 
Y. M. C. A. Meetings are held weekly, the exercises be- 
ing alternately missionary and devotional. It is the suc- 
cessor of the Students' Missionary Society and its special 
object is to stimulate the missionary zeal of its members; 
but the name and form of the organization have been 
changed for the purpose of a larger and more helpful 
co-operation with similar societies. 



Christian Work 

The City of Pittsburgh affords unusual opportuni- 
ties for an adequate stud}' of the manifold forms of mod- 
ern Christian activity. Students are encouraged to en- 
gage in some form of Christian work other than preach- 
ing, as it is both a stimulus to devotional life and forms 
an important element in a training for the pastorate. 
Regular Avork in several different lines has been carried 
on under the direction of committees of the Y. M. C. A., 
including services at the Presbyterian Hospital, at the 
Old Ladies' Home and the Old Couples' Home, "Wilkins- 
burg, and at two Missions in the do"^^^lto'wn district of 
Pittsburgh. Several students have had charge of mis- 
sion churches in various parts of the city while others 
have been assistants in Sunday School work or have con- 
ducted Teacher Training Classes. Those who are in- 
terested in settlement work have unusual opportunities 
of familiarizing themselves with this form of social ac- 
tivity at the Wood's Run Industrial Home, the Kingsley 
House, and the Heinz Settlement. 



28 (82) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Bureau of Preaching Supply 

A bureau of preaching supply has been organized by 
the Faculty for the purpose of apportioning supply work, 
as request comes in from the vacant churches. No at- 
tempt is made to secure places for students either hy ad- 
vertising or hy application to Preshyterial Committees. 
The allotment of places is in alphabetical order. The 
members of the senior class and regularly enrolled 
graduate students have the preference over the middle 
class, and the middle class in turn over the junior. 

Rules Governing the Distribution of Calls for 
Preaching 

1. All allotment of preaching will be made directly from the 

President's Office by the President of the Seminary or a 
member of the Faculty. 

2. Calls for preaching will be assigned in alphabetical order, the 

members of the senior class having the preference, followed 
in turn by the middle and junior classes. 

3. In case a church names a student in its request, the call will 

be offered to the person mentioned; if he decline, it will be 
assigned according to Rule 2, and the church will be notified. 

4. If a student who has accepted an assignment finds it impossible 

to fill the engagement, he is to notify the office, when a new 
arrangement will be made and the student thus giving up 
an oppointment will lose his turn as provided for under Rule 
2 ; but two students who have received appointments from 
the office may exchange with each other. 

5. All students supplying churches regularly are expected to re- 

port this fact and their names will not be included in the al- 
phabetic roll according to the provisions of Rule 2. 

6. When a church asks the Faculty to name a candidate from the 

senior or post-graduate classes, Rule 2 in regard to alpha- 
betic order will not apply, but the person sent will lose his 
turn. In other words, a student will not be treated both as 
a candidate and as an occasional supply. 

7. Graduate students, complying with Rule 4 governing scholar- 

ship aid, will be put in the roll of the senior class. 

8. If there are not sufficient calls for all the senior class any week, 

the assignments the following week will commence at the 
point in the roll where they left off the previous week, but 
no middler will be sent any given week until all the seniors 
are assigned. The middle class will be treated in the same 
manner as the seniors, i. e., every member of the class will 
have an opportunity to go, before the head of the roll is as- 
signed a second time. No junior -will be sent out until all 

29 (83) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the members of the two upper classes are assigned, but, like 
the members of the senior and middle classes, each member 
will have an equal chance. 
9. These rules in regard to preaching are regulations of the Fac- 
ulty and as such are binding on all matriculants of the Sem- 
inary. A student who disregards them or interferes with 
their enforcement will make himself liable to discipline, and 
forfeit his right to receive scholarship aid. 
10. A student receiving an invitation directly is at liberty to fill 
the engagement, but must notify the office, and will lose 
his turn according to Rule 2. 

Library 

The Library of the Seminary is now housed in its 
new home in Swift Hall, the south wing of the group of 
new buildings dedicated at the Commencement season, 
1916. This steel frame and fire-proof structure is English 
Collegiate Gothic in architectural design and provides 
the Library with an external equipment which, for beauty 
and completeness, is scarcely surpassed by any theolog- 
ical, institution on this continent. The handsome beam- 
ceilinged reading room is furnished in keeping with the 
architecture. It is equipped Avith individual reading 
lamps and accommodates many hundred circulating 
volumes, besides reference books and current periodicals. 
Adjoining this are rooms for library administration. 
There is also a large, quiet seminar room for all those 
who wish to conduct researches, where the volumes that 
the Library contains treating particular subjects may be 
assembled and used at convenience. A stack room with 
a capacity for 150 to 160 thousand volumes has been pro- 
vided and now has a steel stack equipment with space 
for about 50,000 volumes. 

The Library has recently come into possession of a 
unique hymnological collection of great value. It con- 
sists of 9 to 10 thousand volumes assembled by the late 
Mr. James Warrington of Philadelphia. During his 
lifetime Mr. Warrington made the study of Church Music 
his chief pastime and had gathered together all the ma- 
terial of any value published in Great Britain and Amer- 

30 (84) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

ica dealing with his favorite theme. The Library is 
exceedingly fortunate in the acquisition of this note- 
worthy collection, which will not only serve to enhance 
the work of the music department of the Seminary but 
offers to scholars and investigators, interested in the field 
of British and American Church Music, facilities un- 
equaled by any theological collection in the country. The 
collection, together with Mr. Warrington's original cata- 
logue and bibliographical material, occupies a separate 
room in the new building. The latter has been arranged 
and placed in new filing cabinets, thus rendering it con- 
venient and accessible. Already in recent years, before 
the purchase of Mr. Warrington's collection had been 
thought of for the Library, the department of hymnology 
had been enlarged, and embraced much that relates to the 
history and study of Church Music. 

Other departments of the library also have been 
built up and are now^ much more complete. The mediae- 
val waiters of Europe are well represented in excellent 
editions, and the collection of authorities on the Papacy 
is quite large. These collections, both for secular and 
church history, afford great assistance in research and 
original work. The department of sermons is supplied 
with the best examples of preaching — ancient and mod- 
ern — while every effort is made to obtain literature 
which bears upon the complete furnishing of the preacher 
and evangelist. To this end the missionary literature 
is rich in biography, travel, and education. Constant 
additions of the best writers on the oriental languages 
and Old Testament history are being made, and the li- 
brary grows richer in the works of the best scholars of 
Europe and America. The department of New Testa- 
ment Exegesis is well developed and being increased, not 
only by the best commentaries and exegetical works, but 
also by those which through history, essay, and sociolo- 
gical study illuminate and portray the times, people, and 
customs of the Gospel Age. The library possesses a 

31 (85) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

choice selection of works upon theology, philosophy, and 
ethics, and additions are being made of volumes which 
discuss the fundamental principles. While it is not 
thought desirable to include every author, the leading 
writers are given a place without regard to their creed. 
Increasing attention is being given to those writers who 
deal with the great social problems and the practical 
application of Christianity to the questions of ethical and 
social life. 

The number of volumes in the Library at present is, 
approximately, 35,000. This reckoning is exclusive of 
the Warrington collection and neither does it include 
unbound pamphlet material. Over one hundred period- 
icals are currently received, not including annual reports, 
3^ear books, government documents, and irregular con- 
tinuations. A modern card catalogue, in course of com- 
pletion, covers, at the present time, a great majority of 
the bound volumes in the library. 

' The library is open on week days to all ministers 
and others, without restriction of creed, subject to the 
same rules as apply to students. Hours are from 9 to 
4 daily except Saturdays ; Saturdays, from 9 to 12. 

No formal instruction in the use of the library is 
given at present, but it is desired that individual stu- 
dents who wish to know how to use library tools intelli- 
gently shall feel free to ask for individual instruction, 
and the librarians are glad to co-operate with any depart- 
ment in arranging for class work. 

The library is essentially theological, though it in- 
cludes much not to be strictl}^ defined by that term; for 
general literature the students have access to the Car- 
negie Library, which is situated within five minutes ' walk 
of the Seminary buildings. 

The James L. Shields Book Purchasing Memorial 
Fund, with an endowment of $1,000, has been founded 
by Mrs. Robert A. Watson of Columbus, Ohio, in memory 
of her father, the late James L. Shields of Blairsville, 
Pennsylvania. 

32 (86) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



The library is receiving the following periodicals 



American Catholic Quarterly Re- 
view. 

American Issue. 

American Journal of Achseology. 

American Journal of Philology. 

American Journal of Semitic 
Languages and Literature. 

American Journal of Sociology. 

American Lutheran Survey. 

American Messenger. 

Ancient Egypt. 

Archiv ftir Reformations- 
geschichte., 

Art and Archaeology. 

Asia. 

Atlantic Monthly. 

Auburn Seminary Record. 

Biblical Review. 

Bibliotheca Sacra. 

British Weekly. 

Catholic Historical Review. 

Chinese Recorder. 

Christian Endeavor World. 

Christian Education. 

Christian Herald. 

Christian Statesman. 

Christian Union Quarterly. 

Christian Work. 

Christian Worker's Magazine. 

Churchman. 

Congregationalist and Advance. 

Constructive Quarterly. 

Contemporary Review. 

Continent. 

Cumulative Book Index. 

East and West. 

Educational Review. 

Expositor. 

Expository Times. 

Glory of Israel. 

Harvard Theological Review. 

Herald and Presbyter. 

Hibbert Journal. 

Homiletic Review. 

Independent. 

International Journal of Ethics. 

International Review of Missions. 

Japan Review. 

Jewish Quarterly Review. 

Journal Asiatique. 

Journal of American Oriental 
Society. 

Journal of Biblical Literature. 

Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 

Journal of Hellenic Studies. 

Journal of Presbyterian Histor- 
ical Society. 

Journal of Religion. 



Journal of Royal Asiatic Society. 

Journal of Theological Studies. 

Korea Mission Field. 

Krest'anske Listy. 

Logos. 

London Quarterly Review. 

Lutheran Quarterly. 

Methodist Review. 

Mexican Review. 

Missionary Herald. 

Missionary Review of the World. 

Moslem World. 

Nation, The 

National Geographic Magazine. 

Neighborhood Class News. 

Neue Kirchliche Zeitschrift. 

New Era Magazine. 

New Republic. 

American Messenger. 

Nineteenth Century and After. 

North American Review. 

Open Road. 

Outlook. 

Palestine Exploration Fund. 

Pedagogical Seminary. 

Pittsburgh Christian Outlook. 

Prayer and Work for Israel. 

Presbyterian. 

Presbyterian Banner. 

Princeton Theological Review. 

Quarterly Register of Reformed 

Churclies. 
Quarterly Review. 
Reader's Guide. 
Reader's Guide Supplement. 
Reformatusok Lapja. 
Reformed Church Review. 
Religious Education. 
Revue Biblique. 
Revue d' Assyriologie. 
Revue Chretienne. 
Revue des Etudes Juives. 
Revue de I'Histoire des Religions 
Sailors' Magazine. 
Slovensky Kalvin. 
Social Service Review. 
Society of Biblical Archaeology. 
Survey, The 
United Presbyterian. 
World To-morrow. 
Yale Review. 
Zeitschrift fiir die Alttestament- 

liche Wissenschaft. 
Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie. 
Zeitschrift des Deutschen Pala- 

stina-Vereins. 
Zeitschrift fiir die Neutestament- 

liche Wissenschaft. 



33 (87) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Physical Training 

In 1912 the Seminaiy opened its own gymnasium 
in the new dormitory. This gymnasium is thoroughly 
equipped with the most modern apparatus. Its floor and 
walls are properl}^ spaced and marked for basket ball 
and handball courts. It is open to students five hours 
daily. The students also have access to the public ten- 
nis courts in West Park. 

Expenses 

A fee of ten dollars a 3^ear is required to be paid to 
the contingent fund for the heating and care of the li- 
brary and lecture rooms. Students residing in the dor- 
mitory^ and in rented rooms pay an additional twenty 
dollars for natural gas and service. 

All students who reside in the dormitory are re- 
quired to take their meals in the Seminary dining hall. 
TJie price for boarding is four dollars per week.* 

Prospective students may gain a reasonable idea of 
their necessar^^ expenses from the f ollomng table : 

Contingent Fee . . ' $ 30 

Boarding for 32 weeks 128 

Books 25 

Gymnasium Fee 2 

Sundries 15 

Total $200 

Students in need of financial assistance should ap- 
ply for aid, through their Presbyteries, to the Board of 
Education. The sums thus acquired may be supple- 
mented from the scholarship funds of the Seminarj^ 

Scholarship Aid 

1. All students needing financial assistance ma^^ re- 
ceive a maximum of $100 per annum from the scholar- 
ship fund of the Seminary. 



*During the current term, owing to the high cost of food, the 
price of boarding was raised to $6.50 per week. 

34 (88) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

2. The distribution is made in four installments: 
on the first Tuesda3^s of October, December, February, 
and April. 

3. A student whose grade falls below "C," or 75 
per cent., or who has five absences from class exercises 
without satisfactory excuse, shall forfeit his right to aid 
from this source. The following are not considered valid 
grounds for excuse from recitations: (1) work on Pres- 
bytery parts; (2) preaching or evangelistic engagements, 
unless special permission has been received from the 
Faculty (Application must be made in writing for such 
permission) ; (3) private business, unless imperative. 

4. A student who so desires, may borrow his schol- 
arship aid, with the privilege of repayment after gradua- 
tion ; this loan to be without interest. 

5. A student must take, as the minimum, twelve 
(12) hours of recitation work per week in order to obtain 
scholarship aid and have the privilege of a room in the 
Seminary dormitory. Work in Elocution and Music is 
regarded as supplementary to these twelve hours. 

6. Post-graduate students are not eligible to schol- 
arship aid, and, in order to have the privilege of occupy- 
ing a room in the dormitory, must take twelve hours of 
recitation and lecture work per week. 

7. Students marrying during their course of study 
at the Seminary will not be eligible to scholarship aid. 
This rule does not apply to those who enter the Seminary 
married. 

Loan Funds 

The Rev. James H. Lyon, a member of the class of 
1864, has founded a loan fund by a gift of $200. Needy 
students can borrow small sums from this fund at a low 
rate of interest. 

Recently a friend of the Seminary, by a gift of 
$2500, established a Students' Loan and Self-help 
Fund. The principal is to be kept intact and the in- 

35 (89) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

come is available for loans to students which may be re- 
paid after graduation. 

Donations and Bequests 

All donations or bequests to the Seminary should be 
made to the "Trustees of the Western Theological Sem- 
inary of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, located in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania." 
The proper legal form for maldng a bequest is as follows : 

I hereby give and bequeath to the Trustees of the 
Western Theological Seminary, of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America, incorporated 
in the State of Pennsylvania, the following : — 

Note : — If the person desires the Seminary to get the 
full amount designated, free of tax, the following state- 
ment should be added : — The collateral inheritance tax to 
be paid out of my estate. 

In this connection the present financial needs of the 
Seminary may be arranged in tabular form : 

Chair of Apologetics $100,000 

Apartment for Professors 100,000 

Chair of Missions 100,000 

Museum of Missions and Biblical Antiquities 25,000 

Library Fund 30,000 

Two Fellowships, $10,000 each 20,000 

The Memorial idea may be carried out either in the 
erection of one of these buildings or in the endowment of 
any of the funds. During the past ten years the Sem- 
inary has made considerable progress in securing new 
equipment and additions to the endowment funds. One 
of the recent gifts was that of $100,000 to endow the 
President's Chair. This donation w;as made by the Rev. 
Nathaniel W. Conkling, D. D., a member of the class of 
1861. In May, 1912, the new dormitory building, costing 
$146,097, was dedicated, and four years later, May 4, 
1916, Herron Hall and Swift Plall, the north and south 
wings of the new quadrangle, were dedicated. During 

36 (90) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

this period the Seminary has also received the endow- 
ment of a missionary lectureship from the late Mr. L. H. 
Severance, of Cleveland; and, through the efforts of Dr. 
Breed, an endowment of $15,000 for the instructorship 
in music; as well as eight scholarships amounting to 
$22,331.10. 

In the 3^ear 1918, a lectureship was established 
by a gift of $5,000 from Mrs. Janet I. Watson, of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, in memory of her husband Rev. Robert A. 
Watson, a member of the class of 1874. Mrs. Watson has 
also fomided the James L. Shields Book Purchasing 
Memorial Fund, with an endowment of $1,000, in memory 
of her father tlie late James L. Shields of Blairsville 
Pennsylvania. 

During the year 1919 Mrs. Watson established two 
prizes, each with an endowment of $1,000 : (1) The John 
Watson Prize in New Testament Greek, in memory of her 
husband's father, Rev. John Watson; (2) The Rev. 
William B. Watson Hebrew Prize, in memory of Rev. 
William B. Watson, a member of the class of 1868 and a 
brother of Rev. Robert A. Watson. 

Also during this year the Michael Wilson Keith 
Memorial Homiletical Prize of $100 was founded by the 
Keith Bible Class of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Coraopolis, Pa., by an endowment of two thousand 
dollars in memory of the Rev. Michael W^ilson Keith, 
D. D., the founder of the class and pastor of the church 
from 1911-1917. This foundation was established in 
grateful remembrance of Dr. Keith's service to his coun- 
try as Chaplain of the 111th Infantry Regiment. He fell 
while performing his duty at the front in France. 

In December, 1919, a friend of the Seminary, by a 
contribution of $2,500 established a Students' Loan and 
Self-help Fund. The principal is to be kept intact and 
the income is available for loans to students which may 
be repaid after graduation. 

In July, 1920, Mrs. R. A. Watson established, with 

37 (91) 



Tlie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

an endowment of $1,000, the Joseph Watson Greek Prize, 
in memory of her husband's youngest brother. 

During the past year a member of the Board made a 
contribution of ten thousand dollars to the endowment 
fund, and one of the holders of annuity bonds cancelled 
them to the sum of $7,500. In addition a legacy of 
$25,000 was received from the Estate of James Laughlin, 
Jr. 

The whirlwind campaign of October 24 — November 
3, 1913, resulted in subscriptions amounting to $135,000. 
This money was used in the erection of the new Admin- 
istration Building, to take the place of Seminary Hall. 
A friend of the Seminary has subscribed $50,000 for the 
erection of a chapel; as soon as conditions in the busi- 
ness world become more normal, the chapel will be 
erected according to plans already adopted. During the 
past three years the debt of $88,000, incurred in the erec- 
tion of Memorial Hall and Herron and Swift Halls, has 
been reduced to $27,000. Attention is called to the 
special needs of the Seminary — the endowment of ad- 
ditional professorships and the completion of the build- 
ing program. 

Reports of Presbyteries 

Presbyteries having students under their care re- 
ceive annual reports from the Faculty concerning the 
attainments of the students in scholarship, and their at- 
tendance upon the exercises of the Seminary, 

Lists of Scholarships 

1. The Thomas Patterson Scholarship, founded in 1829, by 

Thomas Patterson, of Upper St. Clair, Allegheny County, Pa. 

2. The McNeely Scholarship, founded by Miss Nancy McNeely, of 

Steubenville, Ohio. 

3. The Dornan Scholarship, founded by James Dornan, of Wash- 

ington County, Pa. 

4. The O'Hara Scholarship, founded bj^ Mrs. Harmar Denny, of 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

5. The Smith Scholarship, founded by Robin Smith, of Allegheny 

County, Pa. 

6. The Ohio Smith Scholarship, founded by Robert W. Smith, of 

Fairfield County, O. 

38 (92) 




HEREON HALL 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

7. The Dickinson Scholarship, founded by Rev. Richard W. Dicli- 

inson, D.D., of New York City. 

8. The Jane McCrea Patterson Scholarship, founded by Joseph 

Patterson, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

9. The Hamilton Scott Easter Scholarship, founded by Hamilton 

Easter, of Baltimore, Md. 

10. The Corning Scholarship, founded by Hanson K. Corning, of 

New York City. 

11. The Emma B. Corning Scholarship, founded by her husband, 

Hanson K. Corning, of New York City. 

12. The Susan C. Williams Scholarship, founded by her husband, 

Jesse L. Williams, of Ft. Wayne, Ind. 

13. The Mary P. Keys Scholarship, No. 1, founded by herself. 

14. The Mary P. Keys Scholarship, No. 2, founded by herself. 

15. The James L. Carnaghan Scholarship, founded by James L. 

Carnaghan, of Sewickley, Pa. 

16. The A. M. Wallingford Scholarship, founded by A. M. Walling- 

ford, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

17. The Alexander Cameron Scholarship, founded by Alexander 

Cameron, of Allegheny, Pa. 

18. The "First Presbyterian Church of Kittanning, Pa." Scholar- 

ship. 

19. The Rachel Dickson Scholarship, founded by Rachel Dickson, 

of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

20. The Isaac Cahill Scholarship, founded by Isaac Cahill, of Bu- 

cyrus, O. 

21. The Margaret Cahill Scholarship, founded by Isaac Cahill, of 

Bucyrus, O. 

22. The "H. E. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C' Beatty, 

D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

2 3. The "C. C. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. Beatty, 
D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

24 The Koonce Scholarship, founded by Hon. Charles Koonce, of 
Clark, Mercer County, Pa. 

25. The Fairchild Scholarship, founded by Rev. Elias R. Fair- 
child, D.D., of Mendham, N. J. 

2 6. The Allen Scholarship, founded by Dr. Richard Steele, Execu- 

tor, from the estate of Electa Steele Allen, of Auburn, N. Y. 

27. The "L. M. R. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. 

Beatty, D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

28. The "M. A. C. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. 

Beatty, D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

29. The Sophia Houston Carothers Scholarship, founded by herself. 

30. The Margaret Donahey Scholarship, founded by Margaret 

Donahey, of Washington County, Pa. 

31. The Melanchthon W. Jacobus Scholarship, founded by will of 

his deceased wife. 

32. The Charles Burleigh Conkling Scholarship, founded by his 

father, Rev. Nathaniel W. Conkling, D.D., of New York City. 

33. The Redstone Memorial Scholarship, founded in honor of Red- 

stone Presbj'tery. 

34. The John Lee Scholarship, founded by himself. 

3 5. The James McCord Scholarship, founded by John D. McCord, of 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

36. The Elisha P. Swift Scholarship. 

37. The Gibson Scholarship, founded by Charles Gibson, of Law- 

rence County, Pa. 

39 (93) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

38. The New York Scholarship. 

39. The Mary Foster Scholarship, founded by Mary Foster, of 

Greensburg, Pa. 

40. The Lea Scholarship, founded in part by Rev. Richard Lea and 

by the Seminary. 

41. The Kean Scholarship, founded by Rev. William F. Kean, of 

Sewickley, Pa. 

42. The Murry Scholarship, founded by Rev. Joseph A. Murry, 

D.D., of Carlisle, Pa. 

43. The Moorehead Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Annie C. Moore- 

head, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

44. The Craighead Scholarship, founded by Rev. Richard Craig- 

head, of Meadville, Pa. 

45. The George H. Starr Scholarship, founded by Mr. George H. 

Starr, of Sewickley, Pa. 

46. The William R. Murphy Scholarship, founded by William R. 

Murphy, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

47. The Mary A. McClurg Scholarship, founded by Miss Mary A. 

McClurg. 

48. The Catherine R. Negley Scholarship, founded by Catherine R. 

Negley. 

49. The Jane C. Dinsmore Scholarship, founded by Jane C. Dins- 

more. 

50. The Samuel Collins Scholarship, founded by Samuel Collins. 

51. The A. G. McCandless Scholarship, founded by A. G. McCand- 

less, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 
52-53. The W. G. and Charlotte T. Taj^lor Scholarships, founded by 

Rev. W. G. Taylor, D.D. 
54. The William A. Robinson Scholarship, founded by John F. 

Robinson in memory of his father. 
5 5. The Alexander C. Robinson Scholarship, founded by John F. 

Robinson in memory of his brother. 
56. The David Robinson Scholarship, founded by John F. Robinson 

in memory of his brother. 
57-5 8. The Robert and Charles Gardner Scholarships, founded by 

Mrs. Jane Hogg Gardner in memory of her sons. 

59. The Joseph Patterson, Jane Patterson, and Rebecca Leech 

Patterson Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Joseph Patterson, 
of Philadelphia, Pa. 

60. The Jane and Mary Patterson Scholarship, founded by Mrs. 

Joseph Patterson. 

61. The Joseph Patterson Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Joseph 

Patterson. 

62. The William Woodward Eells Scholarship, founded by his 

daughter, Anna Sophia Eells. 
*63. The Andrew Reed Scholarship, founded by his daughter, Anna 
M. Reed. 

64. The Bradford Scholarship, founded by Benjamin Rush Brad- 

ford. 

65. The William Irwin Nevin Scholarship, founded by Theodore 

Hugh Nevin and Hannah Irwin Nevin. 

Special Funds 

The James L. Shields Book Purchasing Memorial Fund. 
The James H. Lyon Loan Fund. 
Students' Loan and Self-help Fund. 



^Special Prize Scholarship (vide p. 58). 

40 (94) 




A VIEW OF THE PARK FROM THE QUADRANGLE 



^s^p^'rm^ 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Courses of Study 

A thoroughgoing revision of the curriculum was 
made at the beginning of the academic year 1910-11, and 
additional modifications have been introduced in subse- 
quent years. The growth of the elective system in col- 
leges has resulted in a wide variation in the equipment 
of the students entering the Seminary, and the broaden- 
ing of the scope of practical Christian activity has neces- 
sitated a specialized training for ministerial candidates. 
In recognition of these conditions, the curriculum has 
been modified in the following particulars : 

The elective system has been introduced with such 
restrictions as seemed necessary in view of the general 
aim of the Seminary. 

The elective courses are confined largely to the 
senior year, except that students who have already com- 
pleted certain courses of the Seminary will not be re- 
quired to take them again, but may select from the list 
of electives such courses as will fill in the entire quota 
of hours. 

Students who come to the Seminary with inadequate 
preparation will be required to take certain elementary 
courses, e. g., Greek, Hebrew, Philosophy. In some 
cases this may entail a four years' course in the Semi- 
nary, but students are urged to do all preliminary work 
in colleges. 

Fifteen hours of recitation and lecture work are re- 
quired of Juniors, fourteen hours of Middlers, fifteen 
hours of Seniors, and tAvelve hours of Graduate Students. 
Elocution and music, although required, are not counted 
in the number of hours stated above. Students desiring 
to take more than the required number of hours must 
make special application to the Facult}^, and no student 
who falls below the grade ''A" in his regular work will be 
allowed to take additional courses. 

in the senior year the only required courses are 
those in Practical Theology, N. T. Theology, 0. T. 

41 (95) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Prophecy, and Introduction to the Epistles. The election 
of the studies must be on the group system, one subject 
being regarded as major and another as minor ; for ex- 
ample, a student electing N. T. as a major must take four 
hours in this department and in addition must take one 
course in a closely related subject, such as 0. T. Theol- 
ogy or Exegesis. He must also write a thesis of not less 
than 4,000 words on some topic in the department from 
which he has selected his major. 



Hebrew Language and Old Testament Literature 
Dk. Kelso, Dr. Culley 

I. Linguistic Courses 

The Hebrew language is studied from tlie philological stand- 
point in order to lay the foundations for the exegetical study of the 
Old Testament. With this end in view, courses are offered which 
will make the student thoroughly familiar with the chief exegetical 
and critical problems of the Hebrew Scriptures. 

1. Introductory Hebrew Grammar. Exercises in reading and 
writing Hebrew and the acquisition of a working vocabulary. Gen. 
1-20. Four hours weekly throughout the year. Juniors. Re- 
quired. Asst. Prof. Culley. 

2a. First Samuel I-XX or Judges. Rapid sight reading and 
exegesis. One hour weekly throughout the year. All classes. 
Elective. Asst. Prof. Culley. 

2b. The Minor Prophets or the Psalter. Rapid sight reading 
and exegesis. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors and 
Graduates. Elective. Asst. Prof. Culley. 

3. Deuteronomy I-XX or one Book of Kings. Hebrew Syntax. 

Davidson's Hebrew Syntax or Driver's Hebrew Tenses. Two hours 
weekly throughout the year. Middlers. Required. Asst. Prof. 
Culley. 

7a. Biblical Aramaic. Grammar and study of Daniel 2:4b — 
7:28; Ezra 4:8 — 6:18; 7:12-26; Jeremiah 10:11. Reading of 
selected Aramaic Papyri from Elephantine. One hour weekly 
throughout the year. Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Asst. 
Prof. Culley. 

7b. Elementary Arabic. A beginner's course in Arabic gram- 
mar is offered to students interested in advanced Semitic studies 
or those looking towards mission work in lands where a knowledge 
of Arabic is essential. One or two hours weekly throughout the 
year depending upon the requirements of the student. Asst. Prof. 
Culley. 

42 (96) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

II. Critical and Exegetical Courses 

A. Mebrew 

4. The Psalter. An exegetical course on the Psalms, with 
special reference to their critical and theological problems. One 
hour weekly, throughout the year. Seniors (1921-22). Elective. 
Prof. Kelso. 

5. Isiaiah I-XII, and selections from XL-LXVI. An exegetical 
course paying special attention to the nature of prophecy and critical 
questions. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors (1920- 
21). Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

6. Pi'overbs and Job. The interpretation of selected passages 
from Proverbs and Job which bear on the nature of Hebrew Wisdom 
and Wisdom Literature. One hour weekly throughout the year. 
Seniors and Graduates (1921-22). Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

Biblia Hebraica, ed. Kittel, and the Oxford Lexicon of the Old 
Testament, are the text-books. 

In order to elect these courses, the student must have attained 
at least Grade B in courses 1 and 3. 

B. English 

8a. The History of the Hebrews. An outline course from the 
earliest times to the Assyrian Period in which the Biblical material 
is studied with the aid of a syllabus and reference books. Two 
hours weekly, first semester. Juniors and Middlers. (1921-22). 
Required. Prof. Kelso. 

8b. The History of the Hebrews. A continuation of the pre- 
ceding course. The Babylonian, Persian, and Greek Periods. Two 
hours weekly, first semester. Juniors and Middlers. (1920-21). 
Required. Prof. Kelso. 

9. Hexateuchal Criticism. A thorough study is made of the 
modern view of the origin and composition of the Hexateuch. One 
hour weekly, second semester. Seniors, Graduates. Elective. Prof. 
Kelso. 

10. The Psaltei*, Hebrew Wisdom and AVisdom Literature. In 

this course a critical study is made of the books of Job, Psalms, 
Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. One hour weekly, 
second semester. Seniors and Graduates (1920-21). Elective. 
Prof. Kelso. 

11. Old Testament Piophecy and Prophets. In this course the 
general principles of prophecy are treated and a careful study is 
made of the chief prophetic books. Special attention is paid to the 
theological and social teachings of each prophet. The problems of 
literary criticism are also discussed. Syllabus and reference works. 
Required of Seniors, open to Graduates. Two hours weekly through- 
out the year. Prof. Kelso. 

12. The C^anon and Text of the Old Testament. This subject 
is presented in lectures, with collateral reading on the part of the 
students. One hour weekly, throughout the year. Middlers, 
Seniors, and Graduates. Elective. Asst. Prof. Culley. 

43 (97) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

67. Biblical Apocalyptic. A careful study of the Apocalyptic 
element in the Old Testament with special reference to the Book 
of Daniel. After a brief investigation of the main features of the 
extra-canonical apocalypses, the Book of Revelation is examined 
in detail. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors and 
Graduates (1920-21). Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

69. The Book of Genesis. A critical exegetical study of the 
Book of Genesis in English based upon the text of the American 
Revised Version. Two hours weekly, one semester. Middlers, 
Seniors, Graduates (1921-22). Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

All these courses are based on the English Version as revised 
by modern criticism and interpreted by scientific exegesis. 



New Testament Literature and Exegesis 
, Mr. EAKm 

Professor Samuel Angus, Ph.D., of Sydney, Australia, served as 
acting professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis during 
the term of 1920-21. 

A. Linguistic. 

13. Elementary Course in New Testament Gieek. The essen- 
tials of Greek Grammar are taught. The First Epistle of John and 
part of John's Gospel are read. Attention is also devoted to the 
committing of vocabulary. The text-book used is Huddilston's 
"Essentials of New Testament Greek". Required of all Jvmiors 
not exempted by examination (see page 27). Four hours weekly 
first semester, three hours second semester. Mr. Eakin. 

14. New Testament Greek. This course includes: — (1) Read- 
ing from the Greek N. T.; (2) A Study of N. T. Grammar and Syn- 
tax; (3) Committing to memory of N. T. vocabulary. One hour 
weekly throughout the year. Juniors. Required. (See page 27). 
Mr. Eakin. 

14a. Sight Reading in the Greek New Testment. In this 
course the aim is to give the student facility in reading the New 
Testament in its original language. Attention is also devoted to 
critical and exegetical problems as they are met with. Middlers and 
Seniors. One hour weekly throughout the year. Elective. Mr. 
Eakin. 

B. Historical (English) 

16. The Life of Christ. In this course a thorough study is 
made of the life of our Lord, using as a text book the Gospel nar- 
rative, as arranged in the Harmony of Stevens and Burton. Two 
hours weekly throughout the year. Juniors. Required. Prof. 

Angus. 

44 (98) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

17. First Century Christianity. A historical course consist- 
ing of lectures and assigned readings. The antecedents and en- 
vironment of early Christianity are traced, first from the Jewish 
and then from the Gentile side. This is followed by a sketch of 
the origin of the Christian movement itself and its development to 
the close of the first century. One hour weekly throughout the 
year. Middlers. Required. Mr. Eakin. 

C. Exegetical 

18. Hermeueutics. This subject is presented in a brief course 
of lectures in the first semester of the middle year, and is designed 
as a preparation for course 2 0. The various types of exegesis which 
have appeared in the history of the Church are discussed, and the 
principles which lie at the foundation of sound exegesis are pre- 
sented. Required. 

20. Greek Exegesis. In this course the Epistle to the Ro- 
mans and the Epistle to the Hebrews are studied in alternate years 
with this twofold aim: first, of training the student in correct 
methods of exegesis; and second, of giving him a firm grasp of the 
theological content of the epistle under consideration. One hour 
weekly, first semester, three hours, second semester. Required. 
Prof. Angus. The epistle for 1920-21 is Romans. 

D. Critical (Greek) 

19a. The Synoptic Problem. A first-hand study of the phe- 
nomena presented by the Synoptic Gospels, with a view to forming 
an intelligent judgment of the relations between them. One hour 
weekly throughout the year. Seniors and Graduates. Elective. 

19b. The Fourth Gospel. A critical and exegetical study of 
the Fourth Gospel, for the purpose, first, of forming a judgment on 
the question of its authorship and its value as history, and, second, 
of enabling the student to apprehend in some measure its doctrinal 
content. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors and 
Graduates. Elective. Prof. Angus. 

These two courses are offered in alternate years, the course 
given in 1920-21 being 19b. 

21. Introduction to the Epistles. A critical study of the 
Pauline Epistles, with special reference to questions of Introduc- 
tion. One hour weekly throughout the year. Required of Seniors 
and open to Graduates. 

22. General Introduction to the New Testament. An intro- 
duction to the study of the canon, text, etc., and of critical problems 
connected with individual N. T. books and groups of books. Lec- 
tures and assigned readings. Two hours weekly, second semester. 
Juniors. Required. Mr. Eakin. 

23. Introduction to the Gospels. At the beginning of the 
first semester in the junior year this subject is presented in lectures. 
Required. 

45 (99) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 
Biblical Theology 

25. Biblical Theology of the Old Testament. A comprehen- 
sive historical study of the religious institutions, rites, and teach- 
ings of the Old Testament. The Biblical material is studied with 
the aid of a syllabus and reference books. Two hours weekly. 
Offered in alternate years (1920-21). Elective. Open to Middlers, 
Seniors, and Graduates. Prof. Kelso. 

26. Biblical Theology of the New Testament. A careful study 
is made of the N. T. literature with the purpose of securing a first- 
hand knowledge of its theological teaching. While the work con- 
sists primarily of original research in the sources, sufficient collat- 
eral reading is required to insure an acquaintance with the litera- 
ture of the subject. Two hours weekly throughout the year. Re- 
quired of Seniors, and open to Graduates. Prof. Angus. 



English Bible 

Great emphasis is laid upon the study of the English Bible 
through the entire Seminary course. In fact, more time is devoted 
to the study of the Bible in English than to any other single subject. 
For graduation, 4 4 term-hours of classroom work are required of 
each student. Of this total, 8 term hours are taken up with the 
exact scientific study of the Bible in the English version, or in other 
words, nearly one-sixth of the student's time is concentrated on the 
Bible in English. . In addition to this minimum requirement, elec- 
tive courses occupying 4 term-hours, are offered to students. For 
details in regard to courses in the English Bible, see under Old 
Testament Literature, p. 42f. and New Testament Literature, p. 44f. 

29. Homiletics. The English Bible is carefully and compre- 
hensively studied for several weeks in the department of Homiletics 
for homiletical purposes, the object being to determine the dis- 
tinctive contents of its separate parts and their relation to each 
other, thus securing their proper and consistent construction in 
preaching. (See course 45). 



Church History 
Dr. Schaff 

The instruction in this department is given by text-book in the 
period of ancient Christianity, and by lectures in the medieval and 
modern periods, from 6 00 to 1900. In all courses, readings in the 
original and secondary authorities are required and maps are used. 

30'. The Ante-Nicene and Nicene Periods, 100 to 600 A. D. 

This course includes the constitution, worship, moral code, and liter- 
ature of the Church, and its gradual extension in the face of the 
opposition of Judaism and Paganism from without, and heresy from 
within; union of Church and State; Monasticism; the controversies 

46 (100) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

over the deity and person of Christ; GEcumenical Councils; the 
Pelagian Controversy. Two hours weekly throughout the year. 
Juniors. Required. Prof. Schaff. 

31. Medieval Church History, 60O to 1517 A. D. 

(i) Conversion of the Barbarians; Mohammedanism; the 
Papacy and Empire; the Great Schism; social and clerical manners; 
Church Government and Doctrine. 

(ii) Hildebrand and the Supremacy of the Papacy; the Cru- 
sades; Monasticism; the Inquisition; Scholasticism; the Sacramen- 
tal system; the Universities; the Cathedrals. 

(iii) Boniface VIII and the Decline of the Papacy; the Re- 
formatory Councils; German Mysticism; the Reformers before the 
Reformation; Renaissance; Degeneracy of the Papacy. 

(iv) Symbolics: Protestantism and Roman Catholicism. Fif- 
teen lectures. Three hours weekly (i &. ii, first semester, iii & iv, 
second semester). Middlers. Required. Prof. Schaff. 

32. The Reformation, 1517 to 1648. A comprehensive study 
of this important movement from its inception to the Peace of West- 
phalia. Two hours weekly, first semester. Seniors. Elective. 
Prof. Schaff. 

33. Modern Church History, 1648 to 1900. The Counter- 
Reformation; the development of modern rationalism and infidelity, 
and progress of such movements as Wesleyanism and beginnings 
of the social application of Christianity; Modern Missions; Tfac- 
tarian Movement; the Modern Popes; the Vatican Council; tenden- 
cies to Church Union. Two hours weekly, second semester. Seniors 
and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Schaff. 

34. Aiuerican Church History. The religious motives active 
in the discovery and colonization of the New World: Roman Catho- 
lic Missions in Canada and the South; the Puritans, — Roger Wil- 
liams; Plantations; the planting of religion in Virginia, New York, 
Maryland, Pennsylvania; the Great Awakening; Francis Makemie 
and Early Presbyterianism; Organized Presbyterianism; the New 
England Divinity; the German Churches; religion during the Revo- 
lution; Methodism; the Unitarians and Universalists; the Ameri- 
can Republic and Christianity; the Presbyterian Churches in the 
19th century; Cooperative and Unionistic movements; Christian 
literature and theological thought. Two hours weekly, first 
semester. Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Schaff. 

36. History of Presbyterianism. Its rise in Geneva; its de- 
velopment in France, Holland, and Scotland; its planting and pro- 
gress in the United States. 



Systematic Theology and Apologetics 

Dr. Snowden, Dr. Christie 

37. Theology Proper. Sources of Theology; the Rule of 
Faith; God knowable; the method applied to the study of System- 
atic Theology; nature and attributes of God; the Trinity; the deity 

47 (101) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

of Christ; the Holy Spirit, His person and relation to the Father 
and the Son; the decrees of God. Two hours weekly throughout 
the year. Juniors. Required. Prof. Snowden. 

38. Apologetics. A study of the historic roots and develop- 
ment of Christianity; tracing it in the Old Testament from Mosaism 
to Prophetism and Judaism; through the New Testament, studying 
Christ in his life and teaching and resurrection; Paul in his con- 
version and theology; Primitive Christanity in the Apostolic 
Church; the trustworthiness of the gospels; concluding with a study 
of Christ as the Light of the world. One hour weekly throughout 
the year. Juniors. Required. Prof. Snowden. 

39. Anthropology, Ohristology, and the Doctrines of Grace. 

Theories of the origin of man; the primitive state of man; the fall; 
the covenant of grace; the person of Christ; the satisfaction of 
Christ; theories of the atonement; the nature and extent of the 
atonement; intercession of Christ; kingly office; the humiliation 
and exaltation of Christ; effectual calling, regeneration, faith, justi- 
fication, repentance, adoption, and sanctification; the law; the doc- 
trine of the last things; the state of the soul after death; the resur- 
rection; the second advent and its concomitants. Three hours 
weekly throughout the year. Middlers. Required. Prof. Snowden. 

41a. Philosophy of Religion. A thorough discussion of the 
problems of theism and antitheistic theories; and a study of the 
theology of Ritschl. One hour weekly throughout the year. Sen- 

41b. The Psychology of Religion. A study of the religious 
nature and activities of the soul in the light of recent psychology; 
and a course in modern theories of the ultimate basis and nature 
of religion. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors and 
Graduates. Elective. Prof. Snowden. 
iors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Snowden. 



Practical Theology 
Dr. Farmer, Prof. Sleeth, Mr. Boyd 

Including Homiletics, Pastoral Theology, Elocution, Church Music, 
The Sacraments, and Chiu'ch Govei'nment. 

On account of the resignation of Prof. Breed, and the transfer 
of Prof. Farmer to this Department, there will naturally be some 
changes in the work of the Department, affecting in the main not its 
substance but its order of arrangement. But as it is difficult, on 
account of the practical conditions affecting such alterations, to 
make at the moment a full and definite statement of them, it has 
been thought best to leave the description of the work of the De- 
partment as it is, reserving for a future time the announcement of 
such modifications as may be made. 

A. Homiletics. 

The course in Homiletics is designed to be strictly progressive, 
keeping step with the work in other departments. Students are ad- 

48 (102) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

vanced from the simpler exercises to the more abstruse as they 
are prepared for this by their advance in exegesis and theology. 

Certain books of special reference are used in the department 
of Practical Theology, to which students are referred. Valuable new 
books are constantly being added to the library, and special addi- 
tions, in large numbers, have been made on subjects related to this 
department, particularly Pedagogics, Bible-class Work, Sociology, 
and Personal Evangelism. 

42. Hyiniiologj^ The place of Sacred Poetry in history. An- 
cient Hymns. Greek and Latin Hymns. German Hymns. Psalmody. 
English Hymnology in its three periods. Proper use of Hymns 
and Psalms in Public Worship. Text-book: Breed's "History and 
Use of Hymns and Hymn-Tunes". One hour weekly, first semester. 
Juniors. Required. Prof. Boyd. (See "Church Music") 

43. Public Prayer. The Nature of Prayer — Private and Pub- 
lic. Elements. Subjects. Materials. Prayer-books. Errors in 
Public Prayer. Prayers of the Scriptures. The Lord's Prayer. 
Lectures. Two hours per week for five weeks, second semester. 
Juniors. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

44. Public Reading of Scripture. Place of Scripture Read- 
ing in Public Worship. Scriptural illustrations. Rules for selec- 
tion and arrangement. Four comprehensive rules of Elocution. 
Lectures. Six exercises, second semester. Juniors. Required. 
Prof. Farmer. (See also "Elocution".) 

45. Preparatory Homiletics. General survey of the Scriptures 
for homiletical purposes. The Scriptures as a whole. Relation of 
the different parts to each other. Nature of the various Covenants. 
The Law. The Mission of Christ. The extension of the Gospel to 
the Gentiles. Definition of Scripture terms commonly used in 
preaching. Textual Analysis for homiletical purposes. Lectures. 
Thirteen exercises, second semester. Juniors. Required. Prof. 
Farmer. (See course 29.) 

46. Homiletics Proper. Sermon construction. Argument, 
Illustration, etc. Lectures on the Narrative Sermon, the Expository 
Sermon, Sermons to Children, and Sermons in Courses. Text-book: 
Breed's "Preparing to Preach". Lectures. Weekly exercises in 
sermonizing, with criticism. Two hours weekly throughout the year. 
Middlers. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

47. Sacred Rhetoric. The Art of Securing Attention. The 
Art of Extemporaneous Discourse. The prayer-meeting and prayer- 
meeting talks. Pulpit Manners. Style. The Philosophy of Preach- 
ing. Special Lectures on the Evangelistic Sermon, Special Sermon, 
Illustrated Sermon, and Doctrinal Sermon. Weekly preaching m 
the Chapel before the faculty, students, and others. One hour 
weekly throughout the year. Seniors. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

48. Pulpit Delivery and Drill. Members of the class meet the 
professor in groups and are drilled individually. One hour weekly 
throughout the year. Elective. Prof. Sleeth. 

49. Evangelism. The pastor's personal and private work. 
Individual work for individuals. Methods. Five exercises second 
semester. Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Farmer. 

49 (103) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

B. Elocution 

50. Vocal Technique. Training of the voice. Practice of the 
Art of Breathing. Mechanism of Speech. One hour weekly through- 
out the year. Juniors. Required. Prof. Sleeth. 

51. Oral Intei-pretation of the Scriptures. Reading from the 
platform. One hour weekly throughout the year. Middlers. Elec- 
tive. Prof. Sleeth. 

52. Speaking, with special reference to enunciation, phrasing, 
and modulation. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors. 
Elective. Prof. Sleeth. 

52a. Literary Appreciation. This subject is carried on 
largely by interpretative oral readings from the great masterpieces 
of English Literature by the professor in charge and also by the 
students, on the principle that in no other way can a better compre- 
hension of the subject be attained. To orally interpret is, in a 
manner, to recreate. At times also there are running expository 
remarks accompanying the readings. One hour weekly throughout 
the year. All classes. Elective. Prof. Sleeth. 

C. Church Music 

The object of the course is primarily to instruct the student in 
the practical use of desirable Church Music; after that, to acquaint 
him, as far as is possible in a limited time, with good music in 
general. 

53. Hymn Tunes. History, Use, Practice. Text-book: Breed's 
"History and Use of Hymns and Hymn-Tunes". One hour weekly, 
first semester. Juniors. Required. Mr. Boyd. 

54. Practical Church Music. Choirs, Organs, Sunday-School 
Music, Special Musical Services, Congergational Music. Thorough 
examination of tunes in the "Hymnal." One hour weekly. Juniors, 
second semester; Middlers, entire year. Required. Mr. Boyd. 

55. Musical Appreciation. Illustrations and Lectures. One 
hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors. Elective. Mr. Boyd. 

56. In alternate years, classes in vocal sight reading and choir 
drill. Students who have sufficient musical experience are given 
opportunity for practice in choir direction or organ playing. Anthem 
selection and study. One hour weekly throughout the year. Open 
to students of all classes. Elective. Mr. Boyd. 

D. The Cecilia Choir 

The Cecilia Choir is a mixed chorus of sixteen voices, with a 
number of substitute singers. It was organized by Mr. Boyd to 
illustrate the work of the Musical Department of the Seminary. It 
is in attendance every Monday evening at the Senior Preaching 
Service to lead in the singing and furnish model exercises in the use 
of anthems in worship. Several concerts are given each year to 
illustrate certain important principles; and an annual concert dur- 
ing commencement week. Concerts are also given from time to 
time in various churches. 

50 (104) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

E. Poimenics. 

57. Pastoral Theology. Scriptural Warrant. Nature of the 
Office. Functions and Duties. Revivals. Professional Evangelism. 
The Sunday-School. Benevolences. Reforms, etc. One hour week- 
ly throughout the year. Seniors. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

58. Religious Education. History, nature, and methods. 
Catechetics, normal class work, and teacher training. Fifteen exer- 
cises, first and second semesters. Lectures and books of reference. 
Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Farmer. 

F. The Sacraments 

59. Relation of the Sacramental System to Doctilne and 
Polity. Various Forms. Sacraments of the Old Testament. Sacra- 
ments of the New Testament. Method of Administration. Sacra- 
mental Services and Addresses. One hour weekly, first semester. 
Middlers. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

G. Church Government. 

60. Relation of Goveniment to Doctrine. Various Forms. 
Presbyterian Law. Presbyterian Discipline. Text-book: Moore's 
Digest. Lectures. One hour v/eekly, second semester. Middlers. 
Required. Prof. Farmer. 



Christian Ethics and Sociology 

Dk. Snowdeit, Dr. Farmer 

61a. Christian Ethics. The Theory of Ethics considered con- 
structively from the point of view of Christian Faith. One hour 
weekly throughout the year. Seniors and graduates. Elective. 
Dr. Snowden. 

61b. The Social Teaching of the New Testament. This course 
is based upon the belief that the teachings of the New Testament, 
rightly interpreted and applied, afford ample guidance to the Chris- 
tian Church in her efforts to meet the conditions and problems 
which modern society presents. After an introductory discussion 
of the social teaching of the Prophets and the condition and struc- 
ture of society in the time of Christ, the course takes up the teach- 
ing of Jesus as it bears upon the conditions and problems which 
must be met in the task of establishing the Kingdom of God upon 
the eaith, and concludes with a study of the application of Christ's 
teaching to the social order of the Greece-Roman world set forth 
In the Acts and the Epistles. One hour weekly throughout the year. 
Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Parmer. 



Missions and Comparative Religion 
Dr. Kelso, Dr. Culley 

The Edinburgh Missionary Council suggested certain special 
studies for missionary candidates in addition to the regular Semi- 
nary curriculum. These additional studies were Comparative 

51 (105) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Religion, Phonetics, and the History and Methods of Missionary 
Enterprise. Thorough courses in Comparative Religion and Phonet- 
ics have been introduced into the curriculum, while a brief lecture 
course on the third subject is given by various members of the 
faculty. It is the purpose of the institution to develop this de- 
partment more fully. 

63. Modem Missions. A study of fields and modern methods; 
each student is required either to read a missionary biography or 
to investigate a missionary problem. One hour weekly, first semester. 
Elective. Seniors and Graduates. 

64. Lectures on Missions. In addition to the instruction 
regularly given in the department of Church History, lectures on 
Missions are delivered from time to time by able men who are 
practically familiar with the work. The students have been ad- 
dressed during the past year by several returned missionaries. 

65 Comparative Religion. A study of the origin and de- 
velopment of religion, with special investigation of Primitive Reli- 
gion, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Islam with regard to 
their bearing on Modern Missions. Two hours weekly. Offered in 
alternate years. (1921-22). Elective. Open to Middlers, Seniors, 
and Graduates. Prof. Kelso. 

68. Phonetics. A study of phonetics and the principles of 
language with special reference to the mission field. One hour week- 
ly throughout the year. Elective. Open to all classes. Asst. Prof. 
Culley. 

7b. Klementary Arabic. (See page 42) 



Outline of Courses 

REQUIRED STUDIES 



Junior Glass 



Hours 
First Semester: Per Week 

Hebrew . . 4 

OT History 2 

Life of Christ and His- 
tory of NT Times ... 2 

NT Greek 1 

*NT Greek (elementary 

course) 4 

Church History 2 

Apologetics 1 

Theology 2 

* Philosophy and Meta- 
physics 2 

Preparatory Homiletics 1 

Elocution 1 

Hymn Tunes 1 



Hours 
Second Semester: Per Week 

Hebrew 4 

Life of Christ and His- 
tory of NT Times .... 2 

NT Introduction 2 

NT Greek 1 

*NT Greek (elementary 



course) 



Church History 2 

Apologetics 1 

Theology 2 

* Philosophy and Meta- 
physics 2 

Preparatory Homiletics . 2 



Elocution 

Church Music 

Hymnology . 



and 



^Courses intended for students who are inadequately prepared. 

52 (106) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Middle Class 



OT Exegesis 2 

OT History 2 

NT Exegesis and Intro- 
duction 1 

Apostolic Age 1 

Church History 3 

Theology 3 

Homiletics 2 

Church Music 1 

Senior Class 

Homiletics 1 

Pastoral Theology .... 1 

NT Theology . . . '. 2 

OT Prophecy 2 

Introduction to the 

Epistles 1 



OT Exegesis 2 

Apostolic Age 1 

NT Exegesis and Intro- 
duction 3 

Church History 3 

Theology 3 

Homiletics 2 

Church Music 1 



Homiletics 1 

Pastoral Theology .... 1 

NT Theology 2 

OT Prophecy 2 

Introduction to the 

Epistles 1 



ELECTIVE STUDIES 

Middle Class 



OT Exegesis 1 

OT Theology 2 

Comparative -Religion . 2 

Phonetics 1 

Elocution 1 

Music 1 



OT Exegesis 1 

OT Theology 2 

Comparative Religion . 2 

Phonetics 1 

Elocution 1 

Music 1 



Senior and Graduate Classes 



OT Exegesis 3 

History of Doctrine ... 1 
American Church His- 
tory 1 

Presbyterianism 1 

Study of Special Doc- 
trines 1 

Psychology of Religion. 1 

Philosophy of Religion . 1 

Pulpit Drill 1 

Religious Education ... 1 

Modern Missions 1 

Christian Ethics 1 

Sociology 1 

Social Teaching of NT. 1 

Comparative Religion . 2 

Elocution 1 

Music 1 

Biblical Aramaic 1 

Elementary Arabic .... 1 

Elementary Syriac .... 1 

Elementary Assyrian . . 1 

Phonetics 1 

Sight Reading NT Greek 1 

Septuagint Greek 1 

OT Theology 2 



OT Exegesis 3 

Modern Church History 2 
American Church His- 
tory 

Presbyterianism 

Study of Special Doc- 
trines 

Psychology of Religion. 
Philosophy of Religion. 

Pulpit Drill 

Personal Evangelism / 

Pedagogics \ 

Christian Ethics 1 



Sociology 

Social Teaching of NT, 
Comparative Religion 

Elocution 

Music 

Biblical Aramaic 1 

Elementary Arabic .... 1 
Elementary Syriac .... 1 
Elementary Assyrian . . 1 

Phonetics 1 

Sight Reading NT Greek 1 
Septuagint Greek ... .1 
OT Theology 2 



53 (107) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Graduate Studies 

The Seminary has the right to confer the degree of 
Bachelor of Divinity. It will be bestowed on those stu- 
dents who complete a fourth year of study. 

This degree will be granted under the following con- 
ditions : 

(1) The applicant must have a Bachelor's de- 
gree from a college of recognized standing. 

(2) He must be a graduate of this or some 
other theological seminary. In case he has gradu- 
ated from another seminary, which does not require 
Greek and Hebrew for its diploma, the candidate 
must take in addition to the above requirements the 
following courses: Hebrew, 1 and 3; New Testa- 
ment, 13 and 14. 

(3) He must be in residence at this Seminary 
at least one academic year and complete courses 
equivalent to twelve hours per week of regular cur- 
riculum work. 

(4) He shall be required to devote two-thirds 
of said time to one subject, which will be called a 
major, and the remainder to another subject termed 
a minor. 

In the department of the major he shall be re- 
quired to write a thesis of not less than 4,000 words. 
The subject of this thesis must be presented to the 
professor at the head of this department for ap- 
proval, not later than November 15th of the aca- 
demic year at the close of which the degree is to be 
conferred. By April 1st, a typewritten copy of this 
thesis is to be in the hands of the professor for ex- 
amination. At the close of the year he shall pass a 
rigid examination in both major and minor subjects. 

(5) Members of the senior class may receive 
this degree, provided that they attain rank "A" in 
all departments and complete the courses equivalent 

54 (108) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

to such twelve hours of curriculum work, in addition 
to the regular curriculum, which twelve hours of 
w^ork may be distributed throughout the three years 
course, upon consultation with the professors. All 
other conditions as to major and minor subjects, 
theses, etc., shall be the same as for graduate stu- 
dents, exceiDt that in this case students must elect 
their major and minor courses at the opening of the 
middle year, and give notice October 1st of that year 
that they expect to be candidates for this degree. 



Relations with University of Pittsburgh 

The post-graduate courses of the University of Pitts- 
burgh are open to the students of the Seminary. The 
A. M. degree will be conferred on students of the Sem- 
inary who complete graduate courses of the University 
requiring a minimum of three hours of work for two 
years, and who prepare an acceptable thesis ; and, on ac- 
count of the proximity of the University, all require- 
ments for residence may be satisfied by those who desire 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

The following formal regulations have been adopted 
by the Graduate Faculty of the University of Pittsburgh 
with reference to the students of the Seminary who de- 
sire to secure credits at the University. 

1. That non-technical theological courses (i. e., 
those in linguistics, histor^^. Biblical literature, and 
philosophy) be accepted for credit toward advanced 
degrees in arts and sciences, under conditions de- 
scribed in the succeeding paragraphs. 

2. That no more than one-third of the total 
number of credits required for the degrees of A. M. 
or M. S. and Ph. D. be of the character referred to in 
paragraph 1. In the case of the Master's degree, 
this maximun credit can be given only to students in 

55 (109) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the Western Theological Seminary and the Pitts- 
burgh Theological Seminary. 

3. That the acceptability of any course offered 
for such credit be subject to the approval of the 
Council. The Council shall, as a body or through 
a committee, pass upon (1) the general merits of 
the courses ottered; and (2) their relevancy to the 
major selected by the candidate. 

4. That the direction and supervision of the 
candidate's courses shall be vested in the University 
departments concerned. 

5. That in every case in which the question of 
the duplication of degree is raised, by reason of the 
candidate's offering courses that have already been 
credited toward the B. D. or other professional de- 
gree in satisfaction of the requirements for advanced 
degrees in arts and sciences, the matter of accepta- 
bility of such courses shall be referred to a special 
committee consisting of the head of the department 
concerned and such other members of the Graduate 
Faculty as the Dean may select. 

6. That the full requirements as regards resi- 
dence, knowledge of modern languages, theses, etc., 
of the University of Pittsburgh be exacted in the 
case of candidates who may take advantage of these 
privileges. In the case of the Western Theological 
Seminary and the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, 
this paragraph shall not be interpreted to cancel 
paragraph 2, that a maximum of one-third of the 
total number of credits for the Master's degree may 
be taken in the theological schools. 

The minimum requirement for the Master's degree 
is the equivalent of twelve hours throughout three terms, 
or what we call thirty-six term hours. According to the 
above resolutions a minimum of twenty-four term hours 
should be taken at the University. 

56 (110) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Fellowships and Prizes 

1. Fellowships paying $500 each are assigned upon 
graduation to the two members of the senior class who 
have the best standing in all departments of the Semin- 
ary curriculum, but to no one falling below an average of 
8.5. It is offered to those who take the entire course of 
three years in this institution. The recipient must 
pledge himself to a year of post-graduate study at some 
institution approved by the Faculty. He is required to 
furnish quarterly reports of his progress. The money 
will be paid in three equal installments on the first day 
of October, January, and April. Prolonged absence 
from the class-room in the discharge of extra-semmary 
duties makes a student ineligible for the fellowship.* 

2. The Michael Wilson Keith Memorial Homiletical 
Prize of $100.00. This prize was founded in 1919 by the 
Keith Bible Class of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Coraopolis, Pa., by an endowment of two thousand 
dollars in memory of the Rev. Michael Wilson Keith, 
D. D., the founder of the class, and pastor of the church 
from 1911 to 1917. This foundation was established in 
grateful remembrance of his service to his country as 
Chaplain of the 111th Infantry Regiment. He fell while 
performing his duty at the front in France. It is 
awarded to a member of the senior class who has spent 
three years in this Seminary and has taken the highest 
standing in the department of homiletics. The winner 
of the prize is expected to preach in the First Presby- 
terian Church of Coraopolis and teach the Keith Bible 
Class one Sunday after the aM^ard is made. 

3. A prize in Hebrew is offered to that member of 
the junior class who maintains the highest standing 
in this subject throughout the junior year. The prize 
consists of a copy of the Oxford Hebrew-English Lexi- 



*0n account of lack of funds only one fellowship will be 
awarded until further notice. 



57 (111) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

con, a copy of the latest English translation of Gesenius- 
Kautzsch's Hebrew Grammar, or a copy of Davidson's 
Hebrew Syntax, and a copy of the Hebrew Bible edited 
by Kittel. ' 

4. All students reaching the grade ''A" in all de- 
partments during the junior year will be entitled to a 
prize of $50, which will be paid in four installments in 
the middle year, provided that the recipient continues 
to maintain the grade ''A" in all departments during the 
middle year. Prizes of the same amount and under 
similar conditions will be available for seniors, but no 
student whose attendance is unsatisfactory will be eli- 
gible to these prizes. 

5. In May, 1914, Miss Anna M. Reed, of Cross 
Creek, Pa., established a scholarship with an endowment 
of three thousand dollars, to be known as the Andrew 
Reed Scholarship, with the following conditions: The 
income of this scholarship to be awarded to the student 
who upon entering shall pass the best competitive exam- 
ination in the English Bible; the successful competitor 
to have the use of it throughout the entire course of 
three years provided that his attendance and class stand- 
ing continue to be satisfactory.* 

6. In February 1919 Mrs. Robert A. Watson, of 
Columbus, Ohio, established a prize with an endowment 
of one thousand dollars, to be known as the John Watson 
Prize in New Testament Greek.* 

7. In September 1919 Mrs. Robert A. Watson, of 
Columbus, Ohio, established a prize with an endowment 
of one thousand dollars, to be lmo^^^l as the William B. 
Watson Hebrew Prize.* 

In July 1920, Mrs. Robert A. Watson, of Columbus, 
Ohio, with an endowment of $1,000, established the 
Joseph Watson Greek Prize, to be awarded to the stu- 



*The income from this fund is not available at present. 
58 (112) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

dent who passes the best examination in classical Greek 
as he enters the junior class of the Seminary.* 

8. Two entrance prizes of $150 each are offered by 
the Seminary to college graduates presenting themselves 
for admission to the junior class. The scholarships will 
be awarded upon the basis of a competitive examination 
subject to the following conditions: 

(I) Candidates must, not later than September 
first, indicate their intention to compete, and such state- 
ment of their purpose must be accompanied by certifi- 
cates of college standing and mention of subjects elected 
for examination. 

(II) Candidates must be graduates of high stand- 
ing in the classical course of some accepted college or 
university. 

(III) The examinations will be conducted on 
Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of the opening week of 
the first semester. 

(IV) The election of subjects for examination shall 
be made from the following list: (1) Classical Greek 
— Greek Grammar, translation of Greek prose, Greek 
composition; (2) Latin — Latin Grammar, translation of 
Latin prose, Latin composition; (3) Hebrew — Hebrew 
Grammar, translation of Hebrew prose, Hebrew composi- 
tion; (4) German — translation of German into English 
and English into German; (5) French — ^translation of 
French into English and English into French; (6) Philo- 
sophy — (a) History of Philosophy, (b) Psychology, 
(c) Ethics, (d) Metaphysics; (7) History — (a) Ancient 
Oriental History, (b) Grseco-Eoman History to A. D. 
476, (c) Medieval History to the Eeformation, (d) 
Modern History. 

(V) Each competitor shall elect from the above 
list four subjects for examination, among which subjects 



*The income from this fund is not available at present. 

59 (113) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Greek shall always be included. Each division of Phil- 
osophy and History shall be considered one subject. No 
more than one subject in Philosophy and no more than 
one subject in Histor^^ may be chosen by any one candi- 
date. 

(VI) The awards of the scholarships will be made 
to the two competitors passing the most satisfactory ex- 
aminations, provided their average does not fall below^ 
ninety per cent. The payment will be made in two in- 
stallments, the first at the time the award is made, and 
the second on April 1st. Failure to maintain a high 
standard in classroom work or prolonged absence will 
debar the recipients from receiving the second install- 
ment. 

The intention to compete for the prize scholarships 
should be made known, in writing, to the President. 



Lectureships 

The Elliott Lectureship. The endo^vment for this 
lectureship was raised by Prof. Robinson among the 
alumni and friends of the Seminary as a memorial to 
Prof. David Elliott, who served the institution from 1836 
to 1874. Several distinguished scholars have delivered 
lectures on this foundation : Rev. Professor Alexander 
F. Mitchell, D. D., Principal Fairbairn, Rev. B. C. Henry, 
D. D., Rev. J. S. Dennis, D. D., Prof. James Orr, D. D., 
Rev. Hugh Black, D. D., Rev. David Smith, D. D., Presi- 
dent A. T. Ormond, and Rev. Prof. Samuel Angus, Ph. D. 

The L. H. Severance Missionary Lectureship. 
This lectureship has been endowed by the generous gift 
of the late Mr. L. H. Severance, of Cleveland, Ohio. The 
first course of lectures on this foundation w^as given dur- 
ing the term of 1911-12, b}^ Mr. Edward Warren Capen, 
Ph. D., of the Hartford School of Missions. His general 
theme was ' ' Sociological Progress in Mission Lands. ' ' 

60 (114) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

The second course was given during the term of 1914-15 
by the Eev. Arthur J. Brown, D. D. ; his subject was 
"The Rising Churches in the Mission Field." The third 
course was given during the term 1915-16, by the Rev. 
8. G. Wilson, D. D. ; his subject was '^ Modern Movements 
among Moslems." The fourth course (postponed from 
the term 1916-17) was given in October, 1917, b}^ the Rev. 
A. A¥oodruff Halsey, D. D. ; his subject was "The Minis- 
try and Missions." The fifth course w^as given in Janu- 
ary, 1918, by the Rev. J. C. R. Ewing, D. D., LL. D., 
C. I. E. ; his subject was "Some Developments of Religi- 
ous Thought in India." The sixth course was given in 
September, 1919, by the Rev. Robert F. Fitch, D. D. ; 
the general theme of his lectures was "Aspects of Chris- 
tion Missions in China." 

The Robekt A. Watson Memorial Lectureship. 
This lectureship was endowed in May, 1918, by Mrs. 
Janet I. Watson, of Columbus, Ohio, as a memorial to 
lier husband, Rev. Robert A. Watson, D. D., a graduate 
of the Seminarv class of 1874.* 



Seminary Extension Lectures 

In recent years a new departure in the work of the 
Seminary has been the organization of Seminary Exten- 
sion courses. Since the organization of this Avork the 
following courses of lectures have been given in various 
city and suburban churches : 

(1) "The Sacraments," four lectures, bv Rev. 
David R. Breed, D. D., LL. D. 

(2) "Social Teaching of the New Testament," 
six lectures, by Rev. William R. Farmer, D. D. 

(3) "Theology of the Psalter", four lectures, by 
President Kelso. 



*The income from this fund is not available at present. 
61 (115) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

(4) "Prophecy and Prophets", four lectures, by 
President Kelso. 

(5) "The Fundamentals of Christianity", five 
lectures, by Rev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

(6) "The Psychology of Religion," five lectures, 
by Rev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

(7) "The Personality of God", five lectures, by 
Rev, James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 



62 (116) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 

OFIPICERS FOR 1920-21 

Pi-esident 

The REV. GEO. L. GLUNT 
Class of 1911 

Vice-President 

The REV. JOHN L. PROUDFIT 
Class of 1898 

Secretary 

The REV. THOS. C. PEARS, Jr. 
Class of 1910 

Recording' Secretary and Treasirrer 

The REV. R. H. ALLEN, D. D. 
Class of 1900 

EXECUTIA^E COMMITTEE 

The REV. J. A. KELSO, Ph.D., D. D 
Class of 1896 

The REV. S. B. McCORMICK, D.D., LL.D. 
Class of 1890 

The REV. J. S. AXTELL, Ph.D., D.D. 
Class of 1874 

The REV. U. S. GREVES 
Class of 1895 

The REV. W. S. BINGHAM 
Class of 1908 

The REV. W. A. JONES, D.D. 
Class of 1889 

NECROLOGICAL COMMITTEE 

The REV. C. S. McCLELLAND, D.D. 
The REV. J. A. KELSO, Ph.D., D.D. 



63 (117) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 
DIRECTORY 

Assistant to Librarian .... A. L. Middler M 

Director D President Pres 

Fellow . F Professor Prof. 

Graduate G Registrar R 

Instructor I Secretary Sec. 

Junior . J Senior S 

Lecturer Lee. Trustee T 

Librarian L 



Acheson, Pres. J. C, LL.D D Woodland Road 

Alexander, Rev. Maltland, D. D. . D 920 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Anderson, Rev. T. B., D. D D Beaver Falls, Pa. 

Angus, Rev. S., D.D Prof Sydney, Australia 

Bamford, G. K S 988 Greenfield Ave. 

Barbour, C. E M 718 N. St. Clair St. 

Behrends, A. D J 216 

Bingham, Rev. J. G F Mercer, Pa. 

Boyd. Charles N 1 4259 Fifth Ave. 

Brandon, W. D D Butler, Pa. 

Breed, Rev. D. R., D. D., LL. D . . . Prof 123 Dithridge St. 

Bruce, Rev. J. C, D. D D. .156 Fifth Ave., New York City 

Buczak, Leon S 303 

Campbell, R. D T 6210 Walnut St. 

Campbell, Rev. W. O., D. D D Sewickley, Pa. 

Carpenter, J. McF .T Frick Annex 

Christie, Rev. Robt., D. D., LL. D. Prof 1002 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Clemson, D. M T Carnegie Building 

Cox, J. M J 205 

Craig, Rev. W. R D Butler, Pa. 

Crutehfleld, J. S D 2034 Penn Ave. 

Culley, Rev. D. E., Ph. D Prof. & R. 1140 Pemberton Ave.. 

N. S. 

D'Aliberti, Rev. Alfied G 707 Lincoln Ave. 

Steubenville.O. 

Dickson, C. A T 316 Fourth Ave. 

Duff, Rev. J. M., D. D Sec. of D Carnegie, Pa. 

Bakin, Rev. Frank I. & L 335 Forest Ave., 

Ben Avon, Pa. 

Edwards, Geo. D T . .c/o Commonwealth Trust Co. 

Blterich, Rev. W. O G 919 Union Ave. N. S, 

Farmer, Rev. W. R., D. D Prof 1020 Western Ave., N. S. 

Fisher, Rev. S. J., D. D Sec. of T 5611 Kentucky Ave. 

Fulton, A. F M Belle Vernon, Pa. 

Galbraith, L. A M 302 

George, Rev. A. H G 315 

Gibson, E. L M 306 

Gibson, Rev. J. T., D. D D Martin Bldg., N. S. 

Gregg, John R V-Pres. of T Woodland Road 

64 (118) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Hamill, Daniel M Glenfield, Pa. 

Hamilton, Rev. J. A G 305 

Hanna, Chas. N D 5761 Bartlett St. 

Harbison, R. W D. & T Sewicklej', Pa. 

Hazlett, C. H J 20a 

Hays, Rev. C. C, D. D Pies, of D Johnstown, Pa. 

Henry, R. H S 202 

Herron, Joseph A T Monongahela City, Pa. 

Higglns, Miss Sara M A. L Glenshaw, Pa. 

Higley, Rev. A. P., D. D D Cleveland, Ohio 

Hinitt, Rev. F. W., D. D D Indiana, Pa. 

Hofnaeister, R. C F Oakmont, Pa. 

Holland, Rev. W. J., D. D D 5440 Forbes Ave. 

Hudnut, Rev. Wm. H., D. D D Youngstown, Ohio 

Hudock. A.J S 218 

Jones. Rev. W. A., D. D T 13 6 Orchard St. 

Kay, James I T 5545 Forbes St. 

Kelso, Rev. J. A., Ph. D., D. D Pres 725 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Kennedy, Rev. D. S., D. D D Witherspoon Bldg. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Kerr ,Rev. H. T. D. D D 827 Amberson Ave. 

Krlvulka, C. J S .Box 117, Pittock, Pa. 

Leister, J. M J Trafford, Pa. 

Leypoldt, F. C S 217 

*Lloyd, D. McK T 208 S. Linden Ave. 

Lloyd, John J 848 N-Lincoln Ave., N. S. 

Logan, Geo. B D. & Pres. of T .... 1007 Lyndale 

Ave., N. S. 

Luccock, Rev. G. N., D. D D Wooster, Ohio 

Lyon. John G T Commonwealth Bldg. 

McCammon, L. L J 204 

McClintock, Oliver T. . . . Ellsworth & Emerson Aves. 

McCloskey, T. D D Oliver Bldg. 

McCormick. Rev. S. B., D. D D. . . .c/o University of Pittsburgh 

McEwan, Rev. W. L., D. D J3 836 S. Negley Ave. 

McFadden, Rev. H. T G 315 

Marquis, Rev. J. A., D. D D Hendrick-Hudson Apts. 

W. 110th St., New York City 

Martin. James J 206 

Marvin, S. S T Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Mayne, James F 15 Viewforth Sq. 

Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Mealy, Rev. J. M., D. D D Sewickley, Pa. 

Mellin, W. C M 318 

Merker, R. K M 1500 Beaver Ave., N. S. 

Millei, J. F D 206 Waldorf St., N. S. 

Miller, R. F F Cochranton, Pa. 

Millinger, W. H M 5213 Friendship i^ve., 

Moser, W- L S 302 

Murray. B. A J 318 

* Deceased 

65 (119) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Neal, S. G M 205 

Nordlander, Rev. E. J G 305 

Owen, William J. . . . 841 N. Lincoln Ave., N. S. 

Porter, R. W . M 309 

Potter, Rev. J. M., D. D D Wheeling, W. Va. 

Rae, James D 801 Penn Ave. 

Ramsey, Rev. L. J G 527 Lovelace St., W. E. 

Read, Miss Margaret M Sec. to Pres 51 Chestnut St., 

Grafton, Pa. 

Rivard, E. A M 304 

Roberts, R. L J 206 

Robinson, A. C D. & T Sewickley, Pa. 

Robinson, Rev. J. Millen, D. D. . . D Wellsburg, W. Va. 

Robinson, William M T Carnegie Bldg. 

Rupp, Rev. J. C S Wall, Pa. 

Say, Rev. D. L G Cross Creek, Pa. 

Schaff, Rev. D. S., D. D Prof 737 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Schmale, Rev. T. R G 506 Lockhart St., N. S. 

Semple, Rev. Samuel, D. D D Titusville, Pa. 

Shaw, Wilson A D. & T. . .c/o Bank of Pitts., N. A. 

Shrom, Rev. W. P., D. D D Coraopolis, Pa. 

Sleeth, George M I. . . .749 River Road, Avalon, Pa. 

Slemmons, Rev. W. E., D. D D Washington, Pa. 

Smith, Rev. J. Kinsey, D. D V.-Pres. of D.. .812 St. James St., 

Sneed, Rev. F. W., D. D T 5633 Elgin Ave. 

Snowden, Rev. J. H., D. D Prof 723 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Spence, Rev. W. H., D. D D Uniontown, Pa. 

Sprague, P. S G 217 

Stevenson, Rev. W. P., D. D D. Maryville, Tenn. 

Swoyer, Rev. G. E G 1112 High St.. N. S. 

Taylor, Rev. George, Jr., Ph. D. . D Wilkinsburg. Pa. 

Tomasula, John G 316 

Wardrop, Robert T c/o Peoples National Bank 

Warnshuis, P. L M 203 

Weir, Rev. W. F., D. D D Wooster, Ohio 

Weisz, A. B S 26 Elm Lane. Etna, Pa. 

Welenteichick, J. J s 317 

Wheeland, Rev. C. R P 4045 N- Wheeler Ave.. 

Chicago, 111. 

Willoughby, J. W M 306 

Wissinger, H. L j Murrysville. Pa. 



66 (120)' 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



ISO 

s > 

« d 

W) o 



a3.2 < 



h£ ; = 






:s 5 



w 



^ w 
O 



ra I 



^ =i 



W g 



'OD'OO 'i. 

e a o 
^3ll) cs :<: 



H 



J= O o 
2 -1 J= 

•W ■ 
E- f- 

,_o 

_ cd T 
|a, E 






1° 
a 



ro 

CO li. 

■ te. 

a 5 

M ° 
S ft- 

s 
.e 
u 






CO 



CO 









■a 'J.' 
H C 



bOK 
O W 















f-H "O •-< 



W ^ 



<^ tf) J:i tfi 



.2 ft" 



CO 






at W 
ca U 






CI M 

CO Q 

o 

£ ° 



CI 



2 X S 



.^ o 



S ft" 
o 



1 o i: . ^ 





„ 




___ 




»-" 










>. <« 


>. ^^ 






o £ 


O "O 


.= 


tS M 


t2 £ 




n.u3 


K J X 


x3c2 




Eft" 


io- E 


Sem.) O. T. 

Prof. Ke 

Sem.) N.T. I 

Mr. Eak 










m 


•u 


^ -O 












^-^ 


*— - 


' — • 






















l-- W i5 



1) a 

^ r 



W ft" 



2< 



67 (121) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



% 
D 


3q 



9 

3!J 



b] o 

z 

at/) 
« ■ 

• M [I. 

.2 2 



.i>? s 



H a. 



>. 

5 fc >■ 

"S u u _ 

s o ^ o 

{_J0- 0. 

5 



o z 



■^ [^ 



K 0- 



>. fe 


bo 








z 





en 


(U 


fe. 


H 


K 



CO 

^ z 

Hi 



0,2 



uz. 









<1" 



W^ 



^ ■^ 

a 2 



u - 



•ic/: O" 



3 



o 






in 
a» 
(fl 

:-i 



a 

aj 
_> 



B 

— 

e i 
-■ 

3 „• 

= 9 

S d 
(-■ 

25 


a; 
a 

> 

(LI 

a 

<u 
u 

rt 




Church Music-54 
Mr. Boyd 


^ c 

v . 

03 Q^ 







CO 


CO 



68 (122) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Index 

Admission, Terms of 23 

Alumni Association 63 

Awards 1 ] 

Bequests 36 

Boarding • ■ 34 

Book Purchasing Memorial Fund 32 

Buildings 19 

Calendar • • '6 

Cecilia Choir, The 50 

Christian Work • • 28 

Conference • • 27 

Courses of Study 41 

Biblical Theology 46 

Christian Ethics • ■ . . 51 

Church History • • . . . 46 

English Bible 46 

Hebrew Language and O. T. Literature 42 

Missions and Comparative Religion 51 

New Testament Literature and Exegesis 44 

Practical Theology, Department of 48 

Homiletics, Pastoral Theology, Sacred Rhetoric, Elocution 

Church Music, The Sacraments, Church Government 

Semitic Languages 42 

Sociology 61 

Systematic Theology and Apologetics 47 

Degree, Bachelor of Divinity 54 

Dining Hall 22 

Diplomas 26 

Directors, Board of 6 

Directory 64 

Examinations 25 

Expenses 34 

Extension Lectures 61 

Faculty K 

Committees of 9 

Fellowships 57 

Funds, Special • • 40 

Gifts and Bequests 36 

Graduate Students 25 

Graduate Studies and Courses 54 

Gymnasium 34 

Historical Sketch 18 

Lectures : 

Elliott 60 

Extension 61 

On Missions ■ • 52 

L. H Severance , 60 

Robert A Watson Memorial 61 

List of ■ ■ • 10 

Library • ■ 30 

Loan Funds 35 

Location 18 

Outline of Courses 52 

Physical Training 34 

Preaching Service 27 

Preaching Supply, Bureau of • • 29 

Presbyteries, Reports to 38 

Prizes • ■ 57 

Religious Exercises 26 

Representation, College and State • ■ 16 

Schedule of Lectures and Recitations 67 

Scholarship Aid 34 

Scholarships, List of 38 

Seminary Year 25 

Social Hall 22 

Student Organizations • • 17 

Students, Roll of 12 

Students from other Seminaries 25 

Trustees, Board of 4 

University of Pittsburgh, Relations with 55 

Warrington Memorial Library 30 

Y. M. C. A ■ • ^ 28 

Committees of T 17 

69 (123) 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Westepn Theological Seminary 

A Revie^v Devoted to the Interests or 
Xneological Education 

Published quarterly in January, April, July, and October, by the 
Trustees of the Western Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America. 

Edited by the President with the co-operation of the Faculty. 

Page 
Pittsburgh as a Social Center 5 

Charles C. Cooper 

Literature 9 

Alumniana 2 3 

Necrology 2 7 

Communications for the Editor and all business matters should be 

addressed to 

REV. JAMES A. KELSO, 

731 Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

75 cents a year. Single Number 25 cents. 

Each author is solely responsible for the views expressed in his article. 



Entered as second-class matter December 9, 1909, at the postoffice at Pittsburgh, Pa. 
(North Diamond Station) under the act of August 24, 1912. 



Press of 

pittsburgh printing company 

pittsburgh, pa, 

1921 



Faculty 



The Rev. JAMES A. KELSO, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D. 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation 

The Rev. ROBERT CHRISTIE, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Apologetics 

The Rev. DAVID RIDDLE BREED, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. DAVID S. SCHAFF, D. D. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 

The Rev. WILLIAM R. FARMER, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. JAMES H. SNOWDEN, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Systematic Theology 

The Rev. SELBY FRAME VANCE, D. D., LL. D. 

Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. DAVID E. CULLEY, Ph. D. 

Assistant Professor of Hebrew 



The Rev. FRANK EAKIN, B. D. 

Instructor in New Testament Greek and Librarian 

Prof. GEORGE M. SLEETH 

Instructor in Elocution 

Mr. CHARLES N. BOYD 

Instructor in Music 



3 (129) 



The Bui lei in 

— of me — 

WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Volume XIII. April, 1921. No. 3 

Pittsburgh as a Social Center. 



Mr. Charles C. Cooper 

The Pittsburgh District offers a good field for volun- 
teer social Avork for students. If the full value of this 
service, however, is to be obtained there must be some 
plan upon the part of each student. 

It is suggested that the first year be given over large- 
ly to an intimate first-hand study and visit to the agencies 
and institutions engaged in welfare or social work. The 
Cooperative Welfare Federation, Union Arcade, is an 
agency of agencies and its executive is in a position to 
assist students in making such study. 

During the second year the students should link 
them_selves up to some institution or agency for actual 
service in routine w^ork. Every successful pastor neces- 
sarily must face these social problems and a knowledge 
as to the method of handling such work will save him 
much time and energy. 

There is a large field here for him to draw from. 
The student should receive training somewhat similar 
to that obtained by an interne physician in a hospital. 
More and more is this hospital training being demanded 
by physicians; and more and more for the same reason 
is training in the technic and method of social institu- 
tions necessary to the clergyman. 

Along the general line of family rehabilitation th-j 
Associated Charities, Fulton Building, is ready and anx- 

5 (131) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

ions to receive students as volunteers or friendly visitors. 
This association is also anxious that theological semi- 
nary students should become members of their district 
case conferences, whereby they will be brought directly 
in contact with concrete family cases that are up for dis- 
cussion. 

The Association for the Improvement of the Poor, 
428 Duquesne Way, is a large relief association and is 
ready to receive volunteer service similar to that of the 
Associated Charities. 

The Juvenile Court, through the probation officer, 
is also ready to serve theological seminary students in 
the particular angle of work in which they are engaged. 

The Children's Service Bureau, B. F. Jones Build- 
ing, is engaged in problems relating to children. They 
can use volunteer Avorkers in various lines, especially in 
their department of juvenile protective work. 

The Morals Court, Judge Tensard DeWolfe, Cherry 
Way, is eager to receive volunteer service along the line 
of the Big Brother movement. Delinquent boys are 
placed out under the care of these volunteer workers. 

The settlement houses, however, always have been 
places where the volunteer can gain a broad and compre- 
hensive view of social work. The settlement houses are 
always located in neighborhoods needing higher stand- 
ards of living and the staff of workers reside in the 
settlement house itself. It becomes a central neighbor- 
hood clearing house for service. Residence and service 
in a settlement house therefore offers more nearly the 
same training that a physician receives in the hospital. 
This training does not simply consist in the care of a 
boys' or girls' club, but is obtained rather by absorption 
in the general discussion of problems of life, a daily mat- 
ter of routine in the settlement house. 

Woods Run Settlement House, 5 Petrel Street, and 
Sarah Heinz House, East Ohio and Heinz Streets, are in 
the same section of the city as the Seminary and would 
be glad to use volunteer student Avorkers. 

6 (132) 



Pittshurgh as a Social Center 

The Community House, 801 Union Avenue, and the 
Soho Community House, 2402 Fifth Avenue, are also 
ready to receive students as volunteer workers. 

The Phoebe Brashear Settlement is a new settlement 
house at 23 Holt Street, North Side. This is rather re- 
mote from the seminary, but students from this section 
of the city should bear it in mind. 

For students interested in colored work, the Morgan 
Community House, Fullerton and Bedford Avenues, of- 
fers a wide field for service. 

The Spring Garden Neighborhood House, 1255 
Spring Garden Avenue, and Trinity Temple, 25th and 
Smallman Streets, are places where there are many set- 
tlement activities conducted with a distinctly religious 
background. 

The Irene Kaufmann Settlement is a large Jewish 
settlement, 1835 Center Avenue, well equipped for train- 
ing and ready to receive volunteers. 

The Kingsley House, operated by the Kingsley As- 
sociation, Inc., with main office at 43 Fernando Street, 
has recently moved to the Italian section of East Liberty, 
giving over its old property at Fullerton and Bedford 
for colored settlement work under the Morgan Communi- 
ty House. Kingsley House is the oldest settlement 
house in Pittsburgh, being some twenty-seven years old. 
It has always handled a large number of volunteer work- 
ers and is prepared to receive any number of students. 

The Kingsley Association also operates a fresh air 
camp during the summer and a convalescent hospital dur- 
ing the entire year, both at Valencia, Pa. Volunteer serv- 
ice can be rendered with both of these institutions. 

The sociology department of the University of Pitts- 
burgh and of the Margaret Morrison school cordially in- 
vite seminary students to come to their classes and lec- 
tures either as class members or as auditors. 

The Humane Society, 832 Bigelow Boulevard, is also 
prepared to render students service in the matter of train- 
ing. Under the Pennsylvania laws, certain cases of in- 

7 (133) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

humane or neglectful treatment of children can be 
reached through the Humane Society and an understand- 
ing of these laws and the method of applying them is 
worth while. 

The students desiring to become medical missionaries 
are urged to attend and study the different public dis- 
IDensaries in the city and the w^ork of the visiting nurses. 
Many of the dispensaries in the city are connected with 
the different hospitals and the greater portion of the 
visiting nurse work is now conducted under the direction 
of the Pittsburgh Public Health Nursing Association. 

There are many other agencies, in fact several hun- 
dred, for human betterment in the City of Pittsburgli. 
Students desiring to specialize along any particular line 
will find that such agencies gladly appreciate volunteer 
service. 

Toward the latter part of the students' seminary 
course and after they have passed through the two sug- 
gested phases of social study, it is strongly recom- 
mended that they make some independent survey 
under the settlement house or larger agencies for social 
welfare. This study or survey will give the student some 
idea of the necessity and method for a careful under- 
standing of the social facts in a given community or 
about a given problem. The intelligent clergyman of the 
future will be a man who understands the significant 
social facts of his own locality. 

The field of social endeavor and the field of the 
Church are very closely related. Religion is the great 
motif for most of this service, but in modern civilization 
the social problems are very complex and intricate. Their 
solution has forced the evolution of certain methods and 
technic with which the future clergyman should become 
familiar. 

Kingsley House, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

8 (134) 



Literature 



A History of the Hebrew Commonwealth. By Albert E. Bailey and 
Charles Poster Kent. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 
1920. $2.00. 

The story of the rise and fall of the Hebrew people is a nar- 
rative of perennial interest and many able writers have told and 
retold it; it is a story that never grows old. Its telling has long 
been a specialty with Professor Charles Foster Kent, one of the 1oint 
authors of the present volume. He published his "Outlines of 
Hebrew History" in 189 5 and since that time many volumes have 
come from his pen presenting some phase of the great story of 
Israel's progress or decline. A few of these volumes Professoi 
Kent has published in collaboration with other writers, and it is 
among the latter that the volume under review falls. The joint 
author in the present instance is Mr. Albert E. Bailey, a well-known 
lecturer, author, and educator. How the work was divided, or 
which part fell to which collaborator, we are not informed. The 
book was completed in 1919 and was copyrighted in 192 0. 

The aim of the authors was not to treat Hebrew history at 
length or in any way approaching an exhaustive fashion. Such 
a work, which would utilize the vast store of material which modern 
research and excavation have made available, is indeed greatly 
needed in the English speaking world. But our authors have not 
had before them any such ambitious goal in the present under- 
taking. They have rather set out to present an outline in the 
form best adapted for study in "colleges, secondary schools, and 
intermediate classes." And considered in the light of this their aim, 
the work must be held to be well done and the volume highly to 
be recommended to those looking for a history of the Hebrews in 
outline whether for class-room purposes, for review work, or for 
general reading. The style throughout is clear and flowing. The 
narrative never halts but moves forward with measured rhythm 
through century after century until the period is reached when 
organized Judaism was broken up and the "long, long exile," ex- 
tending to the present age began. The interest of the reader, 
too, captured in chapter I, never wanes until the last paragraph of 
the book is reached, a paragraph dealing with General Allenby's 
peace proclamation, delivered in Jerusalem in December, 1917, 
and read "from the very pretorium where the Tenth Legion of 
Hadrian once encamped to enforce exile upon the Jewish race." 

I shall not attempt to indicate even the general content of 
the thirty-three chapters of the book. Suffice it to say that the 
chapter headings are well chosen; the chapters are brief and the 
content of each paragraph is made to stand out by a pertinent, 
phase printed in heavy black type at the opening of the paragraph. 

In addition to the general character of the book, one or two 
special features are of importance. The first of these is the mat- 
ter of the book's pictorial illustrations. Not only are they abun- 
dant, but have been chosen with great care and skill. They have 
been gathered mainly from recent contributions of archseology 
and have been interspersed through the volume in a manner that 

9 (135) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

has contributed effectively to illumine and lighten the pages of 
the narrative and stimulate interest in it. The value of the work 
to the average reader has, no doubt, been greatly enhanced by 
this feature of it. 

Of importance also will be found the many suggestions for de- 
tailed study offered in outline in the appendix. To the student 
especially who desires to carry on individual studies in Israel's 
history will these suggestions prove welcome and helpful. 

Historical works nowadays are frequently accompanied by good 
maps. And this practice has been followed in the present work 
also and that with considerable benefit, as the authors have furnished 
a choice collection. It consists of a series of twenty-nine small maps, 
mostly two to the page and often well colored, arranged to em- 
phasize and cause to stand out in relief many of the salient facts 
of the history, and will undoubtedly prove helpful and suggestive 
to the student, the individual maps being well arranged and all of 
them easily accessible for reference. 

The book has certain unsatisfactory features of course. What 
book has escaped them? It is to be regretted, for example, that 
the authors do not find any facts of Hebrew history worth report- 
ing in any period antedating the Exodus. This seems especially 
unfortunate in view of the character of the readers whom the book 
is designed to serve. 

Or, again, it seems unfortunate that it was found advisable 
to state as unquestioned facts certain conclusions of modern scholar- 
ship which of necessity must remain in the realm of hypothesis. 
Perhaps such procedure could not well be avoided in a book of 
such brief compass, yet one wonders whether a less sure attitude 
in some instances would not have served a better purpose. 

These features, however, although they may be unfortunate, 
are of no great importance measured in the light of the general 
excellence of the book; and excellent it must be judged to be, 
the best short history indeed of the Hebrew people which has yet 
been published a'nd it will no doubt be well received as it deserves 
to be and will serve a well defined purpose as a text book in its 
particular sphere. 

DAVID E. CULLEY 



Life and Letters of St. Paul. By Rev. Prof. David Smith, New 
York: George H. Doran Company, 1920. $7.00. 

Dr. Smith, the author of this book, is perhaps the greatest 
living historical exegete of New Testament thought. In this 
present work he has erected a monumental testimony to his name 
and has placed the Church universal as a debtor at his feet. It 
is a companion to his book "The Days of His Flesh," though in 
some ways a greater work. It contains over seven hundred pages 
of useful information and clear exegesis comprising the life, the 
passion, and the letters of the Apostle Paul, together with something 
of the social ideals, the ecclesiastical problems, and political ambi- 
tions of the people among whom he moved. Each letter of the 
Apostle is translated anew in such a way as to give an interpreta- 
tion of the unusual phrases and passages in a splendid manner. 
In addition to the translation there appears, as foot-notes, a com- 
mentary which illustrates the difficult words or phrases and in- 

10 (136) 



Literature 

dicates the social customs involved. To read this life, which is 
so beautifully written by a sympathetic soul who has woven the 
letters into the life in such a convincing way, is like following 
a running brook along which we walk with some great naturalist 
who points out along the way the beauties that are discovered 
with each new bend in the stream, and who reveals to us the se- 
cret of its mission to the world of vegetation and men. Thus in 
a very real way, for all practical purposes of the minister, this book 
is the best introduction in print for that portion of the New 
Testament thought which it covers. It leads the reader into an 
intelligent understanding of the problems underlying that period of 
the early history of the Christian Church. 

Dr. Smith has worked for thirteen years in the production of 
this book and there is a deep reason why it should be commended. 
Its mark of original departure is the outstanding note of the work. 
Other introductions of the New Testament are largely a compilation 
of the conclusions of what scholars have suggested, but Dr. Smith 
ha« done virgin work and each page discloses the thoroughness 
and freshness of a new way. He tells us in the preface that he 
is endeavoring "to portray St. Paul as he has perceived him dur- 
ing long years of loving and delightful study of the sacred memories 
of his life and labor mentioning the views of others only as they 
perve to illustrate and confirm his own." The secret of his suc- 
cess lies in the fact that he possesses a qualification which is 
'acking in a large bulk of all writings on the Bible. It is the equip- 
ment of a sympathetic appreciation of the life and conditions in 
which the Apostle lived, together with the motives which urged 
him on. No one can read this book without realizing that the 
literature and history of that first century, the social customs and 
practices of the people especially those in the cities where Paul 
labored, the peculiar problems and bent of thought of that section 
of the world together with the antagonisms arising out of their 
contact with the Christian doctrine, the personal aims and ambi- 
tions of the political and ecclesiastical leaders of that time, and 
a fine appreciation o^ the soul of the Apostle have become second 
nature to this author who is steeped in them. They have becomo 
flesh and blood in his thinking, so that they arise in his mind as 
naturally as the conditions of the people with whom he now lives. 
Thus it is like the voice of one writing in the first century and 
preserved for us through these years. It has endowed him with 
the two great requisites as an interpreter, the historical and the 
sociological sense. He is able to project himself into the day? 
and struggles of those people of the early church and understand 
the burning passion and inner life of the Apostle. No other writer 
in the New Testament field has this qualification so highly developed. 
If we compare it with Dr. Moffatt's discussion of the Pauline let- 
ters as they appear in his Introduction we find tnat Moffatt's 
discussions lack color, passion, and the fine appreciation of the 
living struggles in the problems; and his scholastically critical 
angle has closed his eyes to many of the fine touches of interpre- 
tation which we find in this work of Dr. David Smith. 

There is no space in this short review to enter into a dis- 
cussion of Dr. Smith's theory about the historical problem based 
on Luke's intention to write a third chapter on "the origin and pro- 
gress of Christian faith," which would carry on the events from 
the closing scenes in the book of Acts to the death of the Apostle 

11 (137) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Paul; or to analyze his conclusions for locating the several letters 
and the places from which they were written. Suffice it to say 
he has very beautifully and convincingly dovetailed them into the 
activities of the Apostle and we are carried along without any de- 
sire to resist. One interesting passage shows that Luke's first 
association with Paul was after he was stricken with malaria in 
Pamphylia during his first missionary journey. It was in his stay 
at Pisidian Antioch we have this report. "Paul reached Antioch 
in a, piteous plight, enfeebled by sickness and spent by the fatigue 
of his painful passage of the Taurus; and it was impossible for 
him to address himself immediately to the work of evangelization. 
He was, however, fortunate in his new surroundings. The city 
stood some three thousand six hundred feet above the sea-level, 
and the brisk air allayed his fever and repaired his wasted vigour. 
Nor did he lack the precious succour of human sympathy. He was 
indeed confined to his lodging, but Barnabas went abroad. He 
would talk of the Gospel, and his gracious bearing would win him 
good will -and prompt a kindly interest in his suffering comrade 
One friend above all was raised up in those dark days; and this 
was the physician Luke. He was a Greek, and later tradition 
says that he was a proselyte to Judaism; but this is refuted by 
the fact that he was uncircumcised, and the probability is that he 
belonged to that interesting class, the 'God-fearers,' those pious 
Gentiles who, dissatisfied with their heathen religion and attracted 
by the pure ideals of the Jewish Faith, attached themselves to 
<.ho Synagogue and shared its worship without submitting to the 
ceremonial rites of the Mosaic Law. He was summoned to the 
^.nvalid's couch; and as he ministered to his bodily infirmity, he 
heard from his lips the blessed secret which his heart had been 
craving. Thenceforward he was the Apostle's dearest disciple, and 
the Church owes him not only the gracious Gospel which bears 
hij name and breathes his Master's spirit, but the book of Acts, 
that precious record of the heroic ministry in which he bore so 
large a part." 

We wish there were space enough to describe the Apostle's 
practice to take "the pen from his amanuensis at the close of his 
letters and write the final benediction with his own hand in his 
characteristic and unmistakable style." We give just one example, 
that of the letter to the Colossians during his first imprisonment. 
After his dictation was finished he took the pen from Timothy, 
his amanuensis, and added his sign-manual: "His writing was un- 
gainly at the best, and it was none improved by the fetter dangling 
from his wrist; and he surveyed the sprawling characters with a 
smile and inserted a pathetic apology: 'Remember my bonds.' " 
There are many other things arising in our mind which would be 
interesting to the reader, but only the perusal of the book itself 
can make those things an intelligent possession. 

Let me quote two examples 6f his exegesis which seem to 
be typical of the book and to explain his general attitude towards 
the subject. The first is about the Antichrist. "It hardly admits 
of question that the Antichrist was, in the Apostle's 
thought, no mere impersonation of the principle of evil but an 
actual person. Not only does he style him 'the Man of Lawless- 
ness,' 'the Son of Ruin,' 'the Lawless One,' but he represents 
his appearing as 'a revelation' and 'an advent' in precise analogy 
with the revelation and advent of the Lord. Here, however, his 

12 (138) 



Literature 

definition ceases. Who the Antichrist would be he neither indi- 
cates nor professes to know. His identification was reserved for 
later generations, and each recognised him as a present enemy 
of God and the Gospel It was thus natural that the Chris- 
tians should recognise Nero as the Enemy of God and expect 
that he would reappear and inaugurate the final conflict; and 
this is St. John's doctrine of the Antichrist in the Book of Revela- 
tion." The other is in connection with the Evangelic Tradition. 
"The Oral Tradition was the Church's most precious possession, 
and the task of its conservation was always supremely important, 
demanding scrupulous fidelity; but the appearance of those legend- 
mongers constituted an unprecedented menace and demanded ten- 
fold vigilance, lest corruptions should steal in. And hence the 
Pastorals abound in importunate warnings and novel definitions. 
They speak of 'the healthful Discipline' in contrast with 'the Disci- 
plines of demons,' 'the genuine Discipline' in contrast with 'the pro- 
fane and old-wiflsh fables' of the heretical teachers, 'the Discipline 
which is the norm of religion.' And they call the sacred treasure by a 
significant name — 'the deposit,' 'the genuine deposit.' This is a 
banker's term; and the idea is that the Evangelic Tradition was 
a precious trust which amid the corrupting influences of the time 
must be sedulously guarded, preserved inviolate, and transmitted 
unimpaired. 'O Timothy,' pleads the Apostle, 'guard the Deposit, 
shunning the profane babblings and incongruities of the "Knowl- 
edge" (gnosis) so falsely named'; and again: 'The genuine Deposit 
guard through the Holy Spirit who dwells within us.' The Oral 
Tradition was 'the genuine Deposit ' and its commixture with those 
base counterfeits, the Gnostic fables, was the danger of the hour. 
And here lies the crowning evidence of the apostolic date of the 
Pastorals. Once the Tradition had been committed to writing, 
the Church possessed an authoritative record of the sayings and 
doings of her Lord in the days of His flesh; and their solicitude 
for the inviolate conservation of the Tradition demonstrates that 
the Pastorals were written ere the appearance of our Gospels. The 
earliest of these is the Gospel according to St. Mark; and if, as 
seems certain, it was composed shortly before the fall of Jerusalem 
in the year 70, then the Pastorals were written just before it in 
the extremity of the Church's need." 

If there be one practice which, we believe, has teen over- 
stressed in this book it is his method of creating history. The 
principle which he follows is the deduction of the particular from 
the general. For example, from the argument that marriage among 
the Jews was a sacred obligation, that its neglect was considered 
a crime, that to be childless was to slay his posterity and thus 
"lessen the image of God," and that the Sanhedrin of which he 
was a member had as one of its qualifications not only a married 
man but a father, Dr. Smith argues that Paul was married but 
that his wife and the child born into his home had died, and that 
Paul remained a widower. In all probability there is an element 
of guess work in such a creation. It is interesting and perhaps 
has in it some element of truth, but, as in such organizations 
to-day where the exception proves the rule, there may have been 
such instances in the days of Paul. This is an example of a general 
method which runs throughout his history. 

We find no hesitancy in commending this book as a friend 
and companion to every Christian minister and layman. Certainly 

13 (139) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

no man in the pulpit can feel that he has completed his investiga- 
tion of the passage upon which he is preaching from the life aqd 
letters of St. Paul without consulting in a sympathetic way this 
late book of Dr. David Smith. 

GEORGE TAYLOR. Jr., '10 
Wilkinsburg, Pa. 



The Pharisees and Jesus: the Stone Lectures for 1915-16, delivered 
at Princeton Theological Seminary, by A. T. Robertson, A.M., 
D.D., LL.D., D.Litt., Professor of Interpretation of the New Tes- 
tament in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, New 
York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pages ix plus 190. 1920, $1.75. 

This book is one of a series of Studies in Theology written by 
distinguished British and American scholars. 

The justification of the title and treatment is, first, the rela- 
tive scarcity of monographs on the Pharisees and, second, the fact 
that other monographs are written from a different point of view. 
The extended bibliography appended to the book lists only nine 
monographs on the Pharisees. Of these, only three are written in 
English and all these are from Jewish authors. Recent material 
in English on this topic from Christian writers, is to be found in 
magazine articles, in Bible Dictionaries, and in occasional references 
in books dealing with kindred subjects. 

The author's point of view is frankly Christian, Prostestant, 
and conservative. He is, however, mindful of the fact that present 
day Jewish writers are apt to think of themselves as the spiritual 
successors of the Pharisees and that the ancient battle between the 
Pharisees and Jesus is in danger of being fought over again in a 
partisan way between Jewish and Christian scholars. He is care- 
ful, therefore, to avoid, in so far as possible, any statements con-i 
cerning the Pharisees which would needlessly give offence. 

The purpose of the book is threefold, first, to discover, by 
investigating all available sources, what the Pharisees have stood 
for in Jewish life, both before and after the time of Christ; second, 
to present the grounds of Pharisaic opposition to Jesus; and third, 
to determine the particulars in which Jesus stood opposed to 
Pharisaism. These three topics serve as the subjects of the three 
chapters of the book. 

Chapter I is fundamental in that it gives the varied back- 
ground of Pharisaic life. It is entitled "The Pharisaic Outlook 
on Doctrine and Life." Much of this material is unfamiliar to the 
ordinary Bible student. The sources handled are extra-Biblical. 
They include books dealing with the earlier and later history of 
Pharisaism. Among the former are the writings of Josephus and 
also the apocryphal and pseudepigraphical writings which arose 
in the two centuries before Christ and the first century of the 
Christian era. These writings contain source material on the 
topic of the rise of the party of the Pharisees and its relations to 
other parties such as the Sadducees, Zealots, Essenes, Apocalyp- 
tists, etc. 

In treating the later history of the Pharisees, Dr. Robertson, 
makes use of the Talmud and evaluates its estimate of Pharisaism. 
Much of the source material in Chapter I has been worked over 

14 (140) 



Literature 

both by Christian and Jewish writers. The author, therefore, does 
not seek to present a new and original work in this field. Rather, 
he undertakes to present without bias a brief sketch of the various 
aspects of Pharisaic life which call for sympathetic treatment if 
the relation of the Pharisees and Jesus is to be rightly estimated. 

Two of the interesting subdivisions of this chapter are those 
entitled "The Seven Varieties of the Pharisees" and "The Two 
Methods of Pharisaic Teaching." In the former section it is made 
clear that even the Talmud itself names six types of Pharisees 
only to condemn them and to contrast them with the true Pharisee, 
the seventh type. The two methods of Pharisaic teaching are, 
of course, the Halacha and Haggadah, the former being the binding 
rule, the latter the more imaginative interpretations. 

Chapters II and III deal chiefly with more familiar source 
material, viz. the gospels, and are correspondingly more interesting 
to the ordinary Bible student. 

In the opening sections of Chapter II, the author exhibits the 
spirit of the Talmud toward Jesus, the Jewish hatred shown in 
the Acts of the Apostles and the early Church Fathers. Then, turn- 
ing to the four gospels, he shows that they all agree in the story 
of Pharisaic hate toward Jesus. While it is evident that there are 
some friendly Pharisees, it is clear that the gospels, without ex- 
ception, present a picture of Pharisaic hostility both toward John 
the Baptist and toward Jesus. 

In the concluding part of Chapter II, the author enumerates 
eleven points which form the basis of the attack by the Pharisees 
upon Jesus, or of resentment on their part against him. According 
to the Pharisees, Jesus was guilty of (1) the assumption of Messian- 
ic authority, (2) blasphemy, (3) association with publicans and sin- 
ners, (4) neglect of fasting, (5) being in league with Beelzebub, 
(6) Sabbath breaking, (7) presenting utterly inadequate signs, 
(8) insolent defiance of tradition, (9) being an ignorant imposter, 
(10) plotting to destroy the temple, (11) high treason against 
Caesar. 

This list of accusations against Jesus is clear_ definite, and 
broadly inclusive. The author develops each point by brief comment 
on the pertinent scripture passages. His interpretations are, in 
general, in agreement with positions taken by the best conservative 
scholars. Passages in support of the fact that the Pharisees did 
make these accusations against Jesus are cited in ten of the eleven 
instances from the synoptics and in six of the eleven instances from 
John. 

In Chapter III the grounds of the condemnation of the Pharisees 
by Jesus are considered. The seven grounds are, (1) spiritual 
blindness, (2) formalism, (3) prejudice, (4) traditionalism, (5) 
hypocrisy, (6) blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, (7) rejection of 
God in rejection of Jesus. 

Dr. Robertson is unquestionably right in quoting the synoptics 
as authority for the first six items and in adding passages from 
John under items one and three. However, it seems clear that he 
would have strengthened his position if he had depended upon 
John alone for proof of the seventh item, i. e. that the Jews in 
rejecting Jesus were actually rejecting God. The synoptic pas- 
sages cited (Matt, xvii: 12; xi:27; Luke x:22) prove only that 

15 (141) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the Pharisees did reject Jesus and that Jesus considered himself 
equal with God. They do not prove that Jesus connected these 
two ideas, making his own rejection equivalent to the rejection of 
God. At most, therefore, it is proved that the synoptics contain 
the germs of the idea which appears fully developed in John. 

All in all, the book is to be commended to Bible students 
because it presents the material on the relation of the Pharisees 
and Jesus in scholarly form and sufficiently brief compass. Ci- 
tations of sources and authorities are entirely satisfactory. The 
bibliography of some four hundred volumes indicates the breadth 
of the author's reading and shows the student, who wishes to pur- 
sue the topic further, what material is available. The book as 
a whole makes it clear that the Pharisees occupied a central place 
in the intellectual and social life of the Jews in the periods be- 
fore, during, and after the earthly life of Jesus of Nazareth. The 
failure of the Jewish people to accept Jesus as the Messiah, is better 
understood after a perusal of this volume. 

J. MILTON VANCE 
Wooster, Ohio. 



Luke the Historian in The Light of Research. By A. T. Robert- 
son, M.A., D.D., LL.D., Litt.D., Professor of New Testament 
Interpretation, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louis- 
ville, Ky. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1920, $2.50. 

Again Luke The Historian! For the last few decades Luke 
has been in the limelight of criticism and New Testament inter- 
pretation. He has found valiant champions and relentless enemies. 
Again and again it became a question of whether or not Luke could 
actually bear the brunt of all these attacks. It seemed that after 
the terrific onslaught made upon him by the Tubingen School he 
had no chance of regaining his place as a trustworthy historian. 
Such men as Pfleiderer, Julicher, and Weizsacker in claiming that 
the Gospel of Luke was written by an unknown heathen Christian 
that "the historical value" of the narrative in Acts shrinks until 
it reaches a vanishing point, or again that the story of Paul is 
considered "a romantic ideal," thought that they had dealt a death 
blow to the traditional Luke. However, the position of Luke as 
a first class historian (see Ramsay: "Saint Paul the Traveler and 
Roman Citizen") was greatly enhanced by the courageous stand 
taken by such men as Ramsay, Maurice Jones, Hobart, Harnack, 
Plummer, Zahn, and a host of others for the trustworthiness of 
Luke as a historian. The question in the last analysis hinges upon 
these things: is the Acts of the Apostles a first century work, 
are the Gospel of Luke and the Acts creations of the same author, 
and are the "we — sections" genuine. A mass of literature has 
come into existence through the endeavor to reach a definite settle- 
ment of this portentious question. If men like Baur, Pfleiderer, 
and McGiffert are correct, then Luke must sink to the plane of 
a fourth or fifth rank historian, one who had little if any historical 
insight and judgment, who dealt in all sorts of fairy tales, and Paul, 
instead of maintaining his place as a spiritual Titan, from now 
must be looked upon as an imposter. 

To this already vast literature Dr. Robertson makes a valuable 
contribution. In his little book of about two hundred and fifty 

16 (142) 



Literature 

pages he presents a defense of the traditional Lukan theory. Says 
he: "In the light of all the facts known to-day, after a generation 
and more of the most exacting criticism and research, the theory 
of the Lukan authorship holds the field, greatly strengthened by 
the new light that has come. Scholarship can point with pride 
to what has been done in this field of Biblical investigation." We 
can easily gather what Dr. Robertson's volume holds in store 
for the reader by perusing the table of contents. We find such 
chapters as "The Authorship of the Gospel and the Acts," "Luke's 
Method of Research," "The Use of Medical Terms, by Luke," "A 
Physician's Account of the Birth of Jesus," Arch^ological and 
Geographical Data in the Acts," "Nautical Terms in Acts 27." Ot 
course, Dr. Robertson, in being an exponent of the traditional view, 
claims that Luke was a companion of Paul, that he wrote both 
Luke and Acts, that he wrote a// of Acts, that Luke was a physician, 
and that he was a first rank historian. It is interesting to note 
that the author leans toward the theory that Luke was probably 
born and reared in the Syrian Antioch. In this he differs from 
his views expressed in his article on Luke in the International 
Standard Bible Dictionary, in which, if I remember correctly, he 
is a supporter of Ramsay's theory which argues for Philippi as the 
place of Luke's nativity. Also, it seems to us inconsistent that 
Dr. Robertson should still speak of Luke as a Macedonian after 
arguing for Antioch in Syria, as Luke's birthplace. It is our opinion 
that in his chapter "A Physician's Account of the Birth of Jesus," 
Dr. Robertson is at his best. It is a chapter written with a touch 
of beauty and delicacy. Perhaps in it Dr. Robertson is at his 
best because here he is more of an author than a compiler. Many 
of the chapters present such a maze of quotations from standard 
works that at times it is difficult to follow the author's point 
of view. But even then, the book is still a masterly compendium. 
However, the author is perfectly sure of his own ground and in spite 
of his many quotations convinces us of his own certainty. In his chap- 
ter on medical terms, we feel that Dr. Robertson's enthusiasm — 
which we share to a large extent — is apt to carry him a deal too far. 
He would almost have us believe that Luke was the peer of many of 
our great medical men. We do not think Luke to have been a 
quack, but we must not lose sight of the comparative scale by which 
a man, good physician and thorough historian though he was, must 
be judged. The book it may be said, would have been utterly im- 
possible had it not been for the work and writings of such men 
as Harnack, Moffat, Hobart, and Ramsay. Those who are acquainted 
with Harnack's "The Acts of the Apostles," and his "Luke the Physi- 
cian," with Hobart's "The Medical Language of Saint Luke," and 
with the many writings of Sir Ramsay, especially his "Saint Paul 
the Traveller and Roman Citizen," "Was Christ Born in Bethlehem," 
"Pauline and Other Studies," and his "Bearing of Recent Dis- 
covery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament," will find 
little if anything new in Dr. Robertson's book. The volume before 
us, as has been stated before, takes the opinions expressed in the 
foregoing works and brings them to play upon the personality of 
Luke. But, for those who have no access to Harnack's or Ramsay's 
works, or to those who have neither opportunity nor time to make 
the contents of these books their own, "Luke the Historian in the 
Light of Research" will prove to be an invaluable help. Dr. Robertson 
has succeeded in impressing the reader with the greatness of his 
hero^ and the trustworthiness of the Biblical books accredited to 

17 (143) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

him throughout the centuries. We, therefore, delight in recom- 
mending the little volume to pastors and students and anyone who 
has been touched by the unspeakable charm of Paul and his greatest 
of all champions, Luke, the Physician. 

ARNOLD H. LOWE 
Missouri Valley College. 



The lEpistle to the Galatians. (International Critical Commentary). 
By Ernest Dewitt Burton, D.D. New York: Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 1920. $4.50. 

Slowly the gaps in the "International Critical" series are being 
filled. Students of the New Testament cannot but regret t^at 
volumes on "John," "Acts," and "Hebrews" are still lacking; but 
this regret is for the time being forgotten in the satisfaction which 
all must feel in the appearance of two commentaries of such out- 
standing importance as Charles' "Revelation" and Burton's "Gala- 
tians." It is not too much to say that these two works alone would 
have sufficed to mark 1920 as a year of note in New Testament 
scholarship. 

Burton's "Galatians" is a book of 630 pages. A considerable 
proportion of this is fine print. The epistle itself, in a Greek Tes- 
tament of dimensions similar to those of the commentary, extends 
over barely nine pages in all. Now 63 pages is a good deal of 
space to cover in commenting on a nine-page letter. There are 
those who will scoff at the idea of it being either necessary or 
advisable to comment on "Galatians" at such length. We shall 
have to let .them scoff, pausing only to remark that they would 
feel differently if they had ever read "Galatians" — bringing a fair 
amount of interest and intelligence to the task. 

The point does not lie merely or mainly in the letter's obscurity. 
Obscure, in not a few sections, it certainly is. St. Paul was o~Dscure 
as Browning was: with the obscurity of genius — of the man whose 
mind took enormous leaps, quite unmindful of the fact that few 
or none of his readers could keep up with him. (How comforting 
it is to learn from II. Peter 3:16 that readers vastly nearer to him 
in time than we are found in his letters "some knotty points," as 
Moffat translates!) Doubtless in the commentary before us, or any 
other on Galatians, a total of many pages will be found devoted to 
the task of supplying missing premises, yet it is not mainly this 
requirement that makes the book big. 

The bigness of it is in large measure due to the simple fact 
that to really understand what a man has written you must under- 
stand his words. As a statement this is simple enough, but as a 
fundamental principle for the interpretation of a document like 
"Galatians" it becomes unbelievably complex. The pocket diction- 
ary will not suffice — nor yet the most exhaustive Greek-English lexi- 
con. What was the content, for Paul, of his great word "faith," 
and of the corresponding verb "believe"? What are we to make of 
his seemingly varied uses of the term "law"? "Justification," 
"spirit," "flesh," "gospel," apostle," "covenant," "sin" — these are 
our common English renderings for a few of the terms that ex- 
pressed concepts vital to his thought. What range of meanings 
did these words cover — as used by the literary predecessors and 
contemporaries of Paul? How were they used in the Greek Bible, 

18 (144) 



Literature 

the Septuagint? What is to be learned from the papyri as to their 
colloquial use? Finally, to what conclusion are we led as to what 
they meant to Paul? Professor Burton believed that the most 
important contribution which he could make to the understand- 
ing of Galatians would be made through a thorough study of these 
terms. And no person living — in the English-speaking world at 
least — was better equipped to carry through such an undertaking 
successfully. 

As a matter of fact these word studies outgrew even the bounds 
of a book so generous in size as the commentary proved to be. In 
1918 Professor Burton published separately a volume entitled, 
"Spirit, Soul and Flesh" (University of Chicago Press; $2.00; 214 
pages) embodying a part of the lexical material accumulated in 
connection with the study of "Galatians." Additional material cf 
the same sort is given a place in an Appendix to the commentary, 
while shorter lexical notes are to be found throughout tbe book. 

Now #hat I have been saying is almost certain to give the 
impression that this is a dry book — important perhaps, but dry. Yet 
oddly enough it is not dry: I think, anyone at all interested in St. Paul 
who may peruse it will agree with me in this. How does it escape? 
Partly, I think through the obvious freshness of the investigatipn 
which lies back of it. The traditional idea of a critical commentary as 
a work that should first display before the eyes of the admiring 
(or yawning) reader the opinions of learned fathers from the 
second century down, then choose from among them the least 
impossible. Professor Burton has had the courage to repudiate. Not 
that he is indifferent to opinions other than his own. But his com- 
mentary is not overloaded with such opinions, and throughout it 
gives the impression of an original piece of work — the work, more- 
over, of a mind extraordinarily alert and thoroughly disciplined. 
I think it is this, largely, that saves the book from being dry. 

And there is another thing. The author of this commentary 
does not forget that words — for which he shows such zeal — are 
important not as things in themselves but as vehicles for the con- 
veyance of thought. My own habit is to test commentaries by 
going to them with such questions, for information or opinion, as 
I think a would-be student of the work commented on is likely to 
ask and has a right to ask. Perhaps I often miss the point as to 
what questions are fair and natural. At all events the applicaiion 
of this test has made me rather pessimistic on the whole subject 
of the usefulness of commentaries. But there are notable ex- 
ceptions. Menzies on "Mark (The Earliest Gospel," MacMillan) 
comes to my mind as one of these. And it is a great pleasure to 
find a new commentary, in a standard series, that seems to meet 
the requirements so well as the one before us does. I believe that 
any serious student who undertakes a study of Galatians, using the 
text itself as his primary source and relying on this commentary 
for aid in questions of introduction and exegesis, will find the study 
one of absorbing interest and great profit. There will of course 
be other commentaries which he may use — an embarassing wealth 
of them in fact. Nearly every Christian thinker of rank since 
Origen has labored to expound this hastily dictated letter of St. 
Paul's. Chrysostom, Theodore of. Mopsuestia, Jerome, Augustine, 
Luther, Erasmus, Calvin, Winer, Meyer, Wette, Ellicott, Lightfoot, 
Ramsay, Bacon — the list might easily be extended to several times 
this length. These are notable names, and it goes without say- 

19 (145) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Jng that there is much of value in their work. Yet I think it is 
perfectly safe to predict that for many years to come the English- 
speaking student of "Galatians," particularly if he knows Greek, 
will find Professor Burton's commentary much the most useful aid 
to which he can turn. It will give him constant help in matters 
of detail, and, what is perhaps more important, it will help him 
to see the "big idea" back of the epistle as a whole. 

What is the big idea? A sentence at the very close will serve 
as a hint as to the answer which Professor Burton gives. "Though 
it was probably dictated rapidly, and was certainly composed under 
the stress of deep emotion, the six brief chapters of which it con- 
sists constitute one of the most important documents of early Chris- 
tianity and one of the noblest pleas ever written for Christian liberty 
and spiritual religion." 

This is not a homiletical commentary in the usual sense. Far 
from it. Yet the studious minister will find it — or rather the study 
of "Galatians" which it will stimulate and aid — a homiletical "help" 
of the very best sort. It is precisely the kind of a work that the 
preacher who wishes to make his preaching vital with the vitality 
which his Bible has must use. 

I have been trying to say that this book is a successful com- 
mentary on "Galatians." Incidentally I have suggested that it is 
a good deal more than that. The wealth of lexicographical ma- 
terial, presented with unusual skill and backed by a scholarship 
that in this field is all but unique, is likely to make it an indis- 
pensable book for the study of the development of early Christianity. 
(There are, for example, extensive notes on ''EATcA^^am" "Aiwf Kcii and 
AluvLoq' , "Titles and Predicates of Jesus," TIaTr/p as applied to 
God," etc. Perhaps we may hope that later this part of the work 
will be available in separate form.) 

In so far as the work may meet with adverse criticism I would 
expect that it would be partly on the ground of its general method 
and style being excessively analytical. Whether this be deemed 
a serious fault, or a fault at all, will be largely determined by the 
personal equation as affecting the judgment of the critic. The note 
on the very difficult matter of Paul's use of v6/ioi (pp. 443-60) 
may be cited as a case in point. 

FRANK EAKIN 



The Personality of God. By Professor James H. Snowden. New 

York: The Macmillan Co. 1920. $1-75. 

In this little book on "The Personality of God," Professor James 
H. Snowden has rendered a real service. We greatly need to-day 
short books on the great themes of religion written by men who 
are at once masters of their subject and know how to talk the sim- 
ple language that the layman understands. Dr. Snowden is one 
of the rare men who possess this gift. In other books, such as 
his treatment of Pre-millenarianism and of Christian Science, he 
has shown his ability to deal wisely and sanely with a living ques- 
tion, and now in this book he gives us a disscussion of what is at 
once the oldest and the newest of all subjects, the Personality of 
God. 

The method of treatment is unusually happy. After a brief 
introduction on the importance of the subject and a discussion 
of what we mean by personality in ourselves, he raises the ques- 

20 (146) 



Literature 

tion how we come to believe in a personal God as a matter of ex- 
perience and then goes on from that to define the content of the 
belief, to consider the objections which may be urged against it, 
the alternatives which its denial involves, and the significance of 
this faith for science^ for philosophy, and for our practical life. 

The point of view is of Christian faith reinforced by an idealis- 
tic philosophy. Dr. Snowden inclines in his sympathies to the mys- 
tical rather than the historical approach to religious questions. 
This appears in his discussion of the rivals to the Christian view. 
While he recognizes, as all intelligent students of the time must 
do, the presence of pragmatic and pluralistic tendencies, he does 
not regard them as foemen sufficiently important to deserve the 
central place which he gives to the various monistic substitutes 
for personality. So in his treatment of the Trinity, instead of 
reaching it by the historical road through showing the central place 
of the person of Jesus in the life of man and the natural steps 
through which Christian faith came to interpret this person as 
the revelation and expression of God in human form, he sees in 
the Trinity in true Hegelian fashion the implication of personality 
itself. 

Especially commendable is the sympathetic attitude of the 
author toward the views which he criticises and his effort to point 
out the elements of truth which they contain. Particularly il- 
luminating is the section in which he shows the extent to which 
so-called pantheistic thinkers, like Paulsen and Bradley, make place 
in their philosophy for aspects of truth which we associate with 
personality. What these thinkers wish, he reminds us, is to relieve 
God of the limitations of personality as we know it in ourselves, 
but they would be the first to recognize that personality is a truer 
word to describe what God is than any other that we can find. 

So in his discussion of contemporary writers like William James, 
Bergson, and H. G. Wells, Dr. Snowden welcomes the evidence 
which they bring of "the profound religiousness of agnostic think- 
ers." However far these writers fall short of historic orthodoxy, 
they are all alike "witnesses to the personality of God" and for 
this we should be grateful. This catholic and sympathetic spirit, 
ready to see the good in every opposing view while at the same 
time pointing out its limitations, is a great merit of Dr. Snowden's 
work. 

To the effect of the war on faith in God the author devotes 
some illuminating paragraphs. To him the war has raised no 
new problems, only restated the old ones with new and tragic 
force. One feels in Dr. Snowden's discussion here that his gen- 
eral type of philosophy hardly leads him to do justice to the force 
of the argument from the fact of evil to a God who is limited in 
power. But however this may be, it is refreshing to come into 
contact with one who finds his faith unshaken by the experiences 
of the past six years and invites us with him to contemplate the 
tragedy through which the world has been passing in the light 
of that all embracing purpose through which God is leading His 
world out to a larger and diviner end. We most heartily commend 
Dr. Snowden's book to all who want a simple presentation of this 
central Christian truth to put into the hands of those who are con- 
fused and troubled by the conflicting currents of contemporary 
thought. WILLIAM ADAMS BROWN 

Union Theological Seminary, New York, N. Y. 

21 (147) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

The Originality of the Christian Message. By H. R. Mackintosh, 
D.D., D. Phil., Professor of Systematic Theology, New College, 
Edinburgh. 

Professor Mackintosh has won a secure place in the theologi- 
cal and religious world by his works, especially by his great work 
on the Person of Christ. This volume is a minor piece, but it is 
important in its contents and treatment. The idea of the book is 
that Christianity is not simply one among religions of equal signif- 
icance with itself, but is original and unique and overlooks all 
others as the Alps overshadow the plains. He finds the originality 
of the Christian message in the Christian idea of God, in the divine 
saving activity, in redemption as an experience, in the' Christian 
ethic, and in the absoluteness of Christianity. These points are all 
wrought out in a clear and convincing way, expressed in transparent 
style, and the little book gives us an assured faith in the vital things 
which Christians believe and by which they live. 

JAMES H. SNOWDEN 



22 (148) 



Alumniana 



CALLS 

Rev. E. E. Lashley ('95), Union City, Pa., to West End, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 

Rev. G. P. Atwell, D.D., ('98), Greensburg, Pa., to Second, Washing- 
ton, Pa. 

Rev. J. H. Lawther ('01), Bellaire, Ohio, to Niles, Ohio. 

Rev. T. D. Scott ('01), Sharpsburg, Pa., to Bedford, Ind. 

Rev. E. W. Byers ('03), Pitcairn, Pa., to Jersey Shore, Pa. 

Rev. H. M. Campbell ('04-p), Dormont, Pa., to Darby Church, Pres- 
bytery of Chester. 

Rev. G. L. Glunt ('11), Rochester, Pa., to Oakland, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. H. J. Baumgartel ('13), Trenton, N. J., to Parnassus, Pa. 

Rev. S. L. Johnston ('13), Woodlawn, Pa., to Muddy Creek Church, 
Khedive, Pa. 

Rev. D. R. Thompson ('13), Gibsonia, Pa., to West Sunbury and 
Pleasant Valley, Pa. 

Rev. C. R. Wheeland ('17), Braddock, Pa., to Irving Park, Chicago, 
111. 

Rev. Owen W Pratt ('19), Butte, Mont., to Harvard, 111. 

INSTALLATIONS 

Rev. Maurice E. Wilson, D.D., ('79), College Hill, Beaver Palls, Pa., 

Nov. 11, 1920. 
Rev. R. J. Shields ('10) First, Charleroi, Pa. 

ACCESSIONS 

Rev. C. S. McClelland, D.D. ('80), Mt. Washington, Pittsburgh, 

Pa , 13 

Rev. O. N. Verner, D.D. ('86), McKees Rocks, Pa .25 

Rev. S. A. Kirkbride ('92) Neshannock, New Wilmington, Pa. . .10 

Rev. R. F. Getty ('94). Murrysville, Pa 4 

Rev. M. D. McClelland ('95), Jackson Centre, Pa 6 

Rev. W. P. McKee, D. D. ('96), First, Monongahela, Pa.! .' 13 

Rev. C. A. McCrea, D. D. ('97), Oakmont, Pa 17 

Rev. E. L. Mcllvaine, D.D., ('98), First, Meadville, Pa 8 

Rev. C. O. Anderson ('99), Plain Grove Pa 5 

Rev. H. O. MacDonald ('99), Unity, Pa! 11 

Rev. S. T. Brown ('02), Forty-third Street, Pittsburgh, Pa! ! . . . . 10 

Rev. E. R. Tait ('02) First, Wilson, Pa 25 

Rev. A. P. Bittinger ("'03), Ambridge, Pa '.'. 22 

Rev. G. C. Fisher ('03), First, Latrobe, Pa 20 

Rev. F. B. Shoemaker ('03), First, Jeannette, Pa 78 

Rev. T. E. Thompson, Ph.D. ('03), New Bedford, Fa. . . .'.'. 8 

Rev. D. P. MacQuarrie ('05), Hiland, Perrysville, Pa 12 

Rev. E. C. Ludwig ('06), Concord, Carrick Pa 26 

Rev. H. G. McMillen ('10), Holliday's Cove, W. V'a 10 

Rev. R. J. Shields ('10), First, Charleroi, Pa 12 

23 (149) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Rev. George Taylor, Jr., Ph.D. ('10), First, Wilkinsburg, Pa. . . .43 
Rev. C. B. Wingerd, Ph.D, (p-g '10), First, Martins Ferry_ Ohio. . .33 
Rev. M. A. Matheson, Ph.D ('11), Prospect, Ashtabula, Ohio. . . .24 

Rev. J. N. Hunter ('12), First, Blairsville, Pa 41 

Rev. A. F. Heltman (p-g '15), Broad Avenue, Altoona, Pa 39 

RESIGNATIONS 

Rev. Stephen A. Hunter, D.D., ('76), Arlington, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. H. W. Warnshuis ('76), Port Royal, Pa. 

Rev. S. F. Marks ('82), Tidioute, Pa. 

Rev. C. P. Cheeseman, D.D., ('84) Highland, Pittsburgh, Pa 

Rev. John H. Gross ('12-p), First, Marietta, Ohio. 

Rev. R. E. Thurston ('15), East Side, Fremont, Ohio. 

Rev. H. M. Eagleson ('19), Clintohville, Pa. 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS 

Rev. G. W. Fisher ('61), Neoga, 111., to Mayfield, Cal. 

Rev. J. P. Calhoun, D.D., ('80-p), Winter Haven, Fla., to Braden- 

town, Fla. 
Rev. A. M. Buchanan, D.D., ('82), Pittsburgh, Pa., to 50 Ben Lomond 

St., Uniontown, Pa. 
Rev. William F. Weir, D.D., ('89), Wooster, Ohio, to 17 N-State St., 

Chicago, 111. 
Rev. E. E. Lashley ('95), Union City, Pa., to 619 Mansfield Ave., 

W. E., Pittsburgh, Pa 
Rev. J. O. McCracken ('97), Xenia, Ohio, to 520 Seventh Ave., 

Juniata, Pa. 
Rev. James B. Kelso ('99), Niobrara, Neb., to Beldin, Neb. 
Rev. W. P. Russell ('15), Dunbar, Pa., to 726% S-Arch St., Con- 

nellsville, Pa. 
Rev. J. O. Miller ('16), Buckhannon, W. Va., to 999 Indiana Ave., 

Monaca, Pa. 

GENERAL ITEMS 

Rev. W. B. Carr ('73) celebrated his eightieth birthday in 
November. The Woman's Organized Bible Class of the Latrobe 
Presbyterian Church gave him a surprise supper in honor of the 
occasion. 

On Sunday Morning, October 3rd, Rev. H. W. Warnshuis ('76), 
pastor of the Port Royal Presbyterian Church, tendered his resigna- 
tion, the same to take effect January 1, 1921. Poor health is the 
main reason for his taking this step. He has retired from active 
work and taken up his residence at Blairsville, Pa. 

Dr. J. P. Calhoun ('80) has retired from his pastorate at Win- 
ter Haven, Florida. His labors as pastor and evangelist extend 
over a period of forty years. All the churches of the city and various 
civic and humanitarian organizations united in a farewell service 
in the Baptist Church of his city. His address will be Bradentown, 
Florida. 

Rev. Dr. C. P. Cheeseman ('84-p), after 28 years of faithfxil 
and efficient service as pastor of Highland Church Pittsburgh, Pa., 
has resigned his charge and retired from the active work of the 

24 (150) 



Alumniana 

pastorate. This move is due to continued ill health, but it is earnest- 
ly hoped by all who know him that he may be able to take up pas- 
toral work again after a good rest. 

Rev. J. M. Wilson, D.D., ('85-p) of the North Church, Omaha, 
has been elected president of Omaha Theological Seminary. 

Rev. W. A. Kinter ('89-p) spent the winter in Winter Park, Fla. 

Rev. and Mrs. U. W. MacMillan ('95), of the Presbyterian 
Church of Glenshaw, Pa., celebrated their twenty-fifth anniver.^ary 
of their marriage on November 22nd. An informal reception was 
held in the manse. 

The Central Presbyterian Church of N. S., Pittsburgh, of which 
Rev. Paul J. Slonaker ('95) is pastor, celebrated its Victory Week 
November 21 to 28 in honor of the success of the congregation in 
paying a $12,000 mortgage in one year. 

On Sunday, October 17, Rev. R. Frank Getty ('94) preached his 
ninth anniversary sermon. He is pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Murrysville, Pa. 

On the first Sunday in January, Rev. U. S. Greves ('95) pastor 
of the New Alexandria Church, observed the tenth anniversary of 
his pastorate. 

At a pro-re-nata meeting of the Erie Presbytery, held in the 
Park Church of Erie, November 3rd, the pastoral relation between 
Rev. Ellsworth E. Lashley ('95) and the church at Union City 
was dissolved. Mr. Lashley has become the pastor of the West 
End Presbyterian Church of Pittsburgh. 

On December 19, 1920, Rev. J. H. Lawther ('01) closed his 
pastorate at the First Church of Bellaire. The service was es- 
pecially marked by the large number of new members received into 
the membership of the church and by many infant baptisms. His 
pastorate has extended over a period of nearly nine years. 

Rev. Robert M. Offutt ('99) has accepted a call to become 
pastor-at-large in Kittanning Presbytery. 

The First Church of Lancaster, of which Rev. W. J. Holmes 
(.'02) is pastor, held a rededication service December 12th. The 
church is nearly 120 years old. It has been renovated, re-decorated, 
new lighting and heating systems have been installed, and the 
building has been enlarged. 

Eleven new members were received into the Presbyterian 
Church of Cadiz, Ohio, at its January Communion. $50 was con- 
tributed in the free will offering for starving peoples. Rev. R. P. 
Lippincott ('2) is the pastor. 

The Lyndora Community House on Penn Avenue in Butler 
opened its doors the last of October. It was built and equipped 
by the Butler Presbytery at a cost of $16,000. Rev. W. O. David 
('03-p), who has been engaged in mission work in the Presbytery 
for the last nine years, will be in charge. 

25 (151) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

The new Hazelwood Presbyterian Church of which Rev. Harry 
C. Hutchison ('09) is pastor, was opened to the public for the first 
time January 9th. Its cost is about $80,000 and it is modern in 
every respect. 

Rev. R. J. Shields ('10) closed his pastorate at Dunlap's Creek 
December 26th and at once took up his duties in his new field at 
Charleroi, Pa. 

The New Kensington Church has recently purchased a new 
brick manse for their pastor, Rev. W. G. Felmeth ('11). His course 
of sermons for Sunday mornings on "Can we do without Jesas?" 
attracted great attention. 

Rev. J. N. Hunter ('12), pastor of the Presbyterian Church of 
Blairsville, Pa., at the last C^ommunion Service, January 16th, re- 
ceived into full membership of the church, 24 by confession of 
faith and 17 by certificate. 

Rev. Mayson H. Sewell, ('12-p), pastor of the Presbyterian 
Church of New Philadelphia, Ohio, received nine new members at 
the January communion. This makes a total of 101 new members 
in twelve months. 

The Presbytery of New Brunswick, at its fall meeting, dis- 
solved the pastoral relations of Rev. Howard J. Baumgartel ('13) 
and the second Church of Trenton and dismissed him to the Blairs- 
ville Presbytery to accept the call of the Parnassus Church. 

The members of the First Presbyterian Church of Masontown 
testified to the cordial relations existing between pastor and flock 
by staging a surprise party at the manse of Rev. W. H. Crapper, 
D.D., ('14) and showering Mrs. Crapper with household necessities 
and a fat purse. The next day was indeed a real Thanksgiving 
for all concerned. 

Rev. Henry A. Riddle ('14), pastor at West Alexander, Pa., 
has organized the men of his church for more aggressive work. One 
hundred thirty men gathered for the supper on the evening of the 
rally. 

Two Ridges Church in the Presbytery of Steubenville, closed 
a two weeks' period of evangelistic meetings December 19 and two 
persons united with the church upon confession of faith. Harrison 
Davidson ('19) conducted the meetings. In January he also con- 
ducted a series of evangelistic meetings in the Cross Creek Church, 
of which he is also pastor. He was assisted by Rev. H. W. Warn- 
shuis ('76) of Blairsville, Pa.; as a result, twenty-two new mem- 
bers were added to the roll. 



26 (152) 



Necrology* 

Agnew, Benjamin Lashells 

Born, Armstrong County, Pa., Oct. 3, 1833; Washington Col- 
lege, 1845; Seminary, 1854-57; D.D., Washington and Jefferson Col- 
lege, 1874; licensed, Apr. 8, 1856, Presbytery of Allegheny; or- 
dained, Feb. 8, 1858, Presbytery of Blairsville; pastor, Johnstown, 
Pa., 1858-67; Westminster, Philadelphia, Pa., 1868-70; North 
Church, Philadelphia, Pa., 1870-82; East Liberty, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
1882-84; Bethlehem, Philadelphia, Pa., 1884-96; Chaplain, 76th. 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-62; member Board of 
Domestic Missions; vice president. Board of Publication and Sabbath 
School Work ; stated clerk. Presbytery of Philadelphia Central, ten 
years; moderator, Synod of Pennsylvania; vice moderator. General 
Assembly; secretary. Board of Ministerial Relief, 1897-1912; died, 
Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 2, 1919. 

Alexander, Thomas Rush 

Born Mifflin County, Pa., Mar. 10, 1844; Washington and 
Jefferson College, 1868; Seminary, 1870-73; licensed, Apr. 10, 
1872, Presbytery of Huntingdon; ordained Sept. 22, 1873, Pres- 
bytery of Washington; pastor, Mount Prospect, Pa., 1872-92; col- 
league pastor First Presbyterian Church, Washington, Pa., 1892-98; 
pastor First Presbyterian Church, Washington, Pa., 189 9; stated 
supply. Mount Pleasant, Pa., 1900; stated supply, Westminister, 
Burgettstown, Pa., 1901-2; Mount Pleasant, Pa., 1904-18;' teacher, 
1868-70; died, Washington, Pa., Dec. 11, 1918. 

Arthur, Richard 

Born, near Chestnut Level, Lancaster County, Pa., March 21, 
1845; Lafayette College, 18 68; Seminary, 1868-71; A.M., Lafayette 
College, 1871; licensed and ordained, June 6, 1871, Presbytery of 
Westminster; foreign missionary, Siam, 1871-3; stated supply, Hope- 
well and Little Britain, Pa., 1874; home missionary, Fulton and 
Franklin Counties, Pa., 1874-82; stated supply, Waterloo, Pa., 1882- 
83; home missionary, Butler and Morris Counties, Kan., 1883-92; 
pastor. White City, 1887-91; pastor, Lincoln Center, 1892-6; stated 
supply, Wamego, 1896; home missionary, Phillips and Rooks Coun- 
ties, 1897-03; stated supply, Auburn and Wakarusa, 1903-5; home 
missionary, Hill City and Rooks and Osborne Counties, also stated 
supply Rose Valley and Kill Creek, 1905-10; evangelist 1911-15; 
honorably retired, 1915; died. Salt Lake City, Utah, March 18, 1921. 

Bean, George Washington 

Born, Oxford, Ohio, July 16, 1841; Hanover College, Hanover, 
Ind., 1871; Seminary, 1871-74; A. M., Hanover College, 1886; D. O., 
Columbia School of Osteopathy, Medicine, and Surgery 1900; M. D., 
Eclectic Medical University, Kansas City, Mo., 1903; licensed, April 
19, 1873, Presbytery of Allegheny; ordained, November, 1874, 
Presbytery of Pittsburgh; stated supply, Mt. Pisgah, Greentree, Pa., 
1873-76; pastor, Sunbury, and stated supply. Pleasant Valley (New 
Hope), Pa., 1877-85; principal, Sunbury Academy, 1878-82; pastor, 
Second, Topeka, and stated supply. Bethel, Kan., 18 8 6-88; pastor. 



*Owing to lack of space due to the high cost of printing, no 
Necrological list has been published since 1917. But, on account 
of the desirability of keeping a complete record of necrology, it 
has been deemed wise to print the list without a break as well as to 
bring it up to date. Editor. 

27 (153) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Setninary 

Clay Center, Kan., 1889-92; Independence, Kan., 1893-95; evange- 
list, supply, and missionary. Wis. and Mich., 1896-97; supply, Mar- 
celine and Ethel, Mo., 1898-1900; osteopath and preacher; died, 
Leavenworth, Kan., February 16, 1920. 

Beer, Robert 

Born, Allegheny, Pa., Nov. 14, 1830; Jefferson College, 1848; 
teacher, 1848-52; attorney-at-law, 1853-58; Seminary, 1858-61; li- 
censed, Apr. 1860; Presbytery of Ohio; ordained, July, 1862, Pres- 
bytery of Milwaukee; stated supply, Utica & Homer, Ohio, 1860; 
pastor, Westminister, Beloit, Wis., 1861-65; home missionary, 
Knoxville, Tenn., 1865; pastor, Valparaiso, Ind., 1865-84; Garden 
Grove & Grand River, Iowa, 1884-95; pastor at large. Presbytery 
of Des Moines, Iowa, 1895-1900; honorably retired, 1900; died, 
Valparaiso, Ind., Mar. 31, 1919. 

BleU, Abraham Tidball 

Born, Washington County, Pa., Jan. 4, 1845; Washington and 
Jefferson College, 1870; Seminary, 1869-72; licensed, April 26, 
1871, Presbytery of Pittsburgh; ordained, Dec. 31, 1872, Presby- 
tery of Kittanning; pastor, Rayne, Pa. 1872-82; stated supply. East 
Union, Pa. 1874-78; pastor, Washington, Home, Pa. 1879-98; 
evangelist, Oltlahoma, 1901; permanent clerk, 1883-97^ and stated 
clerk, 1897-1917, Presbytery of Kittanning; died Blairsville, Pa., 
Nov. 17, 1917. 

Blackburn, John Irwin 

Born, Westmoreland County, Pa.; Washington and Jefferson 
College, 1878; Seminary, 1878-81; A. M., Washington and Jefferson 
College, 1881; D.D., Miami University, 1893; licensed, April, 1880, 
Presbytery of Redstone; ordained, June 21, 1881, Presbytery of 
Blairsville; pastor, Murrysville, Pa., 1881-6; Portsmouth, Ohio, 
1886-9; Covington, Ky., 1889-1912; pastor. Union Church in Japan; 
trustee, Pikeville Collegiate Institute, director. Theological Semi- 
nary, Louisville, Ky. ; travelled Egypt, Syria, Greece, Russia, etc., 
1905; president, Philadelphia School for Christian Workers; died 
Detroit, Mich Sept. 9, 1917. 

Blackford, John Hosack 

Born, Martin's Ferry, Ohio, September 3, 1834; Washington 
Jefferson College, 1865; Seminary, 1867-70; A.B., and A.M., Wash- 
ington and Jefferson College; licensed, April 27, 1869, Presbytery of 
St. Clairsville; ordained, January, 1871, Presbytery of Steubenville; 
pastor. Beech Spring, Ohio, 1871-5; Yellow Creek, 1876-84; Bakers- 
ville and Linton, 1885-96; principal, Clarksburg Public School, 
1866-7; principal. Slate Lick Classical Academy, 1898-1902; honor- 
ably retired, 1904; residence, Freeport, Pa.; died Freeport, Pa., 
March 21, 1921. 

Blayney, John Sill 

Born, West Alexander, Pa., Aug. 31, 1874; Washington and Jeff- 
erson College, 1896; Seminary, 1896-99; licensed, Apr. 1898, Pres- 
bytery of Washington; ordained. May, 1899, Presbytery of Alle- 
gheny; pastor, Glenfield and Haysville, Pa., 1899-04; Wilcox, Pa., 
1904-08; St. Clairsville, Ohio, 1909-11; First Presbyterian Church. 
Hutchinson, Kan., 1911-17; First Presbyterian Church, Roswell, 
New Mexico, 1917-18; died, Roswell, New Mexico, July 12, 1918. 

28 (154) 



Necrology 

Chapin, Melancthon Elder 

Born, Northfield, Ohio, June 11, 1850; A. B., Western Reserve 
College, 1876; Seminary, 1876-79;. licensed, June 12, 1878, and or- 
dained June 11, 1879, Presbytery of Cleveland; missionary. South 
Dakota, 1879-1901; missionary, Texas, Kansas, and North Caro- 
lina, 1901-0 5; Nebraska, North Dakota, and Montana, 1906-07; 
missionary, Presbytery of Cleveland, 1908-17; died, Salem, Ohio, 
Dec. 24, 1917. 

Cheeseman, Joseph Redic 

Born, near Portersville, Pa., July 4, 1845; Washington and Jef- 
ferson College, 1874; Seminary, 1875-8; licensed, April, 1878, Pres- 
bytery of Butler; ordained, June 24, 1886, Presbytery of Iowa City; 
evangelist, 1877-86; pastor. West Branch and Fairview, Iowa, 1886- 
9; without charge, 1889-04; residence, Portersville, Pa.; died, Por- 
tersville, Pa., January 1, 1921. 

Cochran, William Swan Pluiner 

Born, Butler County, Pa., April 23, 1856; University of Woos- 
ter, 1879; Seminary 1880-83; D.D., University of Wooster; licensed, 
June 12, 1883, Presbytery of Allegheny; ordained. May 19, 1884, 
Presbytery of Pittsburgh; pastor Middletown, Pa., 1884; Coraop- 
olis. Pa., 1884-94; stated supply, Chattanooga, Tenn., 1895; pastor, 
Grace, Peoria, 111., 1896-02; pastor, Aspinwall, Pa., 1903-05; stated 
supply (1910-12) and pastor (1912-19), Eustis, Pla.; died Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., June 18, 1919. 

Compton, Andrew Jackson 

Born near Cincinnati, Ohio, Apr. 10, 1834; Fairview Academy, 
2 years; Farmers College, 3 years; Seminary 1858-61; A. M., Bel- 
mont College, 1885; M. D., Cincinnati Electric Medical College, 
1857; licensed, Apr. 20, 1860, and ordained, May 12, 1861, Presby- 
tery of Pittsburgh; missionary to Brazil, 1862; stated supply, Ben- 
tonsport, Iowa, 1863-64; stated supply, Areata, Cal., 1865-67; 
Watsonville,Cal., 1867-72; pastor, Vacaville, Cal., 1872-78; pastor, 
Westminister, Cal., 1878-79; stated supply, Bethel, Woodbridge, Cal., 
1880; stated supply, Beaumont, Cal., 18 85-88; stated supply, Oakdale 
Cal., 1889-93; stated supply, Inglewood, Cal., 1893-99; stated sup- 
ply, Covelo, Cal., 1899-02; stated supply. South Pasadena, Cal., 1902- 
05; stated supply, Lakeside and Elsinore, Cal., 1905-09; United 
States Christian Commission, 1865; honorably retired, 1906; home 
missionary. Tarpon Springs, Pla., 1909; Charleston, W. Va., 1911-12; 
died Tarpon Springs, Fla., Apr. 8, 1917. 

Conner, William Waddell 

Born, Elm Grove, W. Va., August 31, 1860; Princeton Univer- 
sity, 1885; Seminary, 1896-99; licensed, April, 1898, Presbytery of 
Allegheny; ordained, July, 1899, Classis of Newark (Reformed 
Church in America) ; pastor, Dutch Reformed Church, Belleville, N. 
J., 1899; ordained deacon, 1911, and priest, 1912, Protestant Epis- 
copal Church; in charge of Mission at Belt Creek and Sun River Val- 
leys in Diocese of Montana, 1911; Great Falls, Mont, 1917; died 
Palo Alto, California, August 5, 1920. 

Cooper, Daniel William 

Born, Knox County, Ohio, September 2, 1830; Miami Uni- 
versity, 1857; Seminary, 1857-9; D.D., Miami University, 1914; 

29 (155) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

licensed, 1858, and ordained, 1859, Presbytery of Richland; pastor, 
Olivesburg and Bloomington, Ohio, 1859-65; Ottawa, Ohio, 1866-72; 
pastor, West Point, Romney, and Taylor's Station, Ind., 1872-8; 
stated supply. North Baltimore, Wapakoneta, and Harrison, Ohio, 
1878-82; McComb and Blanchard, Ohio, 1882-91; Paola, Fla., 1892- 
93; residence, McComb, Ohio, 1894-1903; Kirksville, Mo., 1903-15; 
Marion, Ohio, 1915-20; honorably retired, 1900; died, Marion, Ohio, 
December 11, 1920. 

Culbertson, Claude Ray 

Born, Washington County, Pa., September 23, 1880; A.B., Scio 
College, 1904; Seminary, 1905-8; licensed, April 16, 1907, Presby- 
tery of Steubenville; ordained, May 19, 1908, Presbytery of Woos- 
ter; pastor. Congress and West Salem, Ohio, 1908-10; Island Creek, 
Toronto, Ohio, 1910-14; pastor, Ebenezer and Clarksburg and stated 
supply, Iselin, 1915-19; pastor, New Salem, Pa., 1919-21; died, 
February 5, 1921. 

Cuiuiiugham, Leva Weir 

Born, Moberly, Mo., May 17, 1877; A.B., Missouri Valley Col- 
lege, 19 06; Seminary, 1906-09; licensed, September, 1900, and or- 
dained, July, 1906, Presbytery of McGee; stated supply, Long Run, 
Irwin, Pa., 1907-09; assistant to pastor, Grace, St. Louis, Mo., 1909- 
10; stated supply. Rock Hill, Mo., 1910-12; pastor. First, Thomas, 
Std£ia£Lfi^._Okla., 19JL_2j T_ecumseh, 1913j^Salisbury, Mo., 1914; Butler, 1915- 
17;" Independence; T9T8-'l'^Tmed, Fulton, Mo., July 2, 1919. 

Davis, Herman Ulysses 

Born, Woodlawn, Pa., April 10, 1870; Grove City College, 
1895; Seminary, 1895-98; licensed, April 6, 1897, Presbytery of 
Pittsburgh; ordained, April 13, 1898, Presbytery of Kittanning; 
Concord and Goheenville, Pa., 1898-1901; Ford City, Pa., 1901-6; 
Second, Mercer, Pa., 1906-10; pastor. Poke Run, Mamont, Pa., 
1910-17; Leechburg, Pa., 1917- ; died, Pittsburgh, Pa., July 30, 
1917. 

Davis, Samuel Miller 

Born, Saltsburg, Pa., Dec. 29, 1839; Washington and Jefferson 
College, 1866; Seminary, 1866-69; D.D., University of Wooster; li- 
censed, Apr., 1868, Presbytery of Saltsburg; ordained, June 8, 1869, 
Presbytery of Blairsville; pastor, Latrobe, Pa., 1869-75; Wellsville, 
Ohio, 1875-84; Newton, Kan., 1884-94; pastor, Wilmerding, Pa., 
1896-7; president Steubenville Seminary, 1894-6; president, Synodi- 
cal Seminary of the Synod of Michigan, 189 7-8; president, Barber 
Memorial Seminary, 1898-1915; died, Philadelphia, Pa., December 
14, 1920. 

Dinsmore, Andiew Alexander 

Born, Rowsburg, Wayne Co., O., Aug. 7, 1835; Jefferson Col- 
lege, 1860; Seminary, 18 60-63; D.D., Washington and Jefferson 
College, 1895; licensed, Apr. 16, 1862, Presbytery of Wooster; or- 
dained, August 19, 1864, Presbytery of Winnebago; stated supply 
and pastor, Neenah, Wis., 1864-6; pastor. First, Des Moines, Iowa, 
1866-72; stated supply, Milford, Del., 1873-5; pastor, Bridesburg, 
Philadelphia, Pa., 1875-87; pastor, Alhambra, Cal., 1887-97; pas- 
tor's assistant, West End Church, N. Y., 1906-12; United States 
Christian Commission during Civil war; field secretary. Occidental 

30 (156) 



Necrology 



College, 18 9 6-9; Sunday School work, Utica (1899-01), Newark, N. 
J. (1901-4), New York City and vicinity (1904-6); evangelist New 
York, 1913-20; died New York, N. Y., Oct. 29, 1920. 

Dunlap, Eugene Pressly 

Born New Castle, Pa., June 8, 1848; Westminster College, Pa., 
1871; Seminary 1871-74; D.D., Grove City College and University 
of Wooster; licensed, Apr. 23, 1873; and ordained Sept. 24, 1874, 
Presbytery of Shenango; stated supply, Van Wert, Ohio, 1874-75; 
foreign missionary to Siam, 1875-1918; teacher, Boys' School, Bang- 
kok, 3 years teacher, (Theology and Church History) Siam, 5 years; 
member of committee on Bible Translation and Revision, Siam 
Mission; died Tap Teang, Siam, Apr. 4, 1918. 

Numerous letters to Presbyterian Banner; articles in Assembly 
Herald; Edible Birds Nests, Siam; Reminiscences of 3 3 years in 
Siam; How shall we persuade Siamese to accept the Gospel?; Itiner- 
ating in Siam; One year's itinerating in Siam; Medical Missions; A 
Popular Siamese Preacher, published in Siamese language; Way of 
Salvation; Siamese Primer and Reader; Evils of the Liquor Traffic; 
Analytical Outline of the Life of Christ; Triumphs of the Gospel in 
Formosa and Madagascar; Fifty-two Stories in the Life of Christ; 
The Gospel for All. 

Earnest, Harry Lavaii 

Born, Fishertown, Pa., January 15, 1882; Albright College, 
1907; Seminary, 1908-11; pastor, Lonaconing, Md., 1911-16; Cov- 
ington, Ohio, 1916-18; Parnassus, Pa., 1918-20; died, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., April 7, 1920. 

Elliott, John 

Born, Wellsville, O., Apr. 13, 182 9; Jefferson College, 1849; 
Seminary, 1849-52; licensed, 1852, Presbytery of New Lisbon; or- 
dained, Nov., 1852, Presbytery of Huntingdon; pastor, Williams- 
burg, Pa., 1852-6; presbyterial missionary, 1856-7; pastor, Spruce 
Creek and Sinking Valley, 1857-61; Bellevue and Leacock, 1861-9; 
stated supply, Ottawa, Kan., 1869-71; Muscogee, I. T., 1875-80; 
Oswego, Kan., 1880-8; honorably retired, 1890; died, Oswego, Kan., 
Dec. 22, 1920. 

Ely, John Calvin 

Born, East Buffalo, Washington Co., Pa., Aug. 11, 1849; 
Washington and Jefferson College, 1874; Seminary, 1874-7; post 
graduate, Seminary, 1879; D.D., Washington and Jefferson College, 
18 94; licensed, Apr., 18 76, Presbytery of Washington; ordained, 
June 6, 1877, Presbytery of Pittsburgh; stated supply, Mt. Pisgah, 
Greentree, Pa., 1876-7; pastor. South Side, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1877- 
80; Piqua, 0., 1880-5; synodical evangelist, Synod of Texas, 1885- 
6; pastor, Xenia, O., 1886-97; professor (Homiletics) , Danville 
Theological Seminary, 189 7-8; president, Caldwell College, 1897- 
02; superintendent of Missions, Synod of W. Va., 1904-9; pastor, 
Finleyville, Pa., 1910-12; Oakland, Md., 1912-21; died, Atlanta, 
Ga., Jan. 19, 1921. 

Farrand, Edward Samuel 

Born Girard Co., Ky., Jan. 9, 1861; Centre College, Ky., 1885; 
Seminary, 1885-88; licensed. May, 1887, Presbytery of Transylvania; 
ordained, June 12, 1888, Presbytery of Pittsburgh; pastor, Mt. 

31 (157) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Washington, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1888-92; pastor, Westminster, Topeka, 
Kan., 1892-07; Boyle Heights, Los Angeles, Cal., 1897-99; Cameron, 
Mo., 1900-10; stated supply Stanberry, Mo., 1902; pastor, Ponca 
City, Ok., 1903-05; pastor, Kingsfisher, Ok., 1906-12; stated supply, 
Los Molinos, Cal., 1913; pastor, Hollister, Cal., 1914-17; died Los 
Angeles, Cal., Oct. 18, 1917. 

Fisher, Jesse Emory 

Born, Wayne Co., O., Nov. 24, 1838; Vermillion Institute, 1866; 
Seminary, 1866-9; licensed, Apr. 26, 1868, Presbytery of Maumee; 
ordained, 1872, Presbytery of Huron; stated supply. Savannah, Mo., 
1869-70; Lathrop and Marabile, Mo., 1870-1; Kendallville and Elk- 
hart, Ind., 1871-2; Postoria, O., 1872-3; Auburn, Ind., 1873-5; 
Woodstock, 111., 1875-7; Mineral Point, Wis., 1877-8; missionary, 
1878-9; Columbus Grove, O., 1879-82; pastor elect, Quincy, Mich., 
1882-5; pastor. White Pigeon, Mich., 1885-92; North Church, Kala- 
mazoo, Mich., 1892-5; pastor elect, Gowanda, N. Y., 1895-01; pastor 
elect, Wright's Corners, N. Y., 1901-3; home missionary to' Seneca 
Indians, 1903-21; died, Jan. 1, 1921, Iroquois, N. Y. 

Gaston, William 

Born Columbiana Co., Ohio, Apr. 19, 1835; Washington College, 
1858; Seminary, 1858-61; D.D., 1886 and LL.D., 1890, Richmond Col- 
lege, Richmond Va.; licensed, Apr. 13, 1860, and ordained, Oct. 18, 
1861, Presbytery of New Lisbon; pastor, Glasgow, Pa., 1861-66; 
Clarkson, Ohio, 1861-64; Bellaire, Ohio, 1866-80; pastor. North 
Church, Cleveland, Ohio, 1880-07; pastor emeritus, 1907-17; modera- 
tor, Synod of Ohio, 1905; died San Mateo, Fla., Dec. 30, 1917. 

George, Samuel Carr 

Born Logans Perry, Pa., July 8, 1832; Western University of 
Pennsylvania, 185 8; Seminary, 18 58-61; post-graduate, Yale Univer- 
sity, 1882; A.M., Western University of Pennsylvania, 1874; licensed, 
Apr. 21, 1860, and ordained, Oct. 4, 1861, Presbytery of Allegheny; 
foreign missionary to Siam, 1861-73; home missionary, 18J73^75; 
pastor. Rocky Springs and St. Thomas, Pa., 1875-87; pastor, Mingo 
Junction, Ohio, 1888; Newcomerstown, Ohio, 1889-90; Unionport 
and Annapolis, Ohio, 1891-93; evangelist. East Liverpool, Ohio; 
founded East Liverpool Academy, 1901; honorably retired; professor 
of Semitic Languages, University of Pittsburgh, 1911-12; died Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Mar. 5, 1919. 

Gould, Calvin Curtis 

Born, Albion, 111., Nov. 28, 1832; Washington College, Va., 
1860; Seminary, 1860-3; licensed, Aug. 1862, Presbytery of Pitts- 
burgh; ordained, Nov., 1863, Presbytery of Wooster; pastor, Wayne 
and Chester, 0., 1863-6; stated supply, Chippewa and Canal Pulton, 
O., 1866-71; pastor. Canal Fulton and Marshallville, O., 1871-73; 
stated supply, Walkersville, Lebanon, and Gnatty Creek, W. Va., 
1873-75; Lebanon and French Creek, 1875-77; Burnsville and 
missionary points, 1877-84; Sutton, W. Va., with ten preaching 
points; editor "Mountaineer" 1880-06; stated supply, Ebenezer, 
Valley, and Murphysville, Ky., 1885-7; pastor, Rendville and Oak- 
fleld, O., 1889-91; stated supply, Amesville, O., 1891-99; stated 
supply, Chester, 0., 1899-00; Superintendent of Academy while at 
French Creek, W. Va., 4 months, 1875; evangelist. Presbytery of St. 
Clairsville, 1888; honorably retired, 1903; died, Williamstown, W. 
Va., Feb., 25, 1921. 

32 (158) 



Necrology 

Published: John's Baptism not Christian Baptism, Pres. Bd. 
Pub. 185 9; Who were the Mound Builders? 6. 
Graham, Loyal Young 

Born Butler, Pa., Oct. 22, 1837; Jefferson College, 1858; Sem- 
inary, 185 8-61; D.D., Otterbein University, 1885; licensed, April, 
1860, Presbytery of Allegheny; ordained, Oct. 11, 1861, Presbytery 
of Blairsville; pastor, Somerset, Pa., 1861-65; Rehoboth, 1865-71; 
pastor, 1871-1907, and pastor emeritus, 1908-17, Olivet Church after- 
wards Olivet Covenant Church, Philadelphia, Pa.; travelled, Egypt, 
Syria, Greece, 1884; lecturer in School for Christian Workers Phila- 
delphia at various times; died Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 7, 1917. 

Greenough, William 

New York University, 1857; Seminary, 1857-60; licensed, April, 
18 60, and ordained, 18 61, Presbytery of Ohio; pastor, Mingo, Pa., 
18 61-63; Piqua, Ohio, 1863-69; pastor elect, Logansport, Ohio, 
1869-71; pastor. Fourth, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1871-73; Cohocksink, 
Philadelphia, Pa., 1873-98; occasional supply, 1899-1919; modera- 
to]-. Presbytery of Philadelphia, 1910; visitor Bethany church anJ 
John Chambers Memorial church, 1908-12; honorably retired. 
1919; died. Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 14, 1919. 

Haines, Alfred AV. 

Born near Canonsburg, Pa., Nov. 28, 1832; Jefferson College, 
1853; Seminary, 1854-57; licensed, Apr. 1857, Presbytery of Ohio; 
ordained, 185 8, Presbytery of Iowa; stated supply, Keosauqua, Iowa, 
18 57; Crawfordsville, 1858-61; Eddysville, and Kirkville, Iowa, 
1861-66; Crawfordsville, 1866-72; Brooklyn, Iowa, 18 72-5; Pleasant 
Plain and Salina, Iowa, 1879-82; stated supply, Ladora and Deep 
River, 1879-93; Des Moines, Iowa, 1893-97; resided in California 
1897-1919, honorably retired; died San Diego, Cal., Mar. 12, 1919. 

Hearst, John Pressly 

Born, near Ashland, 0., Nov. 12, 1856; University of VVooster, 
1878; Seminary, 1879-82; A.B., 1878, A.M., 1881, Ph.D., 1889, Uni- 
versity of Wooster ; licensed, Apr. 18 81, and ordained, 18 82, Presby- 
tery of Pittsburgh: foreign missionary, Osaka, Japan, 1883-93; pas- 
tor. First, Hastings, Minn., 1893-6; Jeffersonville, Ind., 1896-8; 
Crown Point, Ind., 1899-03; stated supply, Idaho Falls, Idaho, 1904; 
Elk Grove, Cal., 1907-9; Fair Oaks, Cal., 19 09-11; pastor elect. Lake- 
port, Cal., 1911; stated supply. First, Central Point, Ore., 1912; 
pastor, Deshler, 0.. 1914-15; supply, Lafayette, Mich., 1916; died, 
St. Ignace, Mich., March 31, 1917. 

HelliAvell, Charles 

Born Bradford, Yorkshire, England, May 31, 1863; Princeton 
University, 1886; Seminary, 1900-01; A.B., 1886, and A.M., 1889, 
Princeton University; Ph.D. 1898, and D.D., 1910, Waynesburg 
College; licensed. Northern New Jersey Conference of Congregational 
Churches; professor (Latin and English), Morris Academy, Morris- 
town, N. J., 1886-90; ordained, Aug. 6, 1890, Congregational Council 
at Park Ridge, N. J.; supply. Park Ridge (Congregational), N. J., 
and principal of private school, Madison, N. J., 1890-95; stated sup- 
ply. Old Concord and Fairview, Pa., 1896-00; pastor, Mannington, W. 
Va., 1901-06; pastor, Second Presbyterian Church, Bellaire, Ohio, 
190 6-0 9; stated supply, Richmond, Bacon Ridge, and E. Springfield, 
Ohio, 1909-12; Yatesboro, Pa., 1912-13: Rural Valley, Pa., 1912-18: 
died, Rural Valley, Pa., June 29, 1918. 

33 (159) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Heiidren, William Turner 

Born, Groveport, Ohio, Dec. 19, 1834; Dennison University. 
1861; Seminary, 1861-64; licensed, May 5, 1863, and ordained. May 
11, 1864, Presbytery of Columbus; tiome missionary, Lake Superior. 
1864-65; pastor, Sheldon, Minn., 1866-70; Caledonia, 1865-72; home 
missionary and pastor, Neillsville, Wis., 1872-90; Greenwood, Wis., 
1890-95; home missionary and evangelist. 1895-99; honora'oly re- 
tired, 189 9; pastor emeritus. Greenwood, Wis., 1900; died, Green- 
vxod. Wis., March 20, 1920. 

Hickling, James 

Born, Hempnall, England, November 18, 1843, Seminary, 1878- 
81; licensed, April 28, 1880, Presbytery of Washington; ordained 
August 21, 1881, Presbytery of Clarion; pastor, Tionesta, Tylers- 
burg, and Scotch Hill, Pa., 1881-88; Hadley, Georgetown, and Fair- 
field, 1888-90; Dresden and Muskingum, Ohio, 1890-9 5; Liberty 
and West Berlin, 1895-00; Millville, 1900-2; West Union, 1902-04; 
Orleans and Livonia, 1904-07; Raymond, 111., 1908-14; honorably 
retired, 1914; residence, Waynesburg, Pa., 1914-19; died, Waynes- 
burg, Pa., June 2, 1919. 

Hills, Oscar Ai"msti*ong 

Born Brownsville, Ind., Dec. 13, 1837; Wabash College. 1859; 
Seminary 1859-62; A.M., 1859, D.D., 1876, LL.D., 1918, Wabash 
College; licensed. May 1, 1861, Presbytery of Crawfordsville; or- 
dained, Nov. 25, 1862, Presbytery of Huntingdon; pastor Spruce 
Creek, Pa., 1862-65; Central, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1865-78; North 
Church, Allegheny, Pa., 1878-81; stated supply, Santa Barbara, Cal., 
1881-82; First Presbyterian Church, San Francisco, 1882-84; pastor, 
First, Wooster, Ohio, 1885-98; Westminster, Wooster, Ohio, 1898- 
1919; pastor emeritus, Westminster, Wooster, 1907-19; director. 
Seminary, 1887-1919; died Jan. 9, 1919, Wooster, 0. 

Companion Characters; Carminia Subsecivia; New Shafts in Old 
Mines; various pamphlets; The Testimony of the Witnesses; Sermon 
Building. ' 

Holcomb, James Foote 

Born, Granby, Conn., Jan. 20, 1837; A.B., Jefferson College, 
1858; Seminary 1858-61; D.D., University of Wooster, 18 96; 
licensed, 1860, Presbytery of Allegheny; ordained, 1866, Presbytery 
of Wooster; Hopewell and Nashville, O., 1866-8; Athens, 0., 1868- 
70; foreign missionary, India (Lodiana, 1870-71; Furrukhabad, 
1871-3; Allahabad, 1873-86; Jhansi, 1886-1909; Landour, India, 
1910-); died Hollywood, Cal., Sept. 9, 1920. 

Hough, Abia Allen 

Born Jefferson Township, Fayette County, Pa., Mar. 29. 1838; 
Washington College, 1863; Seminary, 1865-68; licensed, Apr. 1867, 
Presbytei-y of Redstone; ordained, Apr. 23, 1874, Presbytery of 
Peoria; stated supply. Center, 111, 1868-70; Limestone, i870-72; 
stated supply. West Jersey, 1872-75; pastor, Smithfield, Ohio, 1875- 
81; Pleasant Unity. Pa., 1881-86; Livermore, Pa., 1887-93; Bethel 
and Waverly, West 'Virginia, 1893-97; teacher, 1864; residence. New 
Kensington, Pa., 1897-1917. honorably retired, 1899; died, New 
Kensington, Pa., July 3, 1917. 

34 (160) 



Necrology 

Hunt, William Ellis 

Born, Pedricktown, New Jersey, Feb. 24, 1833; A.M., Jefferson 
College, 1853; Seminary,1853-56; D.D., Western University of Penn- 
sylvania, 1905; licensed, 1855, Presbytery of Steubenville; ordained, 
April, 1857, Presbytery of Coshocton; pastor, Coshocton, Ohio, 1857- 
01; teacher in high school some months, also private classes; stated 
clerk of Presbytery several times, moderator ten times; moderator 
of Synod; honorably retired, 1911; died Coshocton, Ohio, July 14, 
1919. 

Published: History of Coshocton County; many newspaper and 
magazine articles. 

Hutchison, Orville Joseph 

Born, Warnock, Ohio, Dec. 14, 1876; A.B., Franklin College, 
New Athens, Ohio, 1901 (A.M., 1904); Seminary. 1901-04; licensed, 
1903, Presbytery of Washington; ordained, Apr. 12, 1904, Presby- 
tery of Kittanning; pastor, Elders Ridge, Pa.. 1905-10; First, Na- 
trona, 1910-11; Elwood, Ind., 1911-14; Union City. 1914-]5; Hebron 
and Mt. Olivet, Murdocksville, Pa., 1916-19; died, Murdocksville. 
Pa., July 10, 1919. 

Jones, U. S. Grant 

Born, Newark, Ohio, June 16, 1864; University of Wooster, 
1884; Princeton Theological Seminary, 1884-85; Seminary, 1885- 
88; ordained 1890, Presbytery of Wooster; foreign missionary, 
India, (Ferozepur, 1890-91; Lahore, 1892-95; Lodiana, 1896-04; 
Dehra, 1905); pastor elect, Hicksville, Ohio, 190 8-09; foreign mis- 
sionary, Rupar, India, 1909-19; died, Punjab, India, December 22 
1919. 

Jordan, Joseph Patterson 

Born, Clearfield, Pa., January 4, 1864; Lebanon Valley College, 
1887; Seminary, 1887-90; licensed, 1890, Presbytery of Pittsburgh; 
ordained, April 28, 1890, Presbytery of Redstone; pastor, Leisen- 
ring. Pa., 1890-91; pastor. Concord, Pa., 1891-93; pastor, McDonald. 
Pa., 1893-1919; died, McDonald, Pa., June 6, 1919. 

Keith, M. AVilson 

Born Mercer, Pa., May 4, 1868; Westminster College, 1892; 
Seminary 1892-95; licensed, 1894 and ordained, 1895, Presbytery of 
Shenango; pastor, Princeton and Herman, 1895-9 8; Mahonington, 
New Castle, Pa., 1898-1911; First Presbyterian Church, Coraopolis, 
Pa., 1911-18; Chaplain 111th Infantry; killed in action, France, 
Sept. 11, 1918. 

Kyle, John Merrill 

Born Cedarville, Ohio, May 18, 1856; University of Wooster, 
1877; Seminary 1877-80; D.D., University of Wooster, 1892; 
licensed, Apr. 10, 1879, Presbytery of Dayton; ordained, Oct. 5, 1880, 
Presbytery of Wooster; pastor, Fredericksburg, O., 1880-82; foreign 
missionary to Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 1882-9 0; Nova Friburgo, 1891- 
09); worked among Portuguese in Mass. under Massachusetts 
Home Missionary Society, 1909-18; died, Lowell, Mass, July 1, 1918. 

Published: Raios de Luz, Portuguese; Bible Doctrines of Bap- 
tism, Portuguese (Tract). 

35 (161) 



. The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Lehmann, Adolph 

Born Savannah, Ohio, Nov. 6, 1847; University of Wooster, 
1875; Seminary, 1875-78; D. D., University of Wooster, 1895; 
licensed, June 14, 1877, Presbytery of Wooster; ordained, April, 
1880, Presbytery of Zanesville; stated supply, 1878-79, and pastor, 
1879-87, Dresden and Adams Mills, Ohio; pastor, Nottingham, Ohio, 
1887-1902; stated supply. Beach Springs, Ohio, 1902-3; pastor, 
Springdale, Ohio, 1903-14; died, Springdale, Ohio, Sept. 16, 1917. 

Littell, Levi Clark 

Born Newark, N. J., Feb. 1, 1831; Amherst College; Seminary, 
1864-67; licensed, 1865, Presbytery of Allegheny; ordained, Dec. 4, 
1867, Presbytery of Fort Wayne; stated supply, Ligonier, Ind., 
186 7-68; stated supply, Waterloo, Ind., 1868-70; stated supply, John 
Knox, 111., 1870-71; stated supply, Peoria, 111., 1871-72; staled sup- 
ply. Fort Dodge, Iowa, 1872-74; stated supply, Winchester, 111., 1874- 
76; stated supply, Taylorsville, 111., 187 6-78; stated supply, Yates 
City, 111., 18 78-80; stated supply. Oilman, 111., 18 80-82; stated supply, 
Mount Vernon, Ind., 1882-83; Good Hope and Bardolph, 111., 1883-87; 
without charge, 1887-17; died Rushville, 111., Oct. 28, 1917. 

Logan, Thomas Dale 

Born, Allegheny, Pa., Jan. 29, 1851; Lafayette College, 1869; 
Seminary, 1870-1 and 1872-4; D.D., Lafayette College, 1894; licen- 
sea, Apr., 1873, Presbytery of Allegheny; ordained, Jan. 20, 1875, 
Presbytery of Erie; stated supply and pastor, Second, Meadville, Pa., 
1874-88; First, Snringfield, 111., 1888-1913; died Oconomowoc, Wis.. 
March 27, 1921. 

Lutz, John S. 

Born Fayette Co. Pa., Oct. 18, 1837; Washington College, 1862; 
Seminary 1862-65; licensed, Oct. 5, 1864, Presbytery of Redstone; 
ordained, Oct. 1, 1866, Presbytery Bureau; pastor, Aledo, 111., 1866- 
69; stated supply and pastor. Center Church, Seaton, 111., 1869-76; 
stated supply, Buffalo Prairie, 111., 187 6-97; honorably retired, 
1898; died, Buffalo, 111., May 3, 1918. 

McClelland, Thomas Jefferson 

Born, Paddy's Run, (now Shandon), O., Jan. 6, 1844; Miami 
University, 1868; Seminary, 1869-72; licensed, Dec. 20, 1871, Pres- 
bytery of Pittsburgh; ordained, Nov. 13, 1872, Presbytery of Marion; 
pastor, Chesterville, O., 1872-80; Pleasant Run and Camden, 1880- 
1; pastor. New Paris and Ebenezer, and stated supply, Fletcher, 0., 
1881-7; pastor, Knightstown, Ind., 1888-90; pastor, Ebenezer, 0., 
1891-5; evangelist, Richmond, Ind., 1896-07; Hamilton, Ohio, 1908- 
10; stated supply, West Carlisle and Bloomfield, Ohio, 1911-13; 
honorably retired, 1914; died, Newark, O., Mar. 20, 1921. 

McClure, Samuel Thompson 

Born, Vincennes, Ind., Sept. 9, 1836; Hanover College. 1862; 
Seminary, 18 62-6 5; licensed, 1865, Presbytery of Crawfordsville: 
ordained, 1868, Presbytery of Neosho; stated supply, Topeka, Kan., 
186 5-6 6; Junction City, 18 6 6-68; Girard and Cherokee, 18 68-77- 
Carlisle, 1877-78; Glenwood, Mo., 1878-80; Allerton, Iowa, 1880- 
81; Milan, 111.. 1881-82; stated supply, Lyons. Iowa. 1882-8- . 
evangelist, 86-7; editor, Kansas City, Mo., 1888-91; editor, Topeka 
Kan., 1892-1919; died, Topeka, Kan., May 5, 1919. 

36 (162) 



I 



Necrology 

McKee, William Bergstresser 

Born Boalsburg, Pa., May 22, 1829; Seminary, 1855-58; 
licensed, April 1857, and ordained April 1858, Presbytery of Alle- 
gheny; home missionary, Ashland and Bayfield, Wis., 185 8-61; 
pastor, Bald Eagle, Pa., 1862-68; Silver Springs, 1862-70; Sparta, 
N. J., 1871-1876; home missionary, Franklin Furnace, 1876-78; Mc- 
Cune, Kan., 1878-83; Arlington, 111., 1883-85; Keithsburg, 111., 1885- 
87; Calvary, 111., 1887-89; Milan & Coal Valley, 111., 189 0-95; honor- 
ably retired, 1895; residence, Aledo, 111.; assistant pastor, Knox 
Church, Los Angeles, Cal., during winter of 1905; died Aledo, 111., 
Feb. 22, 1919. 

McKinley, Edward Grafton 

Born Moore's Prairie, 111., Aug. 4, 1843; Washington and Jeffer- 
son College, 1869; Seminary, 1869-72; licensed, April 1871, Presby- 
tery of Washington; ordained, Sept. 2 9, 18 72, Presbytery Blairsville; 
pastor, Pleasant Grove, Pa., 1872-1880; Ligonier, Pa., 1872-90; 
home missionary, Florida, (stated supply. Center Hill & Orange 
Bend, February-December, 1891; Bartow, 1891-189 4; Hawthorne 
and Waldo, 1895-98; Crystal River and Dunnellon, 1898-1900; Can- 
dler and Weirsdale, 19 01-12) ; honorably retired, 1913; stated clerk. 
East Florida (now Florida) Presbytery, 1897- 1918; residence, Can- 
dler, Fla.; died Candler, Fla., Nov. 12, 1918. 

McLean, James 

Born County Antrim, Ireland, Mar. 7, 1834; Westminster Col- 
lege, New Wilmington, Pa., 1871; Seminary, 1871-74; licensed, April 
1873; ordained, June, 1874, Presbytery of Shenango; pastor, Trans- 
fer and stated supply, Fredonia, Pa., 1874-77; stated supply, Dundas 
and Forest, Minn., 1878-79; stated supply, Rockford and Buffalo, 
Minn., 1880; without charge, 1881-92; honorably retired 1893; resi- 
dence, St. Peter, Minn.; died Anoka, Minn., April 19, 1917. 

Martin, Samuel Albert 

Born, Canonsburg, Pa., Nov. 1, 1853; Lafayette College, 1877; 
Seminary, 1876-7 and 18 78-9; Edinburg, 1877-8; post graduate. 
Princeton Theological Seminary, 1879-8 0; D.D., Lafayette College. 
1892; licensed, Apr., 1878, Presbytery of Pittsburgh; ordained, Jan. 
10, 1882, Presbytery of Westminster; stated supply, Hampden, Md.. 
1881; pastor, Christ Church, Lebanon, Pa., 1882-5; professor, 
Lafayette College, 1885-95; president, Wilson College, 1895-03; 
acting professor (Homiletics) Princeton Theological Seminary. 
190 2-3; president Pennsylvania College, 1903-6; principal, Shippen- 
burg State Normal School, 19 07-13; professor of Mental and Moral 
Philosophy, Lafayette College, 1913-21; died Easton, Pa.. March 
26, 1921. 

Published: The Man of Uz; many reviews and magazine articles. 

Mechlin, Lycurgns 

Born, Butler County, Pa., Sept. 28, 1841; Washington annd Jef- 
ferson College, 1874; Seminary, 1874-77; D.D., Franklin College, 
New Athens, Ohio, 1898; licensed, April 6, 1876, ordained, June 29, 
1877, Presbytery of Kittanning ; pastor, Elderton and Curries Run, 
Pa., 1876-89; New Athens and Bannock, 1889-1902; stated supply, 
Clarkson, 190 7-13; residence, Washington, Pa.; died Washington, 
Pa., Jan. 13, 1919. 

' 37 (163) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Montgomery, George William 

Born, Greenfield, Mo., Aug. 30, 1858; Waynesburg College. 
1884; Seminary, 1885-8; D.D.; licensed, 1881 (Cumberland Pres- 
byterian); ordained, 1883 (Cumberland Presbyterian), Ewing, 111.; 
stated supply, West Union (Cumberland Presbyterian), Pa., 18SR- 
7; pastor First Church (C.Pr.), McKeesport, Pa., 1887-93; pastor, 
First (Presbyterian), Oakmont, Pa., 1894-1908; superintendent of 
missions. Presbytery of Pittsburgh, 1908-21; died, Oakmont, Pa., 
Jan. 2, 1921. 

Mowry, Philip Henry 

Born, Allegheny, Pa., March 6, 1837; Jefferson College, 1858; 
Seminary, 185 8-61; D.D., Western University of Pennsylvania, 1882; 
licensed, April, 1860, Presbytery of Pittsburgh (Reformed Presby- 
terian); ordained, October, 1861, Presbytery of Philadelphia; pastor, 
Fourth Church, Philadelphia, 1861-63; Big Spring, Newville, Pa., 
1863-68; Second Church, Springfield, Ohio, 1868-73; pastor. First, 
Chester, Pa., 1873-1916; pastor emeritus, 1916-20; died, Chester. 
Pa., May 28, 1920. 

Newton, Edward Payson 

Born Lahore, India, April 8, 1850; A. B., Princeton University, 
1870; Seminary, 1870-73; licensed and ordained, 1873, Presbytery of 
Allegheny; foreign missionary, Punjab, India (Ludhiana, 1873-94; 
Khanna, 1894-1918); died Khanna, Punjab, India, April 10, 1918. 

Oldand, John Ambrose 

Born Washington Co., Pa., Aug. 20, 1877; Grove City College, 
190 8; Seminary, 1911; and post graduate, 1916; pastor, Unionport, 
Ohio, 1911-14; Boardman, Pa., 1914-15; Terra Alta, W. Va., 1917- 
18; died Spencer, W. Va., March 6, 1918. 

Orr, Thomas X. 

Born Franklin Co., Pa., Aug. 10, 1836; Jefferson College, 
Canonsburg, Pa., 1857; Seminary, 1860-63; D.D., Washington and 
Jeffdison College, 1885; licensed, June, 1862 ; Presbytery of Carlisle; 
ordained July, 18 63, Presbytery of Allegheny; pastor Central 
Church, Allegheny, Pa., 1863-69; First Reformed Church, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 1869-83; Second, Peoria, 111., 1883-94; honorably retired, 
189 4; attorney at law, 1857-60; residence, Philadelphia, Pa.; died, 
Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 15, 1918. 

Paden, Robert Akey 

Born, Washington County, Pa., Dec. 2 5, 1852; Muskingum 
College, 1876; Seminary, 1879-82; licensed, April 13, 1881, Pres- 
bytery of Zanesville; ordained, July 12, 1882, Presbytery of Ft. 
Dodge; missionary, Kossuth County, Iowa, 1882-83; Emmet County, 
Iowa, 1883-85; stated supply, Burt, Iowa, 1886-88; pastor, Wilson's 
Grove, Sumner, Iowa, 1889-94; stated supply, Efllngham, Kansas, 
1894-97; pastor, Superior and Holmwood, Neb. (Reformed Presby- 
terian), 189 7-19 09; Sumner, Iowa (Presbyterian), 19 09-14; Mc- 
Cune, Kan., 1914-17; New Albin, Iowa, 1917-19; died. New Albin, 
Iowa, June 10, 1919. 

Peoples, Samuel Craig 

Born, West Fairfield, Pa., Apr. 8, 1854; University of Wooster, 
1878; Seminary, 1878-81; M.D., Jefferson Medical College, 1882; I). 

38 (164) 



Necrology 

D., University of Wooster, 1907; licensed, Apr., 1880, Presbytery of 
Wooster; ordained, Aug., 1882, Presbytery of Blairsville: medical 
mis-ionary, Siam (Chieng Mai, 1883-5; Lakawn, 1885-95; Muang 
Nan, 1895-1920); died, Siam, Dec. 27, 1920. 

Price, Benjamin McCauley 

Born, Feed Spring, O., May 27, 1852; Franklin College, O., 
1873; Seminary, 1875-8; licensed, Apr. 25, 1877, and ordained, Aug 
28, 1878, Presbytery of Steubenville; pastor, Betliesda, 0., 187S-84 
Alliance, 1884-87; Dennison, 1888-97; Fairbury, Neb., 1897-02 
Creston and Jackson, O., 1903-4; Second, Wellsville, 0., 1904-09 
Waterford, Pa., 1909-14; Shadyside, O., 1914-21; principal, Aca- 
demy, New Hagerstown, Ohio, 1873-75; died, Shadyside, O.. teb 
11, 1921. 

Roth, Henry Warren 

Born Prospect, Pa., April 5, 1838; A.B., 1861 and A.M., 1864, 
Penn'^ylvania College, Gettysburg. Pa.; Seminary, 1862-64; D.D., 
Westminster College, New Wilmington, Pa., 1876; LL.D., Thiel 
College, Pa., 1913; licensed, .June 8, 1863, and ordained, June 2, 
18 65, Synod of Pittsburgh (Lutheran); stated supply, Grace, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., 1861-70; president, Thiel College, Greenville, Pa., 1870- 
87; pastor. Wicker Pai'k Church, Chicago, 18 87-99; professor practi- 
cal theology, Chicago Lutheran Theological Seminary, 1891-96; 
director and treasurer. Institution Protestant Deaconesses, 1901; 
director, Passavant Hospital, since 1901; secretary. General Council 
Lutheran Church, 1866-70; president, Pittsburgh Synod, 1871-73; 
residence, Greenville, Pa.; died Sept. 25, 1918. 

Shrom, William Pi-owell 

Born, Carlisle, Pa., Nov. 2, 1840; Otterbein University, 1868; 
Seminary, 1868-71; D.D., Otterbein University, 1886; licensed, Jan., 
and ordained, Feb., 1871, Allegheny Conference (United Brethren 
in Christ); received by Presbytery of Zanesville, 1873; pastor, First, 
Zanesville, O., 1873-83; First, Cadiz, 0., 1883-86; Fourth, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., 1886-05; pastor emeritus, 1905-07; stated supply, Ne- 
ville Island, Pa., 1906-17; professor (Mental and Moral Science) 
Lebanon Valley College, 1871-2; died, Pittsburgh, Pa., March 28. 
1921. 

Slagle, Bernard Wolff 

Born, Washington, Pa., Dec. 27, 1832; W^ashington College. 
1854; laAV student, 1854-5; Seminary, 1855-8; D.D.. Defiance Col- 
lege, 1905; licensed, 1858, Presbytery of Washington; ordained, 
1859, Presbytery of Palmyra; stated supply, MontioeHo and Canton. 
Mo., 1859-61; stated supply (1862-70); pastor (1870-1905), pastor 
emeritus (1905-20), Defiance, O., teacher (Homiletics) Defiance 
College and Defiance Seminary, 1907-8; (Pastoral Theology) De- 
fiance Seminary, 1908; died. Defiance, Ohio, April 28, 1920. 

Sloan, William Nicolls 

Born, Youngstown, Pa., Mar. 5, 1849: Vermillion Institute. O. 
1870; Seminary, 1870-73; Ph.D., University of Wooster, 1896; li- 
censed, 1872, Presbytery of Redstone; ordained. June, 1873, Pres- 
bytery of Pittsburgh; pastor. Park Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa., 18 73-78; 
Foxburgh, Pa., 1879-80; Corry, Pa., 1881-86; Paris, 111., 1886-89; 
Eau Claire, Wis., 1889-98; Helena, Mont., 1898-1907; pastor at 
large. Presbytery of Helena, 1908-18; Mt. View, Cal., 1919; died. 
Mt. View, Cal., Nov. 18, 1919. 

39 (165) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Sloane, AVilllam Elmer 

Born Saxonburg, Pennsylvania, September 18, 1863; Washington 
and Jefferson College, 1887-90; Seminary 1893; licensed, April 5, 
1892, Presbytery of Pittsburgh; ordained, May 9, 189 3, Presbytery 
of Steubenville; pastor, Oik Ridge, Ohio, 1893-96; East Liverpool, 
Ohio, 1896-97; Knoxville, Iowa, 1897-1901; Storm Lake, Iowa, 1901- 
04 evangelistic work, 1904-06; Austin, Minn., 190 6-10; Minnea- 
polis, Minn., 1910-12; Placentia, Cal., 1912-14; died Redlands, Cal., 
November 2, 1917. 

Smith, George Gardner 

Born, Pittsburgh, Pa., Nov. 22, 1838; Williams College, 1861: 
Seminary, 1861-63 and 66-67; licensed. September 17, 1867, Pres- 
bytery of Allegheny; ordained, August 19, 1868, Presbytery of Car- 
lisle; pastor, Williamsport, Maryland. 18 68-74; Santa Fe. New 
Mexico, 1874-79; Helena, Montana. 1879-80; Old Tennent, N. .J.. 
1881-85; Adams, N. Y.; Riverside, R. I., 1885-87; Santa Fe, New 
Mex., 1887-95; Westminster. Allegheny, Pa., 1896; Brig^iton Road, 
Allegheny, 1896-98; evangelist, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1899-07; Washing- 
ton, D. C, 1907-09; Princeton, N. J., 1909-1919; U. S. Army. 1863- 
65: died, Princeton, N. J., June 30. 1919. 

Smoyer, Charlcis K. 

Born Northampton County, Pa., Sept. 6, 1840; Heidelberg Col- 
lege, 18 66; Seminary, 1868-71; post graduate, University of Wooster, 
1887; Ph. D., University of Wooster, 1887; licensed, April, 1870, 
Presbytery of Pittsburgh; ordained, 1873, Presbytery of Alton; stat- 
ed supply. Maple Creek and California, Pa., 18 70, Nokomis and 
Moweaqua, 111., 1870-73; Huron, Ohio, 1870-76; home missionary, 
Elmore, Genoa, Greytown, Martin, and Rocky Ridge, Ohio, 1873-86 ; 
Tyndall, S. Dak., 1887-91; stated supply Genoa, Clay Center, Ohio, 
1906-12; and Greytown, Ohio, 1892-1912; superintendent of public 
schools, Huron, Ohio, 18 8 5-87; county examiner of teachers, Ottman 
County, Ohio, 1903-19 08; residence, Elmore, Ohio; died Elmore, 
Ohio, May 9, 1917. 

Stevens, Lawrence Montfort 

Born, Butler Co., 0., Jan. 9, 1835; Miami University. 1855; 
Seminary, 1857-60; D.D., Presbyterian College, Florida, and Uni- 
versity of Wooster, 19 08; licensed, Dec. 27, 1858, Presbytery of 
Miami; ordained. Mar. 6, 18 61, Presbytery of Chicago; stated supply. 
Pleasant Valley and Bath, O., 1859; pastor, Marengo, 111., 1860-7; 
stated supply, Brookville, Ind., 1867-8; pastor, First, Laporte, 1869- 
71; pastor elect, Delphi, 1871-3; stated supply. Cedar Grove, Pa., 
1873-4; pastor Sturgis, Mich. , 1875-7 ; stated supply, Constantine, 
1877-9; Prattsburg, N. Y., 1879-87; New Berlin, 1888-91; Kissim- 
mee, Fla., 1891-3; Sorrento and Seneca, 1893-0 5; teacher, 1855-7: 
horonably retired, 1905; acting president. Presbyterian College. 
Florida, 1907; died, Eustis, Fla., Apr. 29, 1920. 

Steven.son, Joseph Hover 

Born Belief ontaine, Ohio, Oct. 13, 1831; Miami University, Ox- 
ford, Ohio, 1859; Seminary, 1861-64; D.D., Miami University, V889; 
licensed, April 16, 1863, Presbytery of Sidney; ordained, Oct. 14, 
1864, Presbytery of Redstone; pastor, Brownsville, Pa., 1864-68; 
Birmingham, Pa., 1868-69; Groveport, Ohio, 1870-73; Fairview, W. 
Va., 1873-75; Sewickley, Tyrone, and Scottdale, Pa., 1875-83; Nash- 

40 (166) 



Necrology 

ville, 111., 1883-87; evangelist Presbytery of Cairo, 1887-88; Mt. Car- 
mel, 111., 1888-96; Golconda, 111., 1899-1903; Kings, 111., 1903-09; 
Brookville, 111., 1909-11; honorably retired, 1911; pastor, Brookville, 
111., 1912; River Forest, 111., 1913; principal Academy, Greenfield, 
Ind., 1859-61; died Largo, Fla., Nov., 27, 1918. 

Published, Centennial History of Tyrone church, 1876; Me- 
morial of Rev. John E. Spilman, D. D. 

Stewart, Fitiz Patrick 

Born, Barbados, British West Indies, Nov. 10, 188 5; A.B., Lin- 
coln University, 1915; Seminary, 1915-19 (B.D. 1919); A.M., Uni- 
versity of Pittsburgh, 1918; died, San Fernando, Trinidad, BWI 
March 31, 1920. 

Stonecipher, John Franklin 

Born Allegheny County, Pa., Aug. 22, 1852; Lafayette College, 
Easton, Pa., 1874; Seminary, 1874-77; D.D., Lafayette College, 1899; 
licensed, April 26, 1876; Presbytery of Pittsburgh.; ordained, Jan. 
29, 1878, Presbytery of Erie; pastor, First, Mercer, Pa., 1877-82; 
Dover, Del., 1883-94; chaplain, Delaware Legislature, 1883, 1887, 
18 93; librarian, Lafayette College, 1902-19; died Easton, Pa., Feb. 
19, 1919. 

Thompson, Thomas Milton 

Born Pittsburgh, Pa., May 26, 1852; University of Wooster, 
18 75; Princeton Theological Seminary, 1875-76; Seminary, 1876-78; 
licensed, 1877, Presbytery of Allegheny; ordained, 1878, Presbytery 
of Butler; stated supply and pastor, Martinsburg and New Salem. Pa., 
1877-80; North Washington, 1880-83; Freeport, Pa., 1883-90; 
Sharpsburg, Pa., 1890-1910; Third, Uniontown, Pa., 1910-17; died 
Bellevue, Pa., Jan. 16, 1919. 

Waterman, Isaac N. 

Born Fox Chase (Philadelphia) Pa., Feb. 11, 1846; Washing- 
ton and Jefferson College, 18 76; Seminary, 1876-79; licensed, April 
1878; ordained, June 12, 1879, Presbytery of Baltimore; stated sup- 
ply and pastor, Redding, Cal., 1879-8 6; Gilroy and Hollister, 18 8 6- 
88; Oakdale, 1888-89; stated supply, Ukiah, 1889-91; pastor, Covelo, 
1891-95; residence, Pomona, Cal.; died Pomona, Cal., Nov. 11, 1918. 

Watson, Robert Andrew 

Born Athens, N. Y., Sept. 2, 1848; Scio College, Scio, Ohio, 1871; 
Seminary, 1871-74; Master of Arts, Scio College, 188 0; D.D., Illinois 
Wesleyan University, Bloomington, 111., 1901; licensed, Sept., 1873, 
Presbytery of Steubenville; ordained, 1874, Presbytery of Wooster; 
pastor, Shreve, Ohio, 18 74-7 7; West Rushville, Ohio, 1878-85; 
Radnor, Ohio, 1885-88; Mt. Leigh and Eckmansville, Ohio, 1889-95; 
Montgomery, Ohio, 1896-9 7; Lewisville, Ind., 189 8-9 9; evangelist, 
Ohio, 1900-19 03; traveled in Europe, 1904; pastor. West Liberty, 
W. Va., 1909-12; Marseilles, Ohio, 1912-14; occasional supply, Ashe- 
ville, N. C. (1914-15), California, Mexico, Florida (1915-16), West 
Liberty, W. Va. (1916-17), and Columbus, Ohio; died Columbus, 
Ohio, March 17, 1918. 

Wilson, William James 

Born Truitsburg, Clarion County, Pa., Nov. 13, 1844; Westmin- 
ster College, New Wilmington, Pa., 1873; Seminary, 1873-76; 

41 (167) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

licensed, April 1875, Presbytery of Shenango; ordained, June 14, 
1876, Presbytery of Kittanning; pastor, Union and Midway, Pa., 1876- 
79; stated supply, Malvern, Iowa, 1879-80; pastor, Callensburg, Pa., 
1880-91; Sligo, Pa., 1880-83; Concord, Pa., 1885-91; stated supply, 
Bethesda, Pa., 1883-91; pastor, Curries Run, Pa., 1891-1906; Center 
Pa., 1891-1916; Washington Church, Kittanning Presbytery, 19 00- 
13; honorably retired, 1917; died Indiana, Pa., Dee. 16, 1918. 

Wishart, Marcus 

Born, Washington, Pa., February 4, 1836; Washington College, 
1854; Seminary 1856-59; licensed, 1860, and ordained, 1861, Pres- 
bytery of Washington; stated supply, Maline Creek. Mo.. 1860; 
Third, Wheeling, W. Va., 1861-62; First, Meadville, Pa., 1863-64; 
pastor, Tarentum, 18 68-70; stated supply, Minersville, 1871; pastor, 
Rehoboth, Belle Vernon, 1874-77; Waterford, Pa., 1877-08; hon- 
orably retired, 1909; died, Waterford, Pa., May 16, 1919. 

AVotring^ Frederick Rahauser 

Born Washington County, Pa., Jan. 26, 1836; Washington Col- 
lege, Washington, Pa., 1859; Seminary, 1859-62; licensed, April 
1861, Presbytery of Washington; ordained, Oct. 26, 1863, Presbytery 
of Winnebago; pastor. Portage City, Wis., 18 63-66; stated supply, 
Van Wert, Ohio, 1866-6 8; pastor, Mansfield, Pa., 1868-78; Knoxville 
and Ninth, Pittsburgh, Pa., 18 78-80; stated supply and pastor, 
Wenona, 111., 1880-85; Plum Creek, Neb., 1886-88; stated supply, 
Lexington, Neb., 1889-90; Rawlins, Wyo., 1891-93; Berthoud, Col., 
1894-97; pastor. Brush, Col., 1898-1903; honorably retired; resi- 
dence, Petaluma, Cal.; died, Petaluma, Cal., Nov. 21, 1918. 



Campbell, AVilliam AVard 

Born Uniontown, Pa., Dec. 2 8, 1832; A.M., Washington College, 
1856; Seminary, 1856-58; licensed, April, and ordained, Oct. 1859, 
Presbytery of Redstone; professor, Monongalia Academy, Morgan- 
town, W. Va., 18 58-5 9; pastor, Fairmont, W. Va., 1859-62; Parkers- 
burg, W. Va., 1862-4; Seventh Street, Washington, D. C, 1864-7; 
Nashville, Tenn., 1867-70; stated supply, Delphi and New Castle, 
Ind., 1870-71; First, Plymouth, 18 72; stated supply. Second, New 
Castle, Pa.; Gettysburg, Pa., 1872-5; stated supply. Presbytery of 
Huntingdon, 1875-79; pastor, Unionville, Pa,; professor, Pennsyl- 
vania State College, State College Pa., 1879-81; Grove, Aberdeen, 
Md., 1881-84; died, Wilmington, Del., Jan 20, 1916. 

Corbett, Hunter 

Born, Clarion County, Pa., Dec. 8, 1835; Jefferson College. 
1860; Seminary, 1860-62; Princeton Theological Seminary, 1863; 
D.D., 1886, and LL.D., 1902, Washington and Jefferson College; 
liecnsed, June, 18 62, and ordained, June 9, 1863, Presbytery of 
Clarion; missionary, Chefoo, China, 1863-1920; moderator. Genera] 
Assembly, 1907; died, Chefoo, China, Jan. 7, 1920. 

Author: Church History (2 vols.); Ten Commandments; Be- 
nevolence; a number of tracts; all in Chinese. 

42 (168) 



Necrology 

Eaglesoii, Alexander Gordon 

Born, Washington Co., Pa., Oct. 8. 1844; Iberia College, 1867; 
Seminary, 1868-70; licensed, Apr., 1869, and ordained, Oct. 1870, 
Presbytery of Marion; pastor, Oshkosh, Wis., 1870-2; Third, Wheel- 
ing, W. Va., 1873-5; Washington, O., 1875-9; West Union, W. Va., 
1879-84; Freeport, 0., 1886-8; New Hagerstown, O., 1888-92; 
stated supply, Ravia and Mill Creek, 0., 1908-1912; evangelist, 
1892-14; honorably retired, 1915; died, Lore City, O., Oct. 30, 1920. 

Eckels, Mervin Johnston 

Born Cumberland County, Pa., June 18, 1854; Lafayette Col- 
lege, 1877; Seminary, 1879-81; D.D., Lafayette College, 1894; li- 
censed, June, 1881, Presbytery of Carlisle; ordained, October, 1882, 
Presbytery of Baltimore; stated supply- and pastor, Havre de Grace, 
Md., 1882-85; Salisbury, Md., 1885-90; Bradford, Pa., 1890-93; Arch 
Street, Philadelphia, Pa., 1893; teacher, 1877-79; member of Pres- 
byterian Board of Publication and Sunday School Work; trustee of 
Presbytery of Philadelphia; trustee, General Assembly; died Jan 29, 
1919, Wernersville, Pa. 

Fullerton, George Humphrey 

Born Bloomingburg, Ohio, Feb. 2 7, 1838; Miami University, 
1858; Seminary, 1858-60; Princeton Theological Seminary, 1861; 
A. B., Miami University^ 1858: D. D.. Wabash College, 18 83; licensed, 
1860, Presbytery of Allegheny; ordained, 1863, Presbytery of Colum- 
bus; Lancaster, Ohio, 1863-6 4; First Presbyterian Church, Sandusky, 
1864-67; Lane Seminary Church, Cincinnati, Ohio, 186 7-74; Second 
Presbyterian Church, Springfield, 111., 1875-79; Walnut Hills, Cin- 
cinnati, 1879-86; pastor, Second Church, Springfield, Ohio, 1886- 
1891; Third Church, 1891-1901; died Springfield, Ohio, Mar. 31, 
1918. 

Punk, Abraham L. 

Born West Newton, Pa., Jan. 2, 1848; Otterbein University 
1882; Seminary, 1881-82; licensed, June 12, 1879, Conference 
United Brethren in Christ Church; ordained, Sept. 17, 1884, Alle- 
gheny Conference of United Brethren in Christ Church; pastor, Scott- 
dale, Pa., 1882-87; Riverside, Cal., 1887-94; Altoona, Pa., 1894-97; 
East Pittsburgh, Pa., 1897-05; Beaver Falls, Pa., 1905-07; Connells- 
ville. Pa., 1907-09; retired, Sept. 1909; resided. Riverside, Cal., 1909- 
12; Westerville, Ohio, 1912-18; died, Westerville, Ohio, Aug. 13, 
1918. 

Grier, John Boyd 

Born, Danville, Pa., Aug. 26, 1843; Lafayette College, 1864; 
Seminary, 18 6 6-69; D.D., Lafayette College, 1889; licensed, April 
28, 18 68, Presbytery of Allegheny; ordained, Oct. 16, 18 73, Pres- 
bytery of Wellsborough; pastor, Lawrenceville, Pa., 18 72-7 6; Ocean 
Street, Jacksonville, Florida, 1876-77; Grove, Danville, Pa., 1879- 
84; Lewisburg, Pa., 1884-88; adjunct professor (Modern Languages) 
Lafayette College, 18 69-72; travelled in Europe; chaplain at inter- 
vals, Jackson Health Resort, Dansville, N. Y. ; died, Ventnor, N. J., 
May 26, 1919. 

Author: The English of Bunyan, 72 (J. B. Lippincott and Co.) 

43 (169) 



The BuUetin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Hickling, Thomas 

Born, Norfolk, England, July, 1845; Seminary, 1877-80; li- 
censed, April, 1878. Presbytery of Allegheny; ordained, 1882, Presby- 
tery of Waterloo; stated supply, Eldorado, Iowa, 1882; St. Lawrence 
and Wessington, Dak., 188 3; home missionary, Millen, Dak., 18 85; 
stated supply, LaFoon, Dak., 1886; Estelline, S. Dak., 1888-89; 
Cedarville, 111., 1890-91; Milton, N. Dak., 1894; Towner, Rugby, and 
Willow City, N. Dak., 1895; Elm River, N. Dak., 1896-97; La Porte, 
Texas, 1898; entered Presbyterian Church, U. S., 1901; stated supply 
La Grange and Calvert, Tex., 1901-14; supply, Brenham and Cald- 
well; supply and pastor, Giddings and Dime Box, Tex., 1907-10; died 
near League City, Tex., Jan., 1913. 

Lindsey, Edwin J. 

Born, Carlisle, Pa., Sept. 18, 1858; Dickinson College, 1885; 
Seminary, 188 6-88; Union Theological Seminary, 188 8-8 9; licensed, 
1889, Presbytery of Carlisle; ordained, October 3, 1889, Presbytery 
of Ft. Dodge; pastor, Schaller and Early, Iowa, 1889-90; home mis- 
sionary and stated supply (1889-1902) and district missionary and 
stated supply (1902-09), Poplar (Indian), Mont.; Burns, Mont., 
1910; Savage, 1911; district missionary. Pine Ridge, S. D., 1912; 
Gordon, Neb., 1913; Allen, S. D., 1914-17; professor, Santee, Neb., 
1918-20; died, Santee, Neb., Feb., 25, 1920. 

Love, Robert Buell 

Born, Hubbard, Ohio, September 2 2, 18 51; University of Woos- 
ter, 1878; Seminary, 18 78-81; licensed, April 27, 1880, Presbytery 
of Mahoning; ordained, Aug. 23, 18 81, Presbytery of Shenango; 
pastor, Hopewell, New Bedford, Pa., 1881-8 5; Bethesda Church, 
Ohio, 1885-91; First, Gallipolis, Ohio, 18 91-93; evangelist, 18 93- 
1909; stated supply, Bellville and Butler, Ohio, 1910-16; pastor. 
Nashville, Illinois, 1918-19; died, Wooster, Ohio, Sept. 17, 1919. 

McKamy, John Andre^v 

Born McDonough County, 111., Feb. 21, 1858; Lincoln University, 
1882; Seminary 1885-8 7; Lebanon Theological Seminary, 1888; post- 
graduate, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 18 92-93; post- 
graduate, Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, 189 6-9 7; 
Ph. B., Lincoln University, 1882; B.D., Lebanon Theological Semi- 
nary, 1888; D.D., Waynesburg College, 1906; licensed, 1885 and or- 
dained, 1887, Presbytery of Mackinaw (Cumberland Presbyterian); 
stated supply. Concord, Fairview, Pa., Apr. to Nov. 1888; stated sup- 
ply, San Jose and Selma, Cal., 1888-89; pastor, W^aco, Tex., 1889-92; 
pastor, Louisville, Kentucky, 1892-97; pastor, Knoxville, Tenn., 1897- 
98; editor, Sunday School Publications (Cumberland Presbyterian), 
1898-0 6; editor-in-charge, Westminster Teacher, 1906-; pastor, Cory- 
don, Ind., 1912-13; Lebanon. Ohio, 1913-15; pastor, Oswego, Kan., 
1916-17; died, McComb, 111., Aug. 25, 1917. 

Mifflin, Henry Lander 

Born, Bonavista, Newfoundland, Sept. 22, 18 61; Taylor Univer- 
sity, Upland^ Ind.; Rochester Theological Seminary, one year; Sem- 
inary, 1915-16; Presbyterian minister; died, Pittsburgh, Pa., Oct. 
25, 1917. 

44 (170) 



Necrology 

MuUer, G. C. 

Born Johnstown, Pa., Aug. 14, 1870; Washington and Jefferson 
College, 1891; Seminary, 1891-93; pastor, Barnesboro, Pa., 1899- 
1901; without charge, Boswell, Pa., 1903-06; Somerset, Pa., 1907 
-12; Evans City, Pa., 1914; Ligonier, Pa., 1915; died, Ligonier, Pa. 
(R. D. 2), Sept. 19, 1915. 

Owens, John Dyer 

Born Spratt, Ohio, Mar. 27, 1893; A.B., Grove City College, 
1916; Seminary, 1916-18; died, Camp Lee, Petersburg, Va., Sept. 22, 
1918. 

Patton, William Dickey 

Born, New Castle, Pa., June 5, 1830; Jefferson College. iSoi); 
Seminary, 1859-60; licensed, April 4, 1860, Presbytery of Pitts- 
burgh (Reformed Presbyterian); oradined, 1862, Presbytery of 
Philadelphia (Reformed Presbyterian); pastor Third (Reformed 
Presbyterian), Philadelphia, Pa., 1862-6 6; Harrisville and Amity, 
Pa., 1866-80; Carrollton, Missouri, 1880-81; Chillicothe, 1881-84; 
Osage City, Kansas, 1884-87; stated supply, Florence, 1887-90; 
Nebraska City, Neb., 1890-93; Barneston, 1894-95; staled supply, 
Burchard, Neb., 1896; honorably retired, 1897; residence, Omaha, 
Nebraska; died, Chicago, 111., Dec. 19, 1919. 

■Reid, Alexander 3IcCandless 

Born near Independence, Beaver Co., Pa., April 20, 1827; Jef- 
ferson College, 1849; Seminary, 1850-51; Ph.D., Washington and 
Jefferson College, 186 9; D.D., University of Wooster, 1902 ; licensed, 
April 14, 185 7, and ordained, April 25, 1860, Presbytery of Steuben- 
ville; stated supply, Hollidays Cove, W. Va., 1860-63; pastor at large 
Presbytery of Steubenville, 18 63-1908; teacher, Sewickley Academy, 
1845-48 & 51-56; principal and teacher, Steubenville Female 
Academy, 185 6- ; moderator, Synod of Wheeling; member of Pan 
Presbyterian Council, London; traveled abroad three times, Europe, 
Algeria, Egypt, Greece, Turkey, and the Holy Land; residence, Steu- 
benville, Ohio; died Steubenville, Ohio, March 24, 1918. 

Published: Life of Mrs. Beatty; Sketch of Dr. Beatty; Many 
Newspaper articles; several sermons. 

Taylor, Andrew Todd 

Born, County Antrim, Ireland; A.B., Grove City College, 1889; 
Seminary, 189 0-91 and post graduate, 18 93-9 4; Princeton Theologi- 
cal Seminary, 1893; A.M., Princeton University, 1893; D.D., Grove 
City College, 1906; licensed, 1892, Presbytery of Kittanning; or- 
dained 1893, Presbytery of Washington; Mt. Prospect, Pa., 1893- 
96; pastor, Gaston, Philadelphia, Pa., 1896-08; Cooke Church, To- 
ronto, Canada, 1908-13; Third, Trenton, N. J., 1913-16; pastor. 
First, York, Pa., 1917-19: died, York, Pa., December 21, 1919. 

Thonii)son, Heniy Adams 

Born^Center Co., Pa., Mar. 23, 1837; Jefferson College, 1858; 
Seminary,/! 8 5 8-60; D.D., Washington and Jefferson College, 187 3; 
LL.D., Wfestfield College, 111., 1886; licensed, Jan. 7, 1860, and or- 
dained, /an. 7, 1861, Conference United Brethren in Christ; teacher, 
Coileg^ of Indiana, 1860; Ligonier Academy, 1861; professor 
(Math/matics) Western College, 18 63; professor, Otterbein Univer- 

45 (171) 



Ha>^Mo«fn 



The Bidletm of the Western Theological Seminary 

sity, 1863-8; superintendent public schools, Troy, 0., 1868-71; pro- 
fessor, Westfield College, 111., 1871-2; president, Otterbein Univer- 
sity,1872-86; assistant editor, (1893-97), editor, 1897-1901), and 
assistant editor (1901-05), Sunday School literature (United Breth- 
ren in Christ) ; editor. United Brethren in Christ Review, 1901- ; 
died, Dayton, Ohio, July 8, 1921. 

Author: Schools of the Prophets; Power of the Invisible; Our 
Bishops; Biography of Bishop Weaver;v*A»*ievi o%-tH«J^i k^,- - 

Wilson, Robert Bighani 

Born Cedarville, Ohio, Feb. 13, 1872; Cedarville College, 1901; 
Seminary, 1901-02; McCormick Theological Seminary, 1904; D.D., 
Cedarville College, 1918; ordained. Presbytery of Flint, June 5, 
1904; pastor, Croswell, Mich., 1904-07; pastor, Hanna City, 111., 
1907-10; Hillsboro, 111., 1910-16; State Street, Jacksonville, 111., 
1916-18; died, Jacksonville, 111., June 26, 1918. ■ • 

Woods, John 

Born Hamilton, Ohio, Jan. 19, 1838; Miami University, Oxford, 
Ohio, 1860; Seminary, 1860-61; Princeton Theological Seminary, 
1862-63; D.D., Miami University, 1889; ordained, Sept. 25, 1861; 
Presbytery of Oxford; pastor, Urbana, Ohio, 186 5-68; Bloomingburg, 
1868-72; pastor elect. Ninth, Chicago, 111., 1872-73; stated supply, 
Ft. Wayne, Ind., 1873-75; pastor, Chico, Cal., 1875-76; stated supply. 
Cedar Falls, Ind., 1877-78; White Bear Lake, Minn., 1879-81; stated 
supply, Andrew, Minneapolis, Minn., 1882; Willmar and Diamond 
Lake, 18 83; pastor, Merriam Park, 1884-91; stated supply, Newark, 
Ohio, 1892; pastor, Ludington, Mich., 1S93-1904; stated supply New 
Carlisle, Ohio, 1905-1911; chaplain. United States Army; honorably 
retired, 1911; died, Urbana, Ohio, May 6, 1918. 



46 (172) 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Western Theologieal Seminary 



A Revie^v Devoted to tne Interests of 
Xneological Education 



Published quarterly in January, April, July, and October, by the 
Trustees of the \^estern Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America. 



Edited by the President with the co-operation of tbe Faculty. 



(Enttt^ntB 



Page 

Ninety-first Commencement 5 

Frank Eakin, B.D. 
Celebrating the Twentieth Anniversary of Dr. Kelso's Professorship 8 

The President's Report 24 

Treasurer's Report 36 

Librarian's Report 3S 

The Graduating Class 42 

Index 43 



Communications for the Editor and all business matters should be 
addressed to 

REV. JAMES A. KELSO, 

731 Ridge Ave., N. S.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 



75 cents a j-ear. Single Number 25 cents. 

Each author is solely responsible for the views expressed in his article. 



Entered as second-class matter December 9, 1909, at the postofRce at Pittsburgh, Pa. 
(North Diamond Station) under the act of August 24, 1912. 



Press of 
pittsburgh printing 
pittsburgh, f 

1921 



Faculty 



The Rev. JAMES A. KELSO, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D. 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation 

The Rev. ROBERT CHRISTIE, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Apologetics 

The Rev. DAVID RIDDLE BREED, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. DAVID S. SCHAFF, D. D. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 

The Rev. WILLIAM R. FARMER, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. JAMES H. SNOWDEN, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Systematic Theology 

The Rev. SELBY FRAME VANCE, D. D., LL. D. 

Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. DAVID E. CULLEY, Ph. D. 

Assistant Professor of Hebrew 



The Rev. FRANK EAKIN, B. D. 

Instructor in New Testament Greek and Librarian 

Prof. GEORGE M. SLEETH 

Instructor in Elocution 

Mr. CHARLES N. BOYD 

Instructor in Music 



3 (175) 



The Bulletin 

— of me — 

WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Volume XIII. July, 1921. No. 4 

Ninety-first Commencement. 



The Rev. Frank Eakin, B.D. 

There were several unusual features about the Com- 
mencement of 1921. One of these was the place and time 
of holding the main exercises on Thursda}^ (May 5th). 
The}'' were held at 8 o'clock in the evening instead of in 
the afternoon, the place of assembh'' being the historic 
and beautiful First Church on Sixth Avenue. The alumni 
met for their annual reunion and dinner in the McCreery 
dining room, adjoining the church, at 5 P. M. Nearly 
two hundred were present. 

Another unusual item on the week's program was 
the celebration of the twentieth anniversary of Presi- 
dent Kelso's professorship. This was natural!}^ the to- 
pic of dominant interest at the alumni gathering. In 
speeches bv Rev. Grant E. Fisher, of Turtle Creek, Rev. 
W. R. Craig, of Butler, and Rev. W, G. Felmeth, of 
New Kensington, warm tributes were paid to Dr. Kelso 
as an executive, a scholar, and above all as a friend of 
students, a great human, a Christian gentleman. Dr. 
John Kelman, present as the Alumni Association's guest 
of honor, spoke of his sense — after only a few hours ac- 
quaintance — of Dr. Kelso's extraordinary personal 
charm. 

It would be interesting to know how many others, 
whose contacts with him have been quite as brief and 

5 (177) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

casual, would gladly bear the same witness if they had the 
chance. Undoubtedly the number would be large. As for 
the Alumni, students, and faculty of Western Theologi- 
cal Seminary, whose association with its President has 
been close, our sense of the value of that association 
to us is literally beyond words to express. If the con- 
tagion of his spirit and character have been without ef- 
fect on our lives and work, the blame be ours. 

At the evening exercises a portrait of Dr. Kelso — 
a gift of the Alumni Association to the Seminary — was 
unveiled, At the same time announcement w^as made 
of the action of the Board of Directors in granting him 
a $1,000 increase in salary and a ^^ear's leave of absence 
— the time of the latter to be at his discretion. 

Another important action of the Board of Directors, 
at their meeting Thursday morning, was the election of 
the Kev. Selby Frame Vance, D. D., LL. D., of the fac- 
ulty of the Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, to till 
the vacant chair of New Testament Literature and 
Exegesis. Dr. Vance is widely known as a scholar and 
churchman. He had many years of experience in work 
similar to that to which he is called and his election will 
give added strength to Western's faculty. 

No doubt to many returning alumni one of the great- 
est privileges of this 3^ear's commencement was that of 
hearing Dr. Kelman speak. At the alumni dinner he 
talked of the ministry of Dr. Alexander Whyte, "the 
last of the Puritans", with whom he was formerly asso- 
ciated in the pastorate of St. George's Free Church in 
Edinburgh. His remarkable power as a preacher, as Dr. 
Kelman analyzed it, lay chiefly in three chracteristics. 
He was (1) An appreciator, (2) A man of deep experi- 
ence, (3) A master of imagination. The theme of Dr. 
Kelman 's main address, Thursday evening, was "The 
Cross of Jesus the Measure of the World." It was a 
deeply suggestive address. "Gentlemen, 3^ou will not need 
to go beyond Jesus for any Gospel that will save your 
age." This was the burden of the speaker's thought for 
the' men about to go into the active ministry. 

Space will alloAv onh^ brief reference to other events 
of Commencement week. The Baccalaureate service on 

6 (178) 



Ninety-first Commencement 

Sunday, May 1st, was held in the Sixth Presbyterian 
Church. President Kelso preached from Luke 4 :9-12, his 
theme being the temptation which now besets the church 
and the ministry to try to attain their spiritual ends 
through spectacular and materialistic means. The an- 
nual Commencement program of the Cecilia Choir was 
rendered Wednesday evening in the Homewood Presby- 
terian Church. The program consisted entirely of Rus- 
sian Church music, sung without accompaniment. Its 
rendering was cpiite up to the Cecilia standard — which is 
saying much. Despite bad weather the audience was 
large. 

Officers of the Alumni Association elected for the 
ensuing year are as follows : President, Rev. Samuel 
Blacker, of Irwin ; Vice President, Rev. Charles N. Moore, 
of Zelienople; Secretary, Rev. Thos. C. Pears, Jr., .of 
Pittsburgh. 

At the Thursday evening exercises the diploma of 
the Seminary was awarded to Messrs. George Kyle Bam- 
ford, Robert Harvey Henry, Andrew Jay Hudock, 
Charles Jesse Krivulka, Frederic Christian Leypoldt, 
Walter Lysancler Moser, Hampton Theodore McFadden, 
John Christian Rupp, Abraham Boyd Weisz, and Joseph 
J. Welenteichick. A special certificate was awarded to 
Mr. Leon Buczak. The degree of Bachelor of Divinity 
was conferred upon Messrs. Alfred D'Aliberti, Arthur 
Henr}^ George, James Adolph Hamilton, John Toma- 
sula, George K^de Bamford (of the graduating-' class), 
and Walter Lysancler Moser (of the graduating class). 
The Seminary fellowship was awarded to Mr. Walter 
Lysander Moser; the Keith Memorial Homiletical Prize 
to Mr. George Kyle Bamford; a Hebrew Prize to Messrs. 
Arthur Dow Behrends and Calvin H. Hazlett, of the Jun- 
ior Class; and Merit Prizes to Messrs. W. H. Millinger, 
P. L. Warnshuis, and J. W. Willoughbv, of the Middle 
Class, and Messrs. Calvin H. Hazlett, Willard C. Mellin, 
and AVilliam Owen, of the Junior Class. 



(179) 



Celebrating the Twentieth Anniversary of 
Dr. Kelso's Professorship. 



The Rev. George Taylor, Jr., Ph. D. 



A real tribute of affection was shown to Dr. Kelso 
during this last Commencement season in conneetion.with 
the celebration of his twentieth anniversary as a profes- 
sor in the institution. The Board of Directors committed 
the arrangements for a suitable recognition of this event 
to a committee with Dr. George Taylor, Jr., Chairman, 
and Dr. Hugh T. Kerr from the Board of Directors, Mr. 
Ralph W. Harbison and Mr. S. S. Marvin from the 
Board of Trustees, and Dr. William R. Farmer from 
the Facult}^ The committee arranged the exercises r^o 
that the event would be brought before the public as well 
as the Alumni. Thus the portrait of Dr. Kelso which 
v^as given b}^ the Alumni was presented to the Seminary 
by Dr. Farmer, a classmate of his in college days, at the 
regular Commencement exercises held in the First Pres- 
byterian Church of Pittsburgh. But the addresses by the 
three Alumni were delivered at the five o'clock dinner 
where the Rev. John Kelman, pastor of the Fifth Ave- 
nue Presbyterian Church of New York City, was the es- 
teemed guest. The Rev. Geo. L. Glunt, president of the 
Alumni Association, introduced the subject of Dr. Kel- 
so's celebration through the Chairman of the Commit- 
tee, Dr. Ta3'lor, who spoke as follows : 

"Mr. Chairman, I am not one of those who have 
been chosen to make speeches. The names are given 
on the program. But a bit of history may help to 
lay the matter clearly before you. Just as soon as the 
Board of Directors learned that Dr. Kelso had been 
a professor in the Seminary for twent}^ years they 
decided that it would be onl}^ fitting to make some men- 
tion of it at this particular time. At this dinner it 
has taken the form of three addresses, which are to be 
given by Dr. Fisher, one of his classmates. Dr. Craig, 
and the Rev. Mr. Felmeth. 

"Before these Alumni speak, a brief word about the 
Board's action in connection with the anniversary will 
be in place. There are two reconnnendations tliat were 

8 (ISO) 



Twentieth Anniversary — Dr. Kelso's Professorship 

passed by the Board this moi'iiing, both of which will 
be of interest to you and in which, I know, you will 
heartily concur. The first grants to Dr. Kelso one 
years' leave of absence, when in his own judgment the 
conditions in the Seminary will permit him to have 
this freedom. And the second comes as a recommenda- 
tion to the Board of Trustees for an increase of $1,000.- 
00 in his salary. As you all know, he has been filling two 
offices in connection with our Seminary, one as Presi- 
dent of the institution and the other as Professor of 
Hebrew and Old Testament Literature. He has been 
doing both of them Avell and the Board felt that this 
should be recognized, in addition to the one year's va- 
cation Avith salary. 

''Xow I know that Ave all love him. Those Avho have 
been under his instruction and have come in touch with 
him as a man and a friend have come out of the Sem- 
inary feeding that they had been associated Avith a real 
Christian gentleman. And so far as I have been able to 
learn through my touch Avith the different men Avho 
haA^e been in Dr. Kelso's classes, or Avho have been 
privileged to associate with him in the Seminary, they 
have all had one testimony, that he is a fine Christian 
gentleman. After all, this is the biggest heritage that 
any man can leave Avith a pupil as he goes out into 
the Avorld. And if Ave carry this same spirit to those 
Avith Avhom Ave come in contact, I am sure Ave Avill be 
doing a great thing for our oAvn institution. 

"NoAv, Mr. Chairman, I Avill leave the matter in your 
hands." 

After Dr. Taylor's introduction the three addresses 
Avere deliA^ered. A stenographic report of each is given 
beloAv. The addresses were not prepared for publica- 
tion and in making them a permanent record Ave haA'e 
purposely preserved the' free spontaneous style intact. 
The first comes from Rev. Grant E. Fisher, D. D., pastor 
of the First Presbyterian Church of Turtle Creek, Pa., 
and a. classmate of Dr. Kelso in the Seminary. 

''Mr. Chairman, felloAv-classmates of the most il- 
lustrious class of the Western Theological SeminarA*. 
(Cries of Oh! Oh!) AVhy not? If Ihe election of 

9 (181) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Woodrow Wilson to the presidenc^^ of the United 
States made the class of '79 the most illustrious class 
of Princeton University, why may not the election 
of James A. Kelso to the presidency of the Western 
Theological Seminary make the class of '96 AVestern's 
most illustrious class! I note you approve of this 
logic. That is good. 

"I begin again. Mr, Chairman, fellow-classmates 
of Western's most illustrious class, fathers, and 
brethren : Ofttimes there are two puzzles before the 
preacher. The one is the selection of his subject; the 
other is how to handle the subject after it as been cho- 
sen. The second is ni}^ puzzle this evening. Possibl)' 
I can do no better than to follow the good old-fashioned 
method taught us so thoroughly in the Seminary, viz. 
the negative-and-positive method. 

"First, then, negatively. My subject is not a bad 
subject, never was, and is not now. This may sound 
a little heterodox, but I assure 3-ou I am not inviting 
a heresy trial. I beg 3"ou to remember that I am only 
speaking from the time of my meeting with him dur- 
ing my middle year in the Seminary. The years be- 
fore that time are a sort of 'No Man's Land' to me. 
The}^ ma}^ not have been such white years, but I 
would fain believe they were not different from the 
years I knew. Never did my subject attempt to warble 
college songs or vaudeville ditties in the hallway at un- 
seasonable hours, seeking to recall men as righteous 
as he from their peaceful rest in that land in which 
Lot pitched his tent. Never did he invite the light- 
ning by placing (unobserved, of course) a copy of the 
Pittsburgji Post on Professor Riddle's desk. Never 
did he try to disturb the profound tranquility of Profes- 
sor Sleeth by uttering his tones from the abysmal re- 
gion under the waistband, a most tantalizing habit 
to a professor of 'Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution', and 
one into which so many embryo theologs fall. Nor did 
he seek to tickle the funnybone of Professor Jeffers — 
an undertaking which was carried to a successful is- 
sue but twice during my three years' stay in that de- 
partment. Do you wish to hear the story of one of 

10 (182) 



Twentieth Afmiversary — Dr. Kelso's Professorship 

these undertakings f It liappened on this wise. One 
Saturday we were given the exquisite pleasure of at- 
tempting to take notes on that ancient and honorable 
subject, 'Old Testament Introduction', and on the fol- 
lowing Saturday the not less exquisite pleasure of at- 
tempting to recite on said notes. On the memorable 
day in question a deep calm voice issued from the front 
part of the recitation room: 'Mr. B., please tell us 
one of the peculiarities of the Hebrew language dur- 
ing the period under discussion'. Mr. B. begged to 
be excused from reciting b^^ saying, 'Professor, I did 
not get your notes very accurately '. ' Oh ! try it, try 
it, Mr. B.' Mr. B. rose with great hesitation and did 
try it, and this was his 'try'. 'I think', said Mr. B., 
'that one of the peculiarities of the Hebrew language 
during the period under discussion was that they did 
not have any girls in those days'. The professor's 
seemingly immobile face relaxed and the boys were 
Avilling to go under oath that the}^ heard a sound 
strong!}^ resembling a laugh coming from the region 
of the professor's desk. The credit for this almost 
unheard-of feat goes not to Kelso, but to Brown. 
Now, President Kelso, I see that the funnybones of 
this audience are, in the inain, harder to tickle than 
that of even our sober professor. You will have to 
explain at your leisuree the 'point' in this 'classic' 
story. Kindly hint to these Hebraists that 'in the 
period under discussion' our word, na'ar, was used 
frequently for both sexes. 

"Second, positively. In the first place, my subject is 
a congenial subject, always was, and is noAv. He is 
no recluse. He carries with him an atmosphere of 
warmth and geniality whicli makes him companionable 
everywhere. He can make himself at home with the 
man in the street, with the scholar in his 'den', with 
the business man in his office, and with his students 
in the Seminary hall. Some time since I was called 
by Presbytery to fill another pulpit than my own, and 
I wondered whom I would get to preach for me that 
day. I thought of my old classmate. President Kelso. 
He agreed to come. At that time my sister and a niece 

11 (183) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

were visiting at the manse, and when I broke the news 
to them that the President of the Western Theological 
Seminary was coming consternation tilled their bosoms. 
They held a hasty conference and wisely concluded 
that the only safe conrse for them was, as soon as it 
would be courteous after the noonday meal, to scam- 
X)er up stairs and hide under the bed. With this 
grim determination they seated themselves at the table. 
But lo ! by h^qonotism, or by some of the occult sciences, 
my subject so captivated them that they forgot their 
solemn covenant and spent the whole afternoon listen- 
ing to his vivid word-pictures of vacation scenes and 
his thrilling accounts of his Cod3^an prowess in gun- 
nery in the Canadian forests where the hippopotamus 
and rhinoceros were as helpless before his deadly aim 
as a chipmunk. When I returned on Monday the ver- 
dict was 'Kelso is a good scout'. 

"In the second place, my subject is a practical sub- 
ject. 'Hoot mon', said a 'Scottie' to his minister 
who had just declared that ministers as a class are 
23ractical, ' Hoot mon, gie us a bit proof o' it.' Lis- 
ten to one of President Kelso's sermons and 3'Ou will 
be convinced that he not only keeps abreast of the best 
scholarship of the day, but also keeps in touch with 
the great throbbing life of this workaday age, 'the 
common everydayness of the world'. Look upon those 
sj)lendid buildings on Ridge Avenue, and you will 
have concrete evidence of his instinct for the practical. 
He seems endowed with a genius for reaching his hands 
into the pockets of men of wealth and extracting their 
contents — with the willing and gracious consent, of 
course, of the owners — when said contents are for the 
Seminary. In all his work his practicality takes the 
higher form of aiming at the edification of the church 
and of adapting the Seminary curriculum to the needs 
of the da}^ 

"Again, ni}^ subject is a schorlarly subject. Broadly 
speaking it may be said there are two main classes 
of scholars. The tirst is the 'ipse dixit' class whose 
pet slogans are such as these,-' all scholars agree', 
'the assured results of criticism', and 'outworn tra- 

12 (184) 



Tiventieth Anniversary — Dr. Kelso's Professorship 

ditionalism'. These, in a fashion, constitnte a sort of 
mutual admiration society, patting each other on the 
back, and seeking to make the world believe that they 
are the Jupiters in the firmament of scholarship. 
Quite often they prove to be but little lights that have 
one brief day and then in darkness fade away. The 
second class of scholars is just as painstaking and ac- 
curate as the first but decidedly more discriminating 
and decidedly more discretely silent, when 'silence is 
golden'. In this day of shifting sands in religious 
teaching, the Christian world is to be congratulated 
on having such scholars. On the one hand, they are 
capable of meeting in a candid and satisf3'ing way 
the questions of those who in their hearts know that 
the Bible is the word of God, but who are disturbed 
because men, supposed to be wiser than they, say that 
it is not. On the other hand, they draw such a 'firm 
division line of criticism' that those qualified to ex- 
amine for themselves the bases of critical theories 
have a meridian from which they can reckon their 
longitude amid the confusing intricacies of modern 
speculation. From a perusal of his writings and from 
personal contact with the man, I am constrained to 
put our scholar in this latter class. 

"But my subject is also an optimistic subject. To 
this he is compelled by his faith. Professor A. B. 
Bruce, after pointing out the aposiopesis in the He- 
brew at the beginning of the verse, 'I had fainted un- 
less I had believed to see the goodness of the Lord', 
was wont to say to his class 'Fainted! worse things 
than that will happen to the man who does not believe 
to see the goodness of the Lord'. In many directions 
there is much to chill the one who believes in the di- 
vineness of Christianity. But no optimism is worth 
much which does not rise victoriously over the pes- 
simism in the Avorld. 

"Mr. Chairman, I have already exhausted the time 
allotted to me. As my subject is an inexhaustible sub- 
ject, I gladly hand it over to the two speakers who are 
to follow me, knowing that they will add much that 
will be edifyng and fitting. President Kelso, your 

13 (185) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

class, the class of '96, is proud of you, aud glad of the 
fact that this anniversary day was set in jowa honor." 
The second address was given by the Rev. William 
R. Craig, D. D., pastor of the First Presbyterian Church 
of Butler, Pa. Dr. Craig's deep appreciation of Presi- 
dent Kelso is revealed in his words : 

"Mr. President, fathers, and brethren: Since last 
evening I have nourished a slight grudge toward my 
friend, Dr. Taylor. It was at that late hour that I 
received his letter informing me that I was one of 
three men to make some remarks on this occasion of 
Dr. Kelso's 20th. Anniversar}^ After coming to the 
city and meeting with Dr. Taylor, I have been greatly 
comforted and relieved by what he told me. I re- 
minded him that the only suggestion in his letter was 
that I was to speak 'ten minutes'. I said to him, 'What 
do you want me to talk about!' He replied, 'Oh, 
something personal'. Fear and trembling at once de- 
parted, for I felt I could at least give expression to 
my affection for Dr. Kelso. I presume I was asked to 
speak as the representative of the class of 1906. A 
famous and noted class it is. We do not attempt to 
prove it ; like the Irishman, we just admit it. 

"But I must get to the very delightful task of ex- 
pressing my appreciation of the one whom w^e all honor 
to-night. M}^ brethren, I am sure if knowledge and 
loyalty to truth, if faith, patience, sympathy, and use- 
fulness are qualities, at least some of the qualities, 
that go to make a great teacher, then Dr. Kelso to a 
marked degree meets these requirements. I wish I 
had time to dwell on each of these virtues as I have 
seen them exemplified in our beloved teacher. I have 
alwaj'S been impressed with his marvelous patience. 
Only a little while ago I was talking with one of my 
classmates and he mentioned an incident in our Semi- 
nary career which illustrates the patience manifested 
by our teacher toward the Class of 1906. I recall very 
vividly that one day Dr. Kelso was speaking to us of 
the kings of Israel. He mentioned a certain king — I 
do not now recall which one — but he spoke of this king- 
as having reigned, let us say, from the year 830 to 820. 

14 (186) 



Twentieth Anniversary — Dr. Kelso's Professorship 

Immediately one of our fellows proceeded to give an 
exhibition of his woeful ignorance as he said in all 
earnestness, 'Why, Dr. Kelso, that couldn't be — that 
an^^ king reigned from 830 to 820. How could that be 
possible I ' Well, our teacher did not rebuke the young 
student, he just looked on him with pity, hoping no 
doubt that some day he might learn better. We al- 
ways felt that Dr. Kelso scorned ignorance; but in 
those many times when our display of ignorance de- 
served his scorn and contempt, he always manifested a 
great patience and kindness towards us as students in 
his class room. 

"My brethren, I shall at least try to crown these 
remarks with the virtue of brevity, and keep within the 
limit imposed upon me. But I believe that all of us 
here to-night consider it a great honor and priceless 
privilege to preach the Gospel of the Son of God. It 
is a high calling to be a minister of Christ. But I 
believe it is even a greater honor and a higher calling 
to train men to preach the Gospel. And I know we 
are all glad of this opportunity of showing our sin- 
cere regard for this man who in such a marked de- 
gree has impressed himself upon the lives of so many 
of us. Ever since we met him his fine personality 
has been the object of our admiration. We recognize 
that we are largely, under God, what our teachers have 
made us; and it is no undue praise to say here in his 
very presence that the force of Dr. Kelso 's personality 
has continued with us as we have tried to do our 
part in the work of our Lord's Kingdom. If we have 
accomplished anything worth while, since the day we 
left the Seminary, a large part of the credit must be 
laid at the feet of this teacher and the others who 
trained us. 

"Things have changed since we were in the Semi- 
nary. A marked change along material lines has 
come. The old buildings have been replaced witli 
beautiful and modern ones. And Dr. Kelso himself has 
changed. In the last ten years we have watched him 
grow younger. Suddenly and unexpectedly that 
famous beard disappeared, and he lost his artificial 

15 (187) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

eyes. We all recognize that the change has added 
to his youthful appearance. 

"Before I close I want to say this personal word. 
Nothing in Dr. Kelso's character has so impressed it- 
self upon me as his great sympathy with the men whom 
he taught, and especially with them since they have 
been out in the active service of the ministry. He has 
always been most sympathetic towards us, and ready 
and happy to help us on all occasions when he possibly 
could. We appreciate his S5anpathy and interest, and 
are glad this evening to thank him for it. We have 
also been impressed at all times with his unselfish- 
spirit. Dr. Kelso has been willing to go anywhere, 
without regard to compensation, to speak for the 
Kingdom of God and in behalf of the Seminary. And 
those of us who serve in country fields value most 
highly his unselfish service, and wish for him and for 
our splendid old Seminary many more years of service. 

"Dr. Kelso, you realize -that some of these times 
your course will be finished and your work will be 
done. We hope, not for many 3^ears. But when that 
time comes and you cross over to the other side and 
sit down under the trees by the River of Life, there 
will come to you, we are sure, the satisfaction and 
blessed assurance not only of an immortal life there, 
but of an immortality of influence here on earth, in 
the life and character of the men whom you have 
trained, and in the life and character of the multi- 
tudes of men, women, and children whose lives have 
l)een and shall be touched by them for Christ and His 
Kingdom. ' ' 

The third address was given by the Rev. William 
G. Felmeth, pastor of the Presbyterian Church of New 
Kensington, Pa. Mr. Felmeth declares his high esteem 
of President Kelso in the following manner : 

"Mr. Chairman, Fathers and Brethren: Those of 
us who were in school within the last twenty years 
have many pleasantly varied memories. Who will 
ever forget good Mr. Breed as he waved his long 

16 (188) 



T'wentieth Anniversary — Dr. Kelso's Professorship 

forefinger over the desk at us, and thundered about 
the mistakes of ministers! Who can forget the stimu- 
lating and interesting excursions with Dr. Farmer in 
New Testament Introduction, or the kindly dogmatism 
of good Dr. Christie with his frequent appeal to author- 
ity, or the lectures of Dr. Shatf as we journey through 
the mazes of church history! I am sure none of us 
will forget Dr. Riddle mth his fan, and his belligerent 
fist as he drove home the distinction of the Greek 
Aorist. Happy, happy memories ! How our minds 
run back to them! But we do not think of Dr. Kelso 
in any of these ways. All of us Avho studied under 
him think of him rather as a kindly Christian gentle- 
man, whose outstanding quality was his ojDen and ten- 
der heart, (great applause) However we felt in other 
classrooms, when we came to Dr. Kelso's room we 
felt we were in the hands of a friend, (applause) 
While teaching HebreAv, he was the shadow of a high 
and mighty rock in a dry and thirsty land. 

"There are two wa3^s of appreciating a man in Dr. 
Kelso's position. First as a scholar, then as a gen- 
tleman. I shall leave the first to others who are more 
able to estimate his scholarship. I want to weigh him 
in the scales of the heart; and in this balance he is 
not found wanting. He was always courteous, kindly, 
kingly, gentlemanl}^ We all loved him while in the 
Seminary because he was a gentleman. That is the 
reason we are glad he is at the head of old Western. 
For, after all, a theological seminar}^ exists not only 
to turn out finished preachers, but also Christian gen- 
tlemen. If gentleness, human kindness, broad sym- 
pathy, patience, generosity, and sincerity are conta- 
gious, then all who knew him as a teacher should have 
caught these things. He was good to his boys, and 
interested in them in the Seminary and out of it. There 
never was a student with an}^ difficulty who did not 
get a kindly hearing when he went to his office or home. 
There never was a man in trouble who, when he took 
his troubles to Dr. Kelso, did not feel that he was gen- 
uinely interested in helping him out of them. Not 
only in the Seminary, but since we have left it, that 

17 (189) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

same interest has followed us, and tied us by strong 
bonds to him, and to the institution he heads. 

"Did time permit, one should tell of the Seminary's 
progress under his direction. Physically, it is becom- 
ing a thing of beauty. It is said that in tending a 
plant too much attention may make it Avither and die. 
However that may be with plants, attention to the af- 
fairs of the Seminary have had quite a different result. 

"But one cannot rightly value Dr. Kelso without 
recognizing the large place in the life of the Semi- 
nary that Mrs. Kelso fills. If ever there were a woman 
who was a 'helpmeet for man,' Mrs. Kelso has been 
that kind of a wife for our president, a wife whose in- 
stant and unfailing interest have stimulated him to in- 
creasing efforts, and contributed largely to his success 
in the work of the Seminary. 

"Dr. Kelso, we congratulate you on the twenty 
years of successful work here. We wish you twenty 
other years, yea and more; and we wish you strength 
sufficient as the days are long. We trust that as the 
days go you will enter into that rich fruitage of con- 
tentment which is the harvest that 3^our faithful labors 
should produce. We want to wish for you the feel- 
ing of the poet when he cried, 

'Grow old along with me! 
The best is yet to be. 

The last of life, for which the first was made: 
Our times are in his hand 
Who saith, 'A whole I planned. 
Youth shows but half; trust God: see all, nor be 
afraid.' " 

The hour was pressiug on so rapidly that the words 
of greeting, the letters of appreciation, and the many 
private expressions of devotion uttered in little groups 
could not be heard at the meeting. But an even greater 
regret was the lack of time to hear Dr. Kelso in response 
to these testimonies of affection and tributes to his in- 
fluence. We all felt that this was a deep loss because 
we know the value of his gracious words and have felt 

18 (190) 



Tiventieth Anniversary — Dr. Kelso's Professorship 

the throb of his grateful soul. But we have done the 
next best thing in giving him, through the letter which 
follows, an opportunity of expressing to the Alumni what 
lies upon his heart. It is addressed to the Chairman of 
the Committee on arrarigements. 

"I am writing to you as Chairman of the Committee 
which was appointed by the Board of Directors to have 
charge of the commemoration of my twenty years of 
service as professor in the Western Thelogical Semi- 
nary. I wish to express my deep appreciation of the 
arrangements for the dinner and the program of 
speakers for the occasion. M}^ one regret is that I had 
no opportunity to thank the graduates of the Sem- 
inary for the many tokens of their regard which I had 
received in the form of personal letters and which was 
also expressed in their contributions to the portrait 
fund. May I have the privilege, through you, of giv- 
ing expression to my appreciation of these tokens of 
friendship and regard of the graduates of the Sem- 
inary 1 ' ' 

The President of the Association had intimated 
several times during the evening that he desired time 
enough for the last speaker, the Rev. John Kelman, D. D., 
pastor of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church of New 
York City. We were extremely fortunate in having him 
with us at this particular time, for his gracious manner 
so captivated us that we felt he was one of us not only 
in the ministry but in the intimate associations which 
gathered around the meeting. His very first words, the 
tone of his voice, the sincerity of his life, and his con- 
secration to the one great business of the ministry as it 
was revealed in his message climaxed the evening and 
formed a fitting close to what was declared to be one of 
the best Alumni dinners in many years. 

' ' Mr. Chairman, gentlemen : Your Chairman has 
said to you that the brethren would be brief; and as 
I claim to bee one of the brethren, I shall also endeavor 
to be brief. Yet I am particularly glad to meet and 
look into the faces of men who are going out on the 
biggest job that there is for men to do, and the most 

19 (191) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

difficult, and the most responsible, and the most effec- 
tive, to he well done. I feel greatly honored to be as- 
sociated for these few moments to-night with the an- 
niversary of your President. There are some men 
whom it takes a long time to know. There are others 
whom one knows because one loves them from the very 
first moment of meeting them. I have felt to-day that 
it was well worth while coming from New York here 
to meet even for five minutes with a man who at once 
became a friend. I feel a great envy and a great con- 
gratulation for those of you who have studied under 
him and felt that gracious kindly Christian influence of 
one of God's gentlemen w^ho for this long period has 
so molded and so given tone and atmosphere to the life 
of this college as he has done. And I feel very grate- 
ful indeed for 3^our allowing me to associate myself 
with those of you who have known him far longer than 
I. Yet the little while I have known him has enabled me 
to see how truly they have spoken. 

"I should like to have said to-night, if I had a long 
time to say it, something of a matter that means very 
much to me ; but I wdll say just a word or two about 
it. This year has taken from me one who meant very 
much to me as a man and as a preacher. Ever since 
I was a little child living in the city of Edinburgh, I was 
in familiar contact with Dr. Alexander Whyte ; and Dr. 
AVhyte is a name that all the w^orld will yet know 
and that most of the preaching world knows already. 
He was the last of the Puritans in Scotland, and he 
blended with the ancient Puritanism all the interest 
in modern thought. For twelve years and a half I had 
the extraordinary privilege of being his colleague in 
the old Avorld church — St. Georges. We stood, in ab- 
solutely different schools of thought, side by side, meet- 
ing that severest of all tests, the test of a man edu- 
cated mingling with those who had no education, for 
the congregation included both. Yet it always seemed 
to me that he, who was leading, was trying to push me 
forward and pretend that I was. He" was one of the 
most generous and wonderful of men whom to 
know was not only to love, but whom to know 

20 (192) 



Twentieth Anniversary — Dr. Kelso's Professorship 

was a liberal education. Looking back over the years 
(now that he lies in his grave) I, who pride myself far 
more in being his colleague than in any attainment 
that I had ever tried to reach for myself, feel as though 
I were looking through tears into all that had made 
life beautiful in past days which I can remember. 
And to you, my brethren, who are going on to the 
stage that some of us are far on our way — I have 
been a preacher for thirty years now, and half of that 
time I was hi^ colleague — three things I remember 
above all others in him, and they were the secret of 
the greatness of God's gentlemen, things very difficult 
to attain. 

"The first of them was this: he was essentially an 
appreciator. He was a man who knew how easy it was 
to throw stones and did not throw them. He was a 
man who saw all around God's world in its richest 
beauty and tenderness, and received it all into his ca- 
pacious heart and made every man who came in con- 
tact with him thrill, not only with AVhyte's greatness 
and the beauty of his thoughts, but with the wealth and 
opulence of the world. Yet he was the last of the Puri- 
tans with a mind and a heart absolutely receptive and 
hospitable. He was known in Edinburgh, and all 
through the regions where he was known, as the prophet 
of sin. Those of us who have so much sin about us 
that were frightened to go near him, found him continu- 
ally the tenderest of judges, blaming himself for every- 
thing, always finding an excuse for others. But in 
his preaching he was absolutely merciless. Sin stood 
out black and flaming from every sermon that he 
preached. I never saw anything so terrifying nor 
heard anything so terrible as when he was out after 
sinners with a lasso, and he always caught them. 

"In the second place, he was a man of essential 
experience. More and more our business is coming to 
found itself upon experience. I do not say a word 
against theology, or philosophy, or metaphysics, al- 
though I have said a great many. I do not say a word 
to-day against any of these, but I do say that they will 
only be worth something to you after they have passed 

21 (193) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

through your own personal experience. And ^-our in- 
fluence as ministers of the Gospel will not be mea- 
sured by the accuracy of the truths that you 
have known as altruistic truths, but by that part 
of them which has passed through your own lives and 
souls and come out hot with human blood upon 
it from you to the people. There was an old profes- 
sor in Edinburgh who used to give this extraordinary 
advice to his students :' Gentlemen, think of your own 
sins and charge them up to the people. He might have 
given them worse advice. So Dr. Whyte never forgot 
his own sins for a moment. As far as I was concerned 
he seemed always to be magnifying them, imagining 
himself one of the blackest of sinners, while we found 
him one of the most admirable of saints. Remember 
this brethren, that, however much study you put into 
it, the thii^g that will have the most coming value 
will be the bit of it that means most to you. 

"Lastly, he was a perfect master of imagination. 
Now imagination, if it be kept apart from study 
and knowledge, is just simply another word for fool- 
ishness. But imagination, if it play upon a wide field 
of reading and real knowledge of the subject that you 
are talking about, is perhaps the greatest asset a 
preacher can have next to genuine intensity. Whyte 
Avas a master of imagination. He had read everything, 
and everything was grist that came to his mill. I 
have seen books, yet wet from the printers, in stacks 
upon his shelves. 'What a lot of books', I would say. 
'That's nothing, that's nothing, sir', and then he would 
proceed with his paper knife upon the the white, newly 
printed paper, and just tear the heart out of them one 
after another ; and then begin at the back and go 
through them. And you never knew how he did it. 
Because he supplied this as fuel to the burning flame 
of his imagination, he learned and practiced that su- 
preme secret of preaching. 

"In closing I will give you one example of it Avhich 
has moved me more profoundly than anything I ever 
heard preached. It was at the time he was studying 

22 (194) 



Ttventieth Anniversary — Dr. Kelso's Professorship 

Dante in his Bible Class. At the time he was preach- 
ing on the one thing that he hated more than anything 
else in the world — the rich young ruler. He hated him 
worse than Judas. How this rich young ruler when 
he was a little baby was so immaculate that his mother 
was afraid he would die. How when he went to school 
he was hated by everybody except his teacher. How 
when he went to college he was hated by everybody in- 
cluding his teacher. He never made a mistake, and 
he was indeed a man who habitually kept the command- 
ments. At last he came to die and he found himself 
consigned to that inferno whose ghastly circles deep- 
ened. Whyte, who believed in reality and hated sham, 
imaginary or real, bending over that grand old pul- 
pit of St. Georges, looked down into our faces, until 
I saw, and until he made everybod}^ else see, this poor 
soul, whirling round and round and down in a spiral 
to the depths, till he showed the rich young ruler all 
but out of sight; and just as he is disappearing into 
that black depth there is a voice of laughter. It is 
the mockiiig laughter of the universe, ' Ha ! ha ! kept the 
commandments ! ' 

"Gentlemen, that is preaching such as is rarely 
heard, such as has been rarely done. That great man 
who so recently has gone to rest, leads all of us. 



23 (195? 



The President's Report 



To the Board of Directors of the Western 
Theological Seminary. 

Gentlemen: — 

In behalf of the Facnlty I have the honor 
to submit the following report for the academic year end- 
ing May 5, 1921 : 

Attendance 

Since the last annnal report twenty students have 
been admitted to the classes of the Seminary. 

To the Junior Class 

Jasper Morgan Cox, a student of Maryville College 

Calvin Hoffman Hazlett, a graduate of Washington and 
Jefferson College, A. B., 1917 

John Lloyd, a graduate of Carroll College, A. B., 1920 

L. Lane McCammon, a graduate of Bethany College, A. 
B., 1920 

James Martin, a graduate of Marvville College, A. B., 
1920 

Williard Colbj^ Mellin, a graduate of University of Cali- 
fornia, A. B., 1920 

William Owen, a graduate of Metropolitan Seminary, 
London, 1912 

Robert Lloyd Roberts, a graduate of Lafavette College, 
A. B., 1920 

Mr. Arthur Dow Behrends, who entered the Seminary 
in September, 1919, but was compelled to give up his 
studies on account of ill health, re-entered the Junior 
Class in September, 1920. 

Mr. John Maurice Leister, who partially completed the 
work of the Junior Year in 1917-18, and Mr. Harry 
Lawrence Wissinger, who came only part of the time 
last vear, both re-entered the Junior Class in Septem- 
ber, i920. 

24 (196) 



President's Report 

To the Middle Class 
Mr. Basil A. Murra^^ on letter of dismissal from McCor- 
miek Tlieological Seminary. 

To the Senior Class 

Charles Jesse Krivnlka, on letter of dismissal from 
Bloomfield Theological Seminar}^ 

To the Graduate Class 

William 0. Elterich, D. D., a graduate of the Western 
Theological Seminary, 1888 

Arthur Henry George, a graduate of Biddle Theological 
Seminary, S. T. B., 1920' 

James Adolph Hamilton, a graduate of McCormick Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1917 

Hampton Theodore McFadden, a graduate of Biddle 
Theological Seminary, S. T. B., 1920 

Eric Johan Nordlander, a graduate of the Divinity 
School of the University of Chicago, B. D., 1910. 

Leonard J, Ramse}^, a graduate of Colgate University, 
B. D., 1919 

Paul Steacey Sprague, a graduate of Western Theologi- 
cal Seminary, 1920 

Elmer Grover Swoyer, a graduate of Chicago Lutheran 
Theological Seminary, 1917 

John Tomasula, a graduate of the Western Theological 
Seminary, 1920 

No letters of dismissal were granted to other in- 
stitutions. 

The total attendance for the year has been 51, which 

was distributed as follows : fellows, 5 ; graduates, 12 ; 

seniors, 10 ; middlers, 13 ; juniors, 11. 

Fellowships and Prizes 

The fellowship was awarded to Mr. Walter L. Moser, 
a graduate of Grove City College; the Michael Wilson 
Keith Memorial Prize in Homiletics to George K. Bam- 
f ord, also a student of Grove City College ; a Hebrew 
Prize, offered to members of the junior class, to Arthur 
D. Behrends and Calvin H. Hazlett; and Merit Prizes to 

25 (197) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

W. H. Millinger, P. L. Warnshuis, and J. W. Willoughby, 
of the middle class, and to Calvin H. Hazlett, W. C. Mel- 
lin, and AVilliam Owen, of the junior class. 

Mr, James Mayne, who won the fellowship in the 
class of 1918, and who is pastor of the Presbyterian 
Church of Mount Pleasant, Pa,, has spent the past aca- 
demic year at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, 
pursuing postgraduate studies in the theological depart- 
ment. He expects to return and resume work in his 
church during the present month. 

Elective Courses 

In addition to the required courses of the Seminary 
curriculum, the following elective courses have been of- 
fered during the year 1920-21, the number of students 
attending each course being indicated : 

Dr. Kelso: Old Testament Exegesis (Isaiah), 6 

Biblical Theology of the Old Testament, 28 
Apocalyptic Literature (2 half semesters) 

1. Book of Daniel, 7 

2, Book of Eevelation, 17 

Dr. Schaff: History of the Reformation and Modern 
Times, 10 
American Church History, 11 
Dr, Farmer : Social Teaching of the New Testament, 13 
Dr, Snowden: Christian Ethics, 7 

Psychology of Religion, 10 
Philosophy of Religion, 15 

Dr. Culley: Old Testament Exegesis (Psalter), 7 

Middle Elective Hebrew, 7 (All middlers pre- 
pared in Hebrew and two graduates) 
Arabic, 3 
Mr, Eakin : New Testament Greek Sight Reading, 5 
Prof, Sleeth: Oral Interpretation of the Scriptures, 12 
Public Speaking, 11 
Literary Appreciation, 10 

Mr, Boyd : Vocal Sight Reading and Choir Drill, 1 

26 (198) 



President's Report 

Dr. Breed lectured regularly twice a week during 
the first semester on Pastoral Theology, completing the 
regular course in this subject which he has been accus- 
tomed to give. 

Under the arrangement authorized by the Board 
of Directors at the annual meeting, May 6, 1920, the Rev. 
Samuel Angus, Ph. D., Professor of New Testament and 
Historical Theology in St. Andrew's College, Sydney, 
Australia, lectured in the New Testament Depart- 
ment during the first semester. He conducted courses 
on the life of Christ, the Gospel of John, the 
Epistle to the Romans, and Biblical Theology of 
the New Testament. During the second semester Dr. 
Farmer" has given a course on Pauline Theology to the 
senior class, and Mr. Eakin has conducted a course in 
the Exegesis of the Epistle to the Galatians for the mid- 
dle class. As .president of the Seminar}?- I desire to for- 
mally express my great appreciation of the hearty man- 
ner in which both Dr. Farmer and Mr. Eakin responded 
to the request for extra service. In this way the students 
were fully provided with training in New Testament 
Exegesis. 

Literary Work and Extra-Seminary Activities of the 

Professors 

Dr. Kelso during the past year has published "A 
History of the Hebrews in Outline, from the Ear- 
liest Times down to the Restoration under Ez- 
ra" for use in his own classes. In addition, he 
has contributed reviews and articles to the Pres- 
byterian Banner and to the Bulletin of the Semi- 
nary. He has visited Grove City College, Maryville Col- 
lege, Washington and Jefferson College, and the College 
of Wooster, addressing the students, and on two occa- 
sions preaching in the college chapel. He has addressed 
the Presbytery of Kittanning on "Recuiting for the Min- 
istry". He has preached in a number of churches, and 
whenever it was possible he has presented the problem 
of the ministry as the Church faces it to-day. 

Dr. ScJiaff has done some preaching and delivered, 
several times each, lectures on the Pilgrims and Presby- 
terianism. 

27 (199) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Dr. Farmer has delivered addresses on the ministry 
before the Presbyteries of Wheeling and Blairsville ; has 
addressed groups of high school boys on the ministry, at 
Dubois, Greensburg, and Johnstown; has addressed the 
students of Washington and Jefferson College and the 
College of Wooster on the ministry ; has given addresses 
on various topics to Men's Societies in Butler, New Ken- 
sington, Beaver Falls, and Baden; and delivered a 
course of lectures at Grove City Bible School, August, 
1920. 

Dr. Snoividen reports that he has preached through- 
out the year; delivered courses of popular lectures on 
the phychology and philosophy of religion in several 
towns to churches, two of these courses being to union 
meetings of several churches ; delivered such courses in 
two summer schools, one of these courses running for 
two weeks ; delivered the commencement address 
at one college, and delivered six addresses be- 
fore Men's Brotherhoods and Ministers' Meetings; de- 
livered one lecture a week during the season to Sunday 
School teachers in the School of Religious Education 
conducted by the Allegheny County Sabbath School As- 
sociation; published about sixty-five articles in daily 
newspapers, religious weeklies, and theological reviews ; 
and published four books a follows : ' ' The Personalit}^ of 
God", and "A Wonderful Morning", a study of the 
resurrection of Christ (both issued by the Macmillan 
Company), "The Truth about Christian Science" and 
"The Attractions of the Ministry" (both issued by the 
Westminster Press), The advance orders for the vol- 
ume on Christian Science were such that the publishers 
ordered the paper for a second edition before the first 
edition of 3,000 copies had been printed. 

Dr. Culley. Aside from books reviews and an arti- 
cle published in the Seminary Bulletin, Dr. Culley 's ex- 
tra-classroom activity has consisted in a weekly lecture 
delivered before the Men's Bible Class of the First Pres- 
byterian Church of Wilkinsburg. These lectures have 
been delivered on Sunday mornings, no Sunday being 
omitted from the last Sunday in September until the 

28 (200) 



President's Report 

present time. Lectures were delivered during the spring 
months of last year also up to the end of June. 

Mr. Eakin^s spare time has been devoted mainly to 
studies in the fields of New Testament and Early Chris- 
tian Literature and Comparative Philology. Under this 
head comes three months of last summer's vacation 
spent at the University of Chicago. He has preached 
from time to time during the year, and contributed to 
Bihliotheca Sacra an article on "The Address of I Cor- 
inthians ' '. 

Mr. Boyd, in addition to liis regular work at the 
Pittsburgh Musical Institute, gave numerous lectures 
and wrote articles on musical subjects: directed the 
Pittsburgh Choral Society, the Tuesday Musical Club 
Choral, the Cecilia Choir, and the music at the North 
Avenue M. E. Church, completing his twenty-seventh 
year at that church. He was associate editor of Grove's 
Dictionar}^ of Music and Musicians, published by the 
Macmillan Company. He collated for the U. S. Bureaa 
of Education and the Music Teachers' National Associa- 
tion a book on "Music in the Public Libraries of the 
United States" which Avill shortly be published by the U. 
S. Bureau of Education. 

Professor Sleeth acted as Professor of Elocution 
during the month of January at Union Theological Semi- 
nary, Richmond, Va. His classes were so adjusted that 
they did not lose any time. He also lectured at the Grove 
City Bible Conference last summer. 

Lectures 

The lectures on the Elliott Foundation were given 
by the Rev. Samuel Angus, Ph. D., of St. Andrew's Col- 
lege, Sydney, Australia. His general theme was "The 
Mystery Religions and Christianity", the lecture sub- 
jects being as follows : 

1. "Orientation — The Historical Crises in the 

Greco-Roman World Bearing upon the Mys- 
tery Religions and Christianity" 

2. "The General Character of a Mystery Religion" 

29 (201) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

3. ''The Three Stages of a Mystery Religion" 

4. "Circumstances Favoring the Spread of the 

Mysteries" 

5. ''The Appeal of the Mystery Religions" 

6. ' ' Christianity and the Mystery Religions in Con- 

trast. The Failure of the Mj^stery Religions ' ' 

7. "The Triumph of Christianit}^" 

A course of five lectures on "Home Missions" was 
given by the Rev. Baxter P. FuUerton, D. D., L. L. D. 

In addition, special lectures were given in the Semi- 
nary chapel as follows : 

"Near East", Prof. Oscar M. Chamberlain 

"Russia", Mr. Bayard Christy 

"The Situation in Siam", The Rev. Paul A. Eakin 

"Home Missions", The Rev. E. Fred Eastman 

"Missions in China", The Rev. Wm. 0. Elterich, 
D. D. 

"John Calvin", The Rev. John C. Goddard, D. D. 

"Missions in India", The Rev. W. H. Hezlep 

"The Summer Bible Schools", The Rev, A. L. La- 
tham, D. D. 

"Doctrinal Preaching", The Rev. C. B. McAfee, 
Ph. D., D. D. 

"Church Finance and Stewardship", The Rev. A. F. 
McGarrah 

"The Work of Men in the Church", The Rev. Wil- 
liam F. Weir, D. D. 

" The Pilgrims : Their First Experiences and Experi- 
ments in Plymouth", Dean Talcott Williams, 
LL. D., Lift. D. 

On the Day of Prayer for Colleges a conference on 
recruiting for the ministry Avas held under the joint 
auspices of the faculty of the Seminary and the Educa- 
tion Committee of Pittsburgh Presbytery. The confer- 
ence Avas formally opened with an address by the Rev. 
Hugh T. Kerr, D. D., which was followed by a very pro- 
fitable discussion. While the attendance was not large, 
the ministers who were present showed that they were 
taking serious interest in this most important work. Af- 

30 (202) 



President's Report 

ter discussion, the faculty came to the conclusion that the 
mid-winter period was a better time for such a confer- 
ence than the day precedii^g the Commencement exer- 
cises. 

Student Life 

The President of the Y. M. C. A., Mr. Walter L. 
Moser, has submitted such a complete report in regard 
to the activities of the student body that I am incorporat- 
ing it in full, with only slight editorial changes : 

' ' To the President of the Western Theological Seminary : 
"The past year has witnessed a deepened inter- 
est in every department of Seminary life. There was a 
determined effort to rouse the Y. M. C. A. from an apathy 
VN^hich seemed a reaction from the hectic efforts of the 
war period. That this effort was in a large measure suc- 
cessful is evident not only in a deepening spiritual in- 
terest, but in the earnestness with which the men sought 
to meet the social and economic conditions of the day. 

"The distinctly religious life of the Association 
found expression in the group prayer meetings, con- 
ducted as hitherto with unflagging interest; in the Fri- 
day evenir^g meetings of the Association, in which the 
students living outside the dormitory were able to parti- 
cipate ; in weekly visits to mills of the vicinity, for those 
whose schedules permitted, where they joined in the work 
of the Manchester Branch of the Y. M. C. A. ; and in the 
Wednesday evening prayer service at the Presbyterian 
Hospital until it became necessary to discontinue these 
meetings in the spring. 

"More specifically, the Friday evening meetings 
were devoted to discussion of problems incidental to the 
work of a pastor or teacher ; the different aspects of the 
foreign problem; the condition of the Negroes in the 
South — ^by two able representatives of that people with 
us; the relation of a minister to school and community 
life ; and his relation to the new and persistent problems 
which have arisen since the recent upheaval of morality 
due to the war. There were also addresses of an inspira- 
tional or advisory nature by the various members of the 
faculty, and talks by missionaries and publicists upon 

31 (203) 



The Biilletm of the Western Theological Seminary 

subjects relating to the Home and Foreign work of the 
Church. The measure of success attained by the students 
in other departments of Seminary life is perhaps largeh" 
due to these meetings, in connection with the evening- 
prayer meetings, which kept them sensitive to the needs 
of men and tilled with a spirit of quiet determination to 
attain the greatest success possible in their efforts for 
Christ. 

' ' The social life of the Seminary was inaugurated in 
the autumn by a reception and banquet to the men of the 
junior class, at which the members of the faculty and 
their wives and the wives and friends of the students 
were present. Then a few weeks later came the usual 
fall social, and the other socials of the second semester, 
affording an opportunity for closer acquaintance and new 
friendships. These socials were largely attended, and 
were worth}^ of the untiring efforts of the Social Com- 
mittee. The men of the Seminary, individually or in 
groups, were hospitably entertained in the homes of mem- 
bers of the facult}^, where close personal relationship was 
made possible between the professors and the students. 

"Mr. Eobert H. Henry, Chairman of the Social Com- 
mittee of the Y. M. C. A., has reported in detail con- 
cerning the social life as follows : 

'The students at Western have an excellent op- 
portunity to know one another, and the dormitory com- 
mons is largely responsible for this favorable situa- 
tion. A few of our men live in the city, but the lunch 
hour on week days finds practically the entire student 
body in the Seminary dining room. It is here that dis- 
cussions opened in class are futher argued ; here views 
on every subject are freely exchanged. 

'Members of the faculty occasionally keep 'open 
house' for one of the classes or entertain students in 
smaller groups. The reception for the seniors by Dr. 
and Mrs. Kelso has become a regular event in the Semi- 
nary life ; likewise the farewell party by Dr. and Mrs. 
Snowden. The}^ are adept at entertaining, and the 
class this year thoroughly enjoyed both occasions. 

32 (204) 



President's Report 

'Several times each year parties are held in the 
splendid dormitory parlors where the students Avith 
their friends meet" with the faculty and their families 
for a social evening. The first thought in planning 
these functions is to provide real fun and recreation, 
without which the very object of the gatherings would 
be unattained; and, in the second place, to enable the 
men to become more proficient in the art of furnishing 
appropriate diversions. It is our hope that those who 
go out from Western to take places of leadership in 
the Church may know how to prescribe for the fever- 
ish and impoverished conditions so common in the so- 
cial life of our day.' — (Signed, R. H. Henry.) 

"But this year more than ever before there was 
great interest shown in the social gatherings which 
followed the basket ball games. Attendance in the 
Seminary for two or three years establishes friend- 
ships between the men and members of opposing 
teams and the churches they represent. In cases where 
return games were played, the Seminary men were in 
turn entertained, and there was a broadening of in- 
terest and spirit of comradeship which were highly de- 
sirable. In addition the men, most of whom are 
strangers to Pittsburgh, welcomed the opportunity of 
meeting socially men and women from the churches 
of the vicinit}^ 

"This leads finall^^ to a brief resume of the athletic 
activities of the year. At least four afternoons of the 
week, through the winter months, advantage was taken 
of the gymnasium facilities for basket ball. Almost 
all the men participated in some form of excercise, and 
are grateful to the Seminar}^ for the unusually com- 
plete means of recreation and exercise available. Af- 
ter the New Year a team was chosen to represent the 
Seminary, which met many of the Church, Y. M. C. A., 
and semi-professional teams of the vicinity. The pre- 
sence in the lineup of men with considerable college 
experience insured fast games; and, considering that 
the team met all comers including some theoretically 
beyond its class, the season was highly successful. The 

33 (205) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

team won seven of its twelve games, and of the others 
lost two by the margin of one point. ' ' 

Becruiting for the Ministry 

The members of the Board of Directors who were 
present at the semi-annual meeting last November recall 
the spirited and interesting discussion of this important 
theme. The idea embodied in the formal resolution 
which was adopted at that meeting was carried out in 
three of our Presbyterian colleges. An alumnus of the 
Seminary assisted the president or one of the professors 
in an effort to reach the young men of the colleges, espe- 
cially those who had not made up their minds to study 
for the ministry. At Washington and Jefferson College 
we were assisted by the Rev. H. A. Riddle, Jr., of AVest 
Alexander, Pa.; at Grove City by the Rev, Matthew F. 
Smith, D. D., of Beaver Falls, Pa.; and at Wooster by 
the Rev. G. A. Frantz, pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Van Wert, Ohio. Drs. Farmer and Kelso 
spent a day and a half at Washington and Jefferson, Dr. 
Kelso a day at Grove Cit}^, and Dr. Farmer and Dr. Kelso 
each a day at the College of Wooster. In each one of 
these institutions we were received most cordially by the 
students and had the hearty and sympathetic support of 
the College authorities. It is impossible to estimate the 
result of such conferences or to pass any judgment on 
the possible increase in the number of candidates. 

Finances and gifts 

Since the last annual meeting of the Board of Di- 
rectors the following gifts have been received : 

From Mrs. R. A. Watson the sum of one thousond 
dollars to endow an entrance prize in Greek. 

From Mr. Wilson A. Shaw a gift of ten thousand 
dollars in liberty loan bonds for increasing the endow- 
ment of the Seminary. 

Seven thousand five hundred dollars from Mrs. Wil- 
liam Thaw through the cancellation of annuity bonds. 

From the New Era Movement the Seminary received 
$2,355,48. for current expenses; directly from 104 
churches $5,409.34. 

34 (206) 



President's Report 

The librarian reports having received 53 volnmes 
as contributions. 

A legacy of $25,000 from the estate of Mr, James 
Langhlin, Jr., which was without conditions, was used 
by the trustees to reduce the indebtedness on the new 
buildings. The floating debt due to our new buildings has 
been reduced to about $26,000. 

Recommendations 

The faculty of the Seminary submit the following 
recommendations; in which the Examining Committee 
of the Board of Directors concur : 

(1) That the degree of Bachelor of Divinity be con- 

ferred upon : 

Alfred D 'Aliberti George Kyle Bamf ord 

Arthur Henry George (of the graduating class) 

James Adolph Hamilton Walter Lysander Moser 

John Tomasula (of the graduating class) 

(2) That the following members of the senior class re- 

ceive the diploma of the Seminary : 

George Kyle Bamford 
Robert Harvey Henr^^ 
Andrew Jay Hudock 
Charles Jesse Krivulka 
Frederic Christian Leypoldt 
Walter Lysander Moser 
Hampton Theodore McFadden 
John Christian Rupp 
Abraham Boyd Weisz 
Joseph J. Welenteichick 

(3) That Mr. Leon Buczak receive a special certificate 

covering the courses which he has actually com- 
pleted. 

All of which is resi^ectfully submitted, 

James A. Kelso, 

President. 



35 (207) 



TREASURER'S CONDENSED FINANCIAL REPORT 

For the year ended March 31st, 1921. 



Income 

Income from Investments $37,614.46 

Income from Investments, Auunity Bond Funds 2,346.70 

Income from Investments, Conkling Fund 4,170.00 

Interest on Daily Balances 904.53 

Income from Rents 1,107.16 

Income from Miscellaneous Sources 10,552.90 

Contributions by Individuals and Churches 9,164.82 

Contributions to Pension Fund 1,600.00 

Refund 19 2 City Taxes a/c sale Sheffield and Hamlin 

St. property 106.13 



$67,566.70 

Disbursements 

Salaries paid $37,921.19 

Interest paid on Annuity Bonds $2,392.75 

Interest paid on Conkling Fund 5,000.00 7,392.75 

Interest paid on Loan 2,647.09 

Insurance, repairs, commission, and water rents paid . . 3,900.62 

Accrued interest on Investments purchased 39.86 

City Taxes, 1921 — paid 1,697.68 

County Taxes, 1921 — paid 302.70 

Office Expenses and Janitors' supplies 1,155.06 

Library Expenses 1,489.65 

Advertising and Printing 1,530.80 

Fuel and Light 5,231.43 

Scholarships 3,682.50 

Lectures 275.00 

Expended for Sundry Equipment 1,832.23 

Expended for Improvements 487.32 

Other Miscellaneous expenses 3,461.31 

Pensions Paid 2,999.99 



$76,047.18 



Increase in Piinoipal Funds During the Year 
March 31st, 1920 to March 31st, 1921. 

New Building Fund No. 2 

(Including $7,500.00 Mary C. Thaw Annuity Bonds 

turned in) $34,450.00 

Annuity Bonds issued ( 7 % ) 1,000.00 

Keith Memorial Prize Fund 600.00 

Keith Memorial Prize Fund a/c Investments 2.50 

Dr. Kerr Endowment Fund 10,000.00 

Reunion and Memorial Fund — a/c Investments 7.50 

Endowment Fund a/c Investments 2.50 

Scholarship Fund — a/c sale Sheffield and Hamlin St. 

property . 407.43 

$46,469.93 
36 (208) 



Treasurer's Report 



■ Amount of Building Fund No. 2 March 31st, 1920 ....$53,639.50 
Donations from Marcli 31st, 1920 to March 31st, 1921 . . 34,450.00 



Building Fund No. 2 at March 31st, 1921 $88,089.50 

Total paid from Building Fund No. 2 on account of 

loan with Commonwealth Trust Company 62,000.00 

$26,089.50 
Bills Payable (Loan with Commonwealth Trust Co.) 

as of March 31st, 1921 26,000.00 

Annuity Bonds outstanding March 31st, 1921 33,800.00 

Permanent 'Fnnds 



Y 



Contingent Fund $ 114,413.54 

Endowment Fund 194,228.31 

Lectureship Fund 3,733.44 

Library Fund 32,176.93 

Reunion and Memorial Fund 112,287.79 

Scholarship Fund 140,501.71 

Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution Fund 79,519.30 

Church Music Fund 14,527.24 

President's Chair Endowment Fund 5,000.00 

L. H. Severance Lectureship Fund 5,000.00 

President's Chair Endowment (Conkling 

Fund) 100,075.00 

Annuity Bond Fund 33,800.00 

Warrington Library Fund 3,250.00 

Chapel Fund 25,000.00 

Student Loan & S. H. Fund 2,500.00 

Keith Memorial Prize Fund 1,802.50 

Dr. Kerr Endowment Fund 10,000.00 

New Admr. Building Fund No. 1 131,275.01 

New Admr. Building Fund No. 2 88,089.50 



$1,097,180.27 



37 (209) 



Librarian's Report. 



To the Board of Directors of the Western Theological 
Seminary : 

I submit herewith my report as Librarian of the 
Seminary, covering the year April 1, 1920 — March 31, 
1921 :— " 

Condensed Statement 
1. Additions : 

(a) Volumes added by Purchase 533 

(b) Volumes added by Gift 53 



Total 586 

Additions during the past seven years have been as 
follows : : 

By Purchase By Gift Total 

1914-15 '. . . 674 66 740 

1915-16 542 359 901 

1916-17 613 112 725 

1917-18 352 635 987 

1918-19 293 88 381 

1919-20 ........ 625 85 710 

1920-21 533 53 586 

2. Cataloguing : 

(a) Volumes catalogued 493 

(b) Cards added to main catalogue .... 1594 

(c) Cards entered in temporary catalogue 178 



Total of cards entered 1772 

The figures for the two preceding years are as fol- 
lows : 

Volumes catalogued Cards added 

1918-19 533 1583 

1919-20 435 1390 

3. Circulation : 

(a) Books loaned 1618 

(b) Periodicals loaned 135 

38 (210) 



Librarian's Report 

A record of the circulation of books has been kept 
only since 1916, and of periodicals only since 1919. 

The figures are as follows: 

Books loaned, 1916-17 1435 

Books loaned, 1917-18 1832 

Books loaned, 1918-19 1733 

Books loaned, 1919-20 1557 

Books loaned, 1920-21 1618 

Periodicals loaned, 1919-20 225 

Periodicals loaned, 1920-21 135 

The volumes added to the Library by gift have come 
from the following donors : — Dr. J. A. Kelso, Dr. D. S. 
Schatf, Smithsonian Institute, Mr. W. D. Foulke, Mr. E. 
J. David, Mr. J. G. Holme, New Era, Dr. E. F. Smith, Dr. 
J. H. Forsythe, Dr. J. E. Mott, Mrs. M. A. Taylor. 
Mrs. M. A. Lamar, Dr. J. H. Snowden, Dr. S. W. Gilkey, 
American Mission to Lepers, Rev. S. G. Inman, East Lib- 
erty Presbyterian Church, Foreign Missions Conference. 
The librarian has alread}^ sent his acknowledgement and 
thanks for each book received, and he takes pleasure in 
publishing the list of names with this report. 

The number of books purchased has been only 
moderately large, as compared with other years. As to 
their comparative importance it is difficult to speak, but 
at all events a survey of the year's accessions reveals an 
encouragingly large number of important works. 

Of standard sets added to our collection perhaps 
the two most important have been the famous French 
encylopedia which bears the name of Larousse "Grand 
Dictionnaire Universel" and a new work on the "Myth- 
ology of all Races", edited by Louis Herbert Gray. The 
former is complete in 17 volumes, including a supple- 
ment; of the latter, seven volumes are now available, 
with six more to follow. Volumes have been added, also, 
to other important sets; e. g. the fifth and last volume 
of Vigouroux's "Dictionnaire de la Bible", two recently 
published volumes of Luther's "AVerke" (Weimar Edi- 
tion), Vols. 13 and 14 of the "Oxyrhynchus Papyri", 
Part 4 of the Moulton-Milligan "Vocabulary of the Greek 

39 (211) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

New Testament" arid Vol. II Pt. 2 of Moulton's "Gram- 
mar of N. T. Greek", fifteen volnmes in the "Loeb 
Classical Library" series, the new "American Supple- 
ment" to "Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians", 
etc. (The last named work, an important addition to our 
library of church music, is edited by Messrs. Waldo Sel- 
den Pratt and Charles N. Boyd, the latter of our own 
faculty). 

Almost every year the Library is able to add to its 
collection some valuable old books through bargain sale 
purchases. Probably the most notable acquisition of 
this sort during the past year was Richard Pococke's 
"Description of the East", in two huge folio volumes, 
published in 1743. 

The new commentaries acquired during the year in- 
clude several of outstanding merit, as the following par- 
tial list will show: — Burton's "Galatians", Charles, 
Beckwith, and Peake on "The Apocalypse", Burney on 
"Kings", Plummer on "Philippians", Jastrow on 
"Job", Gore on "The Epistles of St. John". 

Prominent on the list of new publications other than 
commentaries are Rendel Harris, "The Odes and Psalms 
of Solomon"; David Smith, "The Life and Letters of 
St. Paul"; F. J. Foakes- Jackson and Kirsopp Lake, 
"The Beginnings of Christianity"; A. C. Headlam, "The 
Doctrine of the Church and Christian Union" ; A. E. Gar- 
vie, "The Christian Preacher"; S. P. Cadman, "Ambas- 
sadors of God"; A. P. Fitch, "Preaching and Pagan- 
ism"; W. R. Inge, "The Idea of Progress '^ H. R. Mack- 
intosh, "The Originality of the Christian Message", A. 
T. Robertson, "The Pharisees and Jesus", J. H. Snow- 
den, "The Personality of God"; H. J. Cadbury, "Na- 
tional Ideals in the Old Testament". 

The year's accessions include 17 volumes on Mis- 
sions, 28 volumes of biograpliy, and 26 volumes on vari- 
ous phases of social thought and activities. 

With respect to the importation of books and peri- 
odicals from continental Europe we are able to report 
that the situation has improved very considerably since 
last year. At present we can count with some assur- 

40 (212) 



Librarian's Report 

ance on orders for French and German publications be- 
ing filled, though the service is slow at best and subject 
to various inconveniences. 

We regret that during the year covered by this re- 
port the cataloguing work has barely kept pace with the 
accessioning of new books. This has been largel}^ due to 
the illness of Miss Higgins, the assistant librarian, which 
kept her away from the Library for a long period. A 
great deal of work has been done, however, with the old 
material that remains unlisted in the new catalogue. 
Many hundreds of volumes have been removed from a 
store room to the main stack room of the Library and 
there shelved in accordance with their subject matter. 
In this and some other departments of the year's work 
valuable assistance has been rendered by Messrs. Warns- 
huis and Hazlett of the student body. 

At the beginning of the session in the fall the cooper- 
ation of the faculty was secured in thoroughly revising 
the "Reserved Books" section and introducing a new, 
less static system of maintaining it. It is hoped that the 
change will be conducive to a more effective use of the 
Library by students in connection with their curriculum 
woi'k. 

This year, for the first time, the experiment v/as 
tried of giving formal instruction on the subject of the 
use of books and of the Library. For this purpose the 
Librarian took a half dozen lecture hours with the Jun- 
iors at the opening of the session, the last hour being de- 
voted to a tour of the Library. As to the result, it may at 
least be said that the response of the students was en- 
couraging. 

Another innovation made during the year was that of 
posting lists of worth while articles in current periodi- 
cals. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Fraxk Eakix 

Librarian. 



41 (213) 



The Graduating Class. 



George Kyle Bamford — Grove City College. Pastor, 
New Salem, Pa. 

Leon Buczak — Bloomfield Theological Seminar}^ Mis- 
sionary to Ukrainians, McKees Rocks, Pa. 

Robert Harvey Henry — A. B. Defiance College, 1917. 
Pastor, Volant and Rich Hill Presbyterian Churches, 
Presbytery of Shenango. 

Andrew Jay Hudock — Bloomfield Theological Seminary. 
Will enter the pastorate. 

Charles Jesse Krivulka — Bloomfield Theological Semi- 
nary. Missionary to Hungarians, Pittock, Pa. 

Frederic Christian Leypoldt — Bloomfield Theological 
Seminary. Home mission work in New Mexico. 

Walter Lysander Moser — A. B., Grove City College, 1915. 
Pastor Presbyterian Church, Mars, Pa. 

Hampton Theodore McFadden — A. B., Biddle Univer- 
sity, 1917. Pastor and teacher, Franklington, N. C. 

John Christian Rupp — A. B., Lebanon Vallev College, 
1906. Pastor, United Brethren Church, Wall, Pa. 

Abraham Boyd Weisz — A. B., Grove City College, 1917. 
Pastor, Laurel Hill Presbyterian Church, Presbytery 
of Redstone. 

Joseph J, Welenteichick — Bloomfield Theological Semi- 
nar}^ Missionary to Russians, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Post Graduate Students 

Alfred D'Aliberti — Bloomfield Theological Seminary, 
1919. Pastor, Italian Mission, Steubenville, Ohio. 

Arthur Henry George— S. T. B., Biddle Theological Sem- 
inary, 1920. Pastor, Wilson, N. C. 

James Adolph Hamilton — McCormick Theological Semi- 
nary, 1917. 

John Tomasula — Western Theological Seminary, 1920. 
Missionary to Slovaks in Pittsburgh and Raccoon, Pa. 

42 (214) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Index 

Vol. XIV. Oct. 1921— July 1922 

Articles Page 

Dante, 1321-1921 . ' 155 

David S. Schaff 

Lambeth Conference, The 174 

Hugh T. Ken- 
Letter from China, A 196 

Robert F. Fitch 
Theodore Monod, An Alumnus of the W. Theological Seminary 18 

D. E. Culley 

Revelation, The Interpretation of the Book of 5 

James A. Kelso 

Rolling Stone, The , 192 

George Taylor, Jr. 

Reviews Page 

Adams, Henry, The Education of — An Ajutobiography 190 

George Taylor, Jr. 

Apocalypse of John, The — By Isbon T. Beckwith 5 

James A. Kelso 
Approach to the New Testament, The — ^^By James Moffatt .... 272 

Frank Eakin 
Attractions of the Ministry, The — By James H. Snowden .... 23 

Brief Bible History, A — By James Oscar Boyd 272 

John O. Miller 

Creative Christ, The — By Edward S. Drown 274 

James Mayne 

Divine Antidote to Sin, Sickness, and Death, The — By Frank 

N. Riale 279 

Hubert Rex Johnson 

Gift of Tongues.^The — By Alexander Mackie 201 

A. H. Lowe 

Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, A Manual — By G. Abbot- 
Smith 274 

Selby F. Vance 

Introduction to the History of Christianity, An — By F. J. 

Foakes Jackson 203 

David S. Schaff 

Jesus and Paul — By Benjamin W. Bacon 22 

Selby F, Vance 

77 (293) 



Index 

Life and History — By Lynn Harold Hough 281 

S. J. Fisher 

Making the Bible Real — By Frederic Oxtoby 208 

James A. Kelso 

My Neighbor the Workingman — By James Roscoe Day 24 

Charles Reed Zahniser 

Property, Its Rights and Duties — By various authors 281 

Samuel Black McCormick 

Range Finders, The — By Charles F. Wishart 23 

Revelation of St. John, The — By R. H. Charles 5 

James A. Kelso 

Revelation, Studies in the Book of — By Stephen A. Hunter . . 201 

Kinley McMillan 

Teaching the Teacher — By James Oscar Boyd 209 

Theological Reconstruction — By John Edwards 207 

Theology as an Empirical Science — Douglas Clyde Macintosh 204 

George Johnson 

Toward the Understanding of Jesus — By Vladimir G. 

Simkhovitch 276 

R. V. Gilbert 

Week Day Church School, The — By Walter Albion Squires . . 209 

What Christianity Means to Me — By Lyman Abbott 22 

George C. Fisher 

MisceUaneous Page 

Alumniana 67, 210, 284 

Catalogue 73 

Centennial Celebration, The 76 

Directory 26 

Elliott Lectures, The 76 

Faculty Notes 290 

Financial Report 270 

Graduating Class 290 

Inauguration of Dr. Vance 224 

Librarian's Report 265 

Ninety-second Commencement 221 

President's Report , 249 



78 (294) 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Western Theologieal Seminary 

A Review Devoted to the Interests or 
Xheological Education 

Published quarterly in January, April, July, and October, by the 
Trustees of the Western Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America. 

Edited by the President with the co-operation of the Faculty. 

Page 

Interpretation of the Book of Revelation 5 

Rev. J A. Kelso 
Theodore Monod, An Alumnus of Western Theological Seminary. .18 
Rev. D. E. CullEy 

Literature 22 

Alumniana 26 

Communications for the Editor and all business matters should be 
addressed to 

REV. JAMES A. KELSO, 

731 Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

75 cents a year. Single Number 25 cents. 

Each author is solely responsible for the views expressed in his article. 



Entered as second-class matter December 9, 1909, at the postoffice at Pittsburgh, Pa. 
f North Diamond Station) under the act of August 24, 1912, 



Press of 

pittsburgh printing company 

pittsburgh, pa, 

1921 



Faculty 



The Eev. JAMES A. KELSO, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D. 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathianiel W. Conkling Foundation 

The Eev. ROBERT CHRISTIE, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Apologetics 

The Rev. DAVID RIDDLE BREED, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. DAVID S. SCHAFF, D. D. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 

The Rev. WILLIAM R. FARMER, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. JAMES H. SNOWDEN, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Systematic Theology 

The Rev. SELBY FRAME VANCE, D. D., LL. D. 

Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. DAVID E. CULLEY, Ph. D. 

Assistant Professor of Hebrew 



The Rev. FRANK EAKIN, B. D. 

Instructor in New Testament Greek and Librarian 

Prof. GEORGE M. SLEETH 

Instructor in Elocution 

Mr. CHARLES N. BOYD 

Instructor in Music 



The Bullelin 

— of me — 

WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Volume XIV. October, 1921. No. 1 

The Interpretation of the Book of Revelation 



A Critical and Exegetical Cominentai"y on the Revelation of St. John. 

By R. H. Charles, D. Litt., D.D. (in two volumes) New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1920, $9.00. 

The Apocalypse of John. Studies in Introduction with a ciitical and 

exegetical commentary. By Isbon T. Beckwith, Ph.D., D.D. New 
York: The Macmillan Co., 1919. $4.00. 

The Revelation of St. John the Divine. By C. Anderson Scott, M.A. 
(The New-Century Bible). Edinburgh: T. C. & E. C. Jack. $1.00. 

The Revelation of St. John the Divine. By James Moffatt. In Vol. V of 
Expositor's Greek Testament. New York: Doran. $6.00. 

Studies in the Book of Revelation. By Stephen A. Hunter, Ph.D., LL.D 
Pittsburgh: Published privately 1921. $2.00. May be purchased 
at the Presbyterian Book Store, Pittsburgh. A review of Dr. 
Hunter's work is to appear in the next number of the Bulletin. 

No one who can read German can afford to neglect the com- 
mentary on Revelation by Wilhelm Bousset published in 1906 as the 
sixth edition of the famous Meyer series of NT commentaries. The 
English and American commentators mentioned in this list are 
deeply indebted to Bousset; and his work is absolutely indispensable 
for a study of the history of interpretation. 

The Revelation of St. John the Divine has been an 
enigma to the interpreter of Scripture from the second 
century down to our own generation. "True as the Gos- 
pel" and "Mysterious as the Apocalypse" are two of the 
commonest bywords of general literature. It is this pro- 
verbial mysteriousness of the last book of the New Testa- 
ment Canon which has caused it to be shunned on the 
one hand, and abused on the other. The sober type of 
Christian mind has passed by this matchless piece of 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

imaginative literature enshrined in the New Testament, 
because of its strange Oriental symbolism and its bizarre 
allegories. For another type of mind, these are the very 
qualities which have invested the book with a charm, 
because the mysteriousness of its symbolism could easily 
be capitalized in the interests of vagaries and at times 
even of fanaticism. Up until recent years the book 
seemed to be unique in its literary qualities; hence, ac- 
cording to a common notion, it was not necessary to sub- 
ject it to the recognized canons of interpretation. In 
other words, the exegete was the master of the situation 
and he could give free rein to his fancies, unfettered by 
any embarrassing facts and principles. 

The attitude of the great Reformers is typical and 
suggestive. It is an eloquent fact that John Calvin at- 
tempted no commentary on the Book of Revelation. 
Martin Luther, in the first edition of his New Testament, 
relegated it to an appendix, giving as a reason for his 
position that the book did not reveal Christ as plainly as 
did the Gospels and the Epistles. But in the later edition 
of his New Testament, Luther included it among the 
regular canonical writings; yet Calvin's neglect and 
Luther's compromise are typical of the attitude of a great 
mass of Christian people, for, with the exception of a few 
familiar treasured passages, largely separated from their 
context, the book is either shunned or barely tolerated. 

With another group of Christians, the Chiliasts, the 
Apocalypse has been a favorite book from the early cen- 
turies of the Christian era down to our own day. It was 
the thousand year reign of the risen martyrs (Rev. 
20:4-6) which made the book the very center of their in- 
terest. Later the millennial view of Christ's Kingdom 
was discredited for a thousand years under the influence 
of Augustine; but emerged again after the Reformation, 
and was responsible for many commentaries on the clos- 
ing book of New Testament Canon in the Chiliastic spirit. 
It is safe to say that there never would have been any 



Interpretation of the Booh of Revelation 

Chiliasm in the Churcli of the past or present, if it were 
not for these few verses in the twentieth chapter of the 
Book of Revelation. When one realizes how far-reach- 
ing the influence of the interpretation of even a single 
passage of Scripture may become, it is obvious that 
the right principles of exegesis as applied to the 
Apocalypse are all-important. Protestant Christianity 
as a whole and especially the Presbyterian Church, with 
their great emphasis on the Scriptures as a source of 
authority in matters of faith and practice, cannot afford 
to merely tolerate a book in the New Testament Canon, 
or to permit it to become the monoply of those who are 
interested in one-sided or fantastic views of the Kingdom 
of God. It is necessary to come to a distinct imderstand- 
ing as to the type of literature to which the Apocalypse 
belongs, and then to determine the true principles of 
exegesis. In other words, the interpretation of the Book 
of Revelation, in the parlance of our extremely utilitarian 
age, is a practical question for the ministry. 

It is to the credit of modern critical Biblical scholar- 
ship that it has undertaken to solve this most difficult 
problem of Biblical interpretation with a thoroughness 
that would have astonished our fathers. It has achieved 
definite and unexpected results, because it has had at 
its disposal new and hitherto untapped resources upon 
which it has drawn very copiously. In our day a number 
of great illuminating commentaries have appeared 
which no serious student of New Testament literature 
can afford to neglect. A full list of these recent com- 
mentaries may be found as an introduction to this article, 
but in this paper the treatment will center about "The 
Apocalypse of John," by Isbon T. Beckwith, and ''The 
Revelation of St. John," the monumental commentary 
by R. H. Charles, who is generally recognized as the 
greatest authority on Apocalyptic literature in the world. 
These two works are complementary to each other, es- 
pecially in the elaborate introductions which in both 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

works are as voluminous as the commentary proper. We 
believe that Charles has achieved more permanent re- 
sults because he has broken more completely with the tra- 
ditions of the past. He himself asserts that he was com- 
pelled to make this break after years of study and, in con- 
sequence, to rewrite his commentary which had been par- 
tially completed. For this very reason, Charles' work 
constitutes one of the noteworthy landmarks in the his- 
tory of the interpretation of the Apocalypse, and will 
be a mine of information for future students and investi- 
gators. 

In order to fully appreciate and interpret a piece of 
ancient literature, it is necessary to determine its 
proper literary classification. To discover its literary 
form is more important than to know its author. Is it 
prose or poetry? a dry-as-dust annal or a piece of 
imaginative writing? And if it is classified as poetry, 
does it belong to the dramatic, epic, or lyric type? The 
form of printing settles such questions in modern litera- 
ture, but, when books were laboriously copied by hand 
and existed only in manuscripts, the form by no means 
fixed the literary class of any writing. Furthermore, 
ancient Oriental literature possessed literary forms 
which are not employed to-day. One of such forms is the 
ancient Apocalyptic, a distinct and well defined type 
which the Jews affected from the second century B. C. 
on for several centuries and which was copied by Chris- 
tians. As the Holy Spirit made use of lyric poetry and 
proverbs to touch the human heart, it did not hesitate to 
employ the form, imagery, and symbolism of the Jewish 
Apocalypse. God spoke to the fathers in divers manners, 
as well as in divers portions, and one of these manners 
was the Apocalyptic type of literature. 

Now the first and fundamental fact that modern in- 
vestigation has determined beyond a shadow of a doubt 
is that the Book of Revelation is an apocalypse. Let it 
be repeated with emphasis that this literary classification 



Interpretation of the Book of Revelation 

is the determining factor in its interpretation. Professor 
Beckwitli states the case very clearly: "The Revelation 
of John follows, not only in form, but to an extent in 
matter also, the manner of a class of Jewish writings 
which were widely known and influential in the last 
two centuries before Christ and in the first century 
of our era, and which are now generally called 
apocalyptic. As regards the type of literature the Rev- 
elation is rightly placed in the same general class with 
these, much as it differs from them, and it cannot be cor- 
rectly interpreted apart from these modes of thought 
and expression which greatly influenced its formal 
character." The American scholar then proceeds to de- 
vote thirty pages to a presentation of the extra-canoni- 
cal Jewish literature and its main characteristics. 

Turning to the distinguished English scholar, we 
discover that his unique qualification for writing a com- 
mentary on this New Testament book was his long fa- 
miliarity with the Jewish Apocalyptic literature. Dr. 
Charles informs us that Messrs. T. & T. Clark asked him 
to undertake a commentary on the Apocalypse in 1894. 
' ' The present commentary, therefore, is the result .of a 
study extending over twenty-five years. During the first 
fifteen years of the twenty-five — not to speak of the pre- 
ceding eight years which were in large measure devoted to 
kindred subjects — my time was mainly spent in the study 
of Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic as a whole, and of 
the contributions of individual scholars of all the Chris- 
tian centuries, but especially of the last fifty years, to 
the interpretation of the Apocalypse." Dr. Charles is 
both the general editor and a prominent contributor to 
the critical translation of the Jewish Apocalyptic works*. 
His long and intimate familiarity with the imagery and 
point of view of the Apocalyptist have made possible 
this commentary which is an original piece of work be- 



*R. H. Charles, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Tes- 
tament. (Two large volumes) Oxford. 1913. 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

cause it breaks in so many particulars with traditions. 
Let the critic, who after a casual study of the com- 
mentary is tempted to question Charles' conclusions, 
pause before he speaks or puts his pen to paper and weigh 
the position of authority which thirty-three years of 
patient study give to this commentator. 

The second fundamental determining fact is the 
prophetic nature of the New Testament Apocalypse. 
When the voice of Old Testament prophecy was hushed, 
the Apocalyptic literature was developed, but it had its 
roots back in passages like Isaiah 24-27 and Ezekiel 38-39, 
to mention only two important passages, and is closely 
related to Old Testament prophecy. 

While the extra-canonical Jewish and Christian 
Apocalyptic writings are artificial prophecy, manifestly 
predictions ex eventu, the Book of Revelation, although 
an apocalypse in structure and form, is a work of genu- 
ine prophecy. The author claims to be a seer, and de- 
clares quite clearly that he received his message in an 
ecstatic state (22:9; 10:11; 1:1, 11, 19; 22:6, 8, 16). The 
usual designation which the author employs to charac- 
terize his work is ''the words of the prophecv" (1:3; 
22:7,10,18,19). 

Professor Beckwith is entirely correct when he writes 
''The fact that the prophecy of Revelation is in the 
apocalyptic form does not differentiate it in its essential 
nature from those of the Old Testament". This leads 
him to discuss the characteristics of Old Testament 
prophecy in detail and indicate their occurrence in the 
Book of Revelation. Consequently the same rules of his- 
torical interpretation apply in both cases. To illustrate, if 
one makes the serious error of regarding Old Testament 
prophecy as a time-table of history, he will do the same 
with this book of New Testament prophecy. To make 
these principles clear, Beckwith deals with the historical 
setting of prophecy and the interpretation of the book of 
Revelation in terms of prophecy. Charles supplements 

10 



Interpretation of the Book of Revelation 

him by setting forth the method of the seer from the 
psychological point of view. "Prophecy and apocalyptic 
for the most part use the same methods for learning and 
teaching the will of God. The knowledge of the prophet 
as of the seer came through dreams, visions, trances, and 
through spiritual, and yet not unconscious communion 
with God — wherein every natural faculty of man was 
quickened to its highest power. When we wish to dis- 
tinguish the prophet and seer, we say the prophet 
hears and announces the word of God, whereas the seer 
sees and recounts his vision." After drawing this dis- 
tinction between prophet and seer, Charles deals in detail 
with the means which the seer uses for presenting his 
message. He enumerates "psychical experiences, and re- 
flection or rather reason embracing the powers of insight, 
imagination, and judgment". After this the author 
passes on to discuss the psychical state in detail and thu3 
prepares the ground for the enunciation of principles 
which are essential for the interpreter of the Apocalypse. 
The student should note these with care. Literal 
descriptions of such experiences, i. e. of ecstatic states 
and visions are "hardly ever possible. The language of 

the seer is symbolic." "The seer labored under a 

two-fold disability. His psychical powers were general- 
ly unequal to the task of apprehending the full meaning 
of the heavenly vision, and his powers of expression were 
frequently unable to set forth the things he had appre- 
hended" (Charles pp CIV ff). 

In the Book of Revelation, we have the result of the 
seer's effort to put in human language his sublime ex- 
perience of communion with God. It is no wonder his 
imagination and literary resources were hard put to in 
accomplishing the task, and that we prosaic, matter-of- 
fact Occidentals have difficulty in interpreting his alle- 
gories and symbols. 

All prophecy is imbedded in history. The prophet 
of the Old Testament invariably has a concrete message 

11 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

for his own age. He never deals with truth in the ab- 
stract but in terms of the political situation of his own 
day. For example, with Isaiah the Messianic age is 
always to be ushered in after the defeat of the Assyrian 
on the hills of Judah. In Jeremiah's day the Assyrian 
has passed from the stage of history, and in his place a 
Chaldean king carries out the judgment of Jehovah on 
Israel. To put it briefly, a prophet always reflects his 
political environment. In this particular, again, our 
work is true to the inner characteristics of prophecy. 

Imperial Rome of the last quarter of the first cen- 
tury, the Emperor cult fostered by an obsequious official 
priesthood, the myth of Nero Redivivus, the Parthian 
hordes on the Eastern frontier, and the terrible times of 
the persecution which was threatening the Church of 
Jesus Christ are all clearly reflected in the pages of the 
Apocalypse. For the New Testament seer, as for the Old 
Testament prophet, the Kingdom of God was to be ush- 
ered in only after the downfall of the dominant pagan 
world power. Only for him it was Imperial Rome of 
the first century of our era, instead of Assyria, Babylonia, 
or Persia of the pre-Christian days. 

The inadequacy of the three traditional methods of 
interpretation is fully established in these modern 
studies. Each one of these methods recognized one or 
more elements of the work, but failed to do justice to 
many facts and to important sections. We refer to the 
three classes of interpretation which are commonly de- 
scribed as the Futurist, the Historical, and the Preterist. 
The Futurist, or Chiliastic interpreters, "see the whole 
contents of the book as lying still in the future; they 
recognize in no part of the book (at least after the third 
chapter) the reflection of a situation which was either past 
or present to the writer; from that point forward it is ail 
prophecy, prediction of the events immediately preced- 
ing the Second Advent". According to the contempor- 
ary historical interpretation ''the prophecy covers the 

12 



Interpretation of the Book of Revelation 

whole history of the church and the world in its antag- 
onism to the church, from the time of its writing down 
to the end of the world". The Preterist school limited 
the predictions of the book to the first and succeeding 
centuries. The scope of the Eevelation was confined to 
the struggle between the church of the early centuries 
and her bitter antagonists, the synagogue and the Eoman 
state; its predictions were exhausted in the triumph of 
Christianity and the church under Constantine. The 
commentaries of a generation ago and earlier are based 
on one or another of these three methods of approach. 
If the reader will turn to either Charles (I pp CLXXXIII 
ff) or Beckwith (pp 334 ff), he will discover that many 
of the phenomena of the book were almost completely 
overlooked by any or all three of these traditional 
schools ; and he will find several other methods mentioned 
— ''The Literary-Critical method" which has assumed 
several forms, the ^'Traditional-Historical method," 
"Religious-Historical method", "Philosophical meth- 
od", and the "Psychological method". The followers 
of each one of these methods have seized upon a particu- 
lar element and attempted to make it the determining 
principle in the solution of the exegetical problems. In 
itself, each one of these theories of interpretation is in- 
adequate, but each in turn has made some contribution 
to a better understanding of the Book of Revelation. The 
writer of this paper would strongly support Beckwith 
in suggesting "Apocalyptic-Prophetic" as a comprehen- 
sive descriptive term which covers all the elements of 
truth to be found in the various theories of interpretation 
enumerated above. Psychological experiences and philo- 
*sophical principles, as w^ell as the historical situation, 
are involved in the designation of a work as an Apocalyp- 
tic-Prophetic work. If the Apocalypses were philoso- 
phies of history, so is the Revelation of St. John the 
Divine. The author gives us descriptions of visions when 
he was in the Spirit. Visions came in ecstatic states of 
the soul. This one fact takes us to the investigation of 

13 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the psycliological facts and principles that are involved 
in dreams, visions, and the prophetic state generally. We 
regret that space will not permit us to go further, but a 
careful perusal of the introductions of any of these re- 
cent commentaries will convince an open-minded reader 
that the three traditional schools of interpretation did 
not begin to realize the complexity of the exegetical 
problems of this marvelous book. 

The grammatical structure of the Greek of the 
Apocalypse has always been a problem for the reader of 
the Greek New Testament. It is unlike any Greek found 
elsewhere and has always been a source of perplexity 
to the serious student. Let us hear what Dr. Charles 
has to say on this point. "In fact, John the Seer used 
a unique style, the true character of which no grammar 
of the New Testament has yet recognized. He thought 
in Hebrew and frequently introduces Hebrew idioms lit- 
erally in Greek. But soleistic style cannot be wholly 
explained from its Hebraistic coloring. The language 
which he adopted in his old age formed for him no rigid 
medium of expression. Hence, he remodelled its syn- 
tax freely, and created Greek that is absolutely his own" 
(p. XI). Dr. Charles informs us that he gradually mas- 
tered this Greek and rewrote his commentary. As a re- 
sult of this special investigation, he has included a 
' ' Short Grammar of the Apocalypse ' ' covering forty-two 
pages in the first volume of his treatise. 

The textual problems of the book have been studied 
with equally painstaking care. The author states that 
"the necessity of the mastering of John's style and gram- 
mar necessitated a first-hand study of the chief MSS and 
versions, and in reality of a new text and new transla- 
tion" (p XI). Some idea of the Herculean labor in- 
volved in preparing a critical edition of the Greek text 
may be gained from the following statement found in 
the preface. "In the foundation of the Apparatus Crit- 
icus I had to call in the help of other scholars, since, ow- 

14 



Interpretation of the Book of Revelation 

ing to over twenty years spent largely in tlie collection 
of MSS and the formation of texts in several languages, 
I felt my eyes were wholly unequal to this fresh strain". 

The critically reconstructed Greek text is found in 
the second volume (pp 227-385); immediately following 
the Greek, we have the English translation of the recon- 
structed and to some extent rearranged text (pp 386-446). 
Let the reader note that it is printed as poetry to bring 
out the parallelism which is the fundamental character- 
istic of Hebrew poetry. The typographical form of the 
page keeps constantly before the mind the fact that the 
reader is dealing with a poetical and, therefore, an 
imaginative piece of literature. Our author is absolute- 
ly correct when he maintains "To print such passages 
as prose is to rob them of half their force". Dr. Charles 
thinks that the text of 20:4-22 "is incoherent and self- 
contradictory as it stands". Consequently they are the 
source of "insurmountable difficulty to the exegete". 
Ten pages (144-154 in Vol. II) are devoted to the discus- 
sion of this point, and at the close we receive the sugges- 
tion that chapters 20-22 ' ' should provisionally be read in 
the following order": (1) 20:1-3; (2) 21:9^22:2; 14, 15, 
17; (3) 20:4-15; (4) 21:5a, 4d, 5b, l-4abc; 22:3-5; (5) 
21:5c, 6b-8; (6) 22:6-7, 18b, 16, 13, 12, 10; (7) 22:8-9, 20; 
(8) 22:21. 

Dr. Charles insists that the Apocalypse, when it is 
properly arranged, is a book more easily followed than 
the Epistle to the Romans or the Epistle to the Hebrews. 
He considers it a practical book charged with a special 
message for our day. By this statement the author does 
not mean that he has cleared away all the difficulties of 
exegesis, for in many passages there are unsolved enig- 
mas, especially in the details of the imagery and sym- 
bolism. But the general purpose of the Book of Eevela- 
tion and its main teachings have been settled within cer- 
tain limits quite definitely. 



15 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

^^The Apocalypse — A Booh for the Present Day. 
The publication of this commentary has been delayed in 
manifold ways by the War. But these delays have only 
served to adjourn its publication to the fittest year in 
which it could see the light — that is, the year that has wit- 
nessed the overthrow of the greatest conspiracy of might 
against right that has occurred in the history of the 
world, and at the same time the greatest fulfilment of the 
prophecy of the Apocalypse. But even though the 
powers of darkness have been vanquished in the open 
field, there remains a still more grievous strife to wage, 
a warfare from which there can be no discharge either 
for individuals or States. This, in contradistinction to 
the rest of the New Testament, is emphatically the teach- 
ing of our author. John the Seer insists, not only that 
the individual follower of Christ should fashion his prin- 
ciples and conduct by the teaching of Christ, but that all 
governments should model their policies by the same 
Christian norm. He claims that there can be no diver- 
gence between the moral laws binding on the individual 
and those incumbent on the State, or any voluntary so- 
ciety or corporation within the State. None can be 
exempt from these obligations, and such as exempt them- 
selves, however well-seeming their professions, cannot 
fail to go over with all their gifts, whether great or mean, 
to the kingdom of outer darkness. In any case, no mat- 
ter how many individuals, societies, kingdoms, or races 
may rebel against such obligations, the warfare against 
sin and darkness must go on, and go on inexorably, till 
the kingdom of this world has become the kingdom of 
God and of His Christ. ' ' 

We shall close this paper by noting one important 
characteristic of both these elaborate commentaries. 
With all their critical thoroughness they breathe the 
spirit of profound reverence, and in this particular they 
continue the best traditions of Anglo-Saxon Biblical 
scholarship. Alas! there are ministers to whom all this 

16 



Interpretation of the Book of Revelation 

reverent and scholarly discussion and exposition of one 
of the most beantifnl and inspiring pieces of New Testa- 
ment literature will be a sealed book, because according 
to the popular fashion of the day, they have studied no 
Greek, either in College or in Seminary. One great argu- 
ment for the study of Greek is just such an opus 
magnum, a veritable thesaurus as the two volumes which 
the Arch-deacon of AVestminster has given to the Avorld 
after thirty-three years of study. 

James A. Kelso 



w 



Theodore Monod, An Alumnus of 
Western Seminary 



Eev. D. E. Culley, Ph.D. 



The readers of the Bulletin will no doubt be inter- 
ested in a brief sketch of the life and activities of the 
Rev. Theodore Monod, the brilliant French preacher and 
pastor who passed to his eternal home February 26th. of 
this year, and who was a member of the Seminary class 
of 1861. 

Pastor Monod was a man of great gifts, a strikingly 
attractive personality and an exceptionally strong 
spiritual leader. He was greatly beloved by the French 
Protestants, many of whom owed to him their most 
precious religious impressions and spiritual treasures. 
After his seventieth birthday had passed, declining 
health forced him into semi-seclusion, and church circles, 
where he had formerly been a very prominent figure, saw 
less and less of him as the years went by; yet he was by 
no means forgotten nor will the memory of his helpful 
life and service soon be effaced from the minds and 
hearts of the many, many people throughout France 
whose lives were transformed as a result of his forceful 
preaching and exalted Christian living. 

Coming of a sturdy Huguenot family he had reason 
to be proud of his heritage. Several of his forbears, in- 
cluding his father, had been able preachers of the Hugue- 
not faith. His uncle, Adolphe Monod, was pastor at the 
famous Church of the Oratoire from 1847 until his death 
in 1856, and has been pronounced the foremost Protes- 
tant preacher of 19th century France. A cousin, 
Gabriel Monod, was a leading French historian and edu- 
cator, retiring from his professorship at the Ecole des 
hautes Etudes in 1905 to become professor of the College 
de France. Many excellent volumes on history the 

18 



Theo. Monod, An Alumnus of Western Seminary 

French owe to his pen. Theodore's father, Frederic 
Monod, was likeAvise a distinguished French pastor and 
pulpit orator, serving for a time at the Oratoire and 
later at the Chapelle du Nord. He, with Count Gasparin, 
was founder of the Union of the Evangelical Churches of 
France. 

Theodore Monod, born Nov. 6, 1836, began his 
studies in Paris at an early age, and soon distinguished 
himself by his brilliant gifts. At twenty-one years he 
was Bachelor of Science, then Master of Arts, and had 
already completed two years in the study of law. His 
original plans did not include the study of theology, but 
in 1857 his father made a visit to America on a preach- 
ing tour and took his son with him. It was a time of an 
intense religious awakening in this country, and the 
young and brilliant Parisian was converted in New York 
City in April, 1858. He immediately determined to fol- 
low in the way of his father, grandfather, and uncle and 
become a Protestant minister. So in the autumn he be- 
came a student at the Western Theological Seminary, 
where he completed his course in 1861. In the same year 
he was licensed by the Presbytery of Allegheny and or- 
dained by the Presbytery of Chicago, and preached 
among the French Canadians in the Second Church of 
Kankakee, Illinois, from 1861-63. It is said that he 
never forgot his '"good Canadians" but often referred 
to them in later years. 

In 1864 he returned to Paris where he succeeded his 
father as pastor of the Chapelle du Nord, remaining 
with this church eleven years. In 1875, he took part in 
the Oxford movement and largely sponsored this new re- 
ligious enterprise as it was carried on in France, travel- 
ling and speaking, often in company with Mr. and Mrs. 
Pear sail Smith, or Slackwood and Henri Varley and 
Lord Radstock. "It was at this time that he began 
composing hymns to be sung in the meetings, giving 
voice to the new found joy and peace of many souls as 

19 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

they learned the meaning of a genuine Christian ex- 
perience. ' ' 

As might readily be imagined, Theodore Monod was 
himself greatly benefited by his work as an evangelist in 
connection with the Oxford movement. He was the re- 
cipient of a rich spiritual blessing which fitted him for 
another great w^ork which he undertook in 1875 when he 
became director of the activity of the ' ' Interior Mis- 
sion", an organization interdenominational in character 
which had been recently founded in France and which 
needed the help of a strong leader. The work was again 
chiefly evangelistic and was carried on in city and coun- 
try. It was a time when France was under the spell of 
a great spiritual revival, the 19th Century Reveil, and 
Monod 's work was exceedingly fruitful. The awakening 
is still fondly recalled by many good Protestant people. 
It was the spiritual event of the century. Monod 
was at the height of his preaching career during 
this period, and his great messages of hope and faith 
were constructive and inspiring and led many people to 
embrace the new life. 

From 1878 to 1906 he was pastor of the Fgiise 
Reformee at Paris where he felt that in giving up his 
activity in the wider evangelistic field he was a loser. 
He was admirably fitted for the specifically evangelistic 
type of preaching and it was a passion with him. Never- 
theless, in this new sphere he was an attractive and 
stimulating preacher and helpful pastor. He possessed 
a great gift in familiar exposition of Scripture and this 
gift he exercised in his pulpit utterances. It was not 
preaching so much as teaching. His hearers were stimu- 
lated as they were led into the heart of a scriptural 
passage by his illuminating expositions. He gave evi- 
dence at all times of his keen spiritual perception and 
his sympathetic appreciation of the human heart. 

The gifted pastor was also a poet, and wrote many 
hymns for the Sunday School and Church service. He 

20 



Tlieo. Monod, An Alumnus of Western Seminary 

himself made two collections of such hymns and during 
an active career wrote much besides. He was editor of 
Le Liberateur from 1875 to 79 ; and during his life pub- 
lished several books, among which may be mentioned the 
following: Regardant a Jesus-, Le Chretien et sa Croix; 
De qiioi s'agit il; La Volante de Dieu; (English edition 
''Life More Abundant") ; Loin dii Nid; and Au Vent la 
Voile, the last two works being in poetic form. 

Theodore Monod 's class in the Seminary contained 
fifty-seven members, a very large class when compared 
with those of the present day, and of these fifty-seven 
men, if we may venture an estimate, Monod later became 
the most illustrious, with the exception perhaps of Cal- 
vin W. Mateer who performed such conspicuous service 
on the mission field of China ; and the Seminary may well 
be proud to own these two outstanding men whose ser- 
vice to their common Lord was performed in such widel}^ 
separated fields. 



21 



Literature 



JESUS and PAUL. Lectures given at Manchester College, 
Oxford, for the Winter Term, 1920, by Benjamin W. Bacon, D.D., 
Professor of New Testament Interpretation at Yale University. New 
York: The Macmillan Company. 1921. $2.50. 

This is an attempt to delineate the thought of the Church of 
the First Century in its relation to its founder, Jesus Christ. Ac- 
cording to the author, Jesus at first supposed his mission to be 
that of a political Messiah. Failing in this, he tried to reform the 
temple worship. This second failure and its consequence, the cross, 
led him to believe that the cross was the God-appointed plan for his 
life. He saw in himself the fulfillment of the Suffering Servant of 
Isaiah and so instituted the Lord's Supper to perpetuate this thought 
in the church. God had planned to save such as believe on him, 
through his vicarious suffering. This doctrine the early church ac- 
cepted and instituted the rite of baptism to symbolize a self-dedica- 
tion to Jesus and to a life of faith like his. 

These conceptions Paul received from the Church, and these 
he developed. The Synoptic Gospels were largely influenced by 
Paul's disciples and so have interpreted Jesus in harmony with 
Paul; likewise the General Epistles, the Pastoral Epistles, and 
Revelation. 

The Gospel of John and the Epistles of John were written forty 
years after Paul's death by an Ephesian disciple of Paul, and pre- 
sent a theology based on Paul's teachings but colored by the diffi- 
culties which the Church in Western Asia had to meet. 

Many who differ from Professor Bacon in his critical position 
may be pleased to find him asserting that Paul truly interprets 
Jesus, but, aside from that, will be at variance on almost every page. 

SELBY F. VANCE 



What Christianity Means to Me. By Lyman Abbott. New York: Mac- 
millan Company, 1921. $1.75. 

This book, the child of Dr. Abbott's old age, is a testimony, not 
a treatise; his spiritual autobiography, he calls it. As we would 
expect in such a book and from such a man, there is little made 
of the time honored doctrines of theology. The quarrel between 
Trinitarian and Unitarian deals largely with the metaphysical re- 
lation between Christ and the Father and does not interest him. 
The doctrine of a historic fall and resultant depravity rests on a 
parable in the Old Testament and a parenthesis in the New. So 
we might continue. But Dr. Abbott finds his religion centering 
in Christ, the revealer of God and imparter of life to himself and 
to the world. He interprets Christ's familiar words, "Thou art 
Peter and on this rock will I build my church," as referring not 
to Peter's doctrine of Christ, nor yet to Peter and the Twelve as 
an organization not yet founded, but to Peter as a type of humanity 
transformed by the inspiration he had received from the year's in- 

.22 



Literature 

timate companionship he had had with Jesus. Christ declared, "I 
am come to preach glad tidings to the poor," and from Him has 
come a new spirit of philanthropy into the world. He said, "I am 
come to give life," and the life that radiated and radiates from 
His transcendent personality inspired other personalities and 
has remained the one greatest single influence in the history of 
the world the past eighteen centuries, manifesting itself along every 
avenue of human thought and activity. He came to save the lost — 
from sin, not from punishment. This salvation He brings through 
imparted life — "We are saved not by imputation, but by impartation 
of righteousness" — and this life is given as all life is given, at the 
cost of sacrifice, not sacrifice to appease God but to win man and 
move him by sacrificial love to love of the sacrificing God. Dr. 
Abbott attempts a brief summary of his belief in such words as 
these, — "We live in two worlds — a world of matter, which is under 
inviolable law; a world of the spirit, which is free. God is a spirit, 
and is the Father of our spirits. Jesus Christ is the supreme 
manifestation history affords of what God is and what we may be- 
come. In his life of love, service, and sacrifice is that supreme 
manifestation of the life of the spirit which we can share with Him 
and with His Father, an immortal life which the decay of the in- 
struments it uses does not and cannot destroy". He condenses the 
meaning of Christianity in his life into such statements as these: 
"A new spirit of love, service, and sacrifice in humanity." 

"A new and ever developing life in art, literature, music, philo- 
sophy, government, industry, worship." 

"A relief from the burden of remorse for past errors, blunders, 
and sins." 

"Faith in ourselves and our fellow men." 

"Faith in the great enterprise in which God's loyal children are 
engaged, that of making a new world out of this old world, a faith 
which failure does not discourage, nor death destroy." 

"Faith in a Leader who both sets us our task and shares it with 
us; the longer we follow him and work with him, the more worthy 
to be loved, trusted, and followed does he seem to us to be." 

"Faith in our present possession of a deathless life of the spirit, 
which we share with the Father of our spirits and our divinely ap- 
preciated leader." 

GEORGE C. FISHER, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



The Range Finders. By Charles Frederick Wishart, D.D., LL.D. 75c. 

The Attractions of the Ministry. By James H. Snowden, D.D., LL.D. 
90c. Both published by the Presbyterian Board of Publication, 
Philadelphia. 1921. 

These two booklets are reviewed together because they treat of 
the same subject and have a common purpose. They deal with the 
ministry, its work and attractions, and the obligation of young men 
of education and ability to seriously consider the ministry as a life 
calling. They are timely books because the Presbyterian Church is 
suffering from a shortage of ministers. It needs at least four hundred 
more ministers to efficiently carry on its work at home and abroad. 
In order to replace the break in the ranks and to provide for an 
advance, three hundred new men ought to be ordained every year. 

23 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

As a matter of fact, the seminaries of the Church are not graduating 
fifty percent of that number at the present time. This situation has 
led to the publication of these two heart-searching books. The two 
books are complementary to each other both in subject matter and in 
the form of presentation. Dr. Wishart is a poet as well as a preacher. 
He has selected the title for the book from the fifth address, "The 
Range Finders". In the armies of the Great War the airmen were the 
range finders, or the eyes, for the divisions and corps which maneu- 
vered and fought on the ground. In like manner the minister serves as 
a range finder for society, or, as Dr. Wishart puts it, 'the range finder 
of civilization's great battle'. While Dr. Wishart's treatment is 
touched with the imaginaton of the poet, it is also historical, for he 
lays the basis of the appeal in the experiences and teachings of the 
prophets of the Old Testament. He brings out the virility of the 
ministerial calling in the chapter, 'The Gospel of Labor'. He shows 
that the secret of the minister's purpose is found in the depth and 
the reality of the devotional life in the chapter entitled, 'The Inner 
Chamber'. 

Dr. Snowden, in a masterly and convincing way, analyzes the 
minister's life and work, under four general headings: 'Motives Which 
Do Not Apply to the Ministry;' 'General Attractions of the Ministry'; 
'Specific Attraction of the Ministry'; 'Some Subsidiary Questions'. 
Under the last heading he treats three vital points, namely, 'What 
Constitutes a Call to the Ministry?' 'What Preparation Is Necessary 
for a Successful Ministry?' 'Is There Any Special Call for Ministers 
of Ability To-day?' 

These two-up-to-date stimulating presentations of the minister- 
ial work and opportunity ought to have a wide circulation among 
the young men of the Presbyterian Church. Pastors and college pro- 
fessors ought to circulate them in their congregations and classes. 



MY NEIGHBOR THE WORKINGMAN. By James Roscoe Day. 
The Abington Press. 1921. $2.50. 

Everyone necessarily orients his thinking from the viewpoint 
of his own experience and the philosophy of life to which it has led 
him. There is no such thing as an unbiased judgment with any of us; 
we only deceive ourselves when we think we make one. All are 
affected by the experiences that have made us what we are when 
we sit in judgment. 

This must be kept much in mind in appraising Chancellor 
Day's recent book on the industrial question. Straightforward and 
frank to state the truth as he sees it, he nevertheless could not 
escape these limitations. He is a man of somewhat advanced years 
who came up out of the period in American history that made for 
the most pronounced individualism. It was then his philosoph"''^ 
of life set its norms, and they in turn have given form to his opinions 
set forth in this study. His experiences of physical labor were 
those on the farm, where the personal touch in industry is at its 
best. His contact with the intricate organism of a great modern 
industry has been largely from the side of capital. He tries to 
be sympathetic with the wage earner; the very title of the book 
shows that. But he fails. He cannot see the situation through 
the windows of the man tied for life to a changeless grind at a 

24 



Literature 

monotonous task. Indeed, he very explicitly refuses to believe there 
is any such situation. Like the old-time country school director 
who thought every boy could become president, he insists every 
man of toil should be spurred on by the hope that sometime he may 
become a foreman or something of the kind. This he does, utterly 
ignoring the fact that not one in twenty can possibly be given these 
coveted positions and that for the other ninteeen the Scripture is 
bound to be fulfilled, "Hope long deferred maketh the heart sick," 
with the result that the end for the nineteen is the sourness and cyni- 
cism of failure and defeat. If life is to have value for the nineteen, 
it must be made so in the employment they now have. 

There is in the book little of reasoning, practically nothing 
of analysis of any particular industrial experiences of the country. 
The bulk of it is the author's own opinions, to which he has come 
through his own general observations and experiences, along with 
copious advice to the workingman. The range is indicated by the 
chapter headings: "My Neighbor's Fallacies, My Neighbor's Strikes, 
My Neighbor's Bad Example, My Neighbor's Property, My Neigh- 
bor's Advantages," etc, through eighteen chapters. Evidently the 
author feels very deeply what he presents, but unfortunately his 
feelings persistently run away with him. He starts a chapter with 
careful reasoning, only to work himself up before the second page 
into a state in which he fumes and fusses, frets and scolds. Little 
progress is made by speaking of foreigners "coming to this country 
to prey upon us and to grow up with the odor of Mephitis Ameri- 
cana and the jaws of a combined wolf and the laughing hyena," 
who "should be treated as wild beasts". The book is marred also 
by lack of discrimination. Such diametrical opposites as anarchism 
and socialism, bolshevism and labor unionism, he throws together 
In a hodgepodge, all of which he condemns on the general princi- 
ple that their advocates are opposed to things as they are. There 
is no effort at analysis to set forth the fallacies in the intricate 
organism of Marxian socialism nor the inherent weakness of 
anarchism. On the other side, there is just as much confusion in 
the way he confounds together management, capital, and natural 
resources, with much to say about the "working capitalist", what- 
ever that may be. The orthodox economists he finds to be all 
wrong in their conception of capital for "it is not true that capital 
is created by labor". "Capital has made the workingman and keeps 
him alive." Christian ideals of fealty suffer likewise. Over against 
the apostolic contention that one's first fealty is to, God, he finds 
that "his first duty is to his land", and the hope of the world he 
finds in "loyal men and women who might forget their Bibles but 
not their constitution and their laws". 

There is a large contribution to be made to the solution of the 
industrial problem by those whose contacts with it have been mostly 
from the side of those whose interests are of capitalist and employ- 
er. We must have the problem presented from this side to help 
us keep a balance as over against the contentions of those whose 
viewpoint is that of the employed. But it will not be found in 
Chancellor Day's book. Here is much of heat, little of light. 

CHARLES REED ZAHNISER 



25 



Alumniana 



DIREOrORY 

This Directory contains the names of all students matriculated 
at the Western Theological Seminary who are now living. 

The first section is an alphabetical list with classes and ad- 
dresses. 

It is followed (p. 49") by a list by classes. The names of all 
graduates are here listed, those who received a certificate of gradu- 
ation instead of a diploma being marked (c). In classes where 
there are two divisions, the second list includes the names of stu- 
dents who took only a part of their course in this institution. 

Post-graduate students who did not take their under-graduate 
work in this Seminary are listed on page 63. 

Following this Directory (p. 63) is a list of students whose ad- 
dresses are not known. In this section we have included the names 
of former students whose biographical records are incomplete. The 
faculty would be glad to receive information in regard to the per- 
sons whose names appear in this group, or corrections of errors in 
any part of the Directory. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST WITH ADDRESSES 

Ackman, J. B Monona, Iowa 1916 p-g 

Alexander, Adolphus F Washington, Pa 1879 

Allen, Cyrus Glenn Holliday's Cove, W. Va. 1890 

Allen, David Dinsmore Taholah, Wash 1884 

Allen, Louis Chowning £508 S. Colorado Ave., 

Philadelphia, Pa 1914 p-g 

Allen, Perry S Commonwealth Bldg. 

Philadelphia, Pa 1877 

Allen, Robert Hill 3948 Grenet St. N. S. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1900 

Allen, William Elliott New Cumberland, W. Va. 1892 

Aller, Absalom Toner Lytton, Iowa 1886 

Allison, Alexander Bertman . . . .Tarentum, Pa 1902 

Alter, Gray Heilwood, Pa 1915 

Alter, Robt. L. McCurdy Burkeville, Va 1893 

Alter, S. N c /o American Press, 

' Beirut, Syria 1920 

Ambrose, John C Atkinson, Neb 1887 

Ambrosimoff, Paul W Factoryville, Pa 1915-p 

Amstutz, Platte T East Grand Blvd., 

Detroit, Mich 1908 

Anderson, Clarence Oscar Slippery Rock, Pa 1899-p 

Anderson, John Thomas Ishpeming, Mich 1908-p 

Anderson, Joseph M Hyattsville, Md 1882 

Anderson, J. Philander Grandview, Wash 1886 

Anderson, Robert Elder Onarga, 111 1878 

Anderson, Thomas Bingham . . . .Beaver Palls, Pa 1871 

Anderson, William Wylie Wilmette, 111 1862 

26 



Alumniana 

Armstrong, Harry Patterson . . . .R.F.D., Winnebago, 111.. . 1901-p 

Arney, William James North East, Pa 1871-p 

Arthur, James Hillcoat Hangchow, China 1912 

Asdale, Wilson ..Tipton, Mo 1877 

Aten, Sidney Henry Burtt, Iowa 1908 

Atkinson, William A Rochester, Pa 1896 

Atwell, George Perry Washington, Pa 1898 

Aukerman, Elmer Malcolm, Iowa 1893 

Aukerman, Robert Campbell . . . 3872 Garland Ave., 

Detroit, Mich 1895 

Austin, Charles Anderson 1538 Grosbeck Road, 

Cincinnati, 1894 

Axtell, John Stockton San Mateo, Fla 1 874 

Axtell, R. S Aurora, N. Y 1917-p 

Backora, Vaclav Paul 407 Ridge Road, 

Lackwanna, N. Y. ... 1905 

Bailey, Harry Addison Johnstown, Pa 1902 

Baker, Henry Vernon 302 Jucunda St., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1908 

Baker, James Robinson Williamsport, Pa 189] 

Baker, Perrin Belle Vernon, Pa 1875 

Biamford, George K New Salem, Pa 1921 

Banker, Willis George Tahlequah, Okla 1885 

Barbor, John Park Grove City, Pa 1874 

Bardarik, George Box 357, St. Clair, Pa. . . 1920 

Barnes, William Clyde Woodlawn, Pa 1916 

Barr, A. H Baltimore, Md 1895-p 

Barr, F. W State College, Ames, Iowa 1911-p 

Barr, R. L Clitherall, Minn 1897 

Barrett, W\ L Bellefontaine, Ohio .... 1900 

Bartholomew, Archie Randal . . . .Falls, Creek, Pa. R. F. D. 1917 

Barton, Joseph Hughes 1210 Idaho St., 

Boise, Ida 1884 

Bartz, Ulysses S Hicksville, Ohio 1896 

Baumgartel, Howard J Parnassus, Pa 1913 

Bausman, Joseph Henderson . . . .Rochester, Pa 1883 

Beatty, Charles Sherrer Valhalla, N. Y 1900 

Beatty, Samuel Jamieson 16 N. Wycombe Ave., 

Landsdowne, Pa 1867 

Bedickian, Shadrach V Dyberry, Pa , . . . . 1896 

Belden, Luther Martin 4451 N. Winchester Ave., 

Chicago, 111 1864 

Bell, Charles Ellwood City, Pa. R.F.D.l 1899 

Bell, L. Carmon Huron, S. D 1889 

Bemies, Charles Otis Minneapolis, Minn 1897 

Benham, DeWitt Miles The Cecil, Baltimore, Md. 1887-p 

Bergen, Harry Henderson 3166 Scranton Road, 

Cleveland, Ohio 1912 

Bergen, Stanley Vanzant Angola, N. Y 1910 

Beseda, Henry Earnest Port Levaca, Texas .... 1911-p 

Betts, John Melson South Brownsville, Pa... 1917 

Biddle, Richard Long Westwood, Crafton, Pa.. 1895-p 

Bierkemper, Charles Harry Winchester, Idaho 1901 

Bingham, John Greer Mercer, Pa 1916 

Bingham, William S Delaware, Ohio 1908 

27 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Bisbee, George Allen Carnegie Institute of Tech- 
nology, Pittsburgh, Pa. 1918 
Bisceglia, J. B 505 Forest Ave., 

Kansas City, Mo 1918 

Bittinger, Ardo Preston Ambridge, Pa 1903 

Black, William Henry 405 College St., 

Marshall, Mo 1878 

Blacker, Samuel Jrwin, Pa 1907 

Blayney, Charles Philander Marshall, Mo 1878 

Bleck, Erich Alexis Lawrence, Kan 19 08 

Blosser, M. E 4058 Havana Ave., 

Detroit, Mich 1918 

Boggs, John Marshall Marathon, N. Y 18 8 5 

Bonsall, Adoniram Judson 1947 Perrysville Ave., 

N. S. Pittsburgh, Pa.. . 1883 

Boone, William Judson Caldwell, Idaho 188 7 

Boothe, Willis A 513 Emerson Ave., 

Pittsburg, Pa 18 82-p 

Boston, John Keifer Lowellville, Ohio 1917 

Boston, Samuel L Wilmerding, Pa 1886 

Bovard, Charles Edward Waukesha, Wis 1906-p 

Bowden, George Samuel Slippery Rock, Penna. . . 1905 

Bowman, Edwin M Brownsville, Pa 18 89 

Bowman, Winfield Scott Uniontown, Pa 18 92 

Boyce, Isaac Allison Park, Pa 1884 

Boyd, Joseph Newton Rockledge, Fla 1879 

Boyle, William Fairfield, la 18 8 8-p 

Bradley, Matthew Henry Painesville, Ohio 1874 

Bradshaw, Charles Lincoln Flemingsburg, Ky 1918 

Brandner, Edward Lewis Farmington, N. M 1918 

Bransby, Charles Carson 7046 Penn Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1913-p 

Breckenridge, Walter Lowrie . . .Yuma, Colo 1886 

Brice, James Byers Marion, Ohio 1900 

Brockway, Julius Writer Albany, N. Y 18 97-p 

Brokaw, Harvey Kyoto, Japan 1896-p 

Brooks, Earle Amos 10 Beacon St., 

Everett, Mass 1900 

Brown, Alexander Blaine Canonsburg, Pa 1878-p 

Brown, Franklin Perrel Ostrander, Ohio 18 98 

Brown, George W R. F. D., 

North Jackson, Ohio... 1903-p 

Brown, Samuel Truman 2301 Sherbrook Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1902 

Brown, William Albert Sutersville, Pa 189 6 

Brown, William F Canonsburg, Pa 18 68 

Browne, H. R Shields, Pa 1915 p-g 

Brownlee, Daniel Dayton, Ohio 1895 

Brownlee, Edmund Stanley Appleton City, Mo 1889 

Brownson, Marcus Acheson 400 S. 15th St., 

Philadelphia, Pa 1881 

Bruce, Charles H Matawan, N. J 18 81-p 

Bruce, Jesse Culley 156 Fifth Ave., 

New York, N. Y 1876 

Bryan, Arthur Vernon Kadoka, S. D 1881 

28 



Alumniana 

Buchanan, Aaron Moore 50 Ben Lomond St., 

Uniontown, Pa 1882 

Bucher, Victor Pleasantville, Pa 1904 

Buzak, Leon 1603 Antrim St., N. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1921 

Burns, George Garrell Homer, 111 1896 

Burtt, Percy Earle 1328 Main St., 

Wellsburg, W. Va. . . 1912 

Bush, Merchant Spargrove c/o University, 

Boulder, Col 1901 

Tiyers, Edward Walter Jersey Shore, Pa 1903 

13yers, William Franklin Bruin, Pa 1910 

Cable, John H Nyack, N. Y 1915-p 

Calder, Robert Scott St. Charles. Mo 1897 

Caldwell, David New Brighton, Pa 18 94 

Caldwell, William Elliott Gillingham, Wis 1882 

Calhoun, Joseph Painter Bradentown, Fla 1880-p 

Campbell, Charles McPheeters . . .Boulder, Col 1864 

Campbell, Elgy Van Voorhis . . . .St. Cloud, Minn 1864-p 

Campbell, Harry Milton Darby, Pa 19 04-p 

Campbell, Henry Martyn 297 S. 12th St., 

San Jose, Cal 18 90-p 

Campbell, Howard Chieng Mai, Laos, Siam 1894 

Campbell, Howard Newton New Concord, Ohio .... 1887 

Campbell, Richard Morrow Pennsylvania Furnace, 

Pa 1866 

Campbell, Wilbur Marshall Kachek, Hainan Island, S. 

China 1898 

Campbell, William Oliver Sewickley, Pa 1866-p 

Carmichael, George Portland, Ore 1900 

Carr, William Brainerd Latrobe, Pa 1873 

Carson, Chalmers F Youngstown, Ohio 1881 

Carson, David Gibson Pawnee, 111 1881 

Chalfant, Charles Latta 816 Belnof St., 

Caldwell, Idaho 1892 

Cheeseman, Charles Payson 5 919 Wellesley Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1884-p 

Cheeseman, George H Euclid, Pa. R. F. D 1916 

Cheeseman, Joseph Franklin . . . .5003 N. Post St., 

Spokane, Wash 1898 

Cherry, Cummings Waldo Rochester, N. Y 1897 

Christie, John Watson 1362 E-Long St., 

Cincinnati, Ohio .... 1907 
Christoff, Athanasious Toleff . . . .c/o Maunder & Daugher- 

ty Co., Kansas City, 

Kan 1907 

Clark, Charles Avery Rivera, Calif 1890 

Clark, Chester A 1365 Paulson Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1909 

Clark, James Buchanan Dayton, N. J 1883-p 

Clark, J. Calvitt 213 S. Broad St. 

Philadelphia, Pa. ... 1919 

Clark, Robert Lorenzo Box 927, 

New Park, Pa 1878 

Clawson, Harry Blaine Yatesboro, Pa 1919 

29 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Coan, Frederick Gaylord Tabriz, Persia 1885-p 

Cobb, William Anthony Cambridge Springs, Pa. . 1899 

Cochran, Charles W Falls Creek, Pa 1913 

Cole, William D Vernon, Ind 1894-p 

Collins, Alden Delmont Hyattsville, Md 1891 

Compton, Elias Wooster, Ohio 1884-p 

Conkling, Nathaniel W 26 West 8th St., 

New York, N. Y 1861 

Conley, Bertram Huston ,Curwensville, Pa 1910 

Connell, John Minneapolis, Minn 1913 

Conrad, Ross Elmer Dalton, Ohio 1917 

Cooke, Silas St. Cloud, Fla 1874 

Cooper, Howard Claberg Philadelphia, Pa 1906 

Cooper, Hugh Albert Albuquerque, N. M 1890 

Cooper, John H Johnsonburg, Pa 1883 

Cornelius, Maxwell New Bethlehem, Pa. . . . 1914 

Cotton, James Sumner Salineville, Ohio 1896 

Cotton, Jesse Lee Louisville, Ky 1888 

Cowieson, William Reid E. Liverpool, Ohio .... 1915-p 

Cozad, Frank Aron Tarentum, Pa. R. F. D. 2 1898 

Cozad, W. K Markle, Pa 1893-p 

Craig, Joseph A. A Washington, Pa 1895 

Craig, William Reed Butler, Pa 1906 

Craighead, D. E Strasburg, Pa 1891-p 

Crapper, William Horatio Masontown, Pa 1914 

Crawford, Frederick Swartz New Milford, Conn .... 1879 

Crawford, Glenn Martin Ford City, Pa 1917 

Crawford, John Allen 536 Haws Ave., 

Norristown, Pa 1891 

Crawford, Oliver Cromlow Soo Chow, China 1900 

Cribbs, Charles Clair Apollo, Pa 1911 

Grosser, John R Millport, Ohio 1885-p 

Grouse, Nathaniel Perce Stanhope, N. J 1879 

Crowe, Alvin N Richmond, Ohio 19 00 p-g 

Crowe, Francis Wayland 1052 Blackadore Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1902-p 

Crummy, H. Russell Butler, Pa. R. F. D. 6 . , 1917 

CuUey, David Ernest 1120 Pemberton Ave., 

N. S. Pittsburgh, Pa... 1904 

Culley, Edward Armor Derry, Pa 1894 

Cunningham, James Alexander . .13 8 W. Seneca St., 

Syracuse, N. Y 1892 

Cunningham, Harry Cooper Milan, Ohio 1899-p 

Daniel, D. E 426 First St., 

Conemaugh, Pa 1919 

Daubenspeck, Richard Perry . . . .Huntingdon, Pa 1899 

David, William Owen Butler, Pa 1908-p 

Davidson, Harrison R. F. D. 2, 

Steubenville, Ohio ... 1918 

Davis, McLain White Seattle, Washington ... 1896 

Davis, John P Solomon, Kans 1889 

Day, Alanson Ritner Alexandria, Pa 1862 

Day, Edgar Willis Minerva, Ohio 1882 

Day, William Henry Altamont, 111 1882-p 

SO 



Alumniana 

Deffenbaugh, George L 27 Mountain View Ave. 

Santa Cruz, Cal 1878 

Denise, Larimore Conover Bellevue, Pa 1905 p-g 

Dent, Frederick Rodgers Millvale, Pa 1908 

Depue, James Hervey Washington, D. C 1900-p 

Dible, James C . . .E. San Diego, Cal 1893 

Dickinson, Edwin Hastings Ligonier, Pa 1880 

Dinsmore, John Walker Los Gatos, Cal 18 62 

Dinsmore, William Warden Amity, Pa 1907 

Diven, Robert Joseph Wrangell, Alaska 1896-p 

Dodds, Joseph LeRoy A. P. M., Saharanpur, 

India 1917 

Doerr, J. Alfred R. P. D., Erie, Pa 1916 

Donahey, Martin Luther Bowling Green, Ohio . . 1872 

Donaldson, D. M Meshed, Persia 1914 

Donaldson, John B .Oakland, Cal 1877-p 

Donaldson, Newton Lorain, Ohia 1883 

Donaldson, Robert McMorran ...Los Angeles, Cal 1888-p 

Donaldson, Wilson Egbert 52nd Avenue, 

Chicago, 111 1883 

Donehoo, George McCune Caledonia, Minn 1897 

Donehoo, George Patterson Coudersport, Pa 1886 

Douglas, Elmer Hall .Upper Sandusky, Ohio . . 1905 

Drake, J. E Holland, Iowa 1891 

Duff, George Morgan Ellwood City, Pa 1914 

Duff, Joseph Miller 564 Washington Ave., 

Carnegie, Pa 1876 

Duffield, T. Ewing Cherry Tree, Pa 1906 

Dunbar, Joseph Wallace Old Concord, Pa 18 95 

Duncan, John Steele Mercer, Pa 1898 p-g 

Dunlap, John Barr . .Bangkok, Siam 1888 

Eagleson, Hodge Mcllvaine Wellston, Ohio 1919 

Eagleson, Walter Finney 1704 Irving St. N. E., 

Washington, D. C. . . 1898 

Eagleson, William Stewart Columbus, Ohio 1863 

Eakin, Frank 335 Forest Ave., 

Ben Avon, Pa 1913 

Eakin, John Anderson Petchaburi, Siam 1887 

Eakin, Paul Anderson Trang, Siam 1913 

Earsman, Hugh Eraser Knox, Pa 1885 

Edmundson, George R Byers, Col 1892 

Edwards, Charles Eugene 6911 Prospect Ave., 

Ben Avon, Pa 1884-p ' 

Edwards, Chauncey Theodore . . .Huntingdon Valley, Pa. . 1884-p 

Eggert, John Edwin Harrington, Del 1880 

Elder, James Francis First Ave. Pres. Church, 

Denver, Col 1897 

Elder, Silas Coe R. F. D. 13, 

Grove City, Pa 1896 

Eldredge, Clayton W 610 Hayden Bldg., 

Columbus, Ohio 1895 

Elliott, Arthur Montgomery Ramapo, N. Y 1909 p-g 

Elliott, John William 442 E. State St., 

Sharon, Pa 1885-p 

Elliott, Orrin A .Glendora, Cal 1870 

31 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Elliott, Paul H Ellwood City, Pa 1915-p 

Elliott, Samuel Edward Monongahela House, 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1876-p. 

Elterich, William Otto Chefoo, China 1888 

Ely, Robert W 558 Jefferson St., 

St. Charles, Mo 1885 

Ernst, John L 600 N. Euclid Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1914-p 

Espey, John Morton Shanghai, China 1905 

Evans, Daniel Henry West Palm Beach, Fla. . . 1862-p 

Evans, Frederick Walter ,New York, N. Y 1905-p 

Evans, William McClung .1444 B. Avenue, 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa.. 1882 

Ewing, Henry D Scio, Ohio 1897 

Ewing, James C. R Lahore, India 1879 

Ewing, Joseph Lyons Philadelphia, Pa 1893 

Farmer, William Robertson 1020 Western Ave., N. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa. ..... 1895 

Farrand, Fountain Rothwell .... 3318 Second Ave., 

Sacramento, Cal 1883 

Fast, J. W. G Akron, Ohio 1902-p 

Pelmeth, Wilhelm Gotthart New Kensington, Pa. . . 1911-p 

Ferguson, Henry Clay 1945 N. 31st St., 

Philadelphia, Pa 188 5 

Ferguson, Thomas James Mechanicsburg, Pa 1878 

Ferguson, William Adams Rushsylvania, Ohio .... 1865-p 

Ferver, William Carl New Waterford, Ohio . . 1907 

Fields, Joseph Cyrus Lebanon, Pa 1899-p 

Fife, Noah H. G 2038 Chestnut St., 

Philadelphia, Pa. ... 1863 

Filipi, Bohdan Anton Clarkson, Neb 1902 

Findlay, Harry John Kansas City, Mo 1912-p 

Fiscus, Newell Scott Livermore, Cal 1899 

Fish, Frank Millsboro, Pa 1886 

Fisher, George Curtis 5919 Wellesley Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1903 

Fisher, George W Mayfield, Cal 1861 

Fisher, Grant Eugene Turtle Creek, Pa 189 6 

Fisher, James Mclntyre Mount Joy, Pa 1916 

Fisher, Sanford George Kansas City, Mo 1869-p 

Fisher, William James 1482 Sixth Ave., 

San Francisco, Cal. . . 18 91-p 

Fitch, Robert Ferris Hangchow, China 1898 

Fleming, James Samuel West Finley, Pa 1879 

Fleming, William F Ligonier, Pa 1903 

Fohner, George C Sharpsville, Pa 1914-p 

Foote, Samuel E Williamstown, W. Va. . . 1897 

Foreman, Chauncey Atwood . . . Douglas, Ariz 1900-p 

Fowler, Owen Stephen Delmont, Pa 1903 

Fox, John P Terre Haute, Ind 1862-p 

Fracker, George Herbert Storm Lake, Iowa 1883-p 

Francis, John Junkln Afton, N. Y 1869 

Frantz, George Arthur Van Wert, 1913 

Eraser, Charles Daniel Steubenville, Ohio 1907 

Eraser, Charles McLean Bessemer, Mich 1881 

32 



Alumniana . 

Eraser, James Alex. D Stapleton, N. Y 1914 

Fraser, James Wallace Clarksburg, Pa 1914 

Frederick, P. W. H 1302 E. 45th St., 

Seattle, Wash 1897-p 

French, Arthur Edward Port Allegany, Pa 1916 

Fulton, George W Osaka, Japan 1889-p 

Fulton, John Elsworth Canonsburg, Pa 1897 

Fulton, John Thomas Red Wing, Minn 18 9 8 

Fulton, John W Wooster, Ohio 1880 

Fulton, Robert Henry Washington, Pa 1877 

Fulton, Silas Alfred Des Moines, Iowa 1898-p 

Fulton, William Shouse 215 N. Granada Ave., 

Alhambra, Calif 1875 

Funkhouser, G. A Dayton, Ohio 1871 

Furbay, Harvey Graeme Skillman, New Jersey . . 189 1-p 

Gaehr, Theophilus J Yellow Springs, Ohio . . 1904 

Gahagen, Clair Boyd Reynoldsville, Pa 1918 

Gantt, A. G 6287 Frankstown Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1895 

Garver, James Clayton ,1825 Williams St., 

Denver, Col 1883 

Garvin, Charles Edmund Wheeling, W. Va 19 00-p 

Garvin, James Ellsworth 3301 Iowa St., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1890-p 

Gaut, Robert Lawrence Boswell, Pa 1908 

Gearhart, Harry Alonzo Bakerstown, Pa 1918 

Geddes, Henry 709 Lodge Ave., 

Toledo, Ohio 1911 

Gelvin, Edward Hill Cedar Rapids, Iowa .... 1899 p-, 

Gettman, Albert Henry Livermore, Pa 1902 

Getty, Robert Francis Murraysville, Pa 1894 

Gibb, John D Chatfield, Minn 1893 

Giboney, Ezra P R. F. D. 7, 

Seattle, Wash 1899 

Gibson, Alexander 1226 Liverpool St., N. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa. ..... 1917 

Gibson, Joseph Thompson Rodgers Bldg. N. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1872 

Gibson, William Francis Sorento, 111 1877 

Giffin, James Edwin Gibsonia, Pa 1892 

Gilbert, Ralph V Girard, Pa 1916 

Gilson, Harry Castle Shannon, Pa 1888 

Glunt, George Lang 371 Semple St., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1911-p 

Goehring, Joseph Stephen Foley, Minn 1905-p 

Good, Albert Irwin Kribi, Cameroun, W. 

Africa 1909 

Good, Edward Clair 110 Church St., 

Punxsutawney, Pa.... 1916 

Gordon, Percy Hartle Library St., 

Braddock, Pa 1896 

Gordon, Seth Reed Tulsa, Olka 1877 

Gourley, John Crawford Delmont, Pa 1875-p 

Graham, David S R.F.D., Sewickley, Pa.. . 19 01 

Graham, Franklin Floyd Caetate, Bahia, Brazil.. . 1910 

33 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Graham, John Joseph .Geneva, Ohio 1875 

Gray, Thomas Jefferson Grafton, Pa 188l6 

Graybeill, John Henry St. Mary's, Pa 1876 

Greene, David A .Poplar St. Pres Church, 

Cincinnati, Ohio .... 1896 

Greenlee, Thomas Beaver 1721 Acacia St., 

Alhambra, Calif 1882 

Gregg, Andrew Jackson Waterman, 111 1885 

Gregg, Oscar Job Adams Mills, Ohio 1894 

Greves, Ulysses Sherman New Alexandria, Pa. ... 1895 

Griffith, Howard Levi Leavittsburg, Ohio .... 1902 

Griffith, O. C R.F.D., Coraopolis, Pa.. 1918 

Gross, John H West Newton, Mass. . . . 1912-p 

Gross, Oresta Carroll Brewster, Minn 1910 

Grubbs, Henry Alexander Windsor Court Apts., 

Baltimore, Md 1893 

Guichard, George Louis Trenton, Mich 1897-p 

Guthrie, George Wesley Broomfield, W. Va 1914 

Guttery, Arthur Minton Peking, China 1911 

Hackett, George Stuart Fayette City, Pa 1882 

Hackett, John Thomas Bridgeton, N. J 1895 

Hail, Arthur Laughlin Oakdale, Pa 1909 

Hail, John Baxter Wakayama, Japan .... 1875 

Haines, Alfred Hermon San Diego, Cal 1900 

Halenda, Dimitry 1004 Carson St., S. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1909 

Halenda, Theodore R. F. D., Cranesville, Pa. 1912 

Hall, Francis Milton Kane, Pa 1891 

Hamilton, Charles Henry Delta, Utah 1903 

Hamilton, James Washington, Pa 1892-p 

Hamilton, Joseph Washington, Pa 1893-p 

Hamilton, Milton John Tioga St., Johnstown, Pa. 1869 

Hanna, Hugh Willard Chester, W. Va 1902 

Harriman, Walter Payne Cedarville, Ohio 1915 

Harrop, Ben Lyndon, Ohio 1888 

Harter, Otis Lima, Ohio 1895 

Harvey, Plummer Robinson . . . .Vincent, Ohio 1908 

Hawk, James Harry Carrolton, Ohio 1874 

Hayes, Andrew Williamson Somerset, Pa 1893 

Haymaker, Edward Graham . . . .Winona Lake, Ind 1890 

Hayes, Watson McMillan Wei-Hsien, Shantung, 

China " 1882 

Hays, Calvin Cornwell Johnstown, Pa 1884 

Hays, Frank Winfield Wooster, Ohio 1890 

Hays, George Smith R.F.D.4 Okarche, Okla. . 1885 

Hays, William McClement Burgettstown, Pa 1886 

Hazlett, Calvin Glenn Newark, Ohio 1893 

Hazlett, Dillwyn McFadden Richmond Hts., 

St. Charles, Mo 1875 

Hazlett, William John Grove City, Pa 1883 

Heany, Brainerd Forman Ebensburg, Pa 1906 

Hefner, Elbert Clarksville, Ark 1908 

Helm, John Stewart .Cresson, Pa 1882 

Heltman, Andrew F 2624 Beal Ave., 

Altoona, Pa 1915 p-g 

34 



" ' Alumniana 

Hendrix, Everett J Bombay, India 1919 

Henry, Robert Harvey Volant, Pa 1921 

Hensel, LeRoy Cleveland Valparaiso, Ind 1914 

Hepler, David Ewing Clarion, Pa 1895 

Herries, Archibald James New Milford, Pa 1884 

Herriott, Calvin Caldwell 1525 High St., 

Oakland, Cal •. 1876 

Herron, Charles 2024 Emmet St., 

Omaha, Neb 1887 

Hezlep, Herbert Cincinnati, Ohio 1898 

Hezlep, William Herron A. P. Mission, Jhansi, 1 

India 1911 

Hickman, Alvyn Ross Groton, S. Dakota 1917 

Hine, Thomas W Hagerman, Idaho 1894 

Hill, James B. G Long Beach, Cal 1891 

Hill, Winfield Euclid Lincoln Highway, 

East Liverpool, O. ... 1868 

Hitchings, Brooks Yoder, Col 1893-p 

Hodil, Edward Amos Uniontown, Pa 1899 

Hofmeister, Ralph C 533 Sixth St., 

Oakmont, Pa 1918 

Hogg, Willis Edwin Three Rivers, Mich 1913 p-g 



Hollister, William Parker 
Holmes, William Jackson 

Hoon, Clarke D. A 

Hoover, William Homer . 
Hopkins, John Thomas 



Canfield, Ohio 1893 

Lancaster, Ohio 1902 

iFairchance, Pa 1894 

Pine Lawn, St. Louis, Mo. 1909 

R. P. D., Riverside, Cal. .. 1884-p 

Hornicek, Francis Loyalhanna, Pa 1912 

Hosack, Hermann Marshall . . . .Newell, W. Va 1898 

Houk, Clarence Edwin Claysville, Pa 1907 

Houston, James Theodore Chico, Cal 18 74 

Houston, Robert Lockhart Erwin, Tenn 1908 

Houston, William Ohio State University, 

Columbus, Ohio 1893 

Howard, W. E 3426 Parkview Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1894 

Howe, Edwin Carl Canton, China 1914 

Howe, John L Highland, Kan 1911 

Howell, H. G Homestead, Pa 1911-p 

Hubbard, Arthur Eugene Crockett, Texas 1898 

Hubbell, Earle B 7100 Rhodes Ave., 

Chicago, 111 1887-p 

Hudock, Andrew Jay 1628 Wyoming Ave., 

Kingston, Pa 1921 

Huey, James Way Pillsbury, N. Dakota ... 1907 

Hughes, James Charles 39 Annabelle Ave., 

Trenton, N. J 1912 

Humbert, J. I Sigel, Pa 1893 

Hummel, Henry Bradford Boulder, Col 1893 

Humphrey, James David Plumville, Pa. 1899 

Hunter, Alexander Stuart 5826 Fifth Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1885 

Hunter, James Norman Blairsville, Pa 1912 

Hunter, Joseph Lawrence Camp Grant, 111 1888 

Hunter, Robert A Philadelphia, Pa 1883 

35 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Hunter, Stephen A 1000 Fairdale St., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1876 

Hunter, William Heard . . . Fargo, N. D 18'?7 

Husak, Alois . .,1015 Province St., N. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1918 

Hutchison, Harry Clinton 153 Hazelwood Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1909 

Hutchison, J. E 611 Louks Ave., 

Scoltdale, Pa 1894 

Hutchison, William J .Kittanning, Pa 1898 

Hyde, E. Fletcher Eighty-four, Pa 18 74 

Hyde, Wesley Middleton Academia, Pa 1877 

Imhoff, Thomas B Follansbee, W. Va., . ... 1915-p 

Inglis, John 808 Majestic Bldg., 

Denver, Col 1894-p 

Inglis, Robert Scott Newark, N. J 1891-p 

Irvine, James Elliott Williamsburg, Pa 1887 

Irwin, Charles Fayette Eaton, Ohio 1901 

Irwin, Donald Archibald Peking, China 1919 

Irwin, John Coleman Hamilton, Mont 1879-p 

Irwin, James Perry 137 W. 18th St., 

Erie, Pa 1867 

Irwin, J. P Tengchou, Shantung, 

China 1894 

Jackson, Thomas Carl Upper Alton, 111 1898-p 

Jennings, William Mason Columbus, Ohio 1894 

Johnson, Hubert Rex 2502 Cliffbourne PI. N. W., 

Wash, D. C 1886 

Johnson, William F Mainpuri, India 18 60 

Johnston, David Henry Scranton, Pa 1907 

Johnston, Edgar Francis West Point, Miss 188 7 

Johnston, Samuel L Khedive, Pa 1913 

Johnston, William Caldwell .... Ebolewo, Cameroun, 

W. Africa 1895 

Jolly, Austin Howell Trafford, Pa 1880 

Jones, William Addison 13 6 Orchard Ave., Mt. Oli- 
ver, Sta. Pgh. Pa 1889 

Junek, Frank Wagner, S. D 19 08 

Junkin, Clarence Mateer Clark, Pa 1887 

Kane, Hugh St. Paul, Minn 1889 

Kardos, Joseph Bast St. Louis, 111 190 7-p 

Kaufman, George Willis 5430 Walnut St., E. E. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1907 

Kaufman, Harry Elmer R.F.D., Greensburg, Pa... 1904 

Keener, Andrew Ivory Clinton, N. Y 1904 

Keirn, Reuel Emerson .Brockwayville, Pa 1911 

Keller, Argyle Claudius Ashtabula, OhiC> 1917 p-g 

Kelly, Aaron Alfred (766 S. Freedom Ave., 

Alliance, Ohio 1893 

Kelly, Dwight Spalding Wright City, Okla 1904-p 

Kelly, Jonathan Glutton Cowansville, Pa 1896 

Kelly, Joseph Clark ,Sunbury, Pa 1864-p 

Kelly, Newton Bracken Sterling, Col 1884-p 

36 



Alumniana 

Kelso, Alexander Peebles, Jr. ... Decatur, 111 1910 

Kelso, James Anderson 725 Ridge Ave., N. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1896 

Kelso, James Beacom Belden, Neb 1899 

Kelso, John B Wooster, Ohio 1904 

Kennedy, John Tacoma, Wash 1895-p 

Kennedy, Samuel James Alhambra, Cal 1889 

Kerns, Francis A Youngwood, Pa 1888 

Kerr, Charles William Tulsa, Okla 1898-p 

Kerr, David Ramsey Emporia, Kan 1876 

Kerr, George Gibson Canonsburg, Pa 189 9 

Kerr, Greer Mcllvain R.F.D., Bulger, Pa 1871 

Kerr, Henry Franklin R.F.D., Cadiz, Ohio .... 1899 

Kerr, Hugh T 827 Amberson Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1897 

Kerr, James Horner Orangeville, Pa 1872 

Kerr, John Henry 268 Arlington Ave., 

Brooklyn, N. Y 1881 

Keusseff, Theodore M Mt. Pleasant, Utah .... 1904 

Kienle, Gustav A 51 W. First St., 

Mansfield, Ohio 1907 p-g 

Kidder, Jonathan Edward Chenchow, Hunan, China 1919 

Kilgore, Harry Wheeler R.F.D. Irwin, Pa 1900 

King, Basil Robert 1431 Addison Road, 

Cleveland, Ohio .... 1891 

King, Felix Zollicoffer Arroyo Grande, Cal 1909 p-g 

King, John Allison Darlington, Pa 1916 

Kinter, William Alexander Bell Ave., N. S. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1889-p 

Kirkbride, James F Mineral Ridge, Ohio . . . 1892 

Kirkbride, Sherman Asher New Wilmington, Pa. . . 1892 

Kirkpatrick, J. Max Lemont, Pa 1919 

Kish, Juliua Hungarian Pres. Church, 

Cleveland, Ohio 1914 

Kiskaddon, Jesse Fulton Tecumseh, Mich 19 15 

Kiskaddon, Roy M Box 306, Imperial, Pa.... 1913 

Kmeczik, George Jessup, Pa 1911-p 

Knepshield, Edward J Fayette City, Pa 190 5 

Knight, Hervey B Michigan Ave., 

Pueblo, Col 1867 

Knox, J. McClure Maroa, 111 1891-p 

Kohr, Thomas Henry Worthington, Ohio 1875 

Koonce, M. Egbert South Charleston, 0. . . . 1894 

Kovacs, Andrew W Leechburg, Pa 1915-p 

Kreger, Winfield Scott Snow Hill, Md 1897 

Kritchbaum, Allan Bisbee, Ariz 1890 

Kritz, William Blakely Waveland, Ind 1899-p 

Krivulka, Charles Jesse Box 117, Pittock, Pa. . 1921 

Kuhn, William Caven Bellwood, Pa 1865 

Kumler, Francis Marion Degraff, Ohio 1880 

Kunkle, John Stewart Lien Chow, via Canton, 

China 1905 

Laird, Alexander Glassboro, N. J 1891-p 

Lane, John C Newburg, N. Y 1896 

Lang, John xOmak, Wash : . . . . 1913 

37 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Langfitt, Obadiah Thompson . . . .Rushmore, Minn 1882 

Lanier, M. B Louisville, Ky 1895 

Lashley, Ellsworth E W. E., Pittsburgh, Pa. . 1895 

Lathem, Abraham Lance Chester, Pa 1893-p 

Laverty, Levi Finley Los Angeles, Cal 1884 

Lawther, James Hood Niles, Ohio 1901 

Lawther, LeRoy McKeesport, Pa 1917 

Lawrence, Ernest Barber Jamestown, Pa 1910 

Leclere, George Frederick Eagle Rock, Cal 1875 

Leith, Hugh Wilkinsburg, Pa 1902 

Leslie, William Hutchman Grenloch, N. J 1898 

Lewellyn, Frank Bowman Roselane, Lahore, India. 1917 

Lewis, Edward Payson Los Angeles, Cal 1864 

Lewis, Leander Miles Detroit, Mich 1882 

Lewis, Samuel Theodore Osceola Mills, Pa 1888 

Lewis, Thomas Reed Dravosburg, Pa 1882 

Lewis, William E White Haven, Pa 1907 

Leyenberger, James P Wheeling, W. Va 1893 

Leypoldt, Frederic Christian .... Glenwood, N. M 1921 

Liggitt, A. W Westminster, Col 189(5 

Liles, Edwin Hart Chateau, Okla 1892-p 

Lincoln, John Charles 403 Main St., 

Grinnell, Iowa 1902 

Lindsay, George D Shellsburg, Iowa 1889-p 

Linhart, Samuel Black ^University of Pittsburgh, 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1894 

Linn, James Patterson Council Bluffs, Iowa . . . 1898-p 

Lippincott, Rudolph Peek Cadiz, Ohio 1902 

Little, John Wilder Box 274, Madison, Nebr. 1872 

Lloyd, Howard Ellsworth Springdale, Pa 1907-p 

Long, Bertram James Clymer, Pa 1902 

Loughner, Josiah Robert R. F. D. 6, 

Washington, Pa 1908 

Love, Curry Harden .Clifton, Ariz 1899 

Love, Wilbert Blake Sidney, 1911 

Lowe, Arnold Hilmar Marshall, Mo 1917 p-j; 

Lowe, Cornelius M Osawatomie, Kan 1884-p 

Lowes, John Livingstone 983 Charles River Rd., 

Cambridge, Mass 189 4 

Lowrie, Samuel Thompson St. Davids, Pa 1856 

Lowry, Houston Walker Carlsbad, N. Mexico . . . 1881 

Lowry, W. S 159 Winslow St., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1879-p 

Luccock, George Naphtali Wooster, Ohio 1881 

Ludwig, Christian Edward 149 Hornaday Road, Mt. 

Oliver St., Pgh., Pa. . 1906 

Luther, Benjamin D 1506 Sheffield St., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1877 

Lyle, David Miller West Middlesex, Pa. ... 1898 

Lyle, James B Albert Lea, Minn 188 8 

Lyle, Ulysses L Fleming, Pa 1891 

Lyon, Wilbur H Miraj, S. M. C, India ... 1918 

Lyons, John Frederick 826 Belden Ave. 

Chicago, 111 1904-p 



3 8 



> 



Alumniana 

McBride, John Drennan R. D., Wilkinsburg, Pa. 1905 

McCarrell, Thomas Calvin dliddletown, Pa 1880 

McCartney, Albert Joseph Greenwood Ave. & 46th 

St., Chicago, 111 1903-p 

McCartney, Ernest L Cashmere, Wash 1892 

McCartney, John Robertson . . . .Waterloo, Iowa 1896 

McCaughey, William Henry R. D. 1, Warsaw, Ind. . . 1877 

Macaulay, George Samuel Baltimore, Md 1910 

Macaulay, Peter Wilson Lisbon, Ohio 1916 

McClelland, Charles Samuel ... .310 Grandview Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1880 

McClelland, Melzar DeLoss R. D. 19, 

Jackson Center, Pa. .. 189 5 

McClelland, Raymond Green . . . . T'redericktown, Ohio ... 1881-p 

McClure, William Lincoln Vltoona, Pa 1893 

McCombs, Harry Wentworth . . . .Port Pierce, Fla 1900 

McConkey, Walter Pringle Washington, Pa 1906 

McConnell, Ralph I Chiengmai, Siam 1918 

McConnell, Samuel D .Sunset Farm, Easton, Md. 1871-p 

McConnell, William Grover Green River, Utah 1904 

McCormick, Arthur Burd 31 Leroy St., 

Binghampton, N. Y. .. 1897 

McCormick, Samuel Black University of Pittsburgh, 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1890 

McCormick, Thomas Howard . . . -New Geneva, Pa 1917 

McCoy, John Norris Pike, N. Y 1897 

McCracken, Charles J Frazeysburg, Ohio 1895 

McCracken, Charles Raymond . . -Utica, Pa 1888 

McCracken, John Calvin Leechburg, Pa 1878 

McCracken, John 0. C Altoona, Pa 1897 

McCracken, William Henry Balymena, Ireland .... 1915 

McCrea, Charles Albert Oakmont, Pa 1897 

McCutcheon, Harry Sylvester . . .-La Salle, Col 1897 

McDivitt, Michael Myers 240 Jucunda, St., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1907 

Macdonald, Herbert Enon Valley, Pa 1899 

McDonald, James Pressly ....... -New Florence, Pa. ..... 1897 

McDowell, Edmund Wilson Bagdad, Mesopotamia . . 1887 

McFadden, Hampton Theodore ■ • Franklington, N. C. ... 1921 

McFadden, Samuel Willis Peekskill, N. Y 1895 

McFarland, Orris Scott New Brighton, Pa 1913 

McGarrah, Albert Franklin Suffern, N. Y 1903 

McGogney, Albert Zachariah . . . .Le Mars, Iowa 1878 

MacHatton, Burtis Russell Great Falls, Mont 1899 

Mcllvaine, Edwin Linton Meadville, Pa 1898 

Maclnnis, Angus John Leetonia, 1910 

Mclntyre, G. W Dayton, Pa 1895 

Maclver, Murdock John Florence, Pa 1919 

Maclver, John William c/o 2nd Pres. Church, 

St. Louis, Mo 1905 

McKay, Alexander D -Clinton, Wis 1898 

Mackey, William Anderson Los Angeles, Cal 1876 

McKee, Clement L 144 LeMoyne Ave., 

Washington, Pa 1892 

McKee, William Finley 608 W. Main St., 

Monongahela, Pa. ... 1896 

39 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

McKee, William Thompson ..... .Sistersville, W. Va 1894 

McKibbin, William Walnut Hills, 

Cincinnati, 1873 

McKinney, William H .Smithville, Okla 1868-p 

McKinney, William Wilson Elizabeth, Pa 1919 

MacLennan, D. George Box 68 8, Lamar, Col. ... 1914 

MacLeod, Donald Campbell Central Pres. Church, U. S., 

St. Louis, Mo 1898 

McLeod, Donald William East Liverpool, Ohio . . . 1908 

MacLeod, Kenneth Edward Dresden, Ohio 1905 

MacMillan, Uriah Watson Glenshaw, Pa 1895 

McMillan, William Lamont Evans City, Pa 19 04 

McMillen, Homer George Hollidays Cove, W. Va. . 1910 

McNees, Willis S North Washington, Pa. . 1889-p 

MacQuarrie, David Peter Perrysville, Pa 1905 

McQuilkin, Harmon Hudson . . . .Orange, N. J 1899-p 

Magill, Charles N Lucena, Tayabas, P. I. . 1902-p 

Magill, Hezekiah 3314 Ohio Ave., 

St. Louis, Mo 1867 

Maharg, Mark Brown 1007 Lexington Ave., 

Zanesville, 1914 

Malcom, William 955 Hawthorne Ave., Price 

Hill, Cincinnati, Ohio . 1895-p 

Mark, John H Green Acres, Wash 1901-p 

Marks, Samuel Ferree Saltsburg, Pa 1882 

Marquis, John Abner 156 Fifth Ave., 

New York, N. Y 1890 

Marquis, Rollin Ruthwin Wickliffe, Ohio 1883 

Marshall, Daryl Cedric Weirton, W. Va 1917 

Marshall, James Trimble 3121 P. St., N. W., 

Washington, D. C 1888-p 

Marshall, Thomas C Los Angeles, Cal 1892-p 

Marshall, William Ellsworth . . . .East Springfield, N. Y. . 1903-p 
Marshman, David McGill 79 Hawthorne Way. San 

Jose, Cal 1884 

Martin, Joseph Albert 21 Brougham St., 

Edinburgh, Scotland . 1921 

Matheson, Malcolm Angus Ashtabula, Ohio 1911 

Mayne, James Vanderbilt, Pa 1918 

Mayne, Samuel Rincon, N. Mex 1907 

Mealy, Anthony Alexander Bridgeville, Pa 188 

Mealy, John McCaskey Sewicklev, Pa 1867 

Mechlin, G. E. K Smith's Perry, Pa 1893 

Mechlin, John C Fredericksburg, Ohio . . 1887 

Meily, Thomas Ruby st. Marys, Pa 1916 

Mellott, William Franklin 9 Arch St., 

S. Cumberland, Md. . 1919 

Mendenhall, Harlan George Litchfield, Conn 1874 

Mercer, John Moore Murrysville, Pa 1878 

Millar, Charles Caven 228 W. Broad St., 

Tamaqua, Pa 1892 

Miller, Charles Richard Sioux Falls, S. D 1909 

Miller, Frank Dean Bradford, Pa 1903 

Miller, George Crawford Box 34, Butler, Pa 1907 

Miller, Homer Ketler .Dayton, Ohio 1907 

40 



Alumniana 

Miller, James Erskine Beechvlew, Pittsb'gh, Pa. 19 

Miller, John B. Terre Haute, Ind 1895-p 

Miller, John 999 Indiana Ave., 

Monaca, Pa 1916 

Miller, Jonathan Walker 1109 King Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1883 

Miller, Park Hays •. . . .6040 Washington Ave., 

Philadelphia, Pa 1902 

Miller, Paul Golden Canonsburg, Pa 1907 

Miller, Roy F Cochranton, Pa 1920 

Miller, Rufus Philemon Philipsburg, Pa 18 8 8 

Mills, Wm. J Zanesville, Ohio 1866-p 

Milman, Prank Jonathan Newark, N. J 1899-p 

Minamyer, Albert Brown Utica, Neb 1899 

Minton, Henry Collin 2312 Bonita St., 

Berkeley, Cal 1882 

Miron, Francis Xavier .R.D.3, 

New Bethlehem, Pa. . 1872 

Mitchell, Eugene Augustus Philadelphia, Pa 1895 

Mitchell, Robert Charles St. Paul, Minn 1900-p 

Mitchell, William James Hamburg, Iowa 1900-p 

Mohr, John Raymond Natrona, Pa 1900 

Montgomery, Andrew Jackson, Jr.St. Louis, Mo 1890-p 

Montgomery, Donnell Rankin . . .Parnassus, Pa 1900 

Montgomery, Frank Stanley . . . .Clarion, Pa 1910 

Montgomery, S. T Eagle Rock, Cal 1896-p 

Montgomery, Thomas Hill .Nanking, China 1909 

Montgomery, Ulysses Lincoln . . .312 So. Washington Ave. 

Saginaw, Mich 1897 

Moody, Samuel Benton, Pa 19 00 

Moore, C. N Zelienople, Pa 1896^ 

Moore, William Reed R.F.D., Milwaukee, Ore. 1871 

Morello, Salvatore 157 Franklin Ave., 

Woodlawn, Pa 1913 

Morgan, Earl C Libertyville, 111 1916 p-g 

Morrison, Joseph Emil 1318 Kenberma Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa. ..... 1910-p 

Morton, David Chisholm . Jackson Center, Pa 1916 

Morton, Samuel Mills Taylorville, 111 1867-p 

Morton, William Walker St. Clairsville, 1875 

Moser, Walter Lysander Mars, Pa 1921 

Mowry, Eli M Pyeng Yang, Chosen . . . 1909 

Mowry, T. G 315 N. Rowley St., 

Mitchell, S. D 1914-p 

Nadenicek, Joseph 2670 Taylor St., 

Youngstown, O. ... 1917 

Nelson, Emory Alden Poughkeepsie, N. Y. ... 1882-p 

Nesbitt, Harry Union, N. J 1894 

Nesbitt, Samuel M. F Wooster, 1898 

Newell, David Ayers Ballston Spa., N. Y. . . 187 1-p 

Newell, James M 445 E. Adams St., 

Los Angeles, Cal 1868 

Nicholls, James Shane Cincinnati, Ohio 1892 

Nicholson, Henry Harrison Rural Valley, Pa 1917 

Nizankowsky Alexander Hartford, Conn 19 06 

41 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Notestein, William Lee .Huron, S. D 1886 

Novak, Frank c/o Bohemian Church, 

Baltimore, Md 1903 

Nussmann, George S. A Pomeroy, Ohio 1907 

Offield, Robert Long St. Clair Ave., Pres. Church, 

Columbus, Ohio 1916 p-g 

Offutt, Robert Maxwell Indiana, Pa 1899 

Oliver, John Milton . . . . Beloit, Kan 1897 

Oliver, William Loveridge East Lansing, Mich 1595 

Oiler, W. E Chicago, 111 1878 

Orr, Samuel Culbertson Buhl, Ida 1902 

Orr, William Harvey 2 6 Monitor Ave., 

Ben Avon, Pa 1909 

Osborne, Plummer Nathaniel ....16 Welch Ave., 

Bradford, Pa 1907 

Palm, William J 2217 Colfax St., 

Minneapolis, Minn. . . 1884-p 

Park, Albert Newton, Jr U. S. N., Washington, 

D. C 1914 

Paroulek, Friedrich 3F.D. Wahoo, Neb. . . . 1909 

Parr, Selton Wagner 3323 Lawton St., 

St. Louis, Mo 1895-p 

Patrono, Francesco Paolo Follansbee, W. Va 1910-p 

Patterson, Elmer Ellsworth West Lafayette, Ohio . . 1896 

Patterson, James Given Ardmore, Okla 1868-p 

Patterson, James T Newburg, Ind 18 65 

Patterson, John Calvin Mountain View, Wyo. . . 1899-p 

Patterson, John Fulton Orange, N. J 1882 

Paxton, John R New York, N. Y 18 63 

Pazar, Nicholas 4 Bowman St., Westmoor, 

Kingston, Pa 1912-p 

Pears, Thomas Clinton, Jr 6811 McPherson St., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1910 

Pearson, Thomas Warner Hopedale, Ohio 1893 

Peterson, Charles E 1335 Norwood St., 

Chicago, 111 1913 

Pfeiffer, Erwin Gordon Box 66, Clarence, Erie 

Co., N. Y 1914 p-g 

Phelps, Stephen Vancouver, Wash 1862 

Phillips, George Ross 12 Watsonia Blvd., N. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1902 

Phipps, Robert Jackson Pocatello, Idaho 1886 

Pickens, John Caldwell 1422 Wick Ave., 

Youngstown, Ohio ... 1888 

Plumer, John Smith 329 Dalzell Ave., 

Ben Avon, Pa 1884 

Plummer, William Franklin . . . .Washington, Pa 1889 

Pollock, George W Washington, Pa 1881 

Porter, A. R Marietta, Pa 1916-p 

Porter, John Craig Keyser, W. Va 1919 

Porter, Robert Elbert Mahoningtown, Pa 1896 

Porter, Thomas Jackson Rua De Quirino 2 07, Cam- 
pinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

. . . 1884-p 

Post, Riohard Walter Petchaburee, Siam .... 1902 

42 



Alumniana 

Potter, Henry N Beaver Falls, Pa 18 65 

Potter, James Mease Woodsdale, Wheeling, 

W. Va 1898 

Potts, Thomas Pliny Fort Wayne, Ind 1894 

Powell, Amos C . .Elkins, W. Va 1904 

Pratt. Owen William Harvard, 111. 1919 

Price, Robert Thompson Wooster, Ohio 1864 

Pringle, James V .Red Oak, Iowa 1864-p 

Proudfit, John Lyle Connellsville, Pa 1898 

Prugh, Henry Ira Craig East Brady, Pa 1898 

Prugh, Irvin Rice Blue Rapids, Kansas . . 1900-p 

Pugh, Robert Eugene 196 Thirteenth Ave., 

Columbus, Ohio 1899 

Purnell, Walter Brown Canton, Ohio 1914 

Ralston. Joseph Hughes 153 Institute PL, 

Chicago, 111 1879 

Ramage, Walter G Belle Vernon, Pa 1898 

Ramsey, Nathan LeRoy Ludhiana, Punjab, India 1917 

Rankin, Benjamin Houston Aurora, Ind 1899 

Reagle, William Grant Grove City, Pa 1891 

Reasoner, Alfred Henry Irmo, S. C 1914 

Reber, William Franklin Findlay, Ohio 1897 

Record, James Franklin Pikeville, Ky 1897 

Reed, Alvin McClure Greenville, Pa 1876-p 

Reed, John Price Uniontown, Pa 1863' 

Reed, Robert Rush Iowa City, Iowa 1910 

Reed, William Albert Van Buren, Ohio 1900 

Reeder. Chas. Vincent Weihsien, China 1915 

Reemsnyder, George Oswald .... 5435 Aylesboro Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1919 

Reese, Francis Edward New Castle, Pa 1911 

Reis, Jacob Anthony, Jr Lolodorf, Kamerun, 

W. Africa 1912 

Reiter, Murray C R.F.D., Bridgeville, Pa... 1903 

Reiter, Uriah David 4259 Delmar Bldg., 

St. Louis, Mo 1908 

Ressler, John Isaac Lewis 1911 Beaver St., 

McKeesport, Pa 1884 p-g 

Reynolds. William R Minneapolis, Minn 1883-p 

Rhodes, Harry A Seoul, Chosen 1906-p 

Riale, Franklin Neiman 156 Fifth Ave., 

New York, N. Y 1886 

Richards, Thomas Davis Mountain Lake Park, 

Md 1888-p 

Riddle, Benton Van Everett, Pa 1911-p 

Riddle, Henry Alexander, Jr. . . .Greensburg, Pa 1910 

Ridgley, Frank H 2011 Maple St., 

Omaha, Neb 1903 

Roberts, R. J Homer City, Pa 1894 

Robertson, Alexander Waters . . .Box 22, New Cumberland, 

W. Va 1883-p 

Robinson, Thomas .^Girard, Ohio 1915 p-g 

Robison, John Lawrence >Port Royal, Pa 1917 

Rodgers, Howard .Harrisburg, Pa 1918 

43 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Rodgers, John Adison Broad St. Pres. Church, 

Columbus, Ohio 1898 

Rodgers Morton McCaslin 718 E. Colfax Ave., 

South Bend, Ind 1903 

Roemer, John Lincoln St. Charles, Mo 18 92 

Rose, James Gray Mercersburg, Pa 1888 

Ross, John Elliott Saharanpur, India 1916 

Roudebush, George Shotwell ....Madison Station, Miss .. 1859-p 

Rowland, George Peabody 1324 Ridge Ave., 

Coraopolis, Pa 1903 

Ruble, Jacob W. Alexander^ Pa 1879 

Ruecker, August 1716 Chateau Ave., 

St. Louis, Mo 1915 p-g 

Rupp, John Christian Wall, Pa 1921 

Russell William Proudfit 72 6 1/2 S. Arch St., 

Connellsville, Pa 1915 

Rutherford, Matthew Washington, Pa 1887 

Rutter, Lindley Charles Williamsport, Pa 1870-p 

Ryall, George MacKinney Saltsburg, Pa 1898 

Ryland, Henry H Ellsworth, Pa 18 91 

Sangree, William Buffalo, N. Y 1887 

Sappie, Paul Waterford, Pa 1915 

Satterfield, David Junkin Wooster, Ohio 1873 

Sawhill, Elden Olifaunt 5546 Homer St., 

Pittsburgh, Pa. . ..... 1888 

Say, David Lester Cross Creek, Pa 1917 

Schlotter, Franklin George New Castle, Pa 1901 

Schmale, Theodore R 516 Liberty St., N. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1910 

Schultz, Adolph Reeg Mentone, Cal 1900 

Schuster, William Henry 412 Fifth St., 

Altoona, Pa 1913 

Scott, Dewitt Talmage 1508 L St. Bedford, Ind. 1901 

Scott, William A Aneta, N. Dak 1896 

Sehlbrede, George E 73 7 E. 6th, St., New York, 

N. Y 1896 

Seward, Oliver Lee 2239 Burnet Ave., 

Cincinnati, 189 7-p 

Sewell, Mayson H Marietta, Ohio 1912-p 

Sharpe, John C Blair Academy, 

Blairstown, N. J 1888-p 

Shaw, Edward B Belle Center, Ohio 1913 

Shaw, Hugh Sloan Claremont, Cal 1902-p 

Shaw, John Angus Follansbee, W. Va 1916 

Shea, George Hopkins R. P. D. 4, 

Quarry ville, Pa 1914 

Sheeley, Homer Bergholz, Ohio 1874 p-g 

Sheppard, Albert Samuel Forest Hills, N. Y 1914 

Shields, Curtis Edwin Bucyrus, Ohio 1900-p 

Shields, James Harvey Asotin, Wash 1872 

Shields, Robert Jackson Charleroi, Pa 1910 

Shields, Weston F Wallowa, Oregon 1890 

Shoemaker, Frederick B Jeannette, Pa 1903 

Shriver, William Payne 156 Fifth Ave., 

New York, N. Y 1904-p 

44 



Alumniana 

Shuey, Theodore George N. S. Pittsburgh, Pa. ... 1920-p 

Silsley, Frank Mitchell Oakland, Cal 1898 

Simmons, Kiddoo Thos. P Grove City, Pa 1892 

Sirny, John Monessen, Pa 1912 

Skilling, David Miller Webster Groves, Mo. . . . 1891 

Slade, William Franklin Manhattan, Kan 1905 p-g 

Slemmons, William E Washington, Pa 1887 

Sloan, Wilson Hurst Avonmore, Pa 1894 

Slonaker, Paul J 1211 Boyle St., N. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1895 

Smith, Alexander Ewing Ida Grove, Iowa 1866 

Smith, George B Minneapolis, Minn 1871 

Smith, Hugh Alexander Westerville, Ohio 1903 

Smith, James Mease Porterville, Cal 1876 

Smith, John A. L 325 E. King St., 

York, Pa 1879-p 

Smith, Lewis Oliver , . . . .Orchard, Col 1920-p 

Smith, Matthew F Indianaopolis, Ind 1911 

Smith, Robert Futhey Cardington, Ohio 1887 

Smith, Robert Leard 25 McKennan Ave., 

Washington, Pa 1881 

Sneberger, Frank Coraopolis, Pa 19 21-p 

Snook, Ernest McCune Alexis, 111 1885-p 

Snowden, James Henry 723 Ridge Ave., N. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1878 

Snyder, Peter W 7325 Race St., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 19 00 

Snyder, Wm. J Harrisville, Pa 1907 , 

Spargrove, James Marchand . . . .R. F. D. 1, 

Wesleyville, Pa 1894 

Spargrove, William Plumer San Jose Apts., E. E. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 189 6 

Speckman, Timothy Asbury 606 E. Market St., 

Louisville, Ky 1912-p 

Speer, J. H San Francisco, Cal 1896-p 

Sprague, Paul Steacey Albion, Pa 1920 

Springer, Francis Edwin Caldwell, Idaho 1901 

Srodes, John Jay Woodsfield. Ohio 1890 

Stancliffe, Thomas Alden Seattle, Wash 1900 

Steele, John Calvin Vanport, Pa 19 05 

Steele, Merrill P R.F.D., New Salem, Pa. 1906 

Steffey, Charles Irwin Conneautville, Pa 1915 

Steiner, J. G Knoxdale, Pa 1880-p 

Steiner, Robert Lisle Teheran, Persia 1919 

Sterrett, Charles Clark 5428 Walnut Hill Ave., 

Los Angeles, Cal 1900 

Stevenson, Francis Bacon New Salem, N. D 1895 

Stevenson, James Van Eman . . . .Bulger, Pa 1889 

Stevenson, J. A Santa Ana, Cal 1896 

Stevenson, Thomas Edwards Burbank, Cal 1901 

Stevenson, William Patton Maryville, Tenn 1885 

Stewart, Curtis Robert Rayland, Ohio 1895 

Stewart, David Harold Belle Plaine, Kan 1882 

Stewart, George Perry New Athens, Ohio 1904 

Stewart, Gilbert Wright Wilton, N. D 1907 

Stewart, Herbert Walker Pitsanuloke, Siam 1910 

45 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Stewart, Samuel Arthur La Porte, Ind 1894 

Stewart, William Grove . .507 Hay St., 

Wilkinsburg, Pa 1871 

Stiles, Henry Howard 1430-6th Ave., 

Altoona, Pa 1889 

Stites, Winfield Scott 92 Elizabeth St., 

Wilkesbarre, Pa 18 73-p 

Stockton, John P. P .West Unity, Ohio 1860 

Stoops, Philip Dexter Anglemont, B. C, Canada 1881-p 

Stophlet, Samuel Williams Canal Fulton, Ohio .... 1882 

Strubel, John Wray, Col 1905 

Sutherland, Joseph H Punta Gorda, Fla 1890 

Suzuki, Sojiro 27 Kita Tanabecho, 

Wakayama, Japan . . . 1898-p 
Svacha, Frank 513 Wood-ward Ave., 

McKees Rocks, Pa. . . 1902 

Swan, Benjamin M North Warren, Pa 1893 

Swan, Charles Wylie Nankin, Ohio 1892 

Swan, T. W West Pittston, Pa 1887 

Swan, William Linville Willoughby, Ohio 1880 

Swart, Charles Edwin 72 E. Wheeling St., 

Washington, Pa 1908 

Szekely, Alexander Box 96, Brownsville, Pa. 1909-p 

Szilagyi, Andrew .Yonkers, N. Y 1911-p 

Tait, Edgar R Wilson, Pa 19 02 

Tait, Leo Leslie Bessemer, Pa 1915 

Taylor, George, Jr 73 Hill Ave., 

Wilkinsburg, Pa 1910 

Taylor, Zachariah B Balston Spa. N. Y 1883 

Thomas, Isaac Newton Lima, Ohio 18 77-p 

Thomas, William Price 1334 E. 112th St., 

Cleveland, Ohio 1890 

Thompson, David Ryan West Sunbury, Pa 1915 

Thompson, John Milton Far Rockaway, L. I., 

New York 1894 

Thompson, Thomas Ewing New Bedford, Pa 1903 

Thompson, Thomas Newton Tsining Chou, China . . . 1901 

Thompson, William 0x1 ey Ohio State University, 

Columbus, Ohio 1882 

Thomson, John Robert Kinsman, Ohio 1916 

Thurston, Ralph Eugene Hazelton, Idaho 1915 

Timblin, George Jones R.F.D., Euclid, Pa 1897 

Todd, Milton Emmet Bluffton, Ohio 1884-p 

Tomasula, John 22 6 Dinwiddle St., 

Pittsburgh, Pa 1920 

Torrance, William .Muncie, Ind 1866 

Toth, Kalman Rossiter, Pa 1919-p 

Townsend, Edwin Byron ,183 Railroad St., 

Ironton, Ohio 1909 

Travers, Edward James . Millport, Ohio 1912 

Travis, J. M 651 High St., 

Denver, Col 1896 

Tron, Bartholomew 366 W. 25th St., 

New York, N. Y 1910 



46 



Alumniana 

Trovato, Joseph Port Russell, Wyo 1919 

Turner, Joseph Brown Port Deposit, Md 1881 

Uherka, Frank Ambridge, Pa 1908-p 

Ulay, Jerome Delbert Afton, Iowa 1906 

Van Busklrk, William Riley . . . . Coraopolis, Pa 1914 

Van Eman, John William Metuchen, N. J 1874 

Van Eman, Robert Clarence . . . .R.F.D. 20, 

Brownsville, Pa 1888 

Veach, Robert Wells Ridgewood, N. J 1889-p 

Verner, Andrew William Concord, N. C 1881 

Verner, Oliver Newton McKees Rocks, Pa 1886 

Vernon, Fayette Emery Bloomington, 111 18 9 G 

Viehe, Albert Edward 242 Hosea Ave. Clifton, 

Cincinnati, 1908 

Vulcheff, Mindo George Ellis Island, N. Y 1886 

Wachter, Egon .Trang (Tapteang) South 

Siam 1884 

Wagner, Henry Norman Pocatello, Ida 1900-p 

Wakefield, Charles B .Greenville, Pa 1879 

Walker, Alexander F Tarentum, Pa 1884 

Wallace, James Buchanan Saline, Mich 1890 

Wallace, John Elder Fatehgarh, U. P., India. 1919 

Wallace, Oliver Campbell Monticello, Ark 1901 

Wallace, Thomas Davis 960 Third Ave., 

Los Angeles, Cal .... 1870 

Wallace, William P. O. Box 117 Bis, Mexico 

City, D. F., Mexico . . 1887-p 

Wallace, William D Linden Heights, Ohio . . 1876 

Ware, Samuel Miller 2503 W. Hamilton St., 

Spokane, Wash 1884-p 

Warnshuis, Henry William Blairsville, Pa 1876-p 

Wash, Morris T Winnsboro, S. C 1895-p 

Watson, George Smith Booneville, Ky 1910 

Weaver, Joseph Lawrence Rocky Ford, Col 1883 

Weaver, Mahlon J Homer, Mich 1912-p 

Weaver, Thomas Newton 598-191st. St., 

New York, N. Y 189 

Weaver, William K Woonsocket, S. D 1890 

Weaver, Willis 1904 Ave. L., 

Galveston, Tex 1894 

Webb, Henry 171 N. Vine St., 

Westerville, Ohio .... 1890 
Wehrenberg, Edward Ludwig . . . R.F.D. 3, 

Randleman, N. C 1912 

Weidler, Albert G Berea, Ky 1911 p-g 

Weir, John Barr Forman Christian College, 

Lahore, India 1918 

Weir, William F 17 N. State St., 

Chicago, 111 1889 

Weisz, Abraham Boyd R.F.D. 4, Dunbar, Pa. .. 1921 

Welch, John Rayne Roswell, Ida 1902-p 

Welenteichick, Joseph J 3458 Fleming Ave., N. S., 

Pittsburgh, Pa. .... 1921 

47 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Wells, Elijah Bradner . ..721 W. 8tli Ave., 

Emporia, Kan 186 9 

West, Albert Marshall Chicago, 111 1885 

West, Charles Samuel Freeport, Pa 1882 

West, Gusty Philip Thomas, Pa 1915 

West, James Gaines Equality, 111 1908 

Wheeland, Clyde Randolph 4045 N. Keeler Ave., 

Chicago, 111 1917 

Wheeler, Franklin Taylor Newville, Pa 1889-p 

Whipkey, A. J Charleroi, Pa 1911 p-g 

White, DeWitt Des Moines, Iowa 1894-p 

White, Harry C Golden, Col 1893-p 

White, Samuel Sherman Pilot Rock, Ore 189 9 

White, Wilber George Akron, Col 1903 

Whitehill, J. B Brookville, Pa 1901-p 

Wible, Clarence Burchfield Punxsutawney, Pa 1907 

Wiley, A. Lincoln Ratnagiri, India, India . 1899 

Wilkins, George Howell Arkport, N. Y 1903-p 

Williams, Boyd P Emlenton, Pa 1886 

Williams, Charles Gaston Denver, Col 1893 

Williams, David Porter East Palestine, Ohio . . 1902 

Williams, Frederick Stark Dallas, W. Va 1916 

Williams, Hamilton Bertel ,Andover, N. Y 1899 

Williams, Robert Lew 407 Church St., 

Elmira, N. Y 1892 

Williams, William Asbury Camden, N. J 18 80-p 

Wilson, Aaron Rochester, Pa 1870 

Wilson, Andrew Bloomfield Hollis, L. I., New York.. 1880 

Wilson, Ashley Sumner Union City, Pa 1913 

Wilson, Calvin Dill Glendale, Ohio 1879 

Wilson, George Porter .Lexington, Ky 1880-p 

Wilson, Gill Irwin Parkersburg, W. Va. . .. 1899 

Wilson, Gill Robb Trenton, N. J 1920 

Wilson, James Marquis Omaha, Neb 1885-p 

Wilson, James M .South Bellingham, Wash. 1895 

Wilson, John Nesbit 3819 Payne Ave., 

Cleveland, Ohio 1869 

Wilson, Joseph Rogers Hemet, Cal 1870 

Wilson, Maurice Emery ,3235 Fifth Ave., 

Beaver Palls, Pa 1879 

Wilson, Nodie Bryson Brockwayville, Pa 1914 

Wilson, Robert Dick Princeton, N. J 1880 

Wilson, Thomas (Naches, Wash 1906 

Wingerd, Charles Beam .Martins Perry, Ohio ... 1910 

Wingert, Rufus Donald Orville, Ohio 1911 

Wise, Frederick Orlando Toronto, Ohio 1908 

Wisner, Oscar Francis R. P. D., Oakley, Cal. . . 1884-p 

Witherspoon, John Willison, Jr. . Mamont, Pa 1909 

Wolfe, Arthur Whiting Covoacan, D.P., Mexico 1916 

Woods, David Walker, Jr R.P.D. 4, Gettysburg, Pa. 1885-p 

Woods, Harry Eldred Wampum, Pa 1912 

Woodward, Frank J Cagayan, Misamis, P. I.. 1911-p 

Woolf, Mahlon Hart Seville, Ohio 1912 

Woollett, Francis Ives Brookville, Pa 1907 

Worley, Lewis Austin 709 Lodge Ave., 

Toledo, Ohio 1911 

48 



Alumniana 



Worrall, John Byars Danville, Ind 187b* 

Wylie, Leard Reed Dunbar, Pa 1892 

Wylie, Samuel Sanderson . ..... R. F. D., Shippensburg, 

Pa 1870 

Yates, William 528 N. Eleventh St., 

Allentown, Pa 1915 p-g 

Young, John C Seattle, Wash 1878 

Young, Samuel Hall 156 Fifth Ave., 

New York, N. Y 18 78-p 

Young, Sylvester Wylie Savannah, Ohio 1893 

Zahniser, Charles Reed 1363 Missouri Ave., 

. .Pittsburgh, Pa 1899-p 

Zuck, William Johnston 148 Neil Ave. 

Columbus, Ohio 1882-p 



LIVING ALLMNI BY CLASSES 



Class of 1856 

Lowrie, Samuel Thompson 
Mitchell, Robert 



Culbertson, William F. 

Class of 185 7 

Dannels, Ellis W. 
Posey, David R. 

Class of 1858 
Irwin, John C. 



Francis, David 
Smith, James P. 
Wortabet, G. M. 

Class of 1859 

Burchfield, W. A. 



I 



Edgerton, John M. 
Hume, Robert 
Patterson, James B. 
Roudebush, George Shotwell 
Walker, William E. 
Wood, William S. 

Class of 1860 

Johnson, William F. 
Stockton, John P. P. 



King, Courtlen 
Lee, Charles H. 
Tanner, Benjamin T. 
Van Emman, Craig R. 

Class of 1861 

Barclay, Hugh A. 
Conkling, Nathaniel W. 
Fisher, George W. 



Lambe, Henry B. 



Campbell, Samuel L. 
Dodd, Cyrus M. 
Gray, William S. 
Lloyd, William A. 
McElhenny, John P. 

Class of 1862 

Anderson, William Wylie 
Day, Alanson Ritner 
Dinsmore, John Walker 
Gray, James H. 
Madden, Samuel W. 
Phelps, Stephen 



Bakewell, John 
Bolar, A. J. 
Cooper, Daniel C. 
Evans, Daniel Henry 
Fox, John P. 
Gibson, William N. 
Machett, Alexander 
Price, William H. 
Smith, Joseph H. 
Whiten, I. J. 
Williams, Richard G. 

Class of 1863 

Eagleson, William Stewart 
Fife, Noah Hallock GUlett 
Reed, John Price 



Beinhauer, John C. 
Geckler, George 
Paine, David B. 
Patterson, Reuben F. 
Warren, William H. 
Waters, James Q. 



49 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Class of 1864 

Belden, Luther Martin 
Campbell, Charles M. 
Lewis, Edward Payson 
Price, Robert Thompson 



Campbell, Elgy V. 
Dagnault, Pierre S. C. 
Davis, David S. 
Davis, James S. 
Jones, Sugars T. 
Kelly, Joseph Clark 
Kinkaid, James J. 
Peairs, Benjamin F. 
Pringle, James V. 
Woodbury, Frank P. 
Young, A. Z. 

Class of 1865 
Bridge, D. J. 
Davis, William 
Kuhn, William Caven 
Patterson, James T. 
Potter, Henry N. 



Ferguson, William Adams 
Hill, Charles 
Kemerer, Duncan M. 
Park, William J. 

Class of 1866 

Campbell, Richard Morrow 
McConnell, Alexander S. 
Smith, Alexander Ewing 
Torrance, William 
Woods, Robert 



Campbell, William O. 
Jones, Isaac F. 
Mills, William J. 
Scott, George R. W. 
Thompson, Benjamin 

Class of 186 7 

Beatty, Samuel J. 
Harbolt, John H. 
Irwin, James Perry 
Knight, Hervey B. 
Magill, Hezekiah 
Mealy, John M. 
Moore, John M. 
Tappan, David Stanton 



Hippard, Samuel M. 
McCauley, Clay 
Morton, Samuel Mills 



Class of 1868 

Brown, William F. 
Hill, Winfield Euclid 
McFarland, George M. 
Newell, James M. 
Rea, John 



Boice, Evan 
Jones, Thomas R. 
King, Joseph 
McKinney, William H. 
Patterson, James G. 
Richards, John 
Thomas, William H. 

Class of 1869 
Foy, John 

Francis, John Junkin 
Hamilton, Milton John 
Luty, Adolph E. 
Lyon, David N. 
Paxton, John R. 
Wells, Elijah Bradner 
Wilson, John Nesbit 



Dodd, Reuel 

Fisher, Sanford George 

McMartin, John A. 

Class of 1870 
Elliott, Orrin A. 
Wallace, Thomas Davis 
Wilson, Aaron 
Wilson, Joseph Rodgers 
Wylie, Samuel Sanderson 



Jones, Alfred 
Larimore, John K. 
Rutter, Lindley Charles 
Wycoff, J. L. R. 
Youngman, Benjamin C. 

Class of 1871 

Anderson, Thomas Bingham 
Funkhouser, George A. 
Kerr, Greer Mcllvain 
McNulty. Rob Roy 
Moore, William Reed 
Smith, George B. 
Stewart, William G. 



Arney, William James 
Brown, Henry J. 
Graham, Thomas L. 
Landis, Josiah P. 
McConnell. Samuel D. 



50 



Alumniana 



Newell, David Ayers 
Piper, O. P. 
Sampson, John P. 

Class of 1872 

Asbury, Dudley E. 
Donahey, Martin Luther 
Gibson, Joseph Thompson 
Humphrey, G. H. 
Kerr, James Horner 
Little, John Wilder 
Miron, Francis Xavier 
Shields, James Harvey 
Welty, P. B. 
Workman, A. D. 



Leclere, George F. 
Morton, William W. 



Carter, William J. 

Class of 1873 

Asbury, Cornelius 
Baker, Anthony G. 
Carr, William Brainerd 
McKibbin, William 
Satterfield, David J. 



Stites, Winfleld Scott 

Class of 1874 

Axtell, John Stockton 
Harbor, John Park 
Bradley, Matthew Henry 
Cooke, Silas 
Copland, George 
Craig, J. B. 
De Long, David D. 
Hawk, James Harry 
Houston, James T. 
Howey, R. H. 
Hyde, E. Fletcher 
Jones, E. R. 
McLane, William W. 
Mendenhall, Harlan G. 
Porter, Robert B. 
Van Eman, John W. 



Gosweiler, Augustus V. 
Kelsey, Joel S. 
Weaver, Willis 

Class of 1875 
Baker, Perrin 
Fulton, William Shouse 
Graham, John Joseph 
Hail, John Baxter 
Hazlett, Dillwyn McFadden 
Kohr, Thomas Henry 



Fairfax, Isaac 
Fields, Samuel G. A. 
Gourley, John Crawford 
Kellogg, Robert O. 
March, Alfred 
Street, S. T. 

Class of 1876 

Bruce, Jesse Culley 
Duff, Joseph Miller 
Graybeill, John H. 
Herriott, Calvin Caldwell 
Hunter, Stephen A. 
Kerr, David Ramsey 
McFarland, William H. 
Mackey, William A. 
Murray, Stockton Reese 
Ritchey, James A. 
Smith, James Mease 
Wallace, William D. 
Worrall, John B. 



Allen. F. M. 
Barr, Frank A. 
Birch, John M. 
Elliott, Samuel Edward 
Hutchins, John C. 
Reed, Alvin McClure 
Warnshuis, Henry W. 

Class of 1877 
Allen, Perry S. 
Asdale, Wilson 
Fulton, Robert H. 
Gibson, William F. 
Gordon, Seth Reed 
Hunter, William H. 
Hyde, Wesley Middleton 
Luther, Benjamin D. 
McCaughey, William H. 



Brown, John F. 
Brown, William H. 
Donaldson, John B. 
Hay, Lewis 
Nesbit, James H. 
Paisley, George M. 
Sampson, George C. 
Thomas, Isaac N. 
Thompson, Theodore 
Watt, John C. 



51 



Tlie B'ldletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Class of 1878 

Anderson, Robert Elder 
Black, William Henry 
Blayney, Charles P. 
Clark, Robert L. 
Deffenbaugh, George L. 
Ferguson, Thomas J. 
McCracken, John Calvin 
McGogney, Albert Z. 
Mercer, John M. 
Neese, William D. 
Oiler, William E. 
Simpson, John W. 
Snowden, James H. 
Young, Samuel H. 



Mealy, Anthony A. 
Wilson, Andrew Bloomfield 
Wilson, Robert Dick 



Brown, Alexander B. 
Kerlinger, Charles C. 
McLain, W. J. E. 
Morris, John T. 
Patterson, David H. 
Phillis, T. W. 
Sawhill, Thomas A. 
Wallace, Thomas M. 
Young, John C. 

Class of 1879 

Alexander, Adolphus P. 
Boyd, Joseph N. 
Buchanan, George Davison 
Crawford, Frederick S. 
Crouse, Nathaniel P. 
De Jesi, L. M. 
Ewing, James C. R. 
Fleming, James Samuel 
McCoy, John Norris 
Ralston, Joseph Hughes 
Ruble, Jacob 
Wakefield, Charles B. 
Wilson, Calvin D. 
Wilson, Maurice E. 



Creighton, Andrew E. 
Grant, Henry A. 
Irwin, John C. 
Lowry, Walter S. 
Smith, J. A. Livingstone 

Class of 1880 

Dickinson, Edwin H. 
Eggert, John Edwin 
Fulton, John W. 
Jolly, Austin Howell 
Kumler, Francis M. 
McCarrell, Thomas C. 
McClelland, Charles S. 



Caldwell, Stewart S. 
Caldwell, Thomas B. 
Calhoun, Joseph P. 
Steiner, John G. 
Swan, William Linville 
Williams, William A. 
Wilson, George P. 

Class of 1881 

Brownson, Marcus A. 
Bryan, Arthur V. 
Carson, David G. 
Eraser, Charles M. 
Kerr, John Henry 
Lowry, Houston W. 
Luccock, George N. 
Pollock, George W. 
Smith, R. Leard 
Turner, Joseph B. 
Verner, Andrew W. 
Willard, E. S. 



Bruce, Charles H. 
Carson, Chalmers F. 
Lee, George L. 
McClelland, Raymond G. 
Mateer, William N. 
Smith, C. S. 
Stoops, Philip D. 

Class of 1882 

Anderson, Joseph M. 
Beall, Marion E. 
Buchanan, Aaron M. 
Caldwell, William E. 
Day, Edgar Willis 
Evans, William M. 
Greenlee, Thomas B. 
Hackett, George S. 
Hayes, Watson M. 
Helm, John S. 
Langfltt, Obadiah T. 
Lewis, Leander M. 
Lewis, Thomas R. 
Marks, Samuel F. 
Minton, Henry C. 
Patterson, John F. 
Stewart, David H. 
Stophlet, Samuel W. 
Thompson, William O. 
West, Charles Samuel 



52 



Alumniana 



Day, William H. 
Granger, William R. 
Lewis, David 
Nelson, Emory A. 
Woolf, G. R. 
Zuck, William J. 

Class of 1883 

Bausman, Joseph H. 
Bonsall, Adoniram J. 
Cooper, John H. 
Donaldson, Newton 
Donaldson, Wilson E. 
Farrand, Fountain R. 
Garver, James C. 
Hazlett, William J. 
Hunter, Robert A. 
Marquis, Rollin R. 
Miller, Jonathan Walker 
Taylor, Zachariah B. 
Weaver, Joseph L. 



Clark, James B. 
Fracker, George H. 
McCarthy, William B. 
Reynolds, William R. 
Robertson, Alexander W. 
Thayer, Henry E. 

Class of 1884 
Allen, David D. 
Barr, Lewis W. 
Barton, Joseph H. 
Boyce, Isaac 
Forsyth, Clarence J. 
Hays, Calvin C. 
Herries, Archibald J. 
Laverty, Levi F. 
Plumer, John S. 
Wachter, Egon 
Walker, Alexander F. 



Boothe, Willis A. 
Cheeseman, Charles P. 
Compton, Elias 
Edwards, Charles E. 
Edwards, Chauncey T. 
Hopkins, John T. 
Kelly, Newton B. 
Lowe, Cornelius M. 
Marshman, David M. 
Palm, William J. 
Patterson, James M. 
Peepels, Henry C. 
Porter, Thomas J. 
Todd, Milton E. 



Ware, Samuel M. 
Winger, C. N. 
Wisner, Oscar F. 

Class of 18 85 

Banker, Willis G. 

Boggs, John M. 

Earsman, Hugh P. 

Ely, Robert W. 

Ferguson, Henry C. 
■ Freeman, John W. 

Gregg, Andrew J. 

Hays, George S. 

Hunter, Alexander S. 

Stevenson, William P. 

West, Albert M. 



Coan, Frederick G. 
Grosser, John R. 
Elliott, John W. 
Kuhn, Louis J. ' 

Morris, Jeremiah M. 
Shepard, Simon P. 
Snook, Ernest M. 
Walker, Edward F. 
Wilson, James M. 
Woods, David W., Jr. 

Class of 1886 

Aller, Absalom Toner 
Anderson, J. Philander 
Boston, Samuel L. 
Breckenridge, Walter Lowrie 
Donehoo, George Patterson 
Fish, Frank 
Gray, Thomas Jefferson 
Hays, William McClement 
Johnson, Hubert Rex 
Notestein, William Lee 
Phipps, Robert Jackson 
Riale, Franklin Neiman 
Verner, Oliver Newton 
Vulcheff, Mindo George 
Williams, Boyd F. 



McAyeal, Howard S. 

Class of 1887 

Ambrose, John C. 
Boone, William Judson 
Campbell, Howard Newton 
Collier, Francis Marion 
Eakin, John Anderson 
Herron, Charles 
Irvine, James Elliott 
Johnston, Edgar Francis 



58 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Junkin, Clarence Mateer 
McDowell, Edmund Wilson 
Mechlin, John Caruthers 
Rutherford, Matthew 
Sangree, William 
Slemmons, William E. 
Smith, Robert Futhey 
Swan, T. W. 



Stiles, Henry Howard 
Weir, William F. 



Benham, DeWitt Miles 
Bente, Christopher H. 
Hubbell, Earle B. 
Jenkins, George W. W. 
Johnson, C. O. 
Miller, John Hoffman 
Sinclair, B. D. 
Wallace, William 

Class of 18 88 

Cotton, Jesse Lee 
Dunlap, John Barr 
Elterich, William Otto 
Gilson, Harry O. 
Harrop, Ben 

Hunter, Joseph Lawrence 
Kerns, Francis A. 
Lewis, Samuel Theodore 
Lyle, James B. 

McCracken, Charles Raymond 
Miller, Rufus Philemon 
Pickens, John Caldwell 
Rose, James Gray 
Sawhill, Elden Olifaunt 
Van Eman, Robert Clarence 
Vaughn, Bert C. 



Boyle, William 
Donaldson, Robert McMorran 
Donehoo, James D. 
Fredericks, William J. 
Gordon, Edwin W. 
Marshall, James Trimble 
Richards, Thomas Davis 
Sharpe, John C. 
Walden, Antony E. 

Class of 1889 
Bell, L. Carmon 
Bowman, Edwin M. 
Brownlee, Edmund Stanley 
Davis, John Proctor 
Jones, William Addison 
Kane, Hugh 
Kennedy, Samuel James 
Plummer, William Franklin 
Stevenson, James Van Eman 



Countermine, James Langdon 
Fulton, George W. 
Holliday, Thomas E. 
Kinter, William Alexander 
Lindsay, George D. 
■ McNees, Willis S. 

Wheeler, Franklin Taylor 

Class of 1890 

Allen, Cyrus Glenn 
Clark, Charles Avery 
Cooper, Hugh Albert 
Haymaker, Edward Graham 
Hays,. Frank Winfield 
Kirchbaum, Allan 
McCormick, Samuel Black 
Marquis, John Abner 
Shields, Weston F. 
Srodes, John Jay 
Sutherland, Joseph H 
Thomas, William Price 
Wallace, James Buchanan 
Weaver, Thomas Newton 
Weaver, William K. 
Webb, Henry 



Campbell, Henry Martyn 

Criner, Alvin M. 

Garvin, James Ellsworth 

Haworth, James 

Koehne, John Betts 

Montgomery, Andrew Jackson, Jr 

Munden, J. N. 

Norris, John H. 

Smith, Charles L. 

Class of 1891 

Armstrong, James Newton 
Baker, James Robinson. 
Bradshaw, Charles Lincoln 
Collins, Alden Delmont 
Crawford, John Allen 
Drake, J. E. 
Fisher, William James 
Furbay, Harvey Graeme 
Groves, Samuel B. 
Hall, Francis Milton 
Hill, James Barnett G. 
King, Basil Robert 
Lyle, Ulysses L. 
Reagle, William Grant 
Ryland, Henry H. 
Skilling, David Miller 



54 



Alumniana 



Craighead, D. E. 
Inglis, Robert Scott 
Knox, J. McClure 
Laird, Alexander 
Miller, William W. 
Stephens, Herbert T 
Wightman, J. R. 
Williams, Charles Barnes 

Class of 1892 

Allen, William Elliott 
Bowman, Winfield Scott 
Chalfant, Charles Latta 
Cunningham, James Alexander 
Edmundson, George R. 
GifRn, James Edwin 
Kennedy, Pinley F. 
Kirkbridde, James F. 
Kirkbride, Sherman Asher 
McCartney, Ernest L. 
McKee, Clement L. 
Millar, Charles Caven 
Nicholls, James Shane 
Roemer, John Lincoln 
Simmons, Kiddoo Thomas P. 
Swan, Charles Wylie 
Williams, Robert Lew 
Wylie, Leard Reed 



Pearson, Thomas Warner 
Swan, Benjamin M. 
Williams, Charles Gaston 
Young, Sylvester Wylie 



Clark, Walter B. 
Dickerson, J. O. 
Hamilton, James 
Jones, William M. 
Liles, Edwin Hart 
McGrew, James 
Marshall, Thomas Chalmers 
Rodebaugh, William H. 
Watson, James H. 

Class of 1898 

Alter, Robert L. M. 
Aukerman, Elmer 
Dible, James C. 
Ewing, Joseph Lyons 
Gibb, John D. 
Grubbs, Henry Alexander 
Hayes, Andrew Williamson 
Hazlett, Calvin Glenn 
Hollister, William Parker 
Houston, William 
Humbert, J. I. 
Hummel, Henry Bradford 
Kelly, Aaron Alfred 
Leyenberger, James P. 
McClure, William Lincoln 
Mechlin, George Ernest K. 



Bell, W. J. 
Cozad, W. K. 
Graham, Ralph Laurie E. 
Hamilton, Joseph 
Hitchings, Brooks 
Latham, Abraham Lance 
Shields, Harry M. 
White, Harry C. 

Class of 1894 

Auraham, Yonan Y. 
Austin, Charles Anderson 
Caldwell, David 
Campbell, Howard 
Culley, Edward Armor ' 
Getty, Robert Francis 
Gregg, Oscar Job 
Hine, Thomas William 
Hoon, Clarke David A. 
Hutchison, J. E. 
Irwin, J. P. 

Jennings, William Mason 
Koonce, M. Egbert 
Linhart, Samuel Black 
Lowes, John Livingston 
McKee, William Thompson 
Nesbitt, Harry 
Potts, Thomas Pliny 
Roberts, R. J. 
Sloan, Wilson Hurst 
Spargrove, James Marchand 
Stewart, Samuel Arthur 
Thompson, John Milton 



Bettex, Paul P. G. 
Cole, William D. 
Griffiths, William 
Howard, W. E. 
Inglis, John 
Smith, Wayne P. 
Varner, W. P. 
White, DeWitt 
White, Prescott C. 

Class of 1895 

Aukerman, Robert Campbell 
Brownlee, Daniel 
Craig, Joseph A. A. 
Dunbar, Joseph Wallace 
Eldredge, Clayton W. 
Farmer, William Robertson 



55 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Gantt, Allen Gilbert 
Greves, Ulysses Sherman 
Hackett, John Thomas 
Harter, Otis 
Hepler, David Ewing 
Howell, Otis 

Johnston, William Caldwell 
Lanier, Marshall Bell 
Lashley, Ellsworth E. 
McClelland, Melzar DeLoss 
McCracken, Charles J. 
McFadden, Samuel Willis 
Mclntyre, G. W. 
MacMillan, Uriah Watson 
Mitchell, Eugene Augustus 
Oliver, William Loveridge 
Slonaker, Paul .1. 
Stevenson, Francis Bacon 
Stewart, Curtis Robert 
Wilson, James M. 



Barr, Alfred H. 
Biddle, Richard Long 
Blair, Thomas S. 
Bullard, P. L. 
Caliman, D. F. 
Kennedy, John 
Malcom, William Divid 
Miller, John B. 
Parr, Selton Wagner 
Wash, Morris T. 
Wilkinson, A. P. 

Class of 1896 

Atkinson, William A. 
Bartz, Ulysses S. 
Bascomb, Lawton Bristow 
Bedickian, Shadrach V. 
Brown, William Albert 
Burns, George Garrell 
Chisholm, Harry Talmadge 
Cotton, James Sumner 
Davis, McLain White 
Elder, Silas Coe 
Fisher, Grant Eugene 
Gordon, Percy Hartle 
Greene, David A. 
Kelly, Jonathan Glutton 
Kelso, James Anderson 
Lane, John C. 
Liggitt, A. W. 
McKee, William Finley 
Moore, C. N. 

Patterson, Elmer Ellsworth 
Porter, Robert Elbert 
Scott, William A. 



Sehlbrede, G. E. (B.D. 1913) 

Spargrove, William Plumer 

Stevenson, J. A. 

Travis, J. M. 

Vernon, Fayette Emery 

Zoll, Joseph 



Allison, Frank R. 
' Brokaw, Harvey 
Diven, Robert Joseph 
Macartney, John Robertson 
Montgomery, S. T. 
Speer, J. H. 

Class of 18 9 7 
Barr, Robert L. 
Bemies, Charles O. 
Benton, Dwight, Jr. 
Calder, Robert Scott 
Cherry, Cummings W. 
Donehoo, George M. 
Elder, James F. 
Ewing, Harry D. 
Foote, Samuel E. 
Fulton, John E. 
Kerr, Hugh T. 
Kreger, Winfield Scott 
McCormick, Arthur B. 
McCracken, John O. C. 
McCrea, Charles A. 
McCutcheon, Harry Sylvester 
McDonald, James P. 
Matson, Walter T. 
Montgomery, Ulysses L. 
Oliver, John M. 
Reber, William F. 
Record, James F. 
Timblin, George J. 
Wilson, Walter L. 



Brockway, Julius W. 
Brown, Nathan L. 
Chisholm, James D. 
Frederick, P. W. H. 
Guichard, George L. 
Seward, Oliver L. 
Yates, Thomas R. 
Young, Alexander B. 

Class of 18 9 8 

Atwell, George P. 
Brown, Franklin F. 
Campbell, Wilbur M. 
Cheeseman, Joseph F. 
Cozad, Frank A. 
Ea^leson, Walter F. 



56 



Alumniana 



Fitch, Robert F. 
Fulton, John T. 
Hezlep, Herbert 
Hosack, Hermann M. 
Hubbard, Arthur B. 
Hutchison, William J. 
Leslie, William H. 
Lyle, David M. 
Mcllvaine, Edwin L- 
McKay, Alexander D. 
MacLeod, Donald C. 
Nesbitt, Samuel M. F. 
Potter, James M. 
Proudfit, John L. 
Prugh, Harry I. C. 
Ramage, Walter G. 
Rodgers, John A. 
Ryall, George M. 
Schleifer, Oscar 
Silsley, Frank M. 



Williams, Hamilton Bertel 
Williams, John I. 
Wilson, Gill Irvin 



Brown, Charles H. 
Fulton, Silas A. 
Gilmore, John I. 
Jackson, Thomas C. 
Kerr, Charles W. 
Linn, James P. 
Magee, Samuel G. 
Myers, Percy L. 
Rankin, T. C. 
Sharp, Samuel F. 
Suzuki, Sojiro 
Vogan, Frank H. 
White, Daniel C. 
Wishard, Frederick G. 

Class of 1899 
Bell, Charles 
Cobb, William A. 
Daubenspeck, Richard P. 
Fiscus, Newell S. 
Giboney, Ezra P. 
Hodil, Edward A. 
Humphrey, James D. 
Kelso, James B. 
Kerr, George G. 
Kerr, Harry F. 
Love, Curry H. 
Macdonald, Herbert O. 
MacHatton, Burtis R. 
Minamyer, Albert B. 
Offutt, Robert M. 
Pugh, Robert E. 
Rankin, Benjamin H. 
White, Samuel S. 
Wiley, A. Lincoln 



Anderson, Clarence O. 
Cunningham, Harry C. 
Fields, Joseph C. 
Gay, Thomas B. 
Griffiths, S. W. 
Kittell, James S. 
■ Kritz, William B. 

McQuilkin, Harmon H. 
Milman, Frank J. 
Patterson, John C. 
Rodgers, Joseph H. 
Sterrett, Walter B. 
Veach, Robert W. 
Waite, James 
Wells, Earl B. 
Wilson, Charles R. 
Zahniser, Charles R. 

Class of 1900 

Allen, Robert H. 
Barrett, William L. 
Beatty, Charles S. 
Brice, James B. 
Brooks, Earle A. 
Carmichael, George 
Crawford, Oliver C. 
Haines, Alfred H. 
Kilgore, Harry W. 
McCombs, Harry W. 
Miller, James E. 
Mohr, John R. 
Montgomery, Donnell R. 
Moody, Samuel 
Reed, William A. 
Schultz, Adolph R. 
Snyder, Peter W. 
Stancliffe, Thomas A. 
Sterrett, Charles C. 

Coad, H. W. 
Depue, James H. 
Foreman, Chauncey A. 
Garvin, Charles E. 
Leroy, Albert E. 
Mitchell, Robert C. 
Mitchell, William J. 
Prugh, Irvin R. 
Schneider, William P. 
Shields, Curtis E. 
Wagner, Henry N. 



57 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Class of 1901 

Bierkemper, Charles H. 
Boice, Robert A. 
Bush, Merchant S. 
Graham, David S. 
Irwin, Charles F. 
Lawther, J. H. (B.D. 1911) 
Marks, Harvey B. 
Schlotter, Franklin G. 
Scott, DeWitt Talmage 
Springer, Francis E. 
Stevenson, Thomas E. 
Thompson, Thomas N. 
Wallace, Oliver C. 



Armstrong, Harry P. 
McKelvey, Charles M. 
Mark, John H. 
Steele, Alexander 
Tipper, William 
Whitehill, John B. 

Class of 1902 

Allison, Alexander B. 
Bailey, Harry A. 
Brown, Samuel T. 
Pilipi, Bohdan A. 
Gettman, Albert H. 
Griffith, Howard L. 
Hanna, Hugh W. 
Holmes, William J. 
Leith, Hugh 
Lincoln, John C. 
Lippincott, Rudolph P. 
Long, Bertram J. 
Miller, Park H. 
Orr, Samuel C. 
Phillips, George R. 
Post, Richard W. 
Svacha, Frank 
Tait, Edgar R. 
Wallace, Scott I. 
Williams, David P. 



Crowe, F. W. (B.D. 1911) 
Fast. Joseph W. G. 
Magill, Charles N. 
Shaw, Hugh S. 
Welch, John R. 

Class of 1903 

Bittinger, Ardo Preston 
Byers, Edward W. 
Fisher, George C. 
Fleming, W. F. (B.D. 1915) 



Fowler, Owen S. 
Hamilton, C. H.(B.D. 1911) 
Kromer, E. G. 
McGarrah, Albert F. 
Miller, Frank D. 
Novak, Frank 
Rail, Emil 
Reiter, Murray C. 
Ridgley, F. H. (B.D. 1912) 
Rodgers, M. M. (B.D. 1910) 
Rowland, George Peabody 
Shoemaker, Frederick B. 
Smith, Hugh A. 
Thompson, T. E.(B.D. 1910) 
White, Wilber G. 



Askew, Tony J. 
Brown, George W. 
David, William 0. 
Hicks, Thomas G 
Lowe, Titus 
McCartney, Albert J. 
Marshall, William E. 
Sarver, Jonathan E. 
Stevenson, James F. 
Wilkins, George H. 

Class of 1904 
Bucher, Victor 
Culley, David E. 
Gaehr, Theophilus J- 
Kaufman, Harry E. 
Keener, A. I. (B.D., 1911) 
Kelso, John B. 
Keusseff, Theodore M 
McConnell, William G. 
McMillan, William L. 
Powell, Amos C. 
Stewart, G. P. (B.D., 1910) 



Campbell, Harry M. 
Kelly, Dwight Spalding 
Lyons, John F. 
Shriver, William P. 

Class of 1905 

Backora, Vaclav Paul 
Bowden, George S. 
Crawford, Frank W. 
Douglass, Elmer H. 
Espey, John M. 
Evans, Walter E. 
Knepshield, Edward J. 
Kunkle, John S. 
McBride, John D. 



58 



Alumniana 



Maclvor, John W. 
MacLeod, Kenneth E. 
MacQuarrie, David P. 
Steele, John C. 
Strubel, John C. 



Evans, Frederick W. 

Goehring, Joseph S. 

Lytle, Marshall B. 
Class of 1906 

Cooper, Howard C. 

Craig, William R. 

Duffield, T. Ewing 

Heany, Brainerd P. 

Hochman, Stanislav B. 

Ludwig, Christian E. 

McConkey, Walter P. 

Nizankowsky, Alexander (c) 

Steele, Merrill P. (B.D. 1911) 

Wilson, Thomas 

Bovard, Charles E. 

Rhodes, Harry A. 

Ulay, Jerome D. 
Class of 1907 

Blacker, Samuel 

Christie, John W. 

Christoff, Athanasious T. 

Dinsmore, W. W. (B.D. 1912) 

Ferver, William C. 

Eraser, Charles D. 

Houk, Clarence E. 

Huey, James W. 

Johnston, David H. (c) 

Kaufman, George W. 

Lewis, William E. 

McDivitt, M. M. (B.D. 1912) 

Mayne, Samuel 

Miller, George C. (c) 

Miller, Homer K. 

Miller, Paul G. 

Osborne, Plummer N. 

Schodle, Adam G. 

Snyder, William J. 

Stewart, Gilbert W. 

Wible, Clarence B. 

Wollett, Francis I. 



Kardos, Joseph 
Lloyd, Howard E. 
Class of 1908 

Amstutz, Platte T. 
Aten, Sidney Henry 
Baker, Henry Vernon 
Bingham, William S. 
Bleck, Erich A. 



Dent, Frederick R. 
Gaut, Robert L. 
Harvey, Plummer R. 
Hefner, Elbert 
Houston, Robert L. 
Junek, Prank 
Loughner, J. R. (B.D. 1909) 
McLeod, Donald W. 
Reiter, Uriah D. 
Swart, Charles E. 
Viehe, Albert E. 
West, James G. 
Wise, Frederick O. 



Anderson, John T. 
Byczynski, Sigmundus A. 
Puky de Bizak, Stephen 
Streeter, E. E. 
Uherka, Frank 



Class of 1909 



(c) 



Clark, Chester A. 

Good, Albert L 

Hail, Arthur L. 

Halenda Dimitry (B.D. 1910) 

Hoover, William H. 

Hutchinson, Harry C. 

Miller, Charles R. 

Montgomery, Thomas H. 

Mowry, Eli M. 

Orr, William H. (B.D. 1916) 

Paroulek, Priedrich (c) 

Townsend, Edwin B. 

Witherspoon, John W. Jr. 



Szekely, Alexander 

Class of 1910 

Bergen, Stanley V. 

Byers, William F. 

Conley, Bertram H. 

Graham, Franklin P. 

Gross, Oresta C. 

Kelso, A. P. Jr., (B.D. 1910) 

Lawrence, Ernest B. 

Macaulay, George S. 

Maclnnis, Angus J. (B.D. 1910) 

McMillen, Homer G. 

Montgomery, Prank S. 

Patrono, Francesco P. (c) 

Pears, T. C. Jr., (B.D. 1910) 

Reed, Robert R. 

Riddle, Henry Alexander, Jr. 

Schmale, Theodore R. 

Shields, Robert J. 

Stewart, Herbert W. 

Taylor, G. Jr. (B.D. 1910) 



59 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Tron, B. (B.D. 1911) 
Watson, George S. 



Almassy, Lajos 
Cran, John N. 
Kucera, Jaroslav 
Kuziw, Wasil 
Moricz, B. D. 
Morrison, Joseph E. 
Sautuccio, Agatino 

Class of 1911 

Cribbs, Charles C. 
Felmeth, W. G. (B.D. 1912) 
Geddes, Henry 
Glunt, George L. (c) 
Guttery, Arthur M. 
Hezlep, William H. 
Howe, John L. 
Keirn, Reuel E. 
Love, Wilbert B. 
Matheson, M. A. (B.D. 1912) 
Reese, Francis E. 
Riddle, Benton V. (c) 
Smith, M. F. (B.D. 1911) 
Wingert, Rufus D. 
Woodward, Frank J. (c) 
Worley, Lewis A. 



Barr, Floyd W. 
Beseda, Henry E. 
Howell, H. G. 
Jack, James P. 
Kmeczik, George 
Pender, Thomas M. 
Szilagyi, Andrew 
Vecsey, Eugene 
Weber, Pierre 

Class of 1912 

Arthur, James H. 

Bergen, Harry H. 

Burtt, Percy E. 

Halenda, Theodore 

Hornicek, Francis 

Hughes, James Charles 

Hunter, James Norman 

Reis, Jacob A., Jr. 

Sirny, John A. (B.D. 1913) 

Travers, E. J. (B.D. 1913) 

Wehrenberg, E. L. (B.D. 1912) 

Woods, Harry E. 

Woolf, Mahlon H. 



Gross, John H. 
King, H. W. 
Pazar, Nicholaus 
Sewell, Mayson H. 
Speckman, Timothy A. 
Vocaturo, Pasquale 
Weaver, Mahlon J. 
Wilson, H. Luther 

Class of 1913 

Baumgartel, Howard J. 
Cochran, Charles W. 
Connell, John 
Eakin, Frank (B.D. 1915) 
Eakin, Paul Anderson 
Frantz, G. A. (B.D. 1915) 
Highberger, William Waltz 
Johnston, Samuel L. 
Kiskaddon, Roy McKee 
Lang, John 

McFarland, Orris Scott 
Morello, Salvatore 
Peterson, Charles E. 
Schuster, W. H. (B.D. 1914) 
Shaw, Edward B. 
Swarts, A. A. (B.D. 1916) 
Wilson, Ashley Sumner 



Findlay, Harry J. 



Bransby, Charles Carson 
Jamieson, Roy W. 
Simpson, James Thomas 
Yoo, Charles 

Class of 1914 

Cornelius, Maxwell 
Crapper, Wm. Horatio (c) 
Donaldson, Dwight M. 
Duff, George Morgan 
Fraser, James Alexander D. 
Eraser, James Wallace 
Guthrie, George Wesley (c) 
Hensel, Leroy Cleveland 
Howe, Edwin Carl 
Kish, Julius 
MacLennan, D. George 
Maharg, Mark Brown 
Park, Albert Newton, Jr. 
Purnell, Walter Brown 
Reasoner, Alfred Henry (c) 
Shea, George Hopkins 
Sheppard. Albert Samuel 
VanBuskirk, William Riley 
Willard, Hess Ferral 
Wilson, Nodie Bryson 

Boyd, R. Earle 



60 



Alumniana 



Brenneman, Geo. Emmor 
Ernst, John L. 
Fohner, George C. 
Mowry, Thomas G. 
Worthman, Diediich 

Class of 1915 
Alter, Gray (c) 
Cowleson, William Reid (c) 
Harriman, Walter Payne 
Kiskaddon, Jesse Fulton 
Kovacs, Andrew (c) 
McCracken, W. H.(B.D. 1915) 
Reeder, C V. (B.D. 1915) 
Russell, William P. 
Sappie, Paul (c) 
Steffev, Charles Irwin 
Tait, Leo. L. (B.D. 1917) 
Thompson, David Ryan (c) 
Thurston, Ralph Eugene 
West, Gusty Philip 



Ambrosimoff, Paul Wasile 
Biddle, Earle Henry 
Binkley, Stanford Burney 
Cable, John Henry 
Elliott, Paul H. 
Palck, Charles M. 
Imhoff, Thomas Burton 
Litten, Ross Burns 

Class of 1916 

Barnes, William Clyde 
Bingham, John Greer 
Cheeseman, George H. 
Doerr, J. Alfred 
Fisher, James Mclntyre 
French, Arthur Edward (c) 
Gilbert, Ralph V. 
Good, Edward Clair 
King, John Allison 
Macaulay, Peter Wilson 
Meily, Thomas Ruby 
Miller, John Owen 
Morton, David Chisholm 
Ross, John Elliott 
Shaw, John Angus 
Strub, Henry M. 
Thomson, John Robert 
Williams, F. S. (B.D. 1917) 
Wolfe, Arthur Whiting 



Porter, Arthur Reno 
Schultz, Irvin Sturger 
Storer, Happer Beacom 

Class of 1917 

Bartholomew, Archie Randal 
Betts, John Melson 
Boston, John Keifer 
Conrad, Ross Elmer 
Crawford, Glenn Martin 
Crummy, H. Russell 
DeMarco, Michele Francesco 
Dodds, Joseph LeRoy 
Gibson, Alexander (c) 
Hickman, Alvyn Ross 
Lawther, LeRoy (B.D. 1917) 
Lewellyn, Prank Bowman 
McCormick, Thos. Howard (c) 
Marshall, Daryl Cedric 
Nadenicek, Joseph 
Nicholson, Henry Harrison 
Ramsey, Nathan LeRoy 
Robison, John Lawrence 
Say, David Lester 
Wheeland, C. R. (B.D. 1917) 



Axtell, Robert Stockton 
Grant, James Alexander 
Gray, D. Vincent 
Kaczmarsky, Roman 
Patterson, Charles David 
Payne, Henry P. 

Class of 1918 

Bisbee, Geo. A. (B.D. 1918) 
Bisceglia, Giovanni Battista 
Blosser, Marion Elmer 
Brandner, Edward Lewis 
Davidson, Harrison 
Gahagen, Clair Boyd 
Gearhart, Harry Alonzo 
Griffith, Ole Curtis 
Hofmeister, Ralph C. 
Husak, Alois (B.D. 1919) 
Lyon, Wilbur H. 
McConnell, Ralph I. 
Mackenzie, D. (B.D. 1919) 
Mayne, James (B.D. 1918) 
Rodgers, Howard 
Weir, John Barr 



Adams, James, Jr. 
Baillie, Alexander Stuart 
Conn, Lloyd Herbert 
Newell, Harry Nelson 



Beal, Joseph Ephraim 
Dobias, Joseph 
Garner, Joseph 
Haden, George Richard 
McKenzie, Ralph Waldo 



fil 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Sabacky, Vladimir 
Soucek, Frank 

Class of 1919 
Clark, J. Calvitt 
Clawson, Harry Blaine 
Daniel, David Earl (c) 
Eagleson, Hodge Mcllvaine 
Hendrix, Everett J. 
Irwin, D. A. (B.D. 1920) 
Kidder, Jonathan Edward 
Kirkpatrick, J. Max (c) 
Maclver, Murdock John (c) 
McKinney, William Wilson 
Mellott, William Franklin 
Porter, John Craig 
Pratt, Owen William 
Reemsnyder, Geo. Oswald (c) 
Steiner, Robert Lisle 
Trovato, Joseph 
Wallace, John Elder 



Hrbata, Leopold 
Little, Robert Henry 
Luccock, Emory Wylie 
McConnell, Harry W. 
Shauer, Joseph John 
Stanley, Walter Payne 
Toth, Kalman 

Class of 1920 

Alter, Samuel Neale 
Bardarik, Geo. (B.D. 1920) 



Martin, Joseph Albert 
Miller, Roy Frank 
Sprague, Paul Steacey 
Tomasula, John (B.D. 1921) 
Wilson, Gill Robb 



Lee Harold 

McSherry, Hubert Luther 

Moore, John Ely 

Richmond Charles Francis 

Shuey, Theodore George 

Smith, Lewis Oliver 

Stulc, Joseph 

Swan, Alfred Wilson 

Thomas, Coovirt R. 

Class of 1921 

Bamford, G. K. (B;D. 1921) 
Buczak, Leon (c) 
Henry, Robert Harvey 
Hudock, Andrew Jay 
Krivulka, Charles Jesse 
Leypoldt, Frederic Christian 
McFadden, Hampton T. 
Moser, W. L. (B.D. 1921) 
Rupp, John Christian 
Weisz, Abraham Boyd 
Welenteichick, Joseph J. 



Bibby, John Kurtz 
Sneberger, Frank 
Walrond, Maurice Elrington 
White, Charles G. 



62 



Alumniana 



POST-GRADUATE STUDENTS 



1856 — Graham, Grafton H. 

Hamer, J. P. 
1857 — Kier, William 
1873 — Pierce, David A. 
1874 — Sheeley, Homer 
1884 — Ressler, John I. L. 
1888 — Staneff, Demetrius 
1893-^Currie, J. T. R. 

Sanders, Frank P. 
1898 — Duncan, John S. 
1899 — Gelvin, Edward H. 

Haupt, H. 
1900 — Crowe, Alvin N. 
1905 — Denise, Larimcre C. 

Slade, William F. 
1907 — Kienl'e, Gustav A. 

Loos, Carl 

Nussmann, George S. 
1908 — Peterson, Conrad A. 
1909 — Elliott, Arthur M. 

King, Felix Z. 
1910 — McMillan, John 

Quick, Errett B. 

Wingerd, Charles B. 
1911 — Weidler, Albert G. 

Whipkey, A. J. 

Winn, W. G. 



1912 — McGiffin, Russell B. 

Pierce, W. E. 
1913— Hogg, W. E. 
1914 — Allen, Louis C. 

Nordlander, Eric J. 

Pfeiffer, Erw?n G. 
1915 — Ansberg, John H. 

Browne, Harry R. 

Heltman, Andrew F. 

Robinson, Thomas 

Ruecker, August 

Stewart, Joseph 

Yates, William 0. 
1916 — Ackman John B. 

Morgan, Earl C. 

Offield, Robert L. 
1917 — Keller, Argyle C. 

Lowe, Arnold H. 
1918 — Simpson, Samuel T. 

Vancura, Vaclav F. 

Wright, John V. 
1921 — D'Aliberti, Alfred 

George, Arthur H. 

Hamilton, James A. 



STUDENTS WHOSE ADDRESSES ARE UNKNOWN 



Adams, James 1916-p 

Allen, F. M 1876-p 

Allison, Frank R 1896-p 

Almassy, Lajos 1910-p 

Ambrosimoff, Paul W. ..1915-p 

Ansberg, J. H 1915 p- 

Armstrong, James New- 
ton 1891 

Asbury, Cornelius 1873 

Asbury, Dudley E 1872 

Askew, Tony J 1903-p 

Auraham, Yonan Y 1894 

Baillie, Alexander S. . ..1916-p 

Baker, Anthony G 1873 

Bakewell, John 1862-p 

Barclay, Hugh A 1861 

Barr, Frank Alva 1876-p 

Barr, Lewis William . . . .1884 
Bascomb, Lawton B. ...1896 

Beal, Joseph E 1918-p 

Beall, Marion E 1882 

Beinhauer, John C 1863-p 



Bell, W. J 1893-p 

Bente, Christopher H. ...1887-p 

Benton, Dwight, Jr 1897-p 

Bettex, Paul F. G 1894-p 

Bibby, John K 1921-p 

Biddle, Earle Henry . . . .1915-p 
Binkley, Stanford B. ...1915-p 

Birch, John M 1876-p 

Blair, Thomas S 1895-p 

Boice, Evan 1869-p 

Boice, Robert A 1901 

Bolar, A. J 1862-p 

Boyd, R. Earle 1934-p 

Brenneman, George 

Emmor 1914-p 

Bridge, D. G 1865-p 

Brown, C. H 1898-p 

Brown, Henry J 1871-p 

Brown, John F 1877-p 

Brown, Nathan L 1897-p 

Brown, William H 1877-p 

Buchanan, George D. ...1879 



63 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Bullard, F. L. Jr., ...... 1895-p 

Burchfield, W. A 185 9 

Byczynski, Sigmundus 

A 1908-p 

Caldwell, Stewart S 18 80-p 

Caldwell, Thomas B. ...1880-p 

Caliman, D. F 1895-p 

Campbell, Samuel L 1861-p 

Carter, William J 1872-p 

Chisholm, Harry T 1896 

Chisholm, James D 1,897-p 

Clark, Walter B 1892-p 

Coad, H. W 1900-p 

Collier, Francis M 1887 

Conn, Lloyd H 1916-p 

Converse, Rob Roy 187 1-p 

Cooper, Daniel C 1862-p 

Copland, George 1874 

Countermine, James L. .1889-p 

Craig, J. E 1874 

Cran, John N 1910-p 

Crawford, Frank W 1905 

Creighton, Andrew 1879-p 

Criner, Alvin M 1890-p 

Culbertson, William F. .18 5 6-p 

Currie, J. T. R 1893-p 

Dagnault, Pierre S. C. ..1864-p 

Dannels, Ellis W 185 7-p 

Davis, David S 18 64-p 

Davis, James S 1864-p 

Davis, John P 1889 

Davis, William . 1865 

DeJesi, L. M 1879 

DeLong, David D 187 4 

DeMarco, Michele Fran- 
cesco 1917 

Depue, James H 1900-p 

Dickerson, J. 189 2-p 

Dobias, Joseph 1918-p 

Dodd, Cyrus M 1861-p 

Dodd, Reuel 18 69-p 

Donehoo, James D 1888-p 

Edgerton, John M 1859-p 

Evans, Walter E 1905 

Fairfax, Isaac 18 75-p 

Falck, Charles M 1915-p 

Fields, Samuel G. A. ...1875-p 

Forsyth, Clarence J 1884 

Foy, John 1869 

Francis, David 18 58-p 

Fredericks, William J. . .18 8S-p 

Freeman, John W 1885 

Garner, Joseph 1918-p 

Gay, Thomas B 189 9-p 

Geckler, George ..1863-p 



Gibson, William N 1862-p 

Gilmore, John I. . , 18 9 8 

Gordon, Edwin W. ..... 1888-p 

Gosweiler, Augustus Van 

Hoof 1874-p 

Graham, Grafton H 18o6-p 

Graham, Ralph L. E 1893-p 

Graham, Thomas L 1871-p 

Granger, William R 18 8 2-p 

Grant, Henry A 1879-p 

Grant, James A 1879-p 

Gray, D. V 1917-p 

Gray, James H 18 62 

Gray, William S 18 61-p 

Griffiths, S. W 1899-p 

Griffiths, William 18 94-p 

Groves, Samuel B. ......1891 

Haden, George R 1918-p 

Hamer, J. P 185 6-p 

Harbolt, John H 186 7 

Haupt, H 18 99-p 

Haworth, James 18 90-p 

Hay, Lewis 1877-p 

Hicks, Thomas George ..19Uo-p 

Hill, Charles 1865-p 

Heppard, Samuel M 1867-p 

Highberger, Wm. W 1913 

Hochman, Stanislav B. . .19 06 
Holliday, Thomas E. ....1889-p 

Howell, Otis 1895 

Howey, R. H 1874 

Hrbata, Leopold 1919-p 

Hume, Robert 1859-p 

Humphrey, G. H 1872 

Hutchins, John C 1876-p 

Irwin, John C 1858 

Jack, James Payson . . . .1911-p 

Jamieson, Roy W 1913-p 

Jenkins, George W 18 8 7-p 

Johnson, C. 1887-p 

Jones, Alfred 1870-p 

Jones, E. R 1874 

Jones, Isaac F 1866-p 

Jones, Sugars T 18 64-p 

Jones, Thomas R 1868-p 

Jones, William M 1892-p 

Kaczmarsky, Roman ....1917-p 

Keir, William 185 7-p 

Kellogg, Robert 1875-p 

Kelsey, Joel S 18 74-p 

Kemerer, Duncan M. ...18 65-p 

Kennedy, Pinley F 1892 

Kerlinger, Charles C. . . .1878-p 

King, Courtlen 1860-p 

King, H. W 1912-p 



64 



Alumniana 



King, Joseph 1868-p 

Kinkaid, James J 1864-p 

Kittell, James S. . . . : . ..1899-p 

Koehne, J. B 1890-p 

Kromer, E. G 1903 

Kucera, Jaroslav 1910-p 

Kuhn, Louis John 1885-p 

Kuziw, Wasil 1910-p 

Lambe, Henry B 1861 

Larimore, John K 1870-p 

Lee, Charles H 1860-p 

Lee, George L 1881-p 

Lee, Harold, Jr 1920-p 

Leroy, Albert E 190 0-p 

Lewis, David 1882-p 

Litten, Ross B 1915-p 

Little, Robert H 1919-p 

Lloyd, William A 18 61-p 

Loos, Carl 1907 p- 

Lowe, Titus 1903-p 

Luccock, Emory W 1919-p 

Lutcy, Adolphe E 1869 

Lyon, David N 1869 

Lytle, Marshall Blaine ..1905-p 

McAyeal, Howard S 1886-p 

McCarthy, William B. ..1883-p 

McCauley, Clay 18 67-p 

McConnell, Alexander S. 1866 
McConnell, Harry W. .. .1919-p 

McDonald, J. P 1897 

McElhenny, John J 1861-p 

McFarland, George M. ..1868 
McFarland, William H. ..1876 

McGiffen, R. B 1912-p 

McGrew, James 1892-p 

McKelvey, Charles M. ..1901-p 

Mackenzie, Duncan 1918 

McKenzie, R. W 1918-p 

McLain, W. J. E 1878-p 

McLane, Wm. W 1874 

McMartin, John A 1869-p 

McMillan, John 1910-p 

McNulty, Rob Roy (now 

R. R. Converse) 1871-p 

MeSherry, Hubert L 1920-p 

Machett, Alexander 1862-p 

Madden, Samuel W 1862 

Magee, Samuel G 1898-p 

March, Alfred 1875-p 

Marks, Harvey B 1901 

Mateer, William N 1881-p 

Matson, Walter T 1897 

Miller, John H 1887-p 

Miller, William W 1891-p 

Mitchell, Robert 1856 

Moore, John E 1920-p 



Moore, John M 1867 

Moore, Will L. 1902 

Moricz, Balint Dezso . . ..1910-p 

Morris, Jeremiah M 1885-p 

Morris, John T 1878-p 

Munden, J. N 1890-p 

Murray, Stockton R 1876 

Myers, Percy L 1898-p 

Neese, William D 1878 

Nesbit, James Harvey ..1877-p 

Newell, Harry N 1916-p 

Nordlander, E. J 1914-p 

■ Norris, John N 1890-p 

Paine, David B 1863-p 

Paisley, George M 1877-p 

Park, William J 1865-p 

Patterson, Charles D. . . .1917-p 
Patterson, David H 1878-p 

g Patterson, James B 1859-p 

Patterson, James M 1884-p 

Patterson, Reuben F. . . .1863-p 

Payne, Henry P 1917-p 

Peairs, Benjamin F 1864-p 

Peepels, Henry C 1884-p 

Pender, Thomas M 1911-p 

Peterson, Conrad A 1908-p 

Phillis, T. W 1878-p 

Pierce, David A 1873-p 

Pierce, W. E 1912-p 

Piper, O. P 1871-p 

Porter, Robert B 1874 

Posey, David R 1857-p 

Price, William H 1862-p 

Puky de Bizak, Stephen 19 08-p 

Quick, Errett B 1910-p 

Rail, Emil 1902 

Rankin, T. C 1898-p 

Rea, John 1868 

Richards, John 1868-p 

Richmond, Charles E. ..1920-p 

Ritchey, James A 1876 

Rodebaugh, William H. 1892-p 
Rodgers, Joseph H. .....1899-p 

Sabacky, Vladimir 1918-p 

Sampson, George C 1877-p 

Sampson, John P 1871-p 

Sanders, Frank P 1893-p 

Santuccio, Agatino 1910-p 

Sarver, Jonathan E 1903-p 

Sawhill, Thomas A 1878-p 

Schleifer, Oscar 1898 

Schneider, William P. ..1900-p 

Schodle, Adam G 1907 

Schultz, Irvin S 1916-p 

Scott, George R. W 1866-p 

Sharp, Samuel F 1898-p 

65 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Shauer, Joseph J 1919-p 

Shepard, Simon P 1885-p 

Shields, Harry M 1893-p 

Simpson, James T 1913-p 

Simpson, John W 1878 

Sinclair, B. D 1887-p 

Smith, Charles L 1890-p 

Smith, C. S 1881-p 

Smith, James P 1858-p 

Smith, Joseph H 1862-p 

Smith, Wayne P 1894-p 

Soucek, Frank 1918-p 

Staneff, Demetrius 1888-p 

Stanley, Walter P 1919-p 

Steele, Alexander 19 01-p 

Stephens, Herbert T. ...1891-p 
Sterrett, Walter Brooks 189 9-p 

Stevenson, James P 1903-p 

Storer, Happer B 1916-p 

Street, S. T 1875-p 

Streeter. E. E 1908-p 

Strub, Henry M 1916 

Stulc, Joseph 1920-p 

Swan, Alfred W 1919-p 

Swarts, Adolph A 1913 

Tanner, Benjamin T 1860-p 

Tappan, David S 1867 

Thayer, Henry Ernest .. .1883-p 

Thomas, Coovirt R 1920-p 

Thomas, William H 1868-p 

Thompson, Benjamin ...1866-p 
Thompson, Theodore A.. 1877-p 

Tipper, William 1901-p 

Van Emman, Craig R. . .1869-p 

Varner, W. P 1894-p 

Vaughn, Bert C 1888 

Vecsey, Eugene 1911-p 

Vocaturo, Pasquale ....1912-p 

Vogan, Frank H 1898-p 

Waite, James 1899-p 

Walden, Anthony, E. ...1888-p 

Walker, Edward P 1885-p 

Walker, William E. .... .185 9-p 



Wallace, Scott Ingalls ..1903 
Wallace, Thomas M. ...1878-p 
Walrond, Maurice E. ...1921-p 

Warren, William H 1863-p 

Waters, James Q 1863-p 

Watson, James H 1892-p 

Watt, John C 1877-p 

Weber, Pierre 1911-p 

White, Charles G 1921-p 

Wells, Earl B 1899-p 

Welsh, W. S 188S-P 

Welty, F. B 1872 

•White, Daniel C 1898-p 

White, Prescott C 1894-p 

Whiten, I. J 1862-p 

Willard, Hess Ferral .. . .1914 
Wilson, Walter Lowrie .18 9 7 

Wightman, J. R 1891-p 

Wilkinson, A. P 1895-p 

Willard, E. S 1881 

Williams, Charles B. ...18 91-p 

Williams, John Ira 1899 

Williams, Richard G. ...1862-p 
Wilson, Charles Reid ..18y9-p 

Wilson, H. Luther 1912-p 

Winger, C. N 1884-p 

Winn, W. G 1911-p 

Wishard, Frederick, G. ..1898-p 

Wood, William S 1859-p 

Woodbury, Frank P 1864-p 

Woods, Robert 1866 

Woolf, G. R 1882-p 

Workman, A. D 1872 

Wortabet, G. M lS58-p 

Worthman, Diedrich ....1914-p 

Wycoff, J. L. R 1870-p 

Yates, Thomas R 1897-p 

Yoo, Charles 1913-p 

Young, Alexander B. . . .1897-p 

Young, A. Z ...1864-p 

Youngman, Benjamin C. 1870-p 
Zoll, Joseph 1896 



66 



Alumniana 



CALLS 

Rev. Charles Millar, '92, Tamaqua, Pa., to Danville, Pa. 
Rev. T. W. Pearson, '93, Franklin, Pa., to Hopedale, O. 
Rev. R. J. Roberts, '9 4, Marion Center, Pa., to Homer City, Pa. 
Dr. W. A. Atkinson, '9 6, Marysville, O., to First Church of 
Rochester, Pa. 

Rev. H. O. McDonald, '99, Unity, Pa., to Enon, Pa. 

Rev. J. R. Mohr, '00, Natrona, Pa., to First, Freedom, Pa. 

Rev. Hugh Leith, '02, Covington, Ky., to Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Rev. D. P. Williams, '02, Supt. of Beaver and Shenango Presby- 
teries to First Church of East Palestine, Ohio. 

Rev. Plummer N. Osborne, '07, East End, Bradford, Pa., to 
Rocky Grove, Franklin, Pa. 

Rev. Matthew F. Smith, '11, Beaver Falls, Pa., to First, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

Rev. M. H. Sewell, '12-p, New Philadelphia, Ohio, to Marietta, 
Ohio. 

Rev. Paul Sappie, '15, Lemington Ave., Pittsburgh, to Water- 
ford, Pa. 

Rev. Gill R. Wilson, '20, Assistant pastor of First Church of 
Parkersburg, W. Va., to Fourth Presbyterian, Trenton N. J. 

INSTALLATIONS 

Rev. James D. Humphrey, '99, Plumville, Pa., July 21, 1921. 

Rev. William A. Reed, '00, Van Buren, Ohio, July 17, 1921. 

Rev. E. J. Knepshield, '0 5, Little Redstone, Pa. 

Rev. W. W. Dinsmore, '07, Lower Ten Mile and Pleasant Hill, 
Pa. August 27, 1921. 

Rev. G. L. Glunt, '11, Oakland, Pittsburgh, Pa., March 4, 1921. 

Rev. G. K. Bamford, '21, New Salem, Pa. 

Rev. A. B. Weisz, '21, Laurel Hill, Pa., July 21, 1921. Mr. Weisz 
was ordained at the same service. 

ACCESSIONS 

Rev. J. Shane Nicholls, D.D., '92, Immanuel, Cincinnati, Ohio. . . 19 

Rev. W. F. McKee, D.D., '96, Monongahela, Pa 8 

Rev. R. E. Porter, '9 6, Mahoningtown, Pa 11 

Rev. J. B. Brice, '00, Forest Lawn, Marion, Ohio 50 

Rev. W. J. Holmes, '02, First, Lancaster, Pa 10 

Rev. Edgar R. Tait, '02, Wilson, Pa., 82 

Rev. H. C. Hutchison, '09, Hazelwood, Pittsburgh, Pa 13 

Rev. G. L. Glunt, '11, Oakland, Pittsburgh, Pa 28 

Rev. M. A. Matheson, '11, Prospect, Ashtabula, Ohio 34 

Rev. L. L. Tait, '15, Bessemer, Pa 26 

Rev. D. E. Daniel, '19, Conemaugh, Pa 15 

67 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



RESIGNATIONS 

Rev. Fountain F. Farrand, '83, Bethany, Sacramento, Cal. 

Rev. Isaac Boyce, D.D. '84, Allison Park, Pa. 

Rev. Francis A. Kerns, '88, Youngwood, Pa. , 

GENERAL ITEMS ' 

On June 14th, the Presbytery of Pittsburgh met in the Raccoon 
Presbyterian Church to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of both 
the ordination and the pastorate of Rev. Greer M. Kerr, D.D. '71. 
Pittsburgh Presbytery held an adjourned meeting in the same church 
June 14, 1871, for the purpose of ordaining and installing Dr. Kerr, 
who had just graduated from the Seminary. The following program 
was followed: Anniversary Sermon, Dr. Kerr; Address to Young 
People, Rev. J. A. Marquis, D.D.; Meeting of Presbytery; Minute of 
meeting of Pittsburgh Presbytery June 14, 1871, Rev. C. S. McClel- 
land, D. D.; Addresses by Rev. S. J. Fisher, D.D., Dr. W. D. Irons. 
Rev. J. M. Duff, D.D., Rev. Hugh T. Kerr, D.D., Rev. Maitland 
Alexander, and Rev. W. P. Proudflt; An Ode to a Pastor, Rev. W. F. 
Brown, D. D. 

The Carnegie Presbyterian Church has erected an honor tablet 
in appreciation of the life and service of Dr. Joseph M. Duff, '76, 
who recently retired after a pastorate of forty years in this church. 
The tablet will be unveiled Dec. 18th. 

The Fourth Presbyterian Church of Camden, N. J., of which 
Rev. W. A. Williams '80-p. is pastor, received during the last fiscal 
year 104 members; eighty of these were received in twenty-two 
Sabbaths. 

Rev. Fountain F. Farrand, '83, has resigned the pastorate of 
Bethany Church of Sacramento, Cal., on account of ill health. 

Through an oversight we failed to note the celebration of the 
thirtieth anniversary of the pastorate of Rev. C. C. Hays, D. D., '84 
of the First Presbyterian Church of Johnstown, Pa. The anniversary 
was celebrated early in the present year (Feb. 4th and 6th.). On 
Friday evening a reception for Dr. and Mrs. Hays was held; on 
Sunday addresses were delivered by Rev. John A. Marquis, D.D., 
'90, at the morning service, and by Chancellor S. B. McCormick, '90, 
at the evening service. Dr. Hays is President of the Board of Direc- 
tors of the Seminary, and his alma mater is deeply indebted to him 
for the time and thought which he has given to her welfare. 

Rev. George P. Donehoo, '86, of Coudersport, Pa., has recently 
been made State Librarian. 

Rev. W. O. Elterich, '88, who, with his wife and daughter, has. 
been spending a year's furlough in Pittsburgh and vicinity, sailed, 
from San Francisco the last of August. His address will be Temple 
Hill, Chefoo, China. 

The Webster Groves Presbyterian Church of St. Louis, of which 
ReV. David S. Skilling, D. D., '91, is pastor, now has a membership 
of jnore than 900. Recently an offering of $92 5 was taken for the 
Interchurch debt, and the Bible School gave $522 fox. Near East 

68 



Alumniana 

Rev. T. W. Pearson, '93 terminated his pastorate at the Rocky 
Grove Presbyterian Church, Franklin, Pa., May 29th., accepting a 
call to the Presbyterian Church of Hopedale, Ohio. His seven years 
in Franklin have been marked with great success. Three hundred 
and three new members have been added and one hundred and 
seventy-five have been baptized. The various departments of the 
church have become more and more efficient. In place of one mission- 
ary society giving $35 annually, there are now five, contributing 
$400 annually. 

The First Presbyterian Church of Scottdale, of which Rev. J. 
E. Hutchison, '94, is pastor, is enjoying great prosperity. Recent 
large accessions have brought the total membership to over 700. The 
church supports eleven native preachers and five students for the 
ministry in Chefoo, China. 

Rev. D. E. Hepler, '9 5, was elected to the office of Presbyterial 
Superintendent by the Presbytery of Clarion and was released from 
the pastorate of the Pisgah Church to begin his new work May 15th. 

Sept. 23rd. marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of the sailing 
of Rev. and Mrs. Harvey Brokaw, '96-p., for Japan, where they are 
still actively engaged in missionary work. 

The Highlandtown Church, of which Rev. J. S. Cotton, '9 6, is 
the pastor, celebrated its centennial anniversary Sept. 3d. and 4th. 
More than a thousand people attended the first day's meeting. 

Dr. and Mrs. W. F. McKee of Monongahela Presbyterian Church 
celebrated their tweny-fifth wedding anniversary, July 21st. The 
congregation joined in the celebration at the manse with a dinner 
and reception at which time beautiful presents were given the couple. 
Dr. McKee is a member of the class of 1896. 

The Synod of Colorado held its fiftieth annual meeting in the 
Central Church of Denver, Sept. 27-3 inclusive, and the part of the 
program covering the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary, which 
included afternoon and evening sessions on Sept. 29 as well as a 
dinner for men, was arranged by Rev. J. Mont Travis, '9 6. 

The Presbyterian Church of Newell, W. Va., of which Rev. 
Herman M. Hosack, '98, is pastor, celebrated the tenth anniversary of 
its dedication on Sunday, June 19th. During that period the member- 
ship has increased from 28 to 148. Two years ago the church be- 
came self supporting. The average contribution per member is $35.94 
Mr. Hosack has been pastor there five years. 

During the pastorate of Rev. R. P. Lippincott, '02, the First 
Church of Cadiz, Ohio, has made a remarkable advance in its bene- 
volent contributions. Ten years ago the church was contributing 
about two thousand dollars to the Boards and other causes; for the 
last fiscal year the contributions reached a total of eight thousand 
dollars. 

Central Presbyterian Church of Washington, Pa., Rev. Walter 
P. McConkey, '06, pastor, on May first celebrated the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of its organization. 

In this age when many churches report a decline in attendance 
it is gratifying to find a church like the First €hurch of New Ken- 
sington, Pa., when the seating capacity of the auditorium is taxed 
to the utmost regularly both morning and evening. The pastor. Rev. 
W. G. Felmeth, '11, is to be congratulated. 

69 



Tl%e Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Rev. and Mrs. W. H. Hezlep and their three children sailed dur- 
ing August from New York for Bombay. Mr. Hezlep is a member of 
the class of '11. 

Rev. M. A. Matheson, '11, has received 108 new members into 
his church and has baptized 53 persons since he became pastor of the 
Prospect Church, Ashtabula, Ohio, a little more than a year ago. 

Rev. Matthew F. Smith, D.D., '11, has taken charge of the work 
in the First Church of Indianapolis, Ind., to which he was recently 
called from Beaver Falls, Pa. 

Rev. P. E. Burtt, '12, has had marked success in his work at 
Wellsburg, W. Va. Recently the congregation showed their apprecia- 
tion by increasing his salary five hundred dollars. During his pastor- 
ate a total of 144 have been added to the church. 

Rev. Mayson H. Sewell, '12-p., New Philadelphia, Ohio, on 
Sept. 11th. received four new members into the church, making a 
total of 122 received within two years. On Sept. 15th, Mr. Sewell 
took up the work in his new pastorate in the First Church of 
Marietta, Ohio. 

A very successful Conference for the Young People of Clarion 
Presbytery was held at Reynoldsville, Pa., June 23-26, under the 
auspices of the Permanent Committee on Sabbath Schools and 
Young People's Societies, of which Rev. C. W. Cochran, '13, is 
chairman. 

Rev, S. L. Johnston, '13, is enjoying a very pleasant and success- 
ful pastorate in the Muddy Creek, Presbyterian Church in Redstone 
Presbytery. He began his pastorate there about a year ago, coming 
from Woodlawn, Pa. 

Rev. O. S. McFarland, '13, is President of the Board of Relig- 
ious Education of New Brighton, Pa. Under his direction New Brigh- 
ton has an up-to-date community program of religious education. 
Through arrangements made with the Board of Public Education, the 
New Brighton Board of Religious Education offers, as an elective, 
to all pupils in Grades I-VIII, one hour of religious instruction each 
week during regular school hours. Those pupils who are not enrolled 
for this work will remain in school, using this hour as a study hour. 
The school day has not been lengthened. Over .95% of the pupils in 
the first six grades have enrolled. 

The October number of the "Moslem World" contains an article 
on Mohammed Al-Ghazzali by Rev. Dwight M. Donaldson, '14. The 
article is in reality a translation of a Persian biographical history of 
this great Islamic theologian, whose influence in that system corres- 
ponds with that of Augustine in the Christian. Mr. Donaldson has the 
honor of being the re-discoverer of the tomb of Al-Ghazzali. 

Rev. E. C. Howe, '14, before he returned to China, was presented 
with a special gift of $40 by the First Presbyterian Church, Martins 
Ferry, Ohio, of which he is the missionary. 

Rev. Mark B. Maharg, '14, has begun work in his new pastorate 
in the Brighton Presbyterian Church of Zanesville, Ohio. 

Rev. L. L. Tait, '15, is meeting with great encouragement in his 
work at Bessemer, Pa. At a recent celebration of the Lord's Supper 
more persons communed than at any other service in the history of 
the church. On this occasion twenty-two of the twenty-six additions 
to the church were on profession of faith. 

70 



Alumniana 

Rev. R. V. Gilbert, '16 is laying great emphasis on religious 
education in the First Presbyterian Church of Girard, Pa. He con- 
ducts a teacher training class for thirty minutes prior to the prayer 
meeting service, and during the prayer meeting period has a system- 
atic study of Old Testament Prophecy. 

The Presbyterian Church of Dalton, Ohio, Rev. Ross E. Conrad, 
'17, pastor, is now observing Wednesday night as "Church Night". 
After a fifteen minute devotional service, the following classes are 
held: men's discussion group, women's group studying medical mis- 
sions, expert endeavor class, and junior mission study class. 

Rev. Arnold H. Lowe, 'p-g,'17, and Miss Biraddie Elmore Douglas 
were married at Malta Bend, Mo., Thursday, Sept. 1st, Mr. Lowe is 
pastor of the Odell Avenue Presbyterian Church, Marshall, Mo. 

Under the direction of Rev. C. R. Wheeland '17, the Irving Park 
Presbyterian Church of Chicago has laid out a progressive and com- 
prehensive program for evangelistic and social work. A parish house 
less elaborate but similar to the one at the Fourth Church is to be 
erected. At a recent communion twenty-one new members were 
received, nineteen on confession and two by letter. 

Rev. W. W. McKinney, '19, in his annual Labor Day Sermon, 
delivered a forceful discourse on the text, "Masters render unto 
your servants that which is just and equal; knowing that ye also 
have a Master in heaven." 

During a period of twenty months Rev. William F. Mellott, '19, 
of Cumberland, Md., received 74 members into the church. 



71 



Subscription Blank for (he Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary. 

Rev. James A. Kelso, Ph., D., D.D., 

Pres. Western Theological Seminary, 

731 Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Dear Sir: — 

Enclosed find 75 cents for one year's subscription to the Bulletin of the 
Western Theological Seminary, commencing January, 1922. 

Name - 

Address 



^7'2 



Subscription Blank for the Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary. 

Rev. James A. Kelso, Ph., D., D.D., 

Pres. Western Theological Seminary, 

731 Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Dear Sir: — 

Enclosed find 75 cents for one year's subscription to the Bulletin of the 
Western Theological Seminary, commencing January, 1922. 

Name - 

Address 



72 



:m. 



BEECH 



^WESTERN 



LYNDALE 



RIDGE 






NORTH 



AVE. 



SHOWING THE LOCATION OF 

WESTERN THEOLOGICAL 
SEMINARY 

N.S. PITTSBURGH, PENN'A 




A— HERRON HALL C— DR SNOWDEN'S RESIDENCE. E— OLD LIBRARY. P— MEMORIAL HALL. 

B— DR. KELSO'S RESIDENCE. D— DR. SCHAPF'S RESIDENCE. G— SWIPT HALL. 



D 



CATALOGUE 

1921 - 1922 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Western Theological 
Seminary 



Published quarterly, in January, April, July, and October 
by the 



TRUSTEES OF THE 

Western Theological Seminary 

OF THE 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA 



Entered as Second Class Matter December 9, 1909, at the Postoffice at Pittsburgh, 
Pa. (North Diamond Station), Under the Act of Aug. 24, 1912 



PITTSBURGH PRINTING COMPANY 
PITTSBURGH, PA. 



CALENDAR FOR 1922 



WEDNESDAY, APRIL 26th. 

Written examinations at 8:30 A. M.; continued Thursday, April 
27th, Friday, April 28th, and Saturday, April 29th. 

SUNDAY, APRIL 30th. 

Baccalaureate sermon in the Tabernacle Presbyterian Church, 

at 11:00 A. M. 
Seniors' communion service at 3:00 P. M. in the Chapel. 

MONDAY, MAY 1st. 

Oral examinations at 2:00 P. M.; continued Tuesday, May 
2nd, and Wednesday, May 3rd. 

THURSDAY, MAY 4th. 

Annual meeting of the Board of Directors in the President's 
Office at 10:00 A. M. 

THURSDAY, MAY 4th. 

Commencement exercises. Conferring of diplomas and address 

to the graduating class, 3:00 P. M. 
Meeting of Alumni Association and annual dinner, 5:00 P. M. 

FRIDAY, MAY 5th. 

Annual meeting of Board of Trustees at 3:00 P. M. 

Session of 1922-23 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19th. 

Reception of new students in the President's Office at 3:00 

P. M. 
Matriculation of students and distribution of rooms in the 

President's Office at 4:00 P. M. 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20th. 

Opening address in the Chapel at 10:30 A. M. 

TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 21st. 

Semi-annual meeting of the Board of Directors at 2:00 P. M. 

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 22nd. 

Semi-annual meeting of the Board of Trustees at 3:00 P. M. 
in the parlor of the First Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh. 

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 29th. (noon) — FRIDAY, DECEM- 
BER 1st. (8:30 A. M.) 

Thanksgiving recess. 

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 20th. (noon) — TUESDAY, JANU- 
ARY 2nd. (8:30 A. M.) 

Christmas recess. 
3 (75) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 
BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

aPFICEBS 

President 



Vice-President 

Ralph W. Harbison 

Secretary 
THE REV. SAMUEL J. FISHER, D. D. 

Counsel 

T. D. McCLOSKEY 

Treiasiirer 

COMMONWEALTH TRUST COMPANY 



TRUSTEES 



Class of 1922 

Joseph A. Herron Oliver McClintock 

Ralph W. Harbison "Wilson A. Shaw 

Geo. B. Logan William M. Robinson 

The Rev. William J. Holland, D. D., LL. D. 

Class of 1923 

Hon. J. McF. Carpenter Charles A. Dickson 

The Rev. W. A. Jones, D. D. John R, Gregg 

Daniel M. Clemson Sylvester S. Marvin 

Robert Wardrop 

Class of 1924 

Geo. D. Edwards R. D. Campbell 

John G. Lyon Rev. P. W. Snyder, D. D. 

The Rev. S. J. Fisher, D. D. Alex. C. Robinson 
The Rev. Stuart Nye Hutchison, D. D. 

4 (76) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



STANDING COMMTTTEES 



Geo. B. Logan 
Robert Wardrop 



Executive 

W. J. Holland, D. D. George D. Edwards 
Oliver McClintock S. J. Fisher, D. D. 



R. W. Harbison 



Auditors 

Geo. D. Edwards 



R. D. Campbell 



R. W. Harbison 



Property 

Geo. B. Logan 



Alex. C. Robinson 



Finance 

President, Treasurer, Secretary, and Auditors 



A. C. Robinson 



Library 

John G. Lyon 



J. A. Kelso, Ph.D., D. D. 



Advisory Member of all Ck>minittees 

James A. Kelso, Ph. D., D. D., ex officio 



Annual Meeting, Friday before second Tuesday in May, 3:00 P. M. ; 
semi-annual meeting, Wednesday following third Tuesday in 
November, 3:00 P. M., in the parlor of the First Presbyterian 
Church, Sixth Avenue. 



5 (77) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

OFFICERS 

President 

THE REV. CALVIN C. HAYS, D. D. 

Vice-President 

THE REV. J. KINSEY SMITH, D. D. 

Secretary 
THE REV. JOSEPH M. DUFF, D. D. 



DIRECTORS 

Class of 1922 
Examining Conunittee 

The Rev. Maitland Alexander, D. D. 



The Rev. Wm. O. Campbell, D. D. 
The Rev. Geo. N. Luccock, D. D. 

The Rev. Joseph T. Gibson, D. D. 

The Rev. J. Millen Tlobinson, D. D., LL 

The Rev. John M. Mealy, D. D. 

The Rev. Samuel Semple, D. D. 



T. D. McCloskey 
J. S. Crutchfield 
James Rae 



D. 



Class of 1923 



The Rev. Calvin C. Hays, D. D. 
The Rev. Wm. H. Hudnut, D. D. 
The Rev. Hugh T. Kerr, D. D. 

The Rev. George Taylor, Jr., Ph. D. 

The Rev. William E. Slemmons, D. D. 

The Rev. J. Kinsey Smith, D. D. 

The Rev. William F. Weir, D. D. 



Ralph W. Harbison 
*James I. Kay 
Wilson A. Shaw 



*Died, Feb. 20, 1921. 



(78) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Class of 1924 

The Rev, William R. Craig, D. D. 
The Rev. David S. Kennedy, D. D. 
The Rev. Frederick W. Hinitt, D. D. 

The Rev. S. B, McCormick, D. 

The Rev. William L. McEwan, D. 

The Rev W. P. Stevenson, D. D. 

The Rev. A. P. Higley, D. D. 



Charles N. Hanna 
George B. Logan 
Alex. C. Robinson 

D., LL. D. 

D. 



Class of 1925 

The Rev. Thomas B. Anderson, D. D. 
The Rev. Jesse C. Bruce, D. D. 
The Rev. Joseph M. Duff, D. D. 

The Rev. John A. Marquis, D. D. 

The Rev. J. M. Potter, D, D. 

*The Rev. William P. Shrom, D. 

The Rev. William H. Spence, D. 

*Died March 28, 1921. 



W. D. Brandon 

Dr. John C. Acheson 

John F. Miller 



D. 
D., 



Litt. D. 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



Executive 

Hugh T. Kerr, D. D. 
S. B. McCormick, D. D. 

T. D. McCloskey 

James A. Kelso, Ph. D., D. D., ex officio 



Joseph M. Duff, D. D. 
A. C. Robinson 



Curriculum 



A. P. Higley, D. D. 
Samuel Semple, D. D. 



William F. Weir, D. D. 
J. S. Crutchfield 



Annual Meeting, Thursday before second Tuesday in May and semi- 
annual meeting, third Tuesday in November at 2:00 P. M., in 
the President's Oflace, Herron Hall. 



7 (79) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



FACULTY 



The Rev. James A. Kelso, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D. 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel "W. Conkling Foundation 

The Rev. Robert Christie, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Apologetics 

The Rev. David Riddle Breed, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 



The Rev. David S. Schaff, D. D. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 

The Rev. William R. Farmer, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Systematic Theology 

The Rev. Selby Frame Vafce, D. D., LL. D. 

Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. David E. Culley, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor of Hebrew 



The Rev. Frank Eakif, B. D. 

Instructor in New Testament Greek and Librarian 

Prof. George M. Sleeth 

Instructor in Elocution 

Mr. Charles N. Boyd 

Instructor in Music 

8 (80) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



COMMITTEES OF THE FACULTY 

CknTkerence 

Dr. Schatf a»d Dr. Vance 

Elliott Lectureship 

Dr. Schaff and Dr. Snowden 

Bulletin 

Dr. Culley and Mr. Eakin 

Curriculum 

Dr. Farmer and Dr. Vance 

library 

Dr. Culley and Mr. Eakin 

Advisory Member of All Conunittees 

Dr. Kelso, ex officio 



Assistant to Librarian 

Miss Sara M. Higgins 

Secretary to the President 

Miss Margaret M. Read 



9 (81) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



LECTURES 



Opening Lecture 

The Rev. Jolm A. Hutton, D. D, 
"The Tone of Preaching" 

Home Missions (5 lectures) 

The Rev. Baxter P. Fullerton, D. D., LL. D. 

Church Publicity (5 lectures) 
Mr. Herbert H. Smith 

Conference Lectures 

"Near East", Professor Oscar M. Chamberlain. 

"Russia", Mr. Bayard Christy. 

"Missions in British East Africa", The Rev. Lee H, Downing. 

"John Calvin", The Rev. John C. Goddard, D. D. 

"Experiences in West Africa", The Rev. A. I. Good. 

"Missions in India", The Rev, W. H. Hezlep. 

"The Summer Bible Schools", The Rev. A. L. Latham, D. D, 

"Mexican Missions", The Rev. A. N. Lucero. 

"Doctrinal Preaching", The Rev. C. B. McAfee, Ph. D., D. D, 

"Community Religious Education", The Rev. O. S. McFarland. 

"Church Finance and Stewardship", The Rev. A. F. McGarrah. 

"Home Missions in the Southwest", The Rev Robert N. 

McLean, D. D. 
"Foreign Missions", The Rev. A. W. Moore. 
"The Work of Men in the Church", The Rev. William F, Weir, 

D. D, 
"India", The Rev. A. L. Wiley. 

Day of Prayer for Colleges 

A Conference on Recruiting for the Ministry, held under the 
joint auspices of the Faculty of the Seminary and the Education 
Committee of the Presbytery of Pittsburgh, formally opened with 
an address by the Rev. Hugh T. Kerr, D. D. 



10 (82) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



AWARDS: MAY, 1921 

Tlie Diploma of tke Seminary 



■was a-wardled to 



George Kyle Bamford 
Robert Harvey Henry 
Andrew Jay Hudock 
Charles Jesse Krivulka 
Frederic Christian Leypoldt 



Walter Lysander Moser 
Hampton Theodore McFadden 
John Christian Rupp 
Abraham Boyd Weisz 
Joseph J. Welenteichick 



A Special Certificate 

was awarded to 

Leon Buczak 
Tne Decree of Bacnelor of Divinity 



Alfred D'Aliberti 
Arthur Henry George 
James Adolph Hamilton 
John Tomasula 



•was conferred upon 



George Kyle Bamford 
(of the graduating class) 



Walter Lysander Moser 
(of the graduating class) 

The Seminary Fello^vsnip 

was awarded to 

Walter Lysander Moser 
1 ne Keitn Memorial rlomiletical Prize 

was a'warded to 

George Kyle Bamford 
A. rlebrew Prize 

was awarded to 

Arthur Dow Behrends 
Calvin H. Hazlett 

Merit Prizes 

-were awarded to 



W. H. Millinger 
P. L. Warnshuis 
J. W. Willoughby 



Calvin H. Hazlett 
Willard C. Mellin 
William Owen 



11 (83) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



STUDENTS 

Fellows 

John Greer Bingham Merer, Pa. 

A. B., Grove City College, 1905. 
Western Theological Seminary, 1916. 

Ralph C. Hofmeister Oakmont, Pa. 

A. B., Cedarville College, 1914. 
Western Theological Seminary, 1918. 

Roy Frank Miller Cochranton, Pa. 

B. So., West Virginia University, 1915. 
Western Theological Seminary, 1920. 

Walter Lysander Moser Mars, Pa. 

A. B., Grove City College, 1915. 

B. D., Western Theological Seminary, 1921. 

Clyde Randolph Wheeland Chicago, 111. 

B. D., Western Theological Seminary, 1917. 

Fellows 5 



Graduate Students 

Ole Curtis Griffith R. F. D., Coraopolis, Pa. 

A. B., Missouri Valley College, 1915. 
Western Theological Seminary, 1918. 

Walter Lysander Moser Mars, Pa. 

A. B., Grove City College, 1915 

B. D., Western Theological Seminary, 1921 

David Lester Say Cross Creek, Pa. 

A. B., Grove City College, 1914 
Western Theological Seminary, 1917. 

H. Erwin Stafford 725 Clinton Place, Bellevue, Pa. 

A. B., Hiram College, 1905. 

Charles E. Stanton 18 W. Mclntyre Ave., N. S. 

Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, 1900. 

G. B. iSwoyer 1122 High St., N. S 

A. B., Wittenberg College, 1913. 

Chicago Lutheran Theological Seminary, 1917. 



12 (84) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Walter Perkins Taylor, 107 Pembroke St., Boston Mass 315 

Ph. D., Boston University, 1887. 
Andover Theological Seminary, 1885. 

Rufus Donald Wingert Orville, Ohio 

College of Wooster, 1907. 

Western Theological Seminary, 1911. 

Graduate Students, 8 

Senior Class 

Clifford Edward Barbour .... 718 N. St. Clair St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
A. B., University of Pittsburgh, 1921. 

Archibald Ferguson Fulton, Ayreshire, Scotland, Belle Vernon, Pa. 
A. B., Oskaloosa College, 1920. 

Lewis Arthur Galbraith, Independence, Pa 302 

Park College. 

Elgie Leon Gibson, Petrolia, Pa 306 

A. B., Grove City College, 1919. 

Daniel Hamill, Jr 617 Gearing Ave., Beltzhoover 

A. B., Waynesburg College, 1919. 

Lyman N. Lemmon, Mt. Pleasant, Pa 316 

A. B., Franklin College (Ohio), 1917. 

Ralph K. Merker 1500 Beaver Ave., N. S. 

B. Sc, Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1918. 

Walter Harold Millinger ... 5213 Friendship Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Litt. B., Princeton University, 1918. 

Basil A. Murray, North Warren, Pa 202 

A. B., Westminister College (Pa.), 1917. 

Samuel Galbraith Neal, Bulger, Pa 205 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1919. 

Roscoe Walter Porter, Summerville, Pa 309 

A. B., Muskingum College, 1920. 

Emile Augustin Rivard, Charleroi, Pa 217 

McGill University. 
Amherst College. 

Paul Livingstone Warnshuis, Blairsville, Pa 203 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1917. 

James Wallace Willoughby, 200 N. Sixth St., Attica Ind 306 

A. B., Wabash College, 1919. 

Senior Class 14 
13 (85) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Middle Class 

Arthur Dow Behrends, Pittsburgh, Pa 216 

A. B., Wittenberg College, 1912. 

Jasper Morgan Cox, Parkersburg, W. Va 205 

A. B., Maryville College, 1921. 

Calvin Hoffman Hazlett, Newark, Ohio 203 

A. B., "Washington and Jefferson College, 1917. 

Lester Lane McCammon, West Alexander, Pa 204 

A. B., Bethany College, 1920. 

Andrew Vance McCracken, Sewickley, Pa 305 

A. B., Amherst College, 1920. 

James Martin, Amesbury, Mass 206 

A. B., Maryville College, 1920. 

Willard Colby Meaiin, Manorville, Pa 202 

A, B., University of California, 1920. 

William Owen 82 Grant Ave., West Etna, Pa. 

Metropolitan Seminary, London, 1912. 

Robert Lloyd Roberts, Marion Center, Pa 206 

A. B., Lafayette College, 1920. 

Middle Class, 9 

Junior Class 

Eugene LeMoyne Biddle, Grafton, Pa 304 

B. Sc, Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1921. 

Jarvis Madison Cotton, Birmingham, Ala 303 

A, B., Maryville College, 1921. 

Howard Truman Curtis, Dansville, N. Y 317 

A. B., College of Wooster, 1921. 

C. LeRoy DePrefontaine, Norristown, Pa 304 

Carnegie Institute of Technology. 

William F. Ehmann, 2115 Bridge St., Philadelphia, Pa 218 

A. of A. Blackburn College, 1921. 

Ross M. Haverfield, New Philadelphia, Ohio 218 

A. B., College lof Wooster, 1921. 

James Russell Hilty Library, Pa. 

Pd. M., State Normal School, Indiana, Pa., 1916. 

Ralph Walshaw Illingworth, Jr 841 N. Lincoln Ave., N. S. 

A. B., Princeton University, 1921. 

14 (86) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Arthur Jennings Jackson, New Brighton, Pa 305 

A. B., Geneva College, 1921. 

Robert Caldwell Johnston, Washington, Pa 317 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1921. 

George R. Lambert 417 Burgess St., N. S. 

William Stage Merwin, New Kensington, Pa 303 

University of Pittsburgh. 

George Karl Monroe 820 N. Lincoln Ave., N. S. 

A. B., Grove City College, 1921. 

Harold Francis Post 702 W. North Ave., N. S. 

A. B., Washington and Jefferson College, 1918. 
Boston University. 

Deane Craig Walter, Export, Pa 311 

A. B., Grove City College, 1920. 

Clayton Edgar Williams Sewickley, Pa. 

Butler College. 

University of Paris, France. 

James Carroll Wright, Granville, Ohio 306 

Ph. B., Denison University, 1921. 

John Yarkovsky, Kralove Hradec, Czecho-Slovakia 315 

Reale Schule, Kralove Hradec. 
University of Vladivostok, 1918-1919. 
Junior Class, 18 

Visitors 

Miss Luella Adams 108 Camp Ave., Braddock, Pa. 

Baptist Missionary Training School, Chicago, 1916. 

Miss Laura M. Moore 1316 Wood St., Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Washington Seminary (Pa.). 

Fred Reif 711 Sandusky St., N. S. 

Pharm. Gr., University of Pittsburgh, 1908. 

Miss Lula Wimpelberg 220 Main St., Arsenal Sta. 

Baptist Missionary Training School, Chicago, 1917. 
Visitors, 4 



Summary of Students 

Fellows 5 

Graduates 8 

Seniors 14 

Middlers 9 

Juniors 18 

Visitors 4 

58 

Name repeated 1 

Total 57 

15 (87) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

REPRESENTATION 

Theological Seminaries 

Andover Theological Seminary 1 

Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville 1 

Chicago Lutheran Theological Seminary 1 

Metropolitan Seminary, London 1 

Western Theological Seminary 8 

Colleges and Universities 

Amherst College 2 

Baptist Missionary Training School, Chicago 2 

Bethany College 1 

Blackburn College 1 

Boston University 1 

Butler College 1 

California, University of T 

Carnegie Institute of Technology 3 

Cedarville College 1 

Denison University 1 

Franklin College (Ohio) 1 

Geneva College 1 

Grove City College 6 

Hiram College 1 

Indiana State Normal School 1 

Kralove Hradec, Reale Schule 1 

Lafayette College 1 

McGill University 1 

Maryville College 3 

Missouri Valley College 1 

Muskingum College 1 

Oskaloosa College 1 

Paris, University of 1 

Park College 1 

Pittsburgh, University of 3 

Princeton University 2 

Vladivostok, University of 1 

Wabash College 1 

Washington and Jefferson College , 5 

Washington Seminary 1 

Waynesburg College 1 

Westminister College (Pa.) 1 

West Virginia University 1 

Wittenberg College 2 

Wooster, College of 3 

States and Countries 

Alabama 1 

Czecho-Slovakia 1 

Illinois 1 

Indiana 1 

Massachusetts 2 

New York 1 

Ohio 4 

Pennsylvania 45 

West Virginia 1 

16 (88) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS 

Senior Class 

President B. A. Murray Secretary-Treasurer: L. A. Galbraith 

Middle Class 

President: William Owen Secretary-Treasurer: A. D. Behrends 

Junior Class 

President: E. L. Biddle Secretary: A. J. Jackson 

Vice President: J. C. Wright Treasurer: H. F. Post 

Y. M. C. A. 

President: P. L. Wamshuis Secretary: W. C. Mellin 

Vice President: Roscoe W. Porter Treasurer: J. Morgan Cox 



Y. M. C. A. COMMITTEES 



Devotional 

C. H. Hazlett, Chairman 
S. G. Neal 
James Martin 

Home Missions 

B. A. Murray, Chairman 
A.. D. Behrends 

Foreign Missions 

J. W. Willoughby, Chairman 

C. E. Barbour 

Athletics 

L. L. McCammon, Chairman 
C. H. Hazlett 



L. N. Lemmon 
R. C. Johnston 
Prof. Eakin 



J. C. Wright 
Dr. Snowden 



John Yarkovsky 
Dr. Culley 



J. M. Cox 
Eugene Biddle 
Dr. Schaff 



Publicity 

L. A. Galbraith, Chairman 



Dr. Kelso 



Social 

L. N. Lemmon, Chairman 
R. W. Porter 
J. M. Cox 

Dr. Vance 

17 (89) 



R. L. Roberts 

C. L. DePrefontaine 

Wm. F. Ehmann 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Historical Sketch 

The Western Theological Seminary was established 
in the year 1825. The reason for the founding of the 
Seminary is expressed in the resolution on the subject, 
adopted by the General Assembly of 1825, to wit: ''It 
is expedient forthwith to establish a Theological Semi- 
nary in the West, to be styled the Western Theological 
Seminary of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States." The Assembly took active measures for carry- 
ing into execution the resolution which had been adopted, 
by electing a Board of Directors consisting of twenty- 
one ministers and nine ruling elders, and by instructing 
this Board to report to the next General Assembly a 
suitable location and such "alterations" in the plan of 
the Princeton Seminary, as, in their judgment, might 
be necessary to accommodate it to the local situation of 
the "Western Seminary." 

The General Assembly of 1827, by a bare majority 
of two votes, selected Allegheny as the location for the 
new institution. The first session was formally com- 
menced on November 16, 1827, with a class of four young 
men who were instructed by the Rev. E. P. Swift and the 
Rev. Joseph Stockton. 

During the ninety-four years of her existence, two 
thousand three hundred and ninety-eight students have 
attended the classes of the Western Theological Semin- 
ary; and of this number, over eighteen hundred have been 
ordained as ministers of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. 
A. Her missionary alumni, one hundred thirty -five in 
number, many of them having distinguished careers, 
have preached the Gospel in every land where mission- 
ary enterprise is conducted. 

Location 

The choice of location, as the history of the institu- 
tion has shown, was wisely made. The Seminary in 

18 (90) 



I 




Oh 

U 
Q 

O 
Q 

B 
m 

z 
o 

H 

<^ 

Pi 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

course of time ceased, indeed, to be western in the strict 
sense of the term; but it became central to one of the 
most important and influential sections of the Presby- 
terian Church, equally accessible to the West and East. 
The buildings are situated near the summit of Ridge 
Avenue, Pittsburgh (North Side), mainly on West Park, 
one of the most attractive sections of the city. Within 
a block of the Seminary property some of the finest resi- 
dences of Greater Pittsburgh are to be found, and at the 
close of the catalogue prospective students will find a 
map showing the beautiful environs of the institution. 
It is twenty minutes' walk from the center of business 
in Pittsburgh, with a ready access to all portions of the 
city, and yet as quiet and free from disturbance as if in 
a remote suburb. In the midst of this community of 
more than 1,000,000 people and center of strong Presby- 
terian churches and church life, the students have unlim- 
ited opportunities of gaining familarity with every type 
of modern church organization and work. The practical 
experience and insight which they are able to acquire, 
without detriment to their studies, are a most valuable 
element in their preparation for the ministry. 

Buildings 

The first Seminary building was erected in the year 
1831; it was situated on what is now known as Monu- 
ment Hill. It consisted of a central edifice, sixty feet 
in length by fifty in breadth, of four stories, having at 
each front a portico adorned with Corinthian columns, 
and a cupola in the center; and also two wings of three 
stories each, fifty feet by twenty-five. It contained a 
chapel of forty-five feet by twenty-five, with a gallery of 
like dimensions for the Library ; suites of rooms for pro- 
fessors, and accommodations for eighty students. It 
was continuously occupied until 1854, when it was com- 
pletely destroyed by fire, the exact date being January 
23d. 

19 (91) 



ii 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

The second Seminary building, usually designated 
Seminary Hall", was erected in 1855, and formally 
dedicated January 10, 1856. This structure was consid- 
erably smaller than the original building, but contained 
a chapel, class rooms, and suites of rooms for twenty stu- 
dents. It was partially destroyed by fire in 1887 and 
was immediately revamped. Seminary Hall was torn 
down November 1, 1914, to make room for the new 
buildings. 

The first dormitory was made possible by the gen- 
erosity of Mrs. Hetty E. Beatty. It was erected in 
the year 1859 and was known as "Beatty Hall". This 
structure had become wholly inadequate to the needs of 
the institution by 1877, and the Rev. C. C. Beatty fur- 
nished the funds for a new dormitory which was known 
as ''Memorial Hall," as Dr. Beatty wished to make the 
edifice commemorate the reunion of the Old and New 
School branches of the Presbyterian Church. 

The old Library building was erected in 1872 at an 
expenditure of $25,000, but was poorly adapted to library 
purposes. It has been replaced by a modern library 
equipment in the group of new buildings. 

For the past ten years the authorities of the Semi- 
nary, as well as the almuni, have felt that the material 
equipment of the institution did not meet the require- 
ments of our age. In 1909 plans were made for the erec- 
tion of a new dormitory on the combined site of Memorial 
Hall and the professor's house which stood next to it. 
The corner stone of this building was laid May 4, 1911, 
and the dedication took place May 9, 1912. The historic 
designation, "Memorial Hall", was retained. The total 
cost was $146,970; this fund was contributed by many 
friends and alumni of the Seminary. Competent judges 
consider it one of the handsomest public buildings in the 
City of Pittsburgh. It is laid out in the shape of a Y, 
which is an unusual design for a college building, but 
brings direct sunlight to every room. Another notice- 

20 (92) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

able feature of this dormitory is that there is not a single 
inside room of any kind. The architecture is of the type 
known as Tudor Gothic; the materials are reenforced 
concrete and fireproofing, with the exterior of tapestry 
brick trimmed with gray terra cotta. The center is sur- 
mounted with a beautiful tower in the Oxford manner. 
It contains suites of rooms for ninety students, together 
with a handsomely furnished social hall, a well equipped 
gymnasium, and a commodious dining room. A full 
description of these public rooms will be found on other 
pages of this catalogue. 

The erection of two wings of a new group of build- 
ings, for convenience termed the administration group, 
was commenced in November 1914. The corner stone 
was laid on May 6, 1915, and the formal dedication, with 
appropriate exercises, took place on Conmaencement 
Day, May 4, 1916. These buildings are removed about 
half a block from Memorial Hall, and face the West 
Park, occupying an unusually fine site. It has been 
planned to erect this group in the form of a quadrangle, 
the entire length being 200 feet and depth 175 feet. 
The main architectural feature of the front wing is 
an entrance tower. While this tower enhances the 
beauty of the building, all the space in it has been care- 
fully used for offices and class rooms. The rear wing, 
in addition to containing two large class rooms which 
can be throAvn into one, contains the new library. The 
stack room has a capacity for 165,000 volumes. The 
stacks now installed will hold about 55,000 volumes. The 
reference room and the administrative offices of the li- 
brary, with seminar rooms, are found on the second floor. 
The reference room, 88 by 38 feet, is equipped and dec- 
orated in the mediasval Gothic style, with capacity for 
10,000 volumes. The architecture of the entire group is 
the English Collegiate Gothic of the type which prevails 
in the college buildings at Cambridge, England. The ma- 
terial is tapestry brick, trimmed with gray terra cotta of 

21 (93) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the Indiana limestone shade. The total cost of the two 
completed wings was $154,777.00, of which $130,000.00 
was furnished by over five hundred subscribers in the 
campaign of October, 1913. The east wing of this group 
will contain rooms for museums, two classrooms, and a 
residence for the President of the Seminary. A gener- 
ous donor has provided the funds for the erection of the 
chapel which will constitute the west wing of the quad- 
rangle. The architect is Mr. Thomas Hannah, of Pitts- 
burgh. 

There are four residences for professors. Two are 
situated on the east and two on the west side of the new 
building and all face the Park. 

Social Hall 

The new dormitory contains a large social hall, 
which occupies an entire floor in one wing. This room 
is very handsomely finished in white quartered oak, with 
a large open fireplace at one end. The oak furnishing, 
which is upholstered in leather, is very elegant and was 
chosen to match the woodwork. The prevailing color in 
the decorations is dark green and the rugs are Hartford 
Saxony in oriental patterns. The rugs were especially 
woven for the room. This handsome room, which is the 
center of the social life of the Seminary, was erected and 
furnished by Mr. Sylvester S. Marvin, of the Board of 
Trustees, and his two sons, Walter R. Marvin and Earl 
R. Marvin, as a memorial to Mrs. Matilda Rumsey Mar- 
vin. It is the center of the social life of the student 
body, and during the past year, under the auspices of the 
Student Association, four formal musicals and socials 
have been held in this hall. The weekly devotional meet- 
ing of the Student Association is also conducted in this 
room. 

Dining Hall 

A commodious and handsomely equipped Dining 
Hall was included in the new Memorial Hall. It is lo- 

22 (94) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

cated in the top story of the left wing with the kitchen 
adjoining in the rear wing. Architecturally this room 
may be described as Gothic, and when the artistic scheme 
of decoration is completed will be a replica of the Din- 
ing Hall of an Oxford college. The actual operation of 
the commons began Dec. 1, 1913; the management is in 
the hands of a student manager and the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Student Association. It is the aim of the 
Trustees of the Seminary to furnish good wholesome 
food at cost; but incidentally the assembling of the stu- 
dent body three times a day has strengthened, to a 
marked degree, the social and spiritual life of the insti- 
tution. 

Library 

The Library of the Seminary is now housed in its 
new home in Swift Hall, the south wing of the group of 
new buildings dedicated at the Commencement season, 
1916. This steel frame and fire-proof structure is English 
Collegiate Gothic in architectural design and provides 
the Library with an external equipment which, for beauty 
and completeness, is scarcely surpassed by any theolog- 
ical institution on this continent. The handsome beam- 
ceilinged reading room is furnished in keeping with the 
architecture. It is equipped with individual reading 
lamps and accommodates many hundred circulating 
volumes, besides reference books and current periodicals. 
Adjoining this are rooms for library administration. 
There is also a large, quiet seminar room for all those 
who wish to conduct researches, where the volumes that 
the Library contains treating particular subjects may be 
assembled and used at convenience. A stack room with 
a capacity for about 165 thousand volumes has been pro- 
vided and now has a steel stack equipment with space 
for about 55,000 volumes. 

The Library has recently come into possession of a 
unique hymnological collection of great value. It con- 
sists of 9 to 10 thousand volumes assembled by the late 

23 (95) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Mr. James Warrington, of Philadelphia. During his 
lifetime Mr. Warrington made the study of Church Music 
his chief pastime and had gathered together all the ma- 
terial of any value published in Great Britain and Amer- 
ica dealing with his favorite theme. The Library is 
exceedingly fortunate in the acquisition of this note- 
worthy collection, which will not only serve to enhance 
the work of the music department of the Seminary but 
offers to scholars and investigators, interested in the field 
of British and American Church Music, facilities un- 
equaled by any theological collection in the country. The 
collection, together with Mr. Warrington's original cata- 
logue and bibliographical material, occupies a separate 
room in the new building. The latter has been arranged 
and placed in new filing cabinets, thus rendering it con- 
venient and accessible. Already in recent years, before 
the purchase of Mr. Warrington's collection had been 
thought of for the Library, the department of hymnology 
had been enlarged, and embraced much that relates to the 
history and study of Church Music. 

Other departments of the library also have been 
built up and are now much more complete. The mediae- 
val writers of Europe are well represented in excellent 
editions, and the collection of authorities on the Papacy 
is quite large. These collections, both for secular and 
church history, afford great assistance in research and 
original work. The department of sermons is supplied 
with the best examples of preaching — ancient and mod- 
ern — while every effort is made to obtain literature 
which bears upon the complete furnishing of the preacher 
and evangelist. To this end the missionary literature 
is rich in biography, travel, and education. Constant 
additions of the best writers on the oriental languages 
and Old Testament history are being made, and the li- 
brary grows richer in the works of the best scholars of 
Europe and America. The department of New Testa- 
ffient Exegesis is well developed and being increased, not 

24 (96) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

only by the best commentaries and exegetical works, but 
also by those which through history, essay, and sociolo- 
gical study illuminate and portray the times, people, and 
customs of the Gospel Age. The library possesses a 
choice selection of works upon theology, philosophy, and 
ethics, and additions are being made of volumes which 
discuss the fundamental principles. While it is not 
thought desirable to include every author, the leading 
writers are given a place without regard to their creed. 
Increasing attention is being given to those writers who 
deal with the great social problems and the practical 
application of Christianity to the questions of ethical and 
social life. 

The number of volumes in the Library at present is, 
approximately, 35,000. This reckoning is exclusive of 
the "Warrington collection and neither does it include 
unbound pamphlet material. Over one hundred period- 
icals are currently received, not including annual reports, 
year books, government documents, and irregular con- 
tinuations. A modern card catalogue, in course of com- 
pletion, covers, at the present time, a great majority of 
the bound volumes in the library. 

The library is open on week days to all ministers 
and others, without restriction of creed, subject to the 
same rules as apply to students. Hours are from 9 to 
5 and 7 to 9 ; Saturdays from 9 to 12. Instruction in the 
use of the Library is given to New Students by the Li- 
brarian at the beginning of each year. 

The library is essentially theological, though it in- 
cludes much not to be strictly defined by that term; for 
general literature the students have access to the Car- 
negie Library, which is situated within five minutes ' walk 
of the Seminary buildings. 

The James L. Shields Book Purchasing Memorial 
Fund, with an endowment of $1,000, has been founded 
by Mrs. Eobert A. Watson of Columbus, Ohio, in memory 
of her father, the late James L. Shields of Blair sville, 
Pennsylvania. 

25 (97) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



The library is receiving the following periodicals : 



American Catholic Quarterly Re- 
view. 

American Issue. 

American Journal of Achseology. 

American Journal of Philology. 

American Journal of Semitic 
Languages and Literature. 

American Journal of Sociology. 

American Lutheran Survey. 

American Messenger. 

Ancient Egypt. 

Archiv fiir Reformations- 
geschichte. 

Art and Archaeology. 

Asia. 

Atlantic Monthly. 

Auburn Seminary Record. 

Biblical Review. 

Bibliotheca Sacra. 

British Weekly. 

Catholic Historical Review. 

Chinese Recorder. 

Christian Century. 

Christian Education. 

Christian Endeavor World. 

Christian Herald. 

Christian Statesman. 

Christian Union Quarterly. 

Christian Work. 

Christian Worker's Magazine. 

Churchman. 

Congregationalist and Advance. 

Constructive Quarterly. 

Contemporary Review. 

Continent. 

Cumulative Book Index. 

East and West. 

Educational Review. 

Expositor. 

Expository Times. 

Glory of Israel. 

Harvard Theological Review. 

Herald and Presbyter. 

Hibbert Journal. 

Homiletic Review. 

Independent. 

International Journal of Ethics. 

International Review of Missions. 

Japan Review. 

Jewish Quarterly Review. 

Journal Asiatique. 

Journal of American Oriental 
Society. 

Journal of Biblical Literature. 

Journal of Egyptian Archeology. 

Journal of Hellenic Studies. 

Journal of Presbyterian Histor- 
ical Society. 



Journal of Religion. 

Journal of Royal Asiatic Society. 

Journal of Theological Studies. 

Korea Mission Field. 

Krest'anske Listy. 

Logos. 

London Quarterly Review. 

Lutheran Quarterly. 

Methodist Review. 

Mexican Review. 

Missionary Herald. 

Missionary Review of the World. 

Moslem World. 

Nation, The 

National Geographic Magazine. 

Neighborhood Class News. 

Neue Kirchliche Zeitschrift. 

New Era Magazine. 

New Republic. 

Nineteenth Century and After. 

North American Review. 

Open Road. 

Outlook. 

Palestine Exploration Fund. 

Pedagogical Seminary. 

Pittsburgh Christian Outlook. 

Prayer and Work for Israel. 

Presbyterian. 

Presbyterian Banner, 

Princeton Theological Review. 

Quarterly Register of Reformed 

Churches. 
Quarterly Review. 
Reader's Guide. 
Reader's Guide Supplement. 
Reformatusok Lapja. 
Reformed Church Review. 
Religious Education. 
Revue Biblique. 
Revue d' Assyriologie. 
Revue Chr^tienne. 
Revue des Etudes Juives. 
Revue de I'Histoire des Religions 
Sailors' Magazine. 
Slovensky Kalvin. 
Social Service Review. 
Society of Biblical Archaeology. 
Survey, The 
United Presbyterian. 
World To-morrow. 
Yale Review. 
Zeitschrift fiir die Alttestament- 

liche Wissenschaft. 
Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie. 
Zeitschrift des Deutschen Pala- 

stina-Vereins. 
Zeitschrift fiir die Neutestament- 

liche Wissenschaft. 



26 (98) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Religious Exercises 

As the Seminary does not maintain public services 
on the Lord's Day, each student is expected to connect 
himself with one of the congregations in Pittsburgh, and 
thus to be under pastoral care and to perform his duties 
as a church member. 

Abundant opportunities for Christian work are af- 
forded by the various churches, missions, and benevo- 
lent societies of this large community. This kind of 
labor has been found no less useful for practical training 
than the work of supplying the pulpits. Daily prayers at 
11 :20 A. M., which all the students are required to attend, 
are conducted by the Faculty. A meeting for prayer 
and conference, conducted by the professors, is held 
every Wednesday morning, at which addresses are made 
by the professors and invited speakers. 

Senior Preaching Service 

{See Study Courses 46, 47, 56.) 

Public worship is observed every Monday evening 
in the Seminary Chapel, from October to April, under 
the direction of the professor of homiletics. This ser- 
vice is intended to be in all respects what a regular 
church service should be. It is attended by the mem- 
bers of the faculty, the entire student body, and friends 
of the Seminary generally. It is conducted by members 
of the senior class in rotation. The preacher is prepared 
for his duties by preliminary criticism of his sermon and 
by pulpit drill on the preceding Saturday, and no com- 
ment whatever is offered at the service itself. The Ce- 
cilia Choir is in attendance to lead the singing and fur- 
nish a suitable anthem. The service is designed to min- 
ister to the spiritual life of the Seminary and also to fur- 
nish a model of Presbyterian form and order. The ex- 
ercises are all reviewed by the professor in charge at his 
next subsequent meeting with the senior class. Mem- 

27 (99) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

bers of the faculty are also expected to offer to the 
officiating student any suggestions they may deem de- 
sirable. 

Students' Y. M. C. A. 

This society has been recently organized under the 
direction of the Faculty, which is represented on each 
one of the committees. Students are ipso facto and mem- 
bers of the Faculty ex officio members of the Seminary 
Y. M. C. A. Meetings are held weekly, the exercises be- 
ing alternately missionary and devotional. It is the suc- 
cessor of the Students' Missionary Society and its special 
object is to stimulate the missionary zeal of its members ; 
but the name and form of the organization have been 
changed for the purpose of a larger and more helpful 
cooperation with similar societies. 

Christian Work 

The City of Pittsburgh affords unusual opportuni- 
ties for an adequate study of the manifold forms of mod- 
ern Christian activity. Students are encouraged to en- 
gage in some form of Christian work other than preach- 
ing, as it is both a stimulus to devotional life and forms 
an important element in a training for the pastorate. 
Regular work in several different lines has been carried 
on under the direction of committees of the Y. M. C. A., 
including services at the Presbyterian Hospital, at the 
Old Ladies' Home and the Old Couples' Home, Wilkins- 
burg, and at two Missions in the downtown district of 
Pittsburgh. Several students have had charge of mis- 
sion churches in various parts of the city while others 
have been assistants in Sunday School work or have con- 
ducted Teacher Training Classes. Those who are in- 
terested in settlement work have unusual opportunities 
of familiarizing themselves with this form of social ac- 
tivity at the Wood's Run Industrial Home, the Kingsley 
House, and the Heinz Settlement. 

28 (100) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Bureau of Preaching Supply 

A bureau of preaching supply has been organized by 
the Faculty for the purpose of apportioning supply work, 
as request comes in from vacant churches. No at- 
tempt is made to secure places for students either by ad- 
vertising or by application to Presbyterial Committees. 
The allotment of places is in alphabetical order. The 
members of the senior class and regularly enrolled 
graduate students have the preference over the middle 
class, and the middle class in turn over the junior. 

Rules Governing the Distribution of Calls for 
Preaching 

1. All allotment of preaching will be made directly from the 

President's Office by the President of the Seminary or a 
member of the Faculty. 

2. Calls for preaching will be assigned in alphabetical order, the 

members of the senior class having the preference, followed 
in turn by the middle and junior classes. 

3. In case a church names a student in its request, the call will 

be offered to the person mentioned; if he decline, it will be 
assigned according to Rule 2, and the church will be notified. 

4. If a student who has accepted an assignment finds it impossible 

to fill the engagement, he is to notify the office, when a new 
arrangement will be made and the student thus giving up 
an oppointment will lose his turn as provided for under Rule 
2 ; but two students who have received appointments from 
the office may exchange with each other. 

5. All students supplying churches regularly are expected to re- 

port this fact and their names will not be included in the al- 
phabetic roll according to the provisions of Rule 2. 

6. When a church asks the Faculty to name a candidate from the 

senior or post-graduate classes. Rule 2 in regard to alpha- 
betic order will not apply, but the person sent will lose his 
turn. In other words, a student will not be treated both as 
a candidate and as an occasional supply. 

7. Graduate students, complying with Rule 4 governing scholar- 

ship aid, will be put in the roll of the senior class. 

8. If there are not sufficient calls for all the senior class any week, 

the assignments the following week will commence at the 
point in the roll where they left off the previous week, but 
no middler will be sent any given week until all the seniors 
are assigned. The middle class will be treated in the same 
manner as the seniors, i. e., every member of the class will 
have an opportunity to go, before the head of the roll is as- 
signed a second time. No junior will be sent out until all 

29 (101) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the members of the two upper classes are assigned, but, like 
the members of the senior and middle classes, each member 
will have an equal chance. 
9. These rules in regard to preaching are regulations of the Fac- 
ulty and as such are binding on all matriculants of the Sem- 
inary. A student who disregards them or interferes with 
their enforcement will make himself liable to discipline, and 
forfeit his right to receive scholarship aid. 
10. A student receiving an invitation directly is at liberty to fill 
the engagement, but must notify the oflBce, and will lose 
his turn according to Rule 2. 

Physical Training 

In 1912 the Seminary opened its own gymnasium 
in the new dormitory. This gymnasium is thoroughly 
■equipped with the most modern apparatus. Its floor and 
walls are properly spaced and marked for basket ball 
and handball courts. It is open to students five hours 
daily. The students also have access to the public ten- 
nis courts in West Park. 

Expenses 

A fee of ten dollars a year is required to be paid to 
the contingent fund for the heating and care of the li- 
brary and lecture rooms. Students residing in the dor- 
mitory and in rented rooms pay an additional twenty 
dollars for natural gas and service. 

All students who reside in the dormitory are re- 
quired to take their meals in the Seminary dining hall. 
The price for boarding is four dollars per week.* 

Prospective students may gain a reasonable idea of 
their necessary expenses from the following table: 

Contingent Fee $ 30 

Boarding for 32 weeks 128 

Books 25 

Gymnasium Fee 2 

Sundries 15 

Total $200 

*During the current term, owing to the high cost of food, the 
price of boarding was raised to $6.50 per week. 

30 (102) 




h- ( 
CO 

O 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



Students in need of financial assistance should ap- 
ply for aid, through their Presbyteries, to the Board of 
Education. The sums thus acquired may be supple- 
mented from the scholarship funds of the Seminary. 

Scholarship Aid 

1. All students needing financial assistance may re- 
ceive a maximum of $100 per annum from the scholar- 
ship fund of the Seminary. 

2. The distribution is made in four installments: 
on the first Tuesdays of October, December, February, 
and April. 

3. A student whose grade falls below ''C," or 75 
per cent., or who has five absences from class exercises 
without satisfactory excuse, shall forfeit his right to aid 
from this source. The following are not considered valid 
grounds for excuse from recitations: (1) work on Pres- 
bytery parts; (2) preaching or evangelistic engagements, 
unless special permission has been received from the 
Faculty (Application must be made in writing for such 
permission) ; (3) private business, unless imperative. 

4. A student who so desires, may borrow his schol- 
arship aid, with the privilege of repayment after gradua- 
tion ; this loan to be without interest. 

5. A student must take, as the minimum, twelve 
(12) hours of recitation work per w^eek in order to obtain 
scholarship aid and have the privilege of a room in the 
Seminary dormitory. Work in Elocution and Music is 
regarded as supplementary to these twelve hours. 

6. Post-graduate students are not eligible to schol- 
arship aid, and, in order to have the privilege of occupy- 
ing a room in the dormitory, must take twelve hours of 
recitation and lecture work per week. 

7. Students marrying during their course of study 
at the Seminary will not be eligible to scholarship aid. 
This rule does not apply to those who enter the Seminary 
married. 

31 (103) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Loan Funds 

The Kev. James H. Lyon, a member of the class of 
1864, has founded a loan fund by a gift of $200. Needy 
students can borrow small sums from this fund at a low 
rate of interest. 

Eecently a friend of the Seminary, by a gift of 
$2500, established a Students' Loan and Self-help 
Fund. The principal is to be kept intact and the in- 
come is available for loans to students which may be re- 
paid after graduation. 

General Educational Advantages 

Pittsburgh is an ideal seat for a theological 
seminary, because it is one of the leading manufactur- 
ing and commercial cities of the country. It is obvious 
that a minister ought to come in contact with the prob- 
lems of community life in one of the great throbbing 
centers of activity, where every social problem is in- 
tensified, in order to be able to enter into sympathetic 
and intelligent relations with the people of the churches 
and communities which he may be called on to serve. 
To put it in a word, a term of residence in Pittsburgh 
brings a man into vital contact with life in its many 
complex modern forms. 

In Pittsburgh we find some of the largest, most 
aggressive, and best equipped churches of our com- 
munion. Pittsburgh Presbytery is the largest presby- 
tery of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A., with 137 
churches and 216 ministers on its rolls. In 1921 the 
total membership of these churches was 61,602. On the 
rolls of the Presbytery there are nine churches with a 
membership of between 1000 and 2000, and there is one 
church with a membership exceeding 2500. The local 
home missionary budget of Pittsburgh Presbytery for 
the fiscal year 1920-21 reached a total of $124,698. This 
large sum was raised in addition to the contributions of 

32 (104) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the Board of Home Missions and the Synodical funds. 
As might be expected, every type of modern church ac- 
tivity and organization is represented in the churches 
of this Presbytery. A student has abundant oppor- 
tunity to familiarize himself with the organization and 
methods of an efficient modern church, not merely 
through the study of a text book, but by personal ob- 
servation or actual participation in the work. 

Not only do many of these churches carry on an 
extensive and aggressive program of social service, but 
in addition the student has access to the many social 
settlements and other centers of welfare work with 
which Pittsburgh is well supplied. To prospective stu- 
dents who are especially interested in this type of 
modern philanthropic activity a pamphlet giving de- 
tailed information on Pittsburgh as a social centre will 
be mailed on request. 

In addition to being a manufacturing center, with 
the largest tonnage of any city in the country, Pitts- 
burgh is the seat of a University with an enrollment of 
11,846 (1920-21). Students of the Seminary have the 
privilege of attending the University and of receiving 
the Master's degree under certain conditions (see 
p. 55). Besides the University, there are the Carnegie 
Institute of Technology, the Pennsylvania College for 
Women, and the Pittsburgh Musical Institute. Mr. 
C. N. Boyd, our instructor in Church Music, is one of 
the directors of the Pittsburgh Musical Institute, and 
through him any student who is interested in Church 
Music may have access to special lectures and classes. 
Some idea of Pittsburgh as a musical center may be 
gained from the fact that during the season of 1921-22 
over eighty first-class concerts of various types were 
given in the city. To this number must be added the 
free organ recitals which are given every Saturday by 
Mr. Heinroth in Carnegie Music Hall. 

In such a survey the library facilities of the city 
are not to be passed by. In addition to the Seminary 

33 (105) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

library, which is exclusively theological in its scope and 
rich in its collections, there are the two Carnegie 
Libraries. The North Side Library, the first founded 
by Mr. Carnegie in 1886, which is situated within five 
blocks of the Seminary buildings, affords the student 
ready access to general literature of every type. The 
main Library, in connection with the Carnegie Insti- 
tute, with its larger collections, is also available to the 
students. The Museum of the Carnegie Institute is of 
large educational value, and students will be well re- 
paid by a careful survey of its collections. 

Admission 

The Seminary, while under Presbyterian control, is 
open to students of all denominations. As its special 
aim is the training of men for the Christian ministry, 
applicants for admission are requested to present satis- 
factory testimonials that they possess good natural tal- 
ents, that they are prudent and discreet in their deport- 
ment, and that they are in full communion with some 
evangelical church; also that they have the requisite 
literary preparation for the studies of the theological 
course. 

College students intending to enter the Seminary are 
strongly recommended to select such courses as will pre- 
pare them for the studies of a theological curriculum. 
They should pay special attention to Latin, Greek, Ger- 
man, English Literature and Rhetoric, Logic, Ethics, 
Psychology, the History of Philosophy, and General 
History. If possible, students are advised to take ele- 
mentary courses in Hebrew and make some study of 
New Testament Greek. In the latter subject a mastery 
of the New Testament vocabulary and a study of Bur- 
ton's "Moods and Tenses of the New Testament Greek" 
and Moulton's "Prolegomena" will be found especially 
helpful. 

34 (106) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

An examination in the elements of Greek grammar 
and easy Greek prose is held at the opening of each 
Seminary year for all first year students. Those who 
pass this examination with Grade A are exempt from the 
linguistic courses in Greek (i. e. Courses 13 and 14). 
Those making Grade B or C are required to pursue 
Course 14, while a propaedeutic course (No. 13) is pro- 
vided for students who do not take this preliminary ex- 
amination or who fail to pass it. (See page 41). 

College graduates with degrees other than that of 
Bachelor of Arts are required to take an extra elective 
study in their senior year. If an applicant for admis- 
sion is not a college graduate, he is required either to 
pass examination in each of the following subjects, or 
to furnish a certificate covering a similar amount of 
work which he has actually done : 

(1) Latin — Grammar; Translation of passages 
taken from: Livy, Bk. I.; Horace, Odes, Bk. I; Tacitus, 
Annals, I- VI. 

(2) Greek — Grammar; Translation of passages 
taken from: Xenophon's Memorabilia; Plato's Apology; 
Lysias, Selected Orations ; Thucydides, Bk. I. 

(3) English — Ehetoric, Genung or A. S. Hill; Pan- 
coast, History of English Literature ; two of the dramas 
of Shakespeare; Browning's ''A Death in the Desert" 
and "Saul;" Tennyson's "In Memoriam;" Essays of 
Emerson and Carlyle ; Burke and Webster, two orations 
of each. 

(4) General History — A standard text-book, such 
as Fisher, Meyer, or Swinton; some work on religious 
history, such as Breed's "The Preparation of the World 
for Christ". 

(5) Philosophy — Logic, Jevon's or Baker's Argu- 
mentation; Psychology, James' Briefer Course; History 
of Philosophy, Weber's, Falkenberg's, or Cushman's 
standard works. 

35 (107) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

(6) Natural Science — Biology, Geology, Physics 
or Chemistry. 

(7) Social Science — Political Economy and 
Sociology. 

Students who wish to take these examinations must 
make special arrangements with the President. 

Students from Other Theological Seminaries 

Students coming from other theological seminaries 
are required to present certificates of good standing and 
regular dismission before they can be received. 

Graduate Students 

Those who desire to be enrolled for post-graduate 
study will be admitted to matriculation on presenting 
their diplomas or certificates of graduation from other 
theological seminaries. 

Resident licentiates and ministers have the privilege 
of attending lectures in all departments. 

Seminary Year 

The Seminary year, consisting of one term, is di- 
vided into two semesters. The first semester closes with 
the Christmas holidays and the second commences imme- 
diately after the opening of the New Year. The Semi- 
nary Year begins with the third Tuesday of September 
and closes the Thursday before the second Tuesday in 
May. It is expected that every student will be present 
at the opening of the session, when the rooms will be al- 
lotted. The more important days are indicated in the 
calendar (p. 3). 

Examinations 

Examinations, written or oral, are required in every 
department, and are held twice a year, or at the end of 
each semester. The oral examinations, which occupy 
the first three days of the last week of the session, are 

36 (108) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

open to the public. Students who do not pass satisfac- 
tory examinations may be re-examined at the beginning 
of the next term, but, failing then to give satisfaction, 
will be regarded as partial or will be required to enter 
the class corresponding to the one to which they belonged 
the previous year. 

Diplomas 

In order to obtain the diploma of this institution, a 
student must be a graduate of some college or else sus- 
tain a satisfactory examination in the subjects mentioned 
on page 23, and he must have completed a course of 
three years' study, either in this institution, or partly in 
this and partly in some other regular Theological Sem- 
inary. 

The Seminary diploma will be granted only to those 
students who can pass a satisfactory examination in all 
departments of the Seminary curriculum and have sat- 
isfied all requirements as to attendance. 

Men who have taken the full course at another Semi- 
nary, including the departments of Hebrew and Greek 
Exegesis, Dogmatic Theology, Church History, and Pas- 
toral Theology, and have received a diploma, will be en- 
titled to a diploma from this Seminary on condition : (1) 
that they take the equivalent of a full year's work in a 
single year or two years; (2) that they be subject to the 
usual rules governing our classroom work, such as regu- 
lar attendance and recitations; (3) that they pass the ex- 
aminations with the classes of which they are members; 
(4) it is a further condition that such students attend ex- 
ercises in at least three departments, one of which shall 
be either Greek or Hebrew Exegesis. 

Courses of Study 

The growth of the elective system in colleges has 
resulted in a wide variation in the equipment of the stu- 
dents entering the Seminary, and the broadening of the 

37 (109) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

scope of practical Christian activity has necessitated a 
specialized training for ministerial candidates. In 
recognition of these conditions, the curriculum has been 
developed to prepare men for five different types of 
ministerial work: (1) the regular pastorate; (2) the 
foreign field; (3) home missionary service; (4) reli- 
gious education; (5) teaching the Bible in colleges. 

The elective system has been introduced with such 
restrictions as seemed necessary in view of the general 
aim of the Seminary. 

The elective courses are confined largely to the 
senior year, except that students who have already com- 
pleted certain courses of the Seminary will not be re- 
quired to take them again, but may select from the list 
of electives such courses as will fill in the entire quota 
of hours. 

Students who come to the Seminary with inade- 
quate preparation will be required to take certain ele- 
mentary courses, e. g., Greek, Hebrew, Philosophy. In 
some cases this may entail a four years' course in the 
Seminary, but students are urged to do all preliminary 
work in colleges. 

Fourteen hours of recitation and lecture work are 
required of Juniors the first semester and sixteen hours 
the second semester. In the middle year students who 
entered the Seminary with preparation in Greek will 
have fifteen hours work required throughout the year 
while those coming unprepared in Greek will be ex- 
pected to take seventeen hours the first semester and 
sixteen hours the second semester. Fourteen hours are 
required of Seniors and twelve of Graduate Students. 
Elocution and music, although required, are not counted 
in the number of hours stated above. Students desiring 
to take more than the required number of hours must 
make special application to the Faculty, and no student 
who falls below the grade ''A" in his regular work will 
be allowed to take additional courses. 

38 (110) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

In tlie senior year the only required courses are 
those in Practical Theology, N. T. Theology, and 0. T. 
Prophecy. The election of studies must be on the 
group system, one subject being regarded as major 
and another as minor; for example, a student electing 
N. T. as a major must take four hours in this depart- 
ment and in addition must take one course in a closely 
related subject, such as 0. T. Theology or Exegesis. 
He must also write a thesis of not less than 4,000 words 
on some topic in the department from which he has 
selected his major. 



Hebrew Language and Old Testament Literature 

Dr. Kelso^ Dr. Culley 

I. Lmg:uistic Coiu'ses 

The Hebrew language is studied from the philological stand- 
point in order to lay the foundations for the exegetical study of the 
Old Testament. With this end in view, courses are offered which 
aim to make the student thoroughly familiar with the chief exe- 
getical and critical problems of the Hebrew Scriptures. 

1. Introductory Hebrew Grammar. Exercises in reading and 
writing Hebrew and the acquisition of a working vocabulary. Gen. 
1-20. Four hours weekly throughout the year. Juniors. Re- 
quired. Prof. Culley. 

2a. First Samuel I-XX or Judges. Rapid reading and exegesis. 
Preparation optional. Two hours weekly first semester. All classes. 
Elective. Prof. Culley. 

2b. The Minor Prophets or Jeremiah. Rapid reading and exe- 
gesis. Preparation optional. Two hours weekly second semester. 
Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Culley. 

3. Deuteronomy I-XX or one Book of Kings. Hebrew Syntax. 

Davidson's Hebrew Syntax or Driver's Hebrew Tenses. Two hours 
weekly throughout the year. Middlers. Required. Prof. Culley. 

7a. Biblical Aramaic. Grammar and study of Daniel 2:4b — 
7:28; Ezra 4:8 — 6:18; 7:12-26; Jeremiah 10:11. Reading of 
selected Aramaic Papyri from Elephantine. Two hours weekly first 
or second semester. Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. 
Culley. 

7b. Elementary Arabic. A beginner's course in Arabic gram- 
mar is offered to students interested in advanced Semitic studies 
or those looking towards mission work in lands where a knowledge 
of Arabia is essential. One or two hours weekly throughout the 
year depending upon the requirements of the student. Prof. Culley. 

39 (111) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

7c. Elementary Assyrian. After the mastery of the most com- 
mon signs and the elements of the grammar Sennacherib's Annals 
(Taylor Cylinder) will be read. This course is intended for those 
who propose to specialize in Semitics or are preparing themselves 
to teach the Bible in Colleges. Prince, Assyrian Primer; Delitzsch, 
Assyrische Lesestucke. Prerequisite courses: 1, 3, 7a, 7b. Hours to 
be arranged. Prof. Kelso. 

II. Critical and Exegetical Courses 

A. Hebreiw 

4. The Psalter. An exegetical course on the Psalms, with 
special reference to their critical and theological problems. One 
hour weekly, throughout the year. Seniors. Elective. Prof. Culley. 

5. Isaiah I-XII, and selections from XL-LXVI. An exegetical 
course paying special attention to the nature of prophecy and criti- 
cal questions. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniiors 
(1923-24). Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

6. Proverbs and Job. The interpretation of selected passages 
from Proverbs and Job which bear on the nature of Hebrew Wis- 
dom and Wisdom Literature. One hour weekly throughout the 
year. Seniors and Graduates (1922-23). Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

Biblia Hebraica, ed. Kittel, and the Oxford Lexicon of the Old 
Testament, are the text-books. 

In order to elect these courses, the student must have attained 
at least Grade B in courses 1 and 3. 

B. English 

Sa. The History of the Hebrews. An outline course from the 
earliest times to the Assyrian Period in which the Biblical material 
is studied with the aid of a syllabus and reference books. Two 
hours weekly, second semester. Juniors and middlers. (1921-22). 
Required. Prof. Kelso. 

8b. The History of the Hebrews. A continuation of the pre- 
ceding course. The Babylonian, Persian, and Greek Periods. Two 
hours weekly, second semester. Juniors and Middlers. (1922-23). 
Required. Prof. Kelso. 

9. Hexateuchal Criticism. A thorough study is made of the 
modern view of the origin and composition of the Hexateuch. One 
hour weekly, second semester. Seniors, Graduates. Elective. Prof. 
Kelso. 

10. The Psalter, Hebrew Wisdom and Wisdom Literatiu'e. In 

this course a critical study is made of the books of Job, Psalms, 
Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. One hour weekly, 
second semester. Seniors and Graduates (1923-24). Elective. 
Prof. Kelso. 

11. Old Testament Prophecy and Prophets. In this course the 
general principles of prophecy are treated and a careful study is 
made of the chief prophetic books. Special attention is paid to the 
theological and social teachings of each prophet. The problems of 
literary criticism are also discussed. Syllabus and reference works. 

40 (112) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Required of Seniors, open to Graduates. Two hours weekly through- 
out the year. Prof. Kelso. 

12. The Canon and Text of the Old Testament. This subject 
is presented in lectures, with collateral reading on the part of the 
students. Two hours weekly, first semester. Middlers, Seniors, 
and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Culley. 

25. Old Testament Theology, (see p. 43). 

67. Biblical Apocalyptic. A careful study of the Apocalyptic 
element in the Old Testament with special reference to the Book 
of Daniel. After a brief investigation of the main features lof the 
extra-canonical apocalyses, the Book of Revelation is examined in 
detail. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors and Gradu- 
ates (1923-24). Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

69. The Book of Genesis. A critical exegetical study of the 
Book of Genesis in English based upon the text of the American 
Revised Version. Seminar. Two hours weekly, one semester. Sen- 
iors and Graduates (1921-22). Elective. Prof. Kelso. 

All these courses are based on the English Version as revised 
by modern criticism and interpreted by scientific exegesis. 

New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

Dr. Vance, Mr. Eakin 
I. IJtngulstic Courses 

13. New Testament Greek: Elementary. The essentials of 
Greek Grammar are taught. The First Epistle of John and part of 
John's Gospel are read. Attention is also devoted to the committing 
of vocabulary. Four hours weekly, first semester, three hours, sec- 
ond semester. Middlers. Mr. Eakin. 

14. New Testament Greek: Review and Syntax. As much time 
as proves necessary is spent in a review of elementary Greek Gram- 
mar. The remainder lof the course is devoted to a study of the 
syntax of N. T. Greek, partly from a text book and partly induc- 
tively, through reading in one of the Gospels. Two hours weekly, 
second semester. Juniors. Mr. Eakin. 

One or other of these courses (13 and 14) is required of all 
regular students. Except in unusual cases it will be necessary 
for a student entering the Seminary with less than one full year of 
Greek to take Course 13, since he will not be able to successfully 
complete the work of the other course. 

14a. New Testament Greek: Rapid Reading. In this course 
the primary aim is to give the student facility in reading the New 
Testament in Greek. Some attention is devoted to critical and 
exegetical problems as they are met with. Preparation on the part 
of the student is optional. Two hours weekly, first semester (1922- 
23). Elective. Mr. Eakin. 

II. Introductory Courses 

22. New Testament Introduction: General. An introduction 
to the study of the canon and the text of the New Testament, and 

41 (113) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

of the English versions. Two hours weekly, first semester. Juniors. 
Required. Mr. Eakin. 

23. New Testament Initroduction: Special Problems. A study 
of critical problems connected with individual New Testament books 
and groups of backs. Two hours weekly, second semester (1922- 
23). Elective. Mr. Eakin. 

III. Historical Courses 

16. The liife of Christ. In this course a thorough study is 
made of the life of our Lord, using as a text book the Gospel nar- 
rative, as arranged in the Harmony of Stevens and Burton. Two 
hours weekly, throughout the year. Juniors. Required. Prof. 
Vance. 

17. First Century Christianity. The antecedents and environ- 
ment of early Christianity are traced, first from the Jewish and 
then from the Gentile side. This is followed by a sketch of the 
origin of the Christian movement itself and its development to the 
close of the first century. Two hours weekly, second semester. 
Middlers. Required. Mr. Eakin. 

IV. Interpretative Courses 
A. Greek 

20i. Romans. The Epistle is studied with a two-fold aim: 
first, of training the student in correct methods of exegesis; and 
second, of giving him a firm grasp of the theological content. Two 
hours weekly, throughout the year (1922-23). Prof. Vance. 

20a. Hebrews. The aim of this course is the same as that of 
the preceding one. Two hours weekly, throughout the year (1921- 
22). Prof. Vance. 

Course 20 is required of all students in either their Middle 
or Senior year. 

21. The Pastoral Epistles. Attention is first devoted to ac- 
quiring a thorough familiarity with the Greek text of these epistles, 
after which the effort is made to interpret them on the basis of 
this text. Two hours weekly, first semester (1923-24). Elective. 
Mr. Eakin. 

B. English 

19b. The Foiurth Gospel. A critical and exegetical study of 
the Fourth Gospel, for the purpose, first, of forming a judgment on 
the question of its authorship and its value as history, and second, 
of enabling the student to apprehend in some measure its doctrinal 
content. Two hours weekly, first semester (1922-23). Elective. 
Prof. Vance. 

24. James and I Peter. Two hours weekly, second semester 
(1922-23). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

a4a. I. Corinthians. Two hours weekly, first semester (1923- 
24). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

24b. Ephesians and Colossians. Two hours weekly, second 
semester (1923-24). Elective. Prof. Vance. 

42 (114) 



TJie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

27. Mark. A course designed to lay a critical foundation for 
the use of this Gospel in preaching. Two hours weekly, second sem- 
ester (1921-22). Elective. Mr. Eakin. 

28. Gajatians. A critical course, with a homiletical purpose 
in view. Two hours weekly, second semester (1923-24), Elective. 
Mr. Eakin. 

The text of the American Standard Version is the hasis of study 
in these courses. Reference to the Greek text on the part of th'e 
student is recommended but is not required. 

67. Revelation. Prof. Kelso. (See "Biblical Apocalyptic", 
page 41). 

26. Theology of the New Testament (below). 

Biblical Theology 

25. Theology of the Old Testament. A comprehensive his- 
torical study of the religious institutions, rites, and teachings of the 
Old Testament. The Biblical material is studied with the aid of a 
syllabus and reference books. Two hours weekly. Offered in alter- 
nate years (1923-24). Elective. Open to Middlers, Seniors, and 
Graduates. Prof. Kelso. 

26. Theology of the New Testament. A careful study is 
mad© of the N. T. literature with the purpose of securing a first- 
hand knowledge of its theological teaching. While the work con- 
sists primarily of original research in the sources, sufficient collat- 
eral reading is required to insure an acquaintance with the litera- 
ture lof the subject. Two hours weekly throughout the year. Re- 
quired of Seniors, and open to Graduates. Prof. Vance. 



English Bible 

Great emphasis is laid upon the study of the English Bible 
through the entire Seminary course. In fact, more time is devoted 
to the study of the Bible in English than to any other single subject. 
For graduation, 44 term-hours of classroom work are required of 
each student. Of this total, 8 term hours are taken up with the 
exact scientific study of the Bible in the English version, or in other 
words, miore than one-fifth of the student's time is concentrated on 
the Bible in English. In addition to this minimum requirement, 
elective courses occupying 4 term-hours, are offered to students. 
For details in regard to courses in the English Bible, see under Old' 
Testament Literature, p. 4 Of. and New Testament Literature, p. 
42f. See especially the following courses: 

10'. The Psalter, Hebrew Wisdom and Wisdom Literature (see 
p. 40). 

11. Old Testament Prophecy and Prophets (see p. 40). 

67. Biblical Apocalyptic (see p. 41). 

69. The Book of Genesis (see page 41). 

16. The Life of Christ (see p. 42). 

43 (115) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

19b. The Fourth Gospel (see p. 42). 

24. James and I Peter (see p. 42). 

24a. I Corinthians (see p. 42). 

24b. Ephesians and Colossians (see page 42). 

61b. The Social Teaching of the New Testament (see p. 48). 

The English Bible is carefully and comprehensively studied in 
the department of Homiletics for hiomiletical purposes, the object 
being to determine the distinctive contents of its separate parts and 
their relation to each other, thus securing their proper and con- 
sistent construction in preaching. (See course 45). 



Church History 

Dr. S chaff 

The instruction in this department is given by text-book in the 
period of ancient Christianity, and by lectures in the medieval and 
modern periods, from 600 to 1900. In all courses, readings in the 
original and secondary authorities are required and maps are used. 

30. The Ante-Nicene and Nicen© Periods, 100 to 600 A. D. 

This course includes the constitution, worship, moral code, and liter- 
ature of the Church, and its gradual extension in the face of the 
opposition of Judaism and Paganism from without, and heresy from 
within; union of Church and State; Monasticism; the controversies 
over the deity and person of Christ; CEcumenical Councils; the 
Pelagian Controversy. Two hours weekly throughout the year. 
Juniors. Required. Prof. Schaff. 

31. Medieval Church History, 600 to 1517 A. D. 

(i) Conversion of the Barbarians; Mohammedanism; the Pa- 
pacy and Empire; the Great Schism; social and clerical manners; 
Church Government and Doctrine. 

(ii) Hildebrand and the Supremacy of the Papacy; the Cru- 
sades; Monasticism; the Inquisition; Scholasticism; the Sacramental 
system; the Universities; the Cathedrals. 

(iii) Boniface VIII and the Decline of the Papacy; the Re- 
formatory Councils; German Mysticism; the Reformers before the 
Reformation; Renaissance; Degeneracy of the Papacy. 

(iv) Symbolics: Protestantism and Roman Catholicism. Fif- 
teen lectures. Three hours weekly (i and ii first semester, iii and iv, 
second semester). Middlers. Required. Prof. Schaff. 

32. The Reformation, 1517 to 1648. A comprehensive study 
of this important miovement from its inception to the Peace of West- 
phalia. Two hours weekly, first semester. Seniors. Elective. 
Prof. Schaff. 

33. Modern Church Hisitory, 1648 to 190O. The Counter- 
Reformation; the development of modern rationalism and infidelity, 
and progress of such movements as Wesleyanism and beginnings 
of the social application of Christianity; Modern Missions; Trac- 
tarian Movement; the Modern Popes; the Vatican Council; tenden- 

44 (116) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

cies to Church Union. Two hours weekly, second semester. Seniors 
and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Schaff. 

34. American Church History. The religious miotives active 
in the discovery and colonization of the New World; Roman Catho- 
lic Missions in Canada and the South; the Puritans, — Roger Wil- 
liams; Plantations; the planting of religion in Virginia, New Yiork, 
Maryland, Pennsylvania; the Great Awakening; Francis Makemie 
and Early Presbyterianism; Organized Presbyterianism; the New 
England Divinity; the German Churches; religion during the Revo- 
lution; Methodism; the Unitarians and Universalists; the American 
Republic and Christianity; the Presbyterian Churches in the 19th 
century; Cooperative and Unronistic movements; Christian litera- 
ture and theological thought. Two hours weekly, first semester. 
Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Schaff. 

36. History of Presbyterianism. Its rise in Geneva; its de- 
velopment in France, Holland, and Scotland; its planting and prog- 
ress in the United States. Seniors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. 
Schaff. 



Systematic Theology and Apologetics 

Dr. S]srowDEN 

37. Theology Proper and Apologetics. This course includes 
in theology proper the nature and sources lof theology, the existence 
and attributes lof God, the trinity, the deity of Christ, the Holy Spirit, 
the decrees of God. In apologetics it includes the problem of the 
personality of God, antitheistic theories of the universe, miracles, the 
problems connected with the inspiration of the Bible, and the virgin 
birth and the resurrection of Christ. Two hours weekly throughout 
the year. Juniors. Required. Prof. Snowden. 

39. Anthropology, Christology, and the Doctrines of Grace. 
Theories of the origin of man; the primitive state of man; the fall; 
the covenant of grace; the person of Christ; the satisfaction of 
Christ; theories of the atonement; the nature and extent of the 
atonement; intercession of Christ; kingly office; the humiliation 
and exaltation of Christ; effectual calling, regeneration, faith, justi- 
fication, repentance, adoption, and sanctification; the law; the doc- 
trine of the last things; the state of the soul after death; the resur- 
rection; the second advent and its concomitants. Three hours 
weekly throughout the year. Middlers. Required. Prof. Snow- 
den. 

41a. Philosophy of Religion. A thorough discussion of the 
problems of theism and antitheistic theories and a study of the 
theology of Ritschl. One hour weekly throughout the year. Sen- 
iors and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Snowden. 

41b. The Psychology of Religion. A study of the religious 
nature and activities of the soul in the light of recent psychology; 
and a course in modern theories of the ultimate basis and nature 
of religion. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors and 
Graduates. Elective. Prof. Snowden. 

70. Psychology of Childhood and Adolescence (see p. 49). 
45 (117) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Practical Theology 

Dr. Farmer, Prof. Sleeth, Mr. Boyd 

Including Homileitics, Pastoral Theology, Elocution, Church Music, 
The Sacraments, and Church Government 

A. Homiletics 

The course in Homiletics is designed to be strictly progressive, 
■keeping step with the work in other departments. Students are ad- 
vanced from the simpler exercises to the more abstruse as they are 
prepared for this by their advance in exegesis and theology. 

Certain books of special reference are used in the department 
of Practical Theology, to which students are referred. Valuable new 
books are constantly being added to the library, and special addi- 
tions, in large numbers, have been made on subjects related to this 
department, particularly Pedagogics, Bible-class Work, Sociology, 
and Personal Evangelism. 

43 Public Worship. A study of the principles underlying the 
proper conduct of public worship, with discussion of the various ele- 
ments which enter into it, such as the reading of the Scripture, 
Prayer, Music, etc. One hour weekly. First semester. Juniors. 
Required. Prof. Farmer. 

45. Introduction to Homiletics. A study of the Scriptures 
with reference to their homiletic value. One hour weekly, second 
semester. Juniors. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

46. Homiletics. The principles governing the structure of the 
sermion considered as a special form of public discourse. The study 
of principles is accompanied by constant practice in the making of 
sermons which are used as a basis for classroom discussion. Two 
hours weekly, first semester, and one hour weekly second semester. 
Middlers. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

47. Advanced HomDetics. Historical and critical study of the 
work of representative preachers in all periods of the church's his- 
tory, with special emphasis on modern preaching as it is affected by 
the conditions lof our time. Students are required to submit critical 
analyses of selected sermons and also sermons lof their own, com- 
posed with a reference to various particular needs and opportunities 
in modern life. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors. 
Required. Prof. Farmer. 

57a. Pastoral Care. A study of the principles underlying the 
work of the minister as he serves the spiritual welfare of men 
through more intimate personal contact, with practical suggestions 
for dealing with typical conditions and situations. One hour weekly, 
first semester. Seniors. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

57b. A discussion of concrete cases, presented by the profes- 
sior, or by the students out of their own experience. This course is 
designed to cover a wide range, and to provide for the helpful dis- 
cussion of a variety of practical questions confronting young minis- 
ters. One hour weekly, second semester. Seniors. Required. Prof. 
Farmer. 

46 (118) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

60. Administration. A comparative study of the various types 
of church polity, with special emphasis on the distinctive character- 
istics of the Presbyterian order, and the organization and procedure 
lof its several structural units. The course covers also the whole 
field of administration in the individual church and the church at 
large. One hour weekly, second semester. Middlers. Required. 
Prof. Farmer. 

B. Elocution 

50. Vocal Technique. Training lof the voice. Practice of the 
Art of Breathing. Mechanism of Speech. One hour weekly through- 
out the year. Juniors. Required. Prof. Sleeth. 

51. Oral Interpretation of the Scriptures. Reading from the 
platform. One hour weekly throughout the year. Middlers. Elec- 
tive. Prof. Sleeth. 

52. Speaking, with special reference to enunciation, phrasing, 
and modulation. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors. 
Elective. Prof. Sleeth. 

52a. literary Appreciation. This subject is carried on largely 
by interpretative oral readings from the great masterpieces of Eng- 
lish Literature by the professor in charge and also by the students, 
on the principle that in no other way can a better comprehension 
of the subject be attained. To orally interpret is, in a manner, to 
recreate. At times also there are running expository remarks ac- 
companying the readings. One hour weekly throughout the year. 
All classes. Elective. Prof. Sleeth. 

C. Church Music 

The object of the course is primarily to instruct the student in 
the practical use of desirable Church Music; after that, to acquaint 
him, as far as is possible in a limited time, with good music in gen- 
eral. 

42. Hymnology. The place of Sacred Poetry in History. An- 
cient Hymns. Greek and Latin Hymns. German Hymns. Psal- 
mody. English Hymnology in its three periods. Proper use of 
Hymns and Psalms in public worship. Text book: Breed's "History 
and Use of Hymns and Hymn Tunes." One hour weekly, first sem- 
ester. Juniors. Required. Mr. Boyd. 

53. Hymn Tunes. History, Use, Practice. Text book: Breed's: 
"History and Use of Hymns and Hymn Tunes". Practical Church 
Music: Choirs, Organs, Sunday School Music, Special Musical Ser- 
vices, Congregational Music. One hour weekly, second semester. 
Juniors. Required. Mr. Bioyd. 

54. Practical Church Music. A year with the music of the 
"Hymnal", with a thorough examination and discussion lof its tunes. 
One hour weekly throughout the year. Middlers. Required. Mr. 
Boyd. 

55. Musical Appreciation. Illustrations and Lectures. One 
hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors. Elective. Mr. Boyd. 

56. In alternate years, classes in vocal sight reading and choir 
drill. Students who have suflGlcient musical experience are given 

47 (119) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

opportunity for practice in choir direction 'or organ playing. An- 
them selection and study. One hour weekly throughout the year. 
Open to students of all classes. Elective. Mr. Boyd. 

D. The Cecilia Choir 

The Cecilia is a mixed chorus of twenty-one voices, organized 
in 1903 by Mr. Boyd to illustrate the work of the Musical Depart- 
ment of the Seminary. It is in attendance every Monday evening at 
the Senior Preaching Service to lead the singing and set standards for 
the choir part of the service. During the year special programs of 
Church music are given from time to time both in the Seminary 
and in various city Churches. The Cecilia has attained much more 
than a local reputation, especially for its performance of unaccom- 
panied vocal music. 



Christian Ethics and Sociology 
Dr. Snowden, De. Faemee 

61a. Christian Ethics. The Theory of Ethics considered con- 
structively from the point of view 'of Christian Faith. One hour 
weekly throughout the year. Seniors and graduates. Elective. Dr. 
Snow den. 

61b. The Social Teaching of the New Testament. This course 
is based upon the belief that the teachings of the New Testament, 
rightly interpreted and applied, afford ample guidance to the Chris- 
tian Church in her efforts to meet the conditions and problems which 
modern society presents. After an introductory discussion of the 
social teaching of the Prophets and the condition and structure of 
society in the time of Christ, the course takes up the teaching of 
Jesus as it bears upon the conditions and problems which must be 
met in the task of establishing the Kingdom of God upon the earth, 
and concludes with a study of the application of Christ's teaching 
to the social order of the Grseco-Roman world set forth in the Acts 
and the Epistles. One hour weekly throughout the year. Seniors 
and Graduates. Elective. Prof. Parmer. 



Missions and Comparative Religion 
Dr. Kelso, De. Cuij::ey 

The Edinburgh Missionary Council suggested certain special 
studies for missionary candidates in addition to the regular Semi- 
nary curriculum. These additional studies were Comparative Re- 
ligion, Phonetics, and the History and Methods of Missionary 
Enterprise. Thorough courses in Comparative Religion and Pho- 
netics have been introduced into the curriculum, while a brief lecture 
course on the third subject is given by various members of the 
faculty. It is the purpose of the institution to develop this depart- 
ment more fully. 

63. Modern Missions. A study of fields and modern methods; 
each student is required either to read a missionary biography tor 

48 (120) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

to investigate a missionary problem. One hour weekly, first sem- 
ester. Elective. Seniors and Graduates. 

64. Iiectures on Missions. In addition to the instruction regu- 
larly given in the department of Church History, lectures on Missions 
are dedivereed from time to time by able men who are practically fa- 
miliar with th'6 work. The students have been addressed during 
the past year by several returned missionaries. 

65. Comparative Religion. A study of the origin and develop- 
ment of religion, with special investigation lof Primitive Religion, 
Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Islam with regard to their 
bearing on Modern Missions. Two hours weekly. Offered in alter- 
nate years. (1921-22). Elective. Open to Middlers, Seniors, and 
Graduates. Prof. Kelso. 

68. Phonetics. A study of phonetics and the principles of 
language with special reference to the mission field. One hour 
weekly throughout the year. (1921-22.) Elective. Open to all 
classes. Prof. Culley. 

7b. Elementary Arabic. (See p. 39). 

Religious Education 

Dr. Snowdbn, Dr. Farmer, Dr. Vance 

The purpose of these courses is to give the student a knowl- 
edge of the principles and methods lof religious education. The 
field that is covered includes the psychological and pedagogical as- 
pects of the subject as well as the organization, principles, and 
methods of the Sunday School. Those who desire to specialize still 
further in this department have access to the courses in Pedagogy 
and Psychology at the University of Pittsburgh. 

70. Psychology of Childhood and Adolescence. Principles of 
psychology as applied to the mental and moral development of child- 
hood and youth, with special reference to the problems of adoles- 
cence. One hour weekly throughout the year. Juniors. Required. 
Prof. Snowden. 

71. Organization and Administration of Religious Education. 
This course is designed to comprehend not lonly the organization 
and operation lof the Sunday School within the individual church, 
but all organized activities in the community which look toward 
religious and moral education. One hour weekly throughout the 
year. Middlers. Required. Prof. Farmer. 

72. Principles and Methods. An application of the principles 
and methods of general pedagogy to Religious Education. Two 
hours weekly second semester. Seniors and Graduates. Elective. 
Prof. Vance. 

41b. The Psychology of Religion (see p. 45). 

CURRICULUM COURSES IN OUTLINE 

Junior Class 
1. Hebrew Grammar 

Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday 
Prof, Culley 4 hours* 



♦Unless otherwise indicated courses continu'e throughout the 
year. 

49 (121) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

8b. History of the Hebrews 

Wednesday, Thursday 
Prof. Kelso 2 hrs, 2nd Sem. 

14. New Testamenjt Greek 

Tuesday, Thursday 
Mr. Eakin 2 hrs. 2nd Sem. 

22. New Testament Introduction 

Wednesday, Thursday 

Mr. Eakin 2 hrs, 1st Sem. 

16. Life of Christ 

Tuesday, Saturday 
Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 

30'. Church History 

Friday, Saturday 
Prof. Schaff 2 hrs. 

37-38. Theology Proper and Apologetics 

Tuesday, Wednesday 
Prof. Snowden 2 hrs. 

43. Public Worship 

Friday 

Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 1st Sem. 

45. Introduction to Homiletics 

Friday 
Prof. Farmer . 1 hr. 2nd Sem. 

70. Psychology of Childhood and Adolescence 

Thursday 
Prof. Snowden 1 hr. 

42. Hyninology 

Tuesday 

Mr. Bioyd 1 hr. 1st Sem. 

53. Hymn Tunes 

Tuesday 

Mr. Boyd 1 hr. 2nd Sem. 

50. Vocal Technique 

Friday 
Prof. Sleeth 1 hr. 

Middle Class 

3. Old Testament Exegesis 

Tuesday, Wednesday 
Prof. Culley 2 hrs. 

8b. History of ithe Hebrews 

Wednesday, Thursday 
Prof. Kelso 2 hrs. 2nd Sem. 

13. New Testament Greek 

Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday 
Mr. Eakin 4 hrs. 1st, 3 hrs. 2nd Sem. 

50 (122) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

20. New Testament Exegesis 

"Wednesday, Thursday 
Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 

17. Firsit Century Christianity 

Friday, Saturday 
Prof. Eakin 2 hrs. 1st Sem. 

31. Church History 

Tuesday, Thursday, Friday 
Prof. Schaff 3 hrs. 

39. Theology Proper 

Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday 
Prof. Snowden 3 hrs. 

46. Homiletics 

Tuesday, Wednesday 
Prof. Farmer 2 hrs. 1st, 1 hr. 2nd Sem. 

60. Administration 

Wednesday 
Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 2nd Sem. 

71. Religious Education: Organization, etc. 

Thursday 
Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 

54. Practical Church Music 

Tuesday 

Mr. Boyd 1 hr. 

51. Oi-al Interpretation of the Scriptures 

Wednesday 
Prof. Sleeth Elective 1 hr. 



Senior Class 

11. Old Testament Prophecy 

Thursday, Friday 

Prof. Kelso 2 hrs. 

26. New Testament Theology 

Thursday, Friday 
Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 

20. New Testament Exegesis 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 

47. Advanced Homiletics 

Tuesday 

Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 

57. Pastoral Care 

Wednesday 
Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 

Electives from which Seniors must select at least eight hours. 
51 (123) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

2a. Rapid Reading of I Samuel or Judges 

Hours to be arranged 

Prof, Culley 2 hrs. 1st Sem. 

2b. Rapid Reading of Minor Prophets 

Hours to be arranged 

Prof. Culley 2 hrs 2nd Sem. 

7a. Biblical Aramaic 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Culley 
7b. Elementary Arabic 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof, Culley 
7c. Elementary Assyrian 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof, Kelso 

4. Exegetical Study of the Psalter 

Saturday 
Prof. Culley 1 hr. 

5. Exegeitical Study of Isaiah 

Wednesday 
Prof. Kelso (1923-24) 1 br. 

6. Proverbs and Job Interpreted 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof, Kelso (1922-23) 
9. Hexateuchal Criticism 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Kelso 1 br. 2nd Sem. 

lOi. Critical Study in English of the Psalter and Wisdom Literature 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Kelso (1923-24) 1 hr. 2nd Sem, 

12. The Canon and Text of the Old Testament 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof, Culley 2 hrs. 1st Sem. 

25. Old Testament Theology 

Thursday, Friday 
Prof, Kelso (1923-24) 2 hrs, 

67. Biblical Apocalyptic 

Hours to be arranged 

Prof. Kelso (1923-24) 1 hr. 

69. Critical Study of Genesis in English 

Hours to be arranged 

Prof. Kelso (1921-22) 2 hrs. one Sem. 

14a. Rapid Reading of New Testament Greek 
Hours to be arranged 

Mr. Eakin (1922-23) 2 hrs. 1st Sem. 

23. New Testament Introduction 

Hours to be arranged 
Mr. Eakin (1922-23) 2 hrs. 2nd Sem. 

52 (124) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

21. The Pastoral Epistles in Greek 

Hours to be arranged 

Mr, Eakin (1923-24) 2 hrs. 1st Sem. 

19b. The Fourth Gospel 

Hours to be arranged 

Prof. Vance (1922-23) 2 hrs. 1st Sem. 

24. James and I Peter 

Hours to be arranged 

Prof. Vance (1922-23) 2 hrs, 2nd Sem. 

24a. I Corinthians 

Hours to be arranged 

Prof Vance (1923-24) 2 hrs. 1st Sem. 

24b. Ephesians and Colossians 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Vance (1923-24) 2 hrs. 2nd Sem. 

27. Mark's Gospel and Preaching 

Hours to be arranged 
Mr. Eakin (1921-22) 2 hrs. 2nd Sem. 

28. A Critical, Homiletical Study of Galatians 

Hours to be arranged 
Mr, Eakin (1923-24) 2 hrs, 2nd Sem, 

32. History of the Reformation 

Tuesday, Wednesday 
Prof. Schaff 2 hrs. 1st Sem. 

33. Modem Church History 

Tuesday, Wednesday 
Prof. Schaff 2 hrs. 2nd Sem. 

34. American Church History 

Thursday, Friday 

Prof. Schaff 2 hrs. 2nd Sem. 

36. History of Pi'esbyterianism 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Schaff 
41a. Philosophy of Religion 

Tuesday 

Prof. Snowden 1 hr. 

41b. Psychology of Religion 

Saturday 
Prof. Snowden 1 hr. 

52. Elocution 

Tuesday 

Prof. Sleeth 1 hr. 

52a. Literary Appreciation 

Thursday 
Prof. Sleeth 1 hr. 

55. Musical Appreciation 

Tuesday 
Mr. Boyd 1 hr. 

56. Vocal Sight Reading 

Tuesday 
Mr. Boyd 1 hr. 

53 (125) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

61a. Christian Ethics 

Saturday 
Prof. Snowden 1. hr. 

61b. Social Teaching of the New Testament 

Tuesday 
Prof. Farmer 1 hr. 

63. Modem Missions 

Hours to be arranged 

65. Comparative Religion 

Thursday, Friday 

Prof. Kelso (1921-22) 2 hrs. 

68. Phonetics for Missionaries 

Hour to be arranged 
Prof. Culley (1921-22) 1 hr. 

72. Principles and Methods of Religious Education 

Hours to be arranged 
Prof. Vance 2 hrs. 2nd Sem. 



Reports to Presbyteries 

Presbyteries having students under their care re- 
ceive annual reports from the Faculty concerning the 
attainments of the students in scholarship, and their at- 
tendance upon the exercises of the Seminary. 

Graduate Studies 

The Seminary has the right to confer the degree of 
Bachelor of Divinity. It will be bestowed on those stu- 
dents who complete a fourth year of study. 

This degree will be granted under the following con- 
ditions : 

(1) The applicant must have a Bachelor's de- 
gree from a college of recognized standing. 

(2) He must be a graduate of this or some 
other theological seminary. In case he has gradu- 
ated from another seminary, which does not require 
Greek and Hebrew for its diploma, the candidate 
must take in addition to the above requirements the 
following courses: Hebrew, 1 and 3; New Testa- 
ment, 13 and 14. 

54 (126) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

(3) He must be in residence at this Seminary 
at least one academic year and complete courses 
equivalent to twelve hours per week of regular cur- 
riculum work. 

(4) He shall be required to devote two-thirds 
of said time to one subject, which will be called a 
major, and the remainder to another subject termed 
a minor. 

In the department of the major he shall be re- 
quired to write a thesis of not less than 4,000 words. 
The subject of this thesis must be presented to the 
professor at the head of this department for ap- 
proval, not later than November 15th of the aca- 
demic year at the close of which the degree is to be 
conferred. By April 1st, a typewritten copy of this 
thesis is to be in the hands of the professor for ex- 
amination. At the close of the year he shall pass a 
rigid examination in both major and minor subjects. 

(5) Members of the senior class may receive 
this degree, provided that they attain rank '*A" in 
all departments and complete the courses equivalent 
to such twelve hours of curriculum work, in addition 
to the regular curriculum, which twelve hours of 
work may be distributed throughout the three years' 
course, upon consultation with the professors. All 
other conditions as to major and minor subjects, 
theses, etc., shall be the same as for graduate stu- 
dents, except that in this case students must elect 
their major and minor courses at the opening of the 
middle year, and give notice October 1st of that year 
that they expect to be candidates for this degree. 



Relations with University of Pittsburgh 

The post-graduate courses of the University of Pitts- 
burgh are open to the students of the Seminary. The 

55 (127) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

A. M. degree will be conferred on students of the Sem- 
inary who complete graduate courses of the University 
requiring a minimum of three hours of work for two 
years, and who prepare an acceptable thesis ; and, on ac- 
count of the proximity of the University, all require- 
ments for residence may be satisfied by those who desire 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

The following formal regulations have been adopted 
by the Graduate Faculty of the University of Pittsburgh 
with reference to the students of the Seminary who de- 
sire to secure credits at the University. 

1. That non-technical theological courses (i. e., 
those in linguistics, history. Biblical literature, and 
philosophy) be accepted for credit toward advanced 
degrees in arts and sciences, under conditions de- 
. scribed in the succeeding paragraphs. 
1 . 2. That no more than one-third of the total 

number of credits required for the degrees of A. M. 
or M. S. and Ph. D. be of the character referred to in 
paragraph 1. In the case of the Master's degree, 
this maximun credit can be given only to students in 
the Western Theological Seminary and the Pitts- 
burgh Theological Seminary. 

3. That the acceptability of any course offered 
for such credit be subject to the approval of the 
Council. The Council shall, as a body or through 
a committee, pass upon (1) the general merits of 
the courses offered; and (2) their relevancy to the 
major selected by the candidate. 

4. That the direction and supervision of the 
candidate's courses shall be vested in the University 
departments concerned. 

5. That in every case in which the question of 
the duplication of degree is raised, by reason of the 
candidate's offering courses that have already been 
credited toward the B. D. or other professional de- 
gree in satisfaction of the requirements for advanced 

56 (128) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

degrees in arts and sciences, the matter of accepta- 
bility of such courses shall be referred to a special 
committee consisting of the head of the department 
concerned and such other members of the Graduate 
Faculty as the Dean may select. 

6. That the full requirements as regards resi- 
dence, knowledge of modem languages, theses, etc., 
of the University of Pittsburgh be exacted in the 
case of candidates who may take advantage of these 
privileges. In the case of the Western Theological 
Seminary and the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, 
this paragraph shall not be interpreted to cancel 
paragraph 2, that a maximum of one-third of the 
total number of credits for the Master's degree may 
be taken in the theological schools. 
The minimum requirement for the Master's degree 
is the equivalent of twelve hours throughout three terms, 
or what we call thirty-six term hours. According to the 
above resolutions a minimum of twenty-four term hours 
should be taken at the University. 

Fellowships and Prizes 

1. Fellowships paying $500 each are assigned upon 
graduation to the two members of the senior class who 
have the best standing in all departments of the Semi- 
nary curriculum, but to no one falling below an average 
of 8.5. It is offered to those who take the entire course of 
three years in this institution. The recipient must 
pledge himself to a year of post-graduate study at some 
institution approved by the Faculty. He is required to 
furnish quarterly reports of his progress. The money 
will be paid in three equal installments on the first day 
of October, January, and April. Prolonged absence 
from the class-room in the discharge of eo^fra-seminary 
duties makes a student ineligible for the fellowship.* 

*0n account of lack of funds only one fellowship will be 
awarded until further notice. 

57 (129) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

2. The Michael Wilson Keith Memorial Homiletical 
Prize of $100.00. This prize was founded in 1919 by the 
Keith Bible Class of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Coraopolis, Pa., by an endowment of two thousand 
dollars in memory of the Eev. Michael Wilson Keith, 
D. D., the founder of the class, and pastor of the church 
from 1911 to 1917. This foundation was established in 
grateful remembrance of his service to his country as 
Chaplain of the 111th Infantry Regiment. He fell while 
performing his duty at the front in France. It is 
awarded to a member of the senior class who has spent 
three years in this Seminary and has taken the highest 
standing in the department of homiletics. The winner 
of the prize is expected to preach in the First Presby- 
terian Church of Coraopolis and teach the Keith Bible 
Class one Sunday after the award is made. 

3. A prize in Hebrew is offered to that member of 
the junior class who maintains the highest standing 
in this subject throughout the junior year. The prize 
consists of a copy of the Oxford Hebrew-English Lexi- 
con, a copy of the latest English translation of Gesenius- 
Kautzsch's Hebrew Grammar, or a copy of Davidson's 
Hebrew Syntax, and a copy of the Hebrew Bible edited 
by Kittel. 

4. All students reaching the grade *'A" in all de- 
partments during the junior year will be entitled to a 
prize of $50, which will be paid in four installments in 
the middle year, provided that the recipient continues 
tu maintain the grade *'A" in all departments during the 
middle year. Prizes of the same amount and under 
similar conditions will be available for seniors, but no 
student whose attendance is unsatisfactory will be eli- 
gible to these prizes. 

5. In May, 1914, Miss Anna M. Reed, of Cross 
Creek, Pa., established a scholarship with an endowment 
of three thousand dollars, to be known as the Andrew 
Reed Scholarship, with the following conditions: The 

58 (130) 



TJie Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

income of this scholarship to be awarded to the student 
who upon entering shall pass the best competitive exam- 
ination in the English Bible; the successful competitor 
to have the use of it throughout the entire course of 
three years provided that his attendance and class stand- 
ing continue to be satisfactory.* 

6. In February 1919 Mrs. Kobert A. Watson, of 
Columbus, Ohio, established a prize with an endowment 
of one thousand dollars, to be known as the John Watson 
Prize in New Testament Greek.* 

7. In September 1919 Mrs. Robert A. Watson, of 
Columbus, Ohio, established a prize with an endowment 
of one thousand dollars, to be known as the William B. 
Watson Hebrew Prize.* 

8. In July 1920, Mrs. Robert A. Watson, of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, with an endowment of $1,000, established the 
Joseph Watson Greek Prize, to be awarded to the stu- 
dent who passes the best examination in classical Greek 
as he enters the junior class of the Seminary.* 

9. At their ten-year reunion (May 1921), the class 
of 1911 raised a fund of one hundred dollars, to be 
offered as a prize by the faculty to the member of the 
senior class (1922) who has maintained the highest 
standing in the Greek language and exegesis during the 
three years of his course. This prize will be awarded at 
the Commencement in 1922. 

10. Two entrance prizes of $150 each are offered by 
the Seminary to college graduates presenting themselves 
for admission to the junior class. The scholarships mil 
be awarded upon the basis of a competitive examination 
subject to the following conditions : 

(I) Candidates must, not later than September 
first, indicate their intention to compete, and such state- 
ment of their purpose must be accompanied by certifi- 

*The income from this fund is not available at present. 
59 (131) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

cates of college standing and mention of subjects elected 
for examination. 

(II) Candidates must be graduates of high stand- 
ing in the classical course of some accepted college or 
university. 

(III) The examinations will be conducted on 
Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of the opening week of 
the first semester. 

(IV) The election of subjects for examination shall 
be made from the following list: (1) Classical Greek 
— Greek Grammar, translation of Greek prose, Greek 
composition; (2) Latin — Latin Grammar, translation of 
Latin prose, Latin composition; (3) Hebrew — Hebrew 
Grammar, translation of Hebrew prose, Hebrew composi- 
tion; (4) German — translation of German into English 
and English into German; (5) French — ^translation of 
French into English and English into French; (6) Philo- 
sophy — (a) History of Philosophy, (b) Psychology, 
(c) Ethics, (d) Metaphysics; (7) History — (a) Ancient 
Oriental History, (b) Graeco-Roman History to A. D. 
476, (c) Medieval History to the Reformation, (d) 
Modern History. 

(V) Each competitor shall elect from the above 
list four subjects for examination, among which subjects 
Greek shall always be included. Each division of Phil- 
osophy and History shall be considered one subject. No 
more than one subject in Philosophy and no more than 
one subject in History may be chosen by any one candi- 
date. 

(VI) The awards of the scholarships will be made 
to the two competitors passing the most satisfactory ex- 
aminations, provided their average does not fall below 
ninety per cent. The payment will be made in two in- 
stallments, the first at the time the award is made, and 
the second on April 1st. Failure to maintain a high 
standard in classroom work or prolonged absence will 

60 (132) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

debar the recipients from receiving the second install- 
ment. 

The intention to compete for the prize scholarships 
shonld be made known, in writing, to the President. 

Donations and Bequests 

All donations or bequests to the Seminary should be 
made to the ''Trustees of the Western Theological Sem- 
inary of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, located in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania." 
The proper legal form for making a bequest is as follows : 

I hereby give and bequeath to the Trustees of the 
Western Theological Seminary, of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America, incorporated 
in the State of Pennsylvania, the following : — 

Note: — If the person desires the Seminary to get the 
full amount designated, free of tax, the following state- 
ment should be added : — The collateral inheritance tax to 
be paid out of my estate. 

In this connection the present financial needs of the 
Seminary may be arranged in tabular form : 

Chair of Apologetics $100,000 

Apartment for Professors 100,000 

Chair of Missions 100,000 

Museum of Missions and Biblical Antiquities 25,000 

Library Fund 30,000 

Two Fellowships, $10,000 each 20,000 

The Memorial idea may be carried out either in the 
erection of one of these buildings or in the endowment of 
any of the funds. During the past ten years the Sem- 
inary has made considerable progress in securing new 
equipment and additions to the endowment funds. One 
of the recent gifts was that of $100,000 to endow the 
President's Chair. This donation was made by the Rev. 
Nathaniel W. Conkling, D. D., a member of the class of 
1861. In May, 1912, the new dormitory building, costing 
$146,097, was dedicated, and four years later. May 4, 

61 (133) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

1916, Herron Hall and Swift Hall, the north and sonth 
wings of the new quadrangle, were dedicated. During 
this period the Seminary has also received the endow- 
ment of a missionary lectureship from the late Mr. L. H. 
Severance, of Cleveland; and, through the efforts of Dr. 
Breed, an endowment of $15,000 for the instructorship 
in music; as well as eight scholarships amounting to 
$22,331.10. 

In the year 1918, a lectureship was established 
by a gift of $5,000 from Mrs. Janet I. Watson, of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, in memory of her husband Kev. Robert A. 
Watson, a member of the class of 1874. Mrs. Watson has 
also founded the James L. Shields Book Purchasing 
Memorial Fund, with an endowment of $1,000, in memory 
of her father, the late James L. Shields of Blairsville 
Pennsylvania. 

During the year 1919 Mrs. Watson established two 
prizes, each with an endowment of $1,000: (1) The John 
Watson Prize in New Testament Greek, in memory of her 
husband's father. Rev. John Watson; (2) The Rev. 
William B. Watson Hebrew Prize, in memory of Rev. 
William B. Watson, a member of the class of 1868 and a 
brother of Rev. Robert A. Watson. 

Also during this year the Michael Wilson Keith 
Memorial Homiletical Prize of $100 was founded by the 
Keith Bible Class of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Coraopolis, Pa., by an endowment of two thousand 
dollars in memory of the Rev. Michael Wilson Keith, 
D. D., the founder of the class and pastor of the church 
from 1911-1917. This foundation was established in 
grateful remembrance of Dr. Keith's service to his coun- 
try as Chaplain of the 111th Infantry Regiment. He fell 
while performing his duty at the front in France. 

In December, 1919, a friend of the Seminary, by a 
contribution of $2,500 established a Students' Loan and 
Self-help Fund. The principal is to be kept intact and 

62 (134) 




HERRON HALL 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the income is available for loans to students which may 
be repaid after graduation. 

In July, 1920, Mrs. R. A. Watson established, with 
an endowment of $1,000, the Joseph Watson Greek Prize, 
in memory of her husband's youngest brother. 

In Nov. 1919 a member of the Board made a contri- 
bution of ten thousand dollars to the endowment fund. 
During the same year one of the holders of annuity 
bonds cancelled them to the sum of $7,500. In addition 
a legacy of $25,000 was received from the Estate of 
James Laughlin, Jr. 

At their ten-year reunion (May 1921), the Class of 
1911 raised a fund of one hundred dollars, to be offered 
as a prize by the faculty to the member of the senior class 
(1922) who has maintained the highest standing in the 
Greek language and exegesis during the three years of 
his course. This prize will be awarded at the Commence- 
ment 1922. 

The whirlwind campaign of October 24 — November 
3, 1913, resulted in subscriptions amounting to $135,000. 
This money was used in the erection of the new Admin- 
istration Building, to take the place of Seminary Hall. 
A friend of the Seminary has subscribed $50,000 for the 
erection of a chapel; as soon as conditions in the busi- 
ness world become more normal, the chapel will be 
erected according to plans already adopted. During the 
past three years the debt of $88,000, incurred in the erec- 
tion of Memorial Hall and Herron and Swift Halls, has 
been reduced to $27,000. Attention is called to the 
special needs of the Seminary — the endowment of ad- 
ditional professorships and the completion of the build- 
ing program. 

Lists of Scholarships 

1. The Thomas Patterson Scholarship, founded in 1829, by- 

Thomas Patterson, of Upper St. Clair, Allegheny County, Pa. 

2. The McNeely Scholarship, founded by Miss Nancy McNeely, of 

Steubenville, Ohio. 

63 (135) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

3. The Dornan Scholarship, founded by James Dornan, of Wash- 

ington County, Pa. 

4. The O'Hara Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Harmar Denny, of 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

5. The Smith Scholarship, founded by Robin Smith, of Allegheny 

County, Pa. 

6. The Ohio Smith Scholarship, founded by Robert W. Smith, of 

Fairfield County, O. 

7. The Dickinson Scholarship, founded by Rev. Richard W. Dick- 

inson, D.D., of New York City. 

8. The Jane McCrea Patterson Scholarship, founded by Joseph 

Patterson, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

9. The Hamilton Scott Easter Scholarship, founded by Hamilton 

Easter, of Baltimore, Md. 

10. The Corning Scholarship, founded by Hanson K. Corning, of 

New York City. 

11. The Emma B. Corning Scholarship, founded by her husband, 

Hanson K. Corning, of New York City, 

12. The Susan C. Williams Scholarship, founded by her husband, 

Jesse L. Williams, of Ft. Wayne, Ind. 

13. The Mary P. Keys Scholarship, No. 1, founded by herself. 

14. The Mary P. Keys Scholarship, No. 2, founded by herself. 

15. The James L. Carnaghan Scholarship, founded by James L. 

Carnaghan, of Sewickley, Pa. 

16. The A. M. Wallingford Scholarship, founded by A. M. Walling- 

ford, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

17. The Alexander Cameron Scholarship, founded by Alexander 

Cameron, of Allegheny, Pa. 

18. The "First Presbyterian Church of Kittanning, Pa." Scholar- 

ship. 

19. The Rachel Dickson Scholarship, founded by Rachel Dickson, 

of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

20. The Isaac Cahill Scholarship, founded by Isaac Cahill, of Bu- 

cyrus, O. 

21. The Margaret Cahill Scholarship, founded by Isaac Cahill, of 

Bucyrus, O. 

22. The "H. E. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. Beatty, 

D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

23. The "C. C. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. Beatty, 

D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

24 The Koonce Scholarship, founded by Hon. Charles Koonce, of 
Clark, Mercer County, Pa. 

25. The Fairchild Scholarship, founded by Rev. Elias R. Fair- 

child, D.D., of Mendham, N. J. 

26. The Allen Scholarship, founded by Dr. Richard Steele, Execu- 

tor, from the estate of Electa Steele Allen, of Auburn, N. Y. 

27. The "L. M. R. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. 

Beatty, D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

64 (136) 




A VIEW OF THE PARK FROM THE QUADRANGLE 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

28. The "M. A. C. B." Scholarship, founded by Rev. Charles C. 

Beatty, D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, O. 

29. The Sophia Houston Carothers Scholarship, founded by herself. 

30. The Margaret Donahey Scholarship, founded by Margaret 

Donahey, of Washington County, Pa. 

31. The Melanchthon W. Jacobus Scholarship, founded by will of 

his deceased wife. 

32. The Charles Burleigh Conkling Scholarship, founded by his 

father. Rev. Nathaniel W. Conkling, D.D., of New York City. 

33. The Redstone Memorial Scholarship, founded in honor of Red- 

stone Presbytery. 

34. The John Lee Scholarship, founded by himself. 

35. The James McCord Scholarship, founded by John D. McCord, of 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

36. The Elisha P. Swift Scholarship. 

37. The Gibson Scholarship, founded by Charles Gibson, of Law- 

rence County, Pa. 

38. The New York Scholarship. 

39. The Mary Foster Scholarship, founded by Mary Foster, of 

Greensburg, Pa. 

40. The Lea Scholarship, founded in part by Rev. Richard Lea and 

by the Seminary. 

41. The Kean Scholarship, founded by Rev. William F. Kean, of 

Sewickley, Pa. 

42. The Murry Scholarship, founded by Rev. Joseph A. Murry, 

D.D., of Carlisle, Pa. 

43. The Moorehead Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Annie C. Moore- 

head, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

44. The Craighead Scholarship, founded by Rev. Richard Craig- 

head, of Meadville, Pa. 

45. The George H. Starr Scholarship, founded by Mr. George H. 

fftarr, of Sewickley, Pa. 

46. The William R. Murphy Scholarship, founded by William R. 

Murphy, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

47. The Mary A. McClurg Scholarship, founded by Miss Mary A. 

McClurg. 

48. The Catherine R. Negley Scholarship, founded by Catherine R. 

Negley. 

49. The Jane C. Dinsmore Scholarship, founded by Jane C. Dins- 

more. 

50. The Samuel Collins Scholarship, founded by Samuel Collins. 

51. The A. G. McCandless Scholarship, founded by A. G. McCand- 

less, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 
52-53. The W. G. and Charlotte T. Taylor Scholarships, founded by 

Rev. W, G. Taylor, D.D. 
54. The William A. Robinson Scholarship, founded by John F. 

Robinson in memory of his father. 

65 (137) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

55. The Alexander C. Robinson Scholarsliip, founded by John F. 

Robinson in memory of his brother. 

56. The David Robinson Scholarship, founded by John F. Robinson 

in memory of his brother. 
57-58. The Robert and Charles Gardner Scholarships, founded by 
Mrs. Jane Hogg Gardner in memory of her sons. 

59. The Joseph Patterson, Jane Patterson, and Rebecca Leech 

Patterson Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Joseph Patterson, 
of Philadelphia, Pa. 

60. The Jane and Mary Patterson Scholarship, founded by Mrs. 

Joseph Patterson. 

61. The Joseph Patterson Scholarship, founded by Mrs. Joseph 

Patterson. 

62. The William Woodward Eells Scholarship, founded by his 

daughter, Anna Sophia Eells. 
*63. The Andrew Reed Scholarship, founded by his daughter, Anna 
M. Reed. 

64. The Bradford Scholarship, founded by Benjamin Rush Brad- 

ford. 

65. The William Irwin Nevin Scholarship, founded by Theodore 

Hugh Nevin and Hannah Irwin Nevin. 



Special Funds 



The James L. Shields Book Purchasing Memorial Fund. 
The James H. Lyon Loan Fund. 
Students' Loan and Self-help Fund. 



♦Special Prize Scholarship (vide p. 58). 

Lectureships 

The Elliott Lectureship. The endowment for this 
lectureship was raised by Prof. Eobinson among the 
alumni and friends of the Seminary as a memorial to 
Prof. David Elliott, who served the institution from 1836 
to 1874. Several distinguished scholars have delivered 
lectures on this foundation : Rev. Professor Alexander 
F. Mitchell, D. D., Principal Fairbairn, Rev. B. C. Henry, 
D. D., Rev. J. S. Dennis, D. D., Prof. James Orr, D. D., 
Rev. Hugh Black, D. D., Rev. David Smith, D. D., Presi- 
dent A. T. Ormond, and Rev. Prof. Samuel Angus, Ph. D. 

The L. H. Severance Missionary Lectureship. 
This lectureship has been endowed by the generous gift 

66 (138) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

of the late Mr. L. H. Severance, of Cleveland, Ohio. The 
first course of lectures on this foundation was given dur- 
ing the term of 1911-12, by Mr. Edward Warren Capen, 
Ph. D., of the Hartford School of Missions. His general 
theme was ' * Sociological Progress in Mission Lands. ' ' 
The second course was given during the term of 1914-15 
by the Rev. Arthur J. Brown, D. D. ; his subject was 
' ' The Rising Churches in the Mission Field. ' ' The third 
course was given during the term 1915-16, by the Rev. 
S. G. Wilson, D. D. ; his subject was *' Modern Movements 
among Moslems." The fourth course (postponed from 
the term 1916-17) was given in October, 1917, by the Rev. 
A. Woodruff Halsey, D. D. ; his subject was ''The Minis- 
try and Missions." The fifth course was given in Janu- 
ary, 1918, by the Rev. J. C. R. Ewing, D. D., LL. D., 
C. I. E.; his subject was ''Some Developments of Religi- 
ous Thought in India." The sixth course was given in 
September, 1919, by the Rev. Robert F. Fitch, D. D. ; 
the general theme of his lectures was "Aspects of Chris- 
tion Missions in China." 

The Robert A. Watson Memorial Lectureship. 
This lectureship was endowed in May, 1918, by Mrs. 
Janet I. Watson, of Columbus, Ohio, as a memorial to 
her husband, Rev. Robert A. Watson, D. D., a graduate 
of the Seminary class of 1874.* 



Seminary Extension Lectures 

In recent years a new departure in the work of the 
Seminary has been the organization of Seminary Exten- 
sion courses. Since the organization of this work the 
following courses of lectures have been given in various 
city and suburban churches : 

(1) "The Sacraments," four lectures, by Rev. 
David R. Breed, D. D., LL. D. 



*Tlie income from this fund is not available at present. 
67 (139) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

(2) ''Social Teaching of the New Testament," 
six lectures, by Rev. William R. Farmer, D. D. 

(3) "Theology of the Psalter", four lectures, by 
President Kelso. 

(4) "Prophecy and Prophets", four lectures, by 
President Kelso. 

(5) "The Fundamentals of Christianity", five 
lectures, by Rev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

(6) "The Psychology of Religion," five lectures, 
by Rev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

(7) "The Personality of God", five lectures, by 
Rev. James H. Snowden, D. D., LL. D. 

(8) ' ' Crises in the Life of Christ", four lectures, by 
Rev. Selby Frame Vance. 



68 (140) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 

OFFICERS FOR 1921-22 

President 

The REV. SAMUEL BLACKER 
Class of 1907 

Vice-President 

The REV. CHARLES N. MOORE 
Class iof 1896 

Secretary 

The REV. THOS. C, PEARS, JR. 
Class of 1910 

Recording Secretary and Treasurer 

The REV. R. H. ALLEN, D. D. 
Class of 1900 

EXECUTIVE COIMMITTEE 

The REV. J. A. KELSO, Ph.D., D. D. 
Class of 1896 

The REV. S. B. McCORMICK, D. D., LL.D. 
Class of 1890 

The REV. J. S. AXTELL, Ph.D., D. D. 
Class of 1874 

The REV. U. S. GREVES 
Class of 1895 

The REV. W. S. BINGHAM 
Class of 1908 

The REV. W. A. JONES, D. D. 
Class of 1889 

NECROIiOGlCAIi COMMITTEE 

The REV. c. s. McClelland, d. d. 

The REV. J. A. KELSO, Ph.D., D. D. 



69 (141) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 
DIRECTORY 

Assistant to Librarian .... A. L. Middler M 

Director D President Pres. 

Fellow F Professor Prof. 

Graduate G Registrar R 

Instructor I Secretary Sec. 

Junior J Senior S 

Lecturer Lee. Trustee T 

Librarian L Visitor V 



Acheson, Pres. J. C, LL.D D Woodland Road 

Adams, Luella E V 108 Camp Ave., Braddock 

Alexander, Rev. Maitland, D. D. . .D 920 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Anderson, Rev. T. B., D. D D. Beaver Falls, Pa. 

Barbour, C. E S 718 N. St. Clair St. 

Behrends, A. D M 216 

Biddle, E. L J 304 

Bingham, Rev. J. G F Mercer, Pa. 

Boyd, Charles N 1 4259 Fifth Ave. 

Brandon, W. D D Butler, Pa. 

Breed, Rev. D. R., D. D., LL.D Prof 123 Dithridge St. 

Bruce, Rev. J. C, D. D D.156 Fifth Ave., New York City 

Campbell, R. D .T 6210 Walnut St. 

Campbell, Rev. W. 0., D. D D Sewickley, Pa. 

Carpenter, J. McF T Frick Annex 

Christie, Rev. Robt., D. D., LL.D. Prof 1002 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Clemson, D. M T Carnegie Building 

Cotton, J. M J 303 

Cox, J. M M 205 

Craig, Rev. W. R D Butler, Pa. 

Crutchfield, J. S D 2034 Penn Ave. 

CuUey, Rev. D. E., Ph. D Prof. & R. 1140 Pemberton Ave., 

N. S. 
Curtiss, H. T J 317 

De Prefontaine, C. L J 304 

Dickson, C. A T 316 Fourth Ave. 

Duff, Rev. J. M., D. D Sec. of D Carnegie, Pa. 

Eakin, Rev. Frank I. & L 335 Forest Ave., 

Ben Avon, Pa. 

Edwards, Geo. D T. .c/o Commonwealth Trust Co. 

Ehmann, W. F J 218 

70 (142) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Farmer, Rev. "W. R., D. D Prof.. . .1020 Western Ave., N. S. 

Fisher, Rev. S. J., D. D Sec. of T. ... 5611 Kentucky Ave. 

Fulton, A. F S Belle Vernon, Pa. 

Galbraith, L. A S 302 

Gibson, E. L S 306 

Gibson, Rev. J. T., D. D D Rodgers Bldg., N. S. 

Gregg, John R V-Pres. of T . . . . Woodland Road 

Griffith, Rev. O. C G R. F. D., Ooraopolis, Pa. 

Hamill, Daniel S. . 617 Gearing Ave,. Beltzhoover 

Hanna, Chas. N D Bellefield Dwellings 

Harbison, R. W D. & T Sewickley, Pa. 

Haverfield, R. M J 218 

Hays, Rev. C. C, D. D Pres. of D Johnstown, Pa. 

Hazlett, C. H M 203 

Herron, Joseph A T Monongahela City, Pa. 

Higgins, Miss Sara M A. L Glenshaw, Pa. 

Higley, Rev. A. P., D. D D. .2020 E 79th St., Cleveland, O. 

Hilty, J. R J Library, Pa. 

Hinitt, Rev. F, W., D. D D Indiana, Pa. 

Hofmeister, R. C F Oakmont, Pa. 

Holland, Rev. W. J., D. D D 5440 Forbes Ave. 

Hudnut, Rev. Wm. H., D. D D Youngstown, Ohio 

Hutchison, Rev. S. N., D. D T 5915 Wellesley Ave. 

lUingworth, R. W J 841 N. Lincoln Ave., N. S. 

Jackson, A.J J 305 

Johnston, R. C J 317 

Jones, Rev. W. A., D. D T 13 6 Orchard St. 

*Kay, James I D 5545 Forbes St. 

Kelso, Rev. J. A., Ph. D., D. D. . . Pres 725 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Kennedy, Rev. D. S., D. D D Witherspoion Bldg., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Kerr, Rev. H. T., D. D D 827 Amberson Ave. 

Lambert, G. R J 417 Burgess St., N. S. 

Lemmon, L. N S 316 

Logan, Geo. B D. & T. . . .1007 N. Lincoln Ave., 

N. S. 

Luccock, Rev. G. N., D. D D Wooster, Ohio 

Lyon, John G T Commonwealth Bldg. 

McCammon, L. L M 204 

McClintock, Oliver T . . . Ellsworth & Amberson Aves. 

McCloskey, T. D D Oliver Bldg. 

71 (143) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

McCormick, Rev. S. B., D. D D. . .c/o University of Pittsburgh 

McCracken, A, V M Sewickley, Pa. 

McEwan, Rev. W. L., D. D D 836 S. Negley Ave. 

Marquis, Rev. J. A., D. D D Hendrick-Hudson Apts., 

W. llOth St., New York City 

Martin, James M 206 

Marvin, S. S T Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Mealy, Rev. J. M., D. D D Sewickley, Pa. 

Mellin, W. C M 202 

Merker, R. K S 1500 Beaver Ave., N. S. 

Merwin, W. S J 303 

Miller, J. F D 206 Waldorf St., N. S. 

Miller, R. P F Cochranton, Pa. 

Millinger, W. H S 5213 Friendship Ave. 

Monroe, G. K J 820 N. Lincoln Ave., N. S. 

Moore, Miss Laura M V 1316 Wood St. 

Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Moser, W. L .F. & G Mars, Pa. 

Murray, B. A S 202 

Neal, S. G S 205 

Owen, William M....82 Grant Ave., W. Etna, Pa. 

Porter, R. W S 309 

Post, H. P J 702 W. North Ave., N. S. 

Potter, Rev. J. M., D. D D Wheeling, W. Va. 

Rae, James D 801 Penn Ave. 

Read, Miss Margaret M Sec. to Pres. . . .51 Chestnut St., 

Grafton, Pa. 

Reif, Fred V 711 Sandusky St., N. S. 

Rivard, E. A S 217 

Roberts, R. L M 206 

Robinson, A. C D. & T Sewickley, Pa. 

Robinson, Rev. J. Millen, D. D . . . D Grove City, Pa. 

Robinson, William M T Carnegie Bldg. 

Say, Rev. D. L G Cross Creek, Pa. 

Schaff, Rev. D. S., D. D Prof 737 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Semple, Rev. Samuel, D. D D Titusville, Pa. 

Shaw, Wilson A D. & T. .c/o Bank of Pitts., N. A. 

*Shrom, Rev. W. P., D. D D Coraopolis, Pa. 

Sleeth, George M I. ..749 River Road, Avalon, Pa. 

Slemmons, Rev. W. E., D. D D Washington, Pa. 

Smith, Rev. J. Kinsey, D. D V.-Pres. of D. 308 East End Ave. 



♦Deceased. 

72 (144) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Snowden, Rev. J. H., D. D .Prof 723 Ridge Ave., N. S. 

Snyder, Rev. P. W., D. D T 7325 Race St. 

Spence, Rev. W. H., D. D D Uniontown, Pb,. 

Stafford, Rev. H. E G. .725 Clinton PL, Bellevue, Pa. 

Stanton, Rev. C. E G. ... 18 W. Mclntyre Ave., N. S. 

Stevenson, Rev. W. P., D. D D Marysville, Tenn. 

Swoyer, Rev, G. E .G 1112 High St., N. S. 

Taylor, Rev. George, Jr., Ph. D. . .D Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Taylor, Rev. W. P G 315 

Vance, Rev. S. F., D. D Prof 237 Highlands Ave., 

Ben Avon, Pa. 

Wardrop, Robert T. . . .c/o Peoples National Bank 

Warnshuis, P. L S 203 

Walter, Deane C J 311 

Weir, Rev. W. P., D. D D 17 N State St., Chicago, 111. 

Wheeland, Rev. C. R F 4045 N. WheBler Ave., 

Chicago, 111. 

Williams, C. E J Sewickley, Pa. 

Willoughby, J. W S 302 

Wimpelberg, Miss Lulu V 220 Main St., Arsenal Sta. 

Wingert, Rev. R. D G Orville, Ohio 

Wright, J. C J 306 

Yarkovsky, John J 315 



73 (145) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



m 

H O 

IS 

m H 






in u 






^ d 



bo o 
(U > 



B3 
3 (X, 



CO 



CO 

a 



W 



2iu 






CO O 



H « 



o > 



.'SP z 



« 



u 






2 ^ 



0(3 






^s a 






o 



o < 



a 



^3 

H O 



— ifc 

q o 



.2 ^ 



M z 



O « 



.2 o 

bo « 



(U > 



-o 5 



C W 



H § 



wo w o 



o 5 






gs 




g^ 


=«<! 




0.<H 




74 


(146) 






H 9 



o z 



CO u 

a > 

o o 




O >• CO ^ 



OS (J 



p ." 









bo < 
o > 



S 0* 

I u 

as 

O oi 



w 



e« z 

J3 ' 



-Sife 



'O z 



c w 



H s 



,-1 w 

^^ 

(U ■ 

OS 
Oh 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



> 

< 






(Elective Courses 


are in heavy type) 


> 

< 
Q 


0. T. Theology-25 

Prof. Kelso 

N. T. Greek-13 
Mr. Eakin 


O J 


>- 
Q 


f? Q 

Eoo 
o z 

J=l 


Religious Education 
-71 

Prof. Farmer 

Literary Appreciation 

Prof. Sleeth 


a u 

O J 


>- 
< 
Q 

W 

Q 
W 


§ 


0. T. Exegesis 

Prof. Kelso 

Elocution-51 

Prof. Sleeth 


2: 




>< 

<; 

Q 

w 


Homiletics-47 
Prof. Farmer 

Tlieology-39 

Prof. Snowden 




6 

■55 S 

s >■ 

k^ 

Jl Of! 

43 

o 


h 

-e 
csn 
V . 

55 


< 
O 


u :2 

^ ^ ^ 


^ i ^ 






o 


<lrH 




^ 

(N 


CO 



75 (147) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



S g 
.2 t; 



O w 



9<M 



Ph 



ffi 



W 2 




m III 

■5? u 

0) z 

bfl <; 

(U > 



■Mr? 



a> 3 


^ Q 


m u 


wa J 


>. ^ 




S ^ 


be 


« u 

. Ci. 


z 

0) • 



CO 


n 






(N 


U 






E^ J 


a >■ 


"i^ 


oi 


0^ 


15 

«5 


'-M 


HI 


. 

r. a. 




a 






0} 





W 
[^ 

GOO 

m 






H Oh 



o < 

a- en 

Ji h 

o o 

ft « 
^^ 
u 






p < 






■A 
o 



o M 



H «=^ 



Hi 



3 



PKi 



1 


00 


00 


li 


>. 


>, 


u tn 


U I/l 


° d 


J 




4J W 


+j ii) 


3i > 




.22 W 


^.- 


W .• 





h£ 






00 
>. 9 



.2 W 



H "^ 



00 

h 

o 

+J 



o 



w 



S s 



2 £ 
S "-I y 

•^ CO t/2 






O 



M O 
O Z 

(U ,• 

a, 



o « o 



2 



a 2 



00 <j 






?S 



H « 



W 






76 (148) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 



> 

< 

Q 
ai 

< 
in 






o 
O 

> 

o 

4) 

H 


are in heavy type) 


> 
< 
Q 

2 




« s 

2 -J 

O 




> 
< 
Q 

erf 
-p 
K 


•2 a >, ^ ^ s 

o • o . . 

o Oh It" « ■ 

a ^ 


1 1 

•a S 2 M 

TtT,-I < o. J 

"I> (I, O. t/2 

tn 1 . «C • 

•33 i2 


.2 A 




> 
Q 

w 

Q 


1 

(3 


.2 K 

ISIS 






> 
Q 
W 
H 


^1 ^i 


"tn Q 


'OQ 


«n 

it 

a Q 

2 PQ 

on 


t/2 
< 
U 


* i ^ 


* i ^ 






CD 

o 






o 

CO 


CO 



77 (149) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Index 

Admission, Terms of 24 

Alumni Association 69 

Awards H 

Bequests ^_:^ . . . .^^^^T-r^ • 61 

Boarding .'77:~nr-r-r\ . . . .\ -.30 

Book Purchasing Memorial Fund .X. 25 

Buildings A- 19 

Calendar 3 

Cecilia Choir, The /. 48 

Christian Work ./. 28 

Conference • • 27 

Courses of Study • • 37 

Biblical Theology .^_^j^. 43 

Christian Ethics 48 

Church History 44 

English Bible 43 

Hebrew Language and O. T. Literature 39 

Missions and Comparative Religion 48 

New Testament Literature and Exegesis 41 

Practical Theology, Department of 46 

Homiletics, Pastoral Theology, Sacred Rhetoric, Elocution .... 

Church Music, The Sacraments, Church Government 

Religious Education 49 

Semitic Languages 

Sociology 

Systematic Theology and Apologetics 45 

Degree, Bachelor of Divinity 54 

Dining Hall 22 

Diplomas 37 

Directors, Board of 6 

Directory 70 

Educational Advantages 32 

Examinations 36 

Expenses 30 

Extension Lectures 

Faculty 8 

Committees of 9 

Fellowships ] 57 

Funds, Special 57 

Gifts and Bequests 61 

Graduate Students '. 36 

Graduate Studies and Courses [ 54 

Gymnasium 30 

Historical Sketch 18 

Lectures : 

Elliott 66 

Extension '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 67 

On Missions i .!!!!!!!'. 66 

L. H Severance '.'.66 

Robert A Watson Memorial .67 

List of 10 

Library , 23 

Loan Funds .32 

Location !!!.'.'.'.! 18 

Outline of Courses .'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 49 

Physical Training !!!!!!! 30 

Preaching Service . .'.'.27 

Preaching Supply, Bureau of '. . . . .'.'.'.29 

Presbyteries, Reports to ! . ! 54 

Prizes 57 

Religious Exercises .....!.! 27 

Representation, College and State .'.'.'.16 

Schedule of Lectures and Recitations .' ." 74 

Scholarship Aid 31 

Scholarships, List of 63 

Seminary Year 36 

Social Hall , 22 

Student Organizations 17 

Students, Roll of 12 

Students from other Seminaries 36 

Trustees, Board of 4 

TJniversity of Pittsburgh, Relations with 55 

Warrington Memorial Library 

Y. M. C. A 28 

Committees of 7 17 

78 (150) 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Western Theologieal SeminaFy 



A Review Devoted to tlie Interests of 
Tneological Education , 



Publishecl quarterly in January, April, July, and October, by tbe 
Trustees of tbe Western Tbeological Seminary of tbe Presbyterian Cburcb 
in tbe United States of America. 



Edited by tbe President witb tbe co-operation of tbe Faculty. 



Ol0nt^nt0 



Page 

Dante, 1321-1921 5 

D. S. SchafE 

The Lambeth Conference 24 

Hugh T. Kerr 

The Rolling Stone 40 

George Taylor, Jr. 

A Letter from China 46 

Robert F. Fitch 

Literature 51 

Alumniana 60 



Communications for the Editor and all business matters should be 
addressed to 

REV. JAMES A. KELSO, 

731 Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



75 cents a year. Single Number 25 cents. 

Each author is solely responsible for the views expressed in his artiecl. 



Entered as second-class matter December 9, 1909, at the postofBce at Pittsburgh, Pa. 
f North Diamond Station) under the act of August 24, 1912. 



Press of 

pittsburgh printing company 

pittsburgh, pa, 

1922 



Faculty 



The Rev. JAMES A. KELSO, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D. 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W. Conkling Foundation 

The Rev. ROBERT CHRISTIE, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Apologetics 

The Rev. DAVID RIDDLE BREED, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. DAVID S. SCHAFF, D. D. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 

The Rev. WILLIAM R. FARMER, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. JAMES H. SNOWDEN, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Systematic Theology 

The Rev. SELBY FRAME VANCE, D. D., LL. D. 

Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. DAVID E. CULLEY, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor of Hebrew 



I 



The Rev. FRANK EAKIN, B. D. 

Instructor in New Testament Greek and Librarian 

Prof. GEORGE M. SLEETH 

Instructor in Elocution 

Mr. CHARLES N. BOYD 

Instructor in Music 



3 (153) 



I 



The Bui lei in 

— ol me — 

WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

V01.UME XIV. Aprii,, 1922. No. 3 

Dante, 1321 - 1921 

Professor David S. Scliaff, D. D. 



No name is quite so closely identified with Italy as 
the name of Dante Alighieri, and of all religious poets 
outside the sacred Psalmist Dante belongs most to the 
world. He died in 1321, six hundred years ago. In com- 
memorating the six hundredth anniversary of his death, 
this seminary is uniting with many institutions in differ- 
ent countries.* 

Dante's spirit was Italian. His description of what 
he witnessed in hell and heaven and purgatory concern 
all men. His own people he put under a perpetual debt by 
making the Italian tongue the vehicle of high thought, 
as Luther put his people under a perpetual debt by fix- 
ing the idiom of the German language in his translation 
of the Bible. Dante was the precursor of the era of 
culture and investigation known as the Eenaissance. 
With Petrarch and Boccaccio, his juniors in age and 
genius, he revived the study of man and man's history 
and gave to the study of earthly things its proper place. 
He helped to open the era of criticism by the freedom 
with which he dealt with popes and cardinals, monks 
and nuns. The priest had excommunicated princes; 

*An address delivered in the Chapel of the Western Theologi- 
cal Seminary, Jan. 18, 1922. 

5 (155) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Dante, a layman, dared to sit in judgment on pontiffs and, 
against all the canonical proprieties, he consigned some 
of them to pm-dition. 

On the 'other hand, Dante belongs to all the ages. 
He went beyondrthat which was provincial. He walked 
in the paths of his own age bnt made a journey into the 
realm of the eternal ages which sooner or later all men 
must enter. The panorama of the spiritual world which 
he portrays belongs to no one generation. The drama 
he depicts concerns man in all generations. Like the 
climbing of some mountains, the study of the Divina 
Commedia is an arduous task. But persisted in, the in- 
terest in the poet and the poem easily develops into a 
passion. 

Of Dante's parental home and early training our 
knowledge is scant. Nor does the little we know give any 
explanation of the poet's later career. His father died 
when he was young. The teacher of his youth whom he 
names, Brunetto Latini, the pupil met in hell — a strange 
anomaly seeming to indicate something almost abnor- 
mal in the spiritual process of the poet. The pupil re- 
cognized Brunetto behind ''his parched looks, smirched 
with fire". Dante pursued studies at Italian univer- 
sities, was in Paris, and may even have visited Oxford. 
When he was nine years old he saw Beatrice, several 
months his junior. After Beatrice's death he married. 
That was in 1292, when he was twenty-five. To his 
wife and children there seem to be no allusions in his 
great poem. 

Public life had much attraction for Dante. He en- 
tered into the violent political discussions which at that 
time were rending his native city, Florence. As things 
went, Florence, like the Italian cities further north, if 
not captivated by theories of democracy, was at least ex- 
perimenting with them. It had excluded the grandees 
from public position and confined the privilege of hold- 
ing office to members of the seven avocations, one of 
which, the medical craft, Dante joined. He was elected 

6 (156) 



Dante, 1321-1921 

to municipal office and seems to have represented his city 
abroad, as notably in the embassy to the papal court of 
Boniface VIII. There is every reason to believe that he 
was a fiery and uncompromising partisan. In the deadly 
feud which broke out between families and parties, Dante 
espoused the cause of the losing faction, and in 1301 was 
sent into exile, with the added sentence that, in case 
he dared to reenter Florence, he should be burnt alive. 
Never again, after 1301, did Dante walk the streets of 
his native city. For twenty years he wandered to and fro 
in Italy like a bark, as he said, '' Without rudder and 
sails" and "going up and down other men's stairs'*. 
He was much in Verona and found a last refuge in Ra- 
venna, where his dust reposes to this day — still an exile 
from Florence. Dante, Florence banished; Savonarola, 
it burnt. Perpetual honors awaited the exile's memory. 
A few years after his death commentaries began to be 
written on his chief literary production. In 1373 Flor- 
ence created a professorship for its study with Boccac- 
cio as first incumbent. Within a century of the poet's 
death, Bologna, Venice, and Pisa had also dedicated 
chairs to the same study. 

The two decisive events in Dante's career were his 
meeting with Beatrice and his exile from Florence. The 
meeting with Beatrice awakened within him a burning 
spiritual passion. His forced absence from his beloved 
city, like Milton's blindness, confirmed him in profound 
meditations upon the theory and vicissitudes of human 
government and the appointments of man's lasting des- 
tiny. 

The age of Dante was the watershed between the 
unquestioned system of mediaeval theology and the 
modern method of thought, the dividing line between 
the time when theology, based mainly upon processes of 
reason, was the only theme worthy of pursuit and the 
time when men began to open their eyes to the wonders 
of the visible world and to study with absorbing interest 
the activities of man in all fields and in all ages. 

7 (157) 



\e Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

len Dante was born, the firmament of orthodox 
dogm^ was fixed. The two great Schoolmen, Thomas 
Aquinas and Bonaventura, were still living. In the do- 
main of^^eology there seemed nothing left to be said. 
The future world had been mapped out with precision 
and mortals here below distinguished with equal preci- 
sion into two classes, the faithful and the heretical. 

In another realm, the realm of the papacy, great 
disaster had come during Dante's lifetime. Older than 
the Schoolmen were the popes and older than Christian 
theology was the papacy. The Apostolic See had fallen 
from its high estate. The prestige it had won through 
the defeat of the House of Hohenstauffen was lost un- 
der Dante's own eye. The poet was thirty when Celestine 
V abdicated the papal office after having in vain tried 
to administer it. His successor, Boniface VIII, a reminis- 
cence of great papal rulers, had dragged it into disgrace. 
Dante had seen the residence of the popes removed 
to the banks of the Rhone and had lived through the ad- 
ministrations of two of the Avignon popes, — little more 
than French court-bishops. 

In the third realm, the realm of civil society, condi- 
tions were most unsettled. Dante was more than an actor 
in the government of his city. He dwelt upon the the- 
ory of government, and, in his treatise entitled ''Mon- 
archy", he distinguished clearly between the civil and 
ecclesiastical spheres, and with arguments contended for 
the independence of the imperial prerogative as in pre- 
ceding centuries emperors had contended for it with the 
sword. The corruption prevailing in the Church Dante 
traced back to the intrusion of the papal power into the 
civil domain and he dared to set aside the reputed gift 
which Constantine made of the civil government of Rome 
to Sylvester and his sucessors. In Milton's translation 
his famous words run, 

"Ah! Constantine of how much ill was cause 
Not thy conversion but those rich domains 
That tlie first wealthy pope received of thee." 

Inferno 19:120 

; 8 (168) 



Dante, 1321-1921 

Dante's treatise on government was burnt by John 
XXII, reigning pontiff at the time of the author 's death, 
and it remains on the papal index to this day. 

Of the two leading experiences in Dante's life, the 
more important Avas the meeting with Beatrice. Sel- 
dom perhaps has mortal exercised upon mortal so com- 
plete and benign an influence as the Florentine maiden 
exercised upon Dante. Beatrice's personality continues 
to be a subject of discussion. Was she a real being or 
a symbolic representation? The great Dante students 
with assurance hold the former view. The immediate 
and ultimate meaning of Beatrice's entrance into the 
sphere of Dante's thoughts and admiration, Uhland has 
set forth in the opening lines of his beautiful poem. In 
translation they run, 

"Was it the gate of Florence city 
Or gate of heaven itself 
Where the joyous company met 
On that clearest of Italian mornings?" 

The poet continues, 

"Dante, there a boy of nine 
Stood beneath a laurel tree 
Gazing upon purest face of maiden 
In whom at once he saw his angel." 

Dante saw Beatrice a second time and then no more on 
earth. No words here below passed between them. 

In his work, ''The New Life" — vita rniova- — the poet 
described their meeting as children. "It was given to 
me", he wrote, ''to behold the very wonderful vision 
which I saw, things which determined me that I would 
say nothing more of this blessed one until such time as 
I could discourse of her more worthily. And to this end 
I exert myself all I can, as she well knoweth whereof 
if it be His will through whom is the life of all things, 
that my life continue a few years longer, it is my hope 
to write concerning her what hath not before been writ- 
ten of woman and then to behold her." This purpose 
Dante accomplished in the Divina Commedia. 

After Beatrice's death, in 1290, Dante turned to the 

9 (159) 




The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

study of philosophy, giving himself up to the guidance 
reason — an experience he set forth somewhat dimly 
in his treatise "The Banquet" — il convito. The third 
period of his life began with what Dante scholars are 
accustomed to call Dante's conversion, when Dante, again 
taking the hand of faith, followed divine revelation. 
With the help of his own experience, the Divina Gomr- 
media sets forth the meaning of earthly existence in the 
light of the eternal destinies which he had witnessed in 
his journey through the world of spirits. As a religi- 
ous production, it adds nothing to the theological system 
constructed by the Schoolmen. It is a faithful mirror 
of mediaeval theology. On the other hand, its method 
differs from the method of the Schoolmen. It is not a 
body of speculation confirmed by reasoning processes: 
it is a series of actual experiences in which the final 
destinies of men are observed and the operation of Grod's 
plan is set forth. The work is not a tragedy, for tragedy 
ends with disappointment and disaster. Nor is it a 
comedy in w^hich the sportive element has play. Follow- 
ing the derivation of the word ''commedia", it is a vil- 
lage song, a popular representation, as Dante himself de- 
scribed it. In the work itself he calls it a " sacred poem ' ', 
Paradiso 25 :1. Not till the Venice edition appeared 
(1555) was it entitled ''The Divine Comedy". However, 
three quarters of a century before, the title "divine" 
had been coupled with the poet's name. 

The Divine Comedy describes the three realms of 
damnation, discipline, and bliss, into which, according 
to the cosmography of the Schoolmen, the future world 
is divided. The realms of damnation and bliss have no 
ending : the realm of discipline will some day be emptied 
and pass away. Thirty-three cantos are allotted to each 
of the three domains, the first canto being an introduc- 
tion to all that follows. 

For the poet his production was not an intellectual 
recreation; it was a solemn enterprise. It was not a 
body of speculation ; it was an experience of things seen 

10 (160) 



Dante, 1321:1921 

and felt. Dante had a moral aim, to induce men to fall 
in with the appointments of God and, while the light of 
the stars is given here, to walk in the glow of the ef- 
fulgence which streams from the throne of God. In a let- 
ter written to Can Grande, the poet himself sets forth as 
his object to "withdraw from the state of sinning those 
who live in the present life and to guide them to the 
state of peace and bliss". The Divine Comedy was in 
a sense a missionary effort, and in making it the poet 
moved among the demortalized spirits of all ages, Pagan 
as well as Christian, Hebrew as well as contemporary 
Italian, devils as well as saints. 

In entering upon his journey, Dante secured the 
guidance of Virgil, whose ^neid the poet said he knew 
by heart, — Virgil, who had foreseen the coming of a 
Messiah, and the representative during the Middle Ages 
of enlightened human reason. ' ' I, thy guide ' ', the M an- 
tuan poet promised, 

"Win lead thee hence through an eternal space 
Where thou shalt hear despairing shrieks and see 
A second death, and those next view, who dwell 
Content in fire, for that they hope to come 
Whene'er the time may be, among the blest." 

Beyond the confines of purgatory Virgil could not go, 
''debarred forever as a rebel from heaven". 

The place from which Dante represents himself as 
starting out was a dark forest, 

"In the midst of this our mortal life 
I found me in a gloomy wood, astray. 
Gone from the path direct." 

This forest, the recollection of which tilled him ' ' with dis- 
may not far from death "^ stands for the poet's period 
of doubt when, renouncing faith, he was under the con- 
trol of philosophic speculation. Viewing with "fear the 
straits that none hath passed and live" and, "as one es- 
caped from sea to shore ' ', he was attempting to ' ' ascend ' ' 
when he was met by a panther, richly striped, a lion 
hunger-mad, and a lean she-wolf, the three beasts con- 
joined by Jeremiah (V :6). As he was about to be forced 

11 (161) 




The Bulletin of tUe Western Theological Seminary 



back by them, Dante's eye caught sight of the shade of 
Virgil to whom, weeping, he cried for help. 

So in company the Pagan and the Christian poets 
proceeded downwards through the domain of "doleful 
lamentation", to take the prophet Micah's expression, 
the land to which Job's words might be applied, "the 
land of darkness as darkness itself without any order 
and where the light is as darkness". Dante, who em- 
ploys neither of these expressions, speaks of hell as the 
realm of "the truly dead" and as the "dolorous king- 
dom". As the two moved on, they kept always turning 
to the left as later in the sphere of purgatory they kept 
constantly turning to the right. 

Could any writing be conceived more terrifying than 
the inscription written over the gateway of hell? 

"Through me you pass into the city of woe 
Through me you pass into eternal pain 
Through me among the people lost for aye; — 
All hope abandon ye who enter here." 

Lasciate ogni speransa, voi ch'entrate. 

Dante's hell is funnel-shaped, growing smaller in cir- 
CTimference as it descends from the earth's surface to 
its centre. The other hemisphere of the earth was con- 
ceived by the poet as having covered itself with water 
when Lucifer was plunged down from heaven, the earth 
trying to hide her shame. In this attempt a part of 
the land shrank back and, pushing up, formed Mount Pur- 
gatory. 

The infernal cavity consists of nine circles, some 
of them divided into wards. The sufferings endured by 
the inmates increase with the descent. Here are crags 
and steep declivities. Here are Charon and Minos, the 
Minotaur and Geryon and Lucifer. Here are horned 
devils with scourges, and serpents with venomous sting. 
Pools of blood, lagoons of mire, and ponds of boiling 
pitch interrupt the solid pavement. Here arise fetid ex- 
halations, and plains are scorched and hot with fires that 
never go out. Storms of hail beat, tempests of wind 

12 (162) 



Dante, 1321-1921 

and hurricanes of flame. The unfortunate souls, multi- 
tudes upon multitudes, in number such as gathered in 
Rome in the Jubilee Year of 1300 appointed by Boniface 
VIII — are always conscious and never masters of them- 
selves. An unchangeable destiny holds them. Laments 
and agonizing wails fill the dismal regions. Tears of 
pain coursing do^\Ti the cheeks of the lost turn to blood 
or ice. Hatred and merciless cruelty are in ceaseless 
action. No ray of light enters. No' word of hope, no 
whisper of peace interrupts the constant exercise of 
malignity, agony and despair. 

On this side of Acheron the poets found those whom 
heaven could not receive and lowest hell was unwilling 
to accept — the cowards, among them Celestine V. who, 
in abdicating the papal office, had made the great refusal 
— il grand refiuto. These unfortunates are drawn hither 
and thither by a flag ever flapping and whirling about, 
at the same time stung 

"By wasps and hornets which bedewed their cheeks 
With blood that, mixed with tears, dropped to their feet." 

Ferried by Charon over the stream beyond which is 
hell proper, Dante is appalled by the wild shriek of the 
boatman warning the wicked spirits that they must aban- 
don all hope of ever looking upon the sky and light again. 
Charon's boat is always full. In the first region, limbo, 
where the people of the Old Dispensation and John the 
Baptist were detained until Christ's descent into hades, 
are confined the entire heathen world, and all children 
dying in infancy unbaptized are kept forever. The 
mediaeval view made exception of only one Pagan, the 
Emperor Trajan, who had been prayed out of hell by 
Pope Gregory the Great. Because they ''had not servecl 
God aright", Pagan poets and philosophers were there, 

"Only so far afflicted that we live 
Desiring without hope." 

Among those whom Dante recognized were Aristotle and 
Socrates and Plato, Seneca and Galen, Homer also 
"the most cherished of the nine" whom Dante, how- 

13 (163) 




The Bulletin of the WestemrTheological Seminary 



ever, could not read for, like Petrarch, he knew no Greek. 
As for the children who die nnbaptized, they suffer no 
positive pain yet are they deprived through endless years 
of the sight of God. This, the view of Augustine, was 
adopted by all the Schoolmen. Perhaps it was to quiet 
some troublesome doubts Dante had on this score that 
in highest heaven he was reminded by St. Bernard that 

"Without baptismal rites 
In Christ accomplished, innocence herself 
Must linger down below." Parad. 32:70. 

The succeeding eight circles Dante found "each one full 
of spirits accursed", each containing sinners of a kind; 
in the second, third, fourth and fifth regions the lust- 
ful, epicures and gluttons, the avaricious, the willfully 
unconcerned and proud; and then in lower hell, in the 
realm of Dis or Pluto, those who had sinned monstrously 
against God, their neighbors or themselves, blasphemers, 
tyrants, sorcerers, counterfeiters, makers of strife, sui- 
cides, traitors; and in the lowest circle the arch-traitor 
himself, Lucifer. 

The punishments are accordant with the sins com- 
mitted. The lustful are swept about in total darkness 
by stormy blasts, their lusts burning and never satisfied 

"The infernal hurricane that never rests 
Hurtles the spirits onward in their rapine 
Whirling them round and smiting them, it molests them 
It hither, thither, upward, downward, drives them." 

Gluttons and the covetous lie on the ground pelted with 
storms of hail and foul water and bitten by Cerberus. 
The proud with loud bowlings incessantly roll rocks with 
their chests. Butting one against the other, the rocks 
fall back and the process is gone over a^ain and again. 
In this realm Dante again recognized cardinals and popes. 
In the fifth circle are the unconcerned, besmirched with 
mire and beating each other in rage, not only with their 
hands, but with head and breast and feet, and cutting 
each other piecemeal with their teeth ; or else submerged 
beneath the lagoon, where they are known to be only by 
their moans which gurgle forth. 

14 (164) 



Dante, 1321-1921 

Further below in deeper hell the heretics are in- 
terned in red hot tombs around which flames continually 
play, their forms unseen but their wails emerging without 
stop. To the visitors it is intimated that to the other tor- 
ment of heretics is added the pain of knowing future 
events without knowing anything of present happenings. 
Here are the blasphemers who lie supine in a plain of 
burning sand while sparks of flame, falling like flakes 
of snow in the Alps, slowly descend upon their naked 
bodies. Sorcerers and diviners, with their heads turned 
about, walk to and fro without seeing where they go. 
Counterfeiters and those guilty of barratry suffer 
dropsy and quenchless thirst and are encased in pitch. 
Simonists, who sell religious place and privilege for gold, 
are sunk with their heads do^vnwards in holes while 
the soles of their protruding feet are scorched with per- 
petual flames. To their other agony is added the sting of 
arrows shot by Centaurs. Among these last malefactors 
Dante recognized Boniface VIII. No less than ten times 
does the Divina Commedia heap reproof upon this pon- 
tiff, who entered upon the papacy ''like a fox, reigned 
like a lion, and died like a dog". 

What more fearful can be imagined than the fate 
of the hypocrites who have on leaden mantles and hoods 
drawn down over their faces like the hoods worn by 
monks of Cologne, mantles and hoods faced with dazzling 
gold. As the poet watched them moving about ''with 
steps exceedingly slow, weeping and in their aspect tired 
and overcome", and compared their mantles with the 
leaden cloaks with which Frederick II clothed traitors be- 
fore they were burnt, he thought Frederick's cloaks Avere 
as straw compared to the heavy mantles worn in hell. Inf. 
23 :60. The ninth and last circle of the Inferno, enclosed 
around with giants "half their length uprearing and 
terrible", holds traitors who have betrayed their prince, 
immersed in part or entire in a lake of ice. Encased up 
to the loins Lucifer himself stands in that frozen Cocytus, 
munching in his three-fold maw Judas, Brutus, and Cas- 

15 (165) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

sins, the three most depraved of traitors, whose tearp 
turn to ice on their cheeks. 

Lucifer, who ''scowled upon his Maker", as seen by 
Dante, was ''as hideous now as he once was beautiful". 
Dante's spirit of all evil and author of our misery is 
ugliness mixed with stolid brutishness. Milton's Satan 
is a different creation. His untamed ambition and un- 
repentant defiance of heaven fairly awaken admiration 
as he cries 

"Better to rule in hell than reign in heaven". 

In reading Milton one must be on his guard against 
shouting bravo to one whose boldness and determina- 
tion are not broken by the sentence of heaven and defeat. 
Or, at least, one is almost inclined to question the justice 
of the Most High in banishing to perpetual hell a figure 
so well formed and an intellect so capable. Dante's 
Satan is the embodiment of black malignity, from whom 
Dante shranli with loathing and dread. 

If comparison be made between the sacred poet of 
Italy and the sacred poet of England, their method of 
treatment will be found to differ as widely as the impres- 
sions their descriptions make. Milton in his Paradise 
Lost was looking, as it were, afar off at the perform- 
ance of a distant tragedy when he depicted the fall of 
Satan from heaven and the wiles he used in serpentine 
form to compass the disaster of our first parents. Dante 
mingled with the lost. He walked in hell. His feet 
touched the slimy floors and scorching pavements of the 
infernal regions. His eye beheld the serpents and the 
devils. He looked upon their sluggish currents, upon 
their pools thick with mire and blood. His ears heard 
the wails of the hopeless sufferers. With his hands he 
touched the hairy backs and arms of demons. He smelt 
the fetid swamps and the fumes of burning flesh. Mil- 
ton deals in lofty conceptions and records soliloquies. 
Dante relates scenes he had witnessed and, with journal- 
istic detail, reports conversations had between himself 

16 (166) 



Dante, 1321-1921 

and Virgil as they walked together and between himself 
and the lost. 

Milton's Paradise Lost is the drama of revolt in hea- 
ven, the temptation to which our first parents yielded, 
their expulsion from the garden, and the temptation of 
Christ. Dante's poem is an experience. Dante saw hell ; 
he talked with the damned in hell; he felt hell. He 
does not portray the processes going on in man's soul 
giving way to temptation and rebelling against God ; he 
depicts the punishment of sin. Evil, which is the abuse 
of free will, the deliberate forfeiture of the .chief good, 
is exhibited in the torments sinners endure. In Dante's 
hell, although the poet does not quote Paul, you almost 
hear Paul's words sounded forth 

"And sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death". 

Nor is hell so much a divine sentence as it is a 
termination following sin, as a wound follows the blow- 
The punishments are inevitable; they are according to 
the nature of things. For evil committed and unrepented 
of there could be no other destiny. One who walks with 
Dante is not moved to ask the question whether the doom 
of the lost is compatible with the goodness of the Creator. 
The misery awakens no pity. From evil dispositions 
nursed and persisted in, it followed infallibly. In hell 
there is no desire to repent. If the despair is sullen, 
it is sullen not because the decree is irrevocable but be- 
cause the issue is the only one that could have been. As 
irretrievably as the waters hurrying down in the river 
dash into the pitiless Niagara gorge, do evil deeds in this 
life hasten on to the pitiless doom of the dark and eter- 
nal abyss. The solemn scenes which Dante saw, so the 
tradition goes, left their mark on his face, and the 
women on the streets of Verona, seeing him approach, 
used to whisper 'Hhere goes the man who has been in 
hell". 

After hell came purgatory. Following a glimmer 
of light shining through a narrow aperture, Dante and 
Virgil made haste to escape from Lucifer's prison and 

17 (167) 



I The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

to ''ascend towards the stars". The passage through 
purgatory which was then begun is a constant ascent 
along seven terraces, corresponding to the seven sins, 
pride, envy, anger, unconcern, avarice, gluttony, and in- 
continence. In contrast to these, as the Schoolmen 
taught, Mary possessed seven opposing virtues. Pur- 
gatory is the realm of discipline, and all who pass into 
it finally reach heaven. In this realm there are no com- 
plaints and no fear. The tears are tears of joy and grati- 
tude. The material fires that play are penal flames. 
They burn but do not consume "a hair of the head". 
The joy of assured deliverance and of expectation is the 
portion of all. Purification, as Dante put it, "rectifies 
what the world makes crooked and depraved". It is 
accomplished through disciplinary suffering and through 
meditation upon the Ciareers of pure and virtuous peo- 
ple. The suffering is welcome on account of the purpose 
it serves. Songs of deliverance and gratitude fill the air 
such as "Blessed are the Merciful" and "Glory to God 
in the Highest". As Dante started on his pilgrimage 
through this middle realm, his forehead was marked with 
seven P's. the first letters of the Latin word for sins, 
peccata. These P 's, one by one, were effaced as he passed 
on from terrace to terrace. 

Frequently the poet was given by the spirits in pur- 
gatory messages for friends on earth intended for their 
warning or encouragement. Addresses were also de- 
livered to him on the perverted* civil and social conditions 
of earth and the low state of the church. One of these 
was on the fashions of Florence in which ho was urged 
to warn the pulpit to speak out boldly to the unblushing 
dames who "bared unhandkerchiefed bosoms to the com- 
mon gaze". 

Into the region beyond the purgatorial realm Virgil 
could not go. Again and again he and Dante had con- 
versed of Beatrice, and before they came to the end of 
purgatory she appeared, her face covered with a veil. 
"Come ye blessed of my Father" and "Blessed is he 

18 (168) 



Dante, 1321-1921 

whose transgressions are hid" and other melodies had 
already come floating down from the heavenly realm. As 
Dante became aware of Beatrice's presence, every fibre 
of his being quivered and the sentiment ' ' of love swayed 
his soul as it had done in the years of the past, the days 
of his childhood". "I am in sooth, — T am Beatrice", she 
assured him. 

In guiding Dante through the nine circles of heaven, 
Beatrice kept her gaze fixed on the brightness of the ulti- 
mate Empyrean, while he kept his vision on her. In these 
domains Dante found the saints of all ages, distributed ac- 
cording to their different grades of merited perfection, — 
theologians and martyrs, monastics and mystics. Apos- 
tles and Crusaders, the elect of the old dispensation and 
the elect of the new dispensation. Among those whom 
he recognized were the founders of the two mendicant 
orders a century before : St. Francis, who appeared as 
an Ardor, inflaming the world with love, and St. Dominic 
as a Splendor filling it with light. He saw Charlemagne 
and Godfrey of Bouillon. St. Thomas Aquinas explained 
to him the mystery of creation. St. John discoursed with 
him of love and the sufferings of Christ. SI . Peter con- 
versed about the evil days into which the papacy had 
come and denounced the usurper, Boniface VIII, — his 
successor only in name, — who had made the place of 
Christ's vicar void. In one of her conversations Bea- 
trice castigated the preachers of Florence, who preached 
not the "Book of God", but, by inventions of their o^Yn 
and by gibes and jests, sought the applause of men. 

Finally, unable to go beyond the ninth circle, 
Beatrice put the poet in charge of St. Bernard and, leav- 
ing him, took a seat just below Mary and Eve, Rachel 
and Rebecca, and 

"the gleaner maid 
Meek ancestress of him who sang the songs 
Of sore repentance in his sorrowful mood." 

Bernard pointed out just above the ninth circle the Em- 
pyrean, where dwell the persons of the Trinity, and thou- 
sands of angels resplendent with brightness filled the 

19 (169) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

area with hallelujahs. In this, the highest part of para- 
dise,, is 

"a light whose goodly shine 
Makes the Creator visible to all 
Created that, in seeing him alone, 
Have peace: and in a circle spreads so far 
That the circumference were too loose a zone 
To girdle in the sun." 

To measure that celestial sphere, geometric science, such 
as Dante was acquainted with, was inadequate. Strength 
failed him to follow the towering fancy while "the will 
Like a wheel kept ever in motion, impelled by the love that 
moves the sun in heaven and all the stars". Such are 
the concluding words of the Divina Commedia. 

Turning away from the text of this wonderful ef- 
fort of the imagination, we ask ourselves many questions. 
How did mortal man dare to search out the abodes of 
hell, ruminate in them, and locate his lost fellow^ men 
doomed to endless punishment? How was it possible for 
him to gaze upon their awful misery and report what he 
saw and yet be a man with human sympathies? It is 
true that here and there in his journeyings through hell 
pity is ascribed to him and also tears, but Dante has no 
suggestion that the condition of the lost might be miti- 
gated. It was hopeless. Had the poet's disappointments 
of his own life hardened his soul to the sight of pain and 
sorrow? This view seems to be incompatible with the 
sympathetic portraits he presents of souls in purgatory, 
escaped from the doom of damnation and being prepared 
for the bliss of heaven. Dante's state of mind is to be 
explained by the domination of the teachings of the 
Schoolmen and the awful guilt which was attached in 
his time to disobedience of the Church's sacramental 
authority. And, as indicated in the letter already quoted, 
Dante was preaching a solemn sermon to his age. He was 
not writing a drama. In spite of the Church, sin flour- 
ished in Florence and Italy. The vices prevalent in society 
were matched by the nepotism and pride of the hier- 
archy. God's highest commissioners in earthly office, the 

20 (170) 



Dante, 1321-1921 

popes, had turned aside from their commission. As for 
[taly as a whole, he described it as "a hostelry of war, 
a ship without a pilot, tempest-tossed, no more queen 
of nations, swarming with tyrants". Purg. VI. Had 
Savonarola only lived in Dante's day and thundered 
forth the prophetic messages with which he filled the 
Cathedral of Florence a century and a half after Dante's 
death, perhaps Dante would have felt some hope! At 
least, he would have felt he was not alone and that there 
was one other who shared with equal passion his zeal 
for righteousness. 

Terrible as the conditions were which Dante saw 
in hell, nevertheless in his theology grace superabounds. 
No sin is so heinous that it cannot be forgiven, as Dante 
had sufficient proof in the brilliant and profligate Man- 
fred whom he found in purgatory. Manfred said, 

"I betook myself 
Weeping to Him, who of freewiU forgives. 
My sins were horrible but so wide arms 
Hath good infinite, that it receives 
All who turn to it." 

Conscience does not have the place in Dante that 
it has in Shakespeare. Dante has no statement corre- 
sponding to the English poet's words, "conscience makes 
cowards of us all", nor is there any scene in Dante like 
the scene pictured in Macbeth. In fact, the right of 
conscience seems to have waited for full recognition as 
an independent actor for Wyclif and Huss a half cen- 
tury and a century later. This is said in the face of 
Dante's statement in which he spoke of the sting left in 
the conscience by the commission of fraud (Inf. 11:55), 
and the question whether it was wrath or conscience that 
smote Boniface VIII (19:120). Sin was a matter of the 
will: in purgatory improvement is by the will alone 
(Purg. 21:60), and heavenlv beatitude is conformity to 
the will of God (Parad. 3:90). 

The sufferings of hell are rather of the material na- 
ture than of the mind. The idea of an offended deity 
does not seem to find expression on the lips of the 
damned. 

21 (171) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

In the Divina Commedia Dante spoke in part from 
his own experience with temptation and evil. He him- 
self had sinned deeply. After Beatrice's death he had 
turned into deceitful paths 

"PoUowing the false images of the good that make 
No promise perfect." Purg. 30:120. 

From these dark paths he was rescued by light from 
above, the memory of Beatrice, and penitence. Oftimes he 
had "bewailed his sins and smote his breast" (Parad. 
22:100). 

As the preacher of righteousness and repentance, 
Dante gives no suggestion of a new theology. Flacius 
Illyricus was wrong when he placed Dante among those 
who before the Eeformation showed the spirit of the 
Reformation. Surmisals are always precarious which 
determine the mental attitude men would take by pro- 
jecting them forward into an age other than their own. 
He had no inkling of the meaning of election as ex- 
pounded by Wyclif. No intimation appears of an exten- 
sion of saving grace to good men in the Pagan world or to 
unbaptized children dying in infancy, which Zwingli as- 
serted on the basis of the sovereign decree of predestina- 
tion. He censored popes, but the bishop of Rome was for 
him still God's vicar on earth. Purgatory was as real a 
domain as heaven and the suffrages of the living modify 
the pain of its sufferings or reduce their duration. The 
sacredness of religious vows is emphasized. As for 
Mary, she had been "wrapt up" into heaven. In piir- 
g'atory and in paradise her praises are being continually 
sung and the prayer, Ave Maria — is the all efficient peti- 
tion of mortals on earth and of spirits in the realm 
of purgatory. Even St. Bernard, before showing Dante 
the divine brightness, prayed for aid to her, "the queen 
who canst do what thou willt". 

As for the Scriptures, Dante speaks with all re- 
spect of the "Book of God". Nevertheless there is next 
to nothing to show that he was familiar with the text 
of the Bible and read it for himself. His allusions to 

22 (172) 



Dante, 1321-1921 

it are few. Pertinent passages are wanting which we 
might have expected to find, snch as the words "Where 
their worm dieth not and the fire is not quenched". The 
imagery of the ^neid is more frequent than the imagery 
of Sacred Writ. Dante got his theology from the School- 
men and the Breviary, and not directly from a perusal 
of the Bible. However, his dependence upon mediaeval 
theology does not reduce Dante to a mere interpreter 
of that theology. Dante is the interpreter of the endless 
things, — endless retribution and endless beatitude. He 
is the prophet of conversion and repentance and, as 
Thomas Carlyle said, "repentance is the grand Christian 
act". His poem is like a cathedral whose massive pro- 
portions and lofty spires and mysterious spaces arouse 
admiration and awe. It is more. It is a pulpit whose 
living message like a trumpet not only called his own 
age but calls these succeeding ages to live the life here 
below as in the light streaming from God's throne and 
as the sure prelude of eternal weal or eternal woe. As 
Longfellow puts it, 

"Thy sacred song is like the trump of God". 



23 (173) 



The Lambeth Conference 

Eev. Hugh T. Kerr, D. D. 



The proceedings of the Lambeth Conference of the 
Anglican Church throughout the world, cover one hun- 
dred and sixty-two closely printed pages, and are in 
three parts. First of all, there is The Encyclical Letter 
prepared for general distribution and to be read in Angli- 
can churches. This is followed by formal resolutions, 
eighty in number, adopted by the Conference, and finally, 
there are the reports of the various Committees or Com- 
missions appointed to deal with special subjects upon 
which the formal resolutions are based. 

The Conference claimed to be world representative, 
and that claim is well founded. Two hundred and fifty- 
two Archbishops, Bishops, and Assistant Bishops, from 
all parts of the civilized and uncivilized world, were pres- 
ent. The list begins with the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury and ends with the Bishop of Kampala. To study 
the diocese from which each comes, is a liberal education 
in geography. Canterbury is given first place and a foot- 
note explains something about the recognition of the 
rights of priority. Kampala is placed last because the 
Bishop of that diocese was consecrated June 24, 1920. 
Between the first and the last are Bishops from Britain 
and America, from West Equatorial Africa and Persia, 
from Tasmania and Newfoundland, from Cape Town 
and the Barbadoes, from Honduras and Assam, from 
Athabasca and Uganda, from Korea and Gibraltar, from 
Honan and New Guinea, from Singapore and Milwaukee, 
from Argentine, New York, and Nova Scotia. 

This report of world conditions, social, industrial, 
and religious, is baptized into the very Spirit of Jesus. 
It is a text book on Christian faith and order. We may 
not follow its teachings and we may not agree with all 
of its conclusions, but we cannot escape the spell of its 

24 (174) 



The Lambeth Conference 

charity and the lure of its Christlikeness. It sounds no 
uncertain note. It does not lose itself in trying to be 
modern or pragmatic. It does not offer apologies to 
Dives nor a sop to Demos. It believes in Christ. It has 
faith in the Church. It holds to the historic faith and 
hopes for ultimate victory. 

These are among its opening words: "Men to-day 
are tempted to despair of the world and to blame its 
design. But this at least we can say: the life of men 
upon earth was designed to give opportunities for love 
and nothing has defeated that design. Those things 
which most perplex us, suffering and sin, have been 
the occasion of the most conspicuous triumphs of love. 
This design is the clue to the labyrinth of life. We lose 
our way in a maze whenever we let go this clue. Men 
lost the clue and they are always losing it, for they will 
not keep God in their knowledge, nor love in their hearts. 
It is ours to recall men to God and to His revealed pur- 
poses and His acts which reveal them. It is ours to 
bid them pause in the hurry and stress of life, in the 
midst of its trivialities and its tragedy, and contemplate 
anew the ways of God. He made men for love, that 
they might love Him and love one another. They re- 
jected His purpose, but He did not abandon it. He chose 
a nation, and made it in a special sense His own, that with- 
in it, the love of God and men might be cultivated, and 
that thus it might enlighten the world. Into that nation 
He sent his Son, both to reconcile the world to Himself, 
and to reconcile men to one another. And His Son formed 
a new and greater Israel, which we call the Church, 
to carry on His own mission of reconciling men to God 
and men to men. The foundation and ground of all fel- 
lowship is the undeflected will of God, renewing again 
and again its patient effort to possess, without destroy- 
ing, the wills of men. And so He has called into being 
a fellowship of men, His Church, and sent His Holy 
Spirit to abide therein, that by the prevailing attraction 
of that one Spirit, He, the one God and Father of all, may 

25 (175) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

win over the whole human family to that fellowship in 
Himself, by which alone it can attain to the fulness of 
life." 

The Conference sought to apply the high principles 
of the Gospel to modern life, believing with Chesterton 
that "Christianity has been found difficult and ha& not 
been tried". Any one who has thought the Anglican 
Church proud and haughty, austere and impenitent, 
should take time to catch the spirit of this report. It 
reads, "May He in His mercy forgive and take from us 
any spirit of self-satisfaction! We have need frankly 
to acknowledge and humbly to confess our manifold sins 
and shortcomings as a Church. In all our approaches to 
our fellow Christians of other Churches, we shall try to 
make it plain that we only desire to be permitted to take 
our part with them in a cause to which the Lord whom 
we serve is at this time most manifestly calling all the 
members of His Church." Later in the report we read: 
"Most of us have grave cause for repentance. We have 
failed to give faithful witness in our teaching; we have 
failed even more signally to give witness by our life. 
Here, surely, is our first duty. It was the life of the early 
Christians which won victories for Christ. It is the 
life of Christians which will do most to further His King- 
dom in the society of to-day. ' ' 

Speaking on the great subject of the reunion of 
Christendom, the report says: "The causes of division 
lie deep in the past, and are by no means simple or 
wholly blameworthy. Yet none can doubt that self-will, 
ambition, and lack of charity among Christians have 
been principal factors in the mingled process, and that 
these, together with blindness to the sin of disunion, are 
still mainly responsible for the breaches of Christendom. 
We acknowledge this condition of broken fellowship to 
be contrary to God's will, and we desire frankl}^ to con- 
fess our share in the guilt of thus crippling the Body of 
Christ and hindering the activity of His Spirit." One 
can read between the lines and in foot-notes that the 

26 (176) 



The Lamheth Conference 

dove of peace sometimes seemed about to fly away with 
a message for the George Washington to come immedi- 
ately, but the Conference continued on to the end. A 
foot-note says: "The American Bishops of the Commit- 
tee are cordially agreed in the principle of a League 
of Nations, but feel obliged to withhold their support 
of the existing Covenant without certain reservations." 
It looks as if the Republican Senate had representatives 
even at Lambeth. Confident words are spoken about a 
living wage, about women in industry, about the labor 
movement, but when the drink evil is handled the words 
begin to hesitate and the sentences to stumble. "In the 
United Kingdom, one of the chief hindrances to progress 
is the inability of those who are most earnest in promot- 
ing temperance reform to come to an agreement as to 
the best line of advance. We would add further that, 
whilst all are not agreed upon the duty of total absti- 
nence from intoxicating liquor as a beverage, there is 
no room for doubt that such abstinence for the sake of 
others, and as a contribution to the stability of our in- 
dustrial and social life, is a splendid privilege of Chris- 
tian service." 

There are also explanations and covering sentences 
concerning the plan for reunion of the churches. The 
concluding words read : "In concluding our Report we 
think it only right to state at the request of some of our 
members that, with regard to the precise phrasing and 
practical effect of some of the Resolutions which we have 
submitted to the Conference, there was considerable dif- 
ference of opinion." 

For six days all the subjects to be dealt with by 
the Conference were brought before it. They were classi- 
fied into eight comprehensive departments and Avere 
then submitted to eight carefully chosen Committees. 
These Committees sat from July 10th to July 26th, 1920, 
and their reports were considered by the whole Confer- 
ence from Monday, July 26th, to Saturday, August 7th. 
These eight reports dealt with the following subjects : — 

27 (177) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Christianity and International Eelations; The Church 
and Industrial Problems; The Development of Pro- 
vinces ; Missionary Problems ; Position of Women ; Prob- 
lems of Marriage; Spiritualism, Christian Science, and 
Theosophy; Reunion. 

This paper will deal more particularly with only two 
of these reports, — that on the Church and Industrial Re- 
lations, and the Report on Reunion. There is much of 
interest in the other reports. The Conference pro- 
nounced favorably upon the principle of the League of 
Nations. It said: "The Conference heartily endorsing 
the views of its Committee, as to the essentially Christian 
basis of the League of Nations, is of the opinion that 
steps should immediately be taken, whether by co-op- 
eration or concurrent action, whereby the whole Church 
of Christ may be enabled with one voice to urge the prin- 
ciples of the League of Nations upon the peoples of the 
world. We, hold that the peace of the world, no less 
than Christian principle, demands the admission of Ger- 
many and other nations into the League of Nations at the 
earliest moment which the conditions render possible." 

It outlined large policies for the advancement of 
Christianity in foreign lands. It voted for the estab- 
lishment or re-establishment of the order of Deaconess, 
giving women the right to leadership but withholding 
from them the privilege of ordination. In this connec- 
tion some of the discussion is rather peculiar. "With 
deep reverence we recognize that the supreme ministry 
of redemption was wrought out by One AVlio was a man, 
Jesus Christ our Lord. It is certain that the Apostles 
were men, almost as certain that the Seventy were men. 
On the other hand a Avoman was chosen to be the hand- 
maid of the Lord in the Incarnation of the Son of God." 

The Conference discussed whether deaconesses should 
be celibates but decided that they might marry and not 
sin. It dealt with marriage and the problem of social 
purity. It discussed with sympathy and insight. Spir- 
itualism, Christian Science, and Theosophy. Concern- 

28 (178) 



The Lamheth Conference 

ing Spiritualism, it said, "It is possible that we may be 
on the threshold of a new science, which will by another 
method of approach confirm ns in the assurance of a 
world behind and beyond the world we see, and of some- 
thing within us by which we are in contact with it. We 
could never presume to set a limit to means which God 
may use to bring man to the realization of spiritual life. 
But there is nothing in the cult erected on this Science 
which enhances; there is, indeed, much which obscures 
the meaning of that other world and our relation to it 
as unfolded in the Gospel of Christ and the teaching of 
the Church, and which depreciates the means given to 
us of attaining and abiding in fellowship with that 
world. ' ' 



The Keport on the Church and Industrial Problems 
begins by pointing out that the w^ar showed the foolish- 
ness of trying to build up an enduring civilization upon 
selfishness and force, and asserts that we are now face 
to face with that same spirit of selfishness in industry. 
''As we desire a League of Nations which shall unite the 
peoples in a fellowship for the common good, so we look 
for some means of co-operation within the nation, which 
by ways of liberty and justice shall transcend all class dis- 
tinctions, and enable all to make their contribution of 
service for the welfare of all. ' ' 

A different note is struck in this report than is 
heard anywhere in the pages of the much heralded Steel 
Strike Report of the Interchurch World Movement. 
That Report might have been written by men unac- 
quainted with the principles of the Gospel. In the Lam- 
beth Report, however. Christian principles that are 
fundamental in all industrial controversies are laid down. 
There is in the first place an assertion of the standard 
of value. The supreme standard is human life. The in- 
finite value of hunmanity is an end and not a means to 

29 (179) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

any other end. In a few well ordered sentences the re- 
port states : — 

"As God is our Father, and as the Eternal Son of 
God took our whole human nature upon him, every son 
and daughter of God is of infinite and equal value. ' ' 

"Life must always count for more than property, 
the possession of which ou^ht always to answer to some 
function duly performed. ' ' 

"Obviously in any organized system there must be 
discipline, but that discipline should be the discipline of 
free men, arising from the common mind, and embodying 
the common will." 

The report asserts the right of men to organize for 
mutual benefit and helpfulness. " As a means of attaining 
this reasonable control, perfect freedom of organization 
on the part of workers, with leaders and spokesmen of 
thier own choosing, must be upheld." It proclaims the 
principle of human brotherhood. ' ' The Incarnation broke 
down the ancient barriers. Differences of race, of class, 
of sex, are transcended; 'We are one man in Christ 
Jesus'." It points out the path of reform: "Whether or 
no the demand for the full 'democratizing of industry' is 
practicable, or even reasonable, it is at least clear that the 
workers in an industry ought to have an adequate share 
in the control of the conditions in which their work — a 
large portion of their life — is carried on." It asks for 
security against unemployment, a reasonable leisure, a 
living wage, and proper saf egaurds for life and health. 

The report faces the question as to whether the 
present system is compatible with the teachings of Jesus, 
and, while not pronouncing any policy, it quotes Bishop 
Wescott to the effect : — "Wage, labour, though it appears 
to be an inevitable step in the evolution of society, is 
as little fitted to represent finally or adequatelj^ the con- 
nection of man with man in the production of wealth as, 
in the earlier times, slavery or serfdom." 

The report commits the Church to no economic the- 
ory. "All that belongs to us is held in trust; no prop- 
so (180) 



The Lamheth Conference 

erty can be our absolute and unconditional possession. 
This is true also of our powers and faculties of body and 
mind. These powers are entrusted to us by God in or- 
der that we may use them for His service and the good 
of our fellows." One cannot help comparing these ju- 
dicial words with the unbalanced sentences and sneer- 
ing criticism of the Interchurch Keport on the Steel In- 
dustry. 

The report demands the recognition of the principle 
of personal responsibility. God trusts us whether we are 
rich or poor. We hold what we have in trust and the 
application is made to both employer and worker alike. 
' ' The duty of honest work, to the uttermost of our ability, 
is binding upon all, and we cannot, without moral de- 
terioration, rest content with less than our best work. 
The idler or the shirker, to whatever class of society he 
belongs, is false to his trust. It is true that a laborer 
is worthy of his hire ; it is equally true that the worker 
ought to do' an honest day's work. The policy of 'Ca'- 
canny' or 'go slow' cannot be morally justified. On the 
other hand, those whose work is 'unproductive' of ma- 
terial wealth are specially bound to give good value to 
society in return for the benefits which society confers 
on them." Brought face to face with the duty of the 
Church, the Report says, "It is not by violent revolu- 
tion, but by a complete change of mind and will that 
a better order can be reached. ' ' The Church, indeed, is 
not blameless. She has not fulfilled her duty nor spoken 
to the people all the words of this life. Class conscious- 
ness is rampant in every grade of society. In many of 
our churches the arrangement of sittings would incur 
the condemnation of St. James. Can we not determine 
to get rid once for all of unbrotherly aloofness, and to 
abolish the misinterpretation of the Church Catechism 
which represents, 'my betters' as meaning 'social super- 
iors'?" 

The Lambeth Conference called for a new spirit. 
It did not ask for added legislation. It did not denounce 

31 (181) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

government. It called upon the churches to become vital 
centers of service and to manifest their life in service 
of all types. The Report does not arouse class an- 
tagonism nor dig deeper the gulf between the employer 
and employee, and therefore, it cannot help but do good. 
"We desire to affirm, with unwavering conviction, that 
no outward adjustments can, by themselves, bring us near 
to the Kingdom of Grod. The love which conquers self- 
ishness, and the passion for righteousness which drives 
out greed, are gifts from above, and, unless selfishness 
and greed are vanquished, the most perfectly devised 
co-operative commonwealth will perish in ignoble ruin." 

II 

We turn to the report on Reunion. This report,- more 
than any other, occupied the thought and time of the 
Conference. To the Bishops at Lambeth, the one great 
problem which Christendom is facing is not how capital 
and labor can get on with each other, but how Christians 
can get on together. The Committee appointed to pre- 
pare the report was the largest and most representative 
ever appointed by a Lambeth Conference. This Com- 
mittee took its work most seriously and as a result is- 
sued to the churches of Christendom an appeal which has 
been widely read. It is a remarkable document. It is 
remarkable not so much because of the plan it proposes 
but rather because of the spirit which breathes through 
it and gives it life. It begins with a significant acknow- 
ledgment. ''We acknowledge all those who believe in the 
Lord Jesus Christ, and have been baptized into the name 
of the Holy Trinity, as sharing with us membership in 
the universal Church of Christ which is his body. We 
believe that the Holy Spirit has called us in a very 
solemn and special manner to associate ourselves in peni- 
tence and^prayer with all those who deplore the divisions 
of Christian people, and are inspired by the vision and 
hope of a visible unity of the whole church." 

32 (182) 



The Lamheth Conference 

It builds up its program around the idea of the 
reality of the spiritual fellowship that exists in Grod. 
"The unity which we seek exists. It is in God, who is 
the perfection of unity, the one Father, the one Lord, 
the one Spirit, who gives life to the one body." This 
one Body exists. It needs not to be made, nor to be re- 
made, but to become organic and visible. Further, the 
fellowship of the members of this one Body exists. It 
is the work of God, not of man. We have only to dis- 
cover it, and to set free its activities. The Keport is 
significant, too, in the acknowledgment which it accords 
non-Episcopal Communions. These Communions, — Free 
Church Communions, — it asserts, stand for ''rich ele- 
ments of truth, liberty, and life which might otherwise 
have been obscured or neglected. With them we are 
closely linked by many affinities, racial, historical, and 
spiritual. We cherish the earnest hope that all these 
Communions, and our own, may be led by the Spirit 
into the unity of the Faith and of the knowledge of the 
Son of God." It sets forth the reasons why the time is 
opportune to forget the traditions of the past and to 
press on to fuller unity. 

There is first of all the pressure from the foreign 
missionary movement, especially as it discloses itself in 
the foreign field. "There have grown up indigenous 
churches in China, in Japan, in East and West Africa, 
in each of which the English members are but a handful 
of strangers and sojourners, some engaged in missionary 
work, some in secular business. In India the church in- 
cludes large numbers both of British and of Indian mem- 
bers. The emergence of a National Church, claiming 
freedom to regulate its own affairs, is only a matter of 
time. Consequently the Anglican Communion of to- 
day is a federation of churches, some national, some 
regional, but no longer predominantly Anglo-Saxon in 
race, nor can it be expected that it will attach special 
value to Anglo-Saxon traditions. The blessing which has 

33 (183) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

rested upon its work has brought it to a new point of 
view. ' ' 

There is also the transformation which has gone on in 
churches of the Anglican Communion itself. "In some 
parts of our Communion, the Episcopate does not even 
present the appearance of autocracy or prelacy. Vari- 
ous arrangements have been adopted by which the bishop 
is elected by the Diocese over which he is to reside. The 
affairs of the Diocese are managed by the bishop in con- 
junction with a Diocesan Synod or Council. The bishops 
and their Dioceses are further correlated in Provincial 
and General Synods, Conventions, or Assemblies. Thus, 
Episcopacy among us has generally become constitu- 
tional and the clergy and laity have attained to a share 
in the government of the Church. Again, in many parts 
of our Communion, systems of patronage have been 
adopted which recognize the right of congregations to 
take part in the selection of their ministers. The winds 
of God have been blowing through the church and over 
the world. The development of mission services and 
missions of many kinds, the use of various additional 
forms of prayer, of extempore prayer, of silent prayer, 
and again of various kinds of ceremonial and elabora- 
tion of liturgical worship, testify, quite apart from the 
merits of any of them, to the increasing recognition of 
the diversity of the temperaments of men and of the duty 
of the church to make them all feel at home in the familv 
of God." 

It is not possible here to enter into the plan of re- 
union as it relates to the churches holding to the Epis- 
copate. The Eeport confesses that, while a new spirit 
seems to be upon the Roman Church, no advance is pos- 
sible in that direction. This is not, however, true of the 
Greek Orthodox churches of Russia, Serbia, and Greece, 
nor of the so-called Nestorian and Syrian churches, and 
fellowship with the Church of Sweden was actually con- 
summated by the Conference. This movement toward 
union is now going on within the churches of the Episco- 

34 (184) 



The Lamheth Conference 

pal order. The interest, however, is most vital in con- 
nection with union with non-Espiscopal Communions. 
Such a proposal of union calls for a fine adventure in 
faith and good will. 

The creedal basis of that union is briefly stated. ' ' We 
believe that visible unity of the church will be found to 
involve the whole-hearted acceptance of : 

"The Holy Scriptures, as the record of God's reve- 
lation of Himself to man, and as being the rule and ulti- 
mate standard of faith; and the Creed commonly called 
Nicene, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith, 
and either it or the Apostles' Creed as the Baptismal 
confession of belief. 

' ' The divinely instituted sacraments of baptism and 
the Holy Communion, as expressing for all the corpor- 
ate life of the whole fellowship in and with Christ. 

"A ministry acknowledged by every part of the 
church as possessing not only the inward call of the 
Spirit, but also the commission of Christ and the authori- 
ty of the whole body. ' ' 

And now, at last, we come to what William James 
would call 'Hhe hot spot" of the controversy. "May we 
not reasonably claim, ' ' the appeal states, ' ' that the Epis- 
copate is the one means of providing such a ministry?" 
That is frank and perfectly honest. "It is not that we 
call in question for a moment the spiritual reality of the 
ministries of those Communions which do not possess the 
Episcopate. On the contrary Ave thankfully acknowledge 
that these ministries have been manifestly blessed and 
owned by the Holy Spirit as effective means of grace. 
But we submit that considerations, alike of history and 
present experience, justify the claim which we make on 
behalf of the Epicopate. Moreover, we would urge that 
it is now and will prove to be in the future the best in- 
strument for maintaining the unity and continuity of the 
church." The plan as suggested in the resolution is as 
follows : — 
, First, — "If the authorities of other Communions 

35 (185) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

should so desire, we are persuaded that, terms of union 
having been otherwise satisfactorily adjusted, Bishops 
and clergy of our Communion would willingly accept from 
these authorities a form of commission or recognition 
which would commend our ministry to their congregations 
as having its place in the one family." In the second 
place, "It is our hope that the same motive would lead 
ministers who have not received it to accept a commis- 
sion through Episcopal ordination, as obtaining for them 
a ministry throughout the whole felloivship". "In so 
acting," the resolution goes on to say, "No one of us 
could possibly be taken to repudiate his past ministry. 
God forbid that any man should repudiate a past exper- 
ience rich in spiritual blessings for himself and others." 
This new recognition and acceptance is a call to a new 
and wider service in a united church. It is an economic 
method to meet a larger opportunity. The conditions, 
however, should be carefully noted. They are not uniform. 
Episcopally ordained ministers are to he recognized and 
commissioned. Non-Episcopally ordained ministers are 
to he commissioned through Episcopal ordination. There 
are worlds between. There is still the old gulf fixed, and 
in the light of that difference it is difficult to see how 
the proposal can be called new, except that it breathes 
a netv spirit. 

Granting these conditions, the terms of union are 
just and generous. Pending the consummation of the 
union much liberty is granted to Bishops. "A Bishop 
is justified in giving occasional authorization to min- 
isters, not Episcopally ordained, who in his judgment 
are working towards an ideal of union such as is de- 
scribed in our Appeal, to preach in churches within his 
Diocese, and to clergy of the Diocese to preach in the 
churches of such ministers." While interchange of pul- 
pits and general schemes of inter-communion are defi- 
nitely frowned upon, much is left to the Bishop's judg- 
ment. This, of course, is a doubtful concession. Con- 
cerning ministers who at the time of reunion are 

36 (186) 



The Lamheth Conference 

non-episcopally ordained, the suggestion is made that 
' ' Ministers of both the uniting Communions should be at 
once recognized as of equal status in all Synods and 
Councils of the United Church. The terms of union should 
not confer on non-episcopally ordained ministers the 
right to administer the Holy Communion to those con- 
gregations which already possess an episcopal ministry, 
but they should include the right to conduct other serv- 
ices and to preach in such churches, if licensed thereto 
by the Bishop. ' ' 

The task of making these resolutions effective, lies 
with the churches holding allegiance to the Lambeth 
Conference through their regularly constituted bodies. 
''The Conference recommends to the authorities of the 
Churches of the Anglican Communion that they should in 
such ways and at such times as they think best, formally 
invite the authorities of other Churches within their 
areas to confer with them concerning the possibilty of 
taking definite steps to co-operate in a common en- 
deavor, on the lines set forth in the above Appeal, to 
restore the unity of the Church of Christ." Non-episco- 
pal churches are not asked to make overtures. They 
are asked as yet to do nothing. We must wait for the 
constituted Episcopal authorities in our own community 
to speak. 

A final question remains to be asked and, if pos- 
sible, answered : How shall we account for the fine spirit 
which breathes through this memorable document? 
There are Episcopal clergymen who hold that this ap- 
peal has put all non-Episcopal churches on the defensive. 
Indeed, it seems to many of the Episcopal Communion 
that the Lambeth Conference has gone more than half 
way. The Christian spirit of the Appeal to the Churches 
cannot be doubted. How shall we then account for this 
change of spirit Avith no change of policy? Episcopal 
ordination as a vital necessity runs like a steel cable 
through all the report. It is not intentionally disguised 
but is subordinated to a new spirit of brotherhood. With 

37 (187) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

even Reformed Episcopal churches, it will have nothing 
to do. Concerning the Church of Sweden, it says, "We 
accept the conclusions arrived at by the learned men 
who formed this Commission, on the unbroken sucession 
of the Episcopate in Sweden, and on the conception of 
the office of priest held by that Church." It holds out 
willing hands to Armenians, Nestorians, Syrian Jacob- 
ites, Copts, and the Christians of St. Thomas of Malabar. 
These are strange brethren speaking unknown tongues, 
but still brethren, because some drops of the stream of 
Apostolic virtue have fallen somewhere, sometime, upon 
some one of their ancestors. Well might we say, "Pres- 
byterians we know and Methodists we know, but who are 
these!" The Anglican Church is willing to strike hands 
with Russia but before doing so it insists that it be made 
clear that "we regard Ordination as conferring grace, 
and not only as a mere setting apart to an ecclesiasti- 
cal office." The condition is old. The spirit is new. 
Why? 

In the first place, there was present in the Confer- 
ence the impelling power of a vital Christianity as il 
is revealed in a larger fellowship upon the foreign field. 
This is unmistakable. The pressure for church union as 
manifested in mission lands has made itself felt where 
Bishops and Archbishops deliberate. 

In the second place, there is pressure from within 
the Anglican Communion itself. It is not at rest. It 
stands alone between the Roman and Protestant 
Communions, holding fellowship with neither. Mean- 
while there has come about within the Anglican Church 
itself many internal changes, leading to a more demo- 
cratic control of the church. This influence has been 
brought about because of three things. First, the forma- 
tive opinions of the laity of the church. Second, the de- 
velopment of democratic ideals and the growth of con- 
stitutional government in the world and especially in 
Great Britain. It is a nice question as to how far the 
church reflects the government of the country where that 

38 (188) 



The Lambeth Conference 

church serves. England was once a monarchy. She is 
now a democracy and the same democratic movement 
which has transformed the national life of England has 
not been without influence upon the national church. 
Third, the influence of scholarship. Scholars within the 
Anglican fellowship,' since the days of the great Bishop 
Lightfoot, have less and less made exclusive claims for 
the Episcopate. The contention that the Episcopate 
roots itself as a divine right in Christian revelation is, 
to modern scholarship, the fabric of a dream. The Epis- 
copate will endure, but for economic and not for the- 
ological reasons, and scholarship may be left to do its 
perfect work. 

Truth judges by empirical standards. It says, ''By 
their fruits ye shall know them." If, as the Lambeth 
Conference states, in one of its nodding moods, ''Episco- 
pacy confers grace", then the way is open for Epis- 
copacy to prove its claim. If it merely sets aside to an 
«cclesiasticial office, if it is to be recognized as an efficient 
and abiding form of church government, we will agree. 



39 (189) 



The Rolling Stone 

Eev. Geokge Tayloe, Jr., Ph. D. 



The title of a recent volume* arouses the curiosity 
of any one who is striving to determine some correct 
educative principle for life in an age when the rubrics 
of true education are being weighed in the balance, but 
it leaves the reader unsatisfied in the main purpose which 
it promises. In the 505 large pages of the book, which 
is a great credit to any publisher in its mechanical ap- 
pointments, the author has demonstrated one funda- 
mental fact in experience — no one can cultivate the habit 
of critical introspection without finding himself isolated 
from much of society and without developing a pessi- 
mism which is morbid and destructive to the highest 
and best attainments. This is particularly true in a 
life like Henry Adams, where purpose is weak, where 
the main epochs of his individual experience have been 
determined largely by others, and where the principle of 
unity has been lost in the multiplicity of man^^ interest- 
ing but unproductive influences. 

The Massachusetts Historical Society gave this book 
to the world after the death of the author. Owing to 
some displeasure in its literary form about which Henry 
Adams could not satisfy himself, and the utter chaos 
into which his original purpose to start from the unity 
of the Thirteenth Century in an effort to discover his 
own position by a study of Twentieth Century multi- 
plicity assuming as true only the category of relation, 
he preferred to leave it unpublished. This may account 
for the omission in the introduction of many facts which 
would greatly help the reader, such as a more appre- 
ciative statement of the motives of the author in writ- 
ing it and a succinct history of Henry Adams ' life touch- 

*The Education of Henry Adams — An Autobiography. Boston: 
Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1918, $5.00 Net. 

40 (190) 



The Rolling Stone 

ing many significant events which are overlooked and 
which must have had considerable bearing on his career. 
As an example, I may refer to his marriage. In spite of 
the fact that he expresses his highest regard for the A- 
merican Woman, holding her as superior to the American 
man, and intimating that the present tendency to lose her 
finesse in life's machinery is due to the fact that man 
has compelled her to imitate him by his neglect of her, 
yet he never once mentions his own wife or acknowl- 
edges a place in his life of one who was so beloved 
by her host of friends. An excerpt from a letter writ- 
ten by John Hay (quoted from Thayer) to Henry Adams 
at the death of Mrs. Adams bears an illuminating testi- 
mony. 

"Is it any consolation to remember her as she was? 
that bright,, intrepid spirit, that keen, fine inteUect, that 
lofty scorn of all that was mean, that social charm which 
made your house such a one as "Washington never knew 
before, and made hundreds of people love her as much as 
they admired her. No, that makes it all so much harder 
to bear." 

For the information of the interested reader, it may 
be well to say that Henry Adams was the son of Charles 
Francis Adams, the consummate American Minister to 
England during the Civil War. He was born in old 
Boston in the year 1838 and represented in his derivation 
the essence of that vigorous, hard-headed, fearless, far- 
sighted New England manhood which led the colony of 
Massachusetts into the Revolution. Both his grandfather 
and great-grandfather were Presidents of the United 
States. He received his education at Harvard College, 
served his father as secretary in London where he be- 
came acquainted with all sorts of English society — in- 
cluding the best, traveled extensively through Grermany, 
France, and Italy, taught history for seven years in Har- 
vard College in a way that history had never been taught 
before in America, edited the North American Review 
for six years, and in 1877 settled in Washington which re- 
mained his home until his death, convinced, he says, ''as 
far as he had a function in life, it was as stable-compan- 

41 (191) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Sefninary 

ion to statesmen, whether they liked it or not". 

He seems to have had some theory of education, al- 
though it is difficult to discover it from the analysis of 
his own experience. He accepted the findings of those 
whom he regarded as judges that only one man in a 
hundred owns a mind capable of reacting to any pur- 
pose on the forces which surround him, and fully half 
of these react wrongly. Thus he was convinced that the 
business of education should be ''to try to lessen the ob- 
stacles, diminish the friction, invigorate the energy, and 
should train minds to react, not at haphazard, but by 
choice, on the lines of force that attract their world. 
What one knows is, in youth, of little moment ; they know 
enough who know how to learn. Throughout human his- 
tory the waste of mind has been appalling, and, as this 
story is meant to show, society has conspired to promote 
it. No doubt the teacher is the worst criminal, but the 
world stands behind him and drags the student from 
his course". In his own case he seems to think that his 
school days were time thrown away. "For success in 
the life imposed on him he needed, as afterwards ap- 
peared, the facile use of only four tools : Mathematics, 
French, German, and Spanish. With these, he could mas- 
ter in very short time any special branch of inquiry, 
and feel at home in any society." Thus at the very out- 
set, in view of the fact that his rigid classical training at 
Harvard had prevented the mastery of any one of these 
four tools, he was "condemned to failure more or less 
complete in the life awaiting him**. This was a true 
prophecy of his own life; for after his college course, 
his travel in Italy, France, and Germany, his diplomatic 
experience in England, his political opportunities in 
America, his connection with the leading American 
periodicals, his professorship in Harvard, and his social 
advantages, he could declare these as useless and sum 
them all up in some such words as these, * ' Vanity, vanity, 
all is vanity in education ' '. 

It is interesting to analyze such an attitude towards 

42 (192) 



The Rolling Stone 

life. He says that "only Bostonians can understand 
Bostonians and thoroughly sympathize with the inconse- 
quences of the Boston niind". If this be the mental 
attitude which we find in this book, it is clearly impossible 
to the average intelligent American. It grows out of a 
nature developed in the atmosphere of New England Uni- 
tarianism without any realization of God as a dynamic, 
with an increasing self-satisfaction and its attending 
depreciation of every one else, and with that dismal out- 
look on life which knows no divine urge for serving his 
fellow-man. How could it be otherwise when, on his own 
testimony, his religious instinct vanished and it could 
not be revived although in later life he made many ef- 
forts to recover it? This lack of a reverence for God 
exerted a great influence on his attitude towards his 
fellow-men. It is true that all through the book he ac- 
knowledges his failure, but it is also true that he finds 
very few men with whom he would count it worth while 
to associate. Among all the men who were serving with 
President Lincoln in Washington, only Senator Sum- 
ner "seemed to him supremely fitted by knowledge and 
experience to be an adviser and friend". Of Lincoln 
himself he says, 

"He saw Mr. Lincoln but once; at the melancholy 
fiunction called an Inaugural Ball. Of course he looked 
anxiously for a sign of character. He saw a long, awk- 
ward figure; a plain, ploughed face; a mind, absent in 
part, and in part evidently worried by white kid gloves; 
features that expressed neither self-satisfaction nor any 
other familiar Americanism, but rather the same painful 
sense of becoming educated and of needing education that 
tormented a private secretary; above all a lack of appar- 
ent force. Any private secretary in the least fit for his 
business would have thought, as Adams did, that no man 
living needed so much education as the new President but 
that all the education he could get would not be enough." 

His estimate of the men handling the affairs of the 
nation is in keeping with the same spirit. 

"The average Congressman was civil enough, but had 
nothing to ask except offices, and nothing to offer but the 
views of his district. The average Senator was more re- 
served, but had not much more to say, being always, ex- 
cepting one or two genial natures, handicapped by his own 
importance." 

43 (193) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

In view of this we are not surprised to find him grow- 
ing more pessimisti-o in his attitude towards life as the 
years go by. His life has lacked purpose, and, therefore, 
we miss in his book unity and completeness. It is the 
product of a man who has been like a rolling stone in 
his experience and who, in spite of the fact that he has 
gained much culture, has come to believe that after all 
the best one can do in this life is just to roll. There- 
fore, its chief value is not in its evident purpose to dis- 
cover some correct method of education by studying the 
factors of his experience, but in the wayside impressions, 
in the satisfying style w^hich at times sparkles with sub- 
tle wit, and in his reaction against men and epochs. 

Let me give but two examples. The first contains his 
impression of Graribaldi with whom he had a brief inter- 
view. 

"Adams had the chance to look this sphinx in the eyes, 
and, for five minutes, to watch him like a wild animal, 
at the moment of his greatest achievement and most splen- 
did action. One saw a quiet-featured, quiet-voiced man in 
a red flannel shirt; absolutely impervious; a type of which 
Adams knew nothing. Sympathetic it was, and one felt 
that it was simple; one suspected even that it might be 
childlike, but could form no guess of its intelligence. In 
his own eyes Garibaldi might be a Napoleon or a Sparta- 
cus; in the hands of Cavour he might become a Con- 
dottiere; in the eyes of history he might, like the rest 
of the world, be only the vigorous player in the game he 
did not understand. The student was none the wiser. 

"This compound nature of patriot and pirate had il- 
lumined Italian history from the beginning, and was no 
more intelligible to itself than to a young American who 
had no experience in double natures. In the end, if the 
'Autobiography' tells truth, Garibaldi saw and said that he 
had not understood his own acts; that he had been an in- 
strument; that he had served the purposes of the class 
he least wanted to help; yet in 1860 he thought himself 
the revolution anarchic, Napoleonic, and his ambition was 
unbounded. What should a young Bostonian have made 
of a character like this, internally alive with childlike 
fancies, and externally quiet, simple, almost innocent; ut- 
tering with apparent conviction the usual commonplaces of 
popular politics that all politicians use as the small change 
of their intercourse with the public; but never betraying 
a thought?" 

The other is Algernon Swinburne of Avhom Stirling 
declared, '^He's a cross between the devil and the Duke 
of Argyll". , 

44 (194) 



The Rolling 'Stone 

"That Swinburne seemed to them quite original. 

wildly eccentric, astonishingly gifted, and convulsingly 
droll, Adams could see; but what more he was, even 
Mllnes hardly dared say. They could not believe his in- 
credible memory and knowledge of literature, classic, 
mediaeval, and modern; his faculty of reciting a play of 
Sophocles or a play of Shakespeare, forward or backward, 
from end to beginning; or Dante, or Villon, or Victor Hugo. 
They knew not what to make of his rhetorical recitation 
of his own unpublished ballads — 'Faustine'; the 'Four 
Boards of the Coffin Lid'; the 'Ballad of Burdens' — which 
he declaimed as though they were books of the Iliad." 

On the whole the book is worth reading, but it has 
the same effect on the reader as Harvard College had 
upon Henry Adams. "Harvard College was a negative 
force, and negative forces have value". It personifies 
the inevitable crystallization of culture without God and 
without purpose — a selfish, self-satisfied, pessimistic life. 



45 (195) 



A Letter from China* 

Eev. Robert F. Fitch, D. D. 



Just noAv there is a remarkable tension all over this 
country due to telegrams from the Chinese representa- 
tives of the Washington Peace Conference saying that 
they had resigned. We notice by later telegrams that 
they are still conducting negotiations and hence assume 
that their resignation did not take effect. Thinking Chin- 
ese everywhere are in an intense state of suspicion re- 
garding this conference. They do not trust Japan and 
they are afraid that in the long run Japan will succeed 
in playing a better diplomatic game than the United 
States will do. We note that Japan is proposing to give 
up all of her rights in Shantung, but the Chinese regard 
this as having for its motive the establishment of Japan's 
position in Manchuria. I have been called upon in a num- 
ber of cases to give addresses on the '^Open Door" and 
the "Washington Peace Conference" before Chinese 
audiences, one of them being before about four hundred 
Chinese students on the roof-garden of the Y. M. C. A. 
In these addresses I have pointed out certain factors 
which have contributed to the Far Eastern problem. 
First the general policy of aggression which Svas common 
to all powers until fairly recent times, a policy which was 
shared by China in her relation with Siam, Burma, Thibet 
and Korea. Second, this policy of aggression has been 
adopted to a certain extent by European powers. Third, 
this policy of aggression has also been copied by Japan 
in her attitude towards China, in which she has outwitted 
the European powers in their own game and has gotten 
the upper hand. Fourth, the passivism in the United 
States in assuming definite relations to the Far Eastern 

*The foUowing letter from the Rev. Robert F. Fitch ('98), 
General Secretary of the Union Evangelistic Committee, Hangchow, 
China, dated December 20, 1921, gives a very clear idea of the po- 
litical situation in China, as well as throwing light on some of the 
important movements of Christianity. 

46 (196) 



A Letter from China 

question ever since 1899 when Secretary Hay issued 
his famous note. By issuing this famous note we be- 
came in a very definite way the sponsors of the open door 
policy and the policy preserving China's territorial in- 
tegrity. The fifth cauge bringing about the problem of 
the Far East has been the corruption of Chinese official- 
dom, their willingness to secure loans from foreign 
countries, applying them to a .considerable extent to per- 
sonal uses instead of for the object specified, and there- 
by sinking China deeper and deeper in debt. I think the 
intelligent Chinese realize all of these factors and deeply 
deplore the chaotic state of things in this land, but as 
Americans we must have the deepest sympathy possible 
for this country, realizing that, by withdrawing from ac- 
tive participation in Oriental affairs, we have gradually 
produced a situation which, if not wisely met at present, 
will involve us ultimately in war. Chinese officialdum 
has not only been subjected to ordinary temptations but 
has also had to suffer from strong outside pressure. If, 
in addition to the temptation to graft in our own country, 
our official life were also subject to outside pressure from 
outside powers, it might be that our country would have 
little of which to boast. 

The more I see of the Chinese the more I realize 
their remarkable potentialities and I positively affirm 
that some day there will be a, great and wonderful reve- 
lation to the world of possibilities yet undreamed. 

In the month of September I took a trip to Shanghai 
and also to Hankow to get a lot of pictures of the boat 
life of China for Mr. Charles R. Crane, our former 
American Minister in Peking. I was also able to get two 
thousand feet of movie films for him, showing all kinds 
of boat construction. On a great ocean going vessel I 
got photographs of men climbing like monkeys up the 
mast, of others passing the cargo, eating a meal, hoist- 
ing sail, working the windlass to bring up the anchor, 
working the rudder and labelling the cargo. Later Mrs. 
Fitch and I went to len-dong where we saw the greatest 

47 (197) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

scenery in all Eastern China. The place has a diameter 
of about twenty miles east and west, north and south, and 
is full of wonderful mountains running up four thousand 
feet with hundreds and hundreds of precipices, many 
remarkable caves, many individual cliffs that rise out of 
the valley like tusks. We also, among several water- 
falls, saw one that was six hundred feet high. There 
was also the truncated cone of a volcano, the top of 
which was covered by five small lakes, the source of water 
supply being by subterranean passages from some higher 
mountains beyond. The place is a veritable "Garden 
of the Grods" and one could spend a few weeks in in- 
vestigating its wonders. We entered the largest cave, 
which was called the cave to the Goddess of Mercy. We 
climbed up within the cave a vertical height of one hun- 
dred feet and then came to the foot of a nine story mon- 
astery. We went clear to the top and above the ninth 
story saw the remainder of the cave, another two hun- 
dred feet, with a high vaulted roof. This topmost vault 
was called the main hall of the monastery where the prin- 
cipal images were placed. We slept in a Taoist Monastery 
on the fourth story, in a very large building built es- 
pecially to accommodate guests. There was a vast space 
over our heads, all within the cave — the cave of the Great 
Dipper. The valleys in this region are literally torn up 
by the floods when the rain falls and the boulders are 
strewn hither and thither. There are very few for- 
eigners who have visited this place and as far as I know 
it has not been described in print. I am hoping some 
day to have the opportunity to write an illustrated arti- 
cle giving a bit of the history of the place and telling 
somewhat of its wonders. 

Not long ago, the Civil and Military Governors sent 
a representative to Tao Tai Tsang to confer with me 
concerning the formation of an international Famine Re- 
lief Committee. In the Northern part of tliis province 
has occurred extensive floods due to the silting up of 
outlet canals which have thereby failed to discharge into 

48 (198) 



A Letter from China 

the Great Lakes on the Kiangsu Border. Through Ki- 
angsu there are also further outlet canals which have 
also silted up so that the water in the canals can not 
discharge into the sea. As a result thousands have suf- 
fered terribly through being unable to gather in their 
crops of rice. Neither are they able to prepare for cer- 
tain winter crops. There have also been two failures of 
the silk crop so that many will soon be brought to condi- 
tions of extreme need. Our Committee has already been 
organized, the Civil and Military Governors have been 
made Honorary Chairmen, Tao Tai Tsang and myself 
have been made co-chairmen, acting alternately, and the 
Military Governor has given us a fine guild hall for our 
headquarters where there are two general secretaries and 
a local assisting staff. We have also five sub-committees 
on Investigation, Relief, Distribution, Publicity, and 
Subscriptions. On the Central Committee and on our 
Sub-committees, we have enlisted the interest and serv- 
ice of about one hundred and fifty men. Our plan is to 
give free aid only to those who have no male workers in 
the family and who would thus die of starvation. The 
rest of the fund we plan to have used in work of con- 
struction such as digging the canals deeper, strengthen- 
ing certain dykes so as to give pay in grain only to 
those who can earn support for themselves and their 
families throughout the winter. A large part of our 
funds will come from the International Famine Relief 
Committee in Shanghai with which committee there are 
certain sums of mone}^ left over from the former famine. 
We also plan to raise considerable sums in Chekiang 
Province. Probably our budget will be somewhere be- 
tween two and three million dollars. 

Throughout all China, we are preparing for the great 
National Church Conference that is to be held next year 
in May. I believe that the Chinese Church at that time 
will take a great step forward in the organization of all 
forms of church effort on national lines and coordinat- 
ing them through a central Church Council. The Church 

49 (199) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Council will function through Provinces and city federa- 
tions, and it is the jo}^ and pride of Hangchow that our 
own Union Evangelistic Committee is the first Church 
Federation of all China. 



50 (200) 



Literature 



THE GIFT OF TONGUES. Alexander Mackie. New York: George 

H. Doran Company. 1921. $2.00. 

Since the psychology of religion has almost become an independ- 
ent science, and has courageously launched into fields of its own 
choosing, every imaginable phase of religion has come under the 
searchlight. The days of pioneering in this great department of 
knowledge are coming to their close and we are beginning to walk in 
fuller light. 

Any student of the Bible, and every student of the psychologi- 
cal phenomena of religious expression is in a measure acquainted 
with that strange phenomenon, the gift of tongues. Some of us have 
seen men and women who claimed to possess this "gift"; some of 
us have heard men speak in "tongues", though I am sure it ever re- 
mained a strange jargon to all of us. 

Mr. Mackie's little book gives evidence of scholarship, of 
thorough investigation. The author has undoubtedly made a 
searching study of the subject. He comes to definite conclusions 
and minces no words. He says that all religious experiences of the 
type of the gift of tongues are usually associated with anti-moral 
conduct and with transgressions of accepted moral standards in the 
vita sexiialis. This whole matter of possessing such gifts he 
claims to be pathological, and not of God. Such gifts as the 
Ursuline nuns, the Camisards, the Shakers, the Irvingites, and the 
Mormons claimed and claim are generally utterly unethical in 
their results. Says Mr. Mackie: "It is certainly in the field of 
ethics that we are to subject religion to its ultimate test." Again 
we find that these gifts are found most frequently in such persons 
who cannot lay claim to sound body or mind. "Whenever", to 
quote the author, "hysteria has ruled religion it has left behind it 
the horrid trail of crime and sin." 

The book constitutes a scathing accusation of fraudulent sects 
of the Middle Ages and of Irvingism and Mormonism of our own 
day. The accusation does not come from the author's pen pri- 
marily, but from the evidence brought into the reader's court. 

The major part of the book is devoted to historical investiga- 
tion. The material is ample and conclusive. Only two chapters 
are given to the psychological and ethical aspect of the gift. This 
is to be regretted. While the whole subject has received fuller 
treatment many times, we should welcome a more elaborate ex- 
pression of Mr. Mackie's views. 

I am sure all who believe that the tongues movement is a crime 
against intelligence will be happy to add this volume to their li- 
brary. 

Marshall, Mo ARNOLD H. LOWE. 



Studies in the Book of Revelation. An Introduction, Analysis and 
Notes. By Stephen Alexander Hunter, Ph.D., LL.D. Pitts- 
burgh: Pittsburgh Printing Company. 1921. $2.00. 
The writer of this article was a member of a class that was 
studying New Testament Theology under the direction of Dr. Casper 
W. Hodge. We met in his study. We had come to "Apocalyptic 
Literature." That night before the lesson Dr. Hodge took down 

51 (201) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Semijiary 

from a shelf in his library a Greek New Testament, and he said: 
"Young gentlemen, this is the Greek New Testament of Dr. Addison 
Alexander the greatest scholar and preacher in his day in our Church. 
If you will look at it you will see that the' Book of Revelation is 
worn as is the Psalms in a family Bible. Dr. Alexander used to say: 
"I love it. 1 love it. I read it. I read it. I do not understand 
a word of it." Dr. Hodge added, "Dr. Milligan is beginning to cast 
some light upon this book and some day we shall understand it." 

Dr. Hunter's particular interest in the Revelation and the rea- 
son he made a thorough and particular study of it came about in 
this way. A teacher expected to deal with this subject in a school 
in which Dr. Hunter was interested and was unable to keep his 
engagement. It was facetiously asserted that it made but little 
difference for "nobody could explain it anyway." Dr. Hunter was 
aroused, offered himself to teach that subject, and began the spe- 
cial studies that resulted in this book. 

There is more fanciful and useless literature upon this book 
than upon any other portion of scripture. "The Revelation" is 
the product of an Oriental imagination under special stress. When 
it is interpreted by Occidentals in a prosaic fashion or as seen in 
the light of Occidental imagination, the results are indeed startling. 
As Dr. Hunter says, "What was originally designed to be the revela- 
tion of a mystery has become instead the mystery of revelation." 
And yet, in spite of the great diversities of interpretation (Dr. 
Charles enumerates twelve varieties and does not then exhaust 
them), the ordinary reader will not miss the great purpose of the 
book. He may, as Dr. Alexander said, "Not understand a word of 
it," and yet get the spirit of it and the lesson of it. Here is a book 
of the imagination, but in its use of the imagination it employs the- 
exact scientific means that are adapted to its purpose. The pur- 
pose of this book is to arouse courage: courage to endure a pres- 
ent in which not only comfort was imperiled but life itself was 
threatened — courage to hope for a future of accomplishment and 
glory. Its intention is to enable Christians to be loyal in the face 
of martyrdom; to brave the powers that threaten to destroy the 
Christian faith, and confidently to expect its final triumph. If 
you would scare children or others, you appeal to the imagination. 
It is the unknown that is best adapted to terrify. Would you stimu- 
late courage, then appeal to the imagination and you can stir a 
courage that may die, but it will die loyal and hopeful. 

What capacity did Dr. Hunter bring to the interpretation of 
this book? A heart in full sympathy with the Divine Lord who 
speaks in this book; an experience of ministry not only among us 
of the West but also, because of his years of missionary work in 
the East, a knowledge of the working of other minds under other 
ideals, ideals more akin to the conditions of thought and fact that 
are represented in the Revelation. Then he was a capable and dili- 
gent student. He applied himself assiduously that he might ac- 
quaint himself with all that had been written about the Revelation. 
Note the number and quality of the books referred to, all of which 
Dr. Hunter did more than just read — he pored over them and 
absorbed them. If he was not an original investigator in Apocalyp- 
tic lore, he was fully acquainted with all that others had brought 
to light. Then we can not but agree that Dr. Hunter possesses a 
very discriminating judgment. He is not a partisan, but he holds 
an equal balance when he is determining between opinions. For 
this reason his conclusions are to be respected and not lightly dis- 

52 (202) 



Literature 

carded. He has a clear and perspicuous literary style. What he 
has to say can be readily perceived. He can reveal what is in his 
mind in words that are easily understood. 

This book will not be esteemed by those who look into the 
Revelation as if it were a "blue print" of the future. Nor will any 
recent commentary by informed and capable scholars afford mucla 
encouragement to those who wish to pry into the secrets of history 
yet to be recorded, and who desire to ascertain beforehand the de- 
tails of ivhat is to come, and how it is to come. 

Though Dr. Hunter may not solve every hard problem of in- 
terpretation, he does help to a clear and sane understanding. He 
opens the thoughts of the Seer of Patmos to our minds. He per- 
suades us also that the Revelation is not a book to be avoided but 
to be cultivated; for it speaks to all ages as certainly as it did to 
its own age of the necessity of holding the faith and the certainty 
of ultimate triumph. 

There are many commentaries on the book of Revelation, sober, 
illuminating books. Each has its own excellency. I have fifteen 
such books. In my judgment Dr. Hunter's is as profitable a book 
as one can get, unless it is desired to make a special and exact study 
of it, and to go beyond all ordinary requirements. It is a pity that 
the edition is limited and that the book is difficult to procure. 

KiNLEY McMillan 



An Introduction to the History of Christianity A. D. 590-1314. By 

F. J. Foakes Jackson. New York: The Macmillan Company. 

1921. pp. 390. $4.00. 

In this work, Professor Jackson, who occupies the chair of 
Christian Institutions in Union Theological Seminary, continues the 
treatment of a previous volume and carries the history of the Church 
from Pope Gregory the Great to the destruction of the Crusading 
order of the Templars. At this last date, Boniface VIII, with 
whom the decline of the mediaeval papacy was fully begun, was dead 
and the papacy had become established at Avignon. Dante was 
still living to witness the debasement of the papal office and to 
speak bitterly of the murderous decrees against the Templars issued 
by the French king and assented to by the first Avignon pope, 
Clement V. Dr. Jackson promises another volume, setting forth 
the "Decline and Fall of the Church-Empire." To what date this 
treatment will bring the reader is not indicated, but it is probable 
it will carry him to the XCV Theses, 1517. 

In the division of the historic periods which recent writers have 
made, it is interesting to compare with Dr. Jackson's work "The 
Middle Ages" by Professor Munro of Princeton University, which 
also appeared last year (1921). Dr. Munro fixes as the Iftaiits of 
his period 395-1272, closing it before the Crusaders were obliged 
to give up their last holdings in Syria and before the papacy of 
Innocent III had begun to break up under Boniface VIII. 

While Dr. Jackson's work is called an Introduction, it is really 
a history of the period it covers. His space forbids him to go into full 
details. Nevertheless he covers all the great chapters of ecclesias- 
tical interest. This he does with clearness of division and defini- 
tion and with a wise combination of the parts in their relation 
one to the other and as chapters in the general history of the 

53 (203) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Church. In the literature one misses all reference to German 
works. Dollinger is not mentioned as an authority or coordinate 
reading even on the medieval sects or the destruction of the Tem- 
plar order. Nor is Gregorovius anywhere mentioned. On 
the other hand, the reader is referred repeatedly to Milman. Al- 
though the author does not enter into details sufficiently to en- 
able him to pronounce final judgments in such cases as the corona- 
tion of Charlemagne, he is usually exact in characterizing men and 
movements. In cases one might be inclined to dissent as when 
Innocent III is represented as being "compelled to accept the situ- 
ation" forced upon Europe by the capture of Constantiople in 1204, 
a generous judgment. For it is hard to see why, if Innocent had 
not been moved by the world-wide scheme of the Roman bishop, 
he might not have refused to recognize the abolition of the Byzan- 
tine Empire accomplished by the greed of Venetians and would-be 
Crusaders, hankering after the conquest of Syrian localities. 

A second difference between the volumes of Professor Munro 
and Dr. Jackson are the touches of vivid description with which 
Professor Munro lights up his pages, as for example the descrip- 
tion of that notable event In the history of the first Crusade, the 
discovery of the Holy Lance. But for all this, the one work is no 
less readable than the other and it will be profitable for a student 
to have both works on his table, taking them up alternately in 
order to see how neither leaves out anything that is really essen- 
tial to the picture of the mediseval world and yet each supplies 
much in the ecclesiastical realm which the other does not give. 

The volume is brought to a close with a fine appreciation of 
Dante whose excellence is not marred by the passing mistake that 
Beatrice was older than the poet. The judicious survey given by 
the author will stimulate the reader to meditate upon the contribu- 
tions made to human thought and progress by the Middle Ages. 
On the other hand, it will make clear the error of thinking of its 
systems and institutions as final statements of Christian theology 
or forms of Church polity; or of imagining that mediseval society 
excelled the present age in purity of morals or that mediaeval piety 
was marked by a sanctifying virtue superior to the piety of to-day. 

D. S. SCHAFF. 



Theology as an Empirical Science. By Douglas Clyde Macintosh, 
Ph. D., Dwight Professor of Theology in Yale University. New York: 
The Macmillan Company. 1919. Pp. XVI. 270. $2.00. 

Professor Macintosh is not the first to attempt to treat theology 
after the analogy of the empirical sciences so-called. Over half a 
century ago Charles Hodge thought that the tasks of the scientist 
and of the theologian were parallel. The scientist lists his assump- 
tions, observes, gathers, and combines his facts, and then from the 
facts thus ascertained and classified derives the laws according to 
which their relations seem to be determined. The theologian also 
lists his assumptions, "the laws of belief which God has impressed 
upon our nature"; he then ascertains, collects, a^nd combines all the 
facts which God has revealed concerning Himself and our relation 
to Him, all of which are in the Bible; and last he deduces the princi- 
ples involved in these facts and the laws that determine them. 
This method Dr. Hodge employed in the three bulky volumes 

54 (204) 



Literature 

which for so many years have done service as the basis 
of the doctrinal instruction of so many Presbyterian ministers, 
and which still stand in undisturbed and solitary grandeur on the 
top row of the book shelf in the ministerial study. Did Dr. Hodge 
succeed? Dr. Kuyper thinks that he did not, because all attempts to 
place theology formally in a line with the other sciences are falsifi- 
cations of the conception of theology in that they lose sight of the 
distinction between God as Creator and all the rest of His creation. 
With this judgment also agrees Dr. Bavinck who is of the opinion 
that all such methods must fail because they overlook the truth 
that the revelation of God does not supply us merely with facts which 
we are to understand as best we can, but also with words that explain 
to us the meaning of the facts. For example, our belief that Christ is 
divine rests not merely on an induction of the facts concerning his 
person, but on the direct assertion of the Scriptures. 

Dr. Macintosh cannot be classified as a follower of Dr. Charles 
Hodge, although verbally his aim and method are not dissimilar. He 
wishes to make theology genuinely scientific, and in so doing to 
rescue it from the contemptuous neglect with which thinking men 
to-day regard it. To become scientific, however, means more than to 
be consistent with presuppositions; it involves the testing of assump- 
tions by the facts of experience. The task of the theologian is then, 
as Dr. Macintosh sees it, first, to list the presuppositions; second, 
to collect and collate the empirical data, in this field the revelation 
of the divine within human experience; third, to generalize the data 
so as to ascertain the laws; and fourth, to apply the laws practically 
to evangelism and religious education. 

Let us summarize in detail how Dr. Macintosh accomplishes the 
task he sets himself. The presuppositions are as follows: first of 
course come the epistemological, logical, and methodological pre- 
suppositions which the special science of theology shares with all 
other descriptive sciences; second are the pertinent results of other 
sciences, the assured results of astronomy, physics, chemistry, 
biology with its theory of evolution, and in particular the science of 
religion together with the scientific history of religion; third, the 
fact of man's freedom in the sense that he is not absolutely at the 
mercy of what was his character the moment immediately preceding 
the moment of his activity; fourth, the possibility at least of immor- 
tality; fifth, the fact of sin and its evil consequences; and, sixth and 
last, the presupposition peculiar to theology, the existence of God. 

Granted these presuppositions, we are now in position to ex- 
amine the empirical data of our science and to ascertain its laws. The 
data collectively all belong to what the Church has denoted by the 
name Revelation, the recognizable presence of the divine within the 
field of human experience. Two concepts of the nature of Revelation 
are at once rejected by Dr. Macintosh, the traditional view of revel- 
ation, inspiration, and authority, that in the Scripture we have an 
inspired, infallible, and authoritative disclosure of the divine; and 
the rationalistic view of revelation as discovery of the divine by 
the use of the intellect. The former view is in contradiction of the 
facts as modern science appraises them, and the latter leads to 
nothing but barren abstractions. There is, however, a third alter- 
native, the religious consciousness as the source of revelation, and 
this our author adopts as his own view, but with a slightly different 
interpretation than that usually given to the notion. If we under- 
stand the explanation offered, the problem seems to be that of 
avoiding on the one hand the static objectivity of the traditional 

55 (205) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

view of revelation, and on the other the empty subjectivity of the 
rationalist view. The solution is found in the use of John Dewey's 
revised notion of "coordinated reciprocal activities" applied to a 
religious subject experiencing a religious object, which in the case 
of the Christian religion is the personal life and character of Jesus 
as presented in the Christian Bible. The experiencing subject 
"selects" those qualities in the object that are of the greatest in- 
terest or value or meaning, while the object, so to speak, lives in the 
consciousness of the subject as that to which in reality feeling of 
some sort or other attaches. The "laws of theology treated as an 
empirical science are the formulations of certain fixed relationships 
found to exist wherever the four "constants", God, natural laws, 
social ^environment, and human nature, thrust themselves upon our 
attention. These laws, if we follow Dr. Macintosh correctly, are 
always expressible in the formula. If X, then Y, as, If prayer, then 
some answer; If a right religious adjustment, then regeneration, etc. 
through a long succession of observed sequences. 

The last part of the book is devoted to an attempt to elaborate 
a posteriori a definition of God and of his relation to the present and 
future worlds. We shall merely mention this section without des- 
cribing it in detail. 

Dr. Macintosh has given us a most original and suggestive 
volume, one that will well repay careful study even by those whose 
"presuppositions" will not allow them to agree with the results 
reached. At the same time there are certain hesitations that grow 
upon one the longer one reflects upon what is here presented. Are 
there after all any "empirical" sciences in the modern notion of 
science? Is not all science to-day the attempt more or less success- 
ful to understand more rationally some field of human experience 
by "fitting" to it some mental model so-called already in the mind? 
Are we not gradually abandoning as of merely historical interest 
the sharp distinction of empirical and non-empirical that seemed so 
important to our forefathers? If this is so, the attempt to treat 
theology as an "empirical" science, is not so novel as it claims to be. 
Again, if theology is in some sense the science of God, can we get 
away from the assertion that God is an absolutely unique datum of 
experience? He does not stand in line with other facts as a being 
we can observe at will or isolate, or measure, or weigh, or test, or 
control. He is not beneath us, but above us, and the truth of theology 
is not what we think of God, but what God thinks of Himself and 
makes known to us. This seems to have been what traditional Calvin- 
ism was after, and, with all that may be said adversely to it, it still 
tried to put the centre of gravity in God's knowledge of Himself, 
not in the selective activity of the attention of the religious subject. 
This leads to what perhaps is the most serious criticism that can be 
brought against Dr. Macintosh's attempt, the treatment accorded to 
Jesus Christ. The self-consciousness of God, that is to say, 
"theology", is made known to us men in Jesus Christ, the one to 
whom the entire Scripture bears testimony. The norm of all theology 
is, therefore, the treatment accorded to Him, and this would be the 
final test that we would apply to the book under review. By "presup- 
position" of the pertinent results of the psychology and history of 
religion, all the miraculous events connected with the life of Jesus 
disappear as legendry embellishments or transformations of meta- 
phorical teaching. In fact not only the miraculous disappears, but 
also a great deal of the non-miraculous, so that there seems to be 
little basis for any positive opinion as to what sort of person Jesus 

56 (206) 



Literature 

as, or what were his ideas, purposes, and achievements. Neverthe- 
iss Dr. Macintosh assures us that we may "presuppose" that we 
■obably are entitled to be quite as sure that Jesus existed and as 
) what he was, as we are to make the corresponding assertions about 
Derates or the Buddha. But when we come to the treatment of the 
ata, this is what Dr. Macintosh concludes concerning Jesus. Criti- 
il evaluation of the original sources leaves merely a man who may 
3 called "divine" because he was devoted to an ideal and was 
loroughly social, but we have no way of certainly asserting that he 
as pre-existent, nor that we can hold direct personal communica- 
on with him, nor that some day he may not be equalled or even 
•anscended by some individual in the future history of the human 
ice on earth. We venture to assert that this notion of Jesus is lack- 
ig in religious value and that it will not prevail. Yet Dr. Macintosh 
Lves it to us as the product of the religious consciousness of the 
lan who tries to be both critical and scientific and vital and practi- 
il. But is it? How are we to determine the contents of this con- 
uousness? Why not make a wide induction of many specimens of 
ich consciousness? Ask questions; get the statistics; be sure of the 
LCts — this would seem to be the "empirical-science" way. We sus- 
ect, however, that Dr. Macintosh has not done this, but has simply 
3t down as normative the contents of the religious consciousness 
e knows best, that of Dr. Macintosh himself. But is this the method 
f empirical science? The reader can answer this question as well as 
e can. George Johnson 

incoln University, Pa. 



heological Reconstruction. A Plea for Freedom. By Rev. John 

Edwards, M. A. Sidney, Australia: Angus and Robertson. 

1921. Price Is. 

We are indebted to Professor Samuel Angus for our copy of this 
imphlet which contains the "inaugural address" of the Moderator 
' the Presbyterian General Assembly of New South Wales. It was 
3livered in St. Stephen's Church, Sydney, on May 10, 1921. This 
Moderator's sermon is of interest to American readers because it 
lows that the Australian Presbyterian Church is facing the same 
sues as our Communion. The world is one in thought as well as 
I commerce. 

In the sermon the preacher makes a strong impassioned plea for 
re-statement of the faith of the Church in terms that will harmon- 
;e with the results of modern scientific and philosophical research, 
new creed is possible because 'the Christian spirit is great enough 
ad free enough to express its faith truly in forms consistent 
ith the progress of knowledge.' The preacher has great reverence 
)r the faith once delivered to the saints, 'but not as a static thing; 
ither as a dynamic thing, a seed sown that it might live and 
row, a word of life planted in a community of souls, to bring forth 
•uit after its kind, season by season from generation to generation.' 
he preacher goes on to lay down three principles on which a re- 
;atement of our theology can be made. The first is that of freedom, 
hich means the willingness and ability to face all the facts that bear 
a the subject. The second principle is that of authority, but not as 
is traditionally understood. All external authority must be re- 
acted 'in favour of the only tenable conception of a final authori- 
r — that is, the conception of the internal authority of the truth 

57 (207) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

itself.' The thjrd necessary principle is the rejection of the duali'3- 
tic philosophy which has been inherited from the past. After a 
careful discussion of these principles, an application is made :o 
the doctrines of the atonement and incarnation. The preacher 
shows how much richer and fuller in content both of these funda- 
mental doctrines are when we re-state them in the light of these 
three fundamental principles. In harmony with Presbyterian tradi- 
tion the world over, the sermon closes with an emphasis on the need 
of an educated ministry and a theology of life and experience. In 
the Australian Moderator's sermon we have a frank, scholarly, and 
reverent discussion of a problem that the Church must face if she 
expects to secure and keep the allegiance of educated men and 
women. 



Making the Bible Real. By Frederick Oxtoby, D. D. New York: 
Fleming H. Revell Company. 1921. $1.00. 

The volume before us is one of the most satisfactory brief in- 
troductions to the study of the Bible that has been published in 
recent years. Its chief merits are lucid exposition, a comprehensive 
grasp of essential facts, a balanced sense of proportion, and accurate 
scholarship. It is an elementary book intended for young people, 
college students, and others who are taking their first steps in a 
systematic study qf scripture. For this class of readers it is neces- 
sary to select the most important facts and to clothe them in 
simple language, and yet with such a touch of imagination that the 
attention will be arrested and a permanent interest aroused. The 
author has succeeded in doing this, as well as in giving a note of 
reality to the presentation of his subject. 

Dr. Oxtoby has followed the modern historical method. He be- 
gins his discussion with a presentation of the geography and nat- 
ural features of Palestine. These matters are fundamental, for 
the Bible 'comes from Palestine, an Oriental country, and its con- 
tents are given in Eastern modes of thought. Because of this, a 
knowledge of the Holy Land and of its life and customs makes 
more clear and real to us the Bible message.' Next the history of 
the Old Testament is sketched, and this outline is followed by a 
concise statement of the nature of prophecy and an exposition of the 
main teachings of the Old Testament prophets. Two stimulating 
chapters deal with "The Old Testament as Literature" and "The 
Old Testament and Archfeology" respectively. No modern treat- 
ment would omit these subjects, for the recognition of the Bible 
as one of the greatest works of world literature, apart from its 
religious excellencies, is one of the distinguishing marks of modern 
Christianity, while the spade has completely destroyed the isolation 
of Biblical history. The science of archaeology has recovered the 
world in which the Bible was originally written and its truths were 
first taught. Every student of the Bible should know the results 
archaeological research as they bear on the sacred narrative. The 
New Testament material is summed up in two chapters. The teach- 
ings of Jesus Christ are presented by comparing them with those of 
the Pharisees. The author says, "When we contrast the religion of 
Christ, the religion of the Spirit, with the religion of the Pharisees, 
the religion of the letter, we realize how wonderful Christianity 
is. The former is an inner, spiritual religion, the latter an out- 
ward, formal religion." In a second chapter the main elements of 

58 (208) 



\ 



Literature 

the apostolic career of Paul are set forth under the title "Paul the 
Man." The work closes with a brief chapter on the English Bible. 
The hand of the experienced teacher is seen in the chronologi- 
cal and literary tables that are found at the end of several of the 
chapters. This feature adds greatly to the pedagogical value of the 
book. Professor Oxtoby's volume deserves a wide circulation and 
will be found well adapted for use in teacher training classes. We 
recommend it very heartily to pastors who need a text book for this 
purpose. 

JAMES A. KELSO. 



Teaching the Teacher. By James Oscar Boyd, Ph.D.,D.D., John 
Gresham Machen, D.D., Walter Scott Athern, and Harold McA. 
Robinson, D.D. Philadelphia: The Westminister Press. 1921. Paper 
60 cents, cloth 85 cents. 

This is intended as a first book in Teacher Training. Old and 
New Testament History are given in outline from a conservative 
point of view. Thirteen pages are devoted to a sketch of Church 
History. A very excellent elementary introduction to the Study of 
the Mind, is followed by a section devoted to the Church as a Teach- 
ing Institution, in which good suggestions are made on effective use 
of the Sunday School, The Daily Vacation Bible School, and Week 
Day Religious Education, and on Correlation of the various agencies 
in the Church to the end of Religious Education. 

The lists of reference books for supplementary reading form 
a valuable feature in connection with the treatment of the Study 
of the Mind, and of the Church as a Teaching Institution. 



The AA'eek Day Church School. By Walter Albion Squires, B. D., 
Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication. 1921. $1.25. 

This is a worth while book for those who are unaware of the 
great lieed of Religious Education in the program of the Church, 
and for those who, knowing the need, would like to find out how 
to more adequately meet the situation. 

Here one will find information on the various attempts now 
being made to supplement the ordinary educational agencies of the 
Church, on the three types of Week Day Church School, on what 
these schools are contributing toward the solution of Religious Edu- 
cational problems, and on the problems involved in the organization 
and administration of such schools. 

The book will inspire the reader to desire to establish a school 
and will be a valuable help in planning for it. 



59 (209) 



Alumniana 

Rev. H. A. Grubbs, '93, Baltimore, Md., to Oakland, Md. 

Rev. P. G. Schlotter, '01, New Castle, Pa., to Pataskala, Ohio. 

Rev. T. E. Duffield, '0 6, Cherry Tree, Pa., to Windber, Pa. 

Rev. W. C. Ferver, '07, New Waterford, Ohio, to Unity Church, 
Shenango Presbytery. 

Rev. J. Way Huey, '07, Pillsbury, N. Dak., to Grandin and Elm 
River Churches, Fargo Presbytery, N. D. 

Rev. P. G. Miller, '07, Canonsburg, Pa., to East End Church, 
Bradford, Pa. 

Rev. Arthur L. Hail, '09, Oakdale, Pa., to Allison Park, Pa. 

Rev. W. F. Byers, '10, Bruin, Pa., to Corsica, Pa. 

Rev. W. E. Hogg, '13 p-g, Three Rivers, Mich., to North Girard, 
Pa. 

Rev. George M. Duff, '14, Ellwood City, Pa., to Riverdale, New 
York, N. Y. 

Rev. J. A. King, '16, Darlington, Pa., to Concord and Frank- 
fort, Ohio. 

INSTALIiATIONS 

Rev. M. D. McClelland, '95, Portersville, Pa., Oct. 26, 1921. 

Rev. Percy H. Gordon, D.D., '96, Salem, Ohio. 

Rev. Hugh Leith, D.D., '02, Second, Wilkinsburg, Pa., Oct. 20, 
1921. 

Rev. H. E. Kaufman, '04, Elderton, Whitesburg, and Currie's 
Run, Pa., Nov. 15, 16, 17, 1921. 

Rev. E. J. Travers, '12, Lonaconing, Md., Dec. 21, 1921. 

Rev. M. H. Sewell, '12, Marietta, Ohio, Oct. 5, 1921. 

Rev. E. B. Shaw, '13, North Church, Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 1, 
1921. 

Rev. C. C. Bransby, '13, Homewood, Pittsburgh, Pa., Nov. 16, 
1921. 

Rev. W. Gray Alter, '15, Marion Center and Gilgal, Pa. 

Rev. A. E. French, '16, Sharpsburg, Pa., Oct. 20, 1921. 

Rev. Glenn M. Crawford, '17, West Alexander, Pa., Dec. 1, 1921. 

Rev. Howard Rodgers, '18, Natrona, Pa., Jan. 13, 1922. 

NEW ADDRESSES 

Rev. Francis A. Kerns, '8 8, Youngwood, Pa., to 316 Vermont 
Ave., St. Cloud, Fla. 

Rev. W. H. Sloan, '94, Avonmore, Pa., to Savannah, Ohio. 

Rev. Percy H. Gordon, D.D., '96, Braddock, Pa., to 30 E. Sixth 
St., Salem, Ohio. 

Rev. C. S. Beatty, D.D., '00, Valhalla, N. Y., to Fifth and West 
Sts., Coudersport, Pa. 

Rev. E. J. Knepshield, '05, Deer Lick, Pa., to R. D. 1, Fayette 
City, Pa. 

Rev. J. Way Huey, '07, Pillsbury, N. Dak., to Grandin, N. Dak. 

Rev. D. G. MacLennan, '14, Lamar, Colo., to 401 E. Sherman St., 
Hutchinson, Kan. 

Rev. W. O. Yates, '15 p-g, Allentown, Pa., to Swissvale, Pa. 

Rev. Glenn M. Crawford, '17, Ford City, Pa., to West Alex- 
ander, Pa. 

60 (210) 



Alumniana 

ACCESSIONS 

Rev. Maurice E. Wilson, D.D., '79, College Hill, Beaver Palls, Pa. 17 

Rev. C. S. McClelland, '80, Mt. Washington, Pa 8 

Rev. O. N. Verner, '86, McKees Rocks, Pa 12 

Rev. S. A. Kirkbride, '92, Neshannock, Pa 14 

Rev. W. L. McClure, D. D., '93, Third, Altoona, Pa 41 

Rev. R. Frank Getty, '94, Murrysville, Pa 6 

Rev. J. M. Spargrove, '94, East Green, Erie Presbytery 25 

Rev. J. M. Spargrove, '94, Cool Spring, Erie Presbytery 29 

Rev. Paul J. Slonaker, '95, Central, North Side, Pittsburgh, Pa. 14 

Rev. M. D. McClelland, '9 5, Portersville, Pa 9 

Rev. R., L. Biddle, '95, Mt. Pisgah, Pittsburgh Presbytery 44 

Rev. W. A. Atkinson, '96, First, Rochester, Pa 30 

Rev. Wm. F. McKee, D. D., '96, First, Monongahela, Pa 14 

Rev. H. M. Hosack, '98, First, Newell, W. Va 18 

Rev. W. J. Hutchison, D. D., '98, First, Kittanning, Pa 15 

Rev. E. L. Mcllvaine, '98, First, Meadville, Pa 19 

Rev. J. M. Potter, D. D., '98, Vance Memorial, Wheeling, W. Va. 9 

Rev. Gill I. Wilson, '9 9, First, Parkersburg, W. Va 6 

Rev. J. Byers Price, '00, Forest Lawn, Marion, Ohio 12 

Rev. J. H. Lawther, '01, First, Niles, Ohio 33 

Rev. R. P. Lippincott, '02, Cadiz, Ohio 3 8 

Rev. Wm. F. Fleming, '03, First, Ligonier, Pa 22 

Rev. M. M. Rodgers, '03, Sunnyside, South Bend, Ind 26 

Rev. D. P. MacQuarrie, D.D., '05, Hiland, Perrysville, Pa 12 

Rev. W. R. Craig, '06, First, Butler, Pa 40 

Rev. C. B. Wingerd, Ph.D., '10, Martin's Ferry, Ohio 10 

Rev. George Taylor, Jr., Ph.D., '10, First, Wilkinsburg, Pa 47 

Rev. M. A. Matheson, Ph.D. '11, Prospect, Ashtabula, Ohio ... .14 

Rev. Geo. L. Glunt, 11, Oakland, Pittsburgh, Pa 22 

Rev. E. J. Travers, '12, Bethesda, Millport, Ohio 21 

Rev. J. A. Doerr, '16, Belle Valley, Pa 14 

Rev. Ralph V. Gilbert, '16, Girard, Pa 9 

Rev. J. L. Robison, '17, Port Royal, Pa 2 2 

Rev. C. R. Wheeland, '17, Irving Park, Chicago, 111 11 

Rev. L. R. Lawther, '17, Central, McKeesport, Pa 55 

Rev. Harrison Davidson, '18, Two Ridges, Ohio 7 

GENERAL ITEMS 

1862 

On November 10, 1921, the East Buffalo Presbyterian Church 
dedicated a tablet to the memory of Rev. Henry Woods, D.D., 
and members of the session who served with him. Dr. Woods 
served this church until his death in 1916, a period of forty-five 
years. 

1863 

The Biography of Rev. Hunter Corbett, D.D., LL.D., fifty- 
six years a missionary in China, has recently been published. It 
was written by his son-in-law. Rev. James R. E. Craighead, and 
is largely a character study. 

1871 

On Sunday, October 23, 1921, the Presbytery of Pittsburgh 
unveiled a tablet in the Raccoon Presbyterian Church, commemo- 

(211) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

rating the fiftieth anniversary of the pastorate of Rev. Greer Mc- 
Ilvain Kerr, D. D. The sermon was preached by Rev. James A. 
Kelso, D.D., LL.D., a prayer of dedication delivered by Rev. A. S. 
Hunter, LL.D., and Mr. Robert J. Gibson presented greetings from 
the eldership of the Presbytery. 

Rev. and Mrs. G. A. Funkhouser, of Dayton, Ohio, celebrated 
their golden wedding anniversary on Oct. 26, 1921. Dr. Funkhouser 
has spent the entire fifty years since his graduation and marriage 
in Dayton. We extend our congratulations to Dr. and Mrs. Funk- 
houser. 

1876 

On Sunday afternoon, December 18th, beautiful and impres- 
sive services marked the unveiling of the memorial tablet com- 
memorating the fifty years of the ministry of the Rev. Joseph M. 
Duff, D'.D., in the First Presbyterian Church, of Carnegie. 

1886 

Rev. George P. Donehoo, D.D., has resigned the First Pres- 
byterian Church of Coudersport, Pa., to become State Librarian at 
Harrisburg, under appointment of Governor Sproul. 

1888 

Rev. Joseph L. Hunter, for many years a chaplain in the regu- 
lar army, has been made head of the Chaplain's School at Camp 
Bragg. 

1892 

Rev. S. A. Kirkbride, of Neshannock Church, New Wilmington, 
has accepted the position of pastor-at-large of Beaver and Shenango 
Presbyteries. 

Rev. Charles L. Chalfant, of Caldwell, Idaho, has recently taken 
up work as financial secretary of the Presbyterian Hospital of Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

1896 

Rev. Grant E. Fisher, D.D., of Turtle Creek, Pa., addressed the 
Ministers' Meeting in December on the subject of "Conscience." 

The Presbyterian Church of Monongahela, Pa., celebrated its 
125th anniversary in November. Dr. W. O. Campbell, D.D., (Class 
of 1866), of Sewickley, Pa., delivered the address at the Sunday 
morning service, and a striking part of the exercises was the pre- 
sentation of fifty yellow chrysanthemums to Dr. Campbell, com- 
memorating the fiftieth anniversay of his pastorate in that Church; 
and fifteen ,white chrysanthemums to the present pastor, Rev. W. 
F. McKee, D.D., as this date marked Dr. McKee's fifteenth anni- 
versary as pastor. Fifty years ago Dr. Campbell was installed pas- 
tor of the Monongahela Church and served it for fifteen years. 

1897 

Rev. Hugh T. Kerr, D.D., celebrated his eighth anniversary 
in Shadyside Church, Pittsburgh, October 9th. Recently Dr. Kerr 
conducted a series of six supper meetings with his young people, 
taking them through a small text book in apologetics. The class 
met for an hour before the Wednesday evening prayer meeting. 

62 (212) 



Alumniana 

1899 

Rev. A. L. Wiley, Ph.D., of Ratnagiri, India, has been on fur- 
lough during the past winter. His address is 7111 Kelly Street, 
Pittsburgh. Dr. and Mrs. Wiley have addressed a great many meet- 
ings in this vicinity, as well as having made speaking tours in Kan- 
sas, Illinois, and Ohio. 

1901 

Rev. C. F. Irwin, Chaplain of the 147th Inf., O.N.G., Eaton, 
Ohio, was promoted to the rank of Captain-Chaplain both in 
the Officers Reserve Corps of the Regular Army and in the Federal 
Guards of Ohio. The Adjutant General of Ohio requested him tn 
present a paper on "Military Athletics" before the Ohio National 
Guard Association in Columbus, in January, 1922. Chaplain Irwin 
is making a special study of this work and this winter has been 
carrying on active work in the companies of his regiment. He was 
appointed by the Attorney General of Ohio to act as Chairman for 
Preble County in the handling of the Soldiers' Compensation of 
Ohio. This involved the handling of about 750 cases of service men 
entitled to compensation for services in the recent war. Chaplain 
Irwin is chairman of the County Council, American Legion. In 
November Chaplain Irwin addressed the Noontide Club, of Dayton, 
Ohio, on "American Masonry in the A. E. F." This is the largest 
Club in Dayton, and at the conclusion of the address he was made 
an honorary member of the Club. 

1903 

The Board of Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church have 
recently elected the Rev. Titus Lowe, D.D., of Omaha, Nebraska, 
secretary of the Board of Foreign Missions, to succeed Dr. S. 
Earl Taylor. Dr. Lowe spent five years as pastor of the Thoburn 
Methodist Church at Calcutta. His last pastorate has been at 
Omaha, Neb., where he has served the First M. E. Church for eight 
years. 

Sunnyside Presbyterian Church, South Bend, Ind., Rev. M. M. 
Rodgers, pastor, expects to erect a church building costing 1 9 0,0 00, 
which, with the new nanse, will bring the value of the church pro- 
perty to $125,000. 

1904 

Rev. Andrew I. Keener, pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
of Clinton, New York, has been assisted in twelve Sunday even- 
ing services by the Hamilton College faculty. Under Mr. Keener's 
leadership the church has made steady progress in all departments 
of work. 

1906 

The Concord Presbyterian Church, Presbytery of Pittsburgh, 
of which Rev. C. E. Ludwig is the pastor, during the week of 
Nov. 27, 1921, celebrated the ninetieth anniversary of the found- 
ing of the church. The following graduates of the Seminary took 
part in the anniversary program: Drs. Joseph M. Duff ('76), A. H. 
Jolly ('80), and P. W. Snyder ('00). 

63 (213) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

1907 

At the Sunday evening services during the month of January, 
Rev. John W. Christie, pastor of the Mt. Auburn Presbyterian 
Church, of Columbus, Ohio, delivered five popular lectures on 
Church History. The subjects were as follows: "Christianity in 
the Roman Empire," "The Development of the Church and the 
Papacy," "A Great Pope and a Great Monk in the Middle Ages," 
"The Crusades," "Martin Luther and the Reformation." 

1910 

Rev. Homer George McMillen was recently installed pas- 
tor of the First Presbyterian Church of St. Clairsville, Ohio. Mr. 
McMillen has been pastor of the Church at Holliday's Cove, W. Va., 
ever since his graduation. This pastorate was marked by the erec- 
tion of a modern church building and by a large increase in the 
membership of the congregation. 

Rev. George S. Watson has accepted a call to the Presbyterian 
Church at Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Mr. Watson has an enviable record 
for his eleven years of service in Kentucky. He was commissioned 
by the Board of Home Missions to work in Rockcastle County, Ky., 
in May, 1910; called by the Third Church of Pittsburgh to the 
Owsley County field in October, 1913; made stated clerk of the 
Mountain Presbytery of Buckhorn at its organization, Sept. 13, 
1918; and elected moderator of the Synod of Kentucky, meeting at 
Frankfort, Oct. 11, 1921. 

1911 

Rev. Charles C. Cribbs, pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Apollo, Pa., has been invited to speak at a conference at 
Ohio Wesleyan University on the teaching of Church music to young 
people. Mr. Cribbs received this invitation because of his great 
success in organizing a vocational school in connection with his work 
in the Beechwoods Church. 

1912 

The First Presbyterian Church of Wellsburg, W. Va., publishes 
an interesting church paper, "The Chimes". It is now in its third 
volume. Its success is to be attributed to its editor. Rev. P. E. 
Burtt. 

Rev. Mayson H. Sewell, formerly of New Philadelphia, Ohio, was 
installed pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, of Marietta, Ohio, 
on Oct. 5, 1921. 

1913 

The Rev. and Mrs. 0. Scott McParland are to be congratulated 
on the recent arrival of a daughter, Alice Clare, Mr. McFarland is 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of New Brighton, Pa. 

1914 

On Oct. 13, 1921, Ebenezer Church, the first Presbyterian 
Church established in Indiana County, Pa., celebrated the 130th an- 
niversary of its organization. Rev. J. W. Fraser is the present pastor. 

Rev. W. R. Van Buskirk, has resigned Coraopolis Presbyterian 
Church to become assistant to Rev. Maitland Alexander, D.D., of the 
First Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh. 

64 (214) 



I 



Alumniana 

1916 

Rev. Ralph V. Gilbert, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church 
of Girard, Pa., has been preaching several series of sermons: one 
under the general title "Studies in Ecclesiastes" during January, 
and "Some Great Questions" during February. At the prayer meet- 
ing service they have just completed a study of the Prophets. 

1917 

Rev. Le Roy Lawther, pastor of the Central Presbyterian 
Church of McKeesport, at a recent communion service had a large 
accession to his congregation. On this occasion fifty-five new mem- 
bers united with the church. 

Irving Park Presbyterian Church, Chicago, 111., has recently 
voted to increase the salary of the pastor. Rev. C. R. Wheeland, 
$600. During the first year of Mr. Wheeland's pastorate there 
were 131 additions to the membership, the expense budget was 
doubled and the benevolent gifts tripled. A fund for a new com- 
munity house has been started and plans are being drawn for the 
new building. 

1918 

Rev. Howard Rodgers was installed pastor of the First Church 
of Natrona, Pa., on January 13th. Mr. Rodgers comes to Natrona 
from Harrisburg, Pa., where he has served as assistant pastor in the 
Market Square Presbyterian Church. 

1919 

Rev. W. W. McKinney, pastor of Round Hill Presbyter- 
ian Church, Elizabeth, Pa., was recently elected President of the 
Monongahela Valley Ministerial Association. 

Rev. William P. Mellott was installed pastor of the Presbyter- 
ian Church of Bellville, Ohio, on Tuesday evening, Jan. 10th. Rev. 
Ross E. Conrad ('17) preached the sermon. 

1921 

Two very enjoyable receptions were given in honor of Rev. 
R. H. Henry and his wife, by the members of the two congre- 
gations in their field of labor, the Rich Hill and Volant Presbyterian 
Churches. Mr. Henry was installed pastor of these churches short- 
ly after his graduation last spring, and later was married to Miss 
Zula Miller, of Indiana, Pa. 

Rev. Joseph A. ' Martin was married to Miss Ruth Miller, 
of Derry, Pa., on October 15th. Immediately after the wedding Mr. 
and Mrs. Martin sailed for Scotland, where they expect to spend 
two years in study at the University of Edinburgh. Their address 
is 21 Brougham St., Edinburgh, Scotland. 



65 (215) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

FACULTY NOTES 

At a recent meeting of the Trustees of the American School 
of Archaeology at Jerusalem, Dr. Kelso was appointed honorary lec- 
turer for the year 1922. 

Dr. Breed has spent the past six months in Southern California, 
where he has been conducting a series of conferences on Bible teach- 
ing and interpretation for the Los Angeles Presbytery. "The 
Angelus", a paper published by the Church Extension Board of Los 
Angeles Presbytery, contains the following tribute to Dr. Breed's 
ability as a preacher and teacher: "Hope long deferred sometimes 
has a satisfactory issue. This is one of the times. Los Angeles 
Presbytery has long sought a leader in the realm of Bible teaching 
and interpretation, who would stimulate ministers and churches to 
a more comprehensive study of God's Word. The New Era Com- 
committee is fortunate in securing Rev. David R. Breed D.D., LL.D., 
of Western Seminary, Pittsburgh, to undertake this important mis- 
sion. His experience as preacher and pastor, and his eminence 
as a teacher, make him one of the most prominent men in the Pres- 
byterian Church. He has a special gift as an observer and in the 
use of illustration that gives him the keen attention of young as 
well as adult hearers." 

"The Quarterly Register," the organ of the Alliance of Re- 
formed Churches Holding the Presbyterian System, contains a note 
with reference to Dr. Snowden's address at the Pittsburgh Council 
on 'The Written Word.' The writer says it "was a remarkable feat. 
It succeeded in pleasing everybody by its finely balanced treatment 
of a difficult subject." Another member of the Pittsburgh Council 
writes of "Professor Snowden's balanced exposition of fundamental 
principles of Biblical interpretation." 

On Oct. 9th, Dr. Farmer addressed the Pittsburgh Minister's 
Meeting, taking for his subject "Some Present Tendencies with a 
Guess at their meaning." 

Dr. Vance gave a course of five lectures on "Crises in the Life 
of Jesus" in the North Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh. 



66 (216) 



THE BULLETIN 

OF THE 

Western Theological Seminary 



A Review Devoted to the Interests of 
Theological Eaucation 



Published quarterly in January, April, July, and October, by the 
Trustees of the Western Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America. 



Edited by the President with the co-operation o{ the Faculty. 



OlnntentB 



Page 

Ninety-Second Commencement 5 

Rev. Frank Eakin, B. D. 

Inauguration of Dr. Vance 8 

President's Report 33 

Librarian's Report 49 

Financial Report 54 

Literature 36 

Alumniana 68 

Elliott Lectures 76 

Centennial Celebration 76 



Communications for the Editor and all business matters should be 

addressed to 

REV. JAMES A. KELSO, 

731 Ridge Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



75 cents a year. Single Number 25 cents. 

Each author is solely responsible for the views expressed in his article. 



Entered as second-class matter December 9, 1909, at the postoffice at Pittsburgh, Pa. 
( Xorth Diamond Station) under the act of August 24, 1912. 



, , Press of 
pittsburgh printing company 
pittsburgh, pa, 



1922 



Faculty 



The Rev. JAMES A. KELSO, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D. 

President and Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature 
The Nathaniel W, Conkling Foundation 

The Rev. ROBERT CHRISTIE, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Apologetics 

The Rev. DAVID RIDDLE BREED, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Homiletics 

The Rev. DAVID S. SCHAFF, D. D. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and History of Doctrine 

The Rev. WILLIAM R. FARMER, D. D. 

Reunion Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution 

The Rev. JAMES H. SNOWDEN, D. D., LL. D. 

Professor of Systematic Theology 

The Rev. SELBY FRAME VANCE, D. D., LL. D. 

Memorial Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis 

The Rev. DAVID E. CULLEY, Ph. D. 

Associate Professor of Hebrew 



The Rev. FRANK EAKIN, B. D. 

Instructor in New Testament Greek and Librarian 

Prof. GEORGE M. SLEETH 

Instructor in Elocution 

Mr. CHARLES N. BOYD 

Instructor in Music 



(219) 



The But Id in 

— of the — 

WESTERN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Volume XIV. July, 1922. No. 4 



Ninety-Second Commencement. 



The Rev. Fra^k Eakin, B. D. 



Thursday, May 4, was AVestern Seminary's ninety- 
second Commencement Day. On the preceding Sunday 
the baccalaureate sermon was preached by President 
Kelso in the Tabernacle Presbyterian Church. Follow- 
ing last year 's precedent the main exercises were held at 
eight o'clock in the evening in the First Presbyterian 
Church on Sixth avenue. The address was delivered by 
the Rev. Harris E. Kirk, D. D., of Baltimore. Fifteen 
students participated in the exercises, fourteen being 
graduates of this year's class and one receiving the post- 
graduate degree of Bachelor of Divinity. In addition 
the names of seven members of the lower classes ap- 
peared on the program as recipients of prizes and 
awards. 

The roll of the graduating class is as follows : Clif- 
ford E. Barbour, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Archibald F. Fulton, 
Ayreshire, Scotland; Lewis A, Galbraith, Independence, 
Pa. ; Elgie L. Gibson, Petrolia, Pa. ; Daniel Hamill, Jr., 
Pittsburgh, Pa.; Lyman N. Lemmon, Mt. Pleasant, Pa.; 
Ralph K. Merker, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Walter H. Millinger, 

5 (221) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Pittsburgh, Pa.; Basil A. Murray, North Warren, Pa.; 
Samuel Gr. Neal, Bulger, Pa.; Roscoe W. Porter, Sum- 
merville, Pa.; Emile A. Rivard, Charleroi, Pa.; Paul L. 
Warnshuis, Blairsville, Pa. ; James Wallace Willoughby, 
Attica, Incl. 

The degree of Bachelor of Divinity was conferred 
upon Rev. David Lester Sa^^, of the class of 1917, upon 
the completion of a year's graduate study. Mr. Say is 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Cross Creek, Pa. 
Three important awards were made to members of the 
graduating class as follows: The Seminary Fellowship 
was awarded to Mr. Millinger. This fellowship is given 
to the student who has maintained the highest standing 
in all departments during the three years of residence. 
It carries with it a cash award of $500, to be used in 
graduate study. The Greek Prize, given to the student 
who during the three years of his course has maintained 
the highest standing in the Greek language and exegesis, 
was awarded to Mr. Warnshuis. The amount of this 
prize is $100, contributed by the members of the Class of 
1911. The Keith Memorial Homiletical Prize of $100, 
marking the highest standing in the department of homi- 
letics, was awarded to Mr. Willoughby. Merit prizes, 
granted to members of the lower classes who have main- 
tained the grade ''A" in all departments, were awarded 
to Messrs. Calvin H. Hazlett and Willard C. Mellin of 
the Middle Class, and to Messrs. Eugene L. Biddle, Ralph 
W. Illingworth, Harold F. Post, Deane C. Walter, and 
James Carroll Wright, of the Junior Class. Mr. Post 
also received the Junior Hebrew Prize. 

The majority of the members of the graduating class 
are already located in pastorates: Mr. Fulton at Belle 
Vernon, Pa.; Mr. Galbraith at Independence, Pa.; Mr. 
Hamill at McKinley Park, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Mr. Lemmon 
at Worthington and Glade Run, Pa.; Mr. Murray at 
Appleby Manor and Crooked Creek, Pa.; Mr. Neal at 
Elrama, Pa.; Mr. Porter at Arlington Heights, Pitts- 

6 (222) 



Ninety -Second Com/menctment 

burgh, Pa.; Mr. Eivard at Chaiieroi, Pa. Mr. Barbour 
plans to go abroad within a few weeks, and will devote a 
year to graduate studies at the University of Edinburgh. 
Mr. Merker will continue at Western Seminary for a 
year 's graduate work. Mr. Millinger expects to take up 
pastoral work for a time before making use of his fellow- 
ship, but is not certain as to his location. Mr. Gibson's 
plans also are as yet indefinite. Mr. Warnshuis will 
work under the Home Mission Board in Santa Fe, New 
Mexico, but before taking up that work he expects to 
spend six months in Mexico City, Mexico. Mr. Wil- 
loughby is under appointment by the Board of Foreign 
Missions to a station in AVest Persia. 

It Avill be remembered that a year ago the Board of 
Directors granted Dr. Kelso a leave of absence for a 
year. At this Commencement announcement was made 
of his intention to leave, within the next feAv months, for 
the Near East. Much of his time will be devoted to arch- 
aeological studies in Egypt and Palestine. He will be 
honoi'ary lecturer in the American School of Archaeology 
at Jerusalem. Arrangements have been made for tak- 
ing care of his class work in his absence, and Dr. Farmer 
will be acting president. The alumni, at the dinner 
Thursday evening, presented Dr. Kelso with a watch, as 
a token of affection and esteem. 

The Seminary will celebrate its centennial in 1927. 
At the alumni business meeting on Thursday tentative 
plans Avere made for the completion, by that date, of an 
alumni endoAvment fund of $100,000. 

The Board of Directors elected as president Dr. 
Kerr of Shadyside Church, Pittsburgh; as vice-presi- 
dent. Dr. S pence of Uniontown; and as secretary. Dr. 
Taylor of the First Church, Wilkinsburg. The Board of 
Trustees elected Mr. Ralph W. Harbison president, Mr. 
Charles A. Dickson vice-president, and Dr. S. J. Fisher, 
secretary. 

7 (223) 



The Inauguration of the Rev. Selby Frame 
Vance, D. D., LL. D. 



Program of Exercises 



* Rev. C. C. Hays, D. D., 

President of the Board of Directors, Presiding 

DOXOLOGY 

INVOCATION 

Rev. C. C Hays, D. D. 

SCRIPTURE LESSON: Colossians 1:9-23 

Rev. John McNaugher, D. D., LL. D. 

SUBSCRIPTION and DECLARATION 

The Professor Elect 

PRAYER OF INDUCTION 

Rev. William Reed Craig 

CHARGE 

Rev. Saimuel Black McCormick^ D. D., LL D 

HYMN No. 289 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 

HYMN No. 395 

BENEDICTION 

The formal induction of the Rev. Selby Frame Vance, 
D. D., LL. D., into the professorship of New Testament 
Literature and Exegesis took place on Monday, April 10, 
at eleven o'clock. Those in attendance included alumni 
and friends of the Seminary located in the city and vi- 
cinity, and also visitors from a greater distance. Edu- 
cational institutions in various parts of the country were 
represented as follows : 

Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton, N. J., Rev. 
Benjamin F. Farber, D. D. 

The Rev. Selby Frame Vance, D. D., LL. D., was elected Professor of 
New Testament Literature and Exeg-esis in the Western Theological 
Seminary, May s, 1921, and was inaugurated Monday, April 10, 1922, at 
II A. M. The services were held in the Assembly Room, Swift Hall. 

8 (224) 



Inauguration of Dr. Vance 

Auburn Theological Seminary, Auburn, N. Y., Rev. Sam- 
uel Black Linhart, D. D. 

Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, Pittsburgh, Pa., Rev. 
John McNaugher, D. D., LL. D. ; Rev. W. R. Wilson, 
D. D.; Rev. David F. McGill, D. D., LL. D.; Rev. 
Jas. G. Hunt, D. D. ; Rev. Jeremia Kruidenier, D. D. 

Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, 0., Rev. Finis 
King Farr, D. D., Cincinnati, 0. 

Union Theological Seminary, New York, N. Y., Rev. 
Stanley A. Hunter. 

Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, N. J., Rev. Jacob 
S. Payton. 

Omaha Theological Seminary, Omaha, Neb., Rev. L. C. 
Denise, D. D. 

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa., Rev. S. B. Mc- 
Cormick, D. D., LL. D. ; Rev. S. B. Linhart, D. D. 

Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., Rev. Luther C. 
Freeman, D. D. 

Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa., Rev. H. A. Baum. 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind., Prof. Jesse H. 
White. 

Marietta College, Marietta, 0., Rev. William E. Boet- 
ticher. 

Wittenberg College, Springfield, 0., President Rees Ed- 
gar Tulloss. 

Pennsylvania College for Women, Pittsburgh, Pa., Presi- 
dent John C. Acheson, LL. D. 

Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa., Judge H. 
Walton Mitchell. 

College of Wooster, Wooster, 0., Rev. J. Milton Vance, 
Ph.D. 

9 (225) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn., Prof. Kei- 
vin Burns, Ph.D. 

Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pa., Rev. G. P. West. 

Grove City College, Grove City, Pa., President Weir C. 
Ketler, A. M. 

The visiting delegates together with members of 
the Board of Directors and the Faculty of Western Sem- 
inary made up the academic procession, which formed 
in Herron Hall and proceeded to the Assembly Room in 
Swift Hall, where the exercises were to take place. Dr. 
Calvin C. Hays, president of the Board of Directors, pre- 
sided. The Scripture lesson was read by President John 
McNaugher of the Pittsburgh (United Presbyterian) 
Seminary, and the prayer of induction offered by Rev. 
Wm. R. Craig of Butler, Pa. Dr. S. B. McCormick, for- 
mer chancellor of the University of Pittsburgh, delivered 
the charge to the professor-elect, after which came the 
main address of the day — Dr. Vance's inaugural. 

Dr. McCormick, in delivering the charge, laid great 
stress upon the very great and far-reaching influence that 
may be wielded by a teacher of Christian ministers — in- 
deed upon what he affirmed to be the primacy of such a 
position among all the professions. Dr. Vance's theme 
was ''The Message of the New Testament for To-day." 
He dwelt first upon the divine origin of the New Testa- 
ment, as giving authority to its message, then proceeded 
to sketch the salient features of the message itself, with 
its particular application to different conditions and 
groups in modern society. Both these addresses are 
printed in full in this number of the Bulletin. 

Dr. Vance is a native of Illinois. He received the 
A. B. degree at Lake Forest University in 1885 and the 
A. M. from the same institution in 1888. In subsequent 

10 (.226) 



. Inaugural AddredS 

years honorary degrees were conferred upon him by Par- 
sons College (D. D., 1902) and by Cumberland Univer- 
sity, Tennessee (LL. D., 1916). He was instructor in 
Latin at Lake Forest University in 1885-88, attended 
Princeton Theological Seminary in 1888-90, and gradu- 
ated from McCormick Theological Seminary in 1891. In 
1893-95 he studied at the University of Berlin. He was 
pastor at Girard, Kansas, in 1891-93, professor of Greek 
at Parsons College, 1895-1900 ; professor of English Bible 
at the University of Wooster, 1900-05 ; professor of 
Church History at Lane Theological Seminary, 1905-10, 
and of English Bible in the same institution from 1910 
until called to the present position in 1921. 



Inaugural Address 

The Message of the New Testament for To-Day. 

Whether the origin of the New Testament be human 
or divine has much to do with its message. 

Whence came the New Testament"? Its several 
books were written by men of the First Century to meet 
what they conceived to be the religious needs of that age. 
These men testified that their religious conceptions, so 
radically different from those of their contemporaries, 
were not original with themselves but had their origin in 
a person whom men knew under the name, Jesus of Naz- 
areth. Who was this Jesus who had recreated their re- 
ligious and theological thinking and had caused them to 
write the New Testament? 

Of his early life little is known except that it was 
an humble one. One of his biographers writes sugges- 
tively of His first twelve years: "The child grew and 
waxed strong, becoming full of wisdom and the grace 
of God was upon him." When twelve years old, Jesus 
said to his mother, "Knew ye not that I must be in my 
Father's house?" No Jew, and, if no Jew, surely no 

11 (227) 



The Bulletm of the Western Theological Seminary 

Gentile had ever before called God his father. The same 
biographer characterizes the next eighteen years thus: 
''And Jesus advanced in wisdom and stature and in favor 
with God and man. ' ' He was evidently remarkable both 
as boy and man for his spiritual insight and close fellow- 
ship with God. 

A¥hen he was about thirty years of age, a great 
preacher appeared, stirring the people from one end of 
the land to the other, proclaiming the necessity of re- 
pentence and baptism, because ' ' the Kingdom of Heaven 
is at hand." After many had come to John, Jesus also 
came, asking to be baptized. The conversation between 
the two men indicates that both recognized this singular 
thing, that in Jesus' case there was no need of repentence, 
and that was because there was no sin of which to repent. 
After the baptism, Jesus heard a voice which said, "Thou 
art my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased, ' ' a strik- 
ing combination of a Messianic phrase found in the sec- 
ond psalm and the thought of suffering as presented in 
the servant passages in Isaiah. This message from 
heaven made such a profound impression upon him that 
for forty days, oblivious of aught else, he pondered only 
its bearing upon his life. As a result of that meditation 
he entered upon a public career. Attracted by his words 
and deeds, greater crowds followed him than had fol- 
lowed John. A few men were draAvn into an inner circle. 
Upon these few Jesus made such a remarkable impres- 
sion, that after his departure from this world, they spoke 
of him as exalted at the right hand of God, and called him 
Saviour, God's Holy Servant, The Holy and Righteous 
One, The Prince of Life, a Prince and Saviour, Lord, 
and Judge at the Last Day. 

His brother James calls him Lord, and Lord of 
Glory, the full significance of which expressions will only 
appear when one remembers that the background of all 
James' thought is that of the Old Testament, and that 
there Lord is applied only to Jehovah. When Peter 

12 (228) 



Incmgural Address 

affirms that the spirit of Christ was in the prophets of 
old, he evidently believes that Christ is divine. For 
John he is * ' The Son of God, " " The only begotten of the 
Father, " " The Word become flesh. ' ' In the book of Rev- 
elation he is "The First and The Last and The Living 
One," "He that hath the seven spirits of God," ''The 
Son of God." 

Paul, who was well acquainted with the facts of his 
life, asserts that he met him several years after his death, 
outside of the walls of Damascus and says that he is 
* ' the Son of God, declared to be such by the resurrection 
from the dead." Of him, he writes, "Who counted not 
the being on an equality with God a thing to be grasped, ' ' 
"Who is the image of the invisible God," "It was the 
pleasure of the Father that in him should all fulness 
dwell." For Paul, also, Jesus was essentially deity. The 
writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews, affirming that he 
received his information from those who had personally 
known Jesus, calls him "Son of God" and writes "Whom 
God appointed heir of all things, through whom he made 
the worlds; who being the effulgence of his glory and 
the very image of his substance, and upholding all things 
by the word of his power, when he had made purification 
for sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on 
High." Such is the conception of Jesus held by mem- 
bers of the inner circle and by others who had been close- 
ly associated with them. 

What should lead these writers of the New Testa- 
ment to such a conception ? At first, Jesus seemed to his 
early disciples to be only a wonderful man. But by his 
quiet daily revelation of himself, he gradually overcame 
any preconceptions that men who were wholly mono- 
theistic might have and convinced them that while he was 
thoroughly human, he was also divine. This seemed to 
be the only possible explanation of his unique person- 
ality. If we would understand how this came about, we 
must study him, putting ourselves as far as possible in 

13 (229) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

the position of the disciples, and striving to discover 
what exactly it was in him that produced that result. 

First, notice Jesus' conception of fellowship with 
God. 

He taught that it is an inward experience, not as 
the religious leaders of the day taught, a matter of ex- 
ternal observance of the law. "The pure in heart shall 
see God." The supreme law of life is love to God and to 
man. This involves faith, obedience, prayer. It ex- 
cludes formalism, worldliness, superstition, ceremonial- 
ism. In such teaching he reveals his own experience and 
moral character. No man, not even prophet, had ever 
attained to such a conception of fellowship with God and 
such an experience of oneness with the Eternal. 

' Second, notice Jesus' conception of God. 

Not less than the great prophets of Israel, did he 
teach the holiness, the majesty, the wisdom, and the pu- 
rity of God. But the distinctive thing is that one should 
think of God as Father. This is comforting, but also 
heart-searching. For if God is Father, men should be 
sons, which means likeness in character to God. Jesus 
proposed a moral standard the most severe that the 
world ever heard. His own life exemplified what sonship 
meant. For he exacted of himself the severest moral re- 
quirements, the utmost self-adaptation, self-denial, wis- 
dom, grace, sympathy, patience in training the twelve 
and in dealing with his enemies. His sonship compelled 
his going onward to the cross. Out of his heart experi- 
ence he spoke when he taught the fatherhood of God, and 
in that teaching and life men saw the perfect son. 

Third, notice that Jesus' conscience was a sinless 
one. 

All other men feel a lack of harmony with God. Not 
so, he. He appeared to his disciples as sinless, not be- 
cause they could find no fault with him, but rather be- 

14 (230) 



Inaugural Address 

cause of the things that he did and said. He rebuked 
sin. He forgave sin. He demanded of all others re- 
pentence for sin, but he nowhere manifested that he him- 
self had or needed to pass through such an experience. 
Harnack says, ' ' There lie behind the period of the public 
ministry of Jesus no powerful crises and tumults, no 
break with his past. He carried no scars of a frightful 
struggle." He never had had consciousness of wrong- 
doing. How could he have the sense of personal guilt 
when he claimed to be the personal revealer of God, the 
sacrificial redeemer of men and their final judge ? Those 
disciples were correct in their conclusion. Either he was 
morally blind (to which no one would give assent) or he 
had a sinless conscience. What explanation of that sin- 
lessness should those disciples give? 

Fourth, notice the difference between Jesus' ideas 
and those current among his countrymen on the subject 
of the Kingdom of God. 

They thought of it as political and temporal, to be 
brought about either by direct cataclysmic act of God 
or by the act of man supplemented by direct divine 
intervention. He conceived of it as spiritual as well as 
eschatological, as present as well as future, as coming by 
the grace of God and dependent on the acts of men, as 
brought about through himself by his words, his deeds, 
his death, as progressively realized and eventually to be 
realized. For others, in order to share in the kingdom, 
it was necessary to repent, to watch, to serve an absent 
Lord, waiting for a future time. Not so, in his case. He 
never acted as though he were a subject in the kingdom'. 
Rather he spoke of my Kingdom, and accepted tribute 
from others. He declared the long-looked-for consum- 
mation was to be attained in himself. How should his 
disciples interpret one who had such ideas of the king- 
dom? 



15 (231) 



The Bulletm of the Western Theological Seminary 

Fifth, notice Jesus' tone of authority. 

His authority, his consciousness of the right to de- 
clare and enforce the laws of human existence, is an in- 
eradicable element in the report of him. He commanded 
demons to depart, and accepted honor from those who 
saw^ him drive them out. He said to the sea, ' ' Peace, be 
still, ' ' and was obeyed. He forgave sins. He called the 
dead back to life and declared he would judge at the last 
day. In his criticism of the law he said, ''I say unta 
you," as though he had final authority. Whence this 
authority I 

Sixth, notice Jesus' promises to his disciples. 

He promised that his death, so unthinkable to them, 
was to be the means of blessing to them. "And I, if I be 
lifted up, will draw all men unto me. ' ' He predicted also 
his resurrection, a resurrection that was to be the ground 
of hope for others that they, too, would arise to a future 
life. "I am the resurrection and the life." He prom- 
ised to care for them after his departure. "In my 
Father's house are many mansions; if it were not so I 
would have told you ; for I go to prepare a place for you. ' ^ 
"I will pray the Father and he shall give you another 
Comforter, that he may be with you forever." "What- 
soever ye shall ask in my name, that Avill I do." How 
were those disciples to explain his right to make such 
promises ? 

Seventh, notice Jesus' demands. 

He requires of his disciples a faith in himself, wiiieli 
he in no way distinguishes from faith in God. They must 
completely surrender to him." Take my yoke upon you.'^ 
They must live a life "worthy of him." This means an 
inward purity, an outward devotion to the will of God, 
love for God, love for man. How were these men to ex- 
plain such a man? 

16 (232) 



Jnamjural Address 

Eighth, notice the implications of Jesus' language. 

In the parable of the man who planted a vineyard 
and went into a far country, sending back his servants 
for the fruit and finally sending his son, Jesus was under- 
stood by his enemies to imply that he was the Son, and 
that God was the owner of the vineyard. The same is 
clearly indicated in the passage, "All things have been 
delivered unto me of my Father, and no one knoweth the 
Son, save the Father, neither knoweth any the Father 
save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son willeth to 
reveal him." Speaking of God, he says, "My Father 
and your Father, my God and your God," never our 
Father or our God, by which he implied that his sonship 
differed from theirs. There are a number of aorist verbs 
in the first Gospel ("Think not that I came," "I came 
not to call the righteous," "I was not sent") which 
strongly suggest preexistence. What must these impli- 
cations have suggested to his disciples? 

Ninth, notice Jesus' own peculiar name for himself, 
' ' Son of Man, ' ' and what it reveals as to his thought of 
himself. 

The name Messiah, or Christ, had associated with 
it political ideas and claims, and so is never used by him 
except privately and at the end of his life, when he would 
make a complete declaration of himself. But the phrase, 
"Son of Man," had no political associations. It was for 
Jesus, his name for himself in his relation to the King- 
dom. Even in such a passage as "The Son of Man hath 
not where to lay his head," one sees the contrast between 
what he knew he was and his condition on earth. It is the 
Son of Man who has power on earth to forgive sins, who 
is lord of the Sabbath. It is the Son of Man who is to 
come on the clouds of heaven. By this self-designation 
he avoids conveying false impressions as to what he was, 
and reveals in accordance with the original significance 

17 (233) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

of the term in the Apocryphal Literature, that he was 
conscious of being more than human. 

By Jesus' peculiar teaching as to what fellowship 
with God is, by the presentation of his conception of the 
character of God, by his own sinlessness, by his teaching 
as to the Kingdom of God, by his tone of authority with 
reference to all matters, by his promises — promises which 
no mere man would have any right to make, by his de- 
mands — demands which no mere man would have dared 
to make, by the implied claim of deity, and by the asser- 
tion that he was superhuman, involved in his name for 
himself, Jesus slowly, quietly, and unconcsiously to them- 
selves made an impression upon those early disciples. It 
was, however, the resurrection that brought them to a 
clear realization of who this Jesus was with whom they 
had been living, who so marvelously taught and who so 
wonderfully lived. What before seemed so mysterious 
in him, they now understood. There came pouring in 
on them a flood of memories of the past and they per- 
ceived that he was "Saviour," "Lord," "The Son of 
God, " " The image of the invisible God, " " He in whom 
dwells all the fulness of the Godhead bodilj^" They be- 
came conscious of a religious experience that had come 
through him. They entered into light from darkness, 
into liberty from bondage. Now they knew ' ' if any man 
is in Christ, he is a new creature. ' ' They became aware 
that through Christ they had been redeemed from the 
curse and bondage of sin, that they had been reconciled 
to God. For them he is "the Hope of glory." They as- 
sert that he who became the power of God in them was the 
same person as the one who had lived among them under 
the name Jesus. 

Under the influence of the Holy Spirit, these dis- 
ciples traveled from place to place, proclaiming to others 
the message of Jesus ' life and preeminently of his death. 
They declared it to be God's message, the means of sal- 
vation for them and for all who believed. They preached 

18 (234) 



Inaugural Address 

not merely the faith of Jesus in God as essential to life 
and fellowship with God, but a faith in Jesus as God and 
Saviour. He, Jesus, the Christ, the Son of God, was the 
Gospel. Men in many places were convinced by their 
preaching and declared that they, too,, had experienced 
the sense of forgiveness of sin and fellowship with God 
through this faith. In many cities, organizations of 
those believers were formed, called churches. 

As difficult conditions arose or as instruction was 
needed, that portion of the New Testament which we call 
the Epistles was written to meet the individual needs 
of the several churches. As the first generation of dis- 
ciples began to pass away, the Gospels were written in 
response to a feeling that the sayings and deeds of Jesus 
were vital to the message, and so should be preserved. 
Because a record of the early spread of the faith seemed 
to have value for the future, Luke wrote the Acts of the 
Apostles. When, amid the persecutions of the Roman 
government, the Christians were in dire distress and 
needed cheer and encouragement, God's Spirit inspired 
his servant to write the Book of Revelation, a source of 
help for those days and for his people ever since. Thus, 
in response to real needs, the New Testament was writ- 
ten, as they and we believe, under the influence of the 
Holy Spirit, embodying this original Gospel, together 
with applications of that Gospel to the circumstances of 
the churches. Without Jesus, conceived as Son of God, 
there would have been no Gospel and no New Testament. 
Jesus, the incarnate word, is the Gospel and the creator 
of the New Testament. 

Thus we have answered the question. Whence came 
the New Testament, by showing that it had its origin in 
Jesus of Nazareth, the Son of God. Since its origin is 
divine, its message, without dispute, is of the highest 
value. What is that message for to-day? 

The oral Gospel, the good news of Jesus Christ, 
transformed many lives in the first century. This writ- 

19 (235) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

ten Gospel, the New Testament, did the same for many 
others in the same century. Whenever and wherever it 
has been proclaimed and received since that time men 
have felt within them the Spirit of Christ, the Spirit of 
God, working. Whenever it has ceased to be used, men 
have lost the truth and in a large measure the Spirit of 
God has ceased to operate, and whenever men in their 
spiritual weariness and longings have returned to it, they 
have obtained the truth and have heard God speaking. 
Whatever age, whatever nation, whatever class, what- 
ever individual has used it, that age, that nation, that 
class, that individual has found complete spiritual satis- 
faction. What is its message for to-day? 

First, consider the New Testament's message to a 
perplexed world. 

Men have been told that God is a holy God and that 
he desires that men should lead holy lives. They have 
partly believed that he cares for them, and have striven 
after that holy life. But as they have seen the righteous 
suffer and the wicked prosper, as they have seen in these 
late years thousands upon thousands of innocent people 
suffer what was worse than death, and especially when 
this suffering has come to themselves or to those dear to 
them, doubts have arisen as to whether there was a God 
at all, or if there were one, whether he was not indifferent 
to men, or, if not indifferent, whether, perchance, he was 
not too weak to prevent the evil deeds of men. So they 
have ceased to strive after a better life.. 

Has the New Testament any message for such per- 
plexed souls? One may point them to the Jesus of the 
New Testament, who, passing through extreme physical 
suffering, intense mental anguish, and most fearful spir- 
itual agony, still endured for the joy that was set before 
him, and received his reward because of unselfish giving 
of himself for the sake of others. He believed that his 
sufferings were in accordance with his Father's will and 

20 (236) 



Inaugural Address 

that his mission in life was to be realized only through 
such experience. 

If God permitted his own well-beloved Son thus to 
suffer, yes, if he even planned that he should thus suffer, 
because through that suffering men would receive the 
greatest spiritual blessings, he surely is not a God who 
is indifferent to the sufferings of his other children, but 
through their suffering must be planning some real bless- 
ing for mankind and possibly for the sufferer himself. 
Surely he who numbers the hairs of our heads and is not 
ignorant of every sparrow that falls to the ground, is not 
indifferent to the experiences of men, whom he loves as 
a father. 

Second, consider the New Testament's message to a 
selfish world. 

What a slump there has been from the idealism of a 
few years ago, when men were filled with an enthusiasm 
to render help to the oppressed and needy! Some man 
is in trouble and needs not merely money but advice, en- 
couragement, daily companionship. To assume such re- 
sponsibility might interfere with the doing of what is 
nearest one's desires. Some group of persons has lead- 
ership that is not for the highest good. Shall they be 
allowed to come to trouble? Why concern oneself for 
them? It might interfere with plans. Some weak na- 
tion needs the supervision, advice, and protection of a 
stronger nation. But giving it might cause entangling 
alliances, the loss of life of soldiers, the expenditure of 
large sums of money. 

To which selfish spirit the New Testament gives man 
a glimpse of the very nature of God himself in Jesus, who 
for man's sake grasped not after deity but was glad to 
lay aside the form of God and take unto himself the form 
of a servant. In Jesus, man sees God humbling himself 
for those who are undeserving. He sees God showing 
himself at his best, as he gives himself for his enemies' 

21 (237) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

sake. If God did such a thing, how little in comparison 
is all that man can do ! The world, now more than for 
many centuries, needs unselfish service. What a new 
world it would be if such service were rendered by all 
men ! What a discovery men would make if they would 
render such service, the discovery that not only the great- 
est joy that this world can give comes from helping oth- 
ers, but the highest development of him who gives that 
service. In the New Testament is found the story of the 
Good Samaritan and the words of Jesus, "Whosoever 
would be great amongst you, let him become your ser- 
vant. ' ' 

Third, consider the New Testament's message to a 
seeking world. 

There have been times in the world's history when 
there were serious disturbances in one nation or another, 
but never within the knowledge of men, has the whole 
world been in such turmoil as during the last few years. 
Class is arrayed against class, employee and employer 
cannot agree, nations are torn by internal difficulties, one 
people is oppressed by another, one nation is at sword's 
point with another. The world is confronted by serious 
social, economic, and political problems. Earnest men 
are seeking a solution for these difficulties. 

Ten years ago, many prominent writers were wont 
to scoff at the New Testament and the men who in per- 
plexity sought help in it. To-day, some, both Jew and 
Gentile, believer and non-believer, assert that the ethics 
of the New Testament is not that of a visionary but that 
of one who had the prof oundest insight into the problems 
of life ; and that in its ethics is to be found the solution 
of the present disturbances. Some one has stated the 
principles of the New Testament ethics to be The Per- 
sonal Worth of the Individual, Brotherhood, Service, 
Liberty, Justice, — in a word. Love. When men apply 
these principles they find light for their difficulties, solu- 

22 (238) 



Inaugural Address 

tion for their problems. To-day, wherever employer and 
employee are earnestly and sincerely seeking to conduct 
their business in accordance with these principles, they 
find success attending their efforts. Satisfaction is 
found, peace reigns, contentment follows in the conscious- 
ness that both are being fairly treated and that the inter- 
est of each is bound up in that of the other. Fewer 
attempts have been made in social and political relations, 
but the outcome in business justifies a faith that similar 
results will follow the application of these same prin- 
ciples to the social and political problems. In the New 
Testament alone is to be found the hope for a seeking 
world. 

Fourth, consider the New Testament's message to a 
lost Avorld. 

As in ancient times, so it is still true, that men do 
"the desires of the flesh and of the mind," "have no 
hope and are without God in the world. ' ' Men kill, steal, 
lie, hate, are grasping, are selfish. The material things 
bulk large in their thoughts and activities. They have 
wandered out on the mountains and gotten lost in the 
crevices of the world's life. Did you read this appeal 
of the judges in their convention this past summer? 
"The Judicial Section of the American Bar Association, 
venturing to speak for all the judges, wishes to express 
this warning to the American people : 

' ' ' Reverence for law and enforcement of law depend 
mainly upon the ideals and customs of those who occupy 
the vantage ground of life in business and society. 

" 'The people of the United States, by solemn con- 
stitutional and statutory enactment, have undertaken to 
suppress the age-long evil of the liquor traffic. 

" 'When, for gratification of their appetites, or the 
promotion of their interests, lawyers, bankers, great mer- 
chants and manufacturers, and social leaders, both men 
and women, disobey and scoff at this law or any other 

23 (239) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

law, they are aiding the cause of anarchy, and promoting 
mob violence, robbery, and homicide; they are sowing 
dragon's teeth, and they need not be surprised when they 
find that no judicial or police authority can save our 
country or humanity from reaping the harvest.' " 

Such an appeal should not be lightly passed by. We 
are already reaping. Fearless robbery takes place on 
every hand. Men and women are killed with apparently 
no more thought than if they were animals that interfered 
with one's desires. As the prophet said, "There is 
naught but making promises and breaking them, and 
killing and stealing and committing adultery. Crimes 
are so frequent that the blood of one touches the blood of 
another." The New Testament goes to the root of all this, 
when it declares that not merely is the open transgression 
wrong, but anger is murder, lust is adultery, coveting is 
stealing, not caring for aged parents is dishonoring 
father and mother. 

As one looks at a picture of thousands upon thous- 
ands of Hindus bathing in a sacred river or temple tank, 
in the vain hope thus to wash away sin, the thought of 
the heathen world presses upon him and he comes to 
realize that here in America and round the whole world 
are millions of lost souls. Yes, men are spiritually lost. 

To this condition the New Testament has a two-fold 
message. In no uncertain language, it announces a day 
of reckoning, when penalties for misdeeds will be meted 
out to wrong-doers. Its other message is of a different 
kind. It is the story of one sent from heaven by God's 
love, because he saw that men were lost in sin, and hope- 
lessly so, unless they could have divine assistance. This 
Jesus showed men their sin, called on them to repent, 
promising forgiveness if they should repent, and divine 
help to live a holy life. He offered them freedom from 
the power of sin, relief from, its penalties, likeness in 
character to God and companionship with God for all 
eternity, on the one condition that they should have faith 

24 (240) 



Inaugural Address 

in him. The New Testament presents the same message 
to-day on the sole condition of faith in Jesus Christ, the 
Son of God. This is the message of the New Testament 
to a lost world. 

Fifth, consider the New Testament's message to a 
Christian world. 

To the Christian, the New Testament has a message 
requiring holy living. "Present your bodies a living 
sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God. " " Follow after love. ' ' 
' ' Abhor that which is evil ; cleave to that which is good. ' ' 
"Bless them that persecute you; bless, and curse not." 
' ' Render to no man evil for evil. " " Pray without ceas- 
ing." "Let your speech be always with grace, seasoned 
with salt." "Whatsoever things are true, whatsoever 
things are honorable, whatsoever things are just, what- 
soever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, 
whatsoever things are of good report . . . think on these 
things. ' ' 

It has a message with reference to witnessing. "Go 
je, therefore, and make disciples of all the nations, bap- 
tizing them into the name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Spirit; teaching them to observe all 
things whatsoever I commanded you, " " Ye shall be my 
witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Sa- 
maria, and unto the uttermost parts of the earth. ' ' 

It has a message with reference to stewardship. 
' ' Upon the first day of the week, let each one lay by him 
in store as he may prosper you." "He that soweth spar- 
ingly, shall reap also sparingly ; and he that soweth boun- 
tifully, shall reap also bountifully." 

It has a message of comfort. ' ' The God of comfort, 
who comfortetli us in all our afflictions." "I will pray 
the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, 
that he may be with you for ever." "I will not leave 
yo.u desolate." "Peace I leave with you; My peace I 

25 (241) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

give unto you." "Whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, 
that will I do." 

It has a message of promise. "Lo, I am with you 
always, even unto the end of the world. " "In my Fath- 
er 's house are many mansions ; if it were not so, I would 
have told you ; for I go to prepare a place for you. " "I 
come again, and will receive you unto myself ; that where 
I am, there ye may be also." "I am the Alpha 
and the Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give 
unto him that is athirst of the fountain of life freely." 
"He that overcometh, shall inherit these things; and I 
will be his God, and he shall be my son. ' ' 

As the Apostle John says in closing his Gospel, 
"And there are also many other things which Jesus did, 
the which if they should be written every one, I suppose 
that even the world itself would not contain the books 
that should be written ; " so I suppose one might continue 
indefinitely for there is in the New Testament a message 
for every need of every soul. 

The literature of none of the other world religions 
is so small. There is none that has proven so adequate. 
In fact, there is none other that at all satisfies the crav- 
ings of the human soul. 

Happy should that man be who has the high privi- 
lege of devoting himself to the proclamation of this God- 
given man-satisfying message. 



Charge to Dr. Vance. 



The Rev. S. B. McCormick, D. D., LL. D. 



Dr. Vance: 

It is quite fitting that the ceremony wherein a profes- 
sor is inducted into his high office as teacher in the Sem- 
inary should be formal and impressive, and that a charge 

26 (242) 



Charge to Dr. Vance 

to the teacher, according to long established custom, 
should be a part of this ceremony. It is not expected, 
however, that this charge should catalogue the desirable 
qualifications which the professor should possess nor 
attempt an outline of the methods whereby he should ex- 
ercise his skill and scholarship in the discharge of the 
duties of his office. Called a quarter century ago from 
scholarly pursuits and thrust into the multitudinous and 
exacting duties of an administrative office, the speaker 
would find himself embarrassingly ill-equipped for the 
performance of such a task. On the other hand, he may 
be permitted to interpret his commission with consider- 
able latitude and to congratulate himself that, if he makes 
certain suggestions from a standpoint somewhat differ- 
ent from the professor's own, he will fairly well accom- 
plish the purpose which the Fathers had in mind in mak- 
ing a charge to the teacher part of the ceremonial of to- 
day. 

Let us, in the beginning, assume agreement upon two 
matters of opinion: First, the primacy of the ministry 
among professions ; and, second, the primacy of theologi- 
cal seminaries among schools of learning. Regardless 
of any contrary opinion, you and I will proceed very 
comfortably together on the basis that these two assump- 
tions are justifiable. The only absolutely essential need 
of the hody is food — raiment and shelter are conveniences 
and comforts only — and hence, in respect to the physical, 
the farmer and his acres occupy the place of primacy. 
The only absolutely essential need of the mind is 'knowl- 
edge, and hence, in respect to the mental, the teacher and 
the school occupy the place of primacy. The only abso- 
lutely essential need of the soul is God and hence, in re- 
spect to the spiritual, the interpreter of God and the 
school which trains him occupy the place of primacy. 
The only man, therefore, who will deny first place to the 
theological teacher and the theological seminary, at least 
as abstract propositions, is the man who puts body above 

27 (243) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

mind because mind cannot exist without it, and the mind 
above spirit because spirit cannot exist without it. Be- 
lieving as we do, however, that, in the scale of eternal 
values, soul comes first, we unhesitatingly declare that 
your office, that of teacher of the Christian minister, is the 
highest office in the w^orld. So I believe, and what I shall 
say is based upon this belief. The assumption of this 
office is, therefore, on your part a grave responsibility 
and your induction into it is a much more significant 
event than the busy outside world dreams is happening. 

It is, I think, a mistake to entertain the thought that 
this is an exceptional period in human history. Every 
period is supremely important, differing in many re- 
spects from every other. So our own. Things have hap- 
pened since 1914 which have turned the world upside 
down and which have caused many to fear for the civ- 
ilization which during the centuries has, with infinite 
labor and vigilant patience, been built up. But a sane 
interpretation of history tends at least to banish fear and 
apprehension. Peril exists; but peril always exists be- 
cause evil always lurks at the heart of things. Any man 
who is more than three score years old holds that he has 
an inalienable right to prophesy disaster; and, as long 
as he finds the reason of his prophecy in the way women 
dress themselves and in the way young people conduct 
themselves, perhaps his doleful utterances do not do 
much harm. A story, real or imaginary, of an exhumed 
tablet has it that the inscription, written in earliest his- 
toric times, is a lament over the rebellion of youth against 
age, a disregard of the traditions of the past, and an un- 
willingness to submit to proper authority. I have my- 
self read sermons, preached one hundred years ago, be- 
wailing the decay of family religion, the disregard of the 
Sabbath, and the prevailing worldliness of people, which 
sermons could almost without change be preached in 
any pulpit in Pittsburgh whose minister may happen to 
be temperamentally anxious and afraid. The world is 

28 (244) 



Charge to Dr. Vance 

not hastening to its destruction because God does not try 
experiments. The line of progress is an undulating line, 
now up, now down ; but if one will follow it long enough 
he will find that there is a gradual though very slow as- 
cent ; for apparently the only person who is not in a hurry 
is God. Most people insist on doing the whole thing in 
a generation ; and because, as the shadows lengthen, the 
man finds things practically where they were when he 
started he begins to be afraid. But fear is always the 
child of distrust, and when it becomes general among 
ministers, so that they begin to appeal to law to hasten 
moral progress, they do this because, without realizing it, 
they have lost faith in God and in His power in the world. 
"When the Son of Man cometh shall he find faith on the 
earth!" Frankly, Dr. Vance, this is the only thing I am 
afraid of ; and even of this not very often or very long. 

You and I believe. Dr. Vance, that Christianity has a 
message for the world which nothing else has ; and we be- 
lieve, too, that no one, much less the Christian minister, 
can safely depreciate it, or, under any stress of moral 
enthusiasm for some passing reform, abandon it for any 
other agency for good. The message of Jesus is not for 
one generation but for all generations. It was not the 
message of Socrates or Zoroaster or Confucius or Gauta- 
ma or Mohammed, important as all these were and pro- 
foundly as these have affected the lives and destinies of 
countless millions of men. It is a message of sacrifice, 
of regeneration, of atonement, of mediatorship, of res- 
toration, of reconciliation, of complete salvation. It is 
something which deals with that bewildering thing — hu- 
man nature — about the only static thing in its unregen- 
erate form in all the world — not to make it better but to 
change it into something different. Sin inflicted a mortal 
wound on humanity and the Gospel is the proclamation 
of the remedy which will work a complete cure. The New 
Testament is the exhibit of what Christianity is and the 
Church has for two thousand years been telling men that 

29 (245) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

this is so ; and now when the world is lying helpless, cry- 
ing out in its distress, ready at last to believe that only 
the Gospel can cure the mortal hurt, there is danger that, 
thinking in terms of the anti-saloon leagues, Sabbath 
observing alliances, reform bureaus, and the like— agen- 
cies employing governmental powers valuable enough in 
themselves — ^ministers may fail to hear the real cry, and 
hence fail to bring to despairing men the only thing which 
will relieve the distress and affect a cure. 

For danger really exists if the call is not heeded. 
The doctrine of self-determination was preached in 1919 
by one who was hailed as the deliverer of oppressed peo- 
ples; and to-day in India and Egypt and other parts of 
the Orient the unrest is frightful; Bolshevism, having 
thrown overboard not only the ten commandments but 
every ethical principle, is making its appeal to semi-sub- 
ject races to cast off all shackles and be free ; to peasants 
to take possession by violence of the lands upon which 
they were born and have lived ; and to the workman forci- 
bly to wrest from the owners all instruments of produc- 
tion, so that only a great leader is needed once more to 
let loose vast hordes of men to descend upon Europe 
and finish the work of destruction which the war carried 
so far toward completeness. What will remedy the situa- 
tion? What ivill cure the wound? What will save the 
world? 

If the Gospel will not do it, then it cannot be done 
at all. When Socrates said, ''Know thyself," he 
preached something of value ; but he proclaimed no plan 
of salvation. AVhen Zoroaster saw his vision of God, 
with the eternal conflict between good and evil, he led 
his followers to conceptions of monotheism vastly finer 
than the world had known ; but he showed no way where- 
by they could be saved. When Confucius laid down 
ethical precepts he made it possible for a great people 
who accepted and practiced these precepts to attain to an 
ethical character nowhere else surpassed; but Confucius 

30 (246) 



Charge to Dr. Vance 

made no claim to save the people from their sins. When 
Gautama preached the extinction of desire and the 
blessedness of Nirvana he had no thought of restoring 
the souls of men to the image of their maker, even though 
he became the religious teacher of countless millions of 
people. When Mohammed proclaimed that there is one 
God he did make a race of fanatics — the fear of whom to- 
day in India is influencing Great Britain to restore Con- 
stantinople to the unspeakable Turk — but Mohammed did 
not proclaim salvation. The Roman Church, asserting 
temporal as well as spiritual power — a principle it has 
never withdrawn — with its right to control and use gov- 
ernments to enforce its own decrees, does not in this pro- 
claim salvation but sets itself up as something vastly dif- 
ferent. Is there then no balm in Gilead — no remedy — 
no cure — no peace — no restoration! None; unless the 
Gospel shall be understood and preached among the Na- 
tions as it was given to men by Jesus himself and as it 
was unfolded by the greatest of all religious teachers — 
St. Paul the Apostle. 

This, Dr. Vance, is, as I conceive, your single func- 
tion in the professorship which to-day you formally as- 
sume. The difficulties in the way are of course many, 
and you will not be discouraged by them. You come to 
the Seminary, for instance, at a time when the study of 
Greek is largely abandoned in colleges and universities ; 
but if a knowledge of Greek is necessary to give real un- 
derstanding of the New Testament, students of Theology 
will study Greek. You and I may believe that Greek 
language and literature and culture are the finest achieve- 
ment of the human mind; but if this age has decided it 
does not want it, then it will not have it, and we need not 
worry particularly over it. But if Greek is essential, as 
a tool, to the minister, Greek he must have. Mathe- 
matics is out of the college curriculum almost as com- 
pletely as Greek; but this does not affect the student of 
engineering who cannot have engineering without it. He 

31 (247) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

studies mathematics. Students look at biology, physics, 
and chemistry, and pass by on the other side; but the 
student of medicine cannot take his course without these 
subjects and therefore he takes them. If the Christian 
minister needs Greek in order to understand the New 
Testament, he should no more receive his degree here 
without it than the engineer should receive his degree 
without mathematics or the doctor without biology or 
chemistry. And so with all other special obstacles to- 
day to thoroughness, to scholarship, and to power. It 
is not necessary that the millennium shall come next 
week ; but it is necessary that our religious teachers, en- 
trusted with the task of hastening it, shall be faithful 
guides of the people and that so far forward as they shall 
conduct them shall be toward the establishment of the 
Kingdom of God. 

But, Dr. Vance, I must close. This is your day not 
mine. Those present came to hear your address not my 
address. What I want to say is that the Christian minis- 
ter is the most important man, the Christian ministry the 
most important profession, the Christian message the 
most important message in all the world, and that it is 
your business to train these men so they will understand 
God's message of salvation, the words of it and the spirit 
of it, and thus leaving police duties and moral reforms 
to others, they will be ambassadors of God in a world 
whose only salvation is God. 

And in the performance of this undertaking you will 
have the good will, the earnest prayers, and the continued 
support of the directors of this Seminary. 



32 (248) 



President's Report 



To the Board of Directors of the Western Theological 
Seminary 

Gentlemen: — In behalf of the Faculty 1 have the 
honor to submit the following report for the academic 
year ending May 4, 1922 : 

Attendance 

Since the last annual report thirty students have 
been admitted to the classes of the Seminary. 

To the Junior Class 

1. Eugene LeMoyne Biddle, a graduate of Carnegie 

Institute of Technology, B. Sc, 1921. 

2. Jarvis Madison Cotton, a graduate of Maryville 

College, A. B., 1921. 

3. Howard Truman Curtiss, a graduate of the College 

of Wooster, A. B., 1921. 

4. C. LeRoy DePrefontaine, a student of Carnegie 

Institute of Technology. 

5. William F. Ehmann, an A. of A., Blackburn College, 

1921. 

6. Ross M. Haverfield, a graduate of the College of 

Wooster, A. B., 1921. 

7. James Russell Hilty, a graduate of State Normal 

School, Indiana, Pa., Pd. M., 1916. 

8. Ralph Walshaw Illingworth, Jr., a graduate of 

Princeton University, A. B., 1921. 

9 Arthur Jennings Jackson, a graduate of Geneva Col- 
lege, A. B., 1921. 

33 (249) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

10. Robert Caldwell Johnston, a graduate of Washing- 

ton and Jefferson College, A. B., 1921. 

11. George R. Lambert. 

12. William Stage Merwin, a student of the University 

of Pittsburgh. 

13. George Karl Monroe, a graduate of Grove City Col- 

lege, A. B., 1921. 

14. Harold Francis Post, a graduate of Washington and 

Jefferson College, A. B., 1918. 

15. Deane Craig Walter, a graduate of Grove City Col- 

lege, A. B., 1920. 

16. Clayton Edgar Williams, a student of the Univer- 

sity of Paris, France. 

18. James Carroll Wright, a graduate of Denison Uni- 

versity, Ph. B., 1921. 

19. John Yarkovsky, a student of the University of 

Vladivostok. 

To the Middle Class 

1. Andrew Vance McCracken, a graduate of Amherst 
College, A. B., 1920, on letter of dismissal from 
Union Theological Seminary, New York. 

To the Senior Class ' 

1. Lyman N. Lemmon, who in 1920, after having com- 
pleted the first two years of the Seminary course, 
withdrew to engage in educational work. 

To the Graduate Qlass 

1. Ole Curtis Griffith, a graduate of Western Theologi- 
cal Seminary, 1918. 

34 (250) 



President 's Report 

2. Walter Lysander Moser, a graduate of Western 

Theological Seminary, 1921. 

3. H. Erwin Stafford, a graduate of Hiram College, 

A. B., 1905. 

4. Charles E. Stanton, a graduate of Baptist Theologi- 

cal Seminary, Louisville, Ky., 1900. 

5. Walter Perkins Taylor, a graduate of Andover 

Theological Seminary, 1885. 

6. Rufus Donald Wingert, a graduate of Western The- 

ological Seminary, 1911. 

As Visitors 

1. Miss Luella Adams, a graduate of the Baptist Mis- 

sionary Training School, Chicago, 1916. 

2. Miss Laura M. Moore, a student of Washington 

(Pa.) Seminary. 

3. Fred Reif, a graduate of the University of Pitts- 

burgh, Pharm. Gr., 1908. 

4. Miss Luella Wimpelberg, a graduate of the Baptist 

Missionary Training School, Chicago, 1917. 

No letters of dismissal were granted to students en- 
tering other institutions. 

The total attendance for the year has been 57, which 
was distributed as follows: Fellows, 5; graduates, 8; 
seniors, 14; middlers, 9; juniors, 18; visitors, 4. (One 
student is listed both as a fellow and a graduate.) 

Fellowships and Prizes 

The fellowship was awarded to Mr. Walter Harold 
Millinger, a graduate of Princeton University ; the Mich- 
ael Wilson Keith Memorial Prize in Homiletics to James 
AVallace Willoughby, a graduate of Wabash College; a 

35 (251) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Hebrew Prize, offered to members of the Junior Class, to 
Harold Francis Post; a prize of one hundred dollars, 
offered by the Class of 1911 to commemorate their tenth 
anniversary of graduation, to Paul Livingstone Warn- 
shuis, in recognition of high standing in the Department 
of Greek Exegesis ; and Merit Prizes to Calvin Hoffman 
Hazlett and Willard Colby Mellin, of the middle class, 
and Eugene LeMoyne Biddle, Ralph Walshaw Illing- 
worth, Harold Francis Post, Deane Craig Walter, and 
James Carroll Wright, of the junior class. 

Elective Courses 

In addition to the required courses of the Seminary 
curriculum, the following elective courses have been of- 
fered during the year 1921-22, the number of students 
attending each course being indicated : 

Dr. Kelso: Exegesis of Genesis I-XI (seminar course), 
7 ; Comparative Religion, 19. 

Dr. Schaff: History of the Reformation and Modern 
Times, 7 ; American Church History, 10. 

Dr. Farmer : Social Teaching of the New Testament, 11. 

Dr. Snowden: Christian Ethics, 4; Psychology of Reli- 
gion, 6; Philosophy of Religion, 12. 

Dr. Vance: New Testament Exegesis (Ephesians and 
Colossians), 8. 

Dr. CuUey: Old Testament Exegesis (Psalter), 2; 
Canon and Text of the Old Testament, 6 ; Phonetics, 
6. 

Mr. Eakin: New Testament Greek Sight Reading, 6; 
New Testament Exegesis (Mark), 8. 

Prof. Sleeth: Oral Interpretation of the Scriptures, 7; 
Public Speaking. 11. 

Rev. Selby Frame Vance, D. D., LL. D., who was el- 
ected to the Memorial Professorship of New Testament 

36 (252) 



P\resident's Report 

Literature and Exegesis at the annual meeting on May 
5, 1921, took up the work of his chair at the opening of 
the term, September 20, 1921. He was inducted into the 
chair on April 10, 1922, according to the arrangement 
which was authorized by the Board of Directors at the 
semi-annual meeting, November 15, 1921. The charge to 
the professor was delivered by Chancellor Samuel Black 
McCormick, D. D., LL. D. The Inaugural Address was 
delivered on the subject, *'The Teaching of Jesus for 
To-day." During his first year as professor in the West- 
ern Theological Seminary Dr. Vance has won the affec- 
tion and regard both of his colleagues and the students. 

Literary Worh and Extra-Curriculum Activities of the 
Professors 

During the past year Dr. Kelso has been engaged in 
literary work. During the summer vacation he saw a 
Commentary on Revelation by Rev. S. A. Hunter, LL. D., 
through the press. He also published several articles 
and reviews in religious papers and the Seminary Bulle- 
tin. He has prepared an article on "The Water Liba- 
tion" for The Expositor (English), and has been pre- 
paring a Syllabus for class room work, entitled "The 
Hebrew Prophet and His Message." This Syllabus is 
now in press and will soon be published. 

Last June he gave the address to the graduating 
class at Missouri Valley College, and during the Semi- 
nary year has preached in a nmnber of churches on The 
Ministry and the Work of the Western Theological Sem- 
inary. He was a member of the last General Assembly 
and served on the Committee of Bills and Overtures. 

Br. Schaff has written a number of articles for the 
Presbyterian Banner, the United Presbyterian, and other 
religious papers, a Leaflet in reply to some Roman Catho- 
lic advertisements, an article, "Dante 1321-1921," for 
the Seminary Bulletin; an article, "Dante Six Hundred 
Years Ago and Now, ' ' for the Princeton Theological Re- 

37 (253) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

view of April, 1922. He has also delivered twenty ser- 
mons or adresses in chnrclies. 

Special mention ought to be made of the service 
which Dr. Schaff rendered the entire Protestant Church 
of this region, through his expert knowledge of Roman 
Catholic theology. In the autumn of 1921 he met an 
effort on the part of the Roman Catholics of Pittsburgh 
to commend distinctive Roman Catholic teaching to the 
public through advertisements inserted in the Pittsburgh 
daily papers. Sixty-five different advertisements, be- 
ginning with October 5th, sought to make plausible, mat- 
ters in dispute between the Protestants and Roman Cath- 
olics since the Reformation. They were passed upon by 
'^a proficient in Catholic theology," as Father Coakley 
stated in '^ America," and paid for by two Catholic la^^- 
men of Pittsburgh. In vicAv of the public interest the 
advertisements elicited. Dr. Schaff inserted in the Pitts- 
burgh Dispatch ten counter-statements based upon the 
New Testament and authoritative declarations of the 
Roman Catholic Church, the expense being met by Pro- 
testant laymen through Dr. Maitland Alexander. With 
the support of a Committee of Ministers from the differ- 
ent churches of Pittsburgh, including two of the Direc- 
tors of the Seminary, Drs. Alexander and Hutchison, 
Prof. Schaff also prepared a leaflet entitled, "Roman 
Catholic Advertisements and the New Testament." The 
Leaflet contained a Preface by the Committee and eight 
of the Roman Catholic advertisements mth as many 
counter-statements. Forty thousand copies were dis- 
tributed through the Methodist, United Presbyterian, and 
Presbyterian book rooms of the city. After the type had 
been broken up,, an order came to the Presbyterian Book 
Store from Toronto for five thousand copies. It has been 
stated that the Methodists have circulated one hundred 
thousand copies of the Leaflet in Bohemia. 

Dr. Farmer delivered addresses in the interest of the 
ministry in the First Presbyterian Church of Mononga- 

38 (254) 



President's Report 

hela City; in the College of Wooster, where he also 
preached in the church and had interviews with the stu- 
dents; at Kiskiminetas Academy in Saltsburg; and has 
also regularly taught the Men's Bible Class at the Shady- 
side Presbyterian Church, and acted as pulpit supply at 
the Third Presbyterian Church of Pittsburgh. 

Dr. Snowden reports that he has performed the fol- 
lowing extra-Seminary activities : 

Preached during the year in and around Pittsburgh, 
but also did supply work in the Calvary Presbyterian 
Church of Philadelphia, and in the Hyde Park and Sec- 
ond Presbyterian Churches of Chicago; also delivered 
courses of lectures on popular theology in two churches 
on Sunday evenings. 

Served as a member of the teaching staff of the Di- 
vinity School of the University of Chicago in the summer 
quarter of 1921, lecturing twice a day on the personality 
of God and on apologetics. 

Lectured on the Psychology of Religion at three sum- 
mer schools : Ovoca, Tenn. ; Hollister, Mo. ; and Grove 
City, Pa. 

Lectured once a week during the season on the Book 
of Acts to Sunday School Teachers of the Allegheny 
County Sunday School Association. 

Delivered an address on ''The Written Word," be- 
fore the World's Presbyterian Council in Pittsburgh in 
October, 1921, and a number of addresses before one 
Synod, one Presbytery, and a number of men's brother- 
hoods, Sunday-school conventions, and gatherings of boys 
assembled to consider the ministry. 

Published about sixty or more articles in daily and 
weekly newspapers, and one article in a theological re- 
view. 

Published two books: "The Meaning of Education," 
issued by the Abingdon Press of the Methodist Book 

39 (255) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Concern; and a volume on the ''Sunday School Lessons 
for 1922, ' ' issued by the Macmillan Company. 

He has also edited the Presbyterian Magazine, but 
he wishes to state that this editorship and ail this out- 
side work have not caused him to miss any recitations in 
his classroom. 

Dr. Vance has published an article, ''Satan," and 
several book reviews in the Presbyterian Banner. He 
gave a course of five lectures under the Seminary Exten- 
sion arrangement in the North Presbyterian Church, 
Pittsburgh. The subject of this course was, "Crises in 
the Life of Christ." He addressed Father and Son 
meetings at four churches, and has preached twenty times 
during the term. 

Dr. Culley has delivered a course of lectures on Sun- 
day mornings before the Men's Bible Class of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Wilkinsburg. 

Professor Eakin reports that he studied at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago during the last summer vacation ; that 
he has preached from time to time during the year, and 
has done considerable research work in the New Testa- 
ment field. During the period covered by this report he 
has published nothing except a few minor contributions 
to periodicals. 

Mr. Boyd is completing his seventh year as director 
in the Pittsburgh Musical Institute, his third year as 
conductor of Pittsburgh Choral Society, his fourth year 
as conductor of Tuesday Musical Club Chorus, his nine- 
teenth year as conductor of the Cecilia Choir, and his 
twenty-eighth year as organist and musical director at 
the North Avenue M. E. Church. He has published many 
scattered articles and has been editor of the Choral Sec- 
tion in The Bulletin of the National Federation of 
Women's Music Clubs. He has prepared a report on the 
Music Sections of Public Libraries which was published 
by the U. S. Bureau of Education, and has also pre- 

40 (256) 



President's Report 

pared a volume of arrangements for organ which was 
published by G. Schirmer. 

Professor Sleeth acted as Professor of Elocution 
during the month of January at Union Theological Sem- 
inary, Richmond, Va., and during the month of April at 
the Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, Pa. 
The schedule of his classes was so arranged that our own 
students did not suffer on account of his absence at these 
other institutions. He is one of the favorite lecturers 
at the Grove City Bible Conference. 
Lectures 

The opening lecture of the term was delivered by the 
Rev. John A. Hutton, D. D., on the subject, "The Tone of 
Preaching. ' ' 

A course of five lectures on * ' Church Publicity, ' ' was 
given by Mr. Herbert H. Smith. 

Two evening lectures were delivered by the Rev. 
James Moffatt, D. D., on the following subjects : 

"History and Truth." 

' ' Jesus and Brotherly Love. ' ' 

The following special lectures were given in the Sem- 
inary chapel : 

"The Tabernacle" (with model), The Rev. T. J. 
Allen, D. D. 

"How My Father Became a Christian," Mr. K. Ap- 
pasamy. 

"Missions in British East Africa," The Rev. Lee H. 
Downing. 

"Experiences in West Africa," The Rev. A. L Good. 
"Ministerial Relief," The Rev. W. S. Holt, D. D. 
"Preaching to Children," The Rev. Stuart Nye 

Hutchison, D. D. 
"The Pima Indians," The Rev. Dirk Lay, D. D. 
"Mexican Missions," The Rev. A. N. Lucero. 

41 (257) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

"The Every Member Canvass," Mr. David McCon- 
5/ anghy. 

! "Community Eeligious Education," The Rev. 0. 

Scott McFarland. 

"Home Missions in the Southwest," The Rev. Rob- 
ert N. McLean, D. D. 

"Foreign Missions," The Rev. A. W. Moore. 

"Behind Gray Walls," The Rev. John Steele. 

"The Work of Men in the Church," The Rev. Wil- 
liam F. Weir, D. D. 

"India," The Rev. A. L. Wiley. 

Student Life 

In order to give the Board of Directors a glimpse 
into the students' life, as well as to present the point of 
view of the students, the Report of the President of the 
Y. M. C. A. is lierewith incorporated in the Faculty re- 
port. 

"The Association started the year with three 
definite aims : to deepen the spiritual life of the stu- 
dents ; to provide more definite opportunities for the 
men to study and take active part in city home mis- 
sion work ; and to develop the social life of the Sem- 
inary. It is with satisfaction that we note the de- 
gree of success which our efforts have secured both 
in carrying out our plans and in attempting to carry 
out additional plans. 

"The devotional life in the Seminary has been 
carried forward by means of the usual tower-room 
prayer-meetings, and by our regular meetings in the 
Social Hall. Our prayer-meetings have been made 
very interesting all year by the innovation of study- 
ing various books on missions and service. The plan 
was for the leader to prepare a chapter very care- 
fully and then present the matter very concisely in 
five or ten minutes. Our Association meetings have 
been planned entirely about some inspirational mes- 

42 (258) 



President's Report 

sage brought to us by members of our own Faculty 
or by men of prominence and ability in onr own city, 
or in the world outside, some of whom were: Dr. 
Headland, 'Progress in China'; H. H. Smith, 'Pub- 
licity'; A. I. Good, 'Missions in Africa'; W. C. 
Schureman, 'Sunday School Work in Colorado'; Dr. 
Maitland Alexander, 'Compensations of the Minis- 
try'; Mr. McDowell, 'The Social Gospel'; McCloy 
Franklin, 'Mountaineers'; Mr. Mace, 'The Ministry 
and the Community'; Prof. Frank Eakin, 'Life a 
Spiritual Battle'; Dr. Selby F. Vance, 'Work among 
Men and Boys'; Dr. J. A. Kelso, 'The Ministry and 
Business'. Needless to say, such an array of sub- 
jects, presented as they were in a masterly fashion 
by men who knew whereof they spoke, has been the 
means of inspiring us to greater endeavor in the 
course we have chosen to run. 

"The Home Missionary Committee has per- 
formed its duties adiuirably. A chapel period was 
turned ovej' to them the first of the year and the mat- 
ter of city home missions Avas presented to the stu- 
dent body. Several propositions were offered, and an 
appeal was made for volunteers. There was a 
hearty response. The most important work which 
they have done has been at the Woods Run Settle- 
ment. It has consisted in club organization, leader- 
ship in amusements, and personal contact. A novel 
and important work has been begun at the Hindu 
Club in the University of Pittsburgh. The aim is to 
form close friendships with the Indian students in 
order to show them the heart of real Christianity, 
so that they who go back to their own country to be- 
come future leaders may take with them a true con- 
ception of Christianity which they do not always find 
on the surface of our civilization. 

"In connection with Home Missions we are 
pleased to note a new organization — Fellowship for 

43 (259) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

American Service. There has long been felt the 
need for an organization similar to that of the Stu- 
dent Volunteer for the purpose of stirring up en- 
thusiasm and securing life recruits for service on the 
Home Field. Through the efforts of Mr. Eastman, 
of the Board of Home Missions, such an organiza- 
tion has been started this year and already it has 
local groups in many of our colleges, universities, 
and seminaries throughout the States, of which we 
are one. Our plans for the future are to form our 
Committee on Home Missions from this group as well 
as to form the Committee on Foreign Missions from 
the Student Volunteers. 

"The social life of the Seminary has been pro- 
moted through athletics and several social events. 
With the advent of volley ball in our athletic cur- 
riculum, men who were unable to play basket ball 
have availed themselves of the opportunity to play 
volley ball. No competitive games were scheduled 
in this sport aside from those among the various 
classes. Our basket ball season opened early in No- 
vember and an unusual amount of interest was mani- 
fested throughout the year. The majority of the 
men in the dormitory reported for practice three 
times every week. The schedule of games was so 
arranged that about half of them were played on the 
home floor and the remainder abroad. In considera- 
tion of everything, we feel that it has been a success- 
ful season. We have some very good material to 
start the coming year with, and, if the incoming 
class has some more as good or better, we plan to se- 
cure a few games with college teams in the vicinity 
in order to advertise our Seminary and at the same 
time to hold up the manhood of the Gospel ministry. 
"The social events of the year have been very 
delightful. The year opened with a banquet given 
in our dining hall in honor of our new professor and 

44 (260) 



President's Report 

his wife, Dr. and Mrs. S. F. Vance, and the incoming 
class. This opening event was followed at frequent 
intervals by parties in the Social Hall, entertainment 
being provided for by each class in turn ; dinners and 
receptions at the homes of the various professors; 
and one afternoon of hiking for the juniors, followed 
by tea at the home of Professor Eakin. 

''Thus, as we look back on the past year of ac- 
tivities of the Association, we feel that it has been a 
good year indeed. It has been the full statured man 
which we have been aiming at to be secured through 
a well-rounded life. We have sought to develop our 
lives spiritually so that our message to the world 
will ring true; we have endeavored to cultivate our 
social life in order to make our associations with 
those whom we shall serve in the future a delight 
and an attraction; we have made it a point to keep 
ourselves physically fit for our great task. For the 
coming year we venture to predict a splendid year, 
for we are closing this year with every evidence on 
the part of the men of enthusiasm for the Associa- 
tion. 

' ' Respectfully submitted, 

"(Signed) P. L. Warnshuis.'" 

Dr. Kelso's Sabbatical Year 

The Board of Directors very generously granted the 
President of the Seminary a year's leave of absence at 
the last annual meeting in May, 1921, in recognition of 
twenty years in the professorship. Dr. Kelso expects to 
avail himself of this privilege during the next academic 
year. He is planning to spend about six months of this 
time in the study of archaeology and geography in Pales- 
tine and Egypt. The Trustees of the American School of 
Archaeology in Jerusalem have elected him an honorary 
lecturer during the year 1922-23. This position in- 

45 (261) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

volves no special duties and there is no remuneration 
connected with it. In anticipation of this year of absence 
from the Seminary, the present middle class was grouped 
during the past year with the senior class in the required 
courses of study which Dr. Kelso offers. Dr. CuUey has 
kindly agreed to teach his class in Old Testament History 
during the term 1922-23, and Dr. Farmer to assume his 
administrative duties as acting president in case the 
Board of Directors see fit to appoint him to that position. 
Through these arrangements the classes of the Seminary 
will not suffer during this period of absence, and when 
he returns his lectures will be greatly enriched by his 
residence in Palestine and Egypt. 

Courses in Religious Education 

For some time the Faculty has recognized the grow- 
ing importance of the subject of Religious Education and 
that it was necessary to offer more detailed mstruction 
than had been attempted in the Seminary curriculum 
heretofore. With this in mind, three definite courses 
have been organized. The field that is covered includes 
the psychological and pedagogical aspects of the subject 
as well as the organization, principles, and methods of 
the Sunday School. The courses offered are as follows: 
(1) Psychology of Childhood and Adolescence, (2) Or- 
ganization and Administration of Religious Educa- 
tion, (3) Principles and Methods. 

Finances and Gifts 

On account of the business depression of the past 
year no attempt has been made to secure additions to the 
permanent endowment of the Seminary. The Treas- 
urer's report for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1922, 
unfortunately shows a very heavy deficit, amounting to 
$17,643.05. This large deficit was incurred notwith- 
standing donations from churches amounting to $4,- 

46 (262) 



President 'e Report 

709.64, and gifts from individuals and miscellaneous 
sources to the amount of $16,623.81. This deficit and the 
large gap between income from investments and actual 
expenditures make it imperative that the Boards of the 
Seminary make plans for raising a considerable addition 
to the endo^vment fund of the institution. 

The Class of 1911 contributed one hundred dollars 
as a Class for a prize in New Testament Greek in com- 
memoration of their tenth anniversary of graduation. 

Mrs. David Gregg donated a large collection of books 
from the library of Dr. David Gregg. Naturally many 
of these books have been found to be duplicates of works 
already in our possession, but there are also many others 
which we did not have. Indeed the collection as a whole 
forms one of the most important additions to the Library 
by gift in recent years. The smaller donations of books 
are noted in detail in the Librarian 's report. 

Mrs. Elizabeth R. McCreery donated an Alaskan 
Medicine Man's necklace for the missionary museum. 

Recommendations 

The Faculty of the Seminary submit the following 
recommendations : 

(1) That the degree of Bachelor of Divinity be con- 

ferred upon : 

The Rev. David Lester Say 

(2) That the following members of the Senior Class re- 

ceive the diploma of the Seminary : 

Clifford Edward Barbour 
Lewis Arthur Galbraith 
Elgie Leon Gibson 
L^nnan N. Lemmon 
Ralph K. Merker 
Walter Harold Millinger 
Samuel Galbraith Neal 

47 (263) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

Koscoe Walter Porter 
Paul Livingstone Warnshuis 
James Wallace AVilloughby 

(3) That Mr. Emile Augustin Rivard, having presented 

no thesis, be permitted to appear with his class 
at graduation, hut that his diploma he withheld 
until his thesis is presented, and that a statement 
be made at the time of graduation, sotting forth 
the fact that the failure to present a tliesis was 
due to physical disability. 

(4) That the following members of the Senior Class re- 

ceive a special certificate covering the courses: 
which they have actually completed : 

Archibald Ferguson Fulton 
Daniel Hamill, Jr. 
Basil A. Murray 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

(Signed) James A. Kelso, 
President, 



48 (264) 



Librarian's Report 

To the Board of Directors of the Western Theological 
Seminary : / submit herewith my report as Librarian- 
of the Seminary, covering the year, April 1, 1921 — 
March 31, 1922 : 

Condensed Statement 
1. Additions: 

(a) Volumes added by Purchase 592 

(b) Volumes added by Gift 126 



Total 718 

Additions during the past six years have been as fol- 
lows: 

By Purchase By Gift Total 

1916-17 613 112 725 

1917-18 352 635 987 

1918-19 293 88 381 

1919-20 625 85 710 

1920-21 533 53 586 

1921-22 592 126 718 

2. Cataloguing: 

(a) Volumes catalogued 725 

(b) Cards added to catalogue 2,111 

The figures for the three preceding years are as fol- 
lows : 

Volumes Cards 

Catalogued Added 

1918-19 533 1,583 

1919-20 435 1,390 

1920-21 493 1,594 

3. Circulation: 

(a) Books loaned 1,951 

(b) Periodicals loaned 217 

49 (265) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

A record of the circulation of books has been kept 
only since 1916, and of periodicals only since 1919. 

The figures are as follows : 

. Books loaned, 1916-17 1,435 

Books loaned, 1917-18 1,832 

Books loaned, 1918-19 1,733 

Books loaned, 1919-20 1,557 

Books loaned, 1920-21 1,618 

Books loaned, 1921-22 1,951 

Periodicals loaned, 1919-20 225 

Periodicals loaned, 1920-21 , 135 

Periodicals loaned, 1921-22 217 

It will be noted that the number of books loaned is 
larger than for any previous year covered by our rec- 
ords. In this connection it may be of interest to the 
Board to know that the librarian has recently been in 
correspondence with Dr. Robinson, of the Board of Pub- 
lication and Sabbath School Work, with regard to a plan 
for making the seminary libraries of greater service to 
the church at large. Our oa\ti library has for years been 
sending out books by mail, to almnni of the Seminary and 
others, on the most liberal possible terms. Bat this fact 
perhaps is not generally kno^\ai. Dr. Robinson has in 
mind mapping out the territory which should be served 
by each seminary, and urging upon the church a more 
general use of the books in the several libraries. Such 
publicity work should be fruitful of good results, and our 
library stands read^^ to cooperate in the fullest measure. 

During the year a large collection of books from the 
library of the late Dr. David Gregg was presented to 
the Seminary. Naturally many of these books have been 
found to be duplicates of works already in our posses- 
sion, but there are also many others which we did not 
have. Indeed the collection as a whole forms one of the 
most important additions to the library by gift in recent 
years. Ninety-seven volumes had been accessioned at 

50 (266) 



Librarian's Report 

the close of the period covered by this report, and only 
these are included in the figures for gifts above. Others, 
in the order of their importance, will be accessioned and 
catalogued as time permits. 

We have been more successful this year than any 
year since the war in our efforts to import books from 
continental Europe. The situation with regard to mone- 
tary exchange has made it possible for us to buy some im- 
portant French and German works at prices very much 
below what they would ordinarily cost. Purchases dur- 
ing the year have included the following: Pauly, A. F. 
& Wissowa, G., ^'Keal-Encyclopadie der classischen Al- 
tertumswissenschaft," 1894-1921, 15 vols.; Daremberg, 
C. & Saglio, E., '^Dictionnaire des antiquites grecques et 
romaines," 1877-1919, 10 vols.; JuUian, C, "Histoire de 
la Gaule," 1920-21, 6 Vols.; Gsell, S., ''Histoire ancienne 
de I'Afrique du Nord," 1920-21, 4 Vols.; Dittenberger, 
W., "Orientis Graeci inscriptiones selectae," 1903-05, 2 
vols. ; Mitteis, L. & Wilcken, U., ''Grundziige und Chresto- 
mathie der Papyruskunde, " 1912, 4 vols.; Florenz, K., 
"Die historischen Quellen der Shinto-Religion," 1919; 
Weiss, D. J., "Das IJrchristentum " 1917; Coulanges, F., 
"La cite antique" 1920; Hamack, A., "Marcion," 1921. 

The two recently published volumes of Hastings' 
"Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics" (Vol. XI, 1921, 
and Vol. XII, 1922) have been secured for the library, 
also the new supplementary volumes of the "Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica" (Vol. XXX and XXXI, 1922). Other 
new reference works which have been purchased are the 
"Dictionary of Religion and Ethics," edited by Drs. 
Shailer Mathews and G. B. Smith (1921); the "Chil- 
dren's Great Texts of the Bible," edited by Dr. Hastings 
(6 Vols. 1920-21); "International Encyclopaedia of Quo- 
tations," edited by W. S. Walsh (1921). Among the 
books of the Gregg collection already incorporated in the 
library are 18 volumes of the "Christian World Pulpit" 
(1890-1907), containing a wealth of material for the study 

51 (267) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

of sermons by great contemporary preachers of the Eng- 
glish-speaking world; also the 15-voliime "Library of 
Oratory, ' ' edited by Chauncy M. Depew. 

The following list includes some of the more notable 
additions of miscellaneous character: Smith, P., "The 
Age of the Reformation," 1920; Dewey, J., "Reconstruc- 
tion in Philosophy," 1920; Mills, P. L., "Prehistoric Re- 
ligion," 1918; Trent, W. P., "The Cambridge History 
of American Literature," 1921, Vol. 2; Thomson, J. A., 
"The System of Animate Nature," 1920, 2 Vols.; Knight, 
Q. A. F., "Nile and Jordan," 1921; Hall, H. R., "The 
Ancient History of the Near East," 1920; Wicksteed, 
P. H., "The Reactions between Dogma and Philosophy," 
1920; Pattison, A. S. P., "The Spirit," 1921; Haldane, 
R. B. H., "The Reign of Relativity," 1921; Burton, E. D., 
"A Harmony of the Synoptic Gospels in Greek," 1920; 
Foakes- Jackson, F. J., "An Introduction to the History 
of Christianity," 1921; Macintosh, D. C, "Theology as 
an Empirical Science," 1919; Inge, W. R., "The Phil- 
osophy of Plotinus," 1918, 2 Vols. ; James, H., "The Let- 
ters of William James," 1920, 2 Vols.; Strachey, L., 
' ' Queen Victoria, ' ' 1921 ; Strachey, L., ' ' Eminent Victor- 
ians 1918; Rosebery, A. P. P., "Miscellanies," 1921, 2 
Vols. 

The volumes added to the library by gift (in addi- 
tion to those from the library of Dr. Gregg) have come 
from the following donors : Dr. D. S. Schaff, Mr. N. Don- 
aldson, Dr. J. A. Kelso, Mr. 0. Newfang, Mr. J. R. Day, 
Mr. A. Cotter, Mrs. W. Thaw, Dr. S. F. Vance, Dr. C. E. 
Edwards. The librarian has sent his acknowledgment 
and thanks as each contribution was received, and he 
takes pleasure in publishing the list of names with this 
report. 

Last year's experiment of giving instruction at the 
beginning of the year on matters connected with books 
and the use of the library was repeated this year. Per- 
haps this is partly responsible for the fact that to a much 

52 (268) 



Librarian's Report 

greater extent than formerly the librarian has been con- 
sulted by students with regard to the use and the pur- 
chase of books. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) Frank Eakin. 
Librarian. 



53 (269) 



TREASURER'S CONDENSED FINANCIAL REPORT 
For the Year Ended March 31st, 1923. 



Income 

Income from Investments $36,666.43 

Income from Investments, Annuity Bond Funds 2,182.29 

Income from Investments, Conkling Fund 4,365.00 

Interest on Daily Balances 549.40 

Income from Rents 1,200.00 

Income from Miscellaneous Sources 12,108.81 

Contributions by Individuals and Churches 6,874.64 

Contributions to Pension Fund 2,350.00 



$66,296.57 



Disbursements 

Salaries paid $40,194.82 

Interest paid on Annuity Bonds $2,445.00 

Interest paid on Conkling Fund 5,000.00 7,445^00 

Interest paid on Loan 1,585.49 

Insurance, repairs, commission, and water rents paid. . . . 1,417.19 

Accrued interest on Investments purchased 17.69 

City Taxes, 1921 — paid 4,052.89 

County Taxes, 1921 — paid 296.91 

Office Expenses and Janitors' supplies 1,331.78. 

Library Expenses 1,865.40 

Advertising and Printing 2,946.25 

Fuel and Light 6,576.99 

Scholarships 2,869.00 

Lectures 330.00 

Expended for Sundry Equipment 1,950.93 

Expended for Improvements 8.00 

Other Miscellaneous expenses 2,321.08 

Pensions Paid 3,250.00 

Repairs 3,101.85 

Professors' Annuity Premium 2,378.35 



$83,939.62, 
Permanent Funds 

Real Estate and Building Fund 262,350.80 

New Administration Building Fund 131,298.71 

New Building Fund No. 2 88,089.50 

Contingent Fund 114,416.04 

Endowment Fund 194,355.81 

Lectureship Fund 3,758.44 

Library Fund 32,176.93 

Reunion and Memorial Fund 112,287.79 

Scholarship Fund 140,604.21 

Sacred Rhetoric and Elocution Funds .... 79,519.30 

Church Music Fund 14,527.24 

President's Chair Endowment Fund 5,000.00 

L. H. Severance Lectureship Fund 5,000.00 

54 (270) 



I 



Treasurer's Condensed Financial Report 

President's Chair Endowment (Conkling 

Fund)) 100,075.00 

Annuity Bond Fund 33,800.00 

Warrington Library Fund 3,250.00 

Chapel Fund 25,010.00 

Student Loan & S. H. Fund 2,500.00 

Keith Memorial Prize Fund 1,802.00 

W. A. Shaw Endowment Fund 10,000.00 

Bills Payable (money borrowed) 26,000.00 



$1,385,821.77 



55 (271) 



Literature. 

A Brief Bible History. By James Oscar Boyd, Ph. D., D. D., and 
John Gresham Machen, D. D. Philadelphia: The Westmin- 
ster Press. 1922. Paper 60 cents. 

This small volume of a hundred and twenty-eight pages contains 
a condensed table of contents, a brief introduction by Harold McA. 
Robinson, D. D., and a survey of the Old and New Testaments. The 
survey, presented in two sections, appears as part of "Teaching the 
Teacher," which was published last year. The material is divided 
into lessons, each lesson concluding with a list of questions. 

Equally with "Teaching the Teacher," this book is adapted 
for teacher training; and it also most admirably fulfills the pur- 
pose stated by Dr. Robinson in the introduction: "To supply the 
demand for a brief Bible history for popular reading." Though em- 
bracing the entire Bible history in its scope, and without omitting 
an essential incident, it is, nevertheless, so condensed that it can be 
perused in a few hours. Consequently, it affords a panoramic per- 
spective of the development of God's redeeming grace, comprehen- 
sive in range and accurate in detail. Light thrown upon the geo- 
graphical and natural features of Bible lands, as well as frequent 
explanations connecting with contemporaneous events, renders the 
narrative clear and graphic. 

The book abounds with interpretations, strongly conservative 
in point of view, which, while greatly emhancing its value as a 
means for indoctrination, nevertheless impair its facilities for offer- 
ing a candid and impartial exhibition of sacred history. Whether 
this feature constitutes a merit or defect in an otherwise eminently 
engaging, instructive and timely publication, rests with the individ- 
ual reader to determine for himself. 
Monaca. Pa. JOHN O. MILLER, '16. 



The Approach to the New Testameait. By James Moffatt D. D., D. 
Litt., Hon. M. A. (Oxon.). New York: George H. Doran Com- 
pany. 1921. $3.00. 

This book is certain to have a wide reading in America, where 
Dr. Moffatt's work is so well and favorably known. It will be ot 
especial interest to those readers of the Bulletin who heard his lec- 
tures at the Seminary in the early part of this year. A considerable 
part of the material of the lectures will be found in the book, due 
no doubt to the fact that the two were taking shape in the author's 
mind at nearly the same time. The book itself had its origin as a 
course of lectures: the Hibbert Lectures for 1921, delivered in 
London and Cambridge. 

The chapters are as follows: First Impressions of the New 
Testament; The Origin and Meaning of the Name; The Old Testa- 
ment in the New; The New Testament in the Christian Church; 
The Historical Method at Work; The Task of the Historical Method; 
Some Objections to the Historical Method; The Limitations of the 
Historical Method. 

56 (272) 



Literature 

A glance at these chapter headings will suggest that "the ap- 
proach to the New Testament" which Professor Moffatt has set him- 
self to discuss is the historical approach, or the "historical method" 
to employ the more familiar phrase. What service he hoped to 
render by such a discussion is explained in the preface, from which 
it will be worth while to quote: "My instructions were, not to 
offer any results of research such as might appeal only to experts, 
but to lay before the educated public an outline of the present 
position of the New Testament in the light of modern criticism . . a 
statement which should also bring out the positive value of the 
New Testament literature for the world of to-day. The idea was an 
appreciation of the New Testament not merely as a historical phe- 
nomenon, but as a source of guidance in social reconstruction, so 
that some readers might be enabled to recover or retain a sense 
of its lasting significance for personal faith and social ideals .... 
We are learning how to approach this great literature from the prop- 
er angle and thus to see it in its true perspective. This approach to 
the New Testament is the work of the historical method. What 
I have tried to do in these lectures is to explain and illustrate it, 
to sketch some of its salient principles, and in general to suggest 
what the modern mind may expect to find and must be prepared to 
offer, in approaching the collection of primitive Christian classics 
which we call the New Testament ... I have had in view . . . 
partly those who imagine that with the passing of the doctrine of 
verbal inspiration the New Testament has ceased to possess any vital 
importance for the age, partly those who are still unconsciously 
under the mediaeval idea that the New Testament contains a mass 
of beliefs and truths, assent to which constitutes faith, and partly 
those who read it and read about it with a mixture of interest and 
perplexity in their minds." 

This varied — and often much beclouded — attitude toward the 
New Testament of which Professor Moffatt speaks is a phenomenon 
well known to many ministers, who will count it a great good for- 
tune that the task of helping to clear matters up, in the minds 
of educated people, should have been undertaken by one so eminently 
qualified. His qualifications, it may be remarked, are more than 
intellectual. He has a Scotchman's religiousness, mysticism, or 
whatever we choose to call it — an indispensable asset for such a 
task. He has also a "Britisher's" tendency to be conservative — to 
adhere as long as possible to the status quo. On the whole this too 
is an asset, when balanced by sound scholarship. Thus we have 
every reason to expect great things from this book. 

Does it meet our expectations, or is it likely to meet them ab 
it is increasingly circulated and read? The answer to this question 
should be given by those for whom the book was intended — the 
educated readers who are not students of the New Testament in a 
professional or technical sense. A friend of mine, who belongs 
to this class and whose judgment about books I long ago learned to 
regard with much respect, wrote me the other day that he was 
reading Moffatt's "Approach" and liked it. But he added a rather 
severe criticism of the style, concluding with this: "One wonders 
often why a great scholar would not give a little more time to the 
way to present things." I am afraid that this criticism is .iustified. 
It applies — alas! — to others of the author's books, notably his monu- 
mental "Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament." 

57 (273) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

But they are great books none the less. The "Introduction" is 
much the most valuable work in its iield for the present-day student 
(at least in the English language); and the "Approach" is for 
the time being scarcely less unique in its different field. 

FRANK EAKIN. 



A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament. By G. Abbot-Smith, 
D. D., Professor of New Testament Literature in the Montreal 
Diocesan Theological College. New York: Charles Scribner's 
Sons. $6.00. 

Recent discoveries have shown that the language of the New 
Testament is not the Classical Greek modified by contact with the 
Semitic World, but is that of the common people of the first century. 
Much information as to the meaning of words and their use has 
been obtained through the study of the papyri discovered in Egypt. 
Consequently New Testament grammars have had to be thoroughly 
revised. Likewise there was need of a new lexicon. Prof. Abbot-Smith 
has admirably succeeded in embodying in tfiis lexicon the results of 
the recent discoveries and scholarship. 

Especially noteworthy is the accuracy, compactness, and usa- 
bility of the lexicon, the useful notes on synonyms, the references 
to literature where authoritative examination of different words is 
to be found, the Hebrew equivalents of the Greek words, and the 
fact that the lexicon embodies in connection with each word 95% 
of the passages where it is found in the New Testament and almost 
40% of those in the Septuagint. 

Very helpful for beginners is appendix A, containing a list of 
the irregular verbs with their various forms, and appendix B, which 
is an alphabetical list of verbal forms. 

The student who desires the best New Testament Lexicon will pur- 
chase this one. 

SELBY F. VANCE. 



'The Creative Christ: A Study of the Incarnation in Terms of Mod- 
ern Thought. By Edward S. Drown, D. D. New York: The 
Macmillan Company. 1922. 

The purpose of this book, which consists of a series of lectures, 
is "to make Christ real for ourselves," and that can only be done 
as we "seek to interpret the truth about Him in a way that will 
commend itself to our thoughts, and will satisfy our needs and solve 
our problems." This we may properly do for "Jesus is the Man of 
the ages," and "there is in Him that which can appeal to and satisfy 
the thoughts and hopes and aspirations of every period of human 
experience." Such a claim is, of course, quite legitimate. For 
every previous age has sought an interpretation of Christ in terms of 
Its own peculiar needs and problems. The readers of this book will 
appreciate the fact that Dr. Drown, in stating the modern position, 
does not feel it to be incumbent upon him to reject either the 
terminology or the faith of Christian teachers of other periods, 

58 (274) 



Literature 

as some modern writers on the subject unfortunately and most 
inconsistently do. So long as words are a medium for the expres- 
sion of thought, writers and teachers in order to make themselves 
understood must use the current terminology. However, a new 
terminology does not necessarily mean a new teaching. John, in the 
Fourth Gospel, used the terminology of the Philonic school of meta- 
physics; and Paul, the Rabbinical methods of exegesis. Dr. Drown 
uses what he is pleased to call modern terminology. His approach 
to the problem is not along metaphysical or mystical lines; his is the 
moral approach. For "the terms of our age are essentially moral 
terms." But on the whole, the main difference between Dr. Drown 
and the apostles is one of approach; the conclusions reached in each 
case are practically the same. "In Him was life and the life was the 
light of men" (John). "I live, yet not I, but Christ iiveth in me." 
(Paul). "Christ is the creative source of Christ-likeness in men" 
(Dr. Drown). The author's conception of Christ as the goal of hu- 
manity is adequately stated in Paul's phrase, that we may "all at- 
tain unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ." 

"To be true to the Fathers is not to follow their formulas but 
their faith." And again he afRrms that "to act on their example is 
not to abide satisfied with their results, it is to walk farther along 
the path they trod." These statements indicate the temper in which 
the author approaches his task. 

When the author declares that the terms of our time are es- 
sentially moral, and then goes on to state that "everywhere in the 
New Testament the ideas are moral ideas and the terms moral 
terms," we feel like venturing to suggest that the term "Biblical" 
should be substituted for the term "Modern" in the sub-title of the 
book. And we are further encouraged to do this by the fact that 
Dr. Drown's conception of God is that of the Old Testament prophets, 
namely, the conception of God as an ethical Person. His conten- 
tion is that, along ethical lines, and on the basis of ethical principles 
alone, can any complete and satisfactory doctrine of the Incarna- 
tion ever be reached. All failures in the past to harmonize the di- 
vine and the human elements of Jesus' personality were due to 
the fact that theologians insisted upon seeking it along metaphysi- 
cal lines rather than along ethical lines. God is essentially moral; 
his relations with men are moral, and we shall only come to under- 
stand Christ as we understand God, in moral terms. 

The author makes much of the "creative Love of God." much 
more than he does of God's holiness; at times he identifies God 
with love, love Is the essence of God. In what he has to say about 
the relation of the Incarnation to the Atonement it is readily seen 
that his thought is dominated by the conception of God as love. The 
creative love of God withholds nothing from the creature, so that 
man possesses all the attributes of God. But this fact does not 
identify God and man. There is a fundamental distinction between 
them; "The one and only ineradicable difference" between God and 
man is to be found in the source of the attributes, they inhere in 
God but with man they are derived. Thus Christianity is saved 
from falling into the error of pantheism. 

The Incarnation can be thought of as a momentary act, limited 
to the birth of Jesus, only when conceived of in terms of substance. 
But regarded from the ethical point of view it is a process. This 

59 (275) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

follows because the Incarnation is a moral and spiritual union and 
morality implies growth. The perfection of Jesus is regarded as 
something which He achieved through a process of moral stress and 
strain, of trial and temptation. The character of Christ is true 
moral character, and is the result of a moral process, which, as it 
becomes more complete, more perfectly reveals God. 

Throughout the book most of the fundamental doctrines of 
Christianity are dealt with. But the author's interpretation of some 
of the most important of them is not very clear. He "cannot con- 
sider the Incarnation contingent upon the fact of sin or the need 
of atonement" for the reason that "the Incarnation is the Atone- 
ment." Here the reader is left to guess at what he means. Such a 
statement may be "modern," but it can hardly be accepted as scrip- 
tural. We prefer to believe with Dr. Denny that "An Incarnation 
which would have taken place in any event is an Incarnation which 
does not put the sinner under that obligation to Christ under which 
he is put by an Incarnation which is necessitated and determined 
by the loving will to save sinners by bearing their sins." This state- 
ment we believe to be nearer to the mind of our Lord than is Dr. 
Drown's. There are other points on which the reader will find 
himself at variance with the author. There is little in the book 
that will be of practical value to the average preacher. Its chief 
value lies in the attempt that is made to make the personality of 
Jesus, especially His humanity, of real significance and value. Less 
verbosity and repetition, and more clear definition of terms would 
improve it. However, as a mental exercise the book is worth read- 
ing. 

Vanderbilt, Pa. JAMES MAYNE, '18. 



Towai-d the Understanding of Jesus, and other studies. By Vlad- 
mir G. Simkhovitch, Professor of Economics in Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1921. 
Pp. 165. $1.75. 

Here is a book that will delight the heart of the historian, and 
one, moreover, which the theologian cannot ignore. It deals with 
ultimate causes. The volume has three historical studies: 1. 
"Toward the Understanding of Jesus" 2, "Rome's Fall Reconsid- 
ered;" 3. "Hay and History." While these theses appear in this 
order in the book, the reverse order is the chronological one. We 
shall so consider them. 

In "Hay and History," Professor Simkhovitch discusses that 
ancient institution, — the village community. The latter is funda- 
mentally different from the American community. It has the home- 
steads grouped together, with barns, stables, etc. Then there are 
three great fields, the wheat or rye field, the oats or barley field, and 
the fallow ground. Also, there is the meadow. Excluding the 
meadow, each of these three great fields is cut up into thousands of 
strips. The farmer may own one or many, according to his wealth, 
in each of the three fields. He has a share in the meadow pastur- 
age proportionate to his land ownings. 

This is the situation from time immemorial. It was neither 
convenient nor economical; it meant "waste of energy of both man 

60 (276) 



Literature 

and beasts." "Why, then, did such an institution persist in sur- 
viving? There must have been some circumstance either of a com- 
pelling or compensating nature." This the author seeks to dis- 
cover. 

After examining documents and sources, he discovers this: 
that the land constantly became poorer. "But did people not know 
about improving the soil?" We are assured that they did; they 
appreciated the value of manure as well as any modern farmer. 
Well, "Did they not keep cattle? Yes .... but the question is, 
could the individual farmer keep on his land enough cattle to im- 
prove .... his entire farm?" In brief, he could not. Again we 
ask, why? The answer is found in the method of crop rotation. 
Wheat the first year; oats the second: fallow the third. "Where, in 
this schedule, does grass-seeding come and where are tlie hayfieldsr 
There were none!" The farmer could build up his land only as he 
had cattle; he could keep cattle only as he had meadow land; the 
latter was entirely dependent upon some stream, and so always 
utterly inadequate. Consequently, all land, throughout the world, 
gradually became poorer and poorer. 

"Go to the ruins of ancient and rich civilizations in Asia 
Minor, Northern Africa, or elsewhere. Look at the unpeopled 
valleys, at the dead and buried cities, and you can decipher 
there the promise and the prophecy that the law of soil ex- 
haustion held in store for all of us. It is but the story of an 
abandoned farm on a gigantic scale. Depleted of humus by con- 
stant cropping, land could no longer reward labor and support 
life: so the people abandoned it. Deserted, it became a desert; 
the light soil was washed by the rain and blown around by 
shifting winds." (p. 161.) 

Now, what changed all this? It was the discovery, about the 
middle of the 17th Century, of grass-seeding. This one thing 
changed everything, and turned a losing battle, agriculturally speak- 
ing, into a triumph. It meant the possibility of continued life upon 
the earth. Professor Simkhovitch rightly calls it "a revolution that 
fundamentally changed the basis of agriculture, that abolished the 
law of diminishing returns" marking "the end of the dark ages of 
agriculture." 

• 

II 

Why did Rome fall? The trite answer, from Horace to Gibbon, 
has been, "corruption." The sturdy rural class is becoming extinct; 
there is a rush to the city, with its dissolute life; there is a mad 
lust for pleasure. The small landed class has disappeared and the 
proletariat emerges. 

A very good answer, doubtless, but it does not satisfy our au- 
thor. Granted that, as Livy discerningly states, "the large estates 
('latifundia') ruin Italy, yea, even, the provinces," we must find 
out, if possible, just why the "latifundiae" exist. This Professor 
Simkhovitch does and he makes the dry documents read like a ro- 
mance. His first hand acquaintance with the old Latin authors is 
startling, and his conclusions bear the imprint of independent 
thought. Step by step he traces the story of the fall of Imperial 
Rome. He shows that in the early Republic, a seven-jugera farm 
was considered large enough to support a family. Then comes the 

61 (277) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

time of the Gracci, and Tiberius Graccus thinks that a farmer 
ought to have thirty jugera. Later, Trentius made it fifty jugera. 
Caesar allotted sixty-six and one-third jugera. Augustus, still later, 
gave his colonists four hundred jugera. Why was this? Why did 
the small farmer disappear and the vast landed estates appear? 
Until Cicero could say that the whole commonwealth could muster 
a bare two thousand property owners? And why was it, finally, 
that these vast estates no longer were profitable, and their owners 
ceased to farm them? Here follows an interesting analysis of the 
laws of the empire. All the statesmen saw what was going on and 
tried in vain to check it. Laws more and more drastic were passed 
in the vain endeavor to stimulate argiculture. It simply could not 
be done. Why? 

Our author examines some possible reasons. He shows, for 
instance, why the importation of wheat from Sicily, and later from 
Egypt, was in no way a factor to discourage Italian farming. To 
the question, did the Romans understand nothing about building 
up the soil, he answers that the knowledge about agriculture pos- 
sessed by the ancient Romans was so great as to be almost modern. 
And so through the list of possible reasons. 

Having read "Hay and History," we are prepared for the an- 
swer. Had the Romans possessed the knowledge of grass-seeding, 
and so made the soil steadily better instead of the reverse, the very 
history of the world might have been changed. With becoming 
modesty, the author does not mean that this was the only factor. — 
"that so rich and so complex a texture of life could depend upon 
any one single factor." For example, "the presence of oxygen does 
not explain life, (but) the absence of it is sufficient to explain 
death." And certainly one lays down this thesis feeling that it has 
been proven. 

Ill 

We come now to the first thesis, "Toward the Understanding 
of Jesus." Fundamentalists need not be alarmed; the author is not 
about to explain the Sermon on the Mount by the humus of Pales- 
tine. He definitely says, "The problem is, why such unprecedented 
teachings at that particular time?" He begins his explanation by 
sketching the history of the Jews during the century preceding 
Christ's birth. It is a marvel of conciseness. Jesus was born in 
the midst of this frenzied, perfervid religio-politica.1 atmosphere. 
Is it fair to say that he was uninfluenced by it? Manifestly, not. 

In brief, the situation at the birth of Christ was this: Rome 
was closing her hands upon the throat of Jewish nationality. 
Roughly speaking, there were three classes of people among his 
fellow countrymen: first, those who aped Roman customs and who 
were opposed to any opposition; second, the Zealots who were al- 
ways ready to do or die; third, the intelligent minds who hated 
Rome cordially, but realized that physical resistance was absolute 
folly. How would Jesus answer these? 

We must remember that Jesus, through his human nature, re- 
acted to the stirring events of his day; he "either resented the ag- 
gression of Rome, or he did not." Had he not resented it, nothing 
more would have happened. If he did resent it — and we believe he 
did — what was he to do? "How could a proud spirit justify non- 
62 (278) 



Literature 

resistance to Rome? A proud spirit could not." But when Jesus 
thought this thing through — and the author thinks this is the true 
interpretation of the Temptation — he came before his people with 
a solution. To this solution, this insight, Professor Simkhovitch 
pays the highest tribute. It was "one which future generations may 
rediscover, but can never upset." Briefly, it was the exaltation of 
the inner life. The fervent Jews who realized that resistance to 
the Romans was folly, and kept their peace, were inwardly aflame. 
Hatred smoldered and burned. This could not give peace. Jesus' 
solution was the way of humility, of at-one-ness, if you please, with 
the kingdom of his Father. It was the doctrine that "the mind is 
its own place, and in itself, can make a heaven of hell" as Milton so 
well taught. And because Jesus was divinely inspired, he knew that 
this was, not a solution, but the solution. 

To say that Jesus' fellow-countrymen did not understand him, 
is to say something very trite. The reason is that "they believed in 
him . . . with their faith, not with his faith;" they looked for a 
Messiah who would deliver them from the Romans, whereas the 
actual mission of the Messiah was to deliver them from themselves. 
The breach could not be bridged. Jerusalem killed her Prophet. 
"For what is a prophet? If he is a true prophet, is he not so be- 
cause of his insight . . . into the inevitable consequences of our mo- 
mentary, passionate actions? Then, because of this very insight, he 
can never qualify as a popular leader, the hero of a passing mo- 
ment." How true these words! And how much they contribute 
"toward the understanding of Jesus." 

Girard, Pa. RALPH V. GILBERT, '16. 



The Divine Antidote to Sin, Sickness, and Death, revised edition. 
By Frank N. Riale, Ph. D., D, D. New York: The Christian 
Work. 1921. $2.25. 

The man who dares is the man who commands attention. Dr. 
Riale has displayed a degree and quality of theological and spiritual 
daring that entitles him to a multitude of readers. He has dared 
to confront and defy sickness and death in their inmost retreat, he 
has dared to take the Sacred Scriptures at their utmost spiritual 
value, and he has dared to claim for the spirit of man a satisfactory 
response to its deepest and remotest cry. 

Undoubtedly we have lost the venturesome and confldent faith 
of Jesus and Paul, and have written our ne plus ultra, not at the 
exit of a world of promise and revelation, but at the very entrance. 
Dr. Riale has broken through the Pillars of Hercules, and his book 
challenges the theologian to square himself with the plain meaning 
of the Scriptures; it challenges the professing Christian to satisfy to 
the fullest his whole being, body, mind, and spirit, in the limitless 
provisions of the Son of God; and it challenges all to come out of 
their narrow pholadian cells and enjoy the boundless seas of privilege 
and blessing. Dr Riale has dared to think and to believe what to some 
may be the unthinkable and the unbelievable — and therein lies one 
of the chief merits of his book. He breaks through barriers, rises 
above mountains, soars through the clouds. His book should be read 
as an example of the kind of daring that is needed to-day; the daring 

63 (279) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

that will either prove or disprove the theology by which we are 
trying to save the world; the daring that will liberate the mind and 
heart from the bondage of fixed human dogma and send them out 
after the treasures of the illimitable. Whether we accept or reject 
the conclusions of the book we must admit that it forces to an issue 
the claims of faith and compels us to put the gospel to a legitimate 
test both in things seen and things unseen. 

Although the title of the book covers the subjects Sin, Sickness, 
and Death, the last two only are dwelt upon; the discussions resting 
on the accepted doctrine of salvation from sin, and being extensions 
of it. It is assumed that the healing of sin carries with it the lesser 
blessings of health and life, both of which are put within man's own 
reach and made available in the same manner as his salvation from 
sin; namely, through faith. So long as men believe that sickness 
and death are inevitable, a part of the will and plan of God, so long 
will they prepare for them instead of against them. Such an atti- 
tude of mind will, of course, limit the power and scope of faith, and 
stagnate the spiritual life. The faith of Christ did not recognize 
material obstacles. 

The author gives a glimpse of his experiences that led to the 
great vision of health and life. He discovers the way of health and 
attains it. He beholds in Christ the victory over physical death 
and declares, "There should not be a death descent into the grave, 
but a divine ascent into glory." He appeals to the Scriptures con- 
stantly, and shows that the Divine purpose covers the salvation of 
the body as well as of the spirit. He supports his position further 
by quotations from seers, artists, scientists, and philosophers who 
have expressed their aspirations, hopes, and beliefs with reference 
to sickness and death, and who have ventured into lands of promise 
where others feared to enter. 

After establishing his position that sickness is without excuse, 
and that death is not the proper exit of life, the author proceeds to 
show that the acquisition and exercise of such a faith is the true 
high water mark of religion. Here he seems as sure of his mystical 
relation to the world of spirits as of his relation to the material 
world in which he lives, and he permits his spirit to plunge into 
infinite depths and soar through infinite heights to receive the treas- 
ures purposely created to satisfy its purposely created hopes. He 
then shows how this larger faith throws floods of light on the Lord's 
Supper, Paradise, the Cross, the Trinity, the Resurrection, and the 
Second Advent. 

Some of us who have grown old in study find a great residuum 
precipitated from our theology, over which we smile somewhat blush- 
ingly. We therefore become less critical of others, and are glad to 
allow any one all necessary latitude for proving his contentions. 
If Dr. Riale is at variance with any man's theology, it is safe to 
say that he is less so with Scripture. 

Without expressing any opinion about the attainability of the 
states set forth, or of the literary methods or qualities of the work, 
the book may be praised as a wholesome adventure into remote 
spiritual regions that call loudly for exploration. It ought also 
to more than satisfy that type of mind which, for the want of some- 
thing better, has had to turn to the pretentions of Christian Science. 

Washington, D. C. HUBERT REX JOHNSON. 

64 (280) 



Literature 

Life and History. By Lynn Harold Hough, Th.D., D.D. New 
York: George H. Doran Company. 1922. $1.50 net. 

The author of this volume of addresses and essays is Profes- 
sor of Historical Theology in Garrett Biblical Institute, whose 
culture and ideals are well exhibited in his writings. Although 
each address is necessarily limited and the opinions condensed, 
there is much to interest and a great deal to suggest high and 
useful thought. They are marked by a style at once engaging and 
stimulating, and their range is wide enough to interest by variety. 
Thus the titles will show the versatility of the author and the im- 
portance of his opinions: "The Universality and Remaking of 
the World", delivered in the chapel of Mansfield College, Oxford; 
"The University and the Republic", a baccalaureate sermon at 
Northwestern University; "Finding a Permanent Passion", deliv- 
ered in the chapel of Cornell University; "The Place of Religion 
in the New Era", in City Temple, London; while such papers as 
"Making Theology Live," "Dante and His Century", "The Genius 
of John Kelman", and others pique the curiosity of the earnest- 
minded. The author defines his position as Evangelical Human- 
ism, and hopes that Athens and Jerusalem meet in friendly 
fashion in what he writes. His hope is not in vain. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

S. J. FISHER. 



Property: Its Duties and Rights; Essays by various writers with 
Introduction by the Bishop of Oxford. New edition. New 
York: The Macmillan Company. 1922. pp. 243. $2.00. 

If this volume were lacking in any great merit in itself it 
would still be a contribution of worth because it is an honest at- 
tempt to throw new light upon the perennially important subject 
of private property. Whatever was true even a generation ago, it is 
an obvious fact that to-day many people are disposed seriously ^o 
question the right and others to deny it altogether. The BolshjC- 
vist who in theory at least exalts the proletariat into supreme con- 
trol of material things and the Syndicalist who would seize without 
compensation all instruments of production, represent those who 
would destroy it. But it is also the philosopher and the so-called, 
Christian Socialist who sometimes question it so vigorously as to 
indicate a quite cheerful disposition to surrender the right of private 
property if the interests of society seem to require it. Perhaps all 
these men are equally sincere and are to be distinguished one from 
the other only in the methods whereby this great good may be 
brought about. In making this statement the writer does not mean 
to imply that the authors of these essays are to be included in any 
of the above groups of thinkers. 

In order to understand what these essays are intended to ac- 
complish one should know how they came to be written. Dr. Vernon 
Bartlet of Mansfield College wrote to the British Weekly urging 
Christians to deal with property according to the Biblical idea of 
stewardship and submitted the idea to Rev. Charles Gore, then 
Bishop of Oxford. Bishop Gore felt that before such an appeal 
could be fully effective it would be advisable to make a somewhat 

65 (281) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

complete study of the philosophy or principle of property. He 
therefore suggested a volume of essays treating the subject of 
property from th© standpoint both of philosophy and religion. To- 
gether they marked out the divisions of the subject and assigned 
these to the several writers. The book is the result. The writers 
are men of scholarship and of sincerity of purpose. Whether or not 
one agrees with the opinions and conclusions set forth, he will find 
in this volume the matured convictions of eminent Christian men 
upon a subject vital both to the individual and to society in every 
civilized country. 

No attempt is here made to analyze the several essays. Pro- 
fessor L. T. Hobhouse, of London University, discusses the histori- 
cal evolution of property; Rev. Hastings Rashdall of New College, 
Oxford, the philosophical theory of property; A. D. Lindsay, of Bal- 
liol College, Oxford, the principle of private property; and perhaps 
most interesting of all, Rev. Henry Scott Holland, Canon of Christ 
Church, Oxford, the subject of property and personality. Other 
writers present the subject from the standpoint of the Bible, Mediae- 
val Theology, and the Reformation. The closing essay, new in this 
edition, making eight in all, deals with the law of property in Eng- 
land. The mere mention of the subjects of these productions will 
awaken a keen desire on the part of many to read the book. Not- 
withstanding its diverse authorship the volume has real unity of 
purpose and result. 

The two men chiefly responsible for the publication are quite 
frank in putting forth the thesis that the right of property is rela- 
tive. It may be recognized now: to-morrow something else may 
take its place. If the people of any nation come to feel that the 
best interests of society demand its abolition, they may through 
their legislative body "refashion, abridge or annul" the right of 
private property altogether. These men are much more anxious to 
develop the idea of property as a social trust or stewardship than 
they are to maintain the principle that what a man has is his own. 
Society is more important than the individual: and if retention of 
the institution can be had by the sacrifice ojE one or the other, it 
must be the individual not the group. One should stop a moment 
to consider whether a perfect society can exist without perfect in- 
dividuals to compose it. It may even be true that Aristotle, in his 
argument that "private property is necessary for the development 
of the higher life of the individual and is the most effective stimulus 
to character and personal exertion" is more nearly right than the 
most modern socialist, even the mildest and most Christian, who 
has managed to persuade himself that one may do with the indi- 
vidual what he will and yet somehow society can be made all right. 
One joins heartily in any program which has for its object the edu- 
cation of property owners in the responsibility which rests upon 
them and their persuasion to use their possessions as stewards of 
God and benefactors of men so as to work out the weal of society. 
Preachers and teachers alike should enlist in this noble undertaking 
and purpose to continue earnestly until this ideal is realized; but if 
property is a part of personality, if its roots are in the soul of man 
and not in the soil of the earth, then to tear it up would tend to de- 
stroy the very material out of which the right kind of social organ- 
ism can be constructed. The man, who, if this be approximately the 
right idea of property, is willing to surrender the institution in the 

66 (282) 



> 



Literature 

supposed interests of society, may be a very good man and a very 
good Christian, but he is pointing out a way which leads not to 
good but to evil. The perfect society may not come as quickly as 
we could wish; but it is better to continue for a longer period the 
work of persuading men to employ the Christian ideal in the use of 
property rather than to risk the overthrow of society itself by 
yielding up the institution of private property, fine as the vision of 
a Christian social state may seem. After all, it is possible that 
the injunction, "Thou shalt not steal" implies a right which should 
be maintained until we are quite sure we have something decidedly 
and enduringly better. 

s. B. Mccormick, 1890. 



67 (283) 



Alumniana 

OAIiLS 

Rev. Francis M. Kumler, '80, DeGraff, Ohio, to Cumberland, 
Ohio, 

Rev. W. L. Barrett, D.D., '00, Belief ontaine, Ohio, to Mont- 
view Boulevard Church, Denver, Col. 

Rev. J. Byers Brice, '00, Marion, Ohio, to Plymouth, Ind. 

Rev. W. R. Craig, '06, Butler, Pa., to First Church, Latrobe, 
Pa. 

Rev. C. I. Steffey, '15, Conneautville, Pa., to Rossiter and 
Rockbridge, Pa. 

INSTALLATIONS 

Rev. W. J. Holmes, '02, Westerville, Ohio, May 9, 1922. 

Rev. Henry L. Geddes, '11, Deshler, Ohio, April 27, 1922. 

Rev. Lyman N. Lemmon, '22, West Glade Run and Worthing- 
ton Churches, Presbytery of Kittanning, May 9, 1922. 

Rev. Basil A. Murray, '22, Appleby lyianor Memorial and 
Crooked Creek Churches, Presbytery of Kittanning, May 25, 1922. 

Rev. Roscoe W. Porter, '22, Arlington Heights, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., May 11, 1922. 

NEW ADDRESSES 

Rev. J. B. Worrall, '76, Danville, Ind., to Grayson, Ky. 

Rev. Isaac Boyce, D.D., '84, Allison Park, Pa., to 178 Dakota 
St., Bellevue, Pa. 

Rev. A. J. Herries, '84, New Milford, Pa., to Tunkhannock, Pa. 

Rev. J. S. Plummer, D.D., '84, Ben Avon, Pa., to 944 N-Lin- 
coln Ave., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Rev. George M. Donehoo, '97, Caledonia, Minn., to Menlo, 
Iowa. 

Rev. B. R. MacHatton, '99, Great Falls, Mont., to Plymouth 
Congregational Church, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Rev. P. W, Snyder, D.D., '00, Pittsburgh, Pa., to 2841 Broad- 
way, Dormont, Pa. 

Rev. H. C. Hutchison, '09, Pittsburgh, Pa., to Shelby, Ohio. 

Rev. W. P. Russell, '15, from 726 1/2 S. Arch St., to 209 E. 
Washington Ave., Connellsville, Pa. 

68 (284) 



Alumniana 

ACCESSIONS 

Rev. C. S. McClelland, D.D., '80, Mt. Washington, Pgh. Pa 7 

Rev. O. N. Verner, D.D., '86, McKees Rocks, Pa 34 

Rev. E. A. CuUey, '94, Derry, Pa 22 

Rev. R. F. Getty, '94, Murrysville, Pa 8 

Rev. W. S. Kreger. '97, Snow Hill, Md 8 

Rev. W. J. Hutchison, '98, First, Kittanning, Pa 23 

Rev. G. I. Wilson, '99, Parkersburg, W. Va 42 

Rev. J. H. Lawther, '01, Niles, Ohio 59 

Rev. J. P. Lippincott, '02, Cadiz, Ohio 14 

Rev. G. R. Phillips, '02, Providence, Pittsburgh, Pa 21 

Rev. E. W. Byers, '03, Jersey Shore, Pa 25 

Rev. C. E. Ludwig, '06, Concord, Carrick, Pa 80 

Rev. M. M. McDivitt, '07, Knoxville, Pittsburgh, Pa 74 

Rev. O. C. Gross, '10, Brewster, Minn 47 

Rev. George Taylor, Jr., Ph.D., '10, First, Wilkinsburg, Pa. . . 86 

Rev, B. Tron, '10, Waldensian Congregation, New York, N. Y. 20 

Rev. H. G. McMillen, '10, St. Clairsville, Ohio 22 

Rev. C. C. Cribbs, '11, First, Apollo, Pa 33 

Rev. E. J. Travers, '12, First, Lonaconing, Md 14 

Rev. H. J. Baumgartel, '13, Parnassus, Pa 41 

Rev. LeRoy Lawther, '17, Central, McKeesport, Pa 142 

Rev, W. W. McKinney, '19, Round Hill, Elizabeth, Pa 26 

Rev. R. H. Henry, '21, Rich Hill, Volant, Pa 8 

GENERAL ITEMS 

1879 

Dr. and Mrs. J. C. R. Ewing, who have been for so many 
years in Lahore, India, have returned to this country. 

1880 

The Bridgeville Church, Rev. A. A. Mealy, D.D., pastor, has 
completed and paid for a new lecture room, new Sunday School 
rooms, and new dining and kitchen department. 

The addition of 160 members on 46 Sabbaths, at the ordinary 
services, within two years is the result of evangelistic effort put 
forth by the Fourth Church of Camden, N. J., under the leadership 
of the pastor. Rev. W. A. Williams, D.D. 

1908 

After an illness of several months Rev. D. W. McLeod is able 
to assume once more his duties in the First Church of East Liver- 
pool, Ohio. 

1909 

The April 20th meeting of Pittsburgh Ministers' Association 
was addressed by Rev. W. H. Orr, whose subject was "Professor 
Royce on the Atonement." 

69 (285) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminar^/ 

1882 

Rev. O. T. Langfitt, who has held long pastorates in Mankato 
Presbytery, Minn., has moved to Mankato and will spend some 
months in quiet and rest. 

1883 

The Sandusky Street Baptist Church of Pittsburgh had special 
services the week of March 19-25 to commemorate the fiftieth an- 
niversary of the ministry of Dr. A. J. Bonsall, whose first pastorate 
was in Apollo, Pa., and who has been with the Pittsburgh Church 
since 1906. 

1884 

Rev. Isaac Boyce, D.D., has been appointed chaplain of the 
Pittsburgh Association for the Improvement of the Poor. 

The Seminary has been honored in the election of Dr. Charles 
C. Hays, D.D., former President of the Board of Directors, to the 
Moderatorship of the General Assembly. The growing extent and 
complexity of the work of the church is constantly increasing the 
burden of responsibility resting upon the Moderator, and we are 
sure the Assembly could have found no man better fitted than Dr. 
Hays for the high task of leadership. 

1888 

During the summer months Dr. Jesse L. Cotton is a member 
of the faculty of the Graduate School of Theology at the University 
of Dubuque. 

Rev. Francis A. Kerns has been dismissed from Redstone 
Presbytery to the Presbytery of Southwest Florida. 

1893 

Rev. J. S. Ewing, formerly Anti-Saloon League Superintendent 
in Philadelphia, has become Superintendent of Home Missions in 
the Synod of New Jersey. 

On the first Sabbath in April the First Church of Newark, 
Ohio, Rev. Calvin G. Hazlett, D.D., pastor, celebrated the tenth 
anniversary of the present pastorate. The reports made public on 
that occasion showed a membership almost doubled and a like in- 
crease in giving over the ten years period. 

1895 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity has recently been conferred 
upon the Rev. U. S. Greves by Lafayette College. 

1896 

The Salineville, Ohio, congregation surprised Rev. and Mrs. 
J. S. Cotton on the evening of their twenty-fifth wedding anniver- 
sary, June 23, by coming two hundred strong to their home and 
presenting them with tokens of their esteem. 

1897 

Rev. Hugh T. Kerr, D.D., LL.D., pastor of the Shadyside 
Church of Pittsburgh, has been chosen to succeed Dr. Hays as 

70 (286) 



Aluwiniana 

President of the Board of Directors. The whole body of the 
Alumni will heartily approve this action of the Board, and con- 
fidently expect a continuance of the wisdom and devotion, which 
characterized the presidency of Dr. Kerr's distinguished predeces- 
sor. 

1898 

Rev. Herbert Hezlep is pastor of the Knox Church of Cincin- 
nati, which has add-ed 541 members in the past three years. 

Past the one thousand mark in membership is the record 
achieved by the First Church of Kittanning, where Rev. W. J. 
Hutchison is pastor. 

1899 

Rev. R. P. Daubenspeck is in the fifteenth year of his pas- 
torate in Huntingdon, Pa. In June the church was re-deeorated 
and a new three-manual organ was installed. 

Rev. J. D. Humphrey, pastor of the Plumville Church, has 
been active in County Sabbath School work. 

1901 

Under the leadership of Rev. J. H. Lawther the Niles Church 
is making splendid progress. Fifty-nine members were added on 
April, 23rd. 

1902 

An encouraging report was recently issued by the Forty-Third 
street Church, Pittsburgh, in which Rev. S. T. Brown has completed 
a five years' work. 

1902 

The Presbyterian Church of Cadiz, Ohio, Rev. R. P. Llppln- 
cott, D.D., pastor, conducted a Daily Vacation Bible School in a. 
neighboring mining village, the membership of which comprised 
twelve nationalities. 

1903 

Dr. Geo. C. Fisher addressed the Pittsburgh Ministers' Meeting 
of April 17th, on "What is Truth — Browning's. Answer in the Ring 
and the Book," 

1904 

Rev. Harry M. Campbell has become assistant to the pastor of 
the Fourth Church of Pittsburgh. 

1905 . - 

A fine piece of immigrant work is being done in Lackawanna, 
N. Y., by Rev. V. P. Backora, superintendent of the Immigrant 
Aid Bureau. Securing of passports and naturalization papers, set- 
tling estates, and making out income tax returns are a few of the 
many services rendered. 

71 (287) 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

1906 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred on Rev. W. 
R. Craig by Washington and Jefferson College at the June Com- 
mencement exercises. Dr. Craig has recently accepted a call to 
the First Church of Latrobe. 

Rev. C. E. Ludwig is meeting with success in his work at 
Concord Church, Carrick. Eighty new members were received on 
Easter Sabbath. The church conducts a mission in the adjoining 
borough of Brentwood. 

1907 

Wooster College conferred the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
on Rev. John W. Christie of the Mount Auburn Church, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

Rev. Wm. C. Ferver has taken up his duties in Unity Church, 
Shenango Presbytery, Pa. 

The Second Church of Butler, Pa., gave more for benevolences 
last year than for current expenses. Attendance at the Easter 
Communion in this church broke all records, seven hundred thirty 
persons partaking in the service. Rev. Geo. C. Miller has been pastor 
since his graduation from Seminary. 

1910 

On May 1st Rev. H. G. McMillen addressed the Pittsburgh 
Ministers' Meeting on "Church Union." 

The First Church of Martins Ferry, Ohio, has secured Miss 
L. B. Harrison as assistant to the pastor. Dr. C. B. Wingerd. A 
Home and a Foreign Missionary are supported by this church. 

1911 

The Prospect Street Presbyterian church of Ashtabula, Ohio, 
of which Rev. M. A. Matheson is pastor, received eighty new mem- 
bers during the year ending March 31, 1922. 

Rev. M. F. Smith of Indianapolis is a member of the commit- 
tee appointed by Dr. Hays to study Presbyterian finances. 

1912 

Rev. P. E. Burtt of the Wellsburg, W. Va., Church used daily 
newspaper advertising to good advantage in preparation for the 
Easter services. 

1913 

Rev. John Connell is Associate Pastor of "Westminster Pres- 
byterian Church, Minneapolis, Minn. His address is 1608 W. 25th 
Street, 

1913 

Rev. A. S. Wilson, pastor of the Union City, Pa. Church, has 
received a $200.00 increase in salary. 

72 (288) 



Alumniana 

1913 

At the First Presbyterian Church of Van Wert, Ohio, of which 
Rev. G. A. Frantz is pastor, a musical service attended by Knights 
Templar was a recent feature. 

Rev. O. Scott McFarland is doing splendid service in the field 
of religious education. He is available for addresses on communi- 
ty religious education: his address is New Brighton, Pa. 

1916 

A stroke of_paralysis suffered some months ago, has incapa- 
citated Rev. J. A. Doerr for his work, and the Belle Valley Church 
has granted him a year's leave of absence. 

The New Era Bible Class of the First Church of Girard, Pa., 
has published an interesting and attractive report of its work in 
the year 1921. Rev. R. V. Gilbert is the teacher. 

1917 

Rev. A. R. Hickman is pastor of the Groton, South Dakota 
Church, which recently celebrated the 39th anniversary of its or- 
ganization. 

Central Presbyterian Church of McKeesport, Pa., Rev. LeRoy 
Lawther, pastor, had 142 accessions on Easter. More than 900 out 
of a membersship of 1058 were present at the service. 

1918 

The home of IVlr. and Mrs. R. I. McConnell in Chiengmai, Siam, 
was gladdened by the arrival on Jan. 30th of a daughter, Elizabeth 
Ellen. 

1919 

Rev. D. E. Daniel has concluded a successful year in the Cone- 
maugh Church. On Good Friday the Junior Choir rendered ex- 
cellent service by, singing in twelve homes where there were aged 
people. 

Rev. and Mrs. D. A. Irwin, of the American Presbyterian Mis- 
sion, Yihsien, Shantung, China, are the happy parents of a son, 
Robert Prescott, who was born June 17th. 

1921 

Rev. Walter L. Moser, to whom the Fellowship was awarded 
in 1921, has been granted a years' leave of absence by his Congre- 
gation at Mars, Pa., and expects to spend a year in post graduate 
study in Scotland. He and Mrs. Moser will sail late in August. 
Mr. Galbraith of the senior class, will supply the pulpit at Mars 
during their absence. 

1922 

On June 28 there occurred the marriage of Clifford E. Barbour 
and Miss Laura Hathaway Nye Taber. Mr. and Mrs. Barbour are 
now touring Europe, after which they will be in Edinburgh for a 
year of study. 

73 (289) 



The Bidletin of the Western Theological Seminary 

THE GRADUATING CLASS 

Clifford Edward Barbour — University of Pittsburgh. Will spend a 
year in post graduate study in the University of Edinburgh, 
Scotland. 

Archibald Ferguson Fulton — Oskaloosa College. Pastor, Belle 
Vernon, Pa. 

Lewis Arthur Galbraith — Park College. Pastor, Independence, Pa. 

Elgie Leon Gibson — Grove City College. 

Daniel Hamill, Jr. — Waynesburg College. Pastor, McKinley Park 

Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Lyman N. Lenmon — Franklin College (Ohio). Pastor, Worthington 

and Glade Run, Pa. 
Ralph K. Merker — Carnegie Institute of Technology. Will pursue a 

year of post-graduate study. 
Walter Harold Millinger — Princeton University. Having been 

awarded the Seminary Fellowship, Mr. Millinger will study 

a year in Oxford University, England. 
Basil A. Murray — Westminster College (Pa.). Pastor, Applyby 

Manor and Crooked Creek Presbyterian Churches. 
Samuel Galbraith Neal — Washington and Jefferson College. Pastor, 

Elrama Presbyterian Church, Floreffe, Pa. 
Roscoe Walter Porter — Muskingum College. Pastor, Arlington 

Heights Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Emile Augustin Rivard — Amherst College. Will enter the Presby- 
terian pastorate in Canada. 
Paul Livingstone Warnshuis — Washington and Jefferson College. 

Under appointement of Board of Home Missions in Spanish 

Work, will study for six months in Mexico City and later take 

up work in Sante Fe. 
Jamps Wallace Willoughby — Wabash College. Under appointment 

of the Board of Foreign Missions to West Persia. Will sail 

August 26th. 

POST GRADUATE STUDENT 

David Lester Say — Western Theological Seminary. Pastor, Presby- 
terian Church, Cross Creek, Pa. 



FACULTY NOTES 

Dr. and Mrs. Kelso expect to sail from Quebec July 5th., on a 
tour of Europe and the Holy Land. They will spend two months 
in England and France and will then proceed to Palestine and Egypt. 
While in the Holy Land Dr. Kelso will make Jerusalem his head- 
quarters and will serve as lecturer in the American School of 
Archaeology. 

Dr. Christie is spending the summer in Canada, his health 
having improved sufficiently to permit the trip. 

Dr. and Mrs. Breed, about the middle of June, started on an 
automobile tour to the Pacific coast. 

74 (290) 



Alumniana 

Through his expert knowledge of Roman Catholic theology. 
Dr. Schaff, in the autumn of 1921, met an effort on the part of 
the Roman Catholics of Pittsburgh to commend distinctive Roman 
Catholic teaching to the public through advertisements inserted 
in the Pittsburgh daily papers. Sixty-five different advertisements, 
beginning with October 5th, sought to make plausible matters in 
dispute between the Protestants and Roman Catholics since the 
Reformation. They were passed upon by "a proficient in Catholic 
theology," as Father Coakley stated in "America," and paid for 
by two Catholic laymen of Pittsburgh. In view of the public in- 
terest the advertisements elicited, Dr. Schaff inserted in the Pitts- 
burgh Dispatch ten counter-statements based upon the New Testa- 
ment and authoritative declarations of the Roman Catholic Church, 
the expense being met by Protestant laymen through Dr. Maitland 
Alexander. With the support of a Committee of Ministers from 
the different churches of Pittsburgh, including two of the Directors 
of the Seminary, Drs. Alexander and Hutchison, Prof. Schaff also 
prepared a leaflet entitled, "Roman Catholic Advertisements and 
the New Testament." The Leaflet contained a Preface by the Com- 
mittee, and eight of the Roman Catholic advertisements with as 
many counter-statements. Forty thousand copies were distributed 
through the Methodist, United Presbyterian, and Presbyterian book 
rooms of the city. After the type had been broken up, an order 
came to the Presbyterian Book Store from Toronto for five thou- 
sand copies. It has been stated that the Methodists have circulated 
one hundred thousand copies of the Leaflet in Bohemia. 

Dr. Farmer delivered the Commencement address at Washing- 
ton and Jefferson College in June. 

Grove City College conferred the degree of Doctor of Litera- 
ture on Prof. Sleeth at the last commencement. 



75 (291) 



I 



The Bulletin of the Western Theological Semi/nary 

The Elliott Lectures 

It is a pleasure to announce the publication, by the 
Princeton University Press, of the Elliott Lectures for 
1916, written by the late Pres. Alexander T. Ormond, 
Ph.D., LL.D., of Grove City College. The sudden death 
of Dr. Ormond occurred before the date set for the de- 
livery of the lectures, and they were read in the Semi- 
nary chapel by Prof. R. F. Calder, Dr. Ormond 's col- 
league in Grrove City College. They have now been pub- 
lished by Dr. Ormond's children, under the title ^'The 
Philosophy of Religion", with a Foreword by former 
President Woodrow Wilson, and an Introduction by Dr. 
James A. Kelso. A full review of this notable contribu- 
tion to modern religious thought will appear in a future 
number of the Bulletin. 

Centennial Celebration 

At the annual meeting of the Board of Directors, 
held May 4, 1922, a Committee on Centennial Celebra- 
tion made the following recommendations, which were 
adopted : 

(1) That the date of the celebration of the Centen- 
nial be set in the year 1927, as the work of the Seminary 
was commenced in 1827, and that the precise date be 
left for later determination. 

(2) That, in order to have an appropriate celebra- 
tion of this occasion, a history of the Seminary be pre- 
pared, a Biographica] Catalogue be published, and a 
Memorial Volume with essays by members of the facul- 
ty and graduates be published. 

(3) That the Committee be asked to be continued 
so as to develop these plans for the Centennial celebra- 
tion, and make reports of the same from time to time. 

(4) That the Centennial celebration be made pro- 
minent in the Bulletin by frequent notices concerning im- 
portant events in the history of the institution. 

76 (292) 



For Reference 



Not to be taken from this room 



Deacidilied using the BooKkeeper pr«:ess. 
Se^alizing Agent: Magnes>um Ox.de 

Treatment Date: 

APR 1995 

IIUWilliamRinn Highway 
Glenshaw, PA 15116-2657 

412-486-1161